70...200 MHz Digital Oscilloscope HMO Series 72x...202x

70...200 MHz Digital Oscilloscope HMO Series 72x...202x
70...200 MHz
Digital Oscilloscope
HMO Series 72x...202x
Manual
English
General information regarding the CE marking
General information regarding the CE marking
KONFORMITÄTSERKLÄRUNG
DECLARATION OF CONFORMITY
DECLARATION DE CONFORMITE
Hersteller
Manufacturer
Fabricant
HAMEG Instruments GmbH
Industriestraße 6
D-63533 Mainhausen
Die HAMEG Instruments GmbH bescheinigt die Konformität für das
Produkt
The HAMEG Instruments GmbH declares conformity of the product
HAMEG Instruments GmbH déclare la conformite du produit
The instruments fulfill the regulations of the EMC directive. The
conformity test based on the actual generic- and product standards.
In cases where different limit values are applicable, the instrument
applies the severer standard. For emission the limits for residential,
commercial and light industry are applied. Regarding the immunity
(susceptibility) the limits for industrial environment have been used.
The measuring- and data lines of the instrument have much influence
on emission and immunity and therefore on meeting the acceptance
limits. For different applications the lines and/or cables used may
be different. For measurement operation the following hints and
conditions regarding emission and immunity should be observed:
1. Data cables
For the connection between instrument interfaces and external devices,
(computer, printer etc.) sufficiently screened cables must be used.
Without a special instruction in the manual for a reduced cable length,
the maximum cable length of a dataline must be less than 3 meters and
not be used outside buildings. If an interface has several connectors
only one connector must have a connection to a cable.
Bezeichnung:
Product name:
Designation: Oszilloskop
Oscilloscope
Oscilloscope
Typ / Type / Type:
HMO722/-24, HMO1022/-24,
HMO1522/-24, HMO2022/-24
Basically interconnections must have a double screening.
mit / with / avec: HO720
2. Signal cables
Optionen / Options / Options: HO730, HO740
mit den folgenden Bestimmungen / with applicable regulations / avec
les directives suivantes
EMV Richtlinie 89/336/EWG ergänzt durch 91/263/EWG, 92/31/EWG
EMC Directive 89/336/EEC amended by 91/263/EWG, 92/31/EEC
Directive EMC 89/336/CEE amendée par 91/263/EWG, 92/31/CEE
Niederspannungsrichtlinie 73/23/EWG ergänzt durch 93/68/EWG
Low-Voltage Equipment Directive 73/23/EEC amended by 93/68/EEC
Directive des equipements basse tension 73/23/CEE amendée par
93/68/CEE
Angewendete harmonisierte Normen / Harmonized standards applied
Normes harmonisées utilisées:
Sicherheit / Safety / Sécurité:
EN 61010-1:2001 (IEC 61010-1:2001)
Überspannungskategorie / Overvoltage category /
Catégorie de surtension: II
Verschmutzungsgrad / Degree of pollution / Degré de pollution: 2
Elektromagnetische Verträglichkeit / Electromagnetic compatibility /
Compatibilité électromagnétique
EN 61326-1/A1 Störaussendung / Radiation / Emission:
Tabelle / table / tableau 4; Klasse / Class / Classe B.
Störfestigkeit / Immunity / Imunitée: Tabelle / table / tableau A1.
EN 61000-3-2/A14 Oberschwingungsströme / Harmonic current
emissions Émissions de courant harmonique: Klasse / Class / Classe
D.
EN 61000-3-3 Spannungsschwankungen u. Flicker / Voltage
fluctuations and flicker / Fluctuations de tension et du flicker.
Datum / Date / Date
02. 05. 2011
Unterschrift / Signature / Signatur
2
Subject to change without notice
Signal lines must screened (coaxial cable - RG58/U). A proper ground
connection is required. In combination with signal generators double
screened cables (RG223/U, RG214/U) must be used.
3. Influence on measuring instruments
Under the presence of strong high frequency electric or magnetic
fields, even with careful setup of the measuring equipment, influence
of such signals is unavoidable.
This will not cause damage or put the instrument out of operation. Small
deviations of the measuring value (reading) exceeding the instruments
specifications may result from such conditions in individual cases.
4. RF immunity of oscilloscopes.
Messkategorie / Measuring category / Catégorie de mesure: 0
Basically test leads for signal interconnection between test point and
instrument should be as short as possible. Without instruction in the
manual for a shorter length, signal lines must be less than 3 meters
and not be used outside buildings.
Holger Asmussen
General Manager
4.1 Electromagnetic RF field
The influence of electric and magnetic RF fields may become visible
(e.g. RF superimposed), if the field intensity is high. In most cases
the coupling into the oscilloscope takes place via the device under
test, mains/line supply, test leads, control cables and/or radiation.
The device under test as well as the oscilloscope may be effected by
such fields.
Although the interior of the oscilloscope is screened by the cabinet,
direct radiation can occur via the CRT gap. As the bandwidth of
each amplifier stage is higher than the total –3dB bandwidth of the
oscilloscope, the influence of RF fields of even higher frequencies
may be noticeable.
4.2 Electrical fast transients / electrostatic discharge
Electrical fast transient signals (burst) may be coupled into the
oscilloscope directly via the mains/line supply, or indirectly via test
General
information
regarding
leads and/or0.1
control
cables. Due
to the high trigger
and input sensitivity
of the oscilloscopes,
normally high signals may effect the trigger
the such
CE marking
unit and/or may become visible on the TFT, which is unavoidable. These
effects can also be caused by direct or indirect electrostatic discharge.
Content
0.1
General information regarding the CE marking
2
0.2
Digital Oscilloscope HMO Series 72x...202x
4
0.3
Specifications
5
1
Installation and safety instructions
1.1 Symbols 1.2 Setting up the instrument
1.3Safety
1.4 Correct operation
1.5 Ambient conditions
1.6 Warranty and repair
1.7Maintenance
1.8 CAT 0
1.9 Mains voltage
1.10 Product Disposal
1.11 Batteries and rechargeable batteries / cells
7
7
7
7
7
7
7
8
8
8
8
8
2
Familiarize yourself with your new HMO
2.1 Front view
2.2 Control panel
2.3Screen
2.4 Rear view
2.5Options
2.6 General concept of instrument operation
2.7 Basic settings and integrated help
2.8 Bus Signal Source
2.9 Updates for the firmware, the help functions
and languages
2.10 Upgrade with software options
2.11 Self Alignment
2.12 Logic Probe Self Alignment
10
10
10
11
11
12
12
13
14
3
3.1
3.2
3.3
3.4
3.5
3.6
3.7
16
16
16
17
17
18
18
19
A quick introduction
Setting up and turning the instrument on
Connection of a probe and signal capture
Display of signal details
Cursor measurements
Automatic measurements
Mathematical functions
Storing data
14
14
15
15
4
Vertical system
4.1Coupling
4.2 Sensitivity, Y-Positioning, and Offset
4.3 Bandwidth Limit and Signal Inversion
4.4 Probe attenuation selection
4.5 Level Setting
4.6 Name a channel
20
20
20
21
21
21
21
5
5.1
5.2
5.3
5.4
5.5
5.6
5.7
5.8
Horizontal System (Time Base)
Capturing modes RUN and STOP
Time base adjustments
Capture modes
Interlace Mode
ZOOM function
Navigation Function
Marker Function
Search Function
22
22
22
22
24
25
25
25
25
6
6.1
6.2
6.3
6.4
6.5
6.6
Trigger System
Trigger modes Auto, Normal, Single
Trigger sources
Slope trigger
Pulse trigger
Logic trigger
Video trigger
27
27
27
27
28
28
29
7
7.1
7.2
7.3
7.4
Display of signals
Display settings
Use of the virtual screen area
Signal intensity and persistence functions
XY display
30
30
31
31
31
8Measurements
8.1 Cursor measurements
8.2 Auto measurements
33
33
34
9Analysis
9.1 Mathematical Functions
9.2 Frequency Analysis (FFT)
9.3 Quick View
9.4 PASS/FAIL Test Based on Masks
36
36
38
39
39
10
Documentation, storing and recalling
10.1 Instrument settings
10.2References
10.3Traces
10.4Screenshots
10.5 Formula Sets
10.6 FILE/PRINT Key Definition
41
41
42
42
43
43
43
11
Component test 11.1General
11.2 In-circuit tests
44
44
45
12
12.1
12.2
12.3
Mixed Signal Operation (optional)
Logic trigger
Display functions of the logic channels Cursor measurements for the logic channels
46
46
46
47
13
Serial bus analysis (optional)
13.1 Serial Bus Configuration
13.2 Parallel BUS
13.3I2C BUS
13.4 SPI / SSPI BUS
13.5 UART/RS-232 BUS
13.6 CAN BUS
13.7 LIN BUS
48
48
49
49
51
53
54
56
14
14.1 14.2 14.3 14.4 58
58
58
58
58
Remote control
RS-232
USB
Ethernet (Option HO730)
IEEE 488.2 / GPIB (Option HO740)
15
Appendix
15.1 List of figures
15.2 Glossary 59
59
60
Content
Subject to change without notice
3
Digital Oscilloscope HMO Series 72x...202x
HMO2024
2 0 0 M H z 2 [ 4 ] C h a n n e l D i g i t a l O s c i l l o s c o p e HMO2022 [HMO2024]
2 Channel Version
HMO2022
R 2
GSa/s Real Time, Low Noise Flash A/D Converter (Reference Class)
R 2 MPts Memory, Memory oom up to 50,000:1
R MSO(MixedSignalOpt.HO3508)with8LogicChannels
R S
erial Bus TriggerandHardwareacceleratedDecode
incl.ListView.Options:I2C+SPI+UART/RS-232,CAN/LIN
Side view
R AutomaticSearchforUserdefinedEvents
R Pass/FailTestbasedonMasks
R VerticalSensitivity1mV/div.,OffsetControl±0.2...±20V
R 1
2div.x-AxisDisplayRange,20div.y-AxisDisplayRange
(VirtualScreen)
8 Channel Logic Probe
HO3508
0.2 Digital Oscilloscope HMO Series 72x...202x
R TriggerModes:Slope,Video,Pulsewidth,Logic,Delayed,Event
R C
omponentTester,6DigitCounter,Automeasurement:
max.6Parametersincl.Statistic,FormulaEditor,Ratiocursor,
FFT:64kPts
R Fan:Silenceredefined
R 3xUSBforMassStorage,PrinterandRemoteControl
4
Subject to change without notice
Specifications
200 MHz 2 [4] Channel Digital Oscilloscope HMO2022 [HMO2024]
Firmware:≥4.522
Alldatavalidat23°Cafter30minuteswarm-up.
Display
Display:
Resolution:
Backlight:
Displayareafortraces:
withoutmenu
withmenu
Colordepth:
Intensitystepspertrace:
Vertical System
Channels:
DSOmode
MSOmode
Auxiliaryinput:
Function
Impedance
Coupling
Max.inputvoltage
XYZ-mode:
Invert:
Y-bandwidth(-3dB):
16.5 cm (6.5") VGA Color TFT
640 x 480 Pixel
LED 400 cd/m2
400 x 600 Pixel (8 x 12 div.)
400 x 500 Pixel (8 x 10 div.)
256 colors
0…31
CH 1, CH 2 [CH 1…CH 4]
CH 1, CH 2, LCH 0…7 (Logic Channels)
[CH 1, CH 2, LCH 0…7, CH 4]
with Option HO3508
Frontside [Rear side]
Ext. Trigger
1 MΩ || 14 pF ±2 pF
DC, AC
100 V (DC + peak AC)
All Analog Channels on individual choice
CH 1, CH 2 [CH 1…CH 4]
200 MHz (5 mV…10 V)/div.
100 MHz (1 mV, 2 mV)/div.
2 Hz
LowerACbandwidth:
Bandwidthlimiter
approx. 20 MHz
(switchable):
<1.75 ns
Risetime(calculated):
2%
DCgainaccuracy:
13 calibrated steps
Inputsensitivity:
CH1,CH2[CH1…CH4] 1 mV/div.…10 V/div. (1–2–5 Sequence)
Between calibrated steps
Variable
InputsCH1,CH2[CH1…CH4]:
1 MΩ II 14 pF ±2 pF (50 Ω switchable)
Impedance
DC, AC, GND
Coupling
200 V (DC + peak AC), 50 Ω <5 Vrms
Max.inputvoltage
Measuring Category I (CAT I)
Measuringcircuits:
±10 Divs
Positionrange:
Offsetcontrol:
±0,2 V - 10 div. x Sensitivity
1mV,2mV
±1 V - 10 div. x Sensitivity
5…50mV
±2,5 V - 10 div. x Sensitivity
100mV
±40 V - 10 div. x Sensitivity
200mV…2V
±100 V - 10 div. x Sensitivity
5V…10V
With Option HO3508
LogicChannels:
Select.switching
TTL, CMOS, ECL, User -2…+8 V
thresholds
100 kΩ || <4 pF
Impedance
DC
Coupling
40 V (DC + peak AC)
Max.inputvoltage:
Triggering
AnalogChannels:
Automatic:
Min.signalheight
Frequencyrange
Levelcontrolrange
Normal(without peak):
Min.signalheight
Frequencyrange
Levelcontrolrange
Operatingmodes:
Slope:
Sources
Coupling
(AnalogChannel)
Linking of peak detection and trigger level
0.8 div.; 0.5 div. typ. (1.5 div. at ≤2 mV/div.)
5 Hz…250 MHz (5 Hz…120 MHz at ≤2 mV/div.)
From peak- to peak+
0.8 div.; 0.5 div. typ. (1.5 div. at ≤2 mV/div.)
0 Hz…250 MHz (0 Hz…120 MHz at ≤2 mV/div.)
-10…+10 div. from center of the screen
Slope/Video/Logic/Pulses/Buses optional
Rising, falling, both
CH 1, CH 2, Line, Ext., LCH 0…7
[CH 1…CH 4, Line, Ext., LCH 0…7]
AC: 5 Hz…250 MHz
DC: 0…250 MHz
HF: 30 kHz…250 MHz
LF: 0…5 kHz
Noiserejection: selectable
Video: 0.3Specifications
PAL, NTSC, SECAM, PAL-M, SDTV 576i,
Standards
HDTV 720p, HDTV 1080i, HDTV 1080p
Field 1, field 2, both
Fields
All, selectable line number
Line
Positive, negative
Sync.Impulse
CH 1, CH 2, Ext. [CH 1…CH 4]
Sources
Logic:
Sources
State
Duration
Pulses:
Modes
Range
Sources
Indicatorfortriggeraction:
Ext.Triggervia:
2ndTrigger:
Slope
Min.signalheight
Frequencyrange
Levelcontrolrange
Operatingmodes
aftertime
afterincidence
SerialBuses:
OptionHOO10
OptionHOO11
OptionHOO12
Horizontal System
Domainrepresentation:
RepresentationTimeBase:
MemoryZoom:
Accuracy:
TimeBase:
RollMode
Digital Storage
Samplingrate(real time):
Memory:
Operationmodes:
Resolution(vertical):
Resolution(horizontal):
Interpolation:
Persistence:
Delaypretrigger:
posttrigger
Displayrefreshrate:
Display:
Referencememories:
AND, OR, TRUE, FALSE
LCH 0…7, CH 1, CH 2 [CH 1...CH 4]
LCH 0…7 X, H, L
8 ns…2.147 s, resolution 8 ns
Positive, negative
equal, unequal, less than, greater than,
within/without a range
Min. 32 ns, max. 17.179 s, resolution min. 1 ns
CH 1, CH 2, Ext. [CH 1…CH 4]
LED
Auxiliary input 0.3 V…10 Vpp
Rising, falling, both
0.8 div.; 0.5 div. typ. (1.5 div. at ≤2 mV/div.)
0 Hz…250 MHz (0 Hz…120 MHz at ≤2 mV/div.)
-10…+10 div.
32 ns…17.179 s, resolution 8 ns
1…216
I2C/SPI/UART/RS-232 on Logic Channels
and Analog Channels
I2C/SPI/UART/RS-232 on Analog Channels
CAN/LIN on Logic Channels and Analog
Channels
Time, Frequency (FFT), Voltage (XY)
Main-window, main- and zoom-window
Up to 50,000:1
50 ppm
2 ns/div.…50 s/div.
50 ms/div.…50 s/div.
2 x 1 GSa/s, 1 x 2 GSa/s
[4 x 1 GSa/s, 2 x 2 GSa/s]
Logic Channels: 8 x 1 GSa/s
2 x 1 MPts, 1 x 2 MPts
[4 x 1 MPts, 2 x 2 MPts]
Refresh, Average, Envelope, Peak-Detect
Roll: free run/triggered, Filter, HiRes
8 Bit, (HiRes up to 10 Bit)
40 ps
Sinx/x, linear, Sample-hold
Off, 50 ms…∞
0…8 Million x (1/samplerate)
0…2 Million x (1/samplerate)
Up to 2,000 waveforms/s
Dots, vectors, ‘persistence’
typ. 10 Traces
Operation/Measuring/Interfaces
Menu-driven (multilingual), Autoset,
Operation:
help functions (multilingual)
typ. 10 complete instrument parameter
Save/Recallmemories:
settings
Frequencycounter:
6 Digit resolution
0.5Hz…250MHz
50 ppm
Accuracy
Amplitude, standard deviation,
Automeasurements:
Vpp, Vp+, Vp-, Vrms, Vavg, Vtop, Vbase,
frequency, period, pulse count,
twidth+, twidth-, tdutycycle+, tdutycycle-,
tRise10_90, tFall10_90, tRise20_80, tFall20_80,
pos. edge count, neg. edge count,
pos. pulse count, neg. pulse count,
trigger frequency, trigger period,
phase, delay
Min., max., mean, standard deviation,
Measurementstatistic:
number of measurements for up to
6 Functions
∆V, ∆t, 1/∆t (f), V to Gnd, Vt related to
Cursormeasurements:
Trigger point, ratio X and Y, pulse count,
peak to peak, peak+, peak-, mean value,
RMS value, standard deviation
Search- and Navigation functions for
Searchfunctions:
specfic signal parameter
Dual-Interface USB type B/RS-232 (HO720),
Interface:
2 x USB type A (front- and rear side
each 1 x) max. 100 mA,
DVI-D for ext. Monitor
IEEE-488 (GPIB) (HO740),
Optional:
Dual-Interface Ethernet/USB (HO730)
Subject to change without notice
5
Testvoltage:
Testcurrent:
Testfrequency:
ReferencePotential:
ProbeADJOutput:
Specifications
Display functions
Marker:
VirtualScreen:
Busdisplay:
Mathematic functions
Numberofformulasets:
Sources:
Targets:
Functions:
Display:
Pass/Fail functions
Sources:
Typeoftest:
Functions:
General Information
Componenttester:
Testvoltage:
Testcurrent:
Testfrequency:
ReferencePotential:
ProbeADJOutput:
BusSignalSource:
InternalRTC
(Realtime clock):
Linevoltage:
Powerconsumption:
Protectivesystem:
Operatingtemperature:
Storagetemperature:
Rel.humidity:
Theftprotection:
Dimensions(W x H x D):
Weight:
up to 8 user definable marker for easy
navigation; automatic marker using search
criteria
virtual Display with 20 div. vertical for all
Math-, Logic-, Bus- and Reference Signals
up to 2 busses, user definable, parallel or
serial busses (option), decode of the bus
value in ASCII, binary, decimal or hexadecimal, up to 4 lines; Table view of the
decoded data
5 formula sets with up to 5 formulas each
All Channels and math. memories
Math. memories
ADD, SUB, 1/X, ABS, MUL, DIV, SQ, POS,
NEG, INV, INTG, DIFF, SQR, MIN, MAX, LOG,
LN, Low-, High-pass filter
Up to 4 math. memories with label
Analog Channels
Mask around a signal, userdefined
tolerance
Stop, Beep, screen shot (screen print-out)
and/or output to printer for pass or fail, event
counting up to 4 billion, including the number
and the percentage of pass and fail events
10 VP (open) typ.
10 mAP (short) typ.
50 Hz / 200 Hz typ.
Ground (safety earth)
1 kHz/1 MHz square wave signal ~1Vpp
(ta <4 ns)
SPI, I2C, UART, Parallel (4 Bit)
Date and time for stored data
100…240 V, 50…60 Hz, CAT II
Max. 45 W, typ. 25 W [max. 55 W, typ. 35 W]
Safety class I (EN61010-1)
+5…+40 °C
-20…+70 °C
5…80 % (non condensing)
Kensington Lock
285 x 175 x 140 mm
<2.5 kg
Accessories supplied: Line cord, Operating manual, 2 [4] Probes, 10:1 with
attenuation ID (HZO10), CD, Software
Recommended accessories:
HOO10 Serial bus trigger and hardware accelerated decode, I2C, SPI,
UART/RS-232 on Logic Channels and Analog Channels
HOO11 Serial bus trigger and hardware accelerated decode, I2C, SPI,
UART/RS-232 on Analog Channels
HOO12 Serial bus trigger and hardware accelerated decode,
CAN, LIN on Logic Channels and Analog Channels
HO3508 Active 8 Channel Logic Probe
HO730 Dual-Interface Ethernet/USB
HO740 Interface IEEE-488 (GPIB) galvanically isolated
HZO91 4RU 19" Rackmount Kit
HZO90 Carrying Case for protection and transport
HZO20 High voltage probe 1,000:1 (400 MHz, 1,000 Vrms)
Most
the specifications
of1the
series
... 202x are
HZO30 ofActive
probe 1 GHz (0.9 pF,
MΩ, HMO
including
many 72x
accessories)
following
table.
HZO40 Active
differential Probe 200 MHz (10:1, 3.5 pF, 1 MΩ)
HZO41 Active differential Probe 800 MHz (10:1, 1 pF, 200 kΩ)
HZO50 AC/DC Current probe 30 A, DC…100 kHz
HZO51 AC/DC Current probe 100/1,000 A, DC…20 kHz
BusSignalSource:
InternalRTC
(Realtime clock):
Linevoltage:
Powerconsumption:
Protectivesystem:
Operatingtemperature:
Storagetemperature:
Rel.humidity:
Theftprotection:
Dimensions(W x H x D):
Weight:
10 VP (open) typ.
10 mAP (short) typ.
50 Hz / 200 Hz typ.
Ground (safety earth)
1 kHz/1 MHz square wave signal ~1Vpp
(ta <4 ns)
SPI, I2C, UART, Parallel (4 Bit)
Date and time for stored data
100…240 V, 50…60 Hz, CAT II
Max. 45 W, typ. 25 W [max. 55 W, typ. 35 W]
Safety class I (EN61010-1)
+5…+40 °C
-20…+70 °C
5…80 % (non condensing)
Kensington Lock
285 x 175 x 140 mm
<2.5 kg
Accessories supplied: Line cord, Operating manual, 2 [4] Probes, 10:1 with
attenuation ID (HZO10), CD, Software
Recommended accessories:
HOO10 Serial bus trigger and hardware accelerated decode, I2C, SPI,
UART/RS-232 on Logic Channels and Analog Channels
HOO11 Serial bus trigger and hardware accelerated decode, I2C, SPI,
UART/RS-232 on Analog Channels
HOO12 Serial bus trigger and hardware accelerated decode,
CAN, LIN on Logic Channels and Analog Channels
HO3508 Active 8 Channel Logic Probe
HO730 Dual-Interface Ethernet/USB
HO740 Interface IEEE-488 (GPIB) galvanically isolated
HZO91 4RU 19" Rackmount Kit
HZO90 Carrying Case for protection and transport
HZO20 High voltage probe 1,000:1 (400 MHz, 1,000 Vrms)
HZO30 Active probe 1 GHz (0.9 pF, 1 MΩ, including many accessories)
HZO40 Active differential Probe 200 MHz (10:1, 3.5 pF, 1 MΩ)
HZO41 Active differential Probe 800 MHz (10:1, 1 pF, 200 kΩ)
HZO50 AC/DC Current probe 30 A, DC…100 kHz
HZO51 AC/DC Current probe 100/1,000 A, DC…20 kHz
HMO2022/2024E/191212 · C&E · Subject to change without notice · © HAMEG Instruments GmbH® · DQS-c
HAMEGInstrumentsGmbH·Industriestr.6·D-63533Mainhausen·Tel+49(0)61828000
Differences within the HMO series 72x...202x:
identical. Please find the most important differences at the
unit
bandwidth
vertical settings at 1MOhm
input impedance
offset range
HMO72x
70 MHz
1 mV...10V/Div
1 MOhm
-
HMO102x
100 MHz
1 mV...10V/Div
1 MOhm
-
HMO152x
150 MHz
1 mV…5 V/Div
1 MOhm / 50 Ohm
±0,2…±20 V
HMO202x
200 MHz
1 mV…5 V/Div
1 MOhm / 50 Ohm
±0,2…±20 V
For the complete and latest technical data of each oscilloscope of the HMO series please refer to www.hameg.com.
6
HMO2022/2024E/191212
· C&E
· Subject
to change without notice · © HAMEG Instruments GmbH® · DQS-certified in accordance with DIN EN ISO 9001:2008, Reg.-No.: 071040 QM08
Subject to change
without
notice
HAMEGInstrumentsGmbH·Industriestr.6·D-63533Mainhausen·Tel+49(0)61828000·Fax+49(0)6182800100·www.hameg.com·info@hameg.com
Installation and safety instructions
oscilloscope may only be operated from mains outlets with a
safety ground connector. The mains plug has to be installed
prior to connecting any signals. It is prohibited to separate the
safety ground connection. If suspected that safe operation may
not be guaranteed do not use the instrument any more and lock
it away in a secure place.
1 Installation and safety instructions
1.1 Symbols (1)
(6)
Symbol 1:
Symbol 2:
Symbol 3:
Symbol 4:
Symbol 5:
Symbol 6:
Symbol 7:
Symbol 8:
Symbol 9:
(2)
(7)
(3)
(8)
(4)
(5)
(9)
Caution - Consult the manual
High voltage
Ground
Important note
Stop! Possible instrument damage!
PE Terminal
ON/OFF supply voltage
Stand by
Ground terminal
1.2 Setting up the instrument
As you can see from the picture, there are small feets on the
bottom which can be folded out. Please make sure you have
fully folded out the feet‘s in order to ensure stability of the
instrument.
Safe operation may be endangered if any of the following was
noticed:
– in case of visible damage.
– in case loose parts were noticed
– if it does not function any more.
– after prolonged storage under unfavourable conditions (e.g.
like in the open or in moist atmosphere).
– after any improper transport (e.g. insufficient packing not
conforming to the minimum standards of post, rail or transport firm)
1.4 Correct operation
Please note: This instrument is only destined for use by personnel well instructed and familiar with the dangers of electrical
measurements. For safety reasons the oscilloscope may only
be operated from mains outlets with safety ground connector.
It is prohibited to separate the safety ground connection. The
plug must be inserted prior to connecting any signals.
The oscilloscope is destined for operation in industrial, business,
manufacturing, and domestic sites.
The instrument is destined for in door use only.
1.5 Ambient conditions
Operating ambient temperature: +5 °C to +40 °C. During transport or storage the temperature may be –20 °C to +70°C. Please
note that after exposure to such temperatures or in case of
condensation, proper time must be allowed until the instrument
has reached the permissible temperature, and until the condensation has evaporated before it may be turned on! Ordinarily
this will be the case after 2 hours. The oscilloscope is destined
for use in clean and dry environments. Do not operate in dusty
or chemically aggressive atmosphere or if there is danger of
explosion. The any operating position may be used, however,
sufficient ventilation must be ensured. Prolonged operation
requires the horizontal or inclined position.
Do not obstruct the ventilation holes!
The instrument must be installed in a way, that at any time the
disconnection of the power line is not restricted.
The max. operating altitude of the instrument is 2000 m above
sea level.
Specifications are valid after a 30 minute warm-up period at 23
degr. C (tolerance ±2 degr. C). Specifications without tolerances
are average values.
1.3Safety
1.6 Warranty and repair
The instrument fulfils the VDE 0411 part 1 regulations for
electrical measuring, control and laboratory instruments and
was manufactured and tested accordingly. It left the factory in
perfect safe condition. Hence it also corresponds to European
Standard EN 61010-1 and International Standard IEC 1010-1.
In order to maintain this condition and to ensure safe operation the user is required to observe the warnings and other
directions for use in this manual. Housing, chassis as well as
all measuring terminals are connected to safety ground of the
mains. All accessible metal parts were tested against the mains
with 2200 VDC. The instrument conforms to safety class I. The
Our instruments are subjected to a strict quality control.
Prior to leaving the factory, each instrument is burnt in for 10
hours. By intermittent operation during this period almost all
defects are detected. Following the burn in, each instrument is
tested for function and quality, the specifications are checked
in all operating modes; the test gear is calibrated to national
standards.
Fig. 1.1: Operating positions
The warranty standards applicable are those of the country
in which the instrument was sold. Reclamations should be
directed to the dealer.
Subject to change without notice
7
Installation and safety instructions
Only valid in EU countries
In order to speed claims, customers in EU countries may also
contact HAMEG directly. Also, after the warranty expired, the
HAMEG service will be at your disposal for any repairs.
Measurement CAT III:
Measurements in the interior of buildings (power distribution
installations, mains outlets, motors which are permanently
installed).
Return material authorization (RMA):
Prior to returning an instrument to HAMEG, ask for a RMA
number either by internet (http://www.hameg.com) or fax
(+49 (0) 6182 800 501). If you do not have an original shipping
carton, you may obtain one by calling the HAMEG service
dept (+49 (0) 6182 800 500) or by sending an email to service@
hameg.com.
Measurement CAT II:
Measurements in circuits directly connected to the mains
(household appliances, power tools etc).
1.7Maintenance
1.9 Mains voltage
Clean the outer case using a dust brush or a soft,
lint-free dust cloth at regular intervals.
Before cleaning please make sure the instrument
is switched off and disconnected from all power
supplies.
No part of the instrument should be cleaned by the
use of cleaning agents (as f.e. alcohol) as they may
adversely affect the labeling, the plastic or lacquered surfaces.
The display can be cleaned using water or a glass cleaner (but
not with alcohol or other cleaning agents). Thereafter wipe the
surfaces with a dry cloth. No fluid may enter the instrument.
Do not use other cleaning agents as they may adversely affect
the labels, plastic or lacquered surfaces.
Measurement CAT 0 (previously Measuring CAT I):
Electronic instruments and circuits which contain circuit breakers or fuses.
The instrument has a wide range power supply from 100 to 240 V
(±10%), 50 or 60 Hz. There is hence no line voltage selector.
The line fuse is accessible on the rear panel and part of the
line input connector. Prior to exchanging a fuse, the line cord
must be pulled out. Exchange is only allowed if the fuse holder
is undamaged. It can be taken out using a screwdriver put into
the slot. The fuse can be pushed out of its holder and must be
exchanged with the identical type (type informations below).
The holder with the new fuse can then be pushed back in place
against the spring. It is prohibited to ”repair“ blown fuses or to
bridge the fuse. Any damages incurred by such measures will
void the warranty.
Type of fuse: IEC 60127 - T2H 250V, Size 5 x 20 mm.
1.10 Product Disposal
1.8 CAT 0
This oscilloscope is destined for measurements in circuits
not connected to the mains or only indirectly. The instrument
complies with measuring category I; make sure that the input
voltage does not exceed 200 V peak, 150 V RMS at 1 MΩ input
impedance and 5 V RMS at 50 Ω input impedance. Transient
overvoltages must not exceed 200 V peak. When performing
measurements in circuits with transient overvoltages higher
than category I, make sure that no such overvoltages reach the
instrument input. To ensure this, use only probes that comply
with DIN EN 61010-031. When performing measurements in
category II, III or IV circuits, it is mandatory to insert a probe
that appropriately reduces the voltage so that no overvoltages
higher than category I are applied to the instrument.
Direct measurements, i.e. with a galvanic connection to circuits corresponding to the categories II, III, or IV are prohibited! The measuring circuits are considered not connected to
the mains if a suitable isolation transformer fulfilling safety
class II is used. Measurements on the mains are also possible
if suitable probes like current probes are used which fulfill
the safety class II. The measurement category of such probes
must be checked and observed. The measurement categories
were derived corresponding to the distance from the power
station and the transients hence to be expected. Transients
are short, very fast voltage or current excursions which may
be periodic or not.
Measurement CAT IV:
Measurements close to the power station, e.g. on electricity
meters
8
Subject to change without notice
Fig. 1.2:
Product labeling in accordance with EN 50419
The German Electrical and Electronic Equipment (ElektroG)
Act is an implementation of the following EC directives:
– 2002/96/EC on waste electrical and electronic equipment
(WEEE) and
– 2002/95/EC on the restriction of the use of certain hazardous substances in electrical and electronic equipment
(RoHS).
Once the lifetime of a product has ended, this product must not
be disposed of in the standard domestic refuse. Even disposal via
the municipal collection points for waste electrical and electronic equipment is not permitted. For the environmental-friendly
disposal or recycling of waste material we fully assumes its
obligation as a producer to take back and dispose of electrical
and electronic waste in accordance with the ElektroG Act.
Please contact your local service representative to dispose of
the product.
1.11 Batteries and rechargeable batteries / cells
If the information regarding batteries and rechargeable batteries/cells is not observed either at all or to the extent necessary, product users may be exposed to the risk of explosions,
Installation and safety instructions
fire and/or serious personal injury, and, in some cases, death.
Batteries and rechargeable batteries with alkaline electrolytes
(e.g. lithium cells) must be handled in accordance with the EN
62133 standard.
1. Cells must not be taken apart or crushed.
2. Cells or batteries must not be exposed to heat or fire.
Storage in direct sunlight must be avoided. Keep cells and
batteries clean and dry. Clean soiled connectors using a
dry, clean cloth.
3. Cells or batteries must not be short-circuited. Cells or
batteries must not be stored in a box or in a drawer where
they can short-circuit each other, or where they can be
short-circuited by other conductive materials. Cells and
batteries must not be removed from their original packaging
until they are ready to be used.
4. Keep cells and batteries out of the hands of children. If
a cell or a battery has been swallowed, seek medical aid
immediately.
5. Cells and batteries must not be exposed to any mechanical
shocks that are stronger than permitted.
6. If a cell develops a leak, the fluid must not be allowed to
come into contact with the skin or eyes. If contact occurs,
wash the affected area with plenty of water and seek medical
aid.
7. Improperly replacing or charging cells or batteries that
contain alkaline electrolytes (e.g. lithium cells) can cause
explosions. Replace cells or batteries only with the identical
type in order to ensure the safety of the product.
8. Cells and batteries must be recycled and kept separate from
residual waste. Rechargeable batteries and normal batteries
that contain lead, mercury or cadmium are hazardous waste.
Observe the national regulations regarding waste disposal
and recycling.
Subject to change without notice
9
Familiarize yourself with your new HMO
1
55
54
53
52
51 50
49
A
2
48
B
47
C
46
45
D
Fig. 2.1: Frontview of the HMO2024
9
3
2 Familiarize yourself with your new HMO
4
10
7
6
12
13
15 16
A
2.1 Front view
On the instrument frontside you can find the power key 1 , in
order to switch on the instrument or enter stand by mode. If
the instrument is in stand by mode, this key light up red. If the
instrument is switched off using the main power switch on the
backside, the red light will also switch off (this will take some
seconds). Furthermore you find on the front panel the control
panel 2 , A , B , C , D , the BNC connectors of the analog inputs
45 to 48 , the probe adjustment output 51 , the bus signal source
50 ,the connectors for the optional logic probe HO3508 53 , a
USB port for USB sticks 54 , the TF T screen 55 , the inputs for
the component tester 52 and the LED 49 for showing activity
on the remote interface. At the two channel versions there is
the external trigger at right side.
Please note, the connector for the active logic
probes HO3508 53 are solely for these probe.
Connecting anything else could destroy the inputs!
2.2 Control panel
The controls on the front panel allow direct access to the most
important functions; all extended functions are available via
the menu structure by using the grey soft keys. The power
key 1 is clearly set apart by its design. The most important
controls are backlighted by coloured LEDs in order to immediately indicate the actual settings. The panel is subdivided in
these four areas:
10
Subject to change without notice
5
8
11
14
17
Fig. 2.2: Area A
of the control
panel.
Area A
This area encompasses these three portions: Cursor/Menu
– Analyze – General.
In the portion Cursor/Menu you find the cursor functions 8 ,
the general cursor select and adjustment knob 4 , the Intensity/
Persistence key 7 , the key to call a virtual keyboard 6 , the key
for switching between fine and coarse resolution of the universal
knob 3 and the key for the selection of virtual screen 5 .
Please note, if you press the AUTOSET button 15
longer then 3 seconds, the HMO will be reset to its
default settings!
The portion Analyze allows direct selection of FFT 9 displays,
the Quick-view mode 10 (all important parameters of the actual
signal display), and the automeasure function 11 for the automatic measurement of parameters.
The portion headed General comprises the Save/Recall 12
button for saving and recalling instrument settings, reference
signals, signals, screen displays, and sets of formulae, HELP
16 , DISPLAY 14 for access to the general display settings,
AUTOSET 15 , SETUP 13 for access to the general settings (e.g.
the language), FILE/PRINT 17 .
Familiarize yourself with your new HMO
Area B :
In the area VERTICAL you find all
controls of the analog channels
such as the position control knob
18 , the XY or component tester
mode select key 19 , the vertical
gain adjustment knob 20 , the extended menu functions key 21 ,
the channel select keys 22 to 25 ,
(the two-channel versions have
only 22 23 ) which also serve as
the selection keys for the optional
logic probes 24 25 . There are also
the mathematics function 26 , the
reference signal settings and bus
signal settings key 27 .
B
22
18
23
19
24
25
20
26
21
27
Fig. 2.3: Area B of the
control panel.
Fig. 2.6: Screen
Area C :
This area Trigger of the control
panel offers all functions for the
adjustment of the trigger level 28 ,
the selection of auto or normal
trigger 29 , the trigger type 31 , the
trigger source 32 , single sweep
33 , the trigger slope 34 , the trigger signal filters 36 . In addition,
there are status indicators showing whether a signal fulfills the
trigger conditions 30 and which
slope was selected 34 .
C
28
29
33
30
34
31
35
32
36
Fig. 2.4: Area C of the
control panel
Area D :
The keys 37 38 39 on this control
panel area Horizontal allow to
shift the trigger position horizontally, either step-by-step or using
the smaller one of the knobs. In
addition this menu allow to manually
set marker and set search criterias
for events. The backlighted key 39
controls the run or stop modes; the
key will light up red in stop mode.
The key 40 activates the zoom function, the key 44 the selection of the
acquisition modes, the key 42 the
access to the time base menus. The
knob 43 allows to adjust the time
base speed.
time base speed, the trigger delay and other trigger conditions,
the actual sampling rate, and the acquisition mode [2]. On the
right of the graticule a short menu is shown which contains the
most important settings of the channel actually being displayed;
these may be selected using the soft keys [3]. At the lower part
of the screen, measurement results of parameters and cursors,
the settings of the activated vertical channels, of the reference
signal, and of the mathematically derived curves [4] are shown.
Within the graticule, the signals of the selected channels are
displayed. Normally, 8 vertical divisions are shown; it can be
virtually extended to 20 divisions which can be displayed using
the Scroll Bar knob 5 .
2.4 Rear view
D
37
38
37
41
42
39
43
40
44
On the rear panel there are the main power switch [1], the
receptacle for the interface modules [2] (USB / RS-232, USB/
Ethernet, IEEE-488), the standard DVI connector [3] for the connection of external monitors and projectors, the BNC connector
for the Y output [4] (of the channel selected for triggering) and
the external trigger input [5]. With the two-channel models this
connector is located on the front panel. Also here you can find
an additional USB port [6] and the main power input [7]. At the
two channel instrument there is the the external trigger BNC
connector at the front of the instrument.
[1]
[2]
Fig. 2.5: Area D of the
control panel
To the left of the control panel there
are the soft keys 2 which control the menu functions.
2.3Screen
The HMO is equipped with a 6.5“ (16.5 cm) LED backlighted
colour TFT display with VGA resolution (640 x 480 pixels). In
normal mode (no menus shown) there are 12 divisions in X
direction. If menus are shown, this will be reduced to 10 divisions. On the left of the screen area little arrows [1] indicate
the reference potentials of the channels. The line above the
graticule contains status and settings information such as the
[5] [4]
[3]
[6][7]
Fig. 2.7: Rear panel of the HMO2024
Subject to change without notice
11
Familiarize yourself with your new HMO
2.4.1 DVI Connector
The rear panel of the oscilloscope includes a standard DVI-D
connector to connect external monitors and projectors. The
DVI-D connector can only send digital signals. This means it
is impossible to connect monitors or beamers via their analog
inputs. The HMO series yields a DVI signal with VGA resolution
(640x480). This design enables connectivity with all standard TFT
monitors. Modern flat screens extrapolate the signal, allowing
users to see a full screen.
Beamers can also be connected to the HMO. Ideal beamers
in this case are those designed to be connected to computers
/ notebooks as these are also able to process a 640x480 pixel
resolution.
DVI VGA or DVI composite adapters are not supported. To connect to current HDTVs via HDMI adapter is problematic as most television sets expect
an HDTV signal of at least 720p as input signal.
– HO740 (IEEE-488, GPIB, galvanically isolated)
– HO730 (combination of Ethernet and USB with integrated
web server)
All HMO series instruments are prepared for mixed-signal
operation and have the appropriate connectors on the front
panel. Connecting an 8-channel logic probe HO3508 equips
the scope with 8 logic channels. Further options are the passive 500 MHz Slimline 10:1 probes of the type HZ355, passive
1000:1 probes with up to 4000 V of the type HZO20, active 10:1
probes with <1 pF input capacity of the type HZO30, active
difference amplifier probes HZ100, HZ109 and HZ115 with up
to 1000 Vrms and 40 MHz, active high speed differential probes
HZO40 and HZO41 with 200 or 800 MHz bandwidth, the current
probes HZO50 and HZO51 with up to 100 kHz bandwidth and up
to 1000 A, the 19“ rack-mount set HZO91 and the type HZO90
transport bag for the protection of the instruments.
The options HOO10/11 and 12 make the analysis of serial protocols
available, more informations you can find in chapt. 2.10.
2.4.2 Y-Output connector
2.6 General concept of instrument operation
All HMO-series oscilloscopes have an additional BNC connector
(Y-Output) on the rear panel which is used to passthrough and
output the analog signal of the triggered channel on the one
hand or to send alarm pulses when errors occur during mask
tests (PASS / FAIL) on the other hand (see chapter 9).
Our oscilloscopes are renowned for easy operation, based on
a few basic principles which repeat with the diverse settings
and functions.
– Such keys which do not open a soft menu (e.g. quickview)
switch a function on, pushing the key again will switch the
function off.
This can be very useful for longterm data-logging or if you want
to trigger mask-fails during automated production or testing
processes.
The output signal of the HMO702x...202x series
shows a small timeshift in the lower nano-seconds
time domain.
The level of that analog output signal is based on 200 mV/DIV
(100mV/DIV at 50 Ω) of the ADC (analog-digital-converter). The
following screenshot will show a 15 kHz sine wave with a 2V
amplitude: CH1 (yellow) original signal, CH2 (blue) Y-Out signal.
– Such keys which call a specific function (e.g. FFT) which
in turn can call or require more settings will activate the
function upon the first touch. Pushing the key a second time
will call the soft menu (sub menu) for the settings. Pushing
the key a third time will deactivate the function.
– Such keys which open a soft menu upon the first touch will
close it upon pushing a second time.
–The universal knob is used in the diverse menus either for
selecting numbers or submenus and to enter values by
pushing. The universal knob in cursor measurement is used
for selecting and moving the cursor.
– The key Menu OFF below the soft menu keys closes the
present menu or it switches to the next higher level.
Fig. 2.8: Y-Out signal
2.5 Options
The HMO series instruments offer some options which allow you
to extend the areas of application considerably. The following
interface modules are available and may be installed by the
customer in the rear receptacle:
12
Subject to change without notice
Fig. 2.9: Selection of basic soft
menu elements
Fig. 2.10: Basic soft menu
elements for settings and
navigation
Familiarize yourself with your new HMO
– If a channel is deactivated, pushing the respective channel
key will switch it on. If a channel was already activated
earlier, selecting another channel will change operation
to the channel whose key was pushed (its LED lights up). If
a channel is already selected, pushing its lighted key will
deactivate the channel and select the next channel according
to this sequence: CH1 > CH2 > CH3 > CH4.
– The COARSE/FINE key is used to switch betwen coarse and
fine resolution of the universal knob. If the key is light up
white, the FINE resolution is active.
The following describes some frequently used navigation elements in the soft menus.
Fig. 2.9 shows, there are two basic soft menu parts for choosing.
To select from the three elements above you just need to press
the soft key beside and the element is active (shown as blue color).
A second kind of selecting is shown on the lower two menu entries.
Pressing the respective soft key toggles between the two choices,
again the active selection is marked blue.
The menus are used as shown in Fig. 2.10 if they concern functions which have either to be switched on or where values have
to set. The choice is between OFF and the value presented. The
round arrow in the right corner of the menu window points to
the universal knob which is to be used for selecting the value.
If there is a lower menu level, this will be indicated by a small
triangle in the right lower corner of the respective menu point.
If there are further pages on the same level, the lowest menu
point will be used for navigation. It shows the number of menu
pages on this level as well as the activated number of pages.
Pushing the respective soft menu key will advance by one page,
after the last page the first one will follow.
2.7 Basic settings and integrated help
Basic settings like language for user interface and help, miscellaneous settings and interface settings can be set using
the menu which opens after pressing the SETUP key in the
GENERAL area of the control panel.
– MENU OFF (choose manual or automatic with time limit of
4 s up to 30 s for closing soft menus)
– TIME REFERENCE (position for reference of the trigger time,
choose from –5/DIV up to +5/DIV, 0/DIV is in the middle of
the screen and set as standard)
– DATE & TIME (opens menu to set date and time)
– SOUND (opens menu to set any combination of beep for
control, error and/or trigger)
– DEVICE NAME (menu to set a name for the HMO, maximum of 19 characters are allowed, the name will appear in
Screenshot‘s)
– LOGO IN SCREENSHOT (here you can setup, whether a logo
will be inserted into the screenshot or not.)
The next menu entry INTERFACE lets you select the interface
you are using (USB and RS-232 are standard) and possible
settings for that interface.
The menu item PRINTER contains settings for POSTSCRIPT
printers. Pushing this softkey will open a submenu in which
you can select the paper format and the colour mode. If you
choose the top menu item PAPER FORMAT with the associated
soft menu key, a window will open which offers the selection
of A4, A5, B5, B6, and Executive letter and legal in portrait or
landscape. Use the universal knob to select the desired format
which will then be indicated on the soft menu key.
The next lower menu item COLOR MODE allows the selection of
the modes Greyscale, Color, and Inverted following the same procedure. The Greyscale mode converts a color display to a greyscale
display which can be printed on a Black-and-White Postscript
printer. The Color Mode will print the display in colour as it is shown
on the screen (black background). In the Inverted Mode the color
display will be printed in colour with a white background on a color
Postscript printer in order to save toner and ink.
If you are using inverted mode, you should set the intensity
of the curves to about 70% in order to get a high contrast
print out.
The last menu DEVICE INFORMATION open a window with all
informations about hard- and softwarestatus of your HMO.
You should have these information on hand whenever you have
questions about your HMO.
Fig. 2.11: Menu for basic settings
On the first page you can set the user interface and help
language by pressing the soft key LANGUAGE and select German or English.
The soft key beside MISC opens a menu with the following
selections:
Fig: 2.12: Updating menu and information window
Subject to change without notice
13
Familiarize yourself with your new HMO
At the second page of the basic menu you find the menu for
firmware and help update, which is explained in detail in the next
chapter. The last menu item is the PROBE ADJUST. Pressing
the soft key leads you to the menu where you can set whether
the probe adjust output generates a rectangular signal with
1 kHz or 1 MHz frequency. There is a setting AUTOMATIC which
means, that for time base settings up to and including 50 µs/
DIV the probe adjust output is 1 MHz, from 100 µs/DIV on it is
switched to 1 kHz.
The integrated help function can be activated by pressing the
key HELP in the GENERAL area of the control panel. A window
will open and the text inside is dynamically updated depending
on the key (including softmenu key’s) you are pushing or the
knob you are turning. If you do not need the help anymore, you
can switch off the help window by pushing the HELP-key. The
backlight of the key and the text window will be switched off.
2.8 Bus Signal Source
The HMO series features 4 contacts left of the channel 1 which
provide the following signals according to the respective settings:
– Square wave signal for probe compensation (standard setting), frequency 1 kHz or 1 MHz.
– SPI signal, data rates 100 kbits/s, 250 kbits/s or 1 Mbits/s
–I2C signal, data rates 100 kbits/s, 400 kbits/s or 1 Mbits/s
– UART signal, data rates 9600 bits/s, 115.2 kbits/s or 1 Mbits/s
– parallel stochastic bit pattern, frequency 1 kHz or 1 MHz
– parallel counter signal, frequency 1 kHz or 1 MHz
The contact at the top left is always ground, the signal levels are
around 1 V. The following table shows the use of the 4 outputs
S1, S2, S3 and (square wave) corresponding to the signal.
Signal
S1
S2
S3
Square
wave
no signal
no signal
no signal
Square wave
SPI
Chip select clock,
low active rising edge
data,
high active
no signal
I2C
no signal
clock SCL
data SDA
no signal
UART
no signal
no signal
data
no signal
Pattern
bit 0
bit 1
bit 2
bit 3
Counter
bit 0
bit 1
bit 2
bit 3
Press the key SETUP in the general area of the front panel for
entry into the bus signal source menu, select the page 2 and
press the soft menu key next to PROBE COMP. Now you can
select the operational mode for the bus signal source. For each
mode a picture with the corresponding pattern of signals on
the contacts is displayed. Pressing a soft menu key will open a
submenu for choosing the speed of the mode selected.
The square wave signal for probe compensation is available with
1 kHz for the low frequency compensation and with 1 MHz for
the high frequency compensation, also AUTOMATIC (standard
setting) may be selected. In the automatic mode, the output will
provide 1 kHz at sweep speeds from 100 µs/div, at faster sweep
speeds 1 MHz will be available.
These signals allow to learn and check the settings for the
parallel and optional serial bus analysis.
14
Subject to change without notice
2.9 Updates for the firmware, the help functions and
languages
The HMO series is being improved continuously. You are invited
to download the most recent firmware under www.hameg.com.
Firmware and help are packed into one ZIP data packet. After
downloading the ZIP data unpack it into an USB stick’s basic
directory. Thereupon insert the stick into the USB port of the
oscilloscope and push the key SETUP in the GENERAL area of
the front panel. Choose page 2 in the menu, if this has not been
opened already. Here you shall find the menu item UPDATE.
After selecting this menu item a window will open which displays
the actual firmware version indicating the version number, the
date and build information.
Now choose which to update: the instrument firmware or the
language. After you selected firmware updating by pushing the
appropriate key the respective date will be searched on the stick,
the information of the firmware to be updated from the stick
will be displayed below the line NEW. In case the new firmware
should be identical to the existing one, the number of the version
will be shown in red, otherwise it will be shown in green; only
then should you activate the updating by pushing the soft key
EXECUTE. If you intend to update the language (including the
help) or add a language choose Language in the updating menu.
Only 4 languages can be installed on the HMO. If
four language places are assigned and you wish
to install another one, you first need to delete one
language. „
The information window will now display the languages installed, the date, and the information about the languages available
on the stick. With the soft menu, languages may be added,
removed or updated. Please note the format of the date:YYYYMM-DD according to the multi language norm of ISO 8601.
Fig: 2.13: Updating menu and information window
2.10 Upgrade with software options
The HMO may be upgraded with options which will become
accessible after inputting a licence key. At this time, the options HOO10/HOO11/HOO12 are available. The HOO10 allows
triggering and decoding of up to two of the serial buses I2C,
SPI, UART/RS-232 on the digital channels (with option HO3508)
and or the analog channel. The HOO11 can only use the analog
channel. The HOO12 allows triggering and decoding of up to
two of the serial buses CAN, LIN on the digital channels (with
option HO3508) and or the analog channel.
Familiarize yourself with your new HMO
The licence key will be sent to you by email as an appended data
file (name: SERIAL NUMBER.hlk). This file is an ASCII file and
may be opened with an editor, then the true key can be read.
There are two methods for employing the key to use the desired
option: the automatic or the manual input.
The fastest and simplest method is the automatic input: first
store the file on an USB memory stick, then install the stick into
the front panel FRONT USB port of your HMO and press the key
SETUP in the „General“ area of the HMO front panel. The SETUP
menu will open. Select page 2 by pressing the respective soft
menu key, the following menu will open:
After entering the complete key please press the soft menu key
ACCEPT in order to input the key into the system. The option
will be activated after restarting the instrument.
2.11 Self Alignment
The HMO72x...202x series has an internal self alignment in
order to achieve highest accuracy possible.
During the standard self alignment the HMO adjusts vertical
accuracy, offset, time base and several trigger settings and
saves the identified correction data internally.
The instrument must have reached the required
operating temperature (switched on for at least 20
minutes) and all inputs must be unused, in other
words all cables and probes must be removed from
the inputs.
Fig. 2.14: „UPGRADE“ menu.
Now open the UPGRADE menu by pressing the respective soft
menu key. Then press the soft menu key next to „Read Licence
file“ which will open the data manager. Use the universal knob
to select the correct file and then press the soft menu key next
to LOAD. This will load the licence key; the option will be ready
to use immediately after a fresh start of the instrument.
The alternative method is the manual input of the licence key:
select the menu UPGRADE and press the soft menu key next
to „Manual key input“. This will open an input window, use the
universal knob and the ENTER-key to input the licence key.
Fig. 2.16: Successful self alignment
To start the self alignment in the SETUP menu, go to page
2|2, press the soft menu key SELF ALIGNMENT and press the
START key. The procedure will run for about 5-10 minutes.
Each step and its corresponding progress will be shown in a
bar display. After completion of a successful self alignment, you
will see a similar message as shown in Fig 2.16.
Press the soft menu key EXIT to close the Self Alignment menu.
Abort the self alignment by pressing the soft menu key ABORT.
Aborting the self alignment procedure should be the exception,
e.g. if you failed to remove all probes from the inputs. Once
the procedure has been aborted, it is important to carry out a
complete self alignment.
If an error occurs during the self alignment although it has been carried out as described, please
send the exported .log file (see Self Alignment
menu) to support@hameg.com. You can save the
.log file to a USB stick.
Fig. 2.15: Manual licence key input.
2.12 Logic Probe Self Alignment
The self alignment for the logic probe primarily aligns the
switching levels.
Subject to change without notice
15
Familiarize yourself with your new HMO
To start the self alignment for the logic probe, it is necessary that
the logic probe type HO3508 is connected to the HMO. It is imperative that the bit connectors are not connected. To start the
process, select the menu item LOGIC PROBE SELF ALIGNMENT.
The process is similar to the basic instrument alignment but it
only takes a few seconds.
3 A quick introduction
The following chapter is intended to introduce you to the most
important functions and settings of your new oscilloscope in
order to allow you to use the instrument immediately. The internal calibrator signal output is used as the signal source, so
you will not need any additional instruments for the first steps.
3.1 Setting up and turning the instrument on
Fold out the feets completly so the display will be inclined
slightly upwards. (See chapter 1.2 for positioning) Plug the power cord into the rear panel connector. The instrument will be
turned on by switching on the main power switch on the back
and pushing the key On/Off 1 on the front panel. After a few
seconds the display appears, and the oscilloscope is ready for
measurements. Now press the key AUTOSET 15 for at least 3
seconds.
3
Fig. 2.17: Logic probe self alignment
4
7
6
9
10
12
13
15 16
A
5
8
11
14
17
Fig. 3.1: Control panel HMO
3.2 Connection of a probe and signal capture
Take one of the probes delivered with the instrument, detach
the protective cap from the top. Apply the compensation box to
the BNC connector of channel 1 and turn the black knob CW
until it latches positively.
Passive probes be compensated prior to first use.
Please refer to the probe manual for the proper
compensation procedure. Place the probe in the
appropriate position on the ADJ. output such that
the tip will be accepted by the hole of the right output while the ground connection is made to the left
output, as shown in Fig. 4.3 in chapter 4.
Fig. 3.2: Screen display after connection of the probe
16
Subject to change without notice
A quick introduction
On the right hand side of the screen you will see a short menu of
channel 1, the soft keys allow you to select frequently used settings.
Press the top soft key once to change the input coupling to DC.
The actual settings are marked by underlying blue
fields, repeated pressing of the keys will alternate
between the settings.
You see now a two-window display: the display will show in
the top area the complete captured signal, below an enlarged
portion. Use the time base knob to select the zoom factor and
the small knob for horizontal positioning.
Fig. 3.6: ZOOM function
By pressing the ZOOM key 40 again the zoom mode be will be
deactivated.
Fig. 3.3: Screen display after changing to DC coupling
Now press the AUTOSET key 15 once shortly, after a few
seconds the oscilloscope will have automatically selected
appropriate vertical, horizontal time base and trigger settings.
You will see now a square wave signal.
3.4 Cursor measurements
After displaying the signal and its details we now proceed to
measuring it using the cursor functions. Press again shortly
AUTOSET 15 and then the CURSOR/MEASURE key 8 . Now
the cursor menu will open up, and you can select the kind of
cursor. Press the top soft key in order to open the appropriate menu. Use the knob in the CURSOR/MENU area for the
selection by turning it CCW until the V-marker is underlined,
press the universal button or wait for some seconds in order
to accept the selection. Now two cursors will be displayed
along with the signal, and the measurement results in the
bottom area of the grid. Select the active cursor by pushing
the universal knob and position it by turning the knob.
The cursor measurement results will be displayed at the bottom
of the grid. In this case the V-marker has selected the voltages
at the two cursor positions, their difference, and the time difference between the positions will be shown. The cursors will be
switched off by pressing the CURSOR/MEASURE key and the
associated Cursors off soft key.
Fig. 3.4: Screen display after Autosetup
3.3 Display of signal details
With the knob 43 you can change
the displayed time window: turning
it CCW will slow the time base. The
memory depth of 1 MB per channel
allows you to capture wide time windows with high resolution. Continue
to turn the knob CCW until you read
„TB:5ms“ in the top left corner. Now
press the ZOOM key 40 .
D
37
38
37
41
42
39
43
40
Fig. 3.5: Area of the control panel
containing the ZOOM knob
44
Fig. 3.7: Cursor measurements
Subject to change without notice
17
A quick introduction
3.5 Automatic measurements
In addition to cursor measurements the most important signal
parameters can be displayed. Your oscilloscope offers these
possibilities:
– the definition of the display of 6 parameters which may come
from different sources
– a quick view of all important parameters of one source using
the Quick View function.
parameter measurement using this menu. After switching on
the MEASUREMENTS with the appropriate softkey’s the parameter measurements are displayed below the grid. If you press the
softkey beside TYPE you can choose the parameter you want
from the list using the general knob. This procedure is used in
all menus where choices are available. Please press the key
TYPE and choose rise-time.
Please change the time base now to 100 µs/div. and press the
Quick View key 10 .
Fig. 3.10: Selection of parameters
Fig. 3.8: Quick View parameter measurement
Here you see the most important parameters of a signal displayed:
– positive and negative – rise and fall times
peak voltages
– mean voltage
Below the grid 10 more parameters are shown:
– RMS–
peak-peak voltage
period
– frequency–
– amplitude
– number of rising edges
–pos. pulse width – neg. pulse width
–pos. duty cycle – neg. duty cycle
Choose MEAS. PLACE 1 and use „mean“ and source CH1.
Afterwards choose MEAS. PLACE 2 and „rms“ from CH2. On
page 2 of this menu you can switch on a complete statistic
of these measurements, containing the actual value, the
smallest, the largest, the mean, the standard deviation and
the number of used measurements for that statistic.
After the menu has been closed, the parameters can be identified by the colours of the respective channels, (here yellow
for channel 1 and blue for channel 2.)
Thus by simply pressing a key you see 14 parameters at a glance
which characterize the signal. This function applies always to
the acutal active channel.
You may also display up to six parameters of different signals.
In order to achieve this deactivate the Quick View function by
pressing the key again, then activate channel 2 by pressing the
CH2 key. Open the following menu by pressing AUTOMEASURE 11 :
Fig. 3.11: Measuring the parameters of two sources
3.6 Mathematical functions
Fig. 3.9:
Auto Measure
menu
Press the softmenu key beside MEAS. PLACE and choose the
number you want using the universal knob. You may define the
18
Subject to change without notice
In addition to cursor and parameter measurements your HMO
can also apply mathematical functions to the signals. By pressing the MATH key a short menu will open which allows you to
select one or two predefined mathematical functions. A quick
setting of mathematical functions is possible by selecting the
menu item at the bottom. This mode allows you to select the
A quick introduction
addition or subtraction of two activated sources. The formula
editor allows to predefine 5 possible mathematical functions,
it is called by pressing the MATH key (which lights up red) and
the Menu key 21 .
Fig. 3.14: Menu Screenshots
Fig. 3.12: Formula editor
In order to change the settings use the soft keys and the universal
knob. Here you can program and store the formulae most used.
As mentioned earlier these formulae can be quickly switched on
and off by pressing the MATH key 26 and using the appropriate
short soft menue.
Please verify that the USB connector into which you plugged
the USB stick (front or rear) is written in the top soft menue
(You can change the destination by opening the respective
menu if you press the softkey next to STORAGE). You can now
save a screenshot if you press the softkey next to SAVE using
the predefined name written in the menu below FILE NAME.
You may name the destination memory with up to 8 characters;
in order to do this select the menu item File name and define
the name by using the universal knob (selecting a character
by turn the knob and enter by pushing the knob .
3.7 Storing data
Your HMO can store 5 different kinds of data:
– Instrument settings
– Reference signals
– Signals (up to 24000 points)
– Screen displays
– Sets of formulae
Signals and screen displays can only be stored on USB sticks.
All other data can be stored either on a USB stick or in the
instrument’s non-volatile memories. In order to store data you
have to define the kind of data and the destination. First attach
a USB stick to the front panel connector. Press SAVE/RECALL
12 in order to call the respective menu.
Fig. 3.15: Defining a file name
After the soft key next to Accept was pressed the oscilloscope
will have stored the name and return to the settings menu.
Here you can now store the actual screen display by pressing
the Store soft key. Alternatively, you can return to a lower
menu level (by pressing the lowest Menu OFF key) and select
the menu item key FILE/PRINT. In the following menu press
the soft menu key next to ScreenshotS: this will assign the
function screenshot to the key FILE/PRINT with the settings
chosen. This enables you to store a bit map file on your USB stick
by just pressing FILE/PRINT 17 at any time and in any menu.
Fig. 3.13: Save/Recall menu
Select the kind of data by pressing the respective soft key (in this
example Screenshots) in order to access the settings menu.
Subject to change without notice
19
HMO Art.-Nr. xx1320 + xx1340 - HINT - Stan
HMO Art.-Nr.: xx1320 + xx1340 - DKL - Stan
HMO1524 + 2024 - TXT SW - Stand: 31.
62-K304-1340 - 1.0
LEVEL
POSITION
POSITION
A quick introduction
must be done manually in the channel menu. The HMO152x
and HMO202x are delivered with the HZO10 a 10:1 probe with
automatic attenuation read out, which will be read from the
probe and factored in.
4 Vertical system
B
18
VOLTS/DIV
TIME/DIV
COARSE/FINE
62-K304-1
1.0
340
For the vertical settings there are
the knobs for the vertical position
and the sensitivity, an always
visible short menu and an extended menu.
V
SELECT WINDOW
The passive probes must be adjusted to the inputs
to which they are connected. See the probe manual
for the adjustment procedure. The PROBE ADJUST
TRIG’doutput
SLOPE
is only usable for 1:1 and 10:1 probes, for
100:1 or 1000:1 probes special external generators
with a perfect step
have to be used. Please
MEresponse
M
use the shortest possible ground connection.
22
23
19
24
ORY
25
20
26
Fig. 4.1: Front panel area with vertical
system controls
USB STICK
27
21LOGIC CHANNEL POD (7...0)
!
Use recommended probe only!
By pushing the respective key the channel will be selected for
which these controls will be activated, this will be indicated by
the key lighting up in the color of the channel. Additionally, the
channel number on the screen will be framed and displayed
lighter than the channels not activated. The appropriate short
menu is always visible, the extended menu will be shown upon
pushing the key Menu 21 .
!
COMPONENT TESTER
(CT)
ADJ.
max.
S1 S2 S3
Bus Signal
Source
10 Vp
REM
CH 1
1 MΩ II 14
max.
200 Vp
Fig. 4.3: Correct connection of the probe to
the probe adjust output
The coupling is selected in the short menu: by just pushing the
appropriate key the coupling is chosen, also the signal may be
inverted. The menu is valid for the activated channel as indicated
by the channel key light up. The channel number will be shown
in the top of the menu. By pushing the respective key of another
channel the menu will transfer to this channel.
4.2 Sensitivity, Y-Positioning, and Offset
Fig. 4.2: Short menu for the vertical settings
The sensitivity of the analog inputs can be selected with the large
knob in the VERTICAL section of the front panel in 1-2-5 steps
from 1 mV/div to the respective maximal setting independent of
the 50 Ω (only available at the HMO152x and HMO202x) or 1 MΩ selection. The knob is associated with the channel selected by
pushing the respective key. The sensitivity can be changed to
continuous control by pushing the knob once. The smaller one
of the knobs is used for vertical positioning.
4.1Coupling
The first item to be selected is the input impedance: 1 MΩ or
50 Ω. (only at the HMO152x and HMO202x, the HMO72x and 102x
does not offer 50 Ω inputs)
Do not connect the 50 Ω inputs to effective voltage
higher than 5 volts!
The 50 Ω input impedance should only be selected if the signal
source is 50 Ω, such as a generator with a 50 Ω output where
the termination within the scope is to be used. In all other
cases 1 MΩ is to be selected. Next DC or AC coupling has to be
selected: with DC coupling all components of the signal will be
displayed, with AC coupling the DC content will be removed,
the lower bandwidth is 2 Hz. Up to 200 Vrms may be applied
directly to the vertical inputs if 1 MΩ is selected. Higher voltages can be measured with probes (up to 40 kVp). For general
applications the probes supplied with the instrument will be
used. They are specified for the 1 MΩ input. With the HMO72x
and HMO102x are the HZ154 delivered, which offer a 10:1 /
1:1 switchable attenuation. Therefore the attenuation setting
20
Subject to change without notice
Fig. 4.4: Vertical offset in the extended menu
By pushing the Menu key the extended menu is called. On
page 2 of this menu at the HMO152x and HMO202x a dc offset
Vertical system
can be added to the signal. In order to switch this offset in the
respective soft key must be pushed. The settings window will
be backlit in blue, and the activity indicator next to the general
knob will light up; the offset can now be adjusted with the knob.
The offset voltage will be added to the signal at the vertical amplifier input offsetting it by that amount from the zero position.
The possible amount of offset depends on the Volts/div setting
chosen. The offset function being activated will be indicated by
two channel markers on the left of the display, also visible if the
menu was closed. One marker indicates the position, the other
the offset (refer to Fig. 4.4). The offset is individually adjustable
for each channel.
or enter a complete new name using up to 8 characters. This
will be done by selecting the character from the virtual keypad
using turning the universal knob and selecting by pushing the
knob. Pushing the ACCEPT button switch on the name display on
the right side of the grid. The name is fixed to the channel and
will move over the screen whenever the channel will be moved.
Each analog channel may also be shifted in time by ±15 ns. This
adjustment is selected in the same menu and according to the
same method as the DC offset; it is used for compensating for
the different signal delays of voltage and current probes and
different cable lengths.
4.3 Bandwidth Limit and Signal Inversion
An analog 20 MHz low pass can be inserted in the signal path
in either the short or extended menu. This will eliminate all
higher frequency interference. The filter is activated in the
short menu by pushing the respective soft key; the information
field will be backlit in blue, BW will be displayed in the channel
information window.
Fig. 4.5: Threshold setting and name allocation
Signal inversion is available in the short and the extended menus. If it is activated the information field will be backlit in blue,
and there will be a bar above the channel number.
4.4 Probe attenuation selection
The HZO10 or optinal HZ355 probes are recognized by the instrument which automatically selects the appropriate factor.
If any other probe without automatic recognition of the attenuation ratio or just a cable is connected to the instrument, the
attenuation factor can be set manually in the extended menu.
This is possible for x 1, x 10, x 100 x 1000 or as defined by the
user from x 0.001 to x 1000.
In addition you can select the unit Ampere in case you are using
a current probe or measure current via a shunt. If you select
A the menu shows the most common factors (1V/A, 100mV/A,
10mV/A, 1mV/A). Again you can also select any value between
defined by the user. Doing so the measurements are always
displayed with the correct unit and scale.
4.5 Level Setting
In this menu a level can be set. This level define the threshold
for detecting a High or a Low if the analog channel are used as
source for the serial bus analysis or logic trigger. After choosing
the softmenu, the level can be set by turning the universal knob.
4.6 Name a channel
The last entry of the channel menu open a submenu in order to
allocate a name for a channel. This name will be shown at the
display and at a print out. First of all you can switch on or off the
display of the name. Below that softmenu button you find the
soft button LIBRARY. After selecting this button you can choose
a name from several different suggestions using the universal
knob. After pushing NAME you can edit the pre-choosen name
Subject to change without notice
21
Vertical system
5 Horizontal System (Time Base)
As well as time base settings, the horizontal system comprises the selection of the trigger position, the zoom functions and the
available modes of signal capture, the control for the marker
function and the search fcuntions.
The knobs are used for the adjustment of the time base speed
and the trigger position. The signal capture modes are selected
in the respective menus. There is a key provided for activating
the zoom function.
5.1 Capturing modes RUN and STOP
The capturing modes can be selected with the key RUN/STOP.
In RUN mode signals will be continuously captured; depending
on the trigger conditions selected, and displayed, erasing the
previously captured ones. If it is desired to store and further
analyze a signal and to prevent it being overwritten, capture
must be stopped by pushing the RUN/STOP key. While in STOP
mode capture is disabled and the key will light up red.
5.2 Time base adjustments
D
The large knob in the Hori37
zontal section of the control
panel is used for the selection
38
41
of the time base speed. The time
37
base speed is displayed in the
42
upper left hand corner above
39
the graticule. (e.g. „TB:500 ns“)
To the right there is the display
of the trigger time position with
43
respect to the normal position.
The normal trigger position is in
40
the center of the graticule such
44
that 50 % of the signal display
is before and 50 % is after this
trigger position. The X Posi- Fig. 5.1: Control panel of the
tion knob allows continuous horizontal system
adjustment of the X position.
The available maximum values depend on the time base
setting. By pushing the key SET/CLR the value will be reset
37 allow you to
to its reference position. The arrow keys
change the X position by a fixed amount of 5 divisions in the
respective direction. If marker or search function is chosen
the arrow keys together with the SET/CLR button are used to
navigate through and set/clear marker. The key menu opens
a menu which allows you to set the X position to its minimum
and maximum positions or chose the marker function by just
a key touch. In addition, there is a submenu NUMER.INPUT
which allows entry of an arbitrary X position. Within this menu
the search functions can be activated and set. In addition the
time reference can be set here (position for the trigger point in
time, from -5 to +5 divisions, 0 is the middle of the screen and
the standard setting).
5.3 Capture modes
The capture modes are selected by pushing the key ACQUIRE,
this opens a display menu which offers the basic modes of
capture:
5.3.1 Refresh:
In this mode the signals are captured and displayed.
22
Subject to change without notice
5.3.2 Roll:
This acquisition mode is intended specifically for very slow
signals, with the untriggered signal „rolling“ across the screen
from right to left (requires signals slower than 200 kHz). The
HMO uses a ring buffer to store the signal values in roll mode.
Simply put, the instrument writes the first division to the first
storage space, the second division to the second storage space,
etc. Once the storage is full, the instrument overwrites the first
storage space with the data of the most recent measurement
value. This creates a „ring“ or cycle run, similar to a ticker.
The ZOOM feature is not available in the roll mode
(also refer to chapter 5.5 ZOOM Function).
5.3.3: ENVELOPE:
In this mode, the display includes the normal capture of each
signal and the maximum as well as the minimum values of
each capture. Over time, this creates an envelope surrounding
the signal.
5.3.4: AVERAGE:
In this mode, you can use the universal knob in the Cursor/
Menu section of the control panel to set the number of signal
periods for averaging, available in powers of 2 from 2 to 1024
(requires repetitive signals).
5.3.5: FILTER:
In this mode, you can activate a low pass filter with adjustable
cut off frequency to suppress unwanted high frequency interferences. The cut off frequency can be set based on the sampling frequency. The minimum setting is 1/100 of the sampling
frequency and the maximum value is 1/4 of the sampling rate.
You can select this setting with the universal knob.
The second menu page is accessed by pushing the soft key
next to the menu „Page 1I2“, here, extended functions are
available:
5.3.6 Peak Detect
This mode is used for very large time base settings to detect
even short signal changes. You can also deactivate this function within the menu or you can select the automatic switching
mode. The following conditions must be met to activate the
PEAK DETECT mode:
–
–
Function HIGH RESOLUTION is deactivated
None of the serial or parallel buses are active
During peak detection, the oscilloscope distinguishes between
two types: Acquisition peak detection and memory peak detection.
Each A/D converter converts at the full sampling rate (no
Interlace mode), even if results have not been written to the
acquisition memory at full sampling rate (for slow time bases,
for instance). If peak detection is activated, unused converter
values will be evaluated to detect minimum and maximum
amplitudes. During this process, the identified minimum and
maximum values including sampling interval are written to the
acquisition memory. As a result, the acquisition memory stores
data pairs representing the signal sequence according to the
sampling interval. The smallest detectable pulse is the period of
the maximum sampling rate (no Interlace mode). This describes
the so-called acquisition peak detection.
A hardware peak detection is not available if data is written
to the acquisition memory at the ADC‘s maximum sampling
rate. For slow time bases and a repeat rate set to automatic
or maximum value, not all data from the acquisition memory
Horizontal System
will display on the screen. With peak detection activated when
reading out, skipped data will be used to create a minimum and
maximum value. The smallest detectable pulse is the period of
the sampling rate used to write to the acquisition memory. This
describes the so-called memory peak detection.
If one of the peak detection modes or a combination of the two
are used, the corresponding detection mode is marked with
„PD“ in the upper right of the display.
5.3.7 High Resolution
This mode uses Boxcar Averaging via adjacent detection points
(i.e. the converter runs at the maximum sampling rate) to increase the vertical resolution to up to 10 bit. You can deactivate
this function within the menu or you can select the automatic
switching mode.
Averaging several adjacent sampling rates creates a value with a
higher degree of accuracy than the input data. The resulting data
is called high resolution data. The process of merging multiple
sampling rates to one new value only allows a sampling rate that
is smaller than the maximum value. If the HIGH RESOLUTION
mode is activated and the current instrument setting allows
the use of the HIGH RESOLUTION mode, the detection mode is
marked with „HR“ in the upper right of the display.
The following requirements must be met to activate the HIGH
RESOLUTION mode:
– Sampling rate is smaller than the maximum sampling rate
(no Interlace mode)
– Peak detection is deactivated
– No active logic pod (POD)
– None of the serial or parallel buses are active
The HMO oscilloscope displays a signal window of 600x400
pixels (Yt without zoom). This translates into 600 data points
per detection. When peak detection is activated, 600 pairs
of min/max values or 1,200 data values are displayed. The
memory depth corresponds to at least the displayed time
window (time base x signal window grid section in horizontal direction) multiplied by the current sampling rate. The
minimum value is determined by the maximum sampling
rate and the maximum signal repeat rate of the oscilloscope.
The displayed sampling rate corresponds to the current
sampling rate divided by the amount of data skipped while
reading out from the acquisition memory. If peak detection
is activated, the displayed sampling rate corresponds to the
current sampling rate.
– MAX. SAMPL. RATE:
If this function is activated, the instrument always sets the
maximum sampling rate while using the maximum memory
available. The MAX. SAMPL. RATE function always uses the
maximum sampling rate and displays the maximum amount
of data. Each column in the signal window displays up to 40
detected data values (limited by processor performance).
How much data is currently displayed depends on the displayed time window and the current sampling rate. If peak
detection is activated, each column displays up to 20 pairs
of min/max values.
The memory depth always corresponds to the maximum
acquisition memory. The displayed sampling rate is identical with the current sampling rate. Peak detection is used
if the displayed time window contains more data than 40 *
signal window columns in the acquisition memory or min/
max data in the acquisition memory.
The entire oscilloscope memory can only be read
out by interface if the maximum sampling rate has
been activated (refer also to the HMO SCPI Manual).
By default, all functions listed above are deactivated.
5.3.8 Waveform Rate
This soft menu item provides the following functions:
– MAX. WFM RATE:
This mode allows you to select the memory depth and
sampling rate to obtain the maximum trigger repeat
rate. When using the MAX. WAVEFORM RATE mode, the
oscilloscope is set to display the maximum amount of
captures per second in the signal window. Each column
in the signal window displays a captured date. When peak
detection is activated, each column displays a pair of min/
max values.
Fig.5.3: AM modulated signal with maximum sampling rate
– AUTOMATIC:
This mode is the standard mode: the instrument always
selects the optimum combination of capturing and sampling
rates (memory length used).
Fig. 5.2: AM modulated signal with maximum repeat rate
Each column in the signal window displays up to 10 captured
data values. How much data is currently displayed depends
on the displayed time window and the current sampling rate.
When peak detection is activated, each column displays up
to 5 pairs of min/max values.
Subject to change without notice
23
Horizontal System
can only be attained by means of low memory depth (as is the
case with other manufacturers) it is nearly impossible to zoom
in retrospectively in STOP mode.
The last menu INTERPOLATION allow the selection of Sinx/x,
linear or Sample-Hold as interpolation type for displaying the
aquired data points. Standard setting is Sinx/x and the best
setting for display of analogue signals. At the linear interpolation there is a straight line used to connect the points.
Using sample-hold type of interpolation allow the exact
examination of the position of the the aquired data points
within the signal.
5.4 Interlace Mode
Fig. 5.4: AM modulated signal with automatic setting
The memory depth is at least twice as much as the storage
capacity set for the maximum repeat rate (limited by the
maximum acquisition memory). The displayed sampling
rate corresponds to the current sampling rate divided by
the amount of data skipped while loading from the acquisition memory. If peak detection is activated, the displayed
sampling rate corresponds to the current sampling rate.
All settings apply the identical current sampling rate (sampling
rate used to write to the acquisition memory). In STOP mode it
is also possible to change menu items. This does not impact the
current memory depth but the amount of displayed data will be
adjusted. Peak detection is also activated in STOP mode (time
base in microseconds).
In time bases displaying each sampling point, all three settings behave identically (except used memory depth and signal
update rate). Table 5.1 displays advantages and disadvantages
of each setting.
Finally, it needs to be mentioned that this menu replaces the
adjustable memory depth, a standard for other manufacturers.
An adjustable memory depth is intended to allow users to understand the relation between memory depth, time base and
sampling rate and to evaluate advantages and disadvantages.
With this option, the oscilloscope always captures signals with
the maximum sampling rate. This allows users in STOP mode
to zoom in retrospectively, even at the maximum repeat rate.
It is also possible to zoom out at the maximum repeat rate if
the STOP mode was run at fast time bases. If a high repeat rate
Setting
Advantages
In interlace mode, converters (ADC) and storage units of two
channels within the same interlaced group are connected. This
doubles the sampling rate and the acquisition memory. Interlace
groups are channels 1 and 2 and channels 3 and 4. If an interlace
group is not interlace-capable, the non-interlace mode is also
applied to the related group. A channel is considered active
even if it has been deactivated while still serving as the trigger
source. If a channel is activated, the respective LED next to the
input connector is illuminated.
The following conditions must be met to activate the Interlace
mode:
– no active logic pod
– none of the serial or parallel buses are active
– logic trigger not active
If the interlace mode is possible, it will be activated automatically. The following table displays channel configurations that
allow the operation in interlace mode.
Interlace group 1
Interlace group 2
CH1
CH2
CH3
CH4
On
Off
Off
Off
Off
On
Off
Off
Off
Off
On
Off
Off
Off
Off
On
On
Off
On
Off
Off
On
On
Off
Off
On
Off
On
Tab. 5.2: Channel configuration in interlace mode
Disadvantages
Application
Max. Repeat Rate
• Many captures in one image
• Rare events can be detected more
quickly in connection with per sistence
• Quick response to Operation or
change in signal
• Low noise band
• High aliasing risk
• Low accuracy of details
• Low accuracy of measurements
due to reduced amount of data
• Search for rare events
• Displaying modulated signals
Maximum Sampling Rate
• Maximum accuracy of details
• Lowest aliasing risk
• High accuracy of measurements
• Slow response to operation or
change in signal
• Low signal update rate
• Higher visibility of noise
• For signals with high frequency
parts
• Assessment of small signal
details
Automatic
• Average signal update rate
• Reasonably smooth operation
• Good accuracy of measurements
• Low noise band
• Possible aliasing
• Default application
Table 5.1: Advantages and disadvantages of each setting.
24
Subject to change without notice
Horizontal System
5.5 ZOOM function
The HMO series features a memory depth of 2 MB per channel. This allows the user to record long and complex signals
which can be analyzed in full detail with the Zoom function. To
activate this feature, press the ZOOM key 40 . The screen will
be divided into two sections. The upper window displays the
entire time base window whereas the lower graticule shows
an enlarged section of the upper window. The enlarged signal
section is marked by two blue cursors in the original signal (upper window). If several channels are activated in Zoom mode,
all displayed channels will be zoomed simultaneously by the
same factor and at the identical position.
These values apply to a specified axis and can therefore also
be scaled in ROLL mode.
5.6 Navigation Function
The Navigation function offers easy trigger time handling and
allows it to be entered numerically. The soft menu keys allow you
to set the trigger time to the minimum or the maximum value,
for instance. You can use the soft menu key TIME REFERENCE
to define where in the signal window to find the trigger point
value “0”. The signal is scaled by this reference point. You can
use the universal knob in the Cursor/ Menu section to select
the desired setting.
5.7 Marker Function
Markers allow you to highlight specific positions on the screen,
e.g. a rising or falling slope, an unexpected signal value or a
search result. Markers can be used to identify specific signal
sections to zoom in on and to analyze the data more closely.
Fig. 5.5: Zoom function
Fig. 5.5 displays the Zoom window with 100 µs per division. The
signal was captured within a time window of 12ms. The zoom
area (lower grid) also displays the parameter for zoom time base
whereas time is displayed above the zoom window. Z indicates
the zoom time base (zoom factor) and determines the width
of the zoom area displayed in the zoom window (12 divisions x
scaling per division). Tz indicates the zoom time and determines
the position of the zoom area.
The time base setting in the upper right of the display is highlighted in gray while the zoom time base above the zoom window
is marked in white. The large knob in the horizontal menu is
used to change the zoom factor. You can also press this knob.
If the knob is pushed, the time base setting is highlighted in
white and the zoom time base in gray. Now the knob is available
to select the time base setting. This allows you to change time
base settings without having to leave the zoom mode. Pressing the knob again will highlight the cursors limiting the zoom
area in white, allowing you to use the knob to change the zoom
area. Now you can use the small knob in the horizontal area of
the control panel to move the position of the zoomed section
across the entire signal. As described above, pressing the large
knob enables you to set the time base but not the zoom factor.
This in turn enables the small knob to move the trigger position
to define the relationship of pre- and post captures/records.
Use the soft menu to activate the marker function. Press the
MENU key in the HORIZONTAL section of the control panel to
open the soft menu. Use the universal knob in the menu to select
MARKER. Once this mode is activated, you can press the SET/
CLR key to set a time marker at the 6th time unit (the menu in
the center of the grid must be deactivated). The time markers
are marked by a vertical line in gray-blue. The knob X Position
allows you to move the signal including the set marker. After
identifying an important signal position and setting it to the
center of the screen using the position knob, you can set an
additional marker. This procedure allows you to mark up to 8
interesting positions within the signal. You can toggle between
37 . These keys also
markers by pressing the arrow keys
allow you to center the markers in the middle of the screen.
This feature enables you to quickly compare marked signal
sections in ZOOM mode.
To delete a marker, center it in the middle of the screen and
press the SET/CLR key once again. You can also delete all time
markers simultaneously in the marker soft menu.
The ZOOM function is not available in ROLL mode.
In the acquisition mode ROLL, it is generally not possible to
zoom in on the memory because the signal values of the X axis
are always captured with the maximum memory depth. The
acquisition mode NORMAL always includes more samples in the
memory than what can be shown in the display. That explains
why in this mode you are able to zoom in on the memory. The
same does not apply to the values in the Y axis (amplitude).
Fig. 5.6: Marker in zoom mode
5.8 Search Function
The search function in the HMO series enables you to search for
all slopes, pulse widths, peaks or additional events in the detecSubject to change without notice
25
Horizontal System
tion mode that match the manually specified search criteria.
Specific settings are available for each search type. Searches
can be performed on any analog channel or mathematical
signal. The searched time base section can be restricted by
defining a level.
Press the MENU key in the HORIZONTAL section of the control
panel to activate the search function in the soft menu. Use the
universal knob to select the menu item SEARCH. Once this mode
is activated, you can define events, e.g. a rise time with specific
attributes, such as <12ns. The search function will then look for
these events in STOP mode in the most current capture. Press
the menu item SEARCH TYPE and use the universal knob to
select the desired search criteria.
The following functions are available:
Once you have selected the appropriate search type, you can
choose the desired SOURCE (choose from any of the activated
analog channels including mathematical channels). Use the
menu item SETUP to open a submenu where you can choose
the settings for the selected search criterium (e.g. greater than
a specific pulse width). Some of the adjustable parameters may
be dependent on the time base (for a time base of 100μs/Div
the smallest time is 2μs, for 1μs/Div the corresponding time
value is 20ns). If events match the search criterium, they will be
highlighted. The soft menu VIEW EVENT TABLE allows you to
display the search results in a table format. Use the arrow keys
or the universal knob to navigate the events in STOP mode. The
Select option allows you to center the selected event. When the
zoom function is activated, the selected event will automatically
be centered in the zoom window.
–Slope:
Comparable to the slope trigger; this function searches for
slopes in the signal. The point in time of a detected slope corresponds to the point in time when the signal leaves the set
hysteresis. The soft key LEVEL selects a level for the slope
detection of the search function. The search function level
matches the trigger level of the slope trigger, for instance.
Level and hysteresis will display in the signal window. The
hysteresis determines the area that the signal has to pass
until a valid slope is detected. This area also defines the rise
time of the slope. It is recommended to select a sufficiently
large hysteresis to reduce noise on the signal slope.
– Pulse width:
Comparable to the pulse width trigger; this function
searches for pulses with a predetermined pulse width. A
pulse always consists of a rising and a falling slope. Leaving
the hysteresis defines the start and end time of the pulse.
The level for the search function corresponds to the trigger
level of the slope trigger, for instance. Level and hysteresis
will display in the signal window. The adjustable comparison
type is a search criterium for the detected time event width.
The pulse width is the time period between start and stop
slope of the pulse.
– Peak:
The peak search function searches for pulses within the
signal. The time of the event is the maximum value of the
peak.
– Rise time / fall time:
This function searches for slopes with a specific rise /fall
time within the signal. The point in time of a detected slope
corresponds to the point in time when the signal leaves the
set hysteresis. The upper and lower level define the upper
/lower position of the hysteresis. The adjusted level will
display in the signal window. The adjustable comparison
type is a search criterium for the detected time event width.
–Runt:
A runt is an aborted pulse within a signal. This occurs when
the rise times of the system are greater than necessary for
the desired pulse width. A positive runt exceeds the lower
level of the hysteresis, for instance, but does not reach the
upper level. The analyzing digital circuits of this signal fail
to detect the pulse which leads to transmission errors. The
pulse width of the runt is defined by the entry and exit point
from the hysteresis (duration between start and stop slope
of the pulse). The adjustable comparison type is a search
criterium for the detected time event width. The difference
defines the maximum time range by which the specified
event width may vary.
26
Subject to change without notice
Fig. 5.7: Search mode with event list
Trigger System
the signal will cause a single capture, the oscilloscope then
goes into the STOP mode, indicated by the RUN/STOP key
lighting up in red.
6 Trigger System
The trigger system of the HMO is
easy to handle by just observing the
concept of instrument operation.
Fig. 6.1: Front panel control area of the
trigger system
C
6.2 Trigger sources
28
29
33
30
34
31
35
32
36
There are 4 keys destined for frequently used functions:
– TYPE – selection of trigger type EDGE (EDGE A/B), PULSE,
LOGIC and VIDEO
– SLOPE – type of slope
– SOURCE – determines the triggers source
– FILTER – determines the exact trigger conditions
Additional keys are provided for the selection of the trigger
modes: (AUTO. NORMAL, SINGLE).
6.1 Trigger modes Auto, Normal, Single
The basic trigger modes are directly selectable with the key
AUTO NORM. In AUTO mode the key will not be lit. If the key is
pushed it will light up red indicating NORMAL mode.
The oscilloscope always presents a signal in AUTO mode and
a signal will automatically yield a stable display if it fulfills the
trigger conditions.
In NORMAL mode the signal will be displayed if it fulfills the
trigger conditions, if it fails to do so the last stable triggered
display will remain on the screen.
If it is desired to record a signal which fulfills the trigger
conditions only once, the key SINGLE must be pushed, it will
light up white. This indicates that the single trigger mode
is active, the RUN/STOP key will blink. The next return of
Trigger sources are the 2 or 4 analog channels and the external trigger input. If the optional logic probe HO3508 with 8
or 16 logic channels is connected, also those up to 16 digital
channels can serve as trigger sources. The soft menu key
AC LINE enables you to trigger the trigger at system frequency.
The trigger signal is extracted internally from the power supply.
6.3 Slope trigger
The easiest and by far the most frequently used trigger is the
slope trigger. The oscilloscope triggers if slopes that were
set with the SLOPE key occur within the signal selected in the
SOURCE menu. The signal slope has to pass through the set
trigger level.
The trigger type Slope Trigger is selected in the Autosetup mode
(AUTOSET key). If, for instance, you select the pulse trigger and
press the AUTOSET key the setting will switch to Slope Trigger.
The TYPE 31 key in the trigger control panel allows you to set the
trigger type. This opens a menu with corresponding options. If
the Slope type is not active (highlighted in blue), you can press
the respective soft menu key to select this type. The slope type
(rising, falling or both) can be set directly with the SLOPE 35
key. This will shift the setting forward by one, i.e. from rising to
falling slope, to both slopes, and pressing the key yet one more
time will trigger another rising slope. The center of the status
line on the top of the display and the display above the SLOPE
key 35 show which slope type has been selected.
The FILTER 36 key allows you to select how to couple the signal
for the trigger circuit:
AUTO LEVEL: Automatic filter setting (default setting).
AC:The trigger signal is coupled via high pass filter with a
minimum cut-off frequency of 5 Hz which suppresses the
DC portion of the triggering signal. With a changing DC
portion, the trigger level remains at the set point in the AC
signal. The trigger type AUTO (AUTO/NORM key) includes
the Peak-Peak mode which sets limits for the trigger in
the AC signal. This setting means that the trigger condition
will be met for any applied signal without having to set the
level. For the trigger type NORM (AUTO/NORM key), the
Peak-Peak mode is deactivated, allowing the trigger level
to be moved past the peak values of the signal.
DC:The trigger signal is coupled to the trigger circuit with all
signal portions (AC and DC voltage). This has no impact
on the triggering signal.
HF:
The trigger signal is routed via a 30 kHz (-3dB) high pass
filter. The trigger level is no longer adjustable. This mode
should only be used with very high frequency signals.
LP (low pass):
The trigger signal is coupled via low pass with a maximum cut-off frequency of 5 kHz. This filter removes high
frequencies and is available with AC and DC coupling.
Fig. 6.2: Coupling modes with slope trigger
NR (noise reduction):
A low pass filter with a maximum cut-off frequency of
Subject to change without notice
27
Trigger System
100 MHz will improve the noise performance for the trigger amplifier. This filter removes high frequencies and
is available with AC and DC coupling.
The coupling types low pass and noise reduction
may not be activated simultaneously.
the SOURCE menu that matches the properties set in the FILTER
menu. If a pulse fulfills the trigger conditions, the oscilloscope
triggers on the trailing slope, i.e. for a positive pulse it triggers
on the falling slope and for a negative pulse on a rising slope.
Activate the pulse trigger by pressing the TYPE key 31 in the
trigger control panel. Press the FILTER key 36 , then you can
select additional settings for the pulse trigger in the soft menu.
There are 6 different options:
ti ≠ t: The pulse width ti is unequal to the reference width t.
ti = t: The pulse width ti is equal to the reference width t.
ti < t: The pulse width ti is smaller than the reference width t.
ti > t: The pulse width ti is greater than the reference width t.
t1<ti<t2: The pulse width ti, is smaller than the reference width
t2 and greater than the reference width t1.
not(t1<ti<t2): The pulse width ti, is greater than the reference
width t2 and smaller than the reference width t1.
The comparison time can be set anywhere between 8 ns to
134.217 ms. For any value up to 1 ms the resolution is 8 ns
and for any value greater than 1 ms the resolution is 1 µs. The
deviation can be set anywhere between 4ns to 262.144 µs with
a resolution of 4 ns.
Fig. 6.3: The type B-Trigger
The slope trigger can be coupled with a so called „B Trigger“.
This option is available after pushing TYPE. This function allows
you to adjust the trigger such that first condition „A“ must be met
and then another condition „B“ before the trigger will respond
(refer to Fig. 6.3).
E.g. it is possible to define a source (channel) and a level of
120 mV on the rising slope of that signal and for the second
condition a level of 80 mV on the falling slope. Additionally, it is
possible to define whether the B event should occur a time (min.
32ns, max. 10s) or a number (min. 1, max. 216) of times after
the A event. The level or time or the number of events can be
entered numerically with the universal knob or in a submenu.
In order to do this first select the setting, then push the soft key
next to NUMERIC INPUT. In the window which will open, you can
enter numbers and units with the universal knob or numerical
with KEYPAD button.
6.4 Pulse trigger
Select the desired function and then adjust the desired reference time. If you select “ti ≠ t“ or “ti = t“ you can use the soft
menu key TIME and the universal knob in the CURSOR/MENU
control panel to set a reference time. Selecting the soft menu
item DEVIATION allows you to use the universal knob to define
a tolerance zone. Selecting “t1<ti<t2“ or “Not(t1<ti<t2)“ allows
you to define both reference times with the menu items TIME 1
and TIME 2. Selecting „ti < t“ or „ti > t“ allows you to define
only one limit. Selecting the corresponding soft menu item allows you to set any of these settings for positively or negatively
polarized pulses. For the associated positive pulse, you define
the width from rising to falling slopes, and accordingly for the
associated negative pulse from falling to rising slopes. As is
consistent with the principle, triggering always occurs on the
second slope of the pulse.
6.5 Logic trigger
You may test all the settings without a logic probe connected, however, the functions will only be
effective with a HO3508 probe connected.
The pulse trigger allows triggering for specific pulse widths of
positive or negative pulses or for pulse width ranges. The oscilloscope triggers if a pulse occurs within the signal selected in
Selecting the logic trigger in the soft menu after pressing the
Fig. 6.4: Pulse trigger menu
Fig. 6.5: Logic trigger menu
28
Subject to change without notice
Trigger System
TYPE key 31 will switch the trigger source to the digital inputs.
Pressing the SOURCE key 32 after selecting this trigger type
displays a soft menu for additional settings and a window to list
these settings (see Fig. 6.5).
The top soft menu key enables you to select a logic channel
for which you wish to determine the trigger condition. Use
the universal knob for this purpose. In the general menu, the
selected digital input is marked with a blue background. In the
field, the trigger level is marked as High (H), Low (L) or (X). Use the corresponding soft menu key to select the trigger level. As
before, the selected level will be marked in the soft menu with
a blue background. Another soft menu item allows the logic
combination of the digital channels. They can be combined by
logic AND or OR. If AND is selected, the set conditions of all
channels must be met simultaneously for the input signal so
that the combination produces a logic High (H) as a result. If OR
is selected, at least one of the defined level conditions must be
met. The last item in this menu is the option TRIGGER ON. Use
the soft menu key to select TRUE or FALSE. This allows you to
preselect whether the trigger will be generated at the beginning
(TRUE) or the end of the logic condition (FALSE).
After selecting the desired set of conditions, you can use the
FILTER key 36 for additional settings. A soft menu will open
allowing you to add a time limit to the TRIGGER ON option (this
menu shows the condition selected in the SOURCE menu). Press
the top soft menu key to add a time limit. This option compares
the duration of the output signal for the combination of the logic
conditions to the set duration ti. If the duration is identical or
not identical, you can set the deviation ∆t. If t is within these
parameters, the trigger condition has been met. The menu field
below allows the selection of the comparison criteria.
These 6 criteria are available:
ti ≠ t: The duration of the bit pattern which will generate the
trigger is unequal to the reference time.
ti = t: The duration of the bit pattern which will generate the
trigger is equal to the reference time.
ti < t: The duration of the bit pattern which will generate the
trigger is smaller than the reference time.
ti > t: The duration of the bit pattern which will generate the
trigger is greater than the reference time.
t1<ti<t2: The duration of the bit pattern which will generate the
trigger is smaller than the reference width t2 and greater
than the reference width t1.
not(t1<ti<t2): The duration of the bit pattern which will generate
the trigger is greater than the reference width t2 and
smaller than the reference width t1.
By the same procedure as with pulse trigger the reference time
is adjusted with ti ≠ t and ti = t by turning the universal knob after
pushing the soft key next to TIME. By selecting DEVIATION the
universal knob allows you to define a tolerance interval. If ti < t
or ti > t was chosen only one limit may be set. Both options with
two references (t1 and t2) can be set due to pressing the respective
soft key and turning the universal knob.
As with the pulse trigger, for ti ≠ t or ti = t you can set a reference time with the soft menu key TIME and the universal knob.
Selecting the soft menu item DEVIATION allows you to use
the universal knob in the CURSOR/MENU control panel to
set the deviation ∆t which defines the tolerance between set
reference time t and valid and real pulse width ti (permissible
tolerance range). Selecting “t1<ti<t 2“ or “not(t1<ti<t 2)“ allows
you to set both comparison times (time interval limits) with
the soft menu items TIME 1 and TIME 2. For ti < t or ti > t, only
one limit can be defined. Time and deviation can be set with
the universal knob or the KEYPAD button in the CURSOR/
MENU control panel.
To change the threshold values for the logic states “one” and
“zero”, it is necessary to use settings in the channel menu
(MENU key in the VERTICAL control panel). Select the POD
(POD or CH3/POD 24 button). If logic mode is already activated,
the digital channels will be displayed in the channel display
section of the display (framed and marked with “POD:xxxV“).
Pressing the MENU key 21 in the VERTICAL section of the
control panel allows you to activate one of five predefined logic
levels. Three of these are fixed for TTL, CMOS and ECL. After
pressing the respective menu item, two customized logic levels
may be set from –2 V to 8 V with the universal knob. The soft
menu key RESET POS. & SIZE activates the display for all
digital channels of the selected group by using default values
for the vertical position and size. You may also define the name
for the current signal by using the soft menu NAME. A library
provides a list of predefined names. The name can be activated,
deactivated or edited.
6.6 Video trigger
The video trigger allows you to trigger on PAL, NTSC SECAM
standard video signals or on HDTV signals. Select the video
trigger mode by pressing the key TYPE 31 in the trigger section
of the control panel. Select the source by pressing the SOURCE
32 key. The FILTER 36 menu allows you to define additional settings. The oscilloscope triggers if the CVBS signal (Color Video
Baseband Signal) selected in the SOURCE menu features the
attributes set in the FILTER menu.
Select the desired standard by pressing the respective soft menu
key STANDARD. Use the universal knob in the CURSOR/MENU
control panel or press the soft menu key again to select the
desired standard. The second setting will apply to the polarity
of the sync pulse (may be positive or negative). With positive
video modulation (the highest brightness is represented in the
image by the maximum signal voltage), the synchronization
pulses are negative, with negative modulation they are positive.
The slopes of the synchronization pulses are used for triggering
which explains why a faulty polarity setting causes irregular
triggering by image information. Next you can select between
frame triggering (FRAME) and line triggering (LINE). Selecting
LINE allows you to define the exact line between 1 and 625 via
universal knob or the KEYPAD button in the CURSOR/MENU
control panel.
Fig. 6.6: Video trigger menu
The soft menu item ALL LINES enables the oscilloscope to
trigger on the start of the lines in the video signal. This key
Subject to change without notice
29
Trigger System
selects all lines i.e. even when other trigger conditions are met,
the oscilloscope will trigger on each line. If FRAME is selected
for frame triggering, the lower menu items will allow to trigger
on ODD or only EVEN half frames. In this case, the oscilloscope
will trigger on the start of the half frames in the video signal.
The respective key will select the odd (even) half frames, i.e.
even if the other trigger conditions are met, the oscilloscope
will trigger on each odd (even) half frame.
The following modes are available:
PAL, NTSC, SECAM, PAL-M and
SDTV 576i Interlaced
HDTV 720p Progressive
HDTV 1080p Progressive
HDTV 1080i Interlaced
7 Display of signals
The following chapter describes the selection and display of
signals from various sources and the available display modes.
7.1 Display settings
The HMO72x...202x series features a high quality TFT display
with VGA (640x480 pixels resolution) including LED backlighting.
Basic display settings can be defined by pressing the DISPLAY
14 key in the GENERAL control panel. When the soft menu item
VIRTUAL SCREEN is activated, a scroll bar will display to the
right of the display graticule. Use the universal knob to upload
and download the display window within the 20 divisions of the
virtual screen. You will find a detailed description of the VIRTUAL
SCREEN option in the next chapter.
The following settings can be selected:
DOTS ONLY:
If this option is activated (ON), only the acquired data points will
be shown. This means that the data points of all signals will not
be connected by vertical lines. If this option is deactivated (OFF),
interpolated data points will also be shown.
INVERSE BRIGHTN.:
This setting inverts the brightness of the displayed signals. Normally, frequently captured dots will be displayed more brightly
than rare dots. The INVERSE BRIGHTNESS option reverses
the circumstances. Rare events display a higher brightness
compared to frequent events. To capture rare events in a signal,
this setting can be used in combination with persistence.
FALSE COLORS:
This setting converts the brightness levels of the displayed
signals to a color scale (ranging anywhere from blue, magenta,
red and yellow to white). Thanks to the higher contrast, users
can view signal details more easily. This setting applies to all
signals simultaneously.
GRID:
This soft menu allows you to display the graticule as LINES
(the graticule is divided into horizontal and vertical divisions),
as CENTER CROSS (displays one horizontal and one vertical
zero line, showing the divisions as dots) or as OFF (the entire
graticule will include no dots or lines).
INFO WINDOWS:
Selecting this soft menu item will open a submenu which allows
you to set the transparency for the info windows. Info windows
are small windows that appear on the screen depending on the
particular application (e.g. values are displayed when offset is
changed). A transparency value of 0% to 100% is selectable. Use
the universal knob 4 to define this setting. Additional menu
items allow you to activate or deactivate the info windows for
POSITION and TRACE BRIGHTN.. If POSITION is activated and
the vertical position is changed, the respective value on the zero
line will be displayed. Depending on the selected trigger type, the
user will see specific information about the acquisition status.
This information will only be displayed if the signal changes on
the screen can persist over a longer period. If the trigger condition has been met, the information window shows a progress
display for the post-trigger and pre-trigger. If the trigger condition has not been met, the information window shows the time
of the last trigger event (Trig?). If the trigger type AUTOMATIC
is selected, the instrument will switch to non-triggered acquisi-
30
Subject to change without notice
Display of signals
tion mode in case of a non-triggered condition over an extended
period of time. This acquisition mode does not display an info
window as the data currently captured is displayed.
AUX. CURSORS:
This soft menu allows you to define the settings for auxiliary
cursors. Pressing the function keys enables you to activate or
deactivate the cursors. The menu item DEFAULTS resets the
default settings.
7.2 Use of the virtual screen area
The graticule for the HMO series includes 8 vertical divisions but
also has a virtual range of 20 divisions. These 20 divisions may
be used entirely by the optional digital channels D0 to D15, the
mathematical channels and the references signals. The analog
channels may use up to ±5 divisions from the center.
Fig. 7.2: Menu for setting the signal display intensities
After selecting the menu items Persistence and Adjust
the persistence function can be defined: there are 3 choices
for the duration of the persistence: OFF, AUTOMATIC and
MANUAL. In MANUAL operation, the duration can be changed
with the universal knob from 50 ms to infinity. If a finite time
was selected, the signal periods will be written on top of each
other such that the brightness will diminish from recent to
oldest. If e.g. 300 ms is selected, the signal curves will become darker in 50ms steps and erased after 300 ms. In this
soft menu the function BACKGROUND may be activated in
addition: then all signal curves ever displayed will be shown
in the darkest colour.
Fig. 7.1: Drawing of the virtual screen area and an example
Fig. 7.1 illustrates the functionality of the virtual screen. The
display includes a section of 8 vertical divisions in gray. This
section enables you to display analog signals. The small bar
next to the graticule indicates the position of the 8 visible divisions within the available 20 divisions. By pressing the SCROLL
BAR 5 the bar will be activated and displayed in blue and you
can use the universal knob to shift the 8 visible divisions (gray
section) within the available 20 divisions. This allows a simple
and clear display of many individual signal portions.
7.3Signal intensity and persistence functions
In the standard mode, the key INTENS/PERSIST will light up
white: the intensity of the signal display can be changed with
the universal knob from 0 to 100 %. The persistence mode may
be selected for the display of varying signals: this is a storage
mode such that several curves may be written to remain on
the screen. Also the so called „Variable Persistence“ may be
selected: in this mode the persistence can be changed from
50 ms to infinity; this will cause the most recent portion of the
signal to appear bright while the preceeding portions will fade
in proportion to the time elapsed. This mode can be selected in
the soft menu which will open upon pushing the key INTENS/
PERSIST; the signal intensity can be changed also in this menu.
Two more menu items are available: GRID and BACKLIGHT by
pushing the respective soft menu keys; the intensities can be
changed with the universal knob. The soft menu key next to
the lowest menu item toggles between High and LOW of the
LED’s of all backlit keys and all other LED displays on the
front panel.
Fig. 7.3: Persistence function
This kind of display is for example very useful for the analysis
of extreme values of different signals.
7.4 XY display
The HMO series features a key that allows you to switch directly
to the XY display. Two signals will be displayed simultaneously,
one in Y direction and one in X direction. This implicates that the
time base X will be replaced by amplitude values of a secondsource. The resulting signal curves for harmonic signals are
known as Lissajous figures and allow the analysis of frequency
and phase position for these two signals. In case of a nearly identical frequency the figure will rotate. If the frequency is exactly
identical, the figure will stand still and the phase position can
be deduced from its shape. You can activate the XY display by
Subject to change without notice
31
Display of signals
pressing the XY key 19 in the VERTICAL section of the control
panel. The key will be illuminated and the display will divided
into one large and three small display areas.
The following settings apply exclusively to the four
channel instruments. The two channel instruments
only supports the simple XY display.
the analog channels as source for the Z input. Use the universal knob to select the desired setting. The Z input allows you
to control the brightness of the XY signal. This can be static or
dynamic, by setting an adjustable threshold or by modulating
the brightness with the amplitude change of the Z input. In the
MODULATION setting, large amplitudes of the Z source will
display the XY points. The transition is continuous. The setting
On|Off displays values below the selected threshold of the
Z source and the XY points with the lowest brightness (ON/
OFF). Values exceeding the threshold will be displayed with
the selected brightness. There is no transition between the two
states. You can use the universal knob or the KEYPAD button
to select the threshold.
The XY display will be deactivated by pressing the XY key in the
VERTICAL section of the control panel if the XY settings are
activated. If you wish to show no menu or a different menu,
press the XY key twice to deactivate the XY display.
Fig. 7.4: Settings in the X–Y menu
The large grid shows the XY display while the small grids show
the source for X, Y1, Y2 and Z. The small windows feature the
classical signal display as Y vs. time. It is possible to define two
signals as the Y input and display this vs. the x input to perform
a comparison. It is necessary to show the menu to determine
which input signal is defined as X, Y1, Y2 or Z. To do so, press
the XY key again. The menu that opens allows you to assign X,
Y1 and Y2 accordingly.
Press the soft menu key Z SETTINGS to determine the settings
for the Z input. The function SOURCE Z allows you to use any of
32
Subject to change without notice
Fig. 7.5: Settings for the Z input
Measurements
8Measurements
There are two different kinds of measurements on signals: cursor measurements and automatic measurements. All results
are stored in a buffer memory which is larger than the display
memory. The QuickView mode delivers all available parameters
of a signal curve. The integrated hardware counter shows the
count results on the selected channel.
8.1 Cursor measurements
The most frequently used measurement method with an oscilloscope is the cursor measurement. This concept is oriented
towards the expected results and thus provides not only one or
two but in some modes, three cursors. Cursor measurements
are controlled by the keys: CURSOR MEASURE and the universal
knob. The kind of measurement can be defined in the menu
which will open upon pushing the key CURSOR MEASURE.
TIME
This mode provides 2 cursors in order to measure 3 different
times and an equivalent frequency. The values t1 and t2 represent
the times between the trigger and the position of the cursors.
Δt represents the time between the cursors.
RATIO X
This mode provides 3 cursors in order to measure ratios in X
direction (e.g. a duty cycle) between the first and the second and
between the first and the third cursors. The values will be presented in 4 different formats: floating point, percent, degrees, radians.
RATIO Y
This mode provides 3 cursors in order to measure ratios in Ydirection (e.g. an overshoot) between the first and the second
and between the first and the third cursors. The results will be
presented in 2 formats: floating point, percent.
COUNT
This mode provides 3 cursors in order to count signal crossings
of a level which can be set with the third cursor for a time span
as defined by the distance between the first and the second
cursors. The result will be presented in 4 different versions:
number of rising and falling level crossings, number of positive
and negative pulses.
PEAK LEVELS peak levels
This mode provides 2 cursors in order to measure the minimum
and maximum values of a signal within the time span as defined
by the two cursors. The values Vp- and Vp+ represent the minimum and maximum values of the voltage. The peak-to-peak
value (Vpp) is equal to the difference between the minimum and
maximum values.
RMS, MEAN, Standard deviation, σ
This mode provides 2 cursors in order to calculate the rms, the
mean and the standard deviation σ values of a signal between
the two cursors.
Fig. 8.1: Cursor measurements selection menu
The menu CURSOR MEASURE allows you to select cursorbased measurements for an activated signal source on the
oscilloscope. The measurement source is indicated by the font
color of the respective result. The results are displayed at the
bottom of the screen. If “n/a” is displayed, the measurement is
not applicable to the signal. For instance, this may be the case
for a voltage measurement on a POD because only logic states
without voltage reference are displayed here. If “?” is displayed,
the display does not show a complete measurement result. For
instance, the period to be measured may not display completely
and can consequently not be identified.
As shown above, the selection of the kind of measurement can
be done by pushing the respective soft menu key and selecting
the kind of cursor measurement with the universal knob. The
results will be displayed below the graticule. In order to move a
cursor, select the desired cursor by pushing the universal knob
and position the cursor with the universal knob. The kinds of
measurements are:
VOLTAGE
This mode provides 2 cursors in order to measure 3 different
voltages. The values V1 and V2 represent the voltages differences
between the zero base line and the actual positions of the two
cursors on the selected signal curve. ΔV represents the voltage
difference between the cursors.
Duty cycle
This mode provides three cursors in order to calculate the duty
cycle of the signal between the two horizontal cursors. The
third vertical cursor will set the level at which the duty cycle
is determined.
Rise time 90%
This mode provides 2 cursors in order to measure the rise and fall
times between the two cursors. The rise and fall time are measured
between 10% to 90% of the signal amplitude.
Rise time 80%
This mode provides 2 cursors in order to measure the rise and fall
times between the two cursors. The rise and fall time are measured
between 20% to 80% of the signal amplitude.
V MARKER V marker
This mode provides 2 cursors in order to measure two different
voltages and a time span. The values V1 and V2 represent the
voltages between the zero base line and the respective cursor.
ΔV represents the voltage difference between the two cursors.
Δt represents the time difference between them.
If the function AUTOM. SOURCE is activated (On), the currently
targeted channel will be used as source for the measurement.
If the setting is deactivated (Off), the channel set under SOURCE
will be applied even if it is not targeted. The soft menu key
SOURCE allows you to select a source for the measurement
by using the universal knob. Pressing the soft menu key SET
TO TRACE places the selected cursors in their optimal position
Subject to change without notice
33
Measurements
on the signal curve. This allows very fast and typically optimal
automatic positioning of the cursors. For the most part, only
fine tuning is required at this point and the tedious major adjustments to the cursors will no longer be necessary. As previously
described, the cursors can also be selected by pressing the
universal knob and may be positioned by turning the universal
knob. In case the automated function SET TO TRACE does not
provide the anticipated results due to complex signals, you
can press the key SET TO TRACE to position the cursors in a
predefined starting position. This allows you to return distant
cursors to the screen.
The soft menu key GLUE TO TRACE allows cursors to stay on
the selected data point without changing the position in the
measurement signal even if the scaling is modified (cursors
will be „glued“ to the signal). This function can be activated
or deactivated. If this mode is deactivated, the cursor stays in
position on the screen if scaling occurs. With GLUE TO TRACE
deactivated, the measured value changes while it remains
unmodified when the mode is activated.
Pushing again the button CURSOR MEASURE switch off al
cursors.
8.2 Auto measurements
The HMO series features cursor measurements and also
various automatic measurements. These may be activated by
pressing the key AUTO MEASURE 11 in the section ANALYZE
of the control panel.
The following kinds of measurement are available:
MEAN:
This mode measures the mean value of the signal amplitude.
If the signal is periodic, the first period on the left of the screen
will be used for the measurement. The measurement will only
be applied to the selected channel.
RMS:
This mode identifies the effective value from the displayed view
of the signal. If the signal is periodic, the first period on the left
of the screen will be used for the measurement. The effective
value is not applied to a sine signal will be calculated directly
(so-called TrueRMS). The measurement will only be applied to
the selected channel.
PEAK–TO–PEAK:
This mode measures the difference in voltage between the
maximum and the minimum peak value of the signal within
the displayed view.
PEAK + :
This mode measures the maximum voltage value in the displayed view of the screen. The measurement will only be applied
to the selected channel.
PEAK – :
This mode measures the minimum voltage value in the displayed
view of the screen. The measurement will only be applied to the
selected channel.
FREQUENCY:
This mode identifies the frequency of the signal from the reciprocal value of the first signal period T. The measurement will
only be applied to the selected channel.
PERIOD:
This mode measures the duration of the signal period T. The
period identifies the duration between two equal values of one
periodically repeated signal.
AMPLITUDE:
This mode measures the amplitude of a square wave signal. This
mode calculates the difference in voltage between the upper
and the lower level (Vbase and Vtop). The measurement will only
be applied to the selected channel and requires a minimum of
one complete period of a triggered signal.
Fig. 8.2: Menu for the automatic measurements settings
This menu allows you to select up to six automatic measurement
functions by using the soft menu key MEAS. PLACE and the
universal knob. A maximum of two measurements are possible
simultaneously. These may originate from two different sources.
The measurement source (soft menu SOURCE) is indicated by
the font color of the respective result. The results are displayed
at the bottom of the screen. If “n/a” is displayed, the measurement is not applicable to the signal. For instance, this may be
the case for a voltage measurement on a POD because only
logic states without voltage reference are displayed here. If “?”
is displayed, the display does not show a complete measurement
result. For instance, the period to be measured may not display
completely and can consequently not be identified.
The list of available sources only includes displayed
channels (possible sources are analog, digital and
mathematical channels).
34
Subject to change without notice
UPPER LEVEL:
This mode measures the mean voltage level of an upper square
wave. This mode calculates the mean value of the slope (without overshoot). The measurement will only be applied to the
selected channel and requires a minimum of one complete
period of a triggered signal.
LOWER LEVEL:
This mode measures the mean voltage level of the lower square
wave. This mode calculates the mean value of the slope (without overshoot). The measurement will only be applied to the
selected channel and requires a minimum of one complete
period of a triggered signal.
PULSE WIDTH +:
This mode measures the width of the positive pulse. A positive
pulse consists of a rising slope followed by a falling slope. This
measurement type identifies the two slopes and calculates the
pulse width from their time difference. The measurement will
only be applied to the selected channel and requires a minimum
of one completely displayed period of a triggered signal.
Measurements
PULSE WIDTH –:
This mode measures the width of the negative pulse. A negative
pulse consists of a falling slope followed by a rising slope. This
measurement type identifies the two slopes and calculates the
pulse width from their time difference. The measurement will
only be applied to the selected channel and requires a minimum of one completely displayed period of a triggered signal.
DUTY RATIO +:
This mode measures the positive duty ratio. In this mode, positive signal portions are identified over a specific period and will
then be analyzed in relation to the signal period. The measurement will only be applied to the selected channel and requires
a minimum of one complete period of a triggered signal.
DUTY RATIO –:
This mode measures the negative duty ratio. In this mode,
positive negative portions are identified over a specific period
and will then be analyzed in relation to the signal period. The
measurement will only be applied to the selected channel and
requires a minimum of one complete period of a triggered
signal.
RISE TIME 90%:
This mode measures the rise time of the first rising slope
in the displayed view of the screen. The rise time identifies
the time in which the signal rises from 10% to 90% of its
amplitude.
FALL TIME 90%:
This mode measures the fall time of the first falling slope
in the displayed view of the screen. The fall time identifies
the time in which the signal falls from 90% to 10% of its
amplitude.
RISE TIME 80%:
This mode measures the rise time of the first rising slope
in the displayed view of the screen. The rise time identifies
the time in which the signal rises from 20% to 80% of its
amplitude.
FALL TIME 80%:
This mode measures the fall time of the first falling slope
in the displayed view of the screen. The fall time identifies
the time in which the signal falls from 80% to 20% of its
amplitude.
σ-STD. DEVIATION
This mode measures the standard deviation of the signal
amplitude in the displayed view of the screen. The standard
deviation is the measurement for the deviation of a signal from
its mean value. A low result indicates that the values are close
to the mean value. A higher result illustrates that on average
the difference between the values is greater.
DELAY:
This mode measures the time delay between the set measurement source and the reference source. This mode searches
for the slope of the measurement source that is closest to the
time reference. Then, beginning from this point, it searches
for the nearest slope of the reference source. This time difference indicates the measurement result. A submenu (DELAY
SETTINGS) allows you to select the setting for measurement
source, reference source and slopes.
PHASE:
This mode measures the phase between two slopes of two
channels in the displaced view of the screen. This mode measures the relation of the time delay between the set sources
to the signal period of the measurement source. This mode
searches for the slope of the measurement source that is
closest to the time reference. Then, beginning from this point,
it searches for the nearest slope of the reference source. The
time difference and the signal period indicate the measurement result in degrees. A submenu (MEASUREMENT SOURCE/
REFERENCE SOURCE) allows you to select the measurement
source and the reference source.
COUNT + :
This mode counts positive pulses in the displayed view of the
screen. A positive pulse consists of a rising slope followed by a
falling slope. The mean value is calculated from the amplitude
of the measurement signal. A slope will be counted if the signal
runs through the mean value. A pulse that passes the mean
value only once will not be calculated. The measurement will
only be applied to the selected channel.
COUNT – :
This mode counts negative pulses in the displayed view of the
screen. A negative pulse consists of a falling slope followed by
a rising slope. The mean value is calculated from the amplitude
of the measurement signal. A slope will be counted if the signal
runs through the mean value. A pulse that passes the mean
value only once will not be calculated. The measurement will
only be applied to the selected channel.
COUNT +/ :
This mode counts signal changes (slopes) from Low Level
to High Level in the displayed view of the screen. The mean
value is calculated from the amplitude of the measurement
signal. A slope will be counted if the signal runs through the
mean value. The measurement will only be applied to the
selected channel.
COUNT –/ :
This mode counts signal changes (slopes) from High Level
to Low Level in the displayed view of the screen. The mean
value is calculated from the amplitude of the measurement
signal. A slope will be counted if the signal runs through the
mean value. The measurement will only be applied to the
selected channel.
TRIGGER FREQUENCY:
This mode measures the frequency of the trigger signal bases
on the period duration. The source for the measurement is the
currently set trigger source. The frequency will be determined
with a hardware counter with a high accuracy of 6 digits.
TRIGGER PERIOD:
This mode measures the duration of periods of the trigger
signal (with a hardware counter).
8.2.1Statistics for Automatic Measurements
If automatic measurement functions are defined, you can
view statistics for these parameters on page 2|2 of the AUTO
MEASURE menu. The statistics allow you to evaluate a periodic
signal over a number of measurements. The results (current
value, minimum, maximum, mean value, standard deviation
and number of measurements) are shown in table format in
the display window. Statistics are available for up to 1,000
captures, and you can define the desired number with the
universal knob. The mean value and the standard deviation
are identified by means of the most current n values where
n corresponds to the set captures (soft menu key NO. OF
AVERAGES). Minimum and maximum of the measurement
Subject to change without notice
35
Measurements
value applies to the total number of measurements. The total
number of measurements will be displayed in the statistics.
The key RESET STATISTIC resets the statistics. All recorded
values are erased. This function can be used to restart the
statistics at a defined point. The key CLEAR MEASUREMENTS
deactivates the automatic measurements.
9Analysis
The HMO series oscilloscopes features an analysis function for
the collected data records which are displayed on the screen.
Simple mathematical functions can be performed with the function “Quick mathematics” while more complex functions and
the linking of functions can be accomplished with the formula
editor. The MATH menu includes mathematical functions for
the recorded signal types. The mathematical functions track
the changes of the included signals and only apply to the visible area. You can also activate the frequency analysis (FFT) by
pressing the respective key. The function QUICKVIEW provides
a quick overview for the signal properties. A masked-based
PASS/FAIL test allows you to monitor signals automatically.
9.1 Mathematical Functions
Fig. 8.3: Statistic for Automeasurements
The MATH menu includes mathematical functions for the
recorded signal types. The mathematical functions track the
changes of the included signals and only apply to the visible
area of the screen. If a signal is cut off at the edge of the screen
may indicate that the corresponding mathematical curve is also
truncated. The DIV encoder can be used to scale an activated
mathematical curve.
The MATH menu is divided into Quick Mathematics and formula
sets. Quick Mathematics is designed for simple and quick calculations. The formula sets, however, allow more complicated
links.
Fig. 9.1: Mathematics short menu
9.1.1 Quick mathematics
Pressing the MATH key 26 in the VERTICAL control panel will
activate a short menu. The lowest soft menu key QM/MA activates
Quick Mathematics or the formula editor. QM stands for Quick
Mathematics and MA for die Mathematics Advanced (formula
editor). You can toggle between the two mathematical functions
by pressing this soft menu key.
The soft menu keys in the QM menu allow you to configure the
Quick Mathematics function. With the first and the third soft
menu key, you can choose the respective channel (source) for
the Quick Mathematics calculation. You may only choose activated analog channels. The central soft menu key allows you
to select the calculation type addition (ADD), subtraction (SUB),
36
Subject to change without notice
Analysis
multiplication (MUL) or division (DIV). Pressing the MENU key in
the VERTICAL control panel will switch you to a more detailed
display of the QM menu. You can use the universal knob to select
operands and operators.
Fig. 9.4: Entry of constants and units
Fig. 9.2: Quick mathematics menu
9.1.2 Formula editor
The HMO series includes five mathematical formula sets. Each
of these formula sets contains five formulas which may be edited
with a formula editor to also define linked mathematical functions. These are labeled MA1 to MA5. You can use the universal
knob to select the formula set. The formula set editor (soft menu
key EDIT FORMULARY) lists all existing equations which may
be edited. A blue bar indicates that an equation is selected. It is
important to distinguish between editing the display and editing
the parameters. Use the universal knob to select the respective
equation and activate it by pressing the soft menu key VISIBLE.
An activated, visible equation is marked by a filled-in eye symbol
in the formula editor and is listed in the short menu.
In the soft menu UNIT you can use the universal knob to select
from the following units:
Fig. 9.3: Formula editor for formula sets
The formula editor menu (soft menu key MA) allows you to
activate and deactivate mathematical equations that are defined and displayed within the selected formula set. The list
only includes visible equations. Four out of five functions from
the current formula set can be displayed simultaneously. The
5th curve may be used as operand for one of the four mathematical curves. It will be calculated, but will not be included
in the display. The MENU key in the VERTICAL control panel
opens a menu to select the formula set and its corresponding
formulas. You can also choose a NAME with a maximum of
8 characters, load a formula set (from the internal memory
or from a USB stick) or save a formula set (internally or on a
USB stick). You can use the universal knob to enter the name
of your choice and you can save it by using the ACCEPT key. The
name will now be displayed Instead of the generic labels MA1…
MA5. You can specify the names for all equations separately.
Once all equations, constants and names have been entered,
you may also choose a name for this formula set by pressing
the NAME key in the formula set menu and entering the name
of your choice.
–V (Volt)
–A (Ampere)
(Ohm)
– Ω
– V/A (Volt per Ampere)
–W (Watt)
– VA (Volt Ampere)
– VAr (reactive power)
–dB (decibel)
– m (Milli, 10-3)
– µ
(Mikro, 10-6)
– n
(Nano 10-9)
– p
(Piko, 10-12)
– f
(Femto, 10-15)
– a
(Atto, 10-18)
(Zepto 10-21)
– z
– y
(Yokto, 10-24)
– K
(Kilo, 103)
– M (Mega, 106)
– G
(Giga, 109)
– T
(Tera, 1012)
– P
(Peta, 1015)
– E
(Exa, 1018)
(Zetta 1021)
– Z
– Y
(Yotta, 1024)
– dBm (decibel milliwatt)
– dBV (decibel Volt)
–s (second)
–Hz (Hertz)
–F (Farad)
–H (Henry)
–% (percent)
–º (degree)
– p(Pi)
–Pa (Pascal)
–m (meter)
–g (Acceleration)
– ºC (Degress Celsius)
–K (Kelvin)
– ºF (Degrees Fahrenheit)
–N (Newton)
–J (Joule)
–C (Coulomb)
–Wb(Weber)
–T (Tesla)
– (dez)(decimal)
– (bin)(binary)
– (hex)(hexadecimal)
– (oct)(octal)
– DIV (Division, division)
–px (pixel)
–Bit (Bit)
–Bd (Baud)
–Sa (Sample)
The unit selected for the equation will be applied to the channel
description, cursor types and automatic measurement types.
The equation name is listed in the formula set editor and is
used as label in the curve window. The soft menu key DELETE
removes the equation from the formula set.
Subject to change without notice
37
Analysis
An equation consists of an operator (mathematical function) and
up to two operands. You can use the universal knob to choose
one of the following operators:
–Addition
–Subtraction
–Multiplication
–Division
–Maximum
–Minimum
–Square
–Root
–Amount
– Pos. Wave
– Neg. Wave
–Reciprocal
–Inverted
– Common logarithm
– Natural logarithm
–Derivation
–Integral
– IIR Low Pass Filter
– IIR High Pass Filter
The FFT menu allows a quick Fourier transformation which
displays the frequency spectrum of the measured signal. The
changed display allows you to determine the most frequent
frequencies in the signal and the corresponding amplitude.
You can activate the frequency analysis by pressing the FFT
key 9 in the ANALYZE section of the control panel. Once the
key was pressed, it will be illuminated in white and the screen
will be divided into two graticules. The upper section displays
the voltage time curve whereas the lower section lists the results of the Fourier analysis. The FFT is calculated including a
maximum of 65,536 acquired data points. Additional points at a
consistent span result in a smaller frequency increment of the
FFT. The number of points for the output data is half the size
of that of the input data.
For each corresponding equation, the input channels CH1, CH2,
CH3, CH4 and an adjustable constant are allowed as OPERAND
(sources). For the formula MA2, MA1 is added as source, for
MA3 the added source is MA2, for MA4 it is MA3 and finally for
MA5 the added source is MA4. From these five equations, you
can create, save and retrieve a total of five different sets. New
equations can be added by using the universal knob to select
the menu item NEW in the formula set editor. Pressing the soft
menu key ADD allows you to edit the new equation.
Fig. 9.4 illustrates how in formula MA1 channel 1 is added with
100 µA. Press the key EDIT CONSTANT in the menu for entering constants and use the universal knob to choose from the
following constants:
–Pi
– 2x Pi
– 0,5 x Pi
– User 1 . . . 10
(up to 10 customized constants are available)
For instance, if you select USER1 as constant, you can press
the soft menu key VALUE and use the universal knob to select a
numeric value. You can apply the same method to set a DECIMAL
POINT and enter an additional S prefix (soft menu key PREFIX).
You may choose a UNIT from the same SI prefixes as those that
are available in the soft menu EDIT. Press SAVE to store these
settings as USER 1 and return to the menu to edit the equation.
You can store up to 10 of these customized constants. When
saving a formula set, you may also add a comment (soft menu
key COMMENT). Press the key SAVE to save this formula set with
the determined name and comment to the selected location.
Stored formula sets may be reloaded at any time. Press the
MATH key to activate the Mathematics menu and then press
the MENU key below the SCALE VOLTS/DIV key. This menu
displays the menu item LOAD. This will start the file manager
which will display the internal memory or the connected USB
stick as possible storage location. Select the respective formula
set file and press the key LOAD to load the file.
9.2 Frequency Analysis (FFT)
In general, the FFT in an oscilloscope works differently than in
a spectrum analyzer and is affected not only by the time base
setting, but also by the available number of used acquired data
points when calculating the FFT. The HMO series allows you
to include up to 65k point in the FFT resulting in a very high
resolution for this price bracket.
The FFT is not suitable for the analysis of very slow
signals (Hz-range); this type of analysis requires a
classic oscilloscope mode.
38
Subject to change without notice
Fig. 9.5: FFT illustration
The upper left of the display shows information about the settings in the time range, the area between the upper and the
lower window shows details about zoom and position, and
the section below the large FFT display window indicates the
settings (Span and Center) in the frequency range. The lower
FFT display window will be outlined in white when the FFT is
activated. This means that the large knob in the time range
section is used to select the span. The span is specified in the
unit Hz (Hertz) and identifies the width of the shown frequency
range. The span position can be determined by selecting the
Center value. You may use the horizontal encoder X Position for
this purpose. The shown frequency range ranges from (Center
- Span/2) to (Center + Span/2).
The minimum increment depends on the time base.
The greater the time base, the smaller the span.
Another important element for the FFT is the setting “Max. Sampling Frequency” in the ACQUIRE
menu of the HMO instrument.
The soft menu key MODUS allows you to choose from the following display types:
Refresh
This mode calculates and displays the FFT without additional
evaluation or editing of the captured data. The new input data
is captured, displayed and overwrites previously stored and
displayed values.
Envelope
In the Envelope mode, the maximum deflections of all spectra
will be stored separately in addition to the current spectrum
and will be updated with each new spectrum. These maximum
Analysis
man window function allows you to measure the amplitudes
with high accuracy. However, it is more difficult to determine
the frequency due to the wide spectral lines. This function is
useful for a precise amplitude measurement of a period signal,
for instance.
Square wave
The square wave window function multiplies all points by 1.
This results in a high frequency accuracy with narrow spectral
lines and increased noise. This function can be used for pulse
response tests with start and end values of zero.
Fig. 9.6: Advanced FFT menu
values will be displayed with the input data and create an envelope curve. The spectrum is located within the envelope limits.
This forms an area or a sleeve including all occurrences of FFT
signal values. With each signal parameter change the envelope
curve will be reset.
Average
This mode calculates the mean value from several spectra. It
is applicable for noise reduction. The soft menu key AVERAGES
allows you to select the number of spectra used to calculate
the mean value by setting the universal knob in the power of
2 from 2 to 512.
The menu entry POINTS allows you to select the maximum
number of capture points to be included in the calculation by
using the universal knob. The possible settings are 2048, 4096,
8192, 16384, 32768, 65536 points.
The soft menu WINDOWS allows you to improve the FFT display
in case of irregularities at the margins of the measurement
interval. Irregularities are calculated as a leap by a computing algorithm and interfere with the measurement result. In
the event of a bell-shaped window function, the margins with
lower values are multiplied and the impact is damped. The soft
menu item WINDOW allows you to choose from the following
window functions:
Hanning
The Hanning window function is bell-shaped. In contrast to the
Hamming window function, it is equal to zero at the margin of
the measurement interval. Therefore the noise level is reduced
in the spectrum and the width of the spectral lines is increased.
This function is useful for a precise amplitude measurement of
a period signal, for instance.
Hamming
The Hamming window function is bell-shaped. In contrast to
the Hanning and Blackman window function, it is not equal to
zero at the margin of the measurement interval. Therefore the
height of the noise level in the spectrum is greater than with
the Hanning and Blackman window function but less than with
the square wave window function. However, the spectral lines
not as wide as in other bell-shaped functions. This function is
useful for a precise amplitude measurement of a period signal,
for instance.
Blackman
The Blackman window function is bell-shaped and its waveform
features the steepest fall-off among the available functions. Is
is zero at both ends of the measurement interval. The Black-
The menu item Y-SCALE allows you to scale the FFT in the
amplitude logarithmically (dBm / dBV) or linear (Veff). The unit
dBm (Decibel-Milliwatt) refers to 1 mW. The unit dBV (DecibelVolt) refers to 1 Veff. The displayed values refer to a 50 Ohm
terminating resistor. You can either use an internal resistor or
connect an external terminating resistor parallel to the high
impedance input.
Pressing the respective channel key allows you to activate a
different channel as source for the FFT. You can deactivate the
FFT function by pressing the soft menu key FFT OFF or pressing
the FFT key on the control panel again.
9.3 Quick View
The QUICK VIEW function allows a quick overview of the typical
signal size. Pressing the QUICKVIEW key 10 in the ANALYZE
section of the control panel activates several basic automatic
measurements. Measurement results are displayed at the bottom of the screen and with a cursor on the signal. The following
five measurement values are displayed directly in the signal:
– Maximum voltage
– Mean voltage
– Minimum voltage
– Rise time
– Fall time
The following ten measurement values are displayed at the
bottom of the screen:
– RMS value
– Peak to peak voltage
– Amplitude –Pos. pulse width – Pos. duty ratio
–
–
–
–
–
Period
Frequency
Number of positive /slopes
Neg. pulse width
Neg. duty ratio
Pressing the AUTO MEASURE key allows you to change the six
measurement parameters on the bottom right. You may undo
these changes by choosing RESET or restore the default setting. Only one channel can be active in the Quickview mode. All
measurements will be performed on the active channel.
9.4 PASS/FAIL Test Based on Masks
The Pass/Fail test allows you to evaluate if a signal is located
within defined limits. This limits are set by a so-called mask.
If the signal exceeds the mask, there is an error. These errors
will be displayed together with successful sweeps and the total
of all sweeps at the bottom of the screen. It is also possible to
perform certain actions if errors are discovered.
Press the QUICKVIEW key 10 in the ANALYZE section of the
control panel and press the soft menu key PASS/FAIL to activate the mode which opens a menu to set and use the mask
test. Prior to starting the test by pressing the top soft menu
key TEST ON/OFF, it is necessary to generate or load a mask
Subject to change without notice
39
Analysis
and to select an action. To generate a new mask, press the soft
menu key NEW MASK. Masks are displayed as light gray curves/
waveforms on the screen. If a mask was copied or loaded, you
can use menu items to change the expansion of the signal form
and consequently the limits for the test.
In the menu that opens you can use the key COPY CHANNEL to
copy the current signal into a mask memory. The mask displays
in white and appears as an overlay of the output signal. The
menu keys Y-POSITION and STRECH Y enable you to shift this
curve vertically or to enlarge it. The two menu items WIDTH Y
and WIDTH X allow you to set the tolerance for the mask. The
universal knob or the KEYPAD button are used to enter values
with a resolution of 1/100 division. A mask includes a minimum
and a maximum value for each captured data value. The minimum and maximum value for a source curve with only one value
per data are identical. The width indicates the distance between
the peripheral points and the original point. The greater the
selected value is, the greater are the potential curve deviations
in the amplitude. The tolerance mask is displayed in white in
the background. The generated and edited mask can be used
immediately for the test, however, it is only saved temporarily
in the instrument storage. The soft menu key SAVE can be used
to store the mask permanently to a USB stick or to the internal
memory. Press the key MENU OFF to return to the start menu.
Press the soft menu key LOAD MASK to open a file browser
which allows you to load previously stored masks for the test
(file extension .HMK). A loaded mask can be changed in the
menu NEW MASK. Changes will be applied to the file when the
mask is edited and saved.
Pressing the soft menu key ACTIONS in the PASS/FAIL main
menu opens a menu with the available actions. The following
four actions can be performed:
1. Audio signal if the tolerance limits have been exceeded
2. Stop for first-time failure (number is adjustable)
3. Pulse for first-time failure (emits a pulse at the Y output in
case of failure, only for instruments with bus signal source)
4. Screen dump for first-time failure
An action is performed if the respective condition is met (e.g.
a specific number of mask failures). Each action is assigned
a unique condition which can be defined separately from the
other actions. The respective condition can be defined in the
menu for the corresponding action. Select the respective action
by pressing the appropriate soft menu key; the corresponding
soft menu item will be highlighted in blue. Press the MENU
OFF key to return to the main menu and to start the mask test.
Fig. 9.7: PASS/FAIL mask test.
40
Subject to change without notice
On the right below the display window you can view the total
number and the total duration of the tests (in brackets) in white.
The number of successful tests and their percentage (in brackets) are displayed in green, and the number of failures and their
percentage (in brackets) are displayed in red. If a test has been
started, the previously unavailable soft menu key PAUSE is now
activated. Pressing the PAUSE key will interrupt the test while
the acquisition of signals and the total duration are continued.
If you press the PAUSE key again, the test will be resumed and
all event counters continue to be incremented. If you deactivate
a test by pressing the soft menu key Stop the event and time
counters will be stopped. If a new test is started by pressing the
soft menu key TEST activated (Run), all counters will be reset
and resume at zero.
The PASS/FAIL mode is deactivated by pressing the soft menu
key PASS/FAIL OFF.
Documentation, storing and recalling
10 Documentation, storing and recalling
The oscilloscope allows you to store and recall all screen
displays, user defined settings (e.g. the trigger conditions and
time base settings), reference curves, simple curves and sets
of formulas. There is an internal memory for reference curves,
instrument settings, and sets of formulas. These data, copies
of screen displays and curve data can also be stored on an
USB stick.
The USB stick should not exceed 4GB and must
be FAT formatted (FAT32). It should be avoided to
store a large number of files on the USB stick.
You can access the main menu to store and load functions by
pressing the SAVE/RECALL key.
You can use the soft menu key COMMENT to enter a comment
which will be displayed in the file manager footer once a file
has been selected. With the soft key FORMAT and the universal knob you can choose the HDS (binary data) or the SCP (plain
text) format. In contrast to the HDS format device settings in the
SCP mode can be also loaded after firmware update. Instrument
settings in the HDS format from a previous firmware version
cannot be loaded with a new firmware version.
Deveice settings in the SCP format can be also
loaded after firmware update.
The option SAVE allows you to store the settings. To reload
stored preference files, press the respective soft menu key to
open the soft menu LOAD. This opens the file manager where
you can use the universal knob to select the respective file.
10.1 Instrument settings
The soft menu DEVICE SETTINGS allows you to save current
instrument settings load saved settings and import or export
instrument settings.
Fig. 10.3: Recalling instrument settings
Fig. 10.1: Basic menu for instrument settings
Press the soft menu key SAVE to open the Save menu. You can
use the soft menu key STORAGE to select a possible location
(internal memory, front or back USB connection) where you
would like to save the instrument settings.Pressing this key
opens the file manager. The FILE NAME can be changed or
adjusted to the corresponding setting (SET is the default label).
Fig. 10.2: Storing instrument settings
Once the storage location and the respective settings file has
been selected, you can load the file by pressing the soft menu
key LOAD. To remove files that are no longer required you can
use the universal knob to select the respective settings file and
remove it by pressing the soft menu key REMOVE FILE. If a USB
stick is connected, you can also change and delete directories.
Use the soft menu key SORT ENTRIES to sort several settings
files by name, type, size or date.
The soft menu IMPORT/EXPORT allows you to copy a file from
an internal memory to an external storage medium (USB stick)
or vice versa. Source (SOURCE FILE) and target (DEST. PATH)
must be selected for copying. Use the universal knob to select
a storage location which will open a file manager.
Fig. 10.4: Import/Export menu for instrument settings
Subject to change without notice
41
Documentation, storing and recalling
To import or export instrument settings, you must
have a USB stick connected, otherwise the menu
cannot be selected.
Pressing the IMPORT/EXPORT key by default will copy the selected settings file. If two USB sticks are connected (front and
back) this will also work between the two USB sticks.
Device settings of an older firmware version can not
be loaded with an actual firmware version.
The menu item DEFAULT SETT. also allows you to load the
factory default settings.
10.2References
References are data sets which consist of settings information
and A/D converter data. These may be stored and reloaded
internally or externally. Data can be reloaded into one of the
4 reference memories (RE1 to RE4) which can also be displayed.
The main feature of references is the fact that all information
(e.g. vertical gain, time base setting, A/D converter data) is
included when saving or reloading, enabling a comparison
between the original signal and its corresponding values.
The soft menu REFERENCES only allows you to import or export
references (IMPORT/EXPORT). The transfer of references to
other instruments is possible. The standard menu for the file
manager opens which allows you to copy references between
the internal memory and the external USB stick (description
see Chap. 10.1.).
To load a reference from a USB stick or the internal memory,
open the soft menu LOAD. This shows a window displaying the
internally stored references. You can select the desired target
reference curve in the top menu item and by pressing LOAD in
the file manager. To complete loading and displaying the reference, press LOAD in the file manager menu again. To save a
reference, press the SAVE key, determine the source, storage
location, file name and curve, and press the soft menu key
SAVE (with the disk icon). The FILE NAME can be changed or
adjusted to the corresponding setting (REF ist the default label).
You can use the soft menu key COMMENT to enter a comment
which will be displayed in the file manager footer once a file
has been selected.
10.3 Traces
In addition to references, you can also store A/D converter data.
A maximum of 24,000 measured samples (expanded display
memory) can be stored on a USB stick. Curves can only be stored
to externally connected USB sticks (not internally).
The maximum of 24,000 measured value points can
only be read out with the maximum sampling rate
(ACQUIRE menu). For the AUTOMATIC setting (repeat rate), the maximum amount of measured value
points is limited to 6,000 (default setting).
The soft menu STORAGE allows you to use the USB connection
on the front or back of the instrument as storage location. Selecting the respective storage location is possible when a USB
stick has been recognized. If a USB stick is connected, you can
also change, create or delete directories. Use the soft menu key
SORT ENTRIES to sort several settings files by name, type, size
or date. Press ACCEPT DIR. to confirm the target directory and
you will automatically return to the curve main menu.
Fig. 10.5: Loading and storing of references
An additional menu is opened for storing and loading references. Press the REF/BUS key in the VERTICAL section of the
control panel to open a quick menu. The bottom menu key is
divided into RE (reference) and BU (bus). The current setting is
highlighted in white. The soft menu key RE allows you to activate
each of the four possible reference curves “RE1…RE4”. This is
done by pressing the respective soft menu key. The selected
reference will be displayed and highlighted in the quick menu.
If the reference memory is empty, a file dialog opens to load a
reference curve from the internal memory.
Open the menu to store and load by pressing the MENU key in
the VERTICAL section of the control panel. The top soft menu
SOURCE allows you to use the universal knob to select the
source for the reference to be saved. You can select from the
activated channels and mathematical curves. Press the soft
menu key DISPLAY to display the selected reference curve or
to update the current reference curve.
42
Subject to change without notice
Fig. 10.6: Menu for storing curves
You can open a selection window by pressing the soft menu
key FORMAT to determine the file format. The universal knob
allows you to select the desired format. You can choose from
the following formats:
BIN
A binary file may contain any type of Byte value. The captured
curve data will be stored without any time information.
CSV (Comma Separated Values):
In CSV files, curve data is stored in table format. Each table row
is separated by a comma.
Documentation, storing and recalling
If you define the WAVEFORM RATE as “Max. Sampling Rate” in the ACQUIRE menu, two rows will
be affixed with a time stamp during the CSV export
because a minimum and a maximum value must be
assigned to this time value. To acquire an amplitude value per time stamp, activate the WAVEFORM
RATE “Automatic” in the ACQUIRE menu.
Example: Curve with all visible channels
[s],CH1[V],CH2[V],CH3[V],CH4[V]
-4.99500E-07,-2.601E-03,2.566E-02,-1.003E-04,1.139E-04
-4.99000E-07,-6.012E-04,-5.434E-02,-1.003E-04,-8.611E-05
-4.98500E-07,-6.012E-04,-5.434E-02,9.973E-05,-8.611E-05
-4.98000E-07,1.399E-03,-5.434E-02,2.997E-04,-8.611E-05
TXT
TXT files are ASCII files that only contain amplitude values (no
time values). Amplitude values are separated by a comma. The
value pairs are listed as single values without identification.
Fig. 10.7: Menu for screenshots
Example:
1.000E-02,1.000E-02,1.000E-02,1.000E-02,3.000E-02
– BMP = Windows Bitmap Format
– GIF = Graphics Interchange Format
– PNG = Portable Network Graphic
HRT (HAMEG Reference Time)
Files with this extension are reference curves of the time domain. If the displayed curve is saved in this format, it can be
used in the reference menu. The HRT format also allows you
to generate files that can be reloaded into the oscilloscope via
reference menu.
Press the soft menu key COLOR MODE to to choose from
GRAYSCALE, COLOR or INVERTED with the universal knob.
If GRAYSCALE is selected, the colors are converted to gray
scales when the data is stored, if COLOR is selected, the data
is stored as it displays in the screen, and if INVERTED is activated, data will be stored in color with a white background.
You can use the universal knob to select in the soft menu
POINTS whether to read out the display memory or the entire
acquisition memory.
To achieve prints with well-defined contrasts
when using the color mode INVERTED, you should
set the curve intensity (via INTENS/PERSIST and
universal knob) to approximately 70%.
Please note that the repeat rate has to be set to the
maximum sampling rate via ACQUIRE key when
reading out the entire acquisition memory. The
entire acquisition memory can only be read out in
STOP mode.
After you made all entries, press the menu key STORE to save
the selected curve(s) according to the settings.
10.4Screenshots
The most important format to store information for documentation purposes is the screenshot. A screenshot is an image
file which shows the current screen content at the time that
storage takes place.
The soft menu STORAGE allows you to use the USB connection
on the front or back of the instrument as storage location. Selecting the respective storage location is possible when a USB
stick has been recognized. If a USB stick is connected, you can
also change, create or delete directories. Use the soft menu
key SORT ENTRIES to sort several settings files by name, type,
size or date. Press ACCEPT DIR. to confirm the target directory
and you will automatically return to the screenshot main menu.
The soft menu key FILE NAME opens the menu for the name
entry where you can use the universal knob to enter a name
and confirm your entry by pressing ACCEPT (SCR is the default
name). The screenshot main menu will display automatically.
The file format of a graphics file determines the color depth and
the type of compression. The quality of the various formats is
identical for the oscilloscope graphics. You can choose from the
following file formats in the soft menu FORMAT:
If you press the key SAVE, the current screen will be saved
immediately to the selected storage location with the selected
name and format.
The soft menu key PRINT allows you to print a screenshot immediately to a connected printer (e.g. PCL or PCLX as „printer
language“). If a printer is detected, the soft menu key PRINT
will no longer be grayed out.
Press the RUN/STOP key to stop acquisition prior
to printing which will allow a correct printout.
The free software HMScreenshot (software module of the
HMExplorer software) enables the transfer of screenshots in
bitmap, GIF or PNG format from a HMO series oscilloscope
via RS-232 or USB interface to a connected PC where the
screenshots may then be saved or printed. For additional
information on the software, refer to the internal HMExplorer
help at www.hameg.com.
10.5 Formula Sets
In the soft menu FORMULARIES you can import or export
formula sets. This allows the data exchange between different
storage media (internal memory / external USB sticks). The
exact procedure is described in chapter 9.2.
10.6 FILE/PRINT Key Definition
The FILE/PRINT key in the GENERAL control panel allows
you to save instrument settings, curves, screenshots and
screenshot settings simultaneously with just one key. As
Subject to change without notice
43
Documentation, storing and recalling
described in previous chapters, you must first select the
corresponding settings for storage location, name etc. The
soft menu key FILE/PRINT in the SAVE/RECALL main menu
opens the setup menu for the FILE/PRINT key.
You may choose from the following actions:
– DEVICE SETTINGS: Stores settings
– TRACES: Stores curves
– SCREENSHOTS: Stores screenshots
– SCREEN & SETUP: Stores screenshots and settings
- PRINT: Prints directly to a compatible printer (Postscript,
some PCL and PCLX capable printer)
If you press the respective soft menu key to activate the required operation, the corresponding menu will be displayed
with a blue background. Press the MENU OFF key to quit the
selection menu. If you press the FILE/PRINT key, the selected
function will be performed.
11 Component test
11.1General
The oscilloscopes HMO72x...HMO202x have a built-in component tester. This can be activated by pushing the XY/CT mode
button and switch on CT at the upcoming menu at the top. The
unit under test is connected to the two contacts below the
screen. After switch on the component tester moder, the Y
preamplifiers and the time base are disconnected. While using
the component tester, signals may be present at the inputs as
long as the unit under test is not connected to any other circuit.
It is possible to test components remaining in their circuits,
but in such cases all signals must be disconnected from the
front panel BNC connectors! (See the following paragraph:
„Test in circuits“). Two cables with 4 mm plugs are necessary
to connect the unit under test to the component tester. After
completion of the component test pushing the lower soft key
COMP. TEST OFF leave the component tester mode and resume
normal scope operation.
As outlined in the chapter Safety, all measurement
connectors are connected to the mains safety
earth (in proper operation). This implies also the
COMP.TESTER contacts. As long as individual
components are tested, this is of no consequence
because these components are not connected to
the mains safety earth.
Fig. 10.8: Definition of FILE/PRINT key
If components are to be tested which are located
in circuits or instruments, these circuits resp.
instruments must be disconnected first under
all circumstances! If they are operated from the
mains, the mains plug of the test object has to be
pulled out. This ensures that there will be no loops
between the scope and the test object via the safety earth which might cause false results.
Only discharged capacitors may be tested!
The test principle is a generator within the HMO generates
a 50 Hz or 200 Hz (±10 %) sine wave which feeds the series
connection of the test object and a sense resistor.
If the test object has only a real part such as a resistor, both
voltages will be in phase; the display will be a straight line,
more or less slanted. Is the test object short-circuited, the
line will be vertical (no voltage, current maximum). If the
test object is open-circuited or missing a horizontal line will
appear (voltage, but no current). The angle of the line with the
horizontal is a measure of the resistance value, allowing for
measurements of resistors between Ω and kΩ.
Capacitors and inductors cause phase shift between voltage
and current and hence between the voltages. This will cause
displays of ellipses. The location and the form factor of the
ellipse are determined by the apparent impedance at 50 Hz
(resp. 200 Hz). Capacitors can be measured between µF and
mF.
– An ellipse with its longer axis horizontal indicates a high
impedance (small capacitance or large inductance)
– An ellipse with its longer axis vertical indicates a low impedance (large capacitance or small inductance)
– An ellipse with its longer axis slanted indicates a relatively
large resistive loss in series with the impedance of the
capacitor or inductor.
44
Subject to change without notice
Component test
With semiconductors the transition from the non-conducting
to the conducting state will be indicated in their characteristic.
As far as is possible with the available voltages and currents
the forward and backward characteristics are displayed
(e.g. with zener diodes up to 9 V). Because this is a two-pole
measurement, the gain of a transistor can not be determined,
however, the B-C, B-E, C-E diodes can be measured.
Please note that most bipolar transistors can only
take an E-B voltage of approx. 5 V and may be damaged if this is exceeded, sensitive hf transistors
take even much less!
With this exception the diodes can be measured without
fear of destruction as the maximum voltage is limited to
9 V and the current to a few mA. This implies, however, that a
measurement of breakdown voltages > 9 V is not possible. In
general this is no dis-advantage because, if there is a defect in
a circuit, gross deviations are to be expected which will point
to the defective component.
(service), comparisons with intact circuits may help again.
This is also quickly done because the intact circuit has not to
be functional, also it should not be energized. Just probe the
various test points with the cables of the component tester of
the unit under test and the intact unit and compare the screen
displays. Sometimes the unit under test may already contain an
intact portion of the same type, this ist e.g. the case with stereo
circuits, push-pull circuits or symmetrical bridge circuits.
In cases of doubt one side of the dubious component can be
unsoldered, and this free contact should then be connected to
the COMP.TESTER contact which is not identified as the ground
contact. This will reduce hum pick-up. The contact with the
ground symbol is connected to the scope chassis and is thus
not susceptible to hum pick-up.
Rather exact results may be achieved if the measurements
are compared to those of intact components. This is especially
true for semiconductors. The polarity of diodes or transistors
can thus be identified if the lettering or marking is missing.
Please note that with semiconductors changing the polarity
(e.g. by exchanging the COMP.TESTER and ground terminals)
will cause the display to rotate 180 degrees around the screen
center. More important in practice is the quick determination
of plain shorts and opens which are the most common causes
of requiring service.
It is highly recommended to observe the necessary precautions when handling MOS components
which can be destroyed by static charges and even
tribo electricity. The display may show hum if the
base or gate connection of a transistor is open,
i.e. it is not being tested. This can be verified by
moving a hand closeby.
11.2 In-circuit tests
They are possible in many cases but deliver rarely clear results. By paralleling of real or complex impedances – especially if those are fairly low impedance at 50 Hz/200 Hz – there
will be mostly great differences compared to individual components. If circuits of the same type have to be tested often
Fig. 11.1: Component tester at short
Subject to change without notice
45
Mixed Signal Operation
12 Mixed Signal Operation (optional)
or deactivates the name for the individual bits D0 to D7. The
name is displayed to the right of the logic channels.
All HMO series instruments are provided with the connector
for the HO3508 logic probe necessary to add 8 digital logic
channels. The firmware required for Mixed Signal operation is
already contained in each HMO, only the HO3508 active logic
probe need to be bought and connected. With the 4-channel
oscilloscope activation of the Pod will deactivate the analog
channel 3. Therefore at the MSO mode are 3 analog channels
plus 8 digital logic channels available.
12.1 Logic trigger
The logic trigger also for the digital channel is
described in chapter 6.5.
12.2 Display functions of the logic channels
Fig. 12.1: Logic channels’ settings display
With the four channel HMO the short menu in the channel settings
is used to switch an analog channel to a digital channel. If you find
there data belonging to the analog channels 3 and 4, press the
key next to the lowest soft menu entry. This is a double key: the
upper designation CH stands for channel, the lower one PO for
pod. Pressing this key will alternate between those two modes.
The mode which is presently active will have its background
shown in the colour of the respective channel. Activate the Pod
here. At the two channel units you can activate the logic channel
simply by pressing the POD button.
You also have the option to combine digital channels to form
buses which will then be displayed on the screen as a cell in
a table. Basically, two independent buses are possible. For
instance, it would be possible to combine an 8 bit address bus
and an 8 bit data bus. To select the settings for the buses, press
the REF/BUS button and then the MENU button in the VERTICAL
section of the control panel.
You must always set the level to indicate a High and
a Low. If a POD is activated, press the MENU button
21 in the VERTICAL section of the control panel to
display the menu. This will allow you to set the level
to distinguish between the logic states. For each
POD, you can activate one of five predefined logic
level settings (TTL, CMOS, ECL), and two of these
may be user-defined (USER 1, USER 2).
With the logic channels, a logic ONE will be indicated by a bar
of two pixels width, a logic ZERO will be one pixel wide. The
information field in the lower left corner of the screen will show
the actual logic levels selected next to the name POD.
The Y positions and the size of the logic channel displays can
be chosen as customary and known from analog channel
operation with the appropriate knobs Y-POSITION and SCALE
VOLTS/DIV (provided the soft menu key „0/7“ was selected as
indicated by a blue background). If less than 8 logic channels
are to be displayed, or if the position of individual channels is to
be changed, this can be done in the short menu in conjunction
with the soft menu keys and the Y POSITION and SCALE VOLTS/
DIV controls. In order to do this, push the soft menu key next to
CTRL: this will allow you to control the Y position and the size
of the logic channel display with the knobs. The name of which
will be shown above the menu entry (in this example number
0). The selection of the channels is done with the soft keys
Arrow Up and Arrow Down. By this method all channels
may be individually positioned and sized.
You can reset the position and size of the individual logic channels on page 2|2 of the POD menu. You also have the option to
label the individual bits of the logic channel by using the soft
menu NAME. The procedure to assign names is identical to the
one described in chapter 4.6). The option NAME On/Off activates
46
Subject to change without notice
In the menu that opens you can press the top soft menu key
BUS to select which BUS you want to define, B1 or B2. The
active BUS is indicated in blue.
You can use the soft menu key BUS TYPE to choose the BUS
type for the display and the analysis. The BUS type determines
the bus structure and is organized differently depending on
serial vs. parallel or the number of data and clock signals. The
universal knob allows you to select the BUS type PARALLEL or
PARALLEL + CLK. Select CONFIGURATION to determine the
bus source and structure. The contents of the menu change
with the selected BUS type. After pressing the top soft menu
key BUS WIDTH, you can use the universal knob to select a bus
width from 1-16 bits. The table displaying the bit assignments
will be adjusted dynamically depending on your choice. Each
bit of the displayed bus has a source. The source refers to the
individual POD bits. Based on the measurement setup, the
sources can be assigned via soft menu key SOURCE and the
universal knob. The soft menu keys PREVIOUS/NEXT BIT allow
you to move the position of the selection bar for the source of
the individual bits. The selected bit is highlighted in blue. The
left side of the table contains the bits in fixed sequence, beginning at the top with D0 (= LSB). The universal knob allows you
to assign a real logic channel to the selected BUS bit. The allocation is not subject to restrictions; you can also use partially
identical logic channels in the two possible buses.
If you select PARALLEL + CLOCK as BUS TYPE, you can also use
the bottom soft menu key CONTROL WIRES to select sources
for CHIP SELECT, and you can use the universal knob to select
the settings for CLOCK. The soft menu key ACTIVE is used to
determine if the chip select signal High or Low Active is selected.
The soft menu key SLOPE allows you to toggle between rising, falling and both slopes. The active selection is always
highlighted in blue and is listed after the label CLK in the bit
source window. Press the MENU OFF button to return to the
BUS main menu.
Mixed Signal Operation
The soft menu DISPLAY SETUP opens a menu to select the
display format and its extent. The universal knob in the submenu
allows you to choose the format to decode the bus values. You
can choose from the following formats:
– Binary
–Hexadecimal
–Decimal
–ASCII
The decoded values will be shown in the cells/tables of the buses
according to the selected format. The next soft menu key BITS
can also be used to activate or deactivate the table display for
the individual bus bits.
A white dot in the short menu indicates that a BUS is activated.
You can now use the position control knob to determine the
position of the bus display on the screen. The VOLT/DIV knob
allows you to determine the size of the table display. This may
be particularly useful for the binary display as it allows the display of the complete value in up to 4 rows even for short tables.
12.3 Cursor measurements for the logic channels
If the logic channels were activated, some parameters may be
measured with the cursors. For all activated logic channels
of a POD these measurements are available: TIME, RATIO X,
V MARKER. The results will be as follows:
TIME:
The time position of both cursors relative to the trigger time
position will be indicated; also the time difference between the
two cursor positions from which the frequency is calculated.
RATIO X:
In this mode 3 cursors are used. The time ratios between the
first and the second and between the first and the third will
be shown. The presentation will be in floating point format, in
percent, in degrees, and in radians.
V MARKER:
With the logic channels the logic value of the selected POD will
be measured at the position of the respective cursor and shown
in hexadecimal and decimal formats.
12.4.
Auto measurements for logic channel
If the logic channels are switched on, you can use the automeasure function to measure some parameters. These
parameters can be chosen from F REQUENCY, PERIOD, PULSWIDTH +/–, DUTYCYCLE +/–, DELAY, PHASE, BURSTWIDTH,
NUMBER PULSE +/– and NUMBER EDGE pos. / neg. . Like all
auto-measurements you can switch on statistic on page two
of the automeasure menu.
Subject to change without notice
47
Serial bus analysis
13 Serial bus analysis (optional)
The HMO series can be equipped with three options to trigger
and decode serial buses.
The option HOO10 can be used to trigger and decode I2C, SPI
and UART/RS-232 buses on the digital channels (option logic
probe HO3508) and on the analog inputs. This option allows the
decoding of two serial buses simultaneously.
The option HOO11 can be used to trigger and decode I2C, SPI
and UART/RS-232 buses on analog inputs only and it only allows
the decoding of one serial bus at a time.
The option HOO12 can be used to trigger and decode CAN and
LIN buses on the digital channels (option logic probe HO3508)
and on the analog inputs. This option allows the decoding of
two serial buses simultaneously.
The options are activated by a software licence key. This key
will either be installed at the time of manufacturing or it will be
loaded to the instrument via USB stick when the user installs
an update as described in chapter 2.10.
The analysis of parallel and serial data consists of the following
three basic steps:
– Protocol configuration
(BUS type / protocol-specific settings)
–Decoding
(Display of decoded data / Zoom / BUS table)
– Trigger
(Start / Stop / serial samples)
The serial bus analysis is performed with 1/8 of the
sampling rate.
13.1 Serial Bus Configuration
Prior to the BUS configuration it is necessary to set
the correct logic level for the digital channels (see
chapter 11.2) or the analog channels (see chapter
4.5). The default setting for both is 500 mV.
Fig. 13.2: Menu for the selection of the decoding format
Make sure that a complete message of a serial protocol is always displayed on the screen to ensure
decoding works properly. The zoom function allows
you to view details for any specific message.
It is necessary to define a BUS before you can determine the settings for the serial trigger and decoding functions. A maximum
of two buses, B1 and B2, may be defined. Press the BUS/REF
button in the VERTICAL section of the control panel. This will
open a short menu where you can press the bottom soft menu
key BU (BUS). Use the MENU button in the VERTICAL section
of the control panel and the top soft menu key to define the
respective BUS (B1 or B2).
Use the soft menu key BUS TYPE and the installed options
HOO10/HOO11/HOO12 to choose from the following BUS types:
– Parallel Standard
– Parallel + Clock Standard
– SSPI (2 wire)
HOO10/HOO11
– SPI (3 wire)
HOO10/HOO11
–I2CHOO10/HOO11
–UART
HOO10/HOO11
–CAN
HOO12
–LIN
HOO12
The soft menu key CONFIGURATION allows you to invoke a
menu corresponding to the selected bus type. A menu description can be found in the chapters of the respective BUS
configuration. The soft menu DISPLAY SETUP is identical for
all buses and allows you to select the decoding format.
You may choose from the following formats:
Binary, Hexadecimal, Decimal and ASCII
Use the soft menu key BITS to activate or deactivate the display
of individual bit lines (above the table display).
The soft menu key NAME allows you to rename a bus (see
chapter 4.6.
13.1.1 BUS Table
Fig. 13.1: Bus definition menu
48
Subject to change without notice
The soft menu BUS TABLE allows you to configure / export a
list of all decoded messages in storage. The table content is
protocol specific and the table display can be activated for each
individual BUS type. The top soft menu key BUS TABLE allows
you to activate or deactivate the list view. By default, the table
is displayed at the bottom of the screen. Generally, a complete
message of a protocol is displayed in a row. The columns include
Serial bus analysis
13.3I2C BUS
The I2C bus is a two-wire bus which was developed by Philips
(today known as NXP Semiconductor). The HMO series supports
the following bit rates (for measurements without measuring
object via BUS SIGNAL SOURCE):
– 100 kBit/s (Standard Mode)
– 400 kBit/s (Fast Mode)
– 1000 kBit/s (Fast Mode Plus).
Use the soft menu PROBE COMP & BUS SIGNAL SOURCE
to select the respective clock rate in the SETUP menu (page
2|2).
Fig. 13.3: Example I2C BUS with BUS table
important information, e.g. address and date of the message.
The number of rows in the table is identical to the number of
complete message frames in storage. The decoding results
may be saved as CSV file by using the soft menu key SAVE (e.g.
save to a USB stick).
Example of a I2C BUS table:
“Bus table: BUS1 (I2C: Clock SCL = D0, Dates SDA = D1)“
Frame,Mark,Start time[s],Type,ID,Length,Date,Condition
1,,-197.89200e-6,Read,0x2D,5,0xF110E55D31,OK
2,,28.00000e-9,Write,0x42,8,0xEB8DC599AE5D6FC0,OK
3,,217.74000e-6,Write,0x3B,6,0xA113B7263E5B,OK
4,,376.07200e-6,Read,0x0E,6,0x55C3EB71D9E8,OK
5,,613.58000e-6,Write,0x66,8,0x91B86EE6655E2300,Data Error0
A BUS table can only be stored if the STOP mode is
active.
The soft menu key TRACK FRAME allows you to scroll through
the BUS table and simultaneously jump to the corresponding
position in the memory via universal knob to display details
on the screen. However, this is only possible if acquisition has
been stopped. This option is also available in the short menu
BUS via soft menu key Trk (= Track). If you activate the soft
menu key FRAME TIME DIFFERENCE (highlighted in blue),
the time difference to the previous frame (data packet) will
be displayed in the BUS table. This column will be labeled in
the table as “Time diff. “. If this function is deactivated, the
absolute time in relation to the trigger point will be displayed
in the column “Start time”. The soft menu key Tab in the BUS
short menu allows you to activate or deactivate the BUS table
without opening a menu.
You can use the soft menu item POSITION to move the table
to the top or bottom of the screen. In addition, it is possible
to display the BUS table in full screen. Select the position via
universal knob in the BUS menu or directly via soft menu key
Pos in the BUS short menu.
Fig. 13.4: I2C BUS signal source
A I2C BUS has the following properties:
– Two wire bus (2-wire): Clock (SCL) and data (SDA)
– Master-Slave Communication: the master provides the clock
pulse and selects the slave
– Addressing: Each slave can be addressed via unique address; multiple slaves can be linked with each other and
can be addressed by the same master
– Read/Write bit: Master reads data (=1) or writes data (=0)
– Acknowledge: issued after each byte
The format of a simple I2C message (frame) with an address
length of 7 bit is structured as follows:
– Start condition: Falling slope on SDA (Serial Data), while
SCL (Serial Clock) is HIGH
– 7 bit address (write or read slave)
– Read/Write bit (R/W): Indicates, if the data is to be written
or read out from the slave
– Acknowledge bit (ACK): Is issued by the recipient of the
previous byte if transmission was successful (exception: for
read access, the master terminates the data transmission
with a NACK bit after the last byte)
– Data: a series of data bytes with a ACK bit after each byte
– Stop condition: rising slope on SDA (Serial Data), while SCL
(Serial Clock) is HIGH
13.2 Parallel BUS
The HMO series is able to analyze up to 7 bit lines. The soft menu
key BUS WIDTH and the universal knob allow you to select the
number of bit lines. You can use the soft menu keys PREV. BIT
and NEXT BIT (or the universal knob) to move the position of the
SOURCE selection bar for individual BUS bits. The selected bit
is highlighted in blue. To trigger on parallel buses, it is recommended to use the logic trigger (see chapter 6.5).
Fig. 13.5: I2C 7 bit address
Subject to change without notice
49
Serial bus analysis
13.3.1I2C BUS Configuration
Prior to the BUS configuration it is necessary to set
the correct logic level for the digital channels (see
chapter 11.2) or the analog channels (see chapter
4.5). The default setting for both is 500 mV.
Make sure that a complete message of a serial protocol is always displayed on the screen to ensure
decoding can function properly. The Zoom function
allows you to view details for any specific message.
are selected with the table display, the respective sections will
also be displayed in color. These are described as follows:
Read address: Yellow
Magenta
Write address:
Data:Cyan
Start:White
Stop:White
No acknowledge:
Red
Acknowledge:
Green
The decoding of the address is performed as a 7 bit
value. The 8th bit for the write/read distinction will
be decoded in color, not in the HEX value of the address.
13.3.2I2C Bus Triggering
After the BUS configuration, it will be possible to trigger on
various events. Press the TYPE button in the TRIGGER section of
the control panel and choose the soft menu key SERIAL BUSES.
Then press the SOURCE button in the TRIGGER section and
choose I2C Bus. This will only be available if it was configured
earlier. Press the FILTER button in the TRIGGER section of the
control panel to list all available I2C trigger conditions.
Fig. 13.6: Menu for the definition of I2C sources
To decode the I2C bus it is necessary to determine during the
bus configuration which logic channel will be connected to the
clock and which one to the data line. This setting is selected
after choosing the BUS TYPE I2C in the BUS menu and pressing
the soft menu key CONFIGURATION. In the menu, choose the
top soft menu key CLOCK SCL and use the universal knob to
select the source channel. You can define the data channel by
pressing the soft menu key DATA SDA. A small window provides
information about the current settings.
If the option HOO11 is installed, it it only possible
to select analog channels as source. If the option
HOO10 is installed, both analog and digital channels
are available as source.
Press the MENU OFF button twice to close all menus.
You can trigger on the START signal (the start signal is the falling slope on SDA when SCL is high), and the STOP signal (the
start signal is the rising slope on SDA when SCL is high) of all
messages as well as on a RESTART (the new start signal is a
repeated start signal) or on a NOT-ACKNOWLEDGE condition.
The NOT-ACKNOWLEDGE bit is the 9th bit in a data or address
unit of the SDA line. For NOT-ACKNOWLEDGE, the Acknowledge
bit is on SDA high, although it should be low.
The soft menu key READ/WRITE offers additional trigger options. You can use the soft menu key MASTER to toggle the
trigger condition between read and write access. The 8th bit of
the first data unit (depending on the address length) is used to
distinguish between read and write access. The selected condition is displayed in the I2C settings window and is highlighted
by the menu key in blue.
The address length (in bit) defines the maximum number of
slave addresses to be used with the bus. For a 7 bit address
length, the maximum number of available addresses is 112.
The 10 bit addressing mode is downward compatible with the
7 bit addressing mode by using 4 of 16 reserved addresses and
Fig. 13.7: I2C message decoded with hexadecimal values
Certain portions of the I2C messages will be displayed in color
to distinguish between the different elements. If the data lines
50
Subject to change without notice
Fig. 13.8: I2C READ/WRITE trigger menu
Serial bus analysis
can be used simultaneously. For a 10 bit address length, a total
of 1136 addresses (1024 + 128 - 16) is available. The highest
10 bit address is 1023 (0x3FF). The selected address length is
displayed in the I2C settings window and is highlighted by the
menu key in blue.
The SLAVE ADDRESS is the address used on the BUS to distinguish which slave the master communicates with. Use the
universal knob to select the address for the observing bus
participant to be triggered.
If you choose the hexadecimal input, use the soft menu key
VALUE and the universal knob to set the respective byte value.
The soft menu key SELECT BYTE allows you to edit the different
bytes (byte 1 to byte 2 to byte 3 etc.) sequentially (depending on the
defined NUMBER OF BYTES). The active byte will be marked with a
green border in the display window of the trigger condition (see fig.
13.9). Press the MENU OFF button three times to close all menus,
and the oscilloscope will trigger on the set address and data.
13.4 SPI / SSPI BUS
The Serial Peripheral Interface SPI is used to communicate with
slow peripheral devices, in particular for the transfer of data
streams. The SPI bus was developed by Motorola (today known
as Freescale); however, it has not been formally standardized.
Generally, this is a bus with clock and data lines and a select line
(3-wire). If only one master and one slave are present, the select
line may be deleted. This type of line is also called SSPI (Simple
SPI) (2-wire).
The HMO series supports the following bit rates (for measurements without measuring object via BUS SIGNAL SOURCE):
– 100 kBit/s,
– 250 kBit/s and
– 1 MBit/s.
Fig. 13.9: I2C data trigger menu
The soft menu DATA enables you to enter specific data in addition to the address. With this menu, you can trigger on clearly
defined data bytes (color cyan) within the transmission, allowing
you to filter out irrelevant transmissions.
You can trigger on up to 24 bit (3 byte) of data. An offset of 0
to 4095 to the address is allowed. Select BYTE OFFSET which
defines the distance between the bytes relevant for the trigger condition and the address. In most cases, the byte offset
is zero if the trigger is to occur on the maximum first 24 bits
after the address. The soft menu key NUMBER OF BYTES allows
you to define how many bytes are to be analyzed for the trigger
condition. The input may be binary or hexadecimal (PATTERN
INPUT). If binary input is selected, the individual bits can be
assigned to any condition via soft menu key SELECT BIT and
the universal knob. The soft menu key STATE allows you to set
the state H (=1), L (=0) or X (don’t care) for each bit. The state
X defines any state. If the input is hexadecimal, only the entire
byte can be set to X.
Fig. 13.11: SPI BUS signal source
Use the soft menu PROBE COMP & BUS SIGNAL SOURCE to
select the respective clock rate in the SETUP menu (page 2|2).
A SPI BUS has the following properties:
– Master-slave communication
– No instrument addressing
– No acknowledge to confirm data reception
– Duplex capability
Most SPI buses have 4 common lines, 2 data lines and 2 control
lines:
– Clock to all slaves (SCLK)
– Slave select or chip select lines (SS or CS)
– Master-Out-Slave-In, Slave-Data-Input (MOSI or SDI)
– Master-In-Slave-Out, Slave-Data-Output (MISO or SDO)
If the master generates a clock pulse and selects a slave, data
can be transmitted in either one direction or simultaneously in
both directions.
Fig. 13.10: Example I2C BUS with BUS table
Fig. 13.12: Simple configuration of a SPI BUS
Subject to change without notice
51
Serial bus analysis
13.4.1 SPI / SSPI BUS Configuration
Prior to the BUS configuration it is necessary to set
the correct logic level for the digital channels (see
chapter 11.2) or the analog channels (see chapter
4.5). The default setting for both is 500 mV. For the
two channel instruments, the CS (chip select) must
be connected to the external trigger input; the level
can be set at the setup menu of the bus under CONFIGURATION > EXTERNAL LEVEL.
Make sure that a complete message of a serial protocol is always displayed on the screen to ensure
decoding can function properly. The Zoom function
allows you to view details for any specific message.
Certain settings are necessary to guarantee that a SPI bus is
decoded correctly. First, you have to determine if a SPI system
with or without chip select is available (2-wire or 3-wire SPI).
This can be done in the BUS setup menu when selecting the
BUS type. For a 2-wire SPI system, select the option SSPI; for
a 3-wire SPI system, select the option SPI.
CS:
CLK:
DATA:
Chip select high or low active (low active is the default
setting)
Data will be stored with rising or falling slope (rising
slope is the default setting)
Data high or low active (high active is the default
setting)
You can use the soft menu key BIT ORDER to determine if the
data of each message starts with the MSB (most significant
bit) or the LSB (least significant bit). The soft menu key WORD
SIZE allows you to select via universal knob how many bits are
included per message. You may select any value between 1
and 32 bits.
13.4.2 SPI / SSPI BUS Triggering
Then press the CONFIGURATION button to open the setup
menu for SPI.
After the BUS configuration, it will be possible to trigger on
various events. Press the TYPE button in the TRIGGER section of
the control panel and choose the soft menu key SERIAL BUSES.
Then press the SOURCE button in the TRIGGER section and
choose SPI Bus. This will only be available if it was configured
earlier. Press the FILTER button in the TRIGGER section of the
control panel to list all available SPI trigger conditions.
Fig. 13.13: Menu for the definition of a SPI bus
Fig. 13.14: SPI trigger menu
Use the top soft menu key SOURCE to select the respective
channel for chip select (CS), clock (Clk) and data. Select the
respective soft menu key CS, Clk or Data (key will be highlighted in blue) and then use the soft menu key DATA and the
universal knob to the select the respective source channel. For
the 2-wire SPI, select the possible TIME OUT instead of a chip
select source. During the time out, data and clock line are at
Low. When the time out has been reached, a new frame begins.
If the time intervals between the data packets are shorter than
the time out, these packets belong to the same frame. You can
select the dead time via universal knob or via numeric input
(KEYPAD button). A small window provides information about
the current settings (see fig. 13.13).
The option FRAME START sets the trigger event on the start of
the frame. The frame starts when the chip select (CS) signal
switches to the selected active mode. By contrast, FRAME ENDE
sets the trigger event on the end of the frame. The frame ends
when the chip select (CS) signal switches from the selected
active to the inactive mode. The soft menu key BIT and the
universal knob allow you to select the trigger time to the set
bit within the set bit sequence. You can also enter a numeric
value to determine the desired bit number (KEYPAD button).
If the option HOO10 is installed, it is possible to select analog and digital channels as source. For the
installed option HOO11, only the analog channels
are available as source. For two channel instruments and a 3-wire SPI, the chip select signal has
to be connected to the external trigger input.
In addition to assigning the source, the soft menu key ACTIVE
allows you to select the following settings:
52
Subject to change without notice
Use the soft menu SER. PATTERN to define a specific bit sequence within the frame which start the trigger event. The soft
menu key BIT OFFSET allows you to select the first bit of the
predefined bit sequence within the frame. The bits in front of
it have no impact on the trigger event (for instance, if the bit
offset = 2, bit 0 and bit 1 after CS will be ignored and the pattern begins with bit 2). You can select a value between 0 and
4095 via universal knob or enter it numerically (KEYPAD button). The soft menu key NUMBER OF BITS allows you to select
how many bits will be analyzed for the trigger condition. You
can select a value between 1 and 32 bit via universal knob. The
serial bit sequence (PATTERN INPUT) can be entered as binary
or hexadecimal value.
Serial bus analysis
If you choose the binary input, the soft menu key SELECT BIT
and the universal knob allow you to select which individual bits
within the data are to be edited. The option STATE allows you
to assign a logic state to each bit (High = H = 1, Low = L = 0 or
X = don’t care). The state X defines any state. If you choose the
hexadecimal input, the soft menu key VALUE and the universal
knob allow you to set the value for the respective nibble (4 bit).
If the input is hexadecimal, only the entire nibble can be set to
X. Use the soft menu key SELECT NIBBLE to toggle between
nibbles. The active nibble will be marked with a green border in
the display window of the trigger condition (see fig. 13.15). Press
the MENU OFF button three times to close all menus, and the
oscilloscope will trigger on the set bit sequence.
Fig. 13.17: Page 1 of the menu to define a UART bus
is selected after choosing the bus type UART in the BUS menu
and pressing the soft menu key CONFIGURATION. In the menu
that opens you can press the top soft menu key DATA SOURCE
to select the desired channel via universal knob. If the option
HOO10 is installed, each analog and digital channel is available
as source. If the option HOO11 is installed, it is only possible to
select analog channels as source.
Fig. 13.15: SPI data trigger menu
The soft menu key ACTIVE can be used to determine if the data
transfered to the BUS are active high (High = 1) or active low
(Low = 1), (for RS-232, choose Low). Use the soft menu key
SYMBOL SIZE and the universal knob to select a value between
5 bit to 9 bit for the bits that form a symbol. Another setting can
be selected via soft menu key PARITY. Parity bits are used to
detect errors during a transmission.
13.5 UART/RS-232 BUS
The soft menu PARITY offers the following options:
The UART (Universal Asynchronous Receiver Transmitter) bus
is a general bus system and the base for many protocols. One
example is the RS-232 protocol. It consists of a frame with a
start bit, 5 to 9 data bits, one parity bit and a stop bit. The stop
bit can assume the single length, or 1.5 or twice the length of
a normal bit.
– None: Use no parity bits
– Even: The parity bit is set to “1” if the number of ones in a
specific set of bits is uneven (without parity bit)
– Odd: The parity bit is set to “1” if the number of ones in a
specific set of bits is even (without parity bit)
Start
Data0 Data1 [Data8][Parity] Stop
The bottom soft menu key STOP BITS allows you to define the
length of the stop bit (1 = single, 1.5 = 1 1/2 or 2 = double).
Fig. 13.16: UART bit sequence
The HMO series supports bit rates of 9600 bit/s, 115.2 kBit/s
and 1 MBit/s (for measurements without measuring object via
BUS SIGNAL SOURCE). Use the soft menu PROBE COMP &
BUS SIGNAL SOURCE to select the respective clock rate in the
SETUP menu (page 2|2).
13.5.1 UART/RS-232 BUS Configuration
Prior to the BUS configuration it is necessary to set
the correct logic level for the digital channels (see
chapter 11.2) or the analog channels (see chapter
4.5). The default setting for both is 500 mV.
Make sure that a complete message of a serial protocol is always displayed on the screen to ensure
decoding can function properly. The Zoom function
allows you to view details for any specific message.
To decode the UART BUS it is necessary to first determine
which channel will be connected to the data line. This setting
Fig. 13.18: Page 2|2 UART BUS setup menu
On page 2|2 of the UART BUS setup menu, you can select the
BIT RATE (symbol rate) via universal knob. The bit rate defines
how many bits are sent per second. The soft menu key BIT
RATE allows you to select standard numeric values. Press the
Subject to change without notice
53
Serial bus analysis
soft menu key USER if you wish to define customized rates via
universal knob or numeric input (KEYPAD button).
The IDLE TIME describes the minimum time between the stop
bit of the last data and the start bit of the new data. The sole
purpose of the idle time is to define the start of a transmission and consequently the exact start of a frame (one or more
symbols, most commonly bytes). Only this information can
guarantee correct decoding and triggering (regardless of the
trigger type). A start bit within the idle time will not be recognized. You can enter the value via universal knob or numeric
input (KEYPAD button).
13.5.2 UART/RS-232 BUS Triggering
After the BUS configuration, it will be possible to trigger on
various events. Press the TYPE button in the TRIGGER section of
the control panel and choose the soft menu key SERIAL BUSES.
Then press the SOURCE button in the TRIGGER section and
choose UART. This will only be available if it was configured
earlier. Press the FILTER button in the TRIGGER section of
the control panel to list all available UART trigger conditions.
The trigger condition START BIT sets the start bit as trigger
event. The start bit is the first 0 bit that succeeds a stop bit or
idle time. The soft menu key FRAME START defines the first
start bit after idle time. The soft menu key SYMBOL<N> assigns a predefined Nth symbol as trigger event. The soft menu
ANY SYMBOL allows you to define any symbol to trigger on. The
symbol can be located anywhere within a frame. The serial bit
sequence (PATTERN INPUT) can be entered as binary or hexadecimal value. If you choose the binary input, the soft menu key
Fig. 13.20: UART trigger menu page 2
SYMB. to select the number of relevant symbols as 1, 2 or 3. The
number of symbol defines the pattern size. The symbol length
(5 to 9 bit) was configured at the time of the bus definition and
will be observed accordingly in the trigger menu.
The value input for the symbols may be binary or hexadecimal
(as described above). Use the soft menu key PATTERN INPUT for
this selection. If binary input is selected, the individual bits can
be assigned via soft menu key SELECT BIT and the universal
knob. The soft menu key STATE allows you to determine the
state for each bit (1, 0 or X). If you choose the hexadecimal input,
the soft menu key VALUE and the universal knob allow you to
set the value for the respective symbol. Use the soft menu key
SELECT SYMBOL to toggle between symbols. The active byte
will be marked with a green border in the display window of the
trigger condition. Press the MENU OFF button twice to close
all menus, and the oscilloscope will trigger on the set data.
Use the respective soft menu key on page 2|2 of the UART
trigger filter menu to select a PARITY ERROR (trigger with a
parity filter), a FRAME ERROR (trigger with a frame error) or a
BREAK (trigger with a break) as the desired trigger condition.
The BREAK condition is fulfilled if a stop bit does not succeed
a start bit within a specified time period. The stop bits low are
active during the break.
13.6 CAN BUS
Fig. 13.19: Trigger menu UART data
SELECT BIT and the universal knob allow you to select which
individual bits within the data are to be edited. Select the option
STATE to assign a logic state to each bit (High = H = 1, Low =
L = 0 or X = don’t care). The state X defines any state. If you
choose the hexadecimal input, the soft menu key VALUE and
the universal knob allow you to set the value for the respective
symbol. If the input is hexadecimal, only the entire symbol can
be set to X. Use the soft menu key SELECT SYMBOL to toggle
between symbols.
The soft menu PATTERN offers additional options for UART
trigger settings. The soft menu key SYMBOL OFFSET and the
universal knob are used to select the number of irrelevant symbols that proceed the pattern within the frame that are relevant
for the trigger event. Any value between 0 to 4095 symbols after
the start bit may be entered. Use the soft menu key NUMB. OF
54
Subject to change without notice
The CAN (Controller Area Network) BUS is a bus system primarily developed for automotive applications and is used for the data
exchange between controller units and sensors. It can be found
increasingly in the aviation, healthcare, and general automation
industries. At the physical level, CAN is a differential signal,
therefore a differential probe (e.g. HZO40) is recommended
for decoding, although standard probes are equally suitable
to capture the signals. The standard data rates range between
10 kBit/s and 1 MBit/s. A CAN message primarily consists of a
start bit, the Frame ID (11 or 29 bit), the data length code DLC,
the data, a CRC, acknowledge and an end bit.
13.6.1 CAN BUS Configuration
Prior to the BUS configuration it is necessary to set
the correct logic level for the digital channels (see
chapter 11.2) or the analog channels (see chapter
4.5). The default setting for both is 500 mV.
Serial bus analysis
Make sure that a complete message of a serial protocol is always displayed on the screen to ensure
decoding can function properly. The Zoom function
allows you to view details for any specific message.
– DATA|READ: Trigger on read and data frames; select the
correct identifier type via universal knob
– ID TYPE: Identifier type (11 bit, 29 bit or any)
To decode the CAN BUS it is necessary to first determine
which channel will be connected to the data line. This setting
is selected after choosing the bus type CAN in the BUS menu
and pressing the soft menu key CONFIGURATION. In the menu
that opens you can press the top soft menu key DATA to select
the desired channel via universal knob. An analog or a digital
channel can be connected to CAN-High or CAN-Low. In addition,
it is possible to connect a differential probe (e.g. HZO40) to an
analog channel. When using a differential probe, select CAN
High if the positive input of the probe is connected to CAN-H
and the negative input to CAN L. If the probe is connected with
reversed polarity, you must select CAN L.
The soft menu key SAMPLE POINT allows you to specify the
exact point within the bit at which the value for the current bit
is sampled. You can select a value in percent (25% to 90%) via
universal knob. The option BIT RATE defines how many bits are
transmitted per second and allows you to select default data
rates (10 / 20 / 33.333 / 50 / 83.333 / 100 / 125 / 250 / 500 kBit/s
and 1 MBit/s) via universal knob. Use the soft menu key USER
to specify user-defined bit rates. You can enter the value via
universal knob or numeric input (KEYPAD button).
Fig. 13.22: CAN data trigger menu
The soft menu ERROR identifies various errors in a frame. This
menu allows you to choose one or several error message types
as trigger condition:
STUFF BIT
Individual frame segments (e.g. frame start etc.) are coded
during the bit stuffing procedure. The transmitter automatically adds a complimentary bit to the bit stream if it detects
5 consecutive bits with identical value in the bit stream to be
transmitted. A “stuff” error occurs if the 6th identical bit level
is detected in the specified sections.
FORM
A form error occurs if a fixed bit field contains one or several
invalid bits.
ACKNOWLEDGE
An authentication error occurs if the transmitter receives no
authentication (acknowledge).
Fig. 13.21: Setting the SAMPLE POINT during the CAN configuration
13.6.2 CAN BUS Triggering
After the BUS configuration, it will be possible to trigger on
various events. Press the TYPE button in the TRIGGER section of
the control panel and choose the soft menu key SERIAL BUSES.
Then press the SOURCE button in the TRIGGER section and
choose CAN. This will only be available if it was configured
earlier. Press the FILTER button in the TRIGGER section of the
control panel to list all available CAN trigger conditions.
The function START OF FRAME triggers on the first slope of
the SOF bit (synchronizing bit). The function END OF FRAME
triggers on the end of the frame. The soft menu FRAME offers
the following options:
–ERROR: General frame error
–OVERLOAD: Trigger on CAN Overload frames
– DATA: Trigger on data frames; select the correct identifier
type via universal knob
– READ DATA: Trigger on read frames; select the correct
identifier type via universal knob
CRC (Cyclic Redundancy Check)
CAN BUS applies a complex checksum calculation (Cyclic
Redundancy Check). The transmitter calculates the CRC and
transmits the result in a CRC sequence. The receiver calculates the CRC in the same manner. A CRC error occurs if the
calculated result deviates from the received CRC sequence.
The soft menu key IDENTIFIER identifies the priority and
the logical address of a message. In the menu that opens you
can press the top soft menu key to select the FRAME TYPE
(general data, read data or read/write data) via universal knob.
The soft menu IDENTIFIER SETUP below allows you to specify
the length of the identifier type via soft menu key ID TYPE
and universal knob (11 bit base or 29 bits for extended CAN
frames). The soft menu key COMPARE defines the comparison
function. If the pattern includes at least one X (don’t care),
it is possible to trigger on a value equal or not equal to the
specified value. If the pattern includes only 0 or 1, it is possible
to trigger on an area greater than or less than the specified
value. The PATTERN INPUT may be binary or hexadecimal. If
you choose the binary input, the soft menu key BIT and the
universal knob allow you to select which individual bits within
the data are to be edited.
Select the option STATE to assign a logic state to each bit (High
= H = 1, Low = L = 0 or X = don’t care). The state X defines any
Subject to change without notice
55
Serial bus analysis
state. If you choose the hexadecimal input, the soft menu key
VALUE and the universal knob allow you to set the value for
the respective byte. If the input is hexadecimal, only the entire
byte can be set to X. Use the soft menu key BYTE to toggle
between bytes.
The soft menu IDENTIFIER AND DATA includes the same settings as the soft menu IDENTIFIER. In the menu that opens
you can select the FRAME TYPE (general data or read data) via
top soft menu key and universal knob. In the menu IDENTIFIER SETUP below you can enter the address of the respective
pattern. The soft menu DATA SETUP allows you to specify the
data bit pattern or HEX values for up to 8 bytes (only available
if DATA was selected as frame type). Available comparisons
for address and data values are GREATER, EQUAL OR LESS,
EQUAL and NOT EQUAL.
digital channel can be connected to LIN-High or LIN-Low. You
can select any version for the LIN standard (version 1x, version
2x, J2602 or any) via soft menu key VERSION and universal
knob. The option BIT RATE allows you to specify the number of
transmitted bits per second. You can use the universal knob to
choose from predefined standard data rates (1.2 / 2.4 / 4.8 / 9.6
/ 10.417 and 19.2 KBit/s) and user-defined data rates (USER).
The highest possible user-defined data rate is 4MBit/s. You
can enter the user-defined value via universal knob or numeric
input (KEYPAD button).
If LIN standard VERSION J2602 is selected, you
may only choose from the predefined standard data
rates via bottom menu item and universal knob.
Press the MENU OFF button twice or three times to close all
menus, and the oscilloscope will trigger on the set data.
13.7 LIN BUS
The LIN (Local Interconnect Network) BUS is a simple master/
slave bus system for automotive applications and is used for
the data exchange between controller units and sensors or
actuators. The signal is transmitted on one line with ground
reference to the vehicle mass. The standard data rates range
between 1.2 kBit/s and 19.2 kBit/s. A LIN message consists of
a header and the data.
A LIN BUS has the following properties:
– Serial single-wire communication protocol (byte-oriented)
– Master-slave communication (generally up to 12 knots)
– Master-controlled communication (master initiates / coordinates communication)
Fig. 13.23: Layout LIN byte structure
The data is transmitted in bytes without parity (based on UART).
Each byte consists of a start bit, 8 data bits and a stop bit.
13.7.1 LIN BUS Configuration
Prior to the BUS configuration it is necessary to set
the correct logic level for the digital channels (see
chapter 11.2) or the analog channels (see chapter
4.5). The default setting for both is 500 mV.
Make sure that a complete message of a serial protocol is always displayed on the screen to ensure
decoding can function properly. The Zoom function
allows you to view details for any specific message.
To decode the LIN BUS it is necessary to first determine
which channel will be connected to the data line. This setting
is selected after choosing the bus type LIN in the BUS menu
and pressing the soft menu key CONFIGURATION. In the
menu that opens you can press the top soft menu key DATA to
select the desired channel via universal knob. The soft menu
key POLARITY allows you to toggle between High and Low;
the active function will be highlighted in blue. An analog or a
56
Subject to change without notice
Fig. 13.24:
Menu for the definition of a LIN bus
13.7.2 LIN BUS Triggering
After the BUS configuration, it will be possible to trigger on various events. Press the TYPE button in the TRIGGER section of
the control panel and choose the soft menu key SERIAL BUSES.
Then press the SOURCE button in the TRIGGER section and
choose LIN. This will only be available if it was configured earlier.
Press the FILTER button in the TRIGGER section of the control
panel to list all available CAN trigger conditions.
The function START OF FRAME triggers on the stop bit of the
synchronizing field. The function WAKE UP triggers after a wakeup frame. The soft menu ERROR identifies various errors in a
frame. This menu allows you to choose one or several error
message types as trigger condition:
CRC (Cyclic Redundancy Check)
LIN BUS applies a complex checksum calculation (Cyclic Redundancy Check). The transmitter calculates the CRC and transmits the result in a CRC sequence. The receiver calculates the
CRC in the same manner. A CRC error occurs if the calculated
result deviates from the received CRC sequence.
PARITY
Triggering occurs on a parity error. Parity bits are bit 6 and bit 7
of the identifier. The correct transfer of the identifier is verified.
SYNCHRONISATION
Triggering occurs if the synchronizing field indicates an error.
With the soft menu key IDENTIFIER you can set the trigger
to a specific identifier or a specific identifier range. The soft
menu key COMPARE defines the comparison function. If the
Serial bus analysis
pattern includes at least one X (don’t care), it is possible to
trigger on a value equal or not equal to the specified value. If
the pattern includes only 0 or 1, it is possible to trigger on an
area greater than or less than the specified value. The PATTERN INPUT may be binary or hexadecimal. If you choose the
binary input, the soft menu key BIT and the universal knob
allow you to select which individual bits within the data are to
be edited. Select the option STATE to assign a logic state to
each bit (High = H = 1, Low = L = 0 or X = don’t care). The state
X defines any state. If you choose the hexadecimal input, the
soft menu key VALUE and the universal knob allow you to set
the value for the respective byte. If the input is hexadecimal,
only the entire byte can be set to X. Use the soft menu key BYTE
to toggle between bytes.
The soft menu IDENTIFIER AND DATA and the soft menu key
IDENTIFIER SETUP include the same settings as the soft
menu IDENTIFIER. The soft menu DATA SETUP allows you
to specify the data bit pattern or HEX values for up to 8 bytes.
Available comparisons for address and data values are EQUAL
and NOT EQUAL.
Press the MENU OFF button twice or three times to close all
menus, and the oscilloscope will trigger on the set data.
Fig. 13.25: LIN data trigger menu
Subject to change without notice
57
Remote control
14 Remote control
The HMO series is equipped with the interface card HO720,
which have an RS-232 and USB connection on board as a
standard.
To make any communication possible, the chosen
interface and it’s correcponding settings must be
the same in the PC as in the oscilloscope. Only exception is the virtual COM port, which is described
under the USB section.
14.1 RS-232
The RS-232 interface is made as a 9 pole D-SUB connecter. Over
this bi directional interface you can transfer settings, data and
screen dumps from an external device (PC) to the oscilloscope
or vice versa. The direct physical link between oscilloscope
and serial port of the PC can be done via an 9 pole cable with
shielding (1:1 wired). The maximal length must below 3 meter.
The exact pinning oft he plug is as follow:
14.3 Ethernet (Option HO730)
The optional interface card HO730 does have a USB and Ethernet
connection. The settings of the parameter at the oscilloscope
are done after selecting ETHERNET as the interface and the
soft key PARAMETER is chosen. You can set anything including
a fix IP adress. Alternative you can chose a dynamic IP setting
via the DHCP function. Please ask your IT department for the
correct setting at your network.
If DHCP is used and the HMO does not get any IP
adress (f.e. if no ethernet cable is connected to the
scope or the network does not support DHCP) it
may take up to three minutes until a time out make
the interface available again for configuration.
If the oscilloscope does have an IP Adress you can open your
web browser and put this IP adress into the adress line (http//
xxx.xxx.xxx.xx). Since the HO730 does have a webserver integrated it will open a site with informations about the scope, the
interface and it’s setting.
Pin
2 Tx Data (data from oscilloscope to external device)
3 Rx Data (data from external device to oscilloscope)
7 CTS ready for sending
8 RTS ready for receiving
5 ground (ground reference, due to oscilloscope
- category I - and power plug connected to earth)
9 +5 V supply voltage for external devices (max. 400 mA)
The maxiaml amplitude at Tx, Rx, RTS und CTS is 12 Volt. The
standard RS-232 settings are:
8-N-2 (8 data bits, no parity bits, 2 stop bits),
RTS/CTS-Hardware-protocol: none.
Fig. 14.1: web server with device data
In order to set these parameter at the HMO, please press the
button SETUP at the front panel in the area GENERAL and hit
the soft key INTERFACE at the opened soft menu. Make sure
the RS-232 interface is chosen (blue backlighted) and then hit
the button PARAMETER. This opens a menu where you can set
and save all parameter for the RS-232 communication.
On the left side there are links to „Screen Data“ which make it
possible to transfer a screen dump to the PC. (Using the right
mouse click this can be transferred to the clip board for further
use. The link „ SCPI Device Control“ open a site with a console
to send remote SCPI commands to the oscilloscope.
14.2 USB
14.4 IEEE 488.2 / GPIB (Option HO740)
All descriptions regarding the USB interface are
true for the HO720 interface card as well as for the
optional HO730 USB part. All currently available USB
driver are fully tested, functional and released for
Windows XP™ 32 Bit, Windows Vista™ or Windows 7™
both as 32 Bit or 64 Bit versions.
The USB interface must be chosen in the oscilloscope and does
not need any setting. At the first connection Windows ™ ask
for a driver. The driver you can find on the delivered CD or in
the internet at www.hameg.com at the download area for the
HO720/HO730. The connection can be done via the normal USB
or via the virtual COM port. The description how to install the
driver you can find in the HO720/730 manual.
If the virtual COM port will be used, you must set
USB as interface at the oscilloscope.
58
Subject to change without notice
The optional interface card HO740 does have a IEEE488.2
connection. The settings of the interface can be done in the
oscilloscope after chose the IEEE488 as interface and hitting
the soft key PARAMETER.
Further information you can find at the manual of the HO740 at
the download area a tour homepage www.hameg.com.
Appendix
15.1 List of figures
Fig. 1.1: Fig. 1.2: Operating positions
Product labeling in accordance with EN 50419
Fig. 2.1: Fig. 2.2: Fig. 2.3: Fig. 2.4: Fig. 2.5: Fig. 2.6: Fig. 2.7: Fig. 2.8: Fig. 2.9: Fig. 2.10: Frontview of the HMO2024
Area A of the control panel.
Area B of the control panel.
Area C of the control panel
Area D of the control panel
Screen
Rear panel of the HMO2024
Y-Out signal
Selection of basic soft menu elements
Basic soft menu elements for settings
and navigation
Menu for basic settings
Updating menu and information window
Updating menu and information window
UPGRADE menu.
Manual licence key input.
Successful self alignment
Logic probe self alignment
Fig. 2.11: Fig: 2.12: Fig: 2.13: Fig. 2.14: Fig. 2.15: Fig. 2.16: Fig. 2.17: Fig. 3.1: Fig. 3.2: Fig. 3.3: Fig. 3.4: Fig. 3.5: Fig. 3.6: Fig. 3.7: Fig. 3.8: Fig. 3.9:
Fig. 3.10: Fig. 3.11: Fig. 3.12: Fig. 3.13: Fig. 3.14: Fig. 3.15: Fig. 4.1: Fig. 4.2: Fig. 4.3: Fig. 4.4: Fig. 4.5: Fig. 5.1: Fig. 5.2: Fig. 5.3: 7
8
10
10
11
11
11
11
11
12
12
12
13
13
14
15
15
15
16
Control panel HMO
16
Screen display after connection of the probe
16
Screen display after changing to DC coupling 17
Screen display after Autosetup
17
Area of the control panel containing the ZOOM
knob17
ZOOM function
17
Cursor measurements
17
Quick View parameter measurement
18
Automeasure menu
18
Selection of parameters
18
Measuring the parameters of two sources
18
Formula editor
19
Save/Recall menu
19
Menu Screenshots19
Defining a file name
19
Front panel area with vertical system controls
Short menu for the vertical settings Correct connection of the probe to the
probe adjust output
Vertical offset in the extended menu
Threshold setting and name allocation
Fig. 7.2: Fig. 7.3: Fig. 7.4: Fig. 7.5: Drawing of the virtual screen area
and an example
Menu for setting the signal display intensities
Persistence function
Settings in the X–Y menu
Settings for the Z input
Fig. 8.1: Fig. 8.2: Fig. 8.3: Cursor measurements selection menu
33
Menu for the automatic measurements settings34
Statistic for Automeasurements
36
Fig. 9.1: Fig. 9.2: Fig. 9.3: Fig. 9.4: Fig. 9.5: Fig. 9.6: Fig. 9.7: Mathematics short menu
Quick mathematics menu Formula editor for formula sets
Entry of constants and units
FFT illustration
Advanced FFT menu
PASS/FAIL mask test.
36
37
37
37
38
39
40
Fig. 10.1: Fig. 10.2: Fig. 10.3: Fig. 10.4: Fig. 10.5: Fig. 10.6: Fig. 10.7: Fig. 10.8: Basic menu for instrument settings
Storing instrument settings
Recalling instrument settings
Import/Export menu for instrument settings
Loading and storing of references
Menu for storing curves
Menu for screenshots
Definition of FILE/PRINT key
41
41
41
41
42
42
43
44
Fig. 7.1: 15 Appendix
20
20
20
20
21
Fig. 5.4: Fig. 5.5: Fig. 5.6: Fig. 5.7: Control panel of the horizontal system
22
AM modulated signal with maximum repeat rate23
AM modulated signal with maximum
sampling rate
23
AM modulated signal with automatic setting
24
Zoom function
25
Marker in zoom mode
25
Search mode with event list
26
Fig. 6.1: Fig. 6.2: Fig. 6.3: Fig. 6.4: Fig. 6.5: Fig. 6.6: Front panel control area of the trigger system
Coupling modes with slope trigger
The type B-Trigger Pulse trigger menu
Logic trigger menu
Video trigger menu
31
31
31
32
32
Fig. 11.1: Component tester at short
45
Fig. 12.1: Logic channels’ settings display
46
Fig. 13.1: Fig. 13.2: Fig. 13.3: Fig. 13.4: Fig. 13.5: Fig. 13.6:
Fig. 13.7:
Fig. 13.8: Fig. 13.9:
Fig. 13.10: Fig. 13.11: Fig. 13.12: Fig. 13.13: Fig. 13.14: Fig. 13.15: Fig. 13.16: Fig. 13.17: Fig. 13.18:
Fig. 13.19: Fig. 13.20: Fig. 13.21: 48
48
49
49
49
50
50
50
51
51
51
51
52
52
53
53
53
53
54
54
Fig. 13.22: Fig. 13.23: Fig. 13.24:
Fig. 13.25: Bus definition menu
Menu for the selection of the decoding format
Example I2C BUS with BUS table
I2C BUS signal source
I2C 7 bit address
Menu for the definition of I2C sources
I2C message decoded with hexadecimal values I2C READ/WRITE trigger menu
I2C data trigger menu Example I2C BUS with BUS table
SPI BUS signal source
Simple configuration of a SPI BUS
Menu for the definition of a SPI bus SPI trigger menu
SPI data trigger menu UART bit sequence
Page 1 of the menu to define a UART bus
Page 2|2 UART BUS setup menu
Trigger menu UART data
UART trigger menu page 2
Setting the SAMPLE POINT during the
CAN configuration
CAN data trigger menu
Layout LIN byte structure
Menu for the definition of a LIN bus
LIN data trigger menu
Fig. 14.1: web server with device data
55
55
56
56
57
58
27
27
28
28
28
29
Subject to change without notice
59
Appendix
15.2 Glossary
A
AC coupling: 20
acquisition mode: 11, 22, 25, 30, 31
ADJ. output: 16
analog channel: 14, 21, 26, 46, 55
attenuation: 20, 21
automatic measurement: 10, 34, 35, 36, 37, 39
AUTOSET: 10, 16, 17, 27
Average: 22, 24, 39
B
bandwidth: 2, 6, 12, 20
Blackman: 39
BNC connector: 11, 12, 16
brightness: 29, 30, 31, 32
BUS configuration: 48, 50, 52, 53, 54, 55, 56
bus signal source: 10, 14, 40
C
CAN BUS: 54, 55
capacitor: 45
component tester: 10, 11, 44, 45
COM port: 58
coupling: 2, 17, 20, 27, 28
cursor measurement: 12, 17, 18, 33, 34
CVBS signal: 29
D
DC coupling: 17, 20, 27, 28
DC offset: 21
duty cycle: 18, 33
E
ENVELOPE: 22
F
fall time: 26, 33, 35, 39
FILE NAME: 19, 41, 42, 43
FILE/PRINT: 10, 19, 43, 44
formula editor: 19, 36, 37
Fourier analysis: 38
FRAME ERROR: 54
frequency: 2, 14, 18, 21, 22, 24, 27, 31, 33, 34, 35, 36, 38, 39, 47
frequency analysis: 36, 38
G
general settings: 10
H
half frame: 30
Hamming: 39
Hanning: 39
help: 13, 14, 43, 45
hysteresis: 26
I
IEEE-488: 11, 12, 58
inductance: 44
Instrument settings: 19, 41
intensity: 2, 13, 31, 43
interlace mode: 24
L
language: 10, 13, 14, 43
licence key: 14, 15, 48
60
Subject to change without notice
LIN BUS: 56
logic channel: 29, 46, 47, 50
logic level: 46, 48, 50, 52, 53, 54, 56
logic probe: 10, 12, 15, 16, 27, 28, 46, 48
logic trigger: 21, 24, 28, 46, 49
M
marker function: 22, 25
mask test: 39, 40
mathematical functions: 18, 19, 36, 37
mean value: 34, 35, 39
mean voltage: 18, 34, 39
mixed-signal operation: 12
N
nibble: 53
O
offset voltage: 21
P
parity: 53, 54, 56, 58
Parity bits: 53, 56
PARITY ERROR: 54
Peak Detect: 22
peak levels: 33
peak-peak voltage: 18
peak value: 33, 34
period: 7, 18, 22, 23, 26, 30, 31, 33, 34, 35, 39, 54
polarity: 29, 45, 55
PROBE ADJUST: 14, 20
pulse trigger: 27, 28, 29
pulse width: 18, 26, 28, 29, 34, 35, 39
Q
Quick mathematics: 36, 37
Quick View: 18, 39
R
ratio: 21, 35, 33, 39, 47
reference curves: 41, 42, 43
reference signal: 11, 19
reference time: 28, 29
remote interface: 10
rise time: 26, 33, 35, 39
RMS: 8, 18, 33, 34, 39
Roll: 22
RS-232 interface: 58
runt: 26
S
sampling rate: 11, 22, 23, 24, 42, 43, 48
Save/Recall: 10, 19
screen display: 19
screenshot: 12, 13, 19, 43
Scroll Bar: 11
self alignment: 15, 16
sensitivity: 2, 20
serial bus analysis: 14, 21, 48
signal source: 10, 14, 16, 20, 33, 40, 49, 51
slope trigger: 26, 27, 28
soft menu keys: 12, 25, 31, 36, 46, 49
source: 10, 11, 14, 16, 18, 20, 21, 24, 27, 28, 29, 32, 33, 34, 35, 36,
38, 39, 40, 42, 46, 47, 49, 50, 51, 52, 53
source curve: 40
square wave signal: 14, 17, 34
square wave window function: 39
standard deviation: 18, 33, 35
start signal: 50
Appendix
T
termination: 20
threshold: 21, 29, 32
time base: 11, 14, 15, 17, 18, 22, 23, 24, 25, 26, 31, 38, 41, 42, 44
trigger conditions: 11, 22, 27, 28, 30, 41, 50, 52, 54, 55, 56
trigger input: 11, 27, 52
trigger level: 11, 26, 27, 29
trigger signal: 11, 27, 35
trigger source: 11, 24, 27, 29, 35
trigger type: 11, 27, 29, 30, 54
two-window display: 17
U
universal knob: 10, 12, 13, 15, 17, 18, 19, 21, 22, 25, 26, 28, 29,
30, 31, 32, 33, 34, 35, 37, 38, 39, 40, 41, 42, 43, 46, 47, 49, 50, 51,
52, 53, 54, 55, 56, 57
USB connector: 19
USB/Ethernet: 11
USB interface: 43, 58
USB port: 10, 11, 14, 15
USB stick: 10, 14, 15, 19, 37, 38, 40, 41, 42, 43, 48, 49
V
V MARKER: 33, 47
Y
Y-Output: 12
Z
Zoom: 17, 22, 25, 48, 50, 52, 53, 55, 56
zoom function: 11, 22, 26, 48
Subject to change without notice
61
Appendix
62
Subject to change without notice
Appendix
Subject to change without notice
63
Oscilloscopes
Spectrum Analyzer
Power Supplies
Modular System
Series 8000
authorized dealer
43-2030-2010
41-HMOF-7XE0
*43-2030-2010*
*41-HMOF-7XE0*
Programmable Instruments
Series 8100
www.hameg.com
Subjecttochangewithoutnotice
Subject
to change without notice
43-2030-2010(10)21092011
41-HMOF-7XE0
(5) 02072013
©HAMEGInstrumentsGmbH
©
HAMEG Instruments GmbH
AARohde&SchwarzCompany
Rohde & Schwarz Company
DQS-Certification:DINENISO9001:2000
DQS-Zertifikation:
DIN EN ISO 9001
Reg.-Nr.:071040QM
Reg.-Nr.:
071040 QM
HAMEGInstrumentsGmbH
HAMEG
Instruments GmbH
Industriestraße6
Industriestraße
6
D-63533Mainhausen
D-63533 Mainhausen
Tel+49(0)6182800-0
Tel
+49 (0) 61 82 800-0
Fax+49(0)6182800-100
Fax +49 (0) 61 82 800-100
sales@hameg.com
sales@hameg.com
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