Cybersecurity Survival Guide - Palo Alto Networks Live Community

Cybersecurity Survival Guide - Palo Alto Networks Live Community
CYBERSECURITY
SURVIVAL GUIDE
Principles & Best Practices
January 2015
Lawrence C. Miller, CISSP
Matthew Ancelin & Shoba Trivadi
Advisory Panel:
Matthew Ancelin, CISSP – Chief Contributor & Reviewer
Judith Backel, CISSP – Reviewer
Jay Mackey, CNSI, CNSE 4.1, CISSP, CEH – Reviewer
Palo Alto Networks, Inc. www.paloaltonetworks.com © 2015 Palo Alto Networks – all rights reserved. Palo Alto Networks, PAN-OS,
and Panorama are trademarks of Palo Alto Networks, Inc. All other trademarks are the property of their respective owners.
Contents
Foreword
Introduction Principles and Best Practices
1.
Cybersecurity Landscape & Threats
1
3
7
Modern Applications
2.
Cybersecurity Countermeasures
49
Traditional & Next-Generation Countermeasures
3.
Cybersecurity Best Practices & Principles
85
Enterprise Security Design Elements
4.
Cybersecurity Solutions from Palo Alto Networks
145
Next-Generation Firewall Technologies
Knowledge Check Answers
179
Acknowledgements
183
Foreword
Welcome to the first book from Palo Alto Networks Academy written
specifically for colleges. At Palo Alto Networks, Inc., we believe that the
knowledge of enterprise security and cybersecurity will in turn secure
our future. This book is designed to be a primer on fundamental
enterprise security concepts.
In the context of the modern Cybersecurity landscape, the nextgeneration enterprise security platform is a pivotal countermeasure to
today’s advanced threats. ‘Next-generation’ implies that new methods
of processing and securing network traffic are being used to provide
visibility and control over traffic, applications, and threats. ‘Enterprise
security’ deals with threat protection for large and complex
organizations; while cybersecurity scales the vast landscape of the
Internet riddled with vulnerabilities and viruses.
Palo Alto Networks brings a long lineage of industry knowledge to the
design of its firewalls and network security products. In reaching students
of today and tomorrow, we hope to enhance their knowledge, their skills,
and their understanding of this landscape and thereby spark an interest
on their part to architect secure networks and data centers
CYBERSECURITY SURVIVAL GUIDE 1
To help proliferate and continue research in the area of enterprise
security, we share this book with the academic world where study takes
precedence over product knowledge where young minds are shaped with
the overreaching philosophies of designing a better world and where the
hope to inspire and change continues to thrive.
We also retain statistics and findings that cover research over a period
of time. In the interest of study, we leave them here without feeling the
compulsion to update them from time to time. In today’s internet era, we
hope that current numbers are derived by the students themselves and
add to the exhilirating discover of trends and traction at any given point in
time.
Palo Alto Networks Academy’s hope is that the knowledge compiled in
this book will help students ‘safely enable’ their environment as well as
build secure networks. To meet that end, this book includes relevant
points from the Dummies books from Palo Alto Networks and Wiley
Publishing for quick reference.
We hope that students of the next generation glean useful information
on cybersecurity from this book. Surviving cybersecurity threats means
exposure to designing and securing security measures using nextgeneration solutions, which this book also introduces.
Shoba Trivadi
PALO ALTO NETWORKS ACADEMY
Palo Alto Networks, Inc. www.paloaltonetworks.com
© 2014 – 2015 Palo Alto Networks-All rights reserved.
Palo Alto Networks, PAN-OS, and Panorama are trademarks of Palo Alto
Networks, Inc.All other trademarks are the property of their respective owners.
2 PALO ALTO NETWORKS®
Introduction
Principles and Best Practices
Today’s application and threat landscape has evolved and become more
complex and dangerous than ever before. Risks to the enterprise include
new and emerging threats, data leakage, and regulatory non-compliance.
Industry trends such as Bring Your Own Device (BYOD), cloud
computing, consumerization, software-defined networking/security/
storage/etc., virtual data centers and others, further complicate modern
network security challenges. As a result, many basic tenets of network
security–traditional concepts such as defense-in-depth and perimeter
security–must also evolve to address these challenges.
CYBERSECURITY SURVIVAL GUIDE 3
4 PALO ALTO NETWORKS®
This book is divided into the following parts:
• Part 1: Cybersecurity Landscape and Threats concentrates on the
Cybersecurity landscape and the imminent threats in this area. It also
goes into traditional as well as modern counter measures.
• Part2: CybersecurityNext-GenerationCountermeasurespresents
traditional and next-generation tools and techniques that provide
countermeasures.
• Part 3: Cybersecurity Best Practices and Principles concentrates on best
practices and principles and introduces an in-depth analysis of a specific
design element and security method; the zero-trust model. The hope is
that it helps students understand the principles of designing a secure
network.
• Part 4: Cybersecurity Solutions from Palo Alto Networks ends with
specific examples from Palo Alto Networks and presents its nextgeneration firewall technology focussing on App ID, User ID and
Content ID.
CYBERSECURITY SURVIVAL GUIDE 5
1. Cybersecurity Landscape &
Threats
Modern Applications
The application landscape is changing rapidly and radically and it is no
longer black and white, but rather an infinite spectrum of “gray”. Personal
technologies and Enterprise 2.0 applications are increasingly being used
for work-related purposes as the boundary between our work and
personal lives becomes less distinct.
According to research from McKinsey and Company and the Association
for Information and Image Management (AIIM), many companies are
recognizing significant benefits from the use of Enterprise 2.0
applications and technologies in their organizations including better
collaboration, increased knowledge sharing, and reduced expenses (for
example, for travel, operations, and communications).1
CYBERSECURITY SURVIVAL GUIDE 7
Thus, the enterprise infrastructure (systems, applications, and networks)
is rapidly converging with personal technologies and applications, making
it practically impossible to define where the Internet begins and the
corporate infrastructure ends.
Key Concept
Enterprise 2.0 applications are defined by Applipedia as “a system of web-based
technologies that provide rapid and agile collaboration, information sharing, emergence and
integration capabilities in the extended enterprise.”
Securing an Enterprise Network
Securing an enterprise network used to be a fairly simple exercise — the
corporate network was the “trusted” network, the Internet was an
“untrusted” network, and a firewall was deployed at the perimeter
between the two networks.
Any traffic t hat o riginated f rom t he t rusted n etwork t o t he untrusted
network was allowed, while any traffic that originated from the untrusted
network was blocked. A few exceptions for specific applications,
commonly referred to as “holes,” were defined as rules on the firewall.
1. The Application Usage and Risk Report: An Analysis of End User Application Trends in the
Enterprise, Fall Edition 2009, Palo Alto Networks, Sunnyvale, 2009. (For more recent reports,
search for ‘recent reports on applications.’)
8 PALO ALTO NETWORKS®
For example:
• port 80 for web traffic
• port 443 for secure web traffic
• port 25 for e-mail, and ports 20 and 21 for FTP
But as with many things, network security is not so simple today.
Classifying applications as good or bad–and consequently allowed or
blocked–is difficult because many applications can be used for both good
and bad purposes.
Applications have also become increasingly evasive, using techniques
such as dynamic port hopping and SSL hiding, to slip past legacy portbased (or packet filtering) and stateful inspection firewalls. Thus,
applications (including Malware) have become the predominant attack
vector for cybercriminals and threat developers to infiltrate networks and
systems.
Key Concept
An attack vector is defined as the path or means through which vulnerability is exploited.
Classifying Applications
It has also become increasingly difficult to classify applications as either
good or bad, in a clear and consistent manner. Many applications are
clearly good (low risk, high reward) or clearly bad (high risk, low reward),
but most are somewhere in between–depending on how the application
is being used.
CYBERSECURITY SURVIVAL GUIDE 9
For example, many organizations now use social networking applications,
such as Facebook, for important business functions such as recruiting,
research and development, marketing, and consumer advocacy. However,
these same applications can be used to leak sensitive information or cause
damage to an organization’s public image–whether inadvertently or
maliciously.
Key Concept
Application–A software application is a program or group of programs designed for end
users. Applications can be systems software or applications software.
Personal Devices
Personal devices–such as smartphones and tablets–have become
ubiquitous in businesses and organizations everywhere, as employees are
being allowed to use these devices and their associated applications for
both personal and work-related purposes. This trend is known as bring
your own device (“BYOD”).
BYOD
BYOD relieves organizations from the cost of providing equipment to
employees, but creates a management challenge due to the vast number
and type of devices. The organization merely provides the network and
network services, but the employee provides the device to connect to the
network.
10 PALO ALTO NETWORKS®
Consumerization of IT
A second important trend, known as the consumerization of IT, is closely
related to the BYOD trend. Consumerization occurs as users find
personal applications and technologies that are more powerful or
capable, more convenient, less expensive, quicker to install, and easier to
use than corporate IT solutions, enabling them to improve personal
productivity, handle non-work affairs, and maintain online personas,
among other things. Consumerization also relates to a concept known as
the “Internet of things” or Internet enablement, which is finding its way
into a myriad of devices including refrigerators, televisions, and
automobiles.
Key Concepts
BYOD–Bring your own device is a term used when personal devices are brought to the
workplace. It also refers to BYOP or bring your own phone, BYOT or bring your own technology,
BYOP or bring your own PC, etc.Consumerization–This term stands for the encouragement of
the consumption of goods and to make products suitable for mass distribution.
Web and Enterprise Applications
Web 2.0 or Enterprise 2.0 refers to an evolutionary change in the
behavior of web-based applications. Dynamic content, rich multimedia, and
interactivity changed the face of the Internet and posed new
challenges in securing it. Entirely new platforms, such as Facebook, offer
multiple applications delivered through a single presence online to the user.
CYBERSECURITY SURVIVAL GUIDE 11
Popular Web and Enterprise Applications
Some popular examples of Web 2.0/Enterprise 2.0 applications include:
• Social networks like Facebook
• Unified messaging tools like Skype
• Messaging tools like AOL Instant Messenger (AIM)
• Publishing tools like YouTube
• Productivity tools like Salesforce.com or TurboTax
• Office 365 or Online Microsoft Office Suite
• Blogging tools like Blogger
• Browser-based file sharing tools, such as MegaUpload.com, DropBox,
and Google Docs
• Enterprise bookmarking and tagging tools like Cogenz
• RSS tools like NewsGator
• Social bookmarking sites, such as Twitter, Pinterest, and Reddit
• Wikis like Socialtext
12 PALO ALTO NETWORKS®
Rapid Adoption of Web and Enterprise Applications
To gain an appreciation for how rapidly Enterprise 2.0 applications have
been adopted in enterprises, consider the following (based on an analysis
of 347 organizations worldwide):
• Facebook chat overtook Yahoo! IM and AIM in less than 18 months since
its inception in April 2008.
• Google Docs increased from 33 percent to 82 percent in the 6 months
between March and September 2009.
•
Twitter jumped 252 percent in terms of sessions and 775 percent in
terms of bandwidth in the 6 months between March and September
2009.2
In today’s fast-paced internet-driven world, reports and metrics change
quickly. Please search under the terms, ‘recent adoption of web and
enterprise applications’ for current statistics.
Potential Benefits and Risks
Organizations are often unsure of the potential business benefits–and
the inherent risks–of the BYOD and consumerization trends, and
therefore either:
• Implicitly allow personal technologies and Enterprise 2.0 applications by
simply ignoring their use in the workplace, or
• Explicitly prohibit their use, but are then unable to effectively enforce
such policies with traditional firewalls and security technologies.
2. The Application Usage and Risk Report: An Analysis of End User Application Trends in the
Enterprise, Fall Edition 2009, Palo Alto Networks, Sunnyvale, 2009.
CYBERSECURITY SURVIVAL GUIDE 13
Adverse Effects of Ineffective Policies
Whether implicitly allowed (and ignored) or explicitly prohibited (but not
enforced), the adverse results of ineffective policies such as these include:
Lost Productivity
Lost productivity as users must either find ways to integrate these
unsupported technologies and applications with the enterprise
infrastructure (when allowed), or use applications that are unfamiliar to
them or less efficient (when prohibited).
Disruption of Critical Business Operations
Potential disruption of critical business operations due to underground
or backchannel processes that are used to accomplish specific workflow
tasks or to circumvent controls, and are known to only a few users and
fully dependent on their use of personal technologies and applications.
Exposure to Risks
Exposure to additional risks for the enterprise due to unknown–and
therefore unpatched–vulnerabilities in personal technologies and
applications, and a perpetual cat-and-mouse game between employees
that circumvent controls (for example, with external proxies, encrypted
tunnels, and remote desktop applications) and security teams that
manage these risks.
Penalties for Non-Compliance
Penalties for regulatory non-compliance, for example, the U.S. Health
Insurance Portability and Accountability Act (HIPAA) in healthcare
organizations or the Payment Card Industry’s Data Security Standard
(PCI DSS) in retail industries.
14 PALO ALTO NETWORKS®
Infinite Number of Unknown Technologies
Beyond managing the risks associated with a relatively limited, known set
of core applications that are authorized and supported in the enterprise,
security managers must now manage the risks associated with a
practically infinite number of unknown personal technologies and
applications that may be used in the organization.
Repurposed by Malicious Actors
Applications can also be hijacked and repurposed by malicious actors,
such as was done with Skype users in Syria during their recent period
of civil unrest. The Flame malware discovered in 2012 had components
which would reprogram a portion of the Skype application, enabling a
third-party to spy on individuals using what otherwise appeared to be a
legitimate Skype install.
Application Hide-and-Seek
Many Enterprise 2.0 applications are designed to circumvent legacy portbased firewalls so that they can be easily installed and used on any device,
anywhere and anytime. This is accomplished by dynamically adjusting
how these applications communicate using tactics such as
• Port hopping, using random, changing ports and protocols (TCP or UDP)
during a session.
• Use of non-standard ports, such as running Google Talk over TCP port
80 (HTTP) instead of the standard TCP port 5222 for XMPP (Extensible
Messaging and Presence Protocol), or running DNS over a port other
than port 53.
CYBERSECURITY SURVIVAL GUIDE 15
• Tunneling within commonly used services, such as when a peer-topeer (P2P) file sharing program like BitTorrent or an instant messenger
(IM) client like Pidgin is running over HTTP.
• Hiding within SSL encryption, which masks the application traffic, for
example, over TCP port 443
Application Usage and Threat Report
The April 2013 Application Usage and Threat Report by Palo Alto Networks
found that out of 1,317 unique applications analyzed, 26 percent (334)
used SSL. Of those 334 applications, 39 applications hop ports, 35
applications use TCP Port 80, and 9 applications use a range of nonstandard ports.
Applications that Use SSL
Figure 1-1 shows the number and type of applications that use SSL.
16 PALO ALTO NETWORKS®
Figure 1-1: Category breakdown of applications capable of using SSL
CYBERSECURITY SURVIVAL GUIDE 17
Client-Server Applications
Many traditional client-server applications are now designed for Web use
and many business applications use these same techniques for ease of
operation while minimizing disruptions. For example, RPC and
SharePoint use port hopping because it is critical to how the protocol
or application (respectively) functions, rather than as a means to evade
detection or enhance accessibility.
HTTP and HTTPS
With the trend toward developing web-enabled and browser-based
applications, HTTP and HTTPS have become predominant and now
account for approximately two thirds of all enterprise traffic.
Traditional firewalls and other security infrastructure are unable to
distinguish whether or not these applications, riding on HTTP and HTTPS,
are being used for legitimate business purposes.
Key Concept
Remote Procedure Call (RPC) is an inter-process communication (IPC) protocol that enables
an application to be run on a different computer or network, rather than the local computer
on which it is installed.
Cloud-Based Applications
Many enterprises are increasingly using cloud-based applications such as
Salesforce.com, WebEx, Office 365, and Google Apps. These applications
are typically accessed using a web browser, but then switch to clientserver behavior once the application is started. Common applications
18 PALO ALTO NETWORKS®
that can port-hop include both business and personal use applications
such as SharePoint, iTunes, MS RPC, Skype, and TeamViewer (see Figure
1-2).
Common Applications that can Port Hop
Figure 1-2: Most frequently detected applications across ports
Threats Are Evolving Too
More ominously, application-layer (Layer 7) attacks are becoming
increasingly common.
Traditional Security Measures
These are built to provide network-layer (Layer 3) protection and thus
these application-layer attacks go largely undetected in the enterprise.
Threat Developers
Threat developers are using many of the same techniques as application
developers.
CYBERSECURITY SURVIVAL GUIDE 19
Port Hopping
Port hopping, use of non-standard ports, tunneling, and SSL hiding can be
used to promote ease of use in legitimate consumer applications, as well
as to evade network defenses for malicious purposes.
Thus, the vast majority of all new malware and attacks exploit application
vulnerabilities rather than network vulnerabilities.
Disguised Threats
The widespread availability of threat development websites, toolkits, and
frameworks makes it relatively easy to create new threats.
• Hackers can quickly modify existing threats so that “known” threats
become “unknown” threats to traditional signature-based
countermeasures.
• A hacker can modify the code in an existing threat, or add new
propagation and exploit mechanisms to create a blended threat.
Today’s threats are increasingly sophisticated and designed to run
undetected on networks and systems for extended periods of time,
collecting sensitive or personal data. Targeted attacks against specific
organizations or individuals are also on the rise.
High-Profile Cases
Some high-profile examples include credit card thefts, targeted attacks in
the energy sector, and nation and state-sponsored espionage.
20 PALO ALTO NETWORKS®
Credit Card Theft
In December 2013, the Target department store chain revealed that they
had experienced a major data breach involving over 70 million customer
credit card records, making it the largest credit card data breach to date.
The breach was found to have occurred through a supply-chain attack,
where the network of a heating and air conditioning contractor had
remote access into Target’s network. The HVAC company’s network was
the point of entry into Target’s network and was reported as the source of
stolen user credentials used in the subsequent attack on Target and their
PCI network.
Energy Sector
From October of 2012 to May of 2013 a spike in targeted attacks aimed
at the US Energy sector were reported to the ICS-CERT (Industrial
Control Systems Cyber Emergency Response Team). While none were
breached, gas compressor stations across the Midwest and Plains regions
experienced brute-force attempts against their process control networks.
Energy sector business networks also saw an increase in breach attempts.
Nation and State-Sponsored Espionage
May of 2014, the United States Department of Justice indicted five
Chinese nationals on thirty-one counts, including conspiring to commit
computer fraud and abuse, Accessing a protected computer with
authorization, transmitting a program, information, code or command
with the intent to cause damage, economic espionage, trade secret theft,
and others. This comes after reports such as APT1 and Putter Panda,
which point to a Chinese military unit specifically targeting economic and
military targets globally.
CYBERSECURITY SURVIVAL GUIDE 21
Customized Attacks
In a targeted attack, hackers often develop customized attack
mechanisms to take advantage of the specific equipment, systems,
applications, configurations, and even personnel employed in a specific
organization or at a given location.
According to Verizon’s 2013 Data Breach Investigations Report, 92
percent of data breaches resulted from external actors, including
organized crime, state-affiliated groups, activists, former employees, and
other unaffiliated or otherwise unknown hackers.
Stealthy Tools
Hackers have also become more sinister, motivated by greed and the
prospect of making lots of money for information theft. As such, hackers
now favor fast, stealthy tools to ply their trade.
As soon as a new vulnerability is discovered, hackers are looking for ways
to quickly build, deploy, spread, and modify new threats.
This speed increases the likelihood of a successful attack against an
enterprise when a zero-day or near zero-day exploit is discovered
because traditional security measures–such as anti-virus and intrusion
prevention–rely on reactive threat signatures and updates.
Today’s hackers are true cybercriminals, often with the backing of rogue
nation-states, organized criminal groups, or radical political activists.
As such, these cybercriminals have the necessary resources to launch
sustained attacks against large enterprises and governments, have great
technical depth and focus, and are well funded.
22 PALO ALTO NETWORKS®
Asset Theft
Intellectual property, such as proprietary designs, chemical compositions,
and other inventions represent the lifeblood of innovation and
competitive advantage. In the hands of a cybercriminal, these become
very lucrative and rapidly marketable to competitors and other interested
parties. Meanwhile, their theft erodes the profitability of the victim
companies and threatens the nation-state’s economic position.
State Sponsored Attempts
Nation-state sponsored organizations often have military and/or
strategic goals such as the ability to disable or destroy critical
infrastructure–power grids, water supplies, transportation systems, and
industrial systems, or defend against the same. The Center for Strategic
and International Studies reported in 2011 that 33 nations include cyberwarfare in their military planning and organization.
The Modern Attack Strategy
The modern attack strategy has evolved into a coordinated, multi-step
process (see Figure 1-3).
CYBERSECURITY SURVIVAL GUIDE 23
The Multi-Step Process in an Attack Strategy
Figure 1-3: The lifecycle of a modern attack.
The Path of Attack
A typical attack begins with the infection of a target endpoint, for
example, an end user within an organization is tricked into clicking on an
infected link in a phishing e-mail or in an IM.
• The user’s web browser is redirected to a web page that automatically
downloads malware to the user’s computer in the background–a driveby download.
• The infected endpoint is now a bot under the control of the attacker and
acts as the attacker’s entry point into the corporate network.
• From there, the attack is escalated by exploiting other internal assets on
the network, and information is slowly and quietly stolen.
24 PALO ALTO NETWORKS®
Infection
The first step in the modern attack lifecycle is infection.
Infection typically has a social engineering aspect to it that requires some
human action, such as clicking on a link in an e-mail or running an
application on a social networking site. Infections can also occur without
humans falling for such tricks, such as a SQL injection which feeds
encoded database commands into a web form.
Once a target machine is infected with malware, an exploit can be run to
take advantage of a software coding weakness, perhaps causing a buffer
overflow or other error state. If exploitation is successful, it may provide
shell access to the target machine.
• With shell access, the attacker has control of the system. The attacker is
then able to type commands at the C:\ prompt as if the user were typing
them.
• Other exploit modules, such as Meterpreter, provide the attacker with
full graphical user interface (GUI) access, as if they were sitting at the
user’s desk logged in, able to click, type, and operate the user’s computer.
The key to infection is stealth and evasion. This is often accomplished by hiding traffic
from traditional security measures, for example using SSL or some other proprietary
encryption used in IM or P2P networks.
CYBERSECURITY SURVIVAL GUIDE 25
Persistence
Next, the attacker needs to ensure persistence of the bot.
This is commonly achieved by installing a rootkit, bootkit, backdoor or
anti-AV malware on the compromised machine which ensures the
attacker can maintain control of the bot and adapt the malware as needed
to continue evading detection.
• A rootkit is malware that provides privileged (root-level) access to a
computer. Rootkits live in the BIOS of a machine, which means operating
system level security tools have no visibility to them.
• A bootkit is a kernel-mode variant of a rootkit, commonly used to attack
computers that are protected by full-disk encryption.
• Backdoors allow an attacker to bypass authentication to gain access to a
compromised system.
• Anti-AV malware disables legitimately installed anti-virus software on the
compromised machine, thereby preventing automatic detection and
removal of other malware.
Figure 1-4 shows the frequency of various persistence tactics found in
malware including creating copies, creating executable in Windows
folders, and masquerading as Windows System program files.
26 PALO ALTO NETWORKS®
Persistence Tactics Found in Malware
Figure 1-4: Most common persistence tactics found in malware
Communication
Communication is the lifeblood of an attack. The attacker must be able to
communicate with some form of command and control network to be able
to steal data from a target system or network.
CYBERSECURITY SURVIVAL GUIDE 27
Attack communications traffic must be stealthy and is usually hidden
through:
• Encryption with SSL, SSH (Secure Shell), or some other custom or
proprietary encryption.
• Circumvention via proxies, remote desktop access tools, or tunneling. In
some instances, use of cellular networks enables complete
circumvention of the target network. PWNplug is a portable penetration
testing device that covers the entire OSI stack from the physical to
application layers.
• Port evasion using network anonymizers or port hopping to traverse
over any available open ports.
• Fast Flux (or Dynamic DNS) to proxy through multiple infected hosts or
multiple ever-changing command and control servers in order to reroute
traffic, and make it difficult to determine the true destination or attack
source.
Command and Control
Command and control ensures that the malware or attack is controllable,
manageable, and updateable by the attacker. This is the connection to the
outside world that modern malware relies on as a means for:
• offloading data
• receiving commands
• initiating attack
• or even for cleanup (self-deletion) operations
28 PALO ALTO NETWORKS®
Viruses were originally written as self-contained, self-propagating
operators which did not require command and control networks. After
launch, they performed a sequence of pre-programmed steps to do the
virus writer’s bidding.
As motives and methods evolved, the need for more flexible, configurable,
and communicative tools arose. Modern malware writers found a need to
instantly respond to detection, adapt to new exploitation opportunities,
and receive plug-and-play updates with additional functionality–all of this
after the initial infection.
Most importantly, modern malware needed a way to effectively transmit
stolen goods out of the victim organizations. Thus, surreptitious
communication channels to malicious servers, or networks of servers,
became the modus operandi of virtually all theft-oriented malware.
The Central Role of Malware
The rise of botnets and modern malware is reshaping the threat
landscape and forcing enterprises to reassess how they protect
themselves.
These modern threats have outpaced traditional anti-malware strategies
and in the process, have established a foothold within the enterprise that
criminals and nation-states can use to steal information and attack
sensitive assets.
Attack techniques have also evolved and malware now plays a central role
in the hacker’s arsenal and in the lifecycle of an attack.
CYBERSECURITY SURVIVAL GUIDE 29
Attackers have developed new methods for delivering malware (such as
drive-by-downloads), hiding malware communications (with encryption),
and avoiding traditional signature-based detection.
Battle with Malware
Information security professionals have been doing battle with malware
for over twenty years. Unfortunately, all of this hard-earned experience
does not necessarily mean we are winning the war. This is due in large
part to the evolution of malware that either mutates or can be updated to
avoid detection by traditional malware signatures.
Battle with Bots and Botnets
Bots (individual infected machines) and botnets (the broader network of bots
working together) play a major role in this evolution of polymorphic
malware, and are notoriously difficult for traditional anti-virus/antimalware solutions to detect. As such it is important to understand what it
is that makes botnets so different from previous generations of malware,
and how it impacts our efforts to control them.
Why a Botnet is called a Botnet?
A potentially obvious but important distinction is evident in the name
“botnet” itself. Literally, a botnet is a network of bots (infected machines).
Unlike earlier types of malware, which were more or less a swarm of
independent agents, bots are centrally coordinated and retain a
communication channel to the outside world (see Figure 1-5).
30 PALO ALTO NETWORKS®
Botnet as a Communication Channel
Botnets are remotely controlled by command and control servers.
Botnet remotely controlled
Figure 1-5: A remotely controlled botnet
In much the same way that the Internet changed what was possible in
personal computing, botnets are changing what is possible in the world
of malware. Now all malware of the same type can work together toward
a common goal, with each infected machine growing the power and
destructiveness of the overall botnet.
CYBERSECURITY SURVIVAL GUIDE 31
Botnets are changing the world of Malware
Botnets can evolve to pursue new goals or adapt as different security
countermeasures are deployed. Some of the most important and unique
functional traits of botnets are:
Distributed and Fault-Tolerant
• Botnets are malware that take full advantage of the resiliency built in the
Internet itself.
• A botnet can have numerous control servers distributed all over the
world, with multiple fallback options.
• Bots can also potentially leverage other infected bots as communication
channels, providing them with a near infinite number of communication
paths to adapt to changing access options.
Multifunctional
• Updates from the command and control servers can also completely
change the bot’s functionality. This enables a new economic approach for
a botnet owner, who can now use portions of the botnet for a particular
task such as collecting credit card numbers, while other segments of the
botnet could be sending spam.
• The important point is that the infection is the most important step,
because the functionality can always be changed later as needed.
32 PALO ALTO NETWORKS®
Persistence and Intelligence
• Given that bots are both hard to detect and can easily change function,
they are particularly well-suited for targeted and long-term intrusions
into a network.
• Since bots are under the control of a remote human, a botnet is more like
having a malicious hacker inside your network as opposed to a malicious
executable program, such as a virus.
• For instance, a bot can be used to learn more about the organization of
the network, find targets to exploit, and install additional backdoors into
the network in case the bot is ever discovered.
Threats to the Enterprise
Given their flexibility and ability to evade defenses, botnets present an
enormous amount of risk to the enterprise. Botnets are virtually
unlimited in terms of their functionality, ranging from sending spam to the
theft of classified information and trade secrets. The ultimate impact of a
botnet is largely left up to the bot-herder–a botnet that was sending spam
one day could be stealing credit card information the next.
Intensive investigation is required to map the distributed command and
control infrastructure of a botnet.
CYBERSECURITY SURVIVAL GUIDE 33
Infrastructure of a Botnet
Figure 1-6: The distributed command and control infrastructure of a
botnet
The following sections go into the classes of botnets: spamming, DDos,
financial, and targeted intrusive botnets. This is followed by what the
industry is doing about botnets.
Key Term
A bot-herder is a person (or persons) that remotely control a botnet through command and
control servers.
34 PALO ALTO NETWORKS®
Spamming Botnets
The largest botnets are often dedicated to sending spam. They are called
spamming botnets.
The premise is fairly straightforward–the bot-herder attempts to infect
as many endpoints as possible, which can then be used without the
owner’s knowledge to send out spam e-mail messages.
The relative impact of this type of bot on the enterprise may seem low
initially.
• An infected user sending spam could consume additional bandwidth and
ultimately reduce the productivity of the user and even the network
itself.
• The company’s e-mail domain and IP addresses could also easily become
listed by various real-time blackhole lists (RBL’s), causing legitimate
corporate e-mails to be labeled as spam and blocked by other
organizations.
The Rustock botnet is an example of a spamming botnet.
Example of the Rustock Botnet
The Rustock botnet is an example of a spamming botnet. It was capable of sending up to
25,000 spam e-mail messages per hour from an individual bot and, at its peak, sent an
average of 192 spam e-mails per minute per bot. You can just imagine the impact that this
infection potentially had on a computer’s or network’s performance! Rustock is estimated to
have infected more than 2.4 million computers worldwide.
CYBERSECURITY SURVIVAL GUIDE 35
DDoS Botnets
A slight twist on the spamming botnet model is to use bots as part of a
distributed denial-of-service attack (DDoS).
The DDoS botnets attempt to overwhelm a target system with traffic
from a large number of endpoints.
In these cases, the enterprise with the infected clients is often not the
target of the attack itself.
• Instead the bot-herder is simply using the compromised hosts in the
enterprise to flood a remote target with traffic.
• The bot-herder leverages the massive scale of a botnet to generate an
amount of traffic that can overwhelm server and network resources at
the target.
• These DDoS attacks often target specific companies either for personal/
political reasons, or to extort payment from the target in return for
halting the DDoS attack.
DDoS botnets represent a dual risk for the enterprise.
The enterprise itself can potentially be the target of a DDoS attack
resulting in downtime and lost productivity. Even if the enterprise is not
the ultimate target, any infected endpoints participating in the attack
could consume valuable network resources, while unwittingly facilitating
a cybercrime.
36 PALO ALTO NETWORKS®
Example of the Skunkx Botnet
The Skunkx botnet is an example of a DDoS botnet. Skunkx is believed to have originated in
the U.S. and was discovered in 2011. It conducted DDoS attacks using UDP, SYN and HTTP
floods, and was commonly spread over USB devices, MSN, and YahooMessenger.
Financial Botnets
Financial botnets have had widespread coverage in the press, largely due
to the spectacular amounts of damage they have caused in the market.
Banking botnets, such as ZeuS and SpyEye are responsible for the direct
theft of funds from all types of enterprises. These botnets are typically
not as large and monolithic as the spamming botnets, which grow as large
as possible for a single owner. Instead, banking botnets are often sold as
kits allowing large numbers of attackers to license the code and set about
building their own botnets and targets.
Even with their smaller size, the impact of these botnets can be
enormous:
• ZeuS botnets have repeatedly been able to steal millions of dollars from
enterprises in very short periods of time.
• Other financial botnets focus on the theft of credit card information, or
faking ACH (Automated Clearing House) bank transfers.
CYBERSECURITY SURVIVAL GUIDE 37
The impact of a financial breach can be enormous for an enterprise.
The breach of customer credit card information can lead to serious
financial, legal and brand damage for the enterprise. Additionally, if
Human Resources, Finance or Accounting groups are compromised, the
enterprise can lose money that may potentially never be recovered.
Example of the Zeus/SpyEye Botnet
The Zeus/SpyEye botnet is a financial botnet that has stolen more than $100 million from
small and medium-sized businesses worldwide. It relies on peer-to-peer (P2P) networks and
UDP (User Datagram Protocol) communication for command and control, and to gather
information from the victim network.
Targeted Intrusive Attack Botnet
Botnets are also a key component of targeted, sophisticated and ongoing
attacks.
These types of botnets are very different than their larger counterparts.
Instead of attempting to infect large numbers of users to launch actions
on a large scale, these smaller botnets aim to compromise specific highvalue machines that can be used to further the penetration and
surveillance into the target network.
In these cases, an infected machine can be used to gain access to
protected systems, and to establish a backdoor into the network in case
any part of the intrusion is discovered.
38 PALO ALTO NETWORKS®
Targeted and intrusive attack botnets represent one of the most dangerous
threats for an enterprise.
These threats are almost always unknown to anti-virus vendors, and they
represent one of the most dangerous threats for an enterprise as they are
premeditated and specifically target the highest value information such as
research and development, source code, planning data, financial data, and
customer lists.
Example of the Aurora Botnet
The Aurora botnet is an example of a targeted intrusion that caused extensive damage and
resulted in stolen intellectual property. The attacks began in 2009 and targeted various
organizations including Adobe Systems, Google, Juniper Networks, and Rackspace.
What is the Industry doing about Botnets?
The explosion of botnets has certainly not gone unnoticed in the industry,
and large companies have begun to team up with law enforcement to
take action against some of the largest and most notorious botnets. To
understand how this is done, it is important to understand the
infrastructure of a botnet. Intensive investigation is required to map the
distributed command and control infrastructure of a botnet.
CYBERSECURITY SURVIVAL GUIDE 39
Infrastructure of a botnet
Figure 1-6 (repeated): The distributed command and control
infrastructure of a botnet
In short, the goal is to separate the bots (the infected machines) from their
brain (the command and control servers).
Decapitating a Botnet
If the bots cannot get to their servers, they cannot get new instructions,
or upload data, or any of the things that make botnets so unique and
dangerous. The general approach can be thought of, and is often referred
to as “taking down” a botnet, or botnet “decapitation”.
40 PALO ALTO NETWORKS®
While this strategy may seem straightforward, in reality it requires an
enormous amount of investigation, expertise, and coordination between
both security researchers and law enforcement.
Disabling a Command and Control Server
Disabling a command and control server often requires both physically
seizing the server as well as taking ownership of the domain and/or IP
address range associated with the servers.
Very close coordination between technical teams, legal teams, and law
enforcement is essential to disabling the botnet (see Figure 1-6).
Why are Botnets complex & complicated
Botnets do not rely on a single server
Making matters worse, a botnet typically does not rely on a single server,
but rather has multiple command and control servers for redundancy
purposes. Additionally each server is typically insulated by a variety of
intermediaries to cloak the true location of the server. These
intermediaries include P2P networks, blogs and social networking sites,
and even communications that proxy through other infected bots. This
means that simply finding the command and control servers is a
considerable challenge, requiring time and deep technical investigations.
Botnets withstand loss of server
To make things even more complicated, most botnets are designed to
withstand the loss of a command and control server, meaning that
researchers must disable ALL of the command and control options at
CYBERSECURITY SURVIVAL GUIDE 41
once. If any of the command and control servers are accessible, or any of
the fallback options are successful, the bots will be able to get updates,
and can quickly populate a completely new set of servers, and the botnet
will quickly recover.
Botnets attempt to move to new infrastructure
It also means that the servers will need to be taken out almost
simultaneously. As soon as a botnet owner sees he’s under attack, he will
immediately attempt to move to a new infrastructure. Thus, even a single
server remaining functional for even a small amount of time can give the
bot owner the window he needs to update the bots and recover the entire
botnet.
Recent Win against a Rustock Botnet
For all the challenges of this approach, there have nevertheless been some very consistent
and high-profile wins in the industry. In March 2011, Microsoft working in concert with
industry leaders and the FBI, was able to successfully take down the Rustock botnet, which
had operated for more than 5 years and at the time was responsible for sending up to 60%
of the world’s spam.
Top-down model does not protect Enterprise
The top-down model described above offers a credible industry response
to some of the largest and most notorious botnets. However, it’s
important as security professionals to understand that these efforts,
while good on a global scale, do very little to mitigate the threat that
botnets pose to an individual enterprise.
42 PALO ALTO NETWORKS®
Limitations are largely due to:
• Limited Resources
• Time Intensive Schedules
• Being Impractical to Attack
LIMITED RESOURCES: The most obvious limitation is that the top-down
model is incredibly resource intensive, both in terms of time and effort.
As such, only the largest and most notorious botnets are targeted,
typically spamming botnets. While any bot on a network is a threat,
spamming botnets do not target a particular enterprise–they are simply
looking for more hosts to infect so that they can send more spam, rather
than steal sensitive or valuable information.
TIME INTENSIVE SCHEDULES: Secondly, the top-down model is largely
reactive, sometimes taking years.
Enterprise security needs are far more immediate and must ensure that
an intrusion or exploit doesn’t succeed in the first place. In a very real
sense, relying on the industry to disable a botnet is analogous to waiting
for government to enact a law when someone is breaking into your
business right now.
When an attacker wants to infiltrate an enterprise network and steal
information, the botnet is almost always far more customized and difficult
to detect. These smaller botnets may be completely unknown and are
thus unlikely to warrant enough attention to be targeted for removal by
the industry.
CYBERSECURITY SURVIVAL GUIDE 43
BEING IMPRACTICAL TO ATTACK: Some botnets will simply be
impractical to attack at the command and control level.
This is based on how key botnet components are distributed around the
world. Recall that one of the major challenges for researchers is the
requirement to find and take control of all the command and control
servers in a short window of time. The more distributed the botnet is, the
more difficult it will be to decapitate.
Conclusions Derived:
Rustock
In the case of Rustock, authorities were somewhat fortunate that almost
all of the command and control servers were located within the United
States. This allowed federal law enforcement and court rulings to closely
coordinate the all-important process of disabling all of the servers at
once.
Problems locating botnets
Many botnets have servers all over the world, and will specifically
function in areas that have very little law enforcement for Internet crimes.
This model directly mirrors the Internet itself, which from the beginning
was designed to withstand the loss of any one site.
In short, a distributed network is designed to withstand a decapitation
attempt, so it will be very difficult to extend this model to botnets in
general.
44 PALO ALTO NETWORKS®
Responsibility lies in the hands of the Enterprise!
So while progress has been made fighting botnets at a global level, the
simple truth is that the wins are more of an exception to the rule, and will
do little to protect enterprises from the threats posed by botnets.
This puts the responsibility for protecting the enterprise from botnets
squarely on the shoulders of the enterprise itself.
CYBERSECURITY SURVIVAL GUIDE 45
Summary
• It is increasingly complex to distinguish between good and bad
applications on a network.
• Malicious and legitimate applications share many of the same techniques
and tools.
• Threat actors have become much more organized and their motives have
shifted from notoriety to profit and national competitive advantage.
• The modern threat life cycle describes phased attacks which start with
initial infection, develop persistence, establish communication, and then
work with command and control networks to accomplish their missions.
• Botnets are distributed, fault-tolerant networks of compromised
machines, which can be coordinated, and re-purposed, to carry out
various malicious tasks.
• Corporations, law enforcement, and government entities have had only
limited success in dealing with botnets and malware.
46 PALO ALTO NETWORKS®
Discussion
The following are some unique scenarios not covered in this book as yet
but presented here for your exploration and research:
1. In your work or school computing environments, can you tell the
difference between applications which are hosted onsite, versus cloud
based applications? What are some examples of critical applications that
you use regularly which are cloud based? Locally hosted?
2. In your work or school computing environments, have you encountered
‘blocked sites’ or restricted network resources? What was your reaction?
Talking with co-workers or fellow students, are methods of
circumventing these restrictions ever discussed?
3. Have you been part of a data breach or had your identity or financial
information stolen? If so describe the experience. Could you personally
have done anything better to avoid loss?
4. Persistence is a defining element of an ‘Advanced Persistent Threat
(APT)’. Using recent cyber-attacks in the news, contrast between truly
persistent attacks and non-persistent smash-and-grab attacks.
5. This chapter suggests that the current top-down approach to IT security
risk management is broken. What would it take to change that paradigm,
or restore effectiveness to IT security?
CYBERSECURITY SURVIVAL GUIDE 47
Knowledge Check
1. Which of the following is not an example of a typical ‘hole’ opened on a
traditional firewall?
a) Port 194: Internet Relay Chat (IRC) _____
b) Port 443: Secure Socket Layer (SSL) _____
c) Port 25: Simple Mail Transfer Protocol (SMTP) _____
d) Port 53: Domain Name Service (DNS) ______
2. Name two techniques that can be used to evade port-based stateful
inspection firewalls?
3. Name two reasons that Enterprise 2.0 applications are a benefit to
organizations, and name three examples of enterprise 2.0 applications?
______
4. True or False: The blurring of personal and corporate devices, as well as
personal and corporate applications, is making it easier to secure a
network. ______
5. True or False: BYOD refers to employees using their own personal
devices to attach with corporate network resources. ______
6. Name four risks incurred when BYOD policy is ineffective. ______
7. True or False: it is more common for new malware to exploit network
vulnerabilities than application vulnerabilities. ______
8. True or False: A blended threat makes use of known existing malicious
code, modified, such that it represents a new ‘unknown’ threat. ______
9. Name three characteristics of a botnet. _____
10. What single requirement do all bots and botnets have in common,
making them vulnerable to take-down? ______
ANSWERS ARE AT THE END OF THIS BOOK.
48 PALO ALTO NETWORKS®
2. Cybersecurity
Countermeasures
Traditional & Next-Generation
Countermeasures
This module outlines the various classes of security countermeasures
which exist today and contrasts those with next-generation security
techniques. While this text is primarily focused on network security
concepts, it is important to be aware of its relation to system-level
security tools as well.
CYBERSECURITY SURVIVAL GUIDE 49
It addresses the following main topics:
• Traditional Endpoint Security
• Next-Generation Endpoint Security
• Traditional Network Security
• Next-Generation Network Security
50 PALO ALTO NETWORKS®
Traditional Endpoint Security
Systems security includes tools that reside on endpoints, such as desktop
computers, laptops, servers, virtual servers, industrial control systems,
mobile devices, automated teller machines (ATMs), or any other
independent computing devices or instances.
This section discusses the following:
• Anti-Virus/Anti-Spyware
• Signature-based Anti-Virus Software
• Zero-Day Exploit Averages
• Web-based Zero Day Attacks
Anti-Virus/Anti-Spyware
Perhaps one of the longest standing countermeasures, anti-virus
software examines files on a system and attempts to match them against
a known-bad file, or signature. Installing anti-virus software involves
installing an engine, which often has kernel-level access to a system’s
resources. Signatures must be regularly downloaded and updated.
Downloading and processing signature files in this manner can cause
noticeable performance reductions on the networks and systems they are
running on.
Signature-based Anti-Virus Software
By its nature, signature-based anti-virus software is a reactive measure
that leaves enterprises unprotected against new threats until a new
threat is discovered, identified, analyzed, and a signature file created and
distributed. The notorious zero-day attack is a term that refers to malware,
CYBERSECURITY SURVIVAL GUIDE 51
which has been written and released, but is unknown as of yet to the
security industry. However, the term “zero-day” is misleading. Figure 2-1,
based on research by Palo Alto Networks, shows that the number of days
in a “zero-day” exploit averages from 5 to 20 days depending on the
application vector.
Zero-Day Exploit Averages
Figure 2-1: Average time to anti-virus detection by application vector
Web-based Zero-Day Attacks
Interestingly, web-based zero-day attacks remain unidentified “in the
wild” up to four times longer, on average, than e-mail based threats. This
is due to a number of factors including user awareness of e-mail borne
threats, availability and use of e-mail security solutions, such as anti-spam
and anti-virus, and preferred use of the web as a threat vector by malware
developers. Viruses traditionally are all-in-one actors that carry all of the
needed code to accomplish their purpose upon delivery. Viruses generally
52 PALO ALTO NETWORKS®
reproduce themselves as a method of spreading. The inflexibility and lack
of extensibility of viruses has cause them to be superseded by more
sophisticated malware, including Trojans, rootkits, and other exploits.
Protection against Viruses and Malware
Some commonly known ways of protection is to use the following
software and firewalls in this section:
• Anit-Spyware Software
• Host Intrusion Prevention Systems
• Personal Firewalls
• Network-Based Firewalls
Anti-Spyware Software
Anti-spyware software is very similar to anti-virus software, in that it uses
signatures to look for other forms of malware beyond viruses, such as
adware, malicious web application components, and other malicious tools,
which share user behaviors without their permission.
Host Intrusion Prevention Systems
Host Intrusion Prevention Systems (HIPS) introduce heuristics, or
behavioral anomaly detection, into the process of detecting malware on
endpoint devices and machines. Systems are initially base-lined to get
a snapshot of what represents ‘normal behavior’ and then watched for
behaviors that vary from that baseline. While it is a cool concept, HIPS has
not been widely adopted because of the extreme complexity in deploying
it effectively, the need for lengthy ‘good behavior’ baselines, and its
propensity to lock down machines (and lock-out users) due to false
positives.
CYBERSECURITY SURVIVAL GUIDE 53
Personal Firewalls
Personal (or host-based) firewalls are commonly installed and configured
on endpoints, such as laptop and desktop computers. Personal firewalls
typically operate as application-layer (Layer 7) firewalls that allow or
block traffic to an endpoint device based on an individual (or group)
security policy. Personal firewalls are particularly helpful on laptops used
by remote or traveling user that connect their laptop computers directly
to the Internet, for example, over a public WiFi connection. Windows
Firewall is an example of a personal firewall that is installed as part of the
Windows 7/8 desktop operating system. A personal firewall only protects
the endpoint device that it is installed on, but provides an extra layer of
protection inside the network.
Network-Based Firewalls
Network-based firewalls typically protect a corporate (trusted) network
against threats from an untrusted network, such as the Internet.
However, most traditional network-based firewalls do little to protect
endpoints inside the trusted network from threats that originate within
the trusted network, such as another device that has been compromised
by malware and is propagating throughout the network.
A personal firewall can provide this extra layer of protection. Additionally,
a personal firewall can control outbound traffic from the endpoint to help
prevent the spread of malware from that endpoint. However, it should
be noted that disabling or otherwise bypassing a personal firewall is a
common and basic objective in most malware today.
54 PALO ALTO NETWORKS®
Next-Generation Endpoint Security
In the system security world, a variety of new methods are being brought
to bear against malware. These tools acknowledge many of the
weaknesses of traditional anti-virus/anti-spyware and HIPS, and attempt
to overcome these weaknesses using new methods of malware discovery,
remediation, and removal.
Application Whitelisting
Anti-virus operates by assuming all files are good, unless they match a
known-bad. Whitelisting assumes that ‘only certain identified files and
processes are good, while all others are assumed to be bad.’
This section details:
• The way Whitelisting works
• When Whitelisting works and when it does not
The way Whitelisting Works
By identifying what exact applications and processes are allowed to run,
and cataloging those, a whitelisting approach would then lock out any
other files or processes from running at all. In a perfect world, or on a
perfect system, this approach is quite effective. Issues arise though when:
• contending with frequent software updates and changes,
• constantly changing application states,
• and the need for users to have the rights to install software for given
situations without helpdesk intervention.
CYBERSECURITY SURVIVAL GUIDE 55
When Whitelisting works and when it does not
Whitelisting works well for single-purpose machines, such as ATMs,
which do not get updated very often, and execute the exact same code
day in and day out. Single-purpose servers can also use whitelisting
effectively.
However, using whitelisting with a user-driven laptop or desktop
computer can be very challenging. Unfortunately, it is these user-driven
platforms that are most often attacked.
Exploit Prevention
Signature based anti-malware solutions have the inherent flaw of having
to keep up with new signatures for emerging threats, while malware
writers outpace them with new versions.
• Using signatures to detect threats is analogous to playing ‘whack-a-mole’,
a game where one target is identified and hit down, while 2 new targets
pop up. A new paradigm has emerged, which does not attempt to look for
the payload and compare it to the ever-growing database of malware
signatures.
Exploit Prevention does not come to identify anything, rather ‘it is
designed to obstruct and block the attack before it can deliver any malware.’
56 PALO ALTO NETWORKS®
New malicious files released consistently
Each year hundreds of thousands of new malicious files are released on
to their targets. All of these malicious payloads rely on only a handful of
techniques in order to successfully deliver that payload. To contrast, new
techniques are developed at pace of one, or maybe two, per year.
Stopping the attack before it is begun
Next-generation exploit prevention at the endpoint uses an agent to kill
the process that would enable this exploitation technique, before it can
open. Thus the attack is stopped before it can begin.
Mobile Device Management
Mobile device management (MDM) software provides next-generation
endpoint security for mobile devices such as smartphones and tablets.
MDM provides centralized management capabilities for mobile devices
such as:
• Data loss prevention (DLP)–Restrict what type of data can be stored on
or transmitted from the device.
• Policy enforcement–Require passcodes, enable encryption, lockdown
security settings, etc.
• Malware protection–Scan mobile devices for known malware and
prevent “jailbreaking” or “rooting” on mobile devices
• Software distribution–remotely install software, including patches and
updates over-the-air
• Remote erase/wipe–securely and remotely delete the complete
contents of a lost or stolen device
CYBERSECURITY SURVIVAL GUIDE 57
Key terms
Jailbreaking refers to hacking an Apple iOS device to gain root-level access to the device.
This is sometimes done by end users to allow them to download and install mobile
applications without paying for them, from sources that are not sanctioned and/or
controlled by Apple as their AppStore is. Jailbreaking bypasses the security features of the
device by replacing the firmware’s operating system with a similar, albeit counterfeit version.
Doing so makes it vulnerable to malware exploits. Rooting is the equivalent term for a
Google Android device.
Traditional Network Security
Traditional network security comprises of:
• Firewalls
• Intrusion Detection and Prevention Systems
• Web Content Filters, URL Filters, and Web Proxies
• Virtual Private Networks
• Data Loss (or Leakage) Prevention
• Unified Threat Management
Firewalls
Firewalls have been a cornerstone of network security since the early
days of the Internet. A firewall is a hardware and/or software platform
that controls the flow of traffic between a trusted network (such as a
corporate LAN) and a non-trusted network (such as the Internet).
58 PALO ALTO NETWORKS®
Packet filtering firewalls
In 1988, Digital Equipment Corporation (DEC) built the first packet
filtering firewall (also known as a port-based firewall).
• These first-generation firewalls inspect individual packets to determine
whether certain traffic should be allowed between the trusted and
untrusted network segments or blocked. This determination is made by
matching information contained within each packet–such as source and
destination IP address, protocol (TCP, UDP, ICMP) and port
number–with a corresponding rule on the firewall that designates
whether the packet should be allowed, blocked, or dropped.
• A packet filtering firewall typically operates at the first three layers of the
OSI model (Physical, Data Link, and Network).
A variation of the packet-filtering firewall is the dynamic packet-filtering
firewall, which uses context-based access control (CBAC) or reflexive
access control lists (ACLs) to create and delete firewall rules for individual
connections, as needed.
Stateful inspection firewalls
Second-generation firewalls are known as circuit-level gateways. A
stateful inspection firewall is the most common implementation of a
circuit-level gateway. Stateful packet inspection was invented in the early
1990’s by a research team at Checkpoint Software.
CYBERSECURITY SURVIVAL GUIDE 59
Stateful packet inspection has the following characteristics:
• A stateful inspection firewall maintains state information about the
different communication sessions that have been established between
hosts on the trusted and untrusted networks.
• Once a permitted connection is established between two hosts, the
firewall creates a tunnel for the session that allows traffic to flow
between the two hosts without further inspection.
• This type of firewall is very fast, but is highly dependent on the
trustworthiness of the two hosts because individual packets aren’t
inspected after the connection is established.
Proxy servers
Application-layer gateways, most commonly in the form of proxy servers,
represent the third-generation of network firewalls.
• Proxy servers do not permit direct communication between hosts.
Instead, requests are sent from the originating host to the proxy server,
which analyzes the contents of the data packets and, if permitted, sends a
copy of the original data packets to the destination host.
• Proxy servers are considered very secure because they perform
application-level (Layer 7) inspection of the data packets, can be used to
implement strong user authentication, and mask the internal network
from untrusted networks. However, proxy servers have a negative
impact on overall performance of the network.
60 PALO ALTO NETWORKS®
Intrusion Detection and Prevention Systems
While traditional firewalls examine Layer 3 header information, intrusion
detection systems (IDS) and intrusion prevention systems (IPS) provide
real-time monitoring of network traffic and introduce the concept of
deep-packet inspection and analysis of network activity and data.
Traditional IDS and IPS
Traditional IDS and IPS is similar to anti-virus software in that it attempts
to match known-bad, or malicious, patterns found deep within packets.
An IDS/IPS is typically deployed to detect and block exploits of software
vulnerabilities on target networks.
The primary difference between IDS and IPS is that IDS is considered a
passive system, whereas IPS is an active system.
A passive IDS monitors and analyzes network activity and alerts the
security administrator to potential attacks and vulnerabilities on the
network, but it doesn’t typically perform any preventive action to stop an
attack.
An IPS, on the other hand, performs all of the same functions as an IDS but
also automatically blocks suspected attacks on the network in real-time.
However, IPS has some disadvantages that include:
• Must be placed inline along a network boundary and is thus directly
susceptible to attack itself
• False alarms must be properly identified and filtered to avoid
inadvertently blocking authorized users and applications
• May be used to affect a Denial of Service (DoS) attack by flooding the
IPS, causing it to block connections until no connection or bandwidth is
available
CYBERSECURITY SURVIVAL GUIDE 61
Classifications of IDS and IPS
IDS and IPS can also be classified as knowledge-based (or signaturebased) or behavior-based (or statistical anomaly-based) systems.
• A knowledge-based system uses a database of known vulnerabilities and
attack profiles to identify intrusion attempts. These types of systems
have lower false-alarm rates than behavior-based systems, but must be
continuously updated with new attack signature to be effective.
• A behavior-based system uses a baseline of normal network activity to
identify unusual patterns or levels of network activity that may be
indicative of an intrusion attempt. These types of systems are more
adaptive than knowledge-based systems and may therefore be more
effective in detecting previously unknown vulnerabilities and attacks, but
they have a much higher false positive rate than knowledge-based
systems.
Web Content Filters, URL Filters, and Web Proxies
Web content filters, URL filters, and web proxies attempt to restrict the
Internet activity of users on a corporate network. These security
solutions attempt to classify web sites based on broad categories that are
either allowed or blocked for various groups of users on the network.
For example, the marketing and HR departments may have access to
social media sites such as Facebook and LinkedIn for legitimate online
marketing and recruiting activities, while other users are blocked.
62 PALO ALTO NETWORKS®
Website Categories
Examples of website categories include:
• Gambling and online gaming
• Hacking
• Hate crimes and violence
• Pornographic
• Social media
• Web-based e-mail
Impact of Such Sites
In addition to lowering productivity, these sites may be prime targets for
malware that users may unwittingly fall victim to, via drive-by-downloads.
Certain sites may also create liabilities in the form of sexual harassment
or racial discrimination suits for companies that fail to protect other
employees from being exposed to pornographic or hate-based websites.
How Organizations Employ Such Sites
Organizations may elect to implement these solutions in a variety of
modes to either block content, warn users before accessing restricted
sites, or logging all activity. The disadvantage of blocking content is that
false positives require the user to contact a security administrator to
allow access to websites that have been improperly classified and
blocked, or need to be accessed for a legitimate business purpose.
URL filtering works on a similar concept to that of anti-virus signatures
except that the uniform resource locator (URL) or web address is
matched against a database of websites. These databases and categories
are typically maintained by the individual security vendors that provide
these types of security solutions.
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Virtual Private Networks
Virtual private network (VPN) software is often installed on mobile
endpoints, such as laptop computers, tablets, and smartphones, to extend
a corporate network beyond the physical boundaries of the organization.
A VPN creates a secure, encrypted connection (or tunnel) across the
Internet back to the corporate network. Once connected via a VPN, a
remote user can access network resources, such as file servers, printers,
and voice-over-IP (VoIP) phones, just the same as if they were physically
located in the office.
VPNs secure against intelligible data being intercepted while in transit,
but provide no security for what might go into, and then come out of,
a secure tunnel. While there are still limited use cases for older VPN
protocols such as PPTP (point-to-point tunneling protocol) and L2TP
(Layer 2 tunneling protocol), the two most common types of VPNs used in
enterprise networking are IPsec and SSL.
Key terms
Internet Protocol Security (IPsec) is a secure communications protocol that authenticates
and encrypts IP packets in a communication session. Secure Sockets Layer (SSL) is an
asymmetric encryption protocol used to secure communication sessions. SSL has been
superseded by Transport Layer Security (TLS), although SSL is still the more commonly used
terminology.
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IPsec VPN
An IPsec VPN requires compatible VPN client software to be installed
on the endpoint device. A group password or key is required for
configuration.
Client-to-server IPsec VPNs typically require user action to initiate the
connection, such as launching the client software and logging in using a
user name and password.
An IPsec VPN can be configured to force all of the user’s Internet traffic
back through the corporate firewall, providing optimal protection
through enterprise-grade tools residing at the enterprise datacenter, but
with some performance loss.
Alternatively, split tunneling can be configured to allow Internet traffic
from the device to go directly to the Internet, while other specific types
of enterprise traffic route through the IPsec tunnel, for acceptable
protection with much less performance degradation. In split-tunneling
cases, a personal firewall (discussed in the previous section) should be
configured and active, as this configuration can create a ‘side-door’ into an
enterprise network.
NOTE: A savvy hacker can essentially bridge themselves over the internet, through the
client machine, and into the enterprise network through the secure tunnel.
SSL VPN
An SSL VPN can be deployed as an agent-based or ‘agentless’ browserbased connection.
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An agentless SSL VPN only requires users to launch a web browser, open
a VPN portal or web page using the HTTPS protocol, and log into the
corporate network with their user credentials.
A dissolvable client is used within the browser session, which persists
only as long as the connection is active, and removes itself when the
connection is closed.
This type of VPN can be particularly useful for remote users that are
connecting from a device they do not own or control, such as a hotel kiosk,
where full client VPN software cannot be installed.
NOTE: SSL VPN technology has become the de facto standard and preferred method of
connecting client/user machines back to the enterprise remotely, while IPsec VPN maintains
its hold on the majority of site-to-site, or machine-to-machine VPN connections, such as
connecting an entire branch office network to a headquarters location network.
Data Loss Prevention
Network Data Loss Prevention (DLP) or Leakage solutions inspect data
that is leaving or egressing a network, for example via e-mail, file transfer,
Internet uploads, or copying to a USB thumb drive, and prevent certain
sensitive data–based on defined policies–from leaving the network.
Examples of sensitive data may include:
• Personal information such as names, addresses, birthdates, and social
security numbers
• Personal health records
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• Financial data such as bank account numbers and credit card numbers
• Intellectual property and other confidential or proprietary company
information
A DLP security solution prevents sensitive data from being transmitted
outside the network by a user, either inadvertently or maliciously.
A robust DLP solution can detect the presence of certain data patterns
even if the data is encrypted. However, these solutions introduce a
potential new vulnerability in the network as they have visibility into–and
the ability to decrypt–all data on the network.
Other methods rely on decryption happening elsewhere, such as on a
Web Security appliance or other man-in-the-middle decryption engine.
Often times DLP solutions require many moving parts to effectively route
traffic to and from inspection engines, which can add to the complexity of
troubleshooting network issues.
Unified Threat Management
Unified Threat Management (UTM) devices are all-inclusive security
solutions. They combine the security functionality of:
• a (stateful inspection) firewall
• IDS, anti-virus
• anti-spam
• VPN, content filtering
• DLP into a single appliance
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UTM devices do not necessarily perform any of these security functions
better than their standalone counterparts:
• In some cases lack the rich feature sets to make them more affordable.
• Since all functions in a UTM pull from the same set of processor and
memory resources, enabling all the functions of a UTM can result in up to
a 97 percent drop in throughput/performance as compared to top-end
throughput without security features enabled.
• Despite these functions all residing on the same platform, the individual
engines operate in silos with little or no integration or cooperation
between them.
For all of their shortcomings, UTM devices serve a purpose in the smallto-medium enterprise as a convenient and inexpensive solution giving an
organization an all-in-one security device.
Next-Generation Network Security
The next-generation firewall is well defined by Gartner as something new
and enterprise-focused “incorporating full-stack inspection to support
intrusion prevention, application-level inspection and granular policy control.”
Most network security vendors are now offering some level of application
awareness and control by either adding application signatures to their
IPS engine, or offering you an add-on license for an application control
module. In either case, these options are “bolt-on” features to a portbased firewall, and do little to help you focus on the fundamental tasks a
firewall is designed to execute.
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How effectively a business operates is heavily dependent upon the
applications its employees use and the content that the applications
themselves carry. Merely allowing some, then blocking others, may inhibit
the business.
Evaluating Next-Generation Firewalls
When evaluating next-generation firewalls, consider the following:
• Will the next-generation firewall increase visibility and understanding of
the application traffic on your network?
• Will administrator be required to define exactly which applications the
next-generation firewall should look for, or will the next-generation
firewall provide the administrator with visibility over all applications that
are flowing by default?
• Will the traffic control policy response options be broader than just allow
or deny?
• Will your network be protected from threats and cyberattacks—both
known and unknown?
• Can you systematically identify and manage unknown traffic?
• Can you implement the desired security policies without compromising
on performance?
• Will the administrative efforts your team devotes to firewall
management be reduced?
• Will your job of managing risk be easier and more effective?
• Can the policies you enable help contribute to the business bottom line?
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Characteristics of Next-Generation Firewalls
Next-generation network security is defined by several characteristics
including:
• A departure from reliance on mere port and protocol for allow/block
decisions, replaced by allow/block based on applications, users, and
content.
• A truly integrated set of security tools, on a single platform, where
individual security functions support their peer functions and share
threat intelligence automatically, and in immediately usable ways.
• A unique hardware architecture which supports low latency, multifunction processing through an ASIC-based (application specific
integrated circuit), single-pass parallel processing architecture.
• Full-stack analysis of packets performed upfront, and in both directions,
allowing efficient subsequent processing and maximum visibility.
3 Firewall Selection Criteria
Firewall selection criteria will typically fall into three areas:
• Security Functions: The security functional elements correspond to the
efficacy of the security controls, and the ability to manage the risk
associated with the applications traversing the network.
• Operations: From an operations perspective, the big question is, “where
does application policy live, and how hard or complex is it to manage?”
• Performance: The performance difference is simple: Can the firewall do
what it is supposed to do at the required throughput the organization
requires?
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10 Things a Next-Generation Firewall Must Do
While each organization will have varied requirements and priorities
within the three selection criteria, the ten things a next-generation
firewall (or any firewall for that matter) must do are:
Identify & Control Applications on Ports
Application developers no longer adhere to standard port/protocol/
application development methodologies. More and more applications are
capable of operating on non-standard ports or can hop ports (e.g., instant
messaging applications, peer-to-peer file sharing, or VoIP). Additionally,
users are increasingly savvy enough to force applications to run over nonstandard ports (e.g., RDP, SSH).
In order to enforce application specific firewall policies where ports are
increasingly irrelevant, a firewall must assume that any application can
run on any port. The concept of any application on any port is one of
the fundamental changes in the application landscape that is driving the
migration from port-based firewalls to next-generation firewalls.
Any application on any port also underscores why a negative control
model cannot solve the problem. If an application can move to any port, a
product based on negative control would require beforehand knowledge
or would have to run all signatures on all ports, all the time.
You must assume that any application can run on any port and your
firewall must classify traffic by application on all ports all the time, by
default. Port-based controls will continue to be outwitted by the same
techniques that have plagued them for years.
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Identify and Control Circumventors
A small number of the applications on the network may be used to
purposely evade the very security policies that are put in place to protect
an organization’s digital assets.
Two classes of applications fall into the security evasion tools—those that
are expressly designed to evade security (e.g., external proxies, non-VPN
related encrypted tunnels) and those that can be adapted to easily
achieve the same goal (e.g., remote server/desktop management tools):
• External proxies and non-VPN related encrypted tunnel applications are
specifically used to circumvent in-place security controls using a range of
evasion techniques. These applications have no business value as they
are designed to evade security, introducing unseen business and security
risks.
• Remote server/desktop management tools, such as RDP and
TeamViewer, are typically used by support and IT professionals to work
more efficiently. They are also frequently used by employees to bypass
the firewall, establishing connections to their home or other computer
outside of the network.
To be clear, not all of these applications carry the same risks—remote
access applications have legitimate uses, as do many encrypted tunnel
applications. However, these same tools are increasingly being adopted
by attackers as part of ongoing persistent attacks. Without the ability to
control these security evasion tools, organizations cannot enforce their
security policies, exposing themselves to the very risks they thought their
controls mitigated.
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Understanding Circumvention Applications
There are different types of circumvention applications—each using slightly
different techniques.
There are both public and private external proxies (see proxy.org for a
large database of public proxies) that can use both HTTP and HTTPS.
• Private proxies are often set up on unclassified IP addresses (e.g., home
computers) with applications like PHProxy or CGIProxy.
• Remote access applications like RDP, TeamViewer or GoToMyPC have
legitimate uses, but due to the associated risk, should be managed more
closely.
• Most other circumventors (e.g., Ultrasurf, Tor, and Hamachi) have no
legitimate business use case. Regardless of your organization’s security
policy stance, your firewall needs to have specific techniques to identify
and control all of these applications, regardless of port, protocol,
encryption, or other evasive tactic.
One more consideration: applications that enable circumvention are
regularly updated to make them harder to detect and control, so it is
important to understand not only that your firewall can identify these
circumvention applications, but, it is also important to know how often
that firewall’s application intelligence is updated and maintained.
Decrypt Outbound SSL and Control SSH
Many applications use SSL in some way, shape, or form on today’s
corporate networks.
Given the increasing adoption of HTTPS for many high-risk, high-reward
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applications that end-users employ (e.g., Gmail, Facebook), and users’
ability to force SSL on many websites, there is large and growing blind
spot in firewalls that don’t have the ability to decrypt, classify, control, and
scan SSL-encrypted traffic.
A next-generation firewall must be flexible enough that certain types of
SSL-encrypted traffic can be left alone (e.g., web traffic from financial
services or health care organizations) while other types (e.g., SSL on nonstandard ports, HTTPS from unclassified websites in Eastern Europe) can
be decrypted via policy.
SSH is used nearly universally and can be easily configured by end-users
for non-work purposes in the same manner that a remote desktop tool
is used. The fact that SSH is encrypted also makes it a useful tool to hide
non-work related activity.
The ability to decrypt SSL is a foundational element—not just because
it’s an increasingly significant percentage of enterprise traffic, but also
because it enables a few other key features that would end up incomplete
or ineffective without the ability to decrypt SSL. Key elements to look
for include recognition and decryption of SSL on any port, inbound and
outbound; policy control over decryption, and the necessary hardware
and software elements to perform SSL decryption across tens of
thousands of simultaneous SSL connections with predictable
performance.
Additional requirements to consider are the ability to identify and control
the use of SSH. Specifically, SSH control should include the ability to
determine if it is being used for port forwarding (local, remote, X11) or
native use (SCP, SFTP and shell access). Knowledge of how SSH is being
used can then be translated into appropriate security policies.
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Provide Application Function Control
Application platform developers such as Google, Facebook,
Salesforce.com or Microsoft provide users with a rich set of features and
functions that help to ensure user loyalty but may represent very
different risk profiles.
For example, allowing Webex is a valuable business tool, but using Webex
Desktop Sharing to take over an employees’ desktop from an external
source may be an internal or regulatory compliance violation. Another
example may be Google Mail (Gmail) and Google Talk (Gtalk). Once a
user is signed into Gmail, which may be allowed by policy, they can easily
switch context to Gtalk, which may not be allowed. A firewall must be able
to recognize and delineate individual features and functions so that an
appropriate policy response can be implemented.
A next-generation firewall must continually classify each application,
monitoring for changes that may indicate a different function is now being
used. The concept of “one and done” traffic classification is not an option
as it ignores the fact that these commonly used applications share
sessions and support multiple functions.
If a different function or feature is introduced in the session, the firewall
must note it within the state tables and perform a policy check. Continual
state tracking to understand the different functions that each application
may support, and the different associated risks, is a critical requirement.
CYBERSECURITY SURVIVAL GUIDE 75
Systematically Manage Unknown Traffic
Unknown traffic exists on every network and represents a significant risk.
There are several important elements to consider with unknown
traffic—is it categorized, can you minimize it through policy control, can
your firewall easily characterize custom applications so they are “known”
within your security policy, and does your firewall help you determine if
the unknown traffic is a threat?
Unknown traffic is also strongly tied to threats in the
network
Attackers are often forced to modify a protocol in order to exploit a target
application. For example, to attack a webserver, an attacker may need to
modify the HTTP header so much that the resulting traffic is no longer
identified as web traffic. Such an anomaly can be an early indication of an
attack. Similarly, malware will often use customized protocols as part of
their command and control model, enabling security teams to root out any
unknown malware infections.
By default, a firewall must classify all traffic on all ports—this is one area
where the earlier architecture and security control model discussion
becomes very important. Positive (default deny) models classify
everything, negative (default allow) models classify only what they’re told
to classify.
Classifying everything is only a small part of the challenge that unknown
traffic introduces. A firewall must give you the ability to see all unknown
traffic, on all ports, in one management location and quickly analyze the
traffic to determine if it is one of the following:
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• an internal or custom application
• a commercial application without a signature
• a threat.
Additionally, a firewall must provide the necessary tools to not only see
the unknown traffic, but to systematically manage it by controlling it via
policy, creating a custom signature, submitting a commercial application
packet capture (PCAP) for further analysis, or performing forensic
investigation to determine if it a threat.
Scan for Viruses/Malware in Apps on Ports
Enterprises continue to adopt a wide range of applications to enable the
business—they may be hosted internally, or outside of a physical location.
Whether it’s hosted SharePoint, Box.net, Google Docs, Microsoft
Office365, or even an extranet application hosted by a partner, many
organizations have a requirement to use an application that may use nonstandard ports, SSL or can share files. In other words, these applications
may enable the business, but they can also act as a threat vector.
Furthermore, some of these applications (e.g., SharePoint) rely on
supporting technologies that are regular targets for exploits (e.g., IIS, SQL
Server). Blocking the application isn’t appropriate, but neither is blindly
allowing the applications along with the (potential) associated business
and cybersecurity risks.
This tendency to use non-standard ports is highly accentuated in the
world of malware. Since malware resides in the network, and most
communication involves a malicious client (the malware) communicating
CYBERSECURITY SURVIVAL GUIDE 77
to a malicious server (command and control), then the attacker has full
freedom to use any port and protocol combination he chooses.
Part of safe enablement is allowing an application and scanning it for
threats. These applications can communicate over a combination of
protocols (e.g., SharePoint uses CIFS, HTTP and HTTPS, and requires a
more sophisticated firewall policy than “block the application.”)
The first step is to identify the application (regardless of port or
encryption), determine the functions you may want to allow or deny, and
then scan the allowed components for any of the appropriate
threats—exploits, viruses/malware, or spyware–or even confidential,
regulated, or sensitive information.
Enable the same application visibility and control
Users are increasingly located outside the four walls of the enterprise,
often times accessing the corporate network on smartphones or tablets.
Once the domain of road warriors, this is now a significant portion of
the workforce is capable of working remotely. Whether working from a
coffee shop, home, or a customer site, users expect to connect to their
applications via Wi-Fi, wireless broadband, or by any means necessary.
Regardless of where the user is, or even where the application they’re
employing might be, the same standard of firewall control should apply.
If your firewall enables application visibility and control over traffic inside
the four walls of the enterprise, but not outside, it misses the mark on
some of the riskiest traffic.
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Your firewall must have consistent visibility and control over traffic
regardless of where the user is. This is not to say that the organization
will have the exact same policy for both; for example, some organizations
might want employees to use Skype when on the road, but not inside
headquarters, whereas others might have a policy that says if outside the
office, users may not download salesforce.com attachments unless they
have hard disk encryption turned on.
This should be achievable on your firewall without introducing significant
latency for the end user or undue operational hassles for the
administrator.
Make network security simpler
Many enterprises struggle with incorporating more information feeds,
policies, and management into overloaded security processes and people.
In other words, if a team cannot manage what they’ve already got, adding
more devices, managing interfaces along with associated policies and
information doesn’t help reduce the administrative effort, nor does it help
reduce incident response time.
The more distributed the policy is (e.g., port-based firewall allows port 80
traffic, IPS looks for/blocks threats and applications, secure web gateway
enforces URL filtering), the harder it is to manage that policy.
• Which policy does the security team use to enable WebEx?
• How do they determine and resolve policy conflicts across these
different devices?
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Given that typical port-based firewall installations have rule bases that
include thousands of rules, adding thousands of application signatures
across tens of thousands of ports increases complexity by several orders
of magnitude.
Deliver the same throughput and performance
Many organizations struggle with the forced compromise between
performance and security. All too often, turning up security features on a
firewall means accepting significantly lower throughput and performance.
If a next-generation firewall is built the right way, this compromise is
unnecessary.
The importance of architecture is obvious here too—in a different way.
Cobbling together a port-based firewall and other security functions from
different technology origins usually means there are redundant
networking layers, scanning engines and policies—which translate to poor
performance. From a software perspective, the firewall must be designed
to do this from the beginning.
Furthermore, given the requirement for computationally intensive tasks
(e.g., application identification, threat prevention on all ports, etc.)
performed on high traffic volumes and with the low tolerance for latency
associated with critical infrastructure, a firewall must have hardware
designed for the task as well—meaning dedicated, specific processing for
networking, security and content scanning.
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Support the same functionality
The explosive growth of virtualization and cloud computing introduces
new security challenges that are difficult or impossible for legacy firewalls
to effectively manage due to inconsistent functionality, disparate
management, and a lack of integration points with the virtualization
environment. In order to protect traffic flowing in and out of the data
center as well as within virtualized environments, a firewall must support
the exact same functionality in both a hardware and virtualized form
factor.
The dynamic setup and tear down of applications within a virtualized
datacenter exacerbates the challenges of identifying and controlling
applications using a port- and IP address-centric approach. In addition to
delivering the features described above in both hardware and virtualized
form factors, it is imperative that a firewall provide in-depth integration
with the virtualization environment to streamline the creation of
application-centric policies as new virtual machines and applications are
established and taken down.
This is the only way to ensure you can support evolving data center
architectures with operational flexibility while addressing risk and
compliance requirements.
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Summary
• Endpoint security refers to protection mechanisms which reside on
systems or devices. Examples: anti-virus software, anti-spyware
software, desktop firewall, or host intrusion prevention.
• Signature based detection and prevention compares files with knownbad databases. Next-generation Exploit prevention obstructs the
processes which allow an attack to occur.
• Network security refers to protection mechanisms which reside ‘on the
wire’. Examples: firewall, web security gateway, anti-spam gateway, or
network intrusion prevention systems.
• Virtual Private Network or VPN is a method of providing encrypted
tunnels between systems which secures data in transit from being
intelligible if intercepted.
• Unified Threat Management or UTM devices combine multiple network
security functions on a single platform.
• Next-generation network security implies new methods of processing
network traffic and preventing threats which are truly integrated,
providing broad visibility to network activity, and thus greater control.
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Discussion
1. The Wall Street Journal published a quote May 4, 2014 by Brian Dye, Sr.
VP of Information Security at Symantec: “Antivirus is dead”. Why would
Mr. Dye make such a statement, when Symantec is well known for its
Norton Antivirus product?
2. What is the difference between a virus and spyware, and how might the
methods of preventing each differ?
3. Describe some methods and examples of how endpoint security and
network security work together to provide protection to enterprise
computing resources.
4. In the not-so-distant past, there was a debate in the industry as to
whether or not to even provide employees with access to the internet.
How has that debate changed today, and what security functions have
shaped that debate?
5. Next-generation firewalls replace port-and-protocol based allow/block
decision making, with allow/block based on applications, users, and
content. Why that was change necessary?
CYBERSECURITY SURVIVAL GUIDE 83
Knowledge Check
Try the following knowledge checks:
1. True or False: A Zero-day attack is one that lasts less than a day.
2. Name one advantage and one disadvantage of running HIPS on endpoint
machines.
3. Two examples of next-generation endpoint security are Application
Whitelisting and Exploit Prevention. How do their methods differ?
4. Name three traditional network security countermeasures.
5. Which of the following is not a defining characteristic of next-generation
network security?
A) Integrated security tools.
B) Low latency packet processing with minimal throughput loss.
C) Adherence to strict port-and-protocol enforcement for allow/block
decisions.
D) Bi-directional full-stack analysis of packets.
6. Name three commonly used applications which have the capability of
circumventing security policy.
7. True or False: Secure Socket Layer (SSL) protects networks from attack.
8. True or False: Adherence to usage policies always requires blocking
applications from operating at all.
9. What is the difference between a positive enforcement model and a
negative enforcement model?
10. Name one of the greatest single challenges to securing virtualized data
center environments.
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3. Cybersecurity Best Practices &
Principles
Enterprise Security Design Elements
After being exposed to the various threats and security breaches that
could impact your daily life in the previous chapters, it would be nice to
read about some recommended principles and security solutions. Using
the best practices referred to in this section, you can design and
implement a secure network for an organization using the best practices
and principles accounted for in this chapter. Before undertaking any
complex project s, refer to the best practices in documented enterprise
security designs.
One of the most impactful strategies is zero-trust networking. This is
explained in this section where we counter it with perimeter-based
security approaches dealt with in earlier times.
CYBERSECURITY SURVIVAL GUIDE 85
Zero Trust-Based Approach–The Old Way
The Zero trust security model is the preferred model for security in today’s
threat-riddled environment.
According to the 2014 Cyberthreat Defense Report, more than 60
percent of organizations fell victim to one or more successful
cyberattacks in 2013. Given the extent to which today’s organizations
continue to rely on perimeter-centric strategies, this is no surprise. The
failure of resulting architectures is due not only to an outdated
assumption that everything on the inside of an organization’s network can
be trusted, but also the inability of legacy countermeasures to provide
adequate visibility, control, and protection of application traffic on the
network.
The perimeter-based approaches to security that were allowable
yesterday are no longer effective.
Perimeter-Based Approach–The Old Way
Perimeter-based trust relies on the assumption that everything on the
internal network can be trusted.
The primary issue with a perimeter-centric security strategy–where
countermeasures are deployed at a handful of well-defined ingress/
egress points to the network–is that it relies on the assumption that
everything on the internal network can be trusted. However, this
assumption is no longer a safe one to make given modern business
conditions and computing environments where:
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• Remote employees, mobile users, and cloud computing solutions blur the
distinction between “internal” and “external”
• wireless technologies, the proliferation of partner connections, and the
need to support guest users introduce countless additional pathways
into the network branch offices may be located in untrusted countries or
regions
• insiders, whether intentionally malicious or just careless, may present a
very real security threat
Failures in Perimeter-Based Approach
Perimeter-based approach strategies fail to account for:
• The potential for sophisticated cyber threats to penetrate perimeter
defenses—in which case they would then have free passage on the
internal network
• scenarios where malicious users are able to gain access to the internal
network and sensitive resources by using the stolen credentials of
trusted users
• the reality that internal networks are rarely homogeneous but instead
include pockets of users and resources with inherently different levels of
trust/sensitivity which should ideally be separated in any event (e.g.,
research and development and financial systems versus print/file
servers)
Inadequate Capabilities of Perimeter-Based Approach
It’s important to realize that a broken trust model is not the only issue
responsible for the diminishing effectiveness of perimeter-centric
CYBERSECURITY SURVIVAL GUIDE 87
approaches to network security. Another contributing factor is that
legacy devices and technologies commonly used to build network
perimeters let too much unwanted traffic through. Typical shortcomings
in this regard include the inability to:
• Definitively distinguish good applications from bad ones (which leads to
overly permissive access control settings)
• adequately account for encrypted application traffic
• accurately identify and control users (regardless of where they’re
located or what devices they’re using)
• filter allowed traffic not only for known application-borne threats, but
also unknown ones
The net result is that merely re-architecting one’s defenses in a way that
delivers pervasive internal trust boundaries will not be sufficient. Care
must be taken to also ensure that the devices and technologies used to
implement these boundaries actually provide the visibility, control, and
threat inspection capabilities needed to securely enable essential
business applications while still thwarting modern malware, targeted
attacks, and the unauthorized exfiltration of sensitive business data.
Zero Trust Security Model–The New Way
First introduced by Forrester Research, Zero Trust is an alternative
security model that addresses the shortcomings of failing perimetercentric strategies by removing the assumption of trust from the equation.
With Zero Trust, essential security capabilities are deployed in a way that
provides policy enforcement and protection for all users, devices,
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applications, data resources, and the communications traffic between
them, regardless of location. Benefits of implementing a Zero Trust
network include:
• Clearly improved effectiveness in mitigating data loss via visibility and
safe enablement of applications, and detection and prevention of
advanced threats;
• greater efficiency for achieving compliance with security and privacy
mandates;
• increased ability to securely enable transformative IT initiatives—such as
user mobility and infrastructure virtualization
Effective Security for Modern Networks–Zero Trust
A promising alternative model for IT security, Zero Trust is intended to
remedy the deficiencies with perimeter-centric strategies and the legacy
devices and technologies used to implement them. It does this by
promoting “never trust, always verify” as its guiding principle. This differs
substantially from conventional security models which operate on the
basis of “trust but verify.”
In particular, with Zero Trust there is no default trust for any
entity—including users, devices, applications, and packets—regardless of
what it is and its location on or relative to the corporate network. In
addition, verifying that authorized entities are always doing only what
they’re allowed to do is no longer optional; it’s now mandatory.
The implications for these two changes are, respectively:
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1. The need to establish trust boundaries that effectively compartmentalize
different segments of the internal computing environment. The general
idea is to move security functionality closer to the different pockets of
resources that require protection. This way it can always be enforced
regardless of the point of origin of associated communications traffic.
2. The need for trust boundaries to do more than just initial authorization
and access control enforcement. To “always verify” also requires ongoing
monitoring and inspection of associated communications traffic for
subversive activities (i.e., threats).
The Premise of Zero Trust Security
The core Zero Trust principles listed in the following sections define the
operational objectives of a Zero Trust implementation.
Concept #1: Ensure that all resources are accessed securely
regardless of location.
This suggests not only the need for multiple trust boundaries but also
increased use of secure access for communication to/from resources,
even when sessions are confined to the “internal” network. It also means
ensuring that only devices with the right status and settings (e.g, ones that
are managed by corporate IT, have an approved VPN client and proper
passcodes, and are not running malware) are allowed access to the
network.
Concept #2: Adopt a least privilege strategy and strictly enforce
access control.
The goal in this case is to absolutely minimize allowed access to resources
as a means to reduce the pathways available for malware and attackers
to gain unauthorized access—and subsequently to spread laterally and/or
infiltrate sensitive data.
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Concept #3: Inspect and log all traffic.
This reiterates the need to “always verify” while also making it clear that
adequate protection requires more than just strict enforcement of access
control. Close and continuous attention must also be paid to exactly what
is happening in “allowed” applications, and the only way to do this is to
inspect the content for threats.
Least privilege… or just least effective?Traditional security gateways and other devices that
rely on stateful inspection technology are actually incapable of enforcing a least privileges
policy (i.e., where only what’s needed to support this business is allowed to pass).The issue
with these devices is that their classification engines only understand IP addresses, ports,
and protocols—and, therefore, can’t distinguish the specific applications that reside behind/
within these low-level “wrappers.”With a stateful inspection device, for example, a rule
permitting traffic using the HTTP protocol on TCP port 80 would allow the passage of not
only a legitimate e-commerce application, but potentially numerous other web applications
and utilities as well, such as those used for web mail, social networking, and countless other
purposes.The net result is that such devices are, in fact, poor candidates for implementing a
Zero Trust security model.
Zero Trust Conceptual Architecture
To help understand what Zero Trust looks like in practice, a conceptual
architecture is shown in
Figure 3-1.
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Figure 3-1: “Zero Trust” conceptual architecture.
The main components include the Zero Trust Segmentation Platform,
trust zones, and associated management infrastructure.
Zero Trust Segmentation Platform
Referred to as a network segmentation gateway by Forrester Research,
the Zero Trust Segmentation Platform is the component used to define
internal trust boundaries. In other words, it is what provides the majority
of the security functionality needed to deliver on the Zero Trust
operational objectives—including the ability to:
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• enable secure network access
• granularly control traffic flow to/from resources
• continuously monitor allowed sessions for any of threat activity
Although Figure 3-1 depicts the Zero Trust Segmentation Platform as
a single component in a single physical location, in practice—due to
performance, scalability, and physical limitations—an effective
implementation is more likely to entail multiple instances distributed
throughout an organization’s network. In addition, the solution is
designated as a “platform” not only to reflect that it is an aggregation of
multiple distinct (and potentially distributed) security technologies, but
also that they operate as part of a holistic threat protection framework
to reduce the attack surface and correlate information about threats that
are found.
Trust Zones
Referred to as a micro core and perimeter (MCAP) by Forrester
Research, a trust zone is a distinct pocket of infrastructure where the
member resources not only operate at the same trust level but also share
similar functionality. Sharing functionality such as protocols and types
of transactions is imperative because this is what is needed to actually
minimize the number of allowed pathways into and out of a given zone
and, in turn, minimize the potential for malicious insiders and other types
of threats to gain unauthorized access to sensitive resources.
Examples of trust zones shown in Figure 3-1 include the user (or campus)
zone, a wireless zone for guest access, a cardholder data zone, database
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and application zones for multi-tier services, and a zone for public-facing
web applications.
It is important to note, too, that a trust zone is not intended to be a
“pocket of trust” where systems (and therefore threats) within the zone
are able to communicate freely/directly with each other. For a full zero
trust implementation, the network would be configured to ensure that
ALL communications traffic—including that between devices in the same
zone—is intermediated by the corresponding Zero Trust Segmentation
Platform.
Management Infrastructure
Centralized management capabilities are crucial to enabling efficient
administration and ongoing monitoring, particularly for implementations
involving multiple distributed Zero Trust Segmentation Platforms. In
addition, a data acquisition network provides a convenient way to
supplement the native monitoring and analysis capabilities for a Zero
Trust Segmentation Platform. By forwarding all session logs to a data
acquisition network, this data can then be processed by any number of
out-of-band analysis tools and technologies intended, for example, to
further enhance network visibility, detect unknown threats, or support
compliance reporting.
Zero Trust with Next-Generation Firewalls
Because the heart of any Zero Trust network security architecture is the
Zero Trust Segmentation Platform, it is imperative that organizations
choose the right solution. Accordingly, this section identifies a set of key
criteria and capabilities for IT security managers and architects to
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consider when making a selection. In each case, a brief synopsis is also
provided of how a next-generation security platform meets the
corresponding requirements. The following are the comprehensive
security functionality.
Secure Access
Consistent secure IPsec and SSL VPN connectivity is provided for all
employees, partners, customers, and guests wherever they’re located
(e.g., at remote/branch offices, on the local network, or over the Internet).
Policies to determine which users and devices can access sensitive
applications and data can be defined based on application, user, content,
device, and device state.
Inspection of all Traffic
Application identification accurately identifies and classifies all traffic,
regardless of ports and protocols, evasive tactics such as port hopping, or
encryption. This eliminates methods that malware may use to hide from
detection and provides complete context into applications, associated
content, and threats.
Least Privileges Access Control
The combination of application-, user-, and content identification delivers
a positive control model that allows organizations to control interactions
with resources based on an extensive range of business-relevant
attributes, including the specific application and individual functions
being used, user and group identity, and the specific types or pieces of
data being accessed (e.g., credit card or social security numbers)
Compared to traditional firewalls which let too much traffic through
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because they’re limited to port and protocol level classification, the result
is truly granular access control that safely enables the right applications
for the right sets of users while automatically eliminating unwanted,
unauthorized, and potentially harmful traffic from gaining access to the
network.
Advanced Threat Protection
A combination of anti-virus/malware, intrusion prevention, and advanced
threat prevention technologies provide comprehensive protection
against both known and unknown threats, including threats on mobile
devices. In addition, support for a closed-loop, highly integrated defense
ensures that inline enforcement devices and other components in the
threat protection framework are automatically updated.
Coverage for all IT domains
Virtual and hardware appliances enable trust boundaries to consistently
and cost-effectively be established throughout an organization’s entire
network, including in remote/branch offices, for mobile users, at the
Internet perimeter, in the cloud, at the ingress to the datacenter, and for
individual enclaves wherever they might exist.
High-performance design
By definition, a Zero Trust Segmentation Platform aggregates numerous
security and networking capabilities. However, it must also be capable
of delivering all of these features without becoming a performance
bottleneck. Several design elements of a high-performance Zero Trust
Segmentation platform should include:
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• Single-pass software architecture. This minimizes latency and
processing requirements as there is no need for traffic streams to be
processed multiple times (e.g., once for each security function).
• Separate control and data planes and function-specific, parallel
processing hardware engines (i.e., custom chips). This provides core
packet processing, acceleration of standard security functions, and
dedicated content scanning.
Flexible, non-disruptive deployment
Ideally, it should be possible to implement a Zero Trust approach in a way
that requires no modification to the existing network and is completely
transparent to your users. Opportunities to take advantage of major
network overhauls are rare, and disrupting operations is not a good
career choice. Thus, IT security managers will need to make due as best
they can, typically by converting to Zero Trust on the fly. A nextgeneration security platform can support this requirement in numerous
ways. For example:
• A single hardware appliance can support multiple different connection
modes (Layer 1, Layer 2, or Layer 3), thereby maximizing its ability to
accommodate trust zones with different needs.
• Support for a broad range of networking technologies (e.g., L2/L3
switching, dynamic routing, 802.1Q VLANS, trunked ports, and traffic
shaping) guarantees the ability to integrate into practically any
environment.
• Multiple management domains (see Figure 1) can be accommodated by
taking advantage of a virtual systems capability that enables separate,
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isolated Zero Trust virtual instances on a physical appliance. Virtual
systems allow you to segment the administration of all policies (security,
NAT, QoS, etc.) as well as all reporting and visibility functions.
A Progressive Approach for Implementing Zero Trust
In terms of moving forward with a Zero Trust design, it is important for
IT security managers and architects to realize that it’s not necessary to
instigate or wait for the next comprehensive overhaul of their
organization’s network and security infrastructure. Indeed, one of the
great advantages of a Zero Trust architecture is that it is conducive to
progressive implementation.
To get started, IT security teams can configure a Zero Trust Segmentation
Platform in listen-only mode to obtain a detailed picture of transaction
flows throughout the network, including where, when and to what extent
specific users are using specific applications and data resources.
Armed with these details, the security team would then be in an excellent
position to incrementally:
• deploy devices in appropriate locations to establish internal trust
boundaries for identified trust zones
• configure the appropriate enforcement and inspection policies to
effectively put each trust boundary “online”
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Advantages
Advantages of a progressive approach such as this include minimizing the
potential impact on IT operations and being able to spread the required
investment and work effort over time.
An Alternative Approach
For those security teams that already have a good understanding of the
transaction flows in their environment, an alternate approach is to map
out trust zones and begin to establish corresponding trust boundaries
based on relative risk and/or sensitivity of the data involved. A logical
starting point in this case is to begin by identifying well-defined pockets of
users and systems involving high concentrations of sensitive data—such
as the 4Ps:
• Payment card industry (PCI) or other financial data
• Personal healthcare information (PHI)
• Personally identifiable information (PII)
• Intellectual property (IP)
From there, it then makes sense to consider progressively establishing
trust zones/boundaries for other segments of the computing
environment based on their relative degree of risk–for example:
• IT management systems/networks (where administrators often hold the
proverbial “keys to the kingdom” and a successful attack could lead to
compromise of the entire network)
• Partner resources and connections (B2B)
• High-profile, customer-facing resources and connections (B2C)
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• Branch offices in risky countries or regions, followed by all other branch
offices
• Guest access networks (both wireless and wired)
• Campus networks
Adopting Zero Trust principles and concepts at major access points to the
Internet also makes sense. However, this will probably require replacing
or augmenting entrenched, legacy security devices with a Zero Trust
Segmentation Platform to obtain all of the requisite capabilities.
Benefits of Adopting Zero Trust Principles and Practices
There are several technical and business advantages associated with
using a Zero Trust security architecture. These include being able to:
• Incrementally and non-disruptively make the transition to a Zero Trust
model
• Obtain unparalleled situational awareness of enterprise computing
activity, legitimate and otherwise
• Fully implement all Zero Trust principles and concepts, including strict
enforcement of a least privileges access control policy (which is essential
to reducing attack surface)
• Dramatically enhance the organization’s security posture and ability to
prevent the exfiltration of sensitive data
• Simplify achieving and maintaining compliance with applicable standards
and regulations (by using highly effective trust boundaries to segment off
sensitive resources)
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• Securely enable and easily adapt to accommodate business-driven IT
initiatives—such as user mobility, social networking, infrastructure
virtualization, and cloud computing
• Reduce total cost of ownership (by using a single consolidated security
platform across the entire computing environment, instead of a disparate
collection of disconnected point products)
Perimeter-centric security strategies continue to be sorely challenged.
The issue is not only increasingly sophisticated cyber threats, but also
major changes to the technology and business landscape—such as user
mobility, hyper inter-connectivity, and globalization—that invalidate the
assumption that everything “on the inside” can be trusted. The bottom
line is that such strategies—along with the legacy technologies used to
implement them—are, for the most part, no longer effective.
Organizations looking to substantially improve their defensive posture
against modern cyber threats and more reliably prevent exfiltration of
sensitive data should consider migrating to a Zero Trust security
architecture. An alternative model for IT security, Zero Trust eliminates
the faulty assumption of trust and rectifies the shortcomings of
traditional perimeter-centric architectures by promoting the use of a
Zero Trust Segmentation Platform to establish secure “trust boundaries”
throughout a computing environment and, in general, in closer proximity
to sensitive resources.
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Next-Generation Network Security Principles
In this section we introduce methods and best practices to control
botnets and related malware. This methodology is designed to
supplement existing security strategies of an enterprise, as part of a
modern coordinated approach to defense-in-depth. The methodology
addresses techniques to limit the exposure to botnets, as well as the
detection and remediation of endpoints that may already be infected.
Incorporating Next-Generation Firewalls
As malware evolves from individual endpoints to coordinated bot
networks, enterprises similarly need to expand their analytical
perspective to incorporate network level intelligence and controls.
Network security allows us to focus on the very trait that distinguishes
botnets from earlier forms of malware–its reliance on communication
with a larger bot network. To twist John Gage’s famous phrase, “the
network is the computer”, in a very real sense the threat has become a
network. If our security measures don’t operate at this same level, we run
a very real risk of missing the forest for the trees.
Additionally, network security mechanisms provide an independent layer
of monitoring and control, unlike the end-points themselves, which can
be compromised by malware. Botnets and modern malware can include
rootkits, whose purpose is to gain root access on the target machine in
an effort to subvert anti-virus protections or other security mechanisms
on the machine. This creates a “Catch 22” for the security team since any
security software running on a compromised host cannot truly be trusted.
This certainly shouldn’t imply that host-based security is obsolete, but
rather simply to point out that the host layer certainly needs additional
layers of defense in depth.
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The points above could apply to network security in general. However,
the next-generation firewall in particular provides arguably the most
important addition to the fight against botnets–the reliable visibility and
control of all traffic on the network regardless of the evasive tactics that
are employed. By understanding the full stack behavior of all traffic on
the network, we can finely control the behaviors that are allowed in the
corporate environment, while simultaneously eliminating the shadows
that botnets rely on to remain hidden. Bots quite simply must talk in order
to function, and finding these telltale communications is becoming a
critical component of controlling botnets and the threats they pose to the
enterprise.
Classification of Traffic
A next-generation firewall performs a true classification of traffic based
not simply on signatures, but an ongoing process of application analysis,
decryption, decoding and heuristics to progressively peel back the layers
of a traffic stream to determine its true identity (see Figure 3-2). This
ability to pinpoint and analyze even unknown traffic without regard to
port or encryption is a defining characteristic of a true next-generation
firewall, and as we shall see this ability is invaluable in the fight against
botnets.
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Figure 3-2: Next-generation firewalls classify the true nature of traffic
using a variety of identification methods
Integration
Additionally, a true next-generation firewall provides a fully integrated
approach to threat prevention. The distinction in this case is the true
coordination of multiple security disciplines as opposed to simply colocating them on the same box. For example the application identity,
malware detection, intrusion prevention, URL filtering, file type controls
and inspection of the content should all be integrated into a unified
context. This integration provides a far more intelligent and definitive
understanding of botnets than any individual technology can provide by
itself. This collective intelligence is needed in order to see and understand
the telltale signs of unknown threats.
Reduction and Elimination
One of the most important steps that an enterprise can take to control
malware is to reduce the vectors of infection and eliminate the ability for
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the bots to hide. Today, the majority of the attack vectors used by botnets
are virtually unchecked, and botnet traffic is typically small enough that
it can easily blend into the background of “normal” network traffic. By
regaining full visibility and control of exactly what traffic is allowed into
the network and why, security teams can go a long way to countering
modern malware threats.
Reduce the Attack Surface
An important first step for the enterprise is to return to a positive control
model. Positive control simply means specifically allowing the traffic you
want as opposed to blocking everything that you don’t. The notion of
positive control has long been one of the defining characteristics of
network firewalls that separate them from other types of network
security.
For example, if you want to use Telnet, then you open TCP port 23 to
allow Telnet without necessarily allowing all other types of traffic.
Unfortunately, traditional firewalls have progressively lost the ability to
enforce positive control in any reliable way, as applications have learned
to use non-standard ports or commonly open ports (TCP ports 80, 443,
53), or simply hop between open ports.
Enforce Positive Control
Enforcing positive control is essential in the fight against malware as it
provides an easy way to greatly reduce the attack surface of the
enterprise and reduce overall risk. The simple truth is that the number
and diversity of applications has exploded, and almost all of them can
introduce some level of risk. The rise of Web and Enterprise 2.0, widgets
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and a variety of scripting options have empowered individuals to develop
powerful applications or services, most of which are designed to connect
or be used with other applications and sites.
Making matters worse, very few of the applications that are written on a
daily basis have any real value to an enterprise. By incorporating a positive
control model, security teams can focus on enabling the approved
applications, as opposed to constantly trying to stay up to speed with all of
the applications that they want to block. This approach can immediately
preclude large numbers of applications from ever touching the network,
while dramatically reducing the number of vectors
that botnets can use to get in or out of the network.
Consult and Conclude
However, enforcing positive control is not as easy as simply flipping a
switch. Some applications may be used by staff and have business value
that is not readily apparent. As such, IT and security teams should plan
to consult with a variety of groups within the organization in order to
establish an appropriate set of approved applications and use roles.
Plan on Refinements
Additionally, some applications, such as Facebook, will have both business
and personal uses. In these cases, security policies should be further
refined to allow only certain users to access an application or limit the use
of an application to certain approved features (see Figure 3-3). Reduce
the attack surface by restricting certain applications to specific users and
groups based on business need.
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Figure 3-3: Defending Against Attach Surfaces in Business Environments
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Establish Policies and Controls
Establish policies of approved applications and uses based on company needs and culture:
• Establish a baseline of what is on the network–applications, protocols, services, etc.
• What applications are in use?
• What applications are required for the business and who needs to use them?
• What dual-use or personal applications does the enterprise want to allow?
Enforce positive control of all traffic
• Prevent unnecessary or high risk traffic
• Regardless of port evasion or encryption techniques employed
Investigate Unknowns
Once the enterprise has regained the ability to accurately classify the
approved traffic on the network, we then have a base from which to
investigate any remaining unknown traffic in the network.
Track and Correlate
The presence and behavior of unknown traffic is a critical clue in the
identification of botnets, which will often present as “unknown” traffic due
to their use of proprietary encryption and unique behavior (see Figure
3-4).
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Figure 3-4: Investigate any unknown traffic
Define and Collect
Custom UDP and TCP traffic, including modified P2P, IM and file transfer,
is commonly used for command and control in a botnet. The use of nonstandard ports is a favorite tactic of malware for detection avoidance
using signature-based anti-malware and is also used to download new
payloads. To put the significance of unknown traffic into context,
according to research by Palo Alto Networks, unknown UDP traffic
typically accounts for only 2 percent of total network bandwidth, yet
constitutes 51 percent of malware logs.
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Investigate
Unknown traffic regularly sent by the same client machine should be
investigated to determine if the individual is using a legitimate application
that is not recognized versus a potential botnet infection. Teams can also
investigate where the traffic is going:
• Does it reach out to websites known to serve malware or to social
networking sites?
• Does it transmit on a regular schedule or follow a recognizable pattern?
• Does someone attempt to download or upload files to an unknown URL?
Detection
All of these behaviors can identify the presence of a client machine that
is infected by a bot. By positively identifying the approved traffic on the
network, any “unknown” traffic should become increasingly rare, thus
enabling potentially malicious botnet traffic to be found and analyzed
quickly.
• Track source and destination, volumes of traffic
• Correlate against URL, IPS (intrusion prevention system), malware, and file transfer records
• Define custom application IDs for any internal or custom applications, as needed
• Collect PCAPs (packet captures) for any unrecognized, publicly available applications and
deliver to trusted security vendors for analysis
• Investigate “unknown” traffic for potential unauthorized user behavior or potential botnet
behavior
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Control the Enabling Applications
Applications are an indispensable part of the botnet lifecycle. They are
crucial to the initial infection stage and the ongoing command and control
of the botnet. This association of malware and applications is nothing new.
Target Software Applications
In the past, the de facto enabling application for malware was corporate
e-mail. From a security perspective, viruses and e-mail simply went handin-hand. However, even though e-mail is still used by attackers, it has
gradually lost its luster for attackers as e-mail applications are now
typically heavily secured by the enterprise, and e-mail messages can be
analyzed at considerable depth while the message is at rest on the e-mail
server.
Target Software Users
Bot-herders have now shifted much of their attention to softer target
applications that interact with users in real-time and offer far more
flexibility than corporate e-mail.
Social Networking
All applications are not created equal, and botnet owners have gravitated
to applications that support the bot’s ultimate aim to facilitate social
engineering while remaining hidden. Social networking and personal use
applications meet both of these criteria, and have become some of the
most common sources for malware infection and the subsequent
command and control of botnets. This includes applications such as social
networking apps themselves, web-based e-mail, instant messaging (IM)
applications, P2P networks and a variety of file transfer and file sharing
applications.
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These applications are fundamentally designed to easily share
information in a variety of ways, and users often bring a more cavalier
attitude to these applications because they may be accustomed to using
them outside of the office. This provides an intelligent attacker with a
multitude of infection options to pursue and develop.
Social Engineering
Social applications also present an ideal environment for social
engineering, enabling an attacker to impersonate a friend or colleague in
order to lure an unsuspecting victim into clicking on a dangerous link. For
all of its sophistication, malware infection continues to rely on enticing an
unsuspecting user into an ill-advised click. Instead of opening an e-mail
attachment, the click may be a link in a tweet or a link on a Facebook
page that appears to be from a friend. Cross-site scripting can populate
dangerous links among friends and sniffing technologies, such as
FireSheep, allow hackers to take over social networking accounts.
This connection between social networking and malware has been
observed in the real world. Research from the Information Warfare
Monitor and Shadowserver Foundation has provided compelling
evidence for the role of social networking applications in the botnet
lifecycle.
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In the 2010 paper Shadows in the Cloud, the group tracked a very targeted and persistent
intrusion into a network using a customized botnet. In their analysis, the group found that
the bot-infected machines rarely, if ever, communicated directly with the command and
control servers. Instead, the initial malware traffic from the infected host would go to
popular blogs, Google Groups, Twitter accounts, and Yahoo! Mail accounts, which allowed
the malware communications to blend in with “normal” traffic. This illustrates the key lesson
that botnets will often attempt to blend in with what is considered normal, but low value
traffic, in the network. How often would a security administrator investigate what appears
to be a user simply posting something to an innocuous blog?
Securely Enable
The ability to securely enable applications is a critical requirement for
enterprises. Simply blocking all access to blogs, webmail, IM and social
networking applications would be both impractical and unduly constrain
the enterprise’s ability to communicate and stay connected with the
outside world.
A first step to securely enabling an application is to limit access to the
application by users or user groups that have an approved need for the
application. For example, access to Facebook and its underlying
applications can be limited to sales and marketing teams who are
responsible for maintaining the company’s online identity, while other
employees are not allowed access, or have tighter restrictions. This again
can significantly reduce the attack surface of the enterprise and reduce
the risk of an infection.
Security teams also need the capability to allow certain applications, while
preventing the use of specific features that introduce unnecessary risk.
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For example, the company could allow access to a social networking
application but disable the posting functionality or prevent the
application from downloading files or other risky behaviors, such as
tunneling other applications or sharing the user’s desktop. This step can
significantly limit the ability for a malware payload to be transferred to a
specific target.
An infected webpage can easily cause a target end-user to automatically
and unwittingly download a malicious file from a website in the
background. This is commonly referred to as a drive-by download, and
can occur even on perfectly valid web pages that have been compromised.
Drive-by downloads are critical for social networking attacks where links
may redirect to sites that are serving up exploits which are then used
to download malware or droppers in the background. Enabling drive-bydownload protection features in next-generation firewalls protects
against this type of infection by prompting users to verify that they really
intended to download a file and that files are not pulled down without the
user’s knowledge.
Adoption on SSL
The reliance on the Internet and cloud computing is leading to a
widespread adoption of SSL for a variety of technologies and industries.
Social networking sites are also inadvertently making it easier for
malware to remain hidden by moving to the default use of SSL to protect
user communications. This is a needed improvement given that hackers
can eavesdrop and hijack unprotected HTTP sessions.
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Tools such as FireSheep have made this process simple for anyone and
threaten the notion of privacy on the Internet. On the other hand, most
enterprises lack the ability to dynamically look within SSL encrypted
communications, thus making the social networking traffic more or less
invisible to the enterprise. This represents a net loss for the enterprise
security team-the user gets improved privacy for their social traffic, but
in the process it establishes an invisible communication infrastructure for
the same sites and applications favored by malware.
This move to SSL by default can realistically make social applications as
valuable to attackers as P2P applications, such as BitTorrent, have been
for the past several years. The enterprise must establish a strategy for
dealing with SSL encrypted traffic. A next-generation firewall with on-box
SSL decryption can be leveraged based on application or application type.
This allows staff to specifically target social networking applications for
SSL decryption and content inspection. Security teams can also use URL
filtering categories to avoid decrypting sensitive personal information
such as financial and personal health information.
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• Prevent use of known “bad” applications
◦ P2P
◦ Limit application usage to users/groups who have a need
• Prevent the use of dangerous features
◦ File transfer
◦ Desktop sharing
◦ Tunneling of other applications
• Prevent drive-by-downloads by educating users and enabling drive-by-download protection
features in a next-generation firewall
• Selectively decrypt SSL based on application and URL category
◦ Decrypt social networking, webmail, Instant Message
◦ Do not decrypt traffic to/from health care or financial sites
• Inspect all allowed risky application traffic using:
◦ Intrusion and threat prevention
◦ Malware protection
◦ URL filtering
Prevent the Use of Circumventors
The previous section focused on the common end-user and Web 2.0
applications that can be co-opted by malware for use against the
enterprise. However, there is a second class of applications that are
proactively designed to pass through traditional network security. This
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includes a variety of remote desktop technologies, proxies, and purposebuilt circumventing applications, which will also require tight control (see
Figure 3-5).
Prevent Opening of Unmanaged Threat Vectors
Some of these applications have valid enterprise uses, while others are
a sure sign of unapproved and dangerous behavior. In all cases they will
require tight control by IT to prevent the opening of unmanaged threat
vectors into the enterprise.
Figure 3-5: Circumventors use SSL, encrypted P2P, and tunneling
applications to avoid detection
Remote desktop technologies have become wildly popular, both with endusers and IT support teams. Even most web-conferencing applications
have added the ability to give a remote user control over a user’s machine.
Such technologies introduce two risks. First, when a user connects to his
remote PC, he is free to surf to any destination and use any application
without that traffic being inspected by the firewall. In addition to
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circumventing policy, the remote desktop opens an unmanaged threat
vector by allowing a user to remotely undertake all kinds of risky behavior
and then have the results tunneled back to his machine inside the
enterprise.
Prevent an Intrusion
Secondly, remote desktop technologies provide the risk of an outside user
gaining full access to a machine inside the trusted enterprise network.
This type of remote control is one of the ultimate goals of malware in the
first place, and as such it obviously creates a dangerous opening to launch
an intrusion.
There are also common enterprise applications which have valid uses
within the enterprise but can easily create unintentional exposures if
misused or used by unauthorized or untrained users. For example, many
enterprises use SSH (Secure Shell) to manage systems and applications
in a corporate datacenter. However, if SSH is used to open tunnels into
the datacenter, it can open direct, unmanaged access into the enterprise’s
most critical assets. These applications will need tight control in the
enterprise with only select individuals approved and any tunneling
features closely regulated.
Additionally, a variety of web proxies and encrypted tunneling
applications have evolved whose primary goal is to provide secure and
anonymous communication across firewalls and other security
infrastructure. Proxy technologies, such as CGIProxy or PHProxy, provide
a relatively easy way for users to surf anonymously without enterprise
control and have been found in more than 75% of enterprise networks.
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Applications such as UltraSurf, Hamachi, and Tor are purpose-built to
traverse security infrastructure and are regularly updated in order to
remain undetected. These applications have very few, if any, valid reasons
for use within the enterprise, and their presence generally indicates an
intentional attempt to avoid enterprise security. These tools not only pass
traffic without being inspected, but they also tend to be used for highrisk behaviors such as file sharing or expressly blocked content and sites,
which in turn carry a significantly higher risk of malware infection. As a
result, these applications should be blocked in almost all cases.
• Limit remote desktop usage to IT support only
• Securely enable SSH by allowing, but preventing SSH tunneling
• Block use of unapproved proxies
• Block encrypted tunnels such as UltraSurf and Hamachi
Protect Remote Users
Thus far we have assumed a fairly traditional network topology with a
clear separation between the inside and outside of the network. However,
enterprise computing has evolved to reach well beyond the traditional
physical boundaries of the enterprise. Users take their laptops home with
them and expect to be able to connect and work literally from anywhere
and at any time, on any device. This creates an imbalance in security
posture in that users expect to be able to do the same work from any
location, while the lion’s share of security infrastructure and
countermeasures (firewalls, IPS, etc.) are applied only when the user is
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inside the traditional physical perimeter of the enterprise. To make
matters worse, a user’s browsing and application behaviors often tend to
be riskier when outside the office than when inside, as users inevitably
revert back to their personal behaviors at home. This behavior greatly
increases the likelihood of clicking on a dangerous link or visiting a
website that serves up a drive-by download.
• Enforce full enterprise firewalling and threat prevention regardless of user location
• Enforce drive-by-download protections
• Enforce customized policies based on user location–do not allow files to be downloaded
from secure systems when a user is remote
Finding Infected Hosts
In spite of the security team’s best efforts at prevention, enterprise
machines will inevitably be infected with malware. This could be via an
unknown type of malware, an unknown vector, or by physical connections
such as a USB drive. Malware has proven time and again that it is possible
to infect even the most heavily secured systems in the world. As a result,
it is important for teams to assume user devices are infected and develop
the skills needed to find the infected hosts in the network. This can be
a challenging task given that the malware may have already avoided
traditional malware signatures and may already have root access on the
infected machine.
To pinpoint these infected hosts, we must shift our attention from
malware signatures to instead analyze behaviors that are observed in
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the network. For all of their secrecy and ingenuity, botnets need to
communicate in order to function, and they also need to make themselves
difficult to find and trace. These basic requirements create patterns that
can be used to identify bot traffic or behaviors that stand out from the
normal end-user traffic, even if the bot is completely unknown in the
industry.
Detection of Command and Control Traffic
One of the major advantages of a next-generation firewall is the ability
to classify potentially complex streams of traffic at the application level.
This includes the ability to progressively scan within traffic to peel back
protocols running within protocols until the true underlying application
is identified. This expertise in identifying complex traffic is very valuable
when identifying the unique command and control traffic of particular
botnets.
Leveraging IPS to Detect Botnets
Custom IPS signatures can also be created to identify potentially
polymorphic malware based on specific components within the malware.
For example, SpyEye a very popular and growing banking botnet reserves
space so that the malware can constantly change its size, and therefore
change its signature. However, SpyEye periodically downloads an
encrypted configuration file to update the bot. Researchers at Palo Alto
Networks were able to break into this configuration file and were able
to find a unique pattern across all configuration files, that enables an IPS
to identify the presence of the bot, even if the malware itself is not
recognized. This is just one example where IPS and malware detection can
intersect to find a modern threat.
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Automation of Bot Characteristics
Unfortunately, most enterprises don’t have the time or resources to
conduct manual investigations and to research new and emerging threats.
Security industry vendors can provide enterprises with the necessary
tools and information to protect corporate systems and networks. For
example, the Palo Alto Networks Behavioral Botnet Report automates
the process of tracking and correlating the behaviors that indicate the
presence of a bot. This report looks for several bot characteristics
including:
• Unknown TCP/UDP–Botnet traffic is regularly encrypted and unknown.
Since a next-generation firewall identifies all traffic, tracking unknown
TCP and UDP traffic can be a perfect starting point for finding botinfected machines. The report allows staff to track unknown traffic by
sessions, destinations and bytes.
• Presence of Dynamic DNS–Malware will often use dynamic DNS in
order to make botnet communications more difficult to track. By
bouncing traffic between multiple infected hosts with an ever-changing
list of IP addresses, it can become very difficult to track the path of the
bot and its true source and destination.
• Activity on Known Malware Sites–Palo Alto Networks constantly
tracks sites that have hosted malware whether intentionally or
unintentionally. A next-generation firewall with a URL filtering capability
can track if a user is repeatedly (and unwittingly) visiting one of these
sites and attempting to download files.
• Visiting Recently Registered Domains–Botnets are constantly moving
around in order to avoid detection and to recover as servers are
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discovered or disabled. As a result, botnets will often have to use new
domains to support the command and control infrastructure. A user
repeatedly visiting a newly registered domain will certainly not be
conclusive, but may help to provide corroborating evidence of an
infection.
• Browsing to IP domains Instead of URLs–In a similar vein, bots will
often use hard-coded IP addresses or known IP ranges in order to
communicate as opposed to users, who typically use URLs to browse
Internet web sites. As with tracking newly registered domains, tracking
connections using IP domains can sometimes indicate the presence of a
bot at work as opposed to a human.
• IRC (Internet Relay Chat) traffic–IRC traffic is one of the most wellknown communication methods for botnets, and provides an additional
strong piece of correlating data for finding a bot.
The Behavioral Botnet Report takes all of the factors above and automatically correlates
them to find hosts that are likely infected with a bot. When run on a Palo Alto Networks
next-generation firewall, the report provides specific directory user names of the users or
machines that are likely infected along with what behaviors contributed to the analysis.
Each user is also provided a score based on how many of the factors listed above were
correlated, allowing staff to focus on the devices that are the most likely to be infected.
Using DNS Sinkholing to identify infected hosts
Domain Name Service (DNS) records can’t always accurately identify
infected hosts because the local DNS server is tasked with resolving the
DNS query. To the firewall, the local DNS server is the originator of the
query. DNS sinkholing controls the session, by intercepting the DNS
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request and responding with a different IP address that directs the
session to a specific server. Information is gathered from the session and
used for threat research and to better protect the network from malware.
There are two DNS sinkhole approaches: public sinkhole and local sinkhole.
• Public sinkholing is used to locate malicious domains that are being used
by malware, such as command and control servers. This practice requires
publishing the authoritative records of the malicious domain to point to
sinkhole servers controlled by the security vendor. Information collected
from the user sessions improves the current DNS-based signatures. This
is sometimes referred to as a “honeysink”.
• Local sinkholing is responding to DNS queries for malicious domains with
a local sinkhole IP address. A next-generation firewall intercepts DNS
queries and responds to DNS requests with fake DNS responses (see
Figure 3-6). The IP address returned points to an internal sinkhole server
or a non-routable IP address. Subsequently, all following sessions will
connect to the sinkhole server or non-routable IP address, which makes
it easy to identify the infected host in the traffic log files.
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Figure 3-6: Local sinkholing can be used to identify infected hosts.
Securing Virtualized Data Centers with Next-Generation
Firewalls
Virtualization is helping organizations utilize their data center hardware
infrastructure more effectively, leading to reduction in costs, and
improvements in operational efficiencies. Gartner estimates that almost
50% of all x86 server workloads are virtualized today with this number
expected to grow to 77% in 2015. Many organizations are also evolving
their virtualization infrastructure to build their own automated, selfservice, private cloud environments.
As organizations evolve from traditional data centers to virtualized and
cloud computing environments, security architectures must support the
changing set of requirements. This includes not only addressing
fundamental table stakes functionality such as safe application
enablement, threat protection and flexible networking integration, but
also new challenges brought on by the virtualized infrastructure, and the
dynamic and automated nature of the virtualized environment. These
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include having visibility into virtual machine traffic that may not leave the
virtual infrastructure, the ability to tie security policies to virtual machine
instantiation and movement, and orchestration of security policies in lock
step with application workflows.
The Virtualization and Cloud Computing Evolution
Today’s IT organizations are increasingly tasked with doing more with
less. In these challenging economic conditions, IT organizations are faced
not only with shrinking budgets but are being asked to improve
operational efficiencies and drive responsiveness for business processes.
For many IT organizations, the adoption of technologies like virtualization
and cloud computing provide many benefits from operational efficiencies
to speed in application delivery.
Virtualization
Virtualization technology partitions a single physical server into virtual
machines running multiple operating systems and applications. The
hypervisor, a software layer that sits between the hardware and the
“virtual” operating system and applications, is what allocates memory and
processing resources to the “virtual” machines.
Two types of virtualization are available–hypervisor virtualization and
hosted virtualization. In hypervisor architectures, also known as bare
metal or native virtualization, the hypervisor is the first layer of software
running on the underlying hardware without a host operating system. In
hosted virtualization, the hypervisor runs on top of the host operating
system. This configuration supports the broadest range of hardware
operating system including Windows, Linux or MacOS.
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Figure 3-7: Virtualization architectures
Figure 3-7 shows both architectures. Server virtualization typically
utilizes hypervisor architectures while desktop virtualization uses hosted
virtualization architectures.
Why Server Virtualization?
Most data center virtualization initiatives begin with the consolidation
of data centers running applications on dedicated, purpose-built servers
into an optimized number of data centers with applications on
standardized virtualized servers. Server virtualization improves
operational efficiencies and lowers capital expenditure for organizations:
• Optimizes existing hardware resources. Instead of a “one server, one
application” model, multiple virtual applications can be run on a single
physical server. This means that organizations can leverage their existing
hardware infrastructure by running more applications within the same
system.
• Reduces data center costs. Reducing the server hardware “box” count
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not only reduces the physical infrastructure real-estate but also reduces
data center related costs such as power, cooling and rack space.
• Gain operational flexibility. Through the dynamic nature of virtual
machine provisioning, applications can be delivered quicker rather than
the process of purchase, “rack/stack”, cabling, O/S configuration. This
helps improve the agility of the IT organization.
• Maximizes efficiency of data center resources. Because applications
can experience asynchronous, or bursty demand loads, virtualization
provides a more efficient way to address resource contention issues and
maximize server utilization. It also provides a better way to deal with
server maintenance and backup challenges. For example, IT staff can
migrate virtual machines to other virtualized servers while performing
hardware or software upgrades.
Why Cloud Computing?
Virtualization is often the first step in an organization’s strategy to move
towards automated, on-demand services. Cloud, unlike common
misconceptions, is not a location but rather a pool of resources that can
be rapidly provisioned. The U.S. National Institute of Standards and
Technology (NIST) defines cloud computing in Special Publication (SP)
800-145 as “a model for enabling ubiquitous, convenient, on-demand
network access to a shared pool of configurable computing resources
(such as networks, servers, storage, applications, and services) that can
be rapidly provisioned and released with minimal management effort or
service provider interaction.”
The business value of cloud computing is the ability to pool resources
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together to achieve economies of scale. This is true for private or public
clouds. Instead of multiple organizations or groups within an organization
independently building a data center infrastructure, pools of resources
are aggregated and consolidated, and designed to be elastic enough to
scale with organizational demand. This not only brings cost and
operational benefits but technology benefits. Data and applications are
easily accessed by users no matter where they reside, projects can scale
easily, and consumption can be tracked effectively.
Virtualization is a critical part of this architecture, enabling applications to
be delivered efficiently, and in a more dynamic manner. However, another
critical aspect of cloud computing is software orchestration that enables
disparate processes to be stitched together in a seamless manner, so that
they can be automated, easily replicated and offered on an as-needed
basis. The IT organizational model also needs to evolve towards a
“services-centric”, multi-tenant model, where consumption needs to be
measured, and segmentation between multiple tenants needs to be
provisioned.
Security Considerations in Securing the Journey to the
Cloud
With virtualization and cloud technologies, the data center environment
has evolved from rigid, fixed environments where applications run on
dedicated servers towards dynamic, automated, orchestrated
environments where pools of computing resources are available to
support any application to be accessed anywhere, anytime, from any
device (see Figure 3-8).
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Figure 3-8: Evolution of data center architecture
Security is the biggest hurdle to embrace this new dynamic, automated,
services-oriented architecture. The process to configure network
security appliances today is excruciatingly painful and slow. Policy
changes need to be approved, the appropriate firewalls need to be
identified, and the relevant ports and protocols determined. While the
creation of a virtual workload may take minutes, the security
configuration for this workload may take weeks.
Dynamic Nature of Virtualization and Cloud
Security also cannot keep up with the dynamic nature of virtualization
and cloud. Virtual machines can be highly dynamic, with frequent add,
move and change operations. This complicates the ability to track security
policies to virtual machine creation and movement so that requirements
and regulatory compliance continue to be met. Virtualized computing
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environments also enable direct communication between virtual
machines within a server. Intra-host communications may not be visible to
network-based security appliances residing outside a virtual server. The
routing of intra-host virtual machine traffic to external security appliances
for inspection may not be ideal because of performance and latency
requirements.
At the same time, the existing trends that have impacted the security
landscape in the virtualized data center —changing application landscape,
distributed enterprise, and modern threats—do not go away. The
changing application landscape means that the identification, control and
safe enablement of applications can no longer be accomplished via ports
and protocols. The distributed enterprise of mobile users and extended
enterprise, and the evolution of threats towards sophisticated, multivector, targeted attacks require user-based policies and a complete
threat framework. In summary, next-generation firewalling capabilities to
safely enable applications, protect against all known and unknown threats
without performance impact, and integrate flexibly into the data center
continue to be critical, fundamental security requirements.
Therefore, security for the virtualized data center must exhibit the
following characteristics:
• Deliver all the features that are table stakes: These include safe
application enablement, threat protection without impacting the
performance of the data center, and flexible integration into the data
center design. These features must be available within a virtualized
firewall to secure intra-host communications or East-West traffic.
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• Must become more dynamic:
• Security policies must be applied as soon as a virtual machine is created.
• Security policies must follow virtual machine movement.
• Security workflows must be automated and orchestrated so it doesn’t
slow down virtual workload provisioning.
• Centralized, consistent management: Centralized management is critical,
and must be consistent for all environments—physical, hybrid or mixed
environments. The management configuration must provide one unified
policy rule base for ease of configuration and complete visibility into the
policies being enabled in the data center. In fact, Gartner advocates that
organizations “favor security vendors that span physical and virtual
environments with a consistent policy management and enforcement
framework.”
Existing Security Solutions in the Data Center Do Not
Deliver
Existing security solutions in the data center make their access control
decisions based on ports and protocol. Many security solutions also bolt
on application control and threat prevention features to their stateful
inspection firewalls.
There are several problems with this approach. The lack of visibility into
all traffic means that evasive applications, applications that use nonstandard ports and threats that leverage the same behavior as
applications may be missed. Security policies also become convoluted as
you build and manage a firewall policy with source, destination, user, port
and action, an application control policy with similar rules, in addition to
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other threat prevention rules. Policy gaps appear and grow because of
the difficulty in managing and monitoring multiple appliances. A multiple
policy rule base approach not only increases administrative overhead, but
may increase business and security risks with policy gaps that may be
hard to see. This multi-platform or multi-module approach also degrades
data center performance as more and more features are enabled.
Finally, existing security solutions in the data center do not address the
dynamic nature of the virtualized environment, and cannot track policies
to virtual machine creation or movement.
Many virtualized security offerings are virtualized versions of port- and
protocol-based security appliances, delivering the same inadequacies as
their physical counterparts.
Mobile Device Considerations
In recent years, the landscape for mobile devices has changed in a
dramatic fashion. No longer limited in capability and functionality, the
modern smartphone and tablet are becoming a constant companion (and
in some cases, a replacement) for the traditional laptop computer. In fact,
with more of these devices connecting directly to the network, security
teams are facing growing concerns about the limitations of what they can
and cannot protect.
Without a complete picture of what’s happening on the network, many
organizations assume a fear-based policy towards mobility. Instead of
embracing the positive benefits of mobility and the Bring Your Own
Device (BYOD) trend–such as increased productivity and higher
morale–security teams attempt to block devices from their network
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hoping to recreate the relatively controlled environment that once
existed. Such efforts are often limited in scope, and fail to deliver an
appropriate balance between what the business needs and what users
want. Worse still, such efforts can create a perpetual cat-and-mouse
game between security teams trying to police the network and users
trying to evade detection, rather than allowing security teams to focus
on the real threats outside the enterprise. Such a myopic approach to
mobility can also create a dangerous subculture in which critical business
processes are performed on personal technologies and only known to a
few individuals.
Using a next-generation firewall with VPN capabilities, organizations can
extend network security and data protection to mobile devices, including
smartphones and tablets. Mobile devices running VPN client software
can automatically connect to the best available VPN gateway on a nextgeneration firewall. As a result, organizations can consistently enforce
security policies based on application, user, content and device,
regardless of where the user is located. Through the safe enablement
of applications, users can access business and productivity tools while
enjoying protection from mobile threats to the device and data. By placing
the security in the network and leveraging an always-on connection to
the next-generation firewall, enterprises can now let employees take full
advantage of the mobile device of their choice without security
compromises.
Benefits and Limitations of Existing Approaches
When looking at the landscape for mobile device security, there are a
number of approaches that are available. There are container and virtual
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desktop infrastructure (VDI) technologies that isolate data. There are
many mobile device management (MDM) products designed to manage
the settings on a device. There are legacy VPN products which were
originally designed for the remote access use case scenarios. Each one of
these pieces provides an element for a mobility solution, but it’s important
to understand the role, scope and limitations of what each can do.
Containers and Virtual Desktops Infrastructure (VDI)
Containers and virtual desktop infrastructure (VDI) provide a method
to isolate data. Containers can partition data on a device in a sandbox.
VDI allows users to access a desktop remotely, thus separating the entire
desktop from the device itself. In both cases, there is an implicit
assumption that the only sensitive data on the device is in the container/
virtual desktop. However, users may use other productivity applications
on the device, which saves the sensitive data in other, less secure storage
areas on the device.
Mobile Device Management (MDM)
Mobile device management (MDM) provides the means to configure
certain mobile device settings and provision the device for use. MDM may
be considered a baseline requirement for managed devices, but there are
additional considerations that one must also add to address security.
Traditional SSL VPN
An SSL VPN provides temporary, secure access to a corporate network.
However, it does not provide any network security controls, such as
enforcing appropriate application usage, blocking undesirable traffic and
preventing inappropriate file sharing. As a result, an SSL VPN provides the
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means for mobile devices to access corporate applications without the
necessary security controls to protect the device.
In addition to the technologies listed above, there are a number of
security products designed for network access, such as network access
control and wireless network security, which are often used as part of
comprehensive enterprise mobility strategy. There are also stacks of
traditional network security products such as the stateful inspection
firewall, IPS, and proxies, which are managed in separate contexts and
disjointed policies. With a bewildering list of technologies to consider,
developing a comprehensive mobile strategy can pose a formidable
challenge.
Safely Enabling Mobile Devices
To safely enable mobile devices, you need to:
• Protect traffic
• Protect data
• Ensure the device is OK
Through a combination of technologies, an organization can ensure that
only authorized devices have access to sensitive information, maintain
consistent security throughout the organization, and protect mobile
devices from vulnerabilities and malware.
Provide Next-Generation Network Security with an Always-on
Connection
The network is the link between enterprise applications, data and users.
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It provides the obvious location for providing policy enforcement and
safe enablement of devices. However, the traditional firewall does not
differentiate between users, nor does it identify applications. It simply
permits any traffic allowed on a particular network segment to pass as
long as it follows basic port-based policy guidelines. Mobility exposes this
pre-existing condition, as users are able to access anything they want
once they are able to get their device on the network. Traditional firewalls
and other security solutions do not provide visibility and control.
Remote Users Pose Challenges
Remote users pose a second set of challenges because network security is
ephemeral with the traditional VPN. Once the user disconnects from the
corporate wireless network or the VPN, the user has a direct path to the
Internet without any security in the network traffic path and outside of
the jurisdiction of safe practices.
Pair Up Next-Generation Firewalls with VPN Gateway
The next-generation firewall paired with a VPN gateway solves both
conditions. Instead of treating all network traffic in the same generic
manner, the next-generation firewall provides the means to classify traffic
by application, user and content. Thus the protection lies within the
network, ensuring that policy enforcement is always in place, rather than
being dependent upon blocking technologies to keep mobility off. The
VPN provides a secure connection in a manner that’s not predicated on
temporary connections, but rather an always-on connection to the
corporate network, regardless of location. Whether in a hotel room or
in the office, the user stays on the network with the same policy
enforcement. This approach provides consistency for the protection and
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safe application enablement capabilities of the next-generation firewall,
regardless of whether the user is in the office or on the road.
Mobile Protection
All of these technologies work together to provide the foundation for
mobile protection that extends to all users. With a strong foundation for
network security, an organization can provide a choice in devices with an
approach that welcomes change rather than resisting it.
Next-Generation Firewalls provide Protection
The next-generation firewall provides a number of protections for traffic
in order to provide safe enablement. Some of the key capabilities include:
• Application policy. Ensure that users have access to the proper
applications while removing dangerous or risky elements.
• URL filtering. Restrict access–by specific website or by category–to
content that may be inappropriate or unauthorized. For instance, an
organization may want to make sure that apps can only be downloaded
from authorized app stores, while blocking all others.
• Malware protection. The next-generation firewall analyzes traffic for
malicious content, providing the means to stop dangerous files before
they reach devices on the network. Many enterprises do not have
antivirus clients running on their mobile devices, which only reinforces
the importance of stopping malware in the network. The next-generation
firewall scans content that endangers mobile platforms, thus providing
the device with protection that’s always in place.
• Vulnerability protection. Mobile devices pose a special challenge for
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organizations in terms of maintaining protection against newly
discovered vulnerabilities in the operating system. Due to the vast
number of devices in use, and the inconsistent application of operating
system updates, it’s not easy for an organization to ascertain just how
much risk they face against a particular threat. By placing vulnerability
protection in the network, the next-generation firewall intercepts an
exploit before it reaches the user’s device, thus providing protection
even in advance of patch installation.
Data Protection
One of the principal concerns about mobility is the risk of corporate data
being placed outside of controlled boundaries, namely a mobile device
which may or may not be owned by the organization or in applications
outside of its control. One approach to solve this challenge is to leverage
an always-on connection to extend the boundary of protection to all
locations. This concept, the logical perimeter, differs from a physical
perimeter in that it doesn’t require the user to be on-premise to benefit
from its protection.
The next-generation firewall includes file and data filtering technology to
protect data and is applied to all devices on the network, including mobile
devices. Data filtering features enable administrators to implement
policies that will reduce the risks associated with the transfer of
unauthorized files and data.
• File blocking by type. Control the flow of a wide range of file types by
looking deep within the payload to identify the file type (as opposed to
looking only at the file extension).
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• Data filtering. Control the transfer of sensitive data patterns such as
credit card and social security numbers in application content or
attachments.
• File transfer function control. Control the file transfer functionality
within an individual application, allowing application use while preventing
undesired inbound or outbound file transfer.
For organizations with highly sensitive data, and with regulatory and
compliance requirements, the implementation of containers or Virtual
Desktop Infrastructure (VDI) can isolate such data from the rest of the
device. A container takes the approach of using a sandbox on the device
to separate certain data from the rest of the device. VDI keeps the
application and the data within the data center, and provides access
through a client on various platforms.
The next-generation firewall can add further protections such as
restricting access to the data center to allow only virtual desktops, thus
providing access to the application without the risk of placing data on the
mobile device itself.
All of the measures above work in conjunction with device management,
should it be necessary to remotely wipe a device that’s been lost or deprovisioned.
Device Management
Device management plays a role in a mobility solution as it establishes
the fundamental profiles that govern device settings and device state. In a
nutshell, it provides the means to ensure that the device is appropriate for
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use in a manner consistent with the organization’s policies and to bring it
under management. Some of the things that device management controls
include settings for passcode requirements, remote wiping and device
wiping after a number of failed unlock attempts.
“Jailbreaking” (for Apple iOS devices) or “rooting” (for Google Android
devices) a mobile device removes code signing requirements and
bypasses numerous other native security protections in a mobile iOS.
With a device management solution, organizations can check to see if a
device has been jailbroken or rooted and use the device state as part of its
security policy decisions.
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Summary
• Forrester’s Zero Trust Model calls for segmentation and least-privilege network access,
regardless of a user location or role, such that users are never fully trusted and always
verified.
• The next-generation network security model calls for reduction of attack surface,
investigation of unknown traffic and prevention of circumvention for users inside and
outside the physical network.
• Cloud services and virtualized data center environments offer new challenges to securing
data mainly due to the highly dynamic nature of those environments.
• Mobile devices, and their connections back to the enterprise, should be provided the same
levels of protection as internal devices using methods such as mobile device management
and virtual private networks.
Discussion
1. What stages are present in a Security Systems Development Lifecycle
(SecSDLC), and who are some of the publishers of such lifecycle models?
2. This text presents two security models. At which phase of the SecSDLC
would these be applied?
3. Cloud computing is in an explosive growth mode, for it scalability,
accessibility, and relative ease of management. What are some of the
challenges presented with securing such environments? How are those
different from securing traditional LAN/WAN environments?
4. Consider your own mobile device and its applications. What risks would
be introduced if your device was admitted to an enterprise network?
Which applications might pose the greatest risks?
5. IT Security must always balance usability and access with security and
control. What would be some examples of imbalance, where IT security
might induce users to attempt to circumvent enterprise controls?
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Knowledge Check
1. Related to the Zero-Trust security model, choose all that apply:
A) If an attacker can remotely control a machine behind an organization’s
security perimeter, they are then considering ‘insiders’ to the network.
B) Trust refers to, and applies to, the inside of a network. Untrust refers
to, and applies to, the outside internet facing side of a network
C) A customer service representative residing physically and logically
inside the network is accessing an internal database, housed in the same
network and building. This is a trusted connection
D) The least privilege strategy must adopted, enforced, and verified
2. Name three benefits to adopting the Zero Trust security model.
3. What trait distinguishes botnets and modern malware from earlier forms
of malware?
4. True or False: Reduction of attack surface implies a return to positive
control model, where only specific applications, for specific users are
allowed to traverse a network.
5. Unknown traffic, whether TCP, UDP, or P2P, represents which 3 of the
following scenarios?
A) Custom built in-house application traffic.
B) Incomplete packets or prematurely terminated sessions.
C) Newly available commercial applications which have yet to have
application identifiers built.
D) Malicious traffic.
6. Name three indicators on the network that may point to a host machine
being compromised.
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7. The most efficient and effective way to secure a virtualized data center is
to use which of the following methods?
A) Server whitelisting ensuring only known good apps can run.
B) Dynamic, automated, and centrally manageable sefurity that delivers
full-featured threat prevention to and between hosts.
C) Host Intrusion Prevention in combination with access control losts.
8. True or False: Virtualized data centers and cloud computing
environments must be secured in very different ways to accommodate
their respective architectures
9. Name three approaches to securing mobile devices with access to
enterprise resources.
10. True or False: A principal focus around securing mobility is protecting the
data on the mobile device.
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4. Cybersecurity Solutions from
Palo Alto Networks
Next-Generation Firewall Technologies
The following module explains various core capabilities and technologies
found in next-generation firewalls. Although this discussion is specific to
technologies and capabilities used in Palo Alto Networks next-generation
firewalls, it provides a foundation for technologies and capabilities that
define next-generation firewalls in general.
Application Identification
As the foundational element of a next-generation firewall, application
identification provides visibility and control over work-related and nonwork-related applications that can evade detection by masquerading as
legitimate traffic, hopping ports or sneaking through the firewall using
encryption (SSL and SSH).
In the past, unapproved or non-work-related applications on the
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corporate network were summarily removed or blocked. However, in
today’s business environment, the response options are not nearly as
clear because many of the same applications are helping employees get
their jobs done.
Application identification enables administrators to see the applications
on the network, learn how they work, their behavioral characteristics,
and their relative risk. When used in conjunction with user identification
(discussed later in this module, administrators can see exactly who is
using the application based on their identity, not just an IP address.
Armed with this information, administrators can use positive security
model rules to block unknown applications, while enabling, inspecting and
shaping those that are allowed.
Firewall Traffic Classification: Applications, not Ports
Stateful inspection, the basis for most of today’s firewalls, was created
at a time when applications could be controlled using ports and source/
destination IPs. The strict adherence to port-based classification and
control methodology is the primary policy element; It is hard-coded into
the foundation and cannot be turned off.
This means that many of today’s applications cannot be identified, much
less controlled by the firewall and no amount of “after the fact” traffic
classification by firewall helpers can correct the firewall port-based
classification.
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Application identification technology in next-generation firewalls does
not rely on any one single element like port or protocol. Instead,
application identification uses multiple mechanisms to determine what
the application is, first and foremost, and the application identity then
becomes the basis for the firewall policy.
Application identification is highly extensible and as applications continue
to evolve, application detection mechanisms can be added or updated as
a means of keeping pace with the ever-changing application landscape.
App-ID™ Traffic Classification Technology
The first task that a Palo Alto Networks next-generation firewall executes
is the identification of the applications traversing the network using AppID™. Using as many as four different techniques, App-ID™ determines
what the application is, irrespective of port, protocol, encryption (SSL and
SSH) or other evasive tactics employed (see Figure 4-1). The number and
order of identification mechanisms used to identify the application will
vary depending on the application. The general flow is as follows:
Application Signatures
Signatures are used first to look for unique application properties and
related transaction characteristics to correctly identify the application
regardless of the protocol and port being used. The signature also
determines if the application is being used on its default port or it is using
a non-standard port (for example, RDP across port 80 instead of port
3389, its standard port). If the identified application is allowed by security
policy, further analysis of the traffic is done to identify more granular
applications as well as scan for threats.
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SSL and SSH Decryption
If App-ID™ determines that SSL encryption is in use and a decryption
policy is in place, the traffic is decrypted and then passed to other
identification mechanisms as needed. If no policy is in place, then SSL
decryption is not employed. Once the application is identified, and
deemed acceptable by policy, threat prevention profiles are applied and
the traffic is then delivered to its destination. A similar approach is used
with SSH to determine if port forwarding is in use as a means to tunnel
traffic over SSH. Such tunneled traffic is identified as ssh-tunnel and can
be controlled via security policy.
Application Protocol Decoding
Decoders for known protocols are used to apply additional context-based
signatures to detect other applications that may be tunneling inside of the
protocol (e.g., Yahoo! Instant Messenger used across HTTP). Decoders
validate the traffic conforms to the protocol specification and provide
support for NAT traversal and opening dynamic pinholes for applications
such as VoIP or FTP. Decoders for popular applications are used to
identify the individual functions within the application as well (e.g., webexfilesharing). In addition to identifying applications, decoders also identify
files and other content that should be scanned for threats or sensitive
data.
Heuristics
In certain cases, evasive applications still cannot be detected even
through advanced signature and protocol analysis. In those situations, it is
necessary to apply additional heuristics, or behavioral analysis to identify
certain applications such as peer-to-peer file-sharing or VoIP applications
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that use proprietary encryption. Heuristic analysis is used as needed, with
the other App-ID™ techniques discussed here, to provide visibility into
applications that might otherwise elude positive identification. The actual
heuristics used are specific to an application and include checks based on
such things as the packet length, session rate, packet source, etc.
With App-ID™ as the foundational element for every Palo Alto Networks
next-generation firewall, administrators can regain visibility into, and
control over, the applications traversing the network.
Figure 4-1: How Palo Alto Network App-ID™ classifies traffic
App-ID™: Dealing with Custom or Unknown Applications
Palo Alto Networks adds an average of five new applications to App-ID™
each week, yet there are cases where unknown application traffic will be
detected. There are typically two scenarios where unknown traffic will
appear: a commercially available application that does not have an AppID™ or an internal, custom application is in use.
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Unknown Commercial Applications
Using ACC™ (Application Command Center) and the log viewer, users can
quickly determine that the application is used commercially or not. Using
the packet capture feature on the Palo Alto Networks firewall, customers
can record the traffic and submit it for App-ID™ development. The new
App-ID™ is developed, tested with the customer, then added to the
database for all users in the form of a weekly update.
Internal or Custom Applications
Once it has been determined with ACC™ and the log viewer, that the
application in question is internal or custom, then you have several
options. First off, an application override can be applied, effectively
renaming the application. Alternatively, you can develop a custom AppID™ for the application using the exposed protocol decoders.
The protocol decoders that have been exposed include: FTP, HTTP,
HTTPs (SSL), IMAP, SMTP, RTSP, Telnet, unknown-TCP, unknown-UDP,
and file body (for html/pdf/flv/swf/riff/mov). Once developed, traffic
identified by the custom App-ID™ is treated in the same manner as the
previously classified traffic; it can be enabled via policy, inspected for
threats, shaped using QoS and so on. Custom App-ID™s are managed in
a separate database on the device, ensuring they are not impacted by the
weekly App-ID™ updates.
An important point to highlight is that Palo Alto Networks nextgeneration firewalls use a positive enforcement model, which means that
all traffic can be denied except those applications that are expressly
allowed via policy. This means that in some cases, the unknown traffic
can be easily blocked or tightly controlled. Alternative offerings that are
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based on IPS will allow unknown traffic to pass through without providing
any semblance of visibility or control.
An Example of How App-ID™ Works: Identifying WebEx
When a user initiates a WebEx session, the initial connection is an SSLbased communication. With App-ID™, the device sees the traffic and the
signatures determine that it is using SSL. The decryption engine and
protocol decoders are then initiated to decrypt the SSL and detect that
it is HTTP traffic. Once the decoder has the HTTP stream, App-ID™ can
apply contextual signatures and detect that the application in use is
WebEx.
WebEx is then displayed within ACC™ and can be controlled via a security
policy. If the end user were to initiate the WebEx Desktop Sharing
feature, WebEx undergoes a “mode-shift” to where the session has been
altered from a conferencing application to a remote access application.
In this scenario, the characteristics of WebEx have changed and App-ID™
will detect the WebEx Desktop Sharing feature which is then displayed
in ACC™. At this stage, an administrator has learned more about the
application usage and can exert policy control over the use of the WebEx
Desktop Sharing feature separately from general WebEx use.
Application Identity: The Heart of Policy Control
Identifying the application is the first step in learning more about the
traffic traversing the network. Learning what the application does, the
ports it uses, its underlying technology, and its behavioral characteristics
is the next step towards making a more informed decision about how
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to treat the application. Once a complete picture of usage is gained,
organizations can apply policies with a range of responses that are more
fine-grained than allow or deny. Examples include:
• Allow or deny
• Allow but scan for exploits, viruses and other threats
• Allow based on schedule, users or groups
• Decrypt and inspect
• Apply traffic shaping through QoS (Quality of Service)
• Apply policy-based forwarding
• Allow certain application functions
• Any combination of the above
Application Function Control
For many organizations, secure application enablement means striking
an appropriate security policy balance by enabling individual application
functionality while blocking other functions within the same application.
Examples may include:
• Allowing SharePoint Documents, but blocking the use of SharePoint
Administration.
• Block Facebook-mail, -chat, -posting and -apps, but allow Facebook itself,
effectively only allowing users to browse Facebook.
• Enable the use of MSN, but disable the use of MSN-file transfer and only
allow certain file types to be transferred using the file blocking feature.
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Using an application hierarchy that follows a container and supporting
function model, App-ID™ makes it easy for administrators to choose
which applications to allow, while blocking or controlling functions within
the application. Figure 4-2 shows SharePoint as the container application,
and the individual functions within.
Application Function Control Table
NOTE: The figure that is to follow may appear on the next page. Please
print the page for clarity in viewing the image and its details.
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Figure 4-2: Application Function Control maximizes productivity by safely
enabling the application itself (Microsoft SharePoint) or individual
functions.
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Controlling Multiple Applications: Dynamic Filters and
Groups
There are many cases where customers may want to control applications
“in bulk”, as opposed to controlling them individually. The two mechanisms
that address this need are application groups and dynamic filters.
Application groups
A group of applications is a static list of applications may that can be
used to enable use for certain users while blocking their use for others.
An example may be the use of remote management applications such as
RDP, Telnet, and SSH. Each of these applications are known to be used by
support and IT personnel, yet employees that fall outside of these groups
are also known to use them as a means of accessing their home networks.
A group of applications can be created and assigned to IT and support
through User-ID™ (discussed later in this module), tying the groups to the
policy. As new employees are added, they only need to be added to the
directory group. No updates are needed to the policy itself.
Dynamic filters
A dynamic filter is a set of applications that is created based on any
combination of the filter criteria: category, subcategory, behavioral
characteristic, underlying technology and risk factor. Once the desired
results for the filter are achieved, a policy that blocks or enables and scans
the traffic can be applied. As new App-ID™ that fulfills the filter criteria is
added in the weekly content updates, the filter is automatically updated
as soon as the device is updated, thereby minimizing the administrative
effort associated with policy management.
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Filter Category and Subcategory options:
• Business: Authentication services, database, ERP, general management,
office programs, software updates, storage/backup
• General Internet: File sharing, Internet utilities (web-browsing, toolbars,
etc.)
• Collaboration: Email, instant messaging, Internet conferencing, social
networking, social business, VoIP/video, web posting
• Media: Audio streaming, gaming, photo/video
• Networking: Encrypted tunnel, infrastructure, IP protocol, proxy, remote
access, routing
• Able to transfer files from one network to another
• Used to propagate malware
• Consumes 1Mbps or more regularly through normal use
• Evades detection using a port or protocol for something other than its
intended purpose or intent
• Has been widely deployed
• Application has had known vulnerabilities
• Prone to misuse or is easily configured to expose more than intended
• Tunnels other applications
• Client-server based
• Browser-based
• Peer-to-peer based
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• Network protocol
Application Behavioral Characteristics
Underlying Application Technology
• Client-server based
• Browser-based
• Peer-to-peer based
• Network protocol
Content Identification
Enterprises of all sizes are at risk from a variety of increasingly
sophisticated network-borne threats that have evolved to avoid many
of the industry’s traditional security measures. Content identification is
a new approach to traffic control based on the complete analysis of all
allowed traffic using multiple threat prevention and data-loss prevention
techniques in a single unified engine.
Unlike traditional solutions, content identification actually controls the
threat vectors themselves through the tight control of all types of
applications. This immediately reduces the attack surface of the network,
after which all allowed traffic is analyzed for exploits, malware, dangerous
URLs, dangerous or restricted files or content. Content identification
then goes beyond stopping known threats to proactively identify and
control unknown malware, which is often used as the leading edge of
sophisticated network attacks.
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Palo Alto Networks’ Content-ID™ is built on a single-pass architecture,
which is a unique integration of software and hardware that simplifies
management, streamlines processing and maximizes performance. The
single-pass architecture (SP3) integrates multiple threat prevention
disciplines (IPS, anti-malware, URL filtering, etc.) into a single streambased engine with a uniform signature format. This allows traffic to be
fully analyzed in a single pass without the incremental performance
degradation seen in other multi-function gateways. The software is tied
directly to a parallel processing hardware platform that uses function
specific processors for threat prevention to maximize throughput and
minimize latency.
Threat Prevention
Enterprise networks are facing a rapidly evolving threat landscape full
of modern applications, exploits, malware and attack strategies that are
capable of avoiding traditional methods of detection. Threats are
delivered via applications that dynamically hop ports, use non-standard
ports, tunnel within other applications or hide within proxies, SSL or other
types of encryption. These techniques can prevent traditional security
solutions such as IPS and firewalls from ever inspecting the traffic, thus
enabling threats to easily and repeatedly flow across the network.
Additionally, enterprises are exposed to targeted and customized
malware, which may pass undetected through traditional antivirus
solutions.
Palo Alto Networks’ Content-ID™ addresses these challenges with
unique threat prevention capabilities not found in traditional security
solutions. First, the next-generation firewall removes the methods that
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threats use to hide from security through the complete analysis of all
traffic, on all ports regardless of evasion, tunneling or circumvention
techniques. Simply put, no threat prevention solution will be effective if it
does not have visibility into the traffic. Palo Alto Networks ensures that
visibility through the identification and control of all traffic.
• Application decoders. Content-ID™ leverages the more than 100
application and protocol decoders in App-ID™ to look for threats hidden
within streams of application data. This enables the firewall to detect and
prevent threats tunneled within approved applications that would pass
by traditional IPS or proxy solutions.
• SSL decryption. More and more web traffic is encrypted with SSL by
default. This can provide some protection to end-users, but it also can
provide attackers with an encrypted channel to deliver exploits and
malware. Palo Alto Networks ensures visibility by giving security
organizations the flexibility to, by policy, granularly look inside of SSL
traffic based on application or URL category.
• Control of circumventing technologies. Attackers and malware have
increasingly turned to proxies, anonymizers and a variety of encrypted
proxies to hide from traditional network security products. Palo Alto
Networks provides the ability to tightly control these technologies and
limit them to approved users, while blocking unapproved
communications that could be used by attackers.
• Uniform threat signature format. Rather than use a separate set of
scanning engines and signatures for each type of threat, Content-ID™
leverages a uniform threat engine and signature format to detect and
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block a wide range of malware including viruses, spyware, and
vulnerability exploits in a single pass.
Multiple Security Disciplines
Secondly, Palo Alto Networks brings multiple security disciplines into a
single context and a single threat prevention engine. This context enables
security teams to easily see beyond individual security events and
recognize the full extent of a threat. Security managers can now see the
interconnection of applications, exploits, malware, URLs, anomalous
network behaviors and management and reporting and ensures
predictable performance by analyzing traffic once instead of progressive
scanning in multiple engines.
Integrated by Design
Palo Alto Networks next-generation firewalls are purpose-built platforms
that utilize a single pass parallel processing architecture to maximize
throughput and minimize latency. Traditional blade or UTM architectures
notoriously introduce performance penalties for each feature that is
enabled due to repeatedly processing traffic for each blade or feature.
Palo Alto Networks designed a unique approach that performs ContentID™ in a single unified engine and leverages a common signature format.
This means that content is processed only once, and performance
remains steady even as additional Content-ID™ features are enabled.
Single Pass Software
The single pass software uses a stream-based, uniform signaturematching engine for content inspection. Instead of using separate engines
and signature sets (requiring multi-pass scanning) and instead of using
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file proxies (requiring file download prior to scanning), the single pass
architecture scans traffic for all signatures once and in a stream-based
fashion to avoid latency introduction.
Stream-Based Engine
The use of a stream-based engine replaces several components
commonly used in other solutions-a file proxy for data, virus, and spyware,
a signature engine for vulnerability exploits, and an http decoder for URL
filtering. By using one common engine, two key benefits are realized. First,
unlike file proxies that need to download the entire file before they can
scan the traffic, a stream-based engine scans traffic real time, only
reassembling packets as needed and only in very small amounts. Second,
unlike traditional approaches, all traffic can be scanned with a single
engine, instead of multiple scanning engines.
True integration of security functions is achieved through a combination
of behavior-only (WildFire) and signature-based (AV, AS, DNS, Malware
URLs, and exploit protection) which constantly improve upon themselves
through an automated threat intelligence feedback loop. As forensic data
is gathered by observation in the WildFire sandbox, or supplied through
external threat intelligence feeds, it is used to create new signatures
feeding the other security functions. This actionable protection is shared
across the entire global install base rapidly, shortening the ‘zero-day
window’ to less than an hour.
Intrusion Prevention
Content-ID™ protects networks from all types of vulnerability exploits,
buffer overflows, DoS attacks and port scans that lead to the compromise
CYBERSECURITY SURVIVAL GUIDE 161
and damage of enterprise information resources. IPS mechanisms
include:
• Protocol decoders and anomaly detection
• Stateful pattern matching
• Statistical anomaly detection
• Heuristic-based analysis
• Invalid or malformed packet detection
• IP defragmentation and TCP reassembly
• Custom vulnerability and spyware phone-home signatures
Traffic is normalized to eliminate invalid and malformed packets, while
TCP reassembly and IP de-fragmentation is performed to ensure the
utmost accuracy and protection despite any packet-level evasion
techniques.
Stream-based Malware Scanning
Prevention of known viruses and malware is performed through the use
of stream-based scanning, a technique that begins scanning as soon as
the first packets of the file are received as opposed to waiting until the
entire file is loaded into memory to begin scanning. This means that
performance and latency issues are minimized by receiving, scanning, and
sending traffic to its intended destination immediately without having to
first buffer and then scan the file (see Figure 4-3).
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Figure 4-3: Stream-based scanning helps minimize latency and maximize
throughput performance
Palo Alto Networks maintains an independent database of millions of
malware samples, with more than 50,000 samples analyzed daily. Virus
and spyware signatures control a wide range of malware including PDF,
HTML and Javascript viruses, spyware downloads, spyware phone home,
trojans, key-loggers and botnets. Palo Alto Networks provides coverage
for signatures for all types of malware are generated directly from
millions of live virus samples collected by Palo Alto Networks from several
sources including a worldwide network of honeypots deployed around
the world, from the WildFire™ malware analysis service and from other
leading third-party research organizations around the world. The Palo
Alto Networks threat team analyzes the samples and quickly eliminates
duplicates and redundancies. New signatures for new malware variants
are then generated (using a uniform signature format) and delivered
through scheduled daily or emergency updates.
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WildFire™: Threat Intelligence Cloud to Prevent Unknown
Threats
Criminals have increasingly turned to customized and targeted malware
to avoid traditional antivirus controls. Palo Alto Networks has addressed
this challenge with WildFire™, which identifies malware by observing the
actual behavior of a suspect file in a virtualized environment instead of
relying solely on pre-existing signatures.
• Integration of Firewall and the Cloud-WildFire™ makes use of a
customer’s on-premises firewalls in conjunction with Palo Alto Networks
cloud-based analysis engine to deliver an ideal blend of protection and
performance. The in-line firewall captures unknown files and performs
in-line enforcement while maintaining high network throughput and low
latency. The analysis of unknown files is offloaded to a secure cloudbased engine to identify unknown malware and subsequently deliver
protections to all locations.
• WildFire™ Virtualized Sandbox-When the Palo Alto Networks firewall
encounters an unknown file (initially portable executable files, and
expanding to other file types in the future), the file can be submitted to
the hosted WildFire™ virtualized sandbox. Submissions can be made
manually or automatically based on policy. The sandbox provides virtual
targets for the suspected malware where Palo Alto Networks can
directly observe more than 100 malicious behaviors that can reveal the
presence of malware.
• Automated Signature Generator–When a sample is identified as
malware, the sample is then passed on to the signature generator, which
automatically writes a signature for the sample and tests it for accuracy.
• Deep Visibility and Analysis–In addition to providing protection from
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modern malware, users can see a wealth of information about the
detected malware in reports available on the WildFire™ Portal. This
includes the ability to see all behaviors of the malware: the user that was
targeted, the application that delivered the malware, registry changes,
file adds/deletes, DNS requests made, and all URLs involved in delivery
or phone-home of the malware.
• Integration with Endpoint Security–WildFire produces system level
forensics which are rich sources of threat intelligence for use by
endpoint security products. Bit9 is an example of a next-generation
endpoint security company which has integrated with the WildFire cloud
to corroborate findings, enforce policy, and remediate infections. Palo
Alto Networks acquired next-generation exploit protection company
Cyvera, to build out its integrated platform across cloud, endpoint, and
network.
URL Filtering
Complementing the threat prevention and application control capabilities
is a fully integrated, on-box URL filtering database that enables security
teams to not only control end-user web surfing activities, but also
combine URL context with application and user rules.
The on-box URL database can be augmented to suit the traffic patterns of
the local user community with a custom, one million URL database. URLs
that are not categorized by the local URL database can be pulled into
cache from a hosted, 180 million URL database. In addition to database
customization, administrators can create custom URL categories to
further tailor the URL controls to suit their specific needs.
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URL Categorization
URL categorization can be combined with application and user
classification to further target and define policies. For example, SSL
decryption can be invoked for select high-risk URL categories to ensure
threats are exposed, QoS controls can be applied to streaming media
sites, URL filtering visibility and policy controls can be tied to specific
users through the transparent integration with enterprise directory
services (Active Directory, LDAP, eDirectory) with additional insight
provided through customizable reporting and logging.
Customizing a Custom Block Page
Administrators can configure a custom block page to notify end users of
any policy violations. The page can include references to the username,
IP address, the URL they are attempting to access and the URL category.
In order to place some of the web activity ownership back in the user’s
hands, administrators can allow users to continue after being presented
with a warning page, or can use passwords to override the URL filtering
policy.
File and Data Filtering
Data filtering features enable administrators to implement policies that
will reduce the risks associated with the transfer of unauthorized files and
data.
• File blocking by type: Control the flow of a wide range of file types by
looking deep within the payload to identify the file type (as opposed to
looking only at the file extension).
• Data filtering: Control the transfer of sensitive data patterns such as
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credit card and social security numbers in application content or
attachments.
• File transfer function control: Control the file transfer functionality
within an individual application, allowing application use yet preventing
undesired inbound or outbound file transfer.
Log Correlation and Reporting
Powerful log filtering enables administrators to quickly investigate
security incidents by correlating threats with applications and user
identity. The log viewer enables an administrator to click on a cell value
to immediately create a filter that can be narrowed down further by
combining multiple criteria using an expression builder and additional log
fields, even if they are not visible in the log viewer.
To tie the user identity to the threat, the log viewer leverages the
integration with enterprise directory services. Log results can be
exported to a CSV file for offline archival or further analysis. The trace
session tool accelerates forensics and incident investigation with a
centralized, correlated view across all of the logs for traffic, threats, URLs,
and applications related to an individual session.
Reporting
Reporting is enabled through a set of predefined reports that can be
customized, pulling data from any of the log databases and then saving
them for future use. Once the desired report is created, it can be
configured to run on a regular basis, emailing a set of PDF reports or
exporting them to CSV or PDF.
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User Identification
Compounding the visibility problem in an increasingly mobile enterprise,
where employees access the network from virtually anywhere around the
world, internal wireless networks re-assign IP addresses as users move
from zone to zone, and network users are not always company employees.
The result is that the IP address is now an inadequate mechanism for
monitoring and controlling user activity.
User-ID™: Integrating User Information into Security Policies
Creating and managing security policies based on the application and the
identity of the user, regardless of device or location, is a more effective
means of protecting the network than relying solely on port and IP
address. Palo Alto Networks’ User-ID™ enables organizations to leverage
user information stored in a wide range of repositories for the following
uses:
• Visibility: Improved visibility into application usage based on user and
group information can help organizations maintain a more accurate
picture of network activity.
• Policy control: Tying user information to the security policy to safely
enable applications or specific application functions while reducing the
administrative effort associated with employee moves, adds and changes.
• Logging and reporting: In the event that a security incident occurs,
forensics analysis and reporting can include user information, again,
providing a more complete picture of the incident.
How User-ID™ Works
User-ID™ seamlessly integrates Palo Alto Networks next-generation
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firewalls with a wide range of user repositories and terminal services
environments. Depending on the network environment, multiple
techniques can be configured to map the user identity to an IP address.
Events include authentication events, user authentication, terminal
services monitoring, client probing, directory services integration and a
powerful XML API. Once the applications and users are identified, full
visibility and control within ACC™, policy editing, logging and reporting is
available.
Authentication Events
User-ID™ can be configured to monitor authentication events for
Microsoft Active Directory, Microsoft Exchange and Novell eDirectory
environments. Monitoring of the authentication events on a network
allows User-ID™ to associate a user with the IP address of the device the
user logs in from to enforce policy on the firewall.
• Microsoft Exchange Server: User-ID™ can be configured to constantly
monitor the Microsoft Exchange logon events produced by clients
accessing their email. Using this technique, even MAC OS X, Apple iOS,
Linux/UNIX client systems that don’t directly authenticate to Microsoft
Active Directory can be discovered and identified.
• Novell eDirectory: User-ID™ can query and monitor logon information
to identify users and group memberships via standard LDAP queries on
the Novell eDirectory servers.
• Microsoft Active Directory: User-ID™ constantly monitors domain
controller event logs to identify users when they log onto the domain.
When a user logs onto the Windows domain, a new authentication event
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is recorded on the corresponding Windows Domain Controller. By
remotely monitoring the authentication events on Windows Domain
Controllers, User-ID can recognize those authentication events to
identify users on the network for creation and enforcement of policy.
User Authentication
This technique allows organizations to configure a challenge-response
authentication sequence to collect user and IP address information.
• Captive portal: In cases where administrators need to establish rules
under which users are required to authenticate to the firewall prior to
accessing the internet, a captive portal can be deployed. Captive portal is
used in cases where the user cannot be identified using other
mechanisms. In addition to an explicit username and password prompt, a
captive portal can also be configured to send an NTLM authentication
request to the web browser in order to make the authentication process
transparent to the user.
• GlobalProtect™: Remote users logging into the network with
GlobalProtect™ will provide user and host information to the firewall
that in turn, can be used for policy control.
Client probing and terminal services
This technique allows organizations to configure User-ID to monitor
Windows clients or hosts to collect the identity and map it to the IP
address. In environments were the user identity is obfuscated by Citrix
XenApp or Microsoft terminal Services, the User-ID™ Terminal Services
Agent can be deployed to determine which applications users are
accessing.
170 PALO ALTO NETWORKS®
• Client probing: If a user cannot be identified via monitoring
authentication events, User-ID™ actively probes Microsoft Windows
clients on the network for information on the currently logged on user.
Using this mechanism, laptop users who often switch from wired to
wireless networks can be reliably identified.
• Host probing: User-ID™ can also be configured to probe Microsoft
Windows servers for active network sessions of a user. As soon as a user
accesses a network share on the server, User-ID™ identifies the origin IP
address and maps it to the user name provided to establish the session.
• Terminal services: Users sharing IP addresses working on Microsoft
Windows Terminal Services or Citrix can be identified. Completely
transparent to the user, every user session is assigned a certain port
range on the server, which allows the firewall to associate network
connections with users and groups sharing one host on the network.
XML API
In some cases, organizations may already have a user repository or an
application that is used to store information on users and their current IP
address. In these scenarios, the XML API within User-ID™ enables rapid
integration of user information with security policies. Examples of how
the XML API can be used to collect user and IP address information are
described below.
• Wireless environments: Organizations using 802.1x to secure
corporate wireless networks can leverage a syslog based integration with
the Palo Alto Networks User-ID™ XML API, to identify users as they
authenticate to the wireless infrastructure.
CYBERSECURITY SURVIVAL GUIDE 171
• Proxies: Similarly, authentication prompted by a proxy server can be
provided to Palo Alto Networks User-ID™ via its XML API by parsing the
authentication log file for user and IP address information.
• Network Access Control (NAC): The XML API allows customers to
harvest user information from NAC environments. As an example,
Bradford Networks, a NAC solution provider uses the User-ID™ XML
API to populate user logons and logoffs of its 802.1x solution. This
integration allows organizations to identify users as soon as they connect
to the network and set user-based enablement policies.
Directory Integration
To allow organizations to specify security rules based on user groups and
resolve the group members automatically, User-ID™ integrates with
nearly every directory server using a standards-based protocol and a
flexible configuration. Once configured, the firewall automatically
retrieves user and user group information and keeps the information
updated to automatically adjust to changes in the user base or
organization.
• Microsoft Active Directory: In any other LDAP based directory service,
the firewall can retrieve user and group information via standard LDAP
from most LDAP-based directory servers. The association of users to
computers can be achieved through other means, for example Captive
Portal or XML API.
172 PALO ALTO NETWORKS®
Visibility into a User’s Application Activity
The power of User-ID™ becomes evident when a strange or unfamiliar
application is found on the network by App-ID™. Using either ACC™ or
the log viewer, an administrator can discern what the application is, and
who is using the application, the bandwidth and session consumption,
the sources and destinations of the application traffic as well as any
associated threats.
Visibility into the application activity at a user level, not just an IP address
level, allows organizations to more effectively enable the applications
traversing the network. Administrators can align application usage with
the business unit requirements and if appropriate, can choose to inform
the user that they are in violation of corporate policy, or take a more direct
approach of blocking the user’s application usage outright.
User-based Policy Control
User-based policy controls can be assembled based on the application,
which category and subcategory it belongs in, its underlying technology
or what the application characteristics are. Policies can be used to safely
enable applications based on users or groups, in either an outbound or an
inbound direction.
Examples of user-based policies might include:
• Enable only the IT department to use tools such as SSH, telnet, and FTP
on their standard ports.
• Allow the Help Desk Services group to use Yahoo Messenger.
• Allow Facebook for all users, yet allow only marketing to use Facebookposting and block the use of Facebook-apps for all users.
CYBERSECURITY SURVIVAL GUIDE 173
Returning the Firewall to the Cornerstone of Security
The intent of this book is to provide a foundation for understanding
where next-generation network security fits into the overall scheme of IT
Security. Palo Alto Networks has built a security platform triad: endpoint,
cloud, and network security. The platform satisfies a wide range of
security requirements for enterprise computing, and reaches even
greater effectiveness when integrated with other compatible
technologies such as Security Information and Event Management,
Vulnerability Management, Wireless Security, Intelligent Switching and
Routing, and Data Loss Prevention systems.
The next-generation firewall restores the role of the firewall as the
cornerstone of network security. When integrated into an organization’s
overall security strategy, the next-generation firewall makes significant
contributions in terms of flexibility, in-line threat prevention of the latest
attack methods, intelligence sharing, and overall effectiveness.
Students of information security should be aware of the direction that
network security tools are evolving and seek to maintain the most current
skill set possible. It is the hope that the materials presented here will
support that learning and foster a desire to remain cutting-edge.
174 PALO ALTO NETWORKS®
Summary
• The next generation of firewalls are defined by their paradigm shift away
from port and protocol for allow/block decisions, toward applications,
users and content as the allow/block decision maker.
• Platforms, such as Microsoft SharePoint or Facebook, present multiple
functions, where each function is distinguishable by its traffic signature.
Next-generation firewalls provide visibility and granular control over
these sub-functions as a result.
• Palo Alto Networks adopted a single-pass parallel architecture which
uses stream-based malware detection to ensure maximum throughput
with all security functions turned on.
• Integration of content identification functions allows automated threat
intelligence sharing, and cross-referencing between functions in policy.
• User authentication identification provides personal context to network
traffic and can be obtained through methods such as domain controller
log scraping, captive portal, and client probing, or fed to the platform
from outside systems via XML API.
CYBERSECURITY SURVIVAL GUIDE 175
Discussion
1. If a malicious actor is able to obtain legitimate credentials on a given
network, their traffic would appear to be originating from that legitimate
user. What additional steps might be taken to detect malicious use of
otherwise legitimate credentials?
2. Encrypted SSL traffic is a perfect hiding spot for malicious actors to
operate undetected, through a generally allowed and open port and
protocol. To seamlessly perform man-in-the-middle style decryption and
inspection of SSL traffic requires adherence to the basic tenets of public
key infrastructure (PKI). What are the components of PKI and how does
it work?
3. Your next-generation firewall reports detection of command-and-control
traffic originating from several of your client machines. How might you
investigate, verify and remediate this situation?
4. Sophisticated attackers can piggy back their way into networks using
seemingly legitimate applications. Search security news websites for
instances where common applications were hijacked or repurposed, and
discuss your findings.
5. How can an integrated security platform be leveraged to validate
application traffic, and counter the scenario presented in discussion
question #4 above?
176 PALO ALTO NETWORKS®
Knowledge Check
1. Name the three core capabilities of a next-generation firewall.
2. Which is not a technique for determining application identification?
A) Packet Headers.
C) Protocol Decoding
B) Application Signatures
D) Behavioral Analysis
3. True or False: To securely enable use of applications, it may be necessary
to restrict certain functionality within that app.
4. True or False: Intrusion prevention generally refers to blocking viruses
and spyware at the network layer.
5. WildFire operates on which of the following concepts?
A) File based scanning against
C)Cloud based
a signature database.
reputation service
B) IPS and SIEM tool correlation D) Virtualized sandbox
6. Forensic data uncovered by sandbox examination feeds threat
intelligence to which of the following functions?
A) Anti-virus signatures. C) Malware category URL filtering
B) Malicious DNS security D) Command and control spyware signatures
7. True or False: URL filtering examines the requested web address against
a categorized database of URLs to determine whether to allow or block.
8. Name three possible methods of mapping user identification information
to IP address with a next-generation firewall.
9. True or False: User-ID fails when one user logs in to multiple devices
simultaneously.
10. Which of the following are valid policy/mechanism combinations in a
next-generation firewall?
A) Selectively decrypting SSL traffic by excluding certain URL categories
from decryption.
B) Allowing social media applications while blocking the use of imbedded
mail or chat functions to transfer files of specific types
C) Allowing point to point protocols to operate only when the cross
reference with certain URLs
D) Blocking unknown (non-authenticated) users from accessing certain
segments of the network while allowing them to have URL filtered
internet access
CYBERSECURITY SURVIVAL GUIDE 177
178 PALO ALTO NETWORKS®
Knowledge Check Answers
ANSWERS–CHAPTER 1 KNOWLEDGE CHECK
1. IRC is not a common application used on corporate networks, therefore
most network administrators keep port 143 closed.
2. Port hopping, SSL encryption, use of non-standard ports, or tunneling
within other allowed services–any two.
3. Better collaboration, expense reduction or increased knowledge
sharing–any two. Microsoft Office 365, DropBox, Instant Messenger,
Skype, Social Networks (LinkedIn, Facebook), Wiki, NewsGator, Google
Docs, or other valid examples of cloud based applications.
4. False: The blurring of personal and corporate presents new challenges to
network security.
5. True.
6. Lost productivity, potential disruption of operations, exposure to threats,
regulatory penalties.
7. False: Layer 7 attacks are increasingly the norm, making use of existing
entry points on the network layer that is allowed by traditional firewalls.
8. True. Blended threats are also known as ‘variants.’
9. Distributed, fault-tolerant, multifunctional, persistent, or intelligent–any
3.
10. The need for command and control, or network access to command and
control.
CYBERSECURITY SURVIVAL GUIDE 179
ANSWERS–CHAPTER 2 KNOWLEDGE CHECK
1. False: Zero-day commonly refers to threats that are unknown to the
security industry.
2. Advantage: behavioral or anomaly based detection is better than pure
signature based detection. Disadvantage: difficult deployments or lockout from false positives.
3. Application Whitelisting only allows known good applications to run,
while Exploit Prevention kills specific processes before they can be used
to deliver an attack.
4. Firewall, proxy servers, intrusion detection/prevention, web content/
URL filters, virtual private networks, data loss prevention, or unified
threat management–any three.
5. C. Next-generation network security replaces legacy port/protocol
allow/block decision making with applications, users and content.
6. Http or https proxies, remote desktop protocol, team viewer, goto
meeting, webex, or other valid-use applications which provide remote
desktop control.
7. False: SSL protects data in motion from interception, but is commonly
used to mask attacks, command and control communications, and/or
stolen data streams.
8. False: next-generation firewalls can enable certain functions of an
application, while only blocking certain higher risk features of that same
application.
9. A positive model denies all by default and classifies everything, a negative
model allows all by default and requires specific manual classification.
10. Dynamic setup and tear down of applications.
180 PALO ALTO NETWORKS®
ANSWERS–CHAPTER 3 KNOWLEDGE CHECK
1. A. and D. Zero trust challenges perimeter-centric security models, that
consider resources inside of the security perimeter to be trusted, while
those outside to be untrusted. It also does not make assumptions an
internal user is to be trusted, so B. and C. would be incorrect.
2. Can transition to Zero Trust incrementally and non-disruptively, obtain
true situational awareness, strict enforcement of least privilege,
enhanced security posture, compliance with regulations, adaptable to
business driven IT initiatives, reduced TCO.
3. Reliance on network communication of some kind with a larger botnet or
command and control network.
4. True.
5. A, B, and C are true. Unknown traffic falls into one of those three
scenarios. Incomplete sessions are indicated as ‘incomplete’ in
next-generation firewalls.
6. Presence of command and control traffic, unknown TCP/UDP, presence
of dynamic DNS or malicious DNS requests, activity on known malware
sites, visiting recently registered domains, use of IP instead of URL for
browsing, IRC traffic presence–any three.
7. B. While whitelisting and HIPS can offer system level protection per host,
they are not dynamic enough to be easily implemented at the same rate
of change that occurs within virtualized server environments.
8. False. Most cloud environments are simply massive, publically accessible
virtualized data centers sharing many similar security architectural factors.
9. Containers (or VDI), Mobile Device Management, Virtual Private Networks.
10. True. The device itself is often considered expendable, while sensitive
data it may contain is not.
CYBERSECURITY SURVIVAL GUIDE 181
ANSWERS–CHAPTER 4 KNOWLEDGE CHECK
1. Application identification, content identification, and user identification.
2. A. Simply checking a packet header is not a sound method of determining
application.
3. True. Some functions of applications carry a higher risk of data loss,
misuse, and/or present threat vectors, more than other functions.
4. False. Intrusion prevention generally refers to exploit protection, which
is different from payload protection.
5. D. A, B, and C are alternative security methods, but are not the basis for
WildFire.
6. A, B, C, and D are true. WildFire reveals unknown threats, purely by
behavior, and makes them known threats by cycling their behaviors back
to signature based methods.
7. True. When cross referenced against application, URL filtering can be
implemented with greater contextual accuracy, but the underlying
mechanism is to match URL against a known, categorized list.
8. Security event log monitoring (Active Directory, Novell, MS Exchange),
user provided credentials, client probing, receive user information
through XML API from external system–any 3.
9. False. Provided that those authentication mechanisms used are
integrated with the next-generation firewall, a given user may have many
IPs, or their IPs may change, but still logs will reflect the user associated
with a given IP at the given time.
10. A, B, C, and D are all valid examples of how next-generation firewall
features can be used in combination to provide flexible enforcement of
security policy.
182 PALO ALTO NETWORKS®
Acknowledgements
Cybersecurity Survival Guide-Principles & Best Practices would not have
been possible without the hard work, dedication, and expertise of
Matthew Ancelin–the key contributor to this textbook. Thank you
Matthew!
I would also like to thank Shoba Trivadi whose patience, understanding,
and vision throughout this process has been absolutely critical to the
success of the entire project. Finally, I’d like to thank Roger Connolly,
Judith Backel, Jay Mackey, and all the great people at Palo Alto Networks
for their contributions and expertise.
I look forward to the opportunity to work together again!
Author
Lawrence Miller
CYBERSECURITY SURVIVAL GUIDE 183
A FINAL WORD
The idea in bringing this book to you is to give you a perspective of the
various levels of threats and what you can do to prevent, manage, and
eliminate it. We invite you to send us your comments and suggestions
that we promise to incorporate as applicable in the next version of the
book.
Shoba Trivadi
184 PALO ALTO NETWORKS®
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