Release notes Rayfract(R) version 3

Release notes Rayfract(R) version 3
Release notes Rayfract® versions 2.61 to 3.35 :
Version 3.35 released in June 2017 :
 July 23, 2017 : updated free trial and included latest Surfer 14 scripts in installer
 July 22, 2017 : always show color scale in Surfer 14 plots with our latest version 3.35. Unzip updated
scripts in Surfer14_scripts_for3.35.zip in your \RAY32\DAT directory. These updated scripts do not
work with 3.34 or earlier versions of our software.
 July 12, 2017 : reset added borehole line database name when user clicks Cancel button in seis32.dbd
selection dialog shown with Select buttons in Header|Profile
 July 12, 2017 : clear status bar at end of creation of new profile with File|New Profile…
 July 11, 2017 : new tutorial KING17 shows interpretation of first breaks recorded with receivers located
in three boreholes. This tutorial requires our Pro license.
 June 30, 2017 : added paragraph Installation of CodeMeter runtime/driver software in help file chapter
Installation and licensing. Install updated help file with latest winhelp.exe installer.
 June 30, 2017 : check WET Tomo|WET tomography Settings|Blank|Blank no coverage on top of
borehole tomogram in addition to blanking options Blank no coverage after each iteration or Blank no
coverage after last iteration to blank on top of borehole tomogram. See updated TUNNEL16 tutorial.
 June 28, 2017 : stop inversion early with clear error message if the starting model can’t be generated
due to conflict between forced grid limits and topography specified in Header|Station
 June 27, 2017 : don’t accept grid limits in Smooth invert|Custom 1D-gradient velocity profile if these
limits do not contain topography (station z coordinates) over whole profile
 June 19, 2017 : flags for WET blanking after last iteration (of current WET run) in WET Tomo|WET
tomography Settings|Blank submenu are regarded during multirun WET inversion if WET
Tomo|Interactive WET tomography|Iterate|Blank checkbox for respective WET run no. is checked only.
 June 16, 2017 : improved recovery and prompts if traces are not mapped to refractors correctly during
time-to-depth conversion with Depth menu commands
 June 10, 2017 : in case of steep topography at line start/end you may want to configure WET blanking :
 uncheck WET Tomo|WET tomography Settings|Blank|Blank below envelope after last iteration
 optionally check or uncheck Blank no coverage after last iteration in same submenu
 uncheck all other blanking options in same WET Tomo|WET tomography Settings|Blank submenu
 above blanking settings may be required so shots positioned one station spacing outside first/last
profile receiver are used for WET inversion
 June 10, 2017 : DeltatV|Interactive DeltatV|Regression over offset stations has new minimum value of
3 instead of former 5. A value of 3 can show more details or more noise in DeltatV inversion output in
case of bad picks and geometry errors.
 June 9, 2017 : Alt+B shortcut in Trace|Shot gather shows Automatic first break picking parameters
dialog with option Processing|Solid color pick display checked. For earlier builds uncheck this option.
 May 27, 2017 : describe use of SEGY trace header fields during import of .SGY files in new paragraph
Use of SEGY trace header fields during import in help topic Seismic and header data import. Install
updated help file with latest winhelp.exe installer.
 May 26, 2017 : use option File|SEGY import settings|Force determine station numbers if SEGY import
with unchecked SEGY option No receiver coordinates specified in .SGY file fails due to inconsistent
geometry specified in SEGY headers : e.g. varying elevation specified for same x/y coordinate pair.
 May 21, 2017 : determine Layout start [station no.] and Shot pos. [station no.] correctly when
importing multiple SEGY .SGY trace files recorded with overlapping receiver spreads with option
File|SEGY import settings|No receiver coordinates specified in .SGY file unchecked
 Apr 26, 2017 : WET Tomo|WET tomography Settings|Blank|Blank no coverage after last iteration is
now checked per default
 Apr 25, 2017 : WET Tomo|Interactive WET tomography|Edit velocity smoothing|Used width of
Gaussian has new range 0.1 .. 20.0 instead of 0.1 .. 6.0. Increase from default 1.0 for sharper filter.
 Apr 15, 2017 : layered refraction smoothing parameter Base filter width [station nos.] has new default
value 8 instead of former 10. This can improve lateral resolution when detecting basement fault zones
with Depth|Plus-Minus and Wavefront refraction methods. Edit with ALT+M in depth section window.
 Apr 8, 2017 : describe Cosine-Squared WET update weighting in help topic WET tomography
processing. Install updated help file with latest winhelp.exe installer.
 Apr 3, 2017 : our new WET Tomo|WET Update weighting dialog lets you edit parameters a&b for
Cosine-Squared weighting function. See Chen and Zelt AGU 2012 poster Fig. 5 (a) .
 Apr 3, 2017 : set WET Tomo|Interactive WET tomography|Ricker differentiation to -2 to weight WET
velocity updates with Cosine-Squared function instead of default -1 meaning Gaussian weighting
 Apr 1, 2017 : detect missing 2nd header line in GeoTomCG .3DD files
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Mar 31, 2017 : show rayId in error prompt when importing GeoTomCG .3DD file with bad geometry
Mar 30, 2017 : a 2016 report by NGU (Geological Survey of Norway) compares using our Plus-Minus
method layered refraction starting model vs. 1D-gradient starting model for WET inversion.
Mar 30, 2017 : vary/decrease basement refractor smoothing for our Plus-Minus method by 1. clicking
No button in our Continue with WET tomography prompt and 2. pressing ALT+M in Plus-Minus Depth
Section window to display our Plus-Minus Model Parameters dialog.
Mar 30, 2017 : adapt our 1D-gradient starting model to layered subsurface by checking options
Smooth invert|Smooth inversion Settings|Allow XTV inversion for 1D initial model and Optimize XTV
for layered starting model before selecting Smooth invert|WET with 1D-gradient initial model
Mar 30, 2017 : before importing a GeoTomCG .3DD survey file involving multiple boreholes (with all y
coordinates = 0.0) you need to split the .3DD such that all traces contained in one .3DD are recorded with
receivers located in the same Borehole spread/line or along the same Refraction line . See e.g.
our tutorial 11REFR plus 1611HOLE tutorial.
Mar 30, 2017 : WET Tomo|Interactive WET tomography|Edit velocity smoothing|Maximum velocity
update now has valid range 0.01% to 30% instead of former 1% to 30%
Mar 28, 2017 : WET Tomo|WET Velocity constraints|Pad polygon border extends the polygon border
by one pixel (grid cell) in each direction when blanking velocity tomogram during WET inversion . This
option is enabled per default to make it easier to pick the .BLN blanking polygon in Surfer.
Mar 23, 2017 : added more figures to tutorial tunnel16 and improved instructions
Mar 22, 2017 : updated free trial and included latest help file in installer
Mar 18, 2016 : describe new controls in WET velocity constraints and Custom 1D-gradient velocity
profile dialogs. Install updated help file with latest winhelp.exe installer.
Mar 15, 2016 : focus on Select button in WET Tomo|Interactive WET tomography dialog if no or
invalid starting model (initial velocity model) specified
Mar 14, 2016 : tutorial tunnel16 shows imaging of tunnel excavation disturbed zone (EDZ) with
version 3.35 of our software
Mar 13, 2016 : unmapping traces in Refractor|Midpoint breaks display with ALT+U shortcut does not
reset CMP Stack Width edited with ALT+M to default width any longer
Mar 13, 2016 : we have changed defaults for display of first break picks in Trace|Shot gather. Change
display settings in Processing menu.
Mar 13, 2016 : obtain smoother DeltatV starting models with less noise/artefacts with non-default
DeltatV settings as described in tutorials OT0608 on page 3 and GEOXMERC on page 1. These non-default
DeltatV settings work best for long refraction spreads/lines and dense shot spacing.
Mar 10, 2017 : Depth|Depth conversion Settings|Prefer geometric velocity for Wavefront computes
the basement refractor velocity as described by (Jones and Jovanovich, 1985). Uncheck to set basement
velocity to average of forward and reverse velocity obtained from traveltimes reduced to basement
refractor level (E. Brueckl, 1987). This new option is checked per default. Uncheck for lines with steep
topography for more robust velocity determination.
Mar 8, 2017 : WET Tomo|WET velocity constraints|Smooth polygon border smooths over blanking
polygon border during WET inversion. Uncheck to strictly enforce the blanking polygon border.
Mar 6, 2017 : more robust determination of velocity at source/receiver during WET inversion
Mar 3, 2017 : File|Export header data|Export Traces to GeoTomCG .3DD with File|Export data
Settings|Gather traces by common receiver station checked : regard File|Import Data Settings|Import
horizontal borehole survey or .3DD refraction survey & Import circular borehole survey settings to
determine .3DD trace sort
Mar 3, 2017 : more robust determination of Shot pos.[station no.] during import of GeotomCG .3DD
with File|Import Data Settings|Import circular borehole survey checked
Feb 27, 2017 : extrapolate velocity to polygon boundary from outside when blanking inside polygon as
specified in WET Tomo|WET Velocity constraints dialog
Feb 26, 2017 : WET Tomo|WET tomography Settings|Blanking|Blank no coverage after each iteration
& Blank no coverage after last iteration blank below covered tomogram area for Line type Refraction
spread/line. For Line type Borehole spread/line we also blank above covered area.
Feb 25, 2017 : don’t plot source symbol (red triangle) on tomogram if no traces picked for that shot
Feb 24, 2017 : SHIFT+Z in Trace|Shot gather deletes first break picks & modeled picks for current shot
Feb 24, 2017 : ALt+Z in Trace|Shot gather deletes first break pick & modeled pick for current trace
Feb 23, 2017 : File|Import Data .HDR file creation : write Delay Time and Sample Interval with 6 digits
precision to .HDR . Write actual number of samples in input file to .HDR column Sample Count.
Feb 22, 2017 : if WET inversion can’t allocate enough RAM memory to cache all source and receiver
station traveltime grids we now prompt you to install more RAM and use our Pro version
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Feb 22, 2017 : ALT+M in Trace|Shot gather etc. brings up Trace processing parameters dialog. Box
Remove systematic dc offset from traces is now unchecked per default.
Feb 21, 2017 : Smooth invert|Smooth inversion Settings|Output inversion results in Feet now prompts
you to confirm toggling this setting and deletes ...\GRADTOMO GRADIENT.GRD&DLTAGRAD.GRD
Feb 21, 2017 : display shotpoint and receiver coordinates with 4 digits after decimal point instead of 3.
Also write coordinates to SHOTPTS.SHO and GeoTomCG .3DD with 4 digits past decimal point.
Feb 20, 2017 : check File|Import Data Settings| .3DD shot traces sorted by receiver offset to improve
detection of shots when importing GeoTomCG .3DD with multiple shots recorded at same shot point but
with shifted receiver spread. Otherwise such shots are merged into one shot during .3DD import.
Feb 15, 2107 : File|Import data Settings|Import circular borehole survey disables receiver spread
geometry checks and does not make any assumption regarding shape of borehole spread. Use when
borehole spread line loops back on itself. Check source&receiver positions on tomogram plots. Update
source&receiver coordinates via File|Update header data|Update Station coordinates and Update
Shotpoint coordinates. See Help|Contents|File formats.
Feb 15, 2017 : for WET inversion of data recorded with circular spread (see above bullet) you need to
digitize the tunnel void boundary on our starting model plot in Surfer to generate a .BLN blanking file.
Now select this .BLN in our WET Tomo|WET Velocity constraints dialog. Now run Smooth inversion
with constant-velocity starting model. Next run WET Tomo|Interactive WET tomography and vary
WET parameters. See Help|Contents|WET tomography processing.
Feb 15, 2017 : WET Tomo|Interactive WET tomography|CG iterations has new default of 10 instead of
15. Line Search iters. has new default of 2 instead of 3. This may make Conjgate Gradient more robust.
Feb 15, 2017 : regard all databases added in Header|Profile when determining max. picked time needed
to determine RMS error in percent
Feb 15, 2017 : more robust import of GeoTomCG .3DD traces when receivers are sorted by decreasing x
coordinate (horizontal hole) or decreasing z coordinate (vertical hole) in the .3DD file
Feb 14, 2017 : Smooth invert|Custom 1D-gradient velocity profile|Forced velocity allows editing of
initial velocity for constant-velocity starting model. Check box Force constant velocity to enforce this.
Feb 13, 2017 : correctly display Header|Shot|Source elevation for Line type Borehole spread/line
Feb 13, 2017 : allow forcing of left grid limit in Smooth invert|Custom 1D-gradient velocity profile
Feb 13, 2017 : write forced grid limits to .PAR file when creating starting model
Feb 10, 2017 : Grid|Vertical plot title plots the tomogram title vertically on tomogram. Uncheck to plot
title horizontally on top of tomogram.
Feb 9, 2017 : File|Open Profile… checks all borehole SEIS32.DBD added in Header|Profile if they are
up-to-date. We prompt you to open any added out-of-date borehole line database with File|Open
Profile… to revise the database.
Feb 6, 2017 : regard for DeltatV starting model grid the grid limits forced in Smooth invert|Custom 1Dgradient velocity profile
Feb 6, 2017 : prompt user to run Rayfract® Pro as Admin if AWE memory allocation fails
Jan 30, 2017 : Grid|Export grid file to ASCII.TXT… now terminate lines in .TXT with <cr><lf>
Jan 28, 2017 : File|Shorten stored trace length…|New trace length stored in db [ms] lets you specify a
shorter trace length for an existing profile to reduce disk size of the database. Click button Update
traces to revise the database. This new dialog is available for our Pro license only. Shot delay and
Trigger delay are not regarded when shortening the database traces on disk.
Jan 27, 2017 : our PowerPoint slide show shows how to interactively improve your first break picks
Jan 27, 2017 : fixed issue with forcing grid limits in Smooth invert|Custom 1D-gradient velocity profile
Jan 23, 2017 : updated help chapters Introduction and Calling Surfer. Install updated help file with our
latest winhelp.exe installer .
Jan 4, 2017 : support main profile Line type Borehole spread/line when adding borehole(s) with
Select button(s) in Header|Profile . All profiles selected are regarded to determine tomogram limits.
Jan 4, 2017 : regard for Line type Borehole spread/line the grid limits forced in Smooth
invert|Custom 1D-gradient velocity profile
Jan 4, 2017 : convert grid limits forced in Custom 1D-gradient velocity profile to feet with Smooth
invert|Smooth inversion Settings|Output inversion results in Feet checked
Jan 4, 2017 : the Custom 1D-gradient velocity profile selected is used for Line type Refraction
spread/line only at this time
Jan 4, 2017 : support joint inversion of main profile shots with borehole profile(s) shots added in
Header|Profile with Output inversion results in Feet checked
Dec 28, 2016 : Smooth invert|Custom 1D-gradient velocity profile|Grid bottom elevation can be
increased to at least 40% of depth range of DeltatV 1D-gradient starting model
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Dec 28, 2016 : WET inversion shows better error message in status bar if starting model too shallow
Dec 27, 2016 : describe how to obtain elastic constants based on P-wave & S-wave surveys along same
line in help chapter Dynamic Poisson's ratio imaging. Install updated help file with latest winhelp.exe .
Dec 27, 2016 : don’t allow selection of 1DVELO.TXT & 1DUSER.TXT files in Smooth invert|WET with 1Dgradient initial model. Prompt to copy 1DVELO.TXT to MYVELO.TXT and to select MYVELO.TXT .
Dec 26, 2016 : don't overwrite 1DVELO.TXT and 1DUSER.TXT files in Smooth invert|WET with 1Dgradient initial model if user selected these in Smooth invert|Custom 1D-gradient velocity profile dialog
Dec 26, 2016 : let user click OK/Cancel/Reset etc. buttons in Smooth invert|Custom 1D-gradient
velocity profile dialog, WET Tomo|Interactive WET tomography dialog and Grid|Surfer plot Limits
dialog even if numeric field with current focus has invalid/empty value
Dec 22, 2016 : new help file chapter Calling Surfer lists steps to try if Golden Software Scripter can’t
find Surfer. Install updated help file with latest winhelp.exe installer.
Dec 19, 2016 : interpolate x coordinate at stations without any picked traces when importing
Geometrics PlotRefa, Optim SeisOpt, Interpex Gremix and GeoTomCG .3DD shots
Dec 14, 2016 : more accurate interpolation of forward modeled traveltime at receivers. Helps especially
with large cell size.
Dec 10, 2016 : Joana Santos uses SRT to obtain initial model for MASW (Univ. Lisboa, 2016)
Dec 10, 2016 : decrease Refractor count from 2 to 1 for short lines (24 channels) in Refractor|Midpoint
breaks with ALT+M to map basement with Depth|Plus-Minus or Wavefront layered refraction
Dec 10, 2016 : decrease Base filter width from default 10 to 5 stations for short lines in Depth|PlusMinus or Wavefront depth sections with ALT+M so the basement refractor can be mapped
Dec 10, 2016 : check Smooth invert|Smooth inversion Settings|Allow XTV inversion for 1D initial
model & Optimize XTV for layered starting model for compromise between deeper diving waves &
more shallow layered refraction starting model. See our tutorial jenny10.pdf .
Dec 5, 2016 : make error message prompts modal to dialogs so you have to confirm prompts before you
can continue working with the dialog
Nov 30, 2016 : regard File|Export data Settings|Export coordinates in feet when writing .HDR batch file
in File|Import Data… . Unit [m] or [ft] is written to 2nd header line of .HDR batch file.
Nov 30, 2016 : File|Import Data… regards unit [m] or [ft] in 2nd header line of .HDR when importing
shots listed in .HDR batch file
Nov 24, 2016 : improved description of Conjugate Gradient method controls in help file chapter WET
tomography processing. Install updated help file with latest winhelp.exe installer.
Nov 19, 2016 : help file chapter Seismic and header data import describes our new File|Import Data
dialog. Install updated help file with latest winhelp.exe installer.
Nov 18, 2016 : disallow forcing of grid cell size for free trial in Header|Profile & disable option
Smooth invert|Smooth inversion Settings|Edit cell size for free trial
Nov 17, 2016 : fixed free trial. Header|Profile dialog is working again. Adding borehole lines to main
profile is not possible in our limited functionality free trial version.
Nov 16, 2016 : File|Import Data… offers new controls to generate a .HDR batch file for all matching
input files in selected input directory. Review and edit this .HDR batch and use for batch import.
Nov 11, 2016 : help file chapter File formats describes our new File|Export grid file to ASCII .TXT
dialog. Install updated help file with latest winhelp.exe installer.
Nov 10, 2016 : File|New Profile… & File|Open Profile… both reset fields in Grid|Surfer plot Limits
dialog if plot limits have not yet been saved to disk with OK button for this profile
Nov 10, 2016 : reset Grid|Export grid file dialog to ASCII .TXT dialog as in above bullet
Nov 10, 2016 : reset Smooth invert|Custom 1D-gradient velocity profile dialog as above
Nov 9, 2016 : Smooth invert|Smooth inversion Settings|Output inversion results in Feet now correctly
determines the grid cell size in feet (same as Surfer X spacing & Y spacing) with checked option
Header|Profile|Force grid cell size and using field Header|Profile|Cell size
Nov 8, 2016 : Grid|Export grid file to ASCII .TXT… opens a new dialog which lets you select the .GRD
input file, .TXT output file and optionally export x/y/z/velocity for cells with velocities in a specified
velocity range. This lets you easily build a basement contour map from multiple crossing 2D profiles
showing elevation of “basement” with velocities in this range. Just paste all exported .TXT files into one
.TXT and grid and contour with Golden Software Surfer.
Nov 6, 2016 : added checkbox Proportional XY Scaling to Grid|Surfer plot Limits dialog. If this is
checked we do not regard X Scale & Y Scale values. Edit these in Surfer Map|Scale tab instead.
Nov 6, 2016 : regard Grid|Surfer plot Limits for Line type Borehole spread/line
Nov 3, 2016 : install updated help file with latest winhelp.exe installer. Added topics for new controls
in WET velocity constraints dialog, Custom 1D-gradient velocity profile dialog and Header|Profile .
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Nov 2, 2016 : our updated ad will be printed in EAGE NSG Dec 2016 issue
Oct 27, 2016 : WET Tomo|WET velocity constraints|Blank outside polygon checkbox forces blanking
outside polygon specified in selected Surfer .BLN blanking file overriding the blanking flag in header
line (2nd column) of the .BLN . Also check box Polygon blanking active.
Oct 27, 2016 : WET Tomo|WET velocity constraints dialog offers 4 new checkboxes for extrapolation
of velocity to .BLN blanking file boundary when blanking outside polygon : Extrapolate to top&bottom,
Extrapolate to left&right. Use with low velocity at shots or receivers to avoid gaps in coverage.
Oct 21, 2016 : File|Export header data|Export First Breaks… writes value of -1.0 into columns
synthetic, residual[ms] and abs(residual) if the trace has not been modeled with WET inversion
Oct 12, 2016 : borehole-recorded shots can be positioned outside the receiver spread. But the Shot
pos.[station no.] specified during import into profile with Line type Borehole spread/line has to
match an active receiver station no. used to record this shot. Once all shots have been imported go into
Header|Shot and review&optionally edit fields dx and dz in frame Offset from Shot Station . Tab
through dialog controls until absolute coordinate fields x and z in frame Source Coords. are updated.
See e.g. our new 1611HOLE tutorial. Walkaway VSP shots are recorded with 3 spreads in one borehole.
Oct 12, 2016 : upper File|Import Data|Select button now shows contents of INPUT subdirectory of
profile directory for current profile database.
Oct 6, 2016 : Smooth invert|Custom 1D-gradient velocity profile|Grid bottom elevation[m] lets you
specify the lower limit of the starting model grid. Check Force grid limits & click OK to activate this.
Oct 6, 2016 : Smooth invert|Custom 1D-gradient velocity profile|Left limit of grid[m] & Right limit of
grid[m] fields are enabled for our Pro license only. Check Force grid limits box & click OK to activate.
Oct 6, 2016 : Smooth invert|Custom 1D-gradient velocity profile|Reset limits to grid lets you select a
VELOITXY.GRD velocity tomogram in directories …\LAYRTOMO or …\GRADTOMO and reset above grid limits
Sep 28, 2016 : to edit limits and scale of Surfer plots
 select our Grid|Surfer plot Limits
 click button Reset to grid and select your final VELOIT20.GRD tomogram in …\GRADTOMO or
…\HOLETOMO subdirectories
 edit plot limits, min./max. velocity and x/y scale as desired
 check box Plot limits active and click OK button
 select Grid|Image and contour velocity and coverage grids… and above VELOIT20.GRD
Sep 23, 2016 : our new tutorial 11REFR shows how to easily constrain surface-refraction tomography
with VSP shots. 1611HOLE shows WET inversion of the VSP shots only without refraction shots.
Sep 23, 2016 : tutorial 11REFR compares multiscale tomography with single-run WET inversion.
Sep 19, 2016 : our Pro license allows easy adding of up to four (4) Borehole line profiles to main profile
in Header|Profile. The main profile can have either Line type Refraction spread/line or Borehole
spread/line . First breaks picked for main and added profiles are used for joint WET inversion.
Sep 19, 2016 : Added Ok/Cancel/Reset buttons to Header|Profile dialog.
Sep 16, 2016 : when adding Borehole spread(s) to your main profile with Header|Profile|Select
button(s) as described below in Sep 15, 2016 bullets you may want to uncheck WET Tomo|WET
tomography Settings|Blank outside borehole tomogram. Instead pick blanking polygon (tomogram
boundary) in Surfer as below and use our WET velocity constraints option.
Sep 16, 2016 : create the Surfer .BLN blanking file needed for above bullet as described in
http://www.goldensoftware.com/knowledge-base/surfer/1095-how-can-i-create-a-bln-file : digitize the
boundary on velocity tomogram with Map|Digitize and save to a .BLN file. Optionally first draw the
polygon on the tomogram in an empty base layer with Surfer Draw|Polygon command. See above link.
Sep 16, 2016 : toggle the blanking flag in the saved .BLN file e.g. with Microsoft WordPad. E.g. first
line 31,1 in .BLN means polygon with 31 points (corners), blank inside polygon. Change this to 31,0 to
blank outside polygon after each WET iteration.
Sep 16, 2016 : WET Tomo|WET Velocity constraints...|Select blanking file lets you select above
Surfer .BLN blanking file after editing the .BLN and toggling the blanking flag as above.
Sep 15, 2016 : Header|Profile|Select button lets you easily add one Borehole spread/line profile to
main profile. Our Pro license allows adding up to four (4) Borehole spread/line profiles to main profile.
Sep 15, 2016 : adding Borehole spread/line profile(s) to main profile as in above bullet is possible for
true 2D profile databases where y coordinates are all zero 0.0 only.
Sep 15, 2016 : when adding Borehole spread/line profile(s) adjust Header|Profile|Profile start
offset[m] for main refraction profile so the horizontal X axis shown with starting model and WET
tomograms matches the X axis shown for borehole tomograms.
Sep 15, 2016 : WET inversion uses first breaks picked for main and all added Borehole spread profiles.
DeltatV and layered refraction methods use first breaks picked for the main refraction profile only.
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Sep 15, 2016 : Smooth inversion with constant-velocity starting model uses first breaks picked for main
profile and for added Borehole spreads profile(s).
Sep 15, 2016 : plot shot and receiver symbols for added Borehole spreads on WET tomograms
Sep 15, 2016 : better error prompt during WET inversion if velocity grid has invalid velocity values.
Sep 15, 2016 : more robust extrapolation of velocity at top/bottom of tomogram during WET inversion.
Aug 31, 2016 : write residuals to BREAKS.LST with File|Export header data|Export First Breaks
Aug 31, 2016 : File|Export data Settings|Write empty line to .LST after each shot option writes blank
line separating shots into BREAKS.LST with File|Export header data|Export First Breaks
Aug 31, 2016 : File|Update header data|Update First Breaks skips blank lines between shots in .LST
Aug 31, 2016 : complete the transaction when importing shots even if update with IMPSHOTS.SHO fails
Aug 31, 2016 : updated tutorial coffey04 : how to import reversed VSP shots into refraction profile
Aug 21, 2016 : limit WET parameter Width of Gaussian for one period [sigma] to max. 100.0
Aug 19, 2016 : File|Export data Settings|Export horizontal inline offset to .COR optionally exports
horizontal inline offset (from first profile receiver station) to COORDS.COR. Also export weathering
velocity (v0 in Header|Station) and DeltatV v0 at topography if available.
Aug 19, 2016 : do not reset interactive WET parameters Ricker differentiation and Width of Gaussian
for one period [sigma] when reopening a profile database with Line type Borehole spread/line
Aug 18, 2016 : export horizontal inline offset (from first profile receiver station) to COORDS.COR .
Aug 18, 2016 : extrapolate custom velocity profile to top/bottom of GRADIENT.GRD
Aug 12, 2016 : install updated help file with latest winhelp.exe installer. Added a paragraph at end of
chapter Smooth inversion explaining our new Custom 1D-gradient velocity profile dialog.
Aug 10, 2016 : multirun WET inversion now works with Wavepath frequency above 200 Hz and
Wavepath width[ms] smaller than 0.1 ms
Aug 10, 2016 : when you click Conjugate Gradient radio button in WET Tomo|Interactive WET
tomography we now prompt you to confirm or keep using the safer Steepest Descent search method
Aug 10, 2016 : Smooth invert|WET with 1D-gradient initial model writes the averaged velocity vs.
depth profile to C:\Ray32\<your profile name>\GRADTOMO\1DVELO.TXT
Aug 10, 2016 : Smooth invert|Custom 1D-gradient velocity profile dialog lets you select a custom
velocity profile in .TXT file with two columns : depth below topography and velocity. Copy above
1DVELO.TXT to MYVELO.TXT and edit with Microsoft WordPad. Now select the .TXT file in this dialog.
Check box Replace velocity active and select Smooth invert|WET with 1D-gradient initial model to
write the averaged DeltatV velocity vs. depth profile to file …\GRADTOMO\1DVELO.TXT
read in your custom .TXT velocity profile specified above
interpolate your velocity profile to all depths & use this to compute the GRADIENT.GRD with topography
write the interpolated custom velocity vs. depth profile to file …\GRADTOMO\1DUSER.TXT
plot the generated GRADIENT.GRD in Surfer as usual
Version 3.34 released in July 2016 :
 July 31, 2016 : uncheck WET Tomo|Interactive WET tomography|Steepest Descent step per default
 July 31, 2016 : reset WET settings & blanking when user changes Header|Profile|Line type
 July 30, 2016 : uncheck WET Tomo|WET tomography Settings|Blank|Blank outside borehole tomogram
per default
 July 30, 2016 : import shots in one database transaction per import session. Write changes to database
once File|Import Data… dialog closes only.
 July 30, 2016 : prevent changing of focus to underlying command prompt or editor window during
import of shots via File|Import Data… . So ENTER/RETURN key is not sent to other apps.
 July 30, 2016 : optimized database settings in configuration file C:\RAY32\DAT\RDM.INI
 July 26, 2016 : more robust import routine in case your PC crashes. If you see a prompt about recovery
of database press OK button NOT Cancel button. Otherwise your database will stay corrupted.
 July 19, 2016 : fixed zivko13.pdf, walkaway.pdf and vsp.pdf : uncheck WET blanking options
 July 18, 2016 : updated tutorial zivko13.pdf : don’t blank outside borehole tomogram
 July 17, 2016 : updated tutorial walkaway.pdf : don’t blank outside borehole tomogram
 July 17, 2016 : for line type Borehole spread/line submenu WET Tomo|WET tomography Settings is
disabled when Refractor|Shot breaks is active window. Select Window|Close All to enable this menu.
 July 11, 2016 : our Steepest Descent method is more reliable and more reproducible than Conjugate
Gradient method. Before version 3.31 Steepest Descent was the only method available and always
implicitly selected. Conjugate Gradient can sometimes reach a lower RMS error with good data.
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July 8, 2016 : updated tutorial vsp.pdf : uncheck WET Tomo|WET tomography Settings|Blank|Blank
below envelope after last iteration so WET completes without error message after last iteration.
July 6, 2016 : to increase the resolution of WET tomograms try decreasing WET velocity smoothing by
changing one or more WET Tomo|Interactive WET tomography|Edit velocity smoothing controls :
set Smooth nth iteration : n = to e.g. 10 instead of default 1 to smooth each 10th iteration only
uncheck Smooth velocity update to smooth after the update is applied to current velocity grid only
check Minimal smoothing instead of default Full smoothing
check Gaussian radio button instead of default Uniform radio button
click buttons Accept parameters and Start tomography processing
July 6, 2016 : tutorial sageep11_smooth50.pdf shows multiscale tomography for SAGEEP11 data with
1D-gradient starting model using Steepest Descent method and smoothing every 50th WET iteration
July 6, 2016 : tutorial sageep11_16.pdf shows using 1D-gradient starting model and Conjugate
Gradient method for multiscale tomography of SAGEEP11 data
July 6, 2016 : our earlier tutorial step.pdf written in 2013 using version 3.25 of our software shows
that using our default 1D-Gradient starting model with Smooth inversion and 20 or 100 WET
iterations can give a good vertical resolution when imaging faults.
July 6, 2016 : when using the Conjugate Gradient search method try enabling WET Tomo|WET
tomography Settings|Blank|Blank low coverage after last iteration . This will blank out low-velocity
edges at the bottom of the tomogram. These can occur because the Conjugate Gradient method
combines velocity updates from all previous WET iterations (for current run) to determine the velocity
update for the current iteration.
July 6, 2016 : Häusler et al. image a fault system with ERT, SRT, reflection seismics and gravimetry.
June 27, 2016 : Header|Profile|Cell size[m] is initialized to 0.5m when opening an old profile database
June 27, 2016 : WET Tomo|WET tomography Settings|Reset WET tomography settings to default resets
WET export settings in Write submenu
June 22, 2016 : Pierre-Yves Galibert uses time-lapse SRT for estimation of water storage and residence
time in the epikarst
June 22, 2016 : L.C. Bagger et al. use SRT combined with borehole logs to image surface of limestone
June 22, 2016 : Nayeli Lasheras Maas uses SRT&Plus-Minus method for hard-rock site investigation
June 22, 2016 : Mapping|Color picked traveltime curves colors dashed lines connecting first/last picked
receiver to far-offset shot point with same color as picked curve in Refractor|Shot breaks display
June 13, 2016 : Mapping|Color picked traveltime curves now colors dashed modeled curves with same
color as picked curve for each shot in Refractor|Shot breaks display
June 13, 2016 : dashed modeled curves in Refractor|Shot breaks are displayed in transparent mode
instead of opaque mode. So if the modeled and picked curves coincide the curve is shown without gaps.
June 13, 2016 : write table with RMS error for all iterations to VELOITXY.STX file at end of WET run
June 13, 2016 : WET Tomo|WET tomography Settings|Write|Don’t write RMS errors to .STX skips
creation of VELOITXY.STX file at end of WET run
June 6, 2016 : faster writing of .LST and .PAR files
June 4, 2016 : WET Tomo|WET tomography Settings|Enable multi-core heap allocates memory in a
separate heap for each thread. This is disabled per default. Enabling this may help with many cores.
June 4, 2016 : restore focus to main window once File|Import Data dialog closes after importing shots.
June 2, 2016 : added help popup topics for new Header|Profile and WET Tomo|Interactive WET
tomography controls. Run our updated installer winhelp.exe . Click control and press F1 function key.
May 31, 2016 : review technical report Geophysical and Paleoseismic Investigation of the Cheraw
Fault, Southeastern Colorado by Mark Zellman and Dean Ostenaa (ResearchGate, Apr 2016).
May 30, 2016 : our Optim SeisOpt® import now correctly initializes the Shot pos.[station no.] in
Import shot dialog with missing traces and first break picks adjacent to shot point.
May 30, 2016 : in case of missing first break picks adjacent to shot point you may need to check
Smooth invert|Smooth inversion Settings|No shot position checking for the inversion to complete.
May 30, 2016 : WET Tomo|Interactive WET tomography|Reset button now resets Edit velocity
smoothing parameters Maximum velocity update to 25% and Damping to 0.0.
May 12, 2016 : (re)install Surfer as an administrator. Next right-click Surfer desktop icon and select
“Run as administrator”. Finally right-click Rayfract icon and select “Run as administrator”.
May 11, 2016 : increase WET Tomo|Interactive WET tomography|Width of Gaussian for one period
[sigma] to 10.0 or 50.0 from default 3.0 for wide shot spacing and low-coverage lines e.g. tutorial
jenny13.pdf to avoid artefacts at low frequency/for first few runs of multiscale tomography (at wide
wavepath width). Or change Ricker differentiation from -1 [Gaussian bell] to 0 [Ricker wavelet].
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May 7, 2016 : WET Tomo|Interactive WET tomography|Steepest Descent step is checked per default to
make Conjugate Gradient WET inversion more robust with wide shot spacing and noisy picks. Uncheck
Steepest Descent step for unmodified Conjugate Gradient algorithm (Shewchuk, 1994 on page 53).
May 4, 2016 : WET Tomo|Interactive WET tomography|Select button lets you select a new starting
model and use this for next WET inversion even if the previous WET run was aborted.
May 2, 2016 : store all Trace|Processing settings into profile database when gather windows are closed.
May 2, 2016 : move Surfer plot title to the left so Header|Profile|Line ID can be longer and still fits.
May 2, 2016 : WET Tomo|WET Velocity constraints|Keep velocity unchanged below/above work more
consistently with Conjugate Gradient WET inversion.
May 2, 2016 : check WET Tomo|WET tomography Settings|Use full Steepest Descent step for
Conjugate Gradient with Edit velocity smoothing|Maximum velocity update below 15% to stay focused.
Apr 18, 2016 : reset Maximum velocity update to 25% with Steepest Descent button in WET
Tomo|Interactive WET tomography… . Set Max. velocity update to 15% for Conjugate Gradient button.
Apr 16, 2016 : for tutorial sageep11_16.pdf also try Smooth nth iteration : n = 30 and disabling
Smooth last iteration. Also try Steepest Descent radio button with Damping 0.0 instead of Conjugate
Gradient button with Damping 0.9. See added Fig. 13 and Fig. 14 in above sageep11_16.pdf .
Apr 16, 2016 : reset WET Damping to 0.0 when user clicks Steepest Descent radio button in WET
Tomo|Interactive WET tomography… . Set Damping to 0.9 for Conjugate Gradient radio button.
Apr 7, 2016 : fixed issue with correction of deep uphole shots for lateral shotpoint offset with steep
topography. This resulted in assertion failure in earlier version 3.34 builds in WTHRPROC.CPP line 606 .
Apr 6, 2016 : made Conjugate Gradient WET inversion more robust by always resetting outlier velocity
pixels into min./max. velocity range which you specify in WET Tomo|Interactive WET tomography… .
Apr 5, 2016 : Model|Create Checkerboard grid… lets you specify magnitude and rectangular size of
the checkerboard anomaly. This is enabled for our Annual Pro license only.
Apr 5, 2016 : button Model|Create Checkerboard grid|Select input .GRD file prompts you to select the
tomogram e.g. C:\RAY32\LINE14\GRADTOMO\VELOIT20.GRD on which the checkerboard anomaly is
imprinted. Button Select output .GRD file lets you specify directory & filename for the checkered grid.
Apr 5, 2016 : select Model|Model synthetic shots to forward model shots using your field recording
geometry. Select e.g. the checkered tomogram .GRD created with Model|Create Checkerboard grid… .
Apr 5, 2016 : select above …VELOIT20.GRD with WET Tomo|Interactive WET tomography and run e.g. 5
WET iterations to obtain VELOIT5.GRD .
Apr 5, 2016 : in Surfer click Grid|Math|Add Grids… to select above VELOIT20.GRD & VELOIT5.GRD. Set
“Enter a function…” to “A-B”. Set Output Grid File e.g. to IT5DIF.GRD . and click OK button.
Apr 5, 2016 : in Surfer select File|New|Plot & Map|New|Image Map… & above IT5DIF.GRD .
Mar 31, 2016 : show WET frequency and wavepath width in Surfer tomogram plot title.
Mar 31, 2016 : Matthew Hartz et al. show a 3D Geologic Model of Glacial Outwash obtained with
WET tomography along seven crossing 2D profiles in MDPI Geosciences Feb 2016.
Mar 24, 2016 : Grid|Surfer plot Limits|Min. offset & Max. offset accept x coordinate values outside
range -100000..100000 for Header|Profile|Line type Borehole spread/line .
Mar 24, 2016 : WET Tomo|Interactive WET tomography|Edit velocity smoothing|Maximum velocity
update has new range 1..35 percent instead of former 5..35 percent.
Mar 16, 2016 : Header|Profile|Cell size[m] is initialized to default 0.5m for a new profile database. For
earlier version 3.34 builds initialize this yourself after creating the profile with File|New Profile… .
Mar 16, 2016 : if Header|Profile|Force grid cell size is checked then the Surfer .GRD X spacing
(column spacing) and Y spacing (row spacing) are set to Cell size[m] for a new starting model.
Mar 14, 2016 : our new tutorial multistep.pdf shows robust multiscale tomography using Conjugate
Gradient method for basement step model. Multirun WET inversion is made robust by configuring WET
smoothing : limit Maximum velocity update to 5%, set Damping factor to 0.95, manual filter size etc.
Mar 9, 2016 : during multirun WET inversion try WET Tomo|Interactive WET tomography|Edit velocity
smoothing|Maximum velocity update = 5%/10%/15%/20% instead of default 25%. This can make
multirun WET inversion more robust and may give better resolution at bottom of tomogram.
Feb 26, 2016 : we now export DeltatV method results into file DELTATV.TXT instead of DELTATV.CSV .
We were forced to do this to remain compatible with Surfer 13 default import settings independent of
Region&Language formats settings in Windows Control Panel. See below bullet Feb 22, 2016.
Feb 26, 2016 : in Windows Explorer rename old DELTATV.CSV to DELTATV.TXT before selecting
Grid|Grid and image DeltatV .TXT file . The .TXT format is exactly the same as the old .CSV format.
Feb 22, 2016 : in Surfer 13 select Tools|Options|User Interface|Decimal separator|Period for our WET
inversion and DeltatV method and Grid|Grid and image of DeltatV method .CSV files to work with a
Windows Region&Language setting using a Comma as decimal separator.
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Feb 18, 2016 : suppress multiple refresh of composite title bar when paging Refractor|Shot breaks or
Trace|Shot gather with the other window opened. So paging is not slowed down by composite title.
Feb 17, 2016 : File|Export header data|Export Residuals to .CSV exports the absolute difference
between picked and modeled times together with shot&receiver station for all traces. This menu item is
enabled for our Annual Pro license only. Picked times are corrected for lateral shotpoint offset. Grid the
RESIDUAL.CSV in Golden Software Surfer and image the resulting .GRD grid file to obtain residual map.
Feb 16, 2016 : selecting Wet Tomo|Interactive WET tomography|Conjugate Gradient checks WET
Tomo|WET tomography Settings|Limit velocity to maximum velocity in initial model . For deeper
imaging of basement with WET inversion try unchecking option Limit velocity to maximum velocity in
initial model and rerun WET inversion.
Feb 15, 2015 : Window|No composite title bar in main window disables composite title bar, see below.
Feb 11, 2016 : fixed first break picking for free trial in Trace|Shot gather with Refractor|Shot breaks
opened. This did not work since Feb 4, 2016 with composite title bar, see next bullet.
Feb 4, 2016 : always show composite title in frame titlebar, ending in “ – [<active child title>]” .
Feb 1, 2016 : our latest free trial installer complies with Microsoft’s new code signing requirements in
force since Jan 1, 2016. Internet Explorer under Microsoft Windows 7, Windows 8 and Windows 10
now allows downloading and running our installer without error prompt about “invalid signature”.
Our old free trial installer still should work under Microsoft Windows XP and Windows Vista.
Jan 28, 2016 : to speed up Conjugate Gradient multirun WET inversion set CG iterations to 10 (default
15) and Line Search iters. to 2 (default 3) in WET Tomo|Interactive WET tomography. This may make
WET inversion more robust and can result in less artefacts.
Jan 28, 2016 : try changing WET Tomo|Interactive WET tomography|Degree of differentiation of
Ricker wavelet from its default value of -1 (Gaussian) to 0 (Ricker wavelet) for multiscale tomography.
This can make a difference especially at low frequency = wide wavepath width.
Jan 23, 2106 : our app closes during Windows 8.1 & Windows 10 shutdown without message about
“unusual termination request”. Ignore this prompt in version 3.33 and earlier or close via File|Exit .
Jan 16, 2016 : show RMS error in ms in Surfer plot title after RMS error in % .
Jan 16, 2016 : export to BREAKS.LST file two more columns with first break corrected for shot point
offset [ms] and shot position [station no.] .
Jan 16, 2016 : we show in .FIT file & Surfer plot title the RMS error between modeled & offsetcorrected picks. For WET inversion & forward modeling picks are corrected for lateral shot offset.
Jan 16, 2016 : increase maximum half width of WET smoothing filter from 200 to 250 columns.
Jan 16, 2016 : run child dialogs of DeltatV main dialog and WET main dialog modally relative to these
main dialogs so they are disabled while the child dialogs are open.
Jan 14, 2016 : WET Tomo|Interactive WET tomography|Select button checks dimensions of selected
Surfer .GRD starting model and prompts user with error dialog. In version 3.33 the selected .GRD grid
file is validated once the user clicks button Start tomography processing in main WET dialog only.
Jan 11, 2016 : Header|Profile|Cell size[m] lets you edit the grid cell size. Check box Force grid cell
size to force the cell size to your edited size when starting model grids are (re)generated next time.
Jan 11, 2016 : with Header|Profile|Force grid cell size not checked we update Header|Profile|Cell
size[m] to the default cell size determined next time a new starting model is generated. You can
increase or decrease the default cell size with options in menu Smooth invert|Smooth inversion Settings.
Jan 11, 2016 : WET Tomo|WET tomography Settings|Store modeled picks after last iteration only
saves modeled traveltimes in RAM memory between WET iterations. Modeled picks are stored
permanently on disk and in the profile database after the last iteration only to speed up WET inversion.
Jan 11, 2016 : if WET Tomo|WET tomography Settings|Don't reciprocally average modeled picks
during WET inversion is checked then we reciprocally average modeled traveltimes in direction
source-receiver and receiver-source once WET inversion has ended only. May decrease accuracy of
WET modeled picks, wavepaths and tomograms. Uncheck to average picks during each iteration.
Jan 11, 2016 : when importing shots into Header|Profile|Line type Borehole spread/line we now reset
the y coordinate for all source and receiver positions to 0. This ensures a 2D survey geometry.
Jan 11, 2016 : our Annual Pro license now reads and writes Surfer .GRD grid files with up to 20,000
columns instead of maximally 16,000 columns. Our Standard license allows up to 8,000 columns.
Dec 31, 2015 : File|Import Data|Import data type Geometrics Plotrefa .VS import again allows
missing traces in .VS input file(s). This works also in version 3.32 but is broken in version 3.33.
Dec 28, 2015 : Grid|Reset DeltatV and WET settings to .PAR file resets multirun WET starting model
to original starting model name now stored at end of .PAR file.
Dec 22, 2015 : faster writing of .GRD files to disk during WET inversion if output in feet with starting
model in feet.
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Dec 22, 2015 : for layered WET inversion convert the layered refraction starting model
C:\RAY32\<your profile>\LAYRTOMO\PLUSMODL.GRD, WAVEMODL.GRD or CMPMODL.GRD to feet with
Grid|Convert grid file between feet and meters... before starting WET inversion in WET Tomo menu.
Dec 17, 2015 : reactivated Header|Station|Correct x button. This was disabled for version 3.33 but
works for version 3.32.
Dec 17, 2015 : in version 3.33 export coordinates with File|Export header data|Export Station
Coordinates. Reimport COORDS.COR with File|Update header data|Update Station Coordinates|Adjust X
coordinate to fit Y coordinate and elevation checked instead of using Header|Station|Correct x.
Dec 17, 2015 : File|Update header data|Update Station Coordinates|Adjust X coordinate to fit Y
coordinate and elevation is regarded in version 3.33 when interpolating x coordinate in Header|Station.
Dec 17, 2015 : use File|Update header data|Update Station Coordinates|Reset parameters button in
version 3.33 to enable x coordinate editing in Header|Station without automatic adjustment&correction.
Dec 15, 2015 : WET Tomo|Interactive WET tomography|Reset deactivates multirun WET. Reactivate
with button Iterate : check box WET runs active and click OK button.
Dec 15, 2015 : WET Tomo|Interactive WET tomography|Conjugate Gradient sets WET damping
factor to 0.9 from default 0.0. This ensure a more robust Conjugate Gradient method WET inversion.
Dec 14, 2015 : store active multirun WET settings to .PAR file, restore from .PAR .
Dec 14, 2015 : faster writing of .PAR files, flush formatted lines from buffer to disk file.
Dec 12, 2015 : write new Smooth invert & WET settings to .PAR file & restore from .PAR .
Dec 11, 2015 : WET Tomo|Interactive WET tomography|Min. velocity sets the minimum velocity in
the resulting tomogram. Max. velocity sets the maximum velocity.
Dec 8, 2015 : Grid|Image and contour velocity and coverage grids... now regards a selected .PAR file
with different name than the selected velocity .GRD file when calling Surfer.
Dec 3, 2015 : enforce again during data import into Line type Borehole spread/line that Shot pos.
[station no.] is set to active receiver channel [station no.]. This check was disabled for version 3.33.
Dec 3, 2015 : fixed tutorial CFE15.pdf : disable shot position checking against traveltime curve before
ASCII.ASC import.
Nov 30, 2015 : WET Tomo|Interactive WET tomography|Edit velocity smoothing|Uniform central
row weight [1..100] lets you give more weight to central row of uniform smoothing filter. This can help
with layered subsurface setting to improve contrast between layers.
Nov 30, 2015 : precompute Gaussian smoothing kernels with WET Tomo|WET tomography
Settings|Scale WET filter height checked. Gaussian smoothing now runs as fast as uniform smoothing.
Nov 28, 2015 : further speed up WET inversion by eliminating unnecessary waiting at #pragma omp
critical sections.
Nov 27, 2015 : WET grid smoothing uses multiple CPU cores in parallel to speed up WET inversion.
Nov 19, 2015 : WET Tomo|Interactive WET tomography|or RMS error does not improve for n = has
new default of 50 iterations instead of current 10 for Conjugate Gradient search method. Prevents
multirun Conjugate Gradient WET inversion to stop runs early without any warning.
Nov 18, 2015 : WET Tomo|Interactive WET tomography|Edit velocity smoothing|Damping [0..1] lets
you specify the damping factor a. The velocity tomogram for the current iteration is damped with
previous iteration tomogram : V(i+1)=a*V(i)+b*V(i+1); a+b=1; b=1-a . This makes WET more robust
especially with bad picks and when using our new multirun WET / multiscale tomography option.
Nov 7, 2015 : File|Import Data has new edit fields Default sample interval [msec] and Default sample
count. Use these fields for shot files without seismograph traces e.g. for ASCII.ASC and Interpex
Gremix .GRM to determine the time scale in Trace|Shot gather and Refractor|Shot breaks.
Nov 7, 2015 : File|Import Data has new button Reset import.
Nov 7, 2015 : to prevent continuous redisplay of Refractor|Shot breaks shut down Windows Task
Manager or other third-party apps. These apps seem to cause repaint messages sent to our app.
Nov 5, 2015 : File|Import Data allows importing ASCII.ASC files with up to 999’000 traces (1000 shots
into 999 channels) for our Annual Pro Subscription license.
Oct 25, 2015 : Grid|Surfer plot Limits displays all field labels completely under Windows 10.
Oct 25, 2015 : WET Tomo|Interactive WET tomography|Iterate shows run no. in first column under
Windows 10.
our new tutorial CFE15.pdf shows multiscale tomography of tunnel overburden.
Remi Valois et al. show time-lapse models of epikarst profiles comparing SRT with ERT in EAGE
NSG Feb 2016. SRT allows for deeper imaging due to saturated overburden layer.
Douglas B. Desper et al. show water-table depth estimation using our WET inversion in EAGE NSG
Oct 2015.
Version 3.33 released in Sep 2015 :
 WET Tomo|Interactive WET tomography|Iterate button shows new dialog Edit WET runs. This
dialog lets you specify wavepath width and WET iteration count for multirun WET inversion with up
to 10 WET runs as shown in our tutorial SAGEEP11_13.pdf . This multiscale tomography better resolves
anomalies especially with noisy data. Once you click Start tomography processing button these WET
runs are done automatically, using your schedule. Directories WETRUN1 up to WETRUN10 are created
below the subdirectory holding the initial model selected for interactive WET. The final model
VELOITx.GRD&PAR of the previous run y is copied from WETRUNy into the WETRUNz subdirectory for the
next run z=y+1 and is renamed to RUNyITx.GRD&PAR. This is the starting model for the next run.
 Sep 29, 2015 : updated rayfract.pdf reference converted from latest help file version.
 Sep 27, 2015 : WET Tomo|Interactive WET tomography|Iterate|Blank after each run is unchecked
per default for version 3.33. Try checking this box before starting multirun WET for refraction profile
(see above bullets) to avoid imaging artefacts at tomogram edges.
 Aug 25, 2015 : when our Pro version shows prompts “OpenPolicy : Access is denied” and “Error :
Cannot enable the SE_LOCK_MEMORY_NAME privilege. Failed with error 1300 : Not all privileges
or groups referenced are assigned to the caller.” under Windows 10 64-bit :
 click Ok button to confirm the prompts. WET inversion will continue without access to RAM
memory above 4 GB limit.
 once WET inversion is complete select File|Exit
 right-click Rayfract® desktop icon and select Properties
 click button Advanced and check box Run as administrator
 click buttons Ok / Apply / Continue / Ok
 restart Windows 10
 startup our app via desktop icon as usual. Now WET inversion can use up to 64 GB of RAM.
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Aug 24, 2015 : updated help file chapters Commands, Introduction, Overlapping receiver spreads, WET
tomography processing and Crosshole survey interpretation. Use our updated installer winhelp.exe .
Aug 21, 2015 : Window|Show prompts on top of other applications is checked whenever you (re)open
a profile database. This restores the behaviour prior to Oct 27, 2014. See below.
Aug 20, 2015 : fixed issue where WET continuation prompt during time-to-depth conversion with
Depth|Plus-Minus & Depth|Wavefront methods disappears behind main app window when clicking on
Surfer plot showing layered starting model and then clicking on our app again. This only happened
under Windows XP, worked fine under Windows 7, 8 and 10 even without this fix.
Aug 14, 2015 : tested version 3.33 under Microsoft Windows 10 64-bit. No problems found.
Aug 12, 2015 : when running Windows in Parallels Desktop virtual machine on iMac, restore keyboard
language mapping after switching from OSX to Windows with taskbar language symbol EN, FR etc.
Aug 10, 2015 : if shot depth is missing in Interpex IXRefraX .GRM files we now regard default depth
specified in File|Import Data dialog when importing .GRM shots or updating shots from .GRM file.
Aug 10, 2015 : File|Update header data|Update from Gremix .GRM files... does improved matching of
receiver positions specified in .GRM file to receiver station numbers in current profile database.
Aug 6, 2015 : Grid|GS CENTERED font for receivers forces use of font GS CENTERED symbol no. 48
for plotting of receivers. Uncheck to use font GSI Default Symbols symbol no. 102.
Aug 2, 2015 : Scripter13_scripts.zip contains updated AUTOTOMO.BAS and DELTATV.BAS scripts for
Surfer 13. Copy these .BAS files into C:\RAY32\DAT directory.
Aug 2, 2015 : updated Surfer scripts AUTOTOMO.BAS and DELTATV.BAS disable Hill Shading when run
with Surfer version 13. These scripts still work with earlier Surfer and Scripter versions.
Aug 2, 2015 : Surfer scripts AUTOTOMO.BAS and DELTATV.BAS use font GS CENTERED symbol no. 48 for
plotting of receivers and font GSI Default Symbols symbol no. 21 for plotting of sources in Sub
Create_And_Configure_ShotPostMap.
Aug 2, 2015 : Surfer12_scripts.zip holds previous versions of above Surfer scripts.
July 29, 2015 : updated winhelp.exe help installer now recognizes Microsoft Windows 10.
July 27, 2015 : to increase max. imaged depth for single-spread profiles please
 uncheck WET Tomo|WET tomography Settings|Blank below envelope after last iteration
 increase WET Tomo|Interactive WET tomography…|Wavepath width to 20%, 30% or even 50%
 click button Start tomography processing and confirm prompts as usual
 or use overlapping receiver spreads so profile-internal far-offset shots are used for WET inversion
July 27, 2015 : increasing the WET wavepath width as described in above bullet corresponds to
lowering the modeled signal frequency. So resolution decreases but maximum imaged depth increases.
See also our SAGEEP14 expanded abstract and our new tutorial which shows how to activate
multiscale tomography with Iterate button in WET Tomo|Interactive WET tomography…
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July 27, 2015 : far-offset shots located more than one Station spacing outside first/last profile receiver
are not used for 2D WET inversion. These shots are regarded for layered refraction with Plus-Minus and
Wavefront methods and for 1.5D DeltatV method used for the 1D-gradient starting model.
July 24, 2015 : Scripter13_scripts.zip contains updated AUTOTOMO.BAS and DELTATV.BAS scripts for
Scripter version 5.0.21.488 coming with Surfer 13. Copy these .BAS files into C:\RAY32\DAT directory.
July 20, 2015 : with new Surfer 13 please uncheck Hill shading in Surfer Object Manager > Image
for velocity tomograms and wavepath coverage plots obtained with our software.
July 20, 2015 : if geophones are not plotted any longer or shown with different symbol on velocity
tomogram after Surfer upgrade please select Symbol Set GS CENTERED and Symbol Number 48 in Surfer
Object Manager > Classed Post > Classes > Edit Classes for class 2. Increase Size to 0.2 inches.
July 13, 2015 : regard shot and receiver elevations in ASCII.ASC in File|Import Data… when importing
into Line type Borehole spread/line.
July 10, 2015 : Header|Profile|Units change to feet now updates Station spacing field display correctly
even when not all other required fields have been edited yet, for a new profile database.
July 7, 2015 : File|Import Data…|Import data type can now be set to ASCII column format for Line
type Borehole spread/line selected in Header|Profile… before importing any shots. We disregard shot
elevation and receiver elevation in ASCII.ASC when importing into Borehole spread/line. After import
use File|Export header data|Export Station Coordinates… to COORDS.COR and …|Export Shotpoint
Coordinates… to SHOTPTS.SHO . Then update x/y/z in columns 2, 3 & 4 of COORDS.COR and
SHOTPTS.SHO using e.g. Microsoft WordPad text editor. y coordinate is always 0 for Borehole
spread/line. Now use File|Update header data|Update Station Coordinates… and …|Update Shotpoint
coordinates… with edited COORDS.COR & SHOTPTS.SHO to update trace headers in currently opened
profile database.
July 7, 2015 : File|Update header data|Update Station Coordinates…|Maximum tolerance [percent] is
now 500 percent per default for Line type Borehole spread/line. For type Refraction spread/line this is
still 25 percent per default since determination of refractor velocity uses station numbers of receivers.
WET inversion uses x/y/z coordinates only so station numbers can be inconsistent regarding
Header|Profile|Station spacing [m] value.
July 7, 2015 : Smooth invert|Smooth inversion Settings|No shot position checking lets you skip
checking of shot position against shot-sorted traveltime curve minimum. This can help for uphole shots
with strong topography.
July 2, 2015 : fixed crash in File|Import Data… if no shot files found. For older versions restart our
app, click upper Select button and reselect one file to be imported. Now click Import Shots… button.
June 25, 2015 : fixed polygon blanking with mask grid velocity if no blanking velocity specified in
polygon header line in .BLN blanking file.
June 24, 2015 : allow blanking percentage range 0..500 in 4th column of polygon header line in .BLN
blanking file.
June 24, 2015 : updated help file chapter WET tomography processing. In last paragraph we describe
new velocity constraints options. Download and run installer winhelp.exe to update your installation.
June 22, 2015 : fixed assertion failure when blanking polygon without resetting velocity.
June 17, 2015 : convert blanking file from feet to meters for WET inversion. If the WET initial model
.GRD is in feet (according to matching .PAR file) then assume that the .BLN blanking file is in feet too.
June 16, 2015 : convert mask grid from feet to meters for WET inversion. See next bullet.
June 15, 2015 : WET Tomo|WET Velocity constraints...|Select mask grid file lets you select a Surfer
.GRD mask file, a 2D grid with same dimensions (column count & row count) as WET initial model .GRD
file. The blanking polygon in the .BLN blanking file selected with Select blanking file is reset to
velocities from the mask file during WET inversion. Blanking percentage (see next bullet) is regarded.
June 11, 2015 : specify percentage value 0..100 in 4th column of polygon header line in .BLN blanking
file. This percentage specifies how much the tomogram velocity may deviate from blanking velocity
specified in 3rd column of .BLN blanking file. If the tomogram pixel velocity deviates more than
maximum allowed deviation then the pixel velocity is reset to maximum allowed deviation.
June 10, 2015 : fixed WET velocity update smoothing : reset update to zero in blanking polygon.
June 3, 2015 : enforce valid parameter values in Grid|Surfer plot Limits... .
June 3, 2015 : WET Tomo|WET Velocity constraints...|Select blanking file lets you select a Surfer
.BLN blanking file specifying a polygon to be kept at constant velocity during WET inversion.
June 1, 2015 : improved detection of invalid .BLN blanking file in Grid|Blank polygon area in grid... .
Blank selected .GRD with valid .BLN only.
June 1, 2015 : http://www.goldensoftware.com/knowledge-base/surfer/1957-fix-available-for-gsdrawerror-1-generic-error describes how to fix Surfer error GS Draw error (1): GenericError when plotting
tomograms via Scripter.
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May 31, 2015 : fixed assertion is_directWave ? refractor == 0 : true during Smooth inversion.
May 28, 2015 : Grid|Blank polygon area in grid... works with .GRD specified in feet instead of meters.
Just make sure the Surfer .BLN blanking file is specified in feet also.
May 21, 2015 : Grid|Blank polygon area in grid... resets .GRD pixels to be blanked to velocity value
specified in 3rd column of polygon header line in selected .BLN blanking file. Edit this blanking velocity
with your favorite text editor e.g. Microsoft WordPad. E.g. .BLN polygon header line 31,1,500 means
polygon with 31 points (corners), blank inside polygon, reset blanked pixels to 500 m/s.
May 20, 2015 : Grid|Blank polygon area in grid... asks you to select a velocity tomogram .GRD file
VELOITXY.GRD or GRADIENT.GRD or DELTATV.GRD in directory \RAY32\<your profile name>\GRADTOMO
or …\LAYRTOMO or …\TOMO. Next you are prompted to select a Surfer format .BLN blanking file. Once
you have selected these two files we blank the .GRD file either inside the polygon specified in the .BLN
file or outside this polygon depending on setting of flag in polygon header line in the .BLN file.
May 20, 2015 : create the Surfer .BLN blanking file needed for above bullet as described in
http://www.goldensoftware.com/knowledge-base/surfer/1095-how-can-i-create-a-bln-file : digitize the
boundary with Map|Digitize and save to a .BLN file. Optionally first draw the polygon on the velocity
tomogram in an empty base layer with Surfer Draw|Polygon command. See above link.
May 12, 2015 : improved help file chapter Mapping traces to refractors. Download and run installer
winhelp.exe to update your installation.
May 11, 2015 : enforce max. limit higher than min. limit for offset/elevation/velocity range specified in
Grid|Surfer plot Limits… .
May 8, 2015 : increased length of static text fields in new dialogs so labels display completely on old
Toshiba A40 portable runningWindows XP.
May 5, 2015 : Grid|Velocity vs. Two-way time... now writes the velocity-vs-two-way-time function at a
sample interval of 1ms instead of 5ms. Also we write the function at every 2nd CMP station instead of
every 5th CMP station. And we write horizontal inline offset & elevation into .TWT columns 2 & 3.
May 5, 2015 : Grid|Velocity vs. Two-way time... regards your setting of Smooth invert|Smooth inversion
Settings|Output inversion results in Feet and writes column headers to first line of .TWT file.
May 1, 2015 : Grid|Surfer plot Limits... edits Color Scale settings for Surfer plots : height of scale bar
in inches or cm, velocity label interval in m/s or ft/sec. and coverage label interval in paths/pixel.
Apr 29, 2015 : Grid|Surfer plot Limits... lets you edit min./max. offset and elevation and min./max.
velocity. Also you can edit x scale length and y scale length in inches or in cm. Check Plot limits active
and click Ok button to use these limits in future calls into Surfer for plotting of velocity tomograms.
These limits will not be regarded when plotting a starting model just generated. Call Surfer via
Grid|Image and contour velocity and coverage grids... and select the VELOITXY.GRD or GRADIENT.GRD
or DELTATV.GRD in directory \RAY32\<your profile name>\GRADTOMO or …\LAYRTOMO or …\TOMO.
These limits are regarded during WET inversion multiscale tomography. This makes it easier to
compare tomograms from multiple WET runs using varying WET parameter settings.
Apr 28, 2015 : Grid|Surfer plot Limits…|Reset to grid button asks you to select a VELOITXY.GRD file
and next resets plot limits displayed to limits stored in the header of this Surfer format .GRD file.
Apr 19, 2015 : improved error messages when imaging of Surfer .GRD fails and when conversion of
layered model .CSV to .GRD format fails.
Apr 18, 2015 : export topography and weathering velocity to layered model .CSV for shot positions
outside active receiver range. These shot positions are regarded when converting the .CSV to Surfer
.GRD format.
Apr 17, 2015 : with Grid|Stack shot labels at same offset checked we now vertically stack shot
numbers for all shots positioned at same shotpoint when plotting tomograms.
Apr 13, 2015 : for long profile with more than 50 receiver stations uncheck DeltatV|DeltatV
Settings|Limit DeltatV velocity exported to maximum 1D-gradient velocity per default.
Apr 13, 2015 : disable File|SEG-2 import settings and File|SEGY import settings if no profile opened.
Mar 29, 2015 : File|New spread type, File|Import spread types and File|Export spread types works
without an open profile. For earlier versions first open a profile database e.g. LINE14 sample profile.
Mar 28, 2015 : disregard polyline when automatically picking first breaks with ALT+B if user unchecks
Processing|Enable polyline picking in Trace|Shot gather.
Mar 28, 2015 : reset multirun WET settings to defaults when updating profile database to version 3.33.
Mar 16, 2015 : updated help file chapters Seismic and header data import & File formats. Download
and run updated winhelp.exe installer.
Mar 14, 2015 : added new section .CSV layered model file to help file chapter File formats.
Mar 11, 2015 : updated help file chapter Introduction.
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Mar 5, 2015 : improved blanking outside borehole tomogram. This assumes that all receivers are
located in one hole and all sources are in the other hole. We determine the bounding polygon as in
http://stackoverflow.com/questions/217578/point-in-polygon-aka-hit-test .
Mar 5, 2015 : WET Tomo|WET tomography Settings|Blank outside borehole tomogram
enables/disables above borehole tomogram blanking.
Feb 23, 2015 : updated help file. Download and run updated winhelp.exe installer on your PC. This
also installs windows.hlp into \Ray32\help directory to prevent Windows help from crashing our app
when no help topic is available for a specific dialog control.
Feb 18, 2015 : regard setting of Blank checkboxes in Edit WET runs dialog during WET.
Feb 17, 2015 : added columns Freq. [Hz] and Width [ms] to above Edit WET runs dialog. Freq. can be
edited in addition to Width [%] for every run. Width [ms] is read-only and is computed as
(1.0/frequency) * width/100.0 * 1000.0 . This value is used to compute wavepaths for WET inversion.
Feb 11, 2015 : toggle distance unit between feet and meters in Header|Shot with Units combobox. All
distance parameters in all parameter dialogs can now be displayed and edited in feet.
Feb 5, 2015 : improved error message if invalid Shot pos. [station number] specified during shot
import into borehole spread/line. Set Shot pos. [station number] to nearest active receiver station. Set
Source x and Source z to true shot coordinates. Our import routine then sets Shot dx and Shot dz in
Header|Shot to offset of true shot coordinates from Shot pos. [station number].
Feb 4, 2015 : added column with Blank checkboxes for each run in above Edit WET runs dialog.
These are updated when you toggle buttons Blank after each run and Blank after last run. Each run’s
checkbox can be toggled individually by left-clicking it. These boxes override WET Tomo|WET
tomography Settings|Blank below envelope after last iteration during multirun WET inversion.
Feb 2, 2015 : added buttons Blank after each run and Blank after last run to Edit WET runs dialog.
These can be used to toggle Blank checkboxes for each/for last run, see above bullet.
Feb 2, 2015 : SEGY import now starts a new shot when trace header field EnergySourcePoint changes.
For previous software version a new shot is started when FieldRecord changes between traces only.
Jan 28, 2015 : updated help file chapter Time-to-depth conversion showing automatic WET inversion
using the layered refraction starting model just obtained.
Jan 27, 2015 : updated help file chapter WET tomography processing documenting new multirun WET
dialog. To update your Rayfract® installation download winhelp.exe installer and run on your PC.
Jan 26, 2015 : increase WET Tomo|Interactive WET tomography|Wavepath frequency for more narrow
wavepaths in single-run or multirun WET inversion. E.g. for crosshole survey increase WET frequency
from default 50 Hz to 100 Hz or 200 Hz. Visually determine dominant period [in seconds] of your trace
signal in Trace|Shot gather. Next determine dominant frequency = 1/period. WET wavepath width [in
seconds] is specified in percent of one period with period = 1/WET frequency.
Jan 26, 2015 : to always run Rayfract® as administrator use option six in sevenforums.com tutorial.
This helps with issues when calling Golden Software Surfer via their Scripter utility and with our Pro
license when accessing RAM memory above 4 GBytes limit via Microsoft AWE.
Jan 19, 2015 : allow multirun WET inversion for Standard license not just Pro license.
Jan 12, 2015 : added checkbox WET runs active to above Edit WET runs dialog. Check this box to start
WET runs with Start tomography processing button.
Jan 12, 2015 : added checkbox Plot runs in Surfer to above Edit WET runs dialog. Check this box to
show the final iteration of each WET run in Golden Software Surfer during tomography processing.
for easier comparison of Surfer plots for above WET runs uncheck WET Tomo|WET tomography
Settings|Update imaged grid depth before starting tomography processing.
uncheck WET Tomo|WET tomography Settings|Blank below envelope after last iteration to prevent
blanking of tomogram passed from previous WET run to next WET run and to ensure deeper imaging.
set WET smoothing to Minimal smoothing before starting above multirun WET inversion for best
resolution with final few runs. Multirun inversion is more robust than default single-run WET inversion
so requires less smoothing.
Jan 12, 2015 : added checkbox Prompt run misfit to above Edit WET runs dialog. Check this box to
prompt you with traveltime misfit after each WET run. Uncheck to skip these prompts.
Jan 12, 2015 : added read-only field Runs completed to above Edit WET runs dialog. This shows the
number of the last WET run completed with previous tomography processing.
Jan 12, 2015 : added read-only checkbox All runs completed to above Edit WET runs dialog. This is
set to false at start of tomography processing and set to true after all WET runs have completed.
Jan 12, 2015 : added read-only field Current run no. to above Edit WET Runs dialog. This shows the
number of the WET run being processed when previous tomography processing ended or was stopped.
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Jan 12, 2015 : added checkbox Resume current run to above Edit WET Runs dialog. Check this box to
resume WET run number Current run no. during next tomography processing if All runs completed is
checked. Uncheck to restart with WET run no. 1 during next tomography processing.
Jan 12, 2015 : set Iterations to 0 for any run number in above Edit WET Runs dialog. Subsequent
tomography processing of WET runs will end at first run number with Iterations == 0.
GeoTomCG software published by GeoTomo LLC now allows importing Rayfract® 2D tomograms
recorded for parallel geophone lines and using this as a starting model for 3D tomography. Ask Daryl
Tweeton for details at geotom@frontiernet.net .
Hinojosa-Prieto and Hinzen use WET SRT and Poisson’s ratio imaging at an archeological site.
Pasquet et al. combine SRT with ERT and surface-wave dispersion to understand bedrock aquifer
recharge.
Version 3.32 released in December 2014 :
 we now allow automatic WET inversion with layered starting model . The layered starting model is
regenerated and you are prompted to start WET inversion whenever you run time-to-depth conversion
in Depth menu with Plus-Minus, Wavefront or CMP intercept-time refraction methods.
 Dec 20, 2014 : default grid cell size in Smooth invert|Smooth inversion Settings again is determined as
for version 3.26. Results in smaller default cell size than for version 3.31. Coverage plot looks better.
 Dec 9, 2014 : rename Window|Export depth section to .XYZ... to Window|Export depth section to
.XYV... & export to ASCII .XYV to avoid file name conflict with W_GeoSoft WinSism .XYZ files.
 Dec 7, 2014 : WET Tomo|Interactive WET tomography|Edit velocity smoothing|Smooth nth iteration
: n = is again set to 1 per default. This was set to 2 for version 3.31 and to 1 for earlier versions. Setting
this parameter to 1 minimizes smearing artefacts e.g. at basement corner for SAGEEP11 synthetic data.
 Dec 7, 2014 : WET Tomo|Interactive WET tomography|Edit velocity smoothing|Smoothing filter
weighting is again set to Uniform per default to avoid artefacts e.g. at basement corner of SAGEEP11.
This parameter was Gaussian for version 3.31 and implicitly Uniform for earlier versions.
 Dec 4, 2014 : better prompt for WET inversion with layered refraction starting model just determined.
 Nov 28, 2014 : when opening a profile database with our Pro license we now check if spread type
“999: 999 channels” is defined in the reference database. If not we automatically create this spread type.
 Nov 28, 2014 : when you change the cell size in Smooth invert|Smooth inversion Settings we now
prompt you to confirm this. Once you have confirmed we delete starting models GRADIENT.GRD and
DLTAGRAD.GRD in directory \RAY32\<your profile name>\GRADTOMO.
 Nov 28, 2014 : when you import shots or update the recording geometry we now also delete above
starting models GRADIENT.GRD and DLTAGRAD.GR in \RAY32\<your profile name>\GRADTOMO.
 Nov 28, 2014 : XTV inversion flags in Smooth invert|Smooth inversion Settings are again unchecked
per default. Unchecking these flags gives a more realistic starting model in case of strongly undulating
topography e.g. for Line2 and often results in deeper imaging with WET inversion especially in case of
velocity inversions below top-of-basement e.g. for Rjj9To10.
 Nov 24, 2014 : WET Tomo|Interactive WET tomography|Edit velocity smoothing|Automatically adapt
shape of rectangular filter matrix is again enabled per default to avoid processing artefacts e.g. for
Norcal14. See bullets below for hints on when to toggle this setting.
 Nov 24, 2014 : we now allow definition and use of spread types with up to 999 channels with our Pro
license for import of shots with up to 999 channels.
 Nov 24, 2014 : when importing a .SPR spread file which does not contain all spread types used in
currently open profile we now show clear error message and disable processing of this profile until you
import the correct .SPR spread file.
 Nov 21, 2014 : display a line with 330 m/s (air wave) slope starting at shot point in Trace|Shot gather :
 right-click your mouse or touchpad with two fingers-on-pad gesture
 move mouse cursor to change slope of line until it shows as 330 m/s in status bar at bottom of window
 press F7/F8 to browse to next/previous shot to reset display of this unpicked polyline
 Nov 21, 2014 : WET Tomo|Interactive WET tomography|Edit velocity smoothing|Automatically adapt
shape of rectangular filter matrix enabled for SAGEEP11 blind refraction data avoids the imaged
basement “pulling up” at left section end where all wavepaths are aligned parallel to each other.
 Nov 20, 2014 : to display dialog titles in Windows 8.1 with smaller font select Display in Windows
Control Panel, change size of title bar font to 8 or 9 points and click Apply button. This helps with
Header menu dialogs.
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Nov 16, 2014 : define realistic weathering velocity v0 determined in Refractor|Shot breaks by mapping
traces to refractors with ALT+L. Now map traces to refractors in Refractor|Midpoint breaks as shown
in Norcal14 tutorial on bottom of page 3 and run time-to-depth conversion using this shot v0.
Nov 15, 2014 : Window|Export depth section to .XYZ... export refractors to ASCII .XYZ with station
number, station x/y coordinates, refractor elevations and velocities of current depth section.
.XYZ format is same as .CSV format written by Window|Export ASCII Model of depth section... but
writes two extra columns Station x, Station y after offset column and before topo column.
Nov 10, 2014 : updated documentation of WET main parameters in help file chapter WET tomography
processing. Use updated winhelp.exe installer to update your installation with latest help file.
Nov 10, 2014 : WET Tomo|WET tomography Settings|More blanking during Conjugate Gradient
inversion renamed to Alternate coverage update during Conjugate Gradient inversion. Regarded
when not using Steepest Descent step only. May result in more or less blanking at tomogram bottom.
Nov 9, 2014 : Grid|Plot refractors only without tomogram and Grid|Plot layer velocity without
tomogram flags are now disregarded when automatically plotting layered starting model after time-todepth conversion in Depth menu.
Nov 9, 2014 : when Grid|Plot refractors only without tomogram or Grid|Plot layer velocity without
tomogram flag is checked we now plot refractor elevation or velocity in pink instead of white. For
older versions you can change the Base map Polyline color in Surfer Object Manager.
Nov 8, 2014 : misfit prompt recommends using overlapping receiver spreads with profile-internal faroffset shots for deeper and more reliable imaging and refers to http://rayfract.com/help/overlap.pdf .
Nov 8, 2014 : when rays and wavepaths are aligned predominantly parallel to each other tomogram
resolution is smeared at tomogram edges and start/end of non-overlapping receiver spreads. See D.J.
White 1989. For a good resolution wavepaths need to cross each other at angles of about 90 degrees.
Nov 8, 2014 : far-offset shots are always used when determining the starting model. For 2D WET
inversion far-offset shots are used if they are positioned inside overlapping spreads for which shots
have been imported into the same profile database. See overlap.pdf for a good recording geometry.
Nov 7, 2014 : improved Norcal14 tutorial instructions how to use edited weathering velocity during
time-to-depth conversion. See bottom of page 3 of 10 pages.
Nov 4, 2014 : DeltatV inversion : fixed Ass. failure cmpCurve_.breaks_count > 0 in CMPHELPR.CPP
during static correction. For older versions press ALT+I to ignore this assertion.
Oct 30, 2014 : WET Tomo|WET tomography Settings|Don’t extrapolate grid rows does not
extrapolate grid rows at left and right margins during WET. May prevent high-velocity artefacts below
topography and at tomogram edges. May cause WET to fail especially in Conjugate Gradient mode.
This option helps with lines Rjj9To10 and Norcal14 Fig. 12 & 15.
Oct 27, 2014 : message boxes are now displayed with Windows style MS_APPLMODAL instead of
previous style MS_SYSTEMMODAL. When working in a different application the Rayfract® icon in
the task bar will flash once a message box is displayed. Click this icon to switch back to Rayfract®.
Oct 27, 2014 : Smooth invert|WET with constant-velocity initial borehole model now uses constantvelocity starting model even if the deepest uphole shot is positioned above bottom of 1D-gradient
starting model.
Oct 18, 2014 : File|Import Data…|Select .HDR batch file dialog now resets the batch file selection to
empty/none selected if you press Cancel button in selection dialog.
Oct 18, 2014 : Depth|Plus-Minus and Depth|Wavefront now reset the .HDR batch file selection to
empty/none selected during import of extrapolated shots and restore the original .HDR selection. For
older versions uncheck Batch import, click Import shots and click End to skip import of shots.
Oct 13, 2014 : WET Tomo|Interactive WET tomograph|Edit velocity smoothing|Automatically adapt
shape of rectangular filter matrix is unchecked per default for better vertical resolution. Enable for
half-height of 0 or 1 rows to avoid artefacts. Also enable to better image dip of fault zones. This
parameter is checked per default in version 3.26 and earlier resulting in more vertical smoothing.
Oct 13, 2014 : WET Tomo|Interactive WET tomography|Edit velocity smoothing|Automatically adapt
shape of rectangular filter matrix should be enabled for steep topography e.g. TRA9002 using minimal
WET smoothing with filter half-height 0 or 1 and disabled for horizontal topography e.g. LINE14 for
increased vertical resolution. Enable for low-coverage lines with too few or noisy shots, to avoid overfitting of first break picks during WET inversion. This parameter is unchecked per default since 3.31.
Oct 10, 2014 : updated help installer winhelp.exe now works under Microsoft Windows 8.1.
Oct 2, 2014 : added links from new menu topics to screen shots and instructions in other chapters.
Sep 29, 2014 : new help chapter Commands listing top-level menu commands with short descriptions.
Install with updated winhelp.exe installer.
Sep 28, 2014 : Depth conversion from model parameters dialog brought up with ALT+M in depth
section window : call Surfer once depth section is redisplayed only.
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Sep 28, 2014 : Depth|Depth conversion Settings|No Extrapolation of shots does not generate
extrapolated shots when there are gaps in traveltime coverage along the profile. Best leave unchecked.
Sep 24, 2014 : fixed depth conversion after traveltime field regression with multiple sections, tested
with NORCAL14 line and Wavefront & Plus-Minus methods.
Sep 23, 2014 : export Plus-Minus results to .CSV at whole receiver stations only.
Sep 21, 2014 : fixed 3-layer case interpreted with Plus-Minus method for NORCAL14 line.
Sep 21, 2014 : improved conversion of .CSV layered depth section to layered .GRD starting model. We
now interpolate refractor elevation and velocity at coverage gaps.
Sep 20, 2014 : improved export of depth section to .CSV file in case of coverage gaps and multiple
traveltime field sections per line.
Sep 16, 2014 : improved SEG-2 import now regards trace descriptor block size when determining trace
data start. This should make our SEG-2 import more robust.
Sep 15, 2014 : improved detection of non-standard trace data start when importing SEG-2 files. We
now allow the trace data to start either on double-word boundaries or directly after the SEG-2 trace
descriptor block. Use File|SEG-2 import settings|Detect shifted trace data start with signal statistics if
Trace|Shot gather does not show shot traces after SEG-2 import.
Sep 14, 2014 : PASI ANTEO .SG2 SEG-2 import via File|Import Data… now per default assumes
non-standard SEG-2 trace data start. We tested this with 32-bit floating point sample files. For old
SEG-2 import please check File|SEG-2 import settings|Determine SEG-2 trace data start by User logic
and Non-standard SEG-2 trace data start before importing PASI ANTEO SEG-2 files.
Sep 11, 2014 : Depth conversion|Export ASCII Model of depth section now exports each station only
once and interpolates topography and weathering velocity when your line has coverage gaps and
traveltime curves are combined into multiple sections.
Aug 26, 2014 : if SEG-2 files do not specify the distance unit, our SEG-2 import now uses the default
distance unit which you specify with File|Import Data Settings|Default distance unit is meter flag.
For earlier versions check File|SEG-2 import settings|Get distance unit from user. Otherwise our
old SEG-2 import disregards source location and receiver location specified in the SEG-2 .DAT / .SG2
files in case of missing distance unit. This can happen with ABEM Terraloc Mark 6 files.
Aug 26, 2014 : when you change Header|Profile|Profile Start Offset we now delete the starting models
..\GRADTOMO\DLTAGRAD.GRD & GRADIENT.GRD. This ensures correct regeneration of layered
starting model during next time-to-depth conversion via Depth menu.
for earlier versions of our software please delete files DLTAGRAD.GRD and GRADIENT.GRD in
GRADTOMO directory and DELTATV.GRD in TOMO directory using Windows Explorer after
changing Profile Start Offset to ensure correct regeneration of layered starting model.
Depth|Plus-Minus, Depth|Wavefront and Depth|CMP Intercept-Time Refraction now automatically
export the layered depth section to .CSV, convert the .CSV to layered .GRD starting model, display this
starting model in Surfer and prompt you to run WET inversion using this layered starting model. Try
this with our updated free trial and LINE14 sample profile : map traces to refractors interactively in
Refractor|Shot breaks, then use Depth|Plus-Minus refraction method and subsequent WET inversion.
Depth conversion|Automatically Export depth section to .CSV and .GRD is checked whenever you
(re)open a profile database and enables above behaviour. The layered .CSV depth section and layered
.GRD starting model are written to directory C:\RAY32\<your profile directory>\LAYRTOMO .
Grid|Export grid file to ASCII .TXT now extrapolates x/y coordinates beyond first/last shot/receiver,
for leftmost and rightmost grid columns. The previous version wrote leftmost and rightmost columns
with the same x/y coordinates.
WET Tomo|WET tomography Settings|Blank below envelope after last iteration unchecked helps to
increase WET imaged depth, especially for a layered starting model.
WET Tomo|Interactive WET tomography|Wavepath width [percent of one period] can be increased up
to 100% to increase WET imaged depth.
WET Tomo|Interactive WET tomography|Wavepath envelope width[% of period] can be increased up
to 0.1% less than the WET wavepath width shown one field above, to increase the WET imaged depth.
Smooth invert|Smooth inversion Settings|Allow XTV inversion for 1D initial model & Optimize XTV
for layered starting model both unchecked can increase the depth of the 1D-gradient starting model.
Smooth invert|Smooth inversion Settings|Limit WET velocity to maximum velocity in initial model
unchecked can increase the WET imaged depth.
to import Geometrics .BPK first break picks, use matching filenames for the SEG-2 .DAT or .SG2 and
the .BPK files. For 2.DAT name the .BPK as 2.BPK in Windows Explorer. Then copy all .DAT or .SG2
and .BPK files into \RAY32\<your profile name>\INPUT and use our SEG-2 import routine via
File|Import Data… .
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view our latest tutorial comparing using a 1D-gradient starting model vs. a layered CMP refraction
starting model for WET inversion with Gaussian vs. Uniform smoothing with vs. without adaption of
shape of rectangular smoothing filter.
review our new tutorial showing WET inversion using a layered starting model.
Zelt et al. 2013 compare refraction tomography software using synthetic data for a known fault model.
Capizzi and Martorana use SRT, ERT, MASW and HVSR to image a landslide in 2D and 3D. SRT and
ERT data inversion is constrained with stratigraphic information from continuous-core boreholes.
Version 3.31 released in July 2014 :
 Grid|Convert .CSV layer model to Surfer .GRD… lets you select a .CSV file with refractors exported
from depth section (Fig. 17, last page) and then asks to select a Surfer .GRD tomogram created earlier.
We replace velocities in the .GRD with velocities from the layered .CSV and use the same filename for
the resulting layered .GRD as for your selected .CSV layered depth section. Use the layered .GRD as
starting model for 2D WET inversion. Try this with our updated free trial and LINE14 sample profile :
map traces to refractors interactively in Refractor|Shot breaks, then use Plus-Minus refraction method.
 Grid|Convert .CSV layer model to Surfer .GRD… interpolates refractor elevations and velocities
between offsets listed in the .CSV depth section. You can extrapolate the basement refractor in the
.CSV with a text editor e.g. Microsoft WordPad.
 Smooth invert|Smooth inversion Settings|Extra-large cell size further increases the cell size and speeds
up WET inversion.
 Grid|Export grid file to ASCII .TXT... prompts to select a VELOITXY.GRD tomogram and converts
the .GRD file to an ASCII .TXT file. Columns x/y/z/velocity are separated by a space ‘ ‘ character. This
.TXT file can be imported into Golden Software Voxler.
 WET Tomo|Interactive WET tomography…|Conjugate Gradient does WET inversion with Conjugate
Gradient method using Polak-Ribiere formula, with Secant method used for Line Search minimization.
When you click this button, box or RMS error does not improve for n = is automatically checked.
 WET Tomo|Interactive WET tomography…|Conjugate Gradient checks WET Tomo|WET tomography
Settings|Limit WET velocity to maximum velocity in initial model to prevent CG inversion artefacts.
 WET Tomo|Interactive WET tomography…|Conjugate Gradient inversion is made more robust by
preventing invalid velocity updates to the tomogram.
 WET Tomo|WET tomography Settings|Safe line search with bracketing and Brent uses bracketing and
Brent’s method as in Numerical Recipes, Press et al. chapter 10 instead of Secant method for CG WET.
 WET Tomo|Interactive WET tomography…|CG iterations specifies number of Line Search
minimizations done by Conjugate Gradient method, during WET inversion.
 WET Tomo|Interactive WET tomography…|Line Search iters. specifies number of WET iterations per
Line Search minimization, during WET inversion with Conjugate Gradient method.
 WET Tomo|Interactive WET tomography…|Tolerance is the error tolerance Epsilon described by
Shewchuk, for Conjugate Gradient method.
 WET Tomo|Interactive WET tomography…|Line Search tol. is the tolerance for Brent’s method, used
for Line Search minimization.
 WET Tomo|Interactive WET tomography…|Initial step is the initial guess for bracketing during Line
Search minimization, before using Secant method or Brent’s method for sectioning of the minimum.
 WET Tomo|Interactive WET tomography…|Steepest Descent step optionally updates the tomogram with
a Steepest Descent step after each WET iteration, with starting model updated by Line Search method.
 WET Tomo|WET tomography Settings|Hybrid Conjugate Gradient update formula combines the PolakRibiere update formula with Fletcher-Reeeves to prevent CG “jamming”. See Hager & Grant section 6.
 WET Tomo|WET tomography Settings|More blanking during Conjugate Gradient inversion does more
blanking at tomogram bottom during CG WET inversion. Uncheck for deeper imaging when not using
Steepest Descent step during CG WET.
 WET Tomo|Interactive WET tomography|Edit grid file generation|Write grids for Line Search during
Conjugate Gradient stores the WET tomogram obtained after Line Search minimization by CG method.
 WET Tomo shows better error message in case of coverage gaps or invalid velocity grid. Increase CG
WET smoothing or wavepath width, or use WET Steepest Descent method.
 File|Import Data… for SEGY .SGY files shows better error message with bad geometry in .SGY and
recommends to select File|SEGY import settings|No receiver coordinates specified in .SGY file . For
version 3.26 and earlier, you will see a message Ass. failed “SameDouble(ptr1->y,ptr2->y)” when
station coordinates for same x and z coordinate differ in y coordinate.
 File|SEGY import settings|No receiver coordinates specified in .SGY file is now checked per default.
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File|SEG-2 import settings|Detect shifted trace data start with signal statistics detects byte offset of
shifted sample data start by minimum variance of signal samples. Can fail with noisy traces.
File|SEG-2 import settings|First sample is at First non-zero byte searches for first non-zero byte in
trace data and assume this is the first sample. Fails when first sample starts with a zero byte. Test with
setting Non-standard trace start checked.
File|SEG-2 import settings|Ignore SEG-2 trace descriptor block size does not use trace descriptor block
size specified by field X in SEG-2 trace descriptor, for determination of trace data start.
File|SEG-2 import settings|Non-standard SEG-2 trace data start does not round up SEG-2 trace data
start to next double-word (4-byte) boundary.
File|SEG-2 import settings|Skip 4 leading zero bytes at SEG-2 trace data start skips 4 leading zero
bytes at SEG-2 trace data start when reading the trace samples.
File|SEG-2 import settings|Standard SEG-2 string list termination : per SEG-2 standard the end of the
string list in the trace descriptor block is marked by two zero bytes. Uncheck to allow just one zero byte
to mark end of string list.
Grid|Plot refractors on tomogram now plots refractors in white instead of pink. You can change the
refractor color in Surfer Object Manager. See our jenny13.pdf tutorial.
WET Tomo|Interactive WET tomography…|Edit velocity smoothing|Smooth last iteration smooths the
final WET tomogram after the last WET iteration.
WET Tomo|Interactive WET tomography…|Edit velocity smoothing|Smooth nth iteration lets you
specify how often WET smooths the tomogram during inversion. Increase for less smoothing.
WET Tomo|Interactive WET tomography…|Edit velocity smoothing|Smooth velocity update and
tomogram after update smooths both the velocity update and the tomogram, with update applied to it.
WET smoothing per default uses Gaussian function for weighting of data in filter matrix, relative to
central pixel to be smoothed. This makes WET inversion more robust and gives a better resolution than
uniform weighting as used for earlier versions. You optionally still can use uniform weighting.
WET Tomo|Interactive WET tomography…|Edit velocity smoothing|Used width of Gaussian lets you
specify what weight is given to pixels on periphery of filter kernel, in sigma’s of the Gaussian Bell
function (range 0.1 to 6.0). Width of 0.1 sigma gives more weight to peripheral pixels than 6.0 sigma.
WET Tomo|Interactive WET tomography…|Ricker differentiation is per default set to -1 for Gaussian
function weighting of wavepath velocity update. This can improve lateral resolution of WET, e.g. to
image basement faults or cavities in overburden. Gaussian weighting helps most with increased WET
wavepath width.
Gaussian weighting also works better/more consistently than Ricker wavelet weighting (with
differentiation set to 0) when varying the WET wavepath frequency, in WET Tomo|Interactive WET
tomography… and gives more focused tomograms.
Smooth invert|Smooth inversion Settings|Extra-wide smoothing for 1D initial velocity profile specifies a
running-average smoothing filter width of 20% of the depth range of the 1D-gradient initial model.
Smooth invert|Smooth inversion Settings|Decrease cell size uses a smaller cell size when generating the
Surfer .GRD formatted initial model grid. A smaller cell size results in a larger grid with more cells and
can help to image layer boundaries with a sharper velocity contrast.
Smooth invert|Smooth inversion Settings|Extra-small cell size uses an even smaller cell size when
generating the Surfer .GRD formatted initial model grid. Available with our Pro license only.
Smooth invert|Smooth inversion Settings|Limit WET velocity to maximum velocity in initial model can
help to better resolve a sudden increase of velocity with depth at top-of-basement. Maximum depth
imaged with WET inversion may decrease, with this option enabled.
Smooth invert|Smooth inversion Settings|Limit WET velocity to maximum velocity in initial model is not
regarded for constant-velocity initial model .GRD. See our COFFEY04 tutorial on page 2.
DeltatV|DeltatV Settings|Limit DeltatV velocity exported to maximum 1D-gradient velocity is enabled
per default for version 3.31. This option helps to suppress 1.5D DeltatV artefacts in the imaged
basement. With this new default option, DeltatV velocity in ZONDDATA tutorial is limited to 2,620
m/s in Fig. 1 similar to Fig. 3. Fig. 1 shows less basement artefacts than with version 3.26.
DeltatV|DeltatV Settings|Limit DeltatV velocity exported to maximum 1D-gradient velocity determines
the 1D-gradient starting model in a separate DeltatV run, before doing the 1.5D DeltatV inversion. This
1D-gradient starting model is saved to disk as files ..\GRADTOMO\DLTAGRAD.GRD & .PAR .
DeltatV|Interactive DeltatV|Export Options|Max. velocity exported [m/s] shows the maximum velocity
in the 1D-gradient starting model file DLTAGRAD.GRD, with above new option enabled.
File|Import Data…|Import data type shows new GeoTomo TimePicker .3DTT format option. Send us
your .3DTT test files and we will make sure that we can import them.
Model|Model synthetic shots... works again. This has been disabled since version 3.23. We apologize
for any inconvenience caused. We thank our client roXplore gmbh for alerting us to this issue.
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Model|Model synthetic shots… now is enabled for our free trial and works with irregular receiver
spread types e.g. for sample profile \RAY32\LINE14 .
Model|Model synthetic shots… now resets synthetic picks to -1, and sets real picks to modeled times.
Window|Export ASCII Model of depth section… now adds Profile start offset[m] to horizontal inline
offsets from first profile receiver, in 2nd column of the exported .CSV model file.
for versions 3.25 and 3.26, refractor plotting on tomogram works for English language setting only, as
specified in Windows Control Panel|Region and Language settings.
to fix your Rayfract® 3.26 installation, run installer ray331_scripts.exe . This will install files from
scripts.zip into your C:\RAY32\DAT directory. This does not work for version 3.25.
Grid|Plot refractors on tomogram now uses a space character ‘ ‘ as column separator when writing the
.BLN file with refractors to be plotted, in AUTOTOMO.BAS script. Version 3.26 uses a comma ‘,’ .
own number formatting instead of Print # formatting in AUTOTOMO.BAS, independent of current
language setting and decimal mark (comma ‘,’ or point ‘.’). So Surfer can always read the .BLN file.
keep using Surfer 9 when also installing Surfer 12 free demo. Select Grid|Surfer invocation… and
Scripter.EXE in C:\Program Files\Golden Software\Surfer Demo 12\Scripter subdirectory. Start Surfer
9 via desktop icon. Run Smooth inversion and DeltatV & WET imaging, Grid menu imaging as usual.
Trace|Shot gather|ALT+P|Minimum time can again be set to a value smaller than 0 e.g. -10ms, for
clearer display and easier picking of traces recorded just besides the shot point.
new DeltatV & XTV flags are appended at end of GRADIENT.PAR & DELTATV.PAR files. For early
version 3.31 and earlier versions, these flags are written at end of VELOITXY.PAR files instead.
WET Tomo|Interactive WET tomography…|Start tomography processing shows error message
OpenPolicy : Access is denied under Windows 8.1 : restart Rayfract® 3.31 Pro via desktop icon, rightclick icon and select ‘Run as administrator’.
File|Open Profile... shows error message Ass. failed spreadTypeObj.Okay() : click Abort button, select
File|Import Spread types... and file MYSPREAD.SPR in your profile directory.
we allow header data update in feet, for station coordinates and shot point coordinates. See sample
files FEET.COR and FEETPTS.SHO installed in your \RAY32\DOC directory. These files contain the
word feet in the first header line.
for help on our .HDR batch import see winhelp.exe topic File formats last section. We have added
popup help topics for new WET Tomo|Interactive WET tomography… controls for Conjugate Gradient
method. Use function key F1 to display popup help for control with current focus as usual.
updated help chapters Introduction and WET tomography processing with latest Grid menu image and
explanation of all Grid menu options and commands. Install with winhelp.exe.
winhelp.exe help installer now works under Windows 8.1, tested for Windows 8.1 64-bit Pro version.
updated .pdf reference at http://rayfract.com/help/rayfract.pdf .
SAGEEP11_13 tutorial shows how to improve resolution of WET inversion by systematically
decreasing the wavepath width, using SAGEEP11 blind refraction data with known true model.
our Expanded Abstract presented at SAGEEP 2014 in Boston, MA compares weighting of the WET
velocity update with Gaussian function vs. Ricker wavelet weighting, using the SAGEEP11 blind
refraction synthetic data with added noise. View our PowerPoint slides.
view our updated brochure for all recently added functionality.
Sloan et al. use SRT and MASW to detect shallow tunnels.
Kotyrba and Schmidt show combination of seismic and resistivity tomography for the detection of
abandoned mine workings, in EAGE NSG Early Online.
Pérez et al. combine seismic refraction tomography with microtremor analysis and mechanical borings,
for better geotechnical characterization of the subsurface.
Ramboll uses SRT for offshore wind farm planning, with extensive marine streamer survey.
Guerriero et al. use SRT and cone penetration testing for imaging of earth flows.
Version 3.26 released in December 2013 :
 Trace|Shot gather now offers Processing|Stack shots… to add any Source shot no. to currently
displayed Target shot, in profile database. Check box Subtract source to subtract Source shot from
Target shot. Test this with our updated free trial.
 we regard difference in total delay time (shot delay + trigger delay) between shots when stacking them,
and allow for different trace count and sample count of shots, as long as the sample interval is identical.
 import the same Target shot with two different shot numbers, if you want to keep an unstacked version
of the target shot in the profile database.
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Trace|Shot point gather now lets you simultaneously pick traces recorded for any shot at current
receiver station, if new option Processing|Pick all shots, in shot point gather is checked. Use this
option for shear-wave picking, with shots at same shot point but recorded with reversed trace polarity.
trace samples are now stored in Rayfract® profile database as 32-bit floating point samples, instead of
16-bit integer samples. This helps with higher-fidelity filtering and display of seismograph traces.
before you open an existing profile database with version 3.26, backup SEIS32.* profile database
files to .RAR or .ZIP archive and external USB drive. Once you have opened a profile database
containing seismograph traces with 3.26, you cannot open it with 3.25 or earlier any longer.
Smooth invert|Smooth inversion Settings|Extra-wide stack for 1D-gradient initial model increases the
CMP stack width up to 1200, for determination of the 1D-gradient starting model GRADIENT.GRD .
more robust .HDR batch import : allow “;” as column separator, without preceding “ “ space character.
File|ASCII column format...|Separator has new value “:,;” without enclosing “”. Use any of these 3
column separators (colon, comma, semicolon), for import of ASCII.ASC file with File|Import Data… .
more robust File|Import Data… dialog, if you don’t import any shots, either by using Skip button in
Import shot dialog, or because of bad input files and/or specification errors in .HDR batch import file.
improved import of SARA s.r.l. DoReMi seismograph generated SEG-2 files. We now support nonstandard termination of SEG-2 string section with just one binary-zero byte, instead of two zero bytes.
uncheck File|SEG-2 import settings|Standard SEG-2 string list termination for DoRemi SEG-2 files.
SEG-2 import setting|Get distance unit from user overrides distance unit specified in SEG-2 file(s)
during import, with your Import Data Settings|Default distance unit is meter setting.
File|Import Data…|Import data type Geometrics Plotrefa .VS now regards Take shot record number
from value DOS file name, but only if the current .VS file contains exactly one shot.
File|Import Data…|Import data type SEG-2 now regards Plotrefa .VS files named as the Geometrics
.DAT files (2.VS for 2.DAT). We read shot position, layout start and first break picks from this .VS.
File|Import Data…|Import data type SEG-2 also regards ABEM .FIR, Geometrics .BPK and Rimrock
.PIK files with shot position, layout start and first break picks, as in above bullet.
Layer .CSV file generated in Depth menu section with Window|Export ASCII Model of depth section...
now starts with header line with name of refraction method, unit feet or meters and profile name.
Grid|Reset DeltatV and WET settings to .PAR file... now works with .GRD and .PAR pair generated for
a different profile database than the one currently opened.
Grid|Plot refractors only without tomogram and Grid|Plot layer velocity without tomogram now adapt
the Surfer plot title, with name of refraction method used, unit feet or meters, profile name and version.
First regenerate the layer .CSV file as in above bullet, for this to work.
Grid|Plot refractors on tomogram now converts values in layer .CSV file to feet when plotting
refractors on .GRD file generated in feet or converted to feet. Regenerate layer .CSV as in above bullet.
Header|Station|Reset coordinates and v0 button resets y to 0.0 for Line type Borehole spread/line.
DeltatV|Interactive DeltatV…|CMP curve stack width [CMPs] has new max. limit of 1200, increased
from previous max. limit 240. This helps with long marine/land streamer surveys, e.g. with spread type
separation string 47*20 : 48 receivers, separated by 20 station number intervals. Use e.g. with spreadrelative receiver spacing 2m and Header|Profile|Station spacing of 0.1m. This lets you specify Layout
start and Shot Pos. in station numbers to an accuracy of 0.1m (max. error 0.05m), during data import.
Refractor|Midpoint breaks|Mapping|Automated updating of station V0 is unchecked during Depth
conversion in Depth menu, if the weathering velocity is not specified at all stations. So when you next
edit the weathering velocity in Header|Station and then remap traces to refractors, the edited velocity is
preserved in Header|Station. Automated updating of station V0 is checked during profile (re)open.
Refractor|Midpoint breaks|CLTR+F1 : zoom reduced time axis now flawlessly works at highest zoom
levels, avoiding digitization “steps” in dip of zoomed CMP traveltime curves.
Refractor|Midpoint breaks|ALT+M : mapping traces to refractors now works with streamer spread
type as described in above bullet, with receiver separation of 20 station number intervals.
Refractor|Midpoint breaks|ALT+M CMP Stack Width has new max. value of 1,200 CMP’s vs. max.
240 CMP’s for version 3.25 and earlier. This helps with streamer type surveys, see above bullet.
Refractor|Midpoint breaks|ALT+M Trace to refractor mapping parameters field Refracted Wave
Offset Delta has new default value of 5 station spacings, instead of former default 10, used for version
3.25 and earlier.
Refractor|Midpoint breaks|ALT+G Crossover distance smoothing has increased max. Overburden filter
[station nos.] and max. Basement filter [station nos.] of 2,000 station numbers.
improved automatic update of weathering velocity in Header|Station after mapping of traces to
refractors in Refractor|Midpoint breaks|ALT+M, if you skip Crossover distance smoothing (ALT+G).
Refractor|Midpoint breaks|Mapping|Update station V0 before depth conversion speeds up layer-based
refraction interpretation if you skip Crossover distance smoothing (ALT+G) after mapping (ALT+M).
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when skipping Crossover distance smoothing, increase CMP curve stack width [CMPs] instead in
refractor mapping dialog (ALT+M), to suppress excessive oscillation of crossover distance along line.
Refractor|Midpoint breaks|Mapping|Update station V0 for crossover smoothing only does not update
weathering velocity in Header|Station, if you skip Crossover smoothing (ALT+G).
Depth|Plus-Minus…/Wavefront…/CMP Intercept-Time Refraction...|ALT+M have increased max.
Overburden filter [station nos.] and max. Base filter width [station nos.] of 2,000 station numbers. Use
with long lines and land/marine streamer lines, see above.
WET inversion / forward modeling over grid now always work after automated import of extrapolated
shot branches with negative shot numbers, during time-to-depth conversion with Depth|Wavefront or
Depth|Plus-Minus.
WET Tomo|Interactive WET tomography…|Edit velocity smoothing|Manual specification of smoothing
filter : if you set Half smoothing filter height to 1 and Half smoothing filter width to a small value e.g. 1,
uncheck Automatically adapt shape of rectangular filter matrix to avoid WET artefacts.
WET Tomo|Enable AWE physical memory page caching now automatically adds right
SeLockMemoryPrivilege to current administrator account, for Rayfract® 3.26 Pro license.
for Rayfract® 3.25 or earlier Pro license, you need to add this right interactively as in ntrights.pdf .
if under Windows 8.1 64-bit our Rayfract® Pro license shows error message “Cannot enable the
SE_LOCK_MEMORY_NAME privilege. Failed with error 1300.”, please reboot Windows 8.1,
right-click Rayfract® desktop icon and select menu item Run as administrator.
File|External commands|Call Scripter and Surfer via batch is always checked during profile (re)open.
adapted AUTOTOMO.BAS script, now works again with Scripter version coming with Surfer 9.
improved error handling and prompting when Golden Software Surfer call via Scripter fails.
if Golden Software Surfer call via Scripter fails, please repair/reinstall Surfer 11.
New short tutorial ZONDDATA shows 1.5D DeltatV and 2D WET inversion of synthetic traveltime
data for known model. Also, we show CMP intercept-time layer-based refraction interpretation.
Review Blind Test of Methods for Obtaining 2-D Near-Surface Seismic Velocity Models from FirstArrival Traveltimes (Colin Zelt et al., JEEG Sep 2013) .
SAGEEP11_13 short tutorial shows optimized interpretation of SAGEEP11 blind refraction data.
Version 3.25 released in July 2013 :
 We now allow plotting overburden and basement refractors obtained with layer-based interpretation
methods Wavefront, Plus-Minus and CMP Intercept-Time Refraction on WET 2D velocity tomograms.
 generate ASCII files WAVEMODL.CSV / PLUSMODL.CSV or CMPMODL.CSV with File|Export
header data|Export ASCII Model of depth section... for depth section selected in Depth menu .
 Grid|Select ASCII .CSV layer model for refractor plotting... lets you select the ASCII model .CSV to be
used for plotting of refractors with Grid|Image and contour velocity and coverage grids… .
 Grid|Plot refractors on tomogram plots refractors read from WAVEMODL.CSV / PLUSMODL.CSV
or CMPMODL.CSV, on tomogram obtained with subsequent WET inversion and/or grid imaging. This
helps to correlate layer-based interpretation with 2D WET inversion. Iteratively vary 1.5D layer
interpretation including mapping of traces to refractors until it matches WET inversion output.
 Grid|Image and contour velocity and coverage grids... lets you reimage VELOITxy.GRD tomogram
grid files using your latest Grid menu option settings, without having to rerun the WET inversion.
 VELOITxy. GRD files are in C:\RAY32\<your profile name>\GRADTOMO (1D-Gradient starting
model) or …\TOMO (pseudo-2D DeltatV) or …\HOLETOMO (Borehole line/spread) directories.
 our Basic language script C:\RAY32\DAT\AUTOTOMO.BAS converts above ASCII .CSV to Surfer
format .BLN files on the fly, when invoked via Grid|Image and contour velocity and coverage grids… .
 Grid|Plot topography on tomogram reads topography from above ASCII .CSV in AUTOTOMO.BAS .
 Grid|Plot refractors only without tomogram asks you to select a VELOITxy.GRD tomogram with
Grid|Image and contour velocity and coverage grids but only uses this to determine limits and scale of
the refractor elevation plot. Adapt limits and scale of the plot in Surfer as usual.
 Grid|Plot layer velocity without tomogram plots weathering and refractor velocities without tomogram.
 edit Style, Width, Color, Transparency, End Styles of refractor polyline in Golden Software Surfer’s
Object Manager. Click on Base map icon and the refractor polyline(s) now listed below it.
 edit Shape of refractor polyline by selecting it as in above bullet. Now select Edit|Reshape and select
an individual node of the polyline with left mouse key. Hold down left mouse key and drag node.
 you need to install Surfer 9 or later, for above refractor plotting with polylines to work. Surfer 8 can
only display one polyline or one refractor, per Base map and .BLN file.
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we now regard the current setting of Page Units in Surfer Tools|Options|Drawing, when plotting
DeltatV and WET inversion output in Golden Software Surfer with Basic language scripts
AUTOTOMO.BAS and DELTATV.BAS, located in directory \RAY32\DAT .
File|Export header data|Export Shot Point Coordinates… now correctly exports absolute shot point
coordinates shotX and shotZ for Line type Borehole spread/line .
WET Tomo|Interactive WET tomography...|or RMS error does not improve for n = is now per default
unchecked, when running WET inversion for a new profile or resetting parameters with button Reset, or
when reopening an existing profile database with latest version 3.25 released in July 2013.
WET Tomo|Interactive WET tomography… parameter Wavepath width can now be set to max. 500%
instead of max. 100%, for more smoothing. This can help with deep imaging a few km below surface.
WET Tomo|WET tomography Settings|Scale wavepath width and Scale WET filter height are now per
default unchecked, for a short profile with 50 or fewer receiver stations.
Model|Model synthetic shots... works again. This has been disabled since version 3.23 .
improved robustness of traveltime field regression during Wavefront and Plus-Minus interpretation, in
case of too low/too short refractor coverage with first break picks.
tested with Microsoft Windows XP 32-bit, Windows 7 64-bit and Windows 8 64-bit, latest updates.
check your first break picks for reciprocal traveltime errors in Trace|Offset gather. Repick single traces
directly in Trace|Offset gather or in Trace|Shot gather. Or edit Trigger delay in Header|Shot, shifting
all traces of one shot by a constant time shift. See geoexp13 Fig. 9 and riveral8 Fig. 11.
to pick shear-wave survey first breaks, import two shots with same shot position (shot station no.) but
reversed trace polarity generated by 'hitting the beam at the other end", and display traces for both shots
in one display with Trace|Shot point gather. This makes picking much easier and more reliable.
for modeling of gradual increase of velocity with depth in the starting model disable XTV inversion :
 uncheck Smooth invert|Smooth inversion Settings|Allow XTV inversion for 1D initial model
 uncheck Smooth invert|Smooth inversion Settings|Optimize XTV for layered starting model
 select Smooth invert|WET with 1D-gradient initial model and confirm prompts as usual
 disabling XTV inversion as above can give more reliable/deeper output with bad first break
picks/too early picks
 XTV inversion is enabled per default with above XTV flags for Smooth inversion, since 3.23
to speed up WET processing, check Smooth invert|Smooth inversion Settings|Increase grid cell size,
before selecting Smooth invert|WET with 1D-gradient initial model.
Updated palmfig9 tutorial, now showing Smooth inversion and layer-based Wavefront refraction.
for optimal interactive WET inversion of palmfig9 synthetic data, 9 shots into 49 receivers, increase
WET wavepath width to 10%, run 100 WET iterations, disable WET scaling of wavepath width and
filter height. Limit Maximum valid velocity to 3,000 m/s as guessed with Wavefront refraction method.
to prevent Windows guest OS from freezing when run under Parallels Desktop and Mac OSX, increase
Computer sleep and Display sleep to 1 hour or more, from default 15 minutes, in Apple menu|System
Preferences…|Energy Saver. The Mac OSX screen saver will still kick in, after 15 minutes or so.
New step tutorial shows how to build a synthetic “basement step” grid model with Surfer, and how to
forward-model synthetic shots over this step.grd grid. We also show Smooth inversion and Wavefront
refraction layer-based interpretation. We plot the 1.5 D Wavefront refractor on 2D WET tomograms.
New zivko13 tutorial showing 2D WET inversion of reverse VSP survey, 49 shots from two boreholes
into 24 receivers. Shoot from more than two boreholes to increase angular coverage and robustness of
the 2D WET Wavepath Eikonal Traveltime tomographic inversion (Schuster 1993).
Updated help file and help installer.
Prof. Bob Whiteley compares published interpretations of SAGEEP 2011 blind refraction data with the
true model, made available by Colin Zelt.
Gasch Geophysical Services, Inc. shows determination of rippability (excavatability) characteristics of
sub-surface materials, for box culvert construction .
Dal Moro and Keller compares MASW with SRT and VSP.
Schicht et al. show imaging of brine zones with SRT and ERT.
View our contribution to thread http://forum.detectation.com/viewtopic.php?f=2&t=1817&start=50 .
Version 3.24 released in April 2013 :
 our parallel Eikonal solver now uses a separate memory pool for each thread during forward modeling
of first break propagation. This prevents delays during parallel memory allocation from multiple
threads.
 WET inversion now caches both shot and receiver traveltime grids. This speeds up the inversion with
multiple threads running in parallel, minimizing delays due to single-threaded access to disk.
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improved robustness of support for Microsoft AWE Address Windowing Extension, when called from
multiple threads during WET inversion with our Annual Pro Subscription license.
we now write all Smooth inversion and WET settings to .PAR file, including recently added settings.
restore inversion settings with Grid|Reset DeltatV and WET settings to .PAR file...
toggling of Smooth invert|Smooth inversion Settings|Increase grid cell size resets Initial velocity model
selection in WET Tomo|Interactive WET tomography… dialog to empty. This is required to prevent
reuse of old/now invalid WET wavepath width and WET smoothing filter size, in interactive WET
inversion. Reselect the starting model to redetermine wavepath width and smoothing filter size.
Trace|Shot gather now allows semi-automatic first break picking with polyline for Shot delay and
Trigger delay different from zero. Same for automatic first break picking with ALT+B.
when you change the Trigger delay in Header|Shot we shift first breaks and polyline picked for this
shot in Trace|Shot gather, by difference in Trigger delay.
at high vertical zoom of time axis, the first break pick symbol (circle or cross bitmap) is not clipped any
longer at bottom, in Trace|Shot gather display and other Trace menu displays.
more accurate picking, round up/down mouse-picked time to the nearest sample in Trace|Shot gather.
more accurate polyline picking, round interpolated pick time to the nearest sample in Trace|Shot gather.
we now allow up to 100 nodes per polyline and shot gather, instead of only 20.
added buttons Filter|Cancel|Reset to Frequency filter dialog ALT+Q, Bandpass filter dialog SHIFT+Q
and Trace processing dialog ALT+M .
Increase DeltatV|Interactive DeltatV|CMP stack width to e.g. 120 or 240 to minimize artefacts in case
of strong refractor curvature, see tutorials ot0608, GEOEXP13 and broadepi.
Test using DeltatV|Interactive DeltatV|Static Corrections|Surface consistent corrections instead of
default CMP Gather datum specific in case of strong topography, see ot0608 and GEOEXP13.
set DeltatV|Interactive DeltatV|Static Corrections|Inverse CMP offset power to 0.2 instead of default
0.5, to give more weight to traces for CMP at given offset from central CMP in stack.
Updated tutorial lnec17.pdf showing Smooth inversion of borehole survey with 3 adjacent holes. Our
Smooth inversion method assumes that all receivers are positioned in central borehole, and all sources
are located in external (left and right) boreholes. If this is not the case, you need to sort traces by
common receiver, for such a pair of two adjacent holes. See a13r1dm.pdf .
if during Smooth inversion and DeltatV inversion, you see a prompt saying Assertion failed! File:
CMPPRCSR.CPP Expression: gradient_traceCount_ok you can safely dismiss this with Ignore
button. These prompts can sometimes occur when layer-stripping inversion of CMP sorted traveltime
curves with DeltatV method encounters velocity inversions / low-velocity layers between highervelocity layers. Such prompts should occur even less starting with version 3.24.
Added web site page Synthetic modeling, listing links to tutorials and publications showing
tomographic inversion of synthetic traveltime data generated for known models. Some of these tutorials
come with ASCII formatted traveltime data. Objectively test accuracy of your own method with these
data sets.
tutorial GEOEXP13 shows reciprocity error check and how increasing WET wavepath width and
envelope width results in deeper and more reliable imaging. See also our tutorial bulgatrl, showing
systematic variation of WET wavepath width, to explore non-uniqueness of the solution space.
Bavec et al. show imaging of a fault trace with ERT and SRT (Geological Survey of Slovenia 2012).
Linn Karlsson shows determination of stratigraphic boundaries with SRT and push probe (Gothenburg
University 2011).
GEOVision Inc. shows imaging of shale bedrock with SRT and RQD (GEOVision 2010).
Version 3.23 released in December 2012 :
 fast parallel WET inversion uses up to 4 CPU cores both for forward modeling of traveltimes and
back-projection of residuals over Fresnel volumes, using SIRT algorithm. CPU Usage up to 100%.
 Our Annual Pro Subscription license uses up to 8 CPU cores, for even faster WET inversion.
 tested under Windows 8 Pro 64-bit, with Golden Software Surfer 11 free demo. Also tested under
Windows 7 Pro 64-bit and Windows XP Pro SP3 32-bit.
 Refractor|Shot breaks display for long profiles e.g. GEOXMERC may hang/endless loop under
Windows 8, at least with Parallels Desktop version 7 under Mac OSX 10.6.8 on iMac. Run Rayfract®
under Windows 8 in Windows 7 compatibility mode, to avoid such graphics display driver issues.
 Smooth invert|Smooth inversion Settings|Optimize XTV for layered starting model configures XTV for
strong velocity contrast between overburden and basement, in starting model for Smooth inversion. This
new option is enabled per default, when creating a new or opening an existing profile database.
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DeltatV|XTV parameters for constant-velocity layers... has new buttons Gradient model and Layer
model. Click these to reset XTV parameters for gradient model or layered model of subsurface velocity.
tutorial jenny10 shows Smooth XTV inversion of synthetic data for layered model, and earlier output.
WET Tomo|Interactive WET tomography…\Ricker differentiation can now be edited also for Borehole
spread/line surveys. Set to a value of -1 for Gaussian weighting across wavepath.
File|SEGY import settings|No receiver coordinates specified in .SGY file supports roll-along recording
geometry. Specify layout start and shot pos. in .HDR batch file, for each shot to be imported.
File|Import Data… now accepts .HDR batch files with empty trailing lines.
Fixed sample .HDR batch file 2LAMB15.HDR , with corrected column Shot Pos.
Fixed SEG-2 and SEGY import of 32-bit floating point samples with very low signal level, smaller than
FLT_EPSILON. Such samples were not correctly scaled to 16-bit fixed point samples, during import.
File|Update header data|Update Shotpoint coordinates… gives improved error message if shot point
x/y/z coordinates in the .SHO file do not match the shot station number specified when importing the
shot, see Header|Shot and Header|Station. In case of mismatch, backup your first breaks with
File|Export header data|Export First Breaks… to BREAKS.LST . Then reimport the shot with
corrected shot station number, optionally via .HDR batch import.
WET Tomo|WET tomography Settings|Disable wavepath scaling for short profile is checked, when
opening an existing profile or creating a new profile database with 24 or less receivers. For longer lines,
WET scaling is enabled. WET scaling of filter height and wavepath width improves resolution directly
below topography, for consistent first break picks. For noisy picks or short lines, disable WET scaling,
for more robust WET inversion.
added buttons Pick/Cancel/Reset to Automatic first break picking dialog, ALT+B in Trace|Shot gather.
Smooth XTV and pseudo-2D XTV and DeltatV inversion now re-read parameter records from the profile
database when opening a different profile. This prevents reusing parameters from the previous profile.
WET Tomo|WET Velocity constraints… lets you specify a velocity range, with two edit fields. All
velocities outside this range are kept unchanged during WET inversion. This may be used for marine
refraction surveys, with water overburden set to constant 1,500 m/s in the starting model.
Fixed determination of WET smoothing filter. This was determined too small, for earlier 3.23 builds and
line type Borehole spread/line .
Build your own starting model in Surfer, see palmfig9 and thrust tutorials. E.g. add a constant-velocity
water overburden to the initial model obtained with our Smooth XTV inversion or XTV inversion.
Use blanking file SEIS32.BLN in directory C:\RAY32\<your profile name> for blanking above sea
bottom, of GRADIENT.GRD or DELTATV.GRD. Copy this file to e.g. SEABOTTM.BLN and edit
with Windows Notepad. Add lines to define varying sea bottom elevation along profile.
Sometimes Surfer 8 has issues with recognizing .BLN end-of-file, with Grid|Blank.... . Fix the .BLN
with the free XVI32 Hex. Editor, ensuring that the .BLN file ends with exactly one pair of binary
characters 0D, 0A meaning <cr><lf> at end of last non-empty line, and has no trailing empty lines.
To generate the constant-velocity water overburden, use Surfer Grid|Function… . First open our
GRADIENT.GRD or DELTATV.GRD initial model in Surfer, and select Options|Grid Info… to
display grid limits and cell size. Reuse these values with Grid|Function… for your water overburden.
Combine your constant-velocity water overburden with blanked GRADIENT.GRD or DELTATV.GRD
to obtain your custom starting model with Surfer Grid|Mosaic… , see palmfig9 and thrust tutorials.
Copy GRADIENT.PAR or DELTATV.PAR to match file name of your STARTING.GRD starting
model, e.g. to STARTING.PAR .
for a new installation, first download, backup to USB drive and run base installer
http://rayfract.com/common/raywn323.exe . Next, download, backup to USB and run your customized
upgrade installer named rayup323.exe. See our e-mail instructions.
to update the green WibuKey or grey CodeMeter dongle driver and runtime, go to
http://www.wibu.com/en/downloads-user-software.html . Select, download, backup to USB drive and
run your runtime installer. There are two versions of CodeMeter runtime : Windows 32-bit vs. 64-bit.
if you see a message saying “old runtime” or similar when starting up Rayfract®, you need to update
the WibuKey or CodeMeter dongle driver and runtime, as described in previous bullet.
if Rayfract® fails to start with message “CmDongle runtime system is not installed! “ or without any
message, please add an exception to your firewall software e.g. McAfee or AVG, for CodeMeter.exe in
path C:\Program Files (x86)\CodeMeter\Runtime\bin and/or reboot Windows.
also add a firewall/anti-virus exception for executable file C:\RAY32\bin\Rayfract32.exe .
when installing CodeMeter runtime 4.50 or higher in Windows 7 64-bit under Parallels Desktop
running on Mac OSX, you may need to add a port forwarding rule. Otherwise time server access may
fail. See http://rayfract.com/help/Parallels_Network_Config.pdf . Configure Network 1 of your Virtual
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Machine as “Shared Network”, both for fixed Ethernet cable and WiFi connection under Mac OSX. The
Windows 7 Ethernet adapter is automatically rerouted over WiFi under Mac OSX.
in rare situations, the Surfer® installation routine does not correctly update the Windows® registry,
with path information. This may result in our Rayfract® software hanging, when invoking Scripter. If
this happens, just uninstall and reinstall Surfer®.
or select the Scripter .exe with Grid|Surfer invocation… , to avoid failure of lookup of Scripter path in
Windows® registry, due to above Surfer® installation routine issues.
improved lookup logic with Surfer® version 11 Demo, for Scripter path in Windows® registry.
improved error message if Scripter path is not obtained with Windows® registry lookup.
to use all installed RAM memory above 4 GBytes and up to 64 GBytes with Rayfract® Annual Pro
Subscription & Permanent licenses with Windows® 64-bit Pro, configure Windows as in ntrights.pdf .
Powers and Burton use SRT to investigate the depth to competent bedrock, at a construction site.
Version 3.22 released in August 2012 :
 use Gaussian function (standard normal distribution) for weighting of gradient update across wavepath
(Fresnel volume). Set WET Tomo|Interactive WET tomography… field Ricker differentiation to -1 to
use Gaussian weighting instead of Ricker wavelet weighting. We scale one period (wavepath width
100%) to half-width of 3 sigma (3 standard deviations) of Gaussian bell function.
 Use above Gaussian WET weighting to avoid high-velocity artefact below shot point no. 3 for riveral8,
with WET wavepath width of 100%. These artefacts can happen with Ricker wavelet weighting, if
traveltime curves are picked too close to each other on the basement refractor and diverge towards the
shot points. Alternatively, reimport such shots with corrected geometry and repick traces / correct picks
with Header|Shot|Trigger delay if appropriate.
 WET Tomo|Interactive WET tomography…offers more criteria for WET termination : when RMS
error goes below specified threshold in percent, or when RMS error does not improve for n iterations, or
after x minutes of running the inversion.
 WET wavepath width and WET smoothing are now reset to defaults/redetermined whenever you toggle
Smooth invert|Smooth inversion Settings|Increase grid cell size, or select Smooth invert|Smooth
inversion Settings|Reset Smooth Inversion settings, or reset DeltatV settings.
 Smooth invert|Smooth inversion Settings|Allow XTV inversion for 1D initial model uses XTV inversion
parameters configured in DeltatV|XTV parameters for constant-velocity layers... for determination of
1D initial model. Use this option in case of strong velocity contrast between overburden and basement.
 uncheck DeltatV|DeltatV Settings|Reduced offset 0.0 is valid trace with time 0.0 for more
shallow/realistic imaged depth of weathering layer, in case of sudden increase of velocity with depth.
Otherwise leave this option checked, especially to avoid DeltatV artefacts due to bad picks.
 also uncheck Smooth inversion|Smooth inversion Settings|Interpolate velocity for 1D-gradient initial
model, in case of low-velocity and thin overburden over high-velocity basement.
 for Surfer imaging of pseudo-2D XTV output, use Natural Neighbor gridding method instead of
default Kriging, to avoid artefacts. Specify this in DeltatV|Interactive DeltatV…|Export Options. See
tutorial jenny10, showing these Kriging artefacts, solely caused by Surfer gridding and imaging.
 for pseudo-3D fence diagrams we recommend Golden Software’s Voxler software. This lets you
import 2D WET tomograms which are formatted as Surfer .GRD files, as generated with our software.
See sample http://rayfract.com/samples/9.bmp, made available by our client Terra Geosciences.
 as shown by (Watanabe 1999, Fig. 4) for crosshole surveys, it is not possible to reliably image seismic
subsurface velocity at a resolution smaller than one wavelength of dominant frequency of the first break
pulse. E.g. with 100 Hz and basement velocity of 4,000 m/s, one wavelength is 4000/100 = 40m. In
case of bad or noisy picks, resolution will not be better than two wavelengths. For refraction surveys,
resolution at bottom and edges of tomogram is further reduced, because here rays and wavepaths are
aligned predominantly parallel to each other (White 1989).
 the minimum-structure smooth 1D starting model is recommended for robust WET inversion of
lines shorter than 0.5 km, to prevent artefacts caused by the starting model (Sheehan et al. 2005, Fig.
1) and to prevent our WET inversion getting stuck in a local minimum of the traveltime misfit function
(Schuster 1993, Equation 1). See our SAGEEP11 presentation, thrust12, epikinv, mtbulga etc.
 new tutorial bulgatrl shows interactive varying of WET wavepath width, to explore non-uniqueness.
 as shown in bulgatrl, thrust12 and ot0608, increasing the WET wavepath width is a physically
meaningful way of exploring the non-uniqueness of the solution space. For wide shot spacing and
inconsistent first break picks do not decrease the wavepath width from its default setting, to avoid
WET inversion artefacts / unstable inversion and over-fitting to noisy traveltime data with bad picks.
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increasing WET wavepath width to 50% or 100% can help to better image basement structure, with 100
WET iterations. Try this with LINE14 sample profile in \RAY32\LINE14, and with TRA9002 tutorial.
This will not help with very shallow basement, just a few meters below topo, e.g. with thrust12 .
interactively increasing the WET wavepath width has been possible since we first implemented WET
inversion, about 12 years ago. We just for the first time show systematically in tutorial bulgatrl the
effects of step-wise increasing of wavepath width, with Degree of differentiation of Ricker wavelet set
to default value of 0.
before 2008, default setting of Degree of differentiation of Ricker wavelet was 1, then was changed to 0
with version 3.05 released in January 2008. See below, in these release notes. With old default
differentiation of 1 (Ricker wavelet once derived), increasing WET wavepath width can result in
unstable inversion and “skeleton” artefacts (wavepaths engraving themselves into velocity tomogram).
With new differentiation default of 0 (since version 3.05), increasing WET wavepath width works as
intended, and results in smoother tomograms with less artefacts, as shown in our tutorial bulgatrl.
Spetzler and Snieder state in The Fresnel volume and transmitted waves at end of abstract : “Last, we
address the misconception that the width of the Fresnel volume limits the resolution in imaging
experiments”. See bulgatrl tutorial. Increasing width of wavepath (Fresnel volume) to 50% and even
100% (one wavelength) does not decrease resolution in basement, only just below the topography.
tutorial thrust12 shows Smooth inversion of synthetic data for thrust fault model, with our free trial.
This shows that Smooth inversion is capable of imaging strong lateral velocity variation, as long as
shots are spaced closely enough and first break picks are accurate. If shots usable for 2D refraction
tomography are too few (less than 7) and spaced too widely apart then inversion will become highly
non-unique, as shown by Dr. Palmer in his SAGEEP12 presentation, and in our bulgatrl tutorial. To
reduce this non-uniqueness increase the WET wavepath width, shoot at every third receiver and
pick first breaks consistently, regarding the reciprocity principle. Use 24 receivers per spread instead
of only 12, for more reliable imaging. For more information see our SAGEEP10 short course notes.
Prof. Bob Whiteley comments on Mt. Bulga line 00 SAGEEP12 interpretation by Dr. Palmer.
Refractor|Shot breaks branch point picking now positions the pick bar at discrete, valid positions
between channels. This speeds up moving the pick bar to a new position, with left/right arrow keys.
Trace gather displays and Refractor|Midpoint breaks now maintain own independent cursor, for
navigating of first breaks. The mouse cursor is not repositioned to picked first breaks any longer. As a
consequence, windows can now be moved and resized freely, within the main Rayfract® window.
move the Trace gather pick cursor with arrow keys as previously. Left/right arrows reposition the
cursor to previous/next trace. Up/down arrow keys move the cursor along the same trace. Hit space bar
to pick the first break, at current cursor position. Alternatively pick with left click of mouse, at mouse
cursor. This also repositions our own cursor.
we now use bitmaps for first break picks : bigcross.bmp for modeled, redblack_circle.bmp (or
optionally bigredcross.bmp, see next bullet) for picked first break, and hugeplus.bmp for pick cursor
display. These .bmp files are in your \RAY32\RC directory. You may replace these bitmap files with
your own symbols. Name the files as above. E.g. copy bluecircle.bmp to bigcross.bmp, copy
redcircle.bmp to redblack_circle.bmp. Restart Rayfract®.
Trace|Processing|Use red cross for picked first breaks shows picks with bitmap bigredcross.bmp .
Trace|Processing|Solid color pick display displays pick bitmaps with AND operation instead of XOR.
Trace|Processing|Picks always cover traces : picks are displayed in a separate loop, after all traces have
been shown. Looks nicer for publication-quality output, but slower trace gather display when paging.
Create your own bitmap .bmp files e.g. with free IrfanView utility. Create a new circular bitmap :
- Image|Create new (empty) image
- Leave Image width/height at 100 pixels, click Ok button
- Edit|Show Paint dialog
- Hover mouse cursor over Ellipse tool, read description
- Left-click on Ellipse tool
- Check Fill box at bottom of Paint dialog
- Select color for interior/edge of circle, at bottom of Paint dialog
- Press Shift key, move mouse cursor into white empty bitmap area
- Keep Shift key pressed, press left mouse key at upper-left corner for circle bitmap
- Still keep Shift key pressed, drag mouse to lower-right corner of circle
- Release left mouse key and Shift key
- Edit|Auto crop borders
- File|Save as…, to C:\RAY32\RC\<your bitmap name>.bmp
Trace|Shot gather display|ALT+P editing of trace display parameters, station number range and time
window can now always be edited. When you change these limits, offset zooming (Shift+F1) and/or
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time zooming (F1) is disabled. Processing menu items Edit… will be checked automatically. Uncheck
item Edit offset range, to restore offset zooming. Uncheck Edit time window, to restore time zooming.
adapted to work with Golden Software Surfer® version 11, tested demo version. Test our free trial.
if you specified page units centimeters in Surfer Tools|Options|Drawing, we now reset this internally
to inches, for consistent display of DeltatV and WET tomograms.
Depth menu depth sections show axis labels with two digits after decimal point, if depth range < 1.0m.
support import of SEGY files written with Seismic Unix, ProMax and SPW.
support importing SARA s.r.l. DoReMi seismograph generated SEGY and SEG-2 files.
support import of SEGY files generated with Seismic Source and Lakkolit X-M3 seismographs.
support non-standard SEGY .SGY import, with File|Import Data… .Test this with updated free trial
RAYTRIAL.EXE . This now allows import of Ambrogeo Echo 12/24 non-standard .SGY files. Enable
the following three new SEGY settings for this to work :
File|SEGY import settings|Non-standard byte ordering : low byte stored first (NOT big-endian) allows
import of .SGY disk files with words stored in reversed byte order (little-endian).
File|SEGY import settings|One shot per .SGY file : disregard original field record number in trace
header assumes that all traces in one .SGY file belong to one shot record, when importing.
File|SEGY import settings|No receiver coordinates specified in .SGY file assumes that .SGY does not
contain valid receiver coordinates. Our SEGY import routine determines receiver position for each
.SGY channel via channel number, Default spread type and edited layout start.
File\SEGY import settings|Set SEGY settings for Ambrogeo Echo non-standard .SGY file will preset
above three settings.
if input file(s) imported with File|Import Data… do not end with a shot number, the shot number is now
determined from header values specified within such files.
in Header|Station, Correct breaks button is now enabled always, not only when copying weathering
velocity with buttons v0 from CMP or v0 from Shots. Interactively edit and interpolate v0 in
Header|Station, and then correct for shot position offsets with Correct breaks button. Next enable Copy
v0 from Station editor in DeltatV|Interactive Delta-t-V|Static Corrections, and redo DeltatV inversion.
Bedrosian et al. use SRT, ERT, TEM, MT and LiDAR to image structure beneath an earthen dam.
Ruiz-Villanueva et al. use SRT, Time Domain Reflectometry (TDR) and geotechnical tests for
hydrogeomorphic characterization of a shallow landslide.
Burton et al. use SRT, ERT and borehole logs to investigate preferential flow paths for contaminants.
Travelletti et al. use SRT and laser scanning to define the geometry, the kinematics and the failure
mechanism of a large landslide.
Gazdek et al. use SRT to image soil improvement by embedding of gravel cylinder columns (piles).
Version 3.21 released in April 2012 :
 SEGY .SGY import, in File|Import Data….Test this with updated free trial RAYTRIAL.EXE .
 support importing multiple shots stored in same SEGY .SGY file.
 display of SEGY trace header fields FieldRecordNo and EnergySourcePointNo in Header|Shot .
 Shot pos. and Layout start are determined by dividing .SGY source/group x/y/z coords. by Station
spacing as specified in Header|Profile. You can edit these station numbers in Import Shot dialog.
 check File|Import Data Settings\ Keep same Layout start for consecutive shot files and File|Import
Data Settings|Default layout start is 1.0 to assign station number 1 to leftmost profile/spread receiver
during following import, with File|Import Data… . This works again for SEG-2 import as well.
 Batch import of shot files. You can specify shot file name, sequential shot number in input file, shot
number in database, layout start, shot pos. etc. in a .HDR import batch file. Tested SEG-2 and SEGY
import, with one or multiple shots per SEG-Y file. See 2lamb15.hdr for a sample .hdr batch import file,
specifying import of shots from two .sgy files.
 Updated mdw2011.zip with mdw2011.hdr batch file, for tutorial mdw2011.pdf .
 WET Tomo|Coverage plot setup… allows thinning of the WET coverage plot. Specify every nth shot
and receiver for which wavepaths are plotted. Easier visualizing of wavepaths, with dense plots.
 WET Tomo|WET tomography Settings|Export modeled WET times to .LST writes VELOITXY.LST files
with picked and modeled times, for tomogram VELOITXY.GRD and during WET inversion.
 Model|Forward model traveltimes... now forward models first break times with our Eikonal solver for
both sources and receivers, and determines an improved synthetic time by taking the average of forward
time (from source) and reverse time (from receiver), for the same ray and trace.
 wider station number range, now from -1,000,000 to 1,000,000. Previously was -10,000 to 10,000 .
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improved Wavefront and Plus-Minus refraction methods for long sections. We allow larger values for
smoothing parameters (overburden filter, basement filter). See our updated tutorials ot0608.pdf and
GEOXMERC.pdf .
wider text fields showing selected .GRD and .PAR files of selected initial model, in WET
Tomo|Interactive WET tomography… .
write new Smooth inversion and WET settings to .PAR files.
Grid|Reset DeltatV and WET settings to .PAR file… restores inversion parameter settings from .PAR
file, associated with selected DeltatV, Gradient or WET velocity .GRD file
improved robustness of memory management during DeltatV method inversion, for large data sets.
Trace|…gather|Processing|Edit offset range allows editing of station number range with ALT+P, used
for displaying trace gathers with Trace menu. This disables horizontal zooming with SHIFT+F1.
Trace|…gather|Processing|Edit time window allows editing of time window with ALT+P, used for
displaying trace gathers with Trace menu. This disables vertical time zooming with F1.
GeoTomCG .3DD and Geometrics Plotrefa .VS import routine sequentially increases shot number when
importing multiple .3DD or .VS files, stored in same input directory. Previously, the shot number was
reset to 1 for first shot of each file.
more accurate determination of shot position, during import of shots, editing in Header|Shot , updating
shot points with SHOTPTS.SHO and when forward modeling traveltimes with Eikonal solver. Helps
with strong topography and lateral offsets. Now stores 3 digits after decimal point instead of 2 digits.
Smooth inversion Settings|Increase grid cell size now gives .GRD Surfer grids with at least 400
columns, instead of at least 600 columns, and at least 100 rows. This further increases cell size.
Smooth invert|Smooth inversion Settings|Wide smoothing filter for 1D initial velocity profile sets
vertical smoothing filter width to 20% of depth range of 1D-gradient initial model, instead of 10%.
increased minimum required WET wavepath width in WET Tomo|Interactive WET tomography…, to
20% of unscaled default value, to prevent the publication of artefacts. Too narrow wavepath width and
Fresnel volume width is physically impossible and meaningless. See Fig. 1 in Hagedoorn 1959.
See SAGEEP10.pdf for help on WET wavepath width and other WET and DeltatV settings.
fixed scaling bug in Refractor|Midpoint breaks display, for long seismic traces (riveral8.pdf).
fixed a few corner cases when mapping traces to refractors in Refractor|Midpoint breaks display.
allow importing non-standard Micromed SoilSpy Rosina SEG-2 files.
allow import of non-standard DMT SUMMIT SEG-2 trace files.
File|SEG-2 import settings submenu, for more control over determination of SEG-2 trace data start.
recommend to improve first break picks if normalized RMS error larger than 3%. Refer to riveral8.pdf .
Updated Windows Help file rayfract.hlp . Install via rayhlpup.exe installer. Updated topic Crosshole
survey interpretation, and new topic Downhole VSP interpretation.
to open Windows help files under Windows 7, you need to download and install Microsoft
WinHlp32.exe . This component is not included out-of-the-box any longer.
Regenerated rayfract.pdf from latest version of help file, now with graphics.
Updated function_keys.pdf , listing new keyboard shortcuts ALT+Z and SHIFT+Z.
Ot0608.pdf tutorial shows interpretation of a large and dense data set, with Smooth inversion, XTV
inversion and Wavefront refraction. These methods show good agreement with each other.
Updated tutorial clud1.pdf . Uncheck WET tomography Settings|Disable wavepath scaling for short
profile, to get more resolution directly below topography. Weathering layer looks more realistic.
set WET Tomo|Interactive WET tomography… |Degree of differentiation of Ricker wavelet to 1, to
obtain sharper/less smooth WET output, e.g. for SAGEEP11 refraction data set. Watch for artefacts.
Benjumea et al. 2011 compare ERT with SRT (WET tomography) and Nakamura H/V method.
Lamb et al. 2011 show geothermal fault imaging with ERT, SRT and SP, on an AGU 2011 poster.
Doug Crice describes how to record and process borehole shear-wave surveys including VSP
pick S-wave first breaks in our Trace|Shotpoint gather display, for pairs of shots with reversed trace
polarity, recorded at common shot points.
Use Matlab code fn_writeseg2.m to convert SEGY files to SEG-2. We provide this code as is without
support, and you need to adapt it to your situation (number of channels, number of samples per trace).
Also, you need to load the SegyMAT module, on which this code depends. We thank Andrew Lamb at
Boise State University for making this code available.
install and run Rayfract® under Parallels Desktop on an Apple iMac or MacBook Air portable, e.g.
in a Windows 7 virtual machine. We tested Parallels 6 with Mac OS X 10.6 Snow Leopard on iMac,
and Parallels 7 with Mac OS X 10.7 Lion on MacBook Air. Adapt the Apple keyboard mapping :
 in Apple menu under Mac OS X, select System Preferences… and Keyboard. Check Use all F1,
F2, etc. keys as standard function keys, for easy usage of function keys in Windows.
 map Windows style right-click to Ctrl+Click, in Parallels Desktop|Preferences…|Keyboard.
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disable Mac OS X system shortcuts in Parallels Desktop|Preferences…|Keyboard.
Version 3.20 released in October 2011 :
 WET Tomo|WET tomography Settings|Enable AWE physical memory page caching uses RAM memory
above 4GB, up to 64 GB, for traveltime grid caching during WET inversion, with Microsoft® Address
Windowing Extension. Also see Mark Russinovich’s description of AWE. This setting is enabled with
our Rayfract® Pro annual subscription license only. Ask for our pricing. Normally 32-bit Windows®
applications can only use maximally 2 or 3 GB of RAM. This option speeds up WET inversion by up to
5 times for large data sets, by avoiding disk access and virtual memory paging/swapping to disk. We
recommend running our Annual Pro license under Windows 7 64-bit.
 more WET regularization/smoothing, for low-velocity sections. Based on average velocity of the
initial model, we now automatically increase default WET wavepath width and smoothing filter size, for
low-velocity sections e.g. shear-wave surveys or areas with thick non-consolidated, loose overburden.
 Processing|Frequency filter… allows frequency filtering with single-pole filter or ChebyshevButterworth, in Trace|Shot gather display. High-pass or low-pass filter. Edit cutoff frequency, and
number of times the filter is cascaded. Edit percent ripple and number of poles (relevant for ChebyshevButterworth only).
 each filter stage is in turn convolved with the (filtered) trace signal, for better numerical stability.
 we optionally do bidirectional filtering. This can help to better preserve the wave form of the recorded
signal and first break pulse.
 Processing|Bandpass filter…shows Band-pass/Band-reject dialog, in Trace|Shot gather. Uses singlepole filter or Chebyshev-Butterworth twice, in sequence for band-pass and in parallel for band-reject.
 per default, we use single-pole filter, for above high-pass/low-pass and band-pass/band-reject filters,
instead of Chebyshev-Butterworth. This reduces overshoot and ringing in trace display, but has more
gradual roll-off in frequency domain.
 For more information on these digital filters, see http://www.dspguide.com/ , chapters 19 and 20.
 four most recent profile databases are listed at bottom of File menu. Select any of these to quickly
reopen the database, containing trace data, header data, recording geometry and inversion parameters.
 when you reopen any profile database, trace gather displays shown with menu Trace are restored to
same settings (coloring, zooming, filtering, processing) as when you worked with these the last time.
 trace processing and display settings in menu Processing are stored separately for each trace gather
type, as selected with Trace menu. These settings are also restored, when you reopen a profile database.
 Velocity display|Show maximum velocity at bottom option. Plot velocity graph with inverted velocity
axis, with velocity increasing towards bottom. Better correlation with depth section display.
 Smooth invert|Smooth inversion Settings|Increase grid cell size increases default cell size for the initial
model grid. This allows longer initial models, regarding constant maximum grid node count of 640,000.
Use to avoid Degenerated grid message, for long, shallow initial models and marine surveys. For
both short and long profiles, grid row count decreases, to at least 100 grid rows instead of at least 200
rows. This speeds up WET inversion. With this option enabled, WET inversion may become instable, in
case of velocity inversion. WET RMS error will slightly increase.
 our Rayfract® Pro annual subscription license allows larger grids with up to 1,280,000 nodes.
 WET Tomo|WET tomography Settings|Disable traveltime grid caching results in all traveltime grids
being written to disk, instead of cached in RAM. May reduce disk swapping, in case of low RAM.
 File|Update header data menu items Update First Breaks… , Update from Gremix .GRM files … and
Update from OYO .ODT files… don’t reset the trigger delay of updated shots any longer.
 our Interpex Gremix .GRM import routine now accepts a station interval (specified on first line of
.GRM file) smaller than 1.0. Previously, the station spacing was reset to 1.0m in this case.
 fixed determination of source/receiver elevation during SEG-2 import into borehole spread/line, based
on Station spacing, Default spread type, Layout start and Shot pos. specified during import.
 fixed first break picking in Trace|Shot gather if Refractor|Shot breaks is open. This was broken in early
version of 3.20. Just close Refractor|Shot breaks window, so picking in shot gather works fine again.
 we do not support running our software under Microsoft® Windows 2000 any longer. When starting
version 3.20 under Windows 2000, it recommends using Windows XP, and shuts down again.
 if Rayfract® can’t open a profile database under Windows 7 64-bit, shutting down with an error
message instead, right-click the Rayfract® desktop icon and select Run as administrator. Retry open.
 before backing up a profile database (files SEIS32.*), always first exit via File|Exit, to close the
database. Otherwise the profile database is still opened and being updated by Rayfract®. Backing up
an opened database results in missing database files, or in a corrupted snapshot of the database.
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if you change Surfer Preferences|Drawing|Page Units to Centimeters from default Inches, tomograms
plotted with Rayfract® will be too small. Just revert this Surfer setting to Inches, to fix this issue.
to update your rayfract.hlp help file and Rayfract® help menu, download our new installer
http://rayfract.com/help/rayhlpup.exe and run on the PC holding your current Rayfract® installation.
updated thrust tutorial, showing building of a thrust zone model grid with Golden Software Surfer. Now
shows easier forward modeling of dummy shots over this grid, to obtain synthetic shots. Following
Smooth inversion shows that our WET inversion is capable of imaging lateral velocity variation.
Tutorial riveral8.pdf shows WET inversion of 6 shots into 12 receivers, imaging a sapprolite setting.
Also, we show our new band-pass frequency filtering, and how to quality-check first breaks and
picks in Trace|Offset gather, according to traveltime reciprocity principle.
Tutorial mdw2011.pdf shows SEG-2 borehole shot import, header data update and Smooth inversion.
tutorial lnec17.pdf shows how to image two adjacent cross-hole surveys (3 boreholes) in one tomogram.
You can import SEG-2 shots into borehole spread profiles instead of .3DD shots. Just select the import
data type in our Import shots dialog. See above mdw2011.pdf .
updated tutorial camp1 shows how to build a custom layer-based initial model and use this for WET
inversion. We recommend to always use our default 1D initial model, with Smooth inversion method.
for surveys with homogeneous overburden, including marine streamer surveys, pseudo-2D DeltatV can
work well, even without running WET inversion. See GEOXMERC.pdf and ot0608.pdf . The longer the
overlapping receiver spreads and the resulting seismic line, recorded with roll-along technique
customary in reflection seismics, and the denser the receiver and shot spacing, the better DeltatV will
work. DeltatV and XTV parameters need to be tuned; see above two .pdf tutorials.
Falgàs et al. show mapping of a deltaic subsurface system near Barcelona, with audiomagnetotellurics,
reflection and refraction seismics interpretation (WET tomography), combined with borehole logs.
Boiero and Socco compare surface wave analysis with WET tomography, using both synthetic modelgenerated and field-recorded data. These two methods show good agreement with each other.
Benjumea et al. 2008 show combining seismic and CSAMT methods in a sinkhole site study.
Robert Whiteley comments on Mt. Bulga refraction data interpretation published by Dr. Palmer.
Regarding Dr. Palmer’s response, our WET inversion is capable of imaging lateral velocity variation,
see our thrust.pdf tutorial and tutorials epikinv.pdf, broadepi.pdf, fig9inv.pdf and SAGEEP11.pdf,
showing inversion of synthetic data generated from known models. These tutorials come with links to
the synthetic data and model files. So anybody can verify our imaging, or test their own inversion
method. We continue to recommend running at least 50 or 100 WET iterations. This enables our WET
inversion to remove artefacts of the initial model. This removal of artefacts is shown in our tutorials
thrust.pdf, epikinv.pdf, broadepi.pdf, fig9inv.pdf and SAGEEP11.pdf .
Thesis Stefan Jansen, Niels Bohr Institute, University of Copenhagen 2010 evaluates WET with
synthetic data for models of faults and small velocity anomalies, in Appendix C. Using 50 WET
iterations as recommended, helped to remove horizontal layering artefacts of the 1D initial model.
For theoretical determination of resolution limit of WET inversion see Sheng and Schuster 2003.
Version 3.19 released in June 2011 :
 select and configure Printer in File|Print Setup… under Microsoft Windows® Vista and Windows 7.
Once done, click on Print button, then select File|Print to print the currently selected window. For
version 3.18, left-click Windows 7 Start button and select default printer in Devices and Printers.
 Window|Display annotations in Arial uses Arial font, for axis annotation. Uncheck for Sans Serif font.
 Window|Large annotations uses large font, for display of axis title and labels. Uncheck for small font.
 Window|Print wide sections with large annotations for report-style .PDF graphics, when printing to
Adobe Acrobat or CutePDF Writer. Specify horizontal scale and vertical scale with ALT+P in
corresponding section window. Uncheck this when printing high sections, to prevent too large font.
 Window|Print with display colors uses orange color for printing of traveltime curve segments mapped
to weathering layer (refractor 0), in Refractor|Shot breaks or Refractor|Midpoint breaks . Uncheck this
to print with light blue color instead.
 delete all first break picks for current shot in Trace|Shot gather, with SHIFT+Z keyboard shortcut.
 delete all branch points for current shot in Refractor|Shot breaks, with SHIFT+Z keyboard shortcut.
 easier shortcuts for deleting branch points in Refractor|Shot breaks, now with ALT+F1, ALT+F2 .
 new ALT+Z shortcut for deleting first break pick of current trace, in Trace menu gather displays .
 always draw traveltime curves with solid pen in Refractor|Shot breaks for Line type Borehole
spread/line, independent of Station spacing and actual receiver spacing.
 improved AGC Automatic Gain Control in Trace|Shot gather, ALT+M. AGC window length can vary
between 0 and length of trace. All samples at trace start/end are gained, independent of window length.
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Smooth inversion and WET processing now are enabled once you import at least 3 shots into your
profile database, for line type Refraction spread/line. Also, these methods refuse to run if your shot
spacing is too wide, compared to the receiver spacing.
Smooth invert|Smooth inversion Settings|Extrapolate tomogram over five station spacings lets you use
shotpoints offset maximally 5 station intervals from first/last profile receiver, for DeltatV and WET .
May cause velocity artefacts in tomogram, due to missing receivers. Use if absolutely necessary only.
fixed endless loop in Wavefront method for short profiles, if forward/reverse refractor segments do not
overlap sufficiently, with Depth|Depth conversion Settings|Link traveltime curves checked.
faster back-projection of residuals along wavepaths, with SIRT-like algorithm, during WET inversion.
Up to 25% faster overall WET inversion, for large and dense data sets. Small data sets 5% faster.
database utilities for creating a new profile, checking a profile database, importing and exporting spread
types, and Scripter are now called directly instead of via .BAT batch file. This should help to avoid
issues with too stringent security checks for .BAT files, e.g. under Windows XP SP3.
improved error handling logic when calling external commands such as database utilities. Easier to
understand error messages. For DBREV.EXE database revision utility, exit codes are translated to text.
when running 3.19 under Windows Vista, select File|Call batch via PIF file, before running our Smooth
inversion etc. Otherwise Rayfract® cannot call into Golden Software Scripter and Surfer version 8.
if Golden Software Scripter utility hangs and/or shows ActiveX errors, please upgrade to Surfer
version 10. The free demo version is available at http://goldensoftware.com . First startup Surfer via
desktop icon and click on Splash screen, to avoid delay or Scripter errors. Next image tomograms with
Rayfract® using Smooth invert, WET Tomo and Grid menus, as usual. If Scripter still hangs, right-click
Surfer desktop icon and select Run as administrator. Surfer 10 also offers corrected Grid blanking
with Grid|Blank… , for large .GRD grid files.
you can have multiple Surfer versions installed at the same time. Just start the desired version with its
desktop icon, before running Rayfract®.
updated rayfract.hlp help. Run raywn318.exe to install this. With more information, easier instructions
and lots of screen shots of dialogs and menus.
Updated uphole tutorial coffey04.pdf . We reprocessed this with version 3.19, and updated instructions.
to suppress horizontal layering artefacts in the 1D initial model, limit the maximum exported DeltaV
velocity to e.g. 3,000 m/s instead of default 5,000 m/s. See palmfig3.pdf and SAGEEP10.pdf, page 25
of 44. This will speed up convergence, together with increased WET iteration count of e.g. 200.
for high-quality seismograph traces with good signal-to-noise ratio, we recommend to stack 10 or 12
shots at the same shot point. This enables accurate first-break picking, a prerequisite for SRT .
For exact shot timing try GISCO piezoelectric trigger switches . Timing is essential for shot stacking.
try disabling AGC on your seismograph when stacking shots. Otherwise pre-first break noise may
not cancel out while adding shots to the stack. Verify this on your seismograph trace display.
aim for an RMS error below 2% (as shown on top of WET tomograms). For higher RMS errors, check
and fix first break picks, in Trace gather and Refractor|Shot breaks displays. See GEOXMERC.pdf .
for noisy traces, uncertain first break picks and Smooth inversion RMS error above 2%, increase the
WET wavepath width, e.g. multiply by two. This gives smoother WET output, avoiding artefacts.
also increase WET wavepath width if subsurface velocity is slower than normal, e.g. in case of S-wave
surveys and low-velocity, unconsolidated overburden sediments. Otherwise the too thin wavepaths may
cause black uncovered regions in the wavepath coverage plot, with too wide shot spacing. This may
prevent a robust convergence towards meaningful interpretation, with increasing WET iteration count.
SRT Seismic Refraction Tomography and seismic refraction methods in general will not work reliably
or at all in strong velocity-inversion situations, with a high-velocity layer (paved road) above a lowervelocity sediment layer. You may have a chance to image this by orientating the line perpendicular to
the road, and planting shots and receivers both on and besides the road, at sufficient offsets to reach the
higher-velocity basement. See http://rayfract.com/samples/street_crossing.pdf .
to increase lateral resolution when inverting first breaks with WET :
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run Smooth invert|WET with 1D-gradient initial model as usual
select WET Tomo|Interactive WET Tomography...
click button Edit velocity smoothing
select Manual specification of smoothing filter
divide Half smoothing filter width by 2. E.g. change from 7 to 3.
click Accept Parameters button
click Start tomography processing button to redo WET inversion
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Tutorial camp1 shows how to build a custom layer-based initial model and use this for WET inversion.
We still recommend to always use our default 1D initial model, with Smooth inversion method.
For a new tutorial showing how to sort borehole traces by common receiver see a13r1dm.pdf .
Review Detecting perched water bodies using surface-seismic time-lapse traveltime tomography
(Gaines et al, SEG 2010). Includes WET velocity error analysis with checkerboard method.
Thesis Stefan Jansen, Niels Bohr Institute, University of Copenhagen 2010 evaluates our Smooth
inversion method with synthetic data for models of faults and small velocity anomalies, in Appendix C.
Wavepath width used in Appendix E is too narrow for reliable interpretation with our software. Please
use the default WET wavepath width, or even increase this, for the WET inversion to have a chance to
robustly converge towards a meaningful interpretation, especially in case of bad picks.
For a comparison between Wavefront refraction, Plus-Minus and GRM methods, see (Ali Ak, 1990).
Traveltime data for one of the models used (irregular refractor) is available in your sample profile
\RAY32\PALMFIG4. Invert this with our conventional Wavefront and Plus-Minus methods. See
http://rayfract.com/help/manual.pdf , chapter 1.10.
(Riddle, Hickey and Schmitt, SAGEEP 2010) show subsurface tunnel detection with ERT and SRT .
see (Hickey, Ekimov and Hansen, SAGEEP 2009) for imaging of a collapsing dam .
(Hickey, Schmitt and Sabatier, SAGEEP 2009) detect underground high-contrast voids with SRT .
(Ali Ak, 1990) used Dr. Palmer’s synthetic models to compare the Wavefront Refraction method (WR)
with Plus-Minus and GRM. WR can image irregular refractor surfaces and detects sudden lateral
change in velocity. WR depth calculations are independent of the refractor velocity.
for frequency filtering, shot stacking, resampling, conversion between SEG-2 and SEG-Y etc. try the
free Geogiga Front End . Write the processed shots to SEG-2 files and import into our software.
Version 3.18 released in December 2010 :
 check first break picks for reciprocal errors in Trace|Offset gather, after Smooth inversion. See our
tutorial http://rayfract.com/samples/GEOXMERC.pdf . Repick bad traces and redo Smooth inversion.
 WET inversion (back projection routine) now uses multiple CPU cores. Eikonal Solver used for
forward modeling during WET still uses one core only. Overall WET runs up to 25% faster, for large
datasets e.g. http://rayfract.com/samples/GEOXMERC.pdf and with Intel Core i3 processor, on Sony
Vaio with 4 GB of RAM. No noticeable speedup for small datasets, e.g. LINE14 on Intel Core 2 Duo .
 Model|Model synthetic shots… forward models traveltimes over your custom-built Surfer .GRD
file, without preexisting seismic survey and without .PAR file. Picked times are reset to these
modeled traveltimes. Import ASCII.ASC or GeomTomCG .3DD dummy shots without picked times (all
traces set to time -1), and then directly convert these dummy shots into synthetic shots modeled for your
custom grid model. See http://rayfract.com/tutorials/palmfig9.pdf .
 File|Export header data|Export Modeled Times to GeoTomCG .3DD… allows export of synthetic picks
to .3DD. Allows generation of .3DD with all traces set to -1, after above synthetic shot modeling, and
with File|Export Data Settings|Export dead traces to GeoTomCG.3DD checked.
 Window|Export ASCII Model of depth section now regards File|Export Data Settings|Export
coordinates in feet, when generating .CSV file for currently selected depth section window.
 DeltatV|Delta-t-V Settings|Extrapolate output to all receivers option extrapolates Delta-t-V inversion
output to all receivers, beyond first/last CMP stations. This new option is disabled per default.
 SHIFT-L command (reverse polarity of current trace) now works in all Trace menu gather displays, not
just in Trace|Shot gather. Select the current trace with arrow-left and arrow-right keys.
 ALT-L command (reverse polarity for all traces of currently displayed gather) works for all gather
displays as well.
 File|Import Data Settings|Round shot station to nearest whole station number is unchecked per default
for File|New Profile…, since version 3.17. If you specify y coordinates different from zero in
Header|Station, you need to check this option for 3.17 and earlier versions. This ensures valid
correction of traveltimes for lateral shotpoint offsets, during Smooth inversion and WET. You can
leave this setting unchecked for version 3.18 . Be sure to reimport your shots after toggling this setting.
 .GRD grid file and .CSV file selection now works with newer matching .PAR file, without requiring you
to update the .GRD or .CSV time stamp with TOUCH.EXE utility.
 Smooth inversion now always runs 20 WET iterations per default, even for low-coverage profiles with
average shot spacing of more than 3 receiver spacings.
 WET Tomo|WET tomography Settings|Scale wavepath width may help to improve weathering layer
resolution (less smoothing) for consistent first break picks. Uncheck WET Tomo|WET tomography
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Settings|Disable wavepath scaling for short profile, to enable adjustment. This wavepath width scaling
with picked time is preferred over minimal WET smoothing (WET Tomo|Interactive WET
tomography|Edit velocity smoothing|Minimal smoothing), to prevent artefacts. See
http://rayfract.com/SAGEEP10.pdf for up-to-date description of WET options and parameters.
import of ASCII.ASC now regards the last line even if this is not terminated with a <carriage return>
character (generated with ENTER key while editing).
Refractor|Midpoint breaks , mapping traces to refractors with ALT-M : we now check if Upper Layer
Velocity Limits increase with layer number. If not, we show an error message and ask to correct this.
Refractor|Midpoint breaks , mapping traces to refractors with ALT-M : now works for large and dense
data sets, with high Weathering Velocity Limit.
all Rayfract® dialogs are now displayed in MS Sans Serif 8 pts, a bit smaller than previously.
files SHOTPTS.SHO, COORDS.COR and BREAKS.LST are stored into BACKUP subdirectory
of your profile, each time you select File|Import Data… . Generate these files manually via File|Export
header data at appropriate times, to make sure they contain up-to-date information. Export these files
into your own subdirectory e.g. MyBackup to ensure they are not overwritten.
to ensure unique numbering for shots imported from multiple Geometrics SeisImager/PlotRefa .VS files,
into the same Rayfract® profile database, we recommend pasting together all .VS files into one .VS file
e.g. with Windows® WordPad or NotePad apps, and then import just this one .VS file.
we now support importing with a spread type specifying fewer channels than actually contained in
SEG-2 data files. E.g. specify default spread type “01: 24 channels” instead of “02: 48 channels” in
File|Import Data…, to import only the first 24 channels from 48-channel SEG-2 files. Do not try this
with earlier versions of our software, or you will corrupt the profile database and will need to
reimport all the shots and geometry information and first break picks into a new profile database !
use SEG2_EDIT utility http://pubs.usgs.gov/of/2003/ofr-03-141/ to rewrite SEG-2 files, with arbitrary
trace ranges selectively removed. Use or define a matching receiver spread type with our software.
default WET wavepath width is now always limited to 100%, even with bad/too late first break picks.
we now support import and inversion of ASCII.ASC with first break picks up to two seconds. We
increased the maximum allowed value for the following parameters :
 WET wavepath width : maximum increased from 50% to 100%
 maximum sample count imported per trace : 20,000 instead of 10,000
 trace gather displays : trace amplitude, vertical time axis, horizontal station number axis can now
be zoomed up to seven times, instead of six times
 DeltatV|Interactive Delta-t-V|CMP curve stack width : max. 240 instead of 120
 Refractor|Midpoint breaks|ALT-M|CMP stack width : new max. 240, old max. 120
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DeltatV|Interactive Delta-t-V|Static Corrections|Inverse CMP offset power helps to filter out DeltatV
artefacts for long/deep and high-coverage profiles. Default value is 0.5. Decrease to 0.2 and increase
CMP curve stack width to 120 or 240. Enable DeltatV|Delta-t-V Settings|Weigh picks in CMP curves.
See http://rayfract.com/samples/GEOXMERC.pdf (data made available by GeoExpert Ag). This tutorial
also shows how to identify bad picks, in Trace|Offset gather and Trace|Shot gather displays.
Smooth invert|Smooth inversion Settings|Wide CMP stack for 1D-gradient initial model lets you toggle
DeltatV parameter CMP curve stack width between default value 120 and wide setting 240.
assert failure with expression deltatv_v0 > 0.0 can happen e.g. with marine streamer surveys, when
using a small station spacing of 0.1m and spread type “36: 360 every 20”. This allows for arbitrary
shifting of the receiver spread during ”roll-along” recording. With this assert failure, please
 select Delta-t-V|Interactive Delta-t-V and click Static Corrections button
 increase Weathering crossover to e.g. 50 and Topography filter to e.g. 500 stations
 click Accept button, and run Smooth inversion or Automatic Delta-t-V and WET inversion as usual
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if Rayfract® 3.18 fails to start, with message mentioning VCOMP.DLL or error 0xc0000034 or “This
application has failed to start because the application configuration is incorrect” or “Impossibile avviare
l’applicazione specificata”, install the Microsoft Visual C++ 2005 SP1 Redistributable Package from
http://tiny.cc/b494e . This installs VCOMP.DLL into subdirectory of C:\WINDOWS\WinSxS . The
updated http://rayfract.com/common/raywn318.exe installs VCOMP.DLL automatically.
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if Rayfract® does not accept your grey CmStick/CodeMeter dongle e.g. on Windows 7 64-bit and after
reassigning disk partitions to drive letters, please
 select Start button|Control Panel
 type “Disk management” into field Search Control Panel , hit Enter key
 left-click blue text Create and format hard disk partitions
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plug in CmStick into any USB port
search for disk with blank Volume name, 39 MB Capacity and 0% Free
right-click disk symbol for this blank volume
right-click menu item Change Drive Letter and Paths…
click Add… button, select drive letter in drop-down box, click OK button
http://rayfract.com/tutorials/palmfig9.pdf shows how to build the syncline model and forward model
synthetic shots, as described in Palmer 2010 .
http://rayfract.com/tutorials/fig9inv.pdf shows how using a closer shot spacing decreases the degree of
non-uniqueness. E.g. shoot at every 2nd receiver instead of just at every 6th receiver. Increasing the WET
iteration count from its default value of 10 or 20 iterations to 50 or 100 improves the resolution also.
And we recommend using our 1D-gradient initial model, instead of pseudo-2D Delta-t-V initial model.
http://rayfract.com/tutorials/epikinv.pdf shows interpretation of the “Broad Epikarst” model described
by Jacob Sheehan in his JEEG March 2005 Seismic Refraction Tomography evaluation.
resolution of WET and seismic refraction tomography in general decreases with increasing imaged
depth. See e.g. http://rayfract.com/tutorials/thrust.pdf , D.J. White 1989 Two-Dimensional Seismic
Refraction Tomography and J.G. Hagedoorn 1959 the Plus-Minus method of interpreting Seismic
Refraction Sections Fig. 1 .
for a recent comparison between our WET tomography and Dr. Palmer’s GRM see
http://www.univie.ac.at/ajes/archive/volume_102_2/marschallinger_et_al_ajes_v102_2.pdf
Dr. Palmer assumes in his GRM method that the optimum XY spacing is constant for the whole profile.
This is generally not true. See e.g. Hamdy H. Seisa 2007 , Fig. 1 & 2 (dipping refractor case).
our Wavefront method automatically determines a laterally varying XY receiver separation. See Jones
and Jovanovich (1985), Brueckl (1987) and Ali AK (1990). Wavefront considers local emerging
wavefront angles. A critically refracted ray is represented by first break and emergence angle at a
receiver. Each reverse ray is combined with a matching forward ray, such that both rays surface from an
approximated common refractor location.
for our interpretation of the Palmer Mt. Bulga data set see http://rayfract.com/tutorials/mtbulga.pdf .
The original traveltime data is available at http://rayfract.com/tutorials/mtbulga.zip . Process this with
our free trial available at http://rayfract.com . Set Station spacing to 5m in Header|Profile. Next
File|Import Data… . with Import data type Interpex Gremix .GRM. Now Smooth invert|WET with 1D
gradient initial model. Apparently Dr. Palmer used a non-default Delta-t-V initial model and changed
WET smoothing to minimal smoothing instead of leaving it at default full smoothing, in Fig. 2 of his
EAGE Geophysical Prospecting January 2010 online paper. Also, he seems to have decreased WET
wavepath width from its default setting, and only run a few WET iterations. With such poor settings,
our WET inversion is effectively crippled, and WET output will be very similar to the starting model.
As automatically proposed by our software, using a closer shot spacing would decrease the degree of
non-uniqueness. E.g. shoot at every 2nd receiver instead of just at every 12th receiver. Increasing the
WET iteration count from its default value of 20 iterations to 50 or 100 usually improves the resolution.
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Updated http://rayfract.com/tutorials/mtbulga.pdf with link to http://rayfract.com/tutorials/thrust.pdf .
We did this thrust fault modeling specifically for Mt. Bulga data set. Also, we now recommend
shooting at every 3rd, optimally at every 2nd receiver instead of every 6th receiver.
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to batch-edit multiple SEG-2 files, e.g. changing file descriptor field UNITS from FEET to METERS,
and adding file descriptor field NOTE, please :
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download SEG2_EDIT.ZIP archive from http://pubs.usgs.gov/of/2003/ofr-03-141/
unzip e.g. into local directory C:\SEG2_EDIT
download SEGBATCH.ZIP from http://rayfract.com/tools/segbatch.zip
unzip e.g. into local directory C:\TEMP, and open command prompt, with Start|Run… CMD.EXE
copy your SEG-2 files *.SG2 into C:\TEMP, with COPY command
create subdirectory C:\TEMP\BATCHOUT, with MD command
edit SET_METERS.TXT response file for SEG2_EDIT, e.g. changing COMPANY and NOTE entries
edit SETUNITS.BAT if necessary, to point to directory containing SEG2_EDIT.EXE executable
run SETALL.BAT, to batch-edit all of your .SG2 files and write them to BATCHOUT subdirectory
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to visualize an individual wavepath between one source and one receiver, please :
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run our Smooth inversion with menu Smooth invert, e.g. for sample profile C:\RAY32\LINE14
select WET Tomo|Interactive WET tomography…
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click Select button and specify last iteration e.g. VELOIT20.GRD
set Number of WET iterations to 1
click on button Edit grid file generation
set Write wavepaths to disk for shot no. e.g. to value 3 for shot no. 3
click on button Accept parameters and then Start tomography processing
start up Surfer® and select File|New.. . Specify form type “Plot document”.
select Surfer menu item Map|Image Map…
select e.g. grid file C:\RAY32\LINE14\GRADTOMO\W003-024.GRD (shot no. 3, trace no. 24)
double click on the generated black-and-white plot
left-click on Colors scale and Load button
select file Rainbow2.CLR in C:\RAY32 or your Golden Software Surfer Samples directory
click on button Open and confirm with OK
check Interpolate Pixels and Show color scale. Set Missing Data to white color and click OK
select Surfer menu item View|Fit to Window
you will then obtain a color plot of wavepath from shot no. 3 to receiver no. 24. The wavepath is
centered on (black) time value of 0 milliseconds.
save Surfer® plot with File|Save As… , as file C:\RAY32\LINE14\GRADTOMO\W003-024.SRF
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to identify and fix bad shot positions, please :
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select Refractor|Shot breaks
uncheck Mapping|Display raytraced traveltimes
uncheck Mapping|Display synthesized traveltime curves
optionally check Mapping|Gray picked traveltime curves
optionally check Mapping|Dark Gray traveltime curves
use F7/F8 to browse picked traveltime curves
the vertical pick bar indicates the shot position you specified during import
so a bad shot position shows as a horizontal offset between traveltime curve minimum and pick bar
use SHIFT+O keyboard shortcut for Mapping|Check shot positions, for automatic checking
use Smooth invert|Smooth inversion Settings|Strict shot position checking for more accurate checking
with above SHIFT+O command, in Refractor|Shot breaks display.
 export picked first breaks to .LST with File|Export header data||Export First Breaks…
 reimport identified bad shot(s) with correct shot position (specified in station numbers)
 import saved first breaks from .LST with File|Update header data|Update First Breaks…
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to manually install the WibuKey driver 6.00a under Windows 7 32-bit or 64-bit, please :
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logout from your current Windows 7 session, and unplug your green WibuKey dongle
restart your PC, running Windows 7
login as Administrator
keep WibuKey dongle unplugged
download http://www.wibu.us/files/user/wk6_00b/WkRuntime.exe
run this WkRuntime.exe installer, confirming any prompts
finally plug in your WibuKey dongle again
wait for any balloon type messages to complete
Version 3.17 released in June 2010 :
 tested under Microsoft Windows 7 64-bit on Intel Core i3 processor. This works fine. Install our
software as usual. Now go to http://wibu.com, download and install the WibuKey Win 32 / Win 64
driver 6.00a sized at 19 MB. Rayfract® versions earlier than 3.16 will not work with driver 6.00a.
 http://rayfract.com/common/raywn316.exe base installer prompts you to download WkRuntime.exe
when run under Windows 7 64-bit. Confirm download with Save button, and run WkRuntime.exe, to
install WibuKey 6.00a driver for 64-bit. Next run the latest rayup316.exe or rayup317.exe as supplied.
 once you run Smooth inversion at least once for a profile, and check Smooth invert|Smooth inversion
Settings|Allow unsafe pseudo-2D Delta-t-V inversion, our Delta-t-V menu is reenabled again.
 for high-coverage profiles with at least 2,500 picked traces, you can enable Delta-t-V without first
running Smooth inversion.
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all Surfer tomogram plots showing Delta-t-V initial model or WET output based on Delta-t-V will show
a warning in the plot title saying Delta-t-V initial model artefacts !!!
we strongly recommend using our 1D-gradient initial model instead, via Smooth invert|WET with 1Dgradient initial model. Delta-t-V initial model may work better in some complicated cases of subsurface
structure, such as a thrust fault with fault zone (see http://rayfract.com/tutorials/thrust.pdf) or with
extreme topography, e.g. when imaging a dike. But in most situations of strong refractor curvature our
1D-gradient initial model results in less artefacts. See http://rayfract.com/tutorials/broadepi.pdf .
when using our Delta-t-V initial model, test limiting the maximum exported Delta-t-V velocity to
e.g. 3,000 or 4,000 m/s, to suppress artefacts. See http://rayfract.com/tutorials/palmfig3.pdf .
Delta-t-V method and Midpoint breaks display now support common-midpoint CMP station numbers
smaller than -8,000 and larger than 8,000. Previously these were cached incorrectly, resulting in invalid
CMP sorted trace gathers. The minimum/maximum station number range still is -10,000/10,000.
File|New Spread Type… now allows defining custom spread types with minimum receiver separation
of up to 20 station numbers. For underwater seismic refraction USR profiling, you may want to define
a new spread type “36: 360 every 20”, with 360 receivers and receiver separations “359*20”. Then
specify station spacing as e.g. 0.1m in Header|Profile instead of 2.0m. This allows for arbitrary
shifting of the receiver spread during ”roll-along” recording.
Delta-t-V|Interactive Delta-t-V…|Static Corrections now allows Weathering crossover of max. 200
stations, and Topography filter of up to 2,000 stations. Also, these two parameters are not reset to
default values any longer, during Smooth inversion.
copy any trace gather/refractor display/depth or velocity section to Windows® clipboard. Select the
section window with mouse left-click on its title bar, and press CTRL+C shortcut, to copy window
content as bitmap to clipboard. Use CTRL+V shortcut in Golden Software Surfer, Microsoft Word,
Microsoft Paint (MSPAINT.EXE) etc. to paste clipboard contents to current document.
copy bitmap of all opened section windows to clipboard with CTRL+A shortcut.
Window|Export ASCII Model of depth section lets you write topography, refractor elevations and
velocities to a comma-separated value .CSV file. You may import this into Microsoft Excel etc. .CSV
column 1 lists receiver station number, column 2 shows horizontal inline offset in meters.
uncheck Depth conversion|Display Wavefront positions when viewing Depth|Wavefront… section, to
suppress display of estimated basement positions with black triangles.
we now explicitly pass the complete grid line geometry (min/max x/y coordinates, # of Lines) when
calling into Golden Software Surfer® via Scripter. This ensures that you will never have to manually
regrid the .CSV, when running our Delta-t-V method.
when displaying traces with Trace|Shot gather, check option Processing|Refresh shot breaks when
picking traces to enforce automatic refresh of Refractor|Shot breaks display, with updated traveltime
curves. Leave this option unchecked for large data sets, and refresh manually with ALT-Y.
for stacking of SEG-2 trace files, we recommend seg2_edit utility offered by Karl J. Ellefsen. See
http://pubs.usgs.gov/of/2003/ofr-03-141/ and section 3.3.4 Stack Traces, of the referenced report.
Create an auxiliary Rayfract® profile database, and import original unstacked shots plus stacked shots.
Number stacked shots differently from original shots. Display shots in Trace|Shot gather as usual, and
use F7/F8 to compare stacked with unstacked shots.
conversion of shot point position to station numbers and back to coordinates is not trivial,
especially in case of strong topography and varying receiver separation. To ensure shot point x/y/z
coordinates are specified correctly in the profile database, import shots and update station and
shotpoint coordinates as usual. Next
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select File|Export header data|Export Shot Point Coordinates…
left-click Create New Folder icon on top right of Export shotpoint coordinates dialog
name this new folder e.g. export
navigate into this new export folder, and store SHOTPTS.SHO into this folder with Save button
open SHOTPTS.SHO e.g. with Windows WordPad text editor
ensure for all shotNr values (column 1) that shotX, shotY and shotZ are correct (columns 2 to 4)
fix shotX, shotY and shotZ in this editor session if required
save the fixed SHOTPTS.SHO to disk from within your editor, e.g. with File|Save command
File|Update header data|Update Shotpoint coordinates…and select fixed SHOTPTS.SHO file
Our WET tomography requires exact source and receiver positions. A coordinate error of even just
one centimeter may change the output visibly, especially at the bottom of the WET tomogram.
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uncheck File|Import Data Settings|Round shot station to nearest whole station number before
importing your data files, to minimize above conversion error between shot station number and shot
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point coordinates. With this unchecked, shot stations are rounded to .5, e.g. to values 0.5, 1.0 or 1.5 .
Version 3.17 of our software will uncheck this option automatically during File|New Profile… .
improved GeoTomCG .3DD import routine now handles duplicate traces (same source and receiver
coordinates) and empty lines. Empty lines are skipped. At the 2nd trace of two adjacent traces with same
source and receiver coordinates, our import starts a new shot.
once you edited Trigger delay in Header|Shot for one or more shots, be sure to export station
coordinates via File|Export header data|Export Station Coordinates… to COORDS.COR and shot point
coordinates including time terms to SHOTPTS.SHO via File|Export header data|Export Shot Point
Coordinates…Save these files e.g. into a subdirectory named backup.
if you then update first breaks via File|Update header data|Update First Breaks… , Trigger delay will
be reset to 0 for all shots. Use File|Update header data|Update Shot Point Coordinates… with above
SHOTPTS.SHO to reapply your saved trigger delay values.
if your PC crashes with a Rayfract® profile opened, Rayfract® under rare circumstances may not allow
you to create a new or open any existing profile database, showing messages saying Raima Object
Manager Error -905, -30 or similar. Please exit Rayfract® via File|Exit and
 open Windows Explorer window with Windows key + E shortcut or via Start|Run… Explorer.exe
 navigate into directory C:\RAY32\DAT
 delete files rdm.taf, vista.taf, and user1.log
 restart Rayfract® with desktop icon, and retry File|Open Profile… or File|New Profile…
temporary traveltime grid files for negative receiver station numbers named R-????.GRD are now
deleted during File|Open Profile… .
for our SAGEEP10 short course tutorial see http://rayfract.com/SAGEEP10.pdf . This includes
introductory slides describing Smooth inversion and relevant WET and Delta-t-V parameters.
http://rayfract.com/help/function_keys.pdf replicates the table shown in Rayfract® help menu
updated tutorials http://rayfract.com/tutorials/line2.pdf and http://rayfract.com/tutorials/sapri12.pdf ,
both now using station spacing 5m and Default spread type 10: 360 channels .
updated tutorial http://rayfract.com/tutorials/thrust.pdf explains how to build your own model grid with
Golden Software Surfer® and then generate synthetic traveltimes by forward modeling propagation of
synthetic shots with the Rayfract® Eikonal solver.
review Determining depth of blast induced damage in a mine wall (J.A. Singer et al. 2009) and
Enhanced coastal geotechnics with integrated marine seismic reflection and multi-source, extended
array refraction (Robert Whiteley, Matthieu Bardout and Simon Stewart 2010; includes synthetic model
with velocity inversion)
Version 3.16 released in March 2010 :
 we do not support running our software under Windows 98 and Windows NT any longer. When
started up under Windows 98 or Windows NT, Rayfract® 3.16 will display an error message
recommending using Windows XP and will then shut down again.
 support import of Micromed SoilSpy .SG2 SEG-2 files
 disabled pseudo-2D Delta-t-V inversion with Delta-t-V menu, to suppress Delta-t-V artefacts. It is
not possible to decide if an imaged velocity anomaly is for real or a Delta-t-V artefact. So to be safe we
now just completely block Delta-t-V, in our latest version 3.16. See also
http://rayfract.com/srt_evaluation.pdf , Fig. 1,
http://rayfract.com/tutorials/depress.pdf , and http://rayfract.com/tutorials/palmfig3.pdf .
 you still can edit Delta-t-V parameters and options used by our Smooth inversion method, for
determination of the 1D-gradient initial model required by subsequent 2D WET Wavepath Eikonal
Traveltime inversion.
 support zero-offset VSP Vertical Seismic Profiling surveys. See http://rayfract.com/tutorials/vsp.pdf
 default WET smoothing filter height for borehole spread/line profiles is now limited to maximally twice
the filter width, in grid cells. This gives better vertical resolution, of VSP surveys.
 when you invert your first break picks with Smooth invert, WET Tomo and Delta-t-V menu commands,
we now always first match shot positions to picked traveltime curves. If these don’t match we show
an error message and prompt you to adjust picks in Trace|Shot gather, adjust the shot position in
Header|Shot, or reimport the shot (with corrected shot position) if required.
 in Header|Shot, shot inline offset may be set to maximally plus/minus one station spacing as defined in
Header|Profile. If you need to change the inline offset to a larger amount, please reimport the shot with
corrected shot position (in station numbers).
 new SHIFT-O command (Check shot positions) in Refractor|Shot breaks interactively pages through all
shot-sorted traveltime curves and matches shot positions to picked traveltime curves, see above.
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ALT-L command (Remap all traces to refractors) in Refractor|Shot breaks and Refractor|Midpoint
breaks now also matches shots positions to picked traveltime curves.
new SHIFT-S command (Export first breaks to .LST) in Trace menu and Refractor menu displays. The
current trace gather display or refractor display will stay open. This allows you to quickly save
different picking versions to .LST .
new SHIFT-L command (reverse polarity of current trace) in Trace|Shot gather. Select the current trace
with arrow-left and arrow-right keys.
we show the trace amplitude zoom in trace gather displays opened with Trace menu. The zoom is
displayed on the status bar at the bottom of the screen, when navigating traces with arrow keys.
File|Export Data Settings|Export coordinates in feet option. Check this and export .COR, .SHO and
.3DD files in feet instead of meters. The unit is written to the first header line of these files. So you
can e.g. export receiver coordinates in feet with File|Export header data|Export Station Coordinates, to
a .COR file. Now update the .COR file with e.g. Windows Notepad editor, with receiver elevations in
feet. Then reimport the .COR file with File|Update header data|Update Station Coordinates.
adapted import routine for GeoTomCG .3DD files, to check for unit feet or meters in the .3DD . Feet
values are always converted to meters, during import.
our Optim LLC SeisOpt and GeoTomCG .3DD import routines compute and initialize shot depths,
based on source and receiver coordinates. We interpolate line topography between all receivers.
Source z coordinate in these input files specifies elevation of shot hole bottom. We determine shot depth
as difference between interpolated topography (at source x coordinate) and shot hole bottom (source z
coordinate). Source y and receiver y (see Header|Station) are always set to 0.0, during Optim LLC
SeisOpt and GeoTomCG .3DD import. Shot point elevation shown in our SHOTPTS.SHO file is the
interpolated topography, at source x coordinate. Our tomography routine determines the actual source
elevation by subtracting the shot hole depth from this shot point elevation. You can check the source
elevation in Header|Shot.
shot hole depths are initialized according to Geometrics PickWin/PlotRefa .VS files, during File|Import
Data… .
when importing Geometrics PickWin/PlotRefa .VS files, x coordinate of first receiver now can have any
value and is not restricted any longer to 0.0 .
fixed shot depth determination when importing multiple .3DD files from same input directory.
fixed shot position determination when importing uphole shots from GeoTomCG .3DD files into
refraction spread/line profiles. For earlier versions you need to correct the shot position during import.
Shot inline offset in Import shot(s) dialog is regarded again, when importing shots into refraction
spread/line profiles. This was broken in early 3.16, but works fine in version 3.15.
improved matching of .GRM trace positions to profile database station numbers, during File|Update
header data|Update from Gremix .GRM files… .
File|Import Data Settings|Round shot station to nearest whole station number option. This option is
enabled per default. Source inline offset (in meters) in Header|Shot is set to the difference between true
and rounded shot location (in meters). If you uncheck this option before importing your data with
File|Import Data… , imported shot stations are rounded to the nearest half-station number. E.g. to 0.5,
1.0, 1.5, 2.0 etc. As a consequence our Trace|Offset gather display is more useful for traces with short
source-receiver offset and sources between receivers, at station numbers 0.5, 1.5 etc. Reciprocal
traveltime errors now are easier to identify, even for small common-offset values. These errors can
then be corrected for with Header|Shot Trigger delay field.
when you invoke our File|Import data… dialog, station coordinates, shot point geometry and picked
first breaks are exported and thus backed up automatically, to files COORDS.COR, SHOTPTS.SHO
and BREAKS.LST. These files are stored in your profile subdirectory.
WET Tomo|WET tomography Settings submenu now contains WET options formerly contained directly
in WET Tomo menu.
Traveltime misfit determined during WET forward modeling is now displayed as RMS error (in
milliseconds) and normalized RMS error (in percent, of maximum picked time over all traces
modeled). We determine RMS error and normalized RMS error (NRMSE) as described at
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Root_mean_square_deviation .Mean unsigned errors and signed errors
are not shown any longer. These RMS errors are also stored in .FIT misfit files, e.g. VELOIT10.FIT for
tomogram VELOIT10.GRD , in GRADTOMO or HOLETOMO profile subdirectories.
Line ID specified in Header|Profile, WET iteration number or description of initial model, RMS error
(in percent) and software version are now automatically shown on all Surfer-generated velocity
tomograms and wavepath coverage plots.
negative shot hole depths are not regarded any longer, when determining the shot location on a .GRD
velocity grid during WET tomography.
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temporary shot and receiver traveltime grids (files S*.GRD and R*.GRD) located in profile
subdirectories GRADTOMO, TOMO and HOLETOMO as well as in the WET initial model directory
are always automatically deleted. Earlier versions of our software do not delete these grid files if
you abort Rayfract® via the Windows task manager. Version 3.16 deletes these files the next time
you open the profile you worked on when aborting. 3.16 keeps these grids if WET Tomo|Interactive
WET tomography… |Edit grid file generation|Delete traveltime grid files for last WET iteration is
unchecked.
WET Tomo|WET tomography Settings|Disable wavepath adjustment for short profile option will
automatically disable WET options Adjust wavepath width and Scale WET filter height, for short
profiles with 48 or less receiver stations. This will prevent WET artefacts due to bad first break
picks. Also, WET output will be smoother and more reliable, for short profiles. If your picks are good
and you need to image detailed subsurface structure, you may uncheck WET Tomo|WET tomography
Settings|Disable wavepath adjustment for short profile, as done implicitly for version 3.15 and earlier.
option Smooth invert|Smooth inversion Settings|Lower velocity of 1D-gradient layers. Use this to set
the gradient-layer bottom velocity to (top velocity + bottom velocity)/2, for each layer in the initial
model. This option is disabled per default. Enable to lower the velocity of the overburden layers.
option Smooth invert|Smooth inversion Settings|Interpolate velocity for 1D-gradient initial model.
Enable to linearly interpolate the averaged 1D-velocity profile to determine the 1D-gradient initial
model (as in previous versions). Disable for constant-velocity initial overburden layers, with the
layer-top velocity assumed for the whole layer except the bottom-most 0.1m. This option is enabled per
default, since WET tomography works most reliably with a smooth minimum-structure initial model.
fixed correction of traveltimes for lateral shotpoint offset, when shot positioned exactly on last receiver
station of profile.
select Depth|Depth conversion Settings|Link traveltime curves for Wavefront to algorithmically shift
and link traveltime curves for Wavefront method, instead of Brueckl traveltime field regression.
select Depth|Depth conversion Settings|Link traveltime curves for Plus-Minus to algorithmically shift
and link traveltime curves for Plus-Minus method, instead of Brueckl traveltime field regression.
use Depth|Depth conversion Settings|Skip reciprocal traveltime check to suppress resetting of regressed
traveltimes if local reciprocal time estimate deviates from mean reciprocal time for regressed or
algorithmically shifted and linked traveltimes, for Wavefront and Plus-Minus methods.
if your Golden Software Surfer 9 Demo Scripter component does not start up under Windows
Vista, please uninstall Surfer 9 Demo and all other Surfer versions, download the latest version from
goldensoftware.com, backup to USB flash and reinstall.
if Scripter fails to automatically open Golden Software Surfer under Windows 7, please open
Surfer interactively first and then retry e.g. Smooth invert with our software.
when double-clicking our desktop icon multiple times, our software may try to start up multiple times.
The first instance should succeed, but other instances will fail to start up, showing “Internal error (40)
An exclusive access conflicts with another exclusive access” message. Click Cancel button to dismiss
these and shut down these multiple instances.
under rare circumstances our software may hang during File|Open Profile… . Open the Windows Task
Manager with ALT-CTRL-DEL key combination. Now select Image Name Rayfract32.exe on
Processes tab and click on End Process button. Restart Rayfract® via desktop icon, and retry the open.
for a new paper by Laura V. Socco et al. comparing resistivity tomography with WET tomography and
surface-wave analysis see http://www.citeulike.org/article/6511101 .
for a new tutorial showing interpretation of 5 shots into 12 channels see
http://rayfract.com/tutorials/EJEMPL3.pdf . Use our free trial to work through this. We recommend
using at least 24 channels for reliable WET interpretations. Also, we recommend stacking of shots.
Version 3.15 released in May 2009 :
 more accurate determination of layout start and shot position (in station numbers), when importing
Optim LLC SeisOpt or GeoTomCG .3DD files into refraction spread/line profiles, in case of strongly
undulating topography.
 in Trace menu gather displays, the currently selected trace (with pick cursor) is kept selected, when
zooming or unzooming the display. This allows for easier first break picking and correction. When
opening a trace display window via Trace menu, the first (leftmost) trace and first break is selected
automatically.
 higher zooming of trace amplitude, in Trace menu gather displays.
 corrected variable area trace display, with high zoom of trace time.
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better match of sample time at pick cursor (as displayed at bottom of screen), with trace time axis ticks,
for high zoom of time.
our installers RAYINSTL.EXE and RAYWN315.EXE correctly call the WIBU-KEY dongle driver
installer, when run under Windows Vista. To invoke the driver installer manually, just run
\RAY32\WIBUKEY\SETUP.EXE .
improved matching of interpolated topography to source and receiver elevations. All sources and
receivers with picked traces will be regarded during WET tomography, and will be displayed on the
resulting velocity tomogram.
updated tutorial http://rayfract.com/tutorials/sapri12.pdf . Answer prompt “Update profile station
spacing ?” (shown during import of .VS file) with no, to preserve our custom station spacing of 2.5m .
updated tutorial http://rayfract.com/tutorials/poisson.pdf . Specify elevation of 0.0 for all stations in
Header|Station. Just fill in z coordinate for one station, and hit ENTER to extrapolate to all stations.
Supports callling both Surfer 8 and Surfer 9 free demo, available at http://goldensoftware.com .
traces in Trace menu displays are shifted by delay time and trigger delay, as specified in Header|Shot .
This lets you interactively correct shots for reciprocal errors caused by trigger delays, visible in
our Trace|Offset gather display .
new Trace Processing menu option Show picks on time axis, without amplitude offset.
new File|Import Data Settings|Match .LST traces by station number option. If this option is unchecked
(by default), .LST traces are matched to database traces by channel number. If checked, .LST traces are
matched to database traces by station number, during File|Update header data|Update First Breaks .
to reimport shots with changed shot position or layout start and keep current first break picks, first
store picks to .LST with File|Export header data|Export First Breaks… . Now reimport the shots. Next
select File|Update header data|Update First Breaks… and specify the .LST just generated.
to suppress artefacts along tomogram edges (lateral smearing of velocity anomalies), WET
sometimes works better with pre-3.05 settings :
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uncheck WET Tomo|Adjust wavepath width
set Degree of differentiation of Ricker wavelet to 1 in WET Tomo|Interactive WET tomography...
adjust wavepath width : multiply by two for increased smoothing, divide by two for less smoothing
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for our expanded tutorial as presented at our SAGEEP 2009 short course see
http://rayfract.com/SAGEEP09.pdf
make sure that picked traveltime curves for adjacent shots are at least somewhat similar to each
other, when reviewing them in our Refractor|Shot breaks display. See our tutorials at
http://rayfract.com/tutorials/TUTORIAL.ZIP for typical traveltime curve sections.
Refraction tomography is based on the assumption that subsurface physical properties (related
to propagation speed of seismic waves) have a quasi-continuous nature and do not vary randomly
on a small scale. Since first break energy incited at adjacent shot points propagates through the
subsurface along similar wave paths and rays, the measured and picked traveltime curves for these shots
should be similar.
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Version 3.14 released in January 2009 :
 supports import of SEG-2 formatted trace data files, into borehole spread/line profiles.
 we assume that channel no. 1 was recorded for the deepest borehole receiver, of the current spread or
chain. If not so please check import option Turn around spread by 180 degrees after selecting
File|Import Data… .
 Layout start and Shot pos. station numbers are determined by dividing SEG-2 trace header fields
RECEIVER_LOCATION and SOURCE_LOCATION for the first channel, with Header|Profile value
Station spacing. We recommend using negative station numbers and source/receiver z coordinates
to indicate depth below topography, as usual for borehole surveys.
 select File|Import Data Settings|Import horizontal borehole survey or .3DD refraction survey, before
importing SEG-2 or .3DD data files for a horizontal borehole spread/line, with File|Import Data... .
 color traces shown in Trace menu gather displays, with new options in menu Processing. You may vary
the color both of the variable area filling and of the signal outline. You may color shot traces by source
type, as selected in Header|Shot.
 move the picking cursor (“plus” symbol) along the currently selected trace outline with up-arrow and
down-arrow keys. Move the cursor to next left/right trace with left-arrow and right-arrow keys.
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hit the space bar key to pick the first break for the current trace, at the current sample (as indicated
at bottom of display). Pick with the left mouse key to first select current trace and sample and then pick
the first break at that position, in one operation.
delete the first break pick for the current trace, with ALT-DEL. Use Shift-left mouse key to first select
the trace and then delete the pick for that trace, in one operation.
sort traces by common shot-point station, with our new Trace|Shot point gather display. This allows
for easy picking of shear-wave shots (recorded at the same shot point), if the sign-inverted
waveforms are colored appropriately with above options. Alternatively, you may pick traces in our
Trace|Offset gather display.
our redesigned install scripts are now based on Inno Setup. The resulting installable archives will run
under Windows 64-bit versions. After installing our software on a Windows 64-bit version with
RAYWN314.EXE, you will be prompted to download and install the 64-bit WIBU-KEY driver
software for Win64, from http://wibu.com/download.php . Click “English” at top of page, and then
click “Software” and “User”. Now scroll down to section with green WibuKey headline.
after running the new RAYWN314.EXE installable archive, you will also be prompted to import your
custom spread types (file \RAY32\REF\MYSPREAD.SPR), into the reinstalled reference database.
updated tutorial http://rayfract.com/tutorials/line2.pdf . Check File|Import Data Settings|Keep same
Layout start for consecutive shot files before importing the data, for compatibility with the included
.LST / .SHO /.COR files. These assume that the first receiver is assigned to station number 1, and not 0.
updated tutorial http://rayfract.com/tutorials/clud1.pdf . Uncheck File|Import Data Settings|Default
distance unit is meter, to specify distance unit feet before importing the Optim LLC SeisOpt data. This
file format does not specify the distance unit, so you must specify this explicitly with our File menu.
WET Tomo|Blank low coverage after each iteration is now unchecked, when opening an existing or
creating a new profile database. You may uncheck this manually for version 3.12, to prevent excessive
blanking at the bottom of the tomogram.
if after importing data our software shows geometry errors, with the inline offset between stations either
not increasing or increasing by twice the station spacing specified in Header|Profile, check File|Import
Data Settings|Keep same Layout start for consecutive shot files and redo the import. This should help to
correctly determine layout start and shot position in station numbers, for each shot being imported.
for a new tutorial showing data import and Smooth inversion of our TRA9002 data set (Val de Travers,
made available by GeoExpert ag), see http://rayfract.com/tutorials/TRA9002.PPT. For the input data
see http://rayfract.com/samples/TRA9002.ZIP .
Version 3.12 released in November 2008 :
 File|Export header data|Export Traces to GeoTomCG .3DD... lets you generate GeoTomCG .3DD
files. Use File|Export Data Settings options to configure :
 File|Export Data Settings|Export dead traces to GeoTomCG .3DD
 File|Export Data Settings|Gather traces by common-receiver station as primary key. This option lets
you reverse walkaway VSP surveys into uphole shot surveys and vice-versa. To be able to import these
reversed uphole shots into a refraction spread/line profile, please make sure that the shot points for the
original walkaway VSP survey are positioned at whole station numbers, of the refraction spread. If this
setting is unchecked (as per default), traces are sorted by common shot number (primary key) and
receiver station (secondary key), when exporting to GeoTomCG .3DD format.
 File|Export Data Settings|Secondary trace key is shot point elevation, for common-receiver primary
key and borehole spread/line. For refraction spread/line type profiles, the secondary sort key for
common-receiver primary key is always shot x for refraction shots, and shot z for uphole shots. So
make sure to correctly mark uphole shots in Header|Shot.
 you may constrain the refraction tomographic inversion of one surface based refraction
spread/line profile, with uphole shot surveys recorded for multiple in-line boreholes. An uphole
shot survey may optionally be obtained by reversing a walkaway VSP survey, as described below (steps
5. to 10.). This will further increase the degree of angular coverage of the subsurface with rays and
wave paths, and make the tomographic inversion even more robust. Be sure to reverse each walkaway
VSP survey with a separate borehole spread/line profile.
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test .3DD export and import with our http://rayfract.com/tutorials/coffey04.pdf tutorial and data set :
0.
1.
create new refraction spread/line profile COFFEY04 with File|New Profile…, station spacing 2.5m
download input files from http://rayfract.com/tutorials/coffey04.zip . Copy COFFEY04.ZIP into
\RAY32\COFFEY04\INPUT, unzip to obtain ASCII.ASC, COORDS.COR and SHOTPTS.SHO .
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Start|Run… WORDPAD.EXE text editor, and delete shots 1 to 13 so the ASCII.ASC contains
uphole shots 14 to 37 only.
3. import ASCII.ASC into profile COFFEY04. Update with COORDS.COR and SHOTPTS.SHO.
4. export uphole shot traces as .3DD, sorted by common-receiver station
5. create new borehole spread/line profile with File|New Profile… and station spacing of 1m
6. import above .3DD reversed uphole shots, resulting in walkaway VSP shots
7. export VSP shot traces as .3DD, sorted by common-receiver station
8. create new refraction spread/line with station spacing 2.5m
9. enable File|Import Data Settings|Import horizontal borehole survey or .3DD refraction survey
10. import above .3DD reversed VSP shots, resulting in uphole shots
11. export these regenerated uphole shots as .3DD, sorted by common shot
12. export uphole shot traces from profile created in step 0., as .3DD and sorted by common shot
13. compare .3DD files generated in steps 11. and 12. with file comparison utility. These should be
identical.
Smooth invert|WET with constant-velocity initial borehole model now writes Surfer .GRD files to
\RAY32\<your profile name>\HOLETOMO subdirectory for uphole refraction surveys, instead of
GRADTOMO subdirectory. This makes it easier to compare output with Smooth invert|WET with 1D
gradient initial model output.
no more blanking at the bottom of WET tomogram after last iteration for horizontal borehole surveys,
in areas not covered by wave paths (regarding WET parameter Envelope wavepath width).
when you select File|Import Data Settings|Import horizontal borehole survey or .3DD refraction
survey, and then import a .3DD refraction survey into a refraction spread/line type profile database, our
.3DD import routine now updates shot hole depths correctly. Edit shot hole depths manually in
Header|Shot, for versions 3.10 and 3.11 of our software, after import of .3DD surface refraction survey.
during File|Exit without having opened any SEIS32.DBD profile, an early version 3.12 of our software
displays an error message “Raima Object Manager Error: -6018 / database swap failed”. You can safely
ignore this message. Also, this issue has been fixed for the final version 3.12.
if Smooth inversion imprints wavepaths on the velocity tomogram and the tomogram is too noisy,
especially when processing a short (one spread with 48 or less receivers) and low-coverage refraction
spread/line (shot spacing of 5 or more average receiver spacings), you may want to uncheck Smooth
invert|Scale WET filter height, and uncheck WET Tomo|Adjust wavepath width. Then redo the Smooth
inversion, with Smooth invert|WET with 1D gradient initial model. This will give smoother inversion
output, especially if the refraction spread/line is steeply inclined (more than 30 degrees) and for lowvelocity weathering layers.
WET Tomo|Blank low coverage after each iteration blanks low coverage areas at tomogram bottom
after each iteration, except the last one. Low coverage means less than 10 percent of maximum grid
coverage. This blanking option is enabled per default.
WET Tomo|Blank low coverage after last iteration blanks low coverage areas at tomogram bottom after
the last iteration. This option is disabled per default.
WET Tomo|Blank below envelope after each iteration blanks the tomogram below envelope of all
wavepaths, after each iteration except the last. Regards WET parameter Envelope wavepath width. This
is disabled per default, when creating a new profile or opening an existing profile database. Also, we
recommend to leave this blanking option disabled, since it blanks excessively and may suppress
meaningful output.
WET Tomo|Blank below envelope after last iteration blanks the tomogram below envelope of all
wavepaths, after the last WET iteration. Regards WET parameter Envelope wavepath width . This is
enabled per default.
above four new WET blanking options help to suppress the imaging of high-velocity and low-velocity
artefacts at the bottom of tomograms, as described e.g. by Jacob Sheehan et al. in
http://pubs.usgs.gov/sir/2005/5160/PDF/Part1_2.pdf , Fig. 3a .
see http://nsg.eage.org/details.php?pubid=10557 for “Seismic characterization of an Alpine site” by
L.V. Socco et al., published in EAGE Near Surface Geophysics August 2008 issue. Correlates WET
tomography with reflection seismic, surface wave and pseudo-2D shear wave interpretation plus
downhole measurement.
to fix geometry errors in SEG-2 trace data files we recommend the free XVI32 hex. editor. See
http://www.chmaas.handshake.de/delphi/freeware/xvi32/xvi32.htm . Be sure to always edit SEG-2 files
in overwrite mode and NOT insert mode. Otherwise you damage the file structure (pre-computed
offsets to next field). To correct the shot position, update SEG-2 field SOURCE_STATION_NUMBER
or SOURCE_LOCATION for the first channel (CHANNEL_NUMBER 1) of the problem shot. To fix
the layout start, edit SEG-2 field RECEIVER_STATION_NUMBER or RECEIVER_LOCATION of
the first channel.
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to correct the SEG-2 UNITS field from FEET to METER, overwrite “FEET” with “METE”, without
the trailing ‘R’, using above XVI32 hex. editor. Otherwise you damage the SEG-2 file structure.
some PC’s have a "non-standard" LPT port implementation and/or do not supply enough power to the
dongle. If the WIBU-KEY driver software does not recognize your LPT parallel port WIBU-KEY
dongle (e.g. after (re)installation), please proceed as described in http://rayfract.com/help/rayfract.pdf ,
bottom of page 90 and top of page 91, to adjust the LPT port address used by the WIBU-KEY driver.
Make sure to always uncheck box System default on the Setup tab of the WIBU-KEY control panel
applet, and always specify the Port address explicitly (even if MSINFO32.EXE shows default value
of 0378 Hex). Leave Bus type as ISA and Bus index as 0.
if the above does not help with your LPT port WIBU-KEY communication, please try connecting a
printer with a parallel port printer cable plugged into the LPT WIBU-KEY or unplug such a cable.
if the LPT dongle is still not recognized by the WIBU-KEY driver, you may introduce a delay factor to
prevent a timeout, in case of too low power supply to the dongle. See also
http://support.wibu.com/en/faq/faq.html#Delay . Please
- download the .ZIP archive http://rayfract.com/dongle/diaglpt.zip from our web site.
- Start|Run “explorer.exe” (without enclosing “”), to open Windows Explorer .
- create a directory \ray32\wibukey\diaglpt on your laptop's hard disk, with Windows Explorer.
- copy diaglpt.zip file into this directory, and unzip it e.g. with WINRAR utility.
Now slow down the communication speed between the LPT port and the WIBU-KEY dongle :
- open a DOS command prompt via Start|Run “cmd.exe” (without the enclosing “”).
- change the current directory of that prompt with command line "cd \RAY32\WIBUKEY\DIAGLPT".
- navigate with Windows Explorer to your \ray32\wibukey\diaglpt directory, as created above.
- click on w2k_delay4.reg, and confirm the two prompts.
- switch to the DOS prompt as opened above
- enter command line "WKU32 RESET ALL"
- then try to start up Rayfract® again.
If this does not help, please repeat the above last four steps for all other .reg files in your DIAGLPT
directory. ...delay12.reg will slow down the communication speed the most.
If your LPT WIBU-KEY dongle is still not recognized by the WIBU-KEY driver, please contact us for
an USB key license upgrade offer.
Version 3.11 released in July 2008 :
 new refractor mapping option in menu Mapping : Blue direct wave first breaks to color direct wave
traveltime curve segments in blue instead of the default orange. This may help with certain display
devices (depending on lighting) and when printing sections.
 new Depth conversion menu option Blue weathering bottom, to plot refractor 1 elevation and velocity in
solid blue color instead of the default black. Refresh displayed depth and velocity sections with ALT-Y.
 improved matching of trace positions in Interpex Gremix .GRM and BREAK.LST files, to receiver
stations in the currently opened profile database. Input file positions are now always matched to the
closest database receiver station, when updating header data with File|Update header data menu items.
 branch point pick bar is now always displayed and updated correctly in Refractor|Shot breaks, without
a second bar ghost showing at a previous position.
 uphole shot traces are not mapped to a refractor any longer, in Refractor|Midpoint breaks display.
 corrected tutorial http://rayfract.com/tutorials/coffey04.pdf for imaging of an uphole refraction survey.
Uphole shots (inverted walkaway VSP downhole shots) are combined with surface refraction shots.
 fixed an assertion failure during computation of the initial model, for uphole refraction surveys. If you
encounter this problem with an early version 3.11 of our software, please download and install your
corrected RAYUP311.EXE installable archive. See our e-mail instructions.
 combination of walkaway VSP with surface refraction requires resorting VSP traces by common
borehole receiver, to create synthetic (inverted) uphole shots. See above for version 3.12 release notes,
describing automated conversion of walkwaway VSP surveys to uphole shot surveys and vice versa..
 you may want to combine walkaway VSP (shots at topography, receiver string in borehole) with
crosshole shots, recorded with the same borehole receiver string. We support such a geometry in the
same GeoTomCG .3DD survey file, with one or more overlapping borehole receiver spreads (in same
borehole) and arbitrary shot positions. These shots may be positioned on the topography or in any
number of other boreholes or tunnels.
Version 3.10 released in June 2008 :
 we now support import of GeoTomCG .3DD files for horizontal borehole surveys and surface refraction
surveys. Just select File|Import Data Settings|Import horizontal borehole survey or .3DD refraction
survey, before importing the data with File|Import Data... .
 our import routine automatically detects the averaged minimum distance between receiver stations
for the current input file, and lets you update the station spacing to this new value.
 import of Optim LLC SeisOpt, Geometrics SeisImager PickWin/PlotRefa .VS, GeoTomCG .3DD and
Interpex Gremix .GRM files has been improved, with missing dead/unpicked traces and strongly
undulating topography. Missing traces are matched by inline offset, to spread receiver channels and line
topography as specified in the input file, for other shots and traces.
 import of Geometrics SeisImager PlotRefa .VS now works with irregular receiver spacing.
 geometry error messages shown during data import will not swamp you any longer. Adjusting
Header|Shot field station spacing by a few percent may help. Also, you may want to toggle File|Import
Data Settings|Allow missing traces and File|Import Data Settings|X coordinate is corrected for
topography already, if appropriate. Uncheck this option for Geometrics SeisImager .VS and Interpex
Gremix .GRM, and check it for Optim LLC SeisOpt and GeoTomCG .3DD files.
 new File|Import Data Settings|Swap borehole x with z option. Enable this to swap coordinates during
import of .3DD files, and during export of SHOTPTS.SHO and COORDS.COR files.
 our Refractor display parameter dialog (invoke wit ALT-P, in Refractor|Shot breaks) now allows
entering a Minimum station number value in range –10000 to +10000. Also, we now allow adjusting the
Minimum time to a value larger than 0, for borehole spread profiles.
 two new conventional method refractor mapping options in menu Mapping : Undercorrect picks for
shot point offset will not fully correct first break picks for shot point offset (from nearest integer
station), during Wavefront and Plus-Minus interpretation. This allows for diving waves, even at nearshot point receivers. Use this option to obtain less distorted corrected traveltime curves, in case of a thin
low-velocity overburden.
 Regard mapping for shot offset correction uses our earlier first break pick correction method if enabled,
based on trace-to-refractor mapping and resulting refractor velocities. If unchecked, picks are corrected
based on source-receiver geometry only, not regarding the trace-to-refractor mapping. Picked
traveltimes are corrected for shot point offsets from nearest receiver station. Thus our traveltime field
regression method (preliminary step of our Wavefront and Plus-Minus conventional methods) can
reliably reduce recorded traveltime curves to one pair of forward/reverse curves, for one or multiple
sections of the whole profile database.
 during WET inversion and forward modeling, first breaks are always corrected for lateral shotpoint
offsets, based on source-receiver geometry only and disregarding any earlier trace-to-refractor mapping.
Inline shot point offsets (from shot station) and shot depth are not corrected for, during WET inversion.
 for accurate shot timing, we recommend GISCO piezoelectric trigger switches. See
http://www.giscogeo.com/pages/seixptr.html .
 for our new tutorial showing sub-bottom river imaging between two boreholes, see
http://rayfract.com/tutorials/b8b9.pdf .
Version 3.09 released in May 2008 :
 WET options are now correctly initialized, when creating a new borehole spread/line profile database.
To ensure correct settings for 3.08, create profile with File|New…. Now reopen with File|Open… .
 we now support traveltime tomography of first breaks recorded for Walkaway VSP surveys, with a
constant-velocity initial model. See http://rayfract.com/tutorials/walkaway.pdf
 improved support for combination of uphole shots with surface refraction shots, both recorded with
surface refraction receiver spreads. See http://rayfract.com/tutorials/coffey04.pdf . You may generate
uphole shots from multi-offset VSP downhole shots as follows :
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import VSP shots (GeoTomCG .3DD format) into Rayfract® borehole spread profile. See above
WALKAWAY.PDF tutorial .
export traces as ASCII.ASC with File|Export header data|Export First Breaks as ASCII... .
resort traces by common borehole receiver station, e.g. with Microsoft Excel spreadsheet software .
correct order of columns : swap column “Shot station #” with column “Receiver station #” .
reset column “Shot number” to same value, for all traces recorded by a common borehole receiver.
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export updated column data from Microsoft Excel, to generate ASCII.ASC with uphole shots.
now import the surface refraction shots into a new Rayfract® refraction spread profile .
finally import the .ASC uphole shots into this same refraction spread profile .
invert the data with our Smooth inversion method as shown in above COFFEY04.PDF tutorial .
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our Smooth inversion routine will now automatically depth-extend the 1D gradient initial model
(generated from surface based refraction shots) to elevation level of deepest uphole shot.
when marking shots as uphole shots in Header|Shot by selecting Shot Type “Uphole shot”, field Uphole
time correction term is now set to the new default value of 0.01 msecs. instead of 10 msecs.
when changing back Header|Shot field Shot Type to “Refraction shot”, shot traces are now correctly
marked as refraction shot traces in the profile database. Uphole time correction term is reset to 0.
we now support Smooth inversion of uphole refraction surveys with a constant-velocity initial
model. See http://rayfract.com/tutorials/coffey04.pdf .
Delta-t-V|Delta-t-V Settings|Regard Uphole picks for Delta-t-V inversion is not supported any longer,
since correct interactive estimation of Header|Shot field Uphole time correction term is too difficult.
please uncheck Delta-t-V|Delta-t-V Settings|Regard Uphole picks for Delta-t-V inversion before
processing uphole refraction surveys with older versions of our software.
the WET continuation prompt as shown after display of initial model now allows aborting the inversion.
our Refractor display parameter dialog (invoke wit ALT-P, in Refractor|Shot breaks) now allows
entering a negative Maximum station number.
Refractor|Shot breaks does not link traveltime curves to shot station any longer, for borehole spreads.
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Version 3.08 released in April 2008 :
 uncheck File|Import Data Settings|Keep same Layout start for consecutive shot files, to determine
layout start and shot position station numbers by division of positions specified in Geometrics
SeisImager .VS, Interpex Gremix .GRM, Optim LLC SeisOpt and GeoTomCG .3DD files, with the
station spacing as specified in Header|Profile . This import option is unchecked per default when
creating new profiles.
 WET continuation prompt is displayed on top of all other windows, and cannot get "lost" any longer.
 Smooth invert|Scale WET filter height is now supported for crosshole surveys, but is unchecked per
default. Option WET Tomo|Adjust wavepath width is not allowed for crosshole surveys any longer.
 Both of these options are activated when you create a new refraction spread profile.
 updated PDF help topics available at http://rayfract.com/help/rayfract.pdf
 You may rerun our Smooth inversion with a slightly different 1D gradient initial model :
 shut down Rayfract® and Golden Software Surfer® applications with File|Exit .
 Rename directory \RAY32\<profile name>\GRADTOMO to ...\DFLTGRAD, in Windows Explorer
 restart Rayfract, reopen profile database with File|Open .
 check Delta-t-V|Delta-t-V Settings|Process every CMP offset, for sharper layer boundaries
 select Smooth invert|WET with 1D gradient initial model
 proceed as in chapter 1.4 of our manual at http://rayfract.com/help/manual.pdf
 once WET inversion finishes, open both VELOIT10.SRF or VELOIT20.SRF (as stored in
subdirectories ...\DFLTGRAD and ...\GRADTOMO) in Surfer and tab through them.
Version 3.07 released in March 2008 :
 shows Root Mean Square RMS error (standard deviation) of misfit between modeled and picked times.
Both mean and RMS error of signed and unsigned misfit are displayed after WET inversion or forward
modeling, and written to VELOITXX.FIT files (VELOIT10.FIT for VELOIT10.GRD).
 correctly imports topography from Geometrics PlotRefa .VS files if unpicked traces missing from .VS ,
or if .VS contains shots recorded with not just one spread but multiple overlapping receiver spreads .
 when importing uphole shots, the traveltime curve minimum position may deviate from the hole
position, by up to the depth of the shot. Specify shot depth in ASCII.ASC column or during import.
 topography now is always imaged correctly (no blank pixels below topography) on WET tomograms,
even with widely spaced shots and receivers.
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Grid menu transformations “Convert grid file between feet and meters” and “Turn around grid file by
180 degrees” now correctly transform both the velocity tomogram VELOITXX.GRD and the
corresponding coverage grid COVERGXX.GRD .
File|Import Data Settings|Keep same Layout start for consecutive shot trace files is now disabled
(unchecked) per default. With this option disabled, our import routine determines layout start and shot
position directly from the SEG-2 trace headers. See below, notes for version 2.65 . SEG-2 trace header
fields SOURCE_STATION_NUMBER and RECEIVER_STATION_NUMBER override fields
SOURCE_LOCATION and RECEIVER_LOCATION.
Trace menu items Shot gather, Midpoint gather and Offset gather now show trace cursor attributes at
bottom of display, when moving the pick cursor with left/right/up/down arrow keys. We show station,
trace, shot, channel, sample, time and amplitude attributes .
Version 3.06 released in February 2008 :
 scales WET smoothing filter height, with depth below topography. This ensures better resolution of
weathering layer, and fewer artefacts at bottom of WET tomograms. Also, the misfit between modeled
and picked first breaks decreases faster during WET inversion (with fewer iterations).
 startup diagnostics allow for date change across time zones when validating database schema
\RAY32\REF\PROTO32.DBD .
 all recently added Smooth inversion and WET settings are appended to .PAR files.
 Shot point symbols (inverted red triangles) are now plotted on top of receiver symbols (grey diamonds),
on WET tomograms. See Grid menu options.
 File|Update header data|Update from Gremix .GRM files… correctly matches .GRM shot and receiver
positions with profile database station numbers.
 for Smooth inversion 3.06 of an Optim LLC SeisOpt® data set made available by FUGRO WEST see
http://rayfract.com/tutorials/clud1.pdf .
 for imaging of a reactived landslide in Austria see http://rayfract.com/tutorials/gs0801.pdf .
Version 3.05 released in January 2008 :
 automatic adjustment of WET wavepath width for each trace, based on the picked time. For low
coverage surveys (wide shot spacing), you may want to disable this new option in menu “WET Tomo”.
 WET parameter Degree of differentiation of Ricker wavelet has been changed to the new default value 0
(former default value 1). Also, the Ricker wavelet weighted wavepath modeling has been corrected, for
value 0.
 these improvements lead to more robust WET output, even with difficult data sets showing e.g. velocity
inversions in overburden and at a high WET iteration number. Also, the weathering layer is better
resolved, and basement velocity is imaged more reliably.
 to restore pre-3.05 WET default parameters :
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uncheck WET Tomo|Adjust wavepath width
select WET Tomo|Interactive WET tomography…
for a new profile, click on button Reset to reset the WET wavepath width
reset Degree of differentiation of Ricker wavelet to 1
Adapt other WET parameters such as WET iteration count and velocity smoothing
click on button Start tomography processing and continue as usual


pre-3.05 WET default parameters may work better for some special applications, such as cavity
imaging and with a wide shot spacing (higher than 6 average receiver separations).
we now correct first breaks for lateral shotpoint offsets, during WET inversion and forward modeling
over Surfer .GRD files.
two new Refractor mapping menu options, for coloring of shot sorted traveltime curves. You may
display all curves in gray, or color each shot curve by source type, as selected in Header|Shot.
to adjust minimum/maximum velocities used for Surfer® color coding of velocities :

start up Surfer e.g. via desktop icon
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select Surfer menu item File|Open...
select WET tomogram e.g. VELOIT20.SRF file, located in \RAY32\<your profile> subdirectories :
GRADTOMO (Smooth inversion) or
BOREHOLE (Crosshole survey) or
TOMO (Pseudo-2D Delta-t-V initial model based inversion).
select Surfer menu item View|Object Manager
double-click on Image Map label shown at left of Surfer® VELOIT20.SRF plot
click on Colors color bar
Set Minimum to e.g. 500 m/s, Maximum to e.g. 5000 m/s and click on OK twice
select Surfer menu item File|Save to store edited VELOIT20.SRF tomogram

our new tutorial http://rayfract.com/tutorials/sapri12.pdf shows interpretation of a Geometrics
SeisImager™ PickWin .VS file, with version 3.05 Smooth inversion.
when creating new spread types with File|New Spread type…, MYSPREAD.SPR is written to
\RAY32\REF again instead of \RAY32\BIN
resets interactive WET wavepath width to default value, when importing new data or when running our
Smooth inversion.
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
Version 3.04 released in December 2007 :
 More robust routines for database creation and automated revision of old profiles
 Improved automatic determination of default wavepath width, for very shallow refraction surveys with
a short receiver spacing / for closely spaced boreholes.
 Improved startup diagnostics. If the RAYFRACT32.EXE is started up in the wrong directory, or the
prototype database schema \RAY32\REF\PROTO32.DBD is invalid, the software will display an
according error message. Once you dismiss this message, the software will shut down again.
 Menu Smooth invert contains new borehole survey option Beydoun weighting for borehole WET to
enable/disable Beydoun weighting.
 Menu Smooth invert offers new borehole survey option Coverage grid shows unweighted hit count. If
unchecked, the coverage grid shows the hit count of each grid cell, scaled by Beydoun weighting.
 To generate GeoTomCG .3DD input files required by our new crosshole tomography routine, we
recommend using TomTime picking software, available from GeoTom LLC. Contact Daryl Tweeton
at tweetond@tc.umn.edu or at dtweeton@giscogeo.com . TomTime reads all common seismograph
formats, and offers versatile frequency filtering and display options. See
http://giscogeo.com/pages/seixgott.html
for more information. TomTime also allows easy picking of shear-wave first breaks. Alternatively you
may want to upgrade to our latest version 3.14 which now supports import and picking of SEG-2
borehole spread/line traces, and shear-wave picking.
Version 3.03 released in November 2007 :
 Profile creation and database update now work again correctly, on non-English language Microsoft
Windows installations
 When running our software under Microsoft Windows® 2000, be sure to always uncheck File menu
item Call batch from PIF file, immediately after starting up Rayfract®. Otherwise database revision and
spread type import/export routines will fail to complete.
 For instructions showing processing of a crosshole data set see http://rayfract.com/tutorials/igta13.pdf .
 To disable dynamic Beydoun weighting during WET inversion of borehole surveys, check Smooth
invert menu option Precompute static Beydoun weight matrix. Static weighting assumes that each pixel
is affected by all wave paths. Dynamic weighting does not make this assumption. Static weighting is
more conservative, and a compromise between dynamic weighting and no weighting at all.

To specify elevations for all profile shot and receiver stations in a surface based refraction survey :

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select Header|Station
browse station records with F7/F8 . If x/y/z are correct already exit with ESC key.
otherwise click on button Reset coordinates and v0
leave x/y coordinates empty for all stations
enter elevation z for a few non-adjacent stations
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you do not need to enter z elevation for all stations
now click on button Interpolate coordinates and v0
Next you may reopen the station editor with Header|Station. Now browse station records with F7/F8 to
check the interpolated elevations. Also, x/y coordinates have been generated automatically.
To specify a known/fixed elevation at more stations before interpolation, you need to first click on
button Reset coordinates and v0. Then reenter the elevation at all relevant stations, and click again on
button Interpolate coordinates and v0.
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Alternatively, generate COORDS.COR file with File|Export header data|Export Station Coordinates…
edit the COORDS.COR e.g. with Wordpad or Notepad text editors
reimport the edited COORDS.COR with File|Update header data|Update Station Coordinates…

To display GeoTomCG .3DD files in a readable way, please proceed as follows :

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select Start|Run
enter "Wordpad.exe" without the enclosing "" and click OK
select File|Open in Wordpad program
navigate to your \RAY32\DOC directory and select e.g. IGTA13.3DD

To enable or disable posting and labeling of shot points and/or receivers on WET tomograms, check or
uncheck the corresponding menu item in menu Grid before starting our Smooth inversion.
You don’t have to redo the Smooth inversion to redisplay WET tomograms with/without posting and
labeling of shot points and/or receivers. Proceed as follows instead :
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check or uncheck corresponding items at bottom of menu Grid
select Grid|Image and contour velocity and coverage grids...
select desired WET tomogram grid file e.g. VELOIT20.GRD (output after 20 WET iterations), stored
in profile subdirectories GRADTOMO (Smooth inversion),
BOREHOLE (crosshole survey) or
TOMO (pseudo-2D Delta-t-V initial model).

To generate a desktop shortcut for easy Rayfract® startup :
 Left-click Start menu, All Programs, Rayfract32
 right-click menu item Rayfract32 and select "Copy" command
 minimize all windows
 right-click on Desktop and select Paste Shortcut command
Version 3.02 released in October 2007 :
 Implements improved weighting/preconditioning for Smooth inversion of crosshole surveys. Velocity
artefacts/anomalies at grid corners and at grid edges/directly adjacent to boreholes are suppressed. See
Beydoun and Mendes 1989 “Elastic Ray-Born L2-Migration/Inversion” with abstract at
http://www.blackwell-synergy.com/doi/abs/10.1111/j.1365-246X.1989.tb00490.x .
See also Luo and Schuster 1991 “Wave-equation Traveltime Inversion” Appendix B, with
abstract at http://link.aip.org/link/?GPY/56/645/1 . Luo and Schuster describe this weighting as “…
Another modification is to use a preconditioned gradient (search) direction (formula). This
preconditioning compensates for geometrical expansion (Beydoun and Mendes, 1989)”.
The high sensitivity of WET to velocity variations directly at source/receiver is welcome for surface
refraction surveys, since receivers are located close to the shot point in this case. For borehole surveys,
the closest receiver is in the other hole. So velocity variation at source/receiver cannot be measured
reliably in this case, and needs to be suppressed during tomography processing. More weight is given to
the central portion of the subsurface section, located between the two boreholes. The fundamental
assumption is that for borehole surveys, there are no “large” velocity variations, i.e. minimum velocity
smaller than e.g. 50% of maximum velocity. For surface refraction surveys, minimum velocity (directly
below topography) may be as small as 10% or less of maximum subsurface section velocity (in
basement).
 Further optimized WET based inversion of surface refraction surveys. Smooth inversion of our LINE14
sample profile runs another 10% faster under Windows XP SP2 on an Intel Core 2 Duo processor.

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
Channel numbers and station positions in Header|Receiver now always correspond to ASCII.ASC input
file values, even when limiting the offset during import.
Import option Turn around spread now works for all input file formats. Also, shot positions are
inverted correctly, relative to the receiver spread.
Import options Turn around spread and Limit offset may not be selected both at the same time.
WET smoothing filter size now is determined based on average receiver spacing instead of the profile
station spacing.
Version 3.01 released in September 2007 :
 We now support crosshole traveltime tomography, based on a constant velocity initial model which is
iteratively refined with WET Wavepath Eikonal Traveltime tomography processing.
 We have tested our new crosshole tomography routine with sample survey files made available by our
Spanish client I.G.T. International Geophysical Technology. These files are formatted as GeoTomCG
.3DD files. See http://rayfract.com/samples/borehole.zip
 For instructions on crosshole data interpretation, see file BOREHOLE.TXT included in borehole.zip .
 We currently regard X and Z coordinates only for crosshole surveys. Y coordinates as specified in
GeoTomCG input files are not regarded and are assumed to be all zero.
 If you want us to support your crosshole data format and samples, you are welcome to send us these
files, as long as you have a current support contract.
 Also, we now support posting and labeling of both sources and receivers on WET velocity plots. See
new items at bottom of Grid menu.
 We offer a new routine File|Update header data|Import synthetic breaks from .LST
 For IGTA13 crosshole data set (see above BOREHOLE.ZIP and BOREHOLE.TXT) a synthetic model
is available at http://rayfract.com/samples/swiss.zip . This allows determination of vertical and lateral
velocity resolution in WET output.
Version 2.75 released in August 2007 :
 Supports importing Geometrics SeisImager™ .VS files generated with Plotrefa and Pickwin modules.
Specify distance unit feet by unchecking File|Import Data Settings|Default distance unit is meter.
 Import routine supports trace gaps with more than three adjacent missing traces
 Improved robustness of Wavefront method when processing low-coverage data sets
 WET tomography will regard a receiver station if traces have been picked for that station only
 File|Update header data|Update from Gremix .GRM allows for missing traces in .GRM files
 File|Update header data|Update First Breaks from .LST now matches .LST traces to profile database
traces by station number instead of trace number. So you can

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

import e.g. SEG-2 shots (always all traces imported) into one profile
import e.g. SeisOpt files with missing traces into another profile
select File|Export header data|Export First Breaks to generate .LST file with SeisOpt picks
update first profile with File|Update header data|Update First Breaks.. and the .LST just generated.
Version 2.74 released in July 2007 :
 Improved compatibility with Microsoft Windows® Vista™. Axis ticks are now always labeled
correctly, in time/depth/velocity sections.
 Comes with latest version 5.20b of WIBU-KEY dongle driver software.
 To activate Setup, Context and Update tabs in the WIBU-KEY control panel applet 5.20, left-click on
the small icon to the left of the dialog title bar and select "Advanced Mode".
 We now display the current WET iteration number, at left bottom of Rayfract® main window.
 WET Tomo menu options are now enabled before starting with first Smooth inversion or pseudo-2D
Delta-t-V and WET inversion.
 The receiver spread layout start is now always rounded correctly to the nearest whole integer station
number, when importing shots into a profile database.
 When importing multiple e.g. Interpex Gremix .GRM files in one session, the layout start for each shot
in each .GRM file is now determined correctly, based on receiver locations specified in the .GRM files.
 When updating from version 2.72 or 2.73 to version 2.74, your custom receiver spread types are now
imported automatically during installation of 2.74, from file \RAY32\REF\MYSPREAD.SPR .
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Every time you open a profile database and spread types referenced have been validated, these are
exported automatically to file MYSPREAD.SPR in your profile directory. Also, MYSPREAD.SPR is
updated whenever you import one or more additional shots into the same profile database.
Version 2.74 has been recompiled with Microsoft Visual C++ 2005. Smooth inversion for our sample
profile LINE14 runs about 10% faster as a consequence.
Also, 2.74 comes with updated versions of Birdstep RDM database utilities, for initializing, checking,
revising, import into and export from profile databases.
Use our Trace|Offset Gather display to check your first breaks for consistency regarding reciprocal
traveltimes. For the same offset and midpoint (station number), first breaks picked (red crosses) should
collapse onto a single pick. If these are displayed on the same trace but vertically offset from each
other, such picks violate the traveltime reciprocity principle which states that traveltime is invariant to
exchanging source and receiver between two constant measuring stations. Browse offsets with F7/F8 in
Trace|Offset Gather. Browse individual traces with left arrow/right arrow keys. Disregard reciprocal
errors at small offsets, regard reciprocal errors at large offsets.
For a short description of the mathematical theory behind our Delta-t-V and XTV inversions, see
http://rayfract.com/xtv_inversion.pdf
A recent Karst study done at University of Florida compares Rayfract® Smooth inversion with
Geometrics SeisImager™, Optim LLC SeisOpt® Pro and core data. See
http://rayfract.com/07-2353.pdf
For a recent USGS publication comparing GeoTomo LLC GeoCT-II with Rayfract® see
http://pubs.usgs.gov/sir/2006/5166/
Version 2.73 released in May 2007 :
 Supports Microsoft Windows® Vista™, Windows XP, Windows 2000, Windows 98 SE. Follow Vista
instructions on how to download and install WINHLP32.EXE, to enable Rayfract® help file display.
 Allows import of Optim LLC SeisOpt files. You may generate SeisOpt data files e.g. with W_GeoSoft
WinSism 10. For Rayfract® import of SeisOpt files, disable File|Import Data Settings item “Default
distance unit is meter” to specify distance unit feet. Disable setting “Default time unit is seconds”, to
specify time unit milliseconds.
 If there are dead traces missing from SeisOpt or Interpex Gremix input data files, these missing traces
are regenerated during import automatically for the active part of the receiver spread type specified.
 You now can browse/add/import/export receiver spread types in menu File without opening a database.
 If during import of data files with File|Import Data… Rayfract® shows an error message and you
switch to another application, the cursor may display as an hour glass when you try to reactivate
Rayfract®. Be sure to click once or twice on the Rayfract™ icon shown in the task bar at the bottom of
your display, to reset the cursor to the normal arrow and to unlock our software. This issue has been
fixed for version 2.73.
 We recommend to refine Smooth inversion WET output by increasing the WET iteration count to e.g.
100 or 200 iterations. See our tutorials
http://rayfract.com/tutorials/line01pt.pdf
http://rayfract.com/tutorials/line2.pdf
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
For a recent survey imaging subsurface velocity below a street using Rayfract® pseudo-2D Delta-t-V
and Smooth inversion, see http://rayfract.com/samples/street_crossing.pdf
For a recent study comparing a published Palmer GRM interpretation with Rayfract® Smooth
inversion, see http://rayfract.com/papers/eg374whiteleyeditcheck.pdf . This paper also includes
interpretation of a low coverage synthetic data set, with four different methods.
Version 2.72 released in January 2007 :
 We have implemented "File" menu functions for export/import of receiver spread types. Please note
that you need to open any profile e.g. LINE14 first, to enable this. Also, whenever you define a new
spread type, all spread types are exported to file \RAY32\REF\MYSPREAD.SPR. Spread types are
stored in the reference database (directory \RAY32\REF, files SEISRF32.*), and not in the individual
profile databases. So any custom spread type defined or imported is available for all profile databases.
 We offer a new Header|Profile field "Min. horizontal separation [%]". This field defines the minimum
horizontal station offset applied during coordinate interpolation, in percent of the inline station offset.
You may want to leave this field at its default value of 25%, for most recording geometry situations.
 Also, we now support posting and labeling of shot points. See new options at bottom of Grid menu.

Our software supports again reading of .PAR parameter files generated with version 2.64 and earlier
versions.
Version 2.71 released in December 06 :
 This updated version features a new XTV parameters dialog, in menu Delta-t-V. You may enable
modeling of constant velocity layers with a modified Dix inversion, and/or with Intercept time layer
inversion. The XTV method also supports modeling of constant velocity gradient layers (with our
existing Delta-t-V method), and has been described by Roland A. Winkelmann in his 1998 thesis, as
done with Professor Helmut Gebrande in Munich. We recommend enabling XTV inversion for high
coverage profiles only.
 Once you have specified your preferred XTV parameters in above dialog, you may then carry out a
pseudo-2D inversion, with our existing Delta-t-V menu item "Interactive Delta-t-V". This inversion
algorithm has been generalized and now supports the XTV method.
 The XTV parameters are now correctly loaded from the profile database, when displaying the XTV
dialog. Also, the valid range of the three numeric parameters has been changed. The minimum velocity
ratio required for application of the Intercept time layer inversion now ranges from 1.01 to 2.5. And the
sum of the two velocity step parameters may not exceed 100 percent.
 XTV parameters chosen are now written to the .PAR file, during Delta-t-V inversion. And the inversion
type used for each layer is written to the last column of the .CSV file.
 We have improved our automated database revision routine. The revision log is now written to file
SEIS32.REP in the profile database directory.
Version 2.70 released in November 06 :
 We have adapted our WET imaging such that the topography is now imaged correctly, for receivers
beyond the first/last shot position. Please note that imaged velocity shown below such receivers is not
very meaningful, since the all-important weathering velocity and thickness can't be determined below
these receivers. Since there are no shot points positioned close to these receivers.
 This version features a first try at our implementation of the XTV inversion as described by Roland A.
Winkelmann in his 1998 thesis. See Delta-t-V settings submenu. Use for high coverage surveys and at
your own risk only.
 The SEIS32.BLN blanking file generated during Delta-t-V inversion will now be corrected for a nonzero "Profile start offset" as specified in Header|Profile.
 Also, our Rayfract(tm) software now correctly imports extrapolated shot branches generated during
conventional Wavefront and Plus-Minus interpretation of profiles with a minimum receiver separation
of two or more station numbers.
Version 2.66 released in November 06:
 We offer a new Grid menu command "Convert elevation to Depth below topography...” for conversion
of elevation section grids to depth sections grids.
 Also, the station header V0 (weathering velocity) is now updated automatically, when remapping traces
to refractors in Refractor|Shot breaks, and when smoothing crossover distances in Refractor|Midpoint
breaks. If consecutive Wavefront or Plus-Minus interpretation fails saying “Bad traveltime field” after
10,000 regression iterations, please proceed as follows :
select Refractor|Shot breaks or Refractor|Midpoint breaks
- disable Trace mapping|Automated updating of v0
- proceed as described in above manual.pdf, chapters 1.8 & 1.9 (Shot breaks) or
chapters 1.12 and 1.13 (Midpoint breaks)
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
In menu WET Tomo|WET tomography Settings, we offer a new option "Update imaged grid depth".
This option is enabled by default. If enabled, the grid depth will be updated after each tomography
iteration. Otherwise, the imaged grid depth will stay the same as for the initial model.
Wavefront and Plus-Minus modeling parameters "Overburden filter" and "Base filter width" can now be
set to maximally 20 and 30 station numbers, respectively.
Version 2.65 released in September 06 :
 The "original input file" name is shown correctly again, in Refractor|Shot breaks.
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Forward modeling of traveltimes with our optimized Eikonal Solver runs about 15% faster.
Our SEG-2 binary trace data import routine now should correctly import most trace data files, even if
the trace data start is not rounded up to the next a 32-bit (double word) block boundary, as prescribed
by the SEG-2 standard.
We offer a new "Image and contour velocity and coverage grids..." function, in menu "Grid". Use this
function for imaging of Surfer(tm) grid files as generated during previous inversions.
Interactive Delta-t-V export settings dialog offers a new option “Gridding method”. Select one of
"Natural Neighbor", "Nearest Neighbor", “Delaunay Triangulation" and "Minimum Curvature".
Menu “Grid” offers another new function “Grid and image Delta-t-V .CSV file…”. This function
regards the current setting of Delta-t-V export option “Gridding method”. So you may grid the same
.CSV with alternative methods, without having to redo the Delta-t-V inversion.
If you disable the new setting "File|Import Data Settings|Keep same layout start for consecutive shot
trace files", layout start and shot position are determined directly from SEG-2 trace header fields
SOURCE_LOCATION and RECEIVER_LOCATION. The layout start is rounded to an integer station
number, and the shot position is shifted by the resulting offset (less than half a station spacing).
We recommend the latest version 3.22 of the INTERPEX IXSEG2SEGY utility, for frequency filtering
and picking of traces. This version now correctly preserves SEG-2 trace header fields
SOURCE_STATION_NUMBER
and
RECEIVER_STATION_NUMBER.
See
http://www.interpex.com . These fields override fields SOURCE_LOCATION and
RECEIVER_LOCATION.
We have deprecated our pseudo-2D Delta-t-V inversion, and now recommend to always at least trying
our Smooth inversion method, based on a 1D gradient initial model. See e.g.
http://rayfract.com/help/manual.pdf
http://rayfract.com/tutorials/palmfig3.pdf
http://rayfract.com/tutorials/depress.pdf
http://rayfract.com/tutorials/broadepi.pdf
Version 2.64 released in May 2006 :
 Delta-t-V inversion once again works fine with parameter “Regression over offset stations” set to
values higher than 7. This was broken in version 2.62.
 Displaying and picking shot traces with up to 10,000 samples now works correctly. Previously, this did
not always work, with more than 5,000 samples per trace.
 Data import routine supports merging of binary trace data files with ASCII first break picks as supplied
in GEOMETRICS .BPK pick files, even if columns 5 and 6 of the .BPK are not separated by white
space characters. Column 5 is assumed to contain “0.0” (without the enclosing “”).
 “Import shots” dialog offers new option “Detect shifted 32-bit floating point sample data start”. This
option was implicitly enabled up to now, but did not always work. Use this option if imported binary
shots don’t show any coherent signal, in Tace|Shot gather.
 SEG-2 import routine supports DMT SUMMIT 32-bit floating point traces.
 Improved support for import option “Limit offset”. Use for improved imaging of shallow subsurface
(e.g. weathering layer), if the data was recorded with too long receiver spreads and too many channels.
 New function “Reverse polarity” in menu “Trace processing”.
 When opening or moving any other window on top of trace gather window, mouse cursor is not reset
any longer when the underlying trace gather is repainted.
 The “original input file” displayed in the title bar of the Trace|Shot gather window is out of sync with
the actual shot no. displayed. This is shown correctly in Refractor|Shot breaks. Rest assured that this
display bug does not affect geometry handling and inversion of your data in any way.
 The Surfer(tm) Kriging gridding method sometimes generates artefacts, such as false high velocity
anomalies directly below the topography. If you want to experiment with different algorithms than the
default Kriging method, please download archive http://rayfract.com/common/scripts.zip to a temporary
directory e.g. C:\TEMP. Now unzip the archive in C:\TEMP and proceed as described in the included
README.TXT. We offer scripts for gridding methods "Natural Neighbor", "Nearest Neighbor",
“Delaunay Triangulation" and "Minimum Curvature".
 For optimum coverage of the subsurface with seismic energy, we recommend to employ overlapping
receiver spreads. See http://rayfract.com/help/overlap.pdf and http://rayfract.com/help/overlap.txt .
 To suppress velocity artefacts, we strongly recommend using our Smooth inversion method. See
http://rayfract.com/pub/srt_evaluation.pdf and http://rayfract.com/tutorials/broadepi.pdf .

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
Wavefront and Plus-Minus inversion may abort with a message saying "Refractor coverage may be too
low or too short”. Please record more (far offset) shots for this profile, and use a shorter receiver
spacing. Also, use longer receiver spreads, with more channels. Our Plus-Minus and Wavefront
inversions include a preliminary processing step called "traveltime field regression" which reduces
basement refractor first breaks to a single set of forward and reverse traveltime curves (Brückl 1987).
This data reduction step requires a certain data density. If too few shots were recorded, or the receiver
spacing was too wide and/or receiver spreads were too short, this reduction algorithm may not be able
to reduce the data set.
The traveltime field regression algorithm works best if all sources and receivers are positioned at whole
station numbers. So you may want to reimport your shots into a new profile, with a more appropriate
“Receiver spread type”, e.g. “13: 48 every2nd”.
Also, overburden refractor first breaks are interpreted with the conventional intercept time method, for
adjacent reversed shot pairs. This step requires a certain data density as well. Please note that such low
coverage problems do not arise with our Smooth inversion and Delta-t-V and WET inversion, since
these methods do not require you to map traces to refractors at all.
When importing first breaks from Interpex Gremix .GRM files or ASCII.ASC files, these files need to
specify first break pick times for all receivers specified in the spread type used. If a trace cannot be
picked (data is too noisy or the trace is dead), please specify a time of -1, meaning “not picked”.
Import of ASCII.ASC shots may show an error message “"Shot position of shot nr. … is not at
traveltime curve minimum !" The import routine detects for inline shots the two channels with the
smallest first break picks. If the shot is not positioned between these two channels, above message is
shown and the shot is not imported. You may want to repick traces or edit the .ASC such that the shot
position is located between the two smallest first break times. You may need to introduce “artificial”
picks for near-shot traces which you did not pick previously.
To update the Windows help file topics shown in menu “Help”, please proceed as follows :
Download http://rayfract.com/help/rayfract.hlp to a directory on your PC, e.g. C:\TEMP.
Open a Windows Explorer window via Start|Run…, enter “Explorer” and hit RETURN.
Navigate to your C:\TEMP directory. Select file RAYFRACT.HLP with left mouse key.
Press CTRL-C or select Edit|Copy .
Navigate to your \RAY32\HELP directory, e.g. C:\RAY32\HELP.
Press CTRL-V or select Edit|Paste . Confirm the “Confirm File Replace” prompt.
Context sensitive popup help (in dialogs) will work for a recently updated Rayfract™ installation only.
If the word feet or meter is contained in a header line of a .PRN, .SHO or .COR file, the shot and
receiver positions and coordinates in that file are assumed to be specified in that distance unit. See
http://rayfract.com/help/ln14feet.zip for sample files, specified in feet.
You may want to limit the maximum Delta-t-V velocity to a value lower than the default 5,000 m/s.
Use “Export Option” parameter “Max. velocity exported”, in Delta-t-V|Interactive Delta-t-V. This
parameter is regarded by both pseudo-2D inversion and Smooth inversion.
Version 2.63 released in December 2005 :
 WET grid caching algorithm correctly decides whether to cache all receiver grids in RAM, or whether
to write all grids to disk, depending on the amount of free RAM available.
 Integrated optimized memory manager (MicroQuill SmartHeap version 8), for improved data
processing performance.
 Inversion will recognize if a profile is too long, and will recommend splitting the profile into two parts.
This may happen e.g. in case of many short overlapping receiver spreads, and short maximum offset
between shot point and receiver.
 New edit field “Profile start offset” in Header|Profile. Use this field to specify a horizontal inline offset
different from 0.0, for the first profile receiver. This start offset value will be used by subsequent Deltat-V and WET imaging, and is shown on the horizontal X axis.
 New WET setting “Write grids for every iteration”.
 The maximum imaged depth has been extended to 70 km, and there is not any longer a limit on the
maximum first break pick time.
 The “Annotation parameters” dialog allows selection of X/Y axis Line type “Dashed line”/”Dotted
line”/”No line” and ticks type “Major & Minor”/”Major ticks”/”No ticks”.
Version 2.62 released in August 2005 :
 Significantly improved Delta-t-V internal static corrections. During a second pass of statics
computation, ray emergence angles are now regarded.
 Additional Delta-t-V setting “Suppress velocity anomalies”. Use for medium to high coverage profiles,
to suppress noise and processing artifacts.
 New Delta-t-V setting “Process every CMP offset”. Use for medium to high coverage profiles, high S/N
ratio and flat subsurface layering, for increased vertical resolution.
 SEG-2 import routine now supports importing 32-bit floating point traces generated with Interpex
IXSEG2SEGY utility.
 Numeric field entry always allows adding more digits without first having to delete the whole entry.
 When toggling Delta-t-V static correction methods “surface consistent” and “CMP gather specific”, just
one subsequent run of the Delta-t-V inversion is required, for stable output.
 A few minor bugs have been fixed.
Version 2.61 released in March 2005 :
 Improved robustness of WET tomography implementation.
 Maximum number of WET iterations increased to 999.
 Updated and optimized database subsystem.
 Correctly regard “off end” shots during WET inversion, located at a distance of up to two station
spacings, from first/last profile receiver.
 Mapping of traces to refractors in Midpoint breaks display (Refractor|Midpoint breaks) now works as
advertised in our manual, with spread type “13: 48 every 2nd” and a station spacing of half the true
receiver separation. See http://rayfract.com/tutorials/line2.pdf .
Updated July 23, 2017 in Vancouver, Canada. Copyright © 1996-2017 Intelligent Resources Inc. All rights
reserved. Rayfract® is a registered trademark of Intelligent Resources Inc. in Canada and Switzerland. All other
product names mentioned above are trademarks or registered trademarks of their respective holders.
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