Product Manuals AFM and AFC Mass Flow
Technical Data Sheet No. TD9305M Rev. M
Date of Issue: August 2009
OPERATING MANUAL
AFM and AFC
MASS FLOW METERS
and CONTROLLERS
TABLE OF CONTENTS
1. UNPACKING THE AFM/AFC MASS FLOW METER.....................1
1.1 Inspect Package for External Damage.........................................1
1
1.2 Unpack the Mass Flow Meter/Controller.......................................
1.3 Returning Merchandise for Repair...............................................1
2. INSTALLATION............................................................ 2
2.1 Primary Gas Connections............................................................2
2.2 Electrical Connections.................................................................2
3. PRINCIPLE OF OPERATION.............................................. 4
4. SPECIFICATIONS...........................................................5
5
4.1 AFM 26/36/46 Mass Flow Meters.................................................
4.2 AFC 26/36/46 Mass Flow Controllers..........................................6
4.3 CE Compliance............................................................................7
5. OPERATING INSTRUCTIONS............................................. 10
5.1 Preparation and Warm Up...........................................................10
5.2 Flow Signal Output Readings.......................................................10
5.3 Swamping Condition...................................................................11
5.4 Set Point Reference Signal (AFC)................................................11
5.5 TTL, Valve OFF Control (AFC)......................................................12
5.6 Valve Test/Purge (AFC)................................................................12
6. MAINTENANCE............................................................ 13
6.1 Introduction.................................................................................13
6.2 Flow Path Cleaning......................................................................13
13
6.2.1 Restrictor Flow Element (RFE).................................................
13
6.2.2 AFM 26 and AFC 26 models.....................................................
14
6.2.3 AFM 36/46 and AFC 36/46 models..........................................
14
6.2.4 Valve Maintenance (AFC).........................................................
7. CALIBRATION PROCEDURES..............................................15
15
7.1 Flow Calibration..............................................................................
16
7.2 Calibration of AFM Mass Flow Meters............................................
7.2.1 Connections and Initial Warm Up..........................................16
7.2.2 ZERO Adjustment.................................................................17
7.2.3 SPAN Adjustment.................................................................17
7.3 Linearity Adjustment......................................................................
17
7.3.1 Connections and Initial Warm Up...........................................
17
7.3.2 ZERO Adjustment.................................................................18
7.3.3 25% Flow Adjustment.............................................................
18
7.3.4 50% Flow Adjustment............................................................
18
7.3.5 75% Flow Adjustment.............................................................
18
7.3.6 100% Flow Adjustment....................................................... 18
7.4 Calibration of AFC Mass Flow Controllers......................................
18
7.4.1 Disable Solenoid Valve.........................................................18
7.4.2 Valve Adjustment..................................................................19
7.4.3 Full Scale Flow Adjustment...................................................19
7.4.4 25% Flow Adjustment...........................................................19
7.4.5 50% Flow Adjustment...........................................................19
7.4.6 75% Flow Adjustment......................................................... 19
7.4.7 100% Flow Adjustment..........................................................
19
8. TROUBLESHOOTING.........................................................
20
8.1 Common Conditions......................................................................
20
8.2 Troubleshooting Guide...................................................................
21
8.3 Technical Assistance...................................................................23
9. CALIBRATION CONVERSIONS FROM REFERENCE GASES...........23
APPENDIX 1 COMPONENT DIAGRAMS..................................................24
APPENDIX 2 GAS FACTOR TABLE ("K" FACTORS)...................................
25
APPENDIX 3 DIMENSIONAL DRAWINGS................................................29
APPENDIX 4 WARRANTY.........................................................................
33
1.
UNPACKING THE AFM/AFC MASS FLOW METER
1.1
Inspect Package for External Damage
Your AFM/AFC Mass Flow Meter/Controller was carefully packed in a sturdy cardboard carton, with anti-static cushioning materials to withstand shipping shock.
Upon receipt, inspect the package for possible external damage. In case of external damage to the package contact the shipping company immediately.
1.2
Unpack the Mass Flow Meter/Controller
Open the carton carefully from the top and inspect for any sign of concealed shipping damage. In addition to contacting the shipping carrier please forward a copy
of any damage report to your distributor or Aalborg7 directly.
When unpacking the instrument please make sure that you have all the items indicated on the Packing List. Please report any shortages promptly.
1.3
Returning Merchandise for Repair
Please contact the customer service representative of your distributor or Aalborg
if you purchased your Mass Flow Meter/Controller directly, and request a Return
Authorization Number (RAN). Equipment returned without an RAN will not
be accepted. Aalborg7 reserves the right to charge a fee to the customer for
equipment returned under warranty claims if the instruments are tested to be free
from warrantied defects.
Shipping charges are borne by the customer. Meters returned "collect" will not be
accepted!
It is mandatory that any equipment returned for servicing be purged and neutralized of any dangerous contents including but not limited to toxic, bacterially infectious, corrosive or radioactive substances. No work shall be performed on a
returned product unless the customer submits a fully executed, signed SAFETY
CERTIFICATE. Please request form from the Service Manager.
1
2.
INSTALLATION
2.1
Primary Gas Connections
Please note that the AFM/AFC Mass Flow Meter/Controller will not operate with
liquids. Only clean gases are allowed to be introduced into the instrument. If
gases are contaminated they must be filtered to prevent the introduction of impediments into the sensor.

CAUTION: It is the users responsibility to determine if the instrument
is appropriate for their OXYGEN application, and for specifying O2 cleaning
service if required. Aalborg is not liable for any damage or personal injury,
whatsoever, resulting from the use of this instrument for oxygen.
Attitude sensitivity of the Mass Flow Meter is +15F. This means that the gas flow path
of the Flow meter/Controller must be horizontal within those stated limits. Should
there be need for a different orientation of the meter, re calibration may be necessary.
It is also preferable to install the AFM/AFC transducer in a stable environment, free
of frequent and sudden temperature changes, high moisture, and drafts.
Prior to connecting gas lines inspect all parts of the piping system including ferrules and fittings for dust or other contaminants.
Be sure to observe the direction of gas flow as indicated by the arrow on the front
of the meter when connecting the gas system to be monitored.
Insert tubing into the compression fittings until the ends of the properly sized tubings home flush against the shoulders of the fittings. Compression fittings are to
be tightened according to the manufacturer's instructions to one and one quarter
turns. Avoid over tightening which will seriously damage the Restrictor Flow
Elements (RFE's)!
AFM/AFC transducers are supplied with standard 1/4 inch (AFM/AFC 26 and 36)
or 3/8 inch (AFM/AFC 46), or optional 1/8 inch inlet and outlet compression fittings which should not be removed unless the meter is being cleaned or calibrated for a new flow range.
Using a Helium Leak Detector or other equivalent method perform a thorough
leak test of the entire system. (All AFM/AFC's are checked prior to shipment for
leakage within stated limits. See specifications in this manual.)
2.2
Electrical Connections
AFM/AFC transducers require a +15VDC and -15VDC power supply to operate.
Additionally, a readout panel meter, digital multimeter, or other equivalent device
is required to observe the flow signal. A variable analog 0-5VDC reference input
is required for AFC models. The Aalborg7 SDPROC accessory Command
Modules offer a convenient and compact means to fulfill these needs.
AFM/AFC transducers come with a 15 pin "D" connector. The pin diagram is provided on figure 2-3.
2
FIGURE 2-1, WIRING DIAGRAM FOR AFM/AFC TRANSDUCERS
PIN
FUNCTION
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
Chassis Ground
Common, Signal Ground For Pin 3
0-5 VDC Flow Signal
+15 VDC Power Supply
(-) 4-20 mA Flow Signal (optional)
+7 VDC for Local Set Point
(unassigned)
TTL Valve Off Control (AFC)
Control Set Point Input 0 5 VDC (AFC)
Common, Signal Ground for Pin 9
Common, Power Supply
Valve Test Point/Purge (AFC)
(unassigned)
-15 VDC Power Supply
(+) 4-20 mA Flow Signal (optional)
FIGURE 2-3, AFM/AFC 15 PIN "D" CONNECTOR CONFIGURATION
3
Important Notes:
In general, "D" Connector numbering patterns are standardized. There are, however, some connectors with nonconforming patterns and the numbering sequence
on your mating connector may or may not coincide with the numbering sequence
shown in our pin configuration table above. It is imperative that you match the
appropriate wires in accordance with the correct sequence regardless of the particular numbers displayed on your mating connector.
Make sure power is OFF when connecting or disconnecting any cables in the system.
The (+) and (-) power inputs are each protected by a 750mA M (medium time-lag)
resettable fuse. If a shorting condition or polarity reversal occurs, the fuse will cut
power to the flow transducer circuit. Disconnect the power to the unit, remove the
faulty condition, and reconnect the power. The fuse will reset once the faulty condition has been removed.
Cable length may not exceed 9.5 feet (3 meters).
Use of the AFM/AFC flow transducer in a manner other than that specified in this
manual or in writing from Aalborg7, may impair the protection provided by the
equipment.
3.
PRINCIPLE OF OPERATION
The stream of gas entering the Mass Flow transducer is split by shunting a small
portion of the flow through a capillary stainless steel sensor tube. The remainder of
the gas flows through the primary flow conduit. The geometry of the primary
conduit and the sensor tube are designed to ensure laminar flow in each branch.
According to principles of fluid dynamics the flow rates of a gas in the two laminar
flow conduits are proportional to one another. Therefore, the flow rates measured in
the sensor tube are directly proportional to the total flow through the transducer.
In order to sense the flow in the sensor tube, heat flux is introduced at two sections of the sensor tube by means of precision wound heater-sensor coils. Heat is
transferred through the thin wall of the sensor tube to the gas flowing inside. As
gas flow takes place heat is carried by the gas stream from the upstream coil to
the downstream coil windings. The resultant temperature dependent resistance
differential is detected by the electronic control circuit. The measured gradient at
the sensor windings is linearly proportional to the instantaneous rate of flow taking place.
An output signal is generated that is a function of the amount of heat carried by
the gases to indicate mass-molecular based flow rates.
Additionally, AFC model Mass Flow Controllers incorporate a proportionating
solenoid valve. The closed loop control circuit of the AFC continuously compares
the mass flow output with the selected flow rate. Deviations from the set point are
corrected by compensating valve adjustments, thus maintaining the desired flow
parameters.
4
4.
SPECIFICATIONS
FLOW MEDIUM: Please note that AFM26/36/46 Mass Flow Meters and AFC26/36/46
Mass Flow Controllers are designed to work with clean gases only. Never try to meter or
control flow rates of liquids with any AFM's or AFC's.
CALIBRATIONS: Performed at standard conditions [14.7 psia (1.01 bars) and 70FF
(21.1 FC)] unless otherwise requested or stated.
ENVIRONMENTAL (per IEC 664): Installation Level II; Pollution Degree II.
4.1
AFM 26/36/46 Mass Flow Meters
ACCURACY: +1% of full scale, including linearity for gas temperatures ranging from 59
F
F to 77 FF (15 FC to 25 FC) and pressures of 10 to 60 psia (0.7 to 4.1 bars).
REPEATABILITY: +0.2% of full scale.
TEMPERATURE COEFFICIENT: 0.1% of full scale/ FC.
PRESSURE COEFFICIENT: 0.01% of full scale/psi (0.07 bar).
RESPONSE TIME: 300ms time constant; approximately 1 second to within +2% of set
flow rate for 25% to 100% of full scale flow rate.
GAS PRESSURE: 500 psig (34.5 bars) maximum; optimum pressure is 20 psig (1.4 bars).
GAS AND AMBIENT TEMPERATURE: 32 FF to 122 FF (0 FC to 50 FC). 14 FF to 122 FF
(-10 FC to 50 FC) - Dry gases only.
RELATIVE GAS HUMIDITY: Up to 70%.
MAXIMUM INTERNAL LEAK: 0.5%FS.
LEAK INTEGRITY: 1 x 10-9 sccs He maximum to the outside environment.
ATTITUDE SENSITIVITY: 1% shift for a 90 degree rotation from horizontal to vertical;
standard calibration is in horizontal position.
OUTPUT SIGNALS: Linear 0-5 VDC (2000 Ω minimum load impedance); 4-20 mA
optional (50-500 Ω maximum loop resistance); 20 mV peak to peak max noise.
Contact your distributor or Aalborg7 for optional RS232 or IEEE488 interfaces.
TRANSDUCER INPUT POWER: +15 +5% VDC, 80 mA max, 1.2 watts; -15 +5% VDC, 10
mA max, 0.15 watts.
Power inputs are each protected by a 750mA M (medium time-lag) resettable fuse, and a
rectifier diode for polarity protection.
5
WETTED MATERIALS: 316 stainless steel, VITON7 O-rings; BUNA-N7, EPR or KALREZ7
O-rings are optional.
Aalborg7 makes no expressed or implied guarantees of corrosion resistance of mass flow
meters as pertains to different flow media reacting with components of meters. It is the
customers' sole responsibility to select the model suitable for a particular gas based on
the fluid contacting (wetted) materials offered in the different models.
INLET AND OUTLET CONNECTIONS: 1/4" (AFM 26/AFM 36) or 3/8" (AFM 46) compression fittings standard; 1/8" or 3/8" compression fittings and 1/4" VCR7 fittings are optional.
TRANSDUCER INTERFACE CABLE: Flat cable with male 15-pin "D" connector is standard.
Optional shielded cable is available with male/female 15-pin "D" connector ends. [Cable
length may not exceed 9.5 feet (3 meters)].
4.2
AFC 26/36/46 Mass Flow Controllers
ACCURACY: +1% of full scale, including linearity for gas temperatures ranging from
59 FF to 77 FF (15 FC to 25 FC) and pressures of 10 to 60 psia (0.7 to 4.1 bars).
REPEATABILITY: +0.2% of full scale.
TEMPERATURE COEFFICIENT: 0.1% of full scale/ FC.
PRESSURE COEFFICIENT: 0.01% of full scale/psi (0.07 bar).
RESPONSE TIME: AFC26:
300ms time constant; approximately 1 second to within
+2% of set flow rate for 25% to 100% of full scale flow.
AFC36/46: 600ms time constant; approximately 2 seconds to within
+2% of set flow rate for 25% to 100% of full scale flow.
GAS PRESSURE: 500 psig (34.5 bars) maximum; optimum pressure is 20 psig (1.4
bars); 25 psig (1.7 bars gauge) for AFC 46.
MAXIMUM DIFFERENTIAL PRESSURES: 40 psig (2.61 bars) for AFC 46. 50 psig (3.34
bars) for AFC 26/36. Optimum differential pressure is 25 psid (1.7 bars). See Table IV for
pressure drops associated with various models and flow rates.
GAS AND AMBIENT TEMPERATURE: 41 FF to 122 FF (5 FC to 50 FC). 14 FF to 122 FF
(-10 FC to 50 FC) - Dry gases only.
RELATIVE GAS HUMIDITY: up to 70%.
MAXIMUM INTERNAL LEAK: 0.5%FS.
LEAK INTEGRITY: 1 x 10-9 sccs He maximum to the outside environment.
ATTITUDE SENSITIVITY: 1% shift for a 90 degree rotation from horizontal to vertical;
standard calibration is in horizontal position.
6
OUTPUT SIGNALS: Linear 0-5 VDC (2000 Ω minimum load impedance); 4-20 mA
optional (50-500 Ω loop resistance); 20 mV peak to peak max noise.
Contact your distributor or Aalborg7 for optional RS232 or IEEE488 interfaces.
COMMAND SIGNAL: 0-5 VDC (200K Ω input impedance).
TRANSDUCER INPUT POWER:
AFC 26: (10 sLit/min max) +15 +5% VDC, 80 mA max,
1.2 watts max; -15 +5% VDC, 200 mA max; 3 watts max;
AFC 36: (50 sLit/min max) +15 +5% VDC, 80 mA max,
1.2 watts max; -15 +5% VDC, 600 mA max, 9 watts max.
AFC 46 (100 sLit/min max) +15 +5% VDC, 80 mA max,
1.2 watts max; -15 +5% VDC, 600 mA max, 9 watts max.
Power inputs are each protected by a 750mA M (medium time-lag) resettable fuse, and a
rectifier diode for polarity protection.
WETTED MATERIALS: 316 stainless steel, 416 stainless steel, VITON7 O-rings;
BUNA-N7, EPR or KALREZ7 O-rings are optional.
Aalborg7 makes no expressed or implied guarantees of corrosion resistance of mass flow
meters as pertains to different flow media reacting with components of meters. It is the
customers' sole responsibility to select the model suitable for a particular gas based on
the fluid contacting (wetted) materials offered in the different models.
INLET AND OUTLET CONNECTIONS: 1/4" (AFC 26/AFC 36) or 3/8" (AFC 46) compression
fittings standard; 1/8" or 3/8" compression fittings and 1/4" VCR7 fittings are optional.
TRANSDUCER INTERFACE CABLE: Flat cable with female 15-pin "D" connector ends is
standard. Optional shielded cable is available with male/female 15-pin “D” connector
ends. [Cable length may not exceed 9.5 feet (3 meters)].
4.3
CE Compliance
Any model AFM or AFC bearing a CE marking on it, is in compliance with the below stated
test standards currently accepted.
EMC Compliance with 89/336/EEC as amended;
Emission Standard: EN 55011:1991,
Group 1, Class A Immunity Standard: EN 55082 1:1992
7
FLOW RANGES
TABLE I AFM 26 AND AFC 26 LOW FLOW MASS FLOW METER/CONTROLLERS*
CODE
scc/min [N2]
CODE
std liters/min [N2]
01
0 to 10
07
0 to 1
02
0 to 20
08
0 to 2
03
0 to 50
09
0 to 5
04
0 to 100
10
0 to 10
05
0 to 200
06
0 to 500
TABLE II AFM 36 AND AFC 36 MEDIUM FLOW MASS FLOW METER/CONTROLLERS*
CODE
standard liters/min [N2]
11
0 to 15
30
20
31
30
32
40
33
50
TABLE III AFM 46 AND AFC 46 HIGH FLOW MASS FLOW METER/CONTROLLERS*
*
CODE
standard liters/min [N2]
40
60
41
80
42
100
Flow rates are stated for Nitrogen at STP conditions [i.e. 70 FF (21.1 FC) at 1 atm].
For other gases use the K factor as a multiplier from APPENDIX 2.
8
TABLE IV PRESSURE DROPS AFM
MODEL
MAXIMUM PRESSURE DROP
FLOW RATE
[std liters/min]
[mm H2O]
[psid]
[mbar]
up to 10
25
0.04
2.5
15
63
0.09
6.4
20
300
0.44
30
30
800
1.18
81
40
1480
2.18
150
50
2200
3.23
223
60
3100
4.56
314
100
5500
8.08
557
AFM 26
AFM 36
AFM 46
TABLE IV PRESSURE DROPS AFC
MODEL
FLOW RATE
[std liters/min]
AFC 26
MAXIMUM PRESSURE DROP
[mm H2O]
[psid]
[mbar]
up to 10
720
1.06
75
15
2630
3.87
266
20
1360
2.00
138
30
2380
3.50
241
40
3740
5.50
379
50
5440
8.00
551
60
7480
11.00
758
100
12850
18.89
1302
AFC 36
AFC 46
TABLE V APPROXIMATE WEIGHTS
MODEL
WEIGHT
SHIPPING WEIGHT
AFM 26 transmitter
1.71 lbs (0.78 kg)
3.21 lbs (1.46 kg)
AFM 36/46 transmitter
2.42 lbs (1.10 kg)
3.92 lbs (1.78 kg)
AFC 26 transmitter
2.20 lbs (1.00 kg)
3.70 lbs (1.68 kg)
AFC 36/46 transmitter
2.84 lbs (1.29 kg)
4.34 lbs (1.97 kg)
9
5.
OPERATING INSTRUCTIONS
5.1
Preparation and Warm Up
It is assumed that the Mass Flow Meter or Controller has been correctly installed
and thoroughly leak tested as described in section 2. Make sure the flow source
is OFF. Power up the transducer using your own power supply (or turn the
POWER switch to the ON position at the front panel of your SDPROC Command
Module). Allow the Mass Flow Meter or Controller to warm-up for a minimum of
15 minutes.
During initial powering of the AFM/AFC transducer, the flow output signal will be
indicating a higher than usual output. This is indication that the AFM/AFC transducer has not yet attained it's minimum operating temperature. This condition will
automatically cancel within a few minutes and the transducer should eventually
zero.

5.2
CAUTION: If the valve is left in the AUTO (control) or OPEN mode
for an extended period of time, it may become warm or even hot to
the the touch. Use care in avoiding direct contact with the valve
during operation.
Flow Signal Output Readings
The flow signal output can be viewed on the panel meter, digital multimeter, or
other display device used as shown in figure 2-1.
When using the accessory SDPROC Command Module the flow rate will appear
on the display at the front panel. The observed reading is a 0 to 100% indication
(direct engineering units are optional). [If using a multichannel readout, be sure
that the CHANNEL selector switch is set to the correct channel.]
Analog output flow signals of 0 to 5 VDC or optional 4 to 20 mA are attained at
the appropriate pins of the 15-pin "D" connector (see Figure 2-3) on the top of the
AFM/AFC transducer. The output flow signal is also available at the DATA connector on the rear panel of the SDPROC Command Module.
The default calibration is performed for 0-5 VDC output signal. If 4-20 mA output
signal is used for flow indication on the AFC, the accuracy of the actual flow rate
will be in the specified range (+1.0%) of full scale, but the total uncertainty of the
output reading may be in the range of +2.0% of full scale. Optional calibration for
4-20 mA output signal is available upon request at time of order.
Meter signal output is linearly proportional to the mass molecular flow rate of the
gas being metered. The full scale range and gas for which your meter has been
calibrated are shown on the flow transducer's front label.
For optional RS232 or IEEE488 interfaces please contact your distributor or
Aalborg7.
10
5.3
Swamping Condition
If a flow of more than 10% above the maximum flow rate of the Mass Flow Meter
is taking place, a condition known as "swamping" may occur. Readings of a
"swamped" meter cannot be assumed to be either accurate or linear. Flow must
be restored to below 110% of maximum meter range. Once flow rates are lowered
to within calibrated range, the swamping condition will end. Operation of the meter
above 110% of maximum calibrated flow may increase recovery time.
5.4
Set Point Reference Signal (AFC)
AFC flow controllers have a built-in solenoid valve and allow the user to set the
flow to any desired flow rate within the range of the particular model installed. This
valve is normally closed when no power is applied.
The set point input responds to an analog 0 to 5 VDC reference voltage. This voltage is a linear representation of 0 to 100% of the full scale mass flow rate.
Response time to set point changes are 1 second (AFC 26) and 2 seconds
(AFC 36/46) to within 2% of the final flow over 25 to 100% of full scale.
On pin 6 of the AFC transducer is a regulated and constant +5VDC output signal.
This signal may be used in conjunction with a local set point potentiometer for flow
setting.
FIGURE 5-1, LOCAL SET POINT POTENTIOMETER CONNECTIONS
11
It is recommended that a potentiometer between 5K to 100K ohm and capable of
at least 10-turns or more for adjustment be used. Use the control potentiometer
to command the percentage of flow desired.
Alternatively, a variable 0 to 5VDC analog signal may be applied directly to the
SET POINT and COMMON connections of the AFC transducer (see Figure 2-1).
5.5
TTL, Valve OFF Control (AFC)
It may, at times, be desirable to set the flow and maintain that setting while being
able to turn the flow control valve off and on again. This can be accomplished by
applying a (TTL compatible) high and low signal of +5 VDC and 0 VDC to pin 8,
on the 15-pin "D" connector. When 0 VDC (LOW) signal is applied, the solenoid
valve is not powered and therefore will remain normally closed. Conversely, a +5
VDC (HIGH) signal applied will allow the solenoid valve to remain active. The
solenoid valve will remain active when the VALVE OFF pin remains "floating".
The simplest means for utilizing the VALVE OFF control feature, is to connect a
toggle switch between the COMMON and VALVE OFF pins of the AFC transducer. Toggling the switch on and off will allow for activating and deactivating the solenoid valve.
5.6
Valve Test/Purge (AFC)
At times, it may be necessary to purge the flow system with a neutralizing gas
such as pure dry nitrogen. The AFC transducer is capable of a full open condition
for the solenoid valve, regardless of set point conditions. For AFC's utilizing
+15VDC valve configuration, connecting the TEST pin 12 on 15-pin "D" connectors) to ground will fully open the valve. For AFC's with a +30VDC valve configuration, connecting the TEST pin to +15VDC will fully open the valve.
12
6.
MAINTENANCE
6.1
Introduction
It is important that the Mass Flow Meter/Controller is used with clean, filtered
gases only. Liquids may not be metered. Since the RTD sensor consists, in part,
of a small capillary stainless steel tube, it is prone to occlusion due to impediments or gas crystallization. Other flow passages are also easily obstructed.
Therefore, great care must be exercised to avoid the introduction of any potential
flow impediment. To protect the instrument a 50 micron (AFM 26/ AFC 26) or 60
micron (AFM 36/46, AFC 36/46) filter is built into the inlet of the flow transducer.
The filter screen and the flow paths may require occasional cleaning as described
below. There is no other recommended maintenance required. It is good practice,
however, to keep the meter away from vibration, hot or corrosive environments
and excessive RF or magnetic interference.
If periodic calibrations are required they should be performed by qualified personnel and calibrating instruments, as described in section 7. It is recommended
that units are returned to Aalborg7 for repair service and calibration.

6.2
CAUTION: TO PROTECT SERVICING PERSONNEL IT IS
MANDATORY THAT ANY INSTRUMENT BEING SERVICED IS
COMPLETELY PURGED AND NEUTRALIZED OF TOXIC,
BACTERIOLOGICALLY INFECTED, CORROSIVE OR RADIOACTIVE
CONTENTS.
Flow Path Cleaning
Before attempting any disassembly of the unit for cleaning, try inspecting the flow
paths by looking into the inlet and outlet ends of the meter for any debris that may
be clogging the flow through the meter. Remove debris as necessary. If the flow
path is not unclogged, then proceed with steps below.
Do not attempt to disassemble the sensor. If blockage of the sensor tube is not
alleviated by flushing through with cleaning fluids, please return meter to Aalborg
for servicing.
6.2.1
Restrictor Flow Element (RFE)
The Restrictor Flow Element (RFE) is a precision flow divider inside the transducer, which splits the inlet gas flow by a preset amount to the sensor and main
flow paths. The particular RFE used in a given Mass Flow Meter/Controller
depends on the gas and flow range of the instrument.
6.2.2 AFM 26 and AFC 26 models
Unscrew the inlet compression fitting of meter. Note that the Restrictor Flow
Element (RFE) is connected to the inlet fitting.
Carefully disassemble the RFE from the inlet connection. The 50 micron filter
13
screen will now become visible. Push the screen out through the inlet fitting. Clean
or replace each of the removed parts as necessary. If alcohol is used for cleaning, allow time for drying.
Inspect the flow path inside the transducer for any visible signs of contaminant's.
If necessary, flush the flow path through with alcohol. Thoroughly dry the flow
paths by flowing clean dry gas through.
Carefully re-install the RFE and inlet fitting, avoiding any twisting and deforming
the RFE. Be sure that no dust has collected on the O-ring seal.
NOTE: Over tightening will deform and render the RFE defective.
It is advisable that at least one calibration point be checked after re-installing the
inlet fitting - see section 7.
6.2.3 AFM 36/46 and AFC 36/46 models
Unscrew the four socket head cap screws (two 10-24 and two 6-32) at the inlet
side of the meter. This will release the short square block containing the inlet compression fitting.
The 60 micron filter screen will now become visible. Remove the screen. DO NOT
remove the RFE inside the flow transducer! Clean or replace each of the removed
parts as necessary. If alcohol is used for cleaning, allow time for drying.
Inspect the flow path inside the transducer for any visible signs of contaminant's.
If necessary, flush the flow path through with alcohol. Thoroughly dry the flow
paths by flowing clean dry gas through.
Re-install the inlet parts and filter screen. Be sure that no dust has collected on
the O-ring seal.
It is advisable that at least one calibration point be checked after re-installing the
inlet fitting - see section 7.
6.2.4 Valve Maintenance (AFC)
The solenoid valve consists of 316 and 416 stainless steel, and VITON7 (or
optional EPR or KALREZ7) O-rings and seals. No regular maintenance is
required except for periodic cleaning.
Various corrosive gases may demand more frequent replacement of VITON7 Orings and seals inside the valve. Be sure to use an elastomer material, appropriate for your specific gas application. Contact your distributor or Aalborg7 for
optional sealing materials available.
Set the AFC into PURGE mode, and attempt to flush through with a clean, filtered,
and neutral gas such as nitrogen. [Another option for fully opening the valve is to
14
remove the plastic cap on top of the valve, and turn the set screw counterclockwise until it stops. See section 7.4 for valve adjustment, to return the valve to functional use.]
7.
7.1
CALIBRATION PROCEDURES
NOTE: Removal of the factory installed calibration seals and/or any
adjustments made to the meter, as described in this section, will void
any calibration warranty applicable.
Flow Calibration
Aalborg7 Instruments' Flow Calibration Laboratory offers professional calibration
support for Mass Flow Meters and Controllers, using precision calibrators under
strictly controlled conditions. NIST traceable calibrations are available.
Calibrations can also be performed at customers' site using available standards.
Factory calibrations are performed using NIST traceable precision volumetric calibrators incorporating liquid sealed frictionless actuators.
Generally, calibrations are performed using dry nitrogen gas. The calibration can
then be corrected to the appropriate gas desired based on relative correction [K]
factors shown in the gas factor table see Appendix 2. A reference gas, other than
nitrogen, may be used to closer approximate the flow characteristics of certain
gases. This practice is recommended when a reference gas is found with thermodynamic properties similar to the actual gas under consideration. The appropriate relative correction factor should be recalculated - see section 9.
It is standard practice to calibrate Mass Flow Meters/Controllers with dry nitrogen
gas at 70FF (21.1FC), 20 psig (1.4 bars) [25 psig (1.7 bars) for AFC 46] inlet pressure and 0 psig (0 bar) outlet pressure. It is best to calibrate the AFM/AFC transducers to actual operating conditions. Specific gas calibrations of non-toxic and
non-corrosive gases are available at specific conditions. Please contact your distributor or Aalborg7 for a price quotation.
It is recommended that a flow calibrator of at least four times better collective
accuracy than that of the Mass Flow Meter/Controller to be calibrated be used.
Equipment required for calibration includes a flow calibration standard and a certified high sensitivity multimeter (which together have a collective accuracy of
+0.25% or better), an insulated (plastic) screwdriver, a flow regulator (example:
metering needle valve) installed upstream from the Mass Flow Meter and a pressure regulated source of dry filtered nitrogen gas (or other suitable reference gas).
The gas and ambient temperature, as well as inlet and outlet pressure conditions
should be set up in accordance with actual operating conditions.
Calibration potentiometer locations are illustrated in Figure 7-1.
15
FIGURE 7-1, CALIBRATION POTENTIOMETER LOCATIONS
7.2
Calibration of AFM Mass Flow Meters
All adjustments in this section are made from the outside of the meter, there is no
need to disassemble any part of the instrument.
AFM Mass Flow Meters may be field recalibrated/checked for the same range
they were originally factory calibrated for. When linearity adjustment is needed, or
flow range changes are being made proceed to step 7.3. Flow range changes
may require a different Restrictor Flow Element (RFE). Additionally, a different
Solenoid Valve Orifice for the AFC Mass Flow Controller (see Table VI) may also
be required. Consult your distributor or Aalborg7 for more information.
7.2.1
Connections and Initial Warm Up
Connect the multimeter to output pins* [2] and [3] of the 15-pin “D” connector for
0-5 VDC (or pins [5] and [15] for optional 4-20 mA) (see Figure 2-3).
* If you are calibrating a Mass Flow Meter System that incorporates a
DSPROC Command Module, the multimeter may be connected via the
DATA connector which is located at the back of the Command Module.
Power up the Mass Flow Meter for at least 30 minutes prior to commencing the
calibration procedure.
16
7.2.2 ZERO Adjustment
Shut off the flow of gas into the Mass Flow Meter. To ensure that no seepage or
leak occurs into the meter, it is good practice to temporarily disconnect the gas
source. Using the multimeter and the insulated screwdriver, adjust the ZERO
potentiometer [R29] through the access window for 0 VDC (or 4 mA respectively)
at zero flow.
7.2.3 SPAN Adjustment
Reconnect the gas source. Using the flow regulator, adjust the flow rate to 100%
of full scale flow. Check the flow rate indicated against the flow calibrator. If the
deviation is less than +10% of full scale reading, correct the SPAN potentiometer
[R21] setting by using the insulated screwdriver through the access window, to
eliminate any deviation. If the deviation is larger than +10% of full scale reading,
a defective condition may be present.
LIKELY REASONS FOR A MALFUNCTIONING SIGNAL MAY BE:
M
M
M
M
Occluded or contaminated sensor tube.
Leaking condition in the AFM transducer or the gas line and fittings.
For gases other than nitrogen, recheck appropriate "K" factor from Gas Factor Table.
Temperature and/or pressure correction errors.
See also section 8 TROUBLESHOOTING. If after attempting to remedy the above
conditions, a malfunction still persists, return the meter for factory service, see
section 1.1.
At this point the calibration is complete. However, it is advisable that several additional points between 0 and 100%, such as 25%, 50%, and 75% flow be checked.
If discrepancies are found, proceed to step 7.3 for Linearity Adjustment.
7.3
Linearity Adjustment
All adjustments in this section are made from the outside of the meter, there is
no need to disassemble any part of the instrument.
7.3.1
Connections and Initial Warm Up
Connect the multimeter to output pins* [2] and [3] for 0 5 VDC (or pins [5] and [15]
for optional 4-20 mA) (see Figure 2-3).
* If you are calibrating a Mass Flow Meter System that incorporates a
SDPROC Command Module, the multimeter may be connected via the
DATA connector which is located at the back of the Command Module.
Power up the Mass Flow Meter for at least 30 minutes prior to commencing the
calibration procedure.
17
7.3.2 ZERO Adjustment
Shut off the flow of gas into the Mass Flow Meter. To ensure that no seepage or
leak occurs into the meter, it is good practice to temporarily disconnect the gas
source. Using the multimeter and the insulated screwdriver, adjust the ZERO
potentiometer [R29] through the access window for 0 VDC (or 4 mA respectively)
at zero flow.
7.3.3 25% Flow Adjustment
Reconnect the gas source. Using the flow regulator, adjust the flow rate to 25% of
full scale flow. Check the flow rate indicated against the flow calibrator. Adjust the setting for potentiometer [R21] by using the insulated screwdriver through the access
window, until the output of the flow meter reads 1.25VDC +37mV (or 8mA +0.12mA).
7.3.4 50% Flow Adjustment
Using the flow regulator, increase the flow rate to 50% of full scale flow. Check the
flow rate indicated against the flow calibrator. Adjust the setting for potentiometer
[R45] by using the insulated screwdriver through the access window, until the output of the flow meter reads 2.50VDC +37mV (or 12mA +0.12mA).
7.3.5 75% Flow Adjustment
Increase the flow rate to 75% of full scale flow. Check the flow rate indicated
against the flow calibrator. Adjust the setting for potentiometer [R44] by using the
insulated screwdriver through the access window, until the output of the flow
meter reads 3.75VDC +37mV (or 16mA +0.12mA).
7.3.6 100% Flow Adjustment
Increase the flow rate to 100% of full scale flow. Check the flow rate indicated
against the flow calibrator. Adjust the setting for potentiometer [R43] by using the
insulated screwdriver through the access window, until the output of the flow
meter reads 5.00VDC +37mV (or 20mA +0.12mA).
Repeat steps 7.3.3 to 7.3.6 at least once more.
7.4
Calibration of AFC Mass Flow Controllers
All adjustments in this section are made from the outside of the meter, there is no
need to disassemble any part of the instrument.
AFC Mass Flow Controllers may be field recalibrated/checked for the same range
they were originally factory calibrated for.
7.4.1
Disable Solenoid Valve
Remove the round plastic cap on top of the solenoid valve. Turn the set screw on
top of the valve counterclockwise until it stops, to open the valve. Set the valve
into PURGE mode. This step essentially bypasses the flow control properties of
18
the transducer. The unit will now act as a mass flow meter.

CAUTION: If the valve is left in the AUTO (control) or OPEN mode for an
extended period of time, it may become warm or even hot to the touch.
Use care in avoiding direct contact with the valve during operation.
Follow steps outlined in section 7.2 and 7.3, then continue with step 7.4.2 below.
7.4.2 Valve Adjustment
Discontinue the PURGE mode (set valve for the closed position). Apply an inlet
pressure of 5 psig, and atmospheric pressure at the outlet. If a small flow occurs,
turn the set screw on top of the solenoid valve clockwise until the flow through the
AFC just stops.
7.4.3 Full Scale Flow Adjustment
Fully open the flow regulator upstream of the AFC. Increase the inlet pressure to
20 psig (25 psig for AFC 46). Apply a +5.00 VDC set point reference. Using the
calibrator check the flow rate. If necessary, adjust R21 to match the desired full
scale flow rate. [In control mode, turning R21 clockwise will decrease the flow.
Conversely, turning R21 counterclockwise will increase the flow through the AFC.]
7.4.4 25% Flow Adjustment
Change the set point to 1.25 VDC to control at 25% of full scale flow. Check the
flow rate indicated against the flow calibrator. If the flow rate is not within +0.75%
of full scale, re-adjust the setting for potentiometer [R21], until the flow output is
correct.
7.4.5 50% Flow Adjustment
Change the set point to 2.50 VDC to control at 50% of full scale flow. Check the flow
rate indicated against the flow calibrator. If the flow rate is not within +0.75% of full
scale, re-adjust the setting for potentiometer [R45], until the flow output is correct.
7.4.6 75% Flow Adjustment
Change the set point to 3.75 VDC to control at 75% of full scale flow. Check the flow
rate indicated against the flow calibrator. If the flow rate is not within +0.75% of full
scale, re-adjust the setting for potentiometer [R44], until the flow output is correct.
7.4.7 100% Flow Adjustment
Change the set point to 5.00 VDC to control at 100% of full scale flow. Check the flow
rate indicated against the flow calibrator. If the flow rate is not within +0.75% of full
scale, re-adjust the setting for potentiometer [R43], until the flow output is correct.
Repeat steps 7.4.4 to 7.4.7 at least once more.
19
TABLE VI AFC SOLENOID VALVE ORIFICE SELECTION TABLE
ORIFICE PART NUMBER
FLOW RATE [N2]
OR.010
under 10 sccm
OR.020
10 to 1000 sccm
OR.040
1 to 5 slpm
OR.055
5 to 10 slpm
OR.063
10 to 15 slpm
OR.073
15 to 20 slpm
OR.094
20 to 50 slpm
OR.125
50 to 100 slpm
8.
TROUBLESHOOTING
8.1
Common Conditions
Your Mass Flow Meter/Controller was thoroughly checked at numerous quality
control points during and after manufacturing and assembly operations. It was calibrated in accordance to your desired flow and pressure conditions for a given gas
or a mixture of gases.
It was carefully packed to prevent damage during shipment. Should you feel that
the instrument is not functioning properly please check for the following common
conditions first:
✓ Are all cables connected correctly?
✓ Are there any leaks in the installation?
✓ Is the power supply correctly selected according to requirements?
When several meters are used a power supply with appropriate
current rating should be selected.
✓ Were the connector pinouts matched properly?
When interchanging with other manufacturers' equipment, cables
and connectors must be carefully wired for correct pin configurations.
✓ Is the pressure differential across the instrument sufficient?
20
8.2
Troubleshooting Guide
INDICATION
LIKELY REASON
REMEDY
lack of
reading or
output
power supply off
check connection of power supply
fuse blown
(AFM/AFC)
disconnect AFM/AFC transducer from
power supply; remove the shorting
condition or check polarities; fuse
resets automatically
fuse blown
(SDPROC)
disconnect power cord from AC
supply; remove and inspect fuses at
AC power input connector of SDPROC;
replace as necessary
filter screen obstructed at inlet REMOVE CAUSE OF SHORT CIRCUIT!
occluded sensor tube
flush clean or disassemble to remove
impediments or replace
flush clean or disassemble to remove
impediments or return to factory for
replacement
output reads
at (+) or (- )
saturation
only
pc board defect
return to factory for replacement
valve adjustment wrong
re-adjust valve (section 7.4)
fuse blown
(AFM/AFC)
disconnect AFM/AFC transducer from
power supply; remove the shorting
condition or check polarities; fuse
resets automatically
REMOVE CAUSE OF SHORT CIRCUIT!
flow reading
does not
coincide with
the set point
(AFC models
only)
inadequate gas pressure
ground loop
signal and power supply commons are
different
no response
to set point
(AFC models
only)
inadequate gas pressure
apply appropriate gas pressure
cable or connector
malfunction
check cables and all connections or
replace
set point is too low
(<2% of full scale)
re-adjust set point
valve adjustment wrong
re-adjust valve (section 7.4)
apply appropriate gas pressure
filter screen obstructed at inlet flush clean or disassemble to remove
impediments or replace
21
INDICATION
LIKELY REASON
REMEDY
unstable or no
zero reading
gas leak
locate and correct
pc board defective
return to factory for replacement
full scale output at "no flow" defective sensor
condition or
gas Leak
with valve
closed
calibration off
return to factory for replacement
locate and repair
gas metered is not the same as use matched calibration
what meter was calibrated for
composition of gas changed
see K factor tables in APPENDIX 2
gas leak
locate and correct
pc board defective
return to factory for replacement
RFE dirty
flush clean or disassemble to remove
impediments
occluded sensor tube
flush clean or disassemble to remove
impediments or return to factory for
replacement
filter screen obstructed at inlet flush clean or disassemble to remove
impediments or replace
AFC valve
does not work
in open
position
transducer is not mounted
properly
check for any tilt or change in the
mounting of the transducer; generally,
units are calibrated for horizontal
installation (relative to the sensor tube)
incorrect valve adjustment
re-adjust valve (section 7.4)
pc board defect
return to factory for replacement
cable or connectors malfunction check cable and connectors or replace
differential pressure too high
decrease pressure to correct level
insufficient inlet pressure
adjust appropriately
re-adjust valve (section 7.4)
AFC valve does incorrect valve adjustment
not work in
pc board defect
return to factory for replacement
close
position
cable or connectors malfunction check cable and connectors or replace
orifice obstructed
disassemble to remove impediments
or return to factory
22
For best results it is recommended that instruments are returned to the factory
for servicing. See section 1.3 for return procedures.
8.3
Technical Assistance
Aalborg7 Instruments will provide technical assistance over the phone to qualified
repair personnel. Please call our Technical Assistance at (845) 770-3000. Please
have your Serial Number and Model Number ready when you call.
9.
CALIBRATION CONVERSIONS FROM
REFERENCE GASES
The calibration conversion incorporates the K factor. The K factor is derived from
gas density and coefficient of specific heat. For diatomic gases:
1
d X Cp
where d = gas density (gram/liter)
= coefficient of specific heat (cal/gram)
Cp
K gas =
Note in the above relationship that d and Cp are usually chosen at standard conditions of one atmosphere and 25F C.
If the flow range of a Mass Flow Controller or Controller remains unchanged, a
relative K factor is used to relate the calibration of the actual gas to the reference
gas.
K =
where Qa
Qr
Ka
Kr
=
=
=
=
Qa
Qr
=
Ka
Kr
mass flow rate of an actual gas (sccm)
mass flow rate of a reference gas (sccm)
K factor of an actual gas
K factor of a reference gas
For example, if we want to know the flow rate of oxygen and wish to calibrate
with nitrogen at 1000 SCCM, the flow rate of oxygen is:
QO = Qa = Qr x K
= 1000 X 0.9926
= 992.6 sccm
APPENDIX
1
2
where K = relative K factor to reference gas (oxygen to nitrogen)
23
APPENDIX 1
COMPONENTS DIAGRAMS
AFC CONTROL PC BOARD
AFM METERING PC BOARD
(ALSO INCORPORATED IN AFC)
24
APPENDIX 2
GAS FACTOR TABLE (“K” FACTORS)
 CAUTION: K-Factors at best are only an approximation. K factors should not
be used in applications that require accuracy better than +/- 5 to 10%.
ACTUAL GAS
K FACTOR
Relative to N2
Cp
[Cal/g]
Density
[g/I]
.5829
1.0000
.4346
.7310
1.4573
1.205
.6735
.4089
.5082
.8083
.38
.26
.3855
.3697
.3224
.2631
.2994
.324
.291
.7382
.658
.4036
.240
.352
.492
.1244
.1244
.1167
.1279
.1778
.0539
.0647
.1369
.1161
.1113
.3514
.4007
.3648
.336
.374
.2016
.2016
1.162
1.293
1.787
.760
1.782
1.782
3.478
5.227
3.025
7.130
11.18
7.803
6.108
6.644
2.413
2.593
2.503
2.503
2.503
1.964
1.964
.6026
1.00
.31
.42
.5428
.6606
.86
.4016
.4589
.3912
.2418
.3834
.61
.6130
.4584
.1428
.2488
.1655
.1654
.1710
.1651
.114
.1650
.1544
.1309
.164
.153
.2613
.1739
.3177
3.397
1.250
6.860
3.926
2.945
2.680
3.163
4.125
3.858
5.326
6.892
4.660
2.322
2.742
1.877
Acetylene C2H2
Air
Allene (Propadiene) C3H4
Ammonia NH3
Argon Ar
Argon AR-1 (>10 L/min)
Arsine AsH3
Boron Trichloride BCl3
Boron Trifluoride BF3
Bromine Br2
Boron Tribromide Br3
Bromine PentaTrifluoride BrF5
Bromine Trifluoride BrF3
Bromotrifluoromethane (Freon-13 B1) CBrF3
1,3-Butadiene C4H6
Butane C4H10
1-Butene C4H8
2-Butene C4H8 CIS
2-Butene C4H8 TRANS
Carbon Dioxide CO2
Carbon Dioxide CO2-1 (>10 L/min)
Carbon Disulfide CS2
Carbon Monoxide C0
Carbon Tetrachloride CCl4
Carbon Tetrafluoride (Freon-14)CF4
Carbonyl Fluoride COF2
Carbonyl Sulfide COS
Chlorine Cl2
Chlorine Trifluoride ClF3
Chlorodifluoromethane (Freon-22)CHClF2
Chloroform CHCl3
Chloropentafluoroethane(Freon-115)C2ClF5
Chlorotrifluromethane (Freon-13) CClF3
CyanogenC2N2
CyanogenChloride CICN
Cyclopropane C3H5
25
ACTUAL GAS
K FACTOR
Relative to N2
Cp
[Cal/g]
Density
[g/I]
1.00
.4357
.1947
.3538
.4252
.2522
.4044
.2235
.4271
.3714
.3896
.2170
.50
.3918
.3225
.3891
.60
.5191
.9784
.4967
.3287
.3538
.3834
.3697
.4210
.4252
.4589
.2031
.2240
.2418
.1760
.5696
.2668
1.454
2.43
2.05
.2421
.1792
1.0106
1.35
1.9
1.722
.508
.15
.1432
.140
.1882
.150
.1604
.224
.366
.3414
.3914
.420
.3395
.3513
.244
.365
.268
.1873
.176
.1357
.1432
.153
.1113
.1654
.140
.1544
.161
.160
.164
.185
.1404
.1071
1.241
1.241
1.241
.1834
.3968
3.419
3.419
3.419
1.799
1.235
9.362
5.395
4.592
5.758
4.506
7.626
2.857
2.011
2.055
3.219
1.342
2.055
2.413
2.879
1.251
1.965
1.695
3.127
6.129
5.395
4.660
6.644
3.926
4.592
3.858
8.360
7.626
6.892
8.397
3.418
9.565
.1786
.1786
.1786
6.157
3.845
.0899
.0899
.0899
Deuterium D2
Diborane B2H6
Dibromodifluoromethane CBr2F2
Dichlorodifluoromethane (Freon-12) CCl2F2
Dichlofluoromethane (Freon-21) CHCl2F
Dichloromethylsilane (CH3)2SiCl2
Dichlorosilane SiH2Cl2
Dichlorotetrafluoroethane (Freon-114) C2Cl2F4
1,1-Difluoroethylene (Freon-1132A) C2H2F2
Dimethylamine (CH3)2NH
Dimethyl Ether (CH3)2O
2,2-Dimethylpropane C3H12
Ethane C2H6
Ethanol C2H6O
Ethyl Acetylene C4H6
Ethyl Chloride C2H5Cl
Ethylene C2H4
Ethylene Oxide C2H4O
Fluorine F2
Fluoroform (Freon-23) CHF3
Freon-11 CCl3F
Freon-12 CCl2F2
Freon-13 CClF3
Freon-13B1 CBrF3
Freon-14 CF4
Freon-21 CHCl2F
Freon-22 CHClF2
Freon-113 CCl2FCClF2
Freon-114 C2Cl2F4
Freon-115 C2ClF5
Freon-C318 C4F8
Germane GeH4
Germanium Tetrachloride GeCl4
Helium He
Helium He-1 (>50 L/min)
Helium He-2 (>10-50 L/min)
Hexafluoroethane C2F6 (Freon-116)
Hexane C6H14
Hydrogen H2-1
Hydrogen H2-2 (>10-100 L)
Hydrogen H2-3 (>100 L)
26
ACTUAL GAS
K FACTOR
Relative to N2
Cp
[Cal/g]
Density
[g/I]
1.000
1.000
.764
.9998
.9987
.7893
.80
.2492
.27
.2951
1.453
.7175
.75
.0861
.1912
.3171
.3479
.0545
.1025
.2397
.1108
.3872
.3701
.0593
.5328
.5328
3.610
1.627
1.206
.893
5.707
3.613
1.520
9.90
3.593
2.503
3.739
.715
.715
.5843
.4313
.5835
.6299
.68
.5180
.2499
.2126
.3512
.51
1.46
.990
1.000
.737
.4802
.6134
.7128
.176
.9926
.6337
.446
.2554
.2134
.3950
.174
.4438
.759
.3274
.3547
.1106
.1926
.3221
.2459
.164
.1373
.387
.4343
.246
.2328
.2485
.1933
.1797
.1632
.2088
.185
.2193
.1917
.195
.38
.398
.1514
.197
.1394
.2374
1.429
1.787
4.236
2.253
1.518
2.146
6.669
9.366
2.011
1.386
.900
1.339
1.25
2.052
3.168
2.920
1.964
8.397
1.427
2.406
2.144
2.816
3.219
4.571
8.388
4.418
1.517
Hydrogen Bromide HBr
Hydrogen Chloride HCl
Hydrogen Cyanide HCN
Hydrogen Fluoride HF
Hydrogen Iodide HI
Hydrogen Selenide H2Se
Hydrogen Sulfide H2S
Iodine Pentafluoride IF5
Isobutane CH(CH3)3
Isobutylene C4H6
Krypton Kr
Methane CH4
Methane CH4-1 (>10 L/min)
Methanol CH3
Methyl Acetylene C3H4
Methyl Bromide CH3Br
Methyl Chloride CH3Cl
Methyl Fluoride CH3F
Methyl Mercaptan CH3SH
Methyl Trichlorosilane (CH3)SiCl3
Molybdenum Hexafluoride MoF6
Monoethylamine C2H5NH2
Monomethylamine CH3NH2
Neon NE
Nitric Oxide NO
Nitrogen N2
Nitrogen Dioxide NO2
Nitrogen Trifluoride NF3
Nitrosyl Chloride NOCl
Nitrous Oxide N2O
Octafluorocyclobutane (Freon-C318) C4F8
Oxygen O2
Oxygen Difluoride OF2
Ozone
Pentaborane B5H9
Pentane C5H12
Perchloryl Fluoride ClO3F
Perfluoropropane C3F8
Phosgene COCl2
Phosphine PH3
27
ACTUAL GAS
K FACTOR
Relative to N2
Cp
[Cal/g]
Density
[g/I]
.36
.3021
.30
.35
.40
.5982
.284
.3482
.69
.2635
.3883
.5096
.3237
.3287
.3278
.1324
.1610
.1250
.399
.366
.3189
.1270
.1691
.1488
.1592
.1543
.127
.182
.1357
.1380
6.843
5.620
6.127
1.967
1.877
1.433
7.580
4.643
2.858
6.516
4.562
4.224
4.64
6.129
6.043
.2031
.161
8.36
Phosphorous Oxychloride POCl3
Phosphorous Pentafluoride PH5
Phosphorous Trichloride PCl3
Propane C3H8
Propylene C3H6
Silane SiH4
Silicon Tetrachloride SiCl4
Silicon Tetrafluoride SiF4
Sulfur Dioxide SO2
Sulfur Hexafluoride SF6
Sulfuryl Fluoride SO2F2
Tetrafluoroethane (Forane 134A) CF3CH2F
Tetrafluorohydrazine N2F4
Trichlorofluoromethane (Freon-11) CCl3F
Trichlorosilane SiHCl3
1,1,2-Trichloro-1,2,2 Trifluoroethane
(Freon-113) CCl2FCClF2
Triisobutyl Aluminum (C4H9)AL
Titanium Tetrachloride TiCl4
Trichloro Ethylene C2HCl3
Trimethylamine (CH3)3N
Tungsten Hexafluoride WF6
Vinyl Bromide CH2CHBr
Vinyl Chloride CH2CHCl
Xenon Xe
.0608
.2691
.32
.2792
.2541
.4616
.48
1.44
28
.508
.120
.163
.3710
.0810
.1241
.12054
.0378
8.848
8.465
5.95
2.639
13.28
4.772
2.788
5.858
APPENDIX 3
DIMENSIONAL DRAWINGS
AFM 26 MASS FLOW METER
NOTES:
Aalborg7 reserves the right to change designs and dimensions at its
sole discretion at any time without notice. For certified dimensions
please contact Aalborg7.
29
AFM 36/46 MASS FLOW METER
NOTES:
Aalborg7 reserves the right to change designs and dimensions at
its sole discretion at any time without notice. For certified dimensions
please contact Aalborg7.
30
AFC 26 MASS FLOW CONTROLLER
NOTES:
Aalborg7 reserves the right to change designs and dimensions at its
sole discretion at any time without notice. For certified dimensions
please contact Aalborg7.
31
AFC 36/46 MASS FLOW CONTROLLER
NOTES:
Aalborg7 reserves the right to change designs and dimensions at its
sole discretion at any time without notice. For certified dimensions
please contact Aalborg7.
32
APPENDIX 4
WARRANTY
Aalborg7 Mass Flow Systems are warranted against parts and workmanship
for a period of one year from the date of purchase. Calibrations are warranted for up to six months after date of purchase, provided calibration seals
have not been tampered with. It is assumed that equipment selected by the
customer is constructed of materials compatible with gases used. Proper
selection is the responsibility of the customer. It is understood that gases
under pressure present inherent hazards to the user and to equipment, and
it is deemed the responsibility of the customer that only operators with basic
knowledge of the equipment and its limitations are permitted to control and
operate the equipment covered by this warranty. Anything to the contrary will
automatically void the liability of Aalborg7 and the provisions of this warranty. Defective products will be repaired or replaced solely at the discretion of
Aalborg7 at no charge. Shipping charges are borne by the customer. This
warranty is void if the equipment is damaged by accident or misuse, or has
been repaired or modified by anyone other than Aalborg7 or factory authorized service facility. This warranty defines the obligation of Aalborg7 and no
other warranties expressed or implied are recognized.
NOTE: Follow Return Procedures In section 1.3.
TRADEMARKS
Aalborg®-is a registered trademark of Aalborg Instruments & Controls. Kalrez®-is a registered trademark of DuPont Dow Elastomers.
Buna®-is a registered trademark of DuPont Dow Elastometers.
VCR®-is a registered trademark of Swagelok Marketing Co.
33
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