Higher Graphic Communication Course

Higher Graphic Communication Course
Glossary Of Terminology
Graphic Communication
fred
© Jim Wyllie ‘04
Page - 0
Graphic Communication
G
Graphic Types . . . . . . . . . . . 37
GamePad . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 23
Geometric . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 61
Graph Styles. . . . . . . . . . . . . 49
Graphic . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14
Graphic Card . . . . . . . . . . . 26
Graphic’s Processor . . . . . . 26
Graphic’s Tablet . . . . . . . . . 23
Grey Scale . . . . . . . . . . . . 1, 14
Grids . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6, 14
Group . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6
Guide . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14
Gutter . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14
H
Half Tone . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15
Handles . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6
Hard Copy . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 37
Hard Disc . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 26
Harmony . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1
Hatching Styles . . . . . . . . . . 58
Header . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15
Headline . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15
Hemisphere . . . . . . . . . . . . . 61
Hexagon . . . . . . . . . . . . 42, 61
Hidden Line . . . . . . . . . . . . . 31
Highlights . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1
Horizontal Line . . . . . . . . . . 58
Hue . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1
Hyphenation . . . . . . . . . . . . 15
I
Icon . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 37
Import . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 38
Indent . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15
Internet . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 23
Interpenetration . . . . . . . . . 49
Invert . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7
Irregular . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 61
Isometric . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 49
Italic Type . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15
J
Joy Stick . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 24
Justification Types . . . . . . . . 15
K
Kerning . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16
Keyboard . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 24
Knurling Styles. . . . . . . . . . . . 7
L
Landscape . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 38
Layers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7
Leader Line . . . . . . . . . . . . . 58
Leading . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16
Lettering . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16
Library . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8
Line Thickness . . . . . . . . . . . 58
Line Type . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8
Lines of Symmetry . . . . . . . . 58
Lock to Grid . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8
Loft . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 31
Logo . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16, 49
M
Machining . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 60
Machining Terms . . . . . . . . . 60
Make-Up . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16
Manipulate . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8
Manufacturing . . . . . . . . . 4, 49
Margin . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16
Marker . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 54
Marketing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4
Mask . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 54
Masking Tape . . . . . . . . . . . 54
Mate . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 32
Media . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 49, 54
Memory . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 26
Memory Stick . . . . . . . . . . . 34
Mesh . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 32
Microphone . . . . . . . . . . . . . 24
Mirror . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8
Modelling . . . . . . . . . . . . 8, 38
Modem . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 24, 28
Monitor SetUp . . . . . . . . . . . 28
Monotone . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2
Montage . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16
Mount . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16
Mouse . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 24
Move . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8
N
Natural . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2
Net . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 50
Network . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 29
Glossary Of Terminology
O
Oblique . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 50
OCR . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 38
Octagon . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 61
Offset . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 32
Operating System . . . . . . . . 27
Original . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16
Orthographic . . . . . . . . . . . . 50
Outline . . . . . . . . . . . 16, 50, 58
Overlay . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17
P
Page Styles . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17
Paint . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 38
Pan . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 38
Pantone . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2
Parallel Line . . . . . . . . . . . . 59
Parallelism . . . . . . . . . . . . . 60
Parallelogram . . . . . . . . . . . 61
Paste . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8, 38
Pastel . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 54
Pattern . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8, 62
Pen . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 54
Pencil . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 54
Pentagon . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 62
Peripheral . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 24
Personnel . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4
Perspective Types . . . . . . . . 50
Photomontage . . . . . . . . . . . 17
Pictorial . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 50
Plan . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 50
Planometric . . . . . . . . . . . . . 51
Plotter Types . . . . . . . . . . . . 29
Point (Size) . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17
Polygon . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 62
Portrait . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 38
Position . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 60
PostScript . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17
Precision . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9
Preliminary . . . . . . . . . . . . . 40
Presentation . . . . . . . . . . . . 17
Presentation Visuals . . . . . . 51
Primary . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2
Printer types . . . . . . . . . . . . 30
Prism . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 62
Processor . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 27
Production . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 40
Promotional . . . . . . . . . . . . 40
Proof . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17
Protractor . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 55
Pyramid . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 62
Colour Usage - continued
Monotone
Natural
.. .. A drawing which is produced using only one colour, or
shades of one colour.
eg. Black, White and Greys.
.. .. .. Colours that can be seen within a natural environment
such as green and brown.
Pantone .. .. .. International numeric system for selecting a colour.
Each colour has its own individual number.
Primary .. .. .. The three main colours that can’t be made by mixing.
These are: Red, Yellow and Blue.
Receding .. .. .. Colours that give the impression that the surface they
are painted on, is further away from your eye than it
really is.
Receding colours are also cool colours.
Reflection
.. .. A part of the surrounding area reflected on the surface
of a drawing.
Hard to create but very effective if successful.
Secondary
.. .. A mix of two primary colours to give a third colour.
Red + Yellow = Orange
Blue + Yellow = Green
Blue + Red = Purple.
Shade .. .. .. .. Adding black to a colour to make it slightly darker.
This process can be completed many times to give a
range of different shades.
Shadow
.. .. .. The dark shape cast on a surface when something
stands between a light and the surface.
© Jim Wyllie ‘04
Page - 2
Graphic Communication
Glossary Of Terminology
Common Symbols
Company Parts
Electrical
Administration .. .. .. Deals with ordering, company wages/expenses
general paperwork and invoicing.
Will mainly use the word-processor, spreadsheet and
database.
TV
Lamp
Switch
TV Socket
Wall Socket
Fan
Strip Light
Design .. .. .. .. Working on future new products.
Evaluating and improving current models.
Mainly use modelling packages.
Construction Materials
Plywood
Blockboard
Insulation Board
Brick Work
Any Wood
( Sawn )
Distribution .. .. Deals with moving the product from the factory to the
different sales outlets.
Mainly uses databases.
Softwood
( Planed all round )
Manufacturing .. .. .. Constructing the product from scratch or from a
bank of component parts.
Mainly use CAD packages.
Stone Work
Block Work
Hardwood
( Planed all round )
Wall Openings
Window - With Window Sill
Page - 63
.. .. Preparing for selling.
Main user of promotional graphics.
Spreadsheets, DTP and CAG packages.
Personnel
.. .. Looks after the workers of the company providing
help, training, encouragement and pay.
Research .. .. .. Evaluating existing products on the general public.
Look to see what is needed, what could sell in the
future or for changes in the market place.
Sales
Brick Wall
Door - Hinged Leaf
Marketing
Window - Any Type
Scottish Higher / Int 2
.. .. .. .. Involved in the actual selling of the product to the end
customer or to the shop buyers so that they can sell
on to the customer.
Will mainly use spreadsheets and databases.
© Jim Wyllie ‘04
Page - 4
Graphic Communication
Glossary Of Terminology
Shape / Form
Computer — CAD - continued
Circle .. .. .. .. A shape made from an endless curved line which is
always equally spaced from a centre point.
Distort .. .. .. .. To take a section of a drawing
and change its overall shape
by squeezing or stretching it.
Cone
Cube
.. .. .. .. A 3D form which is round at the bottom and comes to
a point.
.. .. .. .. A 3D form which is made from six square surfaces of
equal size.
Cuboid .. .. .. .. A 3D form similar to a cube but where two or more
sides are made from rectangles.
Cylinder .. .. .. A 3D form similar to a prism but where the end
surfaces are circles.
Form
.. .. .. .. Any 3D object which can actually be picked up.
Requires a minimum of one pictorial or two
orthographic views to be represented.
Freehand .. .. .. A shape which is drawn using no tools apart from the
pencil or pen - no straight edge is used at all.
Geometric
.. .. A shape which is drawn formally using drawing tools
and specific skills.
Hemisphere .. .. 3D form like a ball cut across one centre.
Hexagon .. .. .. A six sided shape which can be easily drawn using a
pair of compasses if regular.
Irregular .. .. .. A shape where all the sides are of different length.
Octagon .. .. .. An eight sided shape.
Parallelogram .. A shape where opposite sides are equal in length and
the corners are not right angled.
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Scottish Higher / Int 2
Duplicate .. .. .. Another term for copy although the copy and paste
functions are completed at the same time.
Sometimes used to produce a row of copied parts.
• Array .. .. .. To duplicate a drawing part
many times using a matrix of
points to position each copy.
Can be used to copy and
rotate around a point.
Flip .. .. .. .. .. Another term for Mirror.
Grid .. .. .. .. .. A background effect which forces the drawing tool to
snap to certain points within a geometric pattern.
• Isometric .. .. The pattern is made from equally sized equilateral
triangles forcing the drawing into lines at 30°, 90°
and 150°.
The sizes of these triangles can be easily changed to
suit the drawing.
• Orthographic The pattern is made from equally sized squares.
The sizes of these squares can be easily changed to
suit the drawing.
Group .. .. .. .. A number of drawing elements held together as one.
Very powerful editing tool.
Handles .. .. .. A number of small squares which allow you to edit a
drawing element.
© Jim Wyllie ‘04
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Graphic Communication
Glossary Of Terminology
Line Types - continued
Computer — CAD - continued
Parallel Line .. Lines that are drawn in the same direction but do not
converge.
Library
.. .. .. Storage of suitable, frequently used clip art items
ready for use within particular documents. Suitably
formatted for ease of use in all programs accessing
the library.
Radial Curves .. Curved lines that are drawn using a pair of
compasses.
Vertical Line
.. Lines that are drawn up the page parallel to the edge
of the paper.
Line Type
Lock to Grid
Hatching
0.3mm
Cross Hatching
0.3mm
0.3mm
Construction Line
0.7mm
Full / Solid / Outline
0.3mm
Centre Line
0.3mm
Chain Line
0.3mm
Broken / Hidden Line
0.7mm
0.3mm
Section Line
.. .. Style and thickness of line.
eg. Solid or Broken — Thick or Thin.
.. The cursor is forced to jump to the nearest grid point
improving accuracy greatly.
Manipulate .. .. To change the overall shape of a part by different
methods of transformation.
To move and adapt a drawing’s position.
Mirror .. .. .. .. Copies and flips selected
drawing part about a
specified line.
Modelling
.. .. Produces a 3D graphic when 2D information is input.
Allows the manipulation of the 3D image in real time
with the mouse.
Move
.. .. .. .. To change the position of one part of a drawing to a
different position on that same drawing.
Paste
.. .. .. .. To transfer a part of a drawing, from the clipboard, to
the main page.
Paste process can be repeated as many times as
required.
Pattern .. .. .. .. Used to produce a row or 2D series of copied parts.
See “Duplicated Array”
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Scottish Higher / Int 2
© Jim Wyllie ‘04
Page - 8
Graphic Communication
Glossary Of Terminology
Line Types
Computer — CAD - continued
Angled Line .. .. Lines drawn at a different angle to the edges of the
paper.
Usually drawn using a set-square.
Snap
.. .. .. .. Locks cursor or move to a grid or a specific part of a
drawing, eg. corner, centre, end or intersection.
Arrow .. .. .. .. Pointer line that connects a piece of textual
information to a part of a drawing.
Step .. .. .. .. .. Copy selection a number of times.
Each is moved a specified distance from the previous
copy in the sequence.
Broken .. .. .. .. A line made from short dashes which shows an edge,
or the sides of a hole, that can’t be seen from the view
point.
Symbol .. .. .. .. A single part from a library.
Often a simple drawing of a complex part which is
used over and over again.
Centre Line .. .. A line made from long and short dashes which show
the centre of a circular piece.
When showing the centre of a circle they must cross on
a long dash.
Tool Bar .. .. .. Selection of icons grouped logically which allow the
speedy access to parts of the graphics program.
Chain Line .. .. A line made from a series of long and short dashes.
One type is a centre line but other variations of design
give different information.
Construction .. Very light lines that are used to build up a complex
drawing but are not required when it is complete.
Not removed at the end of the drawing.
Dimension .. .. A line, with an arrow at both ends and a size above,
which shows the exact size of a part of a drawing.
Many other styles of line are used when showing the
sizes of circles, curves or angles.
Folding
.. .. .. Lines that are slightly lighter than outlines which
show folds within a surface development.
Transform .. .. To take a part of a drawing and distort it
mathematically by changing its vertical and
horizontal scales together with a possible rotation.
Similar to “Distort”.
Translate .. .. .. Move a selection of a
drawing across a page
by a certain amount.
Uses (x,y) coordinates to
give new position.
Undo
+ (x,y)
.. .. .. .. One of the most important drawing tools allowing you
to retreat one stage in your work if you have made a
mistake.
Ungroup .. .. .. Breaking a group of items into separate single parts to
allow the editing of each section.
Freehand Curves .. .. Curved lines that are drawn without the use of
any tool except the pen or pencil.
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Scottish Higher / Int 2
© Jim Wyllie ‘04
Page - 10
Graphic Communication
Glossary Of Terminology
Drawing Tools - continued
Computer — DTP - continued
Protractor
Camera Ready Copy .. Fully prepared page(s) ready for photographing
for reproduction by a conventional printing process.
.. .. A semi-circular plastic tool used to measure angles
from 0° to 180°.
Protractors that will measure 360° are also available.
Caption
.. .. .. The descriptive text accompanying an illustration.
Radial Curves .. Plastic template used for drawing part curves quickly.
Not so accurate as a circle template.
Bent into the shape of the curve required.
Centre Spread .. Pair of pages at the centre of a folded section.
Also referred as a centre fold.
Rubber .. .. .. .. A small, hand-held tool used to erase any unwanted
sections of work.
Used with pencil, chalk, charcoal and pastels.
Can be used, for effect, to show highlights.
Collage
.. .. .. Making a large graphic by using smaller drawings
pieced together in an interesting or effective manner.
Column
.. .. .. A vertical area of the page usually filled with text.
Pages can have a number of them such as a
newspaper which may have 7 or nine per page.
Used as a grid to formalise the pages of a publication.
Graphics can also use columns to fix their positions.
Ruler
.. .. .. .. A tool used for measurement.
Marked with the different measuring scales.
eg. millimetres or centimetres.
Scale Ruler .. .. A ruler with special dimensions on it suitable for
drawing in scale.
eg. 1:25 or 1:100 or 2:1 depending what the subject
of the drawing is.
Set Square .. .. Triangular piece of plastic used for the accurate
drawing of certain angles.
Includes 30°/ 60° and 45°.
Tee Square .. .. A plastic, or wooden, tool which allows the accurate
drawing of horizontal lines across a drawing board.
Held in place with the non pencil holding hand.
Parallel motion tee-squares are fixed to the board and
provide more accurate horizontal lines.
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Scottish Higher / Int 2
• Guides .. .. .. Non-printing guides showing margins and columns.
• Rules .. .. .. Lines inserted between columns of text.
• Spacing .. .. .. .. .. White space between two different columns.
• Width .. .. .. The horizontal size, or width, of a column.
Composition
Copy
.. Designing the layout of a page by moving the text and
graphics until you are happy with the result.
.. .. .. .. Any matter (words or illustrations) such as
handwritten text, typescript, photographs and
artwork which are to be reproduced by printing.
Crop .. .. .. .. .. Cutting a picture, electronically, to allow it to fit into a
particular space.
The graphic can normally be re-cropped at a later
date if done in a DTP application.
© Jim Wyllie ‘04
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Graphic Communication
Glossary Of Terminology
Drawing Tools
Computer — DTP - continued
Adjustable .. .. A set square that allows you to set any angle
accurately and is used just like a normal set square.
Airbrush .. .. .. A small, hand-held, tool that sprays a thin layer of
paint or ink onto the drawing.
Requires a compressor to produce the air that is used
to propel the ink.
Compasses (Pair) .. .. A hinged instrument for drawing circles where a
pencil or pen is moved round in an arc.
Dividers .. .. .. A pair of compasses with two pointed arms, used for
measuring or dividing lines.
Footer .. .. .. .. A space at the bottom of a page to hold the page
number and other minor details.
On a document with many pages the footer details are
automatically copied onto each page.
Footnote .. .. .. Text placed at the bottom of a page prefixed with a
symbol or number which is cross-referenced by the
same character in the text.
Used to provide additional information.
Usually shown with a superscript number3.
Format
.. .. .. The arrangement of text on a page defined by the
alignment and text style
Drawing Board .. .. .. Flat, hard surface with right-angled edges which
allows the accurate drawing using the different tools
- set-squares and tee squares.
Frame .. .. .. .. Box that holds a text story or a graphic allowing easy
manipulation.
Eraser Mask
Graphic .. .. .. Any type of drawing dropped onto the page or drawn
using specialist tools within the layout package.
.. Thin sheet of metal with slim holes which is used to
protect parts of a drawing when a rubber is used.
Fixative .. .. .. A thin spray varnish which is used to stop drawings
from smudging when complete.
Grey Scale .. .. Graphic made from different shades of grey dots.
Gives good quality output.
Flexi Curves
Grid .. .. .. .. .. Non-printing pattern which is used to structure the
page design.
.. Pliable ruler which can be bent into a freehand curve
enabling the outlining of a drawing.
Difficult to achieve or duplicate the curve required.
French Curves Plastic drawing tools which are used to construct
complex curves.
Time has to be spent making sure that the curves
drawn lines up correctly.
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Scottish Higher / Int 2
Guide .. .. .. .. Non-printing lines on the screen page which mark grid
lines, columns and margins.
Used to assist the placement of text and graphics on
the page.
Gutter .. .. .. .. Spacing between columns and the extra white space at
the centre of facing pages to allow for folding and
binding.
© Jim Wyllie ‘04
Page - 14
Graphic Communication
Glossary Of Terminology
Drawing Styles - continued
Computer — DTP - continued
Planometric .. .. 2½D View.
Angles used for base must add to 90°.
Heights sometimes 1/3 off.
Used to show simple interiors.
Kerning .. .. .. Horizontal spacing between
pairs of letters to neaten the
effect of the word.
Presentation Visuals .. .. .. High quality drawings, using markers,
inks or similar, which are used to show a client a
series of possible designs.
The effects that are used are to make the drawing
come to life - to look real.
Lettering .. .. .. Text which is specially designed to be used as
headings and is produced differently from normally
typed text.
Reflection
.. .. An effect similar to that seen from a mirror.
Rendering
.. .. Realistic shading and colouring of a drawing.
Scale
.. .. .. .. Changing the size of a drawing of a real object so that
it will fit on a sheet of paper.
10:1 = Drawing is 10 times larger than object.
1:2 = Drawing half the size of Object.
Section .. .. .. .. A view, within a larger drawing.
Shows what can be seen if a form is
cut in two.
Can be 2D, 2½D or 3D
Sketch .. .. .. .. Freehand drawing skill without a straight edge.
Produces drawings quickly.
Stepped Section Sectional drawing where the cutting
plane is stepped to allow a better
view of the shape.
Used to give more information
about an internal part.
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Scottish Higher / Int 2
Leading .. .. .. Vertical spacing between lines of text.
Logo
.. .. .. .. An emblem, or symbol, printed
in a particular fashion as a
trademark.
Make-Up .. .. .. The operation of assembling all the elements - text
and illustrations - onto a series of pages.
The main advantage of using a DTP package to do the
make-up is that any mistakes can be easily fixed.
Margin
.. .. .. Space between the edge of the printed paper and the
text or drawings on it.
Montage .. .. .. A combination of separate images combined to give a
composite picture.
Mount .. .. .. .. A suitable background to emphasise either a part of or
the whole of a presentation page.
Original .. .. .. Any drawing, photograph or piece of artwork
provided as copy for reproduction.
Outline
.. .. .. A typeface or an effect which
uses an outline effect.
© Jim Wyllie ‘04
Page - 16
Graphic Communication
Glossary Of Terminology
Drawing Styles - continued
Computer — DTP - continued
Freehand .. .. .. Drawing completed using only a pencil or pen.
Quotes .. .. .. .. Speech marks. eg. “Hello”
Graph .. .. .. .. An easily read chart which is used to graphically
demonstrate data.
• Bar .. .. .. .. The chart must have an X and a Y axis.
The data is shown in the form of rectangular bars
either vertically or horizontally.
Register Marks A cross-hair target symbol providing a
rough guide for the commercial
printer when printing in multi-colours.
Placed outside the page area and cut
off when the page is trimmed to size.
• Line .. .. .. .. Chart has an X and a Y axis and the data is shown in
the form of points joined by lines.
Retouching .. .. Manual, or computer-aided, adjustment to an
illustration or photograph.
• Pictograph .. Chart has an X and a Y axis and the data is shown,
graphically, in the form of pictures.
Reversing
• Scatter .. .. .. Chart has an X and a Y axis and the data is shown in
the form of points which are not joined in any way.
Interpenetration Drawing showing how two objects connect together.
eg. Two pipes.
.. .. White text on a black background.
River
.. .. .. .. Uneven lines, or patches, of white space running
through a page of text.
Ruler
.. .. .. .. Vertical or horizontal ruler to help with the exact
positioning of frames within a document.
Run .. .. .. .. .. The number of copies of a publication to be printed.
Isometric .. .. .. 2½D View.
All curves have to be constructed.
Angles used — 30° 90° 150°
Run On
Logo
Serif .. .. .. .. .. A typeface which has small lines at the end of
the letters. eg Times Roman
.. .. .. .. A company emblem or similar device which is
displayed on all items from that company.
Manufacturing Drawing required by a manufacturing company
detailing exact sizes, materials, and other important
information.
Often drawn to a particular scale.
Media .. .. .. .. Materials used for the production of drawings.
eg. paint, pencil, ink, pastel, airbrush.
Page - 49
Scottish Higher / Int 2
.. .. .. The extra copies printed at the same time.
San Serif .. .. .. A typeface which has no small lines at the end
of the letters. eg. Homerton.
Shadow
Spine
.. .. .. A typeface which has a built-in shadow.
.. .. .. .. The bound edge of a publication.
Style .. .. .. .. .. Named and grouped effects given to a piece of text.
Speeds up the formatting of long pieces of text with
subheadings, lists and other layout formats.
© Jim Wyllie ‘04
Page - 18
Graphic Communication
Glossary Of Terminology
Drawing Styles - continued
Computer — DTP - continued
Chart .. .. .. .. Diagram, using numerical data, to show specific
change over a period of time.
Register Mark
• Gantt .. .. .. A special chart used in businesses to manage the
effective use of the workforce’s and machinery’s time.
Works out the most efficient use of time together with a
completion time for the job in question.
Y-Axis holds the tasks or workers.
X-Axis hold the units of time.
Minimizes possible time-wasting especially in the
construction industry.
Margin
Head Margin
Column
Frame Guides
Co
lu
m
n
Pa
ne
l
• Pie .. .. .. .. An easily read chart which is drawn in the shape of a
solid cylinder split into different sections each of
which shows connected data.
.. .. Similar to a normal pie chart but one or more of
the sections are drawn free from the rest of the pie to
emphasise the relevant data.
Corporate Identity .. A certain style of logo, page layout and use of
colour that is specific to a particular company
Trimmed Size
.. The rules of drawing.
Method of showing particular parts of a drawing.
Margin
Conventions
Gutter
Component .. .. One single part of an assembly or larger drawing.
Gutter
• Pie Exploded
Printing Details Go Here
Cross Section .. A view, within a larger drawing, which shows what
could be seen if the form was cut in half.
Detail View .. .. An insert drawing showing a small part of a whole
drawing, often at a different scale, allowing more
information.
Page - 47
Scottish Higher / Int 2
Foot Margin
Column Guides
Crop Mark
© Jim Wyllie ‘04
Page - 20
Graphic Communication
Glossary Of Terminology
Drawing Styles
2D
Computer — DTP - continued
.. .. .. .. .. Object is shown as a flat view.
Two styles - Third Angle or First Angle.
We are using Third Angle.
Running Header
2½D .. .. .. .. .. Three surfaces of the object are shown at once.
Isometric or Oblique are two types.
3D
.. .. .. .. .. Complete object is shown on a computer screen,
usually in colour, and is able to be easily
manipulated to see any view.
eg. Computer Model.
Left Justified
Annotate .. .. .. To add written notes to a drawing to make a section
clearer to understand.
Right Justified
Assembly .. .. .. A drawing made up of many parts brought together to
give a final more complex result.
This can be 2D, 2½D or 3D.
Fully Justified
Auxiliary .. .. .. Extra view looking from a different location than the
Front, End or Plan views.
Used to help make a part of the main drawing more
understandable by looking at it differently.
eg. True Shape, Auxiliary Plan and Elevations.
British Standards .. .. A series or rules used all over the World which
allows others to read and understand your drawings.
Common rules make it easier to eliminate mistakes.
Box
Graphic
Centre Justified
BS PP-7308 .. .. The rule book which shows the symbols and
conventions used within the British Standards for all
formal drawings.
Page - 45
Scottish Higher / Int 2
© Jim Wyllie ‘04
Page - 22
Graphic Communication
Glossary Of Terminology
Drawing Parts - continued
Computer — Inputs - continued
Radius .. .. .. .. The length of the straight line
from the centre of a circle or
arc to the outside or
circumference.
eg: R15
Joy Stick .. .. .. A simple input which directs the mouse cursor.
Nearly always used to control characters in computer
games but can be used in many other applications.
Scale
Microphone .. .. Digital input which converts sound and the voice to a
signal that the computer can use with special
software where speech is changed into typed text.
Now often used instead of the keyboard as the
software types what is actually said.
Keyboard .. .. .. The most common input used to transfer text and
numerical data by hand to the computer package.
.. .. .. .. Drawing size compared with the size of the object.
Used to fit a large object onto a set size of paper or to
show a high level of detail on a small object.
5:1 = Drawing is 5 times larger than the real object.
1:10 = Drawing is 10 times smaller than the object.
Symbol .. .. .. .. Small drawing which tells the reader a great deal of
information about the drawing for example the
projection symbol.
Title Block .. .. Rectangular box on a sheet where full details of the
drawing are placed.
Details included could be: name, product, scale, date,
version, location, tolerance and company logo.
+ 0.05
Tolerance .. .. .. Max. and min. sizes of a part.
- 0.02
Used to ensure correct fit.
Upper and lower values
shown as small numbers. = ( Ø 59.98 to Ø 60.05 )
Ø 60
Web .. .. .. .. .. A thin section of material used to strengthen two
perpendicular parts without adding much weight.
When sectioned the web is:
• cut and hatched when being make shorter.
• not cut, nor hatched when being made thinner.
Page - 43
Scottish Higher / Int 2
Modem
.. .. .. An interface which converts the signal from the
computer to one suitable to the telephone system.
The signal is then transferred and at the other end a
second modem converts the signal back.
Mouse .. .. .. .. Digital input.
Moves cursor around screen allowing menu selection.
Easiest and quickest input for most graphics.
Peripheral .. .. The name given to any part of an office computer
system which is not within the main computer box.
Examples: Printer or Scanner.
Roller Ball .. .. Similar to an upside down mouse where the ball is
moved using the fingers.
Biggest advantage is that it needs less desktop space.
© Jim Wyllie ‘04
Page - 24
Graphic Communication
Glossary Of Terminology
Drawing Parts
Computer — Internal
Boss .. .. .. .. .. A small extension piece to a
machine part to allow a nut,
bolt or washer to be fitted
more easily.
Co-processor .. Secondary processing chip designed to take over
mathematical tasks leaving the main CPU to run the
computer.
Speeds up CAD and Modelling programs.
Also called Maths Chip.
Chamfer .. .. .. An edge taken off a corner to
make the corner less sharp.
Usually drawn at 45° and
dimensioned as 5×45°.
Counterbore
Countersink
.. A flat bottomed hole larger than
the main hole which allows the
head of a bolt or screw to drop
under the surface.
.. Larger hole, with sloping sides,
which allows the head of a
machine screw to be hidden
within the material of the
larger part giving a smooth finish.
Cutting Plane .. A flat surface that cuts, or sections, through an
orthographic view.
Datum .. .. .. .. A specific point or line that is used to measure from.
Used to increase the accuracy of a drawing.
Diameter .. .. .. The length of a straight line going
through the centre of a circle from
one point on the circumference to a
second on the opposite side.
Shown by the symbol Ø. eg. Ø25
Page - 41
Scottish Higher / Int 2
CPU .. .. .. .. .. Central Processing Unit.
Another name for the processor.
At the time of writing this could be an Intel chip.
Continually being upgraded to speed up the computer.
Graphic Card .. An internal adapter to increase the resolution and
refresh rate of a monitor.
Speeds up the screen redraw.
Graphic’s Processor .. Special and additional processing unit.
Deals only with graphics and video.
Used to speed up CAD, CAG and Modelling packages.
Hard Disc
.. .. Spinning disc used to store information of all types
within the computer.
Holds all the applications, data and operating system.
Data can be written to and read from the disc quickly.
Holds huge amounts of data which is stored safely.
Memory .. .. .. The part of the computer that holds the applications
and data that are actually live.
Large amounts of memory (RAM) will make the
computer more efficient.
Many different names SRAM, DRAM, etc.
But only two main types: RAM and ROM
© Jim Wyllie ‘04
Page - 26
Graphic Communication
Glossary Of Terminology
Computer — Software - continued
Computer — Outputs
Save .. .. .. .. .. Save document or drawing file onto disc with a useful
name.
CAD/CAM .. .. Output from a computer can be sent directly to a
computerised machine such as a lathe or a milling
machine where a 3D object is accurately produced.
Save As
.. .. .. Save a document or drawing file onto disc with
another name allowing a second copy to be saved
quickly.
Sometimes used to save a file in a different format
from standard.
Fax .. .. .. .. .. An electronic system for sending copies of documents
by telephone or to receive and convert them at the
other end.
Modem
Scrolling .. .. .. Moving around a document or drawing in a vertical
direction without moving the cursor.
Software .. .. .. Programs required by the computer.
Spreadsheet .. .. Designed to manipulate
numerical data.
Works mathematically with
the data saving time when
these numbers are often
changed.
Tracing
A
1
Item
2
All Bran
B
C
Calories
D
Protein C'hydrate
E
F
Fat
Fibre
270
14.0%
46.0%
3.0%
24.0%
3
Apple
47
0.4%
11.8%
0.1%
2.0%
4
Baked beans
74
5.0%
12.7%
0.5%
5
Baked potato
136
3.9%
31.7%
0.2%
2.7%
6
Bread
215
9.2%
41.6%
2.5%
7.4%
7
Canned tomato
12
1.1%
20.0%
0.0%
0.0%
8
Carrot
30
0.7%
6.0%
0.5%
2.4%
6.0%
.. .. .. Copying a pixel based graphic into a vector drawing
containing only filled shapes.
Word Processor Design to simply prepare
a page of text sometimes
with simple graphics.
Not designed for anything
but the simplest page
layout.
Page - 39
.. .. .. An interface which converts the signal from the
computer to one suitable to the telephone system.
The signal is then transferred and at the other end a
second modem converts the signal back.
Monitor .. .. .. The video screen where the drawings are created.
Many different sizes, types and qualities are available.
You pay for the resolution, refresh rate and the size.
• Pixel
.. .. .. Picture element.
The tiny dots which make up the picture on the screen.
These are arranged in grids on the screen and can be
manipulated to give different densities (resolution).
• Refresh Rate
.. .. The number of times the monitor screen redraws
itself each second.
The faster the redraw rate the less flicker you get
when you are using the screen which, in turn, makes
your eyes less tired.
• Resolution .. The number of Pixels within a one inch square.
The more dots within the area the better the quality
the monitor screen should give.
Also given as the size of a pixel. (ie. 0.26mm)
Scottish Higher / Int 2
© Jim Wyllie ‘04
Page - 28
Graphic Communication
Glossary Of Terminology
Computer — Software - continued
Computer — Outputs - continued
Graphics .. .. .. Any drawing used or formed on the computer.
Many different styles.
Printer .. .. .. .. An output than transfers ink from a storage cartridge
to the paper while copying what is on the current
document or drawing.
Can be used for all types of output - drawing or
textual.
• Modelling
• Pixel
.. Produces a 3D graphic when 2D information is input.
Allows the manipulation of the 3D image in real time
with the mouse.
.. .. .. Painting packages used to produce drawing using
tools such as airbrush, paint brush and pencil.
Allows effect to be added to drawings easily and the
manipulations of scanned input.
• Vector Based
.. .. CAD/CAG packages used to produce drawings
made from lines and standard shapes.
Colour can be added as fills and effects.
Drawing produced can be enlarged or shrunk without
quality problems.
• X-Y .. .. .. .. 2D or 2½D drawings, usually vector, made from
simple shapes bound together.
Corners are given position using (x,y) coordinates.
Given as: ( Length , Height )
• X-Y-Z .. .. .. 3D models, made from simple forms bound together.
Corners are given position using (x,y,z) coordinates.
Given as: ( Length , Height , Depth )
Hard Copy .. .. Print or Plot onto paper or film.
A printout.
Icon .. .. .. .. .. Small picture on the computer screen.
When pressed with the cursor some action will occur.
eg. loading a program or centring some text.
Page - 37
Scottish Higher / Int 2
• Bubble Jet .. High quality at reasonable cost.
Advantage — Low cost colour.
Very quiet.
• Dot Matrix .. Reasonable quality at low cost. Advantage — Any
size paper — Low cost. Disadvantage — Noisy to
run.
• Ink Jet .. .. .. Good quality print at reasonable price.
Advantage — Low cost colour.
Very quiet.
• Laser .. .. .. High quality but more expensive.
Advantage — High quality hardcopy.
Disadvantage — A3 very expensive!
Colour quality is superb but very expensive for
general use.
Robot .. .. .. .. Any machine which is directly operated by a computer
system even when a human operator is in attendance.
Has the advantage of never getting tired or ill.
Speakers .. .. .. Converts a signal from the computer to sounds
suitable for the user to hear.
© Jim Wyllie ‘04
Page - 30
Graphic Communication
Glossary Of Terminology
Computer — Software
Computer — Modelling - continued
Animation .. .. Moving picture sequence used to describe how an item
works.
Mate
.. .. .. .. Two parts of a model which touch together.
Mesh
.. .. .. .. A form which is made from a number of flat surfaces
joined at common vertices.
Moving one vertex will edit all the attached surfaces.
Example: A football is made from a number of
polygons joined to make a spherical shape.
Application .. .. Another name for a computer program.
.. .. .. Second copy of an important file, stored on different
media as a substitute incase the main file is
damaged.
Offset .. .. .. .. Two parts of a model, which either align or mate, but
leave a pre-set space between them.
65
35
15
30
CAG .. .. .. .. .. Computer Aided Graphics.
Using the computer to aid in the
construction of design type drawing.
Less formal than CAD.
Clip Art
.. .. .. Library of drawings of various styles easily accessed
for your own documents.
Clipboard
Ray Trace
.. .. Very high quality rendering of the final model used to
visualise the object with the correct materials,
reflections and shadows.
Real Time
.. .. Animating a drawing using true time scales.
Also used when the view on the screen updates as the
mouse is moved with no time lag.
Rendering
.. .. The style of screen redraw used to output the model.
Can be anything from Wireframe to Raytraced.
20
CAD .. .. .. .. .. Computer Aided Drawing or
Draughting.
Drawing, using the computer
as a tool, to neaten and
store your work.
35
Backup
Revolve
.. .. Electronic store designed to help edit file.
Work is lost when the computer is switched off.
Clone .. .. .. .. Exact copy of an item, including position, immediately
added to a document.
Copy
.. .. .. .. Lift a selected graphic or area of text and store it in
the clipboard.
Cursor .. .. .. .. The exact position the mouse points to, or the text is
being input to, on the screen.
Page - 35
Scottish Higher / Int 2
Shell
.. .. .. To rotate a 2D shape
around a centre line to
make a 3D form.
eg. a circle would give a
ring form.
.. .. .. .. Hollowing out a box from a 3D form.
Simulation .. .. Testing out a real life situation within the safe
environment of the computer.
Showing what the interior of a building would look
like before it is built.
© Jim Wyllie ‘04
Page - 32
Graphic Communication
Glossary Of Terminology
Computer — Modelling - continued
Computer — Storage
Solid Model .. .. Model with solid internal material.
If sectioned - will show filled.
Card .. .. .. .. .. Program or data is stored inside the card on
microchip.
Very fast access but not large storage.
Mainly used for camera storage.
Surface
.. .. .. A single side of a part or a form.
Is the only part of a model that can
be drawn on a sheet of paper.
Surface Model .. Model which is hollow internally.
If sectioned - will show empty.
Sweep .. .. .. .. Spinning a shaped surface, about a central axis, to
create a solid 3D image. See “Revolve”.
Texture
.. .. .. Added to make model more realistic.
eg. wood, metal or plastic surfaces.
Texture Mapping .. .. Replacing the surface details of a computer
model with realistic surface detailing showing
material types, text and cut-outs.
Vertex .. .. .. .. A single point making up one corner of a surface.
Can be manipulated to change the shapes of each
connecting surface.
Wire Frame .. .. Model showing all the edges, even
the hidden ones.
Advantage — fast redraw.
Disadvantage — difficult to follow
complex drawing.
Workplane .. .. The two dimensional surface that a shape is drawn on
before being manipulated into a 3D form by
extrusion, revolution or other modelling method.
Page - 33
Scottish Higher / Int 2
Cartridge .. .. .. Program or data is stored inside the cartridge on a
microchip.
Very fast access but not large storage.
Disc .. .. .. .. .. Many different methods of holding computer files but
all use the same basic idea of a revolving disc floppy or hard.
• CD ROM .. .. Read Only disc which is read on a special CD player.
Holds large amount of data.
Usually used for clip art or large applications.
• Floppy .. .. .. Holds up to 1600Kb of data.
Holds very small files only.
Easy to transfer between machines.
• Hard
.. .. .. Holds vast amounts of data.
Usually built into computer.
• Zip .. .. .. .. A removable disc system which works in a similar
fashion to a floppy disc but holds many more files.
100 Mbyte is the smallest capacity.
Flash Card .. .. Similar to Cartridge but designed specifically to fit
inside a small computer.
Memory Stick .. Different styles which are no bigger than a matchbox.
Very fast access and memory size is getting bigger.
© Jim Wyllie ‘04
Page - 34
Graphic Communication
Glossary Of Terminology
Computer — Modelling
Computer — Software - continued
Align
Cut .. .. .. .. .. Deletes a selected graphic or area of text and stores it
in the clipboard.
.. .. .. .. To line up two parts of a model.
Animation .. .. To make a movie of the movement of an object.
Used to show how an object will move or to walk a
viewer within a larger environment like a building.
Attribute .. .. .. The line type, fill colour and material type given to a
shape or form.
Boolean .. .. .. Creating a bigger part by adding or subtracting
smaller and simpler parts.
Component .. .. A single part brought into a more complex model
made from many parts.
Extrusion
.. .. A closed surface pulled along a
path to give it volume.
A square extrudes to a cuboid.
Facet
.. .. .. .. One single surface within a more complex form.
Usually a triangle or quadrilateral.
Form
.. .. .. .. A computer drawn part which is made of more than
one surface such as a cube.
Hidden Line Removal .. .. Erasing lines, which
would be hidden from the viewer,
from a completed model to give a
more realistic view of a 3D form.
Loft .. .. .. .. .. A special extrusion which smoothly
transforms from one shape to a
completely different shape.
A square to a rectangle.
Page - 31
Scottish Higher / Int 2
Data .. .. .. .. .. File of pure information which can be converted into a
drawing or a list of useful information.
Database .. .. .. A store of information that
can be easily handled by a
computer speeding up
sorting and searching
processes.
Draft
Name: Freddy Bloggs
Address: 13 Elm Street
Phone: 0131 123 4567
Search
Next Name
Last Name
.. .. .. .. Quick, low quality hardcopy.
Used to proof read document before editing.
DTP .. .. .. .. .. Designing a page, or series
of pages, to be printed.
Requires the positioning,
electronically, of all text
and graphics in an
interesting fashion.
Duplicate .. .. .. Second copy of an item immediately added to a
document positioned slightly differently from the
initial one.
Export .. .. .. .. Saving document in a format suitable for another
program or computer system.
eg. A Jpeg from modelling program ready for DTP.
File .. .. .. .. .. A collection of data.
This could be text, drawing info or raw data.
Saved to Hard-disc, or other storage.
© Jim Wyllie ‘04
Page - 36
Graphic Communication
Glossary Of Terminology
Computer — Outputs - continued
Computer — Software - continued
Network .. .. .. The joining of many computers together to make one
large system.
Allows the users to access programs or data from any
part of the network.
Import .. .. .. .. Load data from another program.
In DTP - the bringing in of a text or graphic file from
a second program or from a storage medium.
Plotter .. .. .. .. An output that moves a pen, or series of pens, across
the paper producing a copy of a drawing on the
screen.
No use for text.
• Drum .. .. .. Very high accuracy.
Large paper size.
Paper and pen move.
High initial cost.
Paint
.. Plotter changes pen type automatically when required.
Speeds up output.
• Roller Bed .. Similar to Drum plotter but cheaper to buy initially.
Paper and pen move.
• Single Pen .. Plotter needs human operator for all pen changes
slowing down output considerably.
Page - 29
Modelling
.. .. Produces a 3D graphic when 2D information is input.
Allows the manipulation of the 3D image in real time
with the mouse.
OCR .. .. .. .. .. Optical Character Recognition.
Converts scans of text to normal text saving the retyping of the same document.
• Flat Bed .. .. Reasonable quality.
Limited paper size.
Paper static.
Pen moves.
Reasonable cost.
• Multi Pen
Landscape .. .. Page orientation.
Longer edge to top.
Used more often for larger
drawings.
Scottish Higher / Int 2
.. .. .. .. A package which is designed to paint a resulting
drawing using small dots of colour called pixels.
Pan .. .. .. .. .. Looking at a document or drawing, from left to right,
without moving the cursor position.
Paste
Portrait
.. .. .. .. Adds the contents of the clipboard to
the page at the selected area.
.. .. .. Page orientation.
Longer edge to side.
Resolution .. .. Quality of the monitor.
The higher the number of pixels on the screen
(resolution) - the better the screen quality.
Also quality of scanned or digitised image. eg. 300dpi.
© Jim Wyllie ‘04
Page - 38
Graphic Communication
Glossary Of Terminology
Computer — Internal - continued
Design Sequence
Operating System .. .. The background computer language that is used
to run all the programs on.
The most popular is “Windows” although their are
other more specialist operating systems.
3Ps .. .. .. .. .. The general term of the three different, but
overlapping, sections of a graphical design process.
Processor .. .. .. The microchip that runs the computer.
Also called the CPU.
RAM
ROM
.. .. .. .. Random Access Memory.
Computer memory that can be changed at any time.
After computer shutdown all data is lost.
The operating system will often use as much of this as
it can to try and speed up your computer.
A large RAM will speed up your machine and any
program running on it.
Preliminary .. .. The first section of work where ideas are produced
quickly.
Sketches are the most often used media although
specialist software is now available.
Production .. .. Drawings which are prepared ready for the
manufacture of the product.
CAD is most often used to insure accuracy and to
minimize editing time.
Promotional
.. High quality graphics used to market the product.
DTP and CAG work is mostly used to insure the
quality and to help in their printing and publication.
.. .. .. .. Read Only Memory.
Memory that can only be read - not changed.
Often has important parts of the Operating System in
it to increase the speed of the computer and to stop
these parts from being corrupted.
Page - 27
Scottish Higher / Int 2
© Jim Wyllie ‘04
Page - 40
Graphic Communication
Glossary Of Terminology
Computer — Inputs - continued
Drawing Parts - continued
Scanner .. .. .. An external computer tool which electronically
photocopies a picture and converts it into a picture
ready for use in a secondary program - usually a
paint package.
Dims
• Hand .. .. .. A small hand held copier which has the advantage of
being able to scan non-flat surfaces or smaller items.
Not nearly as accurate as a flat-bed.
• Slide
.. .. .. Device specially designed to capture, at a very high
resolution, slide pictures.
Page - 25
Scottish Higher / Int 2
Elevation .. .. .. A 2D view of an object looking from the side or front.
Eye Line .. .. .. The height of the eyes when constructing an object
using any of the perspective drawing styles.
Fillet
.. .. .. .. A small curved extension added,
to give strength, to the junction
between two surfaces.
Usually drawn freehand or
given a specific radius.
s
WWW .. .. .. .. World Wide Web.
The international on-line information system.
• Parallel .. .. Sizes overlap each other minimizing reading errors.
iu
Video Digitizer Scans moving film from a video camera or recorder.
Stored as separate frames allowing selection of
individual frames.
• Datum .. .. .. All lengths are measured from the same line allowing
for more accuracy over a larger area.
ad
Touch Screen .. A monitor which, when touched by hand, will interface
with the computer.
Often used in public places where the computer needs
to be locked away.
• Coordinate .. A series of X and Y coordinates, similar to those used
in Maths, are used to position the part or hole.
Often presented as a table.
R
Touch Pad .. .. A replacement for the mouse where a finger, moving
across the pad, will move the cursor.
The touch pad will also accept clicks in a similar
manner to mouse clicks.
• Chain .. .. .. Sizes are added on one after the other, in a line.
Hexagon .. .. .. Six sided shape.
•A/C
.. .. .. The dimensioning details given
when measuring across the
corners of a hexagon or
octagon.
•A/F
.. .. .. The dimensioning details given
when measuring across
opposite flat surfaces of a
hexagon or octagon.
© Jim Wyllie ‘04
35 A/F
• Flat Bed .. .. A scanner, about the size of a large book, which can
read a whole piece of paper in one go.
Accurate, high quality and quick.
.. .. .. .. An often used abbreviation for dimensions.
Page - 42
Graphic Communication
Glossary Of Terminology
Computer — Inputs
Drawing Parts - continued
Camera
Threading
.. .. .. Hand-held device which captures real life onto film or
digital media.
• Digital .. .. .. Saves selected photographs in digital form.
Easily transferred to computer for further
enhancement or manipulation.
Used like a normal still camera.
.. .. The specially cut grooves found in either a nut or bolt
that pull the two parts together when either is turned.
Sizes are given as a metric diameter followed by the
pitch of the thread. eg: M10×1.5
• Video .. .. .. Digital input giving moving pictures - any of which
can be captured as a still.
Digitiser .. .. .. A single digital picture grabbed electronically from a
TV, video or camcorder ready for further
manipulation within a paint package.
Digitising Tablet .. .. Very high quality mouse system.
Works on an electronic table which constantly updates
the position of the puck (mouse) or stylus (pen)
giving pinpoint accuracy.
Puck used for tracing line drawings.
Stylus used as a brush within painting packages.
Fax Modem .. .. Similar to a modem but can also change the signal to
suit general purpose Fax machines.
Graphic’s Tablet .. .. Another name for the digitising tablet.
GamePad .. .. .. A specialist style of joystick.
Internet
.. .. .. Used to transfer information between different
organizations anywhere in the World.
Massive collection of information and graphics.
Another name is the World Wide Web - WWW.
Page - 23
Scottish Higher / Int 2
• Hole
.. .. .. Symbol used to show a hole which is threaded.
The outer circle is cut.
The inner circle is not cut.
The diameter of the threaded hole is
shown by the outer circle.
The pitch given by the spacing between the circles.
• Pitch
.. .. .. Spacing between the top of one
thread and the next one.
The amount the threaded part
will move after one full turn.
• Rod .. .. .. .. Symbol used to show a rod or shaft which is threaded.
The outer circle is not cut.
The inner circle is cut.
The diameter of the threaded rod is
shown by the outer circle.
The thread pitch gives the spacing
between the two circles.
© Jim Wyllie ‘04
Page - 44
Graphic Communication
Glossary Of Terminology
Computer — DTP - continued
Drawing Styles - continued
Building Plans Drawings which are specifically used by the building
trade, architects and planners.
Banner
• Block .. .. .. Details a series of different
elevations of the building on
the same sheet.
eg. Elevation, End and Plan.
Bleed
et
re
eA
ve
nu
e
No 65
Th
Caption
• Location .. .. Details building position
within surrounding area.
Shows a larger area than the
site plan with less detail.
More of a diagram than a
quality drawing.
St
Graphic
• Floor .. .. .. Details the interior of the
building including the layout
of walls, doors, windows,
electrics, plumbing, etc.
e
Column Rule
Column
Rule
Th
Sub-Heading
Th
eR
oa
d
• Site .. .. .. .. Details building position
within surrounding area.
Shows roads, trees, etc.
• Survey .. .. .. Detail of existing structures
within a site.
This would show contours, trees and water features.
The Road
CE
Folio
Page - 21
Footer
Scottish Higher / Int 2
.. .. .. .. .. Euro Codes - from the European Commission.
Similar, and taking over from, British Standards.
Shown as a “CE” on a product.
© Jim Wyllie ‘04
Page - 46
Graphic Communication
Glossary Of Terminology
Computer — DTP - continued
Drawing Styles - continued
Sub-Heading .. A heading appearing within the text body.
Subscript1
Superscript1
.. .. A small number or letter which is half height and
is positioned at the bottom of the printed line.
pt1
.. A small number or letter which is half height and
is positioned at the top of the printed line.
1
pt
Template .. .. .. Common used, pre-prepared, master page.
Used to keep a similar feel or style to all of a
company’s documents.
Saves time spent setting a new page.
Underline
.. .. A typeface which has a line running under each letter.
Visual .. .. .. .. A dummy master page made up from the many parts to
demonstrate the final look of the page.
White Space
.. Section of a printed page which has no ink on it.
Window .. .. .. A rectangular box that can be used to define a space
around an object, page or file.
A frame drawn around a selected part of the screen to
isolate the area within the ‘window’.
Wizard .. .. .. .. An interactive help program which guides a user
through a process in a predefined way.
Modern DTP packages use wizards as a method of
teaching a user how to use templates for setting up
publications or to save them time.
WYSIWYG .. .. What You See Is What You Get.
The document on the screen is exactly the same as you
would get when you print it.
Page - 19
Scottish Higher / Int 2
Diagram .. .. .. A drawing, or series of drawings, to explain some
process to an less-skilled reader.
Often uses symbols to help with the understanding.
• Flow
.. .. .. A diagram that shows a logical, step by step, process.
It uses many common symbols and can be read
through easily using simple yes / no questions.
• Instruction .. Simple drawing series which shows how to complete a
logical process with no possible side paths.
• Schematic .. Drawing showing the logical path of a process.
Uses simplified drawings to help the reader.
eg. Instruction booklet for self-build furniture.
• Sequence .. .. Series of drawings, with corresponding notes, showing
a process from the beginning to the end.
The first drawing will show the beginning - the last
one the result.
Dimensioning .. Adding sizes to a production type drawing.
Uses British Standard conventions to allow the
drawing to be more readable by all users.
EuroCodes .. .. European (EU) system of drawing standardization.
See CE.
Exploded View Splitting an assembly into its many parts.
Often used in instruction manuals to explain how
machines work.
First Angle .. .. An alternative set of drawing rules.
Used in many other parts of the World, but not so
wide-spread now.
© Jim Wyllie ‘04
Page - 48
Graphic Communication
Glossary Of Terminology
Often used for headlines.
Drawing Styles - continued
Computer — DTP - continued
Net .. .. .. .. .. Another term for Surface Development.
Overlay
.. .. .. The printing of the colours which make up a full page
onto separate pages - one for each colour.
These are then used by the commercial printers to
produce separate printing plates for each colour.
Page .. .. .. .. .. One single side of paper in a booklet.
• Facing .. .. .. Left and right pair of pages.
• Master .. .. .. Page with text, and drawings, that will appear on
every page within a document.
• Single .. .. .. Output printed on one single piece of paper.
Photomontage .. A completed painting made up from many different
photographs blended together using a powerful
graphic/painting package.
Used in tabloid newspapers to change the emphasis of
a photograph by removing or adding a part.
Point (Size) .. .. Common unit of lettering, and line, size.
72 points = 1 inch = 25mm.
PostScript
Presentation
Proof
.. .. Cross platform industry standard for the highest
quality hardcopy
Used by majority of printing companies.
.. A high quality drawing of an object which can be
shown to a client to explain the design and action.
.. .. .. .. Draft hardcopy to check layout, spelling.
Also a printed master given to the printer with
attached notes to explain printing details.
Page - 17
Scottish Higher / Int 2
Oblique
.. .. .. 2½D View.
Angles used — 45° 90°.
Sizes halved when measured into page.
Orthographic .. Formal drawing style using
the 3rd or 1st Angle rules.
Front, End and Plan views
are the most common.
PLAN
END
Outline
FRONT
END
.. .. .. A line which is added to the outside of a 2½D drawing
to make it stand out more.
Perspective .. .. Style of drawing where what is presented on the paper
is more like what we actually see in true life.
• One Point
.. 2½D View.
Used usually to show room interiors.
Not so realistic as 2 point.
• Two Point
.. 2½D View.
Looks more realistic.
Used to show building exteriors.
Sizes further away are smaller.
Pictorial .. .. .. Any view which has enough
information to fully understand a particular form.
Examples of pictorial drawings are those using
Isometric or perspective styles.
Plan .. .. .. .. .. A view of an object from above.
Usually projected from an elevation.
© Jim Wyllie ‘04
Page - 50
Graphic Communication
Glossary Of Terminology
Computer — DTP - continued
Half Tone
Drawing Styles - continued
.. .. Graphic made only from black dots with the spacing
between them creating the tones.
Header .. .. .. .. Space at the page top ready to hold the title of a page.
If a document has many pages then the header is
copied automatically onto every page.
Usually used to chapter details.
Headline .. .. .. Line(s) of larger sized text placed above the
accompanying text to guide the reader to the main
story.
Hyphenation .. The insertion of a hyphen in a word which does not fit
on the end of a line.
Can be automatic or manual.
Indent .. .. .. .. Beginning a line of text further in from the left margin
than the rest of the text.
This paragraph is an example.
Italic Type .. .. A typeface where the letters lean to the right and is
used to emphasise text.
Justification
.. Setting of type lines in which the space between words
is varied from line to line so that the text lines up
with one or more column guides.
• Centre .. .. .. Text formatted to be central within the column.
• Full .. .. .. .. Text formatted with neat left and right edges.
Supplementary View An extra view which makes part of the drawing
easier to follow.
This could be an Auxiliary view or a True Shape.
Surface Development .. .. 2D drawing showing
the shape of material required to
build a hollow model of an object.
Uses different line types to show
bends and smooth curved
surfaces.
Tangency .. .. .. Accurate drawing style which constructs how a curve
will connect smoothly with a second curve or a line.
Third Angle .. .. Modern rules of drawing used
in most parts of the World.
Most popular style.
Thumb Nail .. .. Very small, hand drawn, graphic which is used to
explain an idea quickly.
Often added at the edge of a planning sheet.
True Shape .. .. Drawing which shows the exact shape of a single
surface.
Working Roughs .. .. Sketch drawings of the final output but still in a
very rough format.
Colour is used to highlight important parts and full
annotation is used through-out.
• Left .. .. .. .. Text formatted with neat left edge / rough right edge.
• Right .. .. .. Text formatted with neat right edge / rough left edge.
Page - 15
Scottish Higher / Int 2
© Jim Wyllie ‘04
Page - 52
Graphic Communication
Glossary Of Terminology
Computer — DTP - continued
Drawing Tools - continued
Crop Marks .. .. Intersecting lines that page layout
packages print at the corners of a
page to show where the paper is to
be cut to size when complete.
Cut Off Rule
Descender
Display Type
Document
Marker
paper
.. A horizontal line printed across text columns to
separate different text items.
Usually seen in magazines or papers.
.. .. The lower portion of lower-case letters which drop
below x-height. Eg. g, j, p.
.. Larger type sizes used for headings.
.. .. The whole DTP file being working on including
embedded graphics.
Double Spread Drawing and text which is designed to be printed over
two facing pages.
Mask
.. .. .. A thick pointed drawing tool designed to get a large
amount of colour onto the paper quickly. Can be
water or alcohol based.
.. .. .. .. A plastic or paper shape which hides part of a
drawing which you don’t want to waste when
colouring another part of the same drawing.
Masking Tape .. A low-tack tape used to hide, temporarily, a part of a
drawing so that some type of colour wash can be
applied without the chance of it overlapping the
wrong parts.
Media .. .. .. .. Various materials used for the drawing and colouring
of drawings.
eg. paint, pencil, ink, pastel, airbrush.
DPI .. .. .. .. .. Dots Per Inch. The bigger the number the better the
quality of the hardcopy.
Pastel .. .. .. .. A coloured crayon, made from chalk, used for
drawing.
Requires to be fixed when complete otherwise it will
smudge.
DTP .. .. .. .. .. Desk Top Publishing.
Preparing a page for printing by laying out text and
graphics in an interesting and readable fashion.
All text and graphics can be easily manipulated.
Pen .. .. .. .. .. Any type of drawing tool where ink runs from the
point.
They are available in many line thicknesses from
0.1mm to 2.5mm.
Facing Pages .. Two pages which face each other, when the
publication is open, in a double sided publication.
Pencil .. .. .. .. A series of drawing tools with different lead types.
Need to be kept sharp or accuracy will suffer.
9H - Very hard and light pencil.
HB - General purpose soft pencil.
6B - Very soft and dark pencil.
Folio
.. .. .. .. Page number.
Font .. .. .. .. .. Shape of the lettering used.
Foot .. .. .. .. .. The margin at the bottom of the page.
Page - 13
Scottish Higher / Int 2
© Jim Wyllie ‘04
Page - 54
Graphic Communication
Glossary Of Terminology
Computer — DTP
Drawing Tools - continued
Alignment
Template .. .. .. Thin plastic tools with different shaped holes which
allow the quick and accurate drawing of these,
sometimes complex, shapes.
.. .. Another term for justification.
Artwork .. .. .. Any black and white, or colour, original graphic of
any type prepared for publication.
Banner
.. .. .. In newspaper work, a main headline running across
the top of the page.
Usually gives the title of the publication.
Baseline .. .. .. In type, the line on which both capitals and lower-case
letters stand.
Binding
Bleed
.. .. .. The method of fixing printed pages together.
Space has often to be left for the binding method
chosen.
.. .. .. .. A graphic which extends off the cut edge of the paper.
The bleed is the amount that the graphic extends
beyond the cut edge- commonly 3mm.
Bold .. .. .. .. .. A heavier, blacker version of a typeface.
Used to emphasise a word or statement.
Border .. .. .. .. A boundary line - solid or not - which goes around a
graphic or piece of text on a page.
Box .. .. .. .. .. Text which is surrounded by a rule on all four sides
giving a box.
• Circle .. .. .. Allows the quick and accurate drawing of smaller
diameter circles which might be difficult to complete
neatly when using a pair of compasses.
• Design .. .. .. The holes are shaped to suit the design of different
environments.
Holes can be in the form of kitchen parts or diagram
symbols to speed up their deployment.
• Ellipse .. .. .. The holes are in the shape of different ellipses
allowing the quick and accurate drawing of complex
shapes.
Special templates will give isometric ellipses.
• Nut / Bolt
.. Helps draw, accurately, the symbols for nuts and bolts.
Available in various sizes.
Trammel .. .. .. A simple piece of paper, with a straight edge, which is
used to transfer sizes from one part of a drawing to
another.
Provides one of the quickest methods of drawing
Isometric curves or ellipses.
Brochure .. .. .. A small booklet designed to pass as much information
about a product to the reader quickly.
C
L
Bullet .. .. .. .. A symbol which is used to emphasise key points in a
section of text.
Often used to highlight lists within a block of text.
Page - 11
Scottish Higher / Int 2
© Jim Wyllie ‘04
Page - 56
Graphic Communication
Glossary Of Terminology
Computer — CAD - continued
Line Types - continued
Precision .. .. .. The accuracy of the dimensioning.
Software will adjust all sizes to suit set precision.
Hatch .. .. .. .. Lines drawn, equally spaced to highlight a particular
part of a drawing.
Reference
.. .. An exact position on a drawing sheet from another
exact position.
• Absolute .. .. Next point of a drawing positioned using
measurements always referenced from a common
origin - usually the bottom left of the page (0,0).
• Polar .. .. .. Next line in a drawing positioned using measurements
always referenced by the length and angle of the
required line. eg. (100mm, 60°)
• Relative .. .. Next point in a drawing positioned using
measurements always referenced from the previous
point in a drawing.
Reflect .. .. .. .. See “Mirror”.
Repeat .. .. .. .. Copy selection a number of times.
Each is copy is moved or rotated a specified amount
from the previous copy in the sequence.
Rotate .. .. .. .. Turn a selected part through
a defined angle with respect
to a certain point.
120°
Rubber Banding .. .. A light construction line which follows the
cursor while drawing to allow for easier alignment.
Ruler
.. .. .. .. Additional tool which allows the accurate measuring
and positioning of items on the page.
Page - 9
Scottish Higher / Int 2
• Cross .. .. .. Pairs of lines, crossing at 90° to each other, to make
up a fill effect.
Lines are usually at 45°.
• Diamond .. .. Similar style to cross hatching but the lines are not at
90° to each other.
Angle used is often 60° each way.
• Line .. .. .. .. Lines drawn, equally spaced and usually at 45°, to
show, within a sectioned view, which surface has
actually been cut.
Horizontal Line Lines that go across the drawing surface parallel to
the edge of the paper.
Leader Line .. .. Light line that joins an edge, or corner, to its
corresponding dimension details to show the link.
Line Thickness Quality drawing have to be completed to an exact
thickness of line.
These vary between 0.7mm for outlines to 0.3mm for
centre and broken lines.
Lines of Symmetry .. If asked only to draw a symmetrical half of a
part then this symbol is used at both ends of the
centre line of symmetry to show where the second
half would go.
Outline
.. .. .. A finished solid line which shows the edges, that can
be seen, of a drawn object.
© Jim Wyllie ‘04
Page - 58
Graphic Communication
Glossary Of Terminology
Computer — CAD - continued
Machining Terms
Invert .. .. .. .. To turn upside down.
Same as producing a mirror across the X axis.
Can also be changing the black parts of a drawing to
white and vice-versa.
Angular .. .. .. Min and max values of the angle between two
surfaces or angle of a hole to be drilled.
Knurling .. .. .. A roughening effect, produced on a lathe, on round
sections of metal to give a better grip.
Cylindricity .. .. Minimum and maximum diameters of the
exterior of a cylinder.
Concentricity .. Accuracy of rounded surfaces and holes using
same centre line. Maximum offset allowed.
• Diamond .. .. Style which leaves a diamond pattern.
Datum Face
• Parallel .. .. Style which leaves a series of parallel lines.
Flatness .. .. .. Quality of surface.
Maximum depth of any depressions, or height
of any bump, on a machined surface.
Diamond
Parallel
Layers .. .. .. .. Allows logical drawing separation.
Different elements are drawn on separate levels.
Used to isolate parts of a complex drawing - viewing
only the parts that are required.
Electrics
Gas
Machining .. .. Surfaces which must be machined.
Accuracy required also noted.
Parallelism .. .. Accuracy between two, or more, parallel
surfaces or lines.
Position .. .. .. Accuracy of exact datum points.
Used to position separate parts.
Roundness .. .. Maximum and minimum deviations from a
circular path.
Squareness .. .. Limit of deviation from right angle.
Straightness
Plumbing
Interior Fittings
Walls /Windows and Doors
( Main Layer - Always On )
Page - 7
Scottish Higher / Int 2
.. Surface that all measuring is taken from.
Symmetry
.. Maximum and minimum deviations from
straight line.
.. .. The accuracy of a line of symmetry.
Tolerance .. .. .. Giving details of max. and min. dimensions.
© Jim Wyllie ‘04
+0.1
Ø20-0.2
Page - 60
Graphic Communication
Glossary Of Terminology
Computer — CAD
Shape / Form - continued
Alignment
Pattern .. .. .. .. An arrangement of repeated parts or decorative
designs used to render a part of a drawing.
.. .. Position drawing parts with reference to each other.
Left, Centre or Right.
Top, Centre or Bottom.
Pentagon .. .. .. A five sided shape.
Break .. .. .. .. To cut a line at a particular point such as an
intersection with a second line.
Polygon .. .. .. A surface made from a number of non-crossing
straight lines joined together.
CAD .. .. .. .. .. Computer Aided Draughting, Drawing & Design
program dedicated to drawing.
Prism .. .. .. .. 3D form with parallel sides and ends that are the same
size and shape.
CAG .. .. .. .. .. Computer Aided Graphics.
Producing drawings with colour, text and other visuals
as the main features.
Pyramid .. .. .. 3D form having flat sides which come to a point at the
top.
CAM
.. .. .. .. Computer Aided Manufacture. (CAD/CAM)
Product is drawn on the screen and then sent to be
manufactured using digitally controlled machines.
Clipboard
.. .. A temporary storage area in memory where a part can
be pasted from.
Rectangle
Regular
.. .. A shape where opposite sides are of equal length and
the corners are right angles.
.. .. .. A shape where all the sides are the same length.
Shape .. .. .. .. Any object which has no thickness.
Can be completely drawn on a piece of paper.
Clone .. .. .. .. An exact copy, in the same place.
Sphere .. .. .. .. 3D form like a ball.
Copy
Square .. .. .. .. Four sided shape with right angled corners and sides
of equal length.
.. .. .. .. To duplicate a part of a drawing.
Often requires “Paste” before the 2nd copy appears.
Cut .. .. .. .. .. To remove, to the clipboard, a part of a drawing.
This cut section can now be placed elsewhere.
Tesselation .. .. A grid made from a single complex shape which link
together perfectly leaving no spaces.
Dimensioning .. Item sizes are automatically measured by the program
and the correct BS format is used to format result.
Dimensions should always be drawn on a new layer.
Software will measure and position the sizes correctly.
If scales are used these will be followed completely.
Triangle .. .. .. Three sided shape with straight edges.
Page - 5
Scottish Higher / Int 2
© Jim Wyllie ‘04
Page - 62
Graphic Communication
Glossary Of Terminology
A
Colour Usage - continued
Tertiary
Texture
.. .. .. A mixture of one primary colour and one secondary
colour to give a third colour.
Yellow + Orange = Yellowy-Orange
Red + Orange = Redy-Orange
Blue + Purple = Bluey-Purple
Red + Purple = Redy-Purple
Yellow + Green = Yellowy-Green
Blue + Green = Bluey-Green.
.. .. .. Using colour to give the effect of material (metal,
wood or other) to a surface of a drawing.
Tint .. .. .. .. .. White with a little dash of colour to make a second
colour that is slightly off white.
Often seen when painting house interiors.
Tonal Range
.. A range of colours, using one colour as the base,
going from very light to very dark.
Example: Sky Blue - Navy Blue.
Tone .. .. .. .. .. A list of colours with the same base colour but with
each one being slightly darker that the one before.
eg. Moving from Light Blue to Navy blue.
Warm .. .. .. .. These are colours that feel warm to the eye such as the
reds, oranges and the yellows.
Page - 3
Scottish Higher / Int 2
Adjustable . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 53
Administration . . . . . . . . . . . . 4
Advancing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1
Airbrush . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 53
Align . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 31
Alignment . . . . . . . . . . . . 5, 11
Angled Line . . . . . . . . . . . . . 57
Angular . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 60
Animation . . . . . . . . . . . 31, 35
Annotate . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 45
Application . . . . . . . . . . . . . 35
Arrow . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 57
Artwork . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11
Assembly . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 45
Attribute . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 31
Auxiliary . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 45
B
Backup . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 35
Banner . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11
Baseline . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11
Binding . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11
Bleed . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11
Bold . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11
Boolean . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 31
Border . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11
Boss . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 41
Box . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11
Break . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5
British Standards . . . . . . . . . 45
Brochure . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11
Broken . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 57
BS PP-7308 . . . . . . . . . . . . . 45
Building Plans . . . . . . . . . . . 46
Bullet . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11
C
CAD . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5, 35
CAD/CAM . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 28
CAG . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5, 35
CAM . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5
Cameras . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 23
Camera Ready Copy . . . . . . 12
Caption . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12
Card . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 34
Cartridge . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 34
CE . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 46
Centre Line . . . . . . . . . . . . . 57
Centre Spread . . . . . . . . . . . 12
Chain Line . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 57
Chamfer . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 41
C - continued
Charts. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 47
Circle . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 61
Clip Art . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 35
Clipboard . . . . . . . . . . . . 5, 35
Clone . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5, 35
Co-processor . . . . . . . . . . . . 26
Collage . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12
Colour Gradient . . . . . . . . . . 1
Colour Wheel . . . . . . . . . . . . 1
Column Styles. . . . . . . . . . . . 12
Common Symbols . . . . . . . . 63
Compasses (Pair) . . . . . . . . 53
Component . . . . . . . . . . 31, 47
Composition . . . . . . . . . . . . 12
Concentricity . . . . . . . . . . . . 60
Cone . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 61
Construction . . . . . . . . . . . . 57
Contrasting . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1
Conventions . . . . . . . . . . . . . 47
Cool . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1
Copy . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5, 12, 35
Corporate Identity . . . . . . . . 47
Counterbore . . . . . . . . . . . . 41
Countersink . . . . . . . . . . . . . 41
CPU . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 26
Crop . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12
Crop Marks . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13
Cross Section . . . . . . . . . . . . 47
Cube . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 61
Cuboid . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 61
Cursor . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 35
Cut . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5, 36
Cut Off Rule . . . . . . . . . . . . 13
Cutting Plane . . . . . . . . . . . 41
Cylinder . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 61
Cylindricity . . . . . . . . . . . . . 60
D
Data . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 36
Database . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 36
Datum . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 41
Datum Face . . . . . . . . . . . . . 60
Descender . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13
Design . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4
Design Sequence . . . . . . . . . 40
Detail View . . . . . . . . . . . . . 47
Diagrams . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 48
Diameter . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 41
Digitiser . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 23
Digitising Tablet . . . . . . . . . 23
Dimension . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 57
D - continued
Dimensioning . . . . . . 5, 42, 48
Disc Types . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 34
Display Type . . . . . . . . . . . . 13
Distort . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6
Distribution . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4
Dividers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 53
Document . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13
Double Spread . . . . . . . . . . . 13
DPI . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13
Draft . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 36
Drawing Board . . . . . . . . . . 53
DTP . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13, 36
Duplicate . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6, 36
Duplicate Array . . . . . . . . . . . 6
E
Elevation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 42
Eraser Mask . . . . . . . . . . . . 53
EuroCodes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 48
Exploded View . . . . . . . . . . . 48
Export . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 36
Extrusion . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 31
Eye Line . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 42
F
Facet . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 31
Facing Pages . . . . . . . . . . . 13
Fax . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 28
Fax Modem . . . . . . . . . . . . . 23
File . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 36
Fillet . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 42
First Angle . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 48
Fixative . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 53
Flash Card . . . . . . . . . . . . . 34
Flatness . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 60
Flexi Curves . . . . . . . . . . . . 53
Flip . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6
Folding . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 57
Folio . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13
Font . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13
Foot . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13
Footer . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14
Footnote . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14
Form . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 31, 61
Format . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14
Frame . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14
Freehand . . . . . . . . . . . . 49, 61
Freehand Curves . . . . . . . . . 57
French Curves . . . . . . . . . . . 53
Glossary Of Terminology
Graphic Communication
Q
Quotes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18
Colour Usage
R
Advancing .. .. Colours that give the impression that the surface they
are painted on, is closer to your eye.
Advancing colours are also warm colours.
Colour Gradient .. .. A fill ranging from
one colour to a second in
even intermediate stages.
Yellow
Orange
Green
Orange
Green
Colour Wheel .. A graphic which allows
you to pick a colour for a
particular job.
Simplistic form is shown.
Yellow
Yellow
Green
Blue
Green
Yellow
Red
Orange
Blue
Blue
Orange
Red
Red
Violet
Blue
Violet
Violet
Red
Violet
Contrasting .. .. Two colours that are opposites to each other.
They can be found directly opposite on the colour
wheel. Used to great effect to emphasise something.
Cool .. .. .. .. .. Colours that look cold to the eye such as the blues.
Grey Scale .. .. A graphic coloured only by dots that are black.
Varying the spacing between the black dots gives a
different grey tone.
Harmony .. .. .. Two colours that are neighbours on the colour wheel
and that go together well.
eg. Red and Orange.
Highlights .. .. Parts of a rendered drawing that show where the light
actually strikes the object being drawn.
Much lighter than the rest of the rendering.
Hue .. .. .. .. .. The exact colour, with no highlights, of an object.
Page - 1
Scottish Higher / Int 2
Radial Curves . . . . . . . . 55, 59
Radius . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 43
RAM . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 27
Ray Trace . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 32
Real Time . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 32
Receding . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2
Rectangle . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 62
Reference Styles . . . . . . . . . . 9
Reflect . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9
Reflection . . . . . . . . . . . . 2, 51
Register Marks . . . . . . . . . . 18
Regular . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 62
Removal . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 31
Rendering . . . . . . . . . . . 32, 51
Repeat . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9
Research . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4
Resolution . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 38
Retouching . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18
Reversing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18
Revolve . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 32
River . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18
Robot . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 30
Roller Ball . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 24
ROM . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 27
Rotate . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9
Roundness . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 60
Rubber . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 55
Rubber Banding . . . . . . . . . . 9
Ruler . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9, 18, 55
Run . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18
Run On . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18
S
Sales . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4
San Serif . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18
Save . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 39
Save As . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 39
Scale . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 43, 51
Scale Ruler . . . . . . . . . . . . . 55
Scanner Types . . . . . . . . . . . 25
Scrolling . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 39
Secondary . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2
Section . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 51
Serif . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18
Set Square . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 55
Shade . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2
Shadow . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2, 18
Shape . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 62
S - continued
Shell . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 32
Simulation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 32
Sketch . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 51
Snap . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10
Software . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 39
Solid Model . . . . . . . . . . . . . 33
Speakers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 30
Sphere . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 62
Spine . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18
Spreadsheet . . . . . . . . . . . . . 39
Square . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 62
Squareness . . . . . . . . . . . . . 60
Step . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10
Stepped Section . . . . . . . . . . 51
Straightness . . . . . . . . . . . . . 60
Style . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18
Sub-Heading . . . . . . . . . . . . 19
Subscript . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 19
Superscript . . . . . . . . . . . . . 19
Supplementary View . . . . . . 52
Surface . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 33
Surface Development . . . . . 52
Surface Model . . . . . . . . . . . 33
Sweep . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 33
Symbol . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10, 43
Symmetry . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 60
T
Tangency . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 52
Tee Square . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 55
Template . . . . . . . . . . . . 19, 56
Tertiary . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3
Tesselation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 62
Texture (Mapping) . . . . . . 3, 33
Third Angle . . . . . . . . . . . . . 52
Threading Details . . . . . . . . 44
Thumb Nail . . . . . . . . . . . . . 52
Tint . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3
Title Block . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 43
Tolerance . . . . . . . . . . . . 43, 60
Tonal Range . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3
Tone . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3
Tool Bar . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10
Touch Pad . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 25
Touch Screen . . . . . . . . . . . . 25
Tracing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 39
Trammel . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 56
Transform . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10
Translate . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10
Triangle . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 62
True Shape . . . . . . . . . . . . . 52
U
Underline . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 19
Undo . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10
Ungroup . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10
V
Vertex . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 33
Vertical Line . . . . . . . . . . . . 59
Video Digitizer . . . . . . . . . . 25
Visual . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 19
W
Warm . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3
Web . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 43
White Space . . . . . . . . . . . . . 19
Window . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 19
Wire Frame . . . . . . . . . . . . . 33
Wizard . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 19
Word Processor . . . . . . . . . . 39
Working Roughs . . . . . . . . . 52
Workplane . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 33
WWW . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 25
WYSIWYG . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 19
Main Topics
Colour Usage . . . . . . . . . . 1 - 3
Company Parts. . . . . . . . . . . . 4
Computer
• CAD . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5 - 10
• DTP. . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11 - 20
• Inputs . . . . . . . . . . . . 23 - 25
• Internal . . . . . . . . . . . 26 - 27
• Outputs . . . . . . . . . . . 28 - 30
• Modelling . . . . . . . . . 31 - 33
• Storage. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 34
• Software . . . . . . . . . . 35 - 39
Design Sequence . . . . . . . . . 40
Drawing
• Parts . . . . . . . . . . . . . 41 - 44
• Styles. . . . . . . . . . . . . 45 - 52
• Tools . . . . . . . . . . . . . 53 - 56
Line Types . . . . . . . . . . . 57 - 59
Machining Terms . . . . . . . . . 60
Shape / Form . . . . . . . . 61 - 62
Common Symbols . . . . . 63 - 65
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