Steering System and Suspension Design for 2005

Steering System and Suspension Design for 2005
1
University of Southern Queensland
Faculty of Engineering and Surveying
Steering System and Suspension Design
for
2005 Formula SAE-A Racer Car
A dissertation submitted by
Cristina Elena Popa
in fulfilment of the requirements of
Courses ENG4111 and 4112 Research Project
towards the degree of
Bachelor of Engineering (Mechanical)
Submitted: October 2005
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Abstract
The dissertation documents the design project for the steering system and
suspension of the 2005 Formula SAE-A racer car made at the University
of Southern Queensland.
The dissertation includes a review of current automotive steering and
suspension systems followed by the review of Formula SAE-A
restrictions and design requirements.
A thorough analysis of 2004 USQ racer car has been included in order to
establish the areas of design modifications followed by the actual design
with all the technical specifications required.
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University of Southern Queensland
Faculty of Engineering and Surveying
ENG4111/2 Research Project
Limitations of Use
The Council of the University of Southern Queensland, its Faculty of
Engineering and Surveying, and the staff of the University of Southern
Queensland, do not accept any responsibility for the truth, accuracy or
completeness of material contained within or associated with this
dissertation.
Persons using all or any part of this material do so at their own risk, and
do not at the risk of the Council of the University of Southern Queensland,
its Faculty of Engineering and Surveying or the staff of the University of
Southern Queensland.
This dissertation reports an educational exercise and has the purpose or
validity beyond this exercise. The sole purpose of the course pair entitled
“Research Project” is to contribute to the overall education within the
student’s chosen degree program. This document, the associated hardware,
software, drawings, and other material set out in the associated appendices
should not be used for any other purpose: if they are so used, it is entirely
at the risk of the user.
Prof G. Baker
Dean
Faculty of Engineering and Surveying
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Certification
I certify that the ideas, designs and experimental work, results, analyses and
conclusions set out in this dissertation are entirely my own effort, except where
otherwise indicated and acknowledged.
I further certify that the work is original and has not been previously submitted for
assessment in any other course or institution, except where specifically stated.
CRISTINA ELENA POPA
Student number: 0050018250
_____________________________
Signature
_____________________________
Date
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Acknowledgements
The author of this dissertation would like to thank the following people:
Mr Chris Snook, Project Supervisor, Lecturer at the University of Southern
Queensland, for his helpful advice and support throughout the duration of this
project;
Mr Selvan Pather, Lecturer at the University of Southern Queensland, for his
advice;
Mr. Bruce Llewellyn for his donation of a steering box and his time and effort
to modify it;
Mr. Martin Corcoran, Linear Bearings Pty Ltd, for his generous donation of rod
ends and spherical bearings;
Mr. Chris Gallagan and Mr Brian Aston at the University of Southern
Queenslad workshop for their patience and advice;
Mr. Ray Malpres, for his advice, patience, time and effort dedicated to this
project.
Miss Melinda Plank, University of Southern Queensland Design Team Member
for her unwavering support with fund raising and promotion for this project.
CRISTINA POPA
University of Southern Queensland
October 2004
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Table of Contents
Acknowledgements ........................................................................................ iii
Table of Contents ............................................................................................. i
Table of Figures .............................................................................................. 6
Chapter 1 ......................................................................................................... i
Introduction ................................................................................................ i
1.1
Project objective ............................................................................. i
1.2
Overview of the Formula SAE-A Competition ................................. i
1.3
Vehicle requirements ..................................................................... 2
Chapter 2 ........................................................................................................ 4
Background ................................................................................................ 4
2.1 Automobile suspension systems .......................................................... 4
2.1.1 Springs ........................................................................................ 5
2.1.1.1 Terminology used in the study of springs ............................... 5
2.1.1.2 Coil springs ........................................................................... 6
2.1.1.3 Leaf springs ........................................................................... 7
2.1.1.4 Torsion bar springs ................................................................ 7
2.1.1.5 Air springs............................................................................. 8
2.1.2 Shock absorbers ........................................................................... 8
2.1.2.1 Oil filled shock absorber ........................................................ 9
2.1.2.2 Gas charged shock absorbers................................................ 10
2.1.2.3 Reservoir shock absorbers.................................................... 10
2.1.3 Struts ......................................................................................... 10
2.1.4 Tires as springs .......................................................................... 11
2.1.4.1 Radial Tires ......................................................................... 11
2.1.4.2 Bias ply tires ....................................................................... 11
2.1.4.3 Bias belted tyres .................................................................. 12
2.1.5 Suspension types ........................................................................ 12
2.1.5.1 Dependent suspension systems ............................................. 12
2.1.5.2 Independent suspension systems........................................... 13
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2.1.6 Front and rear suspension design ................................................ 14
2.2 Steering system ................................................................................ 16
2.2.1 Manual steering systems............................................................. 16
2.2.1.1 Worm and sector steering..................................................... 16
2.2.1.2 Worm and tapered peg steering ............................................ 16
2.2.1.3 Worm and roller steering gear .............................................. 17
2.2.1.4 Manual recirculating ball and sector steering........................ 18
2.2.1.5 Manual rack and pinion steering........................................... 19
2.2.2 Power assisted steering system ................................................... 20
2.2.2.1 Power rack and pinion ......................................................... 20
2.2.2.2 Power recirculating ball ....................................................... 21
2.3 Geometry parameters involved in suspension and steering................. 22
2.3.1 Wheel camber ............................................................................ 22
2.3.1.1 Camber angle....................................................................... 22
2.3.1.2 Rate of camber change ......................................................... 23
2.3.2 Wheel caster .............................................................................. 23
2.3.2.1 Caster angle ......................................................................... 23
2.3.2.2 Rate of caster change ........................................................... 24
2.3.3 Kingpin geometry ...................................................................... 24
2.3.3.1 Kingpin inclination .............................................................. 24
2.3.3.2 Kingpin offset...................................................................... 24
2.3.4 Wheel toe................................................................................... 25
2.3.4.1 Static toe angle .................................................................... 25
2.3.4.2 Static toe ............................................................................. 25
2.3.5 Ackermann steering.................................................................... 26
2.4. Suspension kinematic parameters..................................................... 28
2.4.1. Instantaneous centre .................................................................. 28
2.4.2. Roll centre ................................................................................ 29
2.4.2.1. Roll centre location............................................................. 29
2.4.2.2. Roll resistance arm ............................................................. 29
2.4.2.3. Rollover arm....................................................................... 29
2.4.2.4 Jacking ................................................................................ 30
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Chapter 3 ...................................................................................................... 31
Analysis of the 2004 race car for design changes .................................... 31
3.1. Analysis of 2004 car steering system ............................................... 31
3.1.1. Steering system geometry.......................................................... 31
3.1.2. Steering system mechanism ....................................................... 32
3.2. Analysis of 2004 car suspension system ........................................... 32
3.2.1. Suspension system type ............................................................. 32
3.2.2. Suspension system components ................................................. 32
3.2.2.1. Hub axle ............................................................................. 32
3.2.2.2 Uprights .............................................................................. 33
3.2.2.3 Control arms and suspension arm ......................................... 33
3.2.2.4 Springs and dampers ............................................................ 34
3.2.2.5 Mounting points................................................................... 34
Chapter 4 ...................................................................................................... 35
Design constrains ..................................................................................... 35
4.1 Design constrains set by the Formula SAE rules ............................... 35
4.1.1 Wheelbase and vehicle configuration .......................................... 35
4.1.2 Vehicle track.............................................................................. 35
4.1.3 Wheels ....................................................................................... 35
4.1.4 Suspension ................................................................................. 35
4.1.5 Steering ..................................................................................... 36
4.1.6 Steering wheel ........................................................................... 36
4.1.7 Fasteners.................................................................................... 36
4.2 Other design constrains .................................................................... 37
Chapter 5 ...................................................................................................... 38
Steering system design ............................................................................. 38
5.1. Steering system requirements .......................................................... 38
5.2. Design of the steering system geometry ........................................... 38
5.2.1 Ackermann condition ................................................................. 39
5.2.2 Selection of the steering parameters ........................................... 41
5.3. Selection of the steering mechanism ............................................. 41
5.4. Position of the steering mechanism .................................................. 42
5.4.1 Position relative to the front axle................................................ 42
5.4.2 Position in a vertical plane ......................................................... 43
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5.5 Bump steer geometry ........................................................................ 45
5.6 Steering movement ratio ................................................................... 46
5.7 Quick release mechanism.................................................................. 47
Chapter 6 ...................................................................................................... 48
Suspension system design ........................................................................ 48
6.1 Design approach ............................................................................... 48
6.2 Suspension type and geometry selection ........................................... 48
6.3 Wheel selection ................................................................................ 49
6.4 Wheelbase, track width and pivot points location .............................. 49
6.5 Geometry parameters selection ......................................................... 50
6.6 Suspension components design ......................................................... 51
6.6.1 Hub axle .................................................................................... 51
6.6.2 Uprights ..................................................................................... 52
6.6.2.1 Method of fabrication .......................................................... 52
6.6.2.2 Material selection ................................................................ 53
6.6.2.3 Design concepts ................................................................... 54
6.6.3 Control arms (wishbones) and suspension arm ............................ 56
6.6.3.1 Material selection ................................................................ 56
6.6.3.2 Design concept .................................................................... 57
6.6.4 Mounting points ......................................................................... 59
6.6.5 Springs, shock absorbers and anti-roll bars ................................. 60
6.6.5.1 Position of the spring and shock absorbers ........................... 60
6.6.5.2 Spring rates and wheel rates ................................................. 62
6.6.5.3 Shock absorbers ................................................................... 64
6.6.5.4 Anti roll bars ....................................................................... 65
Chapter 7 ...................................................................................................... 66
Steering and suspension alignment.......................................................... 66
7.1 Equipment ........................................................................................ 66
7.2 Procedures for measuring and adjusting suspension .......................... 66
7.2.1 Static alignment ......................................................................... 66
7.2.2 Establishing a level surface ........................................................ 67
7.2.3 Adjusting the springs ................................................................. 67
7.2.4 Measuring and adjusting the ride height ..................................... 67
7.2.5 Measuring and adjusting castor .................................................. 68
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7.2.6 Measuring and adjusting camber................................................. 68
7.2.7 Measuring and adjusting toe ....................................................... 69
7.2.8 Bump steer ................................................................................. 70
7.2.9 Recording data ........................................................................... 70
Chapter 8 ...................................................................................................... 72
Conclusions .............................................................................................. 72
8.1 Achievement of objectives ................................................................ 72
Recommendations .................................................................................. 72
References .................................................................................................... 74
Bibliography ................................................................................................. 75
Appendix A................................................................................................... 76
Project Specification ................................................................................ 76
Appendix B ................................................................................................... 78
Finite Element Report For Hub Axle ...................................................... 78
1. Problem description..................................................................... 79
2. General approach......................................................................... 79
2.6 Meshing the model .................................................................... 80
3. Solution ...................................................................................... 82
4. Conclusions .................................................................................... 85
5. Recommendations ........................................................................... 85
Appendix C ................................................................................................... 86
Finite Element Analysis for Front Upright ............................................. 86
2. General approach......................................................................... 87
3. Analysis of suspension pivot points ............................................. 89
4. Analysis of brake calliper mounting points .................................. 93
5. Analysis of steering arm .............................................................. 96
6. Final Conclusions and recommendations ...................................... 97
Appendix D................................................................................................... 99
Production Drawings ............................................................................... 99
Appendix E ..................................................................................................104
Photographs ............................................................................................104
Appendix F ..................................................................................................110
Roll Centre and Camber Change Models ...............................................110
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Appendix E ..................................................................................................113
Cost Report .............................................................................................113
COST REPORT ESTIMATE ........................................................................114
1. Cost calculations for the manufactured components ..................................114
LOWER FRONT CONTROL ARMS ..................................................114
UPPER REAR CONTROL ARMS ......................................................115
FRONT UPRIGHT.............................................................................115
REAR UPRIGHT ...............................................................................116
HUB AXLE .......................................................................................117
STEERING TIE ROD ........................................................................117
SUSPENSION ROCKER ARMS ........................................................118
STEERING ROCKER ARMS.............................................................118
2. Cost calculations for modified components ...............................................118
STEERING BOX ...............................................................................118
3. Cost calculations for assemblies ...............................................................119
FRONT SUSPENSION ......................................................................119
REAR SUSPENSION ........................................................................119
STEERING SYSTEM .....................................................................120
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Table of Figures
Figure 1 Spring movement .............................................................................. 5
Figure 2 Coil spring types ............................................................................... 7
Figure 3 Leaf spring ........................................................................................ 7
Figure 4 Air spring.......................................................................................... 8
Figure 5 Types of shocks................................................................................. 9
Figure 6 Strut design – inner plate ................................................................. 10
Figure 7: Tire Types...................................................................................... 11
Figure 8 Panhard rod ..................................................................................... 13
Figure 9 Watts link ....................................................................................... 13
Figure 10 DeDion axle .................................................................................. 14
Figure 11 MacPherson strut ........................................................................... 15
Figure 12 Worm and peg steering .................................................................. 17
Figure 13 Worm and roller type steering gear box ......................................... 18
Figure 14 Manual recirculating ball and sector steering ................................. 19
Figure 15 Rack and pinion steering ............................................................... 19
Figure 16 Power rack and pinion steering system........................................... 21
Figure 17 Camber angle ................................................................................ 22
Figure 18 Caster angle .................................................................................. 23
Figure 19 Kingpin inclination........................................................................ 25
Figure 20 Toe in/out...................................................................................... 26
Figure 21 Akerman principle ......................................................................... 27
Figure 22 Ackermann construction ................................................................ 27
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Figure 23 Instantaneous centre/ roll centre .................................................... 28
Figure 24 2004 Steering box.......................................................................... 32
Figure 25 2004 Front hub axle....................................................................... 33
Figure 26 2004 Front and rear uprights .......................................................... 33
Figure 27 Ackermann condition..................................................................... 40
Figure 28 Top view diagram of steering system geometry .............................. 43
Figure 29 Front view diagram of steering system geometry............................ 44
Figure 30 Position of the pinion relative to the rack ....................................... 44
Figure 31 Mounting of the steering box ......................................................... 45
Figure 32 Upright design concept 1 ............................................................... 54
Figure 33 2005 Front and rear final design .................................................... 56
Figure 34 Mounting points ............................................................................ 60
Figure 35 Spring/shock position .................................................................... 62
Figure 36 Castor measuring device ................................................................ 68
Figure 37 Arm used to measure toe................................................................ 69
Figure 38 Toe adjustment .............................................................................. 70
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Chapter 1
Introduction
1.1 Project objective
The aim of this project is to design and build the steering system and
suspension for USQ SAE-A racer car. To help achieve this goal in the available
time, various tasks were set. These include:
research of the Formula SAE-A rules to determine restrictions and design
requirements;
research on currently used automotive steering systems and suspension and
evaluation of feasible alternatives;
analysis of other team’s design;
design an appropriate steering system and suspension for 2005 race car;
develop systems to evaluate the performance of the steering system and
suspension.
1.2 Overview of the Formula SAE-A Competition
The main objective of Formula SAE-A competition is for students to conceive,
design and build a small open wheel racer car according to the competition
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requirements that is to be compared with other competing designs in order to
decide the best overall vehicle. The restrictions on the car are set up to
challenge student’s imagination and knowledge while giving them a meaningful
project as well as good practice working in a team environment.
The design brief is for a prototype car made for evaluation as a production item
for non-professional weekend autocross racers that should cost below $25,000.
Therefore, the car must have high performance in terms of acceleration, braking
and handling qualities as well as high reliability, low cost and easy
maintenance.
1.3 Vehicle requirements
The vehicle is required to be an open-wheeled and open-cockpit design with
four wheels not in a straight line. The minimum wheelbase must be 1525mm
(60 inches), and minimum track width no less than 75% of the larger track.
The ground clearance requirement is that no part of the car other than tires
touches the ground during truck events.
The chassis must have crush protection and roll hoops built into it at various
points of safety.
The wheels should be a minimum of 203.2 mm (8.0 inches) in diameter and
have a fully operational suspension package on all wheels with at least 50.8mm
(2 inches) usable wheel travel.
The tire size and type is free.
The car must be equipped with breaking system that operates on all four wheels
with two independent circuits operated by a single control.
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The steering must affect at least two wheels. The steering system must have
positive stops to prevent steering linkages from locking up and to prevent the
tires from contacting the car at all times. The allowable free play is limited to 7
degrees total, and is measured at the steering wheel.
The engine used to power the car must be four-stroke piston engine with a
maximum displacement of 610 cc per cycle. All engine airflow is to pass
through a 20mm restrictor to limit its power capabilities.
4
Chapter 2
Background
2.1 Automobile suspension systems
In a practical suspension system, the wheel is connected to the body through
various links that permit an approximately vertical motion of the wheel relative
to the body, controlled by the springs and dampers.
The main components of a suspension system are:
1 springs,
2 shock absorbers,
3 struts
4 tires
When an additional load is placed on the springs or the vehicle meets a bump in
the road, the springs will absorb the load by compressing as sown in Figure 1.
The springs are very important components of the suspension system that
provides ride comfort. Shocks and struts help control how fast the springs and
suspension are allowed to move, which is important in keeping tires in firm
contact with the road.
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Figure 1 Spring movement
2.1.1 Springs
Springs are the flexible links that allow the frame and the body to ride
relatively undisturbed while the tires and suspension follow the bumps in the
road. The springs support the weight of the vehicle, maintain ride height, and
absorb road shock.
The major spring designs in use today are:
1. coil springs
2. leaf springs
3. torsion bar
4. air springs
2.1.1.1 Terminology used in the study of springs
The term bounce refers to the vertical (up and down) movement of the
suspension system.
The upward suspension travel that compresses the spring and shock absorber is
called the jounce, or compression.
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The downward travel of the tire and wheel that extends the spring and shock
absorber is called rebound, or extension.
Spring rate is used to measure spring strength. It is the amount of weight that is
required to compress the spring 1 inch.
Sprung weight is the weight supported by the springs. For example, the
vehicle's body, transmission, frame, and motor would be sprung weight.
Unsprung weight is the weight that is not carried by springs, such as the tires,
wheels, and brake assemblies.
2.1.1.2 Coil springs
Coil springs are the most commonly used springs. The diameter and length of
the wire determine the strength of a spring. Increasing the wire diameter will
produce a stronger spring, while increasing its length will make it more
flexible.
Some coil springs are made with a variable rate as shown in Figure 2. This
variable rate is accomplished by either constructing this spring from materials
having different thickness or by winding the spring so the coil will
progressively compress at a higher rate.
Variable rate springs provide a lower spring rate under unloaded conditions
offering a smoother ride, and a higher spring rate under loaded conditions,
resulting in more support and control.
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Figure 2 Coil spring types
2.1.1.3 Leaf springs
There are two major leaf spring design: multi-leaf and mono-leaf.
The multi-leaf spring as shown in Figure 3 is made of several steel plates of
different lengths stacked together. During normal operation, the spring
compresses to absorb road shock. The leaf springs bend and slide on each other
allowing suspension movement.
Figure 3 Leaf spring
In most cases leaf springs are used in pairs mounted longitudinally (front to
back) but some of vehicle manufacturers are using a single transverse (side to
side mounted leaf spring).
2.1.1.4 Torsion bar springs
The torsion bar is a straight or L shaped bar of spring steel. Most torsion bars
are longitudinal, mounted solidly to the frame at one end and connected to a
moving part of the suspension at the other. Torsion bars may also be transverse
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mounted. During suspension movement, the torsion bar will twist, providing
spring action.
2.1.1.5 Air springs
The air spring is another type of spring that is becoming more popular on
passenger cars, light trucks, and heavy trucks. The air spring as seen in Figure 4
is a rubber cylinder filled with compressed air. A piston attached to the lower
control arm moves up and down with the lower control arm. This causes the
compressed air to provide spring action. If the vehicle loads changes, a valve at
the top of the airbag opens to add or release air from the air spring. An onboard
compressor supplies air.
Figure 4 Air spring
2.1.2 Shock absorbers
If the suspension were equipped with just a spring, it would bounce up and
down several times after each bump. When compressed by a bump, a
suspension system needs a way to dissipate the energy that is stored in the
spring. The shock absorber is the device that dissipates the energy and keeps
the suspension from bouncing out of control.
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Common types of shock absorbers illustrated in Figure 5 are:
1. oil filled
2. gas charged
3. reservoir
Figure 5 Types of shocks
2.1.2.1 Oil filled shock absorber
The most common type of shock absorber is oil filled. This type is used in car
suspensions as well as bike suspensions. Many shock absorbers have adjustable
spring rates and damping.
Some shocks have a rod extending into the centre of the shock that can be
turned, allowing you to open or close more holes to adjust the damping. Some
premium shocks have small one-way valves in the piston that open up holes
when the piston is moving in one direction at different speeds, and close them
when the piston is moving in the other direction.
Most shocks have a small amount of compression damping, and a much larger
amount of rebound damping which means that the shock moves easily when it is
compressing to absorb a bump, then slowly lengthens to release the energy
stored in the spring.
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2.1.2.2 Gas charged shock absorbers
There are shocks charged with gas, typically nitrogen. These shocks have an
extra unattached piston in the bottom of the damper cylinder, with oil above the
piston and high pressure gas below the piston. Typically, nitrogen at 30 to 300
psi is used because the oil would not combine (burn) with the nitrogen nearly as
easily as it will with the oxygen in normal air.
2.1.2.3 Reservoir shock absorbers
The reservoir shocks have an extra oil reservoir attached with heat fins to help
get rid of the heat.
2.1.3 Struts
Strut mounts are vehicle specific, and there are numerous designs in use today
on both front and rear suspension systems.
The three most common designs are:
1. inner plate, illustrated in Figure 6;
2. centre sleeve;
3. spacer bushing.
Figure 6 Strut design – inner plate
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2.1.4 Tires as springs
Tires are air springs that support the total weight of the vehicle. The air spring
action of the tire is very important to the ride quality and safe handling of the
vehicle. Tire size, construction, compound and inflation are very important to
the ride quality of the vehicle.
There are three basic types of tires shown in Figure 7, namely:
1. radial ply, bias ply and bias belted;
2. bias ply;
3. bias belted.
Figure 7: Tire Types
2.1.4.1 Radial Tires
Radial ply tires have ply cords, which run across the centreline of the tread and
around the tire.
The two sets of belts are at right angles. The belts are made of steel wire,
polyester or other substances. Today, radial tires come as original equipment on
most passenger cars and light trucks.
2.1.4.2 Bias ply tires
Bias ply tires use cords that run at an angle across the centreline of the tire
tread. The alternate ply cords cross at opposite angles.
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2.1.4.3 Bias belted tyres
Bias belted tires are the same as bias ply, with the addition of layers of cords or belts - circling the tire beneath the tread.
The air pressure determines the spring rate of the tire. An over inflated tire will
have a higher spring rate and will produce excessive road shock. Over inflated
tires will transmit road shock rather than reduce it. Over or under inflation also
affects handling and tire wear.
2.1.5 Suspension types
Suspension systems can be broadly classified into two subgroups: dependent
and independent. These terms refer to the ability of opposite wheels to move
independently of each other.
2.1.5.1 Dependent suspension systems
A dependent suspension system normally has a simple beam axle that holds
wheels parallel to each other and perpendicular to the axle. When the camber of
one wheel changes, the camber of the opposite wheel changes in the same way.
Dependent systems may be differentiated by the system of linkages used to
locate them, both longitudinally and transversely. Often both functions are
combined in a set of linkages.
Examples of location linkages include:
Trailing arms
Panhard rod as seen in Figure 8
Watts linkage as seen in Figure 9
Inboard
WOB link
Mumford linkage
DeDion axle
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Figure 8 Panhard rod
Figure 9 Watts link
2.1.5.2 Independent suspension systems
An independent suspension allows wheels to rise and fall on their own without
affecting the opposite wheel. In this case, the wheels are either not connected at
all or are connected through universal joints with a swing axle
Independent front suspensions entirely replaced the rigid axel type after World
War II and numerous independent rear suspensions came into use, first on
European cars.
The main advantage of an independent suspension system is that is permitting
the wheels to move independent to each other so that when one wheel hits a
bump in the road, only that wheel is affected.
The variety of independent systems is greater and includes:
Swing axle;
DeDion axle illustrated in Figure 10;
14
MacPherson strut
Wishbone;
Multi-link;
Torsion bar;
Semi-trailing arm.
Figure 10 DeDion axle
However, a mixture of the two basic types is called a semi-dependent
suspension. In this case, a swing axle is used, but the wheels are also connected
with a solid tube, most often a deDion axle.
New suspension technologies in development include a system from the Bose
Corporation that uses computer-controlled motors to automatically adjust the
suspension to changing road surfaces, keeping a vehicle level and in contact
with the road even at high speed over bumpy roads, or in hard cornering.
2.1.6 Front and rear suspension design
The weight of a vehicle is unequally distributed between front and rear
therefore the separate front and rear suspension mechanisms have to meet
different requirements. Although few automobiles have a non-independent rear
suspension, every modern car has an independent front suspension.
The front suspension, which is connected to the steering system, has more
critical role in controlling the vehicle’s direction. The two systems must align
15
the wheels so that the vehicle travels in the intended direction and the tires
remain essentially perpendicular to the road and do not wear abnormally.
There are several different front and rear suspensions system designs, including
double A-arms and McPherson strut types (both of which have coil springs),
torsion-bar springs and leaf springs.
The double A-arm system has normally completely independent suspension in
the front or rear and are commonly used in sports and racing cars. It is a more
compact system that lowers the vehicle hood resulting in grater visibility and
better aerodynamics.
The McPherson strut system is a coil spring wrapped around a shock absorber
that acts as an upper control arm. It is less expensive than double A-arm system
and is found in most modern front wheel-drive passenger vehicles.
Figure 11 MacPherson strut
Leaf springs are typically used in non-independent rear suspension system and
in sport utility vehicles.
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2.2 Steering system
2.2.1 Manual steering systems
The manual steering system incorporates:
1. steering wheel and column;
2. a manual gear box and pitman arm or a rack and pinion assembly;
3. linkages, steering knuckles and ball joints;
4. wheel spindle assemblies.
There are several different manual steering gears in current use:
1. worm and sector type;
2. worm and tapered pin steering gear;
3. worm and roller steering gear
4. recirculating ball type where the balls acts as a rolling thread between
the wormshaft and the ball nut;
5. rack and pinion type which is the choice of most vehicle
manufacturers.
2.2.1.1 Worm and sector steering
The manual worm and sector assembly uses a steering shaft with a three-turn
worm gear supported and straddled by ball bearing assemblies. In operation, a
turn of the steering wheel causes the worm gear to rotate the sector and the
pitman arm shaft and the movement is transmitted through the steering train to
the wheel spindles.
2.2.1.2 Worm and tapered peg steering
The manual worm and tapered steering gear as illustrated in Figure 12 has a
three-turn worm gear at the lower end of the steering shaft supported by ball
bearings assemblies. The rocker shaft has a lever end with tapered peg that
rides in the worm grooves. The movement of the steering wheel revolves the
17
worm gear, and that causes the tapered peg to follow the worm gear grooves.
Movement of the peg moves the lever on the rocker shaft that in turn moves the
rocker arm and the steering linkage.
Figure 12 Worm and peg steering
2.2.1.3 Worm and roller steering gear
The manual worm and roller steering gear has a three-turn worm gear at the
lower end of the steering shaft as seen in Figure 13. Instead of a sector or
tapered peg on the pitman arm shaft, the gearbox has a roller assembly (usually
with two roller teeth) that engages the worm gear. The assembly is mounted on
anti-frictional bearings. When the roller teeth follow the worm, the rotary
motion is transmitted to the pitman arm shaft, pitman arm and into the steering
linkage.
18
Figure 13 Worm and roller type steering gear box
2.2.1.4 Manual recirculating ball and sector steering
With the manual recirculating ball steering gear illustrated in Figure 14, turning
forces are transmitted through ball bearings from a "worm gear" on the steering
shaft to a sector gear on the pitman arm shaft. A ball nut assembly is filled with
ball bearings, which "roll" along grooves between the worm teeth and grooves
inside the ball nut. When the steering wheel is turned, the worm gear on the end
of the steering shaft rotates, and movement of the recirculating balls causes the
ball nut to move up and down along the worm. Movement of the ball nut is
carried to the sector gear by teeth on the side of the ball nut. The sector gear
then moves with the ball nut to rotate the pitman arm shaft and activate the
steering linkage. The balls recirculate from one end of the ball nut to the other
through ball return guides.
19
Figure 14 Manual recirculating ball and sector steering
2.2.1.5 Manual rack and pinion steering
A typical rack and pinion steering gear assembly consists of a pinion shaft and
bearing assembly, rack gear, gear housing, two tie rod assemblies, an adjuster
assembly, dust boots and boot clamps, and grommet mountings and bolts. When
the steering wheel is turned, this manual movement is relayed to the steering
shaft and shaft joint, and then to the pinion shaft. Since the pinion teeth mesh
with the teeth on the rack gear, the rotary motion is changed to transverse
movement of the rack gear. The tie rods and tie rod ends then transmit this
movement to the steering knuckles and wheels.
Figure 15 Rack and pinion steering
20
2.2.2 Power assisted steering system
Power steering makes a heavy car respond easily to the steering wheel, whether
at highway speeds or inching into a narrow parking place, and it is normal
equipment for large automobiles.
This system requires a power steering pump attached to the engine and driven
by a belt, a pressure hose assembly, and a return line. Also, a control valve is
incorporated somewhere in the hydraulic circuit. "Power steering" is really
"power assisted steering." All systems are constructed so that the car can be
steered manually when the engine is not running or if any failure occurs in the
power source. Most power steering pumps contain a flow control valve, which
limits fluid flow to the power cylinder, and a relief valve which limits pressure
according to system demands.
Common types of power assisted steering systems are:
1. power rack and pinion;
2. power recirculating ball.
2.2.2.1 Power rack and pinion
Power rack and pinion steering assemblies are hydraulic/ mechanical unit with
an integral piston and rack assembly. An diagram of a rack and pinion steering
assembly is illustrated in Figure 16. An internal rotary valve directs power
steering fluid flow and controls pressure to reduce steering effort. The rack and
pinion is used to steer the car in the event of power steering failure, or if the
engine (which drives the pump) stalls.
When the steering wheel is turned, resistance is created by the weight of the car
and tire-to-road friction, causing a torsion bar in the rotary valve to deflect.
This changes the position of the valve spool and sleeve, thereby directing fluid
under pressure to the proper end of the power cylinder. The difference in
21
pressure on either side of the piston (which is attached to the rack) helps move
the rack to reduce turning effort. The fluid in the other end of the power
cylinder is forced to the control valve and back to the pump reservoir. When the
steering effort stops, the control valve is centred by the twisting force of the
torsion bar, pressure is equalized on both sides of the piston, and the front
wheels return to a straight ahead position.
Figure 16 Power rack and pinion steering system
2.2.2.2 Power recirculating ball
This power steering gear uses a recirculating ball system in which steel balls
act as rolling threads between the steering worm shaft and the rack piston. The
key to its operation is a rotary valve that directs power steering fluid under
pressure to either side of the rack piston. The rack piston converts hydraulic
power to mechanical force. The rack piston moves up inside the gear when the
worm shaft turns right. It moves down when the worm shaft turns left. During
these actions, the steel balls recirculate within the rack piston, which is power
assisted in movement by hydraulic pressure.
22
2.3 Geometry parameters involved in suspension and
steering
2.3.1 Wheel camber
2.3.1.1 Camber angle
Camber angle is regarded as the inclination of the wheel plane to the vertical
(SAE J670e). Negative camber inclines the top of the tyre toward the centreline
of the vehicle as seen in Figure 17 and positive camber inclines the top of the
tyre away from the centreline.
Camber angle
(negative)
Front view
Top pivot
Upright
Chassis
Bottom pivot
Figure 17 Camber angle
A small amount of negative camber of up to 1.5 degrees it is recommended in
order to induce camber thrust (Smith 2004). However, changes in camber
should be kept at minimum during chassis roll in order to reduce the loss of
camber thrust and the change in wheel track load distribution during cornering.
23
2.3.1.2 Rate of camber change
The rate of camber change is the change of camber angle per unit vertical
displacement of the wheel centre relative to the sprung mass (SAE J670e).
2.3.2 Wheel caster
2.3.2.1 Caster angle
Caster angle is the angle in side elevation between the steering axis and the
vertical. It is considered positive when the steering axis is inclined rearward (in
the upright direction) and negative when the steering axis is inclined forward
(SAE J670e). Caster angle can be visualised on Figure 18.
Caster angle
(positive)
Steering arm
Top pivot
Forward
Bottom pivot
Upright
Mechanical trail
Figure 18 Caster angle
Positive caster induces a self correcting force that provides straight line
stability, but increases steering effort. Caster ranges from approximately 2
degrees in racing vehicles up to 7 degrees in sedans (Smith 2004).
24
2.3.2.2 Rate of caster change
The rate of caster change is regarded as the change in caster angle per unit
vertical displacement of the wheel centre relative to the sprung mass (SAE
J670e).
2.3.3 Kingpin geometry
2.3.3.1 Kingpin inclination
The angle in front elevation between the steering axis and the vertical is
regarded as kingpin inclination (SAE J670e). It is also known as steering axis
inclination (SAI) and can be seen in Figure 19.
It is used to reduce the distance measured at the ground between steering axis
and tyre’s centre of pressure in order to reduce the torque about the steering
axis during forward motion. A right kingpin inclination will reduce the steering
effort and will provide the driver with a good ‘road feel”
2.3.3.2 Kingpin offset
Kingpin offset measured at the ground is the horizontal distance in front
elevation between the point where the steering axis intersects the ground and
the centre of tyre contact (SAE J670e).
Kingpin offset it is also known as scrub radius. It is positive when the centre of
tyre contact is outboard of the steering axis intersection point on the ground.
Kingpin offset is usually measured at static conditions (zero degree camber).
25
Kingpin
Font view
inclination
Tyre centre line
Top pivot
Axle
Chassis
Upright
Scrub
Bottom pivot
radius
Figure 19 Kingpin inclination
The kingpin offset at the wheel centre is the horizontal distance in front
elevation from the wheel centre to the steering axis (SAE J670e).
2.3.4 Wheel toe
2.3.4.1 Static toe angle
Static toe angle is measured in degrees and is the angle between a longitudinal
axis of the vehicle and the line of intersection of the wheel plane and the road
surface. The wheel is “toed-in” if the forward position of the wheel is turned
toward a central longitudinal axis of the vehicle, and “towed-out” if turned
away (SAE J670e).
2.3.4.2 Static toe
Static toe-in or toe-out of a pair of wheels is measured in millimetres and
represents the difference in the transverse distance between the wheel planes
taken at the extreme rear and front points of the tyre treads. When the distance
26
at the rear is greater, the wheel is “toed-in” by this amount; and where smaller,
the wheels are “toed-out” (SAE J670e) as illustrated in Figure 20.
Toe-in
Neutral
Toe-out
Figure 20 Toe in/out
It is necessary to set the static toe such way to prevent the tyres to become toeout during maximum bump and roll in order to prevent the outboard tyre to
steer the vehicle to the outside of the turn when cornering.
Toe-in produces a constant lateral force inward toward the vehicle centreline
during forward motion that will enhance the straight line stability.
2.3.5 Ackermann steering
When a car goes round a corner, it turns around a point along the line of its rear
axle, which means that the two front wheels will have to turn through slightly
different angles so that they are also guiding the vehicle round this point, and
not fighting the turn by scrubbing. This principle is illustrated in Figure 21.
27
θ
θ
Figure 21 Akerman principle
Ackerman geometry results when the steering is done behind the front axle and
the steering arms point toward the centre of the rear axle as seen on Figure 22
Ackermann
Figure 22 Ackermann construction
28
2.4. Suspension kinematic parameters
2.4.1. Instantaneous centre
The instantaneous centre of a suspension is the point through which an
individual wheel rotates and is also referred to as the “swing centre” or virtual
half-shaft” (Smith 2000). It is also the point through which the respective tyre
force acts on the sprung mass.
The instantaneous centre of a four bar link independent suspension is located at
the intersection of the lower and upper link extensions as seen in Figure 23.
When analysing suspension kinematics, both left and right suspensions must be
analysed together.
C.G.
Wheel centre line
Upright
Instantaneous centre
Instantaneous centre
Rollover moment arm
Ground
Roll resistance arm
Static roll
centre
Figure 23 Instantaneous centre/ roll centre
29
2.4.2. Roll centre
The point in the transverse vertical plane through any pair of wheel centres at
which lateral forces may be applied to the sprung mass without producing
suspension roll (SAE J670e).
2.4.2.1. Roll centre location
The roll centre is located at the intersection of the lines formed by the tyre
contact patches and their respective instantaneous centres. In Figure 23 the tyre
contact patches are assumed at the intersection of wheel centre line with the
ground, while in reality these two points may not coincide. The location of the
roll centre is usually different for front and rear suspension.
The vertical location or height of the roll centre determines the resulting two
moment arms formed between the roll centre and both the C.G. and the ground
plane. These two moment arms determine the vehicle’s sensitivity to lateral
acceleration by producing rollover moments and jacking forces (Smith 2000).
2.4.2.2. Roll resistance arm
The roll resistance arm is the lever arm formed between the thread’s centre of
pressure and the vehicle centre line. This moment arm creates a roll resisting
torque when acted on by the reaction forces generated at the tyre contact patch
by the spring and anti-roll bars (Smith 2000).
2.4.2.3. Rollover arm
Rollover moment arm is the summation of three components that results from
three force and roll moment arm pairs. These are lateral acceleration of the
sprung mass acting on the arm formed by the CG and roll centre, vertical
accelerated sprung mass acting on the arm formed by the lateral displacement
30
of CG and vehicle’s centre line and finally the jacking forces acting on the arm
formed by lateral displacement of the roll centre from the centre line during
roll.
2.4.2.4 Jacking
The tyre reaction forces generated when the vehicle is accelerated during
cornering are transmitted to the vehicle through the suspension links. In
suspension that place the roll centre above the ground, the upward tyre reaction
force generated by the outside tyre is greater than the downward tyre reaction
force generated by the inside tyre. Summing these forces the resultant will be
positive upward acting through its roll centre. This upward jacking force lifts or
“Jacks” the sprung mass upward when cornering.
31
Chapter 3
Analysis of the 2004 race car for design changes
The USQ 2004 racer car has been tested in the competition last year as well as
on couple occasions this year. After minor modifications on the car to overcome
the understeer effect and the uneven distribution of weight on the front and rear
pair of wheels the test result this year were good in terms of handling and
manoeuvrability. However, the overall performance of the car needs to be
improved in order to make it competitive.
The overall car design was very robust with many components over designed
and many afterthoughts chassis trusses and suspension brackets. Although very
reliable it proved to add some unnecessary weight therefore reducing the
chances to meet the weight criteria.
3.1. Analysis of 2004 car steering system
3.1.1. Steering system geometry
The steering system geometry used was 100% Ackermann geometry with a
steering angle of about 18 degrees and the steering box placed at a distance of
50 mm behind the front axle and just above the upper chassis rail. This position
was to low for a driver taller than 1.80 meters who had his/her shins right
against the steering mechanism. In a more serious impact this would cause leg
injuries.
32
3.1.2. Steering system mechanism
The steering mechanism used is shown in Figure 24 and consisted of a modified
rack and pinion gearing in a custom made steering box. This mechanism was a
good choice since the car is light and does not require power assistance, it is
cheap, takes up a very small amount of space and is very responsive. However,
the assembly had an amount of free play at the steering wheel above the design
limit set by the competition rules.
Figure 24 2004 Steering box
3.2. Analysis of 2004 car suspension system
3.2.1. Suspension system type
The suspension system for 2004 racer car was four wheel independent
suspension with double wishbone, activated by push rod. The suspension layout
was parallel arms with unequal lengths.
3.2.2. Suspension system components
3.2.2.1. Hub axle
The front hub/axle was designed to accommodate brake components and it was
machined from one piece of mild steel as seen in Figure 25. Analysing this
component with Finite Element software it proved to be over designed.
33
Figure 25 2004 Front hub axle
3.2.2.2 Uprights
The uprights were fabricated from mild steel. The front upright has an
incorporated 4.7 degrees of kingpin inclination. The design shown in Figure 26
allowed single shear top and bottom suspension mounting points, and that
induced bending in the lower wishbone spherical rod end that is under the
greatest load.
Figure 26 2004 Front and rear uprights
3.2.2.3 Control arms and suspension arm
All control arms or so called wishbones, and suspension arm as well as steering
tie rods were manufactured from circular tubing steel ERW, 19 mm diameter
34
and 2mm wall thickness. Adjustable spherical rod ends of different material and
different dimensions were used. This variety of rod ends did not provided
consistency in the design that makes it difficult when tuning the car.
3.2.2.4 Springs and dampers
The motorbike spring/shock assembly used consists of coil spring mounted over
oil filled adjustable shock absorber. The mounting position of the assembly was
almost horizontally due to packaging constrains but was not according to the
shocks specifications that require vertical mounting therefore reducing damper
performance and causing oil liking. Therefore the position of the spring/shock
should be carefully considered to comply with the shocks specifications and
avoid such incidents.
3.2.2.5 Mounting points
For mounting points location some extra rails has been welded on to the chassis
that added extra weight to the design. The brackets were fabricated from flat
mild steel with 5 mm thickness therefore the design proved to be robust but
heavy.
35
Chapter 4
Design constrains
4.1 Design constrains set by the Formula SAE rules
4.1.1 Wheelbase and vehicle configuration
The car must have a wheelbase of at least 1525 mm (60 inches).
The vehicle must have four wheels that are not in a straight line.
4.1.2 Vehicle track
The smaller track of the vehicle (front or rear) must be no less than 75% of the
larger track.
4.1.3 Wheels
The wheels of the car must be 203.8 (8.0 inches) or more in diameter.
Any wheel mounting system that uses a single retaining nut must incorporate a
device to retain the nut and the wheel in the event that the nut loosens.
4.1.4 Suspension
The car must be equipped with a fully operational suspension system with
shock absorbers, front and rear, with usable wheel travel of at least 50.8 mm (2
inches), 25.4 mm (1 inch) jounce and 25.4 (1 inch) redound, with driver seated
(2005 Formula SAE rules).
36
4.1.5 Steering
The steering system must affect at least two wheels and must have positive
steering stops placed either on the uprights or on the rack. This is to prevent the
steering linkages from locking up and the tyres from contacting suspension,
body or frame members during track events.
Allowable steering free play is limited to 7 degrees total measured at the
steering wheel. Rear wheel steering is permitted only if mechanical stops limit
the turn angle of the rear wheels to ± 3 degrees from straight ahead position.
The steering wheel must be mechanically connected to the front wheels.
4.1.6 Steering wheel
The steering wheel must have a continuous perimeter that is near circular or
near oval. The steering wheel must be attached to the column with a quick
disconnect that can be operated by the driver in the normal driving position
with gloves on (2005 Formula SAE rules)
The steering wheel must be attached to the column with a quick disconnect that
can be operated by the driver in the normal driving position with gloves on
(2005 Formula SAE rules)
4.1.7 Fasteners
All threaded fasteners utilised in the steering, breaking, safety harness and
suspension must meet or exceed, SAE Grade5, Metric Grade M 8.8 and/or
AN/MS specifications (2005 Formula SAE rules).
All critical bolt, nuts and other fasteners on the steering, breaking, safety
harness and suspension must be secured from loosening by use of positive
locking mechanisms (2005 Formula SAE rules).
37
All spherical rod ends on the steering or suspension must be in double shear or
captured by having a screw/bolt head or washer with an O.D. that is larger than
spherical bearing housing I.D. Adjustable tie-rod ends must be constrained with
a jam nut to prevent loosening (2005 Formula SAE rules).
4.2 Other design constrains
Apart from the design constrains set by the Formula SAE rules the steering
system and suspension design must consider the implied constrains for
materials and parts availability, weight, cost as well as packaging constrains.
Although all are equally important for evaluating the design in the competition,
many times compromises have to be made. In this case the judging criteria
should be addressed and the solution that will bring the most advantage to the
overall score of the competition to be selected.
38
Chapter 5
Steering system design
5.1. Steering system requirements
A steering system must offer sufficient precision for the driver to actually sense
what is happening at the front tyres contact patch as well as enough “feel” to
sense the approach to cornering limit of the front tyres. It must be structurally
stiff to avoid components deflections.
The steering must be fast enough so that the vehicle’s response to steering and
to steering correction to happen almost instantaneous and it must also have
some self returning action.
The feel, feedback and self returning action are function of the kingpin
inclination, scrub radius, castor angle and self aligning torque characteristics of
the front tyre.
5.2. Design of the steering system geometry
Although modern cars do not use 100% Ackerman since it ignores important
dynamic and compliant effects, the principle is sound for low speed
manoeuvres. The competition track set up allows only for low cornering speed.
In this case the tyres are at small slip angles therefore, 100% Ackerman is the
best option.
39
In consultation with the team, in our primary phase of the design we decided
the wheelbase and the track width. However, at the beginning of the second
semester a major decision was made to use for this year competition the
previous year chassis.
Since the geometry used last year proved to work well, the decision was made
to use for this year project same 100% Ackermann geometry.
5.2.1 Ackermann condition
For the Ackermann analysis the Ackermann condition is used to determine the
relationship between inner and outer wheel in a turn and the radius of turn.
General equation:
1
1
B
−
=
tan θo tan θi L
Where:
θ o= turn angle of the wheel on the outside of the turn
θ i= turn angle of the wheel on the inside of the turn
B= track width
L= wheel base
b= distance from rear axle to centre of mass
40
B
b
θo
CG
R
L
θi
θi
R1
θo
Figure 27 Ackermann condition
From the general equation we can calculate the turn angle of the wheel on the
outside of the turn for a given inside wheel angle as follows:
B=1800 mm
L=1320 mm
θ i=30˚
1
1
L
1
1320
=
+ =
+
= 2.465
tan θo tan θi B tan 30 1800
θo = 22.12°
The minimum radius of turn R can be determined from the geometry:
41
R1 =
B
L 1800 1320
+ =
+
= 3778mm = 3.7 m
tan θi 2 tan 30
2
R = R12 + b 2 = 3778 2 + 800 2 = 3862mm = 3.86m
Therefore the minimum radius of turn of the vehicle around its centre of gravity
for a maximum inside wheel turn of 30 degrees is about 4 meters.
5.2.2 Selection of the steering parameters
The initial decision of zero degree kingpin inclination had to be reconsidered
since the 56 mm of scrub radius resulted is large and will give an excessive
feedback to the driver. Therefore 4 degree kingpin inclination is to be build in
the front upright design that will result in an amount of scrub radius of 30mm
calculated for last year wheel offset. Since this amount is still grater than 10%
of the thread width (Heisler 1989), new wheels with less offset have been found
therefore the resulting scrub radius is about 20 mm that is the amount we aimed
for.
The amount of castor angle was set to 3.5 degree and is also build in the front
uprights. However, castor angle can be adjusted by adjustment of the upper
wishbone. This requires that one arm of the wishbone to be shortened while
lengthening the other arm by screwing in or out the adjustable spherical rod
ends. Another possible adjustment is to assemble the upright in an inclined
position on the hub axle but this is not a handy method of adjustment.
5.3. Selection of the steering mechanism
From all manual steering systems the more suitable is rack and pinion steering
for the following reasons:
42
-has a simple construction;
-
is cheap and readily available;
-
has a high mechanical efficiency;
-
has a reduced space requirement.
Since last year rack and pinion steering mechanism had an undesirable amount
of free play the decision was made to modify one of the two steering
mechanisms sourced by the team members as donations for the project.
The rack and pinion steering box selected is from a Honda Civic 1983 and has a
5 teeth pinion gear and a pitch on the rack of 4.5mm.
The steering box assembly have been modified by Bruce Llewellyn, one of the
team members. The rack has been shortened and the assembly was kept in the
original steering box. The input shaft is not in a central position therefore the
steering column will be connected to the input shaft through a universal joint.
Figure 28 Modified steering box assembly
5.4. Position of the steering mechanism
5.4.1 Position relative to the front axle
The steering box position in a horizontal plane is to remain at 50 mm behind the
front axle as seen in Figure 29.
43
Front axle
Steering arm
centre line
Steering box
50 mm
Upright
Tie rod
Rack housing
Figure 29 Top view diagram of steering system geometry
5.4.2 Position in a vertical plane
In a vertical plane, two placement possibilities were investigated. To place the
steering box at the bottom of the chassis just above the bottom chassis rails or
to place it above the actual position such as the steering column will be
horizontal. The first possibility would cause trouble in getting into the car when
the driver’s feet must pass first over the steering mechanism. Even worse
getting out of the car when the hell of the foot will be caught by the
mechanism. Therefore, this option is inconvenient leaving the only possibility
to place the steering box above the actual position.
For this location the steering assembly is at a higher position than the steering
arm even though the steering arm is attached to the upright above the centre of
the wheel. Therefore, the steering linkages had to be redesigned. The solution
was to use a rocker arm but this will result in a reversed movement of the tierod relative to the rack as seen in Figure 30.
44
Steering box
Steering arm
Tie rod
Left Upright
Rack housing
Rocker arm
Wheel centre
Figure 30 Front view diagram of steering system geometry
The problem can be overcome by reversing the position of the rack relative to
the pinion as seen in Figure 31.
Rack
Pinion
Rocker arm
Figure 31 Position of the pinion relative to the rack
Another problem encountered was that the pivot points of the rocker arm will
follow a circular path producing a displacement of the rack and pinion assembly
therefore the assembly has to have a small amount of rotational freedom. The
solution for this problem is to have a rather floating steering box attached to the
chassis upper rail seen in Figure 32 or in Appendix E.
45
Upper chassis rail
Floating steering
box
Figure 32 Mounting of the steering box
After the suspension components are assembled on the chassis and the steering
mechanism in place, the distance between lower rocker arm pivot point and
steering arm mounting point can be measured, hence the length of the tie rod
can be determined. The tie rod will have left and right threaded spherical rod
ends for adjustment of the link length as a method of adjustment of the bump
steer.
5.5 Bump steer geometry
In the design of the steering geometry, the bump steer and roll steer effect
should be taken into account. Bump steer results from the combination of wheel
toe in or toe out with wheel vertical travel while the roll steer is produced by
the combination of toe in/out and body roll. The suspension and steering links
should be placed such way to minimise the distortion of the steering geometry
with suspension movement. For this reason, to minimise the bump steer, the
steering tie rod should be parallel with the upper wishbone and to minimise roll
steer the upper wishbone inboard pivot points should be in the same vertical
plane with tie rod inboard pivot point.
46
5.6 Steering movement ratio
The rack and pinion mechanism is designed to transfer the circular input motion
of the pinion into linear output movement of the rack.
It was measured that for a full travel of the rack of 137 mm the pinion has to be
rotated 3 1 / 8 turns
Therefore for one turn, the rack travel will be:
xo =
137
= 43.84mm
3.125
Considering the pinion to make one revolution then the input steering
movement is:
xi = 2πR
Where, R = 155 mm is the radius of the steering wheel.
And the output rack movement is:
xo = 2πr = 43.84 ⇒ r =
43.84
= 6.97 = 7
2π
Then, the movement ratio can be calculated as input movement over output:
MR =
xi 2πR 155
=
=
= 22
xo 2πr
7
Therefore the movement ratio is 22:1
47
We needed to know the movement ratio in order to determine the output load
transmitted to the tie rods for a given input load.
For an effort of 20 N applied by each hand on the steering wheel and
considering no friction, the output load will be:
Fo = Fi xMR = 2 x 20 x 22 = 880 N
Therefore the load transmitted to the tie rods is 880 N.
5.7 Quick release mechanism
As a requirement of the design for the competition the steering wheel must be
present with a quick release mechanism. Following discussion with the team it
was decided to make use of the last year quick release mechanism. The
mechanism is simple and consists of a hexagonal socket with a spring loaded
plunger release.
48
Chapter 6
Suspension system design
6.1 Design approach
Choosing suspension geometries and components involves a wide range of
choices and compromises. An analysis of the tyre, chassis and road interaction
is required to decide the trade-offs that will result in an optimum configuration
for the type of vehicle and the nature of the race track for which the vehicle has
to perform.
The basic steps in designing a vehicle’s suspension are:
- selection of the suspension type to be employed;
- selection of the wheels;
- establish the vehicle’s dimensions – wheel base and track width(s);
- set up suspension parameters;
- model the suspension geometry;
- design components.
6.2 Suspension type and geometry selection
The starting point in designing the geometry of suspension system was to first
select the type and the geometry of the suspension. Double wishbone
independent suspension is the common option for racer cars because it is light
and can be designed with a large freedom of adjustment.
49
Two options were investigated for the geometry of the suspension: parallel arms
with unequal lengths layout used for last year design and unparallel arms with
unequal lengths. Although previous year design was a good choice, for this year
project the second option was selected. The unparallel arms will result in a
lower roll centre that will produce a bigger roll moment arm, hence more roll
for the sprung mass and less jacking force.
6.3 Wheel selection
Then a decision had to be made about the wheels to be used. One of the team
members investigated the availability and cost of wheels and the team decision
was that a 13 inches wheel with at least 20 mm offset is to be used.
6.4 Wheelbase, track width and pivot points location
The wheelbase is the distance between the front and rear axles and has to be
determined prior to chassis design. The advantages of a relatively long
wheelbase are increased straight line stability, reduced longitudinal load
transfer and more room to pack components in while the advantages of a
relatively short wheelbase is reduced overall weight and increased
manoeuvrability (Smith 1978).
The track width is the distance between a pair of wheels centre lines and is
determined by the lengths of the links. The advantages of wide track width are
reduced lateral load transfer for a given amount of centrifugal acceleration and
less camber change. The increase in the frontal area will represent a
disadvantage only for high speeds where the aerodynamics plays an important
role.
Therefore in making a selection one shall keep in mind that a race car with long
wheelbase and narrow track width will be very stable in a straight line at the
50
expenses of cornering power and manoeuvrability while a race car with short
wheelbase and wide tracks will be lass stable, will develop more cornering
power and be more manoeuvrable. In addition, a wider track width at the front
than at the rear will provide more stability in turning the car into corners
decreasing the tendency of the car to trip over itself on corner entry and more
resistance to diagonal load transfer.
Giving all the above considerations, the wheelbase agreed on was 1650 mm,
which is slightly shorter than last year’s design and a track width of 1370mm at
the front and 1280mm at the rear.
The pivot points location was decided initially on the drawings of the chassis
provided by Tony O’Neal who is designing the chassis. The chassis has been
manufactured by the beginning of second semester but it was thought that due
to time and cost constrains a decision have to be made in order to ensure the
completion of the project. Therefore, the team decided to use for this year
application the previous year chassis because had already components that can
be used like fuel tank, fire wall, brake pedals, etc which do not require time to
manufacture and assemble.
This had been a critical decision in terms of suspension design that had to be
entirely reconsidered. The wheelbase is now 1800mm while but the track width
is not affected and so the link lengths can be calculated.
6.5 Geometry parameters selection
Camber is one of the suspension parameters that should be considered. Negative
camber will produce a better contact patch shape, producing additional lateral
force without a large increase in slip angle and tyre heating. A small amount of
negative camber is desired such that on corners the outside wheel does not go
into an excessive negative camber angle.
51
Since camber is easily adjustable by the lengths of the control arms, an initial
three degrees static negative camber angle is to be trial on the test track. The
goal is to achieve the minimum change in camber over the range of suspension
travel.
The change in camber with 10 mm bump/drop and 1 and 3 degrees of roll on the
final suspension geometry has been modelled in AutoCAD as can be seen in
Appendix F.
Another important suspension parameter is the roll centre. Both roll centre and
camber angle have been defined in 2.4.2. Roll centre. A position of the roll
centre has been also modelled with AutoCAD software and the result as seen in
Appendix F is 70 mm below the ground.
Camber change
Track width change
10 mm bump
0.48 deg.
1.35 mm
1 deg. roll
0.42 deg
2.02 mm
3 deg. roll
2.25 deg
15.25 mm
6.6 Suspension components design
6.6.1 Hub axle
Since this year identical break components have been sourced, the decision was
to use the same hub axle because it has been designed to accommodate those
particular brake components. However, the hub was too heavy and a Finite
Element Analysis showed that the component was over designed.
After removing some of the material in not so critical areas and reducing the
shaft diameter from 30 mm to 20 mm an estimated reduction of 1.2 Kg per
component weight can be achieved. However, the reduction in shaft diameter
had to be checked for the stress concentration in the shoulder area of the shaft.
Consequently, a second analysis was performed and the report is attached in
52
Appendix B. The detail drawing of the component showing the dimensions to
be modified is attached in Appendix D.
6.6.2 Uprights
The 2004 uprights design have been analysed and thorough consideration for
the competition rules that allows for spherical rod ends in single shear captured
by an appropriate screw/bolt had been given. However, the judges did criticise
this practice and strongly encouraged for the double shear design of the
spherical rod ends pivot points.
Considering this and the fact that the modified hub axle shaft diameter is
smaller the decision was to entirely redesign the uprights.
6.6.2.1 Method of fabrication
In order to decide the method of fabrication of the components, three options
were investigated.
Option 1 – Machine the component from one piece of material.
This option can result in a compact design with intricate shape if necessary and
allows the use of a wide range of materials like aluminium alloys which will
result in a much lighter component.
However, later modifications of the design will not be possible therefore the
design must be from the beginning very precise. Apart from that it requires
skilled operator and together with the cost of the material will result in a
relatively high total cost of the component.
Option 2 - Fabricate the component by casting
This method of fabrication has same advantages as option one. In addition, the
method requires some machining but the amount of metal to be removed is
minim. Also the method requires the design of special tools like dies as well as
53
special facilities for casting process. Although the initial cost of the dies is
high, it is divided by the number of components produced so, for a thousand
units production the cost per unit will be relatively low. Once again, the design
dimensions must be accurate.
Option 3 – Fabricate the component by welding parts together
The advantage of this method is that the materials are inexpensive and available
in the workshop shelves and does not require skilled labour to fabricate the
component. It is also possible to modify the design at a later stage if necessary.
This option will result in a relatively heavier component compared with option
one but with a lower total cost.
The decision was to compromise on weight of the component to gain in cost and
in the advantage of easily modify and adjust the upright design in the case of
other components design changes. Hence, the selected method for fabrication of
the uprights was by welding.
6.6.2.2 Material selection
The criteria used in the material selection for manufacture of the uprights was:
1. the material have to be easy to be machined, cut and welded;
2. have to be relatively light for its strength;
3. have to be relatively inexpensive and available.
After discussion with the USQ workshop it was found that only mild steel fitted
all the criteria and that a wide range of dimensions and cross sections are
available.
54
6.6.2.3 Design concepts
Design concept 1
The first general design concept of the uprights consisted of a circular section
with machined inside diameters to suit the wheel bearings. Two parts of “C”
channel with appropriate manufactured end configuration for the wishbones
assembly are to be welded on top and bottom of the circular part. The steering
arm, and brake calliper mounting bracket is then welded on the upright. This
concept is illustrated in Figure 33. The front upright provides a zero kingpin
inclination and an adjustable zero or three degrees caster.
Figure 33 Upright design concept 1
Although, the front and rear upright are different the same method of
fabrication and materials are to be used for both components.
55
Design concept 2
The second design concept uses the same circular section for the bearings
housing but has a RHS square section welded on the top and bottom. A
different end configuration for the wishbone pivot points is to be welded on the
other ends of this section. This configuration allows for a kingpin inclination
and caster to be build in. This design is illustrated in Figure 34.
Final design
Both designs have a manufacture medium to low degree of difficulty since they
uses simple parts. The cost of fabrication is expected to be near the same.
However using an open section like the “C” channel used in the first design has
the disadvantage of less torsional stiffness than a closed section. The addition
of ribs to reinforce the structure will add more parts into the component hence
increasing the weight and complexity without achieving same degree of
stiffness expected from a closed section. Moreover the first design does not
allow for later modification of the wishbones pivot points locations, while for
the second design the brackets can be easily removed and welded back in a
different position. This provision for easy adjustment of the pivot points it
eliminates the necessity to remanufacture the whole component in the
eventuality of later changes in geometry of the suspension.
Therefore, the second design concept illustrated in Figure 34 has been selected.
The detailed design drawings of both front and rear uprights are attached in
Appendix D.
56
Figure 34 2005 Front and rear final design
6.6.3 Control arms (wishbones) and suspension arm
6.6.3.1 Material selection
In selecting the material for the wishbones same criteria had to be considered as
for the uprights material selection.
ERW circular steel tube appeared to be a good choice and after discussion with
the USQ workshop staff it was found that is low-priced and the common sizes
can be delivered in just a week time therefore, the material matched up the
selection criteria.
Hence, the material selected was ERW circular steel tube with an OD of 19 mm
and thickness of 1.6 mm that will allow an overall links weight reduction of
about 1.5 Kg comparing with last year design.
The suspension has been designed in metric units and the sizes chosen for the
spherical rod ends were M10 except for the lower wishbones outboard ends for
which M12 spherical bearings were to be used. That is because the lower pivot
points on the uprights are under greatest load.
57
However, for the rod ends we have been offered sponsorship from Linear
Bearings Pty Ltd for industrial grade and imperial units equivalent with the
metric ones initially selected. Although some minor modifications had to be
made to the uprights pivot points due to small differences in dimensions, the
rod ends offered were suitable for our application in terms of strength and cost.
Therefore the offer has been gratefully accepted.
The spherical rod ends and spherical bearings specifications are as follows:
Type
Bore and thread
Head diameter
Thread length
UNF
(inch)
(inch)
3/8 x 3/8
0.406
1.250
3/8 x 3/8
0.406
1.250
INDUSTRIAL ROD ENDS
AM6GP
(steel on steel)
AML6GP
(steel on steel)
STAINLESS STEEL SPHERICAL PLAIN BEARINGS
Type
Bore diameter
Outside diameter
Ball width
ABWT8
1/2
1.000
.625
6.6.3.2 Design concept
Once the track width was known, the lengths between pivot points could be
calculated. Thus, taking in consideration distances between pivot points on the
chassis and the dimensions of the rod ends as well as the geometric
configuration of each component, the exact lengths of the wishbones was
establish.
Front suspension
For the front suspension the upper wishbone design consists of two members
pin jointed for easy adjustment as seen in Figure 35. The links have a boss with
a threaded hole to match the spherical rod ends welded at each end.
58
Figure 35 Upper wishbone - front suspension
The lower wishbone consists also of two links and as I mention before has
spherical bearings at the outboard ends. For this spherical bearing a casing had
to be designed. The links are welded on to this casing therefore the component
is rigid with no possibility of adjustment. On the casing are also welded
brackets for the suspension arm pivot point. The design is illustrated in Figure
36.
Figure 36 Lower wishbone - front suspension
Rear suspension
The rear suspension, have to accommodate a toe control rod therefore provision
for the outboard pivot point was included in the rear upright design. For this
reason the design of the upper rear wishbone is different than for the upper
front as can be seen in Figure 37.
However, the lower rear wishbone is similar to the lower front one as seen in
Figure 36.
59
Figure 37 Upper wishbone - rear suspension
Suspension arm
The suspension arm is a single rod with two spherical rod ends fitted in a
welded boss.
At this stage, the position of the shock/spring assembly and rocker arm is
known with approximation, hence the exact dimension of this component can’t
be yet calculated. Once the spring/shock assembly is mounted on the chassis
and all other suspension components are in place, an exact measure between the
rocker arm pivot point and the outboard pivot point will establish the length of
this component.
6.6.4 Mounting points
A decision had to be made if the brackets on the last year chassis are to be kept
or removed.
Because last year design had compromise on weight to guarantee the reliability,
all the brackets were robust and heavy. Following discussions with the team, it
was decided that is worth the trouble to remove and replace them with lighter
ones and better design.
60
It was suggested that for the lower mounting points to make use of the chassis
bottom rail as seen in Figure 38. This idea has been considered in the design
since it has the benefit of reducing the amount of brackets.
For the upper mounting points the brackets are to be welded in a vertical plane
to allow for more movement freedom of the control arms. The design will also
allow for two mounting positions as seen in Figure 38 for adjustment of the
inclination of upper wishbone relative to the lower one.
Chassis rail
Lower mounting points
Upper mounting points
Figure 38 Mounting points
6.6.5 Springs, shock absorbers and anti-roll bars
6.6.5.1 Position of the spring and shock absorbers
It is a common practice to have the springs mounted over the shocks because it
minimises space requirements. For the purpose of this project, this will be
regarded as spring/shock assembly.
The chassis roll is restricted by the compression of the springs hence the
physical placement of the suspension springs determines how much roll
resistance they will offer.
61
Options for the location of spring/shock assembly
For selection of the spring/shock assembly location there are multiple options
depending on the application and the packaging constrains. However there are
two main possibilities: to mount the spring/shock assembly inboard (within the
chassis) or outboard (outside the chassis).
For the inboard mounting, the assembly is at some distance for the wheel centre
line and that requires a link and a rocker arm. The link, called suspension arm,
can be either a pull rod if will extend the spring while the wheel goes over a
bump or the opposite, a push rod if the spring will be compressed.
Another possibility is outboard mounting when the upper spring/shock
assembly pivot is attached to the main chassis structure and the lower pivot is
attached to either the upright or the lower wishbone.
Position of the spring/shock assembly
Outboard mounting for front spring/shock assembly is not a viable option since
between the upper and lower wishbones is going to be the steering tie rod.
Hence, the only choice was inboard mounting of the assembly that will be
actuated by a push rod.
After a thorough examination of the last year chassis and all the components
assembled on it, and discussion with the team, the conclusion drown was that at
the front between the upper and lower chassis rails is the most appropriate
location for the spring/shock assembly as seen in Figure 39. While the location
will not permit for a vertical position of the shocks, it will allow for more room
inside the front chassis to better position of the steering and breaking
components and make more space for the driver legs.
62
Front hoop
Rocker arm
Upper chassis rail
Spring/shock
assembly
Lower chassis rail
Figure 39 Spring/shock position
At the rear again an outboard mounting position of the spring/shock assembly is
not an option since the space it is been taken by the rear axle CV joints. Hence
the rear spring/shock assembly will be also attached between the upper and
lower chassis rails.
6.6.5.2 Spring rates and wheel rates
The relationship between wheel rate and spring rate is a function of motion
ratio between wheel travel and spring axis travel and the formula is
(Smith1978):
WR =
SR
MR 2
where: WR= wheel rate
SR= spring rate
MR= motion ratio
For the given wheel travel of 50.8mm (2 inches) we can calculate the spring
travel for a given motion ratio.
63
MR =
WT
WT
⇒ ST =
ST
MR
where: WT= wheel travel
ST= spring travel
MR= motion ratio
MR
1.3
1.4
1.5
1.6
1.7
1.8
1.9
2
WT(mm)
25.4
25.4
25.4
25.4
25.4
25.4
25.4
25.4
ST(mm)
WT(mm)
19.53846
18.14286
16.93333
15.875
14.94118
14.11111
13.36842
12.7
ST(mm)
50.8
50.8
50.8
50.8
50.8
50.8
50.8
50.8
39.07692
36.28571
33.86667
31.75
29.88235
28.22222
26.73684
25.4
Table 1 Motion ratio
Function of the free length of the spring and how much it is permitted to travel
we can choose the motion ratio. As seen in the Table 1 as the motion ratio
increases we have less spring travel.
The springs to be used have the following characteristics:
Front
Rear suspension
suspension
Free length (mm)
165
125
400
450
Coil diameter (mm)
Spring rate (lb/inch)
Spring rate (N/mm)
80.4
Table 2 Springs characteristics
64
The springs can accommodate a large amount of trave therefore a small motion
ratio can be selected.
Then, the wheel rates can be calculated as follows:
REAR
SR
MR
WR=SR/MR^2
FRONT
80.4
1.3
1.4
1.5
47.57 41.02 35.73
SR
MR
71.4
1.3
1.4
1.5
WR=SR/MR^2 42.24852 36.42857 31.73333
Table 3 Wheel rates
Optimum wheel rates vary with gross vehicle weight, power to weight ratio, tire
width, aerodynamic down force generation and track characteristics (Smith
1978).
6.6.5.3 Shock absorbers
In selecting shock absorbers the length and mounting of the shocks must have
provision for adequate suspension travel. Hence, the shock shaft travel must be
more than 50.8 mm that is the maximum wheel travel. It is also better to choose
shocks with adjustable bump and rebound for a good damping control.
In consultation with the team the decision was made to buy a new pair of shock
absorbers for the rear suspension and for the front suspension to use a pair of
shocks from last year.
The characteristics of the shocks are as shown in Table 4.
Type
Length eye to
Front
Rear
Single piston double
Oil filled – gas
acting-oil filled
reservoir
265 mm
210 mm
Rebound only
Both rebound/bump
eye(mm)
Adjustability
Table 4 Shock absorbers characteristics
65
6.6.5.4 Anti roll bars
While the suspension springs determine the vehicle’s ride rate and roll
resistance, the anti roll bar will add torsional resistance to the roll resistance of
the springs to determine the total roll resistance of the vehicle. Hence, the anti
roll bars are used to limit body roll of a vehicle.
A thorough investigation of anti roll bars is necessary in order to understand
and quantify the benefits of it to the suspension system. However, due to time
constrains, the anti roll bars are not considered for this project.
66
Chapter 7
Steering and suspension alignment
7.1 Equipment
The equipment needed to align suspension is simple and consists of:
machinist’s rule;
measuring tape;
trammel pins;
spirit level with protractor;
carpenter’s level;
floor shims of 500 mm square and 3 mm thickness;
two accurate scales;
a piece of straight edge rigid tubing long enough to extend across the tops of
both front and rear wheels;
a ball of strong string;
custom made simple devices to measure the caster and camber.
7.2 Procedures for measuring and adjusting
suspension
7.2.1 Static alignment
The firs step is static alignment and it is performed to ensure that the track,
wheelbase, camber, castor and kingpin inclination are equal in both sides. This
can be done by taking all the suspension links out of the car and assemble them
to the designed dimensions making sure that the lengths of the components on
the left side are exactly the same with the ones on the right side of the car. The
exact lengths of the links can be easily determined using the trammel pins and a
67
measuring tape. Also make sure that the chassis pivot point locations are at the
same distance to the vehicle centreline and same longitudinal distance to the
bulkhead.
7.2.2 Establishing a level surface
To establish a level surface the tyres must be placed on shims after checking
that they are the same diameter left and right. Then a rigid straight edge must
be placed across the tops of each pair of tyres normal to the vehicle’s centre
line. With a carpenter’s level placed on the straight edge the shims can now be
added or removed until the level is zero.
7.2.3 Adjusting the springs
To achieve equal ride height on the right and left side of the car, the distance
between upper and lower spring attachments must be equal in both sides.
Therefore, measure the distance from the centre of the lower mounting pivot
point to the lock nut and adjust the lock nut on the shock absorbers such that
this distance becomes equal on both sides. This adjustment works providing
that the left and right springs are heaving the same spring loaded height.
7.2.4 Measuring and adjusting the ride height
The adjustment of the ride height must be done with half full fuel tank and the
driver in.
The measurements must be taken to a string stretched across the shims, that is
the established level area and not to the ground. Adjust again the left and right
lock nuts on the shocks in equal increments until reach the desired ride height.
68
7.2.5 Measuring and adjusting castor
For castor measurement a simple device as in Figure 40 can be made that is to
be placed against the upright pivot points or any machined surface that will
give you a surface normal to the pivot point axes. A spirit level laid across this
surface will give a direct measurement of the caster.
Figure 40 Castor measuring device
The device can be made out of RHS 30x30 with one pin welded at the bottom
and another pin the same length welded on a sleeve that is fixed in position by a
screw.
It is recommended to adjust the castor only to get it even in both sides of the
car. Further adjustment will affect the camber and toe in of the wheel.
The camber can be adjusted on the upper wishbone by lengthening one arm and
shortening the other .
7.2.6 Measuring and adjusting camber
Same device made to measure the caster and same procedure can be used to
measure caster.
The device can be placed against the wheel making sure that it is not against a
bent portion of the wheel rim. The spirit level with protractor placed on the
device will give the camber angle.
69
Adjustment of camber is it done by varying the lengths of the upper and lower
wishbones relative to each other.
7.2.7 Measuring and adjusting toe
To measure the toe of the wheel it is necessary to construct a rectangle with
sides parallel and equidistant to the centre line. Therefore the reference centre
line must be first established.
To find the centre line, carefully measure between front lower wishbones pivot
points on the chassis and mark the centre on the lower cross member. Repeat
the procedure at the rear. The centre line is then obtained by extending a tight
string beneath the car exactly under the two marked points.
To set up the lines parallel to the reference centre line a pair of square tube
(like arms) must be clamped on the front and rear chassis. The tube will have an
adjustable sleeve on which a pin is welded as seen in Figure 41. Simply tie the
string on the pin and stretch it over to the other arm’s pin.
Figure 41 Arm used to measure toe
The lateral distance from the centre line should be great enough to allow for
insertion of a camber gauge without disturbing the set up.
To determine the toe, use a machinist’s rule to measure from the reference line
to a machined surface on the wheel rim as close to the outside diameter of the
rim as possible.
The actual measurement of toe is illustrated in Figure 42.
70
Figure 42 Toe adjustment
To adjust toe modify the lengths of the tie rods making sure that same number
of rod end turn is applied in both sides.
7.2.8 Bump steer
An easy way to measure the bump steer is to use the reference line constructed
before, swing the wheels and measure and record the change in toe against the
reference strings.
After the change in toe for a given vertical wheel travel is determined it is
necessary to reduce that change to preferably zero. This can be again achieved
by changing the length of the tie rod but the static settings will be affected.
Hence the toe change is better adjusted by changing the relative height of the
inboard and outboard tie rod ends.
7.2.9 Recording data
After adjusting bump steer it is good to check the static alignment again and
record all the distances, link lengths and set up parameters in the car’s log
book.
71
Convert a turn of rod end in a linear measure so that it is known by how much
length a link is shortened or lengthened for each turn of the rod end. While
making adjustments, record the number of turns and effect of it on camber,
caster toe-in, toe out so that one can come easily back to initial settings. Also
record the installed height of the spring perch and the effect of one turn of
spring perch adjustment for each side of the car.
72
Chapter 8
Conclusions
8.1 Achievement of objectives
The project have been both challenging and rewarding. It required the
knowledge gathered in many of the subjects pertaining to engineering studies
and offered valuable practice in team working environment as well as good
professional practice.
Although the topic covered two large areas of racing car design, all the tasks set
up for this project have been completed in the available time.
At present, all the components have been manufactured, and the implementation
of the two systems in the overall design will be soon finalised. The design
complies with the SAE-A rules.
A complete test of all the components is planned when the vehicle’s
construction is completed.
Recommendations
An estimated overall weight reduction of 6 kg for both systems has been
achieved. However, as cost constrains permits, it is recommended that lighter
materials and methods of fabrication to be used in order to further minimise the
weight of the component.
73
It is recommended to investigate and quantify the benefits of anti roll bars in
suspension design and how these will improve the handling and
manoeuvrability characteristics of the vehicle.
Although both systems have adjustments included in design, a even higher
degree of adjustability can be achieved e.g. by use of spacers (shims) for the
suspension pivot points to easily change geometry parameters like roll centre,
camber, toe.
In modelling the suspension, the use of a computer software will be a great
benefit since will allow a more rapid and accurate study of suspension design
and settings.
74
References
Heisler, H.(1989), Advanced Vehicle Technology , Arnold, 338 Euston Road,
London NW1 3BH
Smith, C. (2004), Racing Chassis and Suspension Design , society of
Automotive Engineers, Warrendale, PA
Smith, C. (1978), Tune to Win: The Art and Science of Race Car Development
and Tuning , Aero Publishers, Inc. 329 West Aviation Road, Fallbrook, CA
29028
Smith, C. (1975), Prepare to Win: The Nuts and Bolts Guide to Professional
Race Car Preparation , Aero Publishers, Inc. 329 West Aviation Road,
Fallbrook, CA 29028
Fenton, J. (1980), Vehicle Body Layout and Analysis , Mechanical Engineering
Publications Ltd. London
Vehicle Dynamics Terminology- SAEJ670, Revise 07-1976
2005 Formula SAE Rules
75
Bibliography
Genta, G. (1997), Motor Vehicle Dynamics: Modelling and Simulation , World
Scientific Publishing Co. Pte. Ltd.
Matschinski, W. (2000), Road Vehicle Suspension , Professional Engineering
Publishing Ltd. London
Dixon, C.J. (1996), Tires, Suspension and Handling , Society of Automotive
Engineers, Inc. Warrendale, PA
Haney, P. (2003), The Racing and High-Performane Tire , TV MOTORSPORTS
and Society of Automotive Engineers
Heisler, H. (1999), Vehicle and Engine Technology , Second Edition, Arnold,
338 Euston Road, London NWI 3BH
Smith, C. (1984), Engineer to Win: The essential Guide to Racing Car Materials
Technology, MBI Publishing Company
76
Appendix A
Project Specification
77
78
Appendix B
Finite Element Report For Hub Axle
79
Job name: HUB AXLE ANALYSIS
Job number: 1-2005 Steering System and Suspension Project
Analyst: Cristina Popa (w0018250)
________________________________________________________________
1. Problem description
Hub axle is one of the components of the front stub/axle assembly of the USQ
2005 SAE racer car.
The hub axle component is fixed on the wheel with four nuts and bolts.
Therefore, the loads on the tires are transferred to the hub through the bolts.
The shaft part carries two bearings that are mounted in the upright bearing
housing.
Figure 43 Front Hub axle
2. General approach
2.1 Analysis type: 3D Structural Analysis
2.2 Package used : ANSYS 7 on Solaris
2.3 Element type used
The element type used was Solid – Tet 10 node 187
2.4 Material properties
The hub was fabricated from mild steel with following material properties:
80
Modulus of elasticity
200 GPa
Tensile strength
455 MPa
Yield strength
250 MPa
Poisson’s ratio
0.3
2.5 Basic model
A solid model of the component was created in ProEnginer and imported in
ANSYS for analysis.
Units used for analysis are N, mm, MPa.
2.6 Meshing the model
For meshing the model I have used the free mesh with a tetrahedral shape as can be seen
in Figure 44
Figure 44 Hub mesh
2.7 Constrains and loads
The model was constrained with all DOF’s on 66 nodes on the surface of the
shaft were the location of the middle section of the bearings was assumed to be.
81
The maximum accelerations are (Fenton 1980):
- ± 3g vertical (hitting a bump);
- ± 1g lateral (cornering);
- ± 1g longitudinal (breaking/accelerating);
Multiplying this accelerations with a factor of safety of 1.5 the resulting design
loads for the wheel are:
-4500 N in vertical direction applied at the centre of the wheel;
-1500 N in lateral direction applied at the centre of tyre contact patch;
-1500 N in longitudinal direction applied also at the centre of the tyre contact
patch.
The loads are transmitted to the hub through the bolts that holds the hub on the
wheel. Therefore the loads were applied on the surface of the hub holes that
match with the bolts. The number of selected nodes attached to these surfaces
were 1184 hence the applied loads were divided by this number to give the
appropriate force per node.
The applied constrains and loads can be seen in Figure 45.
Figure 45 Hub loading
82
3. Solution
3.1 ANSYS analysis solution
The element solution was obtained by plotting stresses using von Misses theory
of failure.
The plot and the result can be seen in Figure 46.
Figure 46 Hub analysis result
83
3.2 Analytical solution
25
100
Fx=4500 N
Fy=1500 N
Fz=1500 N
y
x
38.
74
z
Vertical forces
Horizontal forces
4500 N
1500 N
1500 N
Vx
2250 N
Vy
750 N
1500 N
4500 N
Mx
My=Mh
171 000 MPa
173250 MPa
55 500 MPa
57 750 MPa
84
D = 20mm; c = 10mm
A=
I=
πD 2
4
πD 4
64
=
=
πx 20 2
4
πx 20 4
64
= 314.16mm 2
= 7853.98mm 4
σx = ±
P Myc Mzc
57750 x10
±
±
= 0+
+ 0 = 73.53MPa
A
I
I
7853.98
σz = ±
P Mxc Myc
1500 173250 x10
±
±
=
+
+ 0 = 225.3634 MPa
A
I
I
314.16
7853.98
σ x +σ z
σ max =
2
+
(σ x − σ z )2
+ τ xz =
2
2
73.53 + 225.3634
+
2
(73.53 − 225.3634)2
2
+0 =
= 149.4467 + 107.3624 = 256.8091MPa = σ a
σ min =
σ x +σ z
2
−
(σ x − σ z )2
2
+ τ xz = 149.4467 − 107.3624 = 42.0843MPa = σ b
2
Maximum distortion energy criterion also known as von Misses criterion states
that the component is safe as long as:
σ a2 − σ a σ b + σ b2 < σ y2
σ a , σ b = principal stresses.
Hence,
256.8091 2 -256.8091x42.0843+42.0843 2 =52914.37094<65500
238,567<250 MPa = σy for mild steel
85
4. Conclusions
The maximum stress occurred around the area where the shaft is protruded out the hub
as expected.
The value obtained with ANSYS analysis for maximum stress is 288.641 MPa that is
above the yield strength of the material with about 40 MPa.
The conclusion based on von Misses criterion is that the component is not safe.
However the loading case considered all maximum loads occurring at the same time
while in reality this is not likely to happen. On the other hand, the loading case was
simplified by considering the forces acting directly through the bolts of the wheel while
this is not the case.
The theoretical value of 239 MPa obtained is below the yield strength of the material
but again the loading case was simplified.
5. Recommendations
Another analysis should be carried with a radius included on the shoulder where the
maximum stresses occurred, refining the mesh in the area to get more accurate results in
the stress concentration zone. The geometry of the component should be also simplified
to reduce the solution time and disk space required for the solution.
The loading case should be reconsidered hence, analysis and appropriate calculation
should be performed and once again the results compared with the yield strength of the
material. I believe that values up to 15 MPa above the yield strength should be
acceptable since, like I said before, it is unlikely that all maximum loads to happen on
the same time.
If the results will not confirm acceptable maximum stresses values, then the component
should be designed with a bigger diameter closed to the shoulder to ensure that failure
does not occur.
86
Appendix C
Finite Element Analysis for Front Upright
87
Job name: UPRIGHT ANALYSIS
Job number: 2- 2005 Steering System and Suspension Project
Analyst: Cristina Popa (w0018250)
1. Problem description
The upright is a component of front stub/axle assembly of the USQ 2005 SAE
racer car. It consists of a bearing housing and two attached protrusions as seen
in Figure 47 on which various brackets that holds the suspension components
are welded.
Figure 47 Front upright
2. General approach
2.1 Analysis type
The analysis performed on the component was a 3D Structural Analysis
2.2 Package used
The software use was ANSYS 7 on Solaris
88
2.3 Element type used
The element type used was Solid 10 node (187) tetrahedral
2.4 Material properties
The upright was fabricated from mild steel having the following material
properties:
Modulus of elasticity
200 GPa
Tensile strength
455 MPa
Yield strength
250 MPa
Poisson’s ratio
0.3
2.5 Basic model
The upright is designed to support suspension components, steering arm and
brake components.
The forces acting on the tyre contact patch as well as the vertical force acting at
the centre of the wheel are transferred to the upright pivot points and to the
brake mounting points. The force acting on the steering arm is the output
steering rack load transmitted through the tie rods.
The approach used was to simplify the geometry to minimise the number of
elements used, hence the solution time and disk space required, and perform an
analysis for each of the loading cases.
Units used for the analysis are: N, mm, MPa.
89
3. Analysis of suspension pivot points
3.1 Meshing the model
A simplified model containing only the basic structure and the brackets for
suspension pivot points was created in ProEngineer and imported in ANSYS.
The model was free meshed using tetrahedral elements as seen in Figure 48
Figure 48 Upright mesh
3.2 Appling constrains and forces
The model was constrained on the surfaces that mate with the bearings. Only 58
nodes were selected on a centre line of each surface. The nodes were
constrained for all degrees of freedom.
In order to calculate the forces to be applied on the upper and lower pivot
points, first the forces that acts on wheel must be determined and then the
moments about the wheel centre.
90
Wheel centre line
U
Fv
h
y
x
265 mm
265
mm
L
z
Tyre contact patch
Fc
Fb/a
Figure 49 Loads on the upright
The maximum accelerations are (Fenton 1980):
- ± 3g vertical (hitting a bump);
- ± 1g lateral (cornering);
- ± 1g longitudinal (breaking/accelerating);
Multiplying the accelerations with a factor of safety of 1.5 the resulting design
loads for the wheel are:
4500 N= F v in vertical direction applied at the centre of the wheel;
1500 N= F c in lateral direction applied at the centre of tyre contact patch;
1500 N= F b/a in longitudinal direction applied also at the centre of the tyre
contact patch.
Moments about the centre of the wheel are:
M O1 =M O2 = F c x 265 = F b/a x 265 = 1500x265 = 397500 Nmm = 397.5 Nm
Hence, forces at “U” are:
F xu = F bu = M O1 /h/2 = 397500/128 = 3105.5 N
F yu = F cu = M O2 /h/2 = 3105.5 N
F zu = F vu = 0 N
91
And forces at “L” are:
F xl = F bl = -3105.5 N
F yl = F cl = -3105.5 N
F zl = F vl = 4500 N
The area that defines the holes on the upper and lower bracket was selected and
the forces were applied on the nodes attached to these areas.
3.3 Solution
The element solution using von Misses criterion is illustrated in Figure 50. and
Figure 51
Figure 50 Element solution for pivot points loading case-rear view
92
Figure 51 Element solution for pivot points loading case - front view
3.4 Conclusions
The element solution obtained for maximum stresses it is 657.642 MPa. As seen
in the above pictures, the stresses on the component are in general below the
yield limit of the material. However, on the corners, where the brackets are
attached to the main structure, high stress concentrations occurs which means
that this is a critical area.
One reason for such high stresses is that the model does not take into account
the fact that the welds will add material such that there are not straight edges
and sharp corners. Moreover, the welds will add strength to the structure.
Another reason has to do with the loads applied that are the maximum of all
loads at the same time. In reality this is unlikely to happen.
93
3.5 Recommendations
The model can be improved by modelling the welds. For the welds another
element type should be assigned with different material properties. Also
refining the mesh in critical areas should be considered.
If the result is not within safe limits it means that the welds alone will not fix
the problem hence, the component must be reinforced with some extra material.
A flat plate with a 3 mm thickness should be welded at the back of the bracket
with half of the length on the bracket and half on the upright main structure.
4. Analysis of brake calliper mounting points
4.1 Meshing the model
A simplified model containing only the basic structure and the brackets for the
brake calliper mounting points was created in ProEngineer and imported in
ANSYS.
The model was free meshed using tetrahedral elements.
4.2 Applying constrains and forces
The model was constrained as for the previous model for all degrees of freedom
on the nodes that represent the centre line of the bearing mating surface.
Since there’s two mounting points for the brake calliper, an average distance
between this points and the centre of the wheel was considered in order to
calculate the braking force.
Hence,
F = M O2 /45 = 397500/45 = 8833.3 N
94
The force was applied on the nodes attached to the brackets holes surface.
The mesh, constrains and applied force can be seen in Figure 52.
Figure 52 Analysis of brake calliper mounting points- mesh, constrains and loads
4.3 Solution
The result of the element solution plotted for von Misses stresses is 1944 MPa.
This high stress occurs on few elements that are at the mating face of the
bracket with the upright body, in the closest point to the applied loads seen in
Figure 53.
95
Figure 53 Solution for brake calliper mounting points
4.4 Conclusions
Except for few elements that are around the upper part of the bracket, the body
of the upright does not show stresses above 216 MPa. However, a high stress
concentration it is sown at the corner where the bracket is attached to the
upright. Although it was expected and it appears in just a few elements, the
value is quite high.
As for the previous case, the model did not considered the welds of the bracket
to the upright. Usually the welds help increase the strength in sharp corners
joints by adding material which, many time will have better properties than the
material of the components to be welded.
4.5 Recommendations
Another analysis should be performed on a model that includes the welds.
It is also recommended to refine the mesh in critical area as well as on the area on the upright around the
bracket.
96
If the result does not achieve an acceptable decrease in the value of stress then,
the component should be redesigned in terms of the geometry of the bracket,
thickness of it as well as the thickness of the material of the upper part of the
upright.
5. Analysis of steering arm
5.1 Meshing the model
The solid model created in ProEngineer features the main structure and the
steering arm brackets.
As before, the model was imported in ANSYS and meshed with a free coarse
mesh using tetrahedral elements. The mesh was then refined on the areas of the
brackets.
5.2 Applying constrains and lads
The same constrains on the model has been applied as in previous analysis.
The force from the steering shaft is transmitted through the tie rod to steering
arm that is attached to the upright. Therefore the load was applied on the nodes
attached to the areas of the holes on the steering arm brackets.
The force applied was 880 N as calculated in 5.6 Steering movement ratio, on
“y” direction.
5.3 Solution
The plot and the result of the element solution for von Misses stresses is shown
in Figure 54.
97
Figure 54 Steering arm analysis solution
5. 4 Conclusions
The maximum stress obtain is 240.221 MPa that is below 250 MPa, the yield
value for the material. Hence the brackets on the component are safe.
6. Final Conclusions and recommendations
The simplified model used in all analyses did not included welds that would
have reduced the level of stress concentrated in straight and sharp joins.
The results are as follows:
Analysis
Max. stress (MPa)
1.
Suspension pivot points
657.642
2.
Brake calliper mounting brackets
1944
3.
Steering arm
240.221
98
The analysis of the suspension brackets showed stress concentration above the
limit due to the geometry of the component that presents sharp corners.
Therefore the geometry should be improved by modelling the welds, and
another analysis carried out. However, if maximum stresses will exceed the
yield strength of the material then more material should be added by welding
3mm flat to reinforce the brackets on the upright.
The analysis of the brackets for the brake calliper showed an excessive stress
concentration on few elements of the upper bracket. Therefore, the point where
these stress concentrations occurred should be reinforced. Consideration should
be given to the upper bracket geometry and location that can also be improved.
The lower bracket does show a low level of stress therefore the size and
thickness of the bracket can be reduced.
The analysis results for the steering arm showed a lower value of stress than the
yield strength of the material hence this part of the component is safe under the
applied load.
99
Appendix D
Production Drawings
100
101
102
103
104
Appendix E
Photographs
105
Figure 1E - Front Right Upright
106
Figure 2E Front Right Suspension Assembly
107
Figure 3E Rear Suspension Assembly
108
Figure 4E Steering Box Assembly on the Chassis
109
Figure 5E Mounting Position of the Rear Shock Absorber on the Chassis
110
Appendix F
Roll Centre and Camber Change Models
111
Figure F 1Position of the roll centre
Figure F 2 Camber change with 10 mm bump
112
Figure F 3 Camber change with 1 degree of roll
Figure F 4 Camber change with 3 degrees of roll
113
Appendix E
Cost Report
114
COST REPORT ESTIMATE
1. Cost calculations for the manufactured
components
Cost calculations have been prepared using operations cost table from 2005
Formula SAE Rules book.
LOWER FRONT CONTROL ARMS
Materials
Qty.
Description
Unit
$/Unit
Cost
ERW circular
2x0.4 m
19 mm dia..x 1.6
m
$2.15
$ 1.72
3x0.04
20 mm dia.
m
$4.35
$ 0.52
$42.90
$ 2.57
Subtotal
$ 4.80
steel tube
RMS
m
BMS square
1x0.06
45x45
m
Process Labour
Qty.
Amount
Unit
$/Unit
Cost
Cut tube
2
2
cm
$0.16
$ 0.64
Prepare tube for
2
2
end
$ 0.75
$ 3.00
Cut circ. sec.
2
2
cm
$ 0.16
$ 0.64
Drill hole
2
1
hole
$ 0.35
$ 0.40
Tap hole
2
1
hole
$ 0.35
$ 0.40
Weld boss to tube
2
6
cm
$ 0.14
$ 1.68
Machine housing
1
15
min.
$ 1.16
$17.50
Prepare housing
1
5
Min.
$ 0.58
$ 2.90
1
12
cm
$ 0.14
$ 1.68
Subtotal
$28.84
TOTAL
$33.65
welding
for welding
Weld tubes to
housing
115
UP P ER R E AR CO N T R O L ARM S
Materials
Qty.
Description
Unit
$/Unit
Cost
3x0.4m
19 mm dia.x 1.6
m
$2.15
$ 2.58
RMS
3x0.04 m
20 mm dia.
m
$4.35
$ 0.52
FMS 35x3 flat
2x0.04m
35x3
m
$1.81
$ 0.15
Subtotal
$ 3.25
ERW circular
steel tube
Process Labour
Qty.
Amount
Unit
$/Unit
Cost
Cut tube
2
2
cm
$0.16
$ 0.64
Prepare tube for
2
2
end
$ 0.75
$ 3.00
Cut circ. Sec.
4
2
cm
$ 0.16
$ 1.28
Drill hole
4
1
hole
$ 0.35
$ 1.40
Tap hole
4
1
hole
$ 0.35
$ 1.40
Weld boss to
4
6
cm
$ 0.14
$ 3.36
Cut flat 35x3
2
7
cm
$ 0.16
$ 1.12
Prepare for
2
0.08
h
$35.00
$ 2.80
2
8
cm
$ 0.14
$ 1.12
Subtotal
$16.12
TOTAL
$19.40
welding
tube
welding
Weld lugs
F RO N T UP R I GH T
Materials
Qty.
Description
Unit
$/Unit
Cost
RHS
1x0.3m
40x40x2
m
$ 9.00
$ 2.70
RMS circular section
1x0.205m
60 mm dia.
m
$47.9
$ 9.82
FMS 35x5 flat
1x0.22m
35x5
m
$ 2.86
$ 0.63
FMS 50x5 flat
1x0.3m
50x5
m
$ 4.47
$ 1.34
FMS 35x3 flat
1x0.08m
35x3
m
$ 1.81
$ 0.15
BMS square
1x0.11m
45x45
m
$ 42.9
$ 4.72
Subtotal
$19.35
Process Labour
Qty.
Amount
Unit
$/Unit
Cost
Cut circular section
1x0.205m
0.17
h
$35.00
$ 5.95
Cut RHS to length
2
8
cm
$ 0.16
$ 1.28
Prepare for welding
3
0.25
h
$ 35.00
$ 8.75
BMS
116
Weld RHS to BMS
2
32
cm
$ 0.14
$ 4.48
Machine bearing
1
0.58
h
$70.00
$40.60
Cut BMS to length
2
0.17
h
$35.00
$ 5.95
Machine suspension
2
0.75
h
$70.00
$52.50
Prepare for welding
2
0.17
h
$35.00
$ 5.95
Weld brackets
2
32
cm
$ 0.14
$ 4.48
Cut flat 35x5
2
7
cm
$ 0.16
$ 1.12
Cut flat 50x5
1
5
cm
$ 0.16
$ 0.80
Cut flat 35x3
1
5
cm
$ 0.16
$ 0.80
Prepare cuts for welding
4
0.25
h
$35.00
$ 8.75
Weld brackets on
4
17
cm
$ 0.14
$ 2.38
Subtotal
$143.79
TOTAL
$163.15
housing
brackets
upright
RE AR UP R I GH T
Materials
Qty.
Description
Unit
$/Unit
Cost
RHS
1x0.2m
40x40x2
m
$ 9.00
$ 1.8
BMS circular section
1x0.200m
70mm dia.
m
$52.30
$10.46
FMS 40x5 flat
1x0.20m
40x5
m
$ 3.15
$ 0.63
FMS 160x5
1x0.11m
160x5
m
$ 5.90
$ 0.65
BMS square
1x0.05m
45x45
m
$ 42.9
$ 2.15
Subtotal
$15.70
Process Labour
Qty.
Amount
Unit
$/Unit
Cost
Cut circular section
1x0.200m
0.17
h
$35.00
$ 5.95
Cut RHS to length
2
8
cm
$ 0.16
$ 1.28
Prepare for welding
3
0.25
h
$ 35.00
$ 8.75
Weld RHS to BMS
2
32
cm
$ 0.14
$ 4.48
Machine bearing
1
0.58
h
$70.00
$40.60
Cut BMS to length
2
0.17
h
$35.00
$ 5.95
Machine suspension
2
0.75
h
$70.00
$52.50
2
0.17
h
$35.00
$ 5.95
BMS
housing
brackets
Prepare for welding
117
Weld brackets
2
32
cm
$ 0.14
$ 4.48
Cut flat 40x5 to length
2
8
cm
$ 0.16
$ 1.28
Cut flat 160x5
1
16
cm
$ 0.16
$ 2.56
Prepare cuts for welding
4
0.25
h
$35.00
$ 8.75
68
cm
$ 0.14
$ 9.52
Subtotal
$152.05
TOTAL
$167.80
Unit
$/Unit
Cost
m
$480.00
$48.00
Subtotal
$48.00
Weld brackets on
upright
H UB A X L E
Materials
Qty.
S 1020 Ø 160
0.1 m
Process Labour
Qty.
Description
Amount
Unit
$/Unit
Cost
Turning
5
h
$/35.00
$175.00
CNC set up time
2/1000
h/piece
$70.00
$0.14
CNC Milling
5
h
$70.00
$350.00
Subtotal
$525.14
TOTAL
$573.17
Unit
$/Unit
Cost
S T EE R IN G TI E RO D
Materials
Qty.
Description
ERW
1x0.3
m
$2.15
$0.65
RMS
1x0.04
m
$4.35
$0.17
Subtotal
$0.80
Process Labour
Qty.
Amount
Unit
$/Unit
Cost
Cut tube
1
2
cm
$0.16
$ 0.32
Prepare tube for
1
2
end
$ 0.75
$1.50
Cut circ. Sec.
2
2
cm
$ 0.16
$ 0.64
Drill hole
2
1
hole
$ 0.35
$ 0.70
Tap hole
2
1
hole
$ 0.35
$0.70
Weld boss to tube
2
6
cm
$ 0.14
$1.68
Subtotal
$5.54
TOTAL
$6.35
welding
118
SU SP E NS IO N R O CK E R A RM S
Materials
Qty.
Description
Unit
$/Unit
Cost
FMS
4x0.08
50x3
m
$3.65
$1.20
RMS tube
1x0.02
20 diax1.6
m
$2.15
$0.05
Subtotal
$1.25
Process Labour
Qty.
Amount
Unit
$/Unit
Cost
Cut flat
4
0.25
h
$35.00
$8.75
Cut bush to length
1
2
cm
$0.16
$0.32
Prepare flat and bush
5
0.17
h
$ 35.00
$5.83
2
6
cm
$ 0.14
$1.68
Subtotal
$16.58
TOTAL
$17.85
for welding
Weld flats and bush
S T EE R IN G RO CK ER ARM S
Materials
Qty.
Description
Unit
$/Unit
Cost
RHS
4x0.04
20x20
m
$2.85
$0.45
RMS tube
3x0.02
20 diax1.6
m
$2.15
$0.13
Subtotal
$0.58
Process Labour
Qty.
Amount
Unit
$/Unit
Cost
Cut RHS
4
0.25
h
$35.00
$8.75
Cut bush to length
3
2
cm
$0.16
$0.96
Prepare flat and bush
5
0.17
h
$ 35.00
$5.83
3
6
cm
$ 0.14
$2.52
Subtotal
$18.06
TOTAL
$18.65
for welding
Weld flats and bushes
2 . Co st ca lc ula t io n s f o r mo dif ie d co mp o n ent s
S T EE R IN G B O X
Materials
Qty.
Description
Unit
$/Unit
Cost
Steering box assembly
1
Honda
piece
$200.00
$200.00
Subtotal
$200.00
119
Process Labour
Qty.
Amount
Dismantle and clean
1
0.33
1
0.08
Unit
$/Unit
Cost
$35.00
$11.66
h
$35.00
$ 2.80
0.5
h
$35.00
$17.50
0.166
h
$35.00
$ 5.81
Weld housing
0.166
h
$35.00
$ 5.81
Assembly
0.25
h
$35.00
$ 8.75
Subtotal
$46.48
TOTAL
$246.48
h
assembly
Cut rack
Face, drill, tap
Cut housing
1
3 . Co st ca lc ula t io ns f o r a s se mb l ie s
F RO N T S US P EN S IO N
Assembly
Qty
Manufactured
component
Modified(M)
Cost per
Total
Purchased (P)
component
cost
Front upright
2
USQ workshop
$163.15
$326.30
Upper wishbone
2
USQ workshop
$ 18.50
$ 37.00
Lower wishbone
2
USQ workshop
$ 33.65
$ 67.30
Hub axle
2
USQ workshop
$573.17
$1146.34
Suspension rocker
2
USQ workshop
$ 17.85
$ 35.70
Suspension rod
2
USQ workshop
$ 6.35
$ 12.70
Spherical rod ends
5
$ 10.30
$ 51.50
$ 63.00
$126.00
$ 25.00
$100.00
TOTAL
$1941.90
Modified(M)
Cost per
Total
Purchased (P)
component
cost
arm
(P) Linear
AM6GP
Spherical bearing
Bearings Pty Ltd
2
(P) Linear
Bearings Pty Ltd
Angular contact
4
(P) Toowoomba
bearings
Bearings and
Seals
Spring/shock
2
RE AR S U SP EN S IO N
Assembly
Qty
Manufactured
component
Rear upright
2
USQ workshop
$167.8
$335.60
Upper wishbone
2
USQ workshop
$ 19.40
$ 38.80
120
Lower wishbone
2
Hub axle
2
Suspension rocker
2
Suspension tie rod
2
Spherical rod ends
7
USQ workshop
$ 33.65
$ 67.30
USQ workshop
$ 17.85
$ 35.70
USQ workshop
$ 6.35
$ 12.70
$ 10.30
$ 72.10
$ 63.00
$126.00
$ 25.00
$100.00
$150.00
$300.00
TOTAL
$1088.20
(P)
arm
(P) Linear
AM6GP
Spherical bearing
Bearings Pty Ltd
2
(P) Linear
Bearings Pty Ltd
Angular contact
4
(P)Toowoomba
bearings
Spring/shock
Bearings and Seals
2
(P)
STEERING SYSTEM
Assembly
Qty
Manufactured
component
Modified(M)
Cost per
Total
Purchased (P)
component
cost
(M)
$246.48
$246.48
Steering box
1
Steering rocker
2
USQ workshop
$ 18.65
$ 37.30
Steering tie rod
2
USQ workshop
$ 6.35
$ 12.70
Rocker arm
6
$ 2.50
$ 15.00
TOTAL
$310.50
arm
(P)
bearings
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