Hardware Manual

Hardware Manual
Allied Motion Technologies, Inc.
495 Commerce Drive, Suite 3
Amherst, NY 14228
(716) 242-7535
Hardware Manual:
Wiring and Installation
Document Part Number: 34-2100 R2
Allied Motion Technologies, Inc.
August 22, 2014
34-2100 R2
http://www.alliedmotion.com
Page 1 of 17
Hardware Manual: Wiring and Installation
Table of Contents
1.0
Preface............................................................................................................................................. 4
2.0
Safety ............................................................................................................................................... 4
3.0
Tables .............................................................................................................................................. 5
4.0
Figures............................................................................................................................................. 5
5.0
Wiring ............................................................................................................................................. 5
5.1
5.2
5.3
5.4
5.5
Wire Size............................................................................................................................. 5
Motor Wiring ...................................................................................................................... 6
Power Wiring ...................................................................................................................... 6
5.3.1 Line Filters ............................................................................................................. 7
Signal Wiring ...................................................................................................................... 8
Grounding ........................................................................................................................... 8
5.5.1 Drive and Controller Grounding ............................................................................ 8
5.5.2 Motor Grounding ................................................................................................... 8
6.0
Panel Layout ................................................................................................................................... 8
7.0
Digital I/O ....................................................................................................................................... 9
7.1
7.2
7.3
7.4
Optically Isolated Inputs ..................................................................................................... 9
Optically Isolated Outputs ................................................................................................ 10
Non-Isolated Inputs........................................................................................................... 10
Non-Isolated Outputs ........................................................................................................ 11
8.0
High Speed I/O ............................................................................................................................. 12
9.0
Analog I/O .................................................................................................................................... 13
9.1
9.2
9.3
10.0
Differential Analog Input .................................................................................................. 13
Single-Ended Analog Input............................................................................................... 13
Analog Output................................................................................................................... 14
Power Regeneration (Load Dump)............................................................................................. 14
10.1
10.2
10.3
Regeneration in AC Powered Drives and Controllers ...................................................... 15
Regeneration in DC Powered Drives and Controllers ...................................................... 15
Calculating Regenerative Energy ..................................................................................... 16
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Hardware Manual: Wiring and Installation
10.3.1
10.3.2
10.3.3
10.3.4
10.3.5
10.3.6
11.0
Energy Stored in Rotating Inertia ........................................................................ 16
Energy Dissipated in the Motor ........................................................................... 16
Energy Stored in the Bus Capacitor ..................................................................... 17
Regenerative Energy to be Dissipated ................................................................. 17
Pulse Power ......................................................................................................... 17
Continuous Power Dissipated .............................................................................. 17
Revision History ........................................................................................................................... 17
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Hardware Manual: Wiring and Installation
1.0
Preface
This manual describes the installation and wiring of servo drives, controllers, and motor/drive
combinations manufactured by Allied Motion Technologies, Inc.
Every effort has been made to ensure the accuracy of information in this manual. However,
Allied Motion assumes no responsibility for any errors or omissions. The information contained
within this document is regularly reviewed and we welcome your critical evaluation and
suggestions for improvement. Allied Motion reserves the right to modify all documentation
without prior notice. Be sure to download the most recent revision of this manual from the
company website.
This manual is supplied to the user with the understanding that it will not be reproduced,
duplicated, or disclosed in whole or in part without the express written permission of Allied
Motion Technologies, Inc.
Table 1: Applicable Allied Motion Products
Product Family
EnduraMax iDrive
EnduraMax sDrive
Housed Megaflux motor
with drive
AC xDrive
SX Drives
SX Controllers
MX Controllers
2.0
Part Number
EMI-065xxxxx
EMI-075xxxxx
EMI-095xxxxx
EMS-065xxxxx
EMS-075xxxxx
EMS-095xxxxx
MFH-xxxxxx
XDA-xxxxxxxx
SXD-xxxxxxxx
SXC-xxxxxxxx
MXC-xxxxxxxx
Description
65mm, 75mm, 95mm EnduraMax motors with integrated drive
and encoder
65mm, 75mm, 95mm EnduraMax motors with integral
sensorless drive
110mm, 140mm, 170mm Megaflux motors with integrated
drive and high resolution optical encoder
AC powered brushless servo drive
DC powered brush-brushless servo drive
DC powered brush-brushless single axis servo controller
DC powered brush-brushless multiple axis servo controller
Safety
Read all provided documentation before assembly and commissioning. Failure or incorrect or
improper use of this equipment can cause death, personal injury, and consequential damage. The
final responsibility for the safe use of Allied Motion products is solely that of the user.
Do not wire the drive and apply full power to it without checking it first at low power levels for
correct operation.
When drives or motors are powered, high voltages are present on the connector and elsewhere in
the drive and can be dangerous. The drive cover should not be removed with the power on, and
then only by a competent and trained engineer. It is important that all system components be
properly grounded.
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Hardware Manual: Wiring and Installation
3.0
Tables
Table 1: Applicable Allied Motion Products ................................................................................... 4
Table 2: Wire Size Recommendations ............................................................................................. 6
Table 3: Isolated Input Threshold Voltages ..................................................................................... 9
Table 4: Current Sinking, Non-Isolated Input Threshold Voltages ............................................... 11
Table 5: Current Sourcing, Non-Isolated Input Threshold Voltages ............................................. 11
4.0
Figures
Figure 1: Example, Single-Point Ground for Integrated Motor/Drive and Controller..................... 7
Figure 2: Example, Single-Point Ground for Stand-Alone Motor, Drive, and Controller ............... 7
Figure 3: Example, Current Sinking Isolated Input ....................................................................... 10
Figure 4: Example, Current Sourcing Isolated Input ..................................................................... 10
Figure 5: Example, Current Sinking Isolated Output .................................................................... 10
Figure 6: Example, Current Sourcing Isolated Output .................................................................. 10
Figure 7: Example, Current Sinking Non-Isolated Input ............................................................... 11
Figure 8: Example, Current Sourcing Non-Isolated Input ............................................................. 11
Figure 9: Example, Current Sinking Non-Isolated Output ............................................................ 11
Figure 10: Example, Current Sourcing Non-Isolated Output ........................................................ 12
Figure 11: Schematic, High Speed I/O .......................................................................................... 13
Figure 12: Schematic, Differential Analog Input ........................................................................... 13
Figure 13: Schematic, Single-Ended Analog Input with 4-20 mA Conversion ............................. 14
Figure 14: Schematic, Analog Output............................................................................................ 14
Figure 15: Regeneration, External Component Connection Diagram ........................................... 15
Figure 16: Example, User System with Installed Protection Diode............................................... 16
5.0
Wiring
This section summarizes the recommended practices for installation of servo equipment. These
practices are based on and consistent with IEEE Standard 518-1982, “IEEE Guide for Installation
of Electrical Equipment to Minimize Electrical Noise Inputs to Controllers from External
Sources”, particularly Section 6, “Installation, Recommendations and Wiring Practices”. This
standard must be followed during assembly of our product in a machine.
It is highly recommended that Allied Motion products are used in end-products which comply
with Machinery Directive 2006/42/EC and directive EMC Directive 2004/108/EC. All equipment
grounding should also be in conformance with applicable national and local electrical codes.
Failure to follow recommended procedures might result in incorrect system operation and void
the product warranty.
5.1
Wire Size
The following table can be used for reference when selecting wire sizes for motors and
drives. Consult applicable national or local electrical codes for specific guidelines.
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Hardware Manual: Wiring and Installation
Table 2: Wire Size Recommendations
Current
(A)
<1
5
10
15
20
30
40
60
80
5.2
Minimum Wire Size
(AWG)
28
20
18
16
14
12
10
8
6
Minimum Wire Size
(mm^2)
0.08
0.52
0.82
1.3
2.1
3.3
5.2
8.3
13.3
Motor Wiring
The following instructions apply to wiring the motor phase leads to the drive/controller.
They do not apply to motor/drive combinations as this connection is made internal to the
assembly.
It is recommended that twisted and shielded cable be used for motor wiring. For a
brushed motor, twist the 2 motor leads. For a brushless motor, twist the 3 motor phase
leads as a group.
5.3
Power Wiring
It is recommended that power wiring from the supply to the drive/controller or
motor/drive combination be kept as short as possible. Power and return leads should be
twisted and shielded to reduce inductance.
Power cables should not be daisy chained from drive to drive. Each power supply cable
should be grounded at the drive chassis ground point. There should be a single ground
point in the system, if at all possible. Ground connections for multiple drives should be
wired in a “star” configuration.
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Hardware Manual: Wiring and Installation
DC Power
Supply
Shielded Power Cable
Shielded Signal Cable
Chassis Ground
Controller
Shield Ground Wire
Case Ground Wire
Servo
Motor /
Drive
Case Ground
Single Point System Ground
Figure 1: Example, Single-Point Ground for Integrated Motor/Drive and Controller
Shielded Power Cable
Shielded Signal Cable
AC or DC
Power
Supply
Chassis Ground
Shield Ground Wire
Case Ground Wire
Servo
Drive
Case Ground
Controller
Motor
Single Point System Ground
Figure 2: Example, Single-Point Ground for Stand-Alone Motor, Drive, and Controller
5.3.1
Line Filters
AC power lines brought into the panel can allow EMI to enter the panel. This is
especially true in facilities that have silicone controlled rectifier (SCR) devices,
such as variable speed drives and heating or welding devices. Line filters should
be placed in the incoming power lines immediately after the safety circuits and
before any critical control components.
Line filters can be necessary to achieve conducted noise levels that meet
requirements for the CE Mark. Mount filters as close as possible to the incoming
power feed as practical. The incoming power feed should be as short and direct
as possible.
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Hardware Manual: Wiring and Installation
Do not bundle wiring from filtered sources together with unfiltered wiring.
5.4
Signal Wiring
Signal wiring (current less than 1 A) such as motor feedback wires or small signal analog
wiring should be twisted shielded cables. The shield of the cable should be grounded at
one end of the cable, usually the drive end. Signal wires should be separated physically
from power and motor wires as much as possible to reduce noise in the signal wires.
Special care needs to be taken when wiring motor hall sensor feedback signals. Hall
signals are typically open-collector in form, which means that they are most susceptible
to noise pickup. Hall wiring should never be run with or near motor power wires, even if
they are in a separate shielded cable.
It is recommended that signal wires are sized between 22 AWG and 28 AWG.
5.5
Grounding
Proper grounding is absolutely necessary for the motor and drive to work properly in a
system. There are several important system grounds that must be made.
In addition, motion control servo systems contain circuitry that can be affected by
electromagnetic interference (EMI). They also contain switching circuitry that can
generate significant EMI at frequencies from 10 kHz to 300 MHz. The potential exists for
this switching noise to interfere with the correct operation of both the servo system and
any other electrical equipment in the vicinity. Immunity to and generation of EMI is
greatly affected by installation techniques.
5.5.1
Drive and Controller Grounding
Drives or controllers which are mounted to a cabinet panel using mounting
screws must have one mounting screw that connects the drive housing to earth
ground. The screw will ground the drive housing provided the panel/cabinet
containing the drive is metal and also properly grounded. A star lock washer
should be used under the mounting screw head to ensure good electrical contact
between the drive and the screw.
5.5.2
Motor Grounding
The motor housing should be attached to system ground whether or not the motor
is separate from the drive or in a motor/drive combination.
6.0
Panel Layout
How parts are mounted and grounded will play an important role in reducing the effects of EMI.
Proper control panel layout can be achieved by observing the following simple rules:
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Hardware Manual: Wiring and Installation











7.0
To obtain rated output current from the drive, the ambient air temperature on the surface
of the drive enclosure or drive heat sink, if equipped, must be maintained between -40 °C
and +45 °C. No heat generating devices, such as transformers, power supplies, or power
resistors, should be mounted near the drives in such a manner as to allow heat flow from
these devices to the drive chassis.
Allow a minimum clearance distance of 2 inches (52 mm) between the drive and any
other drive or component above, below, or on either side of the drive.
Do not mix power and control signal wiring in the same conduit, duct, or wire tray
without a minimum of 1 inch (26 mm) separation.
Provide separate wire ways for AC mains, low power AC, high power DC, and low
power DC.
Restrict all high voltage power wiring and power devices such as circuit breakers,
contactors, fuses, etc., to an area separate from low-level control wiring.
When mounting a unit, be sure to remove any paint from the mounting surfaces to obtain
metal-to-metal contact. Use a star lock washer to improve the connection. If in doubt use
a ground strap to ensure good connection between the unit and the enclosure.
Use ground straps made of 1 inch (25 mm) silver tinned flat copper braid to connect
cabinet doors to enclosures, the first sub-panel to the enclosure, and each sub-panel to the
next.
Where electrical codes call for green safety ground wires, use them in addition to any
ground strap suggested in this guide.
Follow the electrical codes for grounding of any mains power transformer.
It is recommended that all heat-generating resistors be mounted outside the cabinet within
a protective enclosure.
The wiring must be properly strain relieved to ensure the interconnects, wiring, and
terminal connections do not become damaged.
Digital I/O
Allied Motion provides several different kinds of discrete inputs and outputs for customer use in
drives, controllers, and motor/drive combinations. Refer to product datasheet to determine your
specifically installed hardware.
7.1
Optically Isolated Inputs
Isolated inputs can be wired in either a current sinking or a current sourcing configuration
(see figures for wiring examples). Activation thresholds for optically isolated inputs are
given in the following table:
Table 3: Isolated Input Threshold Voltages
Turn on threshold
Turn off threshold
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Min
5V
0V
34-2100 R2
Max
32 V
1.5 V
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Hardware Manual: Wiring and Installation
5K
To uP
OPTO IN 1
DRIVE COM
OPTO IN COM
Figure 3: Example, Current Sinking Isolated Input
5K
To uP
OPTO IN COM
DRIVE COM
OPTO IN 1
Figure 4: Example, Current Sourcing Isolated Input
7.2
Optically Isolated Outputs
Optically isolated outputs can be wired to sink or source up to 20 mA to a load and can
tolerate voltages from 5 VDC to 32 VDC (see figures for wiring examples). These
outputs are current limited to 20 mA maximum and are short-circuit protected.
OUTPUT LOAD
From uP
OUTPUT 1 C
DRIVE COM
24.9
OUTPUT 1 E
Figure 5: Example, Current Sinking Isolated Output
From uP
OUTPUT 1 C
DRIVE COM
24.9
OUTPUT 1 E
OUTPUT LOAD
Figure 6: Example, Current Sourcing Isolated Output
7.3
Non-Isolated Inputs
Non-isolated inputs are fixed in function as either current sinking or current sourcing and
must be wired accordingly (see figures for wiring examples). Activation thresholds for
non-isolated inputs are given in the following tables:
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Hardware Manual: Wiring and Installation
Table 4: Current Sinking, Non-Isolated Input Threshold Voltages
Turn on voltage
Turn off voltage
Min
5V
0V
Max
32 V
1.5 V
To uP
10K
UN_ISOLATED IN 1
2K
0.01uF
COMMON
DRIVE COM
Figure 7: Example, Current Sinking Non-Isolated Input
Table 5: Current Sourcing, Non-Isolated Input Threshold Voltages
Turn on voltage
Turn off voltage
Min
0V
3V
Max
1V
60 V
DRIVE +3.3V
10K
UN_ISOLATED IN 1
To uP
200
DRIVE COM
COMMON
Figure 8: Example, Current Sourcing Non-Isolated Input
7.4
Non-Isolated Outputs
Non-isolated current sinking outputs can sink up to 100 mA from a load and tolerate a
voltage of up to 60 VDC. An example of how to connect a load as a sinking output with
un-isolated output circuitry is shown here:
0.1 Amp
OUTPUT LOAD
OUTPUT 1
From uP
COMMON
DRIVE COM
Figure 9: Example, Current Sinking Non-Isolated Output
Non-isolated sourcing outputs do not require a separate power supply to source current to
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Hardware Manual: Wiring and Installation
a load. Power is supplied from the drive. The output voltage of the sourcing output is
limited to approximately 24 VDC. The output is current limited to 20 mA maximum and
is short circuit protected.
DRIVE VDC
20K
22V
10K
30.1
DRIVE COM
From uP
OUTPUT 1
0.01uF
2.49K
COMMON
DRIVE COM
Figure 10: Example, Current Sourcing Non-Isolated Output
8.0
High Speed I/O
Some Allied Motion products are supplied with high speed discrete inputs/outputs. Refer to
product datasheet to determine your specifically installed hardware. These high speed inputs and
outputs are differential in nature. They are configured to either observe 0 to 5 V inputs or output a
0 to 5 V signal. The input circuits are biased to allow reading of single-ended signals if desired.
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Hardware Manual: Wiring and Installation
DRIVE +5V
3K
U?A
HSx+
From uP
HSx-
From uP
To uP
10K
5K
DRIVE +5V
DRIVE COM
Figure 11: Schematic, High Speed I/O
9.0
Analog I/O
Allied Motion provides several different kinds of analog inputs and outputs for customer use in
drives, controllers, and motor/drive combinations. Refer to product datasheet to determine your
installed hardware.
9.1
Differential Analog Input
Differential analog inputs are configured to allow the device to observe a voltage of
between -10 V and 10 V. A differential input removes common-mode voltages and
allows the user to avoid the influence of voltage drop in the ground lead that always
exists to some extent, especially when the motor is under heavy load.
10K
1.5K
Analog In Analog In +
10K
To uP
+3.3V
3.01K
3.01K
COM
Figure 12: Schematic, Differential Analog Input
9.2
Single-Ended Analog Input
A single ended amplifier is sometimes used as a secondary analog input. It can have a
500 ohm input impedance, which allows a customer to directly read a transducer with a
4-20 mA output. This signal can be used as feedback for an available auxiliary PID loop
if the user desires to control a process variable such as pressure, temperature, or air flow
that is measured with a 4-20 mA transducer.
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Hardware Manual: Wiring and Installation
10K
1.5K
DRIVE COM
Analog In +
10K
To uP
+3.3V
499
3.01K
3.01K
COMMON
COM
Figure 13: Schematic, Single-Ended Analog Input with 4-20 mA Conversion
9.3
Analog Output
Depending on your specific device, installed analog outputs provide voltages either in the
range of 0 to 3.3 V or 0 to 5 V. Consult the device data sheet for your specific output.
open or 10K
4.99K
DRIVE COM
+3.3V or +5V
100
From uP
AN OUT
DRIVE COM
Figure 14: Schematic, Analog Output
10.0
Power Regeneration (Load Dump)
Regeneration occurs when the drive/controller or motor/drive combination is commanded to
remove energy from the system. This typically occurs during a controlled deceleration of the
mechanical load. If the power flowing back to the drive from the load exceeds the power
dissipation available in the motor due to resistive losses, then the excess energy must be handled
by the drive or power supply.
Some Allied Motion drives/controllers have the capability to dump this regenerative energy
through regenerative circuitry. Consult the product datasheet for your specific device to
determine its regeneration handling capability, regeneration threshold voltage, and any
recommended external components (e.g. resistor, fuse, and fuse holder). For devices having
regeneration control circuitry, consult the figure below for proper wiring of external components:
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Hardware Manual: Wiring and Installation
DRIVE REGEN + CONNECTION
REGEN RESISTOR
DRIVE REGEN - CONNECTION
FUSE
.
Figure 15: Regeneration, External Component Connection Diagram
10.1
Regeneration in AC Powered Drives and Controllers
Regenerative energy in an AC powered drive cannot be returned to the AC mains due to
the diode rectifiers in the input power section of the drive. In this device, the regenerative
energy is stored in the drive’s DC bus filter capacitors. As more energy is stored, the DC
bus voltage rises. If the DC bus voltage rises past the bus over-voltage threshold, the
drive will fault. This scenario can be avoided by connecting a shunt resistor to the drive’s
regenerative circuit which will dissipate the excess energy stored in the bus capacitors.
The regenerative circuit in the drive switches on the resistor across the DC bus when the
bus voltage reaches the regenerative threshold voltage. Power dissipation in the shunt
resistor is limited by the control circuitry (consult datasheet for continuous value).
10.2
Regeneration in DC Powered Drives and Controllers
Regenerative energy in a DC powered drive will be returned to the DC power source. If a
battery is the DC power source, this regenerative energy can usually be absorbed by the
battery with no harm to the battery. However, a DC power supply will typically not
accept this returned energy. The user is advised to check the details of their power source
to determine its ability to accept regenerated energy if produced by the user’s system.
In the event that the DC power supply cannot accept the regenerative energy, a diode
should be used to isolate the power supply from the drive; the user must take care to size
the diode correctly for the anticipated current and voltage levels.
In this scenario, regenerative energy will be stored in the drive’s DC bus filter capacitors.
As more energy is stored, the DC bus voltage rises. The protection diode prevents the
regenerated energy from going back to the DC power supply. Adequate heat sinking must
be applied to keep the diode operating temperature within its rated limits.
If the DC bus voltage rises past the bus over-voltage threshold, the drive will fault. This
scenario can be avoided by connecting a shunt resistor to the drive’s regenerative circuit
which will dissipate the excess energy stored in the bus capacitors. The regenerative
circuit in the drive switches on the resistor across the DC bus when the bus voltage
reaches the regenerative threshold voltage. Power dissipation in the shunt resistor is
limited by the control circuitry (consult datasheet for continuous value).
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Hardware Manual: Wiring and Installation
Protection Diode
Vout +
Vin +
Vout -
Vin -
Power Supply
External Regeneration Resistor:
Feature Available on Some Drives
See Data Sheet for Details
Allied Motion
Motor or Drive
Figure 16: Example, User System with Installed Protection Diode
10.3
Calculating Regenerative Energy
10.3.1 Energy Stored in Rotating Inertia
Energy is stored in the rotating motor and load inertias. Let the sum of these
inertias as reflected to the motor be Jtot. Then the energy stored is calculated as
follows, where ω is the motor speed in rad/s:
Es = ½ Jtot ω²
10.3.2 Energy Dissipated in the Motor
As the drive decelerates the motor and mechanical load, there is energy loss in
the windings. This loss is calculated as follows, where Rm is the motor line to line
resistance, T is the torque applied to decelerate the motor, and Kt is the motor
torque constant:
Pm = ¾ Rm (T/Kt)2
So the equation for Pm simplifies to:
Pm = ¾ Rm (Ipeak)2
(i)
However, if the I2t limit of the amplifier is exceeded, then current will be limited
to the continuous current rating of the amplifier.
In this case equation (i) becomes:
Pm = ¾ Rm (Iconst)2
(ii)
The actual value of Pm is normally between these two values, and tends towards
(i) for low inertia loads and (ii) for high inertia loads.
The total energy loss is then the product of power loss and time:
Em = Pm × (deceleration time)
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Hardware Manual: Wiring and Installation
10.3.3 Energy Stored in the Bus Capacitor
The regenerative energy storage capacity of the bus capacitors is a function of the
difference between the voltage values squared of the capacitors when
regeneration begins and the maximum value when the drive reaches its overvoltage threshold. Note that an external bus capacitor may be added to the drive
or controller, which will increase the energy storage capacity of the system. The
total regenerative energy stored is calculated as follows, where Vbus = 1.414 ×
RMS value of the input voltage for an AC powered drive or if DC voltage is
supplied to the drive, then Vbus = VDCin:
Ec = ½ C [Vregen2– Vbus2]
10.3.4 Regenerative Energy to be Dissipated
The regenerated energy to be dissipated is calculated as:
Eregen = Es - Em - Ec
10.3.5 Pulse Power
The pulse power is the energy dissipated in a single deceleration divided by the
duration of the dissipation
Pulse regenerative power (Ppulse) = Eregen/deceleration time
10.3.6 Continuous Power Dissipated
The continuous power dissipated is the sum of the regenerative energy dissipated
divided by the period of time for that dissipation:
Average dissipated power = (Eregen1 + Eregen2 + Eregen3 +….) / time period
11.0
Revision History
Revision
R1
R2
Description of Change
Initial release.
Renumbered document sections.
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August 22, 2014
Date
May 7, 2014
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