Transtech Transputer Motherboard User Manual

Transtech Transputer Motherboard User Manual
Transputer
Motherboard User
Manual
Ref: TMB M 711
Document reference number TMB M 711.
Copyright  1997 Transtech Parallel Systems.
This publication is protected by Copyright Law, with all rights
reserved. No part of this publication may be reproduced, stored in a
retrieval system, translated, transcribed, or transmitted, in any form,
or by any means manual, electric, electronic, mechanical, chemical,
optical or otherwise, without prior written permission from Transtech
Parallel Systems.
Transtech reserves the right to alter specifications without notice, in
line with its policy of continuous development. Transtech cannot
accept responsibility to any third party for loss or damage arising out
of the use of this information.
Transtech acknowledges all registered trademarks.
Transtech Parallel Systems Corp
20 Thornwood Drive
Ithaca
NY 14850-1263
USA
Transtech Parallel Systems Ltd
17-19 Manor Court Yard
Hughenden Avenue
High Wycombe
Bucks, HP13 5RE
United Kingdom
tel: 607 257 6502
fax: 607 257 3980
tel: +44 (0) 1494 464303
fax: +44 (0) 1494 463686
transtech@transtech.com
http://www.transtech.com
support@transtech.co.uk
http://www.transtech.co.uk
Table of Contents
Chapter 1 Introduction
1
Chapter 2 Using Transputer Modules
3
2.1 Introducing TRAMs ................................................................. 3
2.1.1 Hardware Description .................................................... 3
2.2 Building a Computer from TRAMs .......................................... 7
2.2.1 Physically building the System ...................................... 7
2.2.2 Configuring the System ................................................. 8
2.3 A More Complex Example .................................................... 10
2.3.1 Control Aspects ........................................................... 10
2.3.2 Topology Aspects ........................................................ 11
2.3.3 Network Configuration Aspects ................................... 13
2.4 Summary ............................................................................... 14
Chapter 3 The TRAM Standard
17
3.1 Introduction ........................................................................... 17
3.2 The Transputer Module ......................................................... 18
3.2.1 Overview ..................................................................... 18
3.2.2 Functional Description ................................................. 18
3.2.3 Electrical Description ................................................... 21
3.3 The Transputer Module Motherboard ................................... 21
3.3.1 Overview ..................................................................... 21
3.3.2 Link Configuration ....................................................... 22
3.3.3 System Control ............................................................ 25
3.4 Host Computer Interface ....................................................... 30
3.4.1 Host IO Space ............................................................. 30
3.4.2 Link Interface ............................................................... 32
3.4.3 System Control Interface ............................................. 33
3.4.4 Interrupts and DMA ..................................................... 33
3.4.5 DMA & Interrupt Channels .......................................... 34
TMB M 711
Transputer Motherboard User Manual
i
Chapter 4 The TMB03 Motherboard
35
4.1 Board Configuration Jumpers ................................................36
4.1.1 Control Configuration ...................................................37
4.1.2 Board IO Address ........................................................37
4.1.3 Link Speed Configuration .............................................38
4.1.4 Master and Slave Configuration ...................................38
4.1.5 IRQ & DMA Selection ..................................................40
4.2 The Edge Connector ..............................................................41
4.2.1 Use of the master link ..................................................43
4.3 Example .................................................................................43
Chapter 5 The TMB04 Motherboard
45
5.1 Fitting TRAMs ........................................................................46
5.2 Fitting memory .......................................................................46
5.3 Board Configuration Jumpers ................................................47
5.3.1 On-board transputer clock and memory ......................48
5.3.2 Control Configuration ...................................................49
5.3.3 Board IO Address ........................................................50
5.3.4 Link Speed Configuration .............................................51
5.3.5 Master and Slave Configuration ...................................52
5.3.6 IRQ & DMA Selection ..................................................52
5.4 The Edge Connector ..............................................................53
Chapter 6 The TMB08 Motherboard
57
6.1 Overview ................................................................................57
6.2 Network Configuration ...........................................................58
6.2.1 Electronic Link Configuration .......................................58
6.2.2 The Link Patch Area ....................................................60
6.2.3 Summary of Network Configuration .............................62
6.3 Description .............................................................................62
6.3.1 Board Configuration .....................................................62
6.3.2 IRQ & DMA Selection ..................................................64
6.3.3 The Edge Connector ....................................................65
6.3.4 The Link Patch Area ....................................................67
6.4 Examples ...............................................................................68
6.4.1 Stand-alone TMB08 .....................................................68
6.4.2 Multiple TMB08s ..........................................................69
ii
Transputer Motherboard User Manual
TMB M 711
Chapter 7 The TMB12 Motherboard
73
7.1 Overview ............................................................................... 73
7.2 Description ............................................................................ 76
7.2.1 Board Configuration .................................................... 76
7.2.2 The P1 Edge Connector .............................................. 76
7.2.3 The P2 Edge Connector .............................................. 77
7.2.4 Other Hardware ........................................................... 81
7.3 Network Configuration ........................................................... 82
7.3.1 Electronic Link Switching ............................................. 82
7.3.2 The K1 Header Block .................................................. 86
7.3.3 The P1 Edge Connector .............................................. 87
7.3.4 Summary ..................................................................... 89
Chapter 8 The TMB14 Motherboard
91
8.1 Overview ............................................................................... 91
8.2 VMEbus Interface .................................................................. 93
8.2.1 Link Adaptor Registers ................................................ 94
8.2.2 Subsystem Control Registers ...................................... 95
8.2.3 Interrupt Control Registers .......................................... 95
8.3 Link and Control Configuration .............................................. 96
8.3.1 Links ............................................................................ 97
8.3.2 Subsystem ................................................................... 99
8.4 Board Setup ........................................................................ 101
8.4.1 VMEbus Interface ...................................................... 102
8.4.2 Link Speed Configuration .......................................... 102
8.4.3 Control Configuration ................................................ 103
8.4.4 Link configuration ...................................................... 104
8.4.5 Sysreset Lengthening ................................................ 105
8.5 Connector Pinouts ............................................................... 105
8.6 Programming ....................................................................... 112
Chapter 9 The TMB16 Motherboard
115
9.1 Overview ............................................................................. 115
9.2 Network Configuration ......................................................... 116
9.2.1 Electronic Link Configuration ..................................... 117
9.2.2 The Link Patch Area .................................................. 118
9.2.3 Summary of Network Configuration .......................... 120
TMB M 711
Transputer Motherboard User Manual
iii
9.3 Board Setup .........................................................................121
9.3.1 Control Configuration .................................................121
9.3.2 Board Address ...........................................................122
9.3.3 Link speed ..................................................................122
9.3.4 IRQ & DMA Selection ...............................................122
9.3.5 Reserved switches .....................................................123
9.4 The Edge Connector ............................................................123
9.5 Examples .............................................................................125
9.5.1 Stand-alone ................................................................126
9.5.2 Multiple TMB16s ........................................................126
9.5.3 Link Adaptor ...............................................................128
9.6 The Host Interface ...............................................................128
9.6.1 Operation of the Hardware .........................................129
9.6.2 Memory Maps ............................................................131
9.6.3 Operation of the Software ..........................................133
Chapter 10 The TMB17 Motherboard
135
10.1 Overview ............................................................................135
10.2 Windows 95 .......................................................................136
10.3 PCI Interface ......................................................................137
10.3.1 Hardware Description ..............................................137
10.3.2 Register Map ............................................................137
10.3.3 PCI Configuration .....................................................139
10.4 Network Configuration .......................................................139
10.4.1 Electronic Link Configuration ...................................139
10.4.2 The Link Patch Area ................................................141
10.4.3 Summary of Network Configuration .........................144
10.5 Description .........................................................................144
10.5.1 Board Configuration .................................................144
10.5.2 The Edge Connector ................................................146
10.5.3 The Link Patch Area ................................................148
10.6 Examples ...........................................................................149
10.6.1 Stand-alone TMB17 .................................................149
10.6.2 Multiple TMB17s ......................................................150
Chapter 11 Utilities Software
153
11.1 PC Installation ....................................................................153
iv
Transputer Motherboard User Manual
TMB M 711
11.2 Solaris 2 Installation .......................................................... 154
11.2.1 FORCE CPU-3CE ................................................... 154
11.2.2 FORCE CPU-5V ...................................................... 155
11.2.3 Software .................................................................. 155
11.2.4 Configuration File .................................................... 156
11.3 Environment Variables ...................................................... 157
11.4 Connection Database ........................................................ 158
11.5 Network test utilities .......................................................... 159
11.5.1 Link Switch Configuration ........................................ 160
11.6 The Inmos server program ................................................ 162
11.7 Transputer host I/O utilities ............................................... 162
11.8 Inmos Aserver Support ..................................................... 163
11.9 Solaris 2 Device Driver ...................................................... 164
11.10 Reference Manual Pages ................................................ 166
11.10.1 Commands ............................................................ 166
check(1) ......................................................................... 166
ckmon(1) ........................................................................ 168
ftest(1) ............................................................................ 169
iserver(1) ........................................................................ 170
load(1) ............................................................................ 172
mtest(1) .......................................................................... 173
11.10.2 Linked Process Units ............................................. 175
hostmux(2)..................................................................... 175
iocache(2) ...................................................................... 179
11.10.3 Program Function Calls ......................................... 181
genio(3).......................................................................... 181
Chapter 12 Trouble-shooting
185
12.1 TRAM checklist ................................................................. 185
12.1.1 Reset ....................................................................... 186
12.1.2 Links ........................................................................ 186
12.1.3 Link speed ............................................................... 186
12.1.4 Analyse .................................................................... 186
12.1.5 Power ...................................................................... 186
12.1.6 Clock ....................................................................... 186
12.2 PC Host Interface .............................................................. 187
Index
TMB M 711
189
Transputer Motherboard User Manual
v
vi
Transputer Motherboard User Manual
TMB M 711
Introduction
Chapter 1
Introduction
This manual describes the Transtech transputer module (TRAM)
motherboards.
TMB M 711
Chapter 2
gives an introduction to the concepts and
nomenclature of transputer modules. All
users should read this before attempting to
configure a TRAM motherboard.
Chapter 3
gives a detailed description of the TRAM
standard for modules and motherboards.
This chapter contains more advanced
information required for fault-finding,
designing compatible hardware or for
systems programming.
Chapter 4
describes the TMB03 low-cost
motherboard for PC.
Chapter 5
describes the TMB04 motherboard for PC
with transputer.
Chapter 6
describes the TMB08 motherboard for PC.
Chapter 7
describes the TMB12 double extended
eurocard motherboard.
Chapter 8
describes the TMB14 6U VME slave
motherboard.
Chapter 9
describes the TMB16 high performance
motherboard for PC.
Chapter 10
describes the TMB17 high performance
PCI motherboard for PC.
Chapter 11
describes the test software and utilities
provided with the boards.
Transputer Motherboard User Manual
1
Introduction
Chapter 12
2
Transputer Motherboard User Manual
provides a detailed trouble-shooting guide.
TMB M 711
Using Transputer Modules
Chapter 2
Using Transputer Modules
This chapter contains a beginners guide to setting up and using
transputer equipment based on TRAMs. It discusses simple
configurations of transputers for the most popular programming
environments and how to link two motherboards together to
construct larger networks. If you have purchased a standard
configuration PARAstation it will already be configured for you and
the following should only be read to understand the concepts behind
your parallel processing system. For more detailed information refer
to Chapter 3 ‘The TRAM Standard’.
2.1 Introducing TRAMs
TRAMs are small assemblies based on transputers with a standard
electrical and mechanical interface. They plug onto standard
motherboards which in turn plug into or can be connected to a range
of host computers. This allows TRAMs and motherboards from
different vendors to be plugged into a wide variety of computing
platforms, giving the user the ability to construct a computing
machine which meets their requirements exactly in terms of
performance and IO function.
2.1.1 Hardware Description
This section contains a description of the transputer hardware which
allows users unfamiliar with TRAMs to understand the installation
procedure described in the next section.
The smallest size of TRAM measures about 3.5" long by 1" wide
(10cm by 2.5cm). This is called a Size 1 TRAM. The size of larger
TRAMs is always a multiple of the Size 1 TRAM. The size 1 TRAM
TMB M 711
Transputer Motherboard User Manual
3
Introducing TRAMs
has 16 pins which plug into sockets on the motherboard. TRAMs are
marked in one corner (pin 1) for orientation purposes. See figure 1.
TRAM pins
Size 2 TRAM
Size 1 TRAM
Subsystem
Pin 1
Pin 1
Figure 1. Transputer Modules
Some TRAMs have a subsystem - this consists of three zero profile
sockets mounted on the underside of the TRAM in one corner
(always next to pin 1). Only slot 0 on the motherboard has the
capacity to accept the subsystem from such a TRAM. Figure 2 shows
4
Transputer Motherboard User Manual
TMB M 711
Using Transputer Modules
how to used the supplied double ended connector to plug these
sockets into similar sockets on the motherboard.
3-way double ended
header strip
Module
Motherboard
zero profile sockets
Figure 2. Subsystem Port Connections
Because of the way the subsystem connects to the motherboard it is
not compulsory to perform this connection if it is not needed and
hence TRAMs with subsystem can plug into any socket on the
motherboard.
The location where the TRAM plugs onto a motherboard is called a
slot or site. Slots are numbered from zero. Figure 3 shows a slice of
a typical motherboard. Note that the slots are not all oriented the
same way and that the ordering of slots is not contiguous. This allows
better utilization of the motherboard when plugging in TRAMs of
different sizes.
s4
s5
s2
s0
s3
s6
Figure 3. TRAM slots on a motherboard
The motherboard is specially wired so that if it is populated with size
1 TRAMs then the transputers are all connected in a pipeline. This is
TMB M 711
Transputer Motherboard User Manual
5
Introducing TRAMs
achieved by connecting link2 of one transputer to link1 of the next
transputer. See figure 4.
L1 Slot0
L2
L1 Slot1
L2
L1 Slotn
L2
PipeTail
PipeHead
Figure 4. The Default Transputer Pipeline
TRAMs which are larger than size 1 do not use all of the sites
underneath them. The only active site is the one below pin 1 of the
TRAM. This means that the pipeline is broken at the unused slots
underneath the TRAM. To bridge these breaks a special pipe jumper
can be used. Figure 5 shows a pipe jumper.
Pin1
Marker
Figure 5. Pipe Jumper
6
Transputer Motherboard User Manual
TMB M 711
Using Transputer Modules
Pipe jumpers are plugged in with the same orientation as TRAMs, i.e.
with their pin1 adjoining the orientation mark on the motherboard.
Figure 6 shows a situation in which a pipe jumper may be needed.
Pipe jumper in slot 3
s4
s5
s2
s0
s3
s6
Size 2 TRAM
covers slot 3
Figure 6. Using pipe jumpers
The diagram shows slot 3 being covered by a large TRAM. If it is
required to continue the pipeline on beyond slot 3, in this case there
is a TRAM in slot 4, then slot 3 will need to be jumpered.
2.2 Building a Computer from TRAMs
This section describes the setting up of a simple system consisting
of a number of transputers on a single module motherboard. Building
the system consists of three main stages:
1. Plug the TRAMs onto the motherboard,
2. Configure the motherboard reset structure for the software development system or application being used,
2.2.1 Physically building the System
Transputer modules and motherboards contain components which
can be damaged by static electricity. It is therefore advisable to take
some simple precautions before handling TRAMs and module
motherboards:
TMB M 711
•
keep the TRAM plugged into its anti-static mat when it is not
plugged onto a motherboard,
•
keep module motherboards in their anti-static bags when they
are not in use,
•
before handling TRAMs or motherboards ground yourself by
touching an earth (the metal enclosure of electrical equipment is
always earthed),
Transputer Motherboard User Manual
7
Building a Computer from TRAMs
•
try to avoid touching the TRAM pins when plugging them in.
Plug the TRAMs into the motherboard slots as required by your
application. When doing this note that:
•
TRAMs should be oriented the correct way round to avoid
permanent damage,
•
if you are using the occam TDS, or the interactive debugger
supplied with the Inmos C or occam toolsets, you will need to
connect the subsystem on the TRAM that plugs into slot 0,
•
TRAMs are shipped with spacers attached to their pins to raise
them above any components on the motherboard. When there
are no components on the motherboard these spacers can be
removed if you wish to lower the height profile of the
motherboard/TRAM combination. However please bear in mind
that adequate airflow under the TRAM is required for cooling.
See figure 7.
Components
Module
Spacer
Motherboard
Figure 7. TRAM spacer
2.2.2 Configuring the System
The next stage is to set all the configuration options of the board.
Normally, the only options which have to be considered are the
control structure and the transputer network.
The following sections discuss the relevant options without reference
to a particular motherboard. For details of the actual
jumpers/switches to set refer to the hardware chapter in the product
specific section of this document.
2.2.2.1 The Control Structure
In order to be able to program and use the TRAMs on the
motherboard there is a mechanism for their control. The most
important control signal sent to a TRAM is the reset signal. When a
TRAM receives this signal, the transputer is reset to an initial state.
8
Transputer Motherboard User Manual
TMB M 711
Using Transputer Modules
The transputer has to be in this state before a user program can be
loaded onto it.
There are two basic control architectures that are commonly used:
•
the host computer controls all of the processors in the system.
This configuration is suitable for the Inmos toolsets and 3L
scientific languages where the various tools in the programming
environment (compilers, linkers etc.) are invoked from the host
computer. Figure 8 shows what this looks like.
control
host
TRAM 0
TRAM 1
TRAM n
Figure 8. Control architecture for 3L/toolset
•
the host computer controls only one transputer - the root or
master transputer. This configuration is suitable for occam TDS
users and also for Inmos toolset users who wish to use the
interactive debugger, where a program (i.e. the TDS) runs on the
master processor while other processors in the network are
controlled from the master processor’s subsystem port and are
called a subnetwork. This enables TDS or the interactive
debugger to boot/debug the other processors. Figure 9 shows
the situation.
control subsystem control
host
TRAM 0
TRAM 1
TRAM n
Figure 9. Control architecture for TDS
In order for the host computer to be able to control any transputers
the motherboard or transputer host interface board must be set up
correctly. See the relevant manual for your host
adaptor/motherboard.
TMB M 711
Transputer Motherboard User Manual
9
A More Complex Example
2.2.2.2 The Transputer Network
The only thing to be done here is to put in pipe jumpers where they
are needed. Some simple rules for determining when pipe jumpers
are needed follow:
1. If a large TRAM (greater than size 1) is in the middle of your
intended pipeline then the large TRAM will need its unused slots
jumpering.
2. If your motherboard is not fully populated and you wish to
continue the pipeline onto another motherboard, then the unused
slots on the motherboard will need jumpering.
2.3 A More Complex Example
This section shows how you could build up a TRAM network based
on a number of motherboards. A common example of this is driving
a number of slave TMB12 boards from a motherboard inside a PC.
The TMB12 doesn’t have a host computer interface and therefore
has to be slaved to a master.
There are three aspects to connecting up several motherboards:
1. Sorting out the control system
2. connecting up the transputers
3. connecting up the configuration pipeline
2.3.1 Control Aspects
The control architecture of the single motherboard now has to be
connected to other motherboards. Each motherboard has three
control ports for this purpose. They are called subsystem, up and
down.
The motherboards will normally be connected into a chain. Control is
fed into the up port of a board. Normally control is propagated out of
the down port. Hence, to connect up a chain the up port of one board
is connected to the down port of the next board.
The only exception to this rule arises when the first motherboard in
the system is considered. In this case it is desired to control a
subsystem from the master processor and the TRAMs on the slave
boards should be part of that subsystem. The subsystem port has
been provided for just this situation.
10
Transputer Motherboard User Manual
TMB M 711
Using Transputer Modules
Figure 10 shows a reset cable which is used to connect the control
ports of different boards together.
Down/Subsystem
reset
error
analyse
Up
Figure 10. Reset Cable
Figure 11 shows the control connections for the simpler case of the
3L languages and figure 12 shows the connections for users of the
occam TDS or Inmos toolsets.
down
up
HOST
down
up
TMB12
down
TMB12
Figure 11. Control in multi-motherboard systems
SubSystem
HOST
up
down
TMB12
up
down
TMB12
Figure 12. Control in multi-motherboard systems (TDS)
2.3.2 Topology Aspects
In order for the transputers to communicate their links must be
connected together. In keeping with the pipeline connections made
within a single motherboard, when several motherboards are wired
up, all the transputers are connected into a single pipeline.
TMB M 711
Transputer Motherboard User Manual
11
A More Complex Example
This is achieved by connecting the end of the pipeline of one
motherboard to the beginning of the pipeline on the next
motherboard.
The start of the pipeline (slot 0 link 1) is called PipeHead. The end of
the pipeline (slot n link 2) is called PipeTail. Hence you must connect
the PipeTail of one board to the PipeHead of the next board.
Because the PipeTail to PipeHead connection is actually a transputer
link, the cable used to make this connection is a standard INMOS link
cable. See figure 13.
ground
out
in
ground
ground
out
in
ground
Figure 13. Standard link cable
Figures 14 & 15 illustrate the required connections.
down
up
HOST
down
TMB12
PipeTail
PipeHead
up
down
TMB12
PipeTail
PipeHead
Figure 14. The default pipeline in multi motherboard systems
12
Transputer Motherboard User Manual
TMB M 711
Using Transputer Modules
SubSystem
up
HOST
PipeTail
down
TMB12
PipeHead
up
down
TMB12
PipeTail
PipeHead
Figure 15. The default pipeline (TDS)
2.3.3 Network Configuration Aspects
A subject which has not been discussed fully in this chapter is that of
network configuration. This is the process of connecting up all the
transputer links to meet the network topology demanded by the
application.
The previous section has dealt with the default pipeline, but what
hasn’t been mentioned yet is how the user can connect up TRAM link
0s & 3s.
In fact, the connection of these links is extremely flexible. On most
motherboards there are electronic link switches which perform link0
- link3 connections. The link switches are controlled by transputer(s)
on the motherboards called configuration transputers.
The configuration transputers from different motherboards are
connected together into a pipeline called the configuration pipeline
which is programmable. Transtech TRAM motherboards are shipped
with a software system the NCS (Network Configuration Software) to
program the link crossbars, Inmos boards are shipped with their own
system the MMS (Module Motherboard Software).
Hence, the remaining job to be done is to connect up the
configuration pipeline, a pipeline of T2 transputers that are used to
setup the crossbar switches. Each motherboard has two pipeline
connections for this purpose called ConfigUp and ConfigDown.
Figures 16 & 17 show the details.
TMB M 711
Transputer Motherboard User Manual
13
Summary
down
up
HOST
PipeTail
ConfigDown
down
up
TMB12
PipeHead
TMB12
PipeTail
ConfigUp
down
PipeHead
ConfigDown
ConfigUp
Figure 16. Configuration pipeline in multi motherboard systems
SubSystem
up
HOST
PipeTail
ConfigDown
down
up
TMB12
PipeHead
ConfigUp
down
TMB12
PipeTail
ConfigDown
PipeHead
ConfigUp
Figure 17. Configuration pipeline in multi motherboard systems
(TDS)
The head of the configuration pipeline is connected to link 1 of TRAM
slot 0 of the first motherboard.
Chapter 3 contains a full description of network configuration.
2.4 Summary
This chapter has given a beginners overview of Transputer Modules
and module motherboards. Users should understand how to
construct single motherboard and multi motherboard computing
systems from TRAMs.
This chapter has given a statement of the actions to be performed in
constructing TRAM based systems, often without explaining exactly
14
Transputer Motherboard User Manual
TMB M 711
Using Transputer Modules
why those actions are necessary. This is in keeping with a beginners
introduction. For an explanation of the underlying system, read
Chapter 3 which gives details of the TRAM standard and can be
regarded as containing a conceptual model of TRAM equipment.
TMB M 711
Transputer Motherboard User Manual
15
Summary
16
Transputer Motherboard User Manual
TMB M 711
The TRAM Standard
Chapter 3
The TRAM Standard
This chapter forms a reference guide for TRAM equipment. It
describes the philosophy behind the TRAM standard before
describing Transputer Modules and Module motherboards. The
chapter discusses transputer networks and hierarchical control as
implemented on multiple motherboards.
The nature of reference dictates that the information be detailed.
Inspite of this, all users should aim to understand most of the material
in this chapter in order to gain the most out of using their TRAM
equipment.
3.1 Introduction
The transputer is a general purpose computational element
packaged as a single chip. It contains special dedicated
communications circuitry which enables a complete computing
engine to be constructed from more than one device. In this sense,
the transputer is very much a building block of large parallel
computers. In keeping with the building block philosophy of
transputers the Transputer Module (TRAM) standard was evolved so
that transputer based computing could be purchased in a way that
allowed users to customize their computers to their particular
application.
The standard allows parallel machines to be constructed with a mix
of computational performance and memory tailored for a given
application. The flexibility of the standard allows other functionality to
be inserted into the parallel machine at the optimum place, for
instance disk, graphics and other input/output capability.
To achieve this the standard first defines the Transputer Module. This
is a small circuit board which will generally contain a transputer,
TMB M 711
Transputer Motherboard User Manual
17
The Transputer Module
some memory and some application specific circuitry. The TRAM is
in its own right a Dual-in-Line module which plugs into a purpose
designed TRAM motherboard. The motherboard (the second part of
the standard) provides power and link connectivity services to the
TRAMs mounted on it. Transtech’s range of motherboards support
up to 16 TRAMs on a single motherboard. The motherboard itself is
mounted inside a host computer. Transtech supply motherboards for
host computers with a PC AT Bus (IBM AT and all clones) or a VME
bus. as well as mother boards with no specific host interface but with
links to other motherboards.
3.2 The Transputer Module
3.2.1 Overview
A TRAM is a self contained computing subsystem. Physically it is
small and will contain either a transputer or some other device which
connects via INMOS links. TRAMs:
•
interface to each other via INMOS links
•
have a standard pinout
The basic size of a TRAM is 1.05" by 3.66" overall (2.67cm by
9.3cm). This basic size is referred to as Size 1. A size 1 TRAM is big
enough to contain a 30MHz T805 transputer with 4MBytes of
Dynamic RAM. Often TRAMs are larger than Size 1, e.g. a size 3
TRAM measures 3.15" by 3.66" (8.01cm by 9.3cm), which is big
enough for a 30Mhz T805 transputer and 16MBytes of Dynamic
RAM.
The properties of the TRAM ensure that the standard is independent
of:
•
transputer type (e.g., T225, T425, T805)
•
transputer speed (15 - 30MHz)
•
peripheral function (i860 second processor, graphics output,
frame grabber, SCSI interface, etc.)
•
memory size (32KBytes to 24MBytes)
3.2.2 Functional Description
3.2.2.1 Pinout of Size 1 Module
18
Transputer Motherboard User Manual
TMB M 711
The TRAM Standard
Figure 18 shows the pinout of a size 1 TRAM.
Link2Out
Link2In
Vcc
Link1Out
Link1In
LinkSpeed A
LinkSpeed B
ClockIn (5MHz)
1
Link2
Link3
Link1
Link0
16
Link3In
Link3Out
Gnd
Link0In
Link0Out
notError
Reset
Analyse
Figure 18. Pinout of Size 1 TRAM (not to scale)
The TRAM brings out all four of the transputer’s links for connection
to other TRAMs. LinkSpeedA and LinkSpeedB control the operating
speed of the transputer’s links. Asserting both of these pins high
causes the links to operate at 20Mbits/sec, deasserting both these
pins low causes the links to operate at 10Mbits/sec. Other
combinations of states of these two signals are illegal.
The transputer’s error, analyse and reset signals are brought out
from the TRAM. The reset and analyse signals are taken directly to
the transputer and allow the transputer to be programmed and
debugged. The error output from the transputer is buffered by a
transistor on the TRAM. This has the effect of inverting the signal (it
becomes notError) and also makes the signal an open collector
output. This allows wire-ORing of the error signals allowing any
TRAM to signal error back to the host computer.
The other pins of the TRAM provide power to the circuitry and a clock
for the transputer. Note that the input clock signal for the transputer
is multiplied by an on chip Phase Locked Loop to give the final
processor clock (typically 20 to 35 MHz).
3.2.2.2 Subsystem Signals
In order to be able to manage a network of transputers the error,
analyse and reset signals are taken to the host computer. However,
it is often convenient to be able to drive these signals from a master
transputer. These signals are collectively known as the subsystem
signals. Most TRAMs have a subsystem port which allows them to
TMB M 711
Transputer Motherboard User Manual
19
The Transputer Module
control a (sub)network of transputers. The subsystem port is shown
in figure 19.
1
SubsystemnotError
SubsystemReset
SubsystemAnalyse
16
Figure 19. Subsystem Pins
The subsystem port consists of three zero profile sockets on the
underside of the TRAM. In order to connect the subsystem to the
motherboard a special double ended subsystem port connector is
used. This is shown in figure 2.
This arrangement reflects the optionality of subsystem pins on the
TRAM and ensures that TRAMs fitted with subsystem pins are still
plug compatible with TRAMs not fitted with subsystem pins.
Details of how to program the subsystem port of a TRAM are
contained in the next section.
20
Transputer Motherboard User Manual
TMB M 711
The TRAM Standard
3.2.3 Electrical Description
The basic circuitry of a Transputer Module is shown in figure 20.
transputer
linksIn
linksOut
NotError
Figure 20. Basic TRAM circuit
An explanation of the features of this circuit follows:
•
Link inputs are protected from positive Electrostatic Discharge by
the inclusion of a signal diode taken to the positive supply rail. To
prevent unconnected link inputs floating a pull down resistor is
also included.
•
Link outputs have a line resistance to match the output
impedance to that of the transmission line to which it is
connected.
•
The NotError output is an inverted, buffered open collector
version of the transputer’s error flag.
Other connections require no special circuitry
3.3 The Transputer Module Motherboard
3.3.1 Overview
The module motherboard allows access to Transputer Modules from
a variety of host machines. The motherboard can usually be divided
into two distinct parts: the host specific interface part and the generic
TRAM part (although some motherboards do not have a host specific
interface).
The design goals of the motherboard standard were that the user
should be able to:
TMB M 711
Transputer Motherboard User Manual
21
The Transputer Module Motherboard
•
build computing systems consisting of any mix of TRAMs
•
configure the transputers into any topology
•
chain a number of motherboards together
•
run and test applications on transputers without first having to
configure the links
The architecture that was evolved to meet these requirements
consists of the following important features:
•
the modules in a network are connected in a pipeline using two
links from each module
•
the remaining links from each module are available for user
configuration either by direct wiring (via edge connectors) or via
a programmable link switch (IMS C004). When using C004
switches:
•
a number of links are taken from the C004 to edge connectors
•
each C004 is controlled by a T2 transputer
•
the T2 transputers are connected together in a separate
pipeline
•
the first module in the pipeline on a given motherboard can
control a subsystem of other modules that may reside on the
same motherboard, another motherboard or be distributed
across a number of boards (the first module requires a
subsystem port)
•
an interface may be provided to allow non-transputer based host
computers to control and communicate with the TRAMs on the
motherboard.
The remainder of this section discusses the above features in greater
detail.
3.3.2 Link Configuration
3.3.2.1 Pipeline
Transputer Modules are plugged into module slots on the
motherboard. The number of slots on a motherboard depends only
on the size of the motherboard. The slots are numbered from zero.
The modules on the motherboard are connected together into a
pipeline, as shown in figure 4.
Assuming for the moment that all TRAMs are size 1, then link2 of the
module in slot0 is connected to link1 of the module in slot1 (slots are
not necessarily connected in number order, see the product specific
22
Transputer Motherboard User Manual
TMB M 711
The TRAM Standard
section of the manual for the order in which they are connected), and
so on for the other slots on the motherboard. Link1 of module 0
(called PipeHead) and link2 of module n (called PipeTail) are in
general brought out to the edge connector to allow pipelines to be
constructed across several motherboards (figure 21).
PipeHead
Board0
PipeTail
PipeHead
PipeHead
Board1
Boardn
PipeTail
PipeTail
Figure 21. Module pipeline split across several motherboards.
Not all applications will use all of the slots on the motherboard. Some
applications will require to use TRAMs which are larger than size1
(but only use one set of 16 pins for interfacing to the motherboard).
In both of these cases the pipeline will become broken. To avoid this
a special pipeline jumper is supplied which bridges the break (figure
5).
The pipe jumper plugs into unused slots (either on the motherboard
or on a TRAM) and connects link1 of that slot to link2 of that slot.
3.3.2.2 Programmable Link Configuration
Some motherboards have a number of C004 link crossbar switches
mounted on them. These are devices that allow the topology of the
interconnections between transputers to be set electronically under
software control.
The links 0 and 3 of each slot on the motherboard are taken to the
switches for programmable link connection. The degree of
interconnectivity achievable depends on the number of slots and the
number of switches on the board. For example, on the TMB12 16 slot
motherboard, two switches provide for 64 link connections.
3.3.2.3 The Configuration Pipeline
Each link switch is controlled by a 16 bit T2 transputer. Each T2 can
control up to two link switches via its links 0 and 3 (figure 22).
TMB M 711
Transputer Motherboard User Manual
23
The Transputer Module Motherboard
C004
Config
L0
ConfigUp
L1
T2
L2
ConfigDown
L3
Config
C004
Figure 22. Control of the Link Configuration System
The other links are used to construct a pipeline of configuration
transputers. This pipeline may extend across a number of boards to
allow configuration to extend throughout a transputer system.
Connection to other boards is achieved by edge connections
ConfigUp and ConfigDown (figure 23)
ConfigDown
ConfigUp
ConfigDown
ConfigUp
Board0
Board1
Boardn
Figure 23. Multi-board configuration pipeline for TMB12’s
Usually the link switch configuration data will originate from the a
module on the first motherboard in the system. Hence one of the
links of that module must be connected to the first T2 of the
24
Transputer Motherboard User Manual
TMB M 711
The TRAM Standard
configuration pipeline. Figure 24 shows the standard way of
achieving this: Link 1 of the module in site0 is taken via a link patch
to the T2. Note that this effectively terminates both PipeHead and
ConfigUp.
Slot0
ConfigUp
1
2
1
2
Jumper
PipeHead
Link patch area
T2
Figure 24. Controlling the configuration pipeline
3.3.2.4 Software for Link Configuration
To configure their network to a desired topology the user can
program the T2 pipeline directly or make use of the software system
or wiring files supplied with the board.
Note: Transtech module motherboards are currently supplied with
the NCS (network Configuration Software) for electronic link
configuration.
3.3.3 System Control
The design requirements of the motherboard, part of the TRAM
standard, stated that a hierarchical control structure be provided to
control networks of transputers. In practice this allows networks to be
constructed out of subnetworks. An example might be where each
TRAM in a master network controls its own subnetwork of
transputers.
In order to control a transputer, only three signals are needed: a
signal to reset the transputer, a signal to analyse (statically debug)
the transputer and a signal from the transputer to indicate that an
error has occurred. These signals are collectively called the
subsystem signals.
TMB M 711
Transputer Motherboard User Manual
25
The Transputer Module Motherboard
The subsystem signals are driven by a master. The master controls
all downstream processors connected to these subsystem signals
(i.e. a subnetwork). Normally there are two types of master in a
transputer network: the host computer and modules fitted with
subsystem ports.
3.3.3.1 Source of Control
For control purposes the modules on a motherboard are divided into
two groups: module0 and modules1 to n. The configuration
processor on a motherboard (T2 - if there is one) is included into the
latter of the above two groups. Note that the error signal of the T2 is
left unconnected.
Within a motherboard there are options as to what source controls
the TRAMs on that motherboard:
•
Module0 can be controlled from either the host computer or from
an external source,
•
Modules1 to n can be controlled from either a host computer, a
module0 TRAM fitted with subsystem or an external source.
In general the external source will in fact be another motherboard.
The external source arrives on the motherboard at the up connector.
Hence module0 can be controlled either from the up port or from the
host interface (if there is one). Modules1 to n are controlled either
from the up port, from the host computer interface or from module0’s
subsystem (figure 25).
Up
Host subsystem
Board Control Select
Down
Subsystem
Slot0
control
Slot0
subsystem
Slot1 to n Control select
Slot0
Slot1 to n
Figure 25. Source of control
26
Transputer Motherboard User Manual
TMB M 711
The TRAM Standard
The two selection options (board control select & slot1 to n control
select) are altered by means of jumpers on the motherboard.
From figure 25 it can be seen that a subsystem of transputers
controlled by a master TRAM consists of modules1 to n on this
motherboard plus any modules on slaved motherboards. A
subsystem of transputers controlled by a host computer consist of all
the TRAMs on this motherboard plus any modules on slaved
motherboards.
3.3.3.2 Up, Down & Subsystem
Large networks are built up by connecting motherboards together.
For this purpose, each motherboard has three control ports:
•
up (control in), source of external control,
•
down (control out), echo of the up port,
•
subsystem (control out), connected to module0’s subsystem
port.
Figure 26 shows the control ports.
notUpReset
notUpAnalyse
notUpError
Up port
Module motherboard
Down port
Subsystem port
notDownError
notSubSystemError
notDownAnalyse
notSubSystemAnalyse
notDownReset
notSubSystemReset
Figure 26. Module motherboard Up, Down and Reset
3.3.3.3 Multi-board Control
This section shows how the control ports are connected to map the
subnetwork model of transputer networks onto a number of module
motherboards.
TMB M 711
Transputer Motherboard User Manual
27
The Transputer Module Motherboard
The simplest relation between two motherboards is direct
connection.Motherboards can be chained together by connecting the
down port of one board to the up port of the next. In this case all the
boards in the chain are controlled from the same source, i.e.
whatever it is that controls the first motherboard in the chain.
The other type of relation between two motherboards is that of
master-slave. This allows the module0 of the first motherboard to
control a subnetwork of TRAMs, some of which may be on the
second motherboard. This is achieved if the subsystem port of the
first motherboard is connected to the up port of the second
motherboard.
Figure 27 shows a master network consisting of all the of processors
on boarda, as well as the first processor on each of boardb and
boarde. Two of the processors in this master network control their
own subnetworks. The first subnetwork consists of the processor on
modules1 to n of boardb and all the processors on boardc/d. The
second subnetwork consists of the processors on modules1 to n of
boarde and all of the modules on boardf/g.
a
Up
Sub
Down system
b
Up
Sub
Down system
Sub
Down system
e
Up
d
c
Up
Up
Sub
Down system
g
f
Sub
Down system
Up
Sub
Down system
Up
Sub
Down system
Figure 27. Controlling a subsystem of boards
The notReset and notAnalyse signals flow from the subsystem of a
master board to the up port of a slave board. From there they are
connected directly to the down port of the slave board. Hence reset
and analyse are connected to all boards in a chain allowing the
master to control all processors without hindrance. E.g. boardc can
be reset/analysed by boarda without interference by boardb in figure
27, above.
28
Transputer Motherboard User Manual
TMB M 711
The TRAM Standard
The notReset and notAnalyse arriving at the slave’s up port are also
sent to the slave’s subsystem port, but in this case the signals are
logically OR-ed with the analyse and reset signals of the boards’s
subsystem. This means that a board may be reset/analysed by its
own master OR by the master of that master. E.g. Boardd can be
controlled by either boardb or boarda in figure 27, above.
The notError signal is treated similarly, but flows in the opposite
direction. The error from a module on a motherboard is passed to the
up port of that motherboard. It is logically OR-ed with any notError
signal arriving at that boards down port. This allows error signals to
propagate back to the master - it also means that ANY processor in
a subsystem can send an error to the master. E.g. processors on
boardc/d can send error back to their master (boardb) in figure 27,
above.
The notError signal arriving at a subsystem port is not propagated to
the up port, but is handled by that board. It is assumed that a
subsystem master can handle errors in its own subsystem.
3.3.3.4 Subsystem Registers
When the source of control is a transputer module in site 0 of some
motherboard then the transputer on that module has control of the
subsystem via its subsystem pins. These pins are driven by
subsystem registers on the TRAM which are in turn mapped into the
transputer’s memory map.
For 32 bit transputers the memory mapping is as follows:
Register
Mode
Hardware byte address
SubsystemResetLatch
Write Only
#00000000
SubsystemAnalyseLatch
Write Only
#00000004
SubsystemError
Read Only
#00000000
Table 1: memory-mapped registers
The operation of the registers is as follows:
TMB M 711
•
Writing a 1 into bit 0 of SubsystemResetLatch asserts
subsystemReset;
•
Writing a 0 into bit 0 of SubsystemResetLatch deasserts
subsystemReset;
Transputer Motherboard User Manual
29
Host Computer Interface
•
Writing a 1 into bit 0 of SubsystemAnalyseLatch asserts
subsystemAnalyse;
•
Writing a 0 into bit 0 of SubsystemAnalyseLatch deasserts
subsystemAnalyse;
•
Reading a 1 from bit 0 of SubsystemErrorLatch indicates that
subsystemError is TRUE;
•
Reading a 0 from bit 0 of SubsystemErrorLatch indicates that
subsystemError is FALSE;
The subsystem is reset/analysed under control of the transputer on
the TRAM. However, the subsystem must be reset when the TRAM
is reset. As already described the following combinational logic is
used to propagate the subsystem signals:
•
SubsystemReset = UpReset OR SubsystemResetLatch
•
SubsystemAnalyse = UpAnalyse OR SubsystemAnalyseLatch
•
SubsystemError does NOT propagate
Because of filtering on the motherboard it is recommended that when
resetting/analysing subsystems the corresponding signal is held
asserted for at least 5 ms. In the case of reset, the subsystem should
be left for a further 5 ms before attempting to boot it.
3.4 Host Computer Interface
Most motherboards have an interface to a host computer. The host
supplies file services and terminal IO to application programs
running on the transputer network. Clearly the structure of the host
interface is not generic - the remainder of this section discusses the
standard PC interface for PC AT machines and clones. This interface
is commonly referred to as a “B004” interface.
3.4.1 Host IO Space
In PC machines interface hardware is mapped into a special address
space called the IO space. The driver program running on the PC
uses this address space to talk to the add-in card.
The module motherboard employs a block of addresses within the IO
space.It is possible to locate the base of this block at one of a number
of places in this address space so as to prevent conflicts with other
add-in cards. By default the base address is150 hex.
30
Transputer Motherboard User Manual
TMB M 711
The TRAM Standard
A summary of the register addresses used within the block used is
given in table 2. These are all explained in greater detail in the
following sections.
IO Address
Register
boardbase + #00
InputDataRegister
boardbase + #01
OutputDataRegister
boardbase + #02
InputStatusRegister
boardbase + #03
OutputStatusRegister
boardbase + #10
Reset register (write only)
boardbase + #11
Analyse register (write only)
boardbase + #10
Error register (read only)
boardbase + #12
DMA request register
boardbase + #13
Interrupt control register
Table 2: IO Registers
TMB M 711
Transputer Motherboard User Manual
31
Host Computer Interface
3.4.2 Link Interface
The link interface employs an IMS C012 link adapter chip. This
device converts between an 8 bit bidirectional port on one side and
a transputer serial link on the other, see figure 28.
Input data
register
8
PC IO
Bus
Input status
register
Link engine
Output data
register
8
Output status
register
Figure 28. Logical structure of the C012 link adapter
The four registers of the C012 are mapped into the first four
addresses in the board’s IO space.
Data arriving at the C012 from the serial link is latched into the
InputDataRegister. A flag in the InputStatusRegister is set to indicate
that the contents of the data register are valid. Current servers poll
this flag in software to see if any data has arrived. When the data
register is read the flag in the status register is cleared.
Output to the link from the PC follows a similar pattern. An in use flag
in the OutputStatusRegister indicates whether the
OutputDataRegister can be written to. Current servers poll the in use
flag in software, sending a byte to the data register as soon as the
link becomes free (i.e. the last byte has been sent).
The C012 link connects to link 0 slot0, and on some motherboards it
can be connected to the edge connector, allowing the board to be
used as a link adaptor to communicate with external transputer
systems.
32
Transputer Motherboard User Manual
TMB M 711
The TRAM Standard
3.4.3 System Control Interface
The next three registers in the IO space are the system control
registers. In terms of function they are identical to the subsystem
latches on some TRAMs. Only bit 0 of these registers is used:
Reset register:
setting bit 0 to ‘1’ asserts Reset to the
motherboard, clearing bit 0 to ‘0’ deasserts
Reset.
Analyse register:
Setting bit 0 to ‘1’ asserts analyse to the
motherboard, clearing bit 0 to ‘0’ deasserts
analyse.
Error register:
Reading a ‘1’ from bit 0 indicates an Error
on the motherboard, Reading a ‘0’ from bit
0 indicates no Error.
3.4.4 Interrupts and DMA
Two other registers are provided on Transtech’s range of
motherboards are not part of the basic “B004” interface. The two
other registers provide support for allowing DMA access to the link
hardware. This overcomes the inherent inefficiency of software
polling for every single byte read or written to the link adapter,
however these features are not often used. No standard software
from Transtech uses these features.
The PC contains a DMA controller chip (the 8237) which is employed
for these high speed transfers. A DMA transfer to the to the
motherboard is initiated by writing a ‘0’ to the DMA request register.
A DMA transfer from the motherboard is initiated by writing a ‘1’ to
the DMA request register.
To discover when the DMA has completed it is possible to poll the
status of the DMA controller chip. However, a better method is to
generate an interrupt to the PC. For this purpose the last register in
the motherboard IO space is the interrupt control register. This
register is a mask register allowing the PC to be interrupted on any
combination of four events. Figure 29 shows the structure of this
register.
TMB M 711
Transputer Motherboard User Manual
33
Host Computer Interface
bit 3
Link data
output ready
bit 2
Link data
input ready
bit 1
Transputer
error
bit 0
End of DMA
transfer
Figure 29. Interrupt control mask register
To allow an interrupt on any of these sources write a ‘1’ to the
relevant bit position. To inhibit an interrupt on any of these sources
write a ‘0’ to the relevant bit position.
Once the PC has been interrupted the interrupt handler must
determine the source of the interrupt. This can be done by reading
the Input/OutputStatusRegisters, the Error register and the status
registers on the DMA controller chip.
3.4.5 DMA & Interrupt Channels
There is a small degree of flexibility in terms of the interrupt channel
and DMA channel that can be used within the PC: the DMA channel
can be set to 1 or 2 and the interrupt channel can be set to 3 or 6.
DMA channel 1 is often used by ethernet or other networking cards.
DMA channel 2 is used by the PC to communicate with the floppy
disk controller. It is possible to share DMA channel 2 with the floppy
disk controller by careful programming of the floppy disk controller
enable flag located at IO address space #3F2. Whenever a floppy
disk access is about to take place the BIOS always enables location
#3F2. Hence to use DMA channel 2, the software must disable the
controller (by writing a zero to the enable flag) and enable its own
drivers. At the end of the DMA transfer the software must disable its
own drivers.
The floppy disk subsystem also uses interrupt channel 6. The floppy
disk uses this interrupt channel to notify the PC that it is inactive and
as such the PC can switch off the “in use” lamp on the front panel.
The interrupt is generated about two seconds after the last disk
access. Any software using this interrupt channel, should be able to
handle such interrupts (or be able to guarantee that such interrupts
cannot arrive).
34
Transputer Motherboard User Manual
TMB M 711
The TMB03 Motherboard
Chapter 4
The TMB03 Motherboard
This chapter gives a detailed hardware description of the TMB03.
The various features of the board are described and some examples
of configuration are given.
The TMB03 is a small PC hosted TRAM motherboard, with space to
plug in up to five Transputer Modules. It has a dummy site allowing a
size six TRAM to be fitted
It is possible to use the TMB03 without TRAMs as a driver board (PCto-link adapter) for external transputer systems via the master link on
the edge connector.
Figure 30 shows the layout of this board for reference.
Board configuration jumpers
slot 1
slot 3
slot 0
slot 2
slot 4
C012
37 way D-type
edge connector
Figure 30. Layout of the TMB03
TMB M 711
Transputer Motherboard User Manual
35
Board Configuration Jumpers
4.1 Board Configuration Jumpers
This section describes the various board configuration settings and
TMB03 specific functionality.
Most of the configuration options are adjusted by the means of a
jumper block at the top right corner of the board which is shown in
figure 31 for reference.
IBM/UP
Mod0SS
AS0
AS1
10MB/s
M
S
Figure 31. Board configuration jumpers
The jumpers are briefly described below, and in detail in the following
sections.
36
IBM/UP
The source of control for the TRAM in slot0
can be from either the host PC or from the
edge connector (UP).
Mod0SS
The TRAMs in slots 1, 2, 3 & 4 can be
controlled either from the subsystem of the
TRAM in slot 0 or from the source which
controls slot 0.
AS0/AS1
The board’s IO address can be set to #150,
#200 or #300.
10MB/s
The transputer link speeds can be set to
10MHz or 20MHz.
M&S
Allow the board to be used as a Master or
Slave board.
Transputer Motherboard User Manual
TMB M 711
The TMB03 Motherboard
4.1.1 Control Configuration
The board’s control configuration jumpers, IBM/UP and Mod0SS,
allow the source of control for the module in slot 0 and the modules
in slots 1, 2, 3 & 4 to be determined. The control consist of the TRAM
signals reset, error and analyse.
Jumper
IBM/UP
in/out
Description
out
Slot 0 is controlled by the PC (default)
in
Slot 0 is controlled by the edge
connector up port
Table 3: Slot 0 control selection
Jumper
Mod0SS
in/out
Description
out
Slots 1 to 4 are controlled from the Slot
0’s subsystem port
in
Slots 1 to 4 are controlled from the same
source as Slot 0 (default)
Table 4: Slots 1 to 9 control selection
4.1.2 Board IO Address
Configuration of the board IO base address is achieved via jumpers
AS0, AS1, as follows:
AS0
AS1
Description
in
in
Base address 150 hex (default)
in
out
Base address 200 hex
out
in
Base address 300 hex
Table 5: Base address select jumper
TMB M 711
Transputer Motherboard User Manual
37
Board Configuration Jumpers
4.1.3 Link Speed Configuration
The link speed select jumper controls the speed of all transputer links
on the board.
Jumper
10MB/s
in/out
Description
out
20 MBits/s (default)
in
10 MBits/s
Table 6: Link speed selection jumper
4.1.4 Master and Slave Configuration
The TMB03 can be used either as a master board or a slave board.
In master configuration the TMB03 behaves as an ordinary TRAM
motherboard with module0 link0 connected to the PC via C012
interface circuitry. It also acts as a PC link interface board to connect
to external transputers, with no TRAMs on the TMB03.
In slave configuration, module0 link0 is connected to the edge
connector providing a further mechanism to chain motherboards
together. (The normal PipeTail - PipeHead connection can be made
regardless of the master/slave configuration.)
By altering the M/S jumpers it is possible to connect module0 link0 to
the edge connector as an external link, as long as the C012 is
removed from the board. The C012 is socketed to allow easy
removal.
Desired Configuration
Required setup
Connect TRAM slot 0 link
0 to the host link (default)
M/S jumpers set to M, nothing
connected to master edge link,
TRAM in slot 0, C012 fitted
Connect host link to
external transputer
M/S jumpers set to M, link cable
connected to master edge link,
nothing in slot 0, C012 fitted
Connect external
transputer to slot 0 link 0
M/S jumpers set to S, link cable
connected to master edge link,
TRAM in slot 0, C012 removed
Table 7: Host link, Slot 0 link 0, and Master edge link options
38
Transputer Motherboard User Manual
TMB M 711
The TMB03 Motherboard
Figure 32 shows the effect of these jumpers and figure 33 shows
their use.
MASTER configuration
link out
C012
link0 in
link in
L0 out
master in
module0
master out
SLAVE configuration
link0 in
link0 out module0
master in
master out
Figure 32. Board Master & Slave Configuration
M
S
MASTER
(default)
SLAVE
M
S
Figure 33. Master & Slave Configuration options
IMPORTANT: note that to use the board configured as a slave
according to figure 32, the C012 chip must be removed. See
figure 30 on page 35 for the location of the C012.
Permanent damage may result if you do not remove the C012
when configuring the TMB03 as a slave, or if you use the master
TMB M 711
Transputer Motherboard User Manual
39
Board Configuration Jumpers
edge link when a TRAM is fitted in slot 0 and the board is
configured as a master.
4.1.5 IRQ & DMA Selection
The default connections are to use DMA channel 1 and interrupt line
3. These defaults are made by actual copper tracks on the surface of
the printed circuit board. To alter the defaults, cut the existing tracks
and hook up the solder pads as required. It is possible to configure
the board to use DMA channels 1, 2 or 3 and to use interrupts 3, 4,
5, 6, 7 or 9. To disable the Interrupts and DMA, just cut the tracks.
Your warrantee will not be affected by cutting the tracks or soldering
between the solder pads.
Figure 34 shows the area and details the default connections.
IRQ9
DMA2 (in)
DMA3 (out)
DMA3 (in)
DMA1 (out)
DMA1 (in)
IRQ7
IRQ6
IRQ5
IRQ4
IRQ3
DMA2 (out)
DMA (out)
DMA (in)
IRQ
Figure 34. Selection pins for Interrupt/DMA channel.
40
Transputer Motherboard User Manual
TMB M 711
The TMB03 Motherboard
4.2 The Edge Connector
On the right hand edge of the TMB03 is a 37-way D-type edge
connector. On the TMB03 the edge connector is used for two
purposes:
•
connecting to other motherboards control signals (via up, down
and subsystem)
•
connecting transputer links to construct the desired network
topology.
Figure 35 shows the pinout of the edge connector.
downError
downReset
master linkout
module4 link2out
subsystemAnalyse
module4 link3in
module4 link0in
GND
module3 link3out
module3 link0out
module2 link3 out
module2 link0in
19
18
17
16
15
14
13
12
11
10
9
8
module1 link3in
7
module1 link0in
6
GND
5
module0 link3out
4
module0 link1out
3
upAnalyse
2
GND
1
37
36
35
34
33
32
31
30
29
28
27
downAnalyse
master linkin
module4 link2in
subsystemError
subsystemReset
module4 link3out
module4 link0out
module3 link3in
module3 link0in
module2 link3in
GND
26
module2 link0out
25
module1 link3out
24
module1 link0out
23
module0 link3in
22
module0 link1in
21
upError
20
upReset
Figure 35. D-type pinout
TMB M 711
Transputer Motherboard User Manual
41
The Edge Connector
Included in the accompanying cable pack is a mini-backplane board
(“hedgehog”) which plugs into the edge connector and brings out the
various links and ports onto standard connectors which accept link
cables and reset cables. The pinout of this connector is shown in
figure 36.
DN
SU
down
subsystem
L11
L10
L9
L8
L7
L6
L5
L4
L3
L2
L1
L0
master link
module4 link2 (PipeTail)
module4 link3
module4 link0
module3 link3
module3 link0
module2 link3
module2 link0
module1 link3
module1 link0
module0 link3
module0 link1 (PipeHead)
UP
up
circuit board
stencilling
Function
Figure 36. Connections on break out board
Essentially, the connector brings out the three control ports, the
link0s and link3s of all the transputers (for network configuration) and
the ends of the default pipeline. This is summarized for reference
purposes in figure 37.
42
Transputer Motherboard User Manual
TMB M 711
The TMB03 Motherboard
L1
L3
S0
S1
3
L0
1
2
1
L7
3
2
1
L9
S3
S2
3
0
Host
PC
L5
S4
3
3
2
1
2
1
2
0
0
0
0
L2
L4
L6
L8
L10
L11
Figure 37. Summary of Network interconnect
4.2.1 Use of the master link
The TMB03’s master link provides extra functionality over the normal
PC motherboards. However, care must be exercised in its use so as
not to damage the hardware. Below is a list of all of the valid
configurations:
•
board set to master mode, master link not connected to anything
& one or more TRAMs plugged onto the board - normal
operation.
•
board set to master mode, master link connected to an external
rack of transputer equipment & no TRAM in slot0 of the board use as a link adapter card.
•
board set to slave mode, master link optionally connected to
external transputer equipment, one or more TRAMs plugged onto
the board & the C012 removed - slave use.
4.3 Example
The default configuration of the TMB03 is suitable for stand-alone
operation with software such as the Inmos Toolsets and 3L. The
TMB M 711
Transputer Motherboard User Manual
43
Example
example given here shows to configure a system consisting of two
TMB03s in the same PC. In this case:
•
the two boards must have different addresses
•
one board must be slaved to the other
•
the default pipeline needs to be connected
Set the jumpers as follows:
Jumper
First board
Second board
IBM/UP
out
in
Mod0SS
in
in
AS0
in
out
AS1
in
in
10MB/s
out
out
M/S
M
M
Table 8: Jumper settings for two TMB03s
Fit TRAMs in all sites (using pipe-jumpers on unused slots and on the
inactive slots of TRAMs larger than size 1). No subsystem pins are
needed.
Fit the boards in your PC, and using the “hedgehog” breakout
boards, make the following connections:
Cable
First board
Second board
Reset Cable
Down
Up
Link Cable
Pipetail (L10)
Pipehead (L0)
Table 9: Connections between TMB03s
Power on the PC and run check.
When connecting the TMB03 to motherboards which include
electronic link switching, then the TMB03’s PipeHead could be used
as ConfigDown (i.e. it may be connected to ConfigUp of the
configurable motherboard).
44
Transputer Motherboard User Manual
TMB M 711
The TMB04 Motherboard
Chapter 5
The TMB04 Motherboard
The TMB04 is a transputer board for PCs with a single T4 or T8
transputer, up to 16 MBytes of memory in SIMMs, a B004-compatible
PC link interface, and four TRAM sites.
The board has been designed to support transputer clock speeds
from 17.5 to 35 MHz, and the memory access time can be set to 3,
4, 5 or 6 cycles. This allows the matching of many different speeds
of memory device to different speeds of transputer.
Figure 38 shows the location of the various jumpers and switches on
the board.
SW1
LK6
T805
SW3
slot
0
memory
LK5
slot
1
slot
2
slot
3
LK11
LK12
SW2
Figure 38. Layout of the TMB04
TMB M 711
Transputer Motherboard User Manual
45
Fitting TRAMs
5.1 Fitting TRAMs
Up to 4 size one TRAMs may be fitted to the TMB04, and the general
considerations discussed in section 2.2 apply. However note that:
•
the TRAM sites are arranged sequentially (so pipe jumpers are
needed if you have TRAMs larger than size one),
•
there are large components under the TRAM sites, so SIL spacer
strips are needed. When a TRAM is placed over the on-board
transputer (in slots 0 and 1), and the TRAM has components on
its underside, use of an additional set of spacers is
recommended to avoid overheating the transputer,
•
there are no holes in the board, so the TRAMs cannot be secured
with nylon bolts.
5.2 Fitting memory
The TMB04 can be fitted with 4, 8, 12 or 16 SIMMs, which can be
either 256 KByte or 1 MByte. The board is normally supplied with 60
or 70 ns SIMMs. Memory should be expanded in the sequence
shown below - populating the SIMM slots in numerical order (the
numbers are printed on the PCB):
13 9 5 1 14 10 6 2 15 11 7 3 16 12 8 4
Figure 39. SIMM slot numbering.
See section 5.3.1 below for setting the memory speed selection
switches.
46
Transputer Motherboard User Manual
TMB M 711
The TMB04 Motherboard
5.3 Board Configuration Jumpers
This section describes the various board configuration settings and
TMB04 specific functionality.
The jumpers and switches are briefly described below, and in detail
in the following sections.
SW1
DMA and IRQ selection, IO base address
selection, C012 and TRAM slot link speed
selection, reset subsytem selection.
SW2
On-board transputer clock speed and link
speed selection.
SW3
Memory speed selection.
LK5
Connect transputer link 0 to host or edge
connector.
LK6
The source of control for the on-board
transputer can be from either the host PC
or from the edge connector (UP).
LK11
Selects the size of the memory SIMMs.
LK12
The TRAMs in slots 0 to 3 can be controlled
either from the subsystem of the on-board
transputer or from the source which
controls the transputer.
In the following sections, it is assumed that you are holding the board
component side up, with the PC bus edge connector pointing
towards you and the D-type connector to the right.
The jumper groups LK5 and LK11 each consist of two jumpers, and
LK6 and LK12 each consist of three jumpers. Each jumper can be in
one of two positions, referred to as left and right. In the left position
the jumper connects the central pin to the pin on the left, while in the
right position it connects the central pin to the one on the right. All
jumpers in a jumper group must be in the same position (left or right).
Each of the switch blocks consists of several switches, numbered
from one at the top, downwards. The switches are on when the
switch is moved to the right and off when it is moved to the left. The
switch numbers and the on position are marked on the switch blocks.
TMB M 711
Transputer Motherboard User Manual
47
Board Configuration Jumpers
5.3.1 On-board transputer clock and memory
The processor clock speed of the on-board transputer is selected by
SW2, switches 4, 5 and 6, as follows. You may set a clock speed
slower than that marked on the transputer, but not faster.
SW2.4
SW2.5
SW2.6
Processor clock
on
off
off
17.5 MHz
on
on
on
20 MHz (default)
on
off
on
25 MHz
off
off
on
30 MHz
Table 10: Processor clock speed select
The number of cycles taken to access local memory of the on-board
transputer can be selected by SW3. The correct setting depends on
the SIMM’s row access time (TRAC), the clock speed of the transputer
(as set by SW2), and on the number of SIMMs fitted.
Processor
clock
SIMM
speed
SW
3.1
SW
3.2
SW
3.3
SW
3.4
3
on
off
off
off
4
off
on
off
off
off
off
on
off
off
off
off
on
Cycles
20 MHz
70 ns
25 MHz
60 ns
30 MHz
40 ns
20 MHz
90 ns
25 MHZ
70 ns
30 MHz
60 ns
20 MHz
120 ns
5
25 MHz
90 ns
(default)
30 MHz
70 ns
6
Table 11: Memory access time selection (up to 8 MBytes)
48
Transputer Motherboard User Manual
TMB M 711
The TMB04 Motherboard
If more than 8 MBytes of memory is fitted, add one memory cycle to
the above.
Note that only one switch of SW3 should be on, or improper
operation will result.
Jumper block LK11 selects the memory size of each SIMM fitted, as
follows:
Jumper
LK11
Position
Description
Left
Memory is in 1 MByte SIMMs (default)
Right
Memory is in 256KByte SIMMs
Table 12: SIMM size selection jumper
5.3.2 Control Configuration
The board’s control configuration jumpers, LK6 and LK12, allow the
source of control for the on-board transputer and the modules in slots
0 to 3 to be determined. The control consist of the TRAM signals
reset, error and analyse.
Note that subsystem pins are not needed with the TMB04 - the onboard transputer acts as the master, and it’s subsystem port is wired
directly to the jumpers.
Jumper
LK6
Position
Description
Left
Transputer is controlled by the PC
(default)
Right
Transputer is controlled by the edge
connector up port
Table 13: On-board transputer control jumper
TMB M 711
Transputer Motherboard User Manual
49
Board Configuration Jumpers
Jumper
LK12
Position
Description
Left
Slots 0 to 3 are controlled from the
transputer’s subsystem port (default)
Right
Slots 0 to 34 are controlled from the
same source as the transputer
Table 14: On-board transputer subsystem jumper
By default, the reset line of the on-board transputer’s subsystem is
asserted whenever the on-board transputer is reset. However, the
TMB04 allows you to disable this behavior, so the TRAM slots are not
reset when the on-board transputer is reset.
Switch
SW1.8
Position
Description
on
transputer’s reset is copied to
subsystem (default)
off
transputer’s reset is not copied to
subsystem
Table 15: On-board transputer subsystem reset handling
5.3.3 Board IO Address
Configuration of the board IO base address is achieved via switch
SW1, as follows:
SW1.4
SW1.5
Description
off
on
Base address 150 hex (default)
on
off
Base address 200 hex
off
off
Base address 300 hex
on
on
Host link interface disabled
Table 16: Base address select switch
50
Transputer Motherboard User Manual
TMB M 711
The TMB04 Motherboard
5.3.4 Link Speed Configuration
The speeds of various links on the board are set by switches as
follows. Wherever two links are connected, they must be set at the
same speed.
Switch
SW1.6
Position
Description
on
C012 link at 10 MBits/s
off
C012 link at 20 MBits/s (default)
Table 17: C012 link speed selection switch
Switch
SW1.7
Position
Description
on
Links at 10 MBits/s
off
Links at 20 MBits/s (default)
Table 18: TRAM slots 0 to 3 link speed selection switch
SW
2.1
SW
2.2
SW
2.3
on-board transputer
link 0
on-board transputer
links 1 to 3
on
on
on
10 MBits/s
10 MBits/s
on
on
off
10 MBits/s
5 MBits/s
on
off
on
5 MBits/s
10 MBits/s
on
off
off
5 MBits/s
5 MBits/s
off
on
on
10 MBits/s
10 MBits/s
off
on
off
10 MBits/s
20 MBits/s
off
off
on
20 MBits/s
10 MBits/s
off
off
off
20 MBits/s (default)
20 MBits/s (default)
Table 19: Master transputer link speed selection switch
TMB M 711
Transputer Motherboard User Manual
51
Board Configuration Jumpers
5.3.5 Master and Slave Configuration
Link 0 of the on-board transputer may be connected either to the PC
interface or to the D-type connector.
Jumper
Position
LK5
Description
Left
transputer link 0 connected to PC
interface (default)
Right
transputer link 0 connected to D-type
connector (L0 on the hedgehog)
Table 20: On-board transputer link 0 jumper
5.3.6 IRQ & DMA Selection
The DMA channel and IRQ number can be set using SW1 as follows:
SW1.1
SW1.2
Description
on
on
No DMA channel
off
on
DMA channel 1 (default)
on
off
DMA channel 2
off
off
No DMA channel
Table 21: DMA channel selection switch
Switch
SW1.3
Position
Description
on
IRQ number 3 (default)
off
IRQ number 6
Table 22: IRQ number selection switch
52
Transputer Motherboard User Manual
TMB M 711
The TMB04 Motherboard
5.4 The Edge Connector
On the right hand edge of the TMB04 is a 37-way D-type edge
connector. On the TMB04 the edge connector is used for two
purposes:
•
connecting to other motherboards control signals (via up, down
and subsystem)
•
connecting transputer links to construct the desired network
topology.
Figure 40 shows the pinout of the edge connector.
downError
downReset
slot 0 link 3 out
slot 3 link 2 out
subsystemAnalyse
slot 0 link 1 in
slot 3 link 3 in
GND
slot 3 link 0 out
slot 2 link 0 out
slot 1 link 0 out
slot 0 link 0 in
19
18
17
16
15
14
13
12
11
10
9
8
transputer link 3 in
7
transputer link 2 in
6
GND
5
transputer link 1 out
4
transputer link 0 out
3
upAnalyse
2
GND
1
37
36
35
34
33
32
31
30
29
28
27
downAnalyse
slot 0 link 3 in
slot 3 link 2 in
subsystemError
subsystemReset
slot 0 link 1 out
slot 3 link 3 out
slot 3 link 0 in
slot 2 link 0 in
slot 1 link 0 in
GND
26
slot 0 link 0 out
25
transputer link 3 out
24
transputer link 2 out
23
transputer link 1 in
22
transputer link 0 in
21
upError
20
upReset
Figure 40. D-type pinout
TMB M 711
Transputer Motherboard User Manual
53
The Edge Connector
Included in the accompanying cable pack is a mini-backplane board
(“hedgehog”) which plugs into the edge connector and brings out the
various links and ports onto standard connectors which accept link
cables and reset cables. The pinout of this connector is shown in
figure 41.
DN
SU
down
subsystem
L11
L10
L9
L8
L7
L6
L5
L4
L3
L2
L1
L0
slot 0 link 3
slot 3 link 2 (PipeTail)
slot 0 link 1
slot 3 link 3
slot 3 link 0
slot 2 link 0
slot 1 link 0
slot 0 link 0
transputer link 3
transputer link 2
transputer link 1
transputer link 0
UP
up
circuit board
stencilling
Function
Figure 41. Connections on break out board
Essentially, the connector brings out the three control ports, the
link0s and link3s of all the transputers (for network configuration) and
the ends of the default pipeline. This is summarized for reference
purposes in figure 42.
Note that to connect a link of the on-board transputer to one of the
TRAM slots, the link must be looped back at the D-type, or made
using a link cable and the hedgehog - there are no links connecting
the transputer to the TRAM sites on the board.
54
Transputer Motherboard User Manual
TMB M 711
The TMB04 Motherboard
L1
L3
on-board
transputer
L11
3
3
1
2
0
Host
PC
S0
L9
L2
L8
1
S1
2
1
S3
S2
3
3
2
1
3
2
1
2
0
0
0
0
L4
L5
L6
L7
L10
L0
Figure 42. Summary of Network interconnect
TMB M 711
Transputer Motherboard User Manual
55
The Edge Connector
56
Transputer Motherboard User Manual
TMB M 711
The TMB08 Motherboard
Chapter 6
The TMB08 Motherboard
This chapter gives a detailed hardware description of the TMB08.
The various features of the board are described and some examples
of configuration are given.
6.1 Overview
The TMB08 is a full length PC hosted TRAM motherboard, with
space to plug in up to ten Transputer Modules.
The TMB08 is shipped with an IMSC004 link switch, which provides
for setting up user defined topologies. The switch is flexible enough
to allow any TRAM’s link 0 or 3 to be connected to any other TRAM’s
link 0 or 3 or any one of eight edge connections.
The TMB08 has a link patch area which, amongst other things,
allows PipeHead and ConfigUp to be connected together.
Figure 43 shows the TRAM layout of this board for reference.
slot slot slot slot slot slot slot slot slot slot
1
4
5
2
3
6
8
7
0
9
Figure 43. TMB08 TRAM layout
TMB M 711
Transputer Motherboard User Manual
57
Network Configuration
Figure 44 shows the board layout for reference.
Board configuration switches
Link Patch area
Programming header for manufacturer
use only
37-way D-type edge connector
Figure 44. TMB08 board layout
6.2 Network Configuration
This section provides an overview of network configuration on the
TMB08. It describes the wiring of the electronic link switch, the patch
area and shows the relationship between these and the edge
connector.
6.2.1 Electronic Link Configuration
This section describes the organization of the electronic link switch,
the IMSC004.
In this application the C004 is used simply as a crossbar switch. The
device is connected to 30 links, and can switch any link connected to
any other link connected.
The links connected to the C004 are:
58
•
link0 of all TRAM slots except module0 (module0 link0 is always
connected to the host PC),
•
link3 of all TRAM slots,
•
link 0 of the T2 configuration processor,
Transputer Motherboard User Manual
TMB M 711
The TMB08 Motherboard
•
eight edge connectors,
•
two spare links, which are taken to the patch area.
The C004 is programmed via the T2 configuration processor on the
board. This in turn is programmed via ConfigUp.
The connections are shown in figure 45 for reference.
IMS C004
module1 L0
module2 L0
module3 L0
module4 L0
module5 L0
module6 L0
module7 L0
module8 L0
module9 L0
module0 L3
module1 L3
module2 L3
module3 L3
module4 L3
module5 L3
link1
link2
link3
link4
link5
link6
link7
link8
link9
link10
link11
link12
link13
link14
link15
module6 L3
module7 L3
module8 L3
module9 L3
edge0
edge1
edge2
edge3
edge4
edge5
edge6
edge7
C004 L28
C004 L29
link16
link17
link18
link19
link20
link21
link22
link23
link24
link25
link26
link27
link28
link29
ConfigLink
L3
ConfigUp
L1
Configuration
Processor
L2
ConfigDown
L0
IMSC004 Link 0
Figure 45. C004 Wiring
TMB M 711
Transputer Motherboard User Manual
59
Network Configuration
6.2.2 The Link Patch Area
The link patch area is a 6x2 jumper header on 0.1" spacing. The
required connections can be made by moving push-on shorting links
to the correct positions
The primary purpose of the patch area is to allow PipeHead and
ConfigUp to be terminated correctly. Using the patch it is possible to
either connect these two together (for the first motherboard in a
system) or to take them off the board (for a slave motherboard).
The links taken to the patch area are:
•
ConfigUp, i.e., link1 of the configuration processor
•
PipeHead. i.e., Module0 link1
•
two of the links from the crossbar switch (C004L28/29)
•
two links which are taken directly to the edge connector
(patch0/1)
L0
root
module0
C004 L28
patch0
T2 Config
slot0 link1
patch1
C004 L29
Figure 46 shows the links attached to the patch area and the default
connections made when the board is shipped.
L1
L1
PC
T2
L3
C004
Root module can setup C004
Figure 46. The Link Patch Area for Master Board
60
Transputer Motherboard User Manual
TMB M 711
edge
C004 L28
patch0
T2 Config
slot0 link1
patch1
C004 L29
The TMB08 Motherboard
L1
root
L1 module0
T2
edge
L3
C004
Figure 47. TMB08 Patch Area, connections for slave board
TMB M 711
Transputer Motherboard User Manual
61
Description
6.2.3 Summary of Network Configuration
Figure 48 shows the interconnection between the module slots, the
electronic link switch, the link patch area and the edge connector. It
is included for reference.
Edge connector
patch0/1
ConfigDown
edge0 to 7
PipeTail
2
ConfigUp
1
T2
3
C004
0
C004 L28/29
patch
3
1 slot
0
0
3
2
1
0
slot 2
1
3
1
0
slot 2
2
0
3
1 slot 2
9
PC link
Figure 48. Network configuration summary
6.3 Description
6.3.1 Board Configuration
The basic board configuration is achieved by the use of the
configuration switches. In the top right hand corner of the board there
is a 6 way switch bank. Switch 1 is on the right, switch 6 left is not
used.
The switches control the following functions:
62
Transputer Motherboard User Manual
TMB M 711
The TMB08 Motherboard
•
S1, S2 Board base address
•
S3
Module link speed
•
S4
Modules 1-9 control source
•
S5
Module 0 control source
6.3.1.1 Link Speed
Switch 3 controls the transputer link speed. With the switch off/open
(default) the links run at 20MHz. With the switch on/closed the links
run at 10MHz.
6.3.1.2 Board Address
Switches S1 and S2 select the board base address. The four
possible options are shown in Figure 49.
S2
on
off
on
off
S1
on
on
off
off
Board address (Hex)
150
200
250
300
Figure 49. Board address options
6.3.1.3 Control Configuration
There are two configuration options relating to board control:
•
S4 MD0, source of control for modules1 to 9.
•
S5 IBM, source of control for module0
If switch S4 is on, then the source of control for modules1 to 9 is from
the same source as module0. If S4 is off then modules1 to 9 are
controlled from module0’s subsystem.
If switch S5 is on, then the source of control for module0 is from up
on the edge connector. If S5 is off then the source of control is the
host PC.
TMB M 711
Transputer Motherboard User Manual
63
Description
Figure 50 summarizes for the case of the link area.
S4 S5
on on
S4
S5
off
off
source of control module 0: edge connector
modules 1 to 9: same as module0
source of control module 0: host PC
modules 1 to 9: module0’s subsystem
Figure 50. Control configuration (link)
6.3.2 IRQ & DMA Selection
The interrupt request level and DMA channel used are programmed
by writing to 4bits in the IRQ and DMA channel select register. At
base address +#14. This is a read/write register so that the
programmed selection can be read back. The register coding is as
shown in figure 51 and figure 52
Bit 1
0
0
1
1
Bit 0
0
1
0
1
IRQ
3 - reset value
5
11
15
Figure 51. IRQ Channel select.
64
Transputer Motherboard User Manual
TMB M 711
The TMB08 Motherboard
.
Bit 3
0
0
1
1
Bit 2
0
1
0
1
DMA Channel
0 - reset value
1
DMA Disabled
3
Figure 52. DMA Channel select.
Note: although the TMB08 has a 8 bit (XT) interface the board is that
of a 16bit (AT) board. The extra connector (short connector) allows
more flexible IRQ and DMA selection. If the board is plugged into a
8 bit only slot then only IQR 3 or 5 and DMA 1 or 3 can be used.
6.3.3 The Edge Connector
On the right hand edge of the TMB08 is a 37-way D-type edge
connector.
On the TMB08 the edge connector is used for connection to other
motherboards. For this purpose the following are brought out:
TMB M 711
•
the three control ports and the configuration link,
•
twelve transputer links.
Transputer Motherboard User Manual
65
Description
Figure 53 shows the pin-out of the edge connector.
downError
downReset
ConfigDown out
PipeTail out
subsystemAnalyse
patch link1in
patch link0in
GND
edge link7out
edge link6out
edge link5out
edge link4in
edge link3in
edge link2in
GND
edge link1out
edge link0out
NotUpAnalyse
GND
19
37
18
36
17
35
16
34
15
33
14
32
13
31
12
30
11
29
10
28
9
27
8
26
7
25
6
24
5
23
4
22
3
21
2
20
1
downAnalyse
ConfigDown in
PipeTail in
subsystemError
subsystemReset
patch link1out
patch link0out
edge link7in
edge link6in
edge link5in
GND
edge link4out
edge link3out
edge link2out
edge link1in
edge link0in
NotUpError
NoyUpReset
Figure 53. D-type pinout
Included in the accompanying cable pack is a mini-backplane board
which plugs into the edge connector and brings out the various links
and ports onto standard connectors which accept link cables and
reset cables. The pinout of this connector is shown in figure 54.
66
Transputer Motherboard User Manual
TMB M 711
The TMB08 Motherboard
.
DN
SU
down
subsystem
L11
L10
L9
L8
L7
L6
L5
L4
L3
L2
L1
L0
ConfigDown
PipeTail
patch link1
patch link0
edge link7
edge link6
edge link5
edge link4
edge link3
edge link2
edge link1
edge link0
UP
up
circuit board
stencilling
Function
Figure 54. Connections on break out board
6.3.4 The Link Patch Area
The default wiring for the link patch area is to connect:
•
ConfigUp to PipeHead,
•
patch0 to C004 L28,
•
patch1 to C004 L29.
The patch0/1 connections allow 10 links to be brought out from the
C004 to the edge connector.
TMB M 711
Transputer Motherboard User Manual
67
Examples
L0
root
module0
C004 L28
patch0
T2 Config
slot0 link1
patch1
C004 L29
The pinout of the link patch area is shown in figure 55 along with the
default connections.
L1
L1
PC
T2
L3
C004
Root module can setup C004
Figure 55. TMB08 Patch Area, connections for master board
6.4 Examples
This section shows how to set the board configuration options for two
examples:
•
a single TMB08 configured for use with an Inmos Toolset,
•
two TMB08s connected as a single system, configured for use
with an Inmos Toolset.
6.4.1 Stand-alone TMB08
The most common stand-alone configuration for the TMB08 is for
use with the Inmos Toolsets, with every TRAM reset from the PC.To
achieve this configuration, set the link the link patch area as shown
in figure 55, and make the following setting:
68
Transputer Motherboard User Manual
TMB M 711
The TMB08 Motherboard
:
Switches
Setting
Description
S1
S2
on
on
Base Address #150
S3
off
Use 20 Mbit/s links
S4
on
Slot1-9 reset as slot 0
S5
off
Slot 0 controlled from PC
Table 23: Default settings for stand-alone operation
6.4.2 Multiple TMB08s
As an example of connecting multiple motherboards together
consider a system consisting of two TMB08s in the same PC. In this
case:
•
the two boards must have different addresses
•
one board must be slaved to the other
•
the default pipeline needs to be connected
•
the configuration pipeline needs to be connected
First set up one board with the same configuration as for stand-alone
operation (see above). Ensure that pipe-jumpers are used in empty
TRAM slots, and in the inactive slots of any TRAMs larger than size
1, so that link 2 of the last TRAM on the motherboard is taken out to
pipe tail.
TMB M 711
Transputer Motherboard User Manual
69
Examples
edge
C004 L28
patch0
T2 Config
slot0 link1
patch1
C004 L29
Then set up the second board as follows. The link patch area should
be configured as shown in figure 56.
L1
root
L1 module0
T2
edge
L3
C004
Figure 56. TMB08 Patch Area, connections for slave board
The jumpers and links on the slave board should be set up as follows:
Switches
Setting
Description
S1
S2
on
off
Bus address #200
S3
off
Use 20 Mbit/s links
S4
on
Slots 1 to 9 controlled from
same source as slot 0
S5
on
Slot 0 controlled from UP
Table 24: Settings for slave operation
70
Transputer Motherboard User Manual
TMB M 711
The TMB08 Motherboard
Plug both boards into the PC and fit hedgehogs, and make the
following connections between the boards:
Cable
First board
Second board
Reset Cable
Down (DN)
Up (UP)
Link Cable
Pipetail (L10)
Patch 1 (L9)
Link Cable
ConfigDown (L11)
Patch 0 (L8)
Table 25: Connections between TMB08s
TMB M 711
Transputer Motherboard User Manual
71
Examples
72
Transputer Motherboard User Manual
TMB M 711
The TMB12 Motherboard
Chapter 7
The TMB12 Motherboard
7.1 Overview
The TMB12 is a double extended eurocard TRAM motherboard, with
space for up to sixteen Transputer Modules.
The board is essentially a stand-alone motherboard in that it contains
no interface hardware to any host computer. Connection to other
transputer systems is achieved via an edge connector which brings
32 links out of the board. Board services (power, configuration and
system services) are also brought out to an edge connector.
The TMB12 is designed to be plugged into a purpose designed rack
(the Transrack) which provides mechanical stability, power and
cooling services.
The TMB12 has two C004 link switch chips and a controlling T222
transputer on board in order to provide for software control of network
configuration.
TMB M 711
Transputer Motherboard User Manual
73
Overview
Figure 57 shows the layout of TRAM sites on the motherboard for
reference.
Slot1
Slot2
Slot5
Slot6
Slot9
Slot10
Slot13
Slot14
Slot0
Slot3
Slot4
Slot7
Slot8
Slot11
Slot12
Slot15
Figure 57. TMB12 TRAM layout
Figure 58 shows the general board layout (including configuration
jumpers and switches) for reference.
74
Transputer Motherboard User Manual
TMB M 711
The TMB12 Motherboard
P1
SW1
K1
P3
P2
L2
L3
L1
P4
Figure 58. TMB12 board layout
The major components outlined in the figure are described very
briefly here:
TMB M 711
•
P1 - carries 32 transputer links off the board,
•
P2 - carries power, pipeline and configuration links, and system
control signals off the board,
•
K1 - allows the default pipeline to be broken up,
•
SW1 - provides for board configuration (mainly link speeds).
Transputer Motherboard User Manual
75
Description
7.2 Description
7.2.1 Board Configuration
The TMB12 has a number of hardware options which are selectable
by switch bank SW1. Table 26 shows the options that can be
selected.
Switch
SW1.1
Setting
Description
off
C004 links at 20Mbits/s (default)
on
C004 links10Mbits/s
SW1.2 &
off
All TRAMs at 20Mbits/s (default)
SW1.3
on
All TRAMs at 10Mbits/s
SW1.4
off
T2 link 0 at 20Mbits/s (default)
on
T2 link 0 at 10Mbits/s
off
T2 links 1, 2 & 3 at 20Mbits/s
(default)
on
T2 links 1, 2 & 3 10Mbits/s
off
Slots 1 to 15 controlled from slot 0
subsystem
on
Slots 1 to 15 controlled from UP
(default)
SW1.5
SW1.6
Table 26: TMB12 Link speed and control selection
In nearly all applications, SW1.1 to SW1.5 will be OFF, and SW1.6
will be ON.
Note that it is only sensible to have all the links on the board
operating at the same speed.
Slot 0 is always controlled from the UP port.
7.2.2 The P1 Edge Connector
The TMB12 has two edge connectors called P1 and P2. Both of
these connectors are standard DIN41612 96 way connectors.
Ensure that when wiring to one of these connectors you do not
76
Transputer Motherboard User Manual
TMB M 711
The TMB12 Motherboard
accidentally wire to the wrong connector - this could cause
permanent damage to the board.
Connector P1 carries 32 links from the electronic switches, whilst
connector P2 carries a number of board and system services.
The P1 edge connector brings 32 transputer links out of the TMB12
for connection to other boards. Table 27 shows the pinout of this
connector.
When looking at the component side of the TMB12 with the DIN
connectors to the right, pin 0 of the connector is at the top. This is
also true when the TMB12 is mounted into a Transrack. The
numbering of the links is consistent with table 30 and the numbering
scheme used by NCS.
In order to assist in connecting standard link cables to the edge
connector, the TMB12 comes with a break out board in the cable
pack. This plugs into the P1 edge connector and brings the links out
onto standard link plugs.
7.2.3 The P2 Edge Connector
Edge connector P2 carries:
•
the power supply (+5V required, rated @ at least 3Amps),
•
up, down & subsystem,
•
ConfigUp & ConfigDown,
•
PipeHead & PipeTail,
•
a link from the C004 switches,
•
a link to the K1 header block,
•
and a number of uncommitted pins (connected to P4).
Note that under normal operation (the TMB12 mounted in a
Transrack), sufficient power and cooling are provided. A power cable
is provided with the TMB12 for stand-alone operation, but it is not
recommended that stand-alone operation be permanent.
Table 28 gives the detailed pinout of this connector.
In order to allow standard link and reset cables to be attached to the
TMB12, a special back-to-back connector is supplied in the cable
pack which has a number of keying pins (either pins removed or pins
sleeved) which assist in locating the cables to the correct point. This
is shown in figure 59.
TMB M 711
Transputer Motherboard User Manual
77
Description
Pin
c
b
a
edge L0
IC3linkout0
IC2linkin0
GND
edge L1
IC3linkout2
IC2linkin2
GND
edge L2
IC2linkout4
IC3linkin4
GND
edge L3
IC2linkout5
IC3linkin5
GND
edge L4
IC2linkout6
IC3linkin6
GND
edge L5
IC2linkout3
IC3linkin3
GND
edge L6
IC3linkout1
IC2linkin1
GND
edge L7
IC3linkout7
IC2linkin7
GND
edge L8
IC3linkout29
IC2linkin29
GND
edge L9
IC3linkout30
IC2linkin30
GND
edge L10
IC2linkout31
IC3linkin31
GND
edge L11
IC2linkout28
IC3linkin28
GND
edge L12
IC3linkout24
IC2linkin24
GND
edge L13
IC2linkout25
IC3linkin25
GND
edge L14
IC2linkout26
IC3linkin26
GND
edge L15
IC3linkout27
IC2linkin27
GND
edge L16
IC3linkout17
IC2linkin17
GND
edge L17
IC2linkout19
IC3linkin19
GND
edge L18
IC2linkout22
IC3linkin22
GND
edge L19
IC3linkout23
IC2linkin23
GND
edge L20
IC2linkout16
IC3linkin16
GND
edge L21
IC2linkout18
IC3linkin18
GND
edge L22
IC3linkout21
IC2linkin21
GND
edge L23
IC3linkout20
IC2linkin20
GND
edge L24
IC3linkout10
IC2linkin10
GND
edge L25
IC3linkout13
IC2linkin13
GND
edge L26
IC3linkout14
IC2linkin14
GND
edge L27
IC3linkout11
IC2linkin11
GND
edge L28
IC2linkout8
IC3linkin8
GND
edge L29
IC2linkout9
IC3linkin9
GND
edge L30
IC2linkout12
IC3linkin12
GND
edge L31
IC2linkout15
IC3linkin15
GND
Table 27: P1 connector pinout
78
Transputer Motherboard User Manual
TMB M 711
The TMB12 Motherboard
Pin
c
b
a
0
GND
GND
1
VCC
VCC
GND
VCC
2
PAUX
nc
PAUX
3
VCC
VCC
VCC
4
GND
GND
GND
5
VCC
VCC
VCC
6
GND
GND
GND
7
nc
nc
nc
8
slot0linkout1
slot0linkout0
slot15linkout2
9
slot0linkin1
slot0linkin0
slot15linkin2
10
GND
GND
GND
11
nc
nc
nc
12
GND
GND
GND
13
nc
nc
nc
14
IC1linkout1
IC3linkout22
IC1linkout2
15
IC1linkin1
IC2linkin22
IC1linkin2
16
GND
GND
GND
17
nc
nc
nc
18
P4/3
nc
P4/2
19
P4/4
nc
nc
20
P4/5
GND
nc
21
P4/6
nc
notSubReset
22
P4/7
K1/11
notSubAnalyse
23
P4/8
K1/10
notSubError
24
P4/9
GND
GND
25
P4/10
nc
nc
26
nc
GND
nc
27
notUpReset
nc
notDownReset
28
notUpAnalyse
K1/3
notDownAnalyse
29
notUpError
K1/18
notDownError
30
GND
GND
GND
31
GND
GND
GND
Table 28: P2 connector pinout
TMB M 711
Transputer Motherboard User Manual
79
GND
VCC
GND
VCC
VCC
GND
VCC
GND
VCC
GND
VCC
GND
GND
nc
GND
slot0linkin0
GND
nc
GND
IC1linkout1
IC3linkout22
IC1linkin1
GND
nc
P4/3
P4/4
P4/5
IC2linkin22
GND
nc
nc
nc
GND
P4/6
P4/7
P4/8
P4/9
P4/10
K1/11
K1/10
GND
nc
nc
notUpReset
notUpAnalyse
notUpError
GND
ConfigDown
slot0linkout0
GND
K1/3
K1/18
GND
slot15linkout2
slot15linkin2
GND
nc
GND
IC1linkout2
IC1linkin2
GND
nc
P4/2
nc
nc
Subsystem
slot0linkout1
slot0linkin1
PipeTail
VCC
GND
Down
Up
ConfigUp
PipeHead
Description
notSubReset
notSubAnalyse
notSubError
nc
notDownReset
notDownAnalyse
notDownError
GND
Figure 59. Mini-backplane P2 Connections
80
Transputer Motherboard User Manual
TMB M 711
The TMB12 Motherboard
7.2.4 Other Hardware
This section describes the remaining hardware outside of the
electronic link switches.
7.2.4.1 Error Lights
There are three LEDs mounted on the edge of the TMB12 protuding
through the front plate. They monitor the error signals coming from
the various slots. Figure 60 summarizes.
(LD2) displays error lines from the front row of
slots (excluding slot0) i.e., slots1,5,9,13,4,8 &12
(LD3) displays error lines from the back row of
slots, i.e., slots 2,6,10,14,3,7,11 &15
(LD1) displays error line from slot0
Figure 60. Error lights on the TMB12
7.2.4.2 User Power Connector
There is an optional four-way power connector, P3, mounted at the
front of the board. The connector plug is compatible with the power
supply socket on most disk units, and can be used to drive such
peripherals. From top to bottom the pins are:
Top
connected to P2 3a & 3c (PAUX)
0V
0V
Bottom
5V
Table 29: User Power connector, P3
The pins are rated for currents up to 3Amps.
7.2.4.3 Uncommitted Pins
Nine of the pins on edge connector P2 are wired to nine of the pins
(2 through 10) of an uncommitted connector, P4, on the board. The
two other pins of P4 (1 & 11) are wired to ground. P4 allows
TMB M 711
Transputer Motherboard User Manual
81
Network Configuration
application specific signals to be brought onto the motherboard, e.g.,
RS232 lines. The individual pins of P4 are rated at 50mA @ 25V with
respect to ground. Note that pin1 of P4 is at the top.
7.3 Network Configuration
This section provides an overview of network configuration on the
TMB12. It describes the electronic link switching, the pipeline and the
relation with the edge connectors.
7.3.1 Electronic Link Switching
This section describes the organization of the electronic link
switches.
The two C004s on the TMB12 allow complex transputer topologies
to be constructed. They are used in a slightly unusual way to allow
the maximum amount of re-connectivity on the TMB12 given the
constraints of the hard-wired pipeline.
In general, the link output signals from all the link0s on all the slots
(16 signals) are connected to 16 inputs of one of the C004s (IC2).
The link input signals from all the link3s on all the slots (16 signals)
are connected to 16 of the outputs of the same C004. The C004 can
therefore switch any link0 output to any link3 input.
Similarly, the other C004 is connected to the TRAM slot’s link0 inputs
and link3 outputs. This C004 can therefore switch any link3 output to
any link0 input.
This means that each half of a switched link connection between two
transputers is routed through a different C004. The result of this
wiring scheme is that any link0 of any transputer can be connected
to any link3 of any transputer. However, a link0 may not connect
directly to another link0.
In a similar fashion to the transputer links, there are 32 edge
connector links. Edge links are divided equally into two types:
•
type 0: wired as per transputer link0’s, i.e., link output to IC2 and
link input from IC3
•
type3: wired as per transputer link3’s, i.e., link output to IC3 and
link input from IC2.
Hence, the link switching that can be achieved is:
82
•
any link0 to any link3,
•
any link0 to any edge link of type3,
Transputer Motherboard User Manual
TMB M 711
The TMB12 Motherboard
•
any link3 to any edge link of type0,
•
any edge link of type0 to any edge link of type3.
Where there are 16 link0’s, 16 link3’s and 16 each of edge links types
0 & 3.
Note that a link0 can be wired to another link0 by connecting the two
link0s to two edge connector links and hard-wiring the edge
connector links together.
Figure 61 shows the general wiring scheme between the TRAM slots
and the switches, figure 62 the connections to the T2 configuration
processor, and table 30 shows the link wiring in full detail.
Unless otherwise stated the edge connector referred to is P1. These
figures are included for reference only. Programming of the link
switches is best achieved with the NCS provided.
Note that the naming of the links connected to the edge connector
P1 is from the perspective of the edge connector looking towards the
C004s. Hence, edge L6 out is a link wire going towards the C004s,
and is connected to the input of the appropriate C004.
TMB M 711
Transputer Motherboard User Manual
83
Network Configuration
Edge Connector Links
IMSC004 (IC2)
L3In
L3In
L3Out
L1
Slot
0 L2
L1
Slot
15 L2
Pipetail
Pipehead
L3Out
L0Out
L0Out
L0In
L0In
IMSC004 (IC3)
Edge Connector Links
Figure 61. Connection details of the link switches
Config Up
1
IC2
config
0
T2
IC3
3
config
2
Config Down
Figure 62. Connections to the configuration processor
84
Transputer Motherboard User Manual
TMB M 711
The TMB12 Motherboard
Link
No.
IC2 link in
IC2 link out
IC3 link in
IC3 link out
0
edge L0 out
slot 2 L3 in
slot 2 L3 out
edge L0 in
1
edge L6 out
slot 5 L3 in
slot 5 L3 out
edge L6 in
2
edge L1 out
slot 1 L3 in
slot 1 L3 out
edge L1 in
3
slot 5 L0 out
edge L5 in
edge L5 out
slot 5 L0 in
4
slot 2 L0 out
edge L2 in
edge L2 out
slot 2 L0 in
5
slot 1 L0 out
edge L3 in
edge L3 out
slot 1 L0 in
6
slot 6 L0 out
edge L4 in
edge L4 out
slot 6 L0 in
7
edge L7 out
slot 6 L3 in
slot 6 L3 out
edge L7 in
8
slot 15 L0 out
edge L28 in
edge L28 out
slot 15 L0 in
9
slot 8 L0 out
edge L29 in
edge L29 out
slot 8 L0 in
10
edge L24 out
slot 15 L3 in
slot 15 L3 out
edge L24 in
11
edge L27 out
slot 11 L3 in
slot 11 L3 out
edge L27 in
12
slot 12 L0 out
edge L30 in
edge L30 out
slot 12 L0 in
13
edge L25 out
slot 12 L3 in
slot 12 L3 out
edge L25 in
14
edge L26 out
slot8 L3 in
slot8 L3 out
edge L26 in
15
slot 11 L0 out
edge L3 in
edge L3 out
slot 11 L0 in
16
slot 7 L0 out
edge L20 in
edge L20 out
slot 7 L0 in
17
edge L16 out
slot 3 L3 in
slot 3 L3 out
edge L16 in
18
slot 4 L0 out
edge L21 in
edge L21 out
slot 4 L0 in
19
slot 3 L0 out
edge L17 in
edge L17 out
slot 3 L0 in
20
edge L23 out
slot 7 L3 in
slot 7 L3 out
edge L23 in
21
edge L22 out
slot 4 L3 in
slot 4 L3 out
edge L22 in
22
P2 pin b15
(slot 0 L0 out)
edge L18 in
edge L18 out
P2 pin b14
(slot 0 L0 in)
23
edge L19 out
K1 pin 20
(slot 0 L3 in)
K1 pin 1
(slot 0 L3 out)
edge L19 in
24
edge L12 out
slot 14 L3 in
slot 14 L3 out
edge L12 in
25
slot 13 L0 out
edge L13 in
edge L13 out
slot 13 L0 in
26
slot 14 L0 out
edge L14 in
edge L14 out
slot 14 L0 in
27
edge L15 out
slot 13 L3 in
slot 13 L3 out
edge L15 in
28
slot 9 L0 out
edge L11 in
edge L11 out
slot 9 L0 in
29
edge L8 out
slot 9 L3 in
slot 9 L3 out
edge L8 in
30
edge L9 out
slot 10 L3 in
slot 10 L3 out
edge L9 in
31
slot 10 L0 out
edge L10 in
edge L10 out
slot 10 L0 in
Table 30: Connections to the C004s
TMB M 711
Transputer Motherboard User Manual
85
Network Configuration
7.3.2 The K1 Header Block
The TMB12 has a slightly modified default pipeline (connecting the
TRAM slots in a chain using links 1 and 2). This is designed to allow
users to construct complex topologies, whilst maintaining
compatibility with the TRAM standard.
The default pipeline is split into four sub-pipelines by the K1 header
block. By default this header is jumpered such that the four subpipelines are connected together into one long pipeline.
The default pipeline is split at locations: 3-4, 7-8 and 11-12. Also
taken to K1 are two links from the P2 edge connector and one link
from the electronic switches. Figure 63 illustrates this along with the
default connections.
PipeHead (P2)
0
4
8
12
1
5
9
13
2
6
10
14
3
7
11
15
PipeTail (P2)
K1
C004switches
P2 Edge connector
Figure 63. K1 connection diagram
K1 is a 20 pin header block organized 10 by 2 pins. Small jumpers
are used to set the configuration.
86
Transputer Motherboard User Manual
TMB M 711
The TMB12 Motherboard
Figure 64 gives the detailed pinout of the K1 connector and shows
the default positions of the jumpers.
Edge of board
P2/23b 11
Slot 3, Link2out 12
Slot 4, Link1in 13
Slot 7, Link2out 14
10 P2/24b
9 Slot 3, Link2in
8 Slot 4, Link1out
7 Slot 7, Link2in
Slot 8, Link1in 15
6 Slot 8, Link1out
Slot 11, Link2out 16
5 Slot 11, Link2in
Slot 12, Link1in 17
P2/30b 18
4 Slot 12, Link1out
3 P2/29b
Slot 0, Link3in 19
2 Slot 0, Link3out
IC3 Link23out 20
1 IC3 Link23in
Figure 64. Details of K1 header, showing default jumper settings
7.3.3 The P1 Edge Connector
This section describes the network configuration aspects of the use
of the P1 edge connector. For detailed pinouts see section 7.2.2 on
page 76.
The edge links of P1 are divided up into type0 links and type3 links.
Remember that the C004s can connect a type0 edge link to link 3 of
any TRAM slot, and a type3 edge link to link 0 of any TRAM slot.
Table 31 classifies all the edge links into one of these two types.
If the desired network topology includes connecting transputer link0’s
together, then this can be achieved by wiring the transputer links to
the edge connector and using a short link cable to jumper the break
out board. Clearly transputer link0s can be wired to any edge link of
type3. Table 32 shows the recommended wiring to make on the
break out board to achieve link0-link0 and link3-link3 connections.
Note that this table also describes the default wiring of the break out
board on shipping.
TMB M 711
Transputer Motherboard User Manual
87
Network Configuration
P1 edge Link
Link type
P1 edge Link
Link type
edge L0
type 0
edge L16
type 3
edge L1
type 0
edge L17
type 3
edge L2
type 3
edge L18
type 3
edge L3
type 3
edge L19
type 0
edge L4
type 3
edge L20
type 3
edge L5
type 3
edge L21
type 3
edge L6
type 0
edge L22
type 0
edge L7
type 0
edge L23
type 0
edge L8
type 0
edge L24
type 0
edge L9
type 0
edge L25
type 0
edge L10
type 3
edge L26
type 0
edge L11
type 3
edge L27
type 0
edge L12
type 0
edge L28
type 3
edge L13
type 3
edge L29
type 3
edge L14
type 3
edge L30
type 3
edge L15
type 0
edge L31
type 3
Table 31: Edge link classification
Link 0
Link 3
From
To
From
To
edge L2
edge L3
edge L0
edge L1
edge L4
edge L5
edge L6
edge L7
edge L10
edge L11
edge L8
edge L9
edge L13
edge L14
edge L12
edge L15
edge L17
edge L18
edge L16
edge L19
edge L20
edge L21
edge L22
edge L23
edge L28
edge L29
edge L24
edge L25
edge L30
edge L31
edge L26
edge L27
Table 32: Default P1 link cable connections
88
Transputer Motherboard User Manual
TMB M 711
The TMB12 Motherboard
7.3.4 Summary
This section summarizes the network configuration of the TMB12 by
providing a brief description of all of the aspects described in the
preceding sections.
•
the link0’s and link3s of modules in sites 1 to 15 are taken to an
electronic link switch array. Also taken to this array are 32 edge
connector links (P1). In general, any module link0 can connect to
any module link3 or to one of 16 edge connector links.
•
the default pipeline is broken up into four equal length subpipelines by header K1. Normally these sub-pipelines are
connected together into one long pipeline.
•
slot0 link0 is taken directly to edge connector P2. Also taken to
P2 is the C004 link that it would have been expected to be wired
to. In normal use, these two links would be wired together using
a specially provided link jumper (the “yellow plug cable”, see
figure 65). slot0 link0 is brought directly to the edge connector as
it allows those applications that require it to have two directly
wired links to other transputer equipment, i.e., links which bypass
the C004s.
VCC
GND
slot0linkout0
slot0linkin0
GND
nc
GND
IC3linkout22
IC2linkin22
GND
nc
Figure 65. Jumpering slot0 link0 to the C004s
•
TMB M 711
slot0 link3 is taken to the header block K1. Also taken to K1 is the
C004 link that slot0 link3 is normally wired to. Because there is a
Transputer Motherboard User Manual
89
Network Configuration
link between K1 and P2, this allows slot0 link3 to be taken off the
board, bypassing the electronic switches.
Figure 66 shows the main relations between P2, K1 and the link
switches.
P2
C004 switches
16b/15b
L 22 L 23
K1
1/20
10b/9b
10c/9c
0
1
2
3
19/2
9/12
4
5
6
7
13/8
7/14
8
9
10
11
15/6
5/16
17/4
12
13
14
15
10a/9a
16c/15c
16a/15a
30b/29b
23b/24b
T2
3/18
11/10
Figure 66. Network configuration
90
Transputer Motherboard User Manual
TMB M 711
The TMB14 Motherboard
Chapter 8
The TMB14 Motherboard
8.1 Overview
The TMB14 is a 6U (160mm) VME TRAM motherboard, with space
for up to eight Transputer Modules.
The link connections between the TRAMs are controlled by a pair of
C004 link switches. 24 links are taken from these to edge connectors
on the board. This arrangement allows almost any network topology
to be adopted.
The board also provides a single bidirectional link and subsystem
port which can be controlled through its VMEbus interface by a host
computer.
Figure 67 shows the layout of the board with the major components,
switches and jumpers highlighted.
TMB M 711
Transputer Motherboard User Manual
91
Overview
SLOT 1
P4
SLOT 3
P1
SLOT 5
SLOT 7
ERROR
LEDs
P3
SLOT 0
P5
SLOT 2
C004
B
SLOT 4
T2
SLOT 6
C004
A
SWITCHES
& JUMPERS
P2
Figure 67. TMB14 board layout
There are five edge connectors:
•
P1 - VMEbus connector,
•
P2,4,5 - C004, pipeline and configuration links, and system
control signals,
•
P3 -user power connector.
The T2 and C004’s A and B control the link interconnections.
Because there are two C004’s for eight TRAM slots, all the TRAM
links are reconfigurable. It is therefore possible to emulate the hardwired pipeline connecting links 1 and 2 of each TRAM, as used on
other motherboards.
The error LEDs reflect the error status of each TRAM slot.
92
Transputer Motherboard User Manual
TMB M 711
The TMB14 Motherboard
8.2 VMEbus Interface
The VMEbus interface on the TMB14 provides a single bidirectional
link, VMEbusLink, and subsystem port which may be controlled by a
host computer. It also generates interrupts under user defined
conditions:
C012
Link
Adaptor
VMEbus
Slave
Interface
VMEbus
VMEbus Link
VMEReset
VMEAnalyse
notVMEError
Interrupt
Logic
Subsystem
Control
Registers
Figure 68. TMB14 VMEbus Interface
The interface implements an A16D08(O) slave and an
INT(1-7):DO8(O) interrupter. It maps a number of registers into
consecutive (odd) locations in the short address space starting at a
base address set by switches SW1,2. These registers correspond to
a C012 link adaptor, the subsystem port and the interrupt control
logic.
NB. The interface can be completely disabled, if required, by
removing a jumper - see section 8.4.1 on page 102.
TMB M 711
Transputer Motherboard User Manual
93
VMEbus Interface
8.2.1 Link Adaptor Registers
The first four locations are mapped to a C012, as shown in table 33.
Byte Offset
Bits
R/W
#01
7 to 0
Read
Input Data
#03
7 to 0
Write
Output Data
#05
0
Read
Input Data Present
1
Write
Input Interrupt Enable
0
Read
Output Ready
1
Write
Output Interrupt Enable
#07
Description
Table 33: C012 Registers
94
•
Input Data Register: this register contains the last data byte
received from the VMEbus link. Its contents are not valid unless
the Data Present flag in the Input Status Register is asserted
(set).
•
Input Status Register: this register contains the Data Present flag
(bit 0 - least significant bit) and Input Interrupt Enable bit (bit
1).The Data Present flag is set to indicate reception and latching
of a data byte. Setting the Input Interrupt Enable bit will cause the
C012 to generate an interrupt whenever this condition arises. Bits
2-7 are not used and must be written as zero’s.
•
Output Data Register: data written to this register is transmitted
out of the VMEbus link. Data may only be written when the
Output Ready flag in the Output Status register is set.
•
Output Status Register: this register contains the Output Ready
flag (bit 0 - least significant bit) and the Output Interrupt Enable
bit. The Output Ready flag is set to indicate that the Output Data
Register is ready for the next byte to be transmitted. Setting the
Output Interrupt Enable bit will cause the C012 to generate an
interrupt whenever this condition arises. Bits 2-7 are not used
and must be written as zero’s.
Transputer Motherboard User Manual
TMB M 711
The TMB14 Motherboard
8.2.2 Subsystem Control Registers
The subsystem control registers allow the error states of the eight
TRAMs to be determined. They also allow the subsystem port
VMEReset and VMEAnalyse signals to be set and cleared.
Byte Offset
#09
Bits
0
R/W
Description
Read
notVMEError
Write
VMEReset
#0B
0
Write
VMEAnalyse
#13
0 to 7
Read
TRAM errors
Table 34: Subsystem Control Registers
•
Subsystem Reset/Error Register: bit 0 of this register returns the
state of the notVMEError signal (active low) when read. Writing
to this bit controls the state of VMEReset. This is asserted when
set. Bits 1-7 are not used.
•
Subsystem Analyse Register: writing to bit 0 of this register
controls the state of VMEAnalyse. It is asserted when set. Bits 17 are not used.
•
TRAM Error Register: reading this register returns the state of the
error lines from the eight TRAMs. The bit position corresponds to
the TRAM slot number, hence bit 0 reflects slot 0’s error line and
so on. (These bits are active low).
8.2.3 Interrupt Control Registers
Programming the interrupt control registers allows the user to
determine which (if any) of three events will cause a VMEbus
TMB M 711
Transputer Motherboard User Manual
95
Link and Control Configuration
interrupt, the level of such an interrupt and the vector number
returned during an interrupt acknowledge cycle:
Byte Offset
#0D
Bits
R/W
Description
1
Write
Error Interrupt Enable
2
Write
Output Interrupt Enable
3
Write
Input Interrupt Enable
#0F
0 to 2
R/W
Interrupt Level
#11
0 to 7
Read
Interrupt Status/ID
Table 35: Interrupt Control Registers
•
Interrupt Enable Register: bits 1-3 of this register are used to
enable interrupts due to active notVMEError, C012 output ready,
and C012 input ready respectively. To enable an interrupt the
appropriate bit must be set. This register is zeroed at power on or
during a VMEbus SYSRESET* condition.
•
Interrupt Level Register: the value in bits 0-2 of this register
determines the level of any VMEbus interrupt generated by the
TMB14. The value corresponds directly to one of the seven
interrupt lines IRQ1*-IRQ7*. A value of zero will effectively
disable interrupts. This register is zeroed at power on or during a
VMEbus SYSRESET* condition. It may be written and read.
•
Interrupt Status/ID Register: the value in this 8 bit register is
returned during an interrupt acknowledge cycle. It may be written
and read. This register is more generally known as the Vme
Interrupt Vector
8.3 Link and Control Configuration
Almost all of the link connections between the TRAM slots and the
edge connectors are determined by the two C004 link switches. The
exceptions are made by hardware jumper settings.
The subsystem connections between the TRAMs, the host computer
and the edge connector are configurable by hardware jumper
settings.
96
Transputer Motherboard User Manual
TMB M 711
The TMB14 Motherboard
8.3.1 Links
8.3.1.1 Configuration Processor
The C004’s are configured by the on board T222 transputer. This is
itself programmed by downloading code in through its link 1, which
can be connected to an edge connector signal (ConfigUp on P4 or
P2), to TRAM slot 0 or to VMEbusLink. The T222’s link 2 is taken to
an edge connector signal (ConfigDown P5 or P2). This arrangement
allows a configuration pipeline to be implemented - an indefinite
number of motherboards, of mixed type if necessary, may be daisychained and all of their link switches programmed from the head of
the pipeline:
VME I/F
SLOT 0
C004
C004
T222
C004
C004
T222
C004
C004
T222
Figure 69. Configuration Pipeline
8.3.1.2 Link Switches
There is a program available to automate the process of making ‘soft’
link connections through the C004’s, called MMS, which is part of the
Inmos software package IMS S514 (this package also includes a
device driver that is compatible with the TMB14). Obviously this
program needs to know the physical connections of the links on the
C004’s and this information is shown in figure 70.
Note that there is no hard-wired pipeline of links between TRAM sites
on the TMB14, so setting of the C004s is essential if more than one
transputer is used.
TMB M 711
Transputer Motherboard User Manual
97
Link and Control Configuration
T222
0
1
3
2
ConfigDown
ConfigUp
P4 Connector Link
VMEbus Link
JA to JI jumpers
P2
31 0
0
1
3
18
2
0
3
19
3
3
4
20
Config
0
16
1
17
2
5
21
4
0
6
22
5
3
7
23
6
0
7
3
8
0
9
3
10
0
11
3
12
0
13
3
14
15
0
3
P4
Config
TRAM 0 1
0
1
11
2
2
3
19
3
20
4
4
21
5
5
22
6
23
7
24
0
2
TRAM
TRAM 2 1
2
16
0
17
1
18
2
P5
TRAM 3
1
2
6
25
1
TRAM 4
1
2
8
26
2
9
27
3
28
4
10
29
5
11
30
6
31
7
TRAM 5 1
2
TRAM 6 1
7
12
2
13
TRAM 7 1
14
15
C004 A
2
C004 B
Figure 70. C004 Link Connections
8.3.1.3 Hardware Link Connections
Those link connections which must be made by hardware jumper
settings (because they are involved in programming the connections
of the other links) are detailed in figure 71. To make one of the 9
98
Transputer Motherboard User Manual
TMB M 711
The TMB14 Motherboard
possible connections, the relevant pair of jumpers is installed, JA for
link connection A and so on. Mutually exclusive settings must not be
made as they will prevent the board from operating correctly. This
means that there must not be more than one connection to any of the
nine links listed.
C004 A Link 31
VMEbus Link
P4 Connector Link
Slot 0 Link 0
C004 A Link 0
Slot 0 Link 1
C004 B Link 0
T2 Link 1
ConfigUp
D
B
C
E
G
H
F
I
A
Figure 71. Logical link connections made with JA to JI
The locations of JA-JI are shown on figure 73, and the possible
settings are summarized in section 8.4.4 on page 104.
8.3.2 Subsystem
The connection of the control signals (reset, analyse and error)
between the VMEbus interface, the edge connectors and the TRAM
slots is configured by four hardware jumpers. Figure 72 illustrates the
possible connections with the three signals represented as a single
bus line.
The switches are shown as they would be with the relevant jumper
installed. Removing the jumper moves the switch to the oposite
connection.
The ServicesUp/ServicesDown daisy-chain allows many boards to
be controlled from one subsystem source, and is analogous to the
configuration link pipeline.
The operation of the jumpers is sumarized in section 8.4.3 on page
103.
The error signal from the each TRAM slot is also brought out onto
eight leds on the front panel. The top left led is ERROR0, the top
right is ERROR1, the bottom left is ERROR6 and the bottom right is
ERROR7.
TMB M 711
Transputer Motherboard User Manual
99
Link and Control Configuration
VMEbus
Subsystem
TRAM 0
TRAM 0 Subsystem
J8
J11
ServicesDown
J10
ServicesUp
J9
P2
P5
P2
P4
TRAMs 1-7
Figure 72. Subsystem Connections
100
Transputer Motherboard User Manual
TMB M 711
The TMB14 Motherboard
8.4 Board Setup
This section presents a detailed summary of the positions and
functions of the jumpers and switches used to configure the board.
SW1
J1
J2
J3
J4
J5
J6
J7
J8
J9
J10
J11
EF 0 1 2
D
3
C
4
B
5
6
A 9 87
JA
JB
JC
JD
JE
JF
JG
JH
JI
SW2
EF 0 1 2
D
3
C
4
B
5
6
A 9 87
1 2 3
KA
KB
KC
KD
SW1 and SW2 are shown in their revision C positions. On
earlier pcb revisions they are approx 25mm higher.
Default jumper settings shown on J2, J8 etc.
Figure 73. Jumper and Switch Locations
As shown in figure 73, J1-J11 are 2 pin jumpers, JA-JI are 4 pin
(requiring two jumpers to be fitted side-by-side) and KA-JD are 3 pin,
requiring a jumper to be fitted between the central pin and the left or
right or right hand pin. SW1 and SW2 are sixteen-position rotary
switches.
TMB M 711
Transputer Motherboard User Manual 101
Board Setup
8.4.1 VMEbus Interface
The VMEbus interface can be disabled (to remove the board from the
address space, and disable all interrupts), by removing jumper J2:
Jumper
J2
in/out
Description
out
VMEbus interface disabled
in
VMEbus interface enabled (default)
Table 36: VME interface enable jumper
The address of the board is set using the rotary switches SW1 and
SW2, which select the most significant 8 bits of the 16-bit address. If
SW1 is set to X and SW2 is set to Y, on revision C and later the base
address in hex is 0xXY00 and on earlier revisions is 0xYX00
8.4.2 Link Speed Configuration
The speeds of the transputer links are set as follows:
Jumper
Function
in
out (default)
J1
VMEbus link speed
10 MBits/s
20 MBits/s
J3
C004 & T2 link speed
10 MBits/s
20 MBits/s
J4 & J5
Slot 0 link speed
10 MBits/s
20 MBits/s
J6 & J7
Slots 1 to 7 link speed
10 MBits/s
20 MBits/s
Table 37:
Note that J4 and J5 must have the same setting, and so must J6 and
J7 have the same setting. The default is to have all links running at
20 MBits/s.
102
Transputer Motherboard User Manual
TMB M 711
The TMB14 Motherboard
8.4.3 Control Configuration
Figure 72 shows the control circuit for the TRAM slots, and the
functions of the jumpers J8, J9, J10 and J11. This information is
tabulated below
J8
J9
Description
in
don’t
care
Slot 0 is controlled from the VMEbus
(default)
out
in
Slot 0 is controlled by the P4 connector
up port
out
out
Slot 0 is controlled by the P2 connector
up port
Table 38: Slot 0 control jumpers
Jumper
J10
in/out
Description
out
Down port on P2
in
Down port on P5 (default)
Table 39: Down port selection jumper
Jumper
J11
in/out
Description
out
Slots 1 to 7 are controlled from the Slot
0’s subsystem port
in
Slots 1 to 7 are controlled from the same
source as Slot 0 (default)
Table 40: Slot 1 to 7 control jumper
Unlike most transputer motherboards, which have up, down and
subsystem control ports, the TMB14 has only up and down. The up
port can be switched between P2 and P4, and the down port can be
switched between P2 and P5. The down port always carries the
same controls signals as slots 1 to 7, so it is not possible to construct
a hierarchical control structure with more than one board.
TMB M 711
Transputer Motherboard User Manual 103
Board Setup
8.4.4 Link configuration
Jumpers JA to JI act as a link patch area, allowing a variety of hardwired link connections to be made, as follows:
Jumpers in
Jumpers out
Description
JA
JF, JI
T2 link 1 connected to ConfigUp
JB
JC, JD, JE,
JF
VMEbusLink connected to P4
Connector Link
JC
JB, JE, JG
Slot 0 link 0 connected to
P4ConnectorLink
JD
JB, JE, JF
VMEbusLink connected to C004 A
link 31
JE
JB, JC, JD,
JF, JG
VMEbusLink connected to slot 0
link 0 (default)
JF
JA, JB, JD,
JE, JI
T2 link 1 connected to
VMEbusLink
JG
JC, JE
Slot 0 link 0 connected to C004 A
link 0
JH
JI
Slot 0 link 1 connected to C004 B
link 0
JI
JA, JF, JH
T2 link 1 connected to slot 0 link 1
(default)
Table 41: Link jumpers
Note that, when the jumpers specified in the jumpers in column are
fitted, all the jumpers specified in the jumpers out column must be
removed, or incorrect operation will result.
Jumpers KA to KD allow the up and down links of the configuration
pipeline to be taken to either the front or back of the board. In the left
104
Transputer Motherboard User Manual
TMB M 711
The TMB14 Motherboard
position, the jumpers connect pin 1 to pin 2, while in the right position,
they short pin 2 to pin 3.
Jumpers
KA & KB
KC & KD
Position
Description
left
Config down connected to P5
(default)
right
Config down connected to P2
left
Config up connected to P2
right
Config up connected to P4
(default)
Table 42: ConfigUp and ConfigDown Selection
8.4.5 Sysreset Lengthening
The power on reset length required by Transputers and associated
logic is greater than that specified by the VME standard. The
onboard power on reset for TMB14 can be used to drive sysreset on
the VME bus by fitting J30, situated in the top right hand corner of the
board.
8.5 Connector Pinouts
The following tables give the pin assignments for the TMB14’s edge
connectors.
Note that P2 is arranged so that standard link cables may be inserted
onto the pins at the back of the VME backplane, if desired.
P4 and P5 may be fitted with “hedgehog” breakout boards, allowing
standard link cables to be plugged into the front of the board. The
resultant pinouts are shown in figure 76 and figure 77.
TMB M 711
Transputer Motherboard User Manual 105
Connector Pinouts
Pin
c
b
a
1
D08
BBSY*
D00
2
D09
BCLR*
D01
3
D10
ACFAIL*
D02
4
D11
BG0IN*
D03
5
D12
BG0OUT*
D04
6
D13
BG1IN*
D05
7
D14
BG1OUT*
D06
8
D15
BG2IN*
D07
9
GND
BG2OUT*
GND
10
SYSFAIL*
BG3IN*
SYSCLK
11
BERR*
BG3OUT*
GND
12
SYSRESET*
BR0*
DS1*
13
LWORD*
BR1*
DS0*
14
AM5
BR2*
WRITE*
15
A23
BR3*
GND
16
A22
AM0
DTACK*
17
A21
AM1
GND
18
A20
AM2
AS*
19
A19
AM3
GND
20
A18
GND
IACK*
21
A17
SERCLK
IACKIN*
22
A16
SERDAT
IACKOUT*
23
A15
GND
AM4
24
A14
IRQ7*
A07
25
A13
IRQ6*
A06
26
A12
IRQ5*
A05
27
A11
IRQ4*
A04
28
A10
IRQ3*
A03
29
A09
IRQ2*
A02
30
A08
IRQ1*
A01
31
+12V
+5V STDBY
-12V
32
+5V
+5V
+5V
Table 43: P1 connector pinout
106
Transputer Motherboard User Manual
TMB M 711
The TMB14 Motherboard
Pin
c
b
a
1
GND
+5V
2
nc
GND
GND
nc
3
BackConfigUpOut
RESERVE
D
BackConfigDownOut
4
BackConfigUpIn
A24
BackConfigDownIn
5
GND
A25
GND
6
GND
A26
GND
7
nc
A27
nc
8
P2Link0Out
A28
P2Link1Out
9
P2Link0In
A29
P2Link1In
10
GND
A30
GND
11
GND
A31
GND
12
nc
GND
nc
13
P2Link2Out
+5V
P2Link3Out
14
P2Link2In
D16
P2Link3In
15
GND
D17
GND
16
GND
D18
GND
17
nc
D19
nc
18
P2Link4Out
D20
P2Link5Out
19
P2Link4In
D21
P2Link5In
20
GND
D22
GND
21
GND
D23
GND
22
nc
GND
nc
23
P2Link6Out
D24
P2Link7Out
24
P2Link6In
D25
P2Link7In
25
GND
D26
GND
26
GND
D27
GND
27
nc
D28
nc
28
notBackUpReset
D29
notBackDownReset
29
notBackUpAnalyse
D30
notBackDownAnalyse
30
notBackUpError
D31
notBackDownError
31
GND
GDN
GND
32
GND
+5V
GND
Table 44: P2 connector pinout
TMB M 711
Transputer Motherboard User Manual 107
Connector Pinouts
Pin
Description
1
12V
2
-12V
3
GND
4
+5V
Table 45: P3 User power connector pin assignments
108
Transputer Motherboard User Manual
TMB M 711
The TMB14 Motherboard
nc
19
nc
18
nc
17
nc
16
nc
15
ConnectorLinkIn
14
FrontConfigUpIn
13
GND
12
P4Link7Out
11
P4Link6Out
10
P4Link5Out
9
P4Link4In
P4Link3In
P4Link2In
GND
P4Link1Out
P4Link0Out
notUpAnalyse
GND
37
36
35
34
33
32
31
30
29
28
27
8
26
7
25
nc
nc
nc
nc
nc
ConnectorLinkOut
FrontConfigUpOut
P4Link7In
P4Link6In
P4Link5In
GND
P4Link4Out
P4Link3Out
6
24
P4Link2Out
5
23
P4Link1In
4
22
P4Link0In
21
notUpError
20
notUpReset
3
2
1
Figure 74. P4 (top) D-type pinout
TMB M 711
Transputer Motherboard User Manual 109
Connector Pinouts
notDownError
19
37
18
36
notDownReset
17
35
FrontConfigDownOut
16
34
nc
15
33
nc
14
32
nc
13
31
nc
12
GND
P5Link7Out
P5Link6Out
P5Link5Out
P5Link4In
P5Link3In
P5Link2In
GND
P5Link1Out
P5Link0Out
nc
GND
30
11
29
10
28
9
27
8
26
7
25
6
24
5
23
4
22
3
21
2
20
1
notDownAnalyse
FrontConfigDownIn
nc
nc
nc
nc
nc
P5Link7In
P5Link6In
P5Link5In
GND
P5Link4Out
P5Link3Out
P4Link2Out
P5Link1In
P5Link0In
nc
nc
Figure 75. P5 (bottom) D-type pinout
110
Transputer Motherboard User Manual
TMB M 711
The TMB14 Motherboard
DN
SU
nc
nc
L11
L10
L9
L8
L7
L6
L5
L4
L3
L2
L1
L0
nc
nc
Connector link
Config Up
P4 link7
P4 link6
P4 link5
P4 link4
P4 link3
P4 link2
P4 link1
P4 link0
UP
up
circuit board
stencilling
Function
Figure 76. Connections on P4 (top) break out board
TMB M 711
Transputer Motherboard User Manual 111
Programming
DN
SU
down
nc
L11
L10
L9
L8
L7
L6
L5
L4
L3
L2
L1
L0
ConfigDown
nc
nc
nc
P5 link7
P5 link6
P5 link5
P5 link4
P5 link3
P5 link2
P5 link1
P5 link0
UP
nc
circuit board
stencilling
Function
Figure 77. Connections on P5 (bottom) break out board
8.6 Programming
Table 46 summarizes the TMB14 registers, further details of which
may be found in section 8.2 on page 93. These appear at the offsets
shown from a base address set by SW1,SW2. The base address is
#XY00 in the short address space where X is set by SW2 and Y by
SW1.
112
Transputer Motherboard User Manual
TMB M 711
The TMB14 Motherboard
The board responds to address modifier codes #29 and #2D, i.e.
short user and supervisor accesses.
Offset (hex)
Register
#01
C012 input data register
#03
C012 output data register
#05
C012 input status register
#07
C012 output status register
#09
subsystem reset/error register
#0B
subsystem analyse register
#0D
interrupt enable register
#0F
interrupt level register
#11
interrupt status/ID register
#13
TRAM error register
Table 46: Register address map
Slave cycles other than odd byte read and write will cause a bus
error, as recommended by the VMEbus specification.
TMB M 711
Transputer Motherboard User Manual 113
Programming
114
Transputer Motherboard User Manual
TMB M 711
The TMB16 Motherboard
Chapter 9
The TMB16 Motherboard
This chapter describes the hardware of the TMB16 motherboard.
The description covers the operation of the host interface, details of
the link configuration system and details of the various board
configuration options.
9.1 Overview
The TMB16 is a full length PC hosted TRAM motherboard, with
space to plug in up to ten Transputer Modules.
The TMB16 is has an IMSC004 link switch, which provides for
electronic configuration of user defined processor topologies. The
switch is flexible enough to allow any TRAM’s link 0 or 3 to be
connected to any other TRAM’s link 0 or 3 or any one of eight edge
connectors.
The TMB16 has a further reconfigurability option (via the patch area)
which allows it to be the master board in a multi board system, or a
slave board in a multi board system. It is also possible to arrange for
the board to act as a high speed interface between a PC and an
external transputer network in a way which doesn’t require there to
be any TRAMs on the board.
The TMB16 has an advanced 16bit interface to the host PC giving
raw data transfer rates between the PC and the TMB16 of up to
4.9MBytes/sec. In practice, all of this data has to pass down a single
transputer link, which limits the available bandwidth (from PC to
module0 link0) to around 1.2 MBytes/s.
Whilst giving the option of using the 16bit interface, the TMB16
provides full backwards compatibility with the older B008 & B004 8
bit interfaces. The performance of the TMB16 running in 8bit mode
is the same as that achieved by the TMB08 motherboard.
TMB M 711
Transputer Motherboard User Manual 115
Network Configuration
Note that to exploit the 16bit interface of the TMB16 requires the PC’s
Intel processor to support certain key instructions. These instructions
are not supported by the Intel 8086, and hence the TMB16 cannot be
used in 16bit mode on XT class machines.
Figure 78 shows the TRAM layout of this board.
slot slot slot slot slot slot slot slot slot slot
1
4
5
2
3
6
8
7
0
9
Figure 78. TMB16 TRAM layout
Figure 79 shows the location of the switches, patch area and
connectors of the board.
Link patch area
SW1
SW2
37-way D-type edge connector
Figure 79. TMB16 board layout
9.2 Network Configuration
This section provides an overview of network configuration on the
TMB16. It describes the wiring of the electronic link switch, the patch
area and shows the relationship between these and the edge
connector.
116
Transputer Motherboard User Manual
TMB M 711
The TMB16 Motherboard
9.2.1 Electronic Link Configuration
This section describes the organization of the electronic link switch,
the IMSC004.
In this application the C004 is used simply as a crossbar switch. The
device is connected to 29 links, and can switch any link connected to
any other link connected.
The links connected to the C004 are:
•
link0 of all TRAM slots except module0 (module0 link0 is
connected to the host PC via the T2),
•
link3 of all TRAM slots,
•
eight edge connectors,
•
two spare links, which are taken to the patch area.
The connections made by the C004 are controlled by the T2
transputer acting in the role of a configuration processor. The T2 is,
in turn, controlled via ConfigUp (which by default is wired to module0
link1 through the patch area for this purpose). Currently, the only
program which can be booted onto the T2 to alter the C004 switch
connections is the NCS.
The C004 connections are shown in figure 80.
TMB M 711
Transputer Motherboard User Manual 117
Network Configuration
IMS C004
module1 L0
module2 L0
module3 L0
module4 L0
module5 L0
module6 L0
module7 L0
module8 L0
module9 L0
module0 L3
module1 L3
module2 L3
module3 L3
module4 L3
module5 L3
link1
link2
link3
link4
link5
link6
link7
link8
link9
link10
link11
link12
link13
link14
link15
module6 L3
module7 L3
module8 L3
module9 L3
edge0
edge1
edge2
edge3
edge4
edge5
edge6
edge7
C004 L28
C004 L29
link16
link17
link18
link19
link20
link21
link22
link23
link24
link25
link26
link27
link28
link29
ConfigLink
L3
ConfigUp
L1
Configuration
Processor
L2
ConfigDown
Figure 80. C004 Wiring
9.2.2 The Link Patch Area
The link patch area is in the upper right corner of the board and is
labelled on the silk screen printing. It consists of 12 zero profile
sockets which may be connected together with small wire jumpers.
The patch area is provided for the more permanent aspects of
network configuration, principally, the setting up of the TMB16 as a
master board (root processor is connected to the host) in a multi
board system or a slave board (root processor is connected to
another TRAM motherboard, via PipeHead) in a multi board system.
To this end, six transputer links are brought out to the patch area:
118
Transputer Motherboard User Manual
TMB M 711
The TMB16 Motherboard
•
two links from the C004 crossbar switch (C004 L28/29)
•
two links from the edge connector (patch0/1)
•
the configuration link into the T2 (T2 link1), and
•
the root module’s configuration link (link1 of board slot0).
L0
root
module0
C004 L28
patch0
T2 Config
slot0 link1
patch1
C004 L29
Figure 81 and figure 82 show the link patch area and the connections
which need to be made to use the TMB16 as a master or slave board.
L1
T2
L1
PC
L3
C004
Root module can setup C004
edge
C004 L28
patch0
T2 Config
slot0 link1
patch1
C004 L29
Figure 81. TMB16 Patch Area, connections for master board
L1
root
L1 module0
T2
edge
L3
C004
Figure 82. TMB16 Patch Area, connections for slave board
TMB M 711
Transputer Motherboard User Manual 119
Network Configuration
When the TMB16 is configured as a master board, the T2’s
configuration link (link1) is taken to PipeHead (module0 link1). The
patch links (from the edge connector) are wired to the spare C004
positions.
When the TMB16 is configured as a slave board, the T2’s
configuration link is taken to the edge connector (patch0) and would
normally be connected to ConfigUp. Also, the board’s PipeHead
(module0 link1) is taken to the edge connector at patch1.
9.2.3 Summary of Network Configuration
Figure 83 shows the interconnection between the module slots, the
electronic link switch, the link patch area and the edge connector. It
is included for reference.
Edge connector
patch0/1
edge0 to 7
ConfigDown
PipeTail
L2
L1
ConfigUp
T2
L3
C004
C004 L28/29
L3
L3
L0 L3
L0
L3
L0
L1
slot
0
L0
L2 L1
slot
slot
1 L2L1 2 L2L1
L2 L1
slot
9
L1
PC link
Figure 83. Network configuration summary
120
Transputer Motherboard User Manual
TMB M 711
The TMB16 Motherboard
9.3 Board Setup
This section describes the operation of the switch banks SW1 and
SW2. SW1 is located at the top of the board, near the end plate with
the D-type connector, and SW2 is located at the bottom of the board,
near the AT-bus connector. Each bank consists of four switches,
numbered 1 to 4. When the board is held with the component side
facing towards the viewer, the D-type connector to the right, and the
AT-bus at the bottom, the switches are numbered from 1 on the left to
4 on the right, and the switch is on when the slider is up, and off when
the slider is down. The switch numbers, and the on position, are
marked on the switch bank.
9.3.1 Control Configuration
The board’s control configuration switches, SW1.1 and SW1.2, allow
the source of control for the module in slot 0 and the modules in slots
1 to 9 to be determined. The control consist of the TRAM signals
reset, error and analyse.
SW1.1
Description
off
Slot 0 is controlled by the PC (default)
on
Slot 0 is controlled by the edge
connector up port
Table 47: Slot 0 control selection
SW1.2
Description
off
Slots 1 to 9 are controlled from the Slot
0’s subsystem port
on
Slots 1 to 9 are controlled from the same
source as Slot 0 (default)
Table 48: Slots 1 to 9 control selection
TMB M 711
Transputer Motherboard User Manual 121
Board Setup
9.3.2 Board Address
The I/O base address of the board can be set at either 150 hex or
200 hex using SW2.1, as follows:
SW2.1
Description
off
Base address 150 hex
(default)
on
Base address 200 hex
Table 49: Board I/O address selection
9.3.3 Link speed
The speed of all the transputer links of the board can be set at either
10 or 20 Mbit/s using SW2.2, as follows:
SW2.2
Description
off
All links run at 20Mbit/s
(default)
on
All links run at 10Mbit/s
Table 50: Link speed selection
9.3.4 IRQ & DMA Selection
The interrupt channel of the board may be selected using SW2.3 and
2.4 as follows:
SW2.3
SW2.4
Description
on
off
IRQ channel 3 (default)
off
on
IRQ channel 7
off
off
Interrupts disabled
Table 51: Interrupt selection
The DMA channel of the board is fixed at channel 1.
122
Transputer Motherboard User Manual
TMB M 711
The TMB16 Motherboard
9.3.5 Reserved switches
Switches SW1.3 and 1.4 are used for factory setup and testing of the
board. In normal use they must both be off.
9.4 The Edge Connector
On the right hand edge of the TMB16 is a 37-way D-type edge
connector used for connection to other motherboards. For this
purpose the following are brought out:
TMB M 711
•
the three control ports and the configuration link,
•
eight transputer links from the C004, and
•
two transputer links from the link patch area.
Transputer Motherboard User Manual 123
The Edge Connector
Figure 84 shows the pin-out of the edge connector.
downError
downReset
ConfigDown out
PipeTail out
subsystemAnalyse
patch link1in
patch link0in
GND
edge link7out
edge link6out
edge link5out
edge link4in
edge link3in
edge link2in
GND
edge link1out
edge link0out
upAnalyse
GND
19
37
18
36
17
35
16
34
15
33
14
32
13
31
12
30
11
29
10
28
9
27
8
26
7
25
6
24
5
23
4
22
3
21
2
20
1
downAnalyse
ConfigDown in
PipeTail in
subsystemError
subsystemReset
patch link1out
patch link0out
edge link7in
edge link6in
edge link5in
GND
edge link4out
edge link3out
edge link2out
edge link1in
edge link0in
upError
upReset
Figure 84. D-type pinout
Included in the accompanying cable pack is a mini-backplane board
(sometimes called a “hedgehog” or “break-out board”) which plugs
into the edge connector and brings out the various links and ports
onto standard connectors which accept link cables and reset cables.
The pinout of this connector is shown in figure 85.
124
Transputer Motherboard User Manual
TMB M 711
The TMB16 Motherboard
.
DN
SU
down
subsystem
L11
L10
L9
L8
L7
L6
L5
L4
L3
L2
L1
L0
ConfigDown
PipeTail
patch link1
patch link0
edge link7
edge link6
edge link5
edge link4
edge link3
edge link2
edge link1
edge link0
UP
up
circuit board
stencilling
Function
Figure 85. Connections on break out board
9.5 Examples
This section gives the recommended settings and cabling for use in
three common configurations: stand-alone (where the TMB16
carries transputer modules and is not connected to other transputer
cards), multi-board (where more than one TMB16 is used), and linkadaptor (where the TMB16 is used as an interface between the PC
and an external transputer board, without any TRAMs on the
TMB16).
TMB M 711
Transputer Motherboard User Manual 125
Examples
9.5.1 Stand-alone
The default settings of the TMB16 are designed for stand-alone
operation in a PC. The board is controlled by the PC, and is not
connected to other transputer boards.
The switches and patch area should be set as shown in figure 86.
1 2 3 4
OFF
Link patch area
SW1
1 2 3 4
OFF
SW2
Figure 86. Recommended setup for stand-alone operation
9.5.2 Multiple TMB16s
This examples shows how to connect two TMB16s together to build
a larger transputer system. The first board is used as the master, is
controlled from the PC, and provides the PC link interface, whilst the
second board is the slave.
The switches and link patch area for the first board should be set as
shown in figure 86, above, and the second board should be set up as
shown in figure 87. Both boards should be inserted into the PC, and
hedgehog breakout boards fitted to their D-type connectors. Figure
88 shows the required wiring made with link cables and a reset cable
between the two boards.
126
Transputer Motherboard User Manual
TMB M 711
The TMB16 Motherboard
1 2 3 4
OFF
Link patch area
SW1
1 2 3 4
OFF
SW2
Figure 87. Setup for slave in multi-board operation
DN
SU
DN
SU
L11
L10
L9
L8
L7
L6
L5
L4
L3
L2
L1
L0
L11
L10
L9
L8
L7
L6
L5
L4
L3
L2
L1
L0
UP
UP
Master
Config
PipeHead
Control
Slave
Figure 88. Connections between Master and Slave
TMB M 711
Transputer Motherboard User Manual 127
The Host Interface
Figure 88 shows the minimum link connections between the boards.
Additional connections may be made between the edge links, and
configured to the TRAMs using the C004, to provide the desired
transputer network topology.
9.5.3 Link Adaptor
In this configuration, the TMB16 is used as a link adaptor card, with
no TRAMs on-board, but providing a link between the PC and
external transputer equipment.
TRAM 0
The C004 should be removed from its socket, and wired links made
as shown below (it is best to solder these onto a pin grid array socket,
which can be inserted into the C004 socket on the TMB16)
...
Figure 89. Configuring the TMB16 as a link adaptor
Secondly a pipe jumper should be inserted into TRAM site 0 on the
TMB16, not in the normal place for a pipe jumper, but on the opposite
side of the board, as shown above.
Then attach the TMB16 Patch 0 link to the host link of the external
equipment, and the TMB16 reset Down to the reset Up of the
external equipment.
9.6 The Host Interface
The TRAM standard defines that TRAM motherboards have on them
a T2 transputer to control the board’s IMS C004 electronic link
switch. In older designs the T2 was used solely for this purpose and
was therefore rather under-utilized. In the TMB16, a portion of this
transputer’s external memory space is mapped directly to the PC.
This allows the transputer to communicate with the PC’s Intel micro128
Transputer Motherboard User Manual
TMB M 711
The TMB16 Motherboard
processor directly and at the high bandwidth supported by the PC’s
backplane. This design fully exploits the presence of the T2, which is
in its own right a powerful 16bit processor.
Since the external memory interface of the T2 is 16bits wide, the
TMB16 interface transfers 16bit quantities (words) at a time. The
PC’s backplane is normally clocked at 8MHz. Given that it requires
three clock cycles to transfer a word across the backplane, this gives
a theoretical backplane bandwidth of (8/3) MWords/sec or
5.33MBytes/sec. Measurements show that the TMB16 can transfer
data across the backplane at 3.5MBytes/sec at this bus speed,
realizing in practice 70% of the available bandwidth.
The following three subsections describe the operation of the host
interface in detail.
9.6.1 Operation of the Hardware
The PC’s Intel processor sees the TMB16 as two 16 bit words (ports)
in the PC’s I/O map. One of the ports is for communications from the
PC to the T2 transputer (write port) and the other for communications
from the T2 transputer to the PC (read port).
During data transfers from the PC to the T2 transputer, the PC simply
writes words to the write port as fast as it can. Using the Intel
processor’s string write instruction (80286 and later), accesses to the
I/O port can be done at full bus speed. This is because the write
operation is performed entirely in microcode.
During the same data transfer, the T2 transputer reads data from a
block in its external memory. The entire block is memory mapped so
that every location in the block maps to the write port in the PC’s I/O
TMB M 711
Transputer Motherboard User Manual 129
The Host Interface
space. Hence, the actual reads the transputer performs are reads
from the write port. Figure 90 illustrates this operation.
Intel processor
write port
memory interface
mapping
transputer memory map
PC’s I/O space
write side
read side
read block
T2 transputer
Figure 90. Inter processor communications (write)
For communications from the transputer to the PC a similar process
occurs: the transputer writes to a block of memory in its external
memory space, this memory is folded by hardware to a single
location in the PC’s I/O space (the read port) which the PC reads with
a string read instruction.
Clearly the operation of the interface depends on synchronization
between the two processors. When the Intel processor writes to the
write port it cannot perform another write until the transputer has
performed a read operation. Similarly, when the transputer writes to
the read port, it cannot perform another write until the Intel processor
performs a read. This synchronization is achieved via the respective
processor’s wait line.
130
Transputer Motherboard User Manual
TMB M 711
The TMB16 Motherboard
9.6.2 Memory Maps
The operation of the interface depends on the folding of half of the
transputer’s external memory space to two objects in the PC’s I/O
space. Figure 91 shows the details of the memory map.
transputer memory
write mapping
#FFFF
16K ROM
Base +
read data
write data
read status
write status
0
read port (16bit)
8
write port (16bit)
A
reset/error
analyse/board ID
DMA
IRQ
mode
10
11
12
13
14/17
1
2
3
#4000
32K Mapped to PC
#C000
Flags
#9000
4K Internal Ram
#8000
Transputer address space
transputer memory
read mapping
PC I/O space
Figure 91. System memory maps
Notes:
•
TMB M 711
The TMB16 has a flags register which is used during B004
interface emulation. Essentially the register looks like a C012 as
far as the PC is concerned. On the transputer side it is mapped
Transputer Motherboard User Manual 131
The Host Interface
to all locations between #9000 and #BFFF. Table 52 shows the
bit allocations.
Bit
Function
0
Data ready to send
1
Data ready to receive
2
1 ⇒ Byte mode, 0 ⇒ string mode
Table 52: TMB16 Flags register
•
The transputer has 32KBytes of its memory space mapped to the
PC’s I/O space. The actual mapping depends on whether the
transputer is reading or writing to the memory space.
•
The base address of the registers in the PC’s I/O space can be
set to #150 (default) or #200.
•
The PC’s I/O space contains registers for DMA & IRQ for
compatibility with the B008 style of interface. The TMB16
supports DMA channel 1 and IRQ channels 3 (default) & 7.
•
Writing to the mode register in the PC’s I/O space determines
whether the TMB16 works in full 16bit mode (bit0 set to 0) or
B004/B008 compatibility mode (bit0 set to 1). Note that the
address of the mode register is either 14 or 17, depending on the
contents of the board ID register (see below).
•
Reading from the board ID register (base address + 0x11) returns
a value as follows
Bit
Function
0
Processor type: 0⇒T222, 1⇒T225
1
Mode reg. offset: 0⇒0x14, 1⇒ox17
2, 3
Reserved: read as 0
4-7
Undefined
Table 53: TMB16 Board ID register
132
Transputer Motherboard User Manual
TMB M 711
The TMB16 Motherboard
9.6.3 Operation of the Software
The functioning of the interface is controlled by software running on
the T2. The software is provided on the TMB16 in non-volatile
memory (EPROM). Essentially, the software exploits the available
hardware to provide an invisible connection between the PC and the
transputers mounted on the motherboard. So as to maintain
backwards compatibility with older motherboards, this connection is
actually between the PC and link0 of TRAM module0.
At the beginning of any data communication the two processors must
agree on the amount of data to be transferred. This is achieved by
transmitting a single 16 bit counter. That counter determines the
number of bytes that follow. In occam, this protocol may be defined
as: INT16::[]BYTE
i.e. the same as the iserver protocol. Note that the hardware limits
the maximum amount of data that can be transferred in one block to
32KBytes (see the memory map).
As far as the T2 transputer is concerned, access to the PC is
achieved by reading/writing its external memory. During a data
transfer from the PC to the transputer network the T2 is reading from
its external memory and writing data to one of its links. This is
achieved with the transputer channel out instruction. Similarly,
during a data transfer from the transputer network to the PC, the T2
is reading data from a link and writing this data to its external
memory, which is achieved with the transputer channel in
TMB M 711
Transputer Motherboard User Manual 133
The Host Interface
Memory mapper
OUTSW
PC I/O space
instruction. Figure 92 summarizes the key software instructions
used.
PC I/O space
INSW
TMB16 Transputer
network
Memory mapper
PC
out
in
Key:
address bus
memory
transputer
PC’s Intel processor
Figure 92. Key software instructions
134
Transputer Motherboard User Manual
TMB M 711
The TMB17 Motherboard
Chapter 10
The TMB17 Motherboard
This chapter gives a detailed hardware description of the TMB17.
The various features of the board are described and some examples
of configuration are given.
10.1 Overview
The TMB17 is a full length PCI hosted TRAM motherboard, with
space to plug in up to ten Transputer Modules.
The TMB17 is shipped with an IMSC004 link switch, which provides
for setting up user defined topologies. The switch is flexible enough
to allow any TRAM’s link 0 or 3 to be connected to any other TRAM’s
link 0 or 3 or any one of eight edge connections.
The TMB17 has a link patch area which, amongst other things,
allows PipeHead and ConfigUp to be connected together.
Figure 93 shows the TRAM layout of this board for reference.
slot slot slot slot slot slot slot slot slot slot
2
6
5
1
0
8
3
7
4
9
Figure 93. TMB17 TRAM layout
TMB M 711
Transputer Motherboard User Manual 135
Windows 95
Figure 94 shows the board layout for reference.
Link Patch area
Board configuration switches
Programming header for manufacturer
use only
37-way D-type edge connector
Figure 94. TMB17 board layout
10.2 Windows 95
When Windows 95 is run for the first time after installing a TMB17, a
New Hardware Found dialog box is displayed. You should proceed as
follows:
1. Click on the Driver from disk radio button and click on OK.
2. An Install From Disk dialog box will appear. Put the supplied CDROM in the drive and use the Browse dialog to select the file
tps.inf in the CD-ROM directory win95.
3. Click on OK.
After installation, the I/O base address and the interrupt used by the
TMB17 can be determined or altered using the System control panel
as follows:
1. From the Start menu, show the control panel by selecting it from
the Settings menu.
2. Start up the System control panel.
3. Select the Device Manager page.
4. Under Transtech devices, select the TMB17 entry.
136
Transputer Motherboard User Manual
TMB M 711
The TMB17 Motherboard
5. Select the Resources page.
10.3 PCI Interface
10.3.1 Hardware Description
Figure 95 is a block diagram of the PCI to Transputer link interface.
The PCI controller combines plug and play configuration capabilities
with an B004/B008 compatible register map so that standard
software works correctly. The FIFO shown between the PCI
controller and the link adapter is transparent to this software, but
provides an additional high performance interface. This decouples
the C012 link bandwidth limitations from the, much faster PCI bus.
The high performance interface consists of 32bit access to the FIFO
and transmit and receive FIFO level registers. This allows complete
packets of information to be sent or received at PCI bandwidth
freeing up host processor power.
FIFO
C012
TRAM 0
PCI
CONTROLER
PCI BUS
Figure 95. PCI to Transputer link block diagram
10.3.2 Register Map
Table 54 lists the registers available and their offset from the board
base address. The base address is set by the PCI Bios routines at
host reset time. The value can be read by reading Base Address 0 of
the relevant board’s configuration space via the PCI Bios routines.
TMB M 711
Transputer Motherboard User Manual 137
PCI Interface
Table 54: Register Map
Base + (hex)
Description
Access Type
00h
Rx Data 8 bit
Byte Read only
01h
Tx Data 8 bit
Byte Write only
02h
Rx Status
Byte Read only
03h
Tx Status
Byte Read only
08h
Rx Data 8/16/32 bit
Byte/Word/Dword Read
0Ch
Tx Data 8/16/32 bit
Byte/Word/Dword Write
10h
Reset write/Error read
Byte Read/Write
11h
Analyse
Byte Read
18h
Rx FIFO Level
Word Read
1Ch
Tx FIFO Level
Word Read
10.3.2.1 Rx Data
Rx FIFO data can be read one byte at a time from offset 00h
compatible with B004 standard software. For higher performance the
FIFO can be read by WORD or DWORD reads from offset 18h. The
data read is in order received from the C012 link (ls byte first). To
ensure valid data is read, the number of bytes available must first be
determined by reading the Rx level register.
10.3.2.2 Tx Data
Tx FIFO data can be written to one byte at a time by writing to offset
01h compatible with B004 standard software. For higher
performance the FIFO can be filled by WORD or DWORD writes to
offset 1Ch. The data should be written in the order to be send by the
C012 link (ls byte first). To ensure data is not lost, the number of
bytes of available space must first be determined by reading the Tx
level register.
138
Transputer Motherboard User Manual
TMB M 711
The TMB17 Motherboard
10.3.2.3 Rx Status
A one read from bit 0 of offset 02h indicates that a byte of data is
available to be read from the RX Data register.
10.3.2.4 Tx Status
A one read from bit 0 of offset 03h indicates that a byte of data can
be written to the Tx Data register.
10.3.2.5 Rx Level
The value read from offset 18h indicates the number of bytes
available to be read from the Rx Data FIFO. To ensure a coherent
value is read a 16bit Word read should be used to read this register.
10.3.2.6 Tx Level
The value read from offset 1Ch indicates the number of bytes of
space free in the Tx Data FIFO. To ensure a coherent value is read
a 16bit Word read should be used to read this register.
10.3.2.7 Reset/error
Writing a one to bit 0 of offset 10h will force Reset to be sent to
module 0 and the FIFO link interface, a 0 must be written to clear the
Reset. Reading bit 0 will return the state of module 0 error flag.
10.3.2.8 Analyse
Writing a one to bit 0 of offset 11h will force Analyse to be sent to
module 0, a 0 must be written to remove Analyse.
10.3.3 PCI Configuration
Programmers should note that Transtech’s PCI SIG Vendor ID is
1278 hex. The TMB17 has a Device ID of 1001hex.
10.4 Network Configuration
This section provides an overview of network configuration on the
TMB17. It describes the wiring of the electronic link switch, the patch
area and shows the relationship between these and the edge
connector.
10.4.1 Electronic Link Configuration
This section describes the organization of the electronic link switch,
the IMSC004.
TMB M 711
Transputer Motherboard User Manual 139
Network Configuration
In this application the C004 is used simply as a crossbar switch. The
device is connected to 30 links, and can switch any link connected to
any other link connected.
The links connected to the C004 are:
•
link0 of all TRAM slots except module0 (module0 link0 is always
connected to the host PC),
•
link3 of all TRAM slots,
•
link 0 of the T2 configuration processor,
•
eight edge connectors,
•
two spare links, which are taken to the patch area.
The C004 is programmed via the T2 configuration processor on the
board. This in turn is programmed via ConfigUp.
The connections are shown in figure 96 for reference.
140
Transputer Motherboard User Manual
TMB M 711
The TMB17 Motherboard
IMS C004
module1 L0
module2 L0
module3 L0
module4 L0
module5 L0
module6 L0
module7 L0
module8 L0
module9 L0
module0 L3
module1 L3
module2 L3
module3 L3
module4 L3
module5 L3
link1
link2
link3
link4
link5
link6
link7
link8
link9
link10
link11
link12
link13
link14
link15
module6 L3
module7 L3
module8 L3
module9 L3
edge0
edge1
edge2
edge3
edge4
edge5
edge6
edge7
C004 L28
C004 L29
link16
link17
link18
link19
link20
link21
link22
link23
link24
link25
link26
link27
link28
link29
ConfigLink
L3
ConfigUp
L1
Configuration
Processor
L2
ConfigDown
L0
IMSC004 Link 0
Figure 96. C004 Wiring
10.4.2 The Link Patch Area
The link patch area is a 6x2 jumper header on 0.1" spacing. The
required connections can be made by moving push-on shorting links
to the correct positions
The primary purpose of the patch area is to allow PipeHead and
ConfigUp to be terminated correctly. Using the patch it is possible to
TMB M 711
Transputer Motherboard User Manual 141
Network Configuration
either connect these two together (for the first motherboard in a
system) or to take them off the board (for a slave motherboard).
The links taken to the patch area are:
•
ConfigUp, i.e., link1 of the configuration processor
•
PipeHead. i.e., Module0 link1
•
two of the links from the crossbar switch (C004L28/29)
•
two links which are taken directly to the edge connector
(patch0/1)
C004 L29
patch1
slot0 link1
T2 Config
patch0
C004 L28
Figure 97 shows the links attached to the patch area and the default
connections made when the board is shipped.
JP1
L0
root
module0
L1
L1
PC
T2
L3
C004
Root module can setup C004
Figure 97. The Link Patch Area for Master Board
142
Transputer Motherboard User Manual
TMB M 711
C004 L29
patch1
slot0 link1
T2 Config
patch0
C004 L28
The TMB17 Motherboard
JP1
edge
L1
root
L1 module0
T2
edge
L3
C004
Figure 98. TMB17 Patch Area, connections for slave board
TMB M 711
Transputer Motherboard User Manual 143
Description
10.4.3 Summary of Network Configuration
Figure 99 shows the interconnection between the module slots, the
electronic link switch, the link patch area and the edge connector. It
is included for reference.
Edge connector
patch0/1
ConfigDown
edge0 to 7
PipeTail
2
ConfigUp
1
T2
3
C004
0
C004 L28/29
patch
3
1 slot
0
0
3
1
2
0
slot 2
1
3
1
0
slot 2
2
0
3
1 slot 2
9
PC link
Figure 99. Network configuration summary
10.5 Description
10.5.1 Board Configuration
The basic board configuration is achieved by the use of the
configuration switches. In the top left hand corner of the board there
is a 4 way switch bank. Switch 1 is on the top, switch 4 bottom is not
used.
144
Transputer Motherboard User Manual
TMB M 711
The TMB17 Motherboard
The switches control the following functions:
•
S1
Module link speed
•
S2
Module 0 control source
•
S3
Modules 1-9 control source
10.5.1.1 Link Speed
Switch 3 controls the transputer link speed. With the switch off/open
(default) the links run at 20MHz. With the switch on/closed the links
run at 10MHz.
10.5.1.2 Control Configuration
There are two configuration options relating to board control:
•
S2 IBM, source of control for module0
•
S3 MD0, source of control for modules1 to 9.
If switch S3 is on, then the source of control for modules1 to 9 is from
the same source as module0. If S3 is off then modules1 to 9 are
controlled from module0’s subsystem.
If switch S2 is on, then the source of control for module0 is from up
on the edge connector. If S2 is off then the source of control is the
host PC.
Figure 100 summarizes for the case of the link area.
S2 S3
on on
S2
S3
off off
source of control module 0: edge connector
modules 1 to 9: same as module0
source of control module 0: host PC
modules 1 to 9: module0’s subsystem
Figure 100. Control configuration (link)
TMB M 711
Transputer Motherboard User Manual 145
Description
10.5.2 The Edge Connector
On the left hand edge of the TMB17 is a 37-way D-type edge
connector.
On the TMB17 the edge connector is used for connection to other
motherboards. For this purpose the following are brought out:
146
•
the three control ports and the configuration link,
•
twelve transputer links.
Transputer Motherboard User Manual
TMB M 711
The TMB17 Motherboard
Figure 101 shows the pin-out of the edge connector.
downError
downReset
ConfigDown out
PipeTail out
subsystemAnalyse
patch link1in
patch link0in
GND
edge link7out
edge link6out
edge link5out
edge link4in
edge link3in
edge link2in
GND
edge link1out
edge link0out
NotUpAnalyse
GND
19
37
18
36
17
35
16
34
15
33
14
32
13
31
12
30
11
29
10
28
9
27
8
26
7
25
6
24
5
23
4
22
3
21
2
20
1
downAnalyse
ConfigDown in
PipeTail in
subsystemError
subsystemReset
patch link1out
patch link0out
edge link7in
edge link6in
edge link5in
GND
edge link4out
edge link3out
edge link2out
edge link1in
edge link0in
NotUpError
NotUpReset
Figure 101. D-type pinout
Included in the accompanying cable pack is a mini-backplane board
which plugs into the edge connector and brings out the various links
and ports onto standard connectors which accept link cables and
reset cables. The pinout of this connector is shown in figure 102.
TMB M 711
Transputer Motherboard User Manual 147
Description
.
DN
SU
down
subsystem
L11
L10
L9
L8
L7
L6
L5
L4
L3
L2
L1
L0
ConfigDown
PipeTail
patch link1
patch link0
edge link7
edge link6
edge link5
edge link4
edge link3
edge link2
edge link1
edge link0
UP
up
circuit board
stencilling
Function
Figure 102. Connections on break out board
10.5.3 The Link Patch Area
The default wiring for the link patch area is to connect:
•
ConfigUp to PipeHead,
•
patch0 to C004 L28,
•
patch1 to C004 L29.
The patch0/1 connections allow 10 links to be brought out from the
C004 to the edge connector.
148
Transputer Motherboard User Manual
TMB M 711
The TMB17 Motherboard
C004 L29
patch1
slot0 link1
T2 Config
patch0
C004 L28
The pinout of the link patch area is shown in figure 103 along with the
default connections.
JP1
L0
root
module0
L1
L1
PC
T2
L3
C004
Root module can setup C004
Figure 103. TMB17 Patch Area, connections for master board
10.6 Examples
This section shows how to set the board configuration options for two
examples:
•
a single TMB17 configured for use with an Inmos Toolset,
•
two TMB17s connected as a single system, configured for use
with an Inmos Toolset.
10.6.1 Stand-alone TMB17
The most common stand-alone configuration for the TMB17 is for
use with the Inmos Toolsets, with every TRAM reset from the PC. To
TMB M 711
Transputer Motherboard User Manual 149
Examples
achieve this configuration, set the link the link patch area as shown
in figure 103, and make the following setting:
Switches
Setting
Description
S1
off
Use 20 Mbit/s links
S2
off
Slot 0 controlled from PC
S3
on
Slot1-9 reset as slot 0
Table 55: Default settings for stand-alone operation
10.6.2 Multiple TMB17s
As an example of connecting multiple motherboards together
consider a system consisting of two TMB17s in the same PC. In this
case:
•
the two boards must have different addresses
•
one board must be slaved to the other
•
the default pipeline needs to be connected
•
the configuration pipeline needs to be connected
First set up one board with the same configuration as for stand-alone
operation (see above). Ensure that pipe-jumpers are used in empty
TRAM slots, and in the inactive slots of any TRAMs larger than size
1, so that link 2 of the last TRAM on the motherboard is taken out to
pipe tail.
150
Transputer Motherboard User Manual
TMB M 711
The TMB17 Motherboard
C004 L29
patch1
slot0 link1
T2 Config
patch0
C004 L28
Then set up the second board as follows. The link patch area should
be configured as shown in figure 104.
JP1
edge
L1
root
L1 module0
T2
edge
L3
C004
Figure 104. TMB17 Patch Area, connections for slave board
The jumpers and links on the slave board should be set up as follows:
Switches
Setting
Description
S1
off
Use 20 Mbit/s links
S2
on
Slot 0 controlled from UP
S3
on
Slots 1 to 9 controlled from
same source as slot 0
Table 56: Settings for slave operation
Plug both boards into the PC and fit hedgehogs, and make the
following connections between the boards:
Cable
First board
Second board
Reset Cable
Down (DN)
Up (UP)
Link Cable
Pipetail (L10)
Patch 1 (L9)
Link Cable
ConfigDown (L11)
Patch 0 (L8)
Table 57: Connections between TMB17s
TMB M 711
Transputer Motherboard User Manual 151
Examples
152
Transputer Motherboard User Manual
TMB M 711
Utilities Software
Chapter 11
Utilities Software
This chapter describes the software on the Transputer Utilities CDROM supplied with Transtech’s Transputer motherboards. The CDROM includes:
•
Transputer network test software (check, mtest, etc.)
•
iserver, suitable for use with the 4th generation Inmos toolset.
•
Iserver file I/O cache, multiplexor, and fast I/O libraries, for the
4th generation Inmos toolset.
•
Solaris 2 device driver for the TMB14.
•
TMB17 support for the PC Inquest tools.
•
TMB14 support for the Sun Inquest tools.
•
On-line version of this manual.
11.1 PC Installation
The installation allows the software to share the Transtech top-level
directory with other Transtech software packages. Installation is as
follows under Windows 95:
1. Insert the supplied CD-ROM in the drive.
2. Select Run from the Start menu.
3. Use the Browse dialog to select setup.exe from the
win95\tmb95 directory on the CD-ROM. Click on the OK button.
4. After a short delay while the Setup program initializes, a
Welcome dialog box appears. Click on the Next button.
TMB M 711
Transputer Motherboard User Manual 153
Solaris 2 Installation
5. Select the installation directory. Use the Browse dialog if you wish
to change this from the default directory c:\tps. Click on the
Next button.
The selected software will be now be installed.
6. When the installation has successfully completed, a Setup
Message is displayed. Click on the OK button to exit from Setup.
7. Add the following lines to autoexec.bat for an ISA card at I/O
base address 150 hex:
set TPS=c:\tps
set PATH=%TPS%\bin;%TPS%
set ISEARCH=%TPS%\tp\4libs\ %ISEARCH%
set ICONDB=%TPS%\lib\dos.db
set TRANSPUTER=150
For a TMB17 PCI card, use:
set TRANSPUTER=tmb17
8. Now re-boot the machine.
11.2 Solaris 2 Installation
11.2.1 FORCE CPU-3CE
If you are using a FORCE SPARCE CPU-3CE card, please read this
section carefully when selecting a VME base address for each VME
Transputer board such as a TMB14 to be installed.
The FORCE SPARC CPU-3CE card maps a single window of the
VME address space into its processor memory map. All of the
addresses used for the installed VME cards must be within this
window. The PROM monitor variable vme-a32map should be set to
the top VME address bits of the window.
Also, part of the VME memory map is occupied by memory and
registers by the 3CE. You should avoid using base addresses for the
VME Transputer card which conflict with these.
For a single TMB14 to be controlled by a 3CE, a VME base address
of 0x0800 is often suitable.This can be achieved by setting the
TMB14’s VME base address switches to 0 and 8. In this case the
value of vme-a32map should be set to 15:
ok setenv vme-a32map 15
154
Transputer Motherboard User Manual
TMB M 711
Utilities Software
11.2.2 FORCE CPU-5V
When using a TMB14 in conjunction with a FORCE SPARC CPU-5V
VME controller, you need to enable VME A16 accesses. To do this,
set the PROM monitor prompt variable vme-a16-master-ena? as
follows:
ok setenv vme-a16-master-ena? true
11.2.3 Software
The Transputer Utilities for Solaris 2 are supplied on CD-ROM. If the
SPARC computer does not itself have a CD-ROM drive, then a
networked Sun with a CD-ROM drive can be used and the CDROM’s contents accessed using NFS.
To install the Transputer Motherboard software on SPARC systems
running Solaris 2 with a CD-ROM drive:
1. Log into the Sun as root.
2. Put the supplied CD-ROM into the CD-ROM drive.
3. Use volcheck to mount the CD-ROM:
# volcheck cdrom
4. Move to the solaris2 directory on the CD-ROM:
# cd /cdrom/cdrom0/solaris2
5. Add the Solaris 2 packages:
# pkgadd -d ‘pwd‘ all
When prompted for an installation directory, press Return for the
default (/opt/transtech) or type in an alternative installation
directory.
6. Eject the CD-ROM from the drive:
# cd /
# eject cdrom
The following lines are an example extract of the file .login which
can be used to set these environment variables for users of the C
shell under Solaris 2:
setenv
setenv
setenv
setenv
TMB M 711
TPS /opt/transtech
ISEARCH “$TPS/tp/4libs/ $ISEARCH”
ICONDB $TPS/lib/tmb.db
ASERVDB $TPS/tp/4libs/aservdb
Transputer Motherboard User Manual 155
Solaris 2 Installation
setenv TRANSPUTER tmb0
set path = ( $TPS/bin $path )
11.2.4 Configuration File
Before the TMB14’s device driver software can be used, a
configuration file needs to be edited to reflect the hardware
parameters of the TMB14 motherboard or motherboards used. This
configuration file is described in this section.
The file /kernel/drv/tmb.conf is a configuration file which is
used to specify the hardware parameters of the installed TMB14
motherboard or motherboards.
Normally, for every Transtech TMB14 motherboard with an enabled
VME interface an entry is required in the configuration file.
Configuration file entries should not be made for TMB14s where the
VME interface is disabled.
An entry in the configuration file consists of a list of the following
properties terminated by a semi-colon:
156
name
The device driver name. Must be set to
“tmb”.
class
The type of device driver. Must be set to
“vme”.
reg
A set of three numbers. The corresponding
to the TMB14 registers The first number
specifies the type of VME accesses used
(0x2d for A16 mode), the second specifies
the VME start address and the third
specifies the amount of VME memory
space used by the interface registers.
interrupts
A set of two numbers, the first specifying
the VME IRQ level as set by the interrupt
level register on the motherboard, the
second specifying the VME interrupt vector
to use. The VME interrupt vector number
must be different from those used by other
installed VME boards.
vme_mode
The VME access mode used by the
motherboard interface. For a TMB14 this
should be set to “A16D08”.
Transputer Motherboard User Manual
TMB M 711
Utilities Software
motherboard
The type of VME TRAM 0 motherboard
used i.e. “TMB14”.
controller
The type of the VME controller used which
runs the device driver e.g. “FORCE-3CE”.
By uncommenting the following lines in the supplied configuration
file, the default setup for a TMB14 can be used:
name=”tmb” class=”vme”
reg=0x2d,0x0800,0x100 interrupts=1,0x43
vme_mode=”A16D08” motherboard=”TMB14” controller=”FORCE-3CE”;
This corresponds to a TMB14 used in A16D08 mode at VME address
0x0800, IRQ level 1 and interrupt vector 43 hex controlled by a
FORCE SPARC CPU-3CE.
After changing the configuration file, the computer needs to be
shutdown and then rebooted with the VME motherboard and TRAM
modules installed as follows:
# init 0
...
ok boot -r
Note that the -r option is used to rebuild the device directories under
/devices and /dev. This must be done each time the configuration
file is changed.
Each entry in the configuration file corresponds to a device file, for
example /dev/tmb/0. Note that if the entries are changed in the
configuration file, the device files that it corresponds to may also
change leaving obsolete device files. These obsolete device files can
be removed by deleting the appropriate lines in the file
/etc/path_to_inst.
11.3 Environment Variables
The software uses some environment variables set on the host
system. These are:
TMB M 711
TPS
The path of the top-level Transtech
directory, where the software is installed.
TRANSPUTER
The name of the transputer link or board to
access. The name is used to search the
connection database or Aserver database
to find the interface type and parameters.
Transputer Motherboard User Manual 157
Connection Database
ICONDB
The path of the connection database file.
ASERVDB
The path of the Aserver database file.
IBOARDSIZE
Memory size of root transputer in the
network.
ITERM
The file containing terminal keyboard and
screen codes. (Used by interactive Inmos
software such as idebug).
ISEARCH
The list of directories which iserver will
search for certain files if the full pathname
is not specified. Each directory path must
end in a slash, and the directories are
separated by a space.
11.4 Connection Database
The connection database lists the capabilities (resources) available
to certain tools such as the host server utility Iserver. The actual
resource that the tool is to use is specified by the TRANSPUTER
environment variable or command line arguments such as the
Iserver sl option. The name of the connection database file to use
is the value of the environment variable ICONDB.
The PC connection database file lib/dos.db defines capabilities
for an ISA card at IO address 150 and a single TMB17 PCI card. The
capability names for the ISA card is chosen to have the same name
as the host link as defined above. An extract from this file is:
# dos.db
# TMB03 at address #150
# name
| T/F
|
|150
|T
|localhost |150
|#150
|T
|localhost |150
|b004
|b004
|||Host link
|||Host link
|
|
|tmb17 |||Host link
|
# TMB17
|tmb17
|T
|localhost |0
The non-comment lines in this file contain the fields:
Capability
158
Transputer Motherboard User Manual
The resource name passed, for instance, to
iserver using the /sl option or the
environment variable TRANSPUTER.
TMB M 711
Utilities Software
IsWorking
Set to T if the resource is available. Set to F
if the resource is not available.
Machine
The name of the host on which the
resource exists. For a board connected to
the local machine, this is set to
localhost.
Linkname
The device name. For the PC ISA cards,
this is the I/O address in hex. For PCI
cards, this is the board index starting at 0
for the first card.
Linkdev
The type of device. Set to b004 for ISA
cards or to tmb17 for a TMB17 PCI card.
Mmsfile
Reserved for future use.
Mmslink
Reserved for future use.
Description
Descriptive comment.
For example, to use iserver on an ISA board at IO address 150 hex
to load and run the transputer executable run.btl, use the
command
C:\> iserver /sl 150 /sb run.btl
Alternatively, set the environment variable TRANSPUTER to the
required capability name. For instance,
> set TRANSPUTER=150
> iserver /sb run.btl
11.5 Network test utilities
Several utilities are provided to perform diagnostics on networks of
transputers:
TMB M 711
check
A network “worm”, which reports the
interconnections between transputers in
the network, as well as basic processor
characteristics.
mtest
A network memory tester, which reports on
the amount of memory and the speed of the
memory on each transputer.
ftest
A functional test utility.
Transputer Motherboard User Manual 159
Network test utilities
For example, having installed a motherboard with four processors,
using the default jumper and switch settings, you can verify that the
board is working by typing:
c:\> check
Using 150 check 3.0.1
# Part rate Mb Bt [
0 T805d-25 0.43 0 [
1 T805d-25 1.75 1 [
2 T805d-30 1.77 1 [
3 T805d-25 1.79 1 [
Link0
HOST
...
...
...
Link1
...
0:2
1:2
2:2
Link2
1:1
2:1
3:1
...
Link3
...
...
...
...
]
]
]
]
]
Link3
...
...
...
...
]
]
]
]
]
The memory test is invoked as follows:
c:\> check | mtest
Using 150 check 3.0.1 | mtest 3.0.1
# Part rate Mb Bt [ Link0 Link1
0 T805d-25 0.43 0 [
HOST
...
1 T805d-25 1.75 1 [
...
0:2
2 T805d-30 1.77 1 [
...
1:2
3 T805d-25 1.79 1 [
...
2:2
Link2
1:1
2:1
3:1
...
RAM,cycle
4K,1+4096K,3;
4K,1+4096K,3;
4K,1+4096K,3;
4K,1+4096K,3;
Interpretation of the output of check normally requires sketching a
diagram. The processors are numbered in the order that the worm
finds them, which is normally not the most intuitive numbering
scheme.
If check does not show the network you expect, refer to the troubleshooting guide in chapter 12.
11.5.1 Link Switch Configuration
The check utility can be used to set C004 link switches. This is
illustrated in the following example.
Consider a TMB17 with TRAMs fitted into sites 0, 1, 2 and 3. By
default, these are connected in a link 2 to link 1 pipeline as shown by
check:
C:\TPS>set TRANSPUTER=tmb17
C:\TPS>check
Using tmb17 check 3.0.3
160
Transputer Motherboard User Manual
TMB M 711
Utilities Software
#
0
1
3
4
5
Part rate Mb Bt
T805b-25 1.52 0
T225c-20 1.74 1
T805b-25 1.77 1
T805b-25 1.75 1
T805b-25 1.75 1
[
[
[
[
[
[
Link0
HOST
...
...
...
...
Link1
1:1
0:1
0:2
3:2
4:2
Link2
3:1
...
4:1
5:1
...
Link3
...
C004
...
...
...
]
]
]
]
]
]
The C004 link switch settings can be determined using the
check /cl option and the results stored in the file wire:
C:\TPS>check /cl > wire
C:\TPS>type wire
Using tmb17 check 3.0.3
# Part rate Mb Bt [ Link0
0 T805b-25 1.52 0 [
HOST
1 T225c-20 1.74 1 [
...
2 C004b ()
3 T805b-25 1.75 1 [
...
4 T805b-25 1.75 1 [
...
5 T805b-25 1.75 1 [
...
Link1
1:1
0:1
Link2
3:1
...
Link3 ]
... ]
2:C ]
0:2
3:2
4:2
4:1
5:1
...
... ]
... ]
... ]
In this case, no link switch settings have been made.
To create a link 3 to link 0 pipeline between the TRAMs, then C004
link 10 should be connected to link 1, link 11 to link 2 and link 12 to
link 3. See figure 96 for details.
Edit the file wire and change the line for the C004 link switch to:
2 C004b (10-1 11-2 12-3 )
This amended file can then be used with the check /cs option to set
the C004 link switch:
C:\TPS>check /cs < wire
Using tmb17 check 3.0.3
# Part rate Mb Bt [ Link0 Link1 Link2 Link3
0 T805b-25 1.52 0 [
HOST
1:1
3:1
...
1 T225c-20 1.74 1 [
...
0:1
...
2:C
2 C004b
[ -ABC---- --123--- -------- -------3 T805b-25 1.75 1 [
...
0:2
4:1
...
4 T805b-25 1.75 1 [
...
3:2
5:1
...
5 T805b-25 1.75 1 [
...
4:2
...
...
] CHANGES
]
]
]
]
]
]
C:\TPS>check
TMB M 711
Transputer Motherboard User Manual 161
The Inmos server program
Using tmb17 check 3.0.3
# Part rate Mb Bt [ Link0
0 T805b-25 1.52 0 [
HOST
1 T225c-20 1.75 1 [
...
3 T805b-25 1.77 1 [
0:3
4 T805b-25 1.75 1 [
3:3
5 T805b-25 1.75 1 [
4:3
Link1
1:1
0:1
0:2
3:2
4:2
Link2
3:1
...
4:1
5:1
...
Link3
3:0
C004
4:0
5:0
...
]
]
]
]
]
]
11.6 The Inmos server program
The Inmos server, iserver, is used to load programs on the
transputer network, and provide host services to the program. iserver
is normally invoked on a PC as follows, to load and run a program.
c:\>iserver /sb prog.btl args...
Or, under Unix:
% iserver -sb prog.btl args...
If iserver fails to load the network, use check with the /cfb option
(see the reference page) to verify that the actual network is the same
as that specified to the configurer.
11.7 Transputer host I/O utilities
The following files are supplied in the \tps\tp\4libs directory for
use with the Dx414 toolset:
162
genio.h
Header file for genio.lib.
genio.lib
Generic I/O library. Used to improve I/O
performance of transputer programs using
iserver. The library allows a compiled
program to make use of optimized I/O on a
number of different boards, including the
TMB16.
hostmux.lku
iserver host channel multiplexor
process, allowing any number of
processes, any where in a transputer
network to perform host I/O.
iocache.lku
Disk cacheing process, providing the
multiplexing facilities of hostmux.lku,
and optimized I/O. Client processes do not
need to use genio calls to benefit from
optimized I/O.
Transputer Motherboard User Manual
TMB M 711
Utilities Software
The genio library and the hostmux and iocache processes are
documented in the form of Unix man pages in the following section.
11.8 Inmos Aserver Support
The Inmos Aserver tools (such as rspy and inquest) are
supported on PCs running Windows 95 and on SPARC computers
running Solaris 2.
For a PC ISA card such as a TMB03 or a TMB16, use the default
B004 compatible interface.
For a TMB08, use either the default B004 compatible interface or the
faster B008 compatible interface.
For a TMB17 PCI Motherboard:
1. Add the following line to the ASERVDB database:
| tmb17 | txcs wtmb17 0 | 1 |
2. Set the TRANSPUTER variable to tmb17 either in autoexec.bat
or using iLaunch, or specify the option /sl tmb17 when starting
the utilities.
For a TMB14 VME card controlled by a SPARC VME card running
Solaris 2, use the supplied Aserver database file as follows:
setenv ASERVDB $TPS/tp/4libs/aservdb
setenv TRANSPUTER tmb0
To test the Aserver interface, use the rspy utility. For example, under
Solaris 2:
% rspy
# Part-rt
0 T805-25
TMB M 711
Link0 Link1 Link2 Link3
HOST
...
...
...
Transputer Motherboard User Manual 163
Solaris 2 Device Driver
11.9 Solaris 2 Device Driver
For Solaris 2, the device driver object file /kernel/drv/tmb is
supplied along with its configuration file /kernel/drv/tmb.conf.
The device driver implements a B014 compatible software interface
to a TMB14. The following interface is implemented:
open()
Opens the connection to a TMB14 interface
link. The filename used should be of the
form /dev/tmb/n where n is the interface
link number.
close()
Closes the connection to the link.
read()
Reads from the link. This function returns
when the data transfer has completed or
when a time-out, error or signal has
occurred.
write()
Writes to the link. This function may return
before the data transfer has completed or
when a time-out, error or signal has
occurred.
ioctl()
Perform various interface functions
described below.
A number of functions can be performed by calling ioctl() with the
request argument set to SETFLAGS and the third argument set to a
pointer to an IMS_IO structure with the op member set to the
following values:
RESET
Resets the link.
ANALYSE
Resets the link with analyse asserted.
SETTIMEOUT
Sets the link time-out to the value in the
val member measured in tenths of a
second.
The IMS_IO structure and related constants are defined in the
include file ims_bcmd.h.
For example, the following code fragment opens and resets the
TMB14:
#include <ims_bcmd.h>
...
union IMS_IO io;
int fd;
164
Transputer Motherboard User Manual
TMB M 711
Utilities Software
/* Open link */
fd = open( “/dev/tmb/0”, O_RDWR );
if (fd < 0)
exit( 1 );
/* Reset link */
io.set.op = RESET;
io.set.val = 0;
if (ioctl( fd, SETFLAGS, &io ))
exit( 1 );
The function ioctl() can also be called with a request argument of
READFLAGS with the third argument set to a pointer to an IMS_IO
structure. This returns status information.
TMB M 711
Transputer Motherboard User Manual 165
Reference Manual Pages
11.10 Reference Manual Pages
11.10.1 Commands
check(1)
NAME
check - Test a Transputer network
SYNOPSIS
Unix:
check [ -c4 ] [ -cl ] [ -cr ] [ -cs ] [ -cfb filename ] [ -h
] [ -i ] [ -l name ] [ -m filename ] [ -n ] [ -r ] [ -v ] [
-x ] [ < filename ]
DOS:
check [ /c4 ] [ /cl ] [ /cr ] [ /cs ] [ /cfb filename ] [ /h
] [ /i ] [ /l name ] [ /m filename ] [ /n ] [ /r ] [ /v ] [
/x ] [ < filename ]
DESCRIPTION
check is a utility which tests a network of Transputer processors.
It outputs a list of the processors found and the
connections between them.
The output of check can be used as the input of mtest,
ftest, or load. Alternatively, the output from a previous
run of check can be piped into subsequent runs.
The host link connection to use is specified by the l option
or the TRANSPUTER environment variable. This corresponds to
an entry in the connection database pointed to by the
environment variable ICONDB.
OPTIONS
In Unix, options are preceded by `-`.
preceded by ‘/’.
166
In DOS,
c4
Read the state of all C004s found.
cl
Read the state of C004s, long form.
cr
Reset all C004s found.
Transputer Motherboard User Manual
options
are
TMB M 711
Utilities Software
cs
Set all C004s in file piped into check.
cfb filename
Use filename as a configuration binary file.
h
Print help page.
i
Information - tells you whats happening.
l name
Use this link, else use
able.
TRANSPUTER
environment
vari-
m filename
Use filename as a toolset map file.
n
Do not reset the root transputer.
r
Reset the root transputer subsystem.
v
Leave network in virgin reset state.
x
Ignores any file piped in to check.
BUGS
check does not work with T450 processors.
TMB M 711
Transputer Motherboard User Manual 167
Reference Manual Pages
ckmon(1)
NAME
ckmon - Transputer hex monitor
SYNOPSIS
Unix:
check | ckmon -0 [ -h ] [ -l name ] [ -a ]
ckmon -f filename -n [ -h ] [ -l name ] [ -a ]
DOS:
check | ckmon /0 [ /h ] [ /l name ] [ /a ]
ckmon /f filename /n [ /h ] [ /l name ] [ /a ]
DESCRIPTION
ckmon is a Transputer monitor program. The first Transputer
in the network can be monitored by using the 0 option.
Other Transputers can be monitored using the n option where
n is the number of a processor as defined in the output of
check in the file filename as specified using the f option.
The host link connection to use is specified by the l option
or the TRANSPUTER environment variable. This corresponds to
an entry in the connection database pointed to by the
environment variable ICONDB.
OPTIONS
In Unix, options are preceded by ‘-’.
preceded by ‘/’.
0
Monitors root processor.
n
Monitors processor n.
In DOS,
options
are
f filename
Use check output filename.
h
Help page.
l name
Use the named link.
a
168
Assert Subsystem Analyse.
Transputer Motherboard User Manual
TMB M 711
Utilities Software
ftest(1)
NAME
ftest - Test processors in a Transputer network
SYNOPSIS
Unix:
check | ftest [ -t2 ] [ -t4 ] [ -t8 ] [ -l ]
DOS:
check | ftest [ /t2 ] [ /t4 ] [ /t8 ] [ /l ]
DESCRIPTION
ftest is a utility used in conjunction with
tests processors in a network of Transputers.
check
which
The host link connection to use is specified by the l option
or the TRANSPUTER environment variable. This corresponds to
an entry in the connection database pointed to by the
environment variable ICONDB.
OPTIONS
In Unix, options are preceded by ‘-’.
preceded by ‘/’.
t2
Test M212s, T2s, T225s only.
t4
Test T414s, T425s only.
t8
Test T800s only.
l
Log progress of testing.
TMB M 711
In DOS,
options
are
Transputer Motherboard User Manual 169
Reference Manual Pages
iserver(1)
NAME
iserver - Inmos host server program
SYNOPSIS
Unix:
iserver [ -sb filename ] [ -si ] [ -se ] [ -sl linkname ] [
-sr ] [ -sa ] [ -sc filename ] [ -sp n ] [ -ss ] [ -sm ] [ sk n ] [ -sz[1|2] ] [ [ -st ] arguments... ]
DOS:
iserver [ /sb filename ] [ /si ] [ /se ] [ /sl linkname ] [
/sr ] [ /sa ] [ /sc filename ] [ /sp n ] [ /ss ] [ /sm ] [
/sk n ] [ /sz[1|2] ] [ [ /st ] arguments...
DESCRIPTION
iserver is the Inmos host server program.
It is used to
load programs onto Transtech systems and allow them access
to the host workstation’s keyboard, screen, file system and
other services.
The list of available systems (resources) which iserver can
use is kept in a file called the connection database. The
environment variable ICONDB should be set to the pathname of
this file. The resource that iserver should attempt to use
is specified by the sl option or the environment variable
TRANSPUTER.
The session manager provides a mechanism to allow users continuous access to a resource. It has a simple command line
interface allowing users to specify and use the required
resource.
This interface can be customised by a configuration file specified by the environment variable ISESSION.
OPTIONS
On Unix systems iserver options are preceded by ‘-’.
systems iserver options are preceded by ‘/’.
On DOS
sb filename
Boot the named file (same as -sr -ss -si -sc filename).
170
si
Verbose mode.
se
Test the error flag.
Transputer Motherboard User Manual
TMB M 711
Utilities Software
sl linkname
Use the named resource.
sr
Reset the root transputer.
sa
Analyse and peek the root transputer.
sc filename
Copy the named file to the link.
sp n Set peek size to n Kchars.
ss
Serve the link.
sm
Enter the session shell.
sk interval
Retry connects every interval (seconds).
sz[1|2]
Very verbose debug mode (logs all transactions).
st
Pass all of the following arguments to the booted
gram.
Options and or arguments not
passed to the booted program.
recognised
by
pro-
iserver
are
ENVIRONMENT
The following environment variables are used by iserver:
TRANSPUTER
Specifies the resource to used.
the sl option.
May be
overridden
by
ICONDB
Pathname of the connection database file.
ISESSION
Pathname of the session
Default is session.cfg.
TMB M 711
manager
configuration
file.
Transputer Motherboard User Manual 171
Reference Manual Pages
load(1)
NAME
load - Loads files onto a Transputer in a network
SYNOPSIS
Unix:
check | load [ -n File1 File2 ] [ -f filename ] [ -i n ] [ l ] [ -h ]
DOS:
check | load [ /n File1 File2 ] [ /f filename ] [ /i n
/l ] [ /h ]
]
[
DESCRIPTION
load is a utility used in conjunction with check which loads
a file or files onto a processor in a Transputer network.
The host link connection to use is specified by the l option
or the TRANSPUTER environment variable. This corresponds to
an entry in the connection database pointed to by the
environment variable ICONDB.
OPTIONS
In Unix, options are preceded by ‘-’.
preceded by ‘/’.
In DOS,
options
are
n File1 File2
Load Transputer n with a number of files in sequence.
f filename
Use check command file.
172
i n
Set default iserver path to Transputer n.
l
Log progress of load.
h
Display this help page.
Transputer Motherboard User Manual
TMB M 711
Utilities Software
mtest(1)
NAME
mtest - Test memory of Transputers in a network
SYNOPSIS
Unix:
check | mtest [ -c ] [ -e Kb ] [ -i iter ] [ -l ] [ -t tp
[ -t2 ] [ -t4 ] [ -q ] [ -x ] [ -0 ] [ -h ]
]
DOS:
check | mtest [ /c ] [ /e Kb ] [ /i iter ] [ /l ] [ /t tp
[ /t2 ] [ /t4 ] [ /q ] [ /x ] [ /0 ] [ /h ]
]
DESCRIPTION
mtest is a utility used in conjunction with check which
tests the memory of processors in a network of Transputers.
The host link connection to use is specified by the l option
or the TRANSPUTER environment variable. This corresponds to
an entry in the connection database pointed to by the
environment variable ICONDB.
OPTIONS
In Unix, options are preceded by ‘-’.
preceded by ‘/’.
c
In DOS,
options
are
Include T2s with C004s on links (default - no).
E Kb Sets ceiling in Kbytes to which memory is tested.
i iter
Number of iterations.
l
Log progress of testing.
t tp Test processor tp only.
t2
Test T2s only.
t4
Test T4s and T8s only.
q
Quick memory sizing option.
x
Extra information on why memory search stopped.
TMB M 711
Transputer Motherboard User Manual 173
Reference Manual Pages
174
0
Do not include root processor in tests.
h
Display help page.
Transputer Motherboard User Manual
TMB M 711
Utilities Software
11.10.2 Linked Process Units
hostmux(2)
NAME
hostmux - host server channel multiplexor
SYNOPSIS
process (
stacksize = 16K,
heapsize = 64K,
interface (
input
from_host,
output to_host,
input
in[size],
output
out[size],
int n=size
)
) mux;
use “hostmux.lku” for mux;
DESCRIPTION
The host server channel multiplexor is used where more than
one process needs access to host I/O facilities. The multiplexor takes any number of pairs of server channels, and
combines them into a single pair that is connected to the
host.
The host connections can be connected another multiplexor,
giving rise to tree-shaped structures, which may be built up
to any level of complexity.
A process accessing the host is referred to as a “client” of
the multiplexor. Each client is connected to one “in” channel, and to the “out” channel with the same array index.
The multiplexor receives requests on any “in” channel,
passes the request to the host, waits for the reply, and
passes the reply to the corresponding out channel. Termination messages (which cause the iserver to terminate) receive
special treatment: a termination message is not passed to
the host until a total of “n” termination messages are
received from clients. Hence the iserver will not terminate
until all clients have terminated.
TMB M 711
Transputer Motherboard User Manual 175
Reference Manual Pages
Client channels should not be left unconnected: if they are
the iserver will never terminate, because the multiplexor
will expect a termination message from the unconnected channel.
The multiplexor is not limited to a fixed size of iserver
packet. If a packet is encountered that exceeds the current
buffer size, it attempts to allocate a new buffer from the
heap.
The multiplexor inputs requests from the clients using a
fair ALT.
This means that even if there is a continuous
stream of requests from one client, requests from any other
client are guaranteed to be serviced within a finite time.
EXAMPLE
/* loader.cfs
*
* This example shows the use of hostmux to
* provide host services to run860 processes
* on three processors.
*/
#include “i860tset.cfh”
#include “hardware.cfs”
process ( stacksize=64K, heapsize=64K );
/* process declarations */
val boot_1 “[0].860 “;
val len_1 size(boot_1);
val boot_2 “[1].860 “;
val len_2 size(boot_2);
val boot_3 “[2].860 “;
val len_3 size(boot_3);
process
176
( interface ( input HostInput, output HostOutput,
int flags = NORUN,
char boot_file[len_1]=boot_1) ) driver_1;
Transputer Motherboard User Manual
TMB M 711
Utilities Software
process
( interface ( input HostInput, output HostOutput,
int flags = NORUN,
char boot_file[len_2]=boot_2) ) driver_2;
process
( interface ( input HostInput, output HostOutput,
int flags = NORUN,
char boot_file[len_3]=boot_3) ) driver_3;
process ( interface ( input HostInput,
input Input[2],
int Size = 2))
output HostOutput,
output Output[2],
mult_1;
process ( interface ( input HostInput,
input Input[2],
int Size = 2))
output HostOutput,
output Output[2],
mult_2;
input
output
HostInput;
HostOutput;
connect mult_1.HostInput to
connect mult_1.HostOutput to
HostInput;
HostOutput;
connect mult_1.Input[0] to
connect mult_1.Output[0] to
mult_2.HostOutput;
mult_2.HostInput;
connect mult_1.Input[1] to
connect mult_1.Output[1] to
driver_1.HostOutput;
driver_1.HostInput;
connect mult_2.Input[0] to
connect mult_2.Output[0] to
driver_3.HostOutput;
driver_3.HostInput;
connect mult_2.Input[1] to
connect mult_2.Output[1] to
driver_2.HostOutput;
driver_2.HostInput;
/* placement */
use
use
use
use
use
“hostmux.lku” for mult_1;
“hostmux.lku” for mult_2;
“run860.lku” for driver_1;
“run860.lku” for driver_2;
“run860.lku” for driver_3;
place driver_1 on TTM100_1;
place driver_2 on TTM100_2;
place driver_3 on TTM100_3;
TMB M 711
Transputer Motherboard User Manual 177
Reference Manual Pages
place mult_1 on TTM100_1;
place mult_2 on TTM100_2;
place
place
HostInput
HostOutput
on host;
on host;
FILES
hostmux.lku
SEE ALSO
iserver(1)
178
Transputer Motherboard User Manual
TMB M 711
Utilities Software
iocache(2)
NAME
iocache - host file I/O accelerator
SYNOPSIS
/* io_type */
val
val
val
val
val
val
TMB16
TB400
PARAMID
MCP
BIG_IO
STD_IO
16384;
65536;
65536;
131072;
0;
0;
/* packet size */
val DEFAULT_SIZE 0;
/* cache block size */
val DEFAULT_BLOCK 16384
process (
stacksize = 10K,
heapsize = 1M,
interface (
input
from_host,
output to_host,
input
from_client[n],
output to_client[n],
int
num_chans = n,
int
io_type = type,
int
packet_size = size,
int
block_size = b_size
)
) cache;
use “iocache.lku” for cache;
DESCRIPTION
The file cache process improves I/O performance by cacheing
recently accessed data. The size of I/O blocks is converted
up or down to the optimum, depending on the host server and
TMB M 711
Transputer Motherboard User Manual 179
Reference Manual Pages
interface hardware being used.
Where many processes are reading the same file concurrently
(such as when a group of i860s are booting the same program), I/O speed can be dramatically increased. The problem
of the iserver running out of file descriptors is also
avoided, as the cache only opens each file only once.
The configuration parameters are as follows: “from_host” and
“to_host” are the normal iserver channels to the host.
“from_client” and “to_client” are arrays of iserver channels
to the clients, or application processes. Note that iocache
multiplexes the host channels of several processes in a
manner similar to hostmux(2).
“io_type” specifies the type of I/O optimization that is
performed.
It is an integer as defined in the above value
declarations. “packet_size” is used to determine the size
of iserver packets when the io_type is BIG_IO - it is
ignored for all other I/O types. To obtain I/O compatible
with a standard iserver, both io_type and packet_size should
be set to zero.
“block_size” determines the size of buffer that is allocated
for each file opened by a client. A value of 16384 (16K) is
recommended. The space available for buffers is controlled
by the heapsize given to the process. In general, as much
heap as possible should be given to this process.
If the host is a PC running DOS, then text mode files opened
by Transputer processes are not cached. This does not apply
to files opened by i860s.
The standard input and output are not cached.
When the same file is opened more than once (eg, by different client processes) the cached data can be shared
between processes. For this to happen, both the file name
and the open mode must match exactly.
FILES
iocache.lku
SEE ALSO
iserver(1) hostmux(2)
180
Transputer Motherboard User Manual
TMB M 711
Utilities Software
11.10.3 Program Function Calls
genio(3)
NAME
genio, genio_open, genio_close, genio_read, genio_write,
genio_lseek, genio_control, - optimized file I/O library
SYNOPSIS
#include <genio.h>
int genio_open( char *name, int mode );
int genio_close( int fd );
int genio_read( int fd, char *buf, int n );
int genio_write( int fd, char *buf, int n );
int genio_lseek( int fd, long int offset, int origin );
void genio_control( int iotype, int param );
DESCRIPTION
The generic I/O library implements faster versions of the
Inmos C Toolset low level file I/O functions. Several techniques are included that give optimal results on different
kinds of hardware.
This is done by allowing a larger iserver packet size (up to
4096 bytes) to be used than normal (512 bytes), or, in the
case of the TMB16 motherboard, by DMA direct to the BIOS
disk controller routines.
All operations on files opened using genio_open must be performed using the genio library functions and not using the
default library functions.
Similarly the genio library
functions should not be used on files opened using the normal open function.
On multi-processor systems, the server channels should be
multiplexed using hostmux.lku and not the occam procedure
so.multiplexor. This routine should also be used instead of
so.buffer.
TMB M 711
Transputer Motherboard User Manual 181
Reference Manual Pages
The open, close, read, write and lseek routines are used in
the same way as the corresponding Inmos routines, taking
exactly the same parameters.
By default, the library performs standard Iserver I/O with
512 byte packets. genio_control is used to specify what type
of I/O optimizations should be used. It can be called to
switch between modes whenever desired: I/O will be performed
using the mode selected when the file was opened.
genio_control takes two arguments: an I/O type and a secondary parameter. The parameter is ignored, unless otherwise
specified. The following I/O types can be used:
STD_IO
Standard mode (default)
TMB16_IO
Optimize I/O for the TMB16 (NB the calling process
must have it’s host I/O links connected directly
to the TMB16 interface, NOT through any multiplexors)
TB400_IO
Use enlarged iserver
TB400.
MCP_IO
Use enlarged iserver packets optimized for MCP1000
and MCP500.
BIG_IO
Use enlarged iserver packets of the specified
size. The second argument specifies the size of
packet that may be used in bytes.
packets
optimized
for
the
FILES
genio.h genio.lib
SEE ALSO
hostmux(2)
RESTRICTIONS
File descriptors used by routines in the genio library cannot be used with the standard file I/O routines and viceversa.
182
Transputer Motherboard User Manual
TMB M 711
Utilities Software
The server channels from Transputer processes using the
genio routines cannot be multiplexed using so.multiplexor or
buffered using so.buffer.
If TMB16-optimized I/O is enabled, the calling process must
have its host channels connected DIRECTLY to the TMB16
interface link. No multiplexors or buffers are allowed
between the library and the host link. The hostmux process
can handle enlarged iserver packets.
TMB M 711
Transputer Motherboard User Manual 183
Reference Manual Pages
184
Transputer Motherboard User Manual
TMB M 711
Trouble-shooting
Chapter 12
Trouble-shooting
In the event of a problem with your transputer equipment, the
following sections give some hints for tracking down the cause.
12.1 TRAM checklist
It check reports some, but not all of the transputers, then it is best to
draw a picture of the processors and links that are detected. Then
you can determine which processors or links are not detected.
The following checklist, based on the signals at the TRAM pins, may
be used to find the cause of the problem.
.
Link2Out
Link2In
Vcc
Link1Out
Link1In
LinkSpeed A
LinkSpeed B
ClockIn (5MHz)
1
SSnotError
SSReset
SSAnalyse
16
Link3In
Link3Out
Gnd
Link0In
Link0Out
notError
Reset
Analyse
Figure 105. TRAM Pinout
TMB M 711
Transputer Motherboard User Manual 185
TRAM checklist
12.1.1 Reset
Check the setting of the control configuration jumpers on the
motherboard. With the default settings given in this manual, subsystem pins are not required.
Using a logic probe (with LEDs that light to show high or low TTL
signal states) check that the reset pulse can be seen. The pulse is
quite short, but should be clearly visible. Most voltmeters are too
heavily damped to show the reset pulse.
12.1.2 Links
Pipe-jumpers are a common source of trouble. Check that they are
fitted in the right places, and that the SIL strip between the TRAM
and the motherboard is fitted.
Check the settings of the link patch area, and cable connections.
Using a continuity tester or resistance meter, check the connection
of the link. There should be a 56 Ohm series resistance.
If a transputer cannot be booted from one link, even if the link is
correctly connected, it may be because its other links are not held
low, but are disconnected and floating high. All motherboards
incorporate pull-down resistors to prevent this.
12.1.3 Link speed
Check jumper settings. Check TRAM signals with a voltmeter or logic
probe - both link speed signals should be high for the default
20MBit/s operation.
12.1.4 Analyse
Check the TRAM analyse signal is low (not asserted). It should
remain low when check is run.
12.1.5 Power
Using a voltmeter, check that 5V is present.
12.1.6 Clock
Using an oscilloscope or logic probe, check that the 5MHz clock is
present.
186
Transputer Motherboard User Manual
TMB M 711
Trouble-shooting
12.2 PC Host Interface
If check cannot find any transputers, then the problem is may be
with the operation of the host interface. It is best to remove all nonessential hardware and software from the machine, repeat the test.
Then re-introduce other devices one at a time, resolving any clashes
that occur. If you are using more than one transputer card, start with
just one card, then introduce the others.
You may need to change the IO address of the transputer card.
Remember to update the environment variable TRANSPUTER and the
database \tps\lib\dos.db before running check again.
Note that there are many different versions of check and iserver,
released by many organizations. Check that you have the
\tps\bin directory in your path ahead of any other transputerrelated software (e.g., the Inmos toolset).
TMB M 711
Transputer Motherboard User Manual 187
PC Host Interface
188
Transputer Motherboard User Manual
TMB M 711
Index
Symbols
D
.login 155
Device Driver 164
Device File 157
Diagnostics 159
DMA
TMB03 40
TMB04 52
D-type edge connector
TMB03 41
TMB04 53
A
Address
TMB03 37
TMB04 50
ANALYSE 164
analyze signal 19
ASERVDB 163
Aserver 163
autoexec.bat 154
C
C004 connections
TMB14 98
C012 registers
TMB14 94
check 159, 166
ckmon 168
close() 164
ConfigDown 13
ConfigUp 13
Configuration File 156
configuration pipeline 13, 24
Connection database 158
control architecture 9
Control configuration
TMB03 37
TMB04 49
crossbar switches 13
E
Edge connector
TMB08 65
TMB17 146
Electronic link configuration
TMB08 58
TMB17 139
Using check 160
Environment variables 157
error signal 19
F
ftest 159, 169
Functional test 159
G
genio 162, 181
H
Hedgehog
TMB03 42
TMB M 711
Transputer Motherboard User Manual
189
TMB04 54
TMB08 67, 112, 125
TMB14 111
TMB17 148
height profile 8
hostmux 162, 175
I
ICONDB 158
ims_bcmd.h 164
IMS_IO 164
Inmos toolset 9
inquest 163
Installation
Software 153
Interrupt registers
TMB14 95
iocache 162, 179
ioctl() 164
IRQ
TMB03 40
TMB04 52
iserver 158, 162, 170
L
large TRAM 10
link cable 12
Link patch area
TMB08 60
TMB14 104
TMB17 141
Link speed
TMB03 38
TMB12 76
TMB14 102
link switches 13
load 172
190
Transputer Motherboard User Manual
M
man 163
master 19
memory teste 159
MMS 13
mtest 159, 173
Multiplexor
Iserver channels 162
N
NCS 13
O
open() 164
P
PC interface 30
pipe jumper 6
pipe jumpers 10
pipeline 5
Processor clock speed
TMB04 48
R
read() 164
READFLAGS 165
registers
subsystem 29
RESET 164
reset cable 11
reset signal 19
rspy 163
S
Server 162
SETFLAGS 164
SETTIMEOUT 164
TMB M 711
SIMMs
TMB04 46
Software 153
spacers 8
subsystem 4, 8
port pinout 20
registers 29
Source of Control 26
subsystem pins 20
Subsystem Signals 19
T
Test utilities 159
Three L 9
tmb.conf 156
TMB03 35
Aserver support 163
C012 39
Control 37
DMA & interrupts 40
Edge connector 41
Hedgehog 42
Host link 38
IO address 37
Link speed 38
TMB04 45
Control 49
DMA & interrupts 52
Edge connector 53
Hedgehog 54
IO address 50
Processor clock speed 48
SIMMs 46
TMB08 57
Aserver support 163
Control configuration 63
Edge connector 65
Example slave setup 70
Hardwired links 62
Hedgehog 67, 112, 125
TMB M 711
Link configuration 58
Link patch area 60, 67
TMB12 73
board layout 75
C004 connections 85
configuration processor 84
control selection 76
Electronic Link Switching 82
Error Lights 81
K1 Jumpers 86
link speed selection 76
P1 Edge Connector 76, 87
P2 Edge Connector 77
P4 connector 81
pipeline 86
Power Connector 81
Slot 0, links 0 and 3 89
uncommitted P2 pins 81
yellow plug cable 89
TMB14 91
Address selection 102
Aserver support 163
Board layout 92
C004 Connections 98
C012 registers 94
Config links 105
Control port jumpers 103
Control signals 99
Hedgehog connections 111
Interrupt control registers 95
Jumper and Switch Locations
101
Link jumpers 99, 104
Link Speed 102
P1 connector pinout 106
P2 connector pinout 107
P4 D-type pinout 109
P5 D-type pinout 110
Register address map 113
Subsystem control registers 95
User power connector 108
Transputer Motherboard User Manual
191
VME address 102
VME interface enable 102
VMEbus interface 93, 102
TMB16 115
Aserver support 163
base address 122
board layout 116
C004 connections 117
control configuration 121
D-type connector 123
Fast I/O library 162
Hedgehog 125
host interface 129
IRQ & DMA 122
link adaptor setup 128
link patch area 118
Link speed 122
slave setup 126
stand-alone 126
TMB17 135
Aserver support 163
Control configuration 145
Edge connector 146
Example slave setup 151
Hardwired links 144
Hedgehog 148
Link configuration 139
Link patch area 141, 148
TRAM
circuit diagram 21
pinout 19
registers 29
TRANSPUTER 158, 159, 163
Trouble-shooting 185
W
write() 164
V
vme-a32map 154
VMEbus interface
TMB14 93
192
Transputer Motherboard User Manual
TMB M 711
Was this manual useful for you? yes no
Thank you for your participation!

* Your assessment is very important for improving the work of artificial intelligence, which forms the content of this project

Download PDF

advertising