Wireless Hacking - Latest Hacking News

Wireless Hacking - Latest Hacking News
Wireless Hacking – Haifux
Wireless Hacking
Edri Guy
Mar 04 ,2013
See-Security
Mar 04 2013 – Wireless Hacking - Haifux
Wireless Hacking – Haifux
DISCLAIMER
1 – The following discussion is for informational and education
purpose only.
2 – Hacking into private network without the written permission
from the owner is Illegal and strictly forbidden.
3 – Misused could result in breaking the law so use it at your own
risk.
See-Security
Mar 04 2013 – Wireless Hacking - Haifux
Wireless Hacking – Haifux
Introduction
WiFi Classes
Vulnerabilities
Attack
Overview
●
We're going to learn how WiFi (802.11) works
●
Start with terminology
●
Types
●
Vulnerabilities
●
Attacking them
●
Surprise demonstration of....:)
See-Security
Mar 04 2013 – Wireless Hacking - Haifux
Wireless Hacking – Haifux
Introduction
WiFi Classes
Vulnerabilities
Attack
Terminology
●
●
AP - Access Point
MAC – Media Access Control a unique id assigned to wireless
adapters and routers.
It comes in hexadecimal format (ie 00:11:ef:22:a3:6a)
See-Security
Mar 04 2013 – Wireless Hacking - Haifux
Wireless Hacking – Haifux
Introduction
WiFi Classes
Vulnerabilities
Attack
Terminology
●
●
BSSID – Access Point's MAC Address
ESSID - Access Point’s Broadcast name. (ie linksys, default,
belkin etc) Some AP’s will not broadcast their name,But
Airodump-ng can guess it.
See-Security
Mar 04 2013 – Wireless Hacking - Haifux
Wireless Hacking – Haifux
Introduction
WiFi Classes
Vulnerabilities
Attack
Gear - Antennas
Dipole – Standar, Omni directional
●
Hyperbolic – Mushroom Shaped signal
●
Yaggi – Very directional (Japanese R&D)
●
Pringles – Improvised(Hacker Style) Yaggi
●
WindSurfer – Improvised hyperbolic
●
See-Security
Mar 04 2013 – Wireless Hacking - Haifux
Wireless Hacking – Haifux
Introduction
WiFi Classes
Vulnerabilities
Attack
Gear - Antennas
WindSurfer – Improvised hyperbolic
●
See-Security
Mar 04 2013 – Wireless Hacking - Haifux
Wireless Hacking – Haifux
Introduction
WiFi Classes
Vulnerabilities
Attack
Channels
●
The physical frequency of the wireless transmissions
●
Channels are between 1-14 (1-11 in the USA)
●
802.11 is the wireless communication standard by IEEE
See-Security
Mar 04 2013 – Wireless Hacking - Haifux
Wireless Hacking – Haifux
Introduction
WiFi Classes
Vulnerabilities
Attack
Channels
See-Security
Mar 04 2013 – Wireless Hacking - Haifux
Wireless Hacking – Haifux
Introduction
WiFi Classes
Vulnerabilities
Attack
Standards
●
802.11a – 5 GHZ rate : upto 54Mbps
●
802.11b – 2.4 GHZ rate : upto 11Mbps
●
802.11g – 2.4 GHZ rate : upto 54Mbps
●
802.11n – 2.4 GHZ rate : upto 300Mbps
●
802.11ac(draft) – 5 GHZ rate : upto 1.73Gps !!!
See-Security
Mar 04 2013 – Wireless Hacking - Haifux
Introduction
WiFi Classes
Vulnerabilities
Attack
Wireless Hacking – Haifux
Transmission Power
●
Transmit power, or txpower, regulated by country.
●
txpower has a max of 0.5 Watts
●
Coded into the Linux Kernel
●
Easier than changing the kernel is to move to another country
See-Security
Mar 04 2013 – Wireless Hacking - Haifux
Wireless Hacking – Haifux
Introduction
WiFi Classes
Vulnerabilities
Attack
A little backdoor
Move to Bolivia (Almost no restrictions there)
iw reg get
iw reg set BO
iwconfig wlan0 txpower 30(only if your card
support it)
See-Security
Mar 04 2013 – Wireless Hacking - Haifux
Wireless Hacking – Haifux
Introduction
WiFi Classes
Vulnerabilities
Attack
A little backdoor – more than 30dbm
apt-get install libgcrypt11-dev python-m2crypto libnl1 libnl-dev
cd ~
mkdir custom-rdb
cd custom-rdb
wget http://kernel.org/pub/software/network/wireless-regdb/wireless-regdb-2013.02.13.tar.bz2
cd ~
tar –xvjf wireless-regdb-2013.02.13.tar.bz2
cd wireless-regdb-2013.02.13
Now edit the file db.txt
(2402 - 2494 @ 40), (N/A, 35)
(4910 - 5835 @ 40), (N/A, 35)
make && make install
See-Security
Mar 04 2013 – Wireless Hacking - Haifux
Wireless Hacking – Haifux
Introduction
WiFi Classes
Vulnerabilities
Attack
A little backdoor – more than 30dbm
Backup and copy new key.
cp /usr/lib/crda/regulatory.bin /usr/lib/crda/regulatory.bin.bak
cp regulatory.bin /usr/lib/crda/
cd ~/custom-rdb
wget http://wireless.kernel.org/download/crda/crda-1.1.3.tar.bz2
tar -xvjf crda-1.1.3.tar.bz2
cd crda-1.1.3
Copy the generated keys from regdb folder:
cp ~/custom-rdb/wireless-regdb-2013.02.13/*.key.pub.pem pubkeys
make && make install
http://www.rapidtables.com/convert/power/dBm_to_Watt.htm#table
See-Security
Mar 04 2013 – Wireless Hacking - Haifux
Introduction
WiFi Classes
Vulnerabilities
Attack
Wireless Hacking – Haifux
WiFi has 6 modes
●
Master - Access Point or Base Station
●
Managed - Infrastructure Mode (Client)
●
Ad-Hoc – Device to Device
●
Mesh (Mesh Cloud/Network)
●
Repeater - Range Extender
●
Monitor (RFMON)
See-Security
Mar 04 2013 – Wireless Hacking - Haifux
Wireless Hacking – Haifux
Introduction
WiFi Classes
Vulnerabilities
Attack
Terminology
●
Packet – an amount of data transferred in a network.
●
Frame – a container which the packet is transfered within
See-Security
Mar 04 2013 – Wireless Hacking - Haifux
Wireless Hacking – Haifux
Introduction
WiFi Classes
Vulnerabilities
Attack
Frame Structure
●
●
Frames: Simply Data Packets
Typically made up of:
Header,
Payload,
Integrity Check (CRC)
Frame Header:
Source and Destination
Ether Type (What Protocol)
See-Security
Mar 04 2013 – Wireless Hacking - Haifux
Wireless Hacking – Haifux
Introduction
WiFi Classes
Vulnerabilities
Attack
Protocols
●
ARP – Address Resolution Protocol
●
MAC – Media Access Control
●
IP – Internet Protocol
See-Security
Mar 04 2013 – Wireless Hacking - Haifux
Wireless Hacking – Haifux
ARP Packets
See-Security
Introduction
WiFi Classes
Vulnerabilities
Attack
Mar 04 2013 – Wireless Hacking - Haifux
Wireless Hacking – Haifux
Introduction
WiFi Classes
Vulnerabilities
Attack
WiFi Frames
●
Management Frames
●
Control Frames
●
Data Frames
See-Security
Mar 04 2013 – Wireless Hacking - Haifux
Wireless Hacking – Haifux
Introduction
WiFi Classes
Vulnerabilities
Attack
Management Frames
●
Beacons
●
Probes
●
Associations
●
Authentications
See-Security
Mar 04 2013 – Wireless Hacking - Haifux
Wireless Hacking – Haifux
Introduction
WiFi Classes
Vulnerabilities
Attack
Beacon Frames
●
Advertise the network
●
Specify SSID, Channels and other capabilities
●
View those frames:
gksudo wireshark & disown
Wireshark filter:
wlan.fc.subtype == 0x08
●
See-Security
Mar 04 2013 – Wireless Hacking - Haifux
Wireless Hacking – Haifux
Introduction
WiFi Classes
Vulnerabilities
Attack
Probe Frames
●
●
Probe Request - Are you my friend?
wlan.fc.type_subtype == 0x04
Probe Response - Includes capability info
wlan.fc.type_subtype == 0x05
Demo: Viewing probes
airmon­ng start wlan2
airodump­ng mon0
●
See-Security
Mar 04 2013 – Wireless Hacking - Haifux
Wireless Hacking – Haifux
Introduction
WiFi Classes
Vulnerabilities
Attack
Management Frames – Beacon
See-Security
Mar 04 2013 – Wireless Hacking - Haifux
Wireless Hacking – Haifux
Introduction
WiFi Classes
Vulnerabilities
Attack
Management Frames – Probe Request
See-Security
Mar 04 2013 – Wireless Hacking - Haifux
Wireless Hacking – Haifux
Introduction
WiFi Classes
Vulnerabilities
Attack
Management Frames – Probe Response
See-Security
Mar 04 2013 – Wireless Hacking - Haifux
Wireless Hacking – Haifux
Introduction
WiFi Classes
Vulnerabilities
Attack
Association Frames
●
Association
●
Association Request - Can we be friends?
●
Association Response
●
Disassociation
See-Security
Mar 04 2013 – Wireless Hacking - Haifux
Wireless Hacking – Haifux
Introduction
WiFi Classes
Vulnerabilities
Attack
Authentication Frames
●
Authentication
●
De-Authentication
See-Security
Mar 04 2013 – Wireless Hacking - Haifux
Wireless Hacking – Haifux
Introduction
WiFi Classes
Vulnerabilities
Attack
Control Frames
●
●
Request to Send ­ RTS: ­ May I speak sir ?
Clear to Send ­ CTS: ­ Everything all right soldier
Acknowledgement – ACK:
­ Got it sir
●
See-Security
Mar 04 2013 – Wireless Hacking - Haifux
Wireless Hacking – Haifux
Introduction
WiFi Classes
Vulnerabilities
Attack
Attack Vectors
●
Direct Attack
Injectable?
WEP
WPA1/2 (excluding WPA2-Enterprise)
●
DOS attacks (De-Auth)
●
Rouge Access Point (Caffe-Latte/Hirte/KoRek)
●
Karma
●
Much much more (...)
See-Security
Mar 04 2013 – Wireless Hacking - Haifux
Wireless Hacking – Haifux
Introduction
WiFi Classes
Vulnerabilities
Attack
WEP
●
Wired Equivalent Privacy
●
WEP uses 64,128 and 256bit(very rare) keys
●
Everything but layer 2
●
Uses IV (Initialization Vector)
●
Uses RC4 for encryption
●
WEP uses CRC instead of MAC(Message Authentication Code)
See-Security
Mar 04 2013 – Wireless Hacking - Haifux
Wireless Hacking – Haifux
Introduction
WiFi Classes
Vulnerabilities
Attack
WEP - Flaws
●
●
RC4 is a stream cipher and same key should not be used twice!
- The length of the IV is 24Bit
WEP uses a 64/128 bit key which is concatenated with a
24­bit initialization vector (IV) to form the RC4 traffic key.
- 64Bit key is made of 24bit IV + 48bit key (12 hex characters)
­128Bit key is made of 24bit IV + 104bit key (26 hex characters)
See-Security
Mar 04 2013 – Wireless Hacking - Haifux
Wireless Hacking – Haifux
Introduction
WiFi Classes
Vulnerabilities
Attack
WEP - Flaws
The purpose of an IV, which is transmitted as plain text,Is to prevent any repetition,
But a 24­bit IV is not long enough to ensure this on a busy network.
●
BUT...
●
See-Security
Mar 04 2013 – Wireless Hacking - Haifux
Wireless Hacking – Haifux
Introduction
WiFi Classes
Vulnerabilities
Attack
WEP - Flaws
Statistically for a 24-bit IV, there is a 50% probability the
same IV will repeat after 5000 packets.
See-Security
Mar 04 2013 – Wireless Hacking - Haifux
Wireless Hacking – Haifux
Introduction
WiFi Classes
Vulnerabilities
Attack
WEP – Schema
See-Security
Mar 04 2013 – Wireless Hacking - Haifux
Wireless Hacking – Haifux
See-Security
Introduction
WiFi Classes
Vulnerabilities
Attack
Mar 04 2013 – Wireless Hacking - Haifux
Wireless Hacking – Haifux
Introduction
WiFi Classes
Vulnerabilities
Attack
Authentication methods - Open
●
●
●
Open system ­ Any client, regardless of its WEP keys,
can authenticate itself with the AP and then attempt to associate.
All you need is the right keys for authentication and association, WEP can be used for encrypting the data frames.
Bottom line, no authentication occurs...
See-Security
Mar 04 2013 – Wireless Hacking - Haifux
Wireless Hacking – Haifux
Introduction
WiFi Classes
Vulnerabilities
Attack
Authentication methods – Shared Key
Four way handshake:
AR – Authentication Request
AP send back Clear-Text challenge
Encrypted Challenge
AP Decrypts and knows if the client knows the key or not
See-Security
Mar 04 2013 – Wireless Hacking - Haifux
Wireless Hacking – Haifux
Introduction
WiFi Classes
Vulnerabilities
Attack
Shared Key - Vulnerability
Share key is less secure because it allows the attacker to get IVs using the challenge through response mechanism!
●
See-Security
Mar 04 2013 – Wireless Hacking - Haifux
Wireless Hacking – Haifux
Introduction
WiFi Classes
Vulnerabilities
Attack
Authentication – Challenge Text
See-Security
Mar 04 2013 – Wireless Hacking - Haifux
Wireless Hacking – Haifux
Introduction
WiFi Classes
Vulnerabilities
Attack
WEP - Authentication
See-Security
Mar 04 2013 – Wireless Hacking - Haifux
Wireless Hacking – Haifux
Introduction
WiFi Classes
Vulnerabilities
Attack
WPA - Stats
●
WPA TKIP (Temporal Key Integrity Protocol) was built upon
WEP. The idea was to close all the vulnerabilities and use the
same hardware.
See-Security
Mar 04 2013 – Wireless Hacking - Haifux
Wireless Hacking – Haifux
Introduction
WiFi Classes
Vulnerabilities
Attack
WPA - Stats
●
●
●
WPA still using RC4(Like WEP) but the keys were
changed to Temporal Key Intergrity Protocol(TKIP).
All regular WLAN devices that worked with WEP are
able to be simply upgraded and no new equipment
needs to be bought.
TKIP basically works by generating a sequence of
WEP keys based on a master key,and re-keying
periodically before enough volume of data.
See-Security
Mar 04 2013 – Wireless Hacking - Haifux
Wireless Hacking – Haifux
Introduction
WiFi Classes
Vulnerabilities
Attack
WPA - Stats
●
●
TKIP changes the Key every 10,000 packets,which is
quick enough to combat statistical methods to analyze
the cipher.
TKIP also adds Message Integrity Code(MIC).The
transmission’s CRC,ICV(Integrity Check Value) is
checked.
If the packet was tampered with.
WPA will stop using the current keys and re­key
See-Security
Mar 04 2013 – Wireless Hacking - Haifux
Wireless Hacking – Haifux
Introduction
WiFi Classes
Vulnerabilities
Attack
WPA - Weakness
●
WPA is crackable,It just requires slightly more effort from the
attacker.
The process if as follows :
1 - Send a De-Auth to AP
2 - AP Re-Auth the Client
3 - Capture the Handshake
4 - Brute force on the Handshake
●
In 2009 Beck-Tew attack was discovered,It allows to decrypt
a packet without knowing the key(Base on ChopChop Attack)
See-Security
Mar 04 2013 – Wireless Hacking - Haifux
Wireless Hacking – Haifux
Introduction
WiFi Classes
Vulnerabilities
Attack
WPA
Your best solution is WPA2–AES !!!
See-Security
Mar 04 2013 – Wireless Hacking - Haifux
Wireless Hacking – Haifux
Introduction
WiFi Classes
Vulnerabilities
Attack
WPA2
Replaced WEP and WPA1 at June 2004
Uses CCMP(strong AES base encryption)
Solves many issues aroused with WEP/WPA1
See-Security
Mar 04 2013 – Wireless Hacking - Haifux
Wireless Hacking – Haifux
Introduction
WiFi Classes
Vulnerabilities
Attack
WPA2
●
WPA2 is still vulnerable to brute force attack.
Weak password may cause insecure network.
We still have to choose strong password in order to achieve
good security.
See-Security
Mar 04 2013 – Wireless Hacking - Haifux
Wireless Hacking – Haifux
Introduction
WiFi Classes
Vulnerabilities
Attack
WPA2
●
There is no known attack on the cipher
●
However... Handshake is vulnerable to attack
●
Once we got the 4-way handshake,We are good to go
See-Security
Mar 04 2013 – Wireless Hacking - Haifux
Wireless Hacking – Haifux
See-Security
Introduction
WiFi Classes
Vulnerabilities
Attack
Mar 04 2013 – Wireless Hacking - Haifux
Wireless Hacking – Haifux
Introduction
WiFi Classes
Vulnerabilities
Attack
WPA2 – Weakness
●
●
It is possible to crack WPA2 with very high chances of
success.But it depends on the length and complexity of the
password.
Elcomsoft developed an application that uses GPU power to
attempt over 120,000 passwords per second.
Depending on the key, it can take anywhere from seconds to
the next big bang!!!
See-Security
Mar 04 2013 – Wireless Hacking - Haifux
Wireless Hacking – Haifux
Introduction
WiFi Classes
Vulnerabilities
Attack
WPS (Worst Protection System)
WiFi Protected Setup
●
●
●
●
PIN Method – Remotely while authenticating
Push-Button-Method – As it sounds
Near-Field-Communication - As it sounds
USB – Shared Information on USB stick
See-Security
Mar 04 2013 – Wireless Hacking - Haifux
Wireless Hacking – Haifux
Introduction
WiFi Classes
Vulnerabilities
Attack
WPS
●
The WPS code is built out of 8 digits.
●
No authentication is needed to try pin codes
●
The pin code is 8 digits
●
The first 4 are immediately checked
●
The last digit is a check sum
See-Security
Mar 04 2013 – Wireless Hacking - Haifux
Wireless Hacking – Haifux
Introduction
WiFi Classes
Vulnerabilities
Attack
WPS
Original combinations should be:
10^8 (100 million)
After considering 4 digit check:
10^4+10^4 = 20,000
After checksum digit:
10^4+10^3 = 11,000
Assuming only 100 tries a minute (low)
11,000/100 = 110 minutes = almost 2 hours
See-Security
Mar 04 2013 – Wireless Hacking - Haifux
Wireless Hacking – Haifux
Introduction
WiFi Classes
Vulnerabilities
Attack
WEP Attacks
●
It is possible to recover a 104Bit WEP key with probability 50%
using only 40,000 captured packets.
●
60,000 captured packet rise the probability to 80%.
●
80,000 captured packets rise the probability to 95%
●
The actual computation takes about 3 seconds and 3 MB of
main memory on a Pentium­M 1.7 GHz ...
See-Security
Mar 04 2013 – Wireless Hacking - Haifux
Wireless Hacking – Haifux
Introduction
WiFi Classes
Vulnerabilities
Attack
Attacking Methods

Passive – Silence Mode
sniffing the air for packets without sending any data to the AP or clients.
Active ­ breaking the key while sending data to the AP or client.

See-Security
Mar 04 2013 – Wireless Hacking - Haifux
Wireless Hacking – Haifux
Introduction
WiFi Classes
Vulnerabilities
Attack
Attacking Methods
ARP Replay 
Caffe­Latte

Hirte 
ChopChop / KoRek 
FMS Attack

PTW Attack

See-Security
Mar 04 2013 – Wireless Hacking - Haifux
Introduction
WiFi Classes
Vulnerabilities
Attack
Wireless Hacking – Haifux
Demo time !!!
●
ARP Replay Attack steps
1 - Start capturing first Pockets :
airodump-ng --channel $CH --bssid $BSSID --write dump-to-crack mon0
2 - Starting ARP Reply Attack :
aireplay-ng --arpreplay -b $ESSID -x 100 -h $ORIGINAL-MAC mon0
3 – Start De-Auth Attack(Until you get ARP packets) :
aireplay-ng --deauth 1 -a $BSSID -h $CLIENT-MAC mon0
4 – Start cracking the CAP file.
aircrack-ng dump-to-crack.cap
See-Security
Mar 04 2013 – Wireless Hacking - Haifux
Introduction
WiFi Classes
Vulnerabilities
Attack
Wireless Hacking – Haifux
Demo time !!!
●
Hirte Attack(Extends for Caffe-Latte) steps
1 – Find a probe you want to hack and start the Hirte Attack :
airbase-ng -W 1 -c 6 -N --essid $ESSID-TO-HACK mon0
2 – Start saving the packets :
airodump-ng --channel $CH --bssid $BSSID --write dump-to-crack mon0
3 – Start cracking the CAP file
aircrack-ng dump-to-crack.cap
See-Security
Mar 04 2013 – Wireless Hacking - Haifux
Wireless Hacking – Haifux
Introduction
WiFi Classes
Vulnerabilities
Attack
Attacks inside the network

MiTM ( Man In The Middle ) Attack

SSL MiTM Attack

Downgrade encryption
1 – HTTPS to HTTP
2 – POP3s/SMTPs to POP3/SMTP
3 – NTLMv2 to NTLMv1
See-Security
Mar 04 2013 – Wireless Hacking - Haifux
Wireless Hacking – Haifux
Introduction
WiFi Classes
Vulnerabilities
Attack
Man In The Middle
Jennifer
Brad
See-Security
Mar 04 2013 – Wireless Hacking - Haifux
Wireless Hacking – Haifux
Introduction
WiFi Classes
Vulnerabilities
Attack
Man In The Middle
Jennifer
Brad
See-Security
Mar 04 2013 – Wireless Hacking - Haifux
Wireless Hacking – Haifux
Introduction
WiFi Classes
Vulnerabilities
Attack
Cool Tools
Aircrack-ng package including:
Airmon-ng
Airodump-ng
Aireplay-ng
Aircrack-ng
Airebase-ng
Airdeclock-ng
Airdriver-ng
And more :)
See-Security
Mar 04 2013 – Wireless Hacking - Haifux
Wireless Hacking – Haifux
Introduction
WiFi Classes
Vulnerabilities
Attack
Cool Tools
●
Wireshark
●
Reaver
●
Kismet
●
WiGLE
●
Gerix
See-Security
Mar 04 2013 – Wireless Hacking - Haifux
Wireless Hacking – Haifux
Introduction
WiFi Classes
Vulnerabilities
Attack
Getting aircrack-ng
Get Backtrack
OR
Get compact-wireless drivers
And compile your aircrack-ng
See-Security
Mar 04 2013 – Wireless Hacking - Haifux
Wireless Hacking – Haifux
Introduction
WiFi Classes
Vulnerabilities
Attack
Wireshark – Cheat Sheets
●
●
●
●
●
●
Probe Request
wlan.fc.type_subtype == 0x04
Probe Response
wlan.fc.type_subtype == 0x05
Association Request
wlan.fc.type_subtype == 0x00
Association Response
wlan.fc.type_subtype == 0x01
Disassociate
wlan.fc.type_subtype == 0x0a
Authentication
wlan.fc.type_subtype == 0x0b
See-Security
Mar 04 2013 – Wireless Hacking - Haifux
Wireless Hacking – Haifux
Introduction
WiFi Classes
Vulnerabilities
Attack
Let's Practice
WEP
BSSID:
ESSID: Haifux-01
WPA2
BSSID:
ESSID: WeLoveMS
See-Security
Mar 04 2013 – Wireless Hacking - Haifux
Wireless Hacking – Haifux
Introduction
WiFi Classes
Vulnerabilities
Attack
Contact info
Cheat Sheet
Password: l33t_hax0rs!
Email – [email protected]
Facebook – www.facebook.com/pclabs
Twitter - @pc_labs , twitter.com/pc_labs
LinkedIN - https://www.linkedin.com/pub/guy-edri/1/3a8/961
Hacking Define Experts course – www.see-security.com
See Consulting – www.see-secure.com
Video of this lecture ●
●
Part I
Part II
See-Security
Mar 04 2013 – Wireless Hacking - Haifux
Wireless Hacking – Haifux
Introduction
WiFi Classes
Vulnerabilities
Attack
One more thing !!!
See-Security
Mar 04 2013 – Wireless Hacking - Haifux
Wireless Hacking – Haifux
Introduction
WiFi Classes
Vulnerabilities
Attack
Thanks
See-Security
Mar 04 2013 – Wireless Hacking - Haifux
Was this manual useful for you? yes no
Thank you for your participation!

* Your assessment is very important for improving the work of artificial intelligence, which forms the content of this project

Download PDF

advertisement