HD/SD/ASI Distribution Amplifier User Guide

HD/SD/ASI Distribution Amplifier User Guide
Distribution Amplifier
User Guide
Revision 3.0 SW v1.0
This user guide provides detailed information for using the BrightEye™42
HD/SD/ASI Distribution Amplifier.
The information in this user guide is organized into the following sections:
Product Overview
Rear Connections
• Front Panel Status Indicators
Warranty and Factory Service
HD/SD/ASI Distribution Amplifier
The BrightEye™ 42 is a reclocking distribution amplifier that can be used with
high definition, standard definition, or ASI signals. When used with SD or ASI
input signals, the serial input automatically equalizes up to 300 meters of digital
cable. When used with an HD input signal, the serial input automatically
equalizes up to 100 meters of digital cable. The input signal is reclocked and
delivered to four simultaneous outputs as shown in the block diagram below. The
reclocker is ASI compliant and all four outputs have the correct ASI polarity.
Front panel indictors permit the user to monitor input signal and power status
Signal I/O and power is supplied to the rear of the unit, that is powered by a
modular style power supply. There are no adjustments required on this unit.
A glossary of commonly used video terms is provided at the end of this guide.
Front Panel Indicators
BrightEye 42 Functional Block Diagram
(follows input)
BrightEye 42 can be utilized in any number of different applications where distribution of HD, SD, or ASI is required. Refer to the application below.
Signal Distribution Application
One useful application increases the number of outputs available from any of the
other BrightEye devices with only one output. For example, the BrightEye 2
Analog to SDI Converter takes an analog input and converts it to an SDI signal
available on one BNC connector. The converted SDI output from the BrightEye 2
can be connected to the input of the BrightEye 42 increasing the number of SDI
outputs. Now four reclocked SDI outputs are available for use in the facility.
Analog Router
BrightEye 2
BrightEye 42
Bright Eye 42 adds four
additional SDI outputs
Analog In
Analog to SDI
SD Distribution
BrightEye 42 Application
HD/SD/ASI Distribution Amplifier
All connections to the BrightEye distribution amplifier are made on the rear of
the unit illustrated below.
BrightEye 42 Rear Connectors
Power Connection
Connect a modular power supply to the 12 volt DC power input connection on the
far left of the unit. Use the locking ring to secure it.
Input/Output BNCS
There are five rear BNC connectors which are used as follows:
Connect an HD, SD, or ASI video input to this BNC for distribution to the four
BNC outputs.
Out 1-4
Connect the four BNC outputs to the desired video destinations corresponding to
the correct video input type.
Monitoring of the BrightEye 42 distribution amplifier power and input video
status is performed from the front panel. This is a simple device with no interface
to the BrightEye Control application. No adjustments are required on the unit.
Front Panel Indicators
The front panel of the converter, shown in the figure below, provides status indicators for power and input signal status.
BrightEye 42 Front Panel
Status Indicators
The following status indicators are provided on the front panel:
Illuminates green when an input for the currently selected video format is
detected on the input connector. This indicator does not light when either of the
two internally generated test patterns are selected.
Pwr (Power)
Illuminates green when power is applied to the converter and the internal voltage
regulator is functioning correctly.
HD/SD/ASI Distribution Amplifier
Ensemble Designs, Inc. warrants this product to be free from defect in material
and workmanship for a period of five years from the date of delivery. During this
two year warranty period, Ensemble Designs, Inc. will repair any defective units
at Ensemble’s expense if the unit should be determined to be defective after consultation with a factory technician.
This warranty is not transferable. Any implied warranties expire at the expiration date of this warranty.
This warranty does not cover a defect that has resulted from improper or unreasonable use or maintenance as determined by us. This warranty is void if there is
any attempt to disassemble or adjust factory set presets without factory authorization.
Factory Service
If you require service (under warranty or not), please contact Ensemble Designs
and ask for Customer Service before you return the unit. This will allow the
service technician to provide any other suggestions for identifying the problem
and recommend possible solutions.
You may also refer to the technical support section of the Ensemble web site for
the latest information on your equipment at the URL below:
If you return equipment for repair, please get a Return Material Authorization
Number (RMA) from the factory first.
Ship the product and a written description of the problem to:
Ensemble Designs, Inc.
Attention: Customer Service RMA #####
870 Gold Flat Rd.
Nevada City, CA 95959 USA
(530) 478-1830
Fax: (530) 478-1832
Be sure to put your RMA number on the outside of the box.
Serial Digital Input:
Signal Type:
270 Mb/s SD Serial Digital
(SMPTE 259M)
or 1.485 Gb/s HD Serial Digital
(SMPTE 274M or 296M)
75 Ω
Return Loss:
> 15 dB
Max Cable Length
300 meters for 270 Mb/s
100 meters for 1.485 Gb/s
Serial Digital Output:
Return Loss:
Output DC:
HD/SD/ASI Serial Digital
(SMPTE 259M or SMPTE 274M or 296M)
75 Ω
> 15 dB
None (AC coupled)
General Specifications:
5.625” W x 0.8 “ H x 5.5” D
(143 mm x 20 mm x 140 mm)
including connectors
12 volts, 7 watts
Temperature Range:
0 to 40 degrees C ambient
Relative Humidity:
0 to 95% noncondensing
Due to ongoing product development, all specifications subject to change.
HD/SD/ASI Distribution Amplifier
Below is a list of power supplies and optional items that may have come with your
BrightEye Individual Power Supply.
Spider Power Supply. This powers 6 single high BrightEyes or 3 double high
BrightEyes (BrightEye 90 family).
Redundant Power Supply for Spider.
BrightEye Rack Mount. This holds 6 single high BrightEyes or 3 double high
BrightEyes (BrightEye 90 family) or a combination.
BrightEye Blank Panel. Single high, for empty slots in Rack Mount.
Analog Audio Breakout Cable
This is a brief glossary of commonly used terms associated with this product.
The digital audio standard defined as a joint effort of the Audio Engineering
Society and the European Broadcast Union. AES/EBU or AES3 describes a serial
bitstream that carries two audio channels, thus an AES stream is a stereo pair.
The AES/EBU standard covers a wide range of sample rates and quantizations
(bit depths.) In television systems, these will generally be 48 kHz and either 20 or
24 bits.
Strictly speaking, this refers to the range of frequencies (i.e. the width of the band
of frequency) used by a signal, or carried by a transmission channel. Generally,
wider bandwidth will carry and reproduce a signal with greater fidelity and
Sony Beta SP video tape machines use an analog component format that is
similar to SMPTE, but differs in the amplitude of the color difference signals. It
may also carry setup on the luminance channel.
The Horizontal and Vertical blanking intervals of a television signal refer to the
time periods between lines and between fields. No picture information is transmitted during these times, which are required in CRT displays to allow the
electron beam to be repositioned for the start of the next line or field. They are
also used to carry synchronizing pulses which are used in transmission and
recovery of the image. Although some of these needs are disappearing, the
intervals themselves are retained for compatibility purposes. They have turned
out to be very useful for the transmission of additional content, such as teletext
and embedded audio.
Component Analog Video. This is a convenient shorthand form, but it is subject to
confusion. It is sometimes used to mean ONLY color difference component
formats (SMPTE or Beta), and other times to include RGB format. In any case, a
CAV signal will always require 3 connectors – either Y/R-Y/B-Y, or R/G/B.
A Checkfield signal is a special test signal that stresses particular aspects of
serial digital transmission. The performance of the Phase Locked-Loops (PLLs) in
an SDI receiver must be able to tolerate long runs of 0’s and 1’s. Under normal
conditions, only very short runs of these are produced due to a scrambling
algorithm that is used. The Checkfield, also referred to as the Pathological test
signal, will “undo” the scrambling and cause extremely long runs to occur. This
test signal is very useful for testing transmission paths.
HD/SD/ASI Distribution Amplifier
The color or chroma content of a signal, consisting of the hue and saturation of
the image. See also Color Difference.
In a component video system, the totality of the image is carried by three
separate but related components. This method provides the best image fidelity
with the fewest artifacts, but it requires three independent transmission paths
(cables). The commonly used component formats are Luminance and Color
Difference (Y/Pr/Pb), and RGB. It was far too unwieldy in the early days of color
television to even consider component transmission.
Composite television dates back to the early days of color transmission. This
scheme encodes the color difference information onto a color subcarrier. The
instantaneous phase of the subcarrier is the color’s hue, and the amplitude is the
color’s saturation or intensity. This subcarrier is then added onto the existing
luminance video signal. This trick works because the subcarrier is set at a high
enough frequency to leave spectrum for the luminance information. But it is not a
seamless matter to pull the signal apart again at the destination in order to
display it or process it. The resultant artifacts of dot crawl (also referred to as
chroma crawl) are only the most obvious result. Composite television is the most
commonly used format throughout the world, either as PAL or NTSC. It is also
referred to as Encoded video.
Color Difference
Color Difference systems take advantage of the details of human vision. We have
more acuity in our black and white vision than we do in color. This means that
we need only the luminance information to be carried at full bandwidth, we can
scrimp on the color channels. In order to do this, RGB information is converted to
carry all of the luminance (Y is the black and white of the scene) in a single
channel. The other two channels are used to carry the “color difference”. Noted as
B-Y and R-Y, these two signals describe how a particular pixel “differs” from
being purely black and white. These channels typically have only half the
bandwidth of the luminance.
Decibel (dB)
The decibel is a unit of measure used to express the ratio in the amplitude or
power of two signals. A difference of 20 dB corresponds to a 10:1 ratio between
two signals, 6 dB is approximately a 2:1 ration. Decibels add while the ratios
multiply, so 26 dB is a 20:1 ratio, and 14 dB is a 5:1 ratio. There are several
special cases of the dB scale, where the reference is implied. Thus, dBm refers to
power relative to 1 milliwatt, and dBu refers to voltage relative to .775V RMS.
The original unit of measure was the Bel (10 times bigger), named after
Alexander Graham Bell.
In Digital Audio systems, the largest numerical value that can be represented is
referred to as Full Scale. No values or audio levels greater than FS can be reproduced because they would be clipped. The nominal operating point (roughly corresponding to 0 VU) must be set below FS in order to have headroom for audio
peaks. This operating point is described relative to FS, so a digital reference level
of -20 dBFS has 20 dB of headroom before hitting the FS clipping point.
Error Detection and Handling is a method to verify proper reception of an SDI or
HD-SDI signal at the destination. The originating device inserts a data packet in
the vertical interval of the SDI signal and every line of the HD signal which
contains a checksum of the entire video frame. This checksum is formed by
adding up the numerical values of all of the samples in the frame, using a
complex formula. At the destination this same formula is applied to the incoming
video and the resulting value is compared to the one included in the transmission. If they match, then the content has all arrived with no errors. If they don’t,
then an error has occurred.
Embedded Audio
Digital Audio can be carried along in the same bitstream as an SDI or HD-SDI
signal by taking advantage of the gaps in the transmission which correspond to
the horizontal and vertical intervals of the television waveform. This technique
an be very cost effective in transmission and routing, but can also add complexity
to signal handling issues because the audio content can no longer be treated independently of the video.
Frame Sync
A Frame Synchronizer is used to synchronize the timing of a video signal to
coincide with a timing reference (usually a color black signal that is distributed
throughout a facility). The synchronizer accomplishes this by writing the
incoming video into a frame buffer memory under the timing direction of the sync
information contained in that video. Simultaneously the memory is being read
back by a timing system that is genlocked to a house reference. As a result, the
timing or alignment of the video frame can be adjusted so that the scan of the
upper left corner of the image is happening simultaneously on all sources. This is
a requirement for both analog and digital systems in order to perform video
effects or switch glitch-free in a router. Frame synchronization can only be
performed within a single television line standard. A synchronizer will not
convert an NTSC signal to a PAL signal, it takes a standards converter to do
Frequency Response
A measurement of the accuracy of a system to carry or reproduce a range of
signal frequencies. Similar to Bandwidth.
HD/SD/ASI Distribution Amplifier
The International Electrotechnical Commission provides a wide range of
worldwide standards. They have provided standardization of the AC power connection to products by means of an IEC line cord. The connection point uses three
flat contact blades in a triangular arrangement, set in a rectangular connector.
The IEC specification does not dictate line voltage or frequency. Therefore, the
user must take care to verify that a device either has a universal input (capable
of 90 to 230 volts, either 50 or 60 Hz), or that a line voltage switch, if present, is
set correctly.
Human vision can be fooled to see motion by presenting a series of images, each
with a small change relative to the previous image. In order to eliminate the
flicker, our eyes need to see more than 30 images per second. This is accomplished in television systems by dividing the lines that make up each video frame
(which run at 25 or 30 frames per second) into two fields. All of the odd-numbered
lines are transmitted in the first field, the even-numbered lines are in the second
field. In this way, the repetition rate is 50 or 60 Hz, without using more
bandwidth. This trick has worked well for years, bit it introduces other temporal
artifacts. Motion pictures use a slightly different technique to raise the repetition
rate from the original 24 frames that make up each second of film—they just
project each one twice.
Video level is measured on the IRE scale, where 0 IRE is black, and 100 IRE is
full white. The actual voltages that these levels correspond to can vary between
ITU-R 601
This is the principal standard for standard definition component digital video. It
defines the luminance and color difference coding system that is also referred to
as 4:2:2. The standard applies to both PAL and NTSC derived signals. They both
will result in an image that contains 720 pixels horizontally, with 486 vertical
pixels in NTSC, and 576 vertically in PAL. Both systems use a sample clock rate
of 27 Mhz, and are serialized at 270 Mb/s.
Serial digital signals (either video or audio) are subject to the effects of jitter. This
refers to the instantaneous error that can occur from one bit to the next in the
exact position each digital transition. Although the signal may be at the correct
frequency on average, in the interim it varies. Some bits come slightly early, other
come slightly late. The measurement of this jitter is given either as the amount of
time uncertainty or as the fraction of a bit width. For 270 Mb/s video, the
allowable jitter is 740 picoseconds, or 0.2 UI (Unit Interval – one bit width).
The “black & white” content of the image. Human vision had more acuity in
luminance, so television systems generally devote more bandwidth to the
luminance content. In component systems, the luminance is referred to as Y.
Multi-mode fibers have a larger diameter core (either 50 or 62.5 microns), and a
correspondingly larger aperture. It is much easier to couple light energy into a
multi-mode fiber, but internal reflections will cause multiple “modes” of the signal
to propagate down the fiber. This will degrade the ability of the fiber to be used
over long distances.
See also Single mode.
The color television encoding system used in North America was originally
defined by the National Television Standards Committee. This American standard
has also been adopted by Canada, Mexico, Japan, Korea, and Taiwan. (This
standard is referred to disparagingly as Never Twice Same Color.)
An optical interface between two devices carries data by modulating a light
source. This light source is typically a laser or laser diode (similar to an LED)
which is turned on and off at the bitrate of the datastream. The light is carried
from one device to another through a glass fiber. The fiber’s core acts as a
waveguide or lightpipe to carry the light energy from one end to another. Optical
transmission has two very significant advantages over metallic copper cables.
Firstly, it does not require that the two endpoint devices have any electrical connection to each other. This can be very advantageous in large facilities where
problems with ground loops appear. And secondly, and most importantly, an
optical interface can carry a signal for many kilometers or miles without any
degradation or loss in the recovered signal. Copper is barely useful at distances of
just 1000 feet.
A technique to perform digital sampling at a multiple of the required sample rate.
This has the advantage of raising the Nyquist Rate (the maximum frequency
which can be reproduced by a given sample rate) much higher than the desired
passband. this allows more easily realized anti-aliasing filters.
During the early days of color television in North America, European broadcasters developed a competing system called Phase Alternation by Line. This slightly
more complex system is better able to withstand the differential gain and phase
errors that appear in amplifiers and transmission systems. Engineers at the BBC
claim that it stands for Perfection At Last.
An image scanning technique which progresses through all of the lines in a frame
in a single pass. Computer monitors all use progressive displays. This contrasts
to the interlace technique common to television systems.
HD/SD/ASI Distribution Amplifier
Return Loss
An idealized input or output circuit will exactly match its desired impedance
(generally 75 ohms) as a purely resistive element, with no reactive (capacitive or
inductive elements). In the real world we can only approach the ideal. So our real
inputs and outputs will have some capacitance and inductance. This will create
impedance matching errors, especially at higher frequencies. The Return Loss of
an input or output measures how much energy is returned (reflected back due to
the impedance mismatch). For digital circuits, a return loss of 15 dB is typical.
This means that the energy returned is 15 dB less than the original signal. In
analog circuits, a 40 dB figure is expected.
RGB systems carry the totality of the picture information as independent Red,
Green, and Blue signals. Television is an additive color system, where all three
components add to produce white. Because the luminance (or detail) information
is carried partially in each of the RGB channels, all three must be carried at full
bandwidth in order to faithfully reproduce an image.
ScH Phase
Used in composite systems, ScH Phase measures the relative phase between the
leading edge of sync on line 1 of field 1 and a continuous subcarrier sinewave.
Due to the arithmetic details of both PAL and NTSC, this relationship is not the
same at the beginning of each frame. In PAL, the pattern repeats ever 4 frames (8
fields) which is also known as the Bruch Blanking sequence. In NTSC, the repeat
is every 2 frames (4 fields). This creates enormous headaches in editing systems
and the system timing of analog composite facilities.
Serial Digital Interface. This term refers to inputs and outputs of devices that
support serial digital component video. This generally means standard definition
at 270 Mb/s. The use of “HD-SDI” is beginning to appear to indicate High
Definition Serial Digital video at 1.485 Gb/s.
The Society of Motion Picture and Television Engineers is a professional organization which has done tremendous work in setting standards for both the film and
television industries. The term “SMPTE’” is also shorthand for one particular
component video format - luminance and color difference.
Single mode
A Single mode (or mono-mode) optical fiber carries an optical signal on a very
small diameter (9 micron) core surrounded with cladding. The small diameter
means that no internally reflected lightwaves will be propagated. Thus only the
original “mode” of the signal passes down the fiber. A single mode fiber used in an
optical SDI system can carry a signal for up to 20 kilometers. Single mode fibers
require particular care in their installation due to the extremely small optical
aperture that they present at splice and connection points.
See also Multi-mode.
A Time Base Corrector is a system to reduce the Time Base Error in a signal to
acceptable levels. It accomplishes this by using a FIFO (First In, First Out)
memory. The incoming video is written into the memory using its own jittery
timing. This operation is closely associated with the actual digitization of the
analog signal because the varying position of the sync timing must be mimicked
by the sampling function of the analog to digital converter. A second timing
system, genlocked to a stable reference, is used to read the video back out of the
memory. The memory acts as a dynamically adjusting delay to smooth out the
imperfections in the original signal’s timing. Very often a TBC will also function
as a Frame Synchronizer.
See also: Frame Sync.
Time Base Error
Time base error is present when there is excessive jitter or uncertainty in the line
to line output timing of a video signal. This is commonly associated with playback
from video tape recorders, and is particularly severe with consumer type heterodyne systems like VHS. Time base error will render a signal unusable for
broadcast or editing purposes.
Tri Level Sync
An analog sync reference signal that is used in High Definition systems. Tri Level
Sync is constructed with three signal levels, the sync pulses extend above and
below a mid-level average voltage (the blanking level). Unlike conventional
analog sync which is bi-level, the proper 50% pickoff point is already identified in
Tri Level Sync. This contributes to lower jitter in digital systems.
Strictly speaking, YUV does not apply to component video. The letters refer to the
Luminance (Y), and the U and V encoding axes using in the PAL composite
system. Since the U axis is very close to the B-Y axis, and the V axis is very close
to the R-Y axis, YUV is often used as a sort of shorthand for the more longwinded “Y/R-Y/B-Y”.
In digital component video, the luminance component is Y, and the two color difference signals are Cr (R-Y) and Cb (B-Y).
In analog component video, the image is carried in three components. The
luminance is Y, the R-Y color difference signal is Pr, and the B-Y color difference
signal is Pb.
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