Thomson Reuters EndNote X7 Windows Help User Guide

Thomson Reuters EndNote X7 Windows Help User Guide
EndNote X7
Collect. Collaborate. Create. From anywhere.
Thomson Reuters EndNote X7 Help User Guide
Trademarks
Copyright © 2013 Thomson Reuters
All rights reserved worldwide. No part of this publication may be reproduced, transmitted, transcribed, stored in a retrieval system
or translated into any language in any form by any means, without written permission from Thomson Reuters.
This product includes software developed by the Apache Software Foundation (http://www.apache.org/).
Microsoft Windows and ActiveSync are registered trademarks of Microsoft Corporation.
OpenOffice.org is a trademark of OpenOffice.org.
PDF technology in EndNote is powered by PDFNet SDK copyright © PDFTron™ Systems Inc., 2001-2013, and distributed by
Thomson Reuters under license. All rights reserved.
All other product and service names cited in this help file may be trademarks or service marks of their respective companies.
Notice regarding legal use of downloaded reference data
EndNote gives you the capability to import references from online databases and store them in your personal EndNote libraries.
Some producers of online reference databases expressly prohibit such use and storage of their data; others charge an extra fee
for a license to use the data in this way. Before you download references from a database, be sure to check the copyright and fair
use notices for the database. Note that different databases from the same provider may have varying restrictions.
Introduction
Overview of Thomson Reuters EndNote
Welcome to EndNote X7 - the complete reference solution!
EndNote is an online search tool
Search online bibliographic resources and retrieve references directly into your EndNote library. You can also export
references to EndNote from your favorite online resource. See Direct Export Providers for more information about
this feature.
EndNote is a reference and full text organizer with a collaborative Web tool
Your personal reference library will save you countless hours of organizing your research.
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Group references according to your research projects and attach up to 45 files per record for managing related
materials.
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Locate full text PDF files for you or create a reference when importing a PDF file. Synchronize references and
file attachments with your EndNote Web account.
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Share groups with other EndNote users easily and manage your ResearcherID publication list.
EndNote is a bibliography maker
Cite While You Write™ allows you to format references in Microsoft® Word, and OpenOffice.org Writer 3.x for Windows. You can also create bibliographies for other word processors using Format Paper (RTF files). There is no
better tool than EndNote for handling diverse bibliographic style requirements.
EndNote and EndNote Web are collaborative tools to simplify working with colleagues.
Help
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See What's New in EndNote X7 for information about the most recent features added to EndNote.
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See Contacting Thomson Reuters for a list of helpful EndNote web sites.
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See our EndNote X7 Help User Guide for a complete list of help topics in EndNote.
EndNote Documentation Updates
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For documentation updates and correction notes, refer to the Readme.txt file installed in the EndNote folder.
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For updates to the EndNote program, select EndNote Program Updates from the Help menu in EndNote.
Technical and Customer Support
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For questions regarding your EndNote software, including questions about orders, billing, shipping, and serial numbers, go
to our Support site.
What's New in EndNote X7?
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Set your preferences to create clear, organized, and easily searchable names for your PDF documents as you import them
by defining your settings in PDF Handling preferences.
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Add citations and reference lists to your Microsoft PowerPoint slides.
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Add subheadings to your bibliography in Microsoft Word using your own categories or predefined by reference type in an
output style--great for distinguishing primary and secondary sources.
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Better organize your research materials by using new reference types such as Interview, Podcast, Conference Paper, and
Press Release.
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Reorder column headings in the Library reference list by using drag-and-drop and customize which columns display with
just a right-click.
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Use improved Sync that occurs in the background so that your work is continuously backed up and always available online
and on your iPad.
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Quickly identify groups that are shared in EndNote Web after the Sync process completes in EndNote desktop.
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Use new options to control the ratings and read/unread field display.
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Copy the record number to another field in a reference using the Copy feature from the Change\Move\Copy Fields command.
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Review program updates automatically.
Activation Changes
Macintosh and Windows serial numbers and product keys are now cross-platform compatible. You can use the same key on three
computers regardless of platform. Just download the additional installers at http://endnote.com.
Reference Manager (versions 8 - 12) can purchase EndNote at the upgrade price and use their original upgrade serial numbers to
unlock EndNote.
For more information, see:
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PDF Handling Preference
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Introduction to PowerPoint
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Category Bibliography
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Quick Search
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Overview of the Sync Process
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The Library Window
View Our What’s New Video
Thomson Reuters recommends that you view our What’s New video at http://endnote.com/training or on our YouTube channel at
http://www.youtube.com/endnotetraining.
View Features Added in Earlier Versions of EndNote
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Features Added to EndNote X6
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Features Added to EndNote X5
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Features Added to EndNote X4
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Features Added to EndNote X3
Contacting Thomson Reuters
Customer Service
Contact Sales for general product information, pricing, quantity discounts, and referrals to dealers.
Contact Customer Service to order new copies or upgrades of EndNote, to check billing/shipping status, and to register your software.
Sales Information
Phone: 1-800-722-1227 (Toll Free)
Phone: 760-438-5526 (country code is 01)
Fax: 760-795-3950 (country code is 01)
E-mail: http://endnote.com/info/sales-information-request
Customer and Account Support (Orders, Billing, and Shipping)
Phone: 800-336-4474 (country code is 01)
Fax: 215-386-2911 (country code is 01)
Web: http://ip-science.thomsonreuters.com/custserv/
Support
Contact Technical Support if you encounter problems while using EndNote. When you contact us, have a clear description of the
problem and know the version of your Windows or Macintosh operating system and word processor.
To find the EndNote version and serial number, start EndNote and select About EndNote from the EndNote menu (Macintosh) or
the Help menu (Windows).
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For questions regarding your EndNote software, including questions about orders, billing, shipping, and serial numbers, go
to http://endnote.com//support/contact-support .
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For web/e-mail or phone contact, including hours and holiday closures, go to http://ip-science.thomsonreuters.com/support/hours/.
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For technical support tips, go to the EndNote User Forum at http://community.thomsonreuters.com/t5/EndNote/ct-p/endnote.
International Customer and Technical Support
For customer support or technical support outside of North America, visit our Web site to check for a local distributor.
Go to http://endnote.com/distributors to find contact information for your local EndNote support.
EndNote Training
The EndNote home page contains a Training menu that offers free training options including online videos, live training, an online
user manual, and trainer resources.
Access training material at http://endnote.com/training.
EndNote Downloads
To download EndNote styles, filters, and connections, go to the EndNote home page.
EndNote Discussion Forums
If you wish to join an ongoing forum of EndNote users like yourself, go to http://community.thomsonreuters.com/t5/EndNote/ctp/endnote.
You can browse several EndNote message lists, easily search for topics, and join to add messages.
Join the EndNote social network at:
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www.facebook.com/EndNote
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www.twitter.com/EndNoteNews
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www.youtube.com/endnotetraining
Frequently Asked Questions
Go to http://endnote.com/support/faqs for a list of frequently asked questions that we receive about EndNote.
Top 10 Things to Remember about EndNote
1. EndNote does not replace the style manual. It will make it easier to follow the manual, but you will still need the manual.
2. Garbage in, garbage out. So check your import results, especially when working with sources such as Google Scholar that
may have inconsistent data.
3. Use one EndNote library for all of your writing. It will make your life easier in the long run.
4. Use the Edit Citation command to make changes to citations in documents. Trying to make changes on the screen risks
corrupting the EndNote citations.
5. If you are using footnote styles, your word processor controls the numbering and placement of the footnote and EndNote
controls the formatting. So you will first need to insert the footnote using your word processor, then insert the EndNote citation into that footnote.
6. EndNote provides five ways of importing references:
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Online search
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Direct export
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Importing text files
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Importing PDF files
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Through the Capture button in EndNote Web, which can import one record at a time into either an EndNote or an EndNote Web library
The method you use will depend on which databases you need to work with. Talk to your librarian about searching online
databases. They can tell you which databases you have available to you and the best way of searching them.
7. Online search uses the Z39.50 Internet protocol, a standard protocol that was developed just for searching and retrieving
bibliographic data. It has limitations.
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It does not work through proxy servers.
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It does not use the same port your browser uses.
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It is not the same protocol your browser uses.
8. EndNote can be customized.
9. For collaboration, use the EndNote Web feature set in EndNote to store references online where your entire project team
can access them.
10. Back up your EndNote Libraries.
About ResearcherID
ResearcherID.com is a freely available resource for the global, multi-disciplinary scholarly research community. After registering,
you are assigned an individual ID number that stays with you over the course of your career, regardless of name changes or
change in institution affiliation.
ResearcherID allows you to create an online Profile for showcasing your publication history. It is designed to associate you with
your scholarly work, thus assuring an accurate record of output and attribution. It also provides a gateway for colleagues to
quickly locate your published work and to identify you as a potential collaborator.
ResearcherID Features
At ResearcherID.com, you can:
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Update your biographical (Profile) information at anytime;
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Build your publication list by using Web of Knowledge, Web of Science, Distinct Author sets or by uploading a file;
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Manage your publication list with EndNote Web;
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Control whether your Profile is public or private, much like people do on Facebook and other Web sites;
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View citation metrics for articles found in the Web of Science; and
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Search the registry to find collaborators, review publication lists, and explore how research is used around the world.
ResearcherID Tools
In addition, ResearcherID includes an interactive Labs environment for exploration of author-level metrics. These tools allow for
visual analysis of research networks based on:
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Subject Category
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Country / Territory
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Institution
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Author Name
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Publication Year
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Geographic Location
The tools include:
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Citing Articles Network - Visually explore who is citing your articles.
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Collaboration Network - Visually explore your collaboration associates.
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Create a Badge - Place an image graphic on any Web site to show your membership in ResearcherID. The badge displays
a real-time summary of your Profile and publications on mouse-hover.
ORCID
Once you create a ResearcherID account, your can then create an ORCID record and obtain an ORCID identifier.
ORCID provides a persistent digital identifier that distinguishes you from every other researcher and, through integration in key
research workflows such as manuscript and grant submission, supports automated linkages between you and your professional
activities ensuring that your work is recognized.
The Open Researcher and Contributor ID (ORCID, Inc.) is a non-profit organization that aims to solve the author/contributor name
ambiguity problem in scholarly communication by creating a central registry of unique identifiers. These identifiers can be used
within various systems you may interact with in your professional research workflow, including manuscript submission, etc.
By creating an ORCID you will be able to link your ResearcherID account with this centralized registry.
Would You Like to Know More?
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Go to ResearcherID
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Go to ResearcherID.com
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Go to ResearcherID Web Services
Features Added to EndNote X6
The current release of EndNote includes the following new features.
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Update and synchronize your references in EndNote desktop and EndNote Web by the click of a button. Maintain and synchronize the references in your EndNote library with the references in your EndNote Web library even across multiple computers.
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Change Layout options to match your monitor and preferences, such as showing the Preview, Reference, and PDF Viewer
panels on the right side of the screen to fit widescreen monitors.
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Open PDFs in a separate PDF window for viewing references or annotating PDF files.
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Apply a rating to each of your references. Search your EndNote library by selecting the Rating option from the Field list.
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Apply a Read or Unread tag to your references from the Library window or the Reference window in order to track which references you have reviewed during your research. Set preferences to have EndNote automatically mark references as read
after viewing in the Reference, Preview, and PDF Viewer panels or after changing the rating of a reference.
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Copy or Move the contents of one field to another field without losing the original text formatting style.
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Change the case of field data from the Reference window. Options include Sentence case, lowercase, UPPERCASE,
Every Word, and tOGGLE cASE.
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Change the case of field data for all references currently "showing" in the Library window by using the Change/Move/Copy
Fields command.
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Select different author name formats for short forms of full reference footnotes.
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Edit full reference footnote citations to exclude author name, year, or author/year.
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E-mail a selected reference with or without file attachments to your colleagues.
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Retrieve records in XML format from online search databases.
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Download records from PubMed directly to EndNote.
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Select the Find Broken File Attachments command to fix broken PDF and figure links.
For more information about these features, see:
Direct Export Providers
Find Broken File Attachments
Overview of the Sync Process
Read / Unread Preferences
Resolve Sync Conflicts
Sync Preferences
The Library Window
Unfiled Groups
EndNote Display Fonts
By default, EndNote displays the recommended system font specified for your version of Windows. See Display Fonts Preferences if you want to change the font and font size on your computer when working in EndNote.
View Our What’s New Video
Thomson Reuters recommends that you view our What’s New video at http://endnote.com/training or on our YouTube channel at
http://www.youtube.com/endnotetraining.
View Features Added in Earlier Versions of EndNote
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Features Added to EndNote X3
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Features Added to EndNote X4
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Features Added to EndNote X5
Features Added to EndNote X5
The current release of EndNote includes the following new features:
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Easily convert your Reference Manager databases to EndNote databases. This features is available to users of Reference
Manager, versions 11 and 12.
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Within Cite While You Write, you now have the option to convert Reference Manager citations and bibliographies to EndNote citations and bibliographies. This feature assumes that you have converted your Reference Manager database to an
EndNote database.
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Add and transfer file attachments to references in your EndNote Web account for greater mobility.
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View and annotate PDF files in the EndNote library. Upgrade or create your Web account with your X5 license to receive
this expanded feature.
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Find Reference Updates on the Record Edit window to retrieve additional online data such as the PMCID required for NIH
grants.
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Select a new citation option – Author (Year) – within the Find & Insert My References dialog in Cite While You Write.
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Save time with new conditional formatting – substitute empty fields with alternates such as “Volume and Pages” with DOI.
Support includes DOI, PMCID, and Editor/Translator conditions.
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Review duplicate references quickly with new auto-highlights for each field where differences are found.
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View new Dataset and Music reference types as well as new fields for NIHMSID and Article Number.
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Select from an expanded set of bibliographic styles, import filters, and connection files installed by default – or add more
through customizing.
Note: Thomson Reuters recommends that you view our What’s New video at http://endnote.com/training or on your EndNote X5
CD.
See the following Help topics for more information about these new features in EndNote.
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Finding Duplicate References
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Updating References
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Field Substitutions (Bibliography and Footnotes)
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Converting a Reference Manager Database to EndNote
If you have upgraded from an earlier version of EndNote, you may want to see the following topics in EndNote Help.
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Features Added to EndNote X3
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Features Added to EndNote X4
Features Added to EndNote X4
EndNote X4 adds these features:
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Import and create new records from PDF files. Whether you are importing a single file or a folder of PDF files, EndNote
uses metadata and DOI information to create a new reference and attach the source PDF. Basic bibliography information
will be added automatically for most journal articles, conference proceedings, conference papers, and reports.
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Search the contents of attached PDF files. You will find a new option on the field list to search PDF files separately, or in
combination with the reference data.
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Create new groups by comparing, combining or suppressing existing groups. The new smart groups are updated dynamically as your library grows.
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Transfer up to 10,000 references between the desktop and EndNote Web to share online groups with other EndNote users.
Shared groups are now included when you Cite While You Write from EndNote Web.
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Edit references when comparing duplicates—copy/paste and save changes in the side-by-side view.
Cite While You Write new features include:
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Add hyperlinks between in-text citations and the bibliography reference in Microsoft Word using any journal style.
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Use expanded functionality when editing citations—track usage and more.
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Meet the complete APA 6th style requirements including specific handling of references with eight or more authors, hyphenated first names and DOI data.
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Improved footnote handling for the Chicago Manual of Style and similar footnote-based bibliographic styles.
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Traveling Library enhancements recognize references when sharing Word documents for better collaboration.
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Get a quick citation report of references cited in a Microsoft Word document with a new auto-group in the EndNote library.
Features Added to EndNote X3
EndNote X3 includes these new features:
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Use group sets to better organize your EndNote references. Save references in groups and then save sets of groups in
group sets. You can collect both custom groups and smart groups within the same group set. See About Groups and Group
Sets.
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Create a separate bibliography for each section in a single Microsoft Word document. See Creating Multiple Bibliographies
in a Single Document and Sections.
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In Microsoft Word, multiple citations that are grouped under a single number can be differentiated with letters. See Numbering Citations.
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Find even more full text documents with Find Full Text. Use OpenURL Link resolvers and proxy systems to find, download, and automatically attach full text PDF files along with core bibliographic data. See Finding Full Text for a Reference.
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Easily save a copy of an attached file. See Saving a Copy of an Attached File.
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Use expanded and updated bibliographic output styles, import filters, and connection files.
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Use additional AppleScript commands to automate EndNote tasks. See AppleScript and AppleScript Examples.
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Cite While You Write with the free OpenOffice.org Writer word processor. See How to Cite While You Write with OpenOffice.org Writer .
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Use EndNote with full compatibility with 64 bit versions of Microsoft Windows.
The EndNote Library
The Library Window
When you first open a library in EndNote, you see a Library window made up of five different panels.
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The Groups Panel
The PDF Viewer Panel
The Reference List Panel
The Search Panel
The Tabs Panel
You can click on a panel to make it active or press F6 to jump from one panel to another.
The selection of groups and menu commands depends on the display mode that you select. See The Display Modes.
The Library Window Toolbar
The Library toolbar provides various commands that allow you to manage your references. For a description of each command,
see Toolbars (Windows).
Selecting the Sync Feature
Your purchase of EndNote entitles you to a two-year free subscription to EndNote Web—our online version of EndNote desktop.
The Sync feature allows you to synchronize the references in your EndNote library with the references in your EndNote Web
library. You must register and have an active EndNote Web account to initiate the Sync process.
I Already Have an EndNote Web Account
1. Click the Sync button in the toolbar to go to an EndNote Web Login dialog.
2. Enter your EndNote Web e-mail address.
3. Enter your EndNote Web password.
4. Click OK.
The Sync process should automatically begin synchronizing your EndNote desktop references with your EndNote Web references so that an exact match exists in both libraries.
Since you already have an EndNote Web account, EndNote populates the fields on the Sync Preferences page with the e-mail
address and password that you entered on the EndNote Web Login dialog. Later you can change the data in these fields if you
ever change your e-mail address or password.
Note: The Sync library that you defined in Sync Preferences must be open and currently active to perform the Sync process.
Moreover, you cannot initiate the Sync process while in Online Mode.
I Do Not Have an EndNote Web Account
Since you do not have an EndNote Web account, you must create one. Registration is fast and easy and activates your two-year
EndNote Web account when completed.
1. Click the Sync button in the Library toolbar to go to an EndNote Web Login dialog.
2. Click the Sign Up button to go to a User Registration dialog.
3. Enter your e-mail address in the User Registration dialog. Retype your e-mail address, and then click the Continue button.
4. Enter your personal information in the required fields on the next User Registration form. For example, enter your name, a
password, a title, and fill in the remaining fields.
5. Click the I Agree button to complete the registration process and to begin synchronizing your EndNote Web library with your
EndNote library.
Once you create your EndNote Web account, EndNote populates the fields on the Sync Preferences page with your e-mail
address and password that you entered during registration. Later you can change the data in these fields if you ever change your
e-mail address or password.
Note: We recommend that you create a compressed library backup the first time that you initiate the Sync process. See Saving
a Compressed Copy of a Library for more information.
See Sync Preferences and Overview of the Sync Process for more information about this feature.
Selecting a Layout Mode
Click the Layout button in the lower right-hand corner of the Library window to change layout view of the Library window. There are
seven layout options from which to choose.
Groups Panel
Left / Off: This layout allows you to hide or show the Groups panel. Use this option in combination with any of the
other layout options.
Reference Panel
Right: This layout allows you to combine the Reference, Preview, and PDF Viewer panels as one panel to the right
of the reference list in a columnar arrangement. This is the default layout option.
Right - Split: This layout allows you to arrange the Reference/Preview panels and the PDF Viewer panel to the
right of the reference list in a columnar arrangement.
Bottom: This layout allows you to combine the Reference/Preview panels and the PDF Viewer panel in a split
arrangement below the reference list.
Bottom - Split: This layout allows you to combine the Reference, Preview, and PDF panels in one panel below the
reference list.
Off: This layout allows you to hide the Reference, Preview, and PDF Viewer panels. EndNote displays only the
Groups panel and the reference list side- by-side.
Selecting the Search Panel
The Search panel displays at the top of the EndNote window regardless of which layout option you select.
The Show Search Panel and the Hide Search Panel toggle buttons in the top right-hand corner of the window allows you to show
or hide the Search panel.
To begin a search of your EndNote library, select the group of references you want to search and then select Search Library from
the Tools menu. You can also click the Show Search Panel button to display the Search panel and the Hide Search Panel to hide
the Search panel.
To begin a search of an online database, click on the database name in the Groups panel under Online Search or go to the Tools
menu and select Online Search. See The Search Panel for more information.
Selecting a Display Mode
Choose from three different display modes in the Library window.
Local Library Mode: Displays automatic groups, custom groups, and smart groups, but not Online Groups. This mode keeps you
from inadvertently downloading references found during an online search into your currently open library. This is the default mode.
Online Search Mode: Search and download references from online databases. In this mode, only Online Search groups are available. References are downloaded into a temporary library. They are removed when you close EndNote.
Integrated Library & Online Search Mode: All groups and commands are available. When you download references from an
online database. EndNote saves them to a group under the Online Search group set and to your open library.
If you decide that you do not want to keep the retrieved references, select them, and then move them to the Trash folder.
Note: We recommend that you use Online Search Mode if you do not want the references downloaded to the All References
group.
For more information, see The Display Modes.
Resizing the Library Window
Resize the Library window by clicking the window border in the lower right window corner and dragging to the desired size or by
clicking the maximize/minimize buttons in the upper corner of the Library window.
EndNote remembers the new size of the Library window as well as its location on the screen. The next time you open EndNote,
the library appears with the same dimensions and in the same location as when you last closed it. Each EndNote library can have
its own unique dimensions and screen location.
Changing the Library Display Font
By default, EndNote displays the recommended system font specified for your version of Windows.
Select a different font and size for the text displayed in the Library window by using EndNote’s preferences. The list of references
in the Library window uses the font and font size as defined from the Library tab in Display Fonts preferences.
The Preview panel uses the General display font. Changes made to the display fonts apply to all EndNote libraries opened on that
computer.
See Display Fonts Preferences for more information.
Note: Changing the display fonts does not affect the font EndNote uses when it creates a bibliography. EndNote uses the font of
your paper for the bibliography.
Changing the Display Fields
By default, the first column in the Library window displays a Read / Unread indicator followed by:
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File Attachments
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Author
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Year
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Title
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Rating
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Journal / Secondary Title
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Last Updated
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Reference Type
Reorder the fields in the Library window heading columns using drag and drop. Select a field heading and move it to the desired
location in the column headings. For example, you can move the Ratings field to be the last field or the first field in the heading column. Your changes are reflected in the Display Fields preference dialog.
61. Customize which columns / fields display in the Library reference list by right-clicking on the column headings to display a contextual menu. Select or remove fields.
See also Display Fields Preferences
Changing the Reference List Sort Order
By default, the references listed in the Library window are sorted by the first author’s last name.
Change the sort order by selecting Sort Library from the Tools menu or by clicking the column headings. When you sort a library,
that sort order is retained even after you close and reopen a library. See Sort Library Dialog for more information about sorting.
Related Topics
Display Fields Preferences
Display Fonts Preferences
Important Points About Libraries
Navigating in the Library Window
Record Summary
The Library Window Display Modes
Choose from different display modes in the Library window. They include:
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Local Library Mode (default mode)
Online Search Mode
Integrated Library & Online Search Mode
Local Library Mode: Displays automatic groups, custom groups, and smart groups, but not Online Groups. This mode keeps you
from inadvertently downloading references found during an online search into your currently open library. This is the default mode.
Online Search Mode: Search and download references from online databases. In this mode, only Online Search groups are available. References are downloaded into a temporary library. They are removed when you close EndNote.
Integrated Library & Online Search Mode: All groups and commands are available. When you download references from an
online database. EndNote saves them to a group under the Online Search group set and to your open library.
Note: If you decide that you do not want to keep the retrieved references, select them, and then move them to the Trash folder.
Note: We recommend that you use Online Search Mode if you do not want the references downloaded to the All References
group.
Related Topics
About the Library Window
Important Points About Libraries
The Groups Panel
The Reference List Panel
The Tabs Panel
The Groups Panel
Groups are subsets of references saved for easy retrieval. The left panel of the Library window lists several group sets that
include various types of groups: automatic groups, custom groups, smart groups, Online Search groups, and Find Full Text
groups. Each is described below.
A new library may display only the permanent All References, Unfiled, and Trash groups. To display a group of references in the
Reference List panel, click the group name.
Note: If you find that not all groups are available, see The Library Window Display Modes.
Group Sets
Group sets are indicated by group set headings in the Groups panel. Some group sets are permanent, and cannot be removed.
These include Online Search and Find Full Text, which are described below. A new library begins with one group set: My Groups.
You can rename it at any time. You can also create any number of additional custom group sets. Group sets can contain any combination of custom groups and smart groups, as described below.
Expand or collapse the list of groups under a group set heading by clicking the plus (+) or minus (-) button. Click and drag a group
set heading to move the group set to a new location.
For more information about group sets, see Using Group Sets.
Automatic Groups
Automatic groups include both permanent and temporary groups and are listed at the top of the Groups panel in the Library window. They cannot be changed.
All References: This displays all of the references in the current library. If you highlight a subset of references in this group and
then display only those selected references, the name of the group changes to Showing References. The status line along the bottom of the window will always tell you how may references you are viewing plus the total number of references in the library.
Sync Status: This is not really a group. The Sync Status button allows you to open the Sync Stats dialog to review information
about the EndNote library that you selected to synchronize with your EndNote Web library. The dialog tells you the number of references and the number of file and figure attachments that EndNote updated during the last Sync process. A "Copy text to clipboard" button allows you to copy the text to a clipboard, and then paste the text in a text file.
Sync Conflicts Group: This group contains all of the references for which EndNote has identified a conflict between an EndNote
reference and EndNote Web reference.
Unfiled: This group contains those references that are not part of a custom group (and optionally not part of a smart group). Rightclick Unfiled to display a context sensitive menu and toggle the setting "Exclude Smart Groups in Unfiled/Include Smart Groups
in Unfiled".
Trash: This group contains the references you have removed from the library by selecting Move References to Trash from the References menu. While the references are officially no longer in your library (they will not appear in any other group or reference list,
they are not included in your reference count, and they cannot be searched or cited), they are not completely deleted until you go
to the References menu and select Empty Trash. Until you select Empty Trash, you can still drag references from the Trash group
back to your active library.
Temporary Groups
Copied References: This temporary group displays the last group of references that were retrieved in Online Search Mode and
then copied into your permanent library with the References > Copy References To command.
Duplicate References: This temporary group displays the results of duplicate detection in your library. You can run duplicate
detection with the References > Detect Duplicates command. See Finding Duplicate References.
Imported References: This temporary group displays the last set of references imported into the library with the File > Import
command. See General Importing Instructions.
Search Results: This temporary group displays the most recent search results. Each time you run another search on the library,
this group is replaced. See Searching for References.
Find Full Text groups are also automatic and temporary, but they appear under a Find Full Text group set, described below.
Note: When you close a library, all temporary groups are deleted. Only the groups are deleted; the references are still in the
library!
Custom Groups, Smart Groups, and Combination Groups
Custom groups, smart groups, and combination groups are user defined. You can create up to 5,000 user defined groups and
organize them in group sets.
You can easily drag and drop individual references or lists of selected references to and from custom groups. Custom groups are
updated only when you specifically add or remove references.
Smart groups are dynamically updated by applying search criteria to each reference as it is added or updated.
Combination groups include custom groups and smart groups.
For more detailed information about saving references in groups, and saving those groups in group sets, see About Groups .
Online Search
The Online Search section in the Groups panel lists your "favorite" connection files for online searching. When you click on one of
these connection file names, the Search panel becomes active and you are connected to the selected online service in order to
begin searching. For more information about online searching, see How to Search an Online Database.
Find Full Text
The Find Full Text group set lists temporary groups that appear when you select Find Full Text from the References menu. The
groups remain for the current session, but disappear when you close the library.
Searching...: This group displays the current set of references for which EndNote is attempting to find either the full text file of
each referenced work or at least a URL to the referenced work. When the full text search is completed, this group is deleted.
Those references to which full text or a URL was added are displayed in a Found PDF group or a Found URL group.
Found PDF: This group displays the set of references for which EndNote inserted the PDF file of the referenced work as an
attachment. These references display a paper clip icon in the File Attachments column of the reference list. If a URL is also
found, it is added to the reference, but the reference is not included in the Found URL group.
Found URL: This group displays the set of references for which EndNote inserted a URL to the referenced work.
Not Found: This group displays the set of references for which EndNote could not identify a full text PDF file or a URL. These are
only from the set of references searched with the Find Full Text command during this session of the EndNote library.
For more information about Find Full Text, see Finding Full Text for a Reference and How to Find and Retrieve Full Text.
Related Topics
About the Library Window
Important Points About Libraries
The Display Modes
The PDF Viewer Panel
The Reference List Panel
The Search Panel
The Tabs Panel
The PDF Viewer Panel
Select a layout view from the Layout menu located in the right-hand corner of the Library window.
Select the PDF tab from the Library window or the Reference window to open the PDF Viewer panel to review and annotate
attached PDF files.
To open a PDF file, select a reference, and then double-click the PDF file.
Attaching PDF Files
You can attach PDF files and view them in the PDF Viewer panel in various ways.
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Click the Attach Files (paper clip) icon on any PDF panel to open a select file dialog.
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Select a field in the Reference window. From the References menu, select File Attachments > Attach File to open a select
file dialog.
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Select a field in the Reference panel. Right-click to open a contextual menu. Select File Attachments > Attach File to open a
select file dialog.
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Select the PDF Viewer panel. Press Ctrl+Alt+A to open a select file dialog.
Click the Save PDF icon on the PDF Viewer toolbar to save your work. You can also navigate to another reference and EndNote
will prompt you to save your work.
Navigating the PDF Viewer Panel
EndNote allows you to open and annotate PDF files within the PDF Viewer panel. Select a reference with attached PDFs from the
reference list to view a PDF file.
You can resize the Sticky Note text box to enter and view more text by grabbing a resize handle at any corner of the text box and
dragging it until you reach the desired size.
Using PDF Viewer Toolbar
A toolbar appears within the PDF Viewer panel that displays the following options.
Move your cursor over an icon on the toolbar to see Alt text to explain its function. For example, Alt (hover) text for the first three
icons displays:
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Open this PDF in a reference window.
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Save changes to this PDF.
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Print this PDF or pages from this PDF.
Right-click within an open PDF file to display a contextual menu that includes many of these options plus other options, such as:
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Open with Adobe Acrobat
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Open in Reference Window
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E-mail Attachment
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Remove (deletes the current PDF file)
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Show Notes / Markup
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Hides Notes / Markup
Using the Find Feature
The Find feature allows you to search for words and phrases within a PDF document. Enter your terms in the text box and press
Enter. Use the Next and Previous buttons to find the next / previous instance of a search term.
The Find feature only searches within the currently open PDF. You cannot use this feature to search the reference fields in the
Reference panel or to search other PDF files that are attached to the current reference.
The Find feature highlights and return matches that contain the search query followed by any other characters. For example:
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A search on hospital finds hospital, hospitals, hospitalization, and so on.
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A search on hospital care finds matches that contain the phrase hospital care only.
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A search on “hospital care” finds matches that contain the phrase “hospital care” (the phrase must contain the quotation
marks).
Adding Sticky Notes and Highlighting PDF Text
Within the PDF Viewer, you can make annotations (sticky notes) and highlight selected text within a PDF. Both a Sticky Note and
a Highlight Text icon appear in the toolbar in the PDF Viewer panel.
Add a Comment
1. Go to a section in the PDF where you want to add a comment.
2. Select the text where you want to insert a comment.
3. Select the Sticky Note icon from the toolbar.
4. Double-click the Sticky Note icon that appears in the PDF file to display a Sticky Note text box.
5. Enter your comments in the Sticky Note text box.
6. Click the Save PDF icon in the toolbar to save your changes.
Note: To delete a sticky note, right-click within the PDF Viewer panel to open a contextual menu, and then select the Delete
Annotation option.
Highlight Text
1. Go to the section in the PDF where you want to highlight text.
2. Select the text within the PDF that you want to highlight.
3. Select the Highlight Text icon. The color of the selected text changes to yellow.
4. Click the Save PDF icon in the toolbar to save your changes.
To hide sticky notes and highlighted text, move your cursor over the text. Right-click to display the contextual menu. Select the
Hide Notes/Markup option from the menu.
Notes:
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Sticky note comments are searchable using the "Any Field and PDF" and "PDF Notes" options from the Field list.
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You cannot move sticky notes within a PDF file.
The Reference List Panel
The reference list displays all the references in the currently selected group. Options are available from the toolbar.
See Toolbars for more information about these options.
Display Fields
By default, the first column in the Library window displays a Read / Unread indicator followed by:
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File Attachments
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Author
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Year
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Title
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Rating
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Journal / Secondary Title
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Last Updated
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Reference Type
Changing the Order of the Fields or Adding / Removing Fields
You can change the order of the fields, add fields, remove fields, or change the name of a field in the column headings of the
Library window. See Display Fields Preferences for more information.
1. From the Edit menu, select Preferences.
2. Click the Display Fields option in the list.
3. Select the desired field from the Field list. You may select up to ten fields to be displayed in the Library window. Select
"[Do not display]" instead of a field name if you want to show fewer than eight fields.
4. By default, the column heading in the Library window is the same as the Generic name of the field (the Figure field is indicated byfig. , and the File Attachments field is indicated by a paper clip icon). If you would like to change the name for the
Library window display, you may do so by entering a new name in the Heading section next to the chosen field.
5. If you would like to display all author names under the Author heading in the library reference list, rather than just the first
author, select the check box next to the Display all authors in the Author field.
6. Click OK to save your changes and to close the Preferences dialog .
Note: These settings apply to all libraries.
Reference List Sort Order
By default, the references listed in the Library window are automatically sorted by the first author’s last name.
You can change the sort order by selecting Sort Library from the Tools menu (see Sorting the Library ) or by clicking the column
headings. When you sort a library, that sort order is retained even after you close and reopen a library. For example:
When you sort the library, character sorting is carried out according to the language and local settings of your operating system—
unless you specify a different language in the Sort Options dialog. This determines whether a plain "a" is sorted before or after "ä".
EndNote does not remember the sort order for all groups. EndNote displays the results of a search in the order in which they are
found. Similarly, after importing references, EndNote displays the newly imported references in the order in which they were
imported. This behavior greatly enhances the speed of these two functions. Selecting the Choosing Show All References option
from the References menu returns all of the references to the Library window and lists them according to the last sort order specified.
Note: See Sort Order: Bibliographies and Multiple Citations about how to set the sort order for a bibliographic style. See Sorting
Preferences for information about having EndNote ignore certain words or names when sorting references.
Navigating in the Reference List
There are a number of ways to browse through your references.
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Scroll through the list of references in the Library window by clicking in the vertical scroll bar with the mouse.
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Use the Up and Down arrow keys to move up or down the reference list.
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Sort references in the list by clicking on a column heading. For example, click the Year heading to sort the references by
descending or ascending year.
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Type a letter to select the first matching reference. The matching depends on the order in which the library is sorted. If the
library is sorted by the Author field, typing a letter selects the first reference in which the author’s last name begins with
that letter.
For example, typing the letter "Z" selects the Zartman reference in our sample library since Zartman is the first author’s
name to begin with a "Z." Type several letters and the selection jumps to the first name that begins with those typed letters.
Letter matching starts over after a half-second pause.
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The Home and End keys go to the first or last reference respectively. The Page Up and Page Down keys allow you to
move up or down the reference list.
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To find specific references, select Search Library from the Tools menu. (See Searching for References for more information.
Related Topics
The Library Window
Important Points About Libraries
The Display Modes
The PDF Viewer Panel
The Groups Panel
The Tabs Panel
The Search Panel
The Search panel displays at the top of the EndNote window regardless of which layout option you select from the Layout menu
located in the right-hand corner of the Library window.
The Show Search Panel and the Hide Search Panel toggle buttons in the top right-hand corner of the window allows you to show
or hide the Search panel.
To begin a search of your EndNote library, select the group of references you want to search and then select Search Library from
the Tools menu. You can also click the Show Search Panel button to display the Search panel and the Hide Search Panel to hide
the Search panel from view.
To begin a search of an online database, click on the database name in the Groups panel under Online Search or go to the Tools
menu and select Online Search.
Search Line
A search line includes a Logical operator, the field to be searched from the Field list, the Comparison operator, and a blank field
that you enter your search terms. Use the plus or minus buttons to the right of each search line to insert or delete a line.
Boolean Operator List
The AND, OR, and NOT operators between the search lines indicates how the search lines are to be combined. See Combining
Search Lines with AND, OR, and NOT Operators
Field List
The Field list allows you to restrict your search to a particular field—such as Author, Year, or Keywords—or Any Field. By default,
the Field lists are set to search Author, then Year, then Title.
You can also restrict your search to PDF files attached to a references by selecting the PDF option from the field list. The Any
Field + PDF option allows you to search any field within a reference and all PDF files in the selected group that you are searching.
See Restricting Searches to Specific Fields for more information.
Comparison List
Select an item from the Comparison list to indicate how the search term should relate to the field(s) being searched. For example,
you can find references in which:
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The Journal field begins with the term "science"
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The Journal field contains "science" anywhere in the field
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The full Journal name is "science"
See Using Comparison Operators for more information.
Search Fields
The search term is the word or phrase that you want to locate in a reference. Enter your search terms in one or more search fields.
Use the Options button to insert a Tab or Carriage Return in a search line.
Asterisk ( * ) Wildcard
Expand your library retrieval results by adding wildcards before and after search terms. The asterisk represents any group of characters.
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Fields and PDF files can be searched using the asterisk wildcard.
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No minimum character length is required.
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Stopwords do not apply so the term someth* in a query finds the term something.
Reminder: EndNote automatically applies left- and right-hand truncation to your search terms. However, you can still use the
asterisk (*) wildcard before and after a search term.
Search Set List
Use the search set list above the search fields to specify the set of references to search and how the search results should be
combined with other references in the Library window. By default, EndNote searches the group of references currently displayed
and shows only the results of the search.
Match Case
By default, EndNote ignores capitalization when searching for text in a library. For example, a search for the text paleontology
also finds Paleontology.
When you select the Match Case option, EndNote finds records in which the search term is spelled exactly as you typed it in a
search field. For example, if you enter AIDS and you select Match Case, EndNote ignores the words "aids" and "Aids" and finds
only the acronym AIDS"
When you select the Match Case option, a search for specific diacritical marks such as é, ü and î will match those letters exactly.
Thus, a search for résumé will not find "resume." If you want to find all variations of a letter, deselect the Match Case option.
Match Words
When you select the Match Words option, EndNote finds exact matches of the search term rather than partial-word matches. For
example, a search for the term state finds references with the word "state" while ignoring words like "statehood" or "understated."
Save Search and Load Search
If you frequently use the same search strategies on the Search panel, you can use the Options button to save these searches and
later load them when you need them. See Saving Search Strategies.
Set Default and Restore Default
Click the Options button and select Set Default to save the configuration of all of the items on the Search panel except for the
search terms. Click the Options button and select Restore Default at any time to return the tab to that configuration. See Search
Command Tips for more information.
The Tabs Panel
The Tabs panel includes three tabs: Reference, Preview, and PDF Viewer.
You can change the layout of the Library window by clicking the Layout button in the lower right-hand corner of the Library window
to display a menu. There are seven different layouts from which to choose. See The Library Window for a description of the six layout options.
To change the height of the Tabs panel, click the bar that separates it from the reference list, and drag up or down. When the cursor is over this area, it changes to indicate that you are in the right place to resize the panel.
The Reference Panel
Select the Reference panel from the EndNote window to edit the contents of the highlighted reference in the Reference panel.
Most functionality is the same as working in the Reference window. Enter text in a field by clicking on the field. All edit commands
are available via the menus including context-sensitive menus. Right-click in the reference to display common options such as
Cut, Copy, and Paste.
Open the context-sensitive menu to view the following options.
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Cut
Copy
Paste
Paste with Text Styles
Clear
Select All
Go To ...
Open Term Lists
Spell Check
File Attachments
Find Full Text
Find Reference Updates
URL
Figure
Navigation Keys
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The Tab key allows you to move to the next field in the Reference panel in order to edit the contents of a field.
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The Shift+Tab keys allow you to move to the previous field within the Reference panel.
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The F6 key allows you to navigate from the Groups panel (side panel), to the Reference List, to the Reference panel.
Note: If the Reference window is open, the Reference panel is in read-only mode. You cannot edit the fields. Only the Copy and
Select All options are available by right-clicking in the panel. Most features, however, within the PDF Viewer panel are still available, such as Next Page, Previous Page, Zoom In, Zoom Out, Copy, and Print.
The Preview Panel
Select the Preview panel to view the formatted style of the selected reference.
The preview displays the selected reference in your current style. If multiple references are selected, it displays just the last one
in the selection. Fields with the Preview feature are not editable. To edit the reference, open the reference in the Reference panel
or the Reference window.
Choosing the Current Style
The Preview panel uses the current style. To select another style:
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On the Main toolbar, use the Output Styles menu to select a new style.
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From the Edit menu, select Output Styles and select a style in the list. The check mark next to a style name indicates that
it is the current style.
EndNote provides over 4,500 styles. They are available from the Style Manager. Go to the Edit menu, select Output Styles, and
then select Open Style Manager. Mark the style or styles that you would like to see in the Output Styles menu. You should now be
able to select the style that you need from the Output Styles menu. For more information, see The Style Manager.
You can also add styles to the menus using the Select Another Style option from the style list on the toolbar. Choose Select
Another Style, select the style, and click Choose.
Previewing Multiple References
The Preview panel displays a preview for only one reference at a time formatted according to the current style. To preview multiple references:
1. Select (highlight) the references in the Library window.
2. From the Edit menu, select Copy Formatted to copy the formatted references to the Windows Clipboard.
3. Use the Windows Clipboard Viewer to view the contents of the Clipboard or Paste the formatted references into a word
processor document.
Using the Preview Feature to Display Notes or Abstracts
You may find it useful to configure the Library window so that the reference list displays bibliographic data (such as author, year,
title, and journal) and the Preview panel displays notes or abstracts. That would allow you to browse through the references in the
Library window without having to open individual references to see more about them.
To get the preview to display notes or the abstract, you will need to create a custom style to include just those fields. See Printing
Only the Notes for more information.
You can use the Show All Fields style to display all reference fields in the Preview panel.
The PDF Viewer Panel
Select the PDF Viewer Panel to view and annotate attached PDF files.
EndNote allows you to open, preview, and annotate PDF files within the PDF Viewer panel. Select a reference from the reference
library, and then select a layout from the Layout menu to view a PDF file.
If no PDF files are attached to the reference, EndNote displays a message in the PDF Viewer panel. In this instance, you can
begin attaching PDFs to the reference by clicking the Attach File button, and then selecting Attach File from the menu.
Related Topics
The Library Window
Important Points About Libraries
The PDF Viewer Panel
The Reference List Panel
Important Points About Libraries
Listed below are some important points about the EndNote library. Detailed information about each of these items follows.
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There is no limit to the number of references you can create in an EndNote library. It is recommended that the number not
exceed 50,000 to maintain efficient performance managing the database.
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There is no limit to the number of libraries you can create, assuming that you have the disk space to store them. We recommend that you keep all the references you cite in your papers in one primary library.
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You can select default libraries to open automatically when EndNote is started.
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You can open more than one library at a time.
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Libraries created with the Windows version of EndNote can be used by the Macintosh version of EndNote and vice versa
(see Transferring Libraries Across Platforms).
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Each library can be independently moved, copied, renamed or deleted using the Windows Explorer (or by opening "My Computer") . Always move, copy, rename or delete both the main .ENL file and the .DATA folder; otherwise, you can lose reference data.
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Figures, Groups, and other significant files are stored in a [library name].DATA folder which is in the same folder as your
main library file. This folder is an extension of the library, so remember to move, copy, rename, or delete the associated
DATA folder along with the main library file.
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Library filenames include the extension .ENL. If your library filename does not include an . ENL extension, Windows
Explorer may not be displaying file extensions. You can change this setting in Windows Explorer if you wish.
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The Library window can be resized and the display font can be changed to any font or size that you prefer.
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The Library window displays a multi-column reference list. By default, the first column shows a Read / Unread indicator followed by:
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File Attachments
Author
Year
Title
Rating
Journal / Secondary Title
Last Updated
Reference Type
You can change the order of the fields, add fields, remove fields, or change the name of a field in the column headings of
the Library window. See Display Fields Preferences for more information.
Related Topics
Back Up Your Libraries
Creating a New Library
Library Summary
Opening a Library
The Library Window
Transferring Libraries Across Platforms
Library Summary
To see a summary of statistics about the currently open library, go to the Tools menu and select Library Summary.
If you wish to save and print this information, use the "Copy text to clipboard" button and then paste the text into a word processor
document.
For a list of statistics about a specific reference, see Record Summary.
Creating Libraries
Creating a New Library
Although you can create as many libraries as you like, we strongly recommend that you keep all of your references together in one
main EndNote library. Having all of the references you need in one place avoids unnecessary complexity when you are writing
papers, creating bibliographies, or moving files between computers. Instead of making different "specialty" libraries, you will find
it more useful to create one library and use Groups to help you organize and categorize your references. You can also use the Keyword and Label fields to assign terms to references, and easily assign them to a smart group or find them with EndNote’s Search
and Sort References commands.
To create a library:
1. From the File menu, select New.
EndNote presents a dialog prompting you to name and save the new library.
2. Enter a name for your new library. If you include an extension, use the extension "ENL” which stands for EndNote Library."
If you do not include an extension, EndNote will add ".ENL automatically.
3. Using the "Save in" list, select the location where you would like to save the library.
4. Click Save and the new library appears as an empty EndNote library, "Showing 0 out of 0 references.”
Note: On disk, each EndNote library is made up of both an .ENL file and a .DATA folder.
Now that you have created a new library, you can begin entering references into it. The following topics illustrate the different
ways to add references to an EndNote library:
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Creating a New Reference discusses how to enter individual references manually.
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Quick Overview of Online Database Searching describes how to connect directly to online databases and retrieve references
from them.
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General Importing Instructions shows you how to import references that you have previously downloaded from online bibliographic databases.
If you have just created a library that will be the main library that you use, you can set it to open automatically every time you start
EndNote by setting it to be your "favorite library" (see Setting a Favorite Library).
Related Topics
Closing a Library
Deleting a Library
Multiple People Opening One Library
Saving a Compressed Copy of a Library
Saving a Copy of a Library
Setting a Favorite Library
Saving a Copy of a Library
EndNote automatically saves changes to your library as you work with it, so there is no Save or Save As command for the library.
You can, however, use the Save a Copy command to create an exact copy of your library.
To create a copy of your library:
1. With a library open, select Save a Copy from the File menu.
2. Name the new library and choose where to save it.
3. Click Save and EndNote creates a copy of the library.
The new library does not open, it is saved to disk, where you can then open it with EndNote. EndNote leaves your original library
open as it was before the command was chosen.
Note: The Save a Copy command creates a [library name].ENL file as well as a [library name].DATA folder for the new library,
and copies all necessary files and figures to it.
Related Topics
Closing a Library
Creating a New Library
Deleting a Library
Multiple People Opening One Library
Saving a Compressed Copy of a Library
Setting a Favorite Library
Saving a Compressed Copy of a Library
You can save an EndNote library, including the filename.enl file, its associated .DATA folder, and all of its contents, to a single
compressed file in order to back up your library or send to a copy to a colleague. Later, you can restore the compressed library
with EndNote.
Note: EndNote libraries larger than 4 gigabytes or 65,535 files cannot be compressed with EndNote’s Compressed Library command.
Creating a Compressed Library File
1. Open the library in EndNote.
2. From the File menu, select Compressed Library (.enlx) to display a Compressed Library dialog.
3. Use the radio buttons to determine these options:
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Specify whether you want to Create a compressed library or to Create & Email the library.
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Specify whether you want to save file attachments with the library or not.
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Specify whether you want to save all references to the compressed library, only selected references, or only the references
in a specific group or group set.
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Click Next to display a file dialog.
4. Save the compressed library to a folder on your hard drive. You can rename the file name but you cannot use the following characters.
Invalid characters for naming a compressed library
\
/
:
*
?
"
<
>
|
(back slash)
(forward slash)
(colon)
(asterisk)
(question mark)
(quotation mark)
(less than)
(greater than)
(vertical bar)
5. If you selected the Create & Email option, EndNote will launch your default email system, create a new email, and attach
the compressed library file to the email.
Enter additional information to the email, such as a recipient, subject, and message. Click the Send button.
Restoring a Compressed Library File
1. Use EndNote (version X or later) to open the filename.enlx file, which will extract the .ENL file and the .DATA folder to the
same folder where the. enlx file is located.
2. Use EndNote to open the filename.enl file as you normally would to use the library.
Setting a Favorite Library
EndNote allows you to specify the libraries that you want to open automatically when EndNote starts up. We call these the "favorite" libraries.
You do not need to select a favorite library. By default, EndNote will open the last used library.
To assign or change the favorite library:
1. Open the library (or libraries) that you would like to set as your favorite. (You must have a library open in order to set it as
your favorite library.)
2. From the Edit menu, select Preferences, and then select Libraries.
3. In the drop-down list at the top of the window, select "Open the specified libraries".
4. Click Add Open Libraries and all of the currently open libraries will be added to the list of favorite libraries that should open
every time EndNote starts.
5. Click OK to save your changes and close the Preferences dialog.
To remove a library from the list of favorite libraries:
1. From the Edit menu, select Preferences and select Libraries from the list of options.
2. Select the library that you would like to remove from the list of favorite libraries and click Remove Library.
3. Click OK to save your changes and close the Preferences dialog.
Opening, Closing, Moving, Deleting Libraries
Closing a Library
To close a library, do one of the following:
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From the File menu, select Close Library.
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Type Ctrl+W or Ctrl+F4 when the Library window is active.
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Click the Close button in the top right corner of the Library window.
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Type Ctrl+Shift+W to close all open libraries.
EndNote automatically saves the information in your library when you close each reference. As a result, closing the library does
not invoke the familiar "Save changes?" question. Instead, the Library window disappears as all changes have already been
saved.
Closing a library does not quit the EndNote program. If you want to quit from EndNote, select Exit from the File menu and any
open libraries are saved and closed automatically.
Deleting a Library
You can delete an EndNote library in one of two ways.
One option is to exit EndNote and delete the library file and its associated .DATA folder by dragging the icons to the Recycle Bin
on the Windows desktop.
To delete a library from within EndNote:
1. Close the library, but keep EndNote open.
2. From the File menu, select Open and then Open Library.
3. In the file dialog, highlight the libraryname.enl file, right-click your mouse, and click Delete.
4. Next, highlight the libraryname.DATA folder, right-click your mouse, and click Delete.
5. Click Cancel to close the file dialog.
Moving a Library
Each EndNote library can be independently moved using the Windows Explorer. When moving a library, we recommend that you
move both the main . ENL file and the .DATA folder.
If you move an .ENL file without moving the corresponding .DATA folder, EndNote will try to recreate the .DATA folder to accompany the .ENL file the next time you try to open the .ENL file. However, you may lose data, including PDF file attachments, term
lists, and even reference information.
EndNote will display an Alert when you try to open the .ENL file without the corresponding .DATA folder that reads:
Are you sure you would like to continue opening the EndNote library without the associated .Data folder?
You are attempting to open an EndNote Library without its associated .Data Folder. This is not recommended because it
may result in the loss of data including, but not limited to: reference information, file attachments, and term lists.
In order to prevent the loss of data you should locate the original .Data folder and copy it to the same location as the EndNote library you are attempting to open. The .Data folder was created in the same directory in which the EndNote library
was originally created.
We recommend that you click Cancel and go find and move your original .DATA folder before attempting to open a moved library.
See also Important Points about Libraries
Multiple People Opening One Library
EndNote does not perform record locking functions that would allow multiple users to edit one library at the same time. However,
multiple users can access one EndNote library simultaneously as long as the library is restricted to read-only or locked status.
This will allow the user to perform searches, copy information to their documents, and format their papers. Use Windows Explorer
to change the Properties of your EndNote library; select the Read-Only attribute for the .ENL file and the .DATA folder.
The simplest way to set up an EndNote library for shared network access is to use the network’s system of file permissions to
control the type of access allowed for users and groups. Except for the person who posts the database, grant all users read-only
access.
One person should be assigned the responsibility for maintaining and updating the library at a separate location; this user should
be granted full access to the file. Then, periodically post the updated library on the network for all other users, with read-only
access.
Opening a Library
To open a library when the EndNote program is already running, select Open from File menu and select Open Library . If you have
previously opened a library,EndNote will list that library name below the Open Library command; you can select the library name
to open it directly, and skip the dialog shown below.
When you select the Open Library command, EndNote displays a file dialog.
By default, this dialog displays all files with the extension ENL, ENLX, or LIB. If your library name has a different extension, you
should change the Files of Type option to All files (*.*). If your library is listed in the dialog, select it and click Open. If your library
is not listed there, then it is probably saved in a different place on your hard drive or removable disk.
To locate a library:
1. Click the "Look in" list and select the letter of the drive on which your library is stored.
2. Select the folder that contains your library and click Open. If your library is within several folders, continue to open each
folder until you locate the library.
3. When you see your library, select it and then click Open.
When you open a compressed library (with the extension .ENLX), EndNote uncompressed the files and opens the uncompressed
version (with the extension .ENL).
Recovering a Damaged Library
Occasionally computer files get damaged. If an EndNote library gets damaged, you may get an error message when trying to open
it or work with the references. The best way to protect yourself from damaged files is to make regular backup copies of your important documents (see Backing Up Your EndNote Files). If you do not have a backup copy of a damaged EndNote library, you can
use the Recover Library command to repair the damaged file.
To repair a damaged EndNote library:
1. Close the library if it is currently open.
2. From the Tools menu, select Recover Library. Read the information about the Recover Library command, and click OK.
3. In the dialog that appears, locate and select the library that needs to be repaired, and click Open.
4. EndNote creates a copy of the library with the suffix "-Saved" added to the name. For example, if you were repairing a
library called "References" the original library would remain untouched and a new, repaired library called "References Saved" would be created in the same location.
Once the new library has been saved, you should be able to open it and use it in place of the damaged library.
Note: The Recover Library command also creates a new DATA folder. If you rename the recovered library to the original library
name, remember to also rename the DATA folder to match.
Differences Between Saved Libraries & the Original
The purpose of the Recover Library command is to recover as many references from the original library as possible. This means
that it may also recover references that had previously been deleted from the library, but not yet purged from the file itself. If there
are more references recovered in the saved library than existed at the time the original library was damaged, it means that EndNote was able to reconstruct references that had recently been deleted. These references must be deleted again.
Term lists are not recovered with the library. Consequently, you will need to rebuild each term list by selecting Define Term Lists
from the Tools menu, highlighting the list, and then clicking Update List to fill the term list with the terms used in your library.
Images cannot be repaired, but are copied from the original library’s DATA folder to the new DATA folder.
Merging Libraries
Copying References in Libraries
You can also use the Copy and Paste commands to transfer references. Select the references that you want to copy and then
select Copy from the Edit menu. Open the library to which you want to add the references and select Paste from the Edit menu.
Importing EndNote Libraries
The advantage of using the Import command to combine libraries is its ability to filter out duplicate references during the import
operation.
Note: Before merging libraries, it is a good idea to make a backup copy of the library into which you are transferring references.
To import an EndNote library into an EndNote library:
1. (Optional) If you want to import only a subset of references from a library, first open that library and show only the references you wish to copy. For example, if the library says, "Showing 10 out of 200 references," EndNote imports only 10
references. If the library you are importing is locked or in "Read-Only" mode, all references are imported regardless of what
is currently showing.
2. Open the library into which you want to import the references.
3. From the File menu, select Import.
4. Click the Choose File button to locate and open the library you want to import. Select the file and click OK.
5. From the Import Options list, select EndNote Library.
6. Select an option from the Duplicates list:
n
Import All: Imports the references, including duplicates.
n
Discard Duplicates: Imports the references, except duplicates.
n
Import into Duplicates Library: Duplicate references are imported into a library called File-Dupl.enl, where "File" is the
name of the library into which you are importing.
By default, a reference is considered a duplicate when the Author, Year, Title, and Reference Type match a reference already in
the library. See Duplicates Preferences if you would like to change the duplicates criteria.
7. Set the Text Translation option to No Translation. Extended characters, saved as Unicode in EndNote, will transfer correctly.
8. Click Import to import the file.
Note: The time required to import an EndNote library is proportionate to the size of the library. Refer to the progress indicator to
determine when EndNote has completed the task.
When the import is complete, only newly imported references display in the Library window. This is the time to add a keyword to
each imported reference with the Change Field command or to peruse the imported data to make sure it imported as expected.
Make sure to check references that contain extended characters.
To return all of your references to the library display (including the newly imported ones), select Show All References from the References menu.
Related Topics
Copying References in Libraries
General Importing Instructions
Merging Libraries
Using Drag and Drop
Merging Libraries
There are three ways to merge libraries: import one library into another, copy references from one library to another, and drag-anddrop.
Any time you add references to a library, the newly added references are assigned new record numbers in the order that they are
added to the library. This means that a reference that was #23 in a smaller library, could become #600 in a larger library. As a
result, you cannot use the larger, merged library to format papers that have citations with the older record numbers.
Note: Before merging libraries, it is a good idea to make a backup copy of the library into which you are transferring references.
Using Drag and Drop
To copy specific references from one library to another, select them in one library (hold down the Ctrl () key to select non- consecutive references; use the Shift key to select a range), click on any part of the selection and use the mouse to drag the selection to another library. The selected references are copied to the library where they were dropped.
Converting Reference Manager Libraries to EndNote
Converting a Reference Manager Database to EndNote
EndNote can easily convert Reference Manager databases to EndNote databases. The original Reference Manager database is
left intact while references are copied and converted.
Note: This feature is available to users of Reference Manager, versions 11 and 12.
While every effort has been made to map Reference Manager reference types to corresponding EndNote reference types and Reference Manager fields to corresponding EndNote fields, you may want to make some adjustments by using the Field Mapping tool
during the conversion process. Alternatively, you can make changes to reference types in a Reference Manager database before
converting the database to EndNote.
To convert a Reference Manager database to an EndNote library:
1. From the File menu, select Open > Open Library to display a Select a Reference Library dialog.
2. At the bottom of the dialog, select Reference Manager Databases (*.RMD) from the "Files of type" menu.
3. Use the file dialog to navigate to the folder that contains the Reference Manager database that you want to convert to EndNote. Highlight the database name, and then click the Open button.
A "Convert Reference Manager Database" dialog will appear that lets you know that the database must be converted for
use.
4. You can either:
n
Click Convert to proceed with the conversion. This option allows EndNote to automatically convert Reference Manager reference types and fields to EndNote. It also leaves all file attachments stored in Reference Manager references in their original location.
n
Click Customize if you want to modify the mapping of individual Reference Manager reference types to EndNote reference
types and Reference Manager fields to EndNote fields. This option is useful if you have created customized reference
types in Reference Manager.
Use the top panel of the dialog to map each reference type to a corresponding EndNote reference type. When you highlight
a setting in the top panel of the dialog, you can change the field mapping for that reference type in the bottom panel of the
dialog. Click OK to save changes to the mapping. See Mapping Reference Manager Reference Types and Fields to EndNote for a list of reference types.
Click the Reset to Default Map button if you want to discard your changes and return to the default mapping set.
Click OK to save your changes when you are finished using the Field Mapping tool.
5. Click the Convert button if you do not have any additional changes to make.
6. On the "Save Converted Library as" dialog, give the new EndNote library a name (the default file name is the same as the
old Reference Manager file name).
After the conversion completes, EndNote displays a "Convert Reference Manager Database" dialog. Click Yes if you want to convert your file attachments to relative links. Click No to retain your file attachments as absolute links.
Note: Each EndNote library is made up of both an .ENL file and a .DATA folder. Each library can be independently moved, copied, renamed or deleted after the conversion process using the Windows Explorer. Always move, copy, rename or delete both
the main .ENL file and the .DATA folder; otherwise, you can lose reference data.
Note: The Cancel button allows you to cancel the entire conversion process. The Reference Manager database is not converted
and cannot be opened in EndNote.
Converting Reference Manager File Attachments to EndNote
During the conversion of your Reference Manager database, EndNote looks for each reference’s file attachments in the absolute
paths provided by Reference Manager.
If EndNote finds the file in the absolute path provided, then the attachment is successfully added to the reference in EndNote.
If EndNote cannot find the file in the absolute path provided, then you will be prompted to browse for the attachment.
1. From the Attachment Not Found dialog, click the Choose File button.
2. Navigate to the folder on your hard drive where you have stored your attachments and select the specific file.
3. Click OK to proceed with the conversion. Note that the OK button is inactive until you select a file or figure attachment.
After the conversion completes, EndNote displays a "Convert Reference Manager Database" dialog. Click Yes if you want to convert your file attachments to relative links. Click No to retain your file attachments as absolute links.
Note: You cannot edit the file path that appears in the File Location field on the Attachment Not Found dialog.
WARNING: If you are unable to find the file attachment, then click the Skip or Skip All button. This will close the Attachment Not
Found dialog and the file path will be used to create a File Attachment in EndNote even though the file is not located at the path
provided.
Converting Absolute Links to Relative Links
After the conversion completes, the new library opens in EndNote. All document and figure files appear in the File Attachments
field within an EndNote reference. Move your cursor over a particular file to displays a tool tip that shows the full path (absolute
path) of the file location.
In EndNote, you can easily change an absolute path to a relative path for each reference within a library list.
1. Select (highlight) each reference containing file attachments.
You can easily sort all records with file attachments by clicking the paper clip that appears in the Paper Clip column of the
Library window.
2. From the References menu, select File Attachments > Convert to Relative Links.
3. Click OK when the message appears.
The folder path for all attachments are quickly converted to relative links in which only the filename displays when you hover your
cursor over the file.
See Selecting a Relative Path or an Absolute Path for File Attachments for more information about absolute path versus relative
path.
Converting Reference Manager File Attachments to EndNote
During the conversion of your Reference Manager database, EndNote looks for each reference’s file attachments in the absolute
paths provided by Reference Manager.
If EndNote finds the file in the absolute path provided, then the attachment is successfully added to the reference in EndNote.
If EndNote cannot find the file in the absolute path provided, then you will be prompted to browse for the attachment.
1. From the Attachment Not Found dialog, click the Choose File button.
2. Navigate to the folder on your hard drive where you have stored your attachments and select the specific file.
3. Click OK to proceed with the conversion. Note that the OK button is inactive until you select a file or figure attachment.
After the conversion completes, EndNote displays a "Convert Reference Manager Database" dialog. Click Yes if you want to convert your file attachments to relative links. Click No to retain your file attachments as absolute links.
Note: You cannot edit the file path that appears in the File Location field on the Attachment Not Found dialog.
WARNING: If you are unable to find the file attachment, then click the Skip or Skip All button. This will close the Attachment Not
Found dialog and the file path will be used to create a File Attachment in EndNote even though the file is not located at the path
provided.
Related Topics
Convert Reference Manager Database to EndNote
Mapping Reference Manager Reference Types and Fields to EndNote
Selecting a Relative Path or an Absolute Path for File Attachments
Mapping Reference Manager Reference Types and Fields to EndNote
When you use EndNote to convert a Reference Manager database, Reference Manager reference types are mapped to EndNote
reference types as shown in the table below. You can override these default settings when you convert the Reference Manager
database. From the top panel, select an EndNote reference type from the EndNote list.
Reference Type Mapping Table
The table below lists the Reference Manager and the corresponding EndNote reference types. These are the default values for
both databases.
Reference Type Mapping Table
Reference Manager
Reference Types
Generic
Abstract
Art Work
AudiovisualMaterial
Bill/Resolution
Book Chapter
Book, Whole
Case
Catalog
Computer Program
Conference Proceeding
Data File
Edited Book
Electronic Citation
Grant
EndNote
Reference Types
Generic
Journal Articles
Artwork
AudiovisualMaterial
Bill
Book Section
Book
Case
Catalog
Computer Program
Conference Proceedings
Dataset
Edited Book
Electronic Article
Grant
Hearing
In Press
Internet Communication
Journal (Full)
Journal
Magazine Article
Map
Motion Picture
MusicScore
Newspaper
Online Source
Pamphlet
Patent
Personal Communication
Report
Serial (Book,Monograph)
Slide
Sound Recording
Statute
Thesis/Dissertation
Unenacted Bill/Resolution
Unpublished Work
Video Recording
Hearing
Journal Article
Personal Communication
Journal Article
Journal Article
Magazine Article
Map
Film or Broadcast
Music
Newspaper Article
Web Page
Pamphlet
Patent
Personal Communication
Report
Serial
AudiovisualMaterial
AudiovisualMaterial
Statute
Thesis
Bill
Unpublished Work
Film or Broadcast
See List of Reference Types for a complete list of EndNote reference types.
Field Mapping Table
As much as possible, Reference Manager fields are mapped to corresponding EndNote fields. You can override these default settings when you convert the Reference Manager database. From the bottom panel, select an EndNote field from the EndNote list.
In some instances, the list of Reference Manager fields for a selected reference type may contain "dashes" that are mapped to
the Notes field in the EndNote fields column. This occurs during the conversion when a Reference Manager field does not exist in
the incoming reference type, and thus, appears as a dashed line in the Reference Manager Fields panel.
These are the default values for both databases.
Field Mapping Table
Reference Manager Fields
Title, primary
Authors, primary
Datesprimary
Notes
Keywords
Reprint
Start Section
End Section
Periodical
------- -Title/Code Num
------- --------- ---
EndNote Fields
Title
Author
Date
Notes
Keywords
Notes
Section
Section
Secondary Title
Notes
Volume
Notes
Notes
------- --Code
------- --User Def 1
User Def 2
User Def 3
User Def 4
User Def 5
History
------- --Abstract
ISSN/ISBN
Availability
Date
------- -----------UNIQUE ID (DOI)
Address
Web/URL
File Attachments
Link to Full-text
Related Links
Image(s)
Notes
Secondary Title
Notes
Notes
Notes
Notes
Notes
Notes
Original Publication
Notes
Abstract
Notes
Database Provider
Access Date
Notes
Notes
DOI
Author Address
URL
File Attachments
URL
URL
Figure
Special Field Mapping Conditions
While the EndNote conversion tool allows you to make changes to most of the reference types and field mappings, there are
some special mappings that you cannot modify. They include:
n
The REF ID field in Reference Manager always maps to the Label field in EndNote.
n
The End Page field in Reference Manager maps to the Pages or Section field in EndNote depending on the reference type.
Note: If the receiving field already contains data, then EndNote appends the End Page data with a preceding dash
character in order to create ranges. For example: 123-128
n
Any Reference Manager field that maps to the Date field in EndNote:
o
For all reference types (except Conference Proceeding, Electronic Citation, Grant, and Patent), year data is
copied to the Year field in EndNote.
n
In the Conference Proceeding reference type, when the Reference Manager Pub Date [Date, Primary] field is mapped to the
Year Published [Custom 2] field in EndNote, any year information is copied to the Year Published [Custom 2] field in EndNote
and the complete field information is copied to Notes.
n
In the Electronic Citation reference type, when the Reference Manager Last Updated [Date, Primary] field is mapped to the
E-Pub Date [Section] field in EndNote, any year information is copied to the Year field in EndNote.
n
In the Grant reference type, when Reference Manager Pub Date [Date, Primary] field is mapped to the Year field in EndNote,
any year information is copied to Year and the complete field information is copied to Notes.
n
In the Online Source reference type, when Reference Manager Access Date [Date Secondary] field is mapped to the
Access Date [Number] field in EndNote, any year information is copied to the Access Year [Volume] field in EndNote.
n
In the Patent reference type, when Reference Manager Date Issued [Date, Primary] field is mapped to the Issue Date [Custom
2] field in EndNote, any year information is copied to the Year field in EndNote.
n
For the Journal references in Reference Manager:
o
n
If the Conference Title [Title, secondary] in Reference Manager contains data, the reference will not convert
using typical Journal field mappings. EndNote maps as appropriate for a Conference Paper.
For Thesis/Dissertation references in Reference Manager:
o
If the Periodical field in Reference Manager contains data, the reference will not convert using typical Thesis/Dissertation reference type mappings. EndNote will use mappings similar to those for a Journal.
Related Topics
Convert Reference Manager Database to EndNote
List of Reference Types
Importing a Reference Manager Library to EndNote
To use a Reference Manager database with EndNote, you must first export the references to a text file and then import from the
text file into an EndNote library.
Note: Use this method of importing Reference Manager databases (version 10 and under) to EndNote.
Note: To convert Reference Manager databases (versions 11 and 12) to EndNote, see Converting a Reference Manager Database to EndNote.
To convert a Reference Manager database to an EndNote library:
1. Export your Reference Manager references to a text file:
2. Open Reference Manager and the database you want to convert.
3. From the File menu, select Export.
4. Select the RIS export format, and then select All References.
5. Export to a text file.
6. Start EndNote and open or create the library to contain the imported references.
7. From the File menu, select Import.
8. Click Choose File, and then select the text file you created.
9. Next to Import Option, select the RefMan (RIS) import filter.
10. Click Import.
Sharing and Converting Libraries to EndNote
Creating a Library from ProCite
EndNote can easily convert ProCite databases to EndNote libraries. The original ProCite database is left intact; references are
copied and converted.
While every effort has been made to map ProCite workforms to corresponding EndNote reference types, and ProCite fields to corresponding EndNote fields, you may wish to make some adjustments. There are some ProCite fields, such as Connective Phrase
and Author Role, that do not have an equivalent EndNote field; text from these fields will transfer into the Notes field. As you go
through the conversion process, you are given the option to Customize the workform and field mapping.
Note: Custom ProCite workforms do not convert to specific EndNote reference types, and are displayed as a Generic EndNote
reference. You should either globally change the workform assignment in ProCite before conversion, or, during conversion, click
the Customize button to map custom workforms to EndNote reference types.
To convert a ProCite database to an EndNote library:
1. From the File menu, select Open > Open Library to display a file dialog.
2. At the bottom of the dialog, next to "Files of type," use the drop-down list to select "ProCite database (*pdt).
3. Use the file dialog to navigate to the folder that contains the ProCite database, highlight the database name, and click
Open.
A message will let you know that the database must be converted for use.
4. You can either:
n
Click Convert to proceed with the conversion, or
n
Click Customize if you wish to modify the mapping of ProCite workforms to EndNote reference types and ProCite fields to
EndNote fields.
Use the top half of the dialog to map each workform to a corresponding EndNote reference type. When you highlight a setting in the top half of the dialog, you can change the field mapping for that reference type in the bottom half of the dialog.
Click OK to save changes to the mapping.
5. On the "Save Converted Library as" file dialog, give the new EndNote library a name (the default is the same as the old ProCite name), select a folder, and click Save.
EndNote will convert the library. When the conversion is complete, the library will open in EndNote.
To use a ProCite database with EndNote, you must first export the references to a text file and then import from the text file into
an EndNote library.
To convert a ProCite database to an EndNote library:
1. Export your ProCite references to a text file.
2. Open ProCite and the database you want to convert.
3. From the File menu, select Print Bibliography.
4. Select the output style " RIS-EndNote.pos" (you can download this output style from the support area of the ProCite Web
site at http:// www.procite.com ).
5. On the Print Bibliography window, click Configure and go to the "Fields" tab.
6. In the Fields window check all optional fields.
7. Click OK, and then Save to save as a text file.
8. Start EndNote and open or create the library to contain the imported references.
9. From the File menu, select Import.
10. Click Choose File and select the text file you created.
11. Next to Import Option, select the ProCite (RIS) import filter.
12. Click Import.
ProCite Workforms to EndNote Reference Types
When you use EndNote to open a ProCite database, ProCite workforms are mapped to EndNote reference types as shown in the
table below.
By default, fields are transferred as follows:
n
As much as possible, ProCite fields are mapped to corresponding EndNote fields.
n
The ProCite fields Author Affiliation and Address/Availability both transfer into the same field in EndNote: Author Address.
n
The ProCite Date field is transferred into two fields in EndNote: Date and Year.
n
The ProCite fields ISSN and ISBN both transfer into the same field in EndNote: ISBN/ISSN.
n
ProCite fields that do not have a corresponding field in EndNote, such as Connective Phrase and Author Role, are transferred into the Notes field.
Keep in mind that you can override these default settings when you open the ProCite database, and before the transfer begins.
You can customize the mapping of workforms to reference types, and you can customize the field mapping for each workform.
Note: Custom ProCite workforms do not convert to specific EndNote reference types, and are displayed as a Generic EndNote
reference. You should either globally change the workform assignment in ProCite before conversion or during conversion, click
the Customize button to map custom workforms to EndNote reference types.
Workform to Reference Type Mapping
ProCite Workform
Abstract
Art Work
AudiovisualMaterial
Bill-Resolution
Book Chapter
Book Long Form
Book Short Form
Book Whole
Case
Computer Program
EndNote Reference
Type
Journal Article
Artwork
AudiovisualMaterial
Bill
Book Section
Book
Edited Book
Edited Book
Case
Computer Program
Conference Proceedings
Data File
Dissertation
Electronic Citation
Email
Generic
Hearing
In Press
Journal Article
Journal Long Form
Journal Short Form
Journal Whole
Letter
Magazine Article
Manuscript
Map
Monograph
Motion Picture
MusicScore
Newspaper
Patent
Report
Sound Recording
Statute
Trade Catalog
Unenacted Bill-Resolution
Unpublished Work
Video Recording
Web Page
Conference Proceedings
Unpublished Work
Thesis
Electronic Journal
Personal Communication
Generic
Hearing
Journal Article
Journal Article
Journal Article
Journal Article
Journal Article
Personal Communication
Magazine Article
Manuscript
Map
Edited Book
Film or Broadcast
Generic
Newspaper Article
Patent
Report
AudiovisualMaterial
Statute
Book
Bill
Unpublished Work
Film or Broadcast
Web Page
Compatibility between EndNote 8 - 16 and X7
EndNote X through X6 are fully compatible with X7. You can share your libraries between these versions with no conversion. New
features in EndNote X7 are ignored by the earlier versions.
EndNote X7 can open and use EndNote 8 and EndNote 9 libraries with no conversion. Once you have opened and used an EndNote 8 or 9 library with EndNote X7, you should only use the library with EndNote X or later.
n
The DATA folder is a critical part of your library. Whenever you copy or move a library, include not only the filename.enl file, but
also its associated DATA folder and all of its contents.
Note: If you want to back up your library, or share it with another EndNote X or later user, there is an easy way to compress your
EndNote X7 library and include all of the associated files and folders. See Saving a Compressed Copy of a Library.
n
In order to allow cross-version and cross-platform compatibility of attached files, you will need to replace the characters below
if they are used in the filenames of existing attached files and graphics—and then reinsert the files. One option is to replace
these characters with an underscore.
Replace these characters
in attached filenames
\
(back slash)
/
:
*
?
"
<
>
|
n
(forward slash)
(colon)
(asterisk)
(question mark)
(quotation mark)
(less than)
(greater than)
(vertical bar)
EndNote X1 included a new grouping feature, and EndNote X2 added smart groups. If you open an EndNote X7 library with an
earlier version of EndNote, you cannot view groups. However, groups are remembered when you open the library again with
EndNote X7.
Related Topics
Opening and Converting Old EndNote Libraries
Recovering a Damaged Library
Transferring Libraries Across Platforms
Opening and Converting Old EndNote Libraries
EndNote Version 8 through X6 Libraries
EndNote X7 can easily open and use libraries created with EndNote versions 8 through X6. No conversion is necessary. EndNote
X 7 is fully compatible with these earlier versions. You an regularly share your libraries between these versions
EndNote Libraries Prior to Version 8
EndNote X7 libraries are not backwards compatible with EndNote 7 or earlier versions. When opening a library from EndNote 5, 6,
or 7, EndNote X7 will convert the library to the current format and leave the original library unchanged. EndNote X7 libraries consist of an .enl file and a .DATA folder that must be kept together when sharing libraries.
To open or convert an older EndNote library:
1. Start EndNote.
2. From the File menu, select Open and then Open Library.
3. On the file dialog, locate and highlight the old library, and then click Open Library.
EndNote will warn you that the selected library was created with an older version and ask you for permission to convert it.
4. Click OK to convert the library.
5. Name the new library and click Save.
The conversion makes a copy of the original library in the latest X7 file format, and leaves the original library intact.
Note: You must use EndNote X or a later version to access the converted library.
Transferring Across Platforms
From Macintosh to Windows
Any library created or updated by EndNote X7 on a Macintosh can be used by EndNote X, X1, X2, X3, X4, X5, or X6 for Windows.
No conversion is necessary. However, make sure the name of the library includes the ".ENL extension (for example, Medicine.enl) and include the associated .DATA folder.
1. If you are on a network, copy the file from the Macintosh to the PC. Otherwise, use a file transfer utility to move the library
from the Macintosh to a removable storage disk and then to the PC. Make sure you also copy the DATA folder found in the
same folder as the library.
Note: If you plan to send an EndNote X7 library to another EndNote X or later user, there is an easy way to compress all
of your library files and folders into a single file. See Saving a Compressed Copy of a Library.
2. Start the EndNote program in Windows. (If you see a dialog prompting you for a reference library file, select Cancel.
3. From the File menu, select Open, and then select Open Library. Use the "Look in" list to navigate to the location of the
library you want to open.
If your library does not have the extension ".ENL or *.LIB it will not appear in the dialog. If that is the case, select All Files
*.* from the file type list at the bottom of the dialog, and you should be able to see your library.
4. Select your library and click Open.
Related Topics
From Windows to Macintosh
Multiple People Opening One Library
Transferring Libraries Across Platforms
From Windows to Macintosh
Any library created or updated with EndNote X7 for Windows can be used by EndNote X, X1, X2, X3, X4, X5, or X6 for the Macintosh. No conversion is necessary. However, make sure the name of the library includes the .enl extension (for example, Medicine.enl) and include the associated .DATA folder.
1. If you are on a network, copy the library from the PC to the Macintosh. Otherwise, use Windows Explorer to copy the
library to a removable storage disk. Use your Macintosh to copy the library from the removable storage disk to the Macintosh. Make sure you also copy the DATA folder found in the same folder as the library.
Note: If you plan to send an EndNote X7 library to another EndNote X or later user, there is an easy way to compress all
of your library files and folders into a single file. See Saving a Compressed Copy of a Library.
2. Start the EndNote program on the Macintosh. If you see a dialog prompting you for a reference library file, select Cancel.
3. From the File menu, select Open Library. Navigate to the location of the library you want to open.
As long as the library has the ".ENL" extension, EndNote can display it. If the library does not have the ".ENL extension as
part of the file name, EndNote will not recognize it.
4. Select the library and click Open.
Once the library has been opened in EndNote on a Macintosh, it maintains the EndNote Macintosh icon and can be opened just
like any other library created by EndNote on the Macintosh.
Related Topics
n
n
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From Macintosh to Windows
Multiple People Opening One Library
Transferring Libraries Across Platforms
Transferring Libraries Across Platforms
EndNote X7 libraries are not backwards compatible with EndNote 7 or earlier versions. When opening a library from EndNote 5, 6,
or 7, EndNote X7 will convert the library to the current format and leave the original library unchanged. EndNote X7 libraries consist of an .enl file and a .DATA folder that must be kept together when sharing libraries.
If you plan to send or email an EndNote library to someone, remember to send all of the files found in your library’s .DATA folder.
To compress all of your library files and folders into a single file, see Saving a Compressed Copy of a Library. You can then send
the single, compressed file to the other user, and they can restore the filename.enl file and its associated .DATA folder.
Related Topics
Compatibility between EndNote 8 - 16 and X7
From Macintosh to Windows
From Windows to Macintosh
Multiple People Opening One Library
Opening and Converting Old EndNote Libraries
EndNote References
The Reference Window
The Reference window displays the contents of a reference. Each part of the reference is stored in its own field and the type of reference is displayed below the title bar. The Reference Type field displays the type of reference that you are viewing such as journal article, book, or conference proceeding.
The first author’s last name, the year, and the EndNote record number appear at the top of the Reference window in the title bar.
Layout Button
By default, EndNote displays the Tabbed view of the Reference window. Click the Layout button in the lower right-hand corner to
display a menu.
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The Off option allows you to work in either the Reference window or the PDF Viewer window.
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The Right option allows you to work side-by-side in both the Reference window and the PDF window.
Mark as Read / Mark as Unread Buttons
Use these toggle buttons to apply a Read or Unread status tag to the current reference. EndNote automatically saves your selection.
Rating System
Apply a rating to the current reference in the Reference window to signify the importance of the current reference to your research.
Apply up to five stars (or none) by clicking a dot in the Rating field at the top of the reference window.
Styles
Apply styles to selected text in a field. Options include Bold, Italics, Underline, Plain, Superscript, Subscript, and Symbol Font.
Case
Apply case treatments to selected text in a field. Options include Sentence case, lowercase, UPPERCASE, Every Word, and
tOGGLE cASE.
E-mail Option
To e-mail references with file attachments to colleagues, right-click anywhere in the Reference window and select E-mail from the
context-sensitive menu.
Note that you cannot e-mail figure attachments using the E-mail option.
Find Reference Updates
Click the Find Reference Update button to look for the latest updates to the reference that you are viewing. EndNote searches for
and retrieves available field updates for the selected reference. If a reliable match is found, EndNote displays a Review Available
Updates dialog that shows you all the updates that were found. See Review Available Updates Dialog for more information.
Reference Window Controls
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To open a context-sensitive menu, right-click anywhere in the Reference window.
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Click the Hide Empty Fields icon in the toolbar to view only those fields that contain data.
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Click the Show Empty Fields icon in the toolbar to display all fields even those fields without data.
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Click Ctrl+Shift+W to close all open references.
PDF and Figure File Control
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Click Ctrl+Alt+A to attach a PDF file to the current reference.
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Double-click a PDF file to launch the default PDF reader on your computer.
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Click the Attach File icon to attach a file such as a PDF, document, or text file.
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Click the Attach Figure icon to attached a graphic file.
Navigation Keys
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Press the Tab key to move to the next field and select its contents. Press the Shift+Tab keys to move to the previous field.
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Click the Left Arrow (Previous Reference) or Right Arrow (Next Reference) buttons to close the current reference and to
open either the previous or next reference.
Entering Information in Reference Window Fields
Abstract and Notes
Author and Editor Names
Call Number
Caption
Date and Auto Date Stamp
DOI
Edition
Figures
Journal Title
Keywords
Label
Pages
Reprint Edition
Special Characters
Related Topics
Choosing a Reference Type
Creating a New Reference
Entering References
Field Size Restrictions
Finding Text in a Reference
Important Points About References
Inserting Images
Toolbars (Windows)
Important Points About References
There are various ways to add references to an EndNote library. This topic, and the following topics, discuss how to type information into EndNote, edit EndNote references, and insert graphics and files.
See Quick Overview of Online Searching for information about connecting to online bibliographic databases and retrieving references directly into EndNote. General Importing Instructions describes how to import references from a variety of sources using
EndNote’s Import command.
Here is an overview of important aspects of EndNote references:
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Each EndNote reference stores the information required to cite it in a bibliography. Keywords, notes, abstracts, URLs and
other information can be stored in a reference as well.
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Each reference added to a library is automatically assigned a unique record number that never changes for that reference in
that particular library. EndNote uses these numbers to format papers. You cannot change these record numbers.
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There is no limit to the number of references you can create in an EndNote library. It is recommended that the number not
exceed 50,000 to maintain efficient performance managing the database.
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Forty-five reference types are already defined (such as Journal Article, Book, Conference Proceedings, and so on). Three
additional Unused reference types are available so you can define your own. See the List of Reference Types.
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The fields (Author, Title, Year, and so on) displayed for each reference type can be modified or deleted. New fields can also
be added, up to a total of 52 fields per reference, including the reference type name.
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The text of the references should remain as plain text unless a special font, size, or style of text is required for a specific
term or character.
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The font used to display the text in references can be changed using the General Display Font preference.
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You can insert one graphic or file into the Figure field of a record, and the figure can be cited in Microsoft Word. See Inserting Figures. However, you can insert multiple files into the File Attachments field. See Linking a File to an EndNote Reference.
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References are automatically saved when they are closed; however, you may save a reference while editing the reference
using the Save command from the File menu.
Related Topics
Choosing a Reference Type
Creating a New Reference
Entering References
Field Size Restrictions
Inserting Images
Opening References
Record Summary
The Reference Window
Selecting References
To work with individual references (for example to copy, open, export or edit them), first select them in the Library window. The
simplest way is to click on a reference in a reference list. That reference is then highlighted to indicate it is selected.
You can also select a reference by typing the first few letters found in the field by which the library is currently sorted. For example, if the library is sorted by the author field, type the first few letters of an author’s last name to select the first reference by that
author. If the library is sorted based on title, type the first few letters of the title of the reference that you want to select. (When typing the letters to match a title, articles such as "a," "an," and "the" are skipped.).
To select multiple references:
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Hold down the Ctrl key while clicking on individual references. Press the Ctrl key and click on a selected reference to deselect that reference and retain the rest of the selection.
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Select a range of references by clicking on the first reference, then press the Shift key and click on the last reference of the
range.
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You can also select a range of references by holding down the mouse button and dragging the mouse vertically across a
range of references.
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Choose Select All from the Edit menu to select all of the references showing in the current reference list. When all the references are selected, the Select All command changes to Unselect All.
See Showing and Hiding References to learn how to display only the selected references, or temporarily hide the selected references from view.
Related Topics:
Important Points About References
Showing and Hiding References
The Reference Window
Using Show Selected and Hide Selected
Working with Showing References
Record Summary
To see a list of statistics about a reference, highlight the reference in the Library window, then go to the References menu and
select Record Summary.
If you wish to save and print this information, use the Copy text to clipboard button and then paste the text into a word processor
document.
For a list of statistics about the library, see Library Summary.
Opening, Closing, Saving, Deleting, Updating References
Opening References
Once you have references selected, any of the following actions opens them (a maximum of 10 references at a time):
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Double-click the selected reference(s).
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Press Enter.
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From the References menu, select Edit References ( Ctrl+E).
You can stop a series of selected references that are in the process of opening by pressing the Escape key (Esc).
The Reference window that opens for each of the references is where you enter and edit the reference data. Modify this text just
like you would edit a word processing document: select the incorrect text and retype it or delete and add text as necessary. See
Entering References for important information about entering reference data.
Closing References
To close a currently open reference, do any of the following:
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Click in the close button on the Reference window.
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From the File menu, select Close Reference.
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To close one reference and view the next or previous reference in the library, use the Next Reference and Previous Reference commands on the References menu (or the buttons in the Reference window). See Previous and Next Reference
Commands.
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Close all open references by holding down the Shift key while pressing Ctrl+W.
Note: All data in a reference is automatically saved when you close the Reference window.
Deleting References
To delete references:
1. Select (highlight) those references you want to delete.
2. Do one of these, which moves the selected references to the Trash group:
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Drag the selected references and drop them on the Trash group.
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From the References menu, select Move References to Trash.
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From the Edit menu, select Cut, which also stores the references temporarily on the Clipboard.
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From the Edit menu, select Clear.
3. When you are absolutely certain that you want to delete the references in the Trash, go to the References menu and select
Empty Trash.
4. You must confirm that you want to remove the references from the library.
Note: You cannot undo the Empty Trash command, so be sure you want to delete the reference(s) in Trash before dismissing the EndNote warning.
5. Display All References again to continue working in your library.
About the Trash Group
The Trash group contains references you have removed from the library by using any of the methods mentioned above. While the
references are officially no longer in your library (they will not appear in any other group or reference list, they are not included in
your reference count, and they cannot be searched or cited), they are not completely deleted until you go to the References menu
and select Empty Trash.
Until you select Empty Trash, you can still drag references from the Trash group back to the All References group of your active
library. Or, highlight a reference in the Trash group, right-click the reference, and select Restore to Library.
If you do not actively select the Empty Trash command, you will be prompted when you close the EndNote library.
Note: When you delete a reference, you delete its record number in that library forever. Even if you paste the reference back into
the same library, it is assigned a new, unique record number. This may cause incompatibilities with older papers that have citations that use old record numbers. We strongly recommend that you do not delete references that have been used in papers that
you might want to reformat later, and keep backups of your libraries!
Reverting References
The Revert Reference command on the File menu discards all changes made to a reference since it was last opened or saved.
Revert Reference is not available after you close the reference.
To remove the very last change made to a reference, use the Undo (Ctrl+Z) command in the Edit menu before closing or saving a
reference.
Saving References
To save a reference that you have just created or to save any changes made to an existing reference:
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Close the reference(s), or
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From the File menu, select Save ( Ctrl+S).
If you Exit from EndNote while Reference windows are open, the references are closed and saved automatically.
Review Available Updates Dialog (Find Full Updates Option)
Select and update individual references or multiple references from the Review Available Updates dialog by retrieving information
from source databases outside EndNote such as Web of Science and PubMed.
The Find Reference Updates option is available from the References menu and as an icon from the Reference window. It is also
available from the Edit & Manage Citations dialog in Microsoft Word.
When you select this option, EndNote searches for and retrieves available field updates for the selected reference.
EndNote follows the following process when searching for field updates.
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EndNote first looks for the DOI (Digital Object Identifier) that matches the DOI of the selected record. If a reliable match is
found, EndNote displays the Review Reference Updates dialog and displays the field updates.
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If EndNote cannot find a matching DOI number, it looks for the author name, year of publication, and journal title that
matches the selected record. If a reliable match is found, EndNote displays the Review Reference Updates dialog and displays the field updates.
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If no match is found, then no dialog displays.
To update a reference:
1. Select one or more references from the Reference List or open a reference in the Reference window.
2. From the References menu, select the Find Reference Updates option to open the Review Available Updates dialog.
Note: Click the Find Reference Updates icon from the tool bar if you are updating a reference from the Reference window.
3. All updates are highlighted in blue in both the Available Updates and the My Reference panels. An update exists for a field
in the My Reference panel when the field is empty or differs from the information in the same field in the Available Updates
panel. For each update that EndNote finds for a record, you can:
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Click the Update All Fields button to update all the fields in the My References panel with updated information from the Available Updates panel.
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Click the Update Empty Fields button to update every empty field in the My Reference panel with the new information from
the Available Updates panel.
4. If necessary, edit any of the information in the fields in the My Reference panel.
5. Click the Save Updates button to save your changes.
6. Click Yes when the EndNote dialog appears prompting you to save your changes.
Note: If you have selected more than one reference, click the Skip button to skip a particular reference that you do not wish to
update.
Note: All fields in the My Reference panel will display even if they are empty.
Editing a Reference
You can copy any of the information from a retrieved field and paste the information into the same field in the My Reference panel.
You can also edit any of the fields in the My Reference panel. The following edit options are available: Cut, Copy, Paste, Paste
with Text Styles, Clear, and Select All.
You cannot edit any of the retrieved fields from the Available Updates panel.
Related Topics
Creating a New Reference
Entering References
Important Points About References
Creating a New Reference
Creating a New Reference
To add a new reference to an open library:
1. From the References menu, select New Reference (Ctrl+N). This opens an empty Reference window:
2. Select a reference type from the Reference Type list at the top of the window.
3. Enter bibliographic data into each of the fields in the reference. For guidance, see Entering References. When you are finished, close the reference to save it and add it to the library.
Related Topics
Changing the Default Reference Type
Choosing a Reference Type
Entering References
Important Points About References
Saving References
Tips for Choosing the Right Reference Type
Updating References
Changing the Default Reference Type
By default, new references appear as Journal Article references. You may change this by selecting the Default Reference Type
option in the Preferences panel.
1. From the Edit menu, select Preferences.
2. Click the Reference Types option in the list.
3. At the top of that Reference Types preferences panel, select the Default Reference Type list, and then select the reference
type that new references should use.
See Reference Types Preferences for more information.
Choosing a Reference Type
When you create a new reference, that reference is assigned the default reference type. If you want to add a different type of reference, click the Reference Type list at the top of the Reference window, and select the reference type that you need.
Normally, you should select the reference type before entering information in the reference. However, you can change the reference type at any time, and the information you have entered is retained and transferred to the corresponding field for the new reference type.
In addition to determining how the reference is formatted in the bibliography, the reference type determines which fields appear in
the Reference window. For example, a Journal Article reference would have fields for Journal, Volume, and Issue, whereas a
Book would have fields for Editor and Publisher.
Customizing Fields and Reference Types
Fields can be removed, added, or renamed. You can also rename reference types. See Customizing Reference Types for more
information.
Tips for Choosing the Right Reference Type
Use Book for books written by one or more authors, and use Edited Book for books edited by one or more editors (whether they
are books in a series or not).
Use Book Section for references to parts of edited or non-edited books (a chapter, for example, or one article in a published conference proceedings).
The Conference Paper reference type is best used for unpublished papers. Articles that are published as part of the comprehensive conference proceedings should be entered as Conference Proceedings references.
Use the Electronic Article, Electronic Book, or Web Page reference type for citing material from a Web page or FTP site. If
you are citing a journal article that appears both online and in print, most style guides prefer that you use the print information and
cite it as a regular journal article. Email discussions should be cited as Personal Communications, just like any other correspondence.
Use the "Chart or Table" reference type if you want to include an image and later insert that image as a table in Microsoft Word.
Images in all other reference types will insert into Word as figures, which are listed and numbered separately from tables.
Related Topics
About Reference Types
About the Predefined Reference Types
Changing the Default Reference Type
Choosing a Reference Type
Creating a New Reference
Customizing Reference Types
Entering References
Important Points About References
List of Reference Types
Reference Types Preferences
Entering References
Entering References
Bibliographic information (as well as keywords, notes, and other relevant information) is entered into separate fields in each EndNote reference. By storing the pieces of bibliographic data in different fields, EndNote can later rearrange the elements to conform to various bibliographic formats (such as APA or MLA).
Special bibliographic formatting and punctuation should not be included when you enter reference data into EndNote. For example, you do not need to put quotes around titles, italicize journal names, or include the abbreviation "Vol. along with volume
numbers. Enter only the raw data, and leave the formatting to EndNote.
Note: There are a few exceptions to this punctuation rule, notably in the Author, Editor, and Edition fields.
A full set of key commands is available so that you can enter references without using the mouse. See Keyboard Commands.
For details about entering data into specific fields, see these topics:
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Field Size Restrictions
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Using Term Lists with Data Entry
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Author and Editor Names
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Year
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Titles
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Journal Names
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Pages
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Edition
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Date
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Short Title
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Original Publication
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Reprint Edition
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Reviewed Item
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ISBN/ISSN
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DOI
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Call Number
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Label
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Keywords
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Notes and Abstract
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URL (Uniform Resource Locator)
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File Attachments
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Figure and Caption
Field Size Restrictions
The Figure field can contain a single graphic.
All other fields can contain up to 64 KB or approximately 16 pages of plain text.
Changing the Display Fonts
By default, EndNote displays the recommended system font specified for your version of Windows. See Display Fonts Preferences if you want to change the font and font size on your computer when working in EndNote.
To access these settings, go to the Edit menu, select Preferences, and then click Display Fonts in the list of preferences.
You can control the following display font settings:
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Library: The Library tab determines the font and size EndNote applies to the references listed in the Library window.
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General: The General tab determines the font EndNote applies when you enter text in a field in the Reference and Style
windows. It also determines the font EndNote applies to text that you view in the Preview panel and information panels or
when you print and copy bibliographic information from EndNote.
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Labels: The Labels tab determines the font and size EndNote applies to the Reference window field labels.
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Search: The Search tab determines the font and size EndNote applies when you enter text in a field on the Search panel.
Changes made to the display fonts apply to all EndNote libraries opened on that computer. They do not affect the font used when
you are formatting bibliographies in a word processing document. The normal font of the document is used for that.
EndNote uses Unicode to encode special characters, so that data can be easily translated between platforms, programs, and languages. However, some fonts do not include certain Unicode characters. If some characters do not display correctly in your EndNote library, we recommend switching the display font to a Unicode font or installing the appropriate language pack.
Related Topics
Creating a New Reference
Font, Size, and Style
Important Points About References
Copying and Pasting Complete References
In addition to copying and pasting text between fields, EndNote can Copy and Paste entire references between libraries.
To use the Copy and Paste commands:
1. Select one or more references in the Library window (hold down the Ctrl key to select multiple references or the Shift key to
select a range of references). Do not open the references.
2. Select Copy from the Edit menu and those references are copied to the Clipboard.
3. Open another EndNote library and select Paste from the Edit menu to paste directly to the Library window. The references
you copied are pasted into the library and sorted correctly with the existing references.
Copying references using drag-and-drop:
An easy way to copy references between libraries is to use the drag-and-drop functionality. Simply select the references you want
to copy, click on any part of the selection, and use the mouse to drag them to another open library. Release the mouse button
when the cursor is over the destination library, and all of the selected references will be copied into the library.
If you need to copy all of the references in one library to another library, you can also use the Import command to directly import
one library into the other.
Note: Any time you copy a reference and paste it into another library or import a reference into another library, the reference is
assigned a new record number in the destination library.
Cut, Copy, and Paste Text in References
The Cut, Copy, and Paste commands in the Edit menu can be used to move text from one field in a reference to another field by
selecting and copying or cutting the text and then pasting it in the desired location. You can also Copy and Paste text from a field
in an EndNote reference to your word processor. Similarly, you can Copy text from a word processing document and Paste it into
a reference. If it is important to paste the text along with the fonts and text styles, use the Paste with Text Styles command in the
Edit menu. The regular Paste command does not include font, size, or text style information when pasting into EndNote from
another program. Avoid pasting unwanted fonts and text styles into EndNote references because those fonts and text styles will
carry through into future bibliographies.
Related Topics
Copying and Pasting Complete References
Using Drag-and-Drop Within a Reference
Using Drag-and-Drop Within a Reference
Text may be moved around within a reference by selecting the text and then dragging and dropping it in a new location. When text
is moved this way within a reference, it is moved from one location to another. When it is dragged from one reference to another
reference or to another program (such as your word processor), the text is moved to the target reference and removed from the
original location.
To drag-and-drop text:
First select the text. Then click on the selection, and keep the mouse button pressed while you drag the text to another location.
When the cursor is positioned in the right place, release the mouse button to drop the text in the selected location.
See also Copying and Pasting Complete References
Previous and Next Reference Commands
When a Reference window is open, use the Previous Reference and Next Reference commands in the References menu to
quickly browse through your references. The Reference window also includes arrow buttons to move to the previous or next reference.
When you select one of these commands (or click the buttons), the content of the References window changes to display the
information for the previous or next reference listed in the Library window.
This command has the same effect as closing the reference that is currently displayed and opening another reference, so any
changes to the currently opened reference will be saved before EndNote switches to display another reference.
Using Term Lists with Data Entry
EndNote uses term lists for the Author and Editor names, Journals, and Keywords. Term lists can also be created for other
fields. These lists are updated automatically as you enter new terms into these fields. The benefit of this is that the term lists also
help with data entry. If you begin to enter a name, journal or keyword that you have used before in that library, EndNote will complete the term for you to speed up data entry.
To accept a term that EndNote has suggested, press Enter,Tab or click in the next field. Terms that are new (that is, those that do
not already appear in the corresponding Author, Journals, or Keyword term list) appear in red text.
A more complete discussion of EndNote’s term lists is provided in Introduction to Term Lists.
Note: Both the "Auto-Update" and "Auto-Complete" term list features described here may be turned off using the Term Lists settings in the EndNote preferences.
Author and Editor Names
The following information about Author and Editor fields applies to the following "Generic" field names: Author, Secondary Author,
Tertiary Author, and Subsidiary Author.
Always enter author and editor names one name per line. If an author’s name is too long to fit on a single line, let it wrap to the next
line as you type it.
Author names can be entered either with the last name followed by a comma and the first name or the first name followed by the
last name. Both are correct. However, if you have the "Suggest Terms as You Type" feature of the term lists turned on, EndNote
suggests author names based the names are being entered with the last name first.
EndNote can abbreviate first and middle names, so for maximum flexibility enter whole names whenever possible. If you are entering initials instead of full names, be sure to type a period or a space between initials, (for example "Fisher, J.O. or J O Fisher),
otherwise EndNote interprets the initials as a single name: Jo.
See Additional Style Formatting Options for information about how EndNote can use style settings to format author names in bibliographies. For more information about term lists, see Introduction to Term Lists.
Using "et al." or Similar Abbreviations
Enter all author names for a particular reference. EndNote will truncate the list of authors with "et al." or "and others" as required
by the bibliographic style. If you do not know all of the authors’ names, then the last author should be "et al." or "and others" followed by a comma.
Anonymous Works
If a reference has no author, you should leave the Author field blank. Do not enter "Anonymous." The style that you use to format
the bibliography determines how anonymous references are treated.
Note that if a work is published with "Anonymous" printed on the title page, most style guides request that "Anonymous" be
entered as though it were the author name.
Corporate Authors
When entering corporate authors, put a comma after the name:
U.S. Department of Agriculture,
Apple Computer Inc.,
This ensures that the entire name is treated as a first name, so no name manipulation will be applied.
If your corporate author name includes a comma in the name itself, use two commas in place of the first comma:
California,, Irvine
EndNote treats this as a last name followed by a blank first name. Then, everything after the (blank) first name is appended,
including a second comma in the name. The formatted result is the corporate name with the commas in place.
Complex Author Names
For multiple-word last names, like Charles de Gaulle, enter the name with the last name first, such as:
de Gaulle, Charles
Entering a name this way ensures that both words "de" and "Gaulle will format as the last name.
Enter authors with titles, such as "Jr. or III, as Last, First, Title. For example, "Alfred Smith Jr." must be entered as:
Smith, Alfred, Jr.
The text after the second comma will print exactly as entered.
Note: See the Sortingsection of the EndNote preferences if you do not want EndNote to include prepositions (such as de, van,
von, and so on.) when it alphabetizes references in a bibliography.
Related Topics
Entering References
Entering Special Characters
Font, Size, and Style
Plain Text
Using Term Lists with Data Entry
Year
Normally, you should enter the four numbers of the year of publication, as in 2013. When appropriate, you may enter "in press," or
"in preparation," or some other notation.
Note: When you transfer references from an outside source into EndNote, only valid dates are parsed and transferred. Text such
as "submitted" or "in print" is ignored. However, you can manually type this information into the reference.
Titles
The following information about Title fields applies to the "Generic" fields Title, Secondary Title, Tertiary Title, and Alternate Title.
Enter titles without a period or any other punctuation at the end. Do not press the Enter key while typing titles into EndNote; allow
long titles to just wrap to the next line. Although the EndNote styles can change the capitalization of titles, it is best to capitalize
the title in the same way you would like it to be capitalized in your bibliographies.
Journal Title
The Journal field is automatically set up to work with the Journals term list. This means that the Journals list is updated as you
add new journal names to your references, and EndNote will use this list to facilitate data entry by suggesting journal names as
you enter them into the Journal field.
The Journal field (in the Journal Article reference type) can be used with the Journals term list to allow for multiple formats of a
journal name to be used in your bibliographies, depending on the format required (see Creating Bibliographies with Journal Abbreviations). When the different forms of the journal name are entered into the Journals term list, all it takes to change the format of
your journal names in a bibliography is one change in the style used (see Journal Names). All of the appropriate substitutions are
made when the bibliography is created.
EndNote includes several predefined journal lists in the Terms folder. If you would like to use these lists, you should import them
into your Journals list as described in Loading Supplied Journal Abbreviations.
The Alternate Journal Field
The Alternate Journal field is most useful when importing or retrieving references from an online source that provides two forms of
each journal name (full and abbreviated). By importing both, you can easily update the Journals term list and use the correct form
of the name without having to enter it yourself (see Updating a Journal List).
If you do not import from sources that include an alternate journal name, this field is probably not necessary for you to have in your
Journal Article references. You can remove it by editing the Reference Types preference (see Customizing Reference Types).
Pages
Page ranges can be entered as complete (1442-1449) or abbreviated (1442-9) ranges. The style used to create the bibliography
can change the page numbers to be either full or abbreviated page ranges or show just the first page (see Page Numbers).
Do not use commas in the Pages field for page numbers in the thousands.
Edition
The text of the Edition field is not modified by EndNote for your bibliographies, so be sure to enter "1st," "2nd," and so on for this
field if that is what you need in your bibliography.
Date and Auto Date Stamp
The Date Field
In the Date field of your references, enter dates as you would like them to appear in your formatted list or bibliography; EndNote
does not reformat dates. The output style determines which date field prints in your bibliographic references.
Note: When you transfer references from an outside source into EndNote, only valid dates are parsed and transferred. Text such
as "submitted" or "in print" is ignored. However, you can manually type this information into the reference.
The Auto Date Stamp Fields
Two Auto Date Stamp fields are available that you can add to the Library window.
The Added to Library and Last Updated date fields are inserted when you save a new reference. The Last Updated date is reset
each time you save changes to a reference. The date format of the Auto Date Stamp fields matches your default operating system
settings (for example, 4/16/2012).
To add the two Auto Date Stamp fields to the Library window, select Preferences > Display Fields. From the Field column, select
the Added to Library and/or Last Updated fields. EndNote populates the Heading column with your selection.
You cannot edit, print, or export either of the Auto Date Stamp fields. You can, however, display and sort these fields from the
Library window just as you can with any other EndNote field.
Note: For references entered with EndNote version X1 or earlier, the Added to Library field is left blank and the Last Updated field
displays the date of conversion to EndNote.
Short Title
Use the Short Title field to enter abbreviated versions of the regular title which should be used as part of an in-text citation or a
footnote citation. This is a common request for many of the humanities styles which use a shortened form of the title in the citation to help identify which reference is being cited. For example, MLA typically lists just the author name and the specifically cited
pages in the in-text citation:
(Perin 141)
But if there are multiple works by that author, MLA requires that the title or a shortened form of it be added to the citation. If the full
title of the reference is fairly long, such as Burning the Midnight Oil: Tales from Working the Night Shift, you should enter an easily
recognizable form of the title that starts with the first word on which the normal title would be sorted. For example:
(Perin,Burning141)
If an EndNote style is configured to use the Short Title field, and that field is empty for a particular reference, the normal Title field
is used instead
Original Publication
Use the Original Publication field to enter any information about the original publication that you need to be included in the cited reference. For example, when citing a republished book you might want to include the original publication date, as well as any other
supplementary information about the original publication (such as place published and publisher). Enter this information just as
you would want it to appear in your formatted bibliography reference (including text styles and punctuation).
Reprint Edition
Use the Reprint Edition field for references that were originally published under a different title. The field should include the original title and year to indicate that this reference is a reprint of an earlier publication. Enter this information exactly as you would
want it to appear in your formatted reference (including text styles and punctuation).
Note: This field is not intended to be used to indicate whether or not you have a reprint of the article on file. You may use one of
the custom fields for that.
ISBN/ISSN
ISSN (International Standard Serial Number) and ISBN (International Standard Book Number) are codes used to identify a particular publication. An ISSN number would refer to an entire journal (such as the Journal of Virology), and an ISBN would refer to a
particular book.
These numbers help to identify a specific publication if you needed to order it or locate it. This field is also used for Report Number
and Patent Number.
DOI
A DOI (Digital Object Identifier) is a unique ID for locating a digital version of a document, PDF or image. It is most useful if you
are importing reference data or retrieving references directly from an online source. This field was formerly titled "Electronic
Resource Number."
Reviewed Item
Use the Reviewed Item field for articles or chapters that are critical reviews of books, cinema, art, or other works. The contents of
the Reviewed Item field varies depending on the type of review that you are citing, but typically you should enter the title of the
reviewed work and the primary person responsible for it (author, artist, performer, and so on). Additional information about a production or performance may also be included. Enter the information exactly as you want it to appear in the formatted references
(including punctuation and text styles).
Call Number
The Call Number field is used to store library call numbers. These are the codes that help you to locate a particular publication on
the shelves in your library. When available, the EndNote connection files import the call number information into this field. If you
do not plan to use this feature, you may remove the field (see Customizing Reference Types).
Label
Label field can be used for many purposes, such as special in-text citations or reprint numbers.
Some citation styles require that citations include only part of the author’s name, such as [ SMIT 90]. EndNote cannot create this
citation for you, but if you type " SMIT 90" into the Label field and use the Label field in your style’s citation template, EndNote will
insert the Label field into the citation.
If you do not need the Label field for citation purposes, it can be used as an additional field for categorizing references or storing
reprint numbers. (Do not use EndNote’s record numbers to number reprints because these numbers change when references are
moved to different libraries. EndNote’s record numbers cannot be assigned or changed by the user.)
Keywords
Use the Keywords field to store keywords that you want to associate with the reference. You can restrict a search to just the Keywords field, so the terms you enter into this field can be used to later retrieve the references when using EndNote’s Search command.
The Keywords term list (which maintains a list of terms used in the Keywords field) can be set up to recognize semicolons (;),
slashes (/), backslashes (\), and returns as the delimiters that separate individual keywords. If you would prefer to use other punctuation to separate your keywords, you may change these settings using the Define Term Lists command from the Tools menu.
Related Topics
Entering References
Entering Special Characters
Font, Size, and Style
Plain Text
Abstract and Notes
The Notes, Research Notes, and Abstract fields can each hold up to 64,000 characters, which is equivalent to about 16 pages of
text. Use the Notes field to store personal reminders, such as the location of a quotation in a book or the quotation itself. Use the
Abstract field for a brief description of the contents of the work.
URL (Uniform Resource Locator)
A URL (Uniform Resource Locator) is the term for the address used to locate a specific page of information with your Web
browser.
To link a URL to a reference in your EndNote library:
1. Select a reference in the Library window and open the reference. Put your cursor in the URL field.
2. Type or paste a valid URL into the field. For example:
http://endnote.com
or
ftp:// ftp.cuteftp.com
The URL becomes a hyperlink (blue and underlined).
If you need to enter multiple links into the URL field, enter them one per line. Adding any other information along with the URL or
path and filename may keep the Open URL command from successfully finding the desired site.
When a correctly formatted URL is entered into the URL field, the URL > Open URL command on the References menu can be
used to launch a Web browser and take you to that site or file.
Some online reference databases include a URL for the full text of an article online. When importing or retrieving references
directly from these sources, the URLs can import directly into this field to take advantage of the Open URL command. You can
also store a URL to related information on the Web or other relevant material.
EndNote automatically recognizes URLs if they are entered with the correct prefix (such as "http://" or "ftp://) in any field. When
recognized, they become clickable Web links and appear as blue and underlined text. Simply clicking on one of these links will
open your Web browser and go to the address given. This feature is not specific to the URL field. See Linking References to Web
Sites and Files.
File Attachments
Use the File Attachments field to store the path to PDF files (and other file types) on your hard drive.
Note: Use the Figure field to attach a graphic or file that you want to insert into a Word document with Cite While You Write.
To link a file to a reference in your EndNote library:
1. Select a reference in the Library window, or open the reference for editing.
2. From the References menu, select File Attachments > Attach File.
3. On the file dialog, select a file to link to the selected (or open) reference.
4. Note the check box along the bottom titled, "Copy this file to the default file attachments folder and create a relative link."
This gives you the option to:
n
Select the check box to copy the original file and place the copy in the DATA\PDF folder that is part of your EndNote
library.
n
Deselect the check box to always have EndNote look in the original folder for the inserted file.
For more information about this option, see Selecting a Relative Path or an Absolute Path for File Attachments .
5. Click Open.
EndNote will display an icon indicating the type of file inserted. You can insert additional files into the same File Attachments
field.
Note: Another way to link a file to the File Attachments field is to drag and drop the file onto the reference in either the Library window or the Reference window. Whether the file is saved with the database or is linked with an absolute path is determined by the
default file attachment setting. See URLs & Links.
Note: In order to maintain cross-platform compatibility, any of the following characters in a filename will be replaced by an underscore when EndNote saves a copy of the file in the DATA\PDF folder with a relative path.
These characters are replaced with an underscore
\
(back slash)
/
(forward slash)
:
(colon)
*
(asterisk)
?
(question mark)
"
(quotation mark)
<
(less than)
>
(greater than)
|
(vertical bar)
Replacement Characters Table
For more information, see Linking a File to an EndNote Reference and Opening a Linked File or URL.
To automatically search online to locate and attach the full text of a referenced document, see Finding Full Text for a Reference.
Related Topics
Entering Special Characters
Font, Size, and Style
URLs & Links Preferences
Plain Text
URL (Uniform Resource Locator)
Figure and Caption
The Figure field can contain a graphic or file attachment. See Inserting Images.
The Figure field is included by default for all reference types, but you can remove it from any reference type or rename it in any reference type.
Note: Each reference can contain only one graphic or file attachment.
The figure itself is copied to the [library name]. DATA folder found in the same folder as the library file.
A related Caption field appears directly under the Figure field in a reference. Use this field for a short description of the image or
file.
Cite While You Write allows you to insert the figure and its caption into a word processing document. See Inserting and Formatting Figures and Tables . Figures in most reference types will insert into Word as figures. The only exception is the Chart or
Table reference type; use the Chart or Table reference type if you want to include an image and later insert that image as a table in
Microsoft Word. Tables are listed and numbered separately from figures in Word.
Font, Size, and Style
EndNote is designed to produce bibliographies that automatically use the font and size of the text in your word processing documents. Normally, when you type text into an EndNote reference, it is entered in a default Plain font, size, and style, which
means that your references follow the font settings in your paper.
If any fonts, sizes, or styles other than the default are entered into your library, they will appear in your bibliography regardless of
the font of your paper. For example, you can italicize species names, add a superscript number, or enter Greek characters such
as ß.
To apply font or text styles, select the text to be changed and then select the desired font, size, or style from the Edit menu or the
Font toolbar.
Note: If the Font, Size, and Style options are dim, it is either because you are not in an editing window (such as a Reference or
Style window), or you have not selected (highlighted) any text to change. If a specific option is not available, the particular font
selected may not support the option you want
Plain Text
The Plain Text, Plain Font, and Plain Size commands on the Edit menu or on the Text Style toolbar remove overriding fonts, text
sizes, or text styles from the selected text in a reference or a Style window.
When EndNote creates a bibliography, text in Plain Font and Plain Size uses the font and size of your paper. To use these commands, first select the text you want to change, and then select Plain Text, Plain Font, or Plain Size from the Edit menu or the toolbar.
The default font used to display EndNote’s "Plain Text" is the default font of your operating system, but it can be changed using
the General font option in the Display Fonts section of the EndNote preferences. Select Preferences from the Edit menu and click
the Display Fonts option. The General font setting changes the font in which the references are displayed but does not affect the
font of a bibliography created for a word processing document.
Entering Several Articles from the Same Source
Use a reference "template" to facilitate entering a series of references that have some information in common (such as various
sections from one book or a number of papers presented at the same conference). The template you create is an incomplete EndNote reference with just the common information entered into it.
To create a reference template:
1. From the References menu, select New Reference.
2. Enter all of the bibliographic information that the references have in common (such as the year, book title, publisher, and
city for different sections from one book).
3. Close the reference when you are finished. It remains selected in the Library window.
4. Select Copy (Ctrl+C) from the Edit menu to copy it.
5. Use the Paste (Ctrl+V) command to paste the reference several times, to create as many partially-filled references as you
need. You should paste directly to the Library window—do not open a new reference and select Paste.
6. Select all of the partially-filled references that you just created and edit them (double-click them, press Enter, or type
Ctrl+E to open up to 10 selected references at one time).
Complete each of the individual references. Close each reference as you complete it. and save them by pressing Ctrl+W.
Entering Special Characters
Special Characters
EndNote references can include special characters, including characters with diacritics, and Greek, mathematical, and typographical symbols. Diacritical characters are a part of standard Windows fonts, while most symbols can be entered in the Symbol
font.
EndNote uses Unicode to encode special characters, so that data can be easily translated between platforms, programs, and languages.
EndNote uses the default language setting set by your operating system. If the characters you wish to use require installing a different language pack, see Displaying Extended/Special Characters.
Special characters can be entered into EndNote using any of these text-entry methods:
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Type the character on the keyboard (if the character is part of the language supported by the keyboard).
n
Copy the character from another program, and paste it into your EndNote library.
n
Use the Character Map program supplied with Windows for this purpose.
Diacritical characters can be entered into EndNote references and into EndNote term lists. If you frequently use certain diacritical
characters, or words that include diacritical characters, you can store them in a term list and then select them from the list when
entering references. See Introduction to Term Lists.
Note: If characters do not appear as they should in EndNote, see Displaying Extended/Special Characters .
Related Topics
Changing the General Display Font
Entering References
Font, Size, and Style
Using Character Map
The Character Map program (CHARMAP.EXE) is supplied with all versions of Windows. Both diacritical characters and symbols
can be entered using the Character Map:
To use the Character Map program:
1. From the Windows Start > Programs menu, select Accessories, then System Tools, then Character Map.
2. Select the Symbol font, if necessary. (Other fonts will revert to the Typing Display Font when pasted in EndNote.)
3. Double-click the character(s) you need.
4. Click the Copy button to copy the characters to the Clipboard.
5. Return to EndNote, position the cursor in a reference, then select Paste from the Edit menu to paste the characters.
Or, with both your EndNote reference open and Character Map open, you can click on a character in Character Map and then dragand-drop it into your EndNote reference.
Note: The Character Map may include some Unicode characters that will not work in your selected font. If you insert a character
that is not recognized, it will appear in EndNote as a box.
Inserting Figures
Figures
EndNote extends the organization of reference information by including the ability to embed graphics and files in an EndNote
library and link them to papers. You can insert a graphic, figure, or file into the Figure field of any EndNote reference. See Inserting
Graphics and Files.
Note: While the Figure and Caption fields are included by default for all reference types, you can remove them at any time if you
do not intend to use them and they are just taking up space. See Adding and Deleting Reference Types.
Once you have a figure in your EndNote reference, Cite While You Write allows you to insert the figure and its caption into a word
processing document. See Inserting and Formatting Figures and Tables for more information about using images with Cite While
You Write.
Selecting the Appropriate Reference Type
You can insert a graphic or file into the Figure field of an EndNote reference. Depending on the reference type, the field may be
labeled Figure or have a custom label assigned by you.
By default, the Figure and Caption fields are included in all reference types. So, while a reference to a journal may contain primarily bibliographic information, you can also include an illustration that appeared with the journal article.
The Figure, Chart or Table, and Equation reference types can be used specifically to catalog images and files, and may contain
minimal reference information.
Note: Figures in the "Chart or Table" reference type are inserted into Word as tables, and are labeled and numbered separately
from the figures found in all other reference types.
To add or remove the Figure and Caption fields from a reference type, go to the Edit menu, select Preferences, and select Reference Types. For more information about modifying reference types, see Customizing the Reference Types.
Inserting Graphics and Files
Notes about inserting graphics and files into the Figure field:
n
Always use the Figure > Attach Figure command to insert graphics and other files into the Figure field. If you use Copy and
Paste, System settings are used and you could ultimately lose colors and other attributes from the original file.
n
Each EndNote reference can contain only one graphic or file attachment in the Figure field. If you insert a second graphic or
file, it will replace the first one. The previous figure is deleted from the DATA folder. See Storing and Sharing Figure Files
for more information about the DATA folder.
n
After inserting a graphic, you should always type Caption text into the Caption field, particularly if you intend to later insert
the figure into a Word document. The Caption will label the graphic in the figure list at the end of the Word document. The
Caption also helps you search for the figure.
n
You can insert a figure only into a reference that contains the Figure field. If you need to add the Figure field to a reference
type, see Customizing Reference Types.
n
In order to maintain cross-platform compatibility, any of the following characters in a filename will be replaced by an underscore when EndNote saves a copy of the file in the DATA folder.
These characters are replaced with an underscore
\
(back slash)
/
(forward slash)
:
(colon)
*
(asterisk)
?
(question mark)
"
(quotation mark)
<
(less than)
>
(greater than)
|
(vertical bar)
Replacement Characters Table
To insert a graphic (picture) or other file into the Figure field:
1. With the reference open for editing, go to the References menu and select Figure > Attach Figure. (The Attach
Figure command is also available on the toolbar.)
2. Click Choose File to display a file dialog.
3. Locate the graphic file and Insert it. EndNote recognizes at least these graphic file types:
n
n
n
n
n
Windows Bitmap - BMP
>Graphics Interchange Format - GIF
JPEG File Interchange Format - JPEG
Portable Network Graphics - PNG
Tag Image File Format - TIFF
Valid picture files are those that Microsoft Word recognizes as pictures.
EndNote also recognizes at least these other file formats:
n
n
n
Audio files (WAV, MP3)
Microsoft Access files
Microsoft Excel files
n
n
n
n
n
n
n
Microsoft Power Point files
Microsoft Project files
Microsoft Visio files
Microsoft Word files
Multimedia files (MOV, QuickTime)
Technical drawing files
Text files (TXT, RTF, HTML)
4. Then, on the Attach Figure dialog, click OK to copy the file to your EndNote record. A graphic appears as a
thumbnail within the reference.
Other types of files will appear as an attachment, with the program icon and filename. (If the application used to create the document is not available on your system, the icon gives generic Windows file information.)
Double-clicking on the thumbnail or file icon will launch an associated application to open the file, with the same effect as if you
had double-clicked the file on your computer desktop.
Caption
A related Caption field appears directly under the Figure field in a reference. Use this field for a short description of the image or
file. The Caption field allows you to easily search for figures.
If you insert an EndNote figure into a Word document with Cite While You Write, the corresponding caption appears either above
or below the figure in your paper (the placement is determined by the current output style).
Opening the Figure File
Double-clicking on a graphic or file icon in the Figure field of a reference will launch an associated application (determined by the
file type and your operating system) and open the file for viewing or editing. It is the same as if you had double-clicked on the figure file on your computer desktop. Any changes to the file are saved for this EndNote reference.
When you double-click a figure file such as a GIF file, Windows will look for an image viewer like Paint or Photo Viewer to preview
the image. The program used to create the file may not open.
Storing and Sharing Figure Files
When you insert a figure, EndNote copies the figure file and places the copy in a [library name] .DATA folder, which is found in the
same folder as the main library file. The copied figure file is specifically linked to a single EndNote reference.
Note: Simply putting a figure file into the DATA folder does not link it into a reference. You must use the Figure > Attach Figure
command.
If you move your library to a different computer or if you want to share your library with someone, remember to always copy the
.DATA folder along with the library.
Related Topics
Backing Up Your EndNote Files
Converting from Figures to File Attachments
Deleting or Replacing Figure Files
Editing Figure Files
Entering a Caption
Inserting Graphics and Files
Inserting Figures
Opening the Figure File
Selecting the Appropriate Reference Type
Editing Figure Files
To edit a figure stored in an EndNote reference, open the reference and double-click the figure icon. This launches an associated
application to open the file for editing. See Opening the Figure File.
Editing changes are made to the file stored in the library’s DATA folder for this reference, and not to the original figure file that was
inserted.
Note: Never rename figure files within the DATA folder. EndNote assigns each figure a unique name that helps link it to a specific reference.
Deleting or Replacing Figure Files
To delete a figure from an EndNote reference:
1. Open the EndNote reference, scroll to the Figure field, and select the figure icon.
2. Press the Delete key or use your mouse to right-click and select Clear.
Deleting a figure from the reference also deletes it from the .DATA folder.
Note: If you insert the same figure in two different references, EndNote stores two copies of the figure in the .DATA folder. Deleting the figure from one of the references will not affect the other reference.
To replace a figure in an EndNote reference, you can do one of these:
n
Open the EndNote reference and attach the new figure. The existing figure is deleted from the DATA folder and is replaced
with the new figure.
n
Delete the old figure from the reference, and then attach the new figure.
Related Topics
Editing Figure Files
Entering a Caption
Inserting Graphic and Files
Inserting Figures
Opening the Figure File
Storing and Sharing Figure Files
Converting from Figures to File Attachments
You can move a linked file from the Figures field to the File Attachments field in a reference. Keep in mind that only figures stored
in the Figures field can be cited in Microsoft Word with Cite While You Write.
Earlier versions of EndNote did not include a File Attachments field. You may have linked a file to the Figures field, and later
decided that you really wanted to link the file to the File Attachments field.
To convert file links from the Figures field to the File Attachments field:
1. In a reference list, highlight the reference(s) you wish to change. Or, open a specific reference for editing.
2. From the References menu, select Figure, and then select Convert Figures to File Attachments.
Linking to Files and Web Sites
Linking References to Web Sites and Files
EndNote includes a URL field and a File Attachments field that you can use to link URLs and disk files to EndNote references.
n
Linking a URL to an EndNote Reference
n
Linking a File to an EndNote Reference
n
Selecting a Relative Path or an Absolute Path for File Attachments
n
Removing a Linked File from File Attachments
n
Opening a Linked File or URL
n
Finding Full Text for a Reference
Linking a URL to an EndNote Reference
The term "URL" stands for "Uniform Resource Locator" and is a common term for the "address" used to identify the location of an
item online. Most often, URLs refer to Web pages, such as this example of the EndNote Web page:
//www.endnote.com
URLs can also be used to identify the location of FTP (File Transfer Protocol) sites.
To link a URL to a reference in your EndNote library:
1. Select a reference in the Library window and open the reference. Put your cursor in the URL field.
2. Type or paste a valid URL into the field. Two examples:
//www.endnote.com
// ftp.cuteftp.com
The URL becomes a hyperlink (blue and underlined).
For more information about linking to a URL, see URL (Uniform Resource Locator).
Related Topics
Linking a File to an EndNote Reference
Opening a Linked File or URL
Linking a File to an EndNote Reference
You can link a file on your computer—such as a graphic, a word processing document, a spreadsheet, or a PDF file—to an EndNote reference.
The File Attachments options are available only when a single reference is selected in the Library window or when you are editing
a reference.
Note: The File Attachments commands are available both from the References menu and from the right-click context-sensitive
menu.
To link a file to the File Attachments field in a reference:
1. Select a reference in the Library window, or open the reference.
2. From the References menu, select File Attachments > Attach File.
3. On the file dialog, select a file to link to the selected (or open) reference.
4. Note the check box along the bottom titled, "Copy this file to the default file attachments folder and create a relative link."
This gives you the option to:
n
Select the check box to copy the original file and place the copy in the DATA\PDF folder that is part of your EndNote
library.
n
Deselect the check box to always have EndNote look in the original folder for the inserted file.
For more information about this option, see Selecting a Relative Path or an Absolute Path for File Attachments .
5. Click Open.
EndNote will display an icon indicating the type of file inserted. You can insert up to 45 files into the same File Attachments field.
Note: Another way to link a file to the File Attachments field is to drag and drop the file onto the reference in either the Library window or the Reference window. Whether the file is saved with the database or is linked with an absolute path is determined by the
default file attachment setting. See OpenURL/PDF.
Note: In order to maintain cross-platform compatibility, any of the following characters in a filename will be replaced by an underscore when EndNote saves a copy of the file in the DATA\PDF folder with a relative path.
These characters are replaced with an underscore
\
(back slash)
/
(forward slash)
:
(colon)
*
(asterisk)
?
(question mark)
"
(quotation mark)
<
(less than)
>
(greater than)
|
(vertical bar)
Replacement Characters Table
To link a file to any field in an EndNote reference:
1. Open the reference.
2. Type or paste, into any text field, the path and filename you wish to link. For example:
file:///C:/Documents/Word%20Tips.pdf
EndNote will display the full path to the file. The path and filename become hyperlinked— blue, underlined text—which you can
click to open the file.
Note that spaces in local folder and file names are indicated with "%20."
Selecting a Relative Path or an Absolute Path for File Attachments
When you link a file to the File Attachments field in a reference, you have the option of saving a relative path to the file or an absolute path to the file.
What is a Relative Path Versus an Absolute Path?
When you insert a link to a file with the File Attachments > Attach File command from the References menu, the file dialog
includes a check box titled, "Copy this file to the default file attachments folder and create a relative link."
Relative Path (check box selected)
When the check box is selected, EndNote makes a copy of the original file and places it in the DATA\PDF folder that is part of
your EndNote library. This saves the file as a "portable link" that can move as part of the library. EndNote will always be able to
access the file, even when you share your library with a colleague (always include the complete DATA folder along with the . ENL
file). However, if you edit the original file on your computer, those changes will not be reflected in EndNote. You would need to
clear the file from your EndNote reference and reinsert the file.
Absolute Path (check box blank)
When the check box is blank, EndNote will use the complete path and filename to look in the original folder for the inserted file.
This can be helpful if you plan to edit the original file, and you want those changes reflected when you access the file from within
EndNote. However, if you ever move the file from the original folder, EndNote will not be able to access it unless you clear the file
from your EndNote reference and reinsert it from the new folder location. If you send your library to a colleague, the file will not be
available.
How Can I Tell Which Type of Path Was Used?
Open a reference that contains a linked file in the File Attachments field. Hold your mouse pointer over the file icon.
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If the file was linked with an absolute link, EndNote will display a tooltip with the full path and filename of the linked file.
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If the file was linked with a relative path, only the filename will appear, as a copy of the file is stored in the library’s DATA\PDF
folder.
You can also determine the type of path by previewing the File Attachments field. Use an output style such as Show All Fields,
which includes the File Attachments field. In the preview, file attachments appear as:
Absolute Path:
C:\Documents and Settings\All Users\Documents\EndNoteFilename_MyFile.PDF
Relative Path:
Filename_MyFile.PDF
Selecting a Default Setting for the Path
Since you likely will want all of your linked files treated the same way, you can select a default setting for the "Copy this file to the
default file attachments folder and create a relative link" check box. You can change the default setting from the Preferences
panel. See URLs & Links Preferences.
You still have the option to override the default setting each time you insert a file into the File Attachments field.
Converting Absolute Paths to Relative Paths
If you are working with a library that was created with a version of EndNote prior to version X, all of your existing linked files are
saved with absolute paths. You can easily change your absolute paths to relative paths, which will allow you to easily share your
library, along with linked files, with colleagues.
To convert absolute paths to relative paths:
1. Before you begin, back up your EndNote library. This change cannot be reversed.
2. In the Library window, highlight the references you wish to modify.
3. From the References menu, select File Attachments > Convert to Relative Links.
For each selected reference, EndNote locates each file linked into the File Attachments field and copies those files into the
DATA\PDF folder for the library.
Inserting the Same File Again
If you try to insert a link to the same filename again in the same reference, your results are different depending on whether you are
inserting files with a relative path or an absolute path.
Relative Path: Because the relative path always points to the library’s DATA\PDF folder, a message will warn you that you cannot insert the same file again with the same name. You have the option to either replace the current link or give the newly linked
file a new name.
Absolute Path: Because you could have several absolute paths pointing to the same filename in different folders, it is possible to
link to the same filename numerous times. When you hold your mouse pointer over each file icon in the File Attachments field, the
tooltip will display the full path and filename.
Related Topics
Convert Reference Manager Database to EndNote
File Attachments
Linking a File to an EndNote Reference
Linking a URL to an EndNote Reference
Opening a Linked File or URL
URLs & Links Preferences
Removing a Linked File from File Attachments
Saving a Copy of an Attached File
Saving a Copy of an Attached File
Whether an attached file is saved with a relative path in a library’s DATA\PDF folder or with an absolute path to a specific location, you can save a copy of the attached file to any location.
To save a copy of an attached file from an open reference:
1. Open and view the reference.
2. Scroll to the File Attachments field and highlight the file icon for the file you want to copy.
3. From the References menu, select File Attachments and then Save As. Or use the right-click menu to select File Attachments and then Save As.
4. Use the file dialog to select a folder, enter a file name, and Save the file.
To save a copy of an attached file from a reference list:
1. Highlight the reference in the list.
2. From the References menu, select File Attachments and then Save As. Or use the right-click menu to select File Attachments and then Save As.
3. Use the file dialog to select a folder, enter a file name, and Save the file.
Note: From a reference list, if more than one file is attached to the reference, only the first one is saved to disk.
Related Topics
File Attachments
Linking a File to an EndNote Reference
Linking a URL to an EndNote Reference
Opening a Linked File or URL
URLs & Links Preferences
Removing a Linked File from File Attachments
Selecting a Relative Path or an Absolute Path for File Attachments
Removing a Linked File from File Attachments
Before you remove a linked file, make sure you have a backup of the original file. This process cannot be undone.
To remove a linked file from the File Attachments field:
1. Open the reference for editing.
2. Scroll to the File Attachments field and highlight the file icon you wish to remove.
Note: You can hold your mouse pointer over the file icon in the File Attachments field to display the path and filename of
the linked file.
3. From the Edit menu, select Clear.
If the file was linked with an absolute path, the File Attachments field no longer points to the file. The original file remains intact.
If the file was linked with a relative path, that file is deleted from the library’s DATA\PDF folder, and the File Attachments field no
longer points to it. You will not be able to reinsert the link unless you have the original file stored elsewhere on your computer.
Opening a Linked File or URL
Once a valid, hyperlink URL or path and filename appear in a reference, you can open the reference and click the hyperlink text or
icon to open the linked URL or file.
Or, from the References menu, use the URL > Open URL or File Attachments > Open File command to look specifically in the
URL field or File Attachments field to open the Internet site or linked file.
You must have the necessary program installed on your computer in order for EndNote to open a file created by another program.
For example, to open a PDF file, you must have Adobe Acrobat, Adobe Acrobat Reader, or another program that can read PDF
files installed on your computer.
Similarly, EndNote does not include a Web browser. If you do not already have a browser installed, you will need to install one
before using this feature to open a link to a Web site.
Using the Open Link and Open File Commands
The URL > Open URL (Ctrl+G) and File Attachments > Open File (Ctrl +Alt+P) commands on the References menu can be used
to launch a URL or open a linked file entered into an EndNote reference under the following conditions:
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When just one reference is selected in the Library window, the Open URL command opens the first URL that is listed in
that reference’s URL field. The Open File command opens the first linked file that is listed in that reference’s File Attachments field.
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When multiple references are selected, EndNote checks the URL or File Attachments field in each of the selected references (in the order listed), and opens the first link it finds.
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If you need to enter multiple links into the URL field of one reference, enter them one per line. EndNote will open the first
link in the field when you select Open URL or Open File. If you have multiple links, you can click on any one of them to activate the link. (We recommend that you enter multiple URLs on separate lines. However, if more than one URL is entered
on a single line, separated by semicolons, hold down the Alt key while you click on the URL you wish to open.)
To open a linked file or Internet site from the URL field:
You could open the reference and click on the hyperlink found in the URL field. Or,
1. Select or open a reference in the Library window.
2. From the References menu, select URL > Open URL (Ctrl+G).
The Open URL command opens the linked URL with your default browser, or opens a linked file with the appropriate program.
To open a linked file from the File Attachments field:
You could open the reference and click on the file icon found in the File Attachments field. Or,
1. Select or open a reference in the Library window.
2. From the References menu, select File Attachments > Open File (Ctrl+Alt+P).
The Open File command opens the linked file with the appropriate program.
If the file was linked with a relative path, EndNote looks in the library's DATA\PDF folder to find the file. If the file was linked with
an absolute path, EndNote looks for the file in the original folder from which it was inserted.
Note: Please see Selecting a Relative Path or an Absolute Path for File Attachments for information about the difference
between a file linked with a relative path and a file linked with an absolute path.
Related Topics
Finding Full Text for a Reference
Linking a File to an EndNote Reference
Linking a URL to an EndNote Reference
Spell Checking
Spell Checking
To begin using EndNote’s spell checker, you must have an open record as the active window. If the active window does not display an open record, the spell check command is disabled.
If text is highlighted in the active record, that selection is checked first, and then you are prompted to check the rest of the record.
If there are other open records, you are then prompted to check those records.
EndNote’s spell checker can check spelling accuracy in all fields except the Author fields (Author, Secondary Author, Tertiary
Author, Subsidiary Author, and Translated Author) and the URL, Figure, and File Attachments fields.
Starting Spell Check
To start spell checking:
1. Open the record(s) you wish to check.
2. (Optional) If you want to check only a portion of the text, highlight only that text.
3. From the Tools menu, select Spell Check.
Note: These are other ways to start spell checking: right-click the mouse and select Spell Check from the menu or click the Spell
Check toolbar button.
4. If EndNote finds a word that is not found in the selected dictionaries, it displays a Check Spelling dialog.
The Check Spelling dialog works just like a spell checker in a word processor. For a complete description of each button on the
Check Spelling dialog, click the Help button.
Spell Check Options and Dictionaries
You can access Spell Check Options and Dictionaries in two ways:
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From the Edit menu, select Preferences. At the bottom of the left column, click Spell Check. An Options button and a Dictionaries button appear.
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Start Spell Check. When EndNote detects a misspelled word, the Spell Check dialog appears. An Options button and a
Dictionaries button are available on the dialog.
For information about the Spell Check Options and Dictionaries preferences, including a list of dictionaries supplied with EndNote, see Spell Check Preferences.
Changing Text in References
Change Fields
The Change Fields tab allows you to change the contents of a field for the references that are "showing" in the Library window.
Caution: You cannot undo the Change Fields operation. Once you perform this operation, EndNote changes the data in the
selected field in all the references in the current Library window. We recommend that you make a backup copy of your library
before making changes.
To change the contents of a field:
1. Determine which references you want to modify. Make sure only those references are showing in the Library window. Consider backing up your library before making any changes.
2. From the Tools menu, select Change/ Move/Copy Fields to display the Change Fields tab.
3. From the "Select a Field" list, select the field that you want to modify.
4. Select one of the following options:
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Insert after field’s text appends text at the end of the chosen field. It does not modify the text already in the
field.
By default, when you select this option, the "Include a space before the new text" check box is selected at
the bottom of the dialog, to insert a space between the existing text and the new text.
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Insert before field’s text inserts the text at the beginning of the chosen field. It does not modify text that is
already in the field.
By default, when you select this option, the "Include a space after the new text" check box is selected at the
bottom of the dialog, to insert a space between the new text and the existing text.
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Replace whole field with replaces the entire contents of the field with the text entered in the text box.
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Clear field deletes the entire contents of the chosen field. You cannot enter text in the text box.
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Change Case applies new case formatting to the entire contents of a field. Options include: Sentence case, lowercase, UPPERCASE, Every Word, and tOGGLE cASE. You cannot enter text in the text box.
5. In the text box, type the text that you want to add to the field. To enter a Carriage Return or Tab in the text box, use the
Insert Special button.
6. Select (highlight) the text that you entered in the text box, and then select a font style: Bold, Italics, Underline, Plain, Superscript, Subscript, or Symbol Font. This field is optional.
7. Click the OK Button. EndNote will ask you to confirm the changes. The dialog EndNote presents provides this information:
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How many references will be changed
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The library in which the changes will be made
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The type of change that will be made
8. Click OK to continue with the changes or click Cancel to cancel the operation.
Related Topics
Find and Replace
Changing Text in References
Common Uses for Find and Replace Text, Change Field, and Move Field
Move/Copy Fields
Changing Text in References
Global editing commands make it easy to keep your reference data consistent.
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The Find and Replace command is available from the Edit menu
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The Change/Move/Copy Fields command is available from the Tools menu.
The Find and Replace command searches for text in your library and either deletes that text or replaces it with other text that you
specify. The Change Fields command modifies any field in your library by either inserting text at the beginning or end of the field,
replacing all contents of the field with different text or deleting the contents of the field. The Move / Copy Fields command moves
the entire contents of a field to a different field.
Note: Be sure that you have a current backup of your library; these operations cannot be undone with the Undo command.
Related Topics
Common Uses for Find and Replace, Change Field, and Move Field
Entering References
Modifying Terms
Common Uses for Find and Replace, Change Field, and Move Field
Correcting consistently misspelled words or names.
Use the Find and Replace command from the Edit menu to search for the misspelled term and replace it with the correct spelling.
Updating author’s names.
There may be variations of an author’s name in your data. For example, "Joe Cool", "Joe A. Cool", "J. A. Cool.", and so on. Since
some styles prefer whole names and others abbreviated first and middle names, it is best to update names to full names and
leave the work of abbreviating to the EndNote styles.
Marking the result of a search for easy retrieval.
If you have developed a complex search to locate a set of references, use Change Fields to add a unique keyword to those references, so that the next time you want to retrieve that set, you can just search for the keyword.
Cleaning up your keywords.
You can add a keyword to a group of references using Change Fields. Use Find and Replace to replace a term with a new one. If
there is a keyword that you no longer want in your references, use Find and Replace to search for that text and replace it with nothing, thereby deleting it (you might also want to open your term list and delete it from there so that you do not use that term again).
Dating or labeling a set of imported references.
It can be useful to add the date or source of data to a batch of newly imported references. Only the imported references are "showing" in the Library window after importing. At this point, use Change Fields to add a word or phrase to any field in just those references.
Moving fields of information in a set of imported references.
Maybe your import filter or connection file consistently sent Note information to the Abstract field. Use the Move Fields option to
cut all information from the Abstract field and move it into the Notes field. Don’t forget to update your filter or connection file so it
directs information to the correct field next time!
Related Topics
Change Fields
Changing Text in References
Find and Replace
Move / Copy Fields
Move / Copy Fields
The Move/Copy Fields tab allows you to move and copy field data. Both commands apply to all of the references that are "showing" in the selected Library group.
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The Move Fields option allows you to move the entire contents of one field to another field within a reference. All data,
including any formatting that you applied to the source field, is moved to the destination field.
Caution: You cannot undo the Move operation. Once you perform this operation, EndNote removes the source field from
all the references in the Library window. We recommend that you make a backup copy of your library before making
changes.
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The Copy option allows you to copy the entire contents of one field to another field within a reference. Both the source field
and the destination field will contain the same data. All data retains any formatting that you applied to the source field and
to the destination field.
Note: The Move / Copy Fields feature is useful when you want to move or copy field data in a set of imported / exported references from an online database.
To move / copy the contents of one field to another:
1. Determine which references you want to modify. Select a group and make sure only those references are showing in the
Library window.
2. From the Tools menu, select the Change/Move/Copy Fields command.
3. Click the Move/Copy Fields tab.
4. In the dialog that appears:
Select the "Move Field" radio button to move information to another field.
Select the "Copy Field" radio button to copy information to another field.
5. Use the "From" list to select the source field from which you want to move or copy the data.
6. Use the "To" list to select the destination field to where you want to move or copy the data.
7. Select one of the following options:
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Insert after field's text (the default option)
Insert before field's text
Replace entire field
8. Click OK to move or copy the data from one field to another field within each reference that is currently showing in the
Library window. Click Cancel to stop the operation.
When using the Move option, you have the choice of inserting the moved text before or after the data in the destination field or
replacing the entire contents of the destination field. In the latter case, you have the additional option of whether or not to move
empty fields. If you clear "Don’t move empty fields," check box, then any reference with an empty originating field deletes the contents of the corresponding destination field (and thereby making it empty as well). If this option is turned on, the contents of the
destination field will not be deleted if the originating field is empty.
Related Topics
Change Fields
Find and Replace
Changing Text in References
Common Uses for Find and Replace, Change Field, and Move Field
Find and Replace
Use the Find and Replace command to find text in your references and replace it with other text. Changes can be restricted to a
particular field in your references. You can also apply:
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Match Case and Match Words restrictions
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Style changes that include bold, italics, underline, plain text, superscript, subscript, or symbol font
Caution: The Undo command from the Edit menu cannot undo the results of the Find and Replace command. Make sure you
have a backup before making changes.
To change any text in your references:
1. Decide which references you want EndNote to scan when it looks for text to change. Make sure only those references are
showing in the Library window. Use the following commands to control which references are showing:
Show All References
Hide Selected References
Show Selected References, or Search Library.
2. From the Edit menu, select Find and Replace.
3. From the Select a Field list, select the field to be searched
4. In the "Find" text box, type the text you wish to change. To enter a Carriage Return or Tab in the text box, use the Insert
Special button.
5. Change the Match Case or Match Words settings if necessary.
By default, the Match Words option is always selected. If you change this setting, pay close attention to whether or not the
term you are changing could appear as part of another word or in a different context depending on the capitalization.
6. In the "Replace with" text box, type the text that should replace the original text. To enter a Carriage Return or Tab in the
text box, use the Insert Special button.
7. Select the Retain Capitalization option to maintain the same capitalization as the text being replaced.
Retain Capitalization should be selected if replacing a term that might appear with different capitalization. For example,
any word may have its first letter capitalized if it is the first word in a title, but may also appear in all lowercase in other
places. Do not select Retain Capitalization if you are replacing an acronym with its unabbreviated version.
8. Click the Change button to search the selected references for the specified text and replace it with the new text. Before
replacing any text, EndNote has you verify the changes.
9. Click OK if all of those items in the dialog are correct. EndNote replaces the text and displays the number of references
that were changed.
To Globally Change a Reference Type
You can easily change a reference type of a single reference by selecting that reference and going to the Reference window. In
the toolbar, open the Reference Type menu, and then select the needed reference type. When you return to the Library window,
the Ref Type column will show the new reference type that you selected
The following instructions may be used to change the reference type for all references to another reference type.
1. Go to the Library window and click the Ref Type column heading to sort all reference types of the same type.
2. Decide which reference type you want EndNote to change. Make sure only those references are showing in the Library window that you want to change. Use the following commands to control which references are showing:
Show All References
Hide Selected References
Show Selected References, or Search Library.
3. From the Edit menu, select Find and Replace.
4. From the Select a Field list, select the Reference Type option that appears at the bottom of the list. It is the last option in
the list.
5. In the "Find" text box, type the reference type that you want to change.
6. Change the Match Case or Match Words settings if necessary.
By default, the Match Words option is always selected. If you change this setting, pay close attention to whether or not the
term you are changing could appear as part of another word (for example, Newspaper Article).
7. In the "Replace with" text box, type the reference type that will replace the original reference type.
8. Click Change to search the reference types for the specified text and replace it with the new text. Before replacing any reference type, EndNote has you verify the changes.
9. Click OK if all of the items in the dialog are correct. EndNote replaces the reference type and displays the number of references that were changed.
Related Topics
Change Fields
Changing Text in References
Common Uses for Find and Replace, Change Field, and Move Field
Move / Copy Fields
Searching and Sorting in EndNote
Showing and Hiding References
When working with references in your EndNote library, you can view all of the references or just a subset. For example, if you
search for references and find 10 matching references, only those 10 references will appear in the reference list. In a library that
contains 210 references, the words "Showing 10 out of 210 references" will appear at the bottom of the Library window. For more
information about selecting references and working with showing references, see:
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Selecting References
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Working with Showing References
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Using Show Selected and Hide Selected
Using Show Selected and Hide Selected
Use the Show Selected References command to restrict the references showing in the Library window to only the selected references.
To use the Show Selected References command:
1. Select the references of interest (hold down the Ctrl key and click the references with the mouse or hold down the Shift
key to select a range of references).
2. From the References menu, select Show Selected References. The references that you had selected will now be the only
ones showing in the Library window.
3. After you have completed your work, select References > Show All References to display all references in the Library window.
The Hide Selected References command is similar to the Show Selected References command except that it temporarily hides
the selected references in the Library window from view.
To use the Hide Selected References command:
1. Select the references that you want to temporarily hide.
2. From the References menu, select Hide Selected References.
3. After you have completed your work, select Show All References from the References menu to return all of the references
to the Library window.
Related Topics
Showing and Hiding References
The Search Window
Working with Showing References
Working with Showing References
Some EndNote commands (such as Search Library, Change Field, Change Text, Sort, Print, and Export) can work with just those
references that are "showing" in the Library window. Here are a few examples of operations that you can do with the showing references:
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Restrict the Search Library command to search only the showing references.
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Add the results of a new search to the current list of references as a way to combine search results. Select Add References to move the references to a particular group.
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Use the Find and Replace, Change Fields, and Move Fields commands to modify only the showing references.
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Use the term lists’ Update List command to scan only the showing references for new terms.
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Create a Subject Bibliography from the showing references.
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Print or Export only the "showing" references.
One way to view a subset of references is to use the Search Library command. The Show Selected References and Hide
Selected References commands in the References menu provide another convenient way for you to control which references are
showing in the Library window.
Searching for References
Searching for References
EndNote provides a powerful and flexible Search Library command that enables you to locate specific references or groups of references. For example, you can select a very general search, one that scans the entire library or you can limit your searches to specific fields (such as Author or Keywords). You can also create more complex searches using a variety of operators such as And,
Or, Not, Greater than, Less than, and others.
You can use the Search panel to search EndNote libraries as well as remote databases that are available online. See Quick Overview of Online Database Searching for information about online database searches.
These topics will help you in your searching:
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Quick Search
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The Search Panel
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Search Command Tips
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Simple Searches
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Restricting Searches to Specific Fields
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Using Comparison Operators
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Combining Search Lines with "And," "Or," and "Not"
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Combining Results from Separate Searches
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Saving Search Strategies
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Creating a Smart Group from an Existing Search Strategy
Quick Search
The Quick Search text box allows you to quickly search your entire library (and PDFs and PDF Notes) by typing a single word or a
phrase into the text box. EndNote executes a general search of all fields. Use the drop-down list to select a recent search term.
EndNote uses an implied AND Boolean operator when you enter two or more adjacent terms in Quick Search. For example, entering rainbow trout fish farm is equivalent to entering rainbow AND trout AND fish AND farm.
Use double quotation marks ( "" " ) to search for exact phrases and to override the implied AND Boolean.
If you need to perform a more specific or complicated search, use The Search Panel.
Search Command Tips
Canceling Searches
Pressing (Esc cancels a search in progress.
Matching Partial Words
Unless you have selected the Match Words option, EndNote matches partial words when searching for text (both right- and lefttruncation are enabled). Consequently, you can search for just the root of a word and find all related terms. This is a good tactic for
general subject searches. Select an appropriate comparison operator such as "Field begins with" or "Word begins with" to apply
truncation to your search term.
Diacritics (Accents)
To search for specific diacritical marks, select the Match Case option; letters such as é, ü and î will match those letters exactly.
Thus, a search for "résumé" will not find "resume." If you want to find all variations of a letter, deselect the Match Case option.
See Entering Special Characters for information about entering diacritics.
Finding Tabs and Carriage Returns
Use the Options button to insert a Tab or a Carriage Return in the search line.
Searching for Numbers
When you search for a number, EndNote looks for that string as text, exactly, in your reference text. For example, a search on
"Any Field" which "Contains" the search text "0025" will match the numbers 00025 and 0025, but it will not match 25.
There is an exception for record numbers. Record numbers, which are assigned by EndNote, cannot include leading zeros. When
you search Any Field for a number, EndNote looks for an exact match in all text fields; however, leading zeros are stripped from
your search text before comparing it to record numbers. Only an exact match of a record number will be returned. So, a search for
"0025" will match record number 25. It will not match record number 250.
Searching with Multiple Libraries Open
The Search Library command searches one library at a time. View the library you want to search, and use the Search panel.
Author Fields
The field names in the Field list are EndNote’s "Generic" field names, which means that Author represents Reporter, Editor, Artist
or any other variations of the Author field used in the different reference types.
If you wish to search for author initials, make sure to include a space between the first and second initial. For example:
Smith, J P
If you do not include a space between initials, EndNote will assume that JP is a complete first name.
To limit your search, select the "Match Words" check box. For example, a search for “Smith, J P” with Match Words selected will
find only those works with “Smith, J P” in the Author field. A search for “Smith, J P” without Match Words selected will also find
references by authors such as “Smith-Wilkins, Jeremiah.”
The Year Field
When searching in the Year field, a search for "1994" retrieves only references published in 1994, where as a search for "94"
retrieves references from the 1940s and 1994.
Finding Empty Fields
EndNote can search for empty fields. Select the desired field from the Field list, select Is as the comparison operator, and leave
the search term blank. Click Search and EndNote finds references in which the chosen field is blank.
Finding File Attachments
You can easily search for a specific file attachment by name. Search for:
File Attachments
Is
[name of the file]
To search for all references that include file attachments, enter these two search lines:
NOT
Record Number
File Attachments
Is greater than or equal to
Is
1
[blank]
The first line ensures that all references are searched, and the second line looks for references in which the File Attachments field
is not blank.
Note: Another easy way to see references with file attachments is to click on the paper clip header in the Library window to sort
those references at the top of the list of references.
Cleaning Up Search Results
After executing a search, there may be a handful of references that you want to exclude from the search results. Select those references and select Hide Selected References to hide them from the set of found references and display exactly the references
that you want. Often this is much easier than trying to refine your search.
Viewing the Opposite of Your Search Results
Let’s say that you have searched for all of the references written by Billoski or Hall, so you are currently viewing only those references. Now, you would like to view the references not written by those authors. Instead of doing another search:
1. Click in the list of references.
2. From the Edit menu, choose Select All ( Ctrl+A) to select all of the Hall and Billoski references.
3. From the References menu, select Show All References (Ctrl+Shift+M). Notice that the original selection is maintained.
4. From the References menu, select Hide Selected References.
You are left viewing only those references that were not previously showing in the Library window, that is, all references not
written by Hall or Billoski.
Setting and Restoring Defaults for the Search Panel
Click the Options button and select Set Default to save the current configuration of the Search panel as your default. The default
configuration will appear whenever you first display the Search panel.
The layout of the window (such as the number of search lines) is saved, as are all of the operators, field names, and the Match
Case and Match Word settings. The search terms are not saved.
Click the Options button and select Restore Default on the Search panel to clear out all of the search terms currently entered in
the Search panel, and reset all of the settings back to the default configuration.
Related Topics
Combining Results from Separate Searches
Combining Search Lines with And, Or, and Not
Restricting Searches to Specific Fields
Saving Search Strategies
Simple Searches
The Search Window
Using Comparison Operators
Simple Searches
Use the Search panel to find all references that contain a particular term:
1. Display All References to make sure you are searching your entire library.
2. From the Tools menu, select Search Library (Ctrl+F).
3. Set the search field to Any Field and the Comparison list to Contains.
4. Type the desired text into the first search line.
5. Click Search to begin the search.
If no references in the library match your search request, EndNote displays "No matching references found." Otherwise, all matching references are displayed in the Library window.
When you are finished working with the found references, click the All References group or select Show All References (Ctrl +M)
from the References menu to restore all references to view or start another search.
After completing a search, EndNote displays the same library that you were viewing before the search. However only the references that match your search requests are showing.
The references found in the last search operation are saved in a temporary Search Results group. Each time you run a search, the
temporary Search Results group is updated with the new set of references. When you close the library, this temporary group is discarded.
See also Boolean Searches and Combining Search Lines with AND, OR, and NOT Operators
Restricting Searches to Specific Fields
Use the Field list on the Search panel to narrow your search to a specific field. You can select Any Field to look for your search
terms in any of the fields in your references.
For example, to find references published in 2013, restrict the search to the Year field to avoid finding entries that include 2013 in
the abstract, title, or elsewhere.
The field names in the Field list are EndNote’s "generic" field names. For example, Author represents Reporter, Editor, Artist or
any other variations of the Author field used in the different reference types. See the Generic reference type for a complete list of
generic field names and their corresponding field names in each reference type.
EndNote can import references from hundreds of sources, each of which uses its own set of field names. Once you have transferred references into EndNote, you will search for information by using the destination EndNote generic field names, and not the
original field names from the information provider. For example, the PMID number from PubMed typically transfers into the Accession Number field in EndNote. To search for a specific PMID in EndNote, search the Accession Number field.
Searching Fields and PDF Files
You can search all fields and attached PDF files in your selected reference list.
1. Select the Any Field + PDF with Notes option from the Field list.
2. Select an item from the Comparison list to indicate how the search term(s) should relate to the search.
3. Enter the search term(s) that you want to locate. For example, you can enter a single term or a string of terms
4. Click the Search button.
The following rules apply when you select the PDF option or the Any Field + PDF option from the Field list.
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By default, EndNote ignores capitalization when searching for text. For example, a search for the term hospital also finds
Hospital.
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If you enter a phrase, EndNote retrieves references that contain the words you entered in any field or in a PDF file. The
words appear together if they are in any EndNote field or any PDF file. For example the query, hospital care retrieves references containing the term hospital care in either a field or a PDF file.
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EndNote searches quotation marks ( " " ) as characters when you select a specific field, the PDF option, or the Any Field +
PDF with Notes option. For example, the query “poured cold water” retrieves references that contain the quoted phrase
“poured cold water” within a reference, a PDF file, or within a Sticky Note. The phrase "poured cold water" is ignored by
EndNote since it does not contain quotation marks.
Reminder: Match Case and Match Word rules apply when these options are selected. See The Search Panel for more information about these features.
Rules for Single Word Searching
When searching for a single word in any field using the Contains comparison operator, EndNote applies both left- and right-hand
truncation. For example, the term
plant finds:
Plant
plant
plant classification
planter
"plant"
Using Comparison Operators
Comparison Operators
The "comparison operators" are used to indicate how the search term relates to the chosen field in that search line. For example, if
you have a search line that looks like this:
Field
Title
Comparison Operator
Search Term
Contains
Dinosaur
Comparison Operator Table
You will be searching for references where the Title (the search field) contains (the comparison operator) dinosaur (the search
term).
The comparison operators function as follows:
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Contains: finds all references where the search field includes the search term. The search term includes both left and right
truncation, so a search for "house" would find "house," "greenhouse," and "household" anywhere in the field. If you want to
limit the search specifically to the word "house," check the Match Words box on the Search dialog.
Note: Only the "Contains" comparison operator is available when searching online databases. The following operators are available for searching the EndNote library. Please note that some operators may not work together with some options selected from
the Field list.
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Is: finds all references in which the entire content of the search field is exactly the same as the search term.
Note: This operator does not work in searches where you select the "Any Field + PDF with Notes" option from the Field list.
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Is Less Than: finds all references in which the search term is less than the contents of the search field.
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Is Less Than or Equal To: finds all references in which the search term is less than or identical to the contents of the search
field.
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Is Greater Than: finds all references in which the search term is greater than the contents of the search field.
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Is Greater Than or Equal To: finds all references in which the search term is greater than or identical to the contents of the
search field.
Note: For all of the "Greater Than" and "Less Than" comparisons, the comparison is either numerical or alphabetical
based on the nature of the term. When the fields have both numbers and letters, numbers are considered "less than"
letters, and empty fields are ignored.
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Field Begins With: finds all references in which the search term is found at the beginning of the selected field (also referred to
as right field truncation). The search term can be a partial word, a full word, or several words, and will be compared to the initial
text in the field. If you enter more than a single word, remember that punctuation and spaces are significant, so you must enter
exactly what is found in the reference. If you do not want to match partial words, check the Match Words box.
Note: This operator does not work in searches where you select the "Any Field + PDF with Notes" option from the Field list.
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Field Ends With: finds all references in which the search term is found at the end of the field (also referred to as left field truncation). The search term can be a partial word, a full word, or several words, and will be compared to the ending text in the
field. If you enter more than a single word, remember that punctuation and spaces are significant, so you must enter exactly
what is found at the end of the field. If you do not want to match partial words, check the Match Words box.
Note: This operator does not work in searches where you select the "Any Field + PDF with Notes" option from the Field list.
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Word Begins With: finds all references in which the search term is found at the beginning of a word anywhere in the field
(also referred to as right word truncation). Punctuation and spaces are ignored. This can help you find words that start with the
same root. For example, searching for a word that begins with "land," would also find "landing" and "landfill," but not "Iceland"
or "island."
Note: The "Field begins with," "Field ends with," and "Word begins with" comparisons all treat Author fields like any other field.
There is no manipulation of surnames and first names; EndNote looks at the literal string of text in the field.
Examples of Comparison Operators in Searches
Field
Year
Year
Year
Title
Author
Author
Title
Title
Abstract
Title
Abstract
Any
Field
Comparison
Operator
Is greater
than
Is less than
Is greater
than
or equal to
Is less than
Is less than
or equal to
Is greater
than
or equal to
Contains
Is
Is
Field begins
with
Field ends
with
Word begins
with
Search
Term
2000
all references published after 2000
2000
1998
all references published before 2000
references published during or after 1998
A
C
all references where titles start with a number
all references with authors whose last names begin with A, B, or a number; this would
not match a name such as "Carter," as "Ca is greater than C
all references with authors whose last names begin with S-Z
S
hawaii
hawaii
sediment
dinosaur
house
EndNote finds:
all references with "hawaii in the title
all references with "hawaii as the exact title
all references with no abstract (empty field)
all references where titles start with "sediment," including "Sediments," and "Sedimentation," but not "Synsedimentary
all references where abstracts end with "dinosaur," which would include "duck-billed
dinosaur," but not "dinosaur extinction" or "dinosaurs"
all references where any field includes a word that begins with "house," which would
include text such as "U.S. House of Representatives" and "household," but not "greenhouse"
Combining Search Lines with AND, OR, and NOT Operators
You can combine search lines on the Search panel with the Boolean operators "And," "Or," and "Not" to produce the following
effects:
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AND finds references that match the preceding search line(s) and the following search line. And narrows search results.
Example: A search for "triceratops" AND "extinction" finds only those references that mention both terms.
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OR finds references that match either the preceding search line(s) or following search term. OR broadens the search.
Example: A search for "triceratops" OR "extinction" finds all references that include either term.
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NOT finds all references containing the preceding term(s) and then omits references that contain the subsequent term. NOT
narrows search results.
Example: A search for "triceratops" Not "extinction" finds all references including "triceratops," excluding any triceratops
references that mentioned extinction.
You can use the Boolean operators (AND, OR and NOT) in sequence with as many as nine search lines to build your search
strategy.
Items in combination searches are executed from the top field to the bottom field of the Search panel. For example, if you have
entered four search lines on the Search panel, EndNote carries out the search by combining the results of the first two items with
the third search line. Those results are combined with the fourth search line to produce the final search results.
Related Topics
Combining Results from Separate Searches
Search Command Tips
Simple Searches
The Search Panel
Using Comparison Operators
Combining Results from Separate Searches
By default, EndNote searches the current group and then displays only the results of the search in the Library window. To search
only a subset of references, or to combine your search results with other references, select one of the following options from the
Search Set list on the Search tab.
Search Whole Library/Search Whole Group
If All References or one of the automatic temporary groups are displayed in the reference list, the first item in the search set list
(and the default setting) is Search Whole Library. The tab itself is titled “Search.” Use the Search Whole Library setting to make
sure you are searching every reference in your library.
If the reference list displays a custom group, smart group, or Online Search group, the first search set item is Search Whole
Group. Use this setting to limit your search to a specific group of references. The title of the Search panel changes to Search plus
the name of the group, such as “Search-Literature.”
Add Search Results to Currently Showing References
Select "Add to showing references" if you want to search the whole library and add the results of your search to a subset of showing references. For example, if you have already found a group of references written by Komar in 2000, and now you want to add
all references written by Billoski in 1997:
1. From the Tools menu, select Search Library (Ctrl+F).
2. Enter "Billoski" in Author and "1997" in Year.
3. From the Search Set list, select Add to showing references.
4. Click Search and you should see the combined results of the two searches.
Search Only the "Showing" References
Select the "Search showing references" option in the Search dialog to restrict a search to only those references that are currently
displayed in the Library window.
This is useful to narrow the results of a previous search, to search a saved group of references, or to search a set of references
that you have just imported from another library or online database.
Omit Search Results from Showing References
Select the "Omit from showing references" option to hide the results of a search from the references that are showing in the
Library window. This is a convenient way to locate all references that do not include a particular term or to narrow the results of a
previous search. For example, to find all references not about extinction:
1. With all of the references showing in the Library window, select Search Library from the Tools menu.
2. Select Omit from Showing References from the Search Set list on the Search panel.
3. Type "extinction" into the first search line, leaving the Field list set to Any Field.
4. Click Search.
EndNote displays every reference except those that contain the word "extinction."
Related Topics
Combining Search Lines with And, Or, and Not
Saving Search Strategies
Search Command Tips
Searching for References
Simple Searches
The Search Window
Using Comparison Operators
Saving Search Strategies
The Save Search and Load Search commands accessed with the Options button allow you to save the settings currently on the
Search panel and recall them for later use. Most of the options on the Search panel are saved, including the search terms; however, the target of the search (the EndNote library or online database) is not saved.
To save a search:
1. Configure the Search panel.
2. Click the Options button and select Save Search.
3. A dialog appears, prompting you to name the search strategy. Enter or edit the name and click Save. The search files are
saved by default in the EndNote\Searches folder in the Windows Application Data folder. You may save them elsewhere if
you prefer, but EndNote will open to this Searches folder when you choose to Load a saved search. EndNote adds ".ENQ
as the file name extension for saved searches.
To load a saved search:
1. On the Search panel, click the Options button and select Load Search.
2. In the dialog that appears, select the search strategy that you would like to use, and click Open.
3. The contents and settings of the Search window change to reflect the saved search. Click Search to initiate the search.
When you save a search strategy, it is easy to run a complicated search again, which you may want to do as you add references
to the library.
You can save the search results (the set of matching references) as a group. You can use the saved search strategy to set up a
smart group. Smart groups are updated as you add references to your library. Or, you can save the specific results to a custom
group, but the group will not be updated as you add references to your library; you would need to run the search again to find references entered since the last search.
Related Topics:
Combining Results from Separate Searches
Combining Search Lines with And, Or, and Not
Search Command Tips
Searching for References
Simple Searches
The Search Window
Using Comparison Operators
Finding Duplicate References
In order to help locate duplicate references, EndNote offers a Find Duplicates command. This command searches the references
that are currently showing in the Library window to identify duplicates. Duplicates are determined based on the duplicate criteria
specified in preferences. See Duplicates Preferences.
To find all of the duplicate references in a library:
1. With the Library window open, click on the All References group to show all references.
2. From the References menu, select Find Duplicates.
EndNote will display a Find Duplicates dialog where you can compare duplicates and decide which version to keep and
which to delete.
Differences between reference fields are shown with blue highlighting. In addition, EndNote takes you to the first reference
field in which there is dissimilar content between the two duplicate references. Scroll through the list to see which fields
contain duplicate content and which contain dissimilar content.
3. For each set of duplicates, you have the option to:
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Click Keep This Record to save that particular reference and throw the other one in the Trash.
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Click Skip to leave both references in the library, intact. They will appear in a temporary Duplicate References group, so
you can review them later.
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Click Cancel to stop the Duplicate References operation. All duplicates will appear in a temporary Duplicate References
group if you wish to review them.
The older (first entered) reference will always appear in the left column.
Warning: Before selecting Keep This Record, which will delete the duplicate, check the record numbers to be sure that you are
not deleting a reference already cited in a paper.
By default, references are considered duplicates if they have the same reference type (such as Journal Article or Book), and the
Author, Year, and Title fields are identical. The criteria for detecting duplicates can be changed using the Duplicates settings in
EndNote’s Preferences dialog.
References that appear identical may not show up as duplicates if the information in the fields EndNote checks is slightly different
or if the reference types are different. When trying to determine how references differ, it is helpful to know exactly how EndNote
compares them.
Author: Compares last name and first initials (even if the first or middle name are written in full). Capitalization is not important.
Year: Compared exactly as entered.
Title: Leading articles "A," "An," or "The" are ignored, but punctuation is included. Capitalization is not important.
Reference Type: Compared exactly as entered.
When there are no more sets of duplicates to compare, the Find Duplicates dialog closes. The Duplicate References group is
refreshed, the Trash group contains the unwanted duplicate references, and all other groups are updated appropriately. The Duplicate References group is empty unless at least one set of duplicates was skipped or the Duplicate References operation was cancelled.
Finding Text in a Single Reference
When you have a reference that contains a significant amount of text, such as long abstracts or notes, it can get hard to find
things!
To jump to specific text within a reference with the Go To command:
1. Open a reference. The Go To command works on the currently open reference. If more than one reference is open, it works on
the topmost reference.
2. From the Reference menu, select Go To.
3. Type the text you want to locate, and then click Next (or press Return).
The number of characters you can enter in the Go To dialog depends on the size of the symbols . When pasting text in the
dialog, be aware of this limitation. The Go To dialog also includes a drop-down list of recently searched terms.
EndNote will jump to the text and highlight it within the reference. You can use Go To again to find the next occurrence or click
Cancel to dismiss the Go To dialog.
Related Topics
Creating a New Reference
Entering References
Important Points About References
Opening References
Previous and Next Reference Commands
Searching for References
Simple Searches
Sorting the Library
Sort Library Dialog
The Sort Library command provides a way to arrange all references showing in the Library window for browsing, exporting, printing, or copying.
By default, the references listed in the Library window are automatically sorted by the first author’s last name.
You can change the sort order by selecting Sort Library from the Tools menu or by clicking the column headings. When you sort a
library, the sort order is retained even after you close and reopen a library.
To change the sort order:
1. Click in the reference list.
2. From the Tools menu, select Sort Library.
3. Select one or more field names from the menus. Enter the field names in the order you want the references sorted. You do
not have to use all five options.
4. Click the button to the right of each field to indicate ascending or descending order.
5. Click OK.
The Sort Options dialog is initially set to sort the library by author names, in alphabetical order, and then references published by
the same author are sorted by year (from oldest to newest).
Note: EndNote reads the default language setting from your operating system and uses it as the default language for character
sorting. However, you can override the default language from this dialog.
Related Topics
Sorting Preferences
Special Cases in Sorting
The Reference List Panel
Special Cases in Sorting
Except for title fields, quotation marks, parentheses and other punctuation marks are considered during a sort. In an alphabetic
sort, punctuation comes first, then numbers, then letters A-Z.
If the field you selected to sort by is empty in a particular reference, or not included in the selected reference type, that reference
will sort before the other references in ascending order.
Author Names
When you select the Author field for sorting, author names from the first Author field are sorted by last name first, then first initial.
Next, author names from the Secondary Author field are compared for sorting. Then, author names from the Tertiary Author field
are compared for sorting.
If a reference has more than one author in a single field, EndNote includes the additional authors in the sort (up to 255 characters)
before moving on to other fields.
If you select the specific First Author field to sort, only the surname is used for sorting.
If your EndNote library includes author names with connectives such as de, di, van, and von, you may want EndNote to skip
these parts of the name in order to sort the references by the principal element of the surname. See Sorting Preferences .
Titles
When sorting by title fields, EndNote ignores the words A, An, and The as well as punctuation at the start of the titles. You may
enter additional words that should be ignored for sorting purposes when they appear at the beginning of a title. To do so, see Sorting Preferences .
Sorting Diacritical Characters
Characters with diacritics are sorted differently in English, Spanish, Swedish, and other languages. EndNote reads the default language (or locale) setting from your operating system and uses it as the default language for sorting. EndNote typically sorts diacritical characters according to the rules of the language selected for your operating system; however, you can override the
default language setting on the Sort Options dialog.
Related Topics
Sorting the Library
The Reference List Panel
Groups
About Groups and Group Sets
Groups make it easy to break a large library into subsets for later viewing. A group points to a subset of references that already
exist in the library.
You can further organize your references by storing multiple groups in group sets.
The Types of Groups in EndNote
There are several types of groups that make it easy to organize your references in EndNote. The first section of groups are automatically generated, and include both permanent groups and temporary groups.
Permanent Groups include All References, Unfiled, and Trash. These are groups that you cannot remove or rename. All References displays every reference in the library. Unfiled displays those references that are not part of a custom group (and,
optionally, smart groups). Trash is a holding place for references you have removed from the library but have not yet permanently discarded by emptying the Trash.
Temporary Groups include Copied References, Duplicate References, Imported References, Search Results, and several
Full Text groups. These temporary groups may be replaced as you use commands in EndNote, and are always deleted when
you close a library. (Only the groups are deleted; the references remain in the library.)
Custom Groups are manually created by the user to help organize the library; you can drag-and-drop to copy individual references into a custom group. Custom Groups are listed alphabetically (click the My Library header to toggle between ascending and descending order).
Smart Groups use search criteria to dynamically update groups as existing references are edited or new references are
added to the library.
Combination: Use combination groups to better organize your EndNote references. Combine groups and use AND, OR, and
NOT to create new, useful smart groups. Save references in groups and then save sets of groups in group sets. You can collect both custom groups and smart groups within the same combination group set.
Online Search groups allow you to easily initiate a search of a favorite online database and quickly view the latest download.
Find Full Text groups are temporary, and appear only when you use the Find Full Text command.
When you click on a group name, the name is highlighted and the reference list is updated to reflect the references found in that
group.
The Types of Group Sets in EndNote
Group sets are indicated by group set headings in the Groups panel. Each set may list a number of groups. Some group sets are
permanent and cannot be removed:
n
Online Search
For information about online searching, see How to Search an Online Database.
n
Find Full Text
For information about Find Full Text, see Finding Full Text for a Reference.
You can also create any number of group sets. Group sets can contain any combination of custom groups, smart groups, and combination groups. See Using Group Sets
Expand or collapse the list under a group set heading by clicking the triangle plus (+) or minus (-) icon. When a set is collapsed,
the number next to the group set heading reflects the total number of references found in all groups in the set.
Please also see Displaying or Hiding Groups and Important Points about Groups.
Related Topics
Custom Groups
Managing Groups
Smart Groups
Temporary Groups
Displaying or Hiding Groups
The Groups Panel
The left panel of the Library window lists the groups in the current library, along with a record count for each group. A new library
may have very few groups. The All References, Unfiled, and Trash groups are permanent, and cannot be removed.
Click a minus sign (-) next to a group set heading to hide the list of groups under that heading. Click a plus sign (+) next to a group
set heading to display the list of groups in that group set.
You can drag the separator bar between the group name list and the reference list to adjust the size of the panels.
You may not always want to display groups, as that panel takes up screen space. From the Groups menu, select Hide Groups or
Show Groups.
Display Modes
You can work in Online Search Mode or switch to Integrated Library & Online Search Mode or Online Search Mode.
Local Library Mode: Displays automatic groups, custom groups, and smart groups, but not Online Groups. This mode keeps you
from inadvertently downloading references found during an online search into your currently open library. This is the default mode.
Online Search Mode: Search and download references from online databases. In this mode, only Online Search groups are available. References are downloaded into a temporary library. They are removed when you close EndNote.
Integrated Library & Online Search Mode: All groups and commands are available. When you download references from an
online database. EndNote saves them to a group under the Online Search group set and to your open library.
Note: If you decide that you do not want to keep the retrieved references, select them, and then move them to the Trash folder.
Note: We recommend that you use Online Search Mode if you do not want the references downloaded to the All References
group.
Important Points about Groups
Keep these points in mind as you work with groups:
n
You can create up to 5,000 custom groups and smart groups (combined) in a single library.
n
You can create a maximum of 5,000 group sets in a single library.
n
You can add a reference to a particular group only once (based on the unique record number). A single reference will never
appear more than once in a particular group. However, you can add that reference to any number of groups.
n
When you are viewing a group of references with selected (highlighted) references, and then switch to viewing All References, the same set of references are selected in the All References view until you deselect them.
n
You can drag references from one library directly into a group in another open library. The references are copied to the second library and into the target group.
n
Removing a reference from a custom group does not delete it from the library. It removes the reference from the group subset, but the reference still exists in the library.
n
Deleting a reference from a library also deletes it from all groups in that library. The reference no longer exists. Highlight the
reference, go to the All References view, and then select Move References to Trash from the References menu.
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When you delete a reference from a smart group, EndNote also deletes the record from the All References group, with no
warning.
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Once you move a reference to the Trash group, it is no longer officially in your library (it will not appear in any other group or
reference list, it is not included in your reference count, and it cannot be searched or cited). However, until you select
Empty Trash from the References menu, you can still drag the reference from the Trash group back to your active library.
Related Topics
About Groups and Groups Sets
Custom Groups
Managing Groups
Smart Groups
Temporary Groups
Group Sets
Using Group Sets
Before long, you could have a large number of groups in your library. To help organize your groups, you can create up to 5,000
group sets. Group sets can contain any combination of custom groups and smart groups.
Use the plus (+) or minus (-) signs next to a group set header to expand or collapse the list of groups found in that group set. When
the list is collapsed, the number next to the group set header reflects the total number of references found in each group. This
number could include duplicates (references that are included in more than one group).
Some group sets are automatic and cannot be removed or renamed. These include the sets Online Search, EndNote Web, and
Find Full Text.
To get started with group sets, see:
n
n
n
About Groups and Group Sets
Creating a Group Set
Changing the Position of a Group Set
n
n
Renaming a Group Set
Deleting a Group Set
The Lost & Found Group Set
The Lost & Found group set has special properties. Chances are that you will never see this group set. It appears only in very specific situations. This is one example:
1. You open your library with EndNote X7.
2. You create a group set and a group of references within the group set.
3. You then move the library to another machine.
4. You open the library with an older version of EndNote. The earlier version of EndNote did not include the group set feature
and so it ignores your group set information.
5. You save changes to the library.
6. You move the library back to the original machine and open it again with EndNote X7.
EndNote remembers that you have a saved group, but it does not know under which group set it should be located so it
places the group in a Lost & Found set.
The Lost & Found group set is a temporary holding place. You cannot add to any groups to this set, rename them, or search them.
The only thing that you can do is drag a group from this set to another group set. Once you do that, all functionality returns to the
group. Once you have moved all groups from the Lost & Found set, the Lost & Found set is removed.
Creating a Group Set
A new library begins with a single group set titled My Groups. However, you can create up to 5,000 group sets in your EndNote
library.
To create a group set:
1. From the Groups menu, select Create Group Set.
2. Enter a name for the new group set.
When you first create a group set, there are no groups listed below the heading. You can drag groups to move them from other
group sets to the new group set or you can create new custom groups, smart groups, and combination groups under the new heading.
Selecting a group set shows all the references from the various custom groups, smart groups, and combination groups under the
set.
Changing the Position of a Group Set
To change the position of a group set:
Click on the group set heading, hold down the mouse button, and drag and drop the group heading to its new position in the Groups
panel. The new position will be remembered each time you start EndNote.
You can change the position of any group set, including Online Search, EndNote Web, and Find Full Text.
Renaming a Group Set
To rename a group set:
1. Click on a group set heading to select it.
2. From the Groups menu, select Rename Group Set. Or, right-click on the group name and select Rename Group Set.
3. Enter a new name for the group set.
Renaming does not affect the groups found in the set. Your groups will remain intact.
You cannot rename the permanent group sets: Online Search, EndNote Web, and Find Full Text.
Deleting a Group Set
Are you sure you want to delete that group set? When you delete a group set, all of the groups within that set are also deleted! The
references are not deleted; they still reside in your library.
To delete a group set:
1. Right-click on a group set heading to display a menu.
2. From the menu, select Delete Group Set.
You cannot delete any of the permanent group sets: Online Search, EndNote Web, and Find Full Text.
You also cannot delete the last group set left in a library. Each library must have at least one group set as a place to store new custom groups, smart groups, and/or combination groups.
Automatic Groups
Permanent Groups
Permanent groups are maintained by EndNote and cannot be renamed or deleted. The permanent groups are:
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All References: This displays all of the references in the current library. If you highlight a subset of references in this group
and then display only those selected references, the name of the group changes to Showing References. The status line
along the bottom of the window will always tell you how may references you are viewing plus the total number of references
in the library.
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Unfiled: This group contains those references that are not part of a custom group (and optionally not part of a smart group).
Right- click on Unfiled to display a context sensitive menu and toggle the setting Exclude Smart Groups in Unfiled /
Include Smart Groups in Unfiled.
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Trash: This group contains the references you have removed from the library by highlighting references and selecting Move
References to Trash from the References menu. While the references are officially no longer in your library (they will not
appear in any other group or reference list, they are not included in your reference count, and they cannot be searched or
cited), they are not completely deleted until you go to the References menu and select Empty Trash. Until you select
Empty Trash, you can still drag references from the Trash group back to your active library.
Temporary Groups
There are several groups that are created automatically and are temporary; they exist only while a library is open. All of these
groups may be available at the same time. Closing EndNote or just the library will delete a temporary group, but the references
themselves are not deleted from the library.
The temporary groups are:
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Copied References: This temporary group displays the last group of references that were retrieved in Online Search Mode
and then copied into your permanent library with the References > Copy References to command or the Copy to Local
Library icon on the toolbar. See How to Search an Online Database.
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Duplicate References: This group shows the results of duplicate detection in your library. You can run duplicate detection
with the References > Detect Duplicates command. See Finding Duplicate References.
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Imported References: This group shows the last group of references imported into the library with the File > Import command. Each time you import additional references into the library, this group is replaced with the new set of references. See
General Importing Instructions.
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Search Results: This group shows the results of the last search performed on the current EndNote library. Each time you
execute another search on the library, this group is updated with the new search results. See Simple Searches.
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Find Full Text groups: When you use the References > Find Full Text > Find Full Text command to find the full text of a
reference, a Find Full Text group set appears, with several temporary groups in it. They include Searching, Found PDF,
Found URL, and Not Found. See Finding Full Text.
Because temporary groups are deleted when you close the library, you may occasionally want to save one of them to a custom
group so it is available during a later session.
To save a temporary group as a custom group:
1. Click on the group name to display the list of references in the group.
2. To select all references in the list, first click in the list, and then go to the Edit menu and choose Select All.
3. From the Groups menu, select Add References To > Create Group.
4. Name and save the new group.
Note: You are saving a specific set of references. If you add more references to your library, the search results you saved to a
custom group are not updated. You would need to re-run the search to find the new references.
Custom Groups
Custom Groups
Custom groups are perfect for when you want to build a group of references that are not easily found by index term or other common text. You can browse through your reference list and drag individual references to a custom group.
Create group sets in order to organize your custom groups and smart groups. See Group Sets.
Custom groups and smart groups are listed alphabetically within each group set. Click the My Library header at the top of the
Groups panel to toggle between ascending and descending order.
To get started with custom groups, see:
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Creating a Custom Group
Adding References to a Custom Group
Removing References from a Custom Group
Creating a Custom Group
You have two options for creating a custom group. You can select references and then add them to a new group or you can create
an empty group and then add references to it.
To create a custom group:
1. Highlight the name of the group set to contain the new group.
2. Use one of these options:
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From the Groups menu, select Create Group.
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Right-click on the group set name to display a context-sensitive menu and select Create Group.
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Select references in a reference list, then go to the Groups menu and select Add References To > Create Group.
3. Enter a group name that is anywhere from 1 to 255 characters in length. There are no restrictions on the characters you can
use in a group name. It is possible to give two different groups the same name.
4. Your next step is to add references to the new group. See Adding References to a Custom Group.
You are limited to 5,000 custom and smart groups per library. Once you reach that limit, you must delete a group before you can
add a new one.
If you do not have a group set selected when you create a new group, the new group will be added to the nearest group set.
Adding References to a Custom Group
You can add references to a new or existing custom group at any time. You do not have to worry about copying the same reference to a group more than once; EndNote will not allow duplicates (based on unique EndNote record numbers).
To add references to a group:
1. First, select the references you want to add to the group. You can do this in many ways, for example:
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Click on an individual reference to select it.
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Display a list of references (such as search results), click in the list of references, and then go to the Edit menu and
choose Select All.
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Hold down the Shift key and click on two references to select a range of contiguous references.
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Hold down the Ctrl key and click on individual references to select them.
2. Add the references to a group. You have several methods available:
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Drag and drop the selected references onto an existing custom group name in the left panel of the Library window.
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From the Groups menu, select Add References To and then select either the name of an existing custom group or
Create Group.
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Right-click on the reference list to display a menu, select Add References To, and then select either the name of an
existing custom group or Create Group.
How do you know which references are not included in any custom groups?
The automatic Unfiled group includes references that do not appear in any custom groups.
The Unfiled group may or may not include references that are part of a smart group. Right- click on Unfiled to display a context
sensitive menu and toggle the setting Exclude Smart Groups in Unfiled / Include Smart Groups in Unfiled.
Removing References from a Custom Group
You can remove references from any of your custom groups or online search groups. The references will still be in your library and
appear under All References - they just will not appear in that particular custom group.
To remove references from a custom group:
1. In the left Groups panel of the library window, click on the name of the group.
2. In the reference list, select the reference(s) you want to remove. You can select multiple references:
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Hold down the Shift key and click on two references to select a range of contiguous references.
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Hold down the Ctrl key and click on individual references to select them.
3. Select the Remove References from Group command in one of these ways:
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Press the Delete key on your keyboard.
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From the Groups menu, select Remove References from Group.
Remember that the selected references are only removed from this group. They still exist in All References and possibly in other
groups.
If you really want to delete the references from your library, see Deleting References from a Group.
Warning: When you delete a record from a smart group, EndNote also deletes the record from All References without warning.
To restore the reference, go to Trash, and then right-click to bring up a menu. Select Restore to Library and EndNote returns the
reference to the smart group.
Smart Groups
Smart Groups
Smart groups are built with search strategies. Smart groups are dynamically updated as you add references to and edit references
in the library.
You can create group sets in order to further organize your smart groups and custom groups. See Using Custom Group Sets.
To start working with smart groups, see:
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Creating a Smart Group
Creating a Smart Group from an Existing Search Strategy
Editing a Smart Group
Creating a Smart Group
Smart groups are built with search strategies and are dynamically updated as you add references to and edit references in the
library.
Note: You cannot create a smart group when an Online Search group is displayed, whether you are showing Integrated Mode or
Online Search Mode.
To create a smart group:
1. Display the set of references that you would like to search. This would typically be All References.
2. From the Groups menu, select Create Smart Group. A search dialog appears.
3. Enter a name for the group, then your search strategy, and then click Create.
The Smart Group search dialog works the same as the regular Search panel. If you need more information about how to use the
Search dialog, see Searching for References.
The new smart group will be added to the next group set after the one being searched. If you are searching all references, it will be
in the top-most group set. You can drag-and-drop the new smart group to any group set.
Related Topics
Creating a Smart Group from an Existing Search Strategy
Editing a Smart Group
Creating a Smart Group from an Existing Search Strategy
You may have already created and saved a search strategy to find a subset of references. Rather than run the search again each
time you enter and edit references, you can use the saved search strategy to create a smart group.
To create a smart group from a search strategy:
1. Click on All References to display all references in the library.
2. In the Tabs panel, click the Search tab.
3. Click Options, and then select Load Search.
4. Locate, select, and open the search strategy to load it into the Search panel.
5. Click Options, and then select Convert to Smart Group.
A Converted Search group is created and stored as the first group in the next group set. If you searched all references, the Converted Search group will appear as the first group under the first custom group set. If you searched a group subset, the Converted
Search group will appear as the first item under the next group set. You can drag-and-drop the smart group to any group set.
The smart group will be updated with matching references each time you save a reference.
Related Topics
Creating a Smart Group
Editing a Smart Group
Renaming a Group
Editing a Smart Group
You may have created a smart group only to find that you need to tweak the search strategy for the group.
To edit a smart group:
1. Highlight the smart group name in the Groups panel.
2. From the Groups menu, select Edit Group to display the smart group search dialog. The current search strategy is
displayed.
3. Modify the search strategy as needed, and click Save.
If you need more information about how to use the Search dialog, see Searching for References.
The smart group updates based on the new search strategy.
Combination Groups
Creating a Combination Group
Combine custom and smart groups under a single group to better organize your EndNote references. Use AND, OR, and NOT
logic to create new, useful combined group sets. Save references in custom and smart groups, and then save these sets of
groups as a combined group set.
To create a combination group:
1. From the Groups panel, select Create from Groups to display the Create from Groups dialog.
2. Enter a name for the combination group.
3. In the fields under the Include References heading, select up to 10 custom and/or smart groups to use as your search criteria.
4. Use AND, OR, NOT to include or exclude custom and/or smart groups in your combined group set.
5. You can also use the Add (+) and Remove (-) buttons to manage which groups you want to include in and/or remove from
your combined group set
You are limited to 5,000 custom and smart groups per library. Once you reach that limit, you must delete a group before you can
add a new one.
Note: You cannot include group sets in a combination group.
Editing a Combination Group
To edit a combination group:
1. Select the group that you want to edit.
2. From the Groups panel, select Edit Group to display the Create from Groups dialog.
3. Enter a new name for the group (optional).
4. Use AND, OR, NOT to include or exclude custom and/or smart groups in your combined group set (optional).
You can also use the Add (+) and Remove (-) buttons to manage which groups you want to include in and/or remove from your
combined group set.
Deleting a Combination Group
To delete a combination group:
1. Select the group that you want to delete.
2. From the Groups menu, select Delete Group to display a dialog.
3. Click Delete to remove the combined group set from the Group panel.
Managing Groups
Managing Groups
See these topics about managing groups:
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Creating a Combination Group
Searching a Group
Renaming a Group
Deleting References from a Group
Deleting a Group
Searching a Group
You can limit your searching to a specific group of references.
To search a group:
1. Click on the group name to display the references in the Library window.
2. From the Tools menu, select Search Library to display the Search panel.
3. Make sure the search set list is set to “Search Whole Group.”
4. Enter your search strategy and click Search.
For more information about searching, see Searching for References.
Renaming a Group
There are several ways to rename a custom group or a smart group, so you can choose the one that is the most convenient for
you.
To rename a group:
1. In the left panel of the Library window, click on the name of the group.
2. Select the Rename Group command in one of these ways:
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Click on the group name a second time to directly edit the name.
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From the Groups menu, select Rename Group.
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Right-click with your mouse on the group name to display a menu, and select Rename Group.
You cannot rename the automatically created groups: All References, Duplicate References, Imported References, Search
Results, Unfiled, Trash and the Find Full Text groups.
Deleting References from a Group
When you delete a reference from a group, it is moved to the Trash and is deleted from all groups in your library.
If what you really want to do is just remove the reference from a custom group, without deleting the reference from your library,
see Removing References from a Custom Group.
To delete a reference from your library:
1. Highlight the reference (or multiple references) in the reference list of the Library window.
2. Move References to Trash.
At this point, the references are moved to the Trash group. The Trash group is a temporary holding place. The references
are no longer in your library, and cannot be cited or searched, but they have not been irrevocably thrown away yet, either. If
you change your mind, you can still drag a reference from the Trash back to the All References group to bring it back into
the library.
3. When you are absolutely certain that you no longer want the reference(s) you have moved to Trash, select the Trash group
and then go to the References menu and select Empty Trash.
4. Display All References to continue working in your library.
Warning: When you delete a record from a smart group, EndNote also deletes the record from All References without warning.
To restore the reference, go to Trash, and then right-click to bring up a menu. Select Restore to Library and EndNote returns the
reference to the smart group.
Deleting a Group
When you delete a group, references are removed from the group but are not deleted; the references themselves are still part of
the library.
Temporary groups are always removed when you close the library.
When you delete an Online Search group, it does not mean that you can no longer search that online database. You have not
deleted the connection file from disk, you have removed it as a favorite. You can go to Tools > Online Search and select that connection file again.
To delete a group:
1. In the left panel of the Library window, click on the name of the group you want to delete.
2. Select the Delete Group command in one of these ways:
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From the Groups menu, select Delete Group.
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Right-click with your mouse on the group name to display a context-sensitive menu, and select Delete.
The group is deleted from the library, but the references that were in the group are still part of the library.
Output Styles
What is an Output Style?
The term output style (or just "style") is used to describe a particular method of documenting your work. Each style is designed
as a complete solution for formatting and editing in-text citations, footnote citations, and bibliographies for all types of references.
You can think of styles as templates that show EndNote how to arrange the information in each of your EndNote references for
citations and bibliographies. For example, a single reference could be formatted in the Chicago style like this:
Argus, Michele V., and Edward K.
Or it could be formatted in the Nature style like this:
1. Argus, M. V.
EndNote includes more than 4,500 individual bibliographic styles. Only the most popular styles are stored as individual files in the
Styles folder in your EndNote folder. (To add more, see Installing Additional Output Styles.)
The name of the style refers to the journal or publisher that has defined the bibliographic format. The Nature style, for example, is
based on the format required by the journal Nature, and the Chicago style is named after the Chicago Manual of Style. Styles in
the Export category, such as "RIS" are not bibliographic styles, but rather export styles designed to aid in transferring EndNote
data into other databases.
To see the available styles in EndNote’s Styles folder, select Output Styles from the Edit menu, and select Open Style Manager.
If your style is not available, you can download additional styles, any style can be modified to suit your needs, plus you can create
new styles.
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Styles can be downloaded or edited, and new styles can be customized, with EndNote's Style Manager.
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The Style Manager allows you to find and preview installed styles. Commonly used styles can be marked as "favorites,"
which will appear in the Output Styles submenu of the Edit menu and in the list of available styles in Cite While You Write.
Related Topics
Accessing Styles in Other Places
Basic Components of a Style
Previewing Styles and Showing Information
The Output Styles Menu
The Style Manager
What Should I Do if My Style Is Not Included?
Basic Components of a Style
The best way to understand how a style works is to open one up and look at it.
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To create a new style: From the Edit menu, select Output Styles and select New Style. If you are interested in creating a
new style, see Creating a New Style.
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To edit a style: From the Edit menu, select Output Styles and then Open Style Manager. Select the file to edit and click
Edit. The most recently used style can also be opened by selecting Output Styles from the Edit menu, and selecting Edit
<style>.
The Style Window
After choosing the option to edit an existing style or create a new one, EndNote opens the Style window.
All of the different options for editing a style are listed on the left side of the Style window. The first four items (About This Style,
Anonymous Works, Page Numbers, and Journal Names) apply to citations, bibliographies, and citations in footnotes. The rest of
the options in the Style window are grouped under one of four headings:
Citations: Panels listed under the Citations heading apply only to citations in the body of the text.
Bibliographies: The items listed under the Bibliography heading apply to the bibliography that EndNote creates when you format
a paper. These settings are also used with the Export, Print, Copy Formatted, and Preview options.
Footnotes: The items under the Footnote heading apply to citations that have been inserted into the footnotes or endnotes in a
word processing document. (You must first create the footnotes in your word processor, and then insert EndNote citations into
them.)
Figures and Tables: The items under Figures and Tables apply to EndNote figures and tables that have been inserted into a
Microsoft Word document.
Click the plus sign next to one of the headings to expand or collapse the view to show or hide the related options. Click on an item
under the headings to view the associated panel. You may switch between panels as needed while editing the file. No changes
are saved in any of the panels, however, until you select Save or Save As from the File menu.
Style Templates
The Citation, Bibliography, and Footnote sections of the style all have a Template panel and other options for fine tuning the style.
The Templates panels are the major component of the styles. They include the field names and punctuation organized in the way
EndNote should format the references for that particular style. The templates look like citations or bibliography entries, except
that field names are used in place of the actual data. During the formatting process, EndNote replaces the field names with the
corresponding information from the references.
For details about working with style templates see Modifying Style Templates.
Other Style Options
Under each heading in the Style window (Citations, Bibliography, and Footnotes) there are a series of options for how to fine-tune
the formatted references in citations, bibliographies, or footnotes. Many of these options are repeated for the three sections (such
as the settings that determine how author names are treated), because each of these three areas of the document might require a
slightly different format. The Figures and Tables section applies specifically to EndNote figures and tables inserted into a Word
document.
Related Topics
Additional Style Formatting Options
Modifying Style Templates
The Style Manager
The Style Manager
EndNote includes more than 4,500individual bibliographic styles. By default, only the most popular styles are stored as individual
files in the Styles folder in your EndNote folder. To install additional styles, see Installing Additional Output Styles .
The name of the style refers to the journal or publisher that has defined the bibliographic format. The Nature style, for example, is
based on the format required by the journal Nature, and the Chicago style is named after the Chicago Manual of Style. Styles in
the Export category, such as "RIS" are not bibliographic styles, but rather export styles designed to aid in transferring EndNote
data into other databases.
To see if your journal’s style is included in EndNote, peruse the list of styles in the Style Manager. If your style is not available,
any style can be modified to suit your needs and you can create new styles.
To see the available styles in EndNote’s Styles folder, select Output Styles from the Edit menu, and then select Open Style Manager.
The Style Manager lists the names of the original styles available in the Program Files\EndNote\Styles folder as well as any new
or modified styles in your personal Styles folder, and gives you the options to edit them or select them as “favorites” for quick
access from the Style menu on the toolbar, the Output Styles menu on the Edit menu, or the confirm formatting dialog. You can
click and drag the corner of the dialog to increase the size.
Navigating in the Style Manager
Use the following features to locate the output style that you want to use:
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If you know the name of the style that you want to use, you may start typing it and the first file that matches what you type
will be selected.
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Type text into the "Quick Search" text box on the toolbar and press Enter to search for the style by the name of the file. You
can enter a partial name or the full name. EndNote will display all matching results.
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Click the Find By button and choose a category (such as Medicine or Humanities) to find only the bibliographic styles for a
specific discipline.
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Click the Find By button and select All Styles to return all of the styles to the displayed list.
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Click the column headings to sort the styles by name or by category. Clicking the same column heading a second time will
change the sort order from ascending to descending. Click again to set it back to ascending order.
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Click the More Info button at the bottom of the dialog to display additional information about the selected style (such as
modification and creation dates, and any comments or limitations). More Info toggles with Less Info. You also have the
option of displaying a preview of the style in the More Info panel.
Marking Your Favorite Styles
When you have found a style that you will want to use, click the check box to mark it as a favorite. All styles that are marked as
favorites appear in the Styles menu on the toolbar. This gives you easy access to the styles you use most often. All styles can be
modified to meet your specifications. You can also create completely new styles if necessary.
To add a style to the Output Styles submenu on the Edit menu:
1. From the Edit menu, select Output Styles and then select Open Style Manager.
2. Find the style that you need.
3. Click in the box to the left of the style's name to choose it as one of your favorites.
4. Close the Style Manager by clicking the close button or selecting Close Style Manager from the File menu.
To select a whole category of styles as favorites, click the Find By button in the Style Manager window, select the category of
interest, and then click Mark All when all of the styles for that category are displayed. Click the Find By button and select All
Styles to bring all of the styles back into view. The Unmark All button may be used to unmark all of the output styles that are showing in the list.
If you cannot find the style you need:
Many bibliographic styles are variants of a small number of well-known bibliographic formats. EndNote includes over 4,500different styles, but it may not include the exact style you need. If you can't find the specific style you need, you can:
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Check the submission guidelines for the publication to see if the style is a derivative of a well-known style. You may be
able to use that style (perhaps with minor modifications).
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Try the interactive Styles Finder on the EndNote web site. A shortcut to the Web Styles Finder is provided on the Help
menu.
Related Topics
Accessing Styles in Other Places
Additional Style Formatting Options
Basic Components of a Style
Modifying Style Templates
Previewing Styles and Showing Information
The Output Styles Menu
What is an Output Style?
What Should I Do if My Style Is Not Included?
Creating a New Style
It is often easier to modify an existing bibliographic style that closely resembles a style that you need than it is to create a new
style from scratch. (See Modifying Style Templates.) If you do wish to create a new style, Example: Creating an Author Date
Style gives you a general overview of the process.
Creating a bibliographic style involves building templates for the in-text citations and the bibliographic references to mimic how
you want them to appear in your paper. Then adjust the various options to be sure that authors, titles, pages, and other fields are
being formatted according to your requirements. Example: Creating an Author Date Style guides you through the creation of a fictitious author-date type of style.
Creating an Author Date Style
A new style need only contain a Citation template and a Generic Bibliography template for it to produce citations and bibliographies for any paper. The Citation template applies to all in-text citations, and the Generic bibliography template applies to all
reference types that do not have templates of their own in the style. The Generic template should be considered a default template, and you should add additional templates for the standard reference types which you use. If you define a specific template
for any reference types, they are formatted according to that template, and not the Generic format.
To create style templates:
1. To create a bibliographic style, go to the Edit menu to select Output Style, and then select New Style, and a new
Untitled Style window appears.
2. Click the Templates panel under the Citations heading to specify the format of the in-text citations.
Our style uses the author name and the year in the citation. They are surrounded by parentheses and separated
by a comma.
3. With the cursor in the Citation Template, type an open parenthesis, click the Insert Field button and select
Author from the list of available fields, type a comma, select Year from the Insert Field list and then type the closing parenthesis.
Next, define the Generic format which serves as the default template for reference types that do not have their
own template. We know that books should be formatted like this, so we can set up the Generic template to
accommodate that format:
Jones, VR,
4. Click the Templates option under the Bibliography heading, then click in the "Generic" section of that Templates
panel.
5. Select Author from the Insert Field list to add the Author field to the style template. (You can also type "Author"
but it is safer to select the field name from the list.) Type a period and a space. And continue inserting fields and
punctuation until you have created a template that mimics the format of the reference (where "· indicates a
space):
Author.·(Year).·Title.·Place·Published,·Publisher.
6. In this style, the title must be italicized, so double-click the word Title to select it, then from the Edit menu, select
Style and Italic.
7. Save the new style by selecting Save from the File menu. In the dialog that appears, type "Practice Style" as the
name of this style and click Save. This will save the style and add it as an option in the Output Styles submenu
of the Edit menu.
Test the Style
Open your library and select Show Preview from the bottom of the Library window. Select different references in your library to
see how they format. You will probably see that the books look good, but journal articles do not display enough information. You
will need to return to the style and create a template to format journal articles. To do so:
Create a New Template for Journals
In the Templates panel under the Bibliography heading, select Journal Article from the Reference Type list. This will create a new
section for a Journal Article template. Insert the fields and punctuation to create a template as shown below:
Author·(Year).
Save the style by selecting Save from the File menu. Return to the Library window, and check the preview to see how journal
article references are formatted.
Finishing the Style
Continue testing how other reference types format, and include additional reference type templates as necessary. See Modifying
Style Templates for specifics about creating and modifying style templates.
Look at how the author names are formatted, and change the necessary settings. You should also take a close look at pages, title
capitalization, the sort order of the references, and various other options provided in the Style window. These are described in
Additional Style Formatting Options.
Previewing Styles and Showing Information
Click More Info in the Style Manager to show the information panel. (When you select More Info, the button changes to Less Info,
which will hide the panel.) The information panel is used to display more detail about the selected style.
Use the Style Info/Preview button to toggle between these displays:
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Style Information: Details about the style are displayed in the Information panel. These include the creation and modification
dates, category, which style guide the style is based on, and any limitations or comments about using the style.
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Style Preview: In the preview section, EndNote shows how a journal, book, and book section would be formatted with the
selected style.
Previewing Styles Using Your Own References
EndNote uses built-in examples for the previews in the Style Manager window. If you want to preview a style using your own references:
1. In the Style Manager, mark the style as a favorite by clicking in the check box next to its name. This adds the style to the
Output Styles menu.
2. From the Edit menu, select Output Styles, and select the style to preview.
3. Open a library, and then select the Preview panel.
4. Select any reference in your library to have it displayed in the Preview panel.
The Preview panel displays only one reference at a time. If you would like to preview a group of references, you can use the Copy
Formatted command and the Clipboard:
1. From the Edit menu, select Output Styles and select a style.
2. Select one or more references in your library and select Copy Formatted ( Ctrl +K) from the Edit menu.
3. Paste from the Clipboard into a word processor document to see the formatted references as they would appear in a bibliography.
Or, use the Print Preview command from the File menu to print the showing references in the Library window.
Related Topics
Accessing Styles in Other Places
Additional Style Formatting Options
Basic Components of a Style
Installing Additional Output Styles
Modifying Style Templates
The Output Styles Menu
The Style Manager
What is an Output Style?
What Should I Do if My Style Is Not Included?
The Output Styles Menu
The style selected from the Output Styles submenu of the Edit menu (or the style menu on the toolbar) determines how references
are formatted for the preview in the Library window as well as for the Format Bibliography, Format, Print, Export, and Copy Formatted commands.
By default, EndNote’s four standard bibliographic styles are installed in your Output Styles menu:
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Annotated: generates an Author-Date style bibliography with abstracts.
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APA 6th: Displays the first six authors (or editors) followed by the text preset to ( “, ...”) followed by the last author (or
editor).
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Author-Date: generates bibliography alphabetized by author name, and in-text citations with Author and Year.
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MHRA: Based on the Modern Humanities Research Association style in which a footnote number is inserted in the text.
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Numbered: generates a numbered bibliography with corresponding numbered in-text citations.
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Show All Fields: generates a list of the references as entered, including all fields and the names of the fields.
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Turabian Bibliography: Includes two options for citing sources: the notes-bibliography style and the author-date style.
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Vancouver: Generates an Author-Number" style bibliography.
Mark individual styles as your favorites in the Style Manager to have them appear in the Output Styles menu, the style menu in
the Main toolbar, and the confirm formatting dialog.
Related Topics
Accessing Styles in Other Places
Additional Style Formatting Options
Basic Components of a Style
Modifying Style Templates
Previewing Styles and Showing Information
What is an Output Style?
What Should I Do if My Style Is Not Included?
Closing a Style
To close a Style window, click the close button in the upper right corner of the window, or select Close Style from the File menu. If
you have not saved your changes to the style, EndNote prompts you and gives you the option to save or discard any changes that
you have made.
Copying Styles
When you display a list of styles in EndNote, the list is comprised of the installed styles found in the Program Files\EndNote\Styles folder as well as new or modified styles found in your personal Styles folder. For an explanation of where your files
are stored, see Folder Locations Preferences.
Because each style is a separate file on your hard drive, you can copy them as you would copy any file on your hard drive using
the Windows desktop .
To copy a style to a removable disk, select the style on your hard drive and drag it onto a disk. We recommend that you make a
backup copy of any new or modified styles. (see Backing Up Your EndNote Files).
To make a copy of a style from within EndNote:
1. From the Edit menu, select Output Styles and select Open Style Manager.
2. Select the style you want to copy and click Edit.
3. Without making any changes to the file, select Save from the File menu.
4. Give this copy of the file a new name and Save it.
The file is saved in your personal Styles folder. The new style will remain open. The original style will be left untouched.
Saving Styles
To save a new style that you have just created, or to save changes to a style you have just modified, select Save or Save As from
the File menu.
If you have modified one of the original installed files in the Program Files\EndNote\Styles folder, you must use Save As to save a
copy to your personal Styles folder. If you have modified a style that is already located in your personal Styles folder, you can
select either Save to directly modify the file, or Save As to make a copy with the changes. For a description of where your styles
are stored, see Folder Locations Preferences.
If you close a Style window before saving a style, EndNote prompts you to save or discard the changes you have made, or select
Cancel to return to the style. If you quit from EndNote while a Style window is open, the same dialog appears.
EndNote automatically saves new styles to your personal Styles folder. You may also specify a different folder if necessary. For
instructions see Folder Locations Preferences .
EndNote styles use the file name extension of ". ENS" (for EndNote Style), as in " Nature.ens."
Renaming Styles
Rename styles using the Save command from the File menu. This allows you to make a copy of any style that you want to modify, so you can keep several variations of the same style. You can also rename styles by switching to the Windows desktop ,
locating the style file in the Styles folder, clicking on the file name, and typing a new name.
For an explanation of where your files are stored, see Folder Locations Preferences.
Deleting Styles
To delete a style from EndNote:
1. From the Edit menu, select Output Styles, and then select Open Style Manager.
2. Select the style to be deleted.
3. Select Clear from the Edit menu, or right-click on the style and select Delete from the shortcut menu, or press the Delete key.
You can also delete an unwanted style by switching back to the Windows desktop, and opening the appropriate Styles folder (see
Folder Locations Preferences). Then, select the file to delete and select Delete from the File menu, or drag the file to the Recycle
Bin.
Note: You must have read/write access to the Styles folder in order to delete a style. If you do not have administrator access,
you likely will not be able to delete a file located within the Program Files folder.
Reverting Changes to a Style
If at any time you need to revert your changes back to the last saved copy of the style, select Revert Style from the File menu.
Once you close the Style window the changes are permanent until changed again.
What Should I Do if My Style Is Not Included?
EndNote supplies over 4,500 journal styles for your convenience; however, because there are thousands of journals published,
the style you need may not be included. This should not be a problem because you can customize a style of your own or edit any
of EndNote’s pre-configured styles.
If a style that you need is not included with EndNote, we recommend modifying a style that is similar to what you need. To download more of the predefined styles, see Installing Additional Output Styles .
To find and modify a similar style:
1. From the Edit menu, select Output Styles, and then select Open Style Manager.
2. In the Style Manager, change the setting in the information panel from Style Info to Style Preview. The preview of the
selected style should now be displayed.
3. Scroll through the list of available styles to see if you can find one that is similar to what you need.
4. Once you have found a similar style, select it, and click the Edit button. The Style window opens.
5. From the File menu, select Save, give this copy of the style a new name that corresponds to the name of the journal you
want to use it for, and click Save. This will also keep the original style unchanged, in the event that you need to use it later.
6. The new Style window remains open for you to edit it as you need. For more details about editing parts of a style, read Modifying Style Templates and Additional Style Formatting Options.
Once the new copy of the style has been saved, it will be added to your style menus.
Related Topics
Accessing Styles in Other Places
Basic Components of a Style
Closing a Style
The Output Styles Menu
The Style Manager
Accessing Styles in Other Places
The Style Manager displays only the styles found in specific folders. We recommend that you copy additional styles to your personal Styles folder.
For an explanation of where your files are stored, or to change your personal Styles folder location, see Folder Locations Preference.
Modifying Style Templates
Modifying Style Templates
If you are creating a bibliography that requires a style not included with EndNote, then you can modify a style to suit your needs.
(See What Should I Do if My Style is Not Included?) Editing a style requires a general understanding of how styles work and the
components of a style. Read Basic Components of a Style to become familiar with the terms. These topics can help you in creating or modifying style templates:
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Citation Template
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Bibliography and Footnote Templates
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Changing the Punctuation in a Formatted Reference
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Adding and Removing Fields in a Formatted Reference
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Adding New Reference Types
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Font and Text Styles
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Rules for Working with Style Templates
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EndNote Cleans Up
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Special Formatting Characters
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Additional Style Formatting Options
Citations Template
To access the Templates panel, select Output Styles from the Edit menu, and then click Templates under the Citations heading.
The Citations template tells EndNote how to format the in- text citations in the body of your paper. The most popular formats for
in-text citations are (Author, Year), numbered, and Author (Year). For example:
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An (Author, Year) format displays "(Author, Year)" in the Citation area of the template. When you insert an in-text citation in
your paper using this format, the citation would look like this example: (Binfield, 2008)
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A numbered format displays a "[Bibliography Number]" in the Citation area of the template. Numbered styles commonly
enclose the bibliography number in brackets or parenthesis or use a superscript number. Instead of (Binfield 2008) as your
in-text citation, the citation would look like this example: [1]
The bibliography number corresponds to a numbered reference in your bibliography. By default EndNote links the in-text
citation to the reference in the bibliography.
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An Author (Year) format displays "Author (Year)" in the Citation - Author (Year) area of the template. When you insert an intext citation in your paper using this format, the citation would look like this example: Binfield (2008)
You may change the template by deleting unwanted field names or punctuation, retyping the punctuation you want, and inserting
new fields with the Insert Field button. See Modifying Style Templates for information about editing templates.
Note: Both the Citation and the Citation - Author (Year) area of the template must be completed in order to use the Author (Year)
format in a paper.
Multiple Citation Separators
Use the Multiple Citation Separators field to specify the punctuation to separate multiple citations in your papers. A multiple citation is an in-text citation that includes more than one reference within a single set of delimiters, such as: (Argus, 1993; Billoski,
1993; Hall, 1988). This example uses a semicolon and a space as the separator between citations.
The separator can be changed by typing other text in the Multiple Citation Separator field. Remember to include a space in the separator section when necessary.
Adding Journal Names to In-text Citations
If you would like EndNote to insert the journal name in the in-text citations of your paper, select the Journal/Secondary Title field
from the Insert Field menu. For example:
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In the Citation area of the template, insert the Journal/Secondary Title field in the (Author, Year) field. For example:
(Author, Journal/Secondary Title Year)
When you insert an in-text citation in your paper, the citation would look like this example: (Porter, Journal/British Journal
of Aesthetics 2009)
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In the Citation - Author (Year) area of the template, insert the Journal/Secondary Title field in the Author (Year) field. For
example: Author, Journal/Secondary Title (Year)
When you insert an in-text citation in your paper using this format, the citation would look like this example: Porter, Journal/British Journal of Aesthetics (2009)
Year Format
If you would like EndNote to use 2-digit years (such as 09) in the in-text citations, check the "Use 2-digit years" option. Years
from all centuries will be abbreviated to display just the last two digits. This applies only to the years in the in-text citations.
Related Topics
Adding and Removing Fields in a Formatted Reference
Adding New Reference Types
Additional Style Formatting Options
Bibliography and Footnote Templates
Changing the Punctuation in a Formatted Reference
EndNote Cleans Up
Fonts and Text Styles
Rules for Working with Style Templates
Special Formatting Characters
Footnotes: Defining Long and Short Forms
Both full and short form templates are available from the Style window. Define short form footnote settings for Templates, Author
Lists, Author Name, Editor Lists, and Editor Name.
1. From the Edit menu, select Output Styles > Open Style Manager.
2. From the Style Manager window, select a style from the list of names (for example, Chicago), and then click the Edit button.
3. From the Style window, select a category under the Footnotes heading (for example, Author Name).
4. Enter all your changes.
5. From the File menu, select Save As.
6. Give your updated settings a name (for example, "My Chicago Footnotes Settings"), and then click the Save button.
Bibliography and Footnote Templates
Click Templates under the Bibliography or Footnotes heading in Output Styles to see the templates for how those references are
formatted.
For footnote and bibliography templates, each has a "Generic" template, and other reference-type-specific templates to format the
various reference types in a bibliography.
The following examples show how journal articles, books, and book sections, respectively, would be formatted with the Numbered style. Notice that each reference type is formatted differently, which is why different templates are required:
1. Emiliani,
2. Jones, V.R.,The Theory of Foraging,
3. Whitney, J.R.,
Generic Template
The Generic template is used to format references that use the Generic reference type or do not have their own template in the
style. For example, if a Book template had not been included in the style, book references would be formatted using the Generic
template.
Generic - Short Form Template
The Generic - Short Form template may be defined for each reference type just like the regular footnote. You can edit the short
form in a template. The order of use is that:
1. The short form definition for a specific reference is used.
2. If the definition is not available, then the generic short form definition is used.
3. If no generic definition is available, then the full form of the reference for that type is used.
4. If the full form is not available, then the generic full form is used.
Other Reference Type Templates
The rest of the templates in the style tell EndNote how to format specific reference types, such as journals, books, and book sections. If a check mark appears next to a reference type in the Reference Type list, a template is already defined for it (you can edit
the template).
Footnote Template Options
Styles have varying requirements for how citations in footnotes should be formatted. The options at the top of the Footnotes Templates panel in Output Styles allow for the different conditions.
For some styles, citations in footnotes are formatted just like in- text citations (in the body of the paper). In that case, there is no
need to create a special template for footnotes, select the "Same as citation" option from the "Format citations in footnotes" list.
Similarly, some formats request that citations in footnotes are formatted as full bibliographic references, exactly like the bibliography. For those styles, you can set the footnote format option to Same as Bibliography.
However, if you need the footnotes to use their own special format (most styles for the humanities require this), you would select
the option to format citations in footnotes with a unique footnote format. For this option, you need to define the templates for how
citations in footnotes should be formatted.
For information about how to treat repeated citations, such as using a short form for non-consecutive repeated citations, and Ibid.
for consecutive repeated citations, see Repeated Citations in Footnotes.
When using the short form, select the check box that tell the system to include the Title field only when needed to disambiguate a
citation.
Related Topics
Adding and Removing Fields in a Formatted Reference
Adding New Reference Types
Additional Style Formatting Options
Changing the Punctuation in a Formatted Reference
EndNote Cleans Up
Fonts and Text Styles
Modifying Style Templates
Rules for Working with Style Templates
Special Formatting Characters
Changing the Punctuation in a Formatted Reference
Punctuation that appears in your formatted references can be changed by editing the style you are using. When you edit a style,
you can delete unwanted punctuation, replace it with other punctuation, or add additional punctuation where necessary.
For example, if the Numbered style creates a perfect bibliography for your document except that it puts a comma after the
authors’ names where you need a period, you can edit the Numbered style to make this change.
To edit the Numbered style:
1. Select the Numbered style from the Output Styles menu.
2. Select Edit Numbered from the Output Styles menu to open the Numbered Style window.
3. Click the Templates option under the Bibliography heading.
4. For each reference type (such as Generic, Journal Article, and Book), delete the comma that follows the field name
"Author" and type a period.
The style’s bibliographic templates should now look like the example below. Notice that the punctuation after the Author
field in each template has been changed to a period.
5. From the File menu, select Save As. In the dialog that appears, enter a new name for this modified Numbered style, and
then click Save.
Now you can use the new style to create a formatted bibliography that puts a period between the author names and the titles.
For information about making punctuation or spaces appear only under certain circumstances see Special Formatting Characters.
That topic also explains the use of the non-breaking spaces (◊), vertical bars (|), accent grave (`), and the carets (^) that you see in
the style templates.
Note: If you save a new style into a folder other than the current styles folder, it will not be available in the Style Manager. You
should save new styles to your Styles folder, or change Folder Locations Preferences if necessary.
Related Topics
Adding and Removing Fields in a Formatted Reference
Adding New Reference Types
Additional Style Formatting Options
Bibliography and Footnote Templates
EndNote Cleans Up
Fonts and Text Styles
Modifying Style Templates
Rules for Working with Style Templates
Special Formatting Characters
Adding and Removing Fields in a Formatted Reference
The field names (such as Author, Year, and Title) that you see when editing a style template, indicate what information is included
in your formatted reference. If you want to include a field, such as notes, along with your references, you should add the Notes
field to the style that you use. Similarly, to exclude unwanted information that is appearing in a bibliography, you must delete the
field name that contains that information from the style’s bibliography template.
The examples below show two common scenarios in which fields are added to or removed from the formatted bibliography. Whenever you change the fields in a style template be sure to check the surrounding punctuation to make sure that it is still accurate.
Adding a Field to a Style Template
To insert a new field into a style template:
1. From the Edit menu, select Output Styles, and then select Open Style Manager.
2. Select the style that you want to edit, and click Edit.
3. Click on the Templates option under the Bibliography heading, and position the cursor at the location in the template where
you want to add a field.
4. Click the Insert Field button and select the field to be added.
5. After the field is inserted, add any punctuation or spacing that is necessary to correctly incorporate the new field into the
style.
Note: As a short-cut, you can use the options in the Layout panel to add text or punctuation before or after every reference in a
bibliography. See Bibliography Layout.
Deleting a Field from a Style Template
If EndNote includes information in your bibliography that you do not want to be there, you can edit the style and delete the
unwanted field’s name and any associated punctuation.
For example, if a style includes the issue number in your journal references, and you do not want the issue to appear:
1. In the Style Manager, select the style and click the Edit button.
2. Under the Bibliography heading, click the Templates option.
3. Select the text to be deleted (for example, ".Issue|), and press the Delete or Backspace key.
Along with the Issue field, also remove the period that precedes it and the vertical bar, a special formatting character, that follows
the Issue field. (See Special Formatting Characters for more information about the vertical bar.)
Related Topics
Adding New Reference Types
Additional Style Formatting Options
Bibliography and Footnote Templates
Changing the Punctuation in a Formatted Reference
EndNote Cleans Up
Fonts and Text Styles
Modifying Style Templates
Rules for Working with Style Templates
Special Formatting Characters
Adding New Reference Types
When a style does not include a template for a specific reference type, such as Report, EndNote uses the style’s Generic template to format that reference type. Although there are times when the Generic format suffices, often it is not sufficient because
the other reference types need to be formatted differently. Therefore, you should make specific templates for the different reference types that you will be including in your bibliographies.
To add a new reference type template to a style:
1. From the Edit menu, select Output Styles > Open Style Manager and select the style that you want to modify.
2. With the style selected, click the Edit button.
3. In the Style window, click the Templates panel under the Bibliography heading.
4. Select the name of the desired reference type from the Reference Types drop-down menu . (Reference Types that are
already defined appear in the list with check marks next to their name.)
A new template for that reference type is added at the bottom of the Style window (scroll to the bottom of the Style window if you
do not see it).
Defining the Format for the New Reference Type Template
Defining the format for a new template is a process of inserting the necessary fields and punctuation in the correct order. For this
example, we want a report to look like this (Author, Title, Report Number, Year, Institution, and City):
Trift,
We can insert the fields and type the punctuation to create a template for the Report reference type. Use the Insert Field button at
the top of the Style window to insert the fields in the correct order. After inserting a field name, type the punctuation and spacing
that should follow it. Apply text styles, such as italics for the Title, by selecting the text to change and using the Style toolbar.
The final template for the Report reference type looks like this:
Report
Author,·Title,·Report·Number.·Year,·Institution:·City.
Related Topics
Adding and Removing Fields in a Formatted Reference
Additional Style Formatting Options
Bibliography and Footnote Templates
Changing the Punctuation in a Formatted Reference
EndNote Cleans Up
Fonts and Text Styles
Modifying Style Templates
Rules for Working with Style Templates
Special Formatting Characters
Fonts and Text Styles
By default, text entered into a Style window appears in EndNote’s Plain Font, Plain Size, and Plain Style settings, which allow the
bibliography that EndNote creates to adopt the font settings in your paper. For example, if you type your paper in 10 point Times
font, EndNote uses that font for the paper’s bibliography.
Use the Edit menu or the Style toolbar to apply any font, size, or text style to your Style templates. (Note that only the standard
Windows fonts are available.)
All text attributes entered into a style template carry over into the bibliography that EndNote creates. You can use this feature, for
example, to italicize titles or make the volume numbers bold. Any font or text style changes entered in an EndNote Reference window carry through the bibliography as well. For example, any italicized terms in your references will still appear italicized in your
bibliography, regardless of the text attributes that the EndNote bibliographic style applies.
Related Topics
Adding and Removing Fields in a Formatted Reference
Adding New Reference Types
Additional Style Formatting Options
Bibliography and Footnote Templates
Changing the Punctuation in a Formatted Reference
EndNote Cleans Up
Modifying Style Templates
Rules for Working with Style Templates
Special Formatting Characters
Rules for Working with Style Templates
There are four basic rules of dependence that govern how text, spaces, and field names influence each other when they are used
in a style template. If necessary, these rules can be circumvented in specific situations using the special formatting characters
described in the next section of this chapter.
Rule #1: Basic Dependence
Any text or punctuation that is not separated from a field name by an ordinary space is dependent on the adjacent field.
In this context, "dependent" means that the text or punctuation adjacent to a field only appears in your bibliography if the adjacent
field contains data. For example, in this excerpt:
Volume·(Issue)
the parentheses around "Issue" only appear in a formatted reference if there is an issue number for the reference.
Rule #2: The Preceding Field Takes Precedence Over the Following Field
When punctuation appears between two fields with no intervening spaces, it is dependent on the preceding field.
In this example,
Volume:Issue
the colon is dependent on the Volume field. This means, if there is no volume in the reference, the colon will not appear. If there is
a volume, the colon will appear.
Note: This example shows a case where the rules of dependence might not do what you want. For example, you might want to
have the colon only show when there is an issue. This can be done using the special formatting characters.
Rule #3: The First Space after a Field is Dependent on that Field. Additional Spaces are Independent.
The first ordinary space following a field is always dependent on that field. Any consecutive spaces after that are independent and
will always appear in the formatted references.
For example, if EndNote formats an anonymous book using a template that has the Author field followed by a space and the Title
field:
Author.·Title
the title will not be preceded by a space in the final formatted reference because the space, just like the period, is dependent on
the Author field. However, if the style includes two spaces between the Author and the Title:
Author.··Title
the title will be preceded by one space for all anonymous references. The first space, being dependent on the Author field, disappears when there is no author, however the second space is independent, so it remains in the formatted reference.
Independent spaces can be forced to be dependent on an adjacent field using the special formatting characters.
Rule #4: Independent Text Always Appears in the Bibliography.
Any text or punctuation that is not dependent on a field name always appears in the formatted references. For example, if:
Edition·
is entered into a style’s Book template using only an ordinary space to separate the text " ed." and the field "Edition", the text "
ed." will appear in all Book references—regardless of whether or not there is an edition for that reference.
Note: The non-breaking space can be used in place of a regular space to link independent text to a field. See Special Formatting
Characters.
Related Topics
Adding and Removing Fields in a Formatted Reference
Adding New Reference Types
Additional Style Formatting Options
Bibliography and Footnote Templates
Changing the Punctuation in a Formatted Reference
EndNote Cleans Up
Fonts and Text Styles
Modifying Style Templates
Special Formatting Characters
EndNote Cleans Up
Too confused about all these rules? Well, even if you don’t get everything quite right according to the rules, EndNote will do its
best to clean up the formatted reference. Obvious problems are fixed automatically.
Normally, field text is entered into EndNote without ending punctuation, so that the selected output style can supply punctuation
as required by that particular style. However, when you download references from various sources, some information providers
may include punctuation.
For example, when an output style directs EndNote to insert a period after a field, EndNote must determine what to do with any
punctuation that already exists at the end of the field in the reference.
Punctuation found, plus punctuation
added by the output style:
spaces, period
comma, period (,.)
semicolon, period (;.)
colon, period (:.)
double periods (..)
question mark, period (?.)
exclamation point, period (!.)
Replaced with:
period
period
period
period
single period
question mark
exclamation point
EndNote treats other forms of extra punctuation like this:
Punctuation found, plus punctuation
added by the output style:
double spaces
double commas (,,)
double semicolons (;;)
double question marks (??)
double periods (..)
comma, period (,.)
question mark, period (?.)
exclamation point, period (!.)
question mark, exclamation point (?!)
exclamation point, question mark (!?)
Replaced with:
single space
single comma
single semicolon
single question mark
single period
period
question mark
exclamation point
question mark
exclamation point
One set of punctuation that is never replaced is the period, comma (.,) because it may be used for abbreviations like ed., et al.,
etc.
Special Formatting Characters
EndNote has special formatting characters that add flexibility and precision to the grouping of punctuation and fields in the style
templates.
Link Adjacent Text (Using the Non-breaking Space)
If you type "Edition ed." into a style template and use an ordinary space to separate the field name "Edition" from the abbreviation
" ed.", then " ed." will appear regardless of whether or not the reference has an edition (see Rule #4).
To avoid this problem, make "ed." dependent on the Edition field by linking " ed." to the Edition field with a non-breaking space.
Think of a non-breaking space as bibliographic formatting glue. It joins two or more items together so they act as a single unit.
Thus, any text or punctuation "glued" to a field will drop out of the bibliography if that field is empty.
You can insert a non-breaking space by selecting Link Adjacent Text from the Insert Field list in the Templates panels. You can
also enter it by typing Ctrl+Alt+Space. It appears on the screen as a small diamond.
The non-breaking space is converted to a normal space in the formatting process. Common uses of the non-breaking space
include (where " ◊" is used as a non-breaking space):
p^pp◊Pages
Edition◊ed.
vol◊Volume
Editor◊Ed.^
The non-breaking space is also used in conjunction with the vertical bar (see below) to change the dependency of a punctuation
mark from one field to another. Volume|: ◊Issue|.
In this case, the colon (:) is linked to the Issue field with a non-breaking space, so it does not print in the bibliography if the Issue
field is empty.
Forced Separation—Using the Vertical Bar
If you do not want text or punctuation to be dependent on the preceding or following field, use the vertical bar character (|), to force
a separation of the text from a field. The vertical bar can be found on the same key as the backslash (\). It can also be inserted
from the Insert Field list in the Templates panels.
Think of a vertical bar as breaking dependence, or forcing separation between two dependent items. (The vertical bar works in
exactly the opposite way as the non-breaking space.)
For example, the Journal Article templates in some styles require a period between the volume and issue. A template for such a
style might look like this (where "· indicates a space):
Journal Article
Author. ·"Title." ·Journal· Volume.Issue·(Year):·Pages.
However, when this style formats a journal article that does not include an issue number, the bibliography entry will be incorrect,
as in the following example:
Clark, H. and Carlson, T. "Hearers and Speech Acts." Language 58.(1982): 332-373.
Notice that the period used to separate the volume from the issue appears here in the absence of an issue because it is dependent
upon the Volume (Rule #2). And the space separating the volume and the year is lost because that space is dependent upon the
Issue field (Rule #3).
EndNote has a way of avoiding these problems. The vertical bar character (|) can be used to break the automatic grouping of
spaces and punctuation with adjacent fields.
If you insert the vertical bar before the period in our example, the period’s dependency switches from the Volume field to the Issue
field. Add another vertical bar before the space that follows the Issue field, and the space will no longer be dependent on the Issue
field. Use the vertical bar character in conjunction with the non-breaking space. With these changes the style looks like this:
Journal Article
Author. ·"Title."·Journal Volume|.Issue|·(Year)|:· Pages|.
And the formatted reference without an issue is correct:
Clark, H. and Carlson, T. "Hearers and Speech Acts." Language 58 (1982): 332-373.
Other common examples for using the vertical bar include:
Publisher|: ◊City
Pages|. (to make the final period independent)
Field Names in Bibliographies
Sometimes you may need to use text in a template that is also an EndNote field name for that reference type. For example, you
may want to use the word "Editor" after the editor’s name:
Jones, V.R., B.K. Marion, and R.L. Zeiss, The Theory of Foraging, in A History of Foraging Behavior, B.J. Bloggs,
Editor. 1976, Smith and Barnes: New York.
Normally, EndNote interprets the word "Editor" as a field name when it appears in a book’s style template. This is even true of
field names that appear as part of a word, such as "Editors" or "Issued." Field names need not be capitalized to be recognized.
To force EndNote to interpret a word as just text and not as a field name in a template, put an accent grave character before and
after the word: `Editor`. The accent grave is found in the upper left corner of most keyboards on the same key as the tilde (~).
Remember to also use the non-breaking space to link the text, ` Editor`, to the Editor field.
Book Section
Author,· Title|. ◊in◊Book· Title|, ◊Editor, ◊`Editor`|.·Year,·Publisher|: ◊City|,·p. ◊Pages.
Singular/Plural Term Separator (Caret ^)
You can specify both singular and plural forms of labels for editors or pages in a formatted reference by using a caret (^) to separate the terms. For example, some styles put "Ed." after a single editor and "Eds." follows several editors’ names. Or, similarly,
"p." might precede a single page, while "pp." precedes multiple pages. This feature can be applied to any field that corresponds to
the Generic field for Author, Secondary Author, Tertiary Author, Subsidiary Author, Pages, and Cited Pages.
In the style template, enter both the singular and plural forms of the label separated by a caret (insert it from the Insert Field list or
type Shift+6). Any text before the caret, back to but not including the preceding space, is used for the singular form; text after the
caret, up to the next space, is used for the plural form. These terms must also be linked to the relevant field using a non- breaking
space. For example, a style template might look like this:
Edited Book
Editor, ◊ed.^ eds.·Title. ·Number·of·Volumes◊vols|. ◊Vol.·Volume|,·Series Title|.·City|:◊Publisher|, ◊Year|.
Or like this:
Journal Article
Author. ·"Title,"·Journal Volume|. ·Issue|·(Year)|:p.^ pp.·Pages|.
Related Topics
Adding and Removing Fields in a Formatted Reference
Adding New Reference Types
Additional Style Formatting Options
Bibliography and Footnote Templates
Changing the Punctuation in a Formatted Reference
EndNote Cleans Up
Fonts and Text Styles
Modifying Style Templates
Rules for Working with Style Templates
Additional Style Formatting Options
Additional Style Formatting Options
Templates determine the general layout of the formatted references and citations. The remainder of the panels in the Style window can be used to fine-tune certain aspects of a bibliographic style:
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Anonymous Works
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Page Numbers
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Journal Names
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Sections (Microsoft Word Only)
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Ambiguous Citations
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Numbering
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Author Lists (Bibliography and Footnotes)
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Author Lists (Citations)
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Author Names (Bibliography and Footnotes)
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Author Names (Citations)
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Editor Lists and Editor Names
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Layout
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Sort Order
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Title Capitalization
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Repeated Citations (in Footnotes)
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Figure and Table Placement and Captions
Ambiguous Citations
With in-text citations like (Smith, 1995) or (Smith 246-9), references can have identical in-text citations if they are by the same
author or the authors have the same last name. This leads to ambiguity in the citations that would make it impossible for the
reader of your paper to know which reference to Smith you are referring. EndNote provides various ways to avoid this sort of ambiguity in your citations.
Any combination of the following options may be used. Click in the check box next to all options that apply. Note that these settings assume the author is used in the in-text citation. They are not relevant for styles that use bibliography numbers for the in-text
citations as it is not possible to have ambiguous citations when they are uniquely numbered.
Include author initials in citation
Check this option to have EndNote include initials with author names to distinguish between citations by different authors that
happen to have the same surname. Select how the initials should appear from the Initials option in the section. For example, the
MLA style uses just author names and page numbers in citations. Initials are added to clarify which Smith wrote the cited reference:
(S. Smith 241-5) and (L. Smith 12-20)
List more authors until citation is unique
Some styles request that only a fixed number of authors be listed in the in-text citation, and then "et al." or "and others" is inserted
to indicate that the author list was abbreviated. Select this option if you would like EndNote to list additional authors to make the
citation unique. For example, if the in-text citations were set to list only 3 authors, and you have two references in which the first
three authors are the same, EndNote would add a fourth author to the citations, and continue in that manner until the list of authors
was different between the two citations.
Add the title for different works by the same author(s)
If you have two works by the same author, it won’t help to add initials or list more authors to differentiate the two. In this case,
some styles request that the title of the reference (or a shortened form of the title) be added to the in-text citation. If you choose
this option and select the Short Title option, EndNote includes the contents of the Short Title field when available. Otherwise, it
uses the full title. The format of the title is taken directly from the bibliography. This is an example in the MLA style, which normally includes only the author and page number in a citation:
(Smith, History of Our Times 35)
(Smith, Looking Forward 77)
Add a letter after the year
For citations in an (Author, Year) format, EndNote can add a letter to the year to make citations from the same author published in
the same year distinguishable from each other. The letter appended to the year will appear in both the in- text citations and references in the bibliography.
(Smith 1995a)
(Smith 1995b)
Related Topics
Additional Style Formatting Options
Modifying Style Templates
Anonymous Works
Anonymous works are defined by EndNote as references where the Author field is blank (not "Anonymous"). The settings in the
Anonymous Works panel applies to the in-text citations and bibliography templates.
Styles are defined in Edit > Output Styles > Open Style Manager.
Leave Author Blank: The author section of the formatted reference is left empty. If the references are to be sorted by author
names, the anonymous works would be sorted at the top of the list because they have no author.
Use Title in Place of Author: Where the author would have appeared, the title is used instead. If the references are sorted by
author, the anonymous references will be sorted as though the title were the author. If you would prefer that EndNote use the contents of the "Short Title" field in place of the full title (where available), click the "Use Short Title" check box. If EndNote
encounters a reference that does not have anything entered into the Short Title field, it uses the contents of the regular Title field
instead.
Use APA Specifications: The American Psychological Association format (used by many journals) requires a special variation
of the "Use Title in Place of Author" option.
Insert Text: The text that you enter here appears in the author’s place in the formatted reference, and it is used for sorting purposes if the references are to be sorted by author names. Commonly this text would be something like the word "Anonymous" or
"Anon."
Related Topics
Additional Style Formatting Options
Modifying Style Templates
APA 6th Settings
The APA 6th settings allows you to display the first six authors (or editors) followed by the text preset to ( “, ...”) followed by the
last author (or editor).
1. From the Edit menu, select Output Styles, Open Style Manager.
2. From the Style Manager window, select APA 6th from the list of names, and then click the Edit button.
3. From the Style window, select Author Lists (or select Editor Lists if you wish to edit settings for editors) under the Bibliography.
4. Select the radio button that reads "If eight or more authors, list the first 6 authors, insert , ... and add the last author's
name."
5. From the File menu, select Save As.
6. Give your updated settings a name (for example, "MY APA 6th Settings"), and then click Save.
Note: The default value is ", ..." You can, however, change this value - for example, you can set this value to "et al." or whatever
style you choose.
Note: When this setting is selected, it overrides whatever settings are in the Author Separators and Editor Separators settings at
the top of the panels.
The following example shows how your references will now display with the selected APA 6th setting.
Gilbert, D. G., McClernon, F. J., Rabinovich, N. E., Sugai, C., Plath, L. C., Asgaard, G.,... Botros, N. (2004). Effects of
quitting smoking on EEG activation and attention last for more than 31 days and are more severe with stress, dependence,
DRD2 A1 allele, and depressive traits. Nicotine and Tobacco Research, 6(2), 249-267. doi:
10.1080.1462220041000176305
Related Topics
Additional Style Formatting Options
Author Names (Bibliography and Footnotes)
Citation Author Lists
Modifying Style Templates
Author Lists (Bibliography and Footnotes)
The Author Lists panels under the Bibliography and Footnotes headings let you specify exactly how the authors are to appear in
the formatted bibliographic references or in your footnotes. You can format author names differently in the footnotes and bibliography, so be sure that you check the Author Lists settings under both the Bibliography and the Footnotes headings to adjust
settings. The settings in these panels apply to all reference types formatted with the current style.
Separators Between Author Names
In the "Author Separators" box, enter any punctuation and spaces that separate the individual author names in a bibliographic reference. In references with multiple authors, it is standard to separate the names with a comma and a space.
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Use the "between" box to enter a comma and a space or any other required punctuation.
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Use the "before last" box to enter the separator that appears before the last author in a reference. Sometimes this is something other than a comma and a space, such as ", and " or an ampersand (&) followed by a space.
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Use the "before last in format: Author (Year)" box to enter the separator that appears before the last author when using the
Author (Year) bibliographic format. By entering a value in this box, you do not have to edit each of the citations and footnotes.
Normally only the first row in the Author Separators box is used (with the range of authors set at "1 to 100") so that the separators
in that row apply to all of the authors cited in a reference. However, there are styles in which two authors are listed as "Smith and
Jones" (without a comma), and more than two are listed as "Smith, Jones, and Johnson" (with a comma before the word "and"). In
this case, make " and " the "before last" separator when there are only two authors; and enter ", and " when there are 3 or more
authors.
Note: Include spaces after commas as well as before and after the word "and".
APA 6th Settings
The APA 6th settings allows you to display the first six authors (or editors) followed by the text (preset to “, ...”) followed by the
last author (or editor). Select the radio button that says:
"If eight or more authors, list the first 6 authors, insert , ... and add the last author's name."
When this setting is selected, it overrides whatever settings are in the Author Separators and Editor Separators settings at the top
of the panels.
Note: The default value is ", ..." You can, however, change this value - for example, you can set this value to "et al." or whatever
style you choose.
Abbreviating the Author List
Some journals require that you abbreviate the list of authors, using "et al." or an equivalent, after a certain number of authors. The
Abbreviated Author List section of the Author List panel allows you to specify the number of authors needed to trigger this abbreviation, how many authors to include in the formatted reference, and what the abbreviation should be.
List all author names
Select this option if you do not want to abbreviate the author lists.
If ___ or more authors, list the first ___ author(s)
Select this option and fill in the blanks with the appropriate numbers if you would like the list of authors abbreviated.
and abbreviate with
Enter an abbreviation such as "et al." You can italicize the abbreviation by selecting the "Italic" check box in the dialog.
For Subsequent Works by the Same Author
In some bibliographic styles, if a there is more than one work by an author (or group of authors), the first appearance of that author
name is formatted differently from subsequent works. For example, the first reference might list the full author name, while subsequent references display a line of dashes in place of the author name.
You can print the entire author list for each reference, completely leave out the author list for subsequent works, or replace
repeated author lists with a text string.
Abbreviated Author List - Short Form (for footnotes only)
List all author names
Select this option if you do not want to abbreviate the author lists.
If ___ or more authors, list the first ___ author(s)
Select this option and fill in the blanks with the appropriate numbers if you would like the list of authors abbreviated.
and abbreviate with
Enter an abbreviation such as "et al." You can italicize the abbreviation by selecting the "Italic" check box in the dialog.
When you are finished defining your short form Author Lists footnote styles:
1. From the File menu, click Save As.
2. Give your updated settings a name (for example, "My Chicago 15th Author Lists"), and then click Save.
Related Topics
Additional Style Formatting Options
Author Names (Bibliography and Footnotes)
Citation Author Lists
Modifying Style Templates
Author Names (Bibliography and Footnotes)
Name Format
There is an Author Names panel for bibliographies and footnotes, as well as for citations. Some styles request that author names
are formatted differently in all three cases. Be sure that you select the Author Names panel from under the appropriate heading.
The author names format for citations is described in Citation Author Names. This topic describes the options that are available
for both the footnote and bibliography Author Names panel.
These settings are for choosing how author names should look— for example, whether the first or last name should come first,
whether there should be a comma after the last name, and how the names should be capitalized.
First Author/Other Authors: Using the list for First Author and Other Authors, you can have the first author appear differently
from the other authors in a reference. From these lists, select the example that shows the name in the order that you want in the
reference.
Capitalization: Specify how author names should appear.
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n
n
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As Is (as entered in the reference)
Normal (first letter of each name is capitalized)
ALL UPPERCASE
Small Caps (these may or may not be supported by your word processor)
If you apply a capitalization option to author names, but have a specific name that you do not want changed, you can use the
Change Case preference to leave that name as entered. See Change Case Preferences.
Capitalize only the author's last name: This option allows you to format the author's last name in all uppercase. For example:
JONES, Edward
Initials: Select from the available options in the list to specify how the initials should appear in the formatted references. Click the
Initials list to choose how the authors’ first and middle names should be formatted. If you have not entered the full first names and
you select the Full Names option, EndNote uses the names as you have entered them into the reference. Select Last Only to
show just the last name, with no first or middle initials.
Note: Initials entered into an EndNote reference must be separated by a period or a space (such as M.J. Stein or M J Stein). Two
letters together (such as MJ Stein) will not be interpreted as two initials, but instead as a two-letter first name.
Name Format - Short Form
There is an Author Names panel for displaying footnotes in short form.
First Author/Other Authors: Using the list for First Author and Other Authors, you can have the first author appear differently
from the other authors in a footnote. From these lists, select the example that shows the name in the order that you want in the
footnote.
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n
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Jane Smith
Smith, Jane
Smith Jane
Capitalization: Specify how author names should appear. For example:
n
n
n
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As Is
Normal
All Uppercase
Small Caps
Initials: Select from the available options in the list to specify how the initials should appear in the formatted footnote. For example:
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Full Name
Last Name Only
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n
n
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A. B.
A.B.
AB
AB
When you are finished defining your short form Author Name footnote styles:
1. From the File menu, select Save As.
2. Give your updated settings a name (for example, "My Chicago 15th Authors"), and then click Save.
Related Topics
Additional Style Formatting Options
Author List (Bibliography and Footnotes)
Citation Author Names
Modifying Style Templates
Bibliography Layout
Under the Bibliography heading there is a Layout option that provides options for inserting text before and after each reference in a
bibliography, as well as applying hanging indents to your references.
Adding Text Before Each Reference
In the "Start each reference with" section, you can specify what information, if any, should appear before each reference in your
bibliography. (For information on how to add a prefix before a citation, see Temporary Citations).
A common reference prefix is the bibliography number, which is used by all numbered styles to number the references in a bibliography.
To add a bibliography number before each reference:
1. Open the Style Manager by selecting Output Styles from the Edit menu, and then selecting Open Style Manager.
2. Select the style that you would like to edit, and then click Edit.
3. After the Style window opens, select Layout from under the Bibliography heading.
4. Click in the text box below the "Start each reference with" section, and select Bibliography Number from the Insert Field
list.
5. Type the necessary punctuation after the bibliography number (such as a period and a space) or insert a tab from the Insert
Field list.
With a style configured in this way, EndNote creates a bibliography with numbered references, such as:
1. Argus, M.V. New paleontological excavation techniquesNature19, 234-237 (1993).
Note: To create a hanging indent, where the second and subsequent lines of a reference are indented, see Hanging Indents
below.
Other Reference Prefix Fields
Other commonly used reference prefixes appear in the Insert Field list.
Some bibliographic styles use a Label in the citation and the bibliography to refer to each entry with a short mnemonic code, often
the author’s name and the last two digits of the year. When you enter references into your library, you can type the mnemonic
code directly into the Label field. When EndNote builds a bibliography, it can put that code before each reference.
Selecting Citation as a reference prefix allows you to label the references in the bibliography with the in-text citation.
Reference Type will insert the reference type (such as Journal Article or Book) before each reference.
Record Number will insert the record number before each reference. The record number is the number that EndNote assigns to
each reference in the library, and it is also used in the in-text citations. Add Record Number as a reference prefix in any style in
order to print all the references in your library with their unique EndNote record numbers.
Adding Text After Each Reference
Use the "End each reference with" section of the Layout panel to specify what information, if any, should follow each reference in
your bibliography. (For information on how to add text after an in-text citation in your document, see Citation Suffixes).
This command can be used to add the content of the Label, Keywords, Abstract, or Notes field, or the Record Number. Any other
text or punctuation can also be entered as a reference suffix and it will appear at the end of each reference in the formatted bibliography. Two common uses for the Reference Suffix command are shown below.
Example: Adding Notes to the Bibliography
If you have notes that you want to print together with your references, you should add the Notes field as a reference suffix in the
style that you are using to print or format the references.
1. Open the Style Manager by selecting Output Styles from the Edit menu and selecting Open Style Manager.
2. Select the style that you would like to edit, and click Edit.
3. After the Style window opens, select Layout from under the Bibliography heading.
4. Click in the text box below the "End each reference with" section, and select Notes from the Insert Field list. This will
append the Notes field to every reference in the bibliography when you format a paper with the style.
If you want the notes to begin on a new line after the reference, insert a paragraph mark from the Insert Field list before "Notes." If
you want the notes to be indented, like the start of a new paragraph, insert a Tab before the word "Notes."
Adding or Removing Blank Lines Between References
Another common use for the Layout options is to add a blank line between references. To do this, edit the style as described
above, and insert a paragraph mark (using the Insert Field list) into the "End each reference with" section.
To tighten up the bibliography and get rid of the blank line after each reference, edit the style, click on the Layout panel, and select
and delete the paragraph mark ( ¶) to get rid of the blank line.
Hanging Indents
Many numbered bibliographic styles require a hanging indent, as shown in this example:
1. Postma,
2. Nyamweru,
EndNote provides a few hanging indent options. Normally, each reference is one paragraph, so some of these options would not
apply. But if you have a reference that includes more than one paragraph, EndNote gives you options for which paragraph within a
reference the hanging indents should apply. Examples of multi-paragraph references include annotated bibliographies where the
abstracts follow each reference, or a style such as those common in anthropology journals where the authors are on a line of their
own
Hanging indent options include: None, All Paragraphs, First Paragraph Only, Second Paragraph Only, and All Paragraphs but the
First. The following is an example of when you would use Second Paragraph Only. The style requires that authors begin on the left
margin, and then the year (and the rest of the reference) starts on a new line and is indented. The style applies a hanging indent to
the second paragraph only, and inserts a tab before and after the year. In the word processing document, the spacing for the hanging indent should be aligned with the second tab stop.
Curtis,
The spacing used for tabs and indents is determined by the ruler settings in your word processor.
Note: If you are creating a numbered bibliography, as shown in the previous example, insert a tab after the bibliography number
to have the references line up correctly.
Tabs
Tabs may be inserted from the Insert Field list. A tab entered into a style will appear as a tab in the formatted bibliography. The tab
appears as an arrow on the screen. The width of the tab as it appears in the bibliography is determined by the tab settings in your
word processor.
Tabs are often entered after the bibliography number as part of the Layout settings. This helps to align the start of each reference
after the number, which is especially important if the bibliography entries use a hanging indent.
Related Topics
Additional Style Formatting Options
Modifying Style Templates
Categories
This feature allows you to add subject categories to your Microsoft Word documents that are associated with specific reference
types. When EndNote creates the bibliography in Word, it organizes your citations based on how you have set up the categories
in the output style.
Creating a Reference Type Category Style Template
1. From the Edit menu, select Output Styles, and then select the Open Style Manager command.
2. Select a style from the EndNote Styles dialog.
3. From the Style window, select the Reference Type Categories option to open a blank style template.
4. Add categories (subheadings) to the text box in the template. Enter a unique name to identify each category.
You can align your categories to the left or center the text. You can also use various styles such as bold, italics, and underline to make your categories stand out.
5. Under each category, insert one or more reference types. You can insert as many reference types as you like. However,
insert a specific reference only once--there is no need to insert the Journal reference type under multiple categories.
6. Continue to create categories and insert reference types until you have an idea of how EndNote will format and organize the references in the bibliography.
7. From the File menu, select the Save command.
8. Click Yes when the Save Changes dialog appears.
9. From the Save As dialog, enter a unique name to identify your new output style. For example: My APA 6th Style.
10. Click Save and then close the Style Manager.
Select Your Output Style in Microsoft Word
1. Open your Microsoft Word document.
2. Select the EndNote X7 tab.
3. From the Style menu, select the output style that contains the text categories and reference types defined in the Style Manager.
4. Insert the needed citations in your Word document.
5. When you are finished writing your paper, go to the end of the document to review the bibliography.
EndNote creates a bibliography and inserts the selected references under the appropriate categories based on the reference type.
At this point, you can modify and edit the bibliography. For example, you can rename a category, delete a category, or move references (using copy and paste) from one category to another.
Important Points About Categories and Reference Types
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Insert one or more reference types under each bibliography category.
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Enter a unique name to identify each category that you create.
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Organize categories in the template based on how you want the categories to appear in the bibliography.
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Insert only one reference type per line.
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Insert a reference type only once per output style. For example, there is no need to insert the Journal reference type under several categories.
n
Apply text styles only to categories--not to reference types. EndNote treats a reference type as plain text (not as a reference) in the bibliography if you apply any text style to it.
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Insert only those reference types in a category that you need. EndNote will place undefined reference types into a Generic
category.
Citation Author Lists
If the style you are using lists the author names in the Citation template of the Style window, you can use the Author List options
(as well as the Author Names panel) to control how the authors appear in your in-text citations. If your citations do not include the
author names, ignore the Author List panel.
Separators Between Author Names
In the "Author Separators" box, enter any punctuation and spaces that separate the individual author names in a citation. In references with multiple authors, it is standard to separate the names with a comma and a space.
n
Use the "between" box to enter a comma and a space, or any other required punctuation.
n
In the "before last" box, enter the separator that appears before the last author in a reference. Sometimes this is something
other than a comma and a space, such as ", and " or an ampersand (&) followed by a space.
n
In the "before last in format: Author (Year)" box, enter the separator that appears before the last author in the Author (Year) format. The behavior of this option is the same as the "before last" box. This allows you to meet the specifications of some styles
that require different formats depending on whether the format used is the default format or the Author (Year) format. By entering a value in this field, you do not have to edit each of the citations, references, or footnotes.
Normally only the first row in the Author Separators box is used (with the range of authors set at "1 to 100") so that the separators
in that row apply to all of the authors cited in a reference. However, there are styles in which two authors are listed as "Smith and
Jones" (without a comma), and more than two are listed as "Smith, Jones, and Johnson" (with a comma before the word "and"). In
this case, make " and " the "Separator before last author" when there are only two authors; and enter ", and " when there are 3 or
more authors.
Note: Include spaces after commas as well as before and after the word "and".
Abbreviating the Author List, First Appearance
Some journals require that you abbreviate the list of authors, using "et al." or an equivalent, after a certain number of authors. The
Abbreviated Author List section of the Author Lists panel allows you to specify the number of authors needed to trigger this abbreviation, how many authors to include in the formatted reference, and what the abbreviation should be.
List all author names
Select this option if you do not want to abbreviate the author lists.
If ___ or more authors, list the first ___ author(s)
Select this option and fill in the blanks with the appropriate numbers if you would like the list of authors abbreviated.
and abbreviate with
Enter an abbreviation such as ", et al." You can italicize the abbreviation by selecting the "Italic" check box in the dialog.
Abbreviating the Author List, Subsequent Appearances
In some bibliographic styles, if a reference is cited more than once in your paper the first appearance of it in an in-text citation is
formatted differently from subsequent citations. For example, the first citation might list all authors, while subsequent citations list
only the first author followed by "et al."
Use the First Appearance author list settings to specify the way the authors appear the first time the reference is cited. Use the
Subsequent Appearances options to format authors in all other appearances of the citation.
Related Topics
Additional Style Formatting Options
Author List (Bibliography and Footnotes)
Citation Author Names
Modifying Style Templates
Citation Author Names
Name Format
The Name Format section allows you to specify how the author names should look—whether the first or last name should come
first, and whether there should be a comma after the last name.
First Author/Other Authors: Using the list for "First Author" and "Other Authors", you can have the first author appear differently
from the other authors in a reference. From these lists, select the example that shows the name in the order that you would like it
to be in the citation. If the in- text citations use only the last name, this setting is not important.
Capitalization: Specify how you would like the author names to appear.
n
n
n
n
As Is (as entered in the reference)
Normal (first letter of each name is capitalized)
ALL UPPERCASE
Small Caps (these may or may not be supported by your word processor)
If you apply a capitalization option to author names, but have a specific name that you do not want changed, you can use the
Change Case preference to leave that name as entered. See Change Case Preferences.
Capitalize only the author's last name: This option allows you to format the author's last name in all uppercase. For example:
JONES, Edward
Initials: Select from the available options in the list to specify how the initials should look in the citations. Select Last Name Only
if you only need the last name of the authors to appear in the citations.
Use initials only for primary authors with the same name
This option allows for initials to be used only when there are primary authors with the same last name included in the bibliography.
Regardless of whether or not the resulting citations are ambiguous (that is, they could be from different years), EndNote will add
the initials to those citations to clarify that they are from different authors who happen to have the same surname.
Consecutive Citations by the Same Author
If a multiple citation includes works by the same author, some styles request that you not repeat the author name. Check the setting to "omit repeated authors" and EndNote will omit the author name from the citation after it first appears. In order for this setting to be used, the citations must all be grouped together in a multiple citation, and the citations by the same author must appear
one right after the other.
For example, a reference such as this:
(Smith, 1993; Smith, 1999; Wyatt, 2000)
would be changed to look like this:
(Smith, 1993, 1999; Wyatt, 2000)
You have the additional option in this case to choose the separator to use between these citations. Notice in the example above,
the style normally uses a semicolon to separate multiple citations. But when there are a series of citations by the same author, the
repeated author names are dropped and the years are separated by commas. In this case, a comma and a space should be
entered as the punctuation with which to separate the consecutive citations by the same author.
If you have entered citations with suffixes and you would like those citations excluded from this formatting, check "Don’t omit
authors from citations with suffixes. For example, if two references by the same author included page numbers:
(Smith, 1993 p 24; Smith, 1999 p 5; Wyatt, 2000)
some styles request that you do leave the author name in the second citation for clarity.
Related Topics
Additional Style Formatting Options
Author Names (Bibliography and Footnotes)
Citation Author Lists
Modifying Style Templates
Editor List and Editor Names
To specify how the editors’ names are to be formatted, select Editor List or Editor Name from under the Bibliography or Footnote
heading. In those panels you will find some of the same settings that have been described for formatting author names.
The Editor List settings apply to the generic Secondary Author, Tertiary Author, and Subsidiary Author fields. These fields
includes "Editor" in the Book Section and Conference Proceedings reference types, and "Series Editor" in the Book and Edited
Book reference types.
The instructions for the Editor List panel are identical to those described for the Author List panel. Similarly, the Name Format
options in the Editor Name panel are the same as those for Author Names.
"Editors" Are Considered Primary Authors for Edited Book Reference Types
The Author List and Author Names settings apply to the primary author field of each reference type. Therefore, Author List and
Author Names apply to the editor’s name in an Edited Book. And the Editor List and Editor Names settings apply to the Series
Editor’s name in an Edited Book reference type.
Name Format - Short Form
To specify how the editors’ names and the abbreviated editors' list are to be formatted in short form, select Editor List or Editor
Name from under the Footnote heading. In those panels you will find some of the same settings that have been described for formatting author names.
Use the menus to select how you want to format the following in footnotes:
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First author
Other authors
Capitalization
Initials
When you are finished defining your short form Editor Name / Editor Lists footnote styles:
1. From the File menu, select Save As.
2. Give your updated settings a name (for example, "My Chicago 15th Editors"), and then click Save.
Related Topics
Additional Style Formatting Options
Modifying Style Templates
Field Substitutions (Bibliography and Footnotes)
The Field Substitutions panels under the Bibliography and Footnotes headings allow you to substitute another field in the bibliography and footnotes of a reference if one of the following fields is empty.
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DOI
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PMCID
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Volume and Pages
You can also specify which field to use when the editor and translator are the same. The editor and translator option is available
for all styles.
The values that currently populate the fields on the Field Substitutions panels are default values. You can choose to activate field
substitutions by selecting the check box. For example, if you select the "If the DOI field is empty, use" check box, EndNote uses
the URL if the DOI field is empty in the bibliography and footnotes of a reference; otherwise, EndNote displays the DOI information.
You can also select another field from the Insert Field list if you do not want to use the default value.
To substitute field values in a bibliography and/or footnote:
1. Open the Style Manager by selecting Output Styles from the Edit menu, and then selecting Open Style Manager.
2. Select the style that you would like to edit, and then click the Edit button.
3. After the Style window opens, select Field Substitutions from under the Bibliography or Footnotes heading.
4. Activate field substitution by selecting the check box of each field. The current substitute (default) value displays if the
field is empty.
Alternatively, you can select another field from the Insert Field list.
5. From the File menu, select Save As. In the dialog that appears, enter a new name for this modified style, and then click
Save.
Examples
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You are citing a prepress article that has a DOI number but not volume or page information. The guidelines indicate that the
DOI should be included in a reference for the prepress articles. The output style that you select tells EndNote to use the
DOI if the Volume and Pages fields are empty; otherwise, EndNote displays volume and page information.
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You are citing a PubMed article, but it has not yet been assigned a PMCID. The record does have a NIHMSID. The guidelines indicate that the NIHMSID should be used as a substitution. The output style that you select tells EndNote to use the
NIHMSID if the PMCID field is empty; otherwise, EndNote displays the PMCID information.
Journal Names
Different journals have different standards for abbreviating journal names. For example, some styles may require "Proceedings of
the National Academy of Science" to be abbreviated as " Proc. Nat. Acad. Sci.," " P.N.A.S." or " PNAS." EndNote’s Journals
term list provides a way for you store up to four variations of journal names (the full name and three forms of abbreviations) to be
used in your bibliographies.
The Journals term list that is created for every library is automatically linked to the Journal and Alternate Journal fields, and therefore it is ready to be used with the Journal Names options. You need to be sure that the necessary information is in the Journals
term list, and that your style is set up to use the correct form of the journal name.
If your Journals term list includes the name of the journal as it is entered in your EndNote references, and the form of the journal
name that you would like to appear in your bibliographies, you may set your preference in a style to have EndNote substitute a
form of the name in the Journals term list for what was entered into your references.
EndNote provides several journal abbreviation lists for different disciplines (including medicine, chemistry, and humanities). If you
are interested in using one of these lists, you may import it into your Journals term list (see Loading Supplied Journal Abbreviations) and set up a bibliographic style to use one of the abbreviations for the formatted bibliography. If EndNote does not provide a journal term list that applies to your area of research, you may also enter the journal abbreviations yourself. See Important
Points About Entering Journal Names.
To modify a style to use the abbreviations in a Journals term list:
1. From the Edit menu, select Output Styles > Open Style Manager.
2. Select the style that you would like to modify and then click Edit.
3. Select the Journal Names panel from the list at the left of the Style window to see the available options:
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Use Full Journal Name
When creating a bibliography, EndNote replaces the Journal name in the reference with the form of that name in the first column of the Journals term list. This first column is normally used for full names.
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Abbreviation 1
Abbreviation 2
Abbreviation 3
In the bibliography, the journal name for each reference is replaced with the form of that name in the second, third, or fourth
column of the Journals term list, respectively.
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Don’t Replace
In the bibliography, EndNote uses the journal name exactly as it appears in the reference in the EndNote library. No
changes are made.
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Abbreviate Journal Articles Only
The substitutions made with the Journal Names option can apply to all Secondary Title fields, or to the Secondary Title
field for only the Journal Article reference type. If you uncheck this option to apply this feature to all reference types, EndNote also abbreviates fields such as Conference Name, and the names of magazines and newspapers.
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Remove Periods
Select this option to have EndNote eliminate the periods from all journal names in the bibliography that it is creating, regardless of the abbreviation being used. This option does not require that the journal names be in the Journals term list. For
example, if the journal names are entered into your references using periods, and you do not have a Journals term list that
includes the names without periods, you can still just check this option and the periods will be stripped out of the journal
names when EndNote formats a bibliography.
If a journal name is not found in the specified column of the Journals term list, the style uses the journal name as it appears in the
Reference window. No replacement is made for that journal.
If nothing is entered in the Journals term list or if there is no special Journals term list, the Journal Names option always defaults
to Don’t Replace, and EndNote uses the journal name exactly as it appears in the original reference.
Note: None of these changes actually takes place in the EndNote library. These options only determine what information goes
into the bibliography that is generated using the Copy Formatted, Print, Export, and Format Bibliography commands.
Related Topics
Additional Style Formatting Options
Modifying Style Templates
Numbering Citations
The settings in the citation Numbering panel apply only when "Bibliography Number" is used in the Citation Template. This
creates uniquely numbered citations in the text of the paper; the numbers correspond to entries in the bibliography. For papers formatted with a numbered style, these options are relevant to multiple citations grouped within one set of citation delimiters. When
unformatted, a multiple citation looks like this:
{Keys, 1998 #93; Jen, 1996 #88;
Use Number Ranges for Consecutive Citations
When this option is checked, consecutive bibliography numbers appearing in a multiple citation are joined by a single hyphen, for
example:
…as shown by the Berkeley studies conducted in 19873-6and 19891,7.
Grouped References
The Grouped Reference option allows you to cite with one number any references that always appear together in the paper as multiple citations. The citations are not given their own numbers, but rather one number is used both in the text and the bibliography to
identify the whole group of citations. With this setting, you also have the option to specify how the grouped references in the bibliography should be separated.
This option shows a semicolon and a space as a separator:
1. McCormick, MP,Geophysical Research Letters(1999)15, 907;
Composite Citations
Within grouped references, you can differentiate individual citations with letters.
To define a composite citation:
1. Select the box to “Use letters to separate grouped references.”
2. Use the “Present letters in” list to select Lowercase or Uppercase letters.
3. Select the appropriate letter format for in-text formatted citations. The examples illustrate how letters and numbers appear
for consecutive citations and ranges.
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(1a, 1b), (1a, 1b, 2a-c)
The number always appears with a stand-alone letter or with the first letter of a range. This is the default setting.
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(1a, b), (1a, b, 2a-c)
Only the letter of the first citation of the composite is preceded with the number.
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(1a, b), (1a, 1b, 2a-c)
The letter of the first citation of the composite is preceded with a number; additional letters include a number only if there
could be ambiguity.
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(1a, 1b), (1a, 1b, 2a-2c)
Letters are always preceded by a number.
4. Use the “Precede by” and “Follow by” boxes to enter any character(s) that you want to surround the letter in the bibliography.
Related Topics
Additional Style Formatting Options
Modifying Style Templates
Page Numbers
The Page Numbers panel allows you to specify how the page numbers should be formatted in your references.
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Don’t change page numbers
The contents of the Pages field are used directly in the formatted reference. No changes are made.
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Show only the first page number
Only the first characters in the Pages field are included in the bibliography. Example: "123-125" in the Pages field becomes
"123" in the formatted reference.
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Abbreviate the last page number
Any digits of the last page number that are the same as the first page number are eliminated. Example: "123-125"in the Pages
field becomes "123-5" in the formatted reference.
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Abbreviate the last page, keeping two digits
Any digits of the last page number that are the same as the first page number are eliminated, down to a minimum of two digits.
Example: "123-125"in the Pages field becomes "123- 25" in the formatted reference.
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Show the full range of pages
Leading digits are added to the last page number so the full page range is used. Example: "123-5" in the Pages field becomes
"123-125"in the formatted reference.
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Show only the first page for Journals, full range for others
Journal articles are formatted differently from other types of references.
Note: Special Formatting Characters describes how to instruct EndNote to add text such as "p." vs. " pp.", or "page" vs. "pages"
to the formatted references using the caret (^).
Related Topics
Additional Style Formatting Options
Modifying Style Templates
Punctuation
Style guides in some regions require a space before the colon (and other special characters) in the formatting of references. Other
style guides do not.
Select either English or French as the output style. The default selection is English.
The English option tells EndNote to remove extra spaces before the following punctuation marks. Spaces before other punctuation marks and symbols are retained.
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Colon (:)
Semi-colon (;)
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Exclamation mark (!)
Question mark (?)
The French option tells EndNote that a space is required before and after the following punctuation marks.
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Colon (:)
Semi-colon (;)
Chevrons (<< >>) (opening and closing)
Exclamation mark (!)
Question mark (?)
Percent sign (%)
Dollar sign ($)
Pound sign (#)
Repeated Citations (in Footnotes)
Most of the complex formatting in footnotes is relevant only to styles in the humanities. There are a wide variety of formats
required for citing references in the footnotes of a paper. These options are provided in the Repeated Citations panel under the
Footnote heading.
Some styles take the shortening of references in footnotes even farther when the repeated references appear in consecutive footnotes (or in the same footnote). EndNote provides additional options for the special handling of these cases.
If the Same Reference Repeats in Consecutive Citations
When the same reference repeats in consecutive footnotes, you have the option of replacing the repeated data with text of your
choice. This is normally "Ibid (or a variation of the term). Select the Omit repeated data option if you wish to replace repeated data.
You may also select an option from the Insert Field list. For example, the Cited Pages option lists the page numbers when the
same reference repeats in consecutive footnotes. In this instance, you would have to go to the Edit Manage Citations dialog and
enter the pages numbers if you want them for a specific citation.
If you replace the default value with the Author field option from the Insert Fields list, EndNote will only display the author name in
the formatted reference when it is preceded by a group of references and the term "Ibid" would be ambiguous. Otherwise, EndNote will display the default value (for example, "Ibid") or another term of your choice. For example:
Glover M. Allen, Bats: Biology, Behavior, and Folklore (Mineola, N.Y..: Dover Publications, 2004), 100; ibid., 200
Michael V. Argus, "New Paleontological Excavation Techniques, "Journal of Paleontology 19, (1993)
Glover M. Allen, ibid., 300
The Omit Repeated Data option allows you to omit the repeated data and replace it with nothing.
You may also apply No Special Handling and when references repeat in consecutive footnotes, they will be handled just like other
repeated references in footnotes.
If the Same Source Repeats in Consecutive Citations
This setting does not apply to the identical reference that repeats in consecutive footnotes, but rather if any of the source data
repeats in two consecutive citations in multiple citation format. For example, if two different references happen to be from the
same journal, these settings would apply to the journal name, volume, and issue (or whatever portion of that source information is
identical). You may choose the "No special handling" option for these cases so that these references are not abbreviated. Or, you
may choose to replace the repeated data with "Ibid" (or the text of your choice). If you choose this option, you may limit the
replacement to only the Secondary Title field (this includes the journal, magazine, or newspaper name, or the title of a book for a
book section).
Below is an example of how EndNote formats source data when it repeats in consecutive citations.
1. Morris Birkbeck, "The Illinois Praries and Settlers, " in Praire State: Impressions of Illinois, 1673--1967, by Travelers and Other Observers, ed. Paul M. Angle (Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1968), 62. "The Soil of the
Big-Prairie, which is of no great extent notwithstanding its name, is a rich cool sand; that is to say, one of the most
desirable description" (ibid., 63).
Note: We realize that many of these detailed settings for the style can be confusing. We have done our best to configure the
styles for you so that you will not need to edit them and work through these details on your own. However, if you find that you
need to modify these parts of your styles, consult your style guide for more detailed descriptions and examples of handling
repeated citations in footnotes.
Related Topics
Additional Style Formatting Options
Modifying Style Templates
Sections
Previous versions of EndNote always created a single bibliography at the end of your word processor documents. That is still true
when you Cite While You Write in Apache OpenOffice Writer documents or format RTF files. However, EndNote includes additional output style options specifically for Microsoft Word.
You can choose to:
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Create a complete bibliography at the end of each document (the default setting for almost all of the supplied output styles).
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Create a bibliography for each section in the document (as defined in the styles APA 5th (sections) and Chicago 15th B
(sections)).
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Create a bibliography for each section and also a complete bibliography at the end of the document.
For more information about using sections in a Microsoft Word document, see Creating Multiple Bibliographies in a Single Document.
Note: The Sections portion of an output style is ignored by Apache OpenOffice Writer, RTF files, and versions of EndNote prior
to version X7.
Create a complete bibliography at the end of each document
This default setting formats a single bibliography at the end of a document. Even if you have broken the document into multiple
sections, a single bibliography will appear at the end of the document.
Create a bibliography for each section in the document
When you select this option, a bibliography is created at the end of each section, and includes only the citations within a section.
An additional check box is available for sections:
Continue numbering, or apply settings for disambiguation and repeated citations across sections.
When the check box is blank
When a numbered bibliographic style is selected, citation numbering will be restarted at the beginning of each section.
When a non-numbered bibliographic style is selected, ambiguous citation settings will be restarted and applied to each section
individually. For more information about ambiguous citation settings, see Ambiguous Citations.
When the check box is selected
For a numbered style, selecting the check box will assure that numbering is continued across sections. For example, if citations
in the first section are numbered 1 to 10, citations in the next section will start with number 11.
For a non-numbered style, ambiguous citation settings will apply across the entire document. For more information about ambiguous citation settings, see Ambiguous Citations.
Create a bibliography for each section and a complete bibliography at the end of the document.
This option creates a bibliography for each section as well as a complete bibliography of all the citations in the document.
For numbered styles, citation numbering continues sequentially across all sections, without restarting for each section.
For non-numbered styles, ambiguous citation settings are applied across the entire document, without restarting for each section.
If a document is not divided into sections, EndNote formats a single, complete bibliography at the end of the document.
Related Topics
Additional Style Formatting Options
Creating Multiple Bibliographies in a Single Document
Modifying Style Templates
Sort Order: Bibliographies and Multiple Citations
Each style has instructions for sorting references in the bibliography, and how to sort formatted multiple citations in the text of
your paper. Select Sort Order from under either the Citations or Bibliographies headings.
Multiple Citation Sort
The Sort panel under the Citation heading allows you to set the order that the style uses to sort multiple in-text citations. For example, an unformatted multiple citation looks like this:
{Lee, 1990 #5; Jacob, 1994 #22; Zoler, 1983 #19}
Formatted with the Author-Date style, the citations are sorted chronologically and the formatted citation looks like this:
(Zoler 1983; Lee 1990; Jacob 1994)
Options for sorting multiple citations include:
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Same as Bibliography
Sorts multiple citations in the same order as the Bibliography Sort Order.
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Author + Title
Sorts multiple citations first by authors and then by title.
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Author + Year + Title
Sorts multiple citations first by authors, then by year, and then by title.
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Year + Author
Sorts multiple citations chronologically. Then citations from the same year are sorted based on author names.
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Don’t Sort
Multiple citations remain in the same order as they appear in the unformatted temporary citations.
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Other
A custom sort order is applied to multiple citations. See Custom Sorting.
Bibliography Sort Order
The Bibliography Sort Order section determines how the bibliography should be sorted. Common options are listed, and you may
also configure a custom sort order.
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Order of Appearance
References are listed in the order in which they are cited in the paper.
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Author + Title
References are sorted by the Author field. References with identical authors are sorted by title.
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Author + Year + Title
References are sorted by the Author field, then references with identical authors are sorted by year. References with identical
authors and years are then sorted by title.
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First Author + Year + Other Authors
References are sorted by just the first author, then references with identical primary authors are sorted by year. References
with identical primary authors and years are then sorted based on the other authors in the reference.
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First Author + # of Authors + Year
References are sorted by just the first author, then by the number of authors in the reference. For references with the same primary author and the same number of authors, they are then sorted chronologically based on the Year field.
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Other
A custom sort order is applied to the references in the bibliography. See Custom Sorting.
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Sort Edited Works After Original Works By Same Author:
Some styles request that if the same person is the author for a book and the editor for an edited book, the original works by
that author are sorted first, and then the edited works follow. This is an exception to the sorting rules that can be applied to the
other sort options provided.
Note: When sorting by Author field, EndNote sorts based on all information in the Author field, including all author names (not
just the first author) and initials. To see about omitting parts of author names or the initial words of a title when sorting, see Sorting Preferences .
Custom Sorting
To sort references or multiple citations differently from the options in the "Citation Sort Order" or "Bibliography Sort Order" sections, select the option for Other, and then select from the lists any combination of up to five fields in ascending or descending
order.
This window is identical to the one that appears when you select Sort References from the References menu. You do not need to
use all five options. The button at the right of each box controls the direction of the sort, either ascending or descending order.
Clicking these boxes toggles the sort order between ascending and descending order.
Once you have set up your sorting strategy, click OK to return to the main Sort Order panel for the style. The Other button will now
display your custom sorting instructions.
Related Topics
Additional Style Formatting Options
Modifying Style Templates
Title Capitalization
Both the Footnotes and Bibliography sections have a Title Capitalization panel. This lets you enter one style of capitalization for
the titles in your bibliographic references, and another format for when the references appear in footnotes.
Options for title capitalization include:
Leave titles As entered: No changes are made.
Headline style capitalization: The first letter of every significant word is capitalized. Articles and prepositions are not capitalized.
Sentence style capitalization: Only the first letter of every title is capitalized.
Note: See Change Case Preferences to enter words or acronyms that should not be adjusted when EndNote changes the capitalization of titles.
Related Topics
Additional Style Formatting Options
Modifying Style Templates
Figure and Table Placement and Captions
Figure and Table Placement and Captions
The Figures and Tables settings apply to images inserted into a Word document from EndNote. You can place images where they
are cited in a document or at the end of the document, and you have control over the placement and punctuation of labels and captions.
While style guidelines tend to be very specific in regard to formatted citations and bibliographies, they are often vague about figure
and table placement. They may require different placement for different document types (theses, term papers, journal articles, and
so on), or they may not offer instructions at all.
EndNote’s default figure and table placement settings are the same for all output styles. Please check your own style documentation (or check with your editor or teacher) for specific guidelines about image placement for the type of document you are
creating.
Note: Additional Figures and Tables settings are available under Cite While You Write Preferences, and can override output
style settings. See Figures and Tables in Word.
Related Topics
Figures and Tables
Separation and Punctuation (Figures and Tables)
The Style Manager
Figures and Tables
Under the Figures and Tables heading in the left column of the output style editor, select either Figures or Tables. Tables are
images inserted from the Figure field in the "Chart or Table" reference type. Figures are images inserted from the Figure field of
any other EndNote reference type. The same options are available under each, which allows you to place figures differently than
tables.
Placement
Under Placement, select a button to either place the images within the text of the document, near the reference to the figure, or to
place images in a list at the end of the document.
If your images are placed in-text, you can use Cite While You Write preferences to override this automatic placement when your
document is reformatted. This is helpful if you have moved your images around in the document and want to retain their placement. See Figures and Tables in Word.
Caption
Next, under Caption, select a button to place the label and caption either above or below the image. You can also select the check
box to place the label and caption on separate lines.
Note: The label inserted by EndNote is "Figure #" for images found in the Figure and Equation reference types as well as for
most other reference types. The label is "Table #" for images found in the "Chart or Table" reference type. The Caption is the text
typed into the Caption field of a reference.
Related Topics
Figure and Table Placement and Captions
Separation and Punctuation (Figures and Tables)
Separation and Punctuation (Figures and Tables)
Under Image Separation, you can enter separators for images inserted within the text of a document and for images that are listed
at the end of a document.
Note: The settings on this panel affect both figures and tables.
Image Separation
When images are inserted in-text, you can specify the number of lines to insert before and after the image to separate it from text.
This setting affects both figures and tables that are placed in-text. If your images are placed in a list at the end of the document,
this setting is ignored.
When images are placed in a list at the end of the document, you can separate each figure or table with a page break or a specified
number of blank lines before and after each image. If your images are placed in-text, this setting is ignored.
Caption Punctuation
For each figure or table inserted into Word from an EndNote reference, EndNote generates a label and then inserts the caption
from the Caption field of the EndNote reference. For example:
Table 1. Bird Evolution
You can select the check boxes to insert a period after the label and/or after the caption. This affects the labels and captions for
both figures and tables.
EndNote will attempt to remove double punctuation in case you inadvertently include a period within the record as well as selecting one here.
Related Topics
Figure and Table Placement and Captions
Figures and Tables
The Style Manager
Filters
Introduction to Filters
The Import command on File menu provides a way to import text files of reference data into EndNote libraries. EndNote has a
number of built-in import options as well as a large collection of configurable import filters. Filters are designed to import references downloaded from specific online or CD-ROM bibliographic databases.
You can edit and create import filters. The process of importing references using the Import command is described in General
Importing Instructions.
EndNote provides hundreds of import filters for a variety of sources. By default, only the most popular filters are stored as individual files in the Filters folder in your EndNote program folder. To install additional filters, see Installing Additional Filters.
What is a Filter?
Import filters provide a wide range of import options. A filter is selected during the import process to show EndNote exactly how to
interpret the information in your data file (the records downloaded or saved from an online or CD-ROM database). A filter does this
by mapping the information in each downloaded reference to the corresponding fields in EndNote.
Because each database offered by the various information providers has its own way to organize reference data, there needs to
be a different filter for each database. Each filter provided with EndNote has been configured to import data files from a specific
database offered by a single information provider. You can easily modify any of the supplied filters or create a new filter to import
from other databases.
A Comment About Difficult Data Files
Although EndNote’s filters are very powerful and flexible import tools, there are still some data files that cannot be conquered.
Whereas some databases provide very clean tagged data, others are almost impossible to discern. Lack of consistency in the
source data and the omission of reference type tags often make it difficult for a person to understand the information: the task of
creating a perfect filter to handle these files is futile. When fine tuning our filters, we have done our best to capture the necessary
data—even if that means dropping it all into the Notes field. If you find filters that can be further improved, please let us know. It
may also help to contact your information provider to let them know that the inconsistencies in the data entry for the database are
keeping you from most efficiently making use of it.
Related Topics
The Basic Components of a Filter
The Filter Manager
The Filter Options
Working with Filter Templates
The Filter Manager
EndNote provides hundreds of import filters for a variety of sources. By default, only the most popular filters are stored as individual files in the Filters folder in your EndNote program folder. To install additional filters, see Installing Additional Filters.
To access the Filter Manager, select Edit menu > Import Filters > Open Filter Manager.
The Filter Manager lists the names of the original filter files available in the Program Files\EndNote\Filters folder as well as any
new or modified filters in your personal Filters folder, and gives you the option to edit them or select them as "favorites" for quick
access when you use the Import command. You can click and drag the corner of the dialog to increase the size.
Use these features to locate the import filter you want to use:
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If you know the name of the filter that you want to use, you may start typing it and the first filter name that matches what
you type will be selected.
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Click the Find By button and select an information provider’s name (such as Ovid) to find only the import filters for a specific information provider.
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Click the Find By button and select All Filters to return all of the import filters to the displayed list.
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Click a column heading to sort the import filters by name or by information provider. Clicking the same column heading a
second time will change the sort order from ascending to descending. Click again to set it back to ascending order.
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Click the More Info button at the bottom of the dialog to display additional information about the selected filter.
Marking Your Favorite Import Filters
When you have found a filter that you will want to use in the future, click the check box to the left of it to mark it as a favorite. All
filters that are marked as favorites appear in the Import Options list in the Import dialog. You can get to the Import dialog by selecting Import from the File menu. This gives you easy access to those files you use most often.
To mark all of the filters for a specific information provider, click the Find By button and, from that list, select the name of the information provider. Now, with just that subset of filters listed in the Filter Manager window, click Mark All. The Unmark All button
may be used to unmark all of the filters that are showing in the list.
Editing Import Filters
If you would like to modify a filter, select it in the list and click Edit. These topics can help guide you:
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The Basic Components of a Filter
The Filter Editor Window
Working with Filter Templates
The Filter Options
Modifying an Existing Filter: An Example
Saving Filters
To save a new filter that you have just created, or to save changes to a filter you have just modified, select Save or Save As from
the File menu.
If you have modified one of the original installed files in the Program Files\EndNote\Filters folder, you must use Save As to save a
copy to your personal Filters folder. If you have modified a style that is already located in your personal Filters folder, you can
select either Save to directly modify the file, or Save As to make a copy with the changes. For a description of where your styles
are stored, see Folder Locations.
EndNote automatically saves new filters to your personal Filters folder. You may also specify a different folder if necessary. For
instructions see Folder Locations.
EndNote filters use the file name extension of ". ENF" (for EndNote Filter), as in " Medline.enf.
Copying Filters
When you display a list of filters in EndNote, the list is comprised of the installed filters found in the Program Files\EndNote\Filters folder as well as new or modified filters found in your personal Filters folder. For an explanation of where your files
are stored, see Folder Locations Preferences.
There are two ways to copy filters. Since each filter is a separate file on your hard drive, you can copy them as you would copy
any file on your hard drive using Windows Explorer .
To make a copy of a filter from within EndNote:
1. From the Edit menu, select Import Filters and select Open Filter Manager.
2. Select the filter you want to copy and click Edit.
3. Without making any changes to the filter, select Save from the File menu.
4. Give this copy of the filter a new name, and then save it.
The file is saved in your personal Filters folder. The new filter will remain open. The original filter will be left untouched.
Deleting Filters
To delete a filter from within EndNote:
1. From the Edit menu, select Import Filters > Open Filter Manager.
2. Select the filter to be deleted.
3. Select Clear from the Edit menu, or right-click on the filter and select Delete from the shortcut menu, or press the Delete
key.
You can also delete an unwanted filter by switching back to the Windows desktop , and opening the appropriate Filters folder (see
Folder Locations Preferences). Then, select the file to delete and select Delete from the File menu or drag the file to the Recycle
Bin .
Note: You must have read/write access to the Filters folder in order to delete a filter. If you do not have administrator access,
you likely will not be able to delete a file located within the Program Files folder.
Basic Components of a Filter
The Basic Components of a Filter
You need to know the basic components of a filter if you want to customize or create a filter.
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To create a new import filter: From the Edit menu, select Import Filters and select New Filter. If you are interested in creating a new filter, also read Creating a New Filter.
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To edit a filter: From the Edit menu, select Import Filters, and then select Open Filter Manager. Select the filter to edit and
click Edit. The most recently used filter can also be easily edited by selecting Import Filters from the Edit menu, and selecting Edit <filter>.
These topics explain the basic components of a filter:
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The Filter Editor Window
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About This Filter Panel
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Working with Filter Templates
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The Filter Options
Related Topics
Creating a Filter for MARC Records
Creating a New Filter
Example: Modifying an Existing Filter
The Filter Manager
The Filter Editor Window
After choosing the option to edit an existing filter or create a new one, EndNote opens the Filter window.
All of the different options for editing a filter are listed on the left side of the Filter window. Click on an item to view the associated
settings. You may switch between panels as needed while editing the file. No changes are saved in any of the panels until you
select Save or Save As from the File menu.
If at any time you need to revert your changes back to the last saved copy of the filter, select Revert Filter from the File menu.
To close a Filter window, click the button in the upper right corner of the window, or select Close Filter from the File menu. If you
have not saved your changes to the filter, EndNote prompts you and gives you the option to save or discard any changes that you
have made.
Related Topics
About this Filter Panel
Creating a New Filter
Saving Filters
The Basic Components of a Filter
The Filter Manager
The Filter Options
Tips for Entering Tags and Fields
Unique Aspects of MARC Records
Working with Filter Templates
About this Filter
The Filter window opens to display the About this Filter panel. This panel contains descriptive information about the filter. None of
the information used in this panel has any impact on establishing the connection.
Name: Displays the name of the filter as it appears in the Filters folder in the EndNote folder. The file name extension (.ENF) is
not displayed. The name of the filter cannot be changed here; you would need to close this window and switch back to the Windows desktop to rename the filter.
Based On: Enter any information about what documentation was used to create the filter. Commonly the server documentation is
available on the Web, so you could enter a URL here as well to make it easy to later retrieve that information.
Category: The category is typically the information provider (such as Ovid), but you may enter anything that will help you categorize and organize your filters. The category information is also listed in the Filter Manager window in the column next to the
name of the filter. In that window, you may sort filters by category and also search for them by category.
Created: The date the filter was installed or created.
Last Modified: The date the filter was last modified.
Comments and Limitations: Enter any helpful information such as how to download the references in the format that works with
this filter.
All of the information in this panel is visible in the Filter Manager if you click the More Info option at the bottom of the Filter Manager window. This is helpful because you do not need to edit a filter to view the comments or other descriptive information. You
may scroll through the available filters in the Filter Manager window and view the information there.
Working with Filter Templates
Working with Filter Templates (Import Filters and Connection Files)
The most important part of a filter or connection file is the Templates section. The templates define how the various lines of
tagged data in your data file should be imported and filtered into the different EndNote fields (such as Author, Year, and Title). Different sets of templates are required for the different reference types that may be in your data file.
The Templates panel consists of individual Reference Type templates which correspond to the way the reference data is presented in the data file. These topics will help you:
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Navigating in the Templates Panel
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Templates for Different Reference Types
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Adding and Deleting Rows in the Filter Template
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Cutting, Copying and Pasting Rows
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Literal Text vs. EndNote Fields
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The {IGNORE} Field
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The Source Line
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The Reference Type Tag
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Fields with Special Characteristics
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When Punctuation Repeats Within a Field
Navigating in the Templates Panel (Import Filters and Connection Files)
The Templates panel in a filter is divided into a Tag column and a Field(s) column. The tag and its corresponding field(s) are two
separate cells in a row. If a cell is active, an outline appears around the cell.
Tag
TI:
Field(s)
Title
To move from one cell to the next, press the Tab key or click the mouse in the desired cell. To move back to the previous cell, hold
down the Shift key while pressing the Tab key.
To change the width of the Tag column in the Filter window, position the cursor over the vertical line dividing the Tag and Field(s)
columns. The cursor changes to indicate that you are in the correct place. Click and drag to the right or left to resize the column
widths.
Click the Reference Types list to change the view to a different reference type (such as from Journal Article to Book).
Related Topics
Adding and Deleting Rows in the Filter Template
Cutting, Copying and Pasting Rows
The Basic Components of a Filter
The Filter Manager
Tips for Entering Tags and Fields
Working with Filter Templates
Templates for Different Reference Types (Import Filters and Connection Files)
The Templates panel includes templates for all of the various reference types (Journal Article and Book).
Click the Reference Types list to change the view to a different reference type (such as from Journal Article to Book).
The reference types that have a check mark displayed next to them already have a template defined (you can edit the template if
you wish). The reference type that appears in bold type is currently the default reference type.
The only reference types templates that need to be filled in are the ones that correspond to the reference types in your data file.
For example, if the database from which you are downloading contains only journal articles, you would only need to fill in the templates for the Journal Article section in that particular filter.
Within each reference type template there is a list of tags and their corresponding EndNote field names. These templates should
exactly match the way the information is organized in the data file. Any text or punctuation that you see that is not part of a field
name (such as "vol. before the Volume) is included to make the template exactly match the data file.
Related Topics
Adding and Deleting Rows in the Filter Template
Cutting, Copying and Pasting Rows
The Basic Components of a Filter
The Filter Manager
Tips for Entering Tags and Fields
Working with Filter Templates
Adding and Deleting Rows in the Filter Template (Import Filters and Connection Files)
When adding and deleting rows, the order of the tags does not have to match the order of the tags in the data file. There is one
case in which the order of the tags is important: if you are entering multiple variations of one tagged line, you should enter the
repeated lines for that tag in order from the most complex to the simplest. This is because EndNote looks for matches starting
from the top of the window working down the list of tags. It stops at the first template that matches the tagged data.
To start a new row immediately below the active row, position the cursor in the Field(s) cell, and press Enter.
To start a new row immediately above the active row, position the cursor in the Tag cell, and press Enter.
To delete a row, highlight the row and select Clear from the Edit menu.
Related Topics
Cutting, Copying and Pasting Rows
Templates for Different Reference Types
The Basic Components of a Filter
The Filter Manager
Tips for Entering Tags and Fields
Working with Filter Templates
Cutting, Copying and Pasting Rows (Import Filters and Connection Files)
You may use the Cut, Copy, and Paste commands to move or duplicate a cell or a row of cells. To do so:
1. Select a row by dragging the mouse across both columns. (Dragging the mouse vertically across more than one row
selects a range of rows.)
2. To duplicate the selected row(s) elsewhere in a filter, select Copy (Ctrl+ C) from the Edit menu. If you want to delete the
selected row and move it to another location, select Cut (Ctrl +X).
3. Click where you would like the cut or copied row to appear, and select Paste ( Ctrl +V) from the Edit menu. The pasted
row will be inserted above the row where the cursor is. If the cursor is in the Field(s) column, the pasted row will be inserted
below. (Pasting when an entire row is selected will replace the row.)
Copying and Pasting Between Reference Type Templates
By choosing Select All ( Ctrl+A) from the Edit menu, you can select all of the rows in a given Reference Type template. This is
useful for copying an entire template to a new reference type or filter. After copying the entire set of templates for a reference type,
you may select a different reference type from the Reference Type list at the top of the window, click in the Tag cell for the new reference type, and select Paste.
When you copy information from one reference type (such as Journal Article), and paste the rows into another reference type
(such as Newspaper), the field names automatically change to reflect the names used by the new reference type. If there is not a
corresponding field name in the new reference type, the original field name in the template is replaced with {IGNORE}, indicating
that the data for that tag will be ignored.
Related Topics
Adding and Deleting Rows in the Filter Template
Templates for Different Reference Types
The Basic Components of a Filter
The Filter Manager
Tips for Entering Tags and Fields
Working with Filter Templates
Literal Text vs. EndNote Fields (Import Filters and Connection Files)
When you look at a filter, you will notice that some of the templates contain information other than EndNote field names. For EndNote to identify which data should go into a particular EndNote field, you must include punctuation and any literal text or spaces
that appear in your data file. Punctuation and literal text act as delimiters allowing EndNote to parse the data into multiple EndNote fields. None of these "delimiters" actually gets imported into an EndNote library, they merely serve as guides for EndNote to
correctly import the data.
Here is an example of a data file’s source line (SO:) where, in addition to punctuation, there is literal text such as "v", "n" and "p"
preceding the data:
SO: Youth Theatre Journal. v6 n4 p3-6
The "v", "n" and "p" are considered literal text because they are not EndNote field names; they represent the literal text from the
data file that precedes the data that you want to import. In this particular source line, there are four different pieces of information:
the journal name, volume, issue, and pages. To help EndNote determine when one field ends and the next one begins, you must
insert the literal text, punctuation, and spaces found in the data file next to the appropriate field name.
As a result, the above SO: tag line should be represented in a filter like this:
Tag
SO:
Field(s)
Journal. vVolume
In some databases, you may find lines of data that include a word that is also an EndNote field name. The following source line
contains the word "pages" before the page numbers:
SO: Town-planning-review. vol. 62, no. 4, pages461-469.
If entered into the filter, EndNote would normally interpret the word "pages" as a field name. (This is true whether you type it in the
filter or insert it using the Insert Field list.) To force EndNote to read a field’s name as literal text, surround the name with accent
grave characters, as in `pages`. The accent grave character is found in the upper left corner, under the tilde (~) key of the keyboard. To match the SO: line shown above, the source line in the filter should appear as:
Tag
SO:
Field(s)
Journal. vol. Volume, no. Issue, `
Related Topics
Fields with Special Characteristics
Templates for Different Reference Types
The {IGNORE} Field
The Basic Components of a Filter
The Filter Manager
The Reference Type Tag
The Source Line
Tips for Entering Tags and Fields
When Punctuation Repeats Within a Field
Working with Filter Templates
The {IGNORE} Field (Import Filters and Connection Files)
There may be pieces of information in a line of data that you do not want imported into your EndNote library. To force EndNote to
ignore pieces of information, use the Insert Field list to insert "{IGNORE} in the appropriate place. For example, suppose you want
EndNote to ignore bracketed text that sometimes follows the title of an article:
TI: Research funds are dwindling. [letter]
You should add a new TI tag and template to your filter (above the existing TI: Title line) that looks like this:
Tag
TI:
Field(s)
Title. [{IGNORE}]
Related Topics
Fields with Special Characteristics
Literal Text vs. EndNote Fields
Templates for Different Reference Types
The Basic Components of a Filter
The Filter Manager
The Reference Type Tag
The Source Line
Tips for Entering Tags and Fields
When Punctuation Repeats Within a Field
Working with Filter Templates
The Source Line (Import Filters and Connection Files)
The source line is typically the most complex line of data in a record because it contains all of the information about the source of
publication. For a journal article, the source line may contain the journal name, the volume number, the issue number, page
numbers, and the year of publication. For a book, the source line may contain the publisher, the city, and the number of pages.
The source line in your filter must match exactly the source line in the data file in order for EndNote to distinguish one piece of
information from another. You will often find more than one variation of a source line for a given reference type in a single data file,
in which case you will need to create a separate source line for each variant, starting with the most complex source. The three
source lines displayed below come from a single database:
SO: Semin-Oncol. 76(3):465-71 1998
SO: Semin-Oncol. 127:5-24 1999
SO: Eur-J-Cancer. 118/6 (654-657) 1998
In the first SO: tag line, parentheses enclose the issue number "(3)". In the second SO: tag line, there is no issue, so a colon separates the volume number and the page numbers "127:5-24". In the third SO: tag line, a slash separates the volume number and
the issue number "118/6", and parentheses enclose the page numbers "(654-657)".
Each variant in the data file’s source lines must be defined in your filter. Since EndNote tries to match the source line in the data
file with the first defined source line in your filter, you should place the most detailed source line first, followed by progressively
less detailed source lines.
The filter for the above source lines should look like this:
Tag
AU:
TI:
SO:
SO:
SO:
KW:
Field(s)
Author
Title
Journal. Volume(Issue):Pages Year
Journal. Volume/Issue (Pages) Year
Journal. Volume:Pages Year
Keywords
Note: If the filter fails to match a variation of the source line for a journal article, it is possible to have EndNote interpret the data
on its own. See Source Parsing.
Related Topics
Fields with Special Characteristics
Literal Text vs. EndNote Fields
Templates for Different Reference Types
The {IGNORE} Field
The Basic Components of a Filter
The Filter Manager
The Reference Type Tag
Tips for Entering Tags and Fields
When Punctuation Repeats Within a Field
Working with Filter Templates
The Reference Type Tag (Import Filters and Connection Files)
A reference type tag identifies the kind of work or publication being referenced in a particular record in your data file. In the Filter
window, a reference type tag is only defined by the characteristic of having literal text, and no fields, entered into the field column.
This literal text is not imported into EndNote, but it is used only to identify a record’s reference type.
Although a reference type tag can be any tag at all, two common reference type tags are "DT and and " PT" (which stand for Document Type and Publication Type).
JN- Am
To ensure that EndNote imports the data into the correct reference type, you must type the Reference Type tag in the Tag column, and the reference type name (or other identifying text) exactly as it appears in the data file in the Field(s) column. (The matching is case-sensitive.) The Reference Type tag can be placed anywhere in the appropriate Reference Type template.
When EndNote imports a record, it first scans the data file, looking for a reference type tag in your filter. Then it looks for a match
in the record it’s importing. The first reference type tag match encountered determines which of the Reference Type templates
EndNote will use to parse the record. This match also determines which reference type EndNote assigns the record in the EndNote library.
When entering the Reference Type tag in your filter, the text you enter in the Field cell must be interpreted by EndNote as literal
text. A problem can arise when you have text that contains an EndNote field name. For example, the following Reference Type
tag contains the field name "Journal":
Tag
DT:
Field(s)
Journal Article
Because the field name "Journal" appears in the template, EndNote will not interpret this DT- tag line as the Reference Type tag.
Instead, the filter would import the word Journal (from the data file’s DT: line) into the Journal field.
To force EndNote to interpret the word Journal (or any other field name) as literal text, put an accent grave character at the start
and end of the word. (The accent grave character is found in the upper left corner of the keyboard, under the tilde (~) key.) The
above Reference Type tag should appear in a filter as:
Tag
DT:
Field(s)
`Journal` Article
If the database you use does not specify a Reference Type tag, all reference types in your data file will import as the default reference type (see Reference Type).
Related Topics
Fields with Special Characteristics
Literal Text vs. EndNote Fields
Templates for Different Reference Types
The {IGNORE} Field
The Basic Components of a Filter
The Filter Manager
The Source Line
Tips for Entering Tags and Fields
When Punctuation Repeats Within a Field
Working with Filter Templates
Fields with Special Characteristics
Certain EndNote fields contain special restrictions on what sort of data can be imported. These settings cannot be modified and
apply to all import filters.
Author Fields
The words "And Others" get converted to "et al" and the word "and" is omitted. Years as well as parenthetical or bracketed text
are removed by default. See Author Parsing.
Year
Only 4-digit numbers (1### or 20##) are imported.
Title
The following punctuation is removed from the end of a title:
Period, comma, semicolon, colon, forward slash, back slash, opening parenthesis, dash, and caret.
Pages
A "P" or "p" before the number is automatically removed.
Volume
A "V" or "v" before the number is automatically removed, as is a number that appears to be a year.
Issue
An "N", "No" or "No." before the number is automatically removed (this is not case sensitive).
Related Topics
Literal Text vs. EndNote Fields
Templates for Different Reference Types
The {IGNORE} Field
The Basic Components of a Filter
The Filter Manager
The Reference Type Tag
The Source Line
Tips for Entering Tags and Fields
When Punctuation Repeats Within a Field
Working with Filter Templates
When Punctuation Repeats Within a Field (Import Filters and Connection Files)
A special formatting character called a "vertical bar" (|) can be placed in a filter to indicate a repeating separator within a field. For
example, you may have a data file where a period followed by a space separates a journal name from the volume. However, in
some cases, this separator is part of the journal name itself, with the result that a period and a space cannot be reliably used to
distinguish a journal name from the volume. For example:
SO: Science. 10 (3): p. 80-90
The above source line would be defined in a filter as:
Tag
SO:
Field(s)
Journal. Volume (Issue): p. Pages
Another source line in the same data file might look like this:
SO: Proc. Nat.
The problem arises in the second source line where the separator between the journal and volume (period and a space) is found
repeatedly within the journal. The SO: line in the filter instructs EndNote to import the data up to the period and space into the Journal field. Consequently, EndNote would parse "Proc." as the journal name, and everything after the period up to the open parenthesis as the volume, so the volume would be "Nat. Acad.".
There is a way to indicate a repeating separator within a field in the filter. If you place a vertical bar (|) before the separator, this
instructs EndNote to read up to the last occurrence of this separator. In the example above, if we place a vertical bar before the
repeating Journal field separator (period and space), the SO: line in the filter would look like this:
Tag
SO:
Field(s)
Journal|. Volume (Issue): p. Pages
This SO: line in the filter instructs EndNote to import all the data with the period followed by a space separator as a journal. Here,
EndNote would import "Proc. Nat." as the Journal, and "13" as the Volume.
Related Topics
Fields with Special Characteristics
Literal Text vs. EndNote Fields
Templates for Different Reference Types
The {IGNORE} Field
The Basic Components of a Filter
The Filter Manager
The Reference Type Tag
The Source Line
Tips for Entering Tags and Fields
Working with Filter Templates
The Filter Options
The Filter Options (Import Filters and Connection Files)
The remainder of the options listed in the Filter window below Templates provide the tools for fine tuning your filter. These options
include, among other things, how author names should be interpreted, how text is indented in your data file, and which characters
should be omitted when you import records into an EndNote library.
EndNote’s "Smart" Settings
When possible, EndNote provides a Smart option for your choices in configuring the filters. Wherever you select a Smart option, it
means that EndNote will do it’s best to interpret the data. If you do not know exactly how the reference is configured in the data
file, or if there is a lot of variability among the format of the references, then the Smart options are probably going to be the most
reliable settings. In cases where the Smart option does not work for your data file, you may try the other options provided for that
particular setting.
These topics describe the various filter options:
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Author Parsing
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Continuation Lines
n
Reference Type
n
Field Editing
n
Record Layout
n
Source Parsing
Related Topics
The Basic Components of a Filter
The Filter Manager
The Source Line
Working with Filter Templates
Author and Editor Parsing (Import Filters and Connection Files)
Use the Author Parsing panel to specify how author names are arranged in your data file. These settings apply only to authors in
EndNote’s main (Generic) Author field. The Editor Parsing panel applies to editors, translators, and other authors that are in EndNote’s Generic Secondary Author, Tertiary Author, and Subsidiary Author fields.
Name Order
Use the "Name Order" settings to specify the order in which first and last names are arranged in the data file. Examples appropriate to each setting are shown below:
Last Always Precedes First
AU: Smith, J.;
First Always Precedes Last
AU: J. Smith,
Name Order is Inconsistent
AU: Smith, J.,
Interpreting First Names
The "Interpret First Names as" option allows you to specify exactly how EndNote should interpret the part of the author name that
it has identified as the first name or initials.
The default is set to Smart, which uses the following rule: If there are three or fewer contiguous uppercase letters, these letters
are imported as initials. Otherwise, the letters are imported as a whole name. For example, if the author’s name appears in the
data file as:
AU: Childs,
Smart parsing will interpret "Jackie" as the first name, and "D" as the middle initial. This author name would import as:
Author:
Childs, Jackie D.
If the author’s name appears in the data file as
AU: von Braun, ED
Smart parsing will interpret ED as initials; thus the author name would import into EndNote as:
Author:
von Braun, E. D.
EndNote would only import ED as a first name "Ed" if you selected the Whole Names option.
The Whole Names and Initials Only options should only be used in special cases. The Whole Names option should be used in the
case where the authors in your data file are all uppercase, and full names are used. This option prevents EndNote from converting
names consisting of two or three uppercase letters, as in "SUE" or "AL" to initials. For example, if the author’s name appears in
the data file as:
AU: TOBIES, SUE
the Whole Names option would correctly import the author’s first name as "Sue." By contrast, EndNote’s Smart Parsing would
interpret the whole name SUE as three initials, as "S.U.E. Likewise, if you select Initials Only, EndNote imports all first names as
initials only. You would only choose this latter option if the all the first names in your data file are initials.
Author Name Separators
The Author Name Separators tell EndNote how to extract the individual authors from a line containing several authors.
Between Authors
The "Between Authors" option refers to the punctuation that is used to separate individual author names. It is extremely important
that this setting is correct so that the author names import correctly into EndNote. Author names in an EndNote references are
listed one name per line.
The default for the Between Authors option is set to Smart. With this option selected, EndNote looks for a common separator,
either a semicolon (;), a carat (^) or a vertical bar (|), and use this delimiter to identify where one name ends and the next name
begins.
In this example, multiple authors are separated by a semicolon:
AU: Bunting ME; Hanzlik
EndNote’s Smart parsing recognizes the semicolon separating the two author names and correctly imports them into an EndNote
library as:
Author:
Bunting, M.
Therefore, in this example, you do not need to change the setting. However, if your data file has a delimiter other than a semicolon
(;), a caret (^), or a vertical bar (|) separating multiple authors, you must select another option from the adjacent list. To type any
punctuation such as a dash or a slash, select Other and type the character there. A space and a return (where the authors are
listed one per line) can be selected directly from the list.
If you select Import As Is from the list, EndNote will not try to separate the names that follow the author tag. Everything that follows that tag in the data file will be imported exactly as it appears in the file.
Last and First Names Separator
Once EndNote knows how to identify an individual author name in a list of authors, it looks at that name and tries to determine
what the first name is and what the last name is. The Last and First Names separator is used to do this, along with the Name
Order settings.
The default Last & First Names setting is Smart. With this option selected, EndNote attempts to interpret an author’s name based
on the following separators: a space, a comma, or a period. In your data file, if the separator used between the last name and the
first name is something other than a space, a comma, or a period, you can select a separator from the adjacent list.
Parenthetical Data in Author Field
It is not uncommon for information providers to include additional information about the authors (such as date of birth or institutional affiliation).
AU: Takahashi,
When this information is mixed in with the list of authors on the tagged author line, EndNote provides two options for what to do
with it.
n
Discard: All parenthetical information is discarded during the import.
n
Import Into: All parenthetical data mixed in with the author names is imported into the field that you choose. We suggest that
you import it into the Notes field, Author Address, or another custom field that is appropriate.
Note: It is not appropriate for EndNote to import that data into the Author field because it would produce an incorrectly formatted
bibliography to have the parenthetical data included with the author names.
Related Topics
Continuation Lines
Field Editing (Import Filters)
Record Layout (Filters)
Reference Type
Source Parsing
The Basic Components of a Filter
Continuation Lines (Import Filters and Connection Files)
In general, EndNote ignores lines of text which do not begin with a tag unless the lines of text are continuations of a previous
tagged item. We call these continuation lines. Here is an abstract from a data file illustrating the concept of continuation lines (all
but the first are considered continuation lines):
AB- A single-subject research design that used multiple baselines across behaviors compared traditional adaptations to computers.
Because EndNote only imports tagged lines and continuation lines, it can avoid importing extraneous text that might interrupt a reference, such as your logging on or logging off text. Examples of extraneous lines are:
-->>Press any Key to continue
<Record 5 of 42>
EndNote provides two general options for dealing with continuation lines:
Ignore Indents: Untagged lines are always a continuation of the preceding line
With this option set, every line of text in the data file will import according to the tags that are defined in the Templates panel. Do
not select this option if there is any text in your data file that is not tagged. If you use this option and do not want to import certain
tagged lines, you must use the "{IGNORE} option (see The Ignore Field).
Continuation lines must be indented
This option allows you to specify the exact number of spaces on the left margin for the continuation lines.
The following example is an abstract where the first line of data is indented four spaces from the left margin, and the continuation
lines are properly indented four spaces. EndNote’s default Smart Indent Identification would import this abstract correctly.
(Spaces are shown as periods for clarity.)
AB-.Two experiments compared the performance of 23 12 ....old dyslexics with that of 8
age-matched controls on a ....battery of tests of motor balance. A dual-task
paradigm ....was used: Ss performed each test as a single task and as ....a task concurrent
with a secondary task. In all single- ....task conditions there was no difference between
groups.
However, you may find data files where the continuation lines are not aligned with the first line of data. In the following example,
the continuation lines are indented two spaces from the left margin, whereas the first line is indented four spaces:
AB-.Beyond the inevitability of ..is the question of countertransference enactments. From
a ..two-person, participant-observer or observing-participant ..perspective, enactments are
inevitable. The analyst becomes ..influenced by the patient (and influences the patient
as ..well) and enmeshed in the patient's internalized ..interpersonal configurations.
For EndNote to treat the subsequent lines as continuation lines in the preceding example, the filter must specify the exact number
of spaces indented on the left margin. In the example just given, you would enter "2" in the "Indent _ spaces" option.
If most of the lines in a data file import a fixed number of spaces (like two spaces in the example above), but one tagged field is
indented differently (perhaps keywords are indented four spaces), you can enter exceptions in the table provided. Simply enter the
number of spaces in the left column next to the tag. You only need to enter a number for the tagged field with the inconsistent
import. All other lines that are left blank will use the general indent setting.
Note: For a quick and reliable way to count how many spaces are inserted on the left margin, turn on the setting in your word
processor to display formatting characters.
Related Topics
Author Parsing
Field Editing (Import Filters)
Record Layout (Filters)
Reference Type
Source Parsing
The Basic Components of a Filter
The Filter Editor window
The Filter Manager
Reference Type (Import Filters and Connection Files)
Default Reference Type
The default reference type tells EndNote which reference type to use if it cannot identify the reference type of a record. For example, suppose that in one filter, you specify Journal Article as your default reference type, and create a template for it. If you import
a data file containing conference proceedings records for which you have not defined a Reference Type template, any conference
proceedings records will import as Journal Articles. Also, if the database that you use does not specify a Reference Type tag, all
reference types in your data file will import as your default reference type. (See The Reference Type Tag for information about
defining the reference types tag in a template.)
Note: The default reference type is always indicated with bold text in the Reference Types list on the Templates panel.
Identifiers
Some information providers, such as Ovid Technologies,
These identifiers are also used to import data files that contain references from multiple databases. EndNote can import multisource files like that as long as each record in the data file has a vendor and a database tag at the start of the reference. The identifiers must also be entered into the appropriate filters in the Filters folder. When you are ready to import a file that has data from
multiple sources in it, be sure to select the Multi-Filter import option in the Import dialog.
The way that EndNote is able to know which filter to use is by these Identifier tags entered into the filter. Both identifiers must be
used. The first identifier should be the tag that includes the name of the information provider. For this example it is "VN. The exact
text that follows that tag for each record should be entered into the corresponding box in the Identifiers section. The next tag is
used to identify the database, such as Medline or BIOSIS. Enter the tag used for the database name, and then enter the database
name exactly as it appears in each reference.
For example, for EndNote to read in this data:
<1>
VN Ovid Technologies, Inc.
DB Ovid MEDLINE
AU Jacobson, R; Campbell, S
PY 1999 etc.
For Vendor Identification, enter the Tag " VN" and the Text " Ovid Technologies".
For Database Identification, enter the Tag " DB" and the Text " Ovid MEDLINE".
Related Topics
Author Parsing
Continuation Lines
Field Editing (Import Filters)
Record Layout (Filters)
Source Parsing
The Basic Components of a Filter
The Filter Editor window
The Filter Manager
Working with Filter Templates
Field Editing (Import Filters and Connection Files)
To access this feature, select Import Filters or Connection Files from the Edit menu. Open the Manager and then select the Edit
option.
Converting Text from Uppercase to Lowercase
If the text in your data file appears entirely in uppercase letters, EndNote can convert the text to either Sentence, Headline, or
Lowercase format, depending on which option you specify in the Field Editing panel.
To control the lowercasing of a field, select the appropriate field from the Field Editing for: list at the top of the window. The EndNote fields are listed here by their Generic names. Then pick a capitalization option from the Change UPPERCASE text to: list.
Note: For a list of reference type fields and their corresponding Generic field names, see the Generic Reference Type.
For example, a title that appears in a data file as "COMPOST AS A HUMAN NUTRIENT AND HORMONE CARRIER" would
import in Headline capitalization as:
Compost as a Human Nutrient and Hormone Carrier
or in Sentence capitalization as:
Compost as a human nutrient and hormone carrier
To keep a field’s text entirely in uppercase characters, select the Do NOT Lowercase option.
You can apply lowercasing on any field as long as all the text in the field is uppercase. If any of the text in the field is in mixed
case, EndNote will import it in mixed case.
The Author, Editor, and Translator fields are treated differently from all other EndNote fields. Upon importing author fields into an
EndNote library, these fields are automatically converted from uppercase to headline. Due to the special characteristics of these
particular fields, the option to change the case is not available in the Field Editing panel.
Omitting Unwanted Characters
Some lines of data have superfluous characters, such as an asterisk (*) or a dash (-), that you may not want to import. For example, in the following lines of data there are dashes in the journal name, and there is an asterisk before each keyword:
SO- American-journal-of-preventive-medicine; 12(9)
DE- *COMPUTER SYSTEMS DESIGN; *DISPLAY DEVICES; *INTERFACES
To prevent unwanted characters from being imported into your EndNote library, use the Field Editing panel to specify the characters that you want to omit:
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From the "Field Editing for:" list, select the EndNote field that contains unwanted characters. You will find that the EndNote
fields are listed by their Generic names. For a list of reference type fields and their corresponding Generic field names, see the
List of Reference Types.
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Type the unwanted text in the "Enter text to be omitted (one item per line)" box, and then click Add to add it to the omission list.
When you prevent characters from being imported into an EndNote field, you are omitting the characters from the corresponding
Generic field, so the omission applies to every reference type field that corresponds to the particular Generic field. For example,
the Secondary Title field corresponds to both the Journal field in a Journal Article reference type and the Series Title in a Book reference type. Therefore, if you omit a dash (-) from the journal name, any dashes found in a Series Title for a Book reference type
will also be omitted.
Each item that you want to omit should be entered on a separate line. For example, let’s say that you wanted to omit both underscores (_) and forward slashes (/) from your records’ keywords. First add the underscore, and then add the forward slash. Entering
both items on the same line would cause EndNote to omit only instances of "_/", while all other instances of underscores and forward slashes would end up in your keywords. You can omit up to 254 characters per EndNote field.
To remove an item from the list, select the item and click Remove. You may select more than one item by holding down the Shift
or Ctrl key while clicking on multiple items.
Note: The more items added to the list, the longer it takes EndNote to import records into EndNote. To avoid slowing down the
importing process, you may want to start by importing the data into an EndNote library without specifying any omissions. Then
use the Find and Replace command from the Edit menu to delete the unwanted words and other text.
Related Topics
Author Parsing
Continuation Lines
Record Layout (Filters)
Reference Type
Source Parsing
The Basic Components of a Filter
The Filter Editor window
The Filter Manager
Working with Filter Templates
Record Layout (Import Filters and Connection Files)
Use the options in the Record Layout panel to modify how EndNote interprets the end of a reference in a data file.
Smart Record Identification
Smart Record Identification, EndNote’s default setting for Record Termination, creates a new record in EndNote each time a tag
in the data file repeats out of sequence and is preceded by a blank or extraneous line. EndNote will not create a new record if the
same tag appears in succession, provided that they are not separated by a blank line.
For example, some databases list authors one per tagged line, with the AU tag appearing two or more times in succession, as in
the following example:
AU- D'Orazio, MGAU-
When EndNote sees consecutive tags, it does not start a new reference unless it finds the same tag preceded by a blank or extraneous line.
More Specific Record Layout Options
A more precise way of identifying a new record is to specify in your filter exactly how the records are terminated in your data file.
The remaining options in the Record Layout panel allow you to do this.
To determine how records are terminated, open your data file in either a word processor or text editor. Check for the pattern consistently separating one record from another. Once you have determined the correct record termination, click the appropriate button on the Record Layout panel to select the best option for your data file. You may choose only one option as a record terminator.
Blank line separates records
Select this option if the only blank lines in a data file are the ones in between references.
Using "First Tag" and "Last Tag" Options
This option lets you specify a first tag that starts the record and/ or a final tag that ends each record. Only one tag is required.
n
Before choosing this option as your record terminator, verify that the first or last tag is consistently present in each record.
This option will function correctly only if the chosen tag appears in every record.
n
You do not need to enter both a first and last tag; either tag will suffice to distinguish one record from the next.
n
Enter the tag exactly as it appears in the data file, including the delimiter (colon and dash) that follows the tag. EndNote
treats these delimiters as part of their respective tags.
n
You do not need to include these tags in the templates of your filter, unless you wish to import the associated data.
Each record ends with:
Select this option if your references consistently end with a specific set of unique characters. Note that whatever you enter into
this option needs to be unique enough that it does not appear elsewhere in your references. One common set of characters that is
used to terminate each record is ||.
Each record starts with:
Select this option if your references consistently start with text that is not a tag. For example, it is common for some information
providers to begin each reference with a counter such as:
<1>
or
Record 1 of 53
In these cases, enter the text exactly as it appears in the data file, but substitute a number sign (#) for the actual number. For the
examples above, you would enter "<#>" and "Record # of #".
Example
The following example illustrates a data file that contains neither a blank line, nor text terminating each record. However, there is
a consistent first tag, "ND:" starting each record. So for this example you would want to specify "ND:" as the record termination
by clicking the "First Tag" button, and typing "ND:" in the box.
ND: 430529953|
BASE: BA83|
AU: HILDEN
Related Topics
Author Parsing
Continuation Lines
Field Editing (Import Filters)
Reference Type
Source Parsing
The Basic Components of a Filter
The Filter Editor window
The Filter Manager
Source Parsing (Import Filters and Connection Files)
The source line refers to the line in the data file that represents the source information for the journal (typically journal, volume,
issue, pages, and sometimes the year). It is most often the most complex and inconsistent line of data in your data file—and it is
also the most important. As a result, the EndNote filters provide a sort of safety net to catch inconsistently entered source data.
The tags and templates defined in the Templates panel are used first to import source data. If a source line in a data file does not
match any of the options in the templates, then EndNote provides you with additional options for how to handle that. The first thing
you need to do is to make sure that EndNote has correctly identified the journal article source tag.
Identifying the Source Tag
If the source tag for the Journal Article reference type in the Templates section of a filter is SO or JN, EndNote automatically identifies this tag as the source tag. However, if the source tag defined in your filter is something other than a "SO" or " JN", you must
choose the appropriate tag from the Journal Article source Tag list. (All of the tags that have been defined in the Journal Article
template will appear in the "Source Tag" list.)
When source data and filter templates do not match
If a journal article’s source line in your data file does not match a source line in your filter, you can choose how EndNote should
treat the unmatched source line. The default option is Use Smart Parsing. EndNote’s Smart Parsing does its best to distinguish
the journal name, the volume number, the issue number, the page numbers, and the year, and import each into the corresponding
EndNote field. Any information that is not identified as a journal, volume, issue, pages, or year is imported into the Notes field,
along with the comment "Using Smart Source Parsing." (After importing, if you suspect that some references may not have
matched the defined source template, it is helpful to use EndNote’s Search command to search for the text "Using Smart Source
Parsing" in the Notes field of the imported references. You may then check those specifically to see if EndNote correctly interpreted the data.)
If you choose the other option to import the source data into a separate field, EndNote does not attempt to parse the source information, and instead imports the entire unmatched source line into whatever field you have specified.
For any reference type other than a Journal Article, unmatched source lines are automatically imported into the Notes field. Therefore, if you have not defined an exact match for a source line found in a book record in your data file, EndNote imports the entire
source line into the Notes field.
Related Topics
Author Parsing
Continuation Lines
Field Editing (Import Filters)
Record Layout (Filters)
Reference Type
The Basic Components of a Filter
The Filter Editor window
The Filter Manager
The Source Line
Importing MARC Records
What Are MARC Records?
"MARC" stands for Machine Readable C ataloging format. It is a standardized format developed by the Library of Congress for producing machine-readable bibliographic records. It is much more difficult to read than regular tagged data formats, but it can still be
imported in much the same way using EndNote’s filters.
The MARC Format and Connection Files
Many connection files use the MARC format because it is specified as part of the Z39.50 standard. When creating a new connection file, the Templates and MARC Records portions of the connection file are automatically set up to import standard
USMARC (MARC21) data. If you need to customize these parts of the connection file, the instructions in this section would
apply.
Related Topics
Creating a Filter for MARC Records
Rules for MARC Import Filters
The Basic Components of a Filter
The Filter Editor window
The Filter Manager
The Filter Options
Unique Aspects of MARC Records
Unique Aspects of MARC Records
MARC records differ from other bibliographic records in two important ways:
Numeric Tags
The primary way in which MARC records differ from non- MARC bibliographic records is in their reliance on numeric tags.
Numeric tags typically consist of three digits followed by two spaces and two more digits. For example:
245 10 $a When you realize you have too many
kids: $b a guide / $c Hugh B
245 14 $a The angel with a dirty mouth /$c NickSteel ; illustrated by Melissa
Subfields
The second way in which MARC tags differ from other bibliographic records is the use of subfields.
Each numerically tagged line in a MARC record may contain any number of subfields. A subfield typically consists of two consecutive characters, the first of which is the subfield delimiter which denotes the start of a new subfield. Examples of subfields
are "$a" and "$x." The subfields do not have to be consecutive, as in the second record in the example above.
If you were creating a conventional filter for importing bibliographic records from a MARC database, you would have to anticipate
a vast number of possible combinations, both of tags and of subfields.
Because it is difficult to anticipate every possible combination of tags and subfields in MARC records, EndNote provides you with
a simplified way of creating filters for MARC records. The two sections that follow tell you how to create a filter specifically for
MARC records, and then alert you to the different rules that EndNote uses when importing MARC records into an EndNote library.
Related Topics
Creating a Filter for MARC Records
Rules for MARC Import Filters
The Basic Components of a Filter
The Filter Editor window
The Filter Manager
The Filter Options
What Are MARC Records?
MARC Records (Import Filters and Connection Files)
Once you have created a new filter, or you have opened an existing filter, select the MARC Records panel in the Filter window.
Click the "Process data file as MARC record" check box. The dollar sign ($) will appear in the "MARC Subfield Delimiter" box,
since this is the subfield delimiter in most cases. If the subfield delimiter is something other than a dollar sign, delete the dollar
sign and type in the appropriate delimiter.
Data Start Column
The reference data in a MARC reference normally starts in column 8 (that is, the sixth character from the left margin). This is the
default setting you will find in the "Data starts in column" text box. If the MARC records in your data file start the actual reference
data (as opposed to tags and subfield delimiters) in some other position, enter that number in the "Data starts in column" text box.
Note: Always enter a value of 6 or higher in the "Data starts in column" text box. If you enter a lesser value (for example, you
enter the number 5), the value will change back to 8 when you leave the Marc Records panel even if you have saved your
changes. This only happens in the "Data starts in column" text box. If you make other changes, then those values are saved
when you return to the Marc Records panel.
Accession Numbers
The Accession Number is a unique number assigned to each record in a database. (The information provider’s database; not the
EndNote database.) The provider may not call it an Accession Number; PubMed uses PMID, and some systems use unique identifier. These numbers sometimes appear immediately after the numeric tag, and without the two-digit subfield codes seen in other
MARC fields. Since a common type of accession number often appears after the 001 tag, EndNote includes an Import 001tags as
Accession Numbers check box which lets you import this number into EndNote’s Accession Number field. Accession numbers
which appear in lines other than 001 often begin with a subfield, so you can set up the filter to import the number into the Accession Number field.
If First Field has no Subfield Delimiter
Normally the first character that precedes the record data is the subfield delimiter (commonly a dollar sign $). If this subfield delimiter is not present for the first field of each tagged line, you will need to tell EndNote how to interpret the first character by checking
the appropriate option under the MARC records dialog. Is it part of the real data of a reference or is it a field designator (such as "a"
or "b") that just happens to be missing the subfield delimiter?
Related Topics
Rules for MARC Import Filters
The Basic Components of a Filter
The Filter Editor window
The Filter Manager
The Filter Options
Unique Aspects of MARC Records
What Are MARC Records?
Working with Filter Templates
Rules for MARC Import Filters
EndNote observes these rules when importing MARC records:
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EndNote allows you to specify only the first three digits of the tag when designing a filter for MARC records. You can disregard
spaces and digits appearing immediately after the first three digits. The tag for both of the following examples would be 245.
245 10 $a When you realize you have too many
kids: $b a guide / $c Hugh B
245 14 $a The angel with a dirty mouth /$c NickSteel ; illustrated by Melissa
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You do not have to define all the subfields in a tagged line. There may be some subfields that contain information you do not
want to import into your EndNote library. EndNote will ignore any subfields that are not defined in your filter.
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Source lines cannot take advantage of the "Smart Source Parsing" option. You may, however, enter multiple variations of the
subfields in a source line. Be sure to enter all subfields after the same tag (do not repeat the tag for each), and list the most
complex subfield formats first. For example:
773 $gVolume(Issue), p.
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With the exception of the reference type tag, EndNote allows you to define a tag only once; therefore you should include all of
the subfields that contain data you want to be imported. For example, the following line in a filter for MARC records would successfully import any or all of the three lines that follow:
Tag
245
Field(s)
$a Title $b Title $c Notes
245 14 $a The hollow horn : $b Bob Dylan's reception in the United States and Germany /
$c by Dennis Anderson.
245 10 $a Bob Dylan, spellbinding songwriter /$c Nathan
245 00 $a Down in the groove.
Related Topics
Creating a Filter for MARC Records
The Basic Components of a Filter
The Filter Editor window
The Filter Manager
The Filter Options
Unique Aspects of MARC Records
What Are MARC Records?
Modifying an Existing Filter
Modifying an Existing Filter (Example)
Modifying an existing filter is useful if you want to create a new filter for a different database by the same provider. Although some
information providers offer radically different formats for their different databases, there are others who provide fairly consistent
tags and organized data across their databases.
Common reasons for editing a filter include adding a tag to import additional information; removing a tag or using {IGNORE} to
omit unwanted data; or fine-tuning the current settings for importing authors or journal source data. The specifics about how to
work with templates and options are described earlier in this chapter. This example is intended to provide a general overview of
the process of editing a filter.
Adding a Tag and Field to a Filter
Let’s say that you want to modify a filter to import the language of the publication into EndNote’s Notes field. In this particular database, the language is preceded by the tag "LA-".
TI- Zum beginn des mathematischen Frauenstudiums i Preussen. |
TI- <Translated> The beginnings of mathematical studies for women in Prussia |
AU- Tobies. Renate
JN- NTM Schr. Geschichte Natur. Tech. Medizin |
SO - <JN> NTM Schriftenreihe fur Geschichte der Naturwissenschaften Technik und Medizin |
SO- <PY> 1991 |
SO- <VO> 28 |
SO- <NO> no. 2, |
SO- <PG> 151-172. |
LA- German |
DT- Journal |
To add the LA tag and direct its contents to the Notes field:
1. From the Edit menu, select Import Filters, and then select Open Filter Manager. The most recently used filter will also
appear as an option in the Import Filters submenu. You may choose Edit <filter name> to edit that filter as well.
2. In the Filter Manager, select the filter that you want to edit, and then click Edit.
3. Select the Templates option in the left panel of the window.
4. Click the mouse in any cell of the Journal Article template, and then press Enter to create to a new row.
5. Type LA- in the Tag cell, and then press a Tab to move to the Field cell. Insert the Notes field from the Insert Field list.
Doing so tells EndNote to import the language information into EndNote’s Notes field.
6. You can add the LA- tag to the remaining Reference Type templates in the filter. Use the Reference Type list to switch to each
reference type template in your filter and repeat the process described above. (Reference types with check marks next to them
in the list are the ones that have templates defined for them.
7. From the File menu, select Save As. Enter a new name for the modified version of the filter, and then click Save.
Related Topics
The Basic Components of a Filter
The Filter Editor window
The Filter Manager
The Filter Options
What Are MARC Records?
Creating a New Filter
Creating a New Filter
This topic provides a general overview of how to create a new filter. You can view an example of a data file, and the templates portion of a filter to match it (see Example Data File and Templates).
The basic steps to create a new filter are:
1. From the Edit menu, select Import Filters and select New Filter.
2. If you would like, you may enter a category for the filter (usually the information provider is used for the category), and any
other comments about what the filter is based on or what data it is used to import.
3. Click on the Templates option.
4. From the Reference Types list, select the first reference type that you would like to define, and enter the necessary tags
and the corresponding fields into the reference type template. See Working with Filter Templates.
5. Define additional reference types, as necessary, by selecting them from the Reference Types list and entering the tags and
fields for them as well.
6. Click the Reference Type option in the list of panel names, and select the default reference type for the filter.
At this point, you may have entered enough information to use the filter successfully. Try it out by choosing it as the import option
to import your data file into a new, empty library. Review the imported references to be sure that they imported correctly. Fine tune
the filter as necessary (see The Filter Options).
Note: If you need a reference type that does not appear in the Reference Type list, see Adding and Deleting Reference Types.
For additional help, see Tips for Entering Tags and Fields and Example Data File and Templates.
Tips for Entering Tags and Fields
Not every tag in your data file needs to be in your filter.
There is no need to define every tag that appears in your data file, provided that the contents of the corresponding field start on the
same line as the tag itself; and the records’ continuation line are not flush left. If you need to define every tag that appears in a record, but only want to import the information associated with certain tags, insert the {IGNORE} field from the Insert Field list where
appropriate.
Note: You do not need to specify all data fields, unless each tag appears on a line by itself, with the data starting below it on the
next line. You may also want to specify all tags if the continuation lines in your records are flush left, in which case an undefined
tag appearing immediately after a continuation line will be read in as text.
You might need to enter multiple variations of a source line.
You will often find more than one variation of a source line for a given reference type in a database, in which case you will need to
define a separate source line in your template for each such variant. The most complex source line should appear first, followed
by source lines of decreasing complexity. In the case of Journal Articles, be sure to specify the appropriate Source Parsing option
(refer to Source Parsing).
MARC formats are an exception. See Rules for MARC Import Filters.
A colon, dash, space or other character that appears along with a tag is treated as part of the tag.
When defining tags in a filter, these characters need to be included in the tag column of the filter for EndNote to find an exact
match. If spaces are inserted within a tag, as in "SO- <VO, they need to be defined as part of the tag as well.
Related Topics
Adding and Deleting Rows in the Filter Template
Creating a Filter for MARC Records
Creating a New Filter
Cutting, Copying and Pasting Rows
Example Data File and Templates
Example: Modifying an Existing Filter
Navigating in the Templates Panel
Templates for Different Reference Types
Unique Aspects of MARC Records
Working with Filter Templates
Example Data File and Templates
Below is a sample of a record in a data file and the filter Templates panel configured to import the data. See Working with Filter
Templates for details about configuring templates.
Sample Record from a Data File
FN- DIALOG
Note: The trailing vertical bars at the end of each line will be stripped out by EndNote. Do not include them in the filter.
To create a template for the Journal Article reference type:
1. Select "Journal Article" from the Reference Types list.
2. Type TI- in the tag cell, then press Tab to move to the Field column. Insert the Title field using the Insert Field button.
3. Press Enter to move to the next line.
4. Type the next tag to import and insert the corresponding field. Continue entering the rest of the tags and fields until all of the
necessary information is covered by the filter. Skip any tags for data that you are not interested in importing.
This is what the resulting Templates panel of the filter should contain:
Tag
ANTIAUCSJNPYSNDTABGSDE-
Field(s)
Accession Number
Title
Author
Author Address
Journal; Volume (Issue) pPages
Date Year
ISSN
ANALYTIC; SERIAL
Abstract
Keywords
Keywords
Note: It is important to remember that the source line in a filter must exactly match the source line in the data file for EndNote to
distinguish one field from another. You will often find more than one variation of a source line for a given reference type in a database, in which case you will need to create a separate source line for each variant in your download, starting with the most complex source line and ending with the least complex source line. As a backup, select the appropriate Source Parsing option.
Related Topics
Creating a Filter for MARC Records
Creating a New Filter
Tips for Entering Tags and Fields
Working with Filter Templates
Connection Files
Introduction to Connection Files
The Online Search command on EndNote’s Tools menu connects you to online databases and library catalogs so that you can
search them from within the EndNote program and retrieve references directly into EndNote. EndNote is able to make these connections using the information stored in the hundreds of individual "connection files."
This section describes how to edit and create connection files. The process of using the Online Search command is described in
Quick Overview (Online Searching).
EndNote provides thousands of connection files for a variety of sources. By default, only the most popular connection files are
stored in the Connections folder in your EndNote folder. You can view all available connection files by selecting Connection Files
from the Edit menu, and then selecting Open Connection Manager.
To install additional connection files, see Installing Additional Connection Files.
What is a Connection File?
A connection file contains all the information necessary to connect to, search, and import references from an online database or
online library catalog. Each connection file represents a different online database (such as the Library of Congress or PubMed
from the National Library of Medicine).
Related Topics
Basic Components of a Connection File
The Connection Manager
The Connection Manager
EndNote provides hundreds of connection files for a variety of sources. By default, only the most popular connection files are
stored as individual files in the Connections folder in your EndNote program folder. To install additional connection files, see
Installing Additional Connection Files.
To access the Connection Manager, select Edit menu > Connection Files > Open Connection Manager.
To peruse the list of available connection files in EndNote’s Connections folder, select Connection Files from the Edit menu, and
select Open Connection Manager.
The Connection Manager lists the names of all of the original connection files available in the Program Files\EndNote\Connections folder as well as any new or modified connection files in your personal Connections folder, and gives you the
options to edit them or select them as "favorites" for quick access when you use the Online Search command. You can click and
drag the corner of the dialog to increase the size.
Locating the Connection File You Want to Use
n
If you know the name of the connection file that you want to use, start typing it to select the first file that matches what you
type.
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Click the Find By button and select an information provider’s name (such as Ovid or SilverPlatter) to find only the connection
files for a specific information provider.
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Click the Find By button and select All Connections to return all of the connection files to the displayed list.
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Click the column headings to sort the connection files by name or by information provider. Clicking the same column heading a
second time will change the sort order from ascending to descending. Click again to set it back to ascending order.
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Click the More Info triangle button at the bottom of the dialog to display additional information about the selected connection
file. Or, click Less Info to hide the additional information.
Marking Your Favorite Connection Files
When you have found a connection file that you will want to use in the future, click the check box next to it to mark it as a favorite.
All connection files (up to 500) that are marked as favorites appear as an Online Search group in the Library window. This gives
you easy access to the files you use most often.
An easy way to mark a whole category of connection files (such as all of the connections for Ovid databases) is to click the Find
by button , choose a category from the list, and then when all of the files for that category are showing, click the Mark All button.
Creating Connection Files
Before you begin actually creating or modifying a connection file, you must obtain the Z39.50 client configuration instructions for
the database you want to access. Contact your librarian or information provider for this information.
Note: If the database is not available on a Z39.50 server, you will not be able to use EndNote’s Online Search feature to access
it directly. Instead, use the Import feature to import references that have been downloaded to text files.
Once you have the Z39.50 client configuration information in hand, follow these steps to create a new connection file:
Create the File and Enter the Basic Information
1. From the Edit menu select Connection Files, and then select New Connection File.
2. The new Connection File window opens to display the About this Connection information panel. Enter any comments or
descriptions here for your own use. (These comments do not affect how the connection functions.)
3. Click on the Connection Settings option and enter the connection information.
4. Click on the Search Attributes option to modify the default search attributes if necessary.
5. From the File menu, select Save As. Name the new connection file and save it in your Connections folder.
Test the Connection and Searching
6. From the Tools menu, select Online Search and select your new connection file. If the connection cannot be established,
check the settings in the Connection Settings panel of the connection file, save your changes, and try again.
7. If the connection was established, the Search panel should open automatically. Enter a simple search to see if the search
attributes were correctly configured. If the Search does not work correctly or it returns an error, check the Search Attributes
settings in the connection file. (If you modify the connection file at this point, you must save the connection file, then close
the Retrieved References window and reconnect in order for your changes to take effect.)
Test the Filtering of Reference Data
8. Once you are able to connect and search, retrieve a dozen or so references to test how accurately they are filtered into EndNote references. Double-click a retrieved reference to open it to verify that the data are in the correct fields.
Note that if you are paying for the references you retrieve, these may not come through correctly, so it is best to retrieve
only a few. All references retrieved are saved to a connection log file, so they are not lost. This log file is replaced the next
time you run EndNote.
9. If the reference data is not being correctly filtered into the appropriate fields in the EndNote references, you will need to
compare the downloaded data to the filter templates in your connection file.
Close the Retrieved References window and open the Connect .log log file in a word processor to view the original format
of the retrieved references.
From the Edit menu, select Connection Files and select Edit Connection File to edit the newly created connection file.
Look at the Templates panel of the connection file and compare the templates there to the reference data in the Connect.log file. Make changes as necessary. See Introduction to Filters for information about modifying filters.
Saving Connection Files
To save a new connection file that you have just created, or to save changes to a connection file you have just modified, select
Save or Save As from the File menu.
If you have modified one of the original installed files in the Program Files\EndNote\Connections folder, you must use Save As to
save a copy to your personal Connections folder. If you have modified a style that is already located in your personal Connections
folder, you can select either Save to directly modify the file, or Save As to make a copy with the changes. For a description of
where your styles are stored, see Folder Locations.
EndNote automatically saves new connection files to your personal Connections folder. You may also specify a different folder if
necessary. For instructions see Folder Locations.
EndNote connection files use the file name extension of ".ENZ", as in "Medline (Ovid). ENZ".
Copying Connection Files
When you display a list of connection files in EndNote, the list is comprised of the installed connection files found in the Program
Files\EndNote\Connections folder as well as new or modified connection files found in your personal Connections folder. For an
explanation of where your files are stored, see Folder Locations Preferences.
There are two ways to copy connection files. First, since each connection file is a separate file on your hard drive, you can copy
them as you would copy any file on your hard drive using the Windows desktop.
Or, to make a copy of a connection file from within EndNote:
1. From the Edit menu, select Connection Files > Open Connection Manager to open the Connection Manager.
2. Select the connection file you want to copy and click Edit.
3. Without making any changes to the file, select Save As from the File menu.
4. Give this copy of the file a new name, and then save it.
The file is saved in your personal Connections folder. The new connection file will remain open. The original connection file will be
left untouched.
Deleting Connection Files
To delete a connection file from within EndNote:
1. From the Edit menu, select Connection Files > Open Connection Manager.
2. Select the connection file to be deleted.
3. Select Clear from the Edit menu, or right-click on the connection file and select Delete from the shortcut menu.
You can also delete an unwanted connection file by switching back to the Windows Explorer, or by opening "My Computer," and
opening the Connections folder in the EndNote folder. Then, select the file to delete, and then select Delete from the File menu or
drag the file to the Recycle Bin .
Note: You must have read/write access to the Connections folder in order to delete a connection file. If you do not have administrator access, you likely will not be able to delete a file located within the Program Files folder.
Default Values for New Connection Files
When creating a new connection file, a few basic search attributes are entered by default. It is not guaranteed that these will
work, as each database may only support its own subset of the Z39.50 attributes.
Consult the Z39.50 client configuration instructions from your information provider or your librarian to set up the connection file correctly for the online database you want to access.
Default settings for a new connection file are:
Port ID: 210
Element Set Name: F (Full)
Record Syntax: MARC21
Text: ANSEL
Search Fields (Use Attributes): Any Field (1016), Author (1003), Year (31), Title (4), Keywords (21), and Abstract (62).
Filter: MARC21 filter settings are used. All references import into the "Book" reference type. See Filter Information to
import into additional reference types.
Related Topics
Basic Components of a Connection File
The Connection File Window
The Connection Manager
The Connection Settings
Using Z39.50 Command-Line Syntax
Note: This topic is intended only for people who are familiar with Z39.50 terminology and have access to the Z39.50-client configuration information for their online databases. The advanced search strategies are documented here only for more technical
EndNote users; this knowledge is not required for basic searching of online databases. These command-line searches do not
work with PubMed or Web of Science.
It is possible to set up a search of an online database that is not supported by the EndNote Search panel or the connection file you
are using. For instance, if you know about the Z39.50 attributes supported by the online database, you can enter a Z39.50 search
which EndNote passes directly to the server, without any translation. This lets you use searches that are not already supported
by your connection file and is useful for testing various search attribute combinations when creating or modifying a connection
file.
These advanced searches are entered directly into the search line just as you would enter a search term. EndNote ignores the
search menu for that item when it detects that you have entered an advanced search. If other search terms are needed, enter
them into the subsequent search lines and select the appropriate AND, OR, or NOT connectors (just like any other search).
An advanced search uses the following format:
\\search term/ATTRIBUTE TYPE/ATTRIBUTE VALUE
The first two characters (\\) tell EndNote this is an advanced search of an online database. The next part, up to the ampersand, is
the search term. The numbers of the Z39.50 attribute type and values follow. They are entered first with a slash and the number
for the attribute type, then a slash, and the attribute’s value. Repeat that pattern for as many attributes as you want to specify.
Not all attributes need to be included. See Search Attributes.
The following is a common search example that should work for most servers. This search, looking in Any Field and using the
Contains operator, should find all references in which the title begins with "child."
\\child/1/4/3/1/5/100
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A Use attribute (1) of 4 has been specified, so the search will be restricted to the Title for this database.
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A Position attribute (3) of 1 further narrows the search by having the search term be found as the first word in the field.
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A Truncation attribute (5) of 100 specifies no truncation at all so only "child" will be seen as a match, and words such as
"children" and "childhood" will not.
Tip for Modifying Search Attributes
If you wanted to test how variations of the search attribute settings would impact your search, here’s an easy way to do it— without having to edit your connection file.
1. With the connection already established, select Show Connection Status from the Window menu. Keep the view set to
Status Messages.
2. Start with a basic search using the Search panel (without the command-line syntax). For example, search for "child" in the
Title field.
3. Look in the Status window, and you will see which attributes are being used. For example:
Searching for: [child/1/4/3/1/5/100].====Building
4. You can copy the search command out of the Status window, and paste it onto the Search panel (remember to add the "\\"
prefix to identify it as a command-line search), then add or modify the attribute values as necessary.
5. Click Search to try out your new combination of attributes.
6. When you have found a combination of search attributes that does what you need, edit your connection file and make those
changes to the Search Attributes panel.
Basic Components of a Connection File
About this Connection
When the Connection Editor window opens, it displays the About this Connection information. This panel contains descriptive
information about the connection file, and has no impact on establishing the connection.
Name: Displays the name of the file as it appears in the Connections folder in the EndNote folder. The file name extension (.ENZ)
is not displayed. The name of the connection file cannot be changed here; you would need to close this window and switch back
to the Windows desktop to rename the file.
Based On: Enter any information about what documentation was used to create the connection file. Commonly the server documentation is available on the Web, so you could enter a URL here to make it easy to later retrieve that information. If this connection file is a modified copy of another connection file, it may be helpful to enter the name of the original file in this field for future
reference.
Category: The category is typically the information provider (such as Ovid or SilverPlatter), but you may enter anything that will
help you categorize and organize your connection files. The category information is also listed in the Connection Manager window
in the column next to the name of the file. In that window, you may sort connection files by category and also search for them by
category.
Created: The date the connection file was installed or created.
Last Modified: The date the connection file was last modified.
Comments and Limitations: Enter any useful comments here that would help you remember how to search the online database.
Limitations to preconfigured connection files may be documented here as well.
All of the information in this panel is visible in the Connection Manager if you click the More information option at the bottom of the
Connection Manager window. This is helpful because you do not need to edit a connection file to view the comments or other
descriptive information. You may scroll through the available connection files in the Connection Manager window and view the
information there.
Related Topics
Basic Components of a Connection File
Copying Connection Files
Creating Connection Files
Default Values for New Connection Files
Editing a Connection File
Filter Information
Search Attributes
The Connection File Window
The Connection Manager
The Connection Settings
Basic Components of a Connection File
Topics describing the basics of a connection file are listed below. This information is useful if you want to modify or create a connection file. To create a new connection file, see Creating Connection Files.
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Editing a Connection File
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The Connection File Window
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About This Connection Panel
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The Connection Settings
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Search Attributes
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Filter Information
Editing a Connection File
To edit a connection file:
1. From the Edit menu, select Connection Files and select Open Connection Manager.
2. Select the file to edit, and then click Edit.
The most recently used connection file can also be easily edited by selecting Connection Files from the Edit menu, and
selecting Edit <connection file>.
3. Make your changes to the connection file.
4. If you are editing one of the original, installed connection files:
a. From the File menu, select Save As (the Save command will not be available).
b. Name the file and click Save.
If you are editing a connection file that you created, select Save from the Edit menu.
EndNote saves the file in your personal Connections folder. For a description of where connection files are stored, see Folder
Locations Preferences.
Filter Information
The Filter section of the connection file contains the information used to import each reference and get the reference data into the
correct EndNote fields.
For most connection files, the filter is set up to interpret references in the MARC format. When you create a new connection file,
the Filter section will be set up to interpret references in a standard MARC21 format.
This part of the connection file is identical to the regular Import Filter window. For more information about editing a filter, consult
The Filter Manager and Working with Filter Templates.
If the retrieved references are not importing the way you would like, you should compare the filter settings of the connection file to
the original text that EndNote receives from the online database. To do so, select Show Connection Status from the Window
menu when retrieving references. Set the view in the Status window to show Record Data and compare the record data to what is
in the filter. This record data is also stored in the log file, Connection.log. By default, the Connection.log file is stored in the folder:
Windows XP: C:\Documents and Settings\User Name\Application
Windows Vista : C:\Users\User Name\
Windows 7 : C:\Users\User Name\
Windows 8 : C:\Users\User Name\
This file is a text file and may be opened in any word processor to view it.
To change the location of the Connect .log file, see URLs and Links Preferences.
The Connection File Window
After choosing the option to edit an existing connection file or create a new one, EndNote opens the Connection File window.
All of the different areas of the connection file are listed on the left side of the Connection File window. Click on an item to view
the associated settings. You may switch between panels as needed while editing the file. No changes are saved in any of the panels until you select Save or Save As from the File menu.
To close the Connection Editor window, select Close Connection from the File menu or click the close button in the top right
corner of the window.
Related Topics
About this Connection Panel
Basic Components of a Connection File
Creating Connection Files
Default Values for New Connection Files
The Connection Manager
The Connection Settings
Search Attributes
The Search Attributes section of a connection file contains a table that defines the various search options for a particular database.
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Search Field Name: The first column identifies the name of a search. This is the word or phrase that appears in the
menus in the Search dialog.
Use EndNote’s Generic field names as the search field names whenever possible. Doing so makes it easier to have a
search apply to various online sources and local EndNote libraries.
EndNote’s pre-configured connection files often use parenthetical text after the search field name to help describe the
search, if necessary. This parenthetical text is not considered part of the search field name when you change the focus of
the search and EndNote looks for a matching search field name. See Changing the Focus of the Search. Also see the
Generic reference type for a list of Generic field names.
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Attributes: The rest of the items in a particular row are the various search attributes that control what index is being used
for the search, and how the search term is interpreted.
What is an "attribute"?
A Z39.50 search attribute is a value used to define the characteristics of a search term. For example, if your search term is
"ebola virus," the various attributes would be sent to the server along with that term to tell the server where to look for "ebola
virus" and what qualifies as a matching reference.
Available attributes, as defined by the Z39.50 standard, are:
1. Use: The index to be searched (such as Keywords)
2. Relation: The relation of the search term to the index (such as equal, greater than, or less than)
3. Position: The position of the search term in the MARC record field (first, last, anywhere, and so on)
4. Structure: The structure of the term, such as a word or phrase
5. Truncation: Available truncation options used to interpret the search term (for example: right truncation, wildcards, no truncation)
6. Completeness: Indicates whether or not the search term should be the complete subfield in the MARC record corresponding to the field searched
The "Use" attribute is the most important here, indicating which index will be searched to find the search term. The other attributes will all have varying default values for each online database. These options are most often left blank to use the server’s
defaults, but the default attribute values can be overridden by entering another value for the attribute.
Each database has its own supported subset of Use attributes and associated combinations of the other attributes. Consult the
configuration information for the online database to determine which values for these attributes are supported. Thomson Reuters
does not provide this information. You will need to obtain it from the organization (or "information provider") that maintains the
server.
Tip for Editing Search Attributes
When modifying the search attributes in a connection file, it is useful to first test the search with the new attribute combination
before actually changing the connection file. You can do this by entering the new attribute values using the command-line search
method. This lets you test new attribute combinations without having to edit and save the connection file, and reconnect to the
server every time you want to test a modification.
Connection Settings
Click Connection Settings to view the panel where all the data is stored to establish a connection. The Connection Settings information is required for EndNote to be able to connect to the online database. These terms and descriptions are part of the Z39.50
standard.
Server Description: The name of the information provider or institution. EndNote displays this name in the title of the Retrieved
References window and it is also listed in the Connection Manager window. This information is not used to establish the connection.
Server Address: The server address for the online database. This can be either a numerical IP address or a domain name.
Database Description: The name of the online database. This name is displayed in the Title bar of the Retrieved References window to help you identify the database to which you are connected. It is not used to establish the connection.
Database Name: The command used to select the database on the remote server. This is often a four character code.
Element Set Name: This is normally F for Full or B for Brief. The Element Set Name determines the amount of information that is
provided by the server for each retrieved reference. Not all servers support both options, and the fields returned for each option
also vary.
Port ID: The TCP/ IP port at the server that is used for a Z39.50 connection. For most Z39.50 connections this is port 210.
Batch Download: EndNote typically retrieves references in batches, for speed and memory reasons. However, some servers
are too slow, or their record data is too large, to support batch downloads. You will need to turn batch processing off for such
sites. If you are having trouble downloading from a site, you can try deselecting this option.
Record Syntax: Many formats used by Z39.50 servers are supported by EndNote, such as UNIMARC (Universal Machine Readable Cataloging), SUTRS (Simple Unstructured Text Record Syntax), and OPAC (Online Public Access Catalog). When you
create a new connection file, it is set up for the MARC21 format. For other formats, the filter section for connection files must be
constructed manually. UNIMARC and OPAC use variations of the MARC format ( OPAC commonly adds holdings data). The
SUTRS format, because it is "unstructured," does not have a standard format among different databases. The SUTRS format
often uses tags (such as "AU" or "Author") to identify the reference data. Check with your database provider for the appropriate
settings.
Text: The Text option is used to specify how EndNote should interpret the incoming text characters. Options include ANSEL, Unicode (UTF-8), Unicode (UTF-16), and many other language choices. If you do not have the correct setting, extended characters
may import as asterisks, or may be dropped completely. Check with your database provider for the appropriate setting.
Login Information Required: This section is divided into four separate options: User ID, Password, Group ID, and Custom.
Select the options required to login to the online database in order to have EndNote prompt you for that information when you connect. You can also store your password and/or IDs in the connection file so that you do not have to enter them each time you connect. Simply type the password or ID into the box provided.
Note: Passwords and IDs may be saved in the connection file for convenience, but do so at your own risk: passwords are not
protected or encrypted. If someone else copies or uses your connection file, they will be able to use your stored password.
Custom ID Authentication String
Sometimes a database server requires a custom format for presenting the password and IDs. For these situations, you may skip
the regular password or ID option, check the "Custom" option, and enter the text specified by your server’s Z39.50 documentation. You may either enter your actual password and ID along with the text, or use one of the following placeholders to
have EndNote prompt you for the necessary items: ?PASSWORD, ? USERID, ? GROUPID.
For example, a system may require that passwords be presented by Z39.50 clients in the following manner:
pass=?PASSWORD/ dla_ui=yes
If you wanted to store your password ("abc123" for this example) it would look like this:
pass=abc123/ dla_ui=yes
Preferences
EndNote Preferences
The settings for configuring EndNote’s display, formatting preferences, and other options are organized in the Preferences section
of the EndNote program.
To access EndNote preferences:
1. From the Edit menu, select Preferences.
2. A list of the available preference panels appears on the left side of the window. Click on the name of a panel in the list that
corresponds to the setting you would like to change.
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Change Case
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Display Fields
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Display Fonts
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Duplicates
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Find Full Text
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Folder Locations
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Formatting
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Libraries
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PDF Handling
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Read / Unread
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Reference Types
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Sorting
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Sync
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Spell Check
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Temporary Citations
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Term Lists
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URLs & Links
Saving or Discarding Your Changes
All of the preferences panels have the following options:
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EndNote Defaults: Reverts the settings for just the current panel to the original EndNote settings.
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Revert Panel: Removes any changes made to the current panel since it was last saved.
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OK: Saves all changes to the preferences and closes the Preferences window.
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Cancel: Discards all changes to the preferences and closes the Preferences window.
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Apply: Saves and applies all changes to the preferences and keeps the Preferences window open so that you can continue
to modify the preferences as necessary.
Where Preference Settings are Saved
Most general preferences are saved in the Windows registry. This includes many EndNote Preferences, subject bibliography settings, and Cite While You Write settings. Some preferences are stored in user-specific folders; this allows multiple users to
access a single library while saving each user’s preferred settings. The preferences folders listed below store files such as the
connect.log file created during an online search, the RefTypeTable.xml file that contains reference type definitions, and a Search
folder that contains saved search strategies.
Windows XP: C:\Documents and Settings\User Name\Application Data\EndNote
Windows Vista: C:\ Users\User Name\ App Data\Roaming\EndNote
Windows 7: C:\ Users\User Name\ App Data\Roaming\EndNote
Windows 8: C:\ Users\User Name\ App Data\Roaming\EndNote
Cite While You Write Preferences
You can access the Cite While You Write preferences in one of three ways:
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From the EndNote tab in Word, select Preferences.
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On the EndNote toolbar in Word, click the Preferences icon.
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From the Tools > Cite While You Write menu, select CWYW Preferences.
Note: Your word processor must be open in order to access CWYW Preferences from the Tools menu in EndNote.
See also
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Application
EndNote Preferences
Figures and Tables in Word
General Preferences
Keyboard Shortcuts in Word
Related EndNote Preferences
Showing Word Processor Codes
EndNote Preferences
Change Case Preferences
EndNote styles can be configured to change the capitalization of the author names or titles. Use the Change Case preferences to
list the words that should not be modified when EndNote changes the case of titles. This can be used for special acronyms, equations, proper nouns, or compound names that require consistent capitalization.
For titles, this preference is used only when an output style is set up to apply "Headline style capitalization" or "Sentence style
capitalization" (rather than "Leave titles as entered").
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To add words to the list, enter the term in the text box at the top of the dialog, and then click Add.
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To remove an item from the list, select the term and click Remove.
Display Fields Preferences
Use the Display Fields preferences to choose which fields to display in EndNote’s Library window. These settings apply to all
libraries opened on the computer.
To access these settings, go to the Edit menu, select Preferences, and then click Display Fields in the list of preferences.
Select the desired field from each Field list. You may select up to ten fields to display in the Library window. To show fewer than
ten fields, select [Do not display] instead of a field name.
By default, the first column in the Library window displays a Read / Unread indicator followed by:
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File Attachments
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Author
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Year
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Title
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Rating
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Journal / Secondary Title
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Last Updated
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Reference Type
In most cases, the column heading in the Library window is the same as the Generic name of the field. Exceptions to this rule
include the Figure field, which is indicated by a figure icon fig. header and the File Attachments field, which is headed by a paper
clip icon. If you would like to change the name for the Library window display, enter a new name in the Heading column next to the
chosen field.
Display all authors in the Author field
If you would like to display all author names under the Author heading column in the library reference list, select the "Display all
authors in the Author field" check box. For all new installations, this is the default setting.
Display Fonts Preferences
The Display Fonts panel gives you the option of changing the fonts that EndNote uses to display much of the text throughout the
program.
To access these settings, go to the Edit menu, select Preferences, and then click Display Fonts in the list of preferences.
You can control the following display font settings:
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Library: The Library tab determines the font and size EndNote applies to the references listed in the Library window.
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General: The General tab determines the font EndNote applies when you enter text in a field in the Reference and Style
windows. It also determines the font EndNote applies to text that you view in the Preview panel and information panels or
when you print and copy bibliographic information from EndNote.
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Labels: The Labels tab determines the font and size EndNote applies to the Reference window field labels.
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Search: The Search tab determines the font and size EndNote applies when you enter text in a field on the Search panel.
Changes made to the display fonts apply to all EndNote libraries opened on that computer. They do not affect the font used when
you are formatting bibliographies in a word processing document. The normal font of the document is used for that.
EndNote uses Unicode to encode special characters, so that data can be easily translated between platforms, programs, and languages. However, some fonts do not include certain Unicode characters. If some characters do not display correctly in your EndNote library, we recommend switching the display font to a Unicode font or installing the appropriate language pack.
Related Topics
Cite While You Write Preferences
Displaying Extended/Special Characters
Duplicates Preferences
The Duplicates preferences panel sets criteria for the Find Duplicates command on the References menu (that command is
described in Finding Duplicate References). These settings are also used to highlight or discard duplicate references when retrieving references from an online database.
To access these settings, go to the Edit menu, select Preferences, and click Duplicates in the list of preferences.
Compare References
By default, EndNote identifies duplicate references in a library as references of the same reference type with matching Author,
Year, and Title fields. Use this panel to customize the way EndNote identifies duplicate references.
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To select the fields that EndNote should compare when finding duplicate references, click in the check boxes to the left of the
field names.
The "Generic" names of the fields are used here. For details about what the Generic field names correspond to for each reference
type, see List of Reference Types. You may select as many fields as you want to make the duplicate detection more or less stringent.
Criteria Panel
You may also set the "Criteria" to have EndNote compare the fields and look for an exact match or be more lenient in the comparison and ignore spacing and punctuation.
Online Search Results Panel
When you select the “Automatically discard duplicates” check box, EndNote automatically discards duplicate references when
retrieving references from an online database. The duplicates are never inserted into the library. This setting applies when you perform a search in Integrated Library Mode or Online Search Mode.
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If you are using Integrated Library & Online Search Mode when performing an online database search, it applies to the permanent All References library.
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If you are using Online Search Mode when performing an online database search, it applies to the temporary Online References library.
Note: These settings do not apply to the "Merge Duplicates in Bibliography" setting defined in Formatting Preferences. The duplicates are never inserted into the bibliography.
Related Topics:
Discarding Duplicate Reference
Finding Duplicate References
Find Full Text Preferences
This panel allows you control over which sites, services, and technology EndNote uses when attempting to find the full text for a
reference. You can limit the options in order to speed up the Find Full Text operation.
To access these settings, go to the Edit menu, select Preferences, and then click Find Full Text in the list of preferences.
The check boxes determine which pieces of information will be used from your EndNote references. These represent unique identifiers for locating exact reference matches.
If your institution allows access to an OpenURL server, you can configure this panel to allow EndNote access to the site. Select
the OpenURL check box, and enter the OpenURL path to direct to the online site. If the site requires authentication to verify that
you are allowed access, you can enter an Authentication URL. The Authentication URL directs to the site’s login page. When you
attempt to Find Full Text, you will be directed to that page to enter authentication information (typically a user ID and password).
To learn more about using the Find Full Text feature and about adding access to your institution’s library, see Finding Full Text for
a Reference.
Related Topics
Finding Related Online References
Linking a File to an EndNote Reference
Opening a Linked File or URL
Folder Locations Preferences
The Folder Locations preferences panel is where you set the personal folder locations for new or modified styles, import filters,
and connection files.
To access these settings, go to the Edit menu, select Preferences, and then click Folder Locations in the list of preferences.
The many styles, filters, and connection files provided with EndNote are installed in the Styles, Filters, and Connections folders
which are located in the EndNote program folder.
C:\Program Files\EndNote X7 \Styles
C:\Program Files\EndNote X7 \Filters
C:\Program Files\EndNote X7 \Connections
When you display a list of styles, filters, or connection files in EndNote, the list is compiled from two locations: the installation
folders listed above and your personal folders.
Note: To change the default installation folder for the provided styles, filters, an connection files, see Changing the Default Content File Location .
Initially, your personal folders do not exist; they are created once you create a new file or save changes to an existing file. For
example, when you open an existing style and make changes, you cannot Save, but must select Save As. You can give the file
the same name or a modified name, but the file is saved to your personal Styles folder. The next time you view a list of output
styles, you will see your modified style. If you gave the file a different name than the original file, both are listed. If you gave the
file the same name as the original, you will see the modified style listed, and not the original file, although it still resides in the program folder.
Why do we bother with personal folders? Why not change or add to the installation folders? We implemented personal folders so
that:
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If you reinstall EndNote for some reason, you will not overwrite a modified file with the same name. (We know you may
have spent hours getting your file just right, and do not want to risk losing your work.)
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When you upgrade to a newer version of EndNote, you will not delete a new or modified file.
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When you download EndNote program updates, you will not overwrite a modified file.
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You can write protect a shared program folder, yet still use your own customized styles, filters, and connection files.
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You must have administrative rights to modify files in the Program Files folder. For many users, this is not an option, or not
easily done. For users running Windows Vista, making changes to files in the Program Files folder is restricted.
By default, your personal folders are set to:
Windows XP:
C:\Documents and Settings\User Name\My Documents\EndNote\Styles
C:\Documents and Settings\User Name\My Documents\EndNote\Filters
C:\Documents and Settings\User Name\My Documents\EndNote\Connections
Windows Vista:
C:\ Users\User Name\ Documents\EndNote\Styles
C:\ Users\User Name\ Documents\EndNote\Filters
C:\ Users\User Name\ Documents\EndNote\Connections
Windows 7 and Windows 8:
C:\ Users\User Name\ Documents\EndNote\Styles
C:\ Users\User Name\ Documents\EndNote\Filters
C:\ Users\User Name\ Documents\EndNote\Connections
To change your personal folder locations:
1. From the Edit menu, select Preferences.
2. Click on Folder Locations.
3. To change a folder location, click the Select Folder button.
4. Select or open the folder that you would like to designate as the new Style, Filter, or Connection folder, and then click
Select Folder.
Formatting Preferences
The Formatting preferences panel allows you to control the formatting of bibliography entries in a word processor and whether EndNote automatically omits duplicate references from a bibliography.
To access these settings, go to the Edit menu, select Preferences, and then select Formatting from the list of preferences.
Suggest formatting with EndNote’s Cite While You Write if the document type is supported
While the Format Paper feature for RTF files can be used on most word processor files, we recommend that you always use Cite
While You Write for Microsoft Word documents. It is much easier and allows more control and options to give you the exact output you want.
When this item is selected, and you attempt to use Format Paper on a document that could be formatted with Cite While You
Write, a message will appear recommending that you use Cite While You Write. You still use Format Paper if you wish.
Omit Author and/or Year from Formatted Citation if Removed from Temporary Citation
EndNote’s default behavior is to remove the author or year from the formatted citation if you remove either of those items from a
temporary (unformatted) citation. For example, "{, 1999 #24}" would format as just "(1999)" when using a style that creates
(Author, Year) citations. If you prefer to type just the record number into your papers as the temporary citation, you should turn this
preference off so EndNote will not remove the author and year from all of your formatted citations.
Merge Duplicates in Bibliography
When you select this option, EndNote automatically omits duplicate references from a bibliography. Use this option if you are citing references from multiple EndNote libraries in one paper. In this situation, the same article reference might appear in two
libraries and would have two different record numbers. EndNote will not identify the records as duplicates unless you have this
option set to merge duplicates.
When you select this option, EndNote checks the bibliography for duplicate references during the formatting process. If duplicates are found, they are removed. References are considered duplicates if they are the same reference type (such as Journal
Article or Book) and the following fields are identical: Author, Year, Title, Secondary Title (Journal, Newspaper, Magazine, Book
Title, Series Title, Conference Name, and so on), Volume, Issue, and Pages.
Note: The Duplicates Preferences settings do not apply to this feature. The criteria for determining duplicates is fixed for the
"Merge Duplicates in Bibliography" setting.
Related Topics
Cite While You Write Preferences
Omitting Authors or Years from Citations
Libraries Preferences
To access these settings, go to the Edit menu, select Preferences, and then click Libraries in the list of preferences.
Choosing a Library to Open
Use the Libraries preferences section to specify which libraries should open by default when you start EndNote. First, use the
drop-down list to choose from these options:
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Open the most recently used library
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Open the specified libraries
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Prompt to select a library
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Do nothing
If you opt to “Open the specified libraries,” you must list those specified libraries here. To add a library to the list:
1. If the library is not already open, close the preferences dialog and open the library. Do this by selecting Open from the File
menu, and then selecting the desired library.
2. Return to the Libraries section of the Preferences dialog, and click Add Open Libraries to add all open libraries to the list.
To remove a library from this list, select it in the Libraries panel, and then click Remove Library.
Of course, once EndNote is started, you can always open a library by selecting Open from the File menu.
Displaying the Library Name with Each Reference
Click the "Show Library Name in Reference Window" check box if you want the library name to appear at the top of each Reference window.
PDF Handling Preferences
PDF Handling preferences allow you to define the automatic renaming process of PDF documents that you want to import to an
EndNote library. These settings only apply to the renaming of PDF documents that have relative attachment links.
To access these settings, go to the Edit menu, select Preferences, and then select PDF Handling from the list of preferences.
The renaming process works in the background when you open an EndNote library and while you are working in a library. The product imports all PDFs in your Auto Import Folder and stores them in a group called Imported References in the Groups panel.
We recommend that you move the references to a group within your EndNote library. If you do not move the references, EndNote
will create an Unfiled group to store the references the next time you open an EndNote session.
Auto Renaming Options
Select an auto-renaming option.
Don't Rename: This is the default option. EndNote does not rename a PDF when you import the file into the product.
Author + Year + Title: EndNote uses these fields as the first, second, and third fields in the PDF filename.
Author + Title: EndNote uses these fields as the first and second fields in the PDF filename.
Author + Year: EndNote uses these fields as the first and second fields in the PDF filename.
Title: EndNote uses only the Title field in the PDF filename.
Custom Option
The Custom option allows you to create a personalized method of renaming PDF documents.
A Rename Options dialog opens when you select this radio button. The dialog lets you choose up to three fields (or
None) in the PDF filename. For example, you can select:
Author, Year, Title (default setting)
or
Title, Author, Year
or
Title, Year
or
You can select any combination of fields from the menu. However, you cannot select the following fields.
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Figure
File Attachments
Last Updated
Rating
Read Status
Note: Check the text box below the Custom radio button after you have made your selections from the dialog to
ensure that you selected the needed fields.
PDF Auto Import Folder
Select the "Enable automatic importing" check box to enable automatic importing of your PDFs.
Select the folder from where you want EndNote to import your PDFs into your library. Download or copy your PDF
files to this folder for automatic importing and renaming.
After EndNote runs the import operation, EndNote creates a subfolder called Import within the Auto Import Folder.
EndNote also imports a copy of each PDF to this folder.
Keep in mind that EndNote does not import PDFs from subfolders within the Auto Import Folder.
File Renaming Conventions
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Files names - 50 character maximum count and includes the period (.) and filename extension
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15 character maximum count per field
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Year Field - 4 character limit
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Use a dash (-) to separate fields
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Use an underscore (_) for any characters that you cannot represent
EndNote replaces the following characters with an underscore (_) during the renaming process.
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Quotation Mark ( " )
Asterisk ( * )
Slash Mark ( / )
Colon ( : )
Left Angle Bracket ( < )
Right Angle Bracket ( > )
Question Mark ( ? )
Backslash ( \ )
Vertical Bar ( | )
File Naming Rules
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You can rename a PDF document at any time by selecting a reference containing a PDF attachment, and then selecting
from the References menu, File Attachments > Rename PDF.
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If a PDF file name exceeds the 50 character limit, then EndNote truncates the file name during the renaming process.
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EndNote supports non-English characters as they appear in the author, title, and custom fields.
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Unicode characters are accepted during the renaming process.
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If you select Author-Year-Title renaming, and the PDF document does not have a year, EndNote inserts a hyphen (-) between
the author name and the title to replace the missing year data.
Import File and Import Folder Options
EndNote renames all PDF documents that you import via the Import File and Import Folders commands based on your current
renaming preferences.
For example, if you define renaming as Author+Title, then EndNote renames the PDF by author name and title and ignores the
date of the published work.
This rule also applies to Custom preference settings.
Related Topics
Importing PDF Files to Create New References
Importing PDF Folder to Create New References
Selecting a Relative Path or an Absolute Path for File Attachments
Read / Unread Preferences
Use these settings to apply Read or Unread status tags to your references in order to track your research.
To access these settings, go to the Edit menu, select Preferences, and then click Read / Unread in the list of preferences.
Mark a reference as read upon viewing it in a stand-alone Reference window
By default, EndNote changes the status of a reference from Unread to Read after you view a reference in the Reference window.
If you clear the check box, the status of an Unread reference remains the same after you view a reference in the Reference window.
Mark a reference as read upon viewing it in the Reference, PDF, or Preview within the Library window
By default, EndNote changes the status of a reference from Unread to Read after you view a reference in the Reference (Quick
Edit), Preview, and PDF Viewer panels.
If you clear the check box, the status of an Unread reference remains the same after you view a reference in the Reference, Preview, or PDF Viewer panels.
Mark a reference as read upon changing its rating
If you select this check box, EndNote changes the status of a reference from Unread to Read after you change the Rating of the
reference from the reference list or the Reference window.
If you clear the check box, the status of an Unread reference remains the same after you change the Rating of the reference.
Library Window
Clear the "Show unread references in bold text" check box to view all your references in normal text. The default value shows all
unread references in bold text.
Read / Unread Features
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All new references are marked as Unread by default.
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By default, the first column in the Library window displays a Read or Unread indicator. You can change the order of the fields in
the column headings of the Library window. See Display Fields Preferences for more information.
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Each reference has either a Read or an Unread status. Clicking the Unread button changes the state to Read. Clicking the
Read button changes the state to Unread.
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EndNote automatically saves the status of a reference whenever you change the status from Read to Unread or viceversa.
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You can select multiple references from the reference list and change the status of the selected references from Read to
Unread or vice-versa.
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A reference changes to an Unread status if you edit a field in either the Reference panel or the Reference window.
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In the Library window, the text of a reference with an Unread status appears in bold. The text of a reference with a Read
status appears in normal font.
Reference Types Preferences
Use the Reference Types preferences panel to customize your settings for the fields (such as Author, Year, and Title) and reference types (such as Journal Article or Book) that are used by EndNote. Any changes that you make in this panel apply to all of
the libraries that open on the computer.
To access these settings, go to the Edit menu, select Preferences, and then click Reference Types in the list of preferences.
Default Reference Type
When you create a new reference in your EndNote library (by selecting New from the References menu), the new reference is set
up for a journal article by default. If you would rather have new references automatically appear as books, patents, or some other
reference type, change the "Default Reference Type" setting:
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Click the Default Reference Type list and choose from one of the available reference types.
If you need a reference type that is not in the list, you will need to create a reference type for it and define it yourself (see Customizing Reference Types).
Defining Reference Types
If you need to modify any of EndNote’s fields or reference types, click the Modify Reference Types button. This opens the EndNote Reference Types preference where you can add, delete, and rename EndNote’s reference types and fields.
See Customizing Reference Types for more information about reference types and how to customize them.
See Find and Replace for information about changing a reference type.
Reference Type Table
You can use the Export and Import buttons to share a customized reference type table with another EndNote user. See Sharing
Your Reference Type Table for step-by-step instructions.
Note: Replacing another user's RefTypeTable.xml file overwrites all changes to his/her current Reference Types table.
Related Topics
About the Predefined Reference Types
List of Reference Types
Sorting Preferences
When EndNote sorts author names and titles, you can identify what words or names to ignore for sorting purposes.
To access these settings, go to the Edit menu, select Preferences, and then click Sorting in the list of preferences.
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To add a word to be ignored by sorting, enter the term in the text box below either the "Author Field" or the"Title Field" and
click Add.
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To remove a word from either list, select the term and click Remove.
Click EndNote Defaults to revert both lists to the default settings.
Note: If the term you enter appears as the only word in an Author or Title field, it will not be ignored as a stop word, and EndNote
will use the word for sorting.
Author Field
The Author Field list is designed so that you may enter parts of author names that may be omitted for sorting purposes. For example, prepositions in names such as "von," "van," and "de" are included as part of the last name, but not considered part of the
name for sorting purposes. The entries in the Author Field list are case sensitive; that is, if you enter "von" it applies only to "von"
and not "Von."
For contractions, do not enter the apostrophe in the stop list. So, for the author name D’Angelo, you could enter D to the stop list,
without the apostrophe, to sort the name as Angelo.
These settings apply to the Generic fields for Author, Secondary Author, Tertiary Author, and Subsidiary Author. No names are
entered by default.
Title Field
When terms are added to the Title Field list, the sorting routine ignores them when they appear at the start of the title. Capitalization does not matter for these words. That is, the word "the" can be entered (lowercase) and still apply to "The."
For contractions, do not enter the apostrophe in the stop list. So, for the term " l'avenir" you would enter "L" to the stop list, without
the apostrophe, to sort as " avenir."
These settings apply to the Generic fields for Title, Secondary Title (includes the Journal field), Tertiary Title, Short Title, and Alternate Title. The words "a," "an," and "the" are entered as defaults.
Note: When you close the Preference panel and return to your library list, you must resort your references to build a new sort that
uses your revised list.
See also Sorting the Library
Spell Check Preferences
On the Spell Check preferences panel, you can set general spell check Options and select or modify Dictionaries. For general
information about how to start spell checking a record, see Starting Spell Check.
To access these settings, go to the Edit menu, select Preferences, and then click Spell Check in the list of preferences.
General Options
You can access these Spell Check Options from the EndNote Preferences Spell Check panel or from the dialog that appears
when you run Spell Check. Click the Options button.
1. Select the check box next to each item you want to apply during spell checking.
2. Select a Main Dictionary language from the list of available dictionaries.
For each language, EndNote uses a combination of dictionary files located in EndNote’s Spell folder. Select your primary
language. If you want to apply additional language dictionaries, see Adding an Existing Dictionary below.
3. Decide how fast and accurate you want spell checking to work.
4. Click OK to save the changes.
Modifying Dictionaries
You can access the Dictionaries preferences from the EndNote Preferences Spell Check panel or from the dialog that appears
when you run Spell Check. Click the Dictionaries button.
Use this dialog to view or edit the content of existing dictionaries, to add existing dictionaries for use, to create new dictionaries,
and to remove dictionaries. The dictionaries listed under Files are currently in use (in addition to the Main Dictionary selected
under Options).
To modify dictionaries:
1. Under Files, select the dictionary file you want to view or modify.
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If it is already in the list, select it.
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If you need to locate an existing file to use, use the Add File button to locate the file on your computer and add it to the list.
By default, dictionaries are kept in EndNote’s Spell folder.
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To create a new dictionary, click New File.
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To remove a dictionary, display the file name in the list and click Remove File. This removes a dictionary from use, but
does not delete the actual disk file.
2. The words in the selected dictionary appear in the top list.
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To add a word to the selected dictionary, type it under Words and click Add Word.
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To delete a word from the selected dictionary, select the word and click Delete Word.
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To change the Action applied to a word, select the word and then pick the new Action from the list.
Adding an Existing Dictionary
You may have selected English (or a different language) as your Main Dictionary Language, but want to apply an additional language during spell checking.
1. On the Dictionaries dialog, click the Add File button.
2. In EndNote’s Spell folder, locate the dictionary file you want to use and Open it. The dictionary is added to the list under
Files.
Importing/Exporting a Dictionary
The Dictionaries dialog includes Import and Export buttons.
Use Import to locate and import a plain text file of terms into the current dictionary. The text file should contain a list of terms, with
each term on its own line. If you are typing the list into a text file, make sure each term is followed by a carriage return, including
the last term in the list. If you are creating the list in a word processor, make sure to use Save As to save the file as plain text. If
your terms contain extended characters, save with the Unicode (UTF-8) encoding option.
Use Export to save all terms from a dictionary to a plain text file, where each term starts on a new line.
Dictionaries Supplied with EndNote
These dictionaries are supplied with EndNote. When you select the main dictionary language, a combination of files are loaded,
including files not listed here.
When you want to add additional languages, find the Dictionary you want to use from the left column, then look for the corresponding File Name. When you Add a dictionary, look for the appropriate File Name in EndNote’s Spell folder.
Dictionary List
Dictionary
User Dictionary: Contains English words
User Dictionary: Contains common English misspellings and
their correct replacements for auto correction
User Dictionary: Sample user dictionary
American English
American English Medical
British English
British English Medical
Danish
Dutch
Finnish
French (European and Canadian)
German
Italian
Norwegian (Bokmal)
Portuguese (Brazilian)
File Name
accent.tlx
correct.tlx
userdic.tlx
ssceam.tlx
sscema.tlx
sscebr.tlx
sscemb.tlx
ssceda.tlx
sscedu.tlx
sscefi.tlx
sscefr.tlx
sscege.tlx
ssceit.tlx
sscenb.tlx
sscepb.tlx
Portuguese (Iberian)
Spanish
Swedish
sscepo.tlx
sscesp.tlx
sscesw.tlx
Related Topics
Spell Checking
Starting Spell Check
Sync Preferences
This dialog saves subscription credentials and sync settings to automate the process of synchronizing your EndNote library with
your EndNote Web library.
Sync Preferences allow you to set your preferences so that:
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You only have to enter your e-mail address and password once in Sync Preferences and not each time you manually synchronize your references between EndNote and EndNote Web.
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You can have EndNote automatically begin the Sync process every 15 minutes (background processing) by selecting the
Sync Automatically check box.
You must first register and have an active EndNote Web account to initiate the Sync process. Registration is fast and easy and
activates your two-year EndNote Web account. When completed, EndNote automatically proceeds with the Sync process and
updates your new EndNote Web library to match the groups in your EndNote library.
To access Sync Preferences, go to the Edit menu, select Preferences, and then click Sync in the list of preferences.
Enable Sync Button
Your purchase of EndNote entitles you to a two-year free subscription to EndNote Web—our online version of EndNote desktop.
I Already Have an EndNote Web Account
1. Click the Enable Sync button to go to an EndNote Web Login dialog.
2. Enter your e-mail address.
3. Enter your EndNote Web password.
4. Press OK.
Since you already have an EndNote Web account, EndNote populates the fields on the Sync Preferences page with the e-mail
address and password that you entered on the EndNote Web Login dialog. Later you can change the data in these fields if you
ever change your e-mail address or password.
I Do Not Have an EndNote Web Account
If you do not have an EndNote Web account, then you must create one. Registration is fast and easy and activates your two-year
EndNote Web account when completed.
1. Click the Enable Sync button to go to an EndNote Web Login dialog.
2. Click the Sign Up button to go to a User Registration dialog.
3. Enter your e-mail address in the User Registration dialog. Retype your e-mail address, and then click the Continue button.
4. Enter your personal information in the required fields on the next User Registration form. For example, enter your name, a
password, a title, and fill in the remaining fields.
5. Click the I Agree button to complete the registration process and to begin synchronizing your EndNote Web library with your
EndNote library.
Once you create your EndNote Web account, EndNote populates the fields on the Sync Preferences page with your e-mail
address and password that you entered during registration. Later you can change the data in these fields if you ever change your
e-mail address or password.
Note: We recommend that you create a compressed library backup the first time that you initiate the Sync process. See Saving
a Compressed Copy of a Library for more information.
See The Library Window for information on how to initiate the Sync process from the library toolbar.
EndNote Web Account Credentials Panel
Once you register and activate your EndNote Web account, you can edit the fields in the EndNote Web Account Credentials
panel.
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Enter your e-mail address. EndNote uses your e-mail address to verify your identification.
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Enter your EndNote Web password.
EndNote uses these credentials to access your EndNote Web library. Once you save this information, you will not have to enter it
again. EndNote saves the information until the next time you access Sync Preferences and decide to make changes.
Sync this EndNote Library Panel
This field contains the name of the EndNote library that you have synchronized with your EndNote Web library. You cannot edit
this field.
If this field is blank when you first access Sync Preferences, EndNote will populate the field with the path and file name of the currently opened EndNote library after you run Sync.
Note: You can always change the name of the library in this field by opening another library from the EndNote window. Click the
Sync button to complete the process. The name of the opened library will appear in this field.
Note: This field is not active until you register and create an EndNote Web account.
Sync Automatically Check Box
The Sync process works automatically in the background (every 15 minutes) when you select this check box.
When you close EndNote, the system prompts you to Sync your EndNote library with your EndNote Web library.
EndNote Defaults / Revert Panel
See EndNote Preferences for a description of the EndNote Defaults and Revert Panel buttons.
Related Topics
Overview of EndNote Web
Overview of the Sync Process
Resolve Sync Conflicts
Setting up an EndNote Web Account
Temporary Citations Preferences
To access these settings, go to the Edit menu, select Preferences, and then click Temporary Citations in the list of preferences.
A "temporary citation" is an unformatted citation that EndNote inserts into your word processing document when you use the Find
Citation(s) or Insert Citation(s) command from Word’s Tools menu, or when you copy and paste a citation into a document. You
can also type temporary citations into your document. The temporary citation is a placeholder that EndNote later changes to a formatted citation, such as (Smith Jones, 1999).
By default a temporary citation includes the first author’s last name, the year, and the EndNote record number, enclosed in curly
braces:
{Smith, 1999 #24}
If necessary, you can change the temporary citation delimiters using the settings in this panel.
Temporary Citation Delimiters
Curly braces are used by default to indicate the start and end of each temporary citation. If you commonly use curly braces in your
writing, you might want to select a different pair of markers for EndNote to use as Temporary Citation Delimiters.
Enter the desired markers into the appropriate boxes at the top of the Temporary Citations preferences panel.
Note: If you will be using EndNote Web to Cite While You Write, you must use the default curly braces as citation delimiters.
Record Number Marker
The number sign (#) always precedes the record number in an EndNote temporary citation. You may change this by entering
another character in the Record Number Marker box.
The EndNote record number is a unique number assigned to each reference as it is added to a library. The number is specific to
that reference in that particular library. If you are collaborating with other writers who have their own EndNote libraries (or do not
have an EndNote library at all), you might find it easier to replace the Record Number in the temporary citation with something that
uniquely identifies the reference but is not specific to your EndNote library. To do so, select the "Use field instead of record
number" option and select from the Label field, the Accession Number field, or the Pages field.
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The Label field can be used to manually enter any unique code that you would like to use for each record.
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The Accession Number field is designed to contain the unique record number assigned to a reference from an online database.
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The Pages field can contain a unique page number or another unique number for each record.
Note: If you have selected the Label, Accession Number, or Pages field, and that field is empty in a particular reference, the Record Number will appear in the temporary citation.
Citation Prefix Marker
The Citation Prefix Marker separates prefix text in a citation from the citation itself. For example, if you wanted a citation formatted as:
(see also Smith, 1999)
you would enter the text into the temporary citation as follows, with the "\" indicating the end of the prefix text and the start of the
citation:
{see also \Smith, 1999 #24}
If you prefer to use a different character as the Citation Prefix Delimiter, you may enter it in this preferences panel. Semicolons (;),
letters, numbers, and characters already used as other delimiters may not be used for the Citation Prefix Delimiter.
Note: When you use Cite While You Write’s Edit Citation command to add prefix text, the Citation Prefix Marker is automatically
inserted as part of the temporary citation.
Including Notes in the List of References
Some journal styles (such as Science) permit you to include notes with the list of works cited at the end of the document. In such
a system, the notes are numbered just like the citations, and included in the reference list in the order of appearance, just like the
references.
To identify text to be included as a numbered note in the reference list:
1. Type the text into the body of your document where you would want the number for the note to appear.
2. Be sure to surround the entire section of text with your Temporary Citation Delimiters (curly braces by default), and begin it
with "NOTE:". For example:
{NOTE: The authors would like to acknowledge
the support of...}
When the paper is formatted by EndNote using a numbered style, the text is assigned a number and listed along with the references at the end of the paper.
The way that these notes are identified may be changed in the Temporary Citations preferences. Enter a prefix that you would like
to use to signal that the text should be treated as a note.
Restrictions on the Use of the "NOTE" Feature
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This feature requires that a numbered style be used for the formatting; otherwise, the note will be left as it was entered in
the body of the text.
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Enter text only. Do not attempt to insert graphics, equations, or symbols as note text.
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Do not use the temporary citation delimiters as part of the text of the note. Other markers, such as the record number
marker and the prefix marker and the multiple citation separator may be used.
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These types of notes cannot be combined with regular temporary citations within the same set of brackets. They should be
cited separately—each in its own set of brackets.
Related Topics
Cite While You Write Preferences
Components of a Temporary Citation
Notes About Temporary Citations
Term Lists Preferences
To access these settings, go to the Edit menu, select Preferences, and click on Term Lists in the list of preferences.
By default, every new EndNote library has three term lists associated with it: Authors, Journals, and Keywords. The term lists are
automatically updated as you enter references into your library. The terms in these lists are also used to facilitate data entry using
the "Suggest Terms as You Type" feature. This feature suggests terms as you type into fields with term lists linked to them. For
example, as you type into the Author field, EndNote suggests author names from your Authors term list to help you with data
entry. When you enter a new term that is not currently in the associated term list, it appears in red text to indicate that it is a new
term. This can point out typing mistakes or the use of an incorrect keyword if you thought you were entering a name or a term commonly used in your library.
Any of the term list settings described above can be turned off using the settings for the Term Lists preferences.
Suggest Terms as You Type (Auto-Completion)
When selected, EndNote will automatically complete matching terms when you are typing into a field that is linked to a term list
(see Inserting Terms into References).
If you turn this feature off, you may still insert terms into a field by opening the desired term list from the Tools menu and doubleclicking the desired term.
Update lists when importing or pasting references
When this option is selected, the term lists are automatically updated as you import references (using the Import command from
the File menu), drag-and-drop references, or Paste references in to your library. If you turn this option off, you can always manually update your term lists by selecting Define Term Lists from the Tools menu, highlighting a term list, and clicking Update List
(see Manually Updating Term Lists).
Update lists during data entry
When this option is selected, the term lists are automatically updated as you type in new reference data. If you turn this option off,
you can always manually update your term lists by selecting Define Term Lists from the Tools menu, highlighting a term list, and
clicking Update List (see Manually Updating Term Lists).
URLs & Links Preferences
To access these settings, go to the Edit menu, select Preferences, and click on URLs & Links in the list of preferences.
Connection Log File
When you use the Online Search command to connect to an online database, EndNote keeps a copy of all of the retrieved references for that session in the connection log file (the file name is "Connect.log"). This happens by default, but you may turn this
option off by clearing the "Use Log File" option.
We recommend keeping the option turned on because in the event that the references were not correctly retrieved or filtered into
EndNote, you can always adjust the filter in the connection file, and import the Connect ion .log file instead of redoing the search
and download (see General Importing Instructions).
By default, the Connection.log file is stored in the folder:
Windows XP: C:\Documents and Settings\User Name\Application Data\EndNote
Windows Vista: C:\Users\User Name\AppData\Roaming\EndNote
Windows 7: C:\Users\User Name\App Data\Roaming\EndNote
Windows 8: C:\Users\User Name\App Data\Roaming\EndNote
You may change the name and the location of the Connect.log file by clicking the Choose button. In the dialog that appears, enter
a new name for the file (if desired), and select the new location for the file.
ISI Base URL
When you export references from Web of Science to EndNote, EndNote creates a "Go to ISI" link in the URL field of each reference. These links take you back to the source record where you can find related references, times cited, and other information.
If you have upgraded from an earlier version of EndNote, you may need to click EndNote Defaults to update the ISI Base URL to
the latest setting
If your institution uses a locally mounted version of Web of Science, you should enter the URL for that server here in EndNote’s
ISI Base URL preference. Otherwise, the links in references downloaded from Web of Science will take you to the main Web of
Science server where you might not have access.
OpenURL Arguments
The URL > OpenURL Link command on the References menu starts your default web browser and displays the full text article (if
available) plus a list of links to similar articles. It connects to an OpenURL standard syntax server and uses these OpenURL preferences along with data in your EndNote record to find related online references.
Note: This command has no relation to the URL field found in EndNote references or the URL > Open Link command on the References menu (which opens the specific URL found in the URL field).
We include a default argument to search for related online records. You can use this argument as a syntax example if you wish to
enter your own arguments here.
Note: Remember, you can revert back to the EndNote defaults at any time by clicking EndNote Defaults.
Attached Files
When you select File Attachments > Attach File from the References menu to insert a link to a file, you have two options available
to you. You can:
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Insert the file as a relative link.
In this case, EndNote makes a copy of the original file and places it in the DATA\PDF folder that is part of your EndNote
database. EndNote will always be able to access the file, even when you share your database with a colleague. However,
if you edit the original file on your computer, those changes will not be reflected in EndNote. You would need to clear the
file from your EndNote reference and reinsert the file.
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Insert the file with an absolute path.
In this case, EndNote will always look in the original folder for the inserted file. This can be helpful if you plan to edit the
original file, and you want those changes reflected when you access the file from within EndNote. However, if you ever
move the file from the original folder, EndNote will not be able to access it unless you clear the file from your EndNote reference and reinsert it from the new folder location. If you send your database to a colleague, the file will not be available.
By default, the check box titled "Copy new file attachments to the default file attachment folder and create a relative link" is
selected, so that EndNote will copy linked files to the DATA\PDF folder. You can deselect this box in order to save absolute
paths. You can always override this default setting on the file dialog when you are inserting a file.
Find Full Text always saves files to the default attachment folder and creates relative links.
Related Topics
Finding Related Online References
Linking a File to an EndNote Reference
Opening a Linked File or URL
Cite While You Write Preferences
General Preferences (Microsoft Word)
General preferences are useful when you always use your EndNote library along with your word processor and you always use
your word processor along with your EndNote library.
To access General preferences, go to Word's Tools > EndNote menu and select Cite While You Write Preferences.
Open EndNote When Starting Word: Select this item to always open EndNote when you start Microsoft Word.
Close EndNote When Leaving Word: Select this item to always close EndNote when you leave Microsoft Word. This works
only when the EndNote program was launched with one of the Cite While You Write commands from within Word or if the Open
EndNote When Starting Word preference is selected.
Return to Document After Inserting Citations: Select this item to always make your document the active window after inserting citations with EndNote’s Insert Selected Citation(s) command. If this preference is turned off so that the Word document
remains in the background, you will not see the inserted citation in the Word document until the document becomes the active window. This is because the display for the Word document is not updated in the background.
Enable Instant Formatting on new Word documents: This option is available for Cite While You Write. It turns Instant Formatting on or off for new Word documents. When you enable Instant Formatting, you can also determine how often EndNote
scans for temporary citations and whether it checks for citation changes in existing citations.
To turn instant formatting on or off in an existing Word document, see Instant Formatting.
Turn off Word’s “Show field codes instead of their values” option when opening or updating documents that include
citations: EndNote uses extensive Word field codes in order to identify and format citations. When field codes are displayed,
your document can look confusing! See Field Codes in Word for more information and an example.
We recommend that you not view field codes in Word. This option ensures that you will see appropriate text in your document.
Related Topics
Cite While You Write Preferences
EndNote Preferences
Showing Word Processor Codes
Keyboard Preferences (Microsoft Word)
Keyboard shortcuts for EndNote’s Cite While You Write commands are available in Word.
To add or change a keyboard shortcut:
1. From the EndNote tab in Word, select Preferences .
2. Click the Keyboard tab.
3. From the list of commands, select the command for which you would like to add (or change) a shortcut.
4. Under "Press new shortcut key," enter the new shortcut key combination on the keyboard.
5. Click Assign to assign the new shortcut.
Follow the same steps to remove an assigned shortcut key, except click Remove instead of Assign.
Click Reset All to remove custom key assignments.
Related Topics
Cite While You Write Preferences
CWYW Keyboard Commands
Editing Keyboard Commands in EndNote
Menu Keyboard Commands in EndNote
Shortcuts to Make Using EndNote Easier
Showing Word Processor Codes
Figures and Tables Preferences (Microsoft Word)
Use settings in the output style to determine whether images are placed in-text or at the end of the document, where captions and
labels are located, and separation and punctuation around images and captions. See Figures and Tables.
The figures and tables settings in Microsoft Word override settings from the current output style. If your output style is set to print
figures and tables in a list at the end of the document, the settings on this tab are ignored. However, if your output style is set to
print figures and tables in-text, you can use this tab to override settings when you have moved figures around in your document
and want to retain their placement.
To customize the in-text placement of EndNote figures and tables in Word.
1. From the EndNote tab, select Preferences.
2. Select the Figures and Tables tab.
3. Select the appropriate radio button to:
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Place each figure or table directly after the paragraph where it is first referenced, or
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When re-generating figures, keep each figure or table in its current position. This allows you to move images around in your
document and have them stay there when you Generate Figure List again.
Application Preferences (Microsoft Word)
Use the Application tab in Word to indicate which version of EndNote to use when you use Cite While You Write.
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EndNote is your desktop version of EndNote bibliographic application.
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EndNote Web is the online Web version of EndNote.
To select the appropriate application:
1. On the EndNote X7 tab in Word, select Preferences.
2. Click the Application tab.
3. Select the appropriate application: EndNote or EndNote Web.
The system adds an EndNote X7 tab in the Tabs group in Word when you select the EndNote menu option. The system adds an
EndNote Web tab when you select the EndNote Web menu option.
Related Topics
Cite While You Write Preferences
EndNote Cite While You Write Tab Missing in Word
EndNote Preferences
Overview of EndNote Web
Overview of EndNote Web
Overview of the Sync Process
Sync Preferences
Using Cite While You Write with EndNote Web
Showing Word Processor Codes
The formatted citations and bibliography in your document are not plain text; they contain hidden data that make it possible for
EndNote to unformat and reformat citations and bibliographies.
Microsoft Word’s Field Shading
Formatted citations and bibliographies in Word documents are Microsoft Word fields. This gives EndNote the ability to uniquely
identify them.
When you click on a field in Word (such as a formatted EndNote citation or the bibliography), it becomes shaded. You can change
this behavior so that the fields are always shaded, shaded only when selected, or never shaded. To do so, select Options from
Word’s Tools menu and select the View option. There you will see the options for field shading. Click the Office icon in the top left
corner of Word, click Word Options, then click Advanced, and scroll down to "Show document content" to find field shading
options.
Related Topics
Cite While You Write Preferences
EndNote Preferences
Field Codes
Shortcuts to Make Using EndNote Easier
Related EndNote Preferences
Several other EndNote preferences directly affect Cite While You Write. To access EndNote preferences, go to the Edit menu in
EndNote and select Preferences.
The related preference dialogs include settings for:
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Temporary Citations
Formatting
These settings are stored with the EndNote program’s preferences because they apply to formatting papers with Cite While You
Write for Microsoft Word , Cite While You Write for OpenOffice.org Writer, and Format Paper for RTF files.
Reference Types
About Reference Types
Your EndNote library can contain references from a variety of different sources, such as books, journal articles, and newspaper
articles. We call these different sources reference types. EndNote provides built-in forms for these and other common reference
types.
In addition to an all-encompassing Generic reference type, EndNote has three Unused and numerous pre-defined reference types:
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Aggregated Database
Ancient Text
Artwork
Audiovisual Material
Bill
Blog
Book
Book Section
Case
Catalog
Chart or Table
Classical Work
Computer Program
Conference Paper
Conference Proceedings
Dataset
Dictionary
Edited Book
Electronic Article
Electronic Book
Electronic Book Section
Encyclopedia
Equation
Figure
Film or Broadcast
Government Document
Grant
Hearing
Interview
Journal Article
Legal Rule or Regulation
Magazine Article
Manuscript
Map
Music
Newspaper Article
Online Database
Online Multimedia
Pamphlet
Patent
Personal Communication
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Podcast
Press Release
Report
Serial
Standard
Statute
Thesis
Unpublished Work
Web Page
See the List of Reference Types.
Important Points About Reference Types
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You can assign a particular reference type to each reference entered into your library.
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The Reference Types preference, accessible through EndNote’s Preferences, determines which fields are available for
each of the different reference types.
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The Reference Types preference allows up to 54 different types of references, each capable of supporting up to 54 fields
(including the name of the reference type).
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Of the 54 reference types, all but the Generic type can be modified.
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Use the Reference Types preference to add, delete, or rename fields. You can also add or hide complete reference types.
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The layout of the Generic reference type should be used as a guide when modifying or creating reference types. Rows
reserved for Authors should be used only for names.
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Changes made to the Reference Types preference apply to all libraries opened under the current user account.
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If you move your library to a different computer, your references will follow the layout of the Reference Types preference for
the current user account on that computer, unless you also transfer a copy of your reference type table. See Sharing Your
Reference Type Table.
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"Do not enter reference data into the Reference Types preference". This dialog is designed to store just the names of the
reference fields.
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When you use Cite While You Write to insert figures in Microsoft Word, figures found in the Chart or Table reference type
are inserted as tables. Figures found in any other reference type in EndNote will format as figures in Word.
List of Reference Types
These are the reference types that are supplied with EndNote. Click on a reference type name to view the list of fields included in
that reference type. Each listing includes the Generic reference type, so that you can view default field names. Default field
names may appear in various areas of the program, such as in the Search window, or when editing an output style.
Aggregated Database
Hearing
Ancient Text
Interview
Artwork
Journal Article
AudiovisualMaterial
LegalRule or Regulation
Bill
Magazine Article
Blog
Manuscript
Book
Map
Book Section
Music
Case
Newspaper Article
Catalog
Online Database
Chart or Table
Online Multimedia
Classical Work
Pamphlet
Computer Program
Patent
Conference Paper
Personal Communication
Conference Proceedings
Podcast
Dataset
PressRelease
Dictionary
Report
Edited Book
Serial
Electronic Article
Standard
Electronic Book
Statute
Electronic Book Section
Thesis
Encyclopedia
Unpublished Work
Equation
Web Page
Figure
Unused 1
Film or Broadcast
Unused 2
Generic
Unused 3
Government Document
Grant
About the Predefined Reference Types
The reference type table shows which fields are used in each of the 54 different reference types and what the fields are called.
The Generic reference type is repeated several times so that you can easily compare an individual field to its Generic field name.
For descriptions of special fields, see Special Fields.
Important Points About Reference Types
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You can assign a particular reference type to each reference entered into your library.
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The Reference Types preference, accessible through EndNote's Preferences, determines which fields are available for
each of the different reference types.
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The Reference Types preference allows up to 54 different types of references, each capable of supporting up to 54 fields.
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Of the 54 reference types, all but the Generic type can be modified.
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Use the Reference Types preference to add, delete, or rename fields.
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The layout of the Generic reference type should be used as a guide when modifying or creating reference types. Rows
reserved for Authors should be used only for names.
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The Date Stamp fields, "Added to Library" and "Record Last Updated," are automatic fields that cannot be altered. They
appear in the footer of each reference.
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Changes made to the Reference Types preference are stored for each user in a RefTypeTable.xml file which is located in
the folder Documents and Settings\[Your Folder]\ApplicationData\EndNote.They apply to all libraries opened under the current user account.
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If you move your library to a different computer, your references will follow the layout of the Reference Types preference for
the current user account on that computer, unless you also transfer a copy of your RefTypeTable.xml file to the other
user's Documents and Settings\[Your Folder]\ApplicationData\EndNote folder. See Sharing Your Reference Type Table.
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Do not enter reference data into the Reference Types preference dialog. The table is designed to store just the names of
the reference fields.
See the List of Reference Types.
Reference Types and Data Entry
The chosen reference type specifies which fields appear in the Reference window. For instance, an EndNote journal article reference includes the fields "Journal," "Volume," and "Issue," while a book reference includes fields such as "Publisher" and "City."
The Reference window only displays the fields that are relevant to the chosen reference type.
It is best to select the reference type before entering the bibliographic information in a reference. However, you can change the reference type of a reference at any time using the Reference Type list at the top of the Reference window.
Relationship Between Reference Types and Styles, Filters, and Connections
Styles, filters, and connection files can include templates for all of the different reference types. This enables various types of references to be formatted differently in a bibliography or imported differently, as necessary.
The reference types and fields available to you when editing a style, filter, or connection file depend on how the reference types
are configured in the Reference Types preference. These files update automatically to reflect changes made in the Reference
Types preference (such as changing the name of a field).
Setting a Default Reference Type
By default, the Journal Article reference type appears when you insert a new reference. While you can change the assigned reference type during data entry, you may want to change the default setting.
To change the default reference type setting:
1. From the Edit menu, select Preferences.
2. Click on Reference Types.
3. Click the Default Reference Type list and choose from one of the available reference types.
4. Click Apply to save the change.
Customizing Reference Types
All of the reference types, except for Generic, can be modified using the Reference Types preference. Whenever you make a
change to a reference type, you should also edit your styles to make sure that they correctly format the new or modified reference
types.
If you plan to share your libraries with other users, you may want to limit the use of new and modified reference types.
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The Reference Types table applies to all libraries opened on a computer from your user account.
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If your library is opened from a different computer or a different user account, your references will follow the layout of the
Reference Types preference for that computer and user, unless you also transfer a copy of your reference type table. See
Sharing Your Reference Type Table.
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If you modify a reference type for records in your EndNote library, you should make sure that the reference type is also
created or modified on other computers that will access the library.
Do not try to edit the Reference Types preference to rearrange information within your references. For example, if you delete the
"Journal" field and retype "Journal" elsewhere in the column for Journal Articles, you are telling EndNote to close the original "Journal" field and display a new field called "Journal" in another location—this does not move your data from the original "Journal" field
to the new one. Any references that had data in the original "Journal" field will still show that information, but the field will have its
"Generic" name of "Secondary Title." The new "Journal" field will remain empty.
These topics can guide you in editing reference types:
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About Reference Types
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List of Predefined Reference Types
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The Generic Type
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Special Fields
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The Reference Types Preference
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Adding and Deleting Reference Types
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Adding, Deleting, and Renaming Fields
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Sharing Your Reference Type Table
The Generic Reference Type
When entering references into your library, use the Generic type only for references that do not fit any of the other reference types.
The more important function of the Generic reference type is to set up a guide for the other reference types to follow.
The Generic field names are used throughout the EndNote program (for example, in the Sort References dialog and the Search
panel) to refer to a similar category of fields that can be found in the different reference types. When you choose a Generic field
name in any of these dialogs, it refers to all field names assigned to that Generic row of the Reference Types preference. For
example, if you use the Search command to search the Author field, EndNote searches all fields that appear in the Generic
"Author" row of the Reference Types preference, including fields such as "Artist," "Reporter," and "Cartographer."
Note: When editing the Reference Types preference it is important that you keep similar fields in the same row, as defined by the
Generic field names at the start of the row. Each reference type can call these fields by a different name; however, the content of
the fields should be similar.
Using the Generic Type in Styles
Although the Generic reference type is rarely used for data entry, it plays an important role in formatting bibliographies. In addition
to formatting Generic references, the Generic template in a style is used to format any reference types that are not specifically
defined in the style. Consequently, every bibliographic style should contain a Generic template so that all references get formatted when EndNote creates a bibliography.
The Reference Types Preference
The Reference Types preference displays the available reference types and the fields that each reference type contains. Use the
Reference Types preference to add, remove, or rename fields—or to rename a reference type.
To access the Reference Types preference:
1. From the Edit menu, select Preferences.
2. Click the Reference Types option in the list of preferences.
3. Click the Modify Reference Types button and the Reference Types preference will open.
4. Use the drop-down list at the top to display one of the 54 reference types in the right-hand column.
The first column of the Reference Types preference is reserved for the Generic reference type, which lists all of the available
fields.
The rows correspond to the editable fields that each reference type can contain (including the name of the reference type). Each
named cell in a column represents a field that appears in the reference. The names of the fields in each reference type should
closely correspond to their Generic field names in the left column.
The Generic column is the complete set of fields that can be included in any type of reference—no fields can be added to this list,
nor can the names of the Generic fields be changed. The Generic reference type serves as a model for constructing all other reference types.
Navigating in the Reference Types Dialog
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Use the vertical scroll bar to see the additional fields available for each reference type.
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The Up or Down Arrow keys select the previous or next field, respectively, within the same reference type.
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Click OK to save your changes and to close the Modify Reference Types dialog. Click Apply when you return to the EndNote Preference dialog save your settings.
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Click EndNote Defaults to return your reference type settings to their original EndNote settings. For example, if you make
changes to one or more fields, click this button if you want to restore the original settings.
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Click Apply to All Ref Types to change the field for all reference types. For example, if you make changes to one or more
fields, click this button to apply your changes to all reference types.
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Press the Esc key or click Cancel to exit from the Reference Types preference without saving any changes.
Adding, Changing, and Hiding Reference Types
There are three Reference Types titled Unused, where you can define a new type of reference. If these are already in use, you can
overwrite other reference types that you do not need in order to create new reference types. For example, if your subject area
never involves art, you may have no use for the Artwork reference type; you could replace it with another reference type.
To add a new reference type:
1. From the Edit menu, select Preferences.
2. Select the Reference Type option in the list of preferences, and then click Modify Reference Types to open the Reference
Types preference.
3. Use the drop-down list at the top to select one of the Unused reference types. If all of the "Unused" reference types are in
use, select a reference type that you are willing to overwrite.
4. Type a name for that new reference type into the column heading.
Note: A reference type must have fields defined in order to appear in the reference type list for new or existing references.
If you change the name of an Unused reference type, it will not appear in your reference type list. You must also include
fields in the reference type as described next.
5. Continue down the column for that reference type, adding new fields as necessary. (Delete or rename unwanted fields if
you are overwriting another reference type.) Remember to match the meaning of the fields you add with the Generic row
headings. It is often helpful to use the other reference types as guides, too.
6. Click OK after you have added all of the necessary fields, and you will return to the main Preferences window for Reference Types.
7. Click OK to save your changes.
You can now use this new reference type when entering references. You should also edit your styles so that they correctly reflect
the type of format required for this new reference type. If you overwrite an existing reference type, any references that used the
old reference type will change to use the new reference type.
Note: If you ever plan to use journal articles in your library, do not overwrite the Journal Article or Electronic Article reference
types. These two reference types are the only ones for which Journal Abbreviation replacements can be made with the Journals
Term List.
To Globally Change a Reference Type
You can easily change a reference type of a single reference by selecting that reference and going to the Reference window. In
the toolbar, open the Reference Type menu, and then select the needed reference type. When you return to the Library window,
the Ref Type column will show the new reference type that you selected
The following instructions may be used to change the reference type for all references to another reference type.
1. Go to the Library window and click the Ref Type column heading to sort all reference types of the same type.
2. Decide which reference type you want EndNote to change. Make sure only those references are showing in the Library window that you want to change. Use the following commands to control which references are showing:
Show All References
Hide Selected References
Show Selected References, or Search Library.
3. From the Edit menu, select Find and Replace.
4. From the Select a Field list, select the Reference Type option that appears at the bottom of the list. It is the last option in
the list.
5. In the "Find" text box, type the reference type that you want to change.
6. Change the Match Case or Match Words settings if necessary.
By default, the Match Words option is always selected. If you change this setting, pay close attention to whether or not the
term you are changing could appear as part of another word (for example, Newspaper Article).
7. In the "Replace with" text box, type the reference type that will replace the original reference type.
8. Click Change to search the reference types for the specified text and replace it with the new text. Before replacing any reference type, EndNote has you verify the changes.
9. Click OK if all of the items in the dialog are correct. EndNote replaces the reference type and displays the number of references that were changed.
To Hide an Unwanted Reference Type:
1. From the Edit menu, select Preferences, select the Reference Type option in the list of preferences, and then click Modify
Reference Types to open the Reference Types preference.
2. Use the drop-down list at the top to find the reference type that you want to hide.
3. Add a period before the reference type’s name in the column header to have EndNote remove that item from the Reference
Type list in the Reference windows and elsewhere. The definition, however, remains in case you later wish to restore it by
removing the period.
For example, if you were hiding the Map reference type, the column heading would be ".Map".
4. Click OK to return to the main Preferences window for Reference Types.
5. Click OK to save your changes.
Once you have hidden a reference type, you should not select it under Preferences as the default reference type for new references; if you do, EndNote will default to the Generic reference type.
Adding, Deleting, and Renaming Fields
There are different ways you can customize the various reference types. If an existing reference type does not contain all of the
fields that you need, you can define a new field or rename an existing field. Similarly, if there is a field that you know you will never
use, you can delete it from the reference type so that it no longer appears in your references.
Note: Be sure to read about Special Fields before changing any fields.
To add a field to a reference type:
1. From the Editmenu, select Preferences, select the Reference Type option in the list of preferences, and click Modify Reference Types to open the Reference Types preference.
2. Use the drop-down list at the top to find the reference type that you want to change.
3. Look at the field names listed in the Generic column and find the one with the most similar meaning to the field that you
want to add. Make sure that the corresponding cell is blank for the reference type that you are modifying. If it is not blank,
then you should use another field.
4. Click in the blank cell and type the name for the new field.
5. (Optional) If you want to add the new field to all reference types, click the Apply to All Ref Types button.
6. Click OK to return to the main Preferences window for Reference Types.
7. Click OK to save your changes.
To rename a field:
1. From the Edit menu, select Preferences, select the Reference Type option in the list of preferences, and click Modify Reference Types to open the Reference Types preference.
2. Use the drop-down list at the top to find the reference type that you want to change.
3. Within the column for that reference type, find the field name that you want to change, click on it, and type a new name for
the field to replace the current name.
4. (Optional) If you want to change the field for all reference types, click the Apply to All Ref Types button.
5. Click OK to return to the main Preferences window for Reference Types.
6. Click OK to save your changes.
Styles, filters, and connection files update automatically to use the new name.
To delete a field from a reference type:
1. From the Editmenu, select Preferences, select the Reference Type option in the list of preferences, and click Modify Reference Types to open the Reference Types preference.
2. Use the drop-down list at the top to find the reference type that you want to change.
3. Find the name of the field you want to delete and select it.
4. Press the Delete or Backspace key to clear that field name.
5. (Optional) If you want to delete the field from all reference types, click the Apply to All Ref Types button.
6. Click OK to return to the main Preferences window for Reference Types.
7. Click OK to save your changes.
The deleted field no longer appears in any references using that reference type. However, if there was any information in the
deleted field, it still appears in the reference, but the field is displayed with its Generic name. For example, suppose you remove
the Editor field from the Book reference type. Thereafter, when you add new book references to your library, there will be no available field for entering an editor. However, if you edit an old book reference, one in which you had entered an editor’s name, the
name will be displayed in the field titled Secondary Author. It is the same Editor field that was used originally, however it is now
displayed with its Generic name.
Data in a field is not deleted by deleting a field from a reference type format. To remove all text from a field, use the "Clear Field"
option in the Change Field command. You can also move data from one field to another using the Move Field command on the References menu.
Sharing Your Reference Type Table
An EndNote user can share a customized reference type table with another EndNote user. Keep in mind, however, that when you
do this, you completely replace the recipient’s existing reference type table.
First, export the reference type table you wish to share:
1. From the donor’s user account, start EndNote.
2. From the Edit menu, select Preferences.
3. Click the Reference Types option in the list of preferences.
4. Under Reference Type Table, click Export to display a file dialog.
5. Name the file, select a folder where you will be able to find it later, and click Save. EndNote will append an .xml suffix to
the file name.
6. Copy the exported .xml file to the recipient’s computer.
Then, import the table for a different user:
Note: Replacing another user's reference type table overwrites all changes to his/her current reference type table.
1. From the recipient’s user account, start EndNote.
2. From the Edit menu, select Preferences.
3. Click the Reference Types option in the list of preferences.
4. Under Reference Type Table, click Import to display a file dialog.
5. In the file dialog, locate, highlight, and open the .xml file that was previously exported.
Special Fields
EndNote includes 54 fields (including the first field, which contains the name of the reference type). Each of the different EndNote
data fields is available for use by the different reference types. Initially, only the Generic reference type includes all fields. Few
restrictions are placed on the type of text that can be entered. However, there are a few fields that are reserved for specific functions.
Author Fields
The Author, Secondary Author, Tertiary Author, and Subsidiary Author rows in the Reference Types preference are specially configured to handle author names, and should not be used for any data other than names.
When EndNote creates a bibliography, the information in these fields is formatted according to the specifications of the selected
style’s Author List and Editor List settings. (The Author List is used for the Author field; Editor List is used for Secondary Author,
Tertiary Author, and Subsidiary Author fields.) If you put text other than personal names in any of these fields, EndNote will still
try to interpret it and format it as a person’s name.
The Library window displays the last name of the first author that it finds in the Author field. That name is also used in the temporary citations inserted into word processing documents.
Note: If you have a corporate author name in an Author field, put a comma after the name so that EndNote does not interpret it as
a first and last name. For example, Acme Corporation should be entered as "Acme Corporation,".
Title Fields
The three fields that the Generic type uses for titles—Title, Secondary Title, and Tertiary Title—are usually found under different
names in other reference types. For example, a section of a book which is part of a series will use all three title fields: the chapter
title would belong in the main Title field, the book title corresponds to the Secondary Title field, and the series title corresponds to
the Tertiary Title field.
The Generic Secondary Title and Alternate Title fields map to the Journal and Alternate Journal fields, respectively. The fields
listed below, found in specific reference types, are the only ones that can be used with the Journals term list to modify journal
names in formatted bibliographies.
n
Journal Article reference type—Journal field
n
Journal Article reference type—Alternate Journal field
n
Electronic Article reference type—Periodical Title field
Pages Field
The fields in the row reserved for page numbers are the only ones that work with the Page Numbers option in the styles. This feature lets you specify how EndNote should format the page numbers in the bibliography (first page only or a full or abbreviated
range of pages). Similarly, any field in the Pages row of the Reference Types preference can take advantage of a special formatting character in the styles: the caret (^). This character allows you to pick a singular and plural form of a term to precede or follow the pages in a bibliography, for example "p. 25" and "pp. 32-45. If you enter page numbers in any other part of the reference,
they cannot be used with these features.
URL Field
When a correctly formatted URL is entered into this field, the Open URL command in the References menu can be used to launch
your Web browser and take you to that site.
When a reference is selected and Open URL is chosen, EndNote checks the URL field for a URL. No other fields are checked.
See URL and Linking a URL to an EndNote Reference.
File Attachments Field
Use the File Attachments field to store the path to files on your hard drive (such as graphics, word processing documents, and
PDF files). You can specify an absolute path to a specific folder, or you can specify a relative path to copy the file to your library’s
.DATA\PDF folder. You can link up to 45 files to each reference.
When a correctly formatted path and filename is entered into this field, the Open File command in the References menu can be
used to open the file. See Linking a File to an EndNote Reference.
Figure Field
The Figure field stores a single graphic or file attachment specifically for use in Microsoft Word. This field is included in all reference types. See Inserting Figures for information about adding figures to a reference.
To add or remove the Figure field from a reference type, use the Preferences dialog to edit reference types, as described in Adding, Deleting, and Renaming Fields.
Use the text field immediately following the Figure field, the Caption field, to enter relevant information pertaining to the image or
file.
Date Stamp Fields
Two Auto Date Stamp fields are available that you can add to the Library window.
The Added to Library and Last Updated date fields are inserted when you save a new reference. The Last Updated date is reset
each time you save changes to a reference. The date format of the Auto Date Stamp fields matches your default operating system
settings (for example, 4/16/2012).
To add the two Auto Date Stamp fields to the Library window, select Preferences > Display Fields. From the Field column, select
the Added to Library and/or Last Updated fields. EndNote populates the Heading column with your selection.
You cannot edit, print, or export either of the Auto Date Stamp fields. You can, however, display and sort these fields from the
Library window just as you can with any other EndNote field.
Note: For references entered with EndNote version X1 or earlier, the Added to Library field is left blank and the Last Updated field
displays the date of conversion to EndNote.
Table of Predefined Reference Types
Use the List of Reference Types to display individual reference types and the default fields and field names used in each one.
Reference Types
Reference Types, A-An
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Publisher
Volume
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Edition
Date
Type of Work
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Short Title
Alternate Title
ISBN/ISSN
DOI
Original Publication
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Accession Number
Aggregated Database
Author
Year
Title
Periodical
Place Published
Publisher
Volume
Publication Number
Pages
Screens
Date Published
Date Accessed
Type of Work
Short Title
Alternate Title
ISBN/ISSN
DOI
Original Publication
Accession Number
Ancient Text
Author
Year
Title
Editor
Publication Title
Place Published
Publisher
Volume
Number of Volumes
Text Number
Pages
Volume Title
Edition
Date
Type of Work
Translator
Short Title
Abbreviated Publication
ISBN
DOI
Original Publication
Reprint Edition
Reviewed Item
Accession Number
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Research Notes
URL
File Attachments
Author Address
Figure
Caption
Access Date
Translated Author
Translated Title
Name of Database
Database Provider
Language
Added to Library
Last Updated
Label
Keywords
Abstract
Notes
Research Notes
URL
File Attachments
Author Address
Figure
Caption
Translated Author
Translated Title
Name of Database
Database Provider
Language
Added to Library
Last Updated
Call Number
Label
Keywords
Abstract
Notes
Research Notes
URL
File Attachments
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Figure
Caption
Access Date
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Translated Title
Name of Database
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Language
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Reference Types, Art-Au
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Generic
Author
Year
Title
Secondary Author
Secondary Title
Place Published
Publisher
Volume
Number of Volumes
Number
Pages
Section
Tertiary Author
Tertiary Title
Edition
Date
Type of Work
Subsidiary Author
Short Title
Alternate Title
ISBN/ISSN
DOI
Original Publication
Reprint Edition
Artwork
Artist
Year
Title
Place Published
Publisher
Size
Description
Edition
Date
Type of Work
Short Title
Alternate Title
DOI
Audiovisual Material
Author
Year
Title
Series Editor
Series Title
Place Published
Publisher
Volume
Extent of Work
Number
Edition
Date
Type
Performers
Short Title
Alternate Title
ISBN
DOI
Contents
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Custom 7
Custom 8
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Call Number
Label
Keywords
Abstract
Notes
Research Notes
URL
File Attachments
Author Address
Figure
Caption
Access Date
Translated Author
Translated Title
Name of Database
Database Provider
Language
Added to Library
Last Updated
Size/Length
Cast
Credits
Size/Length
Format
Accession Number
Call Number
Label
Keywords
Abstract
Notes
Research Notes
URL
File Attachments
Author Address
Figure
Caption
Access Date
Translated Author
Translated Title
Name of Database
Database Provider
Language
Added to Library
Last Updated
Accession Number
Call Number
Label
Keywords
Abstract
Notes
Research Notes
URL
File Attachments
Author Address
Figure
Caption
Access Date
Translated Author
Translated Title
Name of Database
Database Provider
Language
Added to Library
Last Updated
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Reference Types, Bill-Blog
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Generic
Author
Year
Title
Secondary Author
Secondary Title
Place Published
Publisher
Volume
Number of Volumes
Number
Pages
Section
Tertiary Author
Tertiary Title
Bill
Year
Title
Code
Code Volume
Bill Number
Code Pages
Code Section
Legislative Body
Blog
Author
Year
Title of Entry
Editor
Title of WebLog
Place Published
Publisher
Access Year
Date
Description
Message Number
Illustrator
Institution
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Date
Type of Work
Subsidiary Author
Short Title
Alternate Title
ISBN/ISSN
DOI
Original Publication
Reprint Edition
Reviewed Item
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Custom 2
Custom 3
Custom 4
Custom 5
Custom 6
Custom 7
Custom 8
Accession Number
Call Number
Label
Keywords
Abstract
Notes
Research Notes
URL
File Attachments
Author Address
Figure
Caption
Access Date
Translated Author
Translated Title
Name of Database
Database Provider
Language
Added to Library
Last Updated
Session
Date
Sponsor
Short Title
DOI
History
Edition
Last Update Date
Type of Medium
Short Title
Alternate Title
ISBN
DOI
Contents
Author Affiliation
Accession Number
Call Number
Label
Keywords
Abstract
Notes
Research Notes
URL
File Attachments
Author Address
Figure
Caption
Access Date
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Translated Title
Name of Database
Database Provider
Language
Added to Library
Last Updated
Accession Number
Call Number
Label
Keywords
Abstract
Notes
Research Notes
URL
File Attachments
Author Address
Figure
Caption
Access Date
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Translated Title
Name of Database
Database Provider
Language
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Last Updated
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Reference Types, Book
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Author
Year
Title
Secondary Author
Book
Author
Year
Title
Series Editor
Book Section
Author
Year
Title
Editor
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Place Published
Publisher
Volume
Number of Volumes
Number
Pages
Section
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Tertiary Title
Edition
Date
Type of Work
Subsidiary Author
Short Title
Alternate Title
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DOI
Original Publication
Reprint Edition
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Custom 2
Custom 3
Custom 4
Custom 5
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Custom 8
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Call Number
Label
Keywords
Abstract
Notes
Research Notes
URL
File Attachments
Author Address
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Caption
Access Date
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Name of Database
Database Provider
Language
Added to Library
Last Updated
Series Title
Place Published
Publisher
Volume
Number of Volumes
Series Volume
Number of Pages
Pages
Editor
Edition
Date
Type of Work
Translator
Short Title
Abbreviation
ISBN
DOI
Original Publication
Reprint Edition
Book Title
Place Published
Publisher
Volume
Number of Volumes
Series Volume
Pages
Chapter
Series Editor
Series Title
Edition
Translator
Short Title
Abbreviation
ISBN
DOI
Original Publication
Reprint Edition
Reviewed Item
Section
Title Prefix
Reviewer
Title Prefix
Reviewer
Packaging Method
Accession Number
Call Number
Label
Keywords
Abstract
Notes
Research Notes
URL
File Attachments
Author Address
Figure
Caption
Access Date
Translated Author
Translated Title
Name of Database
Database Provider
Language
Added to Library
Last Updated
Accession Number
Call Number
Label
Keywords
Abstract
Notes
Research Notes
URL
File Attachments
Author Address
Figure
Caption
Access Date
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Translated Title
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Database Provider
Language
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Reference Types, Case-Cat
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Author
Year
Title
Secondary Author
Secondary Title
Place Published
Publisher
Volume
Number of Volumes
Number
Pages
Section
Tertiary Author
Tertiary Title
Edition
Date
Type of Work
Subsidiary Author
Short Title
Alternate Title
ISBN/ISSN
DOI
Original Publication
Reprint Edition
Reviewed Item
Custom 1
Custom 2
Custom 3
Custom 4
Custom 5
Custom 6
Custom 7
Custom 8
Accession Number
Call Number
Label
Keywords
Abstract
Notes
Research Notes
URL
File Attachments
Author Address
Figure
Caption
Access Date
Case
Year Decided
Case Name
Reporter
Court
Reporter Volume
Reporter Abbreviation
Docket Number
First Page
Filed Date
Higher Court
Decision
Action of Higher Court
Date Decided
Citation of Reversal
Counsel
Abbreviated Case Name
Parallel Citation
DOI
History
Catalog
Author
Year
Title
Institution
Series Title
Place Published
Publisher
Volume
Catalog Number
Series Volume
Pages
Number of Pages
Edition
Date
Type of Work
Translator
Short Title
Abbreviation
ISBN
DOI
Original Publication
Reprint Edition
Packaging Method
Accession Number
Call Number
Label
Keywords
Abstract
Notes
Research Notes
URL
File Attachments
Author Address
Figure
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Access Date
Accession Number
Call Number
Label
Keywords
Abstract
Notes
Research Notes
URL
File Attachments
Author Address
Figure
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Access Date
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Translated Title
Name of Database
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Language
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Last Updated
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Database Provider
Language
Added to Library
Last Updated
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Last Updated
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Reference Types, Chart-Cl
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Author
Year
Title
Secondary Author
Secondary Title
Place Published
Publisher
Volume
Number of Volumes
Number
Pages
Section
Tertiary Author
Tertiary Title
Edition
Date
Type of Work
Subsidiary Author
Short Title
Alternate Title
ISBN/ISSN
DOI
Original Publication
Reprint Edition
Reviewed Item
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Custom 2
Custom 3
Custom 4
Custom 5
Custom 6
Custom 7
Custom 8
Accession Number
Call Number
Label
Chart or Table
Created By
Year
Title
Name of File
Image Source Program
Place Published
Publisher
Image Size
Number
Description
Version
Date
Type of Image
DOI
Accession Number
Call Number
Label
Classical Work
Attribution
Year
Title
Series Editor
Series Title
Place Published
Publisher
Volume
Number of Volumes
Series Volume
Number of Pages
Edition
Type
Translator
Short Title
Alternate Title
ISSN/ISBN
DOI
Original Publication
Reprint Edition
Accession Number
Call Number
Label
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Abstract
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Research Notes
URL
File Attachments
Author Address
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Access Date
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Translated Title
Name of Database
Database Provider
Language
Added to Library
Last Updated
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Abstract
Notes
Research Notes
URL
File Attachments
Author Address
Figure
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Access Date
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Translated Title
Name of Database
Database Provider
Language
Added to Library
Last Updated
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Abstract
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Research Notes
URL
File Attachments
Author Address
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Reference Types, Com-Con
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Year
Title
Secondary Author
Secondary Title
Place Published
Publisher
Volume
Number of Volumes
Number
Pages
Section
Tertiary Author
Tertiary Title
Edition
Date
Type of Work
Subsidiary Author
Short Title
Alternate Title
ISBN/ISSN
DOI
Original Publication
Reprint Edition
Reviewed Item
Custom 1
Computer Program
Programmer
Year
Title
Series Editor
Series Title
Place Published
Publisher
Edition
Description
Conference Paper
Author
Year
Title
Editor
Conference Name
Conference Location
Publisher
Volume
Session
Issue
Pages
Version
Type
Short Title
Alternate Title
ISBN
DOI
Contents
Computer
Date
Type
DOI
Place Published
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Custom 3
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Custom 8
Accession Number
Call Number
Label
Keywords
Abstract
Notes
Research Notes
URL
File Attachments
Author Address
Figure
Caption
Access Date
Translated Author
Translated Title
Name of Database
Database Provider
Language
Added to Library
Last Updated
Accession Number
Call Number
Label
Keywords
Abstract
Notes
Research Notes
URL
File Attachments
Author Address
Figure
Caption
Access Date
Translated Author
Translated Title
Name of Database
Database Provider
Language
Added to Library
Last Updated
Accession Number
Call Number
Label
Keywords
Abstract
Notes
Research Notes
URL
File Attachments
Author Address
Figure
Caption
Access Date
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Translated Title
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Language
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Reference Types, Con-D
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Title
Secondary Author
Secondary Title
Place Published
Publisher
Volume
Number of Volumes
Number
Pages
Section
Conference Proceedings
Author
Year of Conference
Title
Editor
Conference Name
Conference Location
Publisher
Volume
Number of Volumes
Issue
Pages
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Series Editor
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Tertiary Title
Edition
Date
Series Title
Edition
Date
Dataset
Investigators
Year
Title
Producer
Periodical Title
Place Published
Distributor
StudyNumber
Original Release Date
Series Title
Version
Date of Collection
Dictionary
Author
Year
Title
Editor
Dictionary Title
Place Published
Publisher
Volume
Number of Volumes
Number
Pages
Version
Edition
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Type of Work
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Short Title
Alternate Title
ISBN/ISSN
DOI
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Reprint Edition
Reviewed Item
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Custom 2
Custom 3
Custom 4
Sponsor
Short Title
Type of Work
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Custom 5
Packaging Method
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Custom 6
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Custom 7
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Custom 8
Accession Number
Call Number
Label
Keywords
Abstract
Notes
Research Notes
URL
File Attachments
Author Address
Figure
Caption
Access Date
Translated Author
Translated Title
Name of Database
Database Provider
Language
Added to Library
Last Updated
ISBN
DOI
Source
Place Published
Year Published
ProceedingsTitle
Accession Number
Call Number
Label
Keywords
Abstract
Notes
Research Notes
URL
File Attachments
Author Address
Figure
Caption
Access Date
Translated Author
Translated Title
Name of Database
Database Provider
Language
Added to Library
Last Updated
Funding Agency
Short Title
Abbreviation
ISSN
DOI
Version History
Geographic Coverage
Time Period
Unit of Observation
Data Type
Dataset(s)
Accession Number
Call Number
Label
Keywords
Abstract
Notes
Research Notes
URL
File Attachments
Author Address
Figure
Caption
Access Date
Translated Author
Translated Title
Name of Database
Database Provider
Language
Added to Library
Last Updated
Translator
Short Title
Abbreviation
ISBN
DOI
Original Publication
Reprint Edition
Reviewed Item
Term
Accession Number
Call Number
Label
Keywords
Abstract
Notes
Research Notes
URL
File Attachments
Author Address
Figure
Caption
Access Date
Translated Author
Translated Title
Name of Database
Database Provider
Language
Added to Library
Last Updated
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Reference Types, Ed-El
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Author
Year
Title
Secondary Author
Secondary Title
Edited Book
Editor
Year
Title
Series Editor
Series Title
Electronic Article
Author
Year
Title
Periodical Title
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Place Published
Publisher
Volume
Number of Volumes
Number
Pages
Section
Tertiary Author
Tertiary Title
Edition
Date
Type of Work
Subsidiary Author
Short Title
Alternate Title
ISBN/ISSN
DOI
Original Publication
Reprint Edition
Reviewed Item
Custom 1
Custom 2
Custom 3
Custom 4
Custom 5
Custom 6
Custom 7
Custom 8
Accession Number
Call Number
Label
Keywords
Abstract
Notes
Research Notes
URL
File Attachments
Author Address
Figure
Caption
Access Date
Translated Author
Translated Title
Name of Database
Database Provider
Language
Added to Library
Last Updated
Place Published
Publisher
Volume
Number of Volumes
Series Volume
Number of Pages
Edition
Date
Type of Work
Translator
Short Title
Alternate Title
ISBN
DOI
Original Publication
Reprint Edition
Contents
Accession Number
Call Number
Label
Keywords
Abstract
Notes
Research Notes
URL
File Attachments
Editor Address
Figure
Caption
Access Date
Translated Author
Translated Title
Name of Database
Database Provider
Language
Added to Library
Last Updated
Place Published
Publisher
Volume
Document Number
Issue
Pages
E-Pub Date
Website Title
Edition
Date Accessed
Type of Work
Short Title
Alternate Title
ISSN
DOI
Reprint Edition
Reviewed Item
Year Cited
Date Cited
PMCID
Reviewer
Issue Title
NIHMSID
Article Number
Accession Number
Label
Keywords
Abstract
Notes
Research Notes
URL
File Attachments
Editor Address
Figure
Caption
Translated Author
Translated Title
Name of Database
Database Provider
Language
Added to Library
Last Updated
Prev Next
Reference Types, El-En
Prev Next
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
Generic
Author
Year
Title
Secondary Author
Secondary Title
Place Published
Publisher
Volume
Number of Volumes
Number
Pages
13
Section
14
15
16
17
18
19
20
Tertiary Author
Tertiary Title
Edition
Date
Type of Work
Subsidiary Author
Short Title
21
Alternate Title
22
23
24
25
26
27
28
29
30
31
32
33
34
35
36
37
38
39
40
41
42
43
44
45
46
47
ISBN/ISSN
DOI
Original Publication
Reprint Edition
Reviewed Item
Custom 1
Custom 2
Custom 3
Custom 4
Custom 5
Custom 6
Custom 7
Custom 8
Accession Number
Call Number
Label
Keywords
Abstract
Notes
Research Notes
URL
File Attachments
Author Address
Figure
Caption
Access Date
Electronic Book
Author
Year
Title
Editor
Secondary Title
Place Published
Publisher
Volume
Version
Number of Pages
Series Editor
Series Title
Edition
Date Accessed
Type of Medium
Electronic Book Section
Author
Year
Title
Editor
Book Title
Place Published
Publisher
Volume
Number of Volumes
Chapter
Pages
Series Editor
Series Title
Edition
Date
Type of Work
Translator
Short Title
Encyclopedia
Author
Year
Title
Editor
Encyclopedia Title
Place Published
Publisher
Volume
Number of Volumes
Pages
Edition
Date
Translator
Short Title
Abbreviation
ISBN
DOI
Original Publication
Reprint Edition
Reviewed Item
Year Cited
Date Cited
Title Prefix
Reviewer
Last Update Date
NIHMSID
PMCID
ISBN
DOI
Original Publication
Reprint Edition
Reviewed Item
Section
Accession Number
Call Number
Label
Keywords
Abstract
Notes
Research Notes
URL
File Attachments
Author Address
Figure
Caption
Accession Number
Call Number
Label
Keywords
Abstract
Notes
Research Notes
URL
File Attachments
Author Address
Figure
Caption
Access Date
ISBN
DOI
Original Publication
Reprint Edition
Reviewed Item
Term
Title Prefix
Reviewer
Packaging Method
NIHMSID
PMCID
Accession Number
Call Number
Label
Keywords
Abstract
Notes
Research Notes
URL
File Attachments
Author Address
Figure
Caption
Access Date
48
49
50
51
52
53
54
Translated Author
Translated Title
Name of Database
Database Provider
Language
Added to Library
Last Updated
Translated Author
Translated Title
Name of Database
Database Provider
Language
Added to Library
Last Updated
Translated Author
Translated Title
Name of Database
Database Provider
Language
Added to Library
Last Updated
Prev Next
Reference Types, Eq-Fig
Prev Next
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2
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18
19
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21
22
23
24
25
26
27
28
29
30
31
32
33
34
35
36
37
Generic
Author
Year
Title
Secondary Author
Secondary Title
Place Published
Publisher
Volume
Number of Volumes
Number
Pages
Section
Tertiary Author
Tertiary Title
Edition
Date
Type of Work
Subsidiary Author
Short Title
Alternate Title
ISBN/ISSN
DOI
Original Publication
Reprint Edition
Reviewed Item
Custom 1
Custom 2
Custom 3
Custom 4
Custom 5
Custom 6
Custom 7
Custom 8
Accession Number
Call Number
Label
Equation
Created By
Year
Title
Name of File
Image Source Program
Place Published
Publisher
Image Size
Figure
Created By
Year
Title
Name of File
Image Source Program
Place Published
Publisher
Image Size
Number
Description
Number
Description
Version
Date
Type of Image
Version
Date
Type of Image
DOI
DOI
Accession Number
Call Number
Label
Accession Number
Call Number
Label
Translated Author
Translated Title
Name of Database
Database Provider
Language
Added to Library
Last Updated
38
39
40
41
42
43
44
45
46
47
48
49
50
51
52
53
54
Keywords
Abstract
Notes
Research Notes
URL
File Attachments
Author Address
Figure
Caption
Access Date
Translated Author
Translated Title
Name of Database
Database Provider
Language
Added to Library
Last Updated
Keywords
Abstract
Notes
Research Notes
URL
File Attachments
Author Address
Figure
Caption
Access Date
Translated Author
Translated Title
Name of Database
Database Provider
Language
Added to Library
Last Updated
Keywords
Abstract
Notes
Research Notes
URL
File Attachments
Author Address
Figure
Caption
Access Date
Translated Author
Translated Title
Name of Database
Database Provider
Language
Added to Library
Last Updated
PrevNext
Reference Types, Film-Gov
Prev Next
1
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7
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11
12
13
14
15
16
17
18
19
20
21
22
23
24
25
26
27
Generic
Author
Year
Title
Secondary Author
Secondary Title
Place Published
Publisher
Volume
Number of Volumes
Number
Pages
Section
Tertiary Author
Tertiary Title
Edition
Date
Type of Work
Subsidiary Author
Short Title
Alternate Title
ISBN/ISSN
DOI
Original Publication
Reprint Edition
Reviewed Item
Custom 1
Film or Broadcast
Director
Year Released
Title
Series Director
Series Title
Place Published
Distributor
Running Time
Producer
Series Title
Edition
Date Released
Medium
Performers
Short Title
Alternate Title
DOI
Government Document
Author
Year
Title
Department
Place Published
Publisher
Volume
Issue
Pages
Section
Series Title
Edition
Report Number
DOI
Reprint Edition
Cast
Government Body
28
29
30
31
32
33
34
35
36
37
38
39
40
41
42
43
44
45
46
47
48
49
50
51
52
53
54
Custom 2
Custom 3
Custom 4
Custom 5
Custom 6
Custom 7
Custom 8
Accession Number
Call Number
Label
Keywords
Abstract
Notes
Research Notes
URL
File Attachments
Author Address
Figure
Caption
Access Date
Translated Author
Translated Title
Name of Database
Database Provider
Language
Added to Library
Last Updated
Credits
Congress Number
Congress Session
Genre
Format
Accession Number
Call Number
Label
Keywords
Abstract
Notes
Research Notes
URL
File Attachments
Author Address
Figure
Caption
Access Date
Translated Author
Translated Title
Name of Database
Database Provider
Language
Added to Library
Last Updated
Accession Number
Label
Keywords
Synopsis
Notes
Research Notes
URL
File Attachments
Author Address
Figure
Caption
Access Date
Translated Author
Translated Title
Name of Database
Database Provider
Language
Added to Library
Last Updated
Prev Next
Reference Types, Grant-Int
Prev Next
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
Generic
Author
Year
Title
Secondary Author
Secondary Title
Place Published
Publisher
Volume
Number of Volumes
Number
Pages
Section
Tertiary Author
Tertiary Title
Edition
Grant
Investigators
Year
Title of Grant
Activity Location
Sponsoring Agency
Amount Requested
Amount Received
Status
Pages
Duration of Grant
Requirements
Hearing
Year
Title
Committee
Place Published
Publisher
Number of Volumes
Document Number
Pages
Legislative Body
Session
Interview
Interviewee
Year
Title
Interviewer
Program
Place Published
Publisher
Number
Pages
Section
Director
Location of Work
Edition
17
18
19
20
21
22
23
24
25
26
27
28
29
30
31
32
33
34
35
36
37
38
39
40
41
42
43
44
45
46
47
48
49
50
51
52
53
54
Date
Type of Work
Subsidiary Author
Short Title
Alternate Title
ISBN/ISSN
DOI
Original Publication
Reprint Edition
Reviewed Item
Custom 1
Custom 2
Custom 3
Custom 4
Custom 5
Custom 6
Custom 7
Custom 8
Accession Number
Call Number
Label
Keywords
Abstract
Notes
Research Notes
URL
File Attachments
Author Address
Figure
Caption
Access Date
Translated Author
Translated Title
Name of Database
Database Provider
Language
Added to Library
Last Updated
Deadline
Funding Type
Translator
Short Title
Abbreviation
DOI
Original Grant Number
Review Date
Reviewed Item
Contact Name
Contact Address
Date
Short Title
ISBN
DOI
History
Congress Number
Contact Fax
Funding Number
CFDA Number
Accession Number
Call Number
Label
Keywords
Abstract
Notes
Research Notes
URL
File Attachments
Author Address
Figure
Caption
Access Date
Translated Author
Translated Title
Name of Database
Database Provider
Language
Added to Library
Last Updated
Accession Number
Call Number
Label
Keywords
Abstract
Notes
Research Notes
URL
File Attachments
Author Address
Figure
Caption
Access Date
Translated Author
Translated Title
Name of Database
Database Provider
Language
Added to Library
Last Updated
Prev Next
Reference Types, J-L
Prev Next
1
2
3
4
5
6
Generic
Author
Year
Title
Secondary Author
Secondary Title
Date
Format
Translator
Short Title
Abbreviation
ISSN/ISBN
DOI
Original Publication
Reprint Edition
Reviewed Item
Journal Article
Author
Year
Title
Journal
Legal Rule or Regulation
Author
Year
Title
Issuing Organization
Title Number
Accession Number
Call Number
Label
Keywords
Abstract
Notes
Research Notes
URL
File Attachments
Author Address
Figure
Caption
Access Date
Translated Author
Translated Title
Name of Database
Database Provider
Language
Added to Library
Last Updated
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
17
18
19
20
21
22
23
24
25
26
27
28
29
30
31
32
33
34
35
36
37
38
39
40
41
42
43
44
45
46
47
48
49
50
51
52
53
54
Place Published
Publisher
Volume
Number of Volumes
Number
Pages
Section
Tertiary Author
Tertiary Title
Edition
Date
Type of Work
Subsidiary Author
Short Title
Alternate Title
ISBN/ISSN
DOI
Original Publication
Reprint Edition
Reviewed Item
Custom 1
Custom 2
Custom 3
Custom 4
Custom 5
Custom 6
Custom 7
Custom 8
Accession Number
Call Number
Label
Keywords
Abstract
Notes
Research Notes
URL
File Attachments
Author Address
Figure
Caption
Access Date
Translated Author
Translated Title
Name of Database
Database Provider
Language
Added to Library
Last Updated
Issue
Pages
Start Page
Place Published
Publisher
Rule Number
Session Number
Start Page
Pages
Section Number
Epub Date
Date
Type of Article
Supplement No.
Edition
Date of Code Edition
Type of Work
Volume
Short Title
Alternate Journal
ISSN
DOI
Original Publication
Reprint Edition
Reviewed Item
LegalNote
PMCID
Abbreviation
Document Number
DOI
History
NIHMSID
Article Number
Accession Number
Call Number
Label
Keywords
Abstract
Notes
Research Notes
URL
File Attachments
Author Address
Figure
Caption
Access Date
Translated Author
Translated Title
Name of Database
Database Provider
Language
Added to Library
Last Updated
Accession Number
Call Number
Label
Keywords
Abstract
Notes
Research Notes
URL
File Attachments
Author Address
Figure
Caption
Access Date
Translated Author
Translated Title
Name of Database
Database Provider
Language
Added to Library
Last Updated
Prev Next
Reference Types, Mag-Man
Prev Next
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18
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27
28
29
30
31
32
33
34
35
36
37
38
39
40
41
42
43
44
45
46
47
Generic
Author
Year
Title
Secondary Author
Secondary Title
Place Published
Publisher
Volume
Number of Volumes
Number
Pages
Section
Tertiary Author
Tertiary Title
Edition
Date
Type of Work
Subsidiary Author
Short Title
Alternate Title
ISBN/ISSN
DOI
Original Publication
Reprint Edition
Reviewed Item
Custom 1
Custom 2
Custom 3
Custom 4
Custom 5
Custom 6
Custom 7
Custom 8
Accession Number
Call Number
Label
Keywords
Abstract
Notes
Research Notes
URL
File Attachments
Author Address
Figure
Caption
Access Date
Magazine Article
Author
Year
Title
Magazine
Place Published
Publisher
Volume
Frequency
Issue Number
Pages
Start Page
Manuscript
Author
Year
Title
Institution
Collection Title
Place Published
Library/Archive
Volume/Storage Container
Manuscript Number
Folio Number
Pages
Start Page
Edition
Date
Type of Article
Description of Material
Date
Type of Work
Short Title
Alternate Magazine
ISSN
DOI
Original Publication
Reprint Edition
Reviewed Item
Short Title
Abbreviation
Accession Number
Call Number
Label
Keywords
Abstract
Notes
Research Notes
URL
File Attachments
Author Address
Figure
Caption
Access Date
Accession Number
Call Number
Label
Keywords
Abstract
Notes
Research Notes
URL
File Attachments
Author Address
Figure
Caption
Access Date
DOI
48
49
50
51
52
53
54
Translated Author
Translated Title
Name of Database
Database Provider
Language
Added to Library
Last Updated
Translated Author
Translated Title
Name of Database
Database Provider
Language
Added to Library
Last Updated
Translated Author
Translated Title
Name of Database
Database Provider
Language
Added to Library
Last Updated
Prev Next
Reference Types, Map-N
Prev Next
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2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
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17
18
19
20
21
22
23
24
25
26
27
28
29
30
31
32
33
34
35
36
37
Generic
Author
Year
Title
Secondary Author
Secondary Title
Place Published
Publisher
Volume
Number of Volumes
Number
Pages
Section
Tertiary Author
Tertiary Title
Edition
Date
Type of Work
Subsidiary Author
Short Title
Alternate Title
ISBN/ISSN
DOI
Original Publication
Reprint Edition
Reviewed Item
Custom 1
Custom 2
Custom 3
Custom 4
Custom 5
Custom 6
Custom 7
Custom 8
Accession Number
Call Number
Label
Map
Cartographer
Year
Title
Series Editor
Series Title
Place Published
Publisher
Music
Composer
Year
Title
Editor
Album Title
Place Published
Publisher
Volume
Number of Volumes
Description
Pages
Section
Series Editor
Series Title
Edition
Date
Form of Item
Producer
Short Title
Edition
Date
Type
Short Title
Abbreviation
ISBN
DOI
Reprint Edition
Scale
Area
Size
ISBN
DOI
Original Publication
Reprint Edition
Packaging Method
Format of Music
Form of Composition
MusicParts
Target Audience
Accompanying Matter
Accession Number
Call Number
Label
Accession Number
Call Number
Label
Newspaper Article
Reporter
Year
Title
Newspaper
Place Published
Publisher
Volume
Frequency
Start Page
Pages
Section
Edition
Issue Date
Type of Article
Short Title
ISSN
DOI
Original Publication
Reprint Edition
Reviewed Item
Column
Issue
Accession Number
Call Number
Label
38
39
40
41
42
43
44
45
46
47
48
49
50
51
52
53
54
Keywords
Abstract
Notes
Research Notes
URL
File Attachments
Author Address
Figure
Caption
Access Date
Translated Author
Translated Title
Name of Database
Database Provider
Language
Added to Library
Last Updated
Keywords
Abstract
Notes
Research Notes
URL
File Attachments
Author Address
Figure
Caption
Access Date
Translated Author
Translated Title
Name of Database
Database Provider
Language
Added to Library
Last Updated
Keywords
Abstract
Notes
Research Notes
URL
File Attachments
Author Address
Figure
Caption
Access Date
Translated Author
Translated Title
Name of Database
Database Provider
Language
Added to Library
Last Updated
Keywords
Abstract
Notes
Research Notes
URL
File Attachments
Author Address
Figure
Caption
Access Date
Translated Author
Translated Title
Name of Database
Database Provider
Language
Added to Library
Last Updated
Prev Next
Reference Types, Online
Prev Next
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
17
18
19
20
21
22
23
24
25
26
27
Generic
Author
Year
Title
Secondary Author
Secondary Title
Place Published
Publisher
Volume
Number of Volumes
Number
Pages
Section
Tertiary Author
Tertiary Title
Edition
Date
Type of Work
Subsidiary Author
Short Title
Alternate Title
ISBN/ISSN
DOI
Original Publication
Reprint Edition
Reviewed Item
Custom 1
Online Database
Author
Year
Title
Periodical
Place Published
Publisher
Volume
Online Multimedia
Created By
Year
Title
Series Editor
Series Title
Distributor
Number of Screens
Pages
Date Published
Date Accessed
Type of Work
Date Accessed
Type of Work
Short Title
Report Number
DOI
DOI
Year Cited
28
29
30
31
32
33
34
35
36
37
38
39
40
41
42
43
44
45
46
47
48
49
50
51
52
53
54
Custom 2
Custom 3
Custom 4
Custom 5
Custom 6
Custom 7
Custom 8
Accession Number
Call Number
Label
Keywords
Abstract
Notes
Research Notes
URL
File Attachments
Author Address
Figure
Caption
Access Date
Translated Author
Translated Title
Name of Database
Database Provider
Language
Added to Library
Last Updated
Date Cited
Format/Length
Accession Number
Accession Number
Label
Keywords
Abstract
Notes
Research Notes
URL
File Attachments
Author Address
Figure
Caption
Label
Keywords
Abstract
Notes
Research Notes
URL
File Attachments
Author Address
Figure
Caption
Translated Author
Translated Title
Name of Database
Database Provider
Language
Added to Library
Last Updated
Translated Author
Translated Title
Name of Database
Database Provider
Language
Added to Library
Last Updated
Prev Next
Reference Types, Pam-Pat
Prev Next
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
Generic
Author
Year
Title
Secondary Author
Secondary Title
Place Published
Publisher
Volume
Number of Volumes
Number
Pages
Section
Tertiary Author
Tertiary Title
Pamphlet
Author
Year
Title
Institution
Published Source
Place Published
Publisher
Number
Series Volume
Number of Pages
Pages
Patent
Inventor
Year
Title
Issuing Organization
Published Source
Country
Assignee
Patent Version Number
US Patent Classification
Application Number
Pages
International Patent Number
International Title
International Author
16
Edition
Edition
17
18
19
20
21
22
23
24
25
26
27
28
29
30
31
32
33
34
35
36
37
38
39
40
41
42
43
44
45
46
47
48
49
50
51
52
53
54
Date
Type of Work
Subsidiary Author
Short Title
Alternate Title
ISBN/ISSN
DOI
Original Publication
Reprint Edition
Reviewed Item
Custom 1
Custom 2
Custom 3
Custom 4
Custom 5
Custom 6
Custom 7
Custom 8
Accession Number
Call Number
Label
Keywords
Abstract
Notes
Research Notes
URL
File Attachments
Author Address
Figure
Caption
Access Date
Translated Author
Translated Title
Name of Database
Database Provider
Language
Added to Library
Last Updated
Date
Type of Work
Translator
Short Title
Abbreviation
ISBN
DOI
Original Publication
Reprint Edition
Packaging Method
Accession Number
Call Number
Label
Keywords
Abstract
Notes
Research Notes
URL
File Attachments
Author Address
Figure
Caption
Access Date
Translated Author
Translated Title
Name of Database
Database Provider
Language
Added to Library
Last Updated
International Patent Classification
Date
Patent Type
Short Title
Patent Number
DOI
Priority Numbers
Issue Date
Designated States
Attorney/Agent
References
LegalStatus
Accession Number
Call Number
Label
Keywords
Abstract
Notes
Research Notes
URL
File Attachments
Inventor Address
Figure
Caption
Access Date
Translated Author
Translated Title
Name of Database
Database Provider
Language
Added to Library
Last Updated
Prev Next
Reference Types, Pers-Pod
Prev Next
1
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3
Generic
Author
Year
Personal Communication
Author
Year
Podcast
Author
Year
4
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23
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34
35
36
37
38
39
40
41
42
43
44
45
46
47
48
49
50
51
52
53
54
Title
Secondary Author
Secondary Title
Place Published
Publisher
Volume
Number of Volumes
Number
Pages
Section
Tertiary Author
Tertiary Title
Edition
Date
Type of Work
Subsidiary Author
Short Title
Alternate Title
ISBN/ISSN
DOI
Original Publication
Reprint Edition
Reviewed Item
Custom 1
Custom 2
Custom 3
Custom 4
Custom 5
Custom 6
Custom 7
Custom 8
Accession Number
Call Number
Label
Keywords
Abstract
Notes
Research Notes
URL
File Attachments
Author Address
Figure
Caption
Access Date
Translated Author
Translated Title
Name of Database
Database Provider
Language
Added to Library
Last Updated
Title
Recipient
Place Published
Publisher
Communication Number
Folio Number
Pages
Description
Date
Type
Short Title
Abbreviation
DOI
Title of Podcast
Narrator
Title of Show
Place Published
Publisher
Version
Number
Pages
Running Time
Producer
Series Title
Edition
Date
Type
Translator
Short Title
Abbreviation
ISBN/ISSN
DOI
Original Publication
Reprint Edition
Reviewed Item
Senders E-Mail
Recipients E- Mail
Accession Number
Call Number
Label
Keywords
Abstract
Notes
Research Notes
URL
File Attachments
Author Address
Figure
Caption
Access Date
Translated Author
Translated Title
Name of Database
Database Provider
Language
Added to Library
Last Updated
Accession Number
Call Number
Label
Keywords
Abstract
Notes
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Term Lists
Introduction to Term Lists
EndNote’s term lists are used to store terms such as keywords, author names, or journal names. You can use these stored terms
when entering references to improve consistency and accuracy of information in your library. You can also use the Journals term
list to store abbreviated journal names that EndNote can substitute for the full journal name in a bibliography.
To get a general sense of how the term lists work, here’s a brief overview of how term lists can be built and used for someone with
a new EndNote library. With the default term list settings in the preferences, all of the updating of terms, and auto-completion,
happens automatically. If you do not like this behavior, you may turn off these settings (see Term List Preferences ).
Term Lists are Automatically Maintained
When you create a new EndNote library, there are three empty term lists already set up and ready for you to use: Authors, Journals, and Keywords. As you enter new references into your library (whether by typing, importing, or pasting them) EndNote
updates the term lists automatically so that the Authors, Journals, and Keywords lists include all of the author names, journal
names, and keywords entered into your references.
Term Lists Help With Data Entry
When you use the New Reference command in the References menu to create new references, you will notice two other features
associated with the term lists. As you begin entering an author name, EndNote attempts to complete the name for you by suggesting the closest matching name in the Authors term list. If you enter a new name that is not already in your Author list, the
name appears in red text to indicate that it is a new addition to the term list. When you close or save the reference, that new term
is added to the list.
When you are searching for references, you can also open a term list to pick the exact term or name for which to search.
Term Lists: Associating Additional Fields
Journals Term List: By default, the installed Journal term list is linked to the Journal Article reference type. If you want to associate other reference types to a multi-column list, you need to add a new multi-column term lists and associate the necessary
fields to that list.
Authors Term List: There are several fields associated with the Authors term list. They include the Primary Author, Secondary
Author, Tertiary Author, and Subsidiary Author fields. You can associate additional fields to the Author term list if you require
them.
Keywords Term List: This term list is associated with the Keywords field in an EndNote reference. You can associate additional
fields with the Keyword term list if you require them.
Related Topics
Automatic Updating of Term Lists
Defining Term Lists
Important Points About Term Lists
Inserting Terms into References
Modifying Terms
Predefined Term Lists
Using Terms For Searches
Important Points About Term Lists
The following list includes useful information about term lists.
n
Term lists are stored with the library and therefore are specific to only that library.
n
A library must be open before you can edit its term lists.
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If you enter a lot of references manually, you may find it helpful to create new term lists for things like publisher and city
names. Up to 31 term lists can be created for any library.
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There is no limit to the number of terms in a term list.
n
One term can be up to 253 characters long.
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Terms can be copied from one list and pasted into another.
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Entire term lists can be exported and imported.
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By default, term lists are automatically updated from the terms entered in your references. New terms appear in red text in
the Reference window. This functionality may be turned off using EndNote’s Preferences.
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Term lists can be "linked" to specific fields so that EndNote associates the correct term list with the field you are editing.
n
Term lists can be used with the "Auto-entry" feature on or off. By default, this option is turned on so that EndNote will suggest the closest matching term as you type in a reference.
n
The Journals term list stores various forms of journal names that can be used when creating bibliographies. EndNote provides several Journals lists (including Humanities, Medical, and Chemistry) that can be imported for use with your EndNote libraries. Look in the EndNote X7 > Terms folder.
n
By default, the installed Journal term list is linked to the Journal Article reference type. If you want to associate other reference types to a multi-column list, you need to add a new multi-column term lists and associate the necessary fields to
that list.
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There are several fields associated with the Authors term list. They include the Primary Author, Secondary Author, Tertiary
Author, and Subsidiary Author fields. You can associate additional fields to the Author term list if you require them.
n
This term list is associated with the Keywords field in an EndNote reference. You can associate additional fields with the
Keyword term list if you require them.
Related Topics
Automatic Updating of Term Lists
Defining Term Lists
Inserting Terms into References
Introduction to Term Lists
Modifying Terms
Predefined Term Lists
Using Terms For Searches
Exporting and Printing Term Lists
Term lists can be exported and then imported into other term lists as a way to move complete lists from one library to another (see
Importing Terms into Term Lists).
You can also open exported term lists in a word processor to print them.
To export a term list:
1. From the Tools menu, select Define Term Lists.
2. Highlight the term list that you want to export.
3. Click Export List.
4. Name and save the text file that will be created during the export.
5. Click OK and the terms are exported to the text file and listed alphabetically, one term per line.
This file can now be imported into another EndNote term list or opened in a word processor to be printed. Term lists cannot be
printed directly from EndNote.
Related Topics
Automatic Updating of Term Lists
Configuring Term Separators (Delimiters)
Converting Old EndNote Journals Files
Copying Terms Between Lists
Copying Terms From Other Sources
Defining Term Lists
Important Points About Entering Journal Names
Important Points About Term Lists
Importing Terms Into Term Lists
Inserting Terms into References
Linking Term Lists to Fields
Loading Supplied Journal Abbreviations
Manually Updating Term Lists
Modifying Terms
Predefined Term Lists
Using Terms For Searches
Adding Terms to a Term List
Automatic Updating of Term Lists
By default, EndNote automatically updates the term lists in a library so they stay current with the data that has been entered into
the references. If you enter a term into a reference, and that term is not in the associated term list already, the term appears in red
text to alert you that you have entered a new term. This can help you to maintain a controlled vocabulary for keywords and other
terms.
You can turn off automatic updating of term lists if you do not want to use the term lists at all. You can also turn this option off and
manually enter terms into your lists as described in the following sections. For example, you can manually enter all of the terms
you plan to use into a term list before entering references into the library. This can be extremely helpful when you have someone
else entering data for you and you want a specific vocabulary used for keywords or other terms. As references are entered into the
EndNote library, the term lists can speed data entry, and if a red term appears, the person doing data entry knows that they have
entered something that was not intended to be a valid term for that field.
Turning Off the Automatic Updating of Term Lists:
1. From the Edit menu, select Preferences.
2. Select the Term Lists panel.
3. Click the check boxes for "Update lists when importing or pasting references" and "Update lists during data entry" to
remove the check mark. The feature will be turned off.
Delimiters
EndNote has predefined term lists for authors, keywords, and journals. When you enter multiple terms into those fields and EndNote updates the term list, it needs to know when one term ends and the next term begins. We call the punctuation that separates
the terms "delimiters."
For the Author fields, author names must always be entered one name per line. Carriage returns (end of line marks) are the only
valid delimiter for this field. Journals normally have just one journal name per reference in this field, so delimiters are not important
here. Keywords are the most complex of the three. By default, EndNote uses carriage returns (end of line marks), semicolons,
and backslashes (\) as delimiters for the Keywords field. If you would like to use other delimiters, see "Delimiters used for Separating Terms" in Manually Updating Term Lists.
Related Topics
Defining Term Lists
Important Points About Term Lists
Inserting Terms into References
Introduction to Term Lists
Modifying Terms
Predefined Term Lists
Using Terms For Searches
Copying Terms Between Lists
You can copy terms from one list and paste them into another as a way to quickly transfer terms between lists. This is particularly
useful because term lists are specific to an individual library.
To copy terms between lists:
1. From the Tools menu, select Open Term Lists, and then select the list with terms you want to copy.
2. Select the term(s) to copy. Hold down the Ctrl key to select multiple terms; use the Shift key to select a range of terms.
3. Right-click and select Copy to copy the highlighted term(s).
4. Open another list.
5. Click in the list, and then right-click and select Paste and press to paste in the term(s).
Related Topics
Automatic Updating of Term Lists
Copying Terms From Other Sources
Defining Term Lists
Important Points About Term Lists
Importing Terms Into Term Lists
Inserting Terms into References
Introduction to Term Lists
Modifying Terms
Predefined Term Lists
Using Terms For Searches
Copying Terms From Other Sources
You can copy terms from any text, and paste them into a term list.
For example, to copy a word from a paper you are writing and paste that word into a term list, first select the term in your word
processor and copy it. Then switch to EndNote and open the desired term list. Click in the list , and then right click and select
Paste to paste in the term(s).
Related Topics
Automatic Updating of Term Lists
Copying Terms Between Lists
Defining Term Lists
Important Points About Term Lists
Importing Terms Into Term Lists
Inserting Terms into References
Introduction to Term Lists
Modifying Terms
Predefined Term Lists
Using Terms For Searches
Importing Terms Into Term Lists
EndNote provides several lists of journal names and abbreviations, including lists for Chemistry, Medicine (Index Medicus), and
the Humanities, all of which are stored in the Terms folder in the EndNote folder. If you are interested in using these abbreviated
forms of the journal names in your bibliographies, you can import them into your term lists and adjust your styles to use the abbreviations.
If you would like to look at the lists before importing them, you may open them in your word processor—but do not edit or save
them. They must remain tab-delimited text files in order for EndNote to correctly import the terms.
Terms can be imported from any text file that lists the terms one per line. Make sure a carriage return is also inserted after the last
term in the list. If you create a list of terms in a word processing document, be sure to save the list as plain text using the Save As
command in your word processor. Then, if your terms include extended characters, select the Unicode (UTF-8) encoding option.
To import a text file that contains terms:
1. From the Tools menu, select Define Term Lists and highlight the term list to which you want to add terms. Use Create List
if you want to create a new list.
Note: EndNote provides several journal lists in the Terms folder of the EndNote folder. You may want to import one of
these lists to add journal names to your Journals term list. See Loading Supplied Journal Abbreviations for more information.
2. Click Import List.
3. Select the text file to be imported and click
Related Topics
Automatic Updating of Term Lists
Copying Terms Between Lists
Copying Terms From Other Sources
Defining Term Lists
Inserting Terms into References
Introduction to Term Lists
Manually Updating Term Lists
Modifying Terms
Predefined Term Lists
Using Terms For Searches
Manually Updating Term Lists
To create a term list automatically from words already in your library, use the Update List button on the Term Lists dialog. This is
useful if you have turned off the preference to automatically update your term lists, or if you have received a library from a colleague without a term list, or if you have deleted a term list and wish to recreate it.
The Update List command can apply to just the selected references or all references showing in the Library window. Use the
Search command to show only those references from which you want to update the list. Or select references in the Library window and update the term list from just those references. Select Show All References from the References menu before using the
Update List command to be sure that you are updating the list from all of the references in your library.
Important points about the Update List command:
n
Update List does not change the terms in your references; it only adds new terms from your references into the term list.
n
Update List does not add duplicate terms to a list.
n
Update List removes leading and trailing spaces, but does not change punctuation.
n
Update List does not automatically link fields to a term list. For easy data entry, you can link a single term list to any
number of fields. See Linking Term Lists to Fields.
To update a term list:
If you are updating the Journals list, see Updating a Journal List.
1. Determine which references should be scanned for terms and make sure they are either "showing" or selected in the
Library window.
2. From the Tools menu, select Define Term Lists, and then select the term list that you would like to update.
3. Click Update List.
4. The currently linked fields are listed in the dialog as the fields from which EndNote gathers new terms. If necessary,
remove a field from this list by selecting it and clicking Remove Field; or add a new field by selecting it from the Add Field
list. Adding or removing field names from this list does not affect the links between fields and term lists.
The Generic field names are used in this dialog. See List of Reference Types to find the corresponding field names for the
fields of various reference types.
5. To update a term list from only the currently selected references in your library, check the Update Terms From Selected
References option.
6. Click OK to begin the updating process. When finished, EndNote displays the number of terms added to the list. Click OK
and the process is complete.
Note: Press Esc orstops the update process, but all terms added up to that point are kept in the term list.
Delimiters Used for Separating Terms
The text that is used to separate the terms in a particular field is determined by the "Delimiter" settings on the Lists tab of the
Term Lists dialog (select Define Term Lists from the Tools menu).
If your keywords are separated by a slash, such as:
Antarctica/ozone/stratosphere
you should type a slash (/) as the field’s term delimiter. A carriage return is always interpreted as a delimiter, so it is not necessary
to enter a delimiter for the Author fields or any other field that has terms entered one-per-line. If different delimiters are used for the
same field in your references, you will need to do more than one update process, updating from the references with different delimiters separately.
Cleaning Up After Updating
Click on the Terms tab, and scroll through the term list to make sure that the Update List command had the desired result. If it did
not, you can highlight specific terms and remove them by clicking Delete Term.
After using the Update List command, you might find that due to errors or variations in spelling, you have multiple entries for the
same term. Scan through the list and delete the unwanted terms.
If necessary, use the Find and Replace command from the Edit menu to change all occurrences of a term in your library. For example, if both "geochronology" and "geo-chronology are entered as keywords, you can delete the unwanted term geochronology from
the term list, then click on the Library window, and select Change Text Ctrl+R) from the Edit menu to change "geochronology" to
"geo-chronology throughout the library.
Related Topics
Automatic Updating of Term Lists
Copying Terms Between Lists
Copying Terms From Other Sources
Defining Term Lists
Important Points About Term Lists
Importing Terms Into Term Lists
Inserting Terms into References
Introduction to Term Lists
Modifying Terms
Predefined Term Lists
Using Terms For Searches
Using the "New Term" Command
To manually add a term to a term list:
1. From the Tools menu, select Open Term Lists and select the term list that you want to modify.
2. On the Terms tab, click New Term.
3. Enter the term and click OK to add it to the list and dismiss the "New Term" dialog.
Continue this way until you have added the last term, then click OK to dismiss the dialog.
If you are entering terms into the Journals term list, you will have options to enter different forms of the journal name. See Important Points About Entering Journal Names for more information about using the Journal lists.
Note: The Save Term (or Save Journal) button is unavailable (dim) if the new term already exists in the term list.
Related Topics
Automatic Updating of Term Lists
Defining Term Lists
Important Points About Term Lists
Inserting Terms into References
Introduction to Term Lists
Modifying Terms
Predefined Term Lists
Creating Term Lists
Creating a New Term List
To create a new term list:
1. From the Tools menu, select Define Term Lists.
2. Click Create List, and then enter the name for the new list. You cannot create a term list with the same name as an existing
term list.
3. Click OK.
4. Check the "Journal List" box only if you want to create a term list for storing journal names and abbreviations. These different forms of the journal name can be used interchangeably when creating bibliographies. See Creating Bibliographies
with Journal Abbreviations.
The predefined Journals term list is already set up as a multi- column list. If you delete this list, you can create another one
as described here. Do not create a 4-column journal list for non-Journal fields.
At this point, you could import an existing list of terms, update the list from existing EndNote field data or click on the Terms tab to
manually enter terms into the list.
Note: New term lists must be linked to fields for the "Suggest terms as you type" and automatic updating features to work.
Related Topics
Automatic Updating of Term Lists
Configuring Term Separators (Delimiters)
Copying Terms Between Lists
Copying Terms From Other Sources
Defining Term Lists
Exporting and Printing Term Lists
Important Points About Entering Journal Names
Important Points About Term Lists
Importing Terms Into Term Lists
Inserting Terms into References
Linking Term Lists to Fields
Loading Supplied Journal Abbreviations
Manually Updating Term Lists
Modifying Terms
Predefined Term Lists
Using Terms For Searches
Linking Term Lists to Fields
Term lists are associated with fields using the Link Term Lists command from the Tools menu. When a term list is linked to a field,
the list can be used to facilitate data entry. EndNote can also keep the term lists current by automatically adding new terms from
linked fields. By linking term lists to particular fields, you can use the Auto-Suggestion feature whenever you are entering data into
the linked field. Each field can be linked to only one term list. However, you can link the same term list to different fields.
The three predefined term lists (Authors, Journals, and Keywords) are already linked to their corresponding fields. Any new term
list that you create is not linked to a field until you set up the links. The links between term lists and fields are specific to each
library.
To change these settings or to link a new term list to one or more fields:
1. Open a library.
2. From the Tools menu, select Link Term Lists.
3. Select a library from the list at the top of the dialog.
4. The names of the available term lists appear next to the field names with which they are linked. You may change the links
here as necessary by selecting a different term list from the pop-up lists.
5. Click OK to save your changes and close the dialog.
These changes will not alter any data that is currently entered in either your references or your term lists. Term lists may be linked
to multiple fields.
Note: After linking a term list to one or more fields, you should make sure the list is updated with the data from those fields. Go to
the Tools menu, select Define Term Lists, select the list, and click Update List.
To unlink a term list from a field:
1. With the library open, select Link Term Lists from the Tools menu.
2. Scroll through the list of fields to find the field that you would like to be unlinked from a list. Select None from the list next to
the field name.
3. Save your changes by clicking OK.
Related Topics
Automatic Updating of Term Lists
Configuring Term Separators (Delimiters)
Copying Terms Between Lists
Copying Terms From Other Sources
Defining Term Lists
Exporting and Printing Term Lists
Important Points About Entering Journal Names
Important Points About Term Lists
Importing Terms Into Term Lists
Inserting Terms into References
Loading Supplied Journal Abbreviations
Manually Updating Term Lists
Modifying Terms
Predefined Term Lists
Using Terms For Searches
Predefined Term Lists
Three empty term lists are available by default with every library: Authors, Journals, and Keywords. These lists are already linked
to their corresponding fields: the Authors term list is linked to the Author, Secondary, Tertiary, and Subsidiary Author fields; the
Journals term list is linked to the Secondary and Alternate Title fields; and the Keywords term list is linked to the Keywords field.
Related Topics
Creating a New Term List
Defining Term Lists
Exporting and Printing Term Lists
Inserting Terms into References
Linking Term Lists to Fields
Modifying Terms
Using Terms For Searches
Defining Term Lists
Configuring Term Separators (Delimiters)
EndNote uses the delimiters in the Define Lists dialog to determine what punctuation separates the individual terms in the same
field in a reference.
For example, if you import data from a source that uses semicolons (;) to separate keywords:
Adult, Age Factors; Astigmatism; Follow-Up Studies; Hospitals, University; Keratotomy, Radial; Myopia; Refraction, Ocular
you would want to be sure that the semicolon was selected as a separator for your Keywords term list. You would also want to be
sure that the comma was not chosen because the commas in this example are used within some of the terms.
By default, EndNote uses the semicolon (;) and backslash (\), and end of line markers as separators. Words or phrases entered
on different lines in a field (by pressing Return
Enter) are always interpreted as separate terms, but the other separators can be changed depending on your needs.
To customize the delimiters for a term list:
1. Open a library.
2. From the Tools menu, select Define Term Lists.
3. Verify that your library name is selected at the top of the dialog, then click on the name of the term list that you intend to
modify.
4. Click the check box to the left of the desired separator to select it (or to unselect it if it is already checked).
The last check box provides a place to enter a custom term delimiter, if necessary.
Related Topics
Creating a New Term List
Defining Term Lists
Deleting Terms
Deleting and Renaming Term Lists
Exporting and Printing Term Lists
Defining Term Lists
Use the Define Term Lists command in the Tools menu to create, rename or delete a term list. This command is also used to specify the punctuation that separates individual terms in a reference (delimiters).
Deleting and Renaming Term Lists
Term lists can be renamed without disturbing their links to reference fields or the terms within them. Deleting or renaming term
lists does not change the data entered into your references.
To delete or rename a term list:
1. From the Tools menu, select Define Term Lists (at least one library must be open to access this command).
2. The drop-down menu at the top of the Lists tab lets you choose from a list of open libraries. Select the library for which you
would like to modify the term lists.
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To Rename a Term List: Highlight a term list, and then click Rename List. In the Rename List dialog, enter
the new name for the list, and click OK.
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To Delete a Term List: Select a term list, and then click Delete List.
3. Click OK to save your changes.
Related Topics
Configuring Term Separators (Delimiters)
Creating a New Term List
Defining Term Lists
Deleting Terms
Exporting and Printing Term Lists
Editing Terms and Term Lists
Deleting Terms
A term can be deleted by highlighting it in the list and clicking Delete Term or selecting Clear from the Edit menu. You can also
use the Cut ( Ctrl+X) command from the Edit menu to cut terms out of the list and Paste them elsewhere (such as into another
term list). Deleting a term from a term list does not remove it from the references in the library.
Related Topics
Defining Term Lists
Deleting and Renaming Term Lists
Important Points About Entering Journal Names
Important Points About Term Lists
Modifying Terms
Modifying Terms
Any term in a term list may be modified or deleted without affecting any of the references in the library or any links between term
lists and fields.
To edit a term in a term list:
1. From the Tools menu, select Open Term Lists and select the list that contains the term to be modified.
2. Select a term, and then click Edit Term. If multiple terms are selected, only the first one opens.
3. Change the term as necessary and click OK when finished. The modified term replaces the original term in the term list. (If
the term already exists, the OK button is dim.)
Note: Editing a term in a term list does not change all occurrences of that term in your library. Use the Find and Replace command from the Edit menu to find the old term in your references and replace it with the new one.
Related Topics
Defining Term Lists
Deleting and Renaming Term Lists
Deleting Terms
Find and Replace
Important Points About Entering Journal Names
Important Points About Term Lists
Using Term Lists for Data Entry and Searching
Inserting Terms into References
Suggesting Terms As You Type (Auto-completion)
If you are entering text into a field that is linked to a term list, EndNote finds the first matching term in the list and suggests that as
the term you want to enter.
The suggested text appears highlighted after the cursor. Continue typing until EndNote suggests the correct term, and then press
Enter or Tab to accept it. ( Enter creates another line in the field so that you can enter more author names, for example; Tab
moves the cursor to the next field in the reference.)
When EndNote suggests a term, you can use the Up or Down arrows on your keyboard to have the suggested text change to the
previous or next possible matching term in the term list.
When you enter a term that is not already in the term list, it appears in red to indicate that it is a new term. When you close or save
the reference, that term is added to the term list and will no longer display in red.
These term list features may be turned off. To turn off the display of red text, turn off the preference to "Suggest Terms as You
Type." See Term Lists Preferences.
Related Topics
Inserting Terms Without Using the Suggestion Feature
Predefined Term Lists
Using Terms For Searches
Inserting Terms Without Using the "Suggestion" Feature
If you have turned off the option to suggest terms as you type, you can still insert terms into your references manually.
To insert a term from a Term List window:
1. Open a reference and position the insertion point where you want to add the term.
2. From the Tools menu, select Open Term Lists and select the desired list.
Or, in an Author, Journal, or Keywords field, press Ctrl+1 to display the appropriate list.
3. Double-click a term to insert it directly into the reference.
Terms can also be selected by typing the first few letters of the term, by using the Arrow keys or by clicking on the term with the
mouse. Hold down the Ctrl key to select multiple terms. Press Enter to insert the selected term or click Insert Term. If multiple
terms are selected and inserted, they are listed in the reference one per line in alphabetical order.
Selected terms can also be copied from the term list using the Copy ( Ctrl+C) command in the Edit menu, and pasted into a reference using the Paste (Ctrl+V) command in the Edit menu.
Related Topics
Inserting Terms into References
Predefined Term Lists
Term Lists Preferences
Using Terms For Searches
Using Terms For Searches
To ensure that you are searching for the correct terms, you can use the term lists with EndNote’s Search command. Terms can be
entered in the fields on the Search panel just as they are entered into references. For example:
1. From the Tools menu, select Search Library and change the first search line to search the Keywords field.
2. From the Tools menu, select Open Term Lists, and then select a list. Or, in an Author, Journal, or Keywords field, press to
display the appropriate list.
3. Double-click a term to insert it into the Search tab.
4. Click Search to search for your references.
Related Topics
Inserting Terms into References
Inserting Terms Without Using the Suggestion Feature
Predefined Term Lists
Term Lists Preferences
Working with the Journals Term List
Creating Bibliographies with Journal Abbreviations
When you insert a journal name from the Journals term list into a reference, only the first entry for the journal name is entered.
However, you can create a bibliography that uses any abbreviation in the term list by editing the style used to format the paper:
To edit a style to use journal abbreviations:
1. From the Edit menu, select Output Styles and select Open Style Manager.
2. Select the style that you would like to edit, and click Edit.
3. From the list of options at the left of the Style Editor window, click Journal Names.
4. Select one of the available options.
5. Close and save the style. Now when you format a paper or look at the Preview panel, all of the journal names should be
replaced with the appropriate abbreviation.
If a journal name in one of your references does not have the selected abbreviation entered in the Journals term list, the journal
name appears in the bibliography exactly as it is entered in the Reference window.
Which Term List is Used for the Abbreviations?
Since it is possible (though not common) to have more than one multi-column journal list in a library, it is important to know how
EndNote chooses which Journal list to use with the Journal Abbreviations feature. EndNote uses the multi-column list that is
linked to the journal field used by the style. (For example, if the Alternate Journal field is specified by the style, EndNote uses the
multi-column list linked to the Alternate Journal field.) If there is not a multi-column list that is linked to a journal field, EndNote
uses the first multi-column list that it finds.
The predefined Journals term list that is added to every library is already set up as a multi-column list, and it is linked to these
fields:
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Journal Article reference type—Journal field
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Journal Article reference type—Alternate Journal field
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Electronic Article reference type—Periodical Title field
Related Topics
Important Points About Entering Journal Names
Loading Supplied Journal Abbreviations
Predefined Term Lists
Updating a Journal List
Important Points About Entering Journal Names
You do not have to use the abbreviation sections in a Journals term list, but if you do, keep these points in mind:
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Enter variations of the same journal name together in one term.
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Enter a consistent abbreviation format in each column. For example, all Index Medicus abbreviations could be entered
under the Abbreviation 1, another format of abbreviated names in Abbreviation 2, and so on.
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Only the first term for each journal (the one in the Full Journal slot) is transferred when you insert a term.
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Use the Journal Abbreviation option in the styles to pick which form of the journal names should be used in the bibliography
(see Creating Bibliographies with Journal Abbreviations).
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EndNote can remove periods from abbreviations during formatting. EndNote cannot add periods to an abbreviated journal
name.
Related Topics
Creating Bibliographies With Journal Abbreviations
Loading Supplied Journal Abbreviations
Predefined Term Lists
Updating a Journal List
Loading Supplied Journal Abbreviations
You can load one of the supplied journal title lists to use for data entry. These lists also contain journal abbreviations for alternate
output, and are used by certain output styles. The lists are supplied as plain text files in the EndNote X7\Terms List s folder. You
can open and view one of these files with any word processor, but make sure to leave it a plain text file so that EndNote can
import it.
To replace the existing Journals list with one of the supplied journal abbreviation lists:
1. From the Tools menu, select Open Term Lists, and then select Journals Term List.
2. Delete all existing terms from the list (you can click and drag to highlight all terms, and then click Delete Term.
3. Click on the Lists tab and highlight the Journals list.
4. Click Import List.
5. In the File dialog, navigate to the EndNote X7\Terms Lists folder, select the list you want to use, and click Open to import
the journal names and abbreviations from the file into the Journals term list.
Related Topics
Creating Bibliographies With Journal Abbreviations
Important Points About Entering Journal Names
Predefined Term Lists
Updating a Journal List
Updating a Journal List
For EndNote to accurately use the abbreviated journal names in your bibliographies, it is important to be consistent when entering
different formats of a journal name. The first column should always list the full journal name, and subsequent columns should
store consistent formats of abbreviated names. See Important Points About Entering Journal Names.
Journal lists are updated automatically, from the Journal Article and Electronic Article reference types, unless you have turned off
the preferences to update lists (see Term Lists Preferences). When journal lists are updated, the entry in the main Journal field
goes into the first column of the list (Full Journal) and the journal entered into the Alternate Journal field goes into the second column (Abbreviation 1). Be consistent when entering data into these fields so that the Journals term list will be updated correctly.
Note that if the name entered into the Journal field exists in any of the columns of the Journals term list, it is not added again. EndNote tries to avoid duplicate entries in the Journals list.
If you have turned off the preference to automatically update the term lists, you may manually update the lists as described here.
When you are manually updating Journal lists, you can choose which columns in the list are used for which fields of data.
To update a journal term list:
1. Open a library and select the references from which you would like to update the Journals term list. Alternatively, use the
Search command to find only those references that you would like to use.
2. From the Tools menu, select Define Term Lists, and then select Journals.
3. Click Update List.
4. Select the fields from which EndNote should extract the journal names. If importing from selected references, check the
Update from Selected References option.
5. Click OK.
When the importing is complete, you will see a column of journal names listed in alphabetical order.
Related Topics
Creating Bibliographies With Journal Abbreviations
Important Points About Entering Journal Names
Loading Supplied Journal Abbreviations
Predefined Term Lists
EndNote Web
Overview of EndNote Web
EndNote Web is a feature set within EndNote, Web of Knowledge, and ResearcherID. It provides a range of bibliographic management tools on the Web. You can import and edit references via a personal Web account, and then cite the references in papers
and create bibliographies.
EndNote Web can search Web of Knowledge, PubMed, and hundreds of other online library databases to help you build a personal reference collection. It includes unique integration for Web of Knowledge subscribers with dynamic links to Times Cited records and Related Records giving you one-click access to the latest information on a reference article.
Each EndNote Web library can store thousands of records and create bibliographies in over 4,500 publishing styles. Our Cite
While You Write feature is available to anyone using Microsoft Word to create bibliographies.
Registering with EndNote Web and Activating the Sync Process
Your purchase of EndNote entitles you to a two-year free subscription to EndNote Web and the option to synchronize the references in your EndNote library with the references in your EndNote Web library without having to export and import files.
You must first register and have an active EndNote Web account to initiate the Sync process. Registration is fast and easy and
activates your two-year EndNote Web account. When completed, EndNote automatically proceeds w ith the Sync process and
updates your new EndNote Web library to match the custom groups in your EndNote library.
Note: The Sync process includes groups and group associations but does not include group sets, smart groups, and groups
within combination groups.
I Already Have an EndNote Web Account
1. Click the Sync button in the Library toolbar to go to an EndNote Web Login dialog.
2. Enter your e-mail address.
3. Enter your EndNote Web password.
4. Press OK to initiate the Sync process.
Since you already have an EndNote Web account, EndNote populates the fields on the Sync Preferences page with the e-mail
address and password that you entered on the EndNote Web Login dialog. Later you can change the data in these fields if you
ever change your e-mail address or password.
I Do Not Have an EndNote Web Account
1. Click the Sync button in the Library toolbar to go to an EndNote Web Login dialog.
2. Click the Sign Up button on the EndNote Web Login dialog to go to a User Registration dialog.
3. Enter your e-mail address in the User Registration dialog. Retype your e-mail address, and then click the Continue button.
4. Enter your personal information in the required fields on the next User Registration form. For example, enter your name, a
password, a title, and fill in the remaining fields.
5. Click the I Agree button to complete the registration process and to begin synchronizing your EndNote Web library with
your EndNote library.
Once you create your EndNote Web account, EndNote populates the fields on the Sync Preferences page with your e-mail
address and password that you entered during registration. Later you can change the data in these fields at anytime if you change
your e-mail address or password.
Sync Preferences
Sync Preferences allow you to set your preferences so that:
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You only have to enter your e-mail address and password once in Sync Preferences and not each time you manually synchronize your references between EndNote and EndNote Web.
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You can have EndNote automatically begin the Sync process every 15 minutes (background processing) by selecting the
Sync Automatically check box.
To access Sync Preference, go to the Edit menu, select Preferences, and then click Sync in the list of preferences.
Accessing EndNote Web
To access your EndNote Web account, go to http://www.myendnoteweb.com and click the EndNote Web Login in the left-hand
column.
For more information about an EndNote Web subscription, contact the Thomson Reuters s ales team.
Related Topics
Overview of the Sync Process
Setting up an EndNote Web Account
Sync Preferences
Unfiled Groups
Using Cite While You Write with EndNote Web
Overview of the Sync Process
EndNote allows you to synchronize the references (including file attachments and figures) in your EndNote library with the references in your EndNote Web library.
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EndNote is your desktop version of your EndNote bibliographic resource tool.
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EndNote Web is our online Web version of EndNote desktop.
The Sync process automatically synchronizes both sets of references that reside in groups so that an exact match exists in both
EndNote and EndNote Web.
The Sync process is always initiated from EndNote. The data in EndNote and EndNote Web are synchronized in both applications when you run Sync. You will have identical groups and references when Sync completes processing.
The Sync process includes all data changes to references (including file attachments) during the Sync process so that each
library matches the other. For example, if you add or remove references and/or PDF files in EndNote, then those changes are
updated in EndNote Web and vice-versa.
The Sync process includes updates and additions to groups in both libraries. For example, if you create and add references to a
new group in EndNote, then you will see this group in EndNote Web the next time you run the Sync process.
Sync Preferences
Sync Preferences allow you to set your preferences so that:
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You only have to enter your e-mail address and password once in Sync Preferences and not each time you manually synchronize your references between EndNote and EndNote Web.
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You can have EndNote automatically begin the Sync process every 15 minutes (background processing) by selecting the
Sync Automatically check box.
To access Sync Preference, go to the Edit menu, select Preferences, and then click Sync in the list of preferences.
Important Points to Know About the Sync Process
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A two-year subscription to EndNote Web comes with the purchase of EndNote. The free subscription allows you to create
an EndNote Web library of up to 50,000 references and up to 5 GB (gigabytes) of data in file attachments.
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Syncing with EndNote Web includes groups and group associations but does not include group sets, smart groups, and
combination groups. These will be added in a later release.
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Sync your references in EndNote group sets (including group sets, smart groups, and combination groups) between one
desktop and another desktop on various platforms.
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After the Sync process completes, EndNote identifies each group that has Sharing enabled in EndNote Web with a shared
group icon. A shared group is a group in which your colleagues can access and see them in their Groups Shared by Others section.
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Sync will put groups, when a group set cannot be identified, in an Unfiled Groups set. Drag and drop the group to the appropriate group set in the desktop library.
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You can select any EndNote library that you created with EndNote, version 8.0 or above to synchronize with your EndNote
Web library.
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You can change an EndNote library in Sync Preferences at any time. The Sync process begins automatically when you
click OK.
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All file attachments that you transferred in an earlier version of EndNote are replaced with the actual file attachments.
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Sync works with only one library and only one EndNote Web account.
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Transfer and Sync used together with mixed versions can result in duplicates. Use Find Duplicates when this occurs to
remove duplicates
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Sync will identify transferred references as duplicates. Use Find Duplicates when this occurs.
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Sync includes references that have been moved to the Trash group. If you have references that were moved to Trash in the
desktop version, those references will be moved to Trash group in the Web version.
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You cannot synchronize an EndNote library with your EndNote Web library when you are in Online Only mode.
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If you have a ResearcherID account, then your "My Publications" list and Publication Lists 1 and 2 will be displayed in
Unfiled Groups. You can create a ResearcherID group set in the desktop library and drag and drop those groups into it.
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EndNote automatically prompts you to Sync your EndNote library with your EndNote Web library when you close your
default EndNote library.
Related Topics
Overview of EndNote Web
Resolve Sync Conflicts
Setting up an EndNote Web Account
Sync Preferences
Unfiled Groups
Resolve Sync Conflicts Dialog
The Resolve Sync Conflicts dialog allows you to resolve conflicts between references in your EndNote library and your EndNote
Web library.
A conflict occurs for a reference when you edit the reference in both EndNote and in EndNote Web between Syncs. However,
EndNote does not know which one you want to keep.
Sync Conflicts Group
This group contains all of the references for which EndNote has identified a conflict between an EndNote reference and EndNote
Web reference. The group only appears in the Groups panel when there are conflicts.
To resolve Sync conflicts:
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Right-click the Sync Conflicts group and select the Resolve Conflicts option from the contextual menu. EndNote displays
the Resolve Sync Conflicts dialog.
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Select the Sync Conflicts group to display a list of references that EndNote has identified as having a conflict. Select one
or more references from the list. Right-click and select the Resolve Conflicts option from the contextual menu.
Resolving Conflicts
You can keep either the EndNote reference or the EndNote Web reference to resolve a conflict. The version of the reference you
do not choose to keep is permanently deleted
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To resolve a conflict between two references, click the Keep this Desktop Record button or the Keep this Web Record button. Once you select a record to keep, EndNote updates the record in both EndNote and EndNote Web.
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To resolve all conflicts in favor of the desktop version or the Web version, select the "Keep all from Desktop" or the "Keep
all from Web" from the drop-down menu at the bottom of the dialog. Once you select either option, EndNote updates the records in both EndNote and EndNote Web.
You can also:
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Copy and paste information between the two records. The record that you keep will include all data copied to the record.
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Skip or Cancel a conflict. All references in conflict remain in the Sync Conflicts auto-group set until they are resolved.
Note: When you choose to keep a record, EndNote immediately sends all the data to EndNote Web. If your connection to EndNote Web fails, the process ends and the dialog closes. However, any data already sent to EndNote Web is processed.
Did You Know ...
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When you create a new group in EndNote or EndNote Web, the new group is added to the other library when you run Sync.
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When you change a group’s name in both libraries, EndNote uses the most recently changed name so no conflict occurs
when you run Sync.
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When you delete a group, there is no conflict. EndNote removes the group and moves the references to the Unfiled Groups
folder.
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If you delete a group in one application and rename the same group in the other application, EndNote deletes the group
when you run Sync. Delete overrules Rename.
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When you move a reference from one group to another group, then a Sync conflict may occur. If you move a reference from
Group A to Group B in EndNote and in EndNote Web you move the same reference to Group C, then the next time you run
Sync the reference will be in conflict.
See also Unfiled Groups
Setting up an EndNote Web Account
Your purchase of EndNote entitles you to a two-year free subscription to EndNote Web—our online version of EndNote desktop.
Your EndNote Web subscription is valid for two years from the date after you register and activate your account.
You may set up an EndNote Web account for each valid EndNote installation—one account for each unique EndNote serial
number. For institutions with a site license, the site serial number allowed the appropriate number of EndNote Web accounts.
Registration and Activation of the Sync Process
The Sync process allows you to synchronize the references in your EndNote library with the references in your EndNote Web
library. You must first set up an EndNote Web account to activate the Sync process.
There are two methods for setting up an EndNote Web account.
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In EndNote, from the main Library window, click the Sync button that appears in the toolbar to open an EndNote Web Login
dialog. Click the Sign Up button to begin the registration and activation process. Follow the online instructions.
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In EndNote, go to the Edit menu and select Preferences > Sync Preferences. Click the Enable Sync button to go to the
EndNote Web Login dialog. Click the Sign Up button to begin the registration and activation process. Follow the online
instructions.
Related Topics
Overview of EndNote Web
Overview of the Sync Process
Sync Preferences
Unfiled Groups
Using Cite While You Write with EndNote Web
Sync Status Dialog
The Sync Status dialog allows you to review information about the EndNote library that you selected to synchronize with your EndNote Web library. The dialog provides information about the last Sync operation, including the number of references and file and
figure attachments that EndNote updated during process.
A "Copy text to clipboard" button allows you to copy the text to a clipboard. You can later paste the text to a text file if you wish to
keep a report of Sync operations.
The Sync Status icon is blue if no errors occur during a Sync operation; otherwise, the icon is red if Sync does not complete processing or if errors occur during processing.
Note: Although the Sync Status icon appears in the Group panel, it is not really a group as defined in EndNote.
Sync Details
Check the information under this category if processing errors occur during a Sync operation. EndNote displays error text and
codes in the dialog detailing the problem. For example:
Sync Errors: SYNC DISABLED
Sync cannot run because you will exceed the reference capacity of your EndNote
account.
In this example, your EndNote Web library exceeds the 50,000 references limit. Sync will not run until you resolve this issue.
You may see other error messages under this category. For example:
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Storage limit errors occur when file and figure attachments in your EndNote Web library exceed the 5 GB (gigabytes) of
data limit. In this instance, some (or all) attachments may not have been sent during the last Sync operation.
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Authentication errors occur when you enter a wrong username and / or password when setting up Sync. Go to Sync Preferences and enter a valid username and password.
EndNote Web Sync Library
Check the information under this category to ensure that you had an Internet connection with EndNote Web when you initiate a
Sync operation.
The Username filed displays the e-mails address that you are using to Sync your EndNote library with your EndNote Web library.
The Serial Number field shows the serial number of your version of EndNote along with the account type: Basic (free) or Premium.
Related Topics
Overview of EndNote Web
Resolve Sync Conflicts
Setting up an EndNote Web Account
Sync Preferences
Unfiled Groups
Unfiled Groups
If during the Sync process, EndNote receives a group from EndNote Web that does not belong to any group set in EndNote, then
the system automatically adds the group to an Unfiled Group folder.
You should move all groups from the Unfiled Groups folder to an existing group set in EndNote. If an appropriate group set does
not currently exist, then you should create one. EndNote removes the Unfiled Groups folder from the Groups panel when you
move all unfiled groups to a group set.
Note: Beginning with EndNote X3, you can create group sets to organize your EndNote library. EndNote Web does not have
group sets. When you run the Sync process, conflicts will arise and EndNote will move these conflicts to the Unfiled Groups set.
ResearcherID Groups
If you are member of ResearcherID, then the groups named My Publication List, Publication List 1, and Publication List 2 will
appear in Unfiled Groups folder following the Sync process. We recommend that you create a group set named ResearcherID and
move these three groups into the group set. Note that any changes (or deletions) that you make to the references in these
ResearcherID groups will be sent to EndNote Web upon the next Sync and will also be seen at ResearcherID.com.
Related Topics
Overview of the Sync Process
Resolve Sync Conflicts Dialog
Sync Preferences
Using Cite While You Write with EndNote Web
You can use Cite While You Write with either EndNote or EndNote Web.
Important Points about Cite While You Write and EndNote Web
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Cite While You Write support is included for both EndNote and EndNote Web. However, you cannot use this feature simultaneously with both applications.
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You can insert references from your personal EndNote Web library. You cannot, however, use Cite While You Write to
insert references in folders shared by other EndNote Web users.
n
Some Cite While You Write functions may not be active for EndNote Web.
For general information about how to Cite While You Write, see Overview of the Cite While You Write Process and How to Cite
While You Write.
Selecting the EndNote or EndNote Web Application
To select the EndNote or EndNote Web application for Cite While You Write:
1. From the EndNote X7 tab in Word, select Preferences.
2. Click on the Application tab.
3. Select the appropriate application.
EndNote is your desktop version of EndNote X7.
EndNote Web is the online Web version of EndNote. X7Enter your subscription details, which includes the EndNote Web URL, your e-mail address, and your password.
Related Topics
Applications Preferences
Overview of EndNote Web
Overview of the Sync Process
Setting Up an EndNote Web Account
Searching Online Databases
Introduction to Searching Online Databases
Using EndNote’s Online Search commands, you can search online bibliographic databases just as easily as you can search an
EndNote library on your own computer. The results of your searches can be downloaded either to a temporary EndNote library or
directly into your own EndNote library.
How Does It Work?
EndNote is able to provide access to these remote sources using an information retrieval protocol called Z39.50 is widely supported by libraries and information providers around the world as a convenient method to access their library catalogs and reference databases.
EndNote stores the information necessary to connect to and search these online databases in individual connection files. Preconfigured connection files are provided for a number of these sources. If necessary, you can also customize or configure your
own connections to Z39.50-compliant databases (see Editing a Connection File and Creating Connection Files).
Note: If the online database that you access is not available on a Z39.50 server, EndNote will not be able to connect directly to
it. We suggest that you submit a request for Z39.50 compatibility to your librarian or the institution that provides access to the
database. You can still import references downloaded from non-Z39.50 databases. See General Importing Instructions.
Related Topics
Establishing the Connection
How to Search an Online Database
Retrieving and Saving References
What EndNote Searching Offers
How to Search an Online Database
The process of searching an online database is very similar to searching an EndNote library. Here are the basic steps involved;
more detailed descriptions of these steps are provided in additional help topics.
First, Choose Integrated or Online Search Mode
You can download found references directly into an existing EndNote library using Integrated Library Mode or into a temporary
library using Online Search mode.
Using a temporary library is helpful if you want to experiment with potential search strategies or refine a search strategy. You can
retrieve batches of references without affecting your permanent library, and then copy only selected references into your permanent library.
To save references directly into your library:
1. Open the EndNote library that will receive the downloaded references.
2. Make sure Integrated Library & Online Search Mode is selected so that all commands and groups are available.
When you download references from the online database, they will be saved to the open library (the library name appears at the
top of the window). If you download references that you find you do not want, you must delete them from the library.
To store references in a temporary library:
1. Create a new EndNote library or open any existing library.
2. On the toolbar, select Online Search Mode so that only Online Search groups and commands are available.
When you download references from the online database, they will be stored in a temporary library (rather than a library name, the
top of the window indicates “Online Mode”). In order to save references permanently, you must use either the References > Copy
References to command to copy selected references to a new or existing library or the Copy to Local Library icon from the toolbar.
When you close the temporary library, all references in it will be lost.
If you initiate an online search while in Local Library Mode, the display will automatically switch to Online Search Mode.
Then, Search and Download References
To search and retrieve references from a online database:
1. Initiate the online search in one of these two ways:
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From the Tools menu, select Online Search to display the full collection of connection files. Or, click "more" under the
Online Search groups.) Select the online database that you would like to search, and then click Choose. See Selecting a
Connection File.)
When the connection has been established, the Search panel appears ready for you to enter a search.
n
Once you have searched an online database, or marked the database as a favorite with the Connection Manager, it
appears in an Online Search list in the Groups panel of the Library window. (See Picking Your Favorite Connection Files.)
In the Online Search list, click on the database you wish to search. EndNote connects to the online database and displays
the Search panel.
2. Enter your search request in the search fields on the Search panel, and then click Search.
EndNote searches the database and displays the number of references that were found to match your search criteria.
3. Click OK to retrieve the references.
If you would like to pause during record retrieval, click Options and select Pause. When you are ready to continue, click
Options and select Resume.
Note: The connection to the online database is maintained only until the search is completed and the matching references are
retrieved; when the references are downloaded, you are automatically disconnected. Each time you initiate another search, EndNote reconnects.
Next, Determine Which References to Keep
If you are working in Integrated Library & Online Search Mode:
All references are already saved to the current EndNote library and are displayed in a group under Online Search.
If you decide you do not want to keep any of the retrieved references, display the group of references and click in the list, go to the
Edit menu and Select All, and then go to the References menu and select Move References to Trash.
You can also highlight individual references and select References > Move References to Trash. (You can use Ctrl +click to
select non-contiguous references in the list, or use Shift+click to select a range of references.)
If you are working in Online Search Mode:
The retrieved references are stored in a temporary library. Rather than a library name at the top of the window, EndNote displays
“Online Mode.”
To save all of the retrieved references, click in the list of references, go to the Edit menu and Select All, and then do one of these:
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Go to the References menu and select Copy References to in order to select a new or existing library and copy the highlighted references to that selected library
n
Or, click the Copy to Local Library Mode icon on the toolbar to quickly copy the highlighted references to the currently
active library
You could also highlight only individual references before copying them to an EndNote library. (Use Ctrl+click to select non-contiguous references in the list, or use Shift+click to select a range of references.)
The references are copied to the selected library and are displayed in a Copied References group. Each time you copy references
into an EndNote library, the Copied References group is replaced with the new set of references. Previously copied references
remain in the library; they are just no longer part of the latest Copied References group.
Another way to save references downloaded in Online Search Mode is to use the Copy and Paste commands from the Edit menu
to copy individual references from Online Search Mode and then paste them into Local Library Mode.
Leave Online Search mode in one of these ways:
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Click on Local Library Mode, which leaves Online Search Mode intact. You can switch between these two modes without
losing the current online search data.
n
Click on Integrated Mode. This closes the Online Search Mode session. Any references in Online Search Mode are discarded so make sure you first copy references you want to keep into your permanent library.
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Click the corner close button. This closes the entire EndNote library (all modes). Any references in Online Search Mode are
discarded, so make sure you first copy references you want to keep into your permanent library.
Related Topics
Discarding Duplicate References
Establishing the Connection
Free Databases
Introduction to Connection Files
Retrieving and Saving References
Using Z39.50 Command-Line Syntax
What EndNote Searching Offers
What if Your Database Isn't Listed?
What EndNote's Searching Offers
EndNote’s search interface provides a simple way to do basic searches on EndNote libraries and online databases. The same
Search panel is used for both purposes.
This search interface is not intended to replace the advanced search options that may be available using the search interface
offered by your information provider. There may be times when you want to use the information provider’s search interface (for
example, to take advantage of a thesaurus of search terms) and then import those references into EndNote. This is still an option
using EndNote’s Import command (see Importing Reference Data into EndNote). But once you know the terms that you want to
use in your searches, being able to retrieve the necessary references directly from EndNote is a very fast and efficient approach.
Related Topics
Establishing the Connection
Introduction to Searching Online Databases
How to Search an Online Database
Retrieving and Saving References
Selecting a Connection File
Selecting a Connection File
Before an online source may be searched, you must first connect to it by selecting the corresponding connection file. The connection file tells EndNote which online database you want to search, where to find it online, and what search options are available
for it.
Access- Restricted Databases
EndNote comes with pre-configured connection files to free reference databases and library catalogs as well as databases that
require payment and/or authentication for access. Most of the databases offered by the commercial information providers (Ovid,
OCLC, DIMDI, SilverPlatter, and so on) require an account for access. There are, however, numerous databases that are available at no cost to you, and no account is required (see Free Databases)
Note: To gain access to a restricted database, you will need to contact the information provider directly to set up an account.
Thomson Reuters does not control access to any of the sources.
When you attempt to connect to a restricted database, by default EndNote prompts you to enter your user ID and/or password. If
you have a user ID and/or password supplied by the data provider that hosts the restricted database, enter the necessary information, and click OK to log on. (Depending on the database you are accessing, the passwords and IDs may be case-sensitive.)
If you do not have a user ID and/or password, but instead have authenticated access to a database either by IP address recognition (for example, your computer is on your university campus or company network and has an IP address that is recognized
as authenticated by the data provider’s server) or through a proxy server, it may be possible to configure the connection file and
your Network Preferences so that you do not need to enter a user ID and password.
If you have access to a restricted database by IP address recognition, you may need to edit the connection file so that it does not
prompt you for a user ID and/or password. In EndNote, select Edit Connection Files Open Connection Manager. Locate the connection file for the database you wish to access, select it, and click Edit. Click Connection Settings and clear the User ID and
Password boxes under " Login Information Required." Select Save from the File menu to save your changes, and then close the
connection file.
If you have access to a restricted database via a proxy server, you must make sure that your Internet settings are properly configured, because EndNote uses these settings. See Problems Connecting for information about proxy servers. You will need the
address and port number of your proxy server.
Related Topics
Free Databases
Picking Your Favorite Connection Files
How to Search an Online Database
Retrieving and Saving References
What EndNote Searching Offers
What if Your Database Isn't Listed?
Free Databases
Two major databases that do not require passwords are the PubMed database from the U.S. National Library of Medicine, and the
Library of Congress. Many of the general library catalogs are also unrestricted. Additional connections may be available at the
EndNote Web site at http://endnote.com/support .
Databases Not Requiring an Account
Description
Information Provider/Category
PubMed (MEDLINE and pre- NLM
MEDLINE)
references from the
National Library of Medicine
Most university library catLibrary Catalogs
alogs
Books at the Library of Con- Library of Congress
gress
Accounts Table
Related Topics
Access- Restricted Databases
Picking Your Favorite Connection Files
How to Search an Online Database
Retrieving and Saving References
What EndNote Searching Offers
What if Your Database Isn't Listed?
Picking Your Favorite Connection Files
EndNote provides hundreds of connection files for a variety of sources. To peruse the list of available connection files, select Connection Files from the Edit menu, and select Open Connection Manager. The list includes the original connection files installed in
the EndNote program folder (Program Files\EndNote X7\ Connections ) as well as any user created or edited files stored in your
personal Connections folder (see Folder Locations Preferences).
When you have found a connection file that you will want to use in the future, click the check box to the left of it to mark it as a
favorite. All marked files (up to 500) appear under the Online Search section in the Groups panel of the Library window, giving you
easy access to those files you use most often. This step is not required; you can always choose the Online Search command or
the more item under Online Search in the Groups panel, to pick a connection file that is not listed in the Groups panel.
Use the following features in the Connection Manager window to locate the connection file(s) that you want to use:
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Type a database name into the Quick Search text box and press Enter to search for a connection file by the name of the
database.
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Click Find By and EndNote displays the list of information providers (categories) used for all of the connection files. Select
one to restrict the list to show just that set of files. That will help you to find the one you want or select Mark All to mark up
to 500 connection files in the subset.
n
Click the column headings to sort the connection files by name or by information provider. Clicking the same column heading a second time will change the sort order from ascending to descending. Click again to set it back to ascending order.
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If you know the name of the connection file that you want to use, you may start typing it and the first file that matches what
you type will be selected.
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Click the More Info triangle button at the bottom of the dialog to display additional information about the selected connection file.
Note: For information about editing connection files or creating new ones, see Introduction to Connection Files.
Related Topics
Access- Restricted Databases
Establishing the Connection
Free Databases
How to Search an Online Database
Retrieving and Saving References
What EndNote Searching Offers
What if Your Database Isn't Listed?
What if Your Database Is Not Listed?
By default, EndNote installs only the most popular connection files. For information about locating and installing additional files,
see Installing Additional Connection Files.
If a connection file has not been provided for the database that you want to search, contact your librarian or information provider to
see if their database is available on a Z39.50 server. If it is, you should request the information required to set up a Z39.50 client
for that database. See Creating Connection Files.
Adding Connection Files
The Connection Manager displays all of the connection files in the EndNote program folder as well as in your personal Connections folder. If you have received a connection file from a colleague or librarian or downloaded one from the Web, copy it into
your personal Connections folder and it will appear in the Connection Manager. Keeping the file in your personal Connections
folder ensures that it will not be deleted or overwritten with future updates to the EndNote program.
To locate your personal Connections folder or to designate a different Connections folder:
1. Select Preferences from the Edit menu.
2. Select the Folder Locations option.
3. Select the Connection Folder option.
4. Click Select Folder.
5. Go to the Connections folder and select the connection files that you want to use.
6. With the folder open and selected, Open the folder and then click Select.
7. Click OK.
Note: New and updated connection files are posted on the EndNote Web site as they become available.
Related Topics
Access- Restricted Databases
Establishing the Connection
Free Databases
Picking Your Favorite Connection Files
How to Search an Online Database
Retrieving and Saving References
What EndNote Searching Offers
Searching an Online Database
Establishing the Connection
The first step to searching an online database is to connect to it. Once the connection has been made, you’re able to use EndNote’s Search panel to search the online database.
If you have connected to a particular database before or if you have selected a database as one of your "favorites" (see Picking
Your Favorite Connection Files), it will appear in the Groups panel under Online Search. This saves you a few steps in the process of using the Online Search command.
To connect to an online database, do one of these:
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On the Groups panel, under Online Search, select the online database you want to search. That initiates the online connection.
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If the database you want to search is not listed under Online Search in the Groups panel, select Tools > Online Search,
select the desired database, and click Choose to initiate the connection.
This Connection dialog is very similar to the Connection Manager described in The Connection Manager, but it does not provide
the options to edit connection files or mark them as favorites.
When a successful connection has been made, the Search panel opens with the online database selected for searching. You are
now ready to begin searching the database.
The connection to the online database is maintained only until the search is completed and the matching references are retrieved;
when the references are downloaded, you are automatically disconnected. Each time you initiate another search, EndNote reconnects.
Note: If you have difficulty establishing a connection, see Troubleshooting Connections.
Related Topics
Access- Restricted Databases
Available Search Options
Boolean Searches
Changing the Focus of the Search
Free Databases
Online Database Searching (Overview)
Retrieving and Saving References
Searching EndNote Fields vs. Online Database Indexes
Searching Web of Science
What if Your Database Isn't Listed?
Online Database Searching (Overview)
Searching an online database is essentially the same as searching your own EndNote library. After establishing a connection:
1. Enter your search term(s) in the fields on the Search panel.
2. Select the appropriate search options.
3. Click Search to send the search request to the online database.
A few significant differences between searching an online database and an EndNote library are described in Searching EndNote
Fields vs. Online Database Indexes. See The Search Panel for general information about using this feature.
Available Search Options
Once you are connected to an online database and that database is selected for searching, certain elements on the Search panel
change from the settings that are available for EndNote library searches.
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The search set list changes when searching an online source. You can search either the remote database or the list of references already retrieved and saved from the remote source.
n
The Match Case and Match Words options are not available for online database searches.
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The options available in the search menus (such as Author, Title, or Keywords) vary with each database, and they are not
the same as searching the fields in an EndNote library (see Searching EndNote Fields vs. Online Database Indexes).
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The following fields are not available in the search menu for searching an online source: PDF, Any Field + PDF with Notes,
and PDF Notes.
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The comparison list for each search line is always set to Contains.
Related Topics
Access- Restricted Databases
Discarding Duplicate References
Establishing the Connection
Free Databases
How to Search an Online Database
Online Database Searching
Retrieving and Saving References
Searching Web of Science
What if Your Database Isn't Listed?
Boolean Searches
Multiple search terms can be combined using the Boolean operators AND, OR, and NOT. EndNote constructs a search from the
top to the bottom of the Search panel, finding the search results of the first two items, then combining that result set with the third
search line, and so on.
Field
Comparison
Search Term
Boolean Oper-
Keywords
Keywords
Keywords
Author
Operator
Contains
fossil
Contains
dinosaur
Contains
avian
Contains
Balanoff
Boolean Operators Table
ator
AND
NOT
OR
For example, the search shown above could be written as:
(((fossil AND dinosaur) NOT avian) OR Balanoff)
First EndNote looks for references about fossils and dinosaurs, then any references to avian would be omitted from that set, and
finally all references by "Balanoff would be added.
Keep in mind that:
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OR broadens your search by adding together two result sets
n
AND narrows the focus of the search by looking for the intersection of references found
n
NOT narrows the search by omitting the results for one term from the current result set.
Searching EndNote Fields vs. Online Database Indexes
When searching an online database, you are not searching the specific fields in each record, but rather the available search
indexes for that database. The search menus on the Search panel list only available indexes for the online database, so you will
not see all of the generic field names listed as you do when searching an EndNote library.
If the current search strategy is set up to search an EndNote field that does not exist as an online database search index, that
field name will appear in italics. If you try to execute a search, EndNote will advise you that the field is not valid. Change the
search field selection to a valid index for the selected online database.
The connection file for a particular database stores the names and settings for the search options listed in the search menus. See
Search Attributes if you are interested in changing the pre-configured options.
Note: Comparison operators other than "Contains" cannot be used when searching online databases.
Understanding Search Results
When searching an online database, the search menus display a list of available search indexes supported at the remote site.
These are not fields in the online database, but rather sets of search terms and synonyms designed to facilitate your searches.
It is not uncommon to search for a term in an index and notice that the exact term appears nowhere in the retrieved reference(s).
For example, you might search for heart attack in the Title index of a medical database and find references that do not include
heart attack in the Title field but, instead, they use the term myocardial infarction. This apparent discrepancy can be attributed to
the search index of the online database, which has mapped the common term heart attack to its scientific equivalent myocardial
infarction.
It is also not uncommon for some of these databases to index personal names that appear in the titles or keywords along with the
author names. For example, a search of the Library of Congress for "Charles Dickens" in the Author index displays books about
Dickens as well as those written by him. This form of indexing is most commonly seen with library book catalogs and not with the
scientific reference databases. Sometimes you can restrict the searches to books by that particular author by setting up a search
to find (for example) "Charles Dickens" in Author, NOT "Charles Dickens" in Keywords.
These search indexes are maintained by the providers of the databases and are not controlled by EndNote.
Related Topics
Access- Restricted Databases
Available Search Options
Boolean Searches
Changing the Focus of the Search
Establishing the Connection
Free Databases
Online Database Searching
Retrieving and Saving References
Searching Web of Science
What if Your Database Isn't Listed?
Online Database Search Limitations
Some of the search options have additional limitations that you would not encounter when searching an EndNote library. For
example, some databases prohibit searching for a year alone. The year can be specified only to limit a search (these are called
"limit fields"). In such a case, a search for 1997 as the year would be denied, but searching for Smith as an author AND 1997 as
the year (thereby limiting the results of the author search), would be allowed.
If you have set up a search that is not accepted by the online database, an error message will describe the source of the problem
as specifically as possible. (See Troubleshooting Connections.) Keep in mind that these restrictions are set by the information provider, not EndNote.
Documentation from the information provider may help to clarify what search options are available.
Related Topics
Access- Restricted Databases
Available Search Options
Boolean Searches
Changing the Focus of the Search
Establishing the Connection
Free Databases
Retrieving and Saving References
Searching EndNote Fields vs. Online Database Indexes
Searching Web of Science
What if Your Database Isn't Listed?
Changing the Focus of the Search
The target of the search is the online database (represented by the database name on the Search panel) or the current EndNote
library group that is displayed when the Search command is chosen. (If you haven’t yet connected to the online database or
opened a library, you will need to do so before you can search it.) To change the focus of a search, click on a different library group
or online database in the Groups panel.
The available search options differ among the various online databases, as well as between online databases and EndNote
libraries. When you change the target of a search, the field options on the Search panel change automatically. You could set up a
Keywords search for a particular online database, but when you select a different online database, the field selection changes
because Keywords is not an option for the new database selection.
When switching the focus of your search from one group to another and back again, the original search setup is retained as long
as you have not changed any settings on the Search panel and the field selections are available in both databases.
Related Topics
Access- Restricted Databases
Available Search Options
Boolean Searches
Establishing the Connection
Free Databases
Online Database Searching
Retrieving and Saving References
Searching EndNote Fields vs. Online Database Indexes
Searching Web of Science
What if Your Database Isn't Listed?
Retrieving and Saving References
Retrieving and Saving References
After a successful search, EndNote alerts you to the number of references that were found. You have the option of retrieving all of
the references or a specific range of references. The order of the retrieved references reflects the way they were returned from the
server—this is not necessarily alphabetical, chronological, or in order of relevance.)
How references are saved is determined by the current display mode.
Integrated Library & Online Search Mode
All groups and commands are available. When you download references from an online database. EndNote saves them to a group
under the Online Search group set and to your open library.
If you decide that you do not want to keep the retrieved references, select them, and then move them to the Trash folder.
Note: We recommend that you use Online Search Mode if you do not want the references downloaded to the All References
group.
Online Search Mode
If you are working in Online Search Mode (the default option), references are downloaded into a temporary library. To save references, highlight them, and then:
n
Go to the References menu and select Copy References To in order to select a new or existing library and copy the highlighted references to that selected library
n
Or, click the Copy to Local Library icon on the toolbar to quickly copy the highlighted references to the currently active
library
Another way to save references downloaded in Online Search Mode is to use the Copy and Paste commands from the Edit menu
to copy individual references from Online Search Mode and then paste them into Local Library Mode.
Leave Online Search mode in one of these ways:
n
Click on Local Library Mode, which leaves Online Search Mode intact. You can switch between these two modes without
losing the current Online Mode references.
n
Click on Integrated Mode. This closes the current Online Search Mode session. Any references in Online Search Mode are
discarded, so make sure you first copy references you want to keep into your permanent library.
n
Click the corner close button. This closes the entire EndNote library (all modes). Any references in Online Search Mode are
discarded, so make sure you first copy references you want to keep into your permanent library.
Discarding Duplicate References
If you use the same search strategy to search multiple online sources, you may introduce duplicate references into your EndNote
library. There are two methods to identify and remove duplicates:
n
You can identify and delete duplicates in your EndNote library after downloading is completed. This process allows you to
view each duplicate before deleting it. See Finding Duplicate References.
n
You can discard duplicates during the downloading process, as described below.
To automatically discard duplicates:
1. From the Edit menu, select Preferences.
2. Display the Duplicates panel.
3. From the Online Search Results panel, select the “Automatically discard duplicates” check box.
When you select the “Automatically discard duplicates” check box, EndNote automatically discards duplicate references when
retrieving references from an online database. The duplicates are never inserted into the library. This setting applies when you perform a search in Integrated Library Mode or Online Search Mode.
n
If you are using Integrated Library & Online Search Mode when performing an online database search, it applies to the permanent All References library.
n
If you are using Online Search Mode when performing an online database search, it applies to the temporary Online References library.
Note: These settings do not apply to the "Merge Duplicates in Bibliography" setting defined in Formatting Preferences. The duplicates are never inserted into the bibliography.
Related Topics
Duplicate Preferences
Finding Duplicate References
The Connection Status Window
The Connection Status window provides detailed information about a connection and EndNote’s interactions with the online database and server. This window is useful to help you or to help EndNote Technical Support assist you in tracking down the source
of a problem with an online database.
View the connection status information by selecting Show Connection Status from the Window menu to display the Status window. When that window is open, this command changes to Hide Connection Status, which closes the Status window.
The Status window displays information for the latest connection. A menu at the top of the Status window lets you view either the
record data for each reference or the status messages returned from the server of the online database.
Note: The Connection Status window displays the last 32K of text written to the log file. If you need to see more than that, you
can open the Connect .log file in a word processor after closing the Retrieved Reference window(s).
Related Topics
Available Search Options
Free Databases
Online Database Searching
Retrieving and Saving References
Searching Web of Science
The Log File
The Log File
All messages and retrieved references for a given EndNote session are recorded in a log file. By default, the log file is called "Connect .log" and is saved in the folder:
Windows XP: C:\Windows\Application Data\EndNote folder or the Documents and Settings\User Name\Application Data\EndNote
Windows Vista: C:\Users\User Name\ App Data\Roaming\EndNote\
Windows 7: C:\Users\User Name\ App Data\Roaming\EndNote\
Windows 8: C:\Users\User Name\ App Data\Roaming\EndNote\
An existing log file is overwritten the first time EndNote establishes a connection after being started.
You may select a different name and/or location for the log file using the URLs & Links settings in the Preferences window. To do
so, select Preferences from the Edit menu and select the URLs & Links option from the list. Click Choose in the Connection Log
section to name the new log file and choose where to save it.
You may also choose not to create a log file by clearing the Use Log File option. This will slightly speed up the retrieval process.
However, without a log file you will not be able to scroll back through the record data or status messages after you change the
View setting in the Connection Status window.
Importing a Log File
The log file is a regular text file. It can be viewed using a word processor and imported, if necessary, using the connection file. In
this sense, the log file is a back up for the references retrieved in a particular EndNote session. You can verify that EndNote
retrieved the reference data correctly by browsing through the log file in your word processor and comparing the unmodified data to
what appears in your EndNote references. If necessary, you can change the settings in your connection file and re-import the references (without reconnecting to the online database).
Note: You cannot import from a Connection .log file saved from Web of Science and Web of Knowledge. You must do a regular
online search or a direct export.
To import a log file using the filter options of a connection file:
1. Open a library into which you want to import the log file.
2. From the File menu, select Import > File.
3. Click Choose File and select Connection.log. Substitute the name of your log file if you have changed the default name.
4. Select Use Connection File from the Import Options list in the Import dialog
5. Select the desired connection file, and then click Choose. Now you should be back in the Import dialog with both the file
and the import option set.
6. Next to Text Translation, select Unicode (UTF-8).
7. Click Import.
Note: The connection file and filter file for a database are likely configured to import very different reference formats. Normally, a
connection file is set up for MARC data, whereas a filter is set up for tagged data. Because the output formats are so different,
you should not use a filter file (*.
Related Topics
Available Search Options
Free Databases
Online Database Searching
Retrieving and Saving References
Searching Web of Science
The Connection Status Window
Searching Web of Knowledge
Searching Web of Knowledge
Web of Knowledge is a comprehensive research platform that brings together many different types of content for searching. Journal articles, patents, Web sites, conference proceedings, Open Access material—all can be accessed through one interface,
using a variety of powerful search and analysis tools.
Search Web of Knowledge just as you would search any other online database. Your search results are copied directly to the EndNote library of your choice.
Once the records are in EndNote, you can click on an EndNote record’s URL to jump back to the original Web of Knowledge
online record. Various options are available to you online, such as viewing a list of related references.
Available Web of Knowledge Databases
As of this release, the following Web of Knowledge product databases are available for direct online searching with EndNote. A
subscription is required to access a particular product database.
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Biological Abstracts
BIOSIS Previews
CABI: Cab Abstracts and Global Health
Current Contents Connect
Data Citation Index
FSTA - the food science resource
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MEDLINE
Web of Science
Web of Science (Science Citation Index Expanded)
Web of Science (Social Sciences Citation Index)
Web of Science (Arts & Humanities Citation Index)
Zoological Record
Full Record Charges
Web of Knowledge requires a paid subscription. You may have an online subscription with username and password, or you may
have access to a local Web of Knowledge server.
Users of Previous Versions of EndNote
If you used a previous version of EndNote, many of your preferences were saved when you upgraded to EndNote X7. However, if
you want the ability to link back to Web of Knowledge records, you may need to update the Base URL.
1. From the Edit menu, select Preferences.
2. Click the EndNote Defaults button to update to the latest Base URL.
Locally Mounted Web of Knowledge Servers
You must use Web of Knowledge version 5.0 or later. To access your local Web of Knowledge server, first contact your network
administrator for the server address (URL) plus the path to your institution’s copy of the ISI Gateway V2.5 software.
To search a locally mounted Web of Science server, open the appropriate Web of Knowledge connection file, click on Connection
Settings and update the Server Address and Custom fields with your local server address and ISI Gateway software path.
To link back to Web of Knowledge records once they are in EndNote, you must change the Base URL to your local server
address.
1. From the Edit menu, select Preferences.
2. Select URLs & Links
3. Enter your local server address in the Open URLs field.
Searching Author Names in Web of Knowledge Databases that Contain Particles and Spaces
When searching a Web of Knowledge product database (for example, Web of Science), always add a connector to names that
contains particles and spaces. For example, to search for de Bruyn A, enter the name in the Search field as de+Bruyn+A to
ensure that the product returns all relevant results.
To search for de la Rosa, enter the name in the Search field as de+la+Rosa. You can also add a first name to restrict your
search, but do not add a connector between the first name and the last name. For example, to search for Mario de la Rosa, enter
in the Search field Mario de+la+Rosa.
Related Topics
Available Search Options
Finding Full Text
Finding Related Online References
Quick Overview
Online Database Searching
The Connection Status Window
The Log File
Finding Related Online References
Finding Related Online References
Highlight a reference in EndNote and use the URL > OpenURL Link command on the References menu to start your default web
browser and display the full text article (if available) plus a list of links to similar articles.
OpenURL Link connects to an OpenURL standard syntax server and uses EndNote’s OpenURL preferences along with data in
your EndNote record to find related online references.
Note: This command has no relation to the URL field found in EndNote references or to the URL > Open Link command on the
References menu (which opens the specific URL found in the URL field).
To enable this feature, and find out what preferences are available, see OpenURL Preferences.
Finding Full Text
Finding Full Text for a Reference
EndNote can attempt to locate full text files on the Web by using data stored in your references. Once found, EndNote downloads
and attaches the files to the references.
EndNote can use these methods when searching for full text publications:
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Web of Knowledge Full Text Links
EndNote Web Services
DOI (Digital Object Identifier)
PubMed LinkOut
OpenURL
EndNote will try to use all of these methods to optimize the likelihood of finding full text files associated with your bibliographic
records.
The Web of Knowledge free journal set is checked for all users; subscribers may have full IP-based access to all resources. In
cases where full text PDF files require a subscription, and you or your institution have the appropriate access, EndNote will
attempt to authenticate and automatically download the appropriate files. If EndNote cannot find the full text file, it will often be
able to attach the URL of the provider's Web page for the article for easier future access.
For more information about finding the full text for a reference, see:
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Adding Access to Your Institution's Library
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How to Find and Retrieve Full Text
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The Find Full Text Groups
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Pausing or Canceling Find Full Text
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Improving the Search for Full Text
Related Topics
Finding Related Online References
Linking a File to an EndNote Reference
Linking a URL to an EndNote Reference
Online Database Searching
Opening a Linked File or URL
Removing a Linked File from File Attachments
Saving a Copy of an Attached File
Selecting a Relative Path or an Absolute Path for File Attachments
URLs & Links Preferences
Adding Access to Your Institution's Library
Many libraries are accessible with an OpenURL Path. Subscription libraries also require valid authentication, which usually
means a user ID and password. First, you must determine the appropriate OpenURL path. If the library requires authentication,
you must also determine the authentication URL. Next, enter these URLs as Find Full Text preferences. Then, you may need to
authenticate access by entering your personal user ID and password. These definitions may be helpful to you:
OpenURL Path: This is the OpenURL web address to the online library. It is where EndNote will be directed to search for matching references.
Authentication URL: This is the web address to the page where you enter subscription details to access the online library. It is
typically the page where you enter a username and password. Once you enter the Authentication URL (if required), EndNote can
access the full text of the matching references from the online library’s OpenURL Path.
Proxy Server: Your institution may use a proxy server to control access. If Internet Explorer is configured for use with a proxy
server, EndNote will automatically handle the proxy server when accessing http-based connections. If you do not use Internet
Explorer, configure proxy settings with the Internet Options in the Windows Control Panel.
Determining the OpenURL Path
The easiest way to determine your institution’s OpenURL address is to ask your librarian. You could also check http://www.worldcat.org/registry/Institutions/.
SFX link resolvers work best, so look for a URL that begins with http:// sfx.library or a similar URL that contains sfx in the path.
Determining the Authentication URL
In order to use the OpenURL path to find full text articles, your institution likely requires that you log in to access full text. EndNote uses an authentication URL to automatically direct you to your institution’s log-in web page.
Again, the easiest way to determine the authentication URL is to work with your librarian. To act as your own detective, though,
you can try the suggestion below.
To determine the authentication URL:
1. Enter the OpenURL path as an EndNote preference.
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From the Edit menu, select Preferences.
Select the Find Full Text panel.
Select the OpenURL box, and enter the OpenURL Path.
Click OK to save the setting.
2. Try one of these:
Follow the URL Path:
a. Highlight a reference -- one where you believe the full text article is available from your institution.
b. Right-click on the reference and select URL > OpenURL Link. If you are not automatically directed to the full text article,
use your browser to continue to try to get to the full text PDF file.
Browse to the URL:
a. Use a browser to go to your library’s Web site and try to access a subscription resource.
3. Once you reach a page where you are prompted to enter credentials, copy the root of that URL. It may start with https://
login.ezproxy. Copy everything through “/login? url=%@”.
4. Enter the path as an authentication preference as described next under Setting Full Text Preferences.
5. Test the URL by logging in to your institution’s site as described below.
Setting Full Text Preferences
Once you have determined the appropriate OpenURL path and authentication URL for your institution, you must enter them as
preferences in EndNote.
To enter Find Full Text preferences:
1. From the Edit menu, select Preferences.
2. Select the Find Full Text panel.
This panel determines which methods are used when searching for full text articles. By default, Web of Knowledge Full
Text Links, DOI, and OpenURL are selected. PubMed LinkOut is also available, but may slow performance.
3. To search your institution’s library, make sure OpenURL is selected, and enter your institution’s OpenURL Path. If authentication is required, enter an Authentication URL (the address of the site’s login page).
For more information, see Find Full Text Preferences.
Logging in to Your Library
Once you have entered the appropriate URLs as Find Full Text preferences, you can log into your institution’s library. Do this in
one of two ways:
Authenticate Only
From the References menu, select Find Full Text and then Authenticate.
This method allows you to try connecting without starting a Find Full Text search. You should be directed to your institution’s login
web page. Log in as indicated on the web page. You may be directed to a home page or a list of resources, which means you are
logged in. Click Done. You are authenticated for this session of EndNote or until your institution times out the connection.
You still need to specifically select the References > Find Full Text > Find Full Text command to begin searching for full text
articles.
Authenticate and Search
From the References menu, select Find Full Text, and then Find Full Text.
If you have an OpenURL path and authentication URL entered under Find Full Text preferences, EndNote will direct you to your
institution’s login web page. Log in as indicated on the web page, and then click Continue to begin the search for full text articles
for the selected references.
You are authenticated for this session of EndNote or until your institution times out the connection.
Note: Your institution may sever your OpenURL connection after a certain amount of idle time. Unfortunately, there is no indication when that happens. You will need to go to the References menu, select Find Full Text and then Authenticate to restore
access to the site. Just selecting Find Full Text again during this EndNote session will not restore authentication.
Related Topics
Finding Related Online References
How to Find and Retrieve Full Text
Improving the Search for Full Text
Linking a File to an EndNote Reference
Linking a URL to an EndNote Reference
Online Database Searching
Opening a Linked File or URL
Pausing or Canceling Find Full Text
Quick Overview
Removing a Linked File from File Attachments
Saving a Copy of an Attached File
The Find Full Text Groups
URLs & Links Preferences
How to Find and Retrieve Full Text
When you retrieve the full text file of a referenced work, it is saved to the File Attachments field as a relative link (the file itself it
stored in the current library’s .DATA folder). The file is saved in its native format, which in most cases is a PDF file.
When a file is downloaded and attached to a reference, a file attachment icon appears in the File Attachment field for the reference. In the Library window, a paper clip icon appears in the File Attachments column for that reference.
Note: In order to find full text, cookies must be turned on in Internet Explorer.
The Find Full Text command can attempt to find full text documents for up to 250 records at a time; this total includes all full text
searches run concurrently in open databases. If you want to find the full text for more than 250 EndNote records, you must run the
Find Full Text operation more than once. Highlight up to 250 references each time.
The Find Full Text command is available only in Integrated Library & Online Search Mode or Local Library Mode. It is not available
in Online Search Mode.
To find and retrieve full text:
1. Select the reference(s) to which you want to add full text.
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In the Library window, highlight up to 250 references.
For example, you can select a single reference, or hold down the Ctrl key to highlight individual references, or use
Edit > Select All to select an entire Group of displayed references.
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Or, open an individual reference for editing.
2. From the References menu, select Find Full Text > Find Full Text.
If you have a reference open, you can use the right-click contextual menu to select Find Full Text.
3. (Optional) If you have entered an OpenURL address and authentication URL under Find Full Text preferences, you may be
directed to a login web page for your institution’s library. Follow the instructions to log in, such as entering the appropriate
User ID and password. Once you are logged in, click Continue.
EndNote begins searching for and downloading full text for the selected references. Full text downloading happens in the background, which may affect the performance of other operations.
References appear in groups under a Find Full Text group set. See The Find Full Text Groups for a description of the resulting
groups.
Note: Your institution may sever your OpenURL connection after a certain amount of time. Unfortunately, there is no indication
when that happens. You will need to go to the References menu, select Find Full Text, and then Authenticate to restore access
to the site. Just selecting Find Full Text again during this EndNote session will not restore authentication.
To add access to a library, see Adding Access to Your Institution's Library.
To improve the likelihood of finding full text articles for references, see Improving the Search for Full Text.
If you want to pause or cancel a Find Full Text operation, see Pausing or Canceling Find Full Text.
Related Topics
Finding Full Text for a Reference
Finding Related Online References
Linking a File to an EndNote Reference
Linking a URL to an EndNote Reference
Online Database Searching
Opening a Linked File or URL
Quick Overview
Removing a Linked File from File Attachments
Selecting a Relative Path or an Absolute Path for File Attachments
URLs & Links Preferences
Find Full Text Groups
During the Find Full Text searching and downloading process, results are constantly updated under a Find Full Text group set. Initially, the Find Full Text group set is added below all other group sets. However, you can click and drag the Find Full Text group
set to any position. EndNote will maintain that new position across sessions.
The results of a Find Full Text search remain for the current session until you close the library. The categories include:
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Searching
Found PDF
Found URL
Not Found
If you run the Find Full Text operation more than once during a single library session, the additional references are added to the references already found in the Find Full Text groups.
Searching...
This group displays the current set of references for which EndNote is attempting to find either the full text file of each referenced
work or at least a URL to the referenced work. When the full text search is completed, this group is deleted. Those references to
which full text or a URL was added are displayed in a Found PDF group or a Found URL group.
You can cancel the Find Full Text operation at any time by right-clicking on the Searching group, to display a context-sensitive
menu, and selecting Stop finding full text. Full text that has been retrieved until that point is already saved in the library.
Found PDF
This group displays the set of references for which EndNote inserted the PDF file of the referenced work as an attachment. These
references display a paper clip icon in the File Attachments column of the reference list. If a URL is also found, it is added to the
reference, but the reference is not included in the Found URL group.
If a Find Full Text operation has already attached a file to a selected reference, EndNote will skip that reference when searching
for full text. If you do want to look for a full text article for the reference, you must first delete the existing file attachment.
Found URL
This group displays the set of references for which EndNote inserted a URL to the referenced work, but did not find a full text document to attach.
Not Found
This group displays the set of references for which EndNote could not identify a full text file or a URL. These are only from the set
of references searched with the Find Full Text command during this session of the EndNote library.
Related Topics
Adding Access to Your Institution's Library
Finding Related Online References
How to Find and Retrieve Full Text
Improving the Search for Full Text
Linking a File to an EndNote Reference
Linking a URL to an EndNote Reference
Online Database Searching
Opening a Linked File or URL
Pausing or Canceling Find Full Text
Quick Overview
Removing a Linked File from File Attachments
Saving a Copy of an Attached File
Selecting a Relative Path or an Absolute Path for File Attachments
URLs & Links Preferences
Pausing or Canceling Find Full Text
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To pause a Find Full Text operation, right-click on the Searching group to display a context-sensitive menu, and select
"Pause finding full text". Full text that has been retrieved until that point is already saved in the library.
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To resume a paused Find Full Text operation, right-click on the Searching group and select "Resume finding full text".
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To stop a Find Full Text operation, right-click on the Searching group and select "Cancel finding full text".
Improving the Search for Full Text
These are suggestions for improving the accuracy of the Find Full Text feature:
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Make sure you are IP authenticated to access any premium full text resources to which you would like EndNote to attempt
connecting.
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Ask your librarian whether your institution is set up with Web of Knowledge custom journal links. If so, create a free personalized Web of Knowledge account and log in. If your institution does not have custom journal links set up for Web of
Knowledge, ask your librarian to set it up (it is easy and free).
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Create a free EndNote Web account and log in. EndNote Web is included with EndNote. Make sure your EndNote Web
account information is complete under EndNote Preferences (Edit > Preferences > Sync).
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Review your EndNote references to confirm that the DOI information is in the DOI field. Data can be moved between fields
with the Change/Move/Copy Fields command from the Tools menu.
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Enable Web browser cookies.
If you would like Find Full Text to search a specific library, see Adding Access to Your Institution's Library.
Related Topics
Finding Related Online References
How to Find and Retrieve Full Text
Linking a File to an EndNote Reference
Linking a URL to an EndNote Reference
Online Database Searching
Opening a Linked File or URL
Pausing or Canceling Find Full Text
Quick Overview
Removing a Linked File from File Attachments
Selecting a Relative Path or an Absolute Path for File Attachments
The Find Full Text Groups
URLs & Links Preferences
Importing Reference Data
General Importing Instructions
Note: See Importing EndNote Libraries for specific instructions about merging two EndNote libraries.
To import a text file or an EndNote library into an EndNote library:
1. Open the library into which you want to import the references.
2. From the File menu, select Import.
3. Click the Choosebutton to locate and open the file you want to import. All files, except for EndNote libraries, must be plain
text files. Select the file and click OK.
4. Select the appropriate import option from the Import Options list.
5. Select an option from the Duplicates list:
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Import All: Imports all references, including duplicates.
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Discard Duplicates: Imports all references except duplicates.
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Import into Duplicates Library: Duplicate references are imported into a library called File-Dupl.enl, where ”File is the name
of the library into which you are importing.
By default, a reference is considered a duplicate when the Author, Year, Title, and Reference Type match a reference
already in the library. See Duplicates Preferences if you would like to change the duplicates criteria.
6. Select a Text Translation option.
This option allows you to specify the text character encoding of the file you import, so that extended characters transfer correctly. You should verify the setting with your database provider. Some U.S. databases that contain extended characters
require ANSI-Latin1 or UTF8. MARC format files may require ANSEL translation. You might be able to use No Translation
for text files that do not contain any extended characters.
7. Click Import to import the file.
Note: The time required to import a file, including an EndNote library, is proportionate to the size of the library and the number of
references being imported. Refer to the progress indicator to determine when EndNote has completed the task.
When the import is complete, the newly imported references are displayed in an Imported References group. This is a perfect time
to add a keyword to each imported reference with the Change Field command or to peruse the imported data to make sure it
imported as expected. Make sure to check references that contain extended characters.
The Imported References group is a temporary group that is replaced each time you import another set of references. It is
removed when you exit EndNote (although the references remain in the library).
To return all of your references to the library display (including the newly imported ones), select Show All References from the References menu or click on the All References group.
Import Options List
EndNote's import options include:
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PDF File or Folder
Use to import references from a PDF file that has been downloaded to your hard drive. This option allows you to convert existing collections of PDF files into EndNote records with minimal typing and copying by extracting Digital Object identifiers (DOI)
from PDF files. The system matches the content against the existing API services by capturing bibliographic content and creating new EndNote records. See Importing PDF Files to Create New Records for specific instructions.
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EndNote Library
Used to import references from one EndNote library into another. If the library you are importing from is closed or locked, all references are imported. If you the library you are importing from is open, with read/write access, the showing references are
imported.
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EndNote Import
Used to import text files that have been downloaded from online databases or exported from EndNote using the EndNote format. See Creating a Tagged "EndNote Import" File for more information.
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Refer / BibIX
Used to import text files exported from the Refer or BibIX programs. The EndNote import format is based on the Refer/ BibIX
format.
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Tab-Delimited
Used to import text files in which the fields within a single reference are separated by tabs. For details see Creating a Tab Delimited Format.
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Reference Manager (RIS)
Used to import text files exported from Reference Manager, Reference Update, Reference Web Poster, or any other source
that uses the RIS format. See Creating a Library from ProCite or Reference Manager.
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ISI-CEUsed to import text files downloaded from Web of Knowledge, Web of Science, and other Thomson Reuters sources.
Note: See Searching Web of Science for information about directly retrieving Web of Science records.
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Multi-Filter (Special)
A special option for importing files that include references from multiple sources (see Identifiers.
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EndNote Generated XML
Used to import EndNote’s proprietary XML format.
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Other Filters
EndNote includes hundreds of import filters configured to import data from a variety of online databases. Most likely, the first
time you import a file, you will not see the import filter that you need in this list. Select Other Filters from the Import Options list
to find the filter that matches the source of the data you want to import. Import filters that you have recently used or chosen as
your favorites will be listed in the Import Options list in the Import dialog.
The table in Summary of Output Formats and Corresponding Import Options provides more information about the download formats that work with these filters. See Choosing the Correct Import Filter for information about how to choose the filters to
appear in the Import Options list.
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ProCite RIS
Use to import text files that have been exported from ProCite (Windows or Macintosh) in the comma delimited format. You
may also open native ProCite files using EndNote's Open command.
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Use Connection File
EndNote provides the option of using a connection file as an import filter. This is useful if you need to import the Connect.log
file generated by using EndNote’s Online Search command to search an online database. The Connect.log file should include
all of the references from your previous session. See The Log File for more information.
Note: See Introduction to Filters for information about creating and modifying import filters. All of the import filters (except Tab
Delimited and EndNote Generated XML) can be modified.
Importing Reference Data into EndNote
Retrieving References Directly from Online Databases
If you have access to a library catalog or bibliographic database that supports the Z39.50 protocol, you can use EndNote as a tool
to search and retrieve references directly from that database into EndNote. You do not need to use EndNote’s Import command.
You can use the Online Search command instead. This is the easiest way to get data into EndNote because it involves no intermediate steps. For more information about the direct retrieval of references, see Introduction to Searching Online Databases.
Importing Bibliographic Data to EndNote
There are many sources of bibliographic data that can be used to help you create your EndNote library. To avoid re-typing this
data into EndNote, we have provided several means by which you can get references into EndNote:
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Import references saved or downloaded from online data services (for example, Ovid or Thomson Reuters).
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Import text files that conform to a particular format (such as the Tab-delimited or EndNote Import format). These files can
be created by you or generated from other databases.
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Import text files exported from other bibliographic software programs.
First, you need to get your data files in the right format (see Summary of Output Formats and Corresponding Import Options and
Getting Data in the Right Format), and then determine the correct import option.
Once you have a file in the proper format and you know which import option or filter to use, the import instructions are the same for
all of these types of data. See General Importing Instructions.
Note: Although we try to provide many flexible ways to get data from other sources into EndNote, we do not claim that EndNote
can import data from all sources. In some cases, you may have to write your own import filter (see Creating a New Filter), or you
may need to manipulate the data in a word processor before it can be imported. If none of these tools helps you to import your
data, tips on how to quickly copy and paste data into EndNote are described in Copying and Pasting References.
Note: When importing records, we recommend that you import into a temporary new library, determine which ones you want to
keep, and then move those records into your permanent library.
Importing PDF Files to Create New References
This feature allows you to convert existing collections of PDF files into EndNote references with minimal typing and copying by
extracting Digital Object identifiers (DOI) from PDF files. The system matches DOI information with data available from CrossRef (www.CrossRef.org) by capturing bibliographic content and creating new EndNote references.
To import a PDF file:
1. Open the library into which you want to import the references.
2. From the File menu, select Import > File to open the Import File dialog.
3. Click the Choose button to locate and open the file you want to import from your hard drive.
4. Select the needed PDF file, and then click Open.
5. Select PDF from the Import Option list.
6. Select an option from the Duplicates list:
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Import All: Imports all references, including duplicates.
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Discard Duplicates: Imports all references except duplicates.
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Import into Duplicates Library: Duplicate references are imported into a library called File-Dupl.enl, where ”File"
is the name of the library into which you are importing.
By default, a reference is considered a duplicate when the Author, Year, Title, and Reference Type match a reference
already in the library. See Duplicate Preferences if you would like to change the duplicates criteria.
7. Select a Text Translation option. The default value is No Translation.
This option allows you to specify the text character encoding of the file you import, so that extended characters transfer
correctly. You should verify the setting with your database provider. Some U.S. databases that contain extended characters require ANSI-Latin1 or UTF8. MARC format files may require ANSEL translation. You might be able to use No
Translation for text files that do not contain any extended characters.
8. Click Import to import the file to your library.
Note: See Importing PDF Folders to Create New Records for instructions on how to import multiple PDF files stored within a single folder.
Note: When performing the import function, if there are two DOIs found in the first two pages of a PDF document, EndNote will
put both DOIs in the DOI field. The PDF is then attached and the file name is put in the Title field.
When the import is complete, the new record is stored in the Imported References group, and will include bibliographic information
given for the Digital Object Identifier (DOI) mined from the PDF file such as title, author, volume, issue, page, year, and DOI. This
is a perfect time to add a keyword to the imported reference with the Change Field command, or to peruse the imported data to
make sure it imported as expected. Make sure to check references that contain extended characters.
The Imported References group is a temporary group that is replaced each time you import another set of references. It is
removed when you exit EndNote (although the references remain in the library).
To return all of your references to the library display (including the newly imported ones), select how All References from the References menu or click the All References group.
Importing PDF Folders to Create New References
This feature allows you to convert existing collections of PDF files into EndNote records with minimal typing and copying by
extracting Digital Object identifiers (DOI) from PDF files. The system matches DOI information with data available from CrossRef (www.CrossRef.org) by capturing bibliographic content and creating new EndNote records.
To import a PDF folder with PDF files:
1. Open the library into which you want to import the references.
2. From the File menu, select Import > Folder to open the Import Folder dialog.
3. Click the Choose button to open the Browse for Folder dialog.
4. Select the needed PDF folder, and then click OK.
5. If the selected folder lists subfolders, click the "Include files in subfolders" check box to include PDF files in those sub-folders in the import operation.
6. Select the PDF option from the Import Option list.
7. Select an option from the Duplicates list:
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Import All: Imports all references, including duplicates.
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Discard Duplicates: Imports all references except duplicates.
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Import into Duplicates Library: Duplicate references are imported into a library called File-Dupl.enl, where ”File"
is the name of the library into which you are importing.
By default, a reference is considered a duplicate when the Author, Year, Title, and Reference Type match a reference
already in the library. See Duplicate Preferences if you would like to change the duplicates criteria.
8. Click the Import button to import the PDF files from the selected folder to your library.
Note: See Importing PDF Files to Create New References for instructions on how to import a single PDF file.
Note: When performing the import function, if there are two DOIs found in the first two pages of a PDF document, EndNote will
put both DOIs in the DOI field. The PDF is then attached and the file name is put in the Title field.
When the import is complete, the new record is stored in the Imported References group, and will include bibliographic information
given for the Digital Object Identifier (DOI) mined from the PDF file such as title, author, volume, issue, page, year, and DOI. This
is a perfect time to add a keyword to the imported reference with the Change Field command or to peruse the imported data to
make sure it imported as expected. Make sure to check references that contain extended characters.
Note: Select Tools > Change and More Fields from the Tools menu to access the Change Fields feature.
The Imported References group is a temporary group that is replaced each time you import another set of references. It is
removed when you exit EndNote (although the references remain in the library).
To return all of your references to the library display (including the newly imported ones), select Show All References from the References menu or click the All References group.
Importing References from Other Bibliographic Software Programs
If you wish to convert references from another bibliographic program into EndNote, consult the chart below for instructions.
Conversion Utilities at the EndNote Web Site
In some cases, you may be directed to download a conversion utility or instructions from the EndNote Web site at: http://www.endnote.com. Follow the "Support and Services" link from the home page to display the EndNote Technical Support page. Under
"Downloads," follow the "Database conversion utilities" link. Some conversion utilities are available only for a specific platform
(Windows or Macintosh).
Unsupported Databases
If your program is not on the chart, see Creating a Tab Delimited Format for importing into EndNote. If your database does not
offer a tab-delimited export option, contact technical support for other suggestions.
Software
Bookends and Bookends Pro
BibeX
Citation 6 and 7
EndNote Library
NoteBook II Plus and
Papyrus 6 and 7
ProCite
Publish or Perish
Ref-11
Reference Manager
Refer/BibIX
RefWorks
Basic Conversion Instructions
You have several options when converting from Bookends or
Bookends Pro. In recent versions of Bookends, you can Export
using the “XML (EndNote 8 or later)” setting, and then Import the
file into EndNote using the EndNote generated XML option. Or,
Export from Bookends using the “bibliographic format” option,
and select either the “RIS” or the “EndNote Export (Refer)” format, and then Import the file into EndNote using the matching
“RIS” or “Refer” Import option.
User-contributed utilities and instructions for converting BibTeX
files are available from the EndNote Web site at:http://www.endnote.com. Go to the Support and Services section. Under
Downloads, find BibTex Conversion Tools, and then click More
to browse the FTP site.
Conversion utilities are available from the EndNote Web site. Go
to http://www.endnote.com/support/enconversion.asp.
Go to the File menu in EndNote, select Open, and then select
Open Library. Locate and Open the old EndNote library. The references will be copied into a new EndNote library.
Conversion utilities are available from the EndNote Web site. Go
to http://www.endnote.com/support/enconversion.asp.
Conversion utilities are available from the EndNote Web site. Go
to http://www.endnote.com/support/enconversion.asp.
See Creating a Library from ProCite.
A conversion utility is available from the EndNote Web site.
Go to http://www.endnote.com/support/enconversion.asp.
A conversion utility is available from the EndNote Web site.
Go to http://www.endnote.com/support/enconversion.asp.
See Creating an EndNote Library from Reference Manager.
Use the Refer/BibIX import option to import a Refer or BibIX text
file.
See a description under Frequently Asked Questions at
http://www.endnote.com/support/ensupport.asp.
Conversion Instructions Table
Importing References from PubMed
Follow the steps below to download your search results from the PubMed Web site and to import them into your EndNote library.
1. Go to the PubMed Web site in your Web browser at http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed.
2. In the Search field, enter your search criteria to execute your search. Click the Search button.
3. Select the needed results and then select File from the "Send to" menu.
4. Select MEDLINE from the "Format" menu.
Note: If you select Citation Manager from the "Send to" menu, then you can export your selected PubMed records directly
to EndNote. See "PubMed" under the Information column in Direct Export Providers for more information about this feature.
5. Select a sort order from the "Sort by" menu. The default sort order is Recently Added.
6. Click the Create File button. This will bring up a dialog box allowing you to save your selected references as a text file.
7. Click the Save button to save the file to your computer. Save the file somewhere easily accessible such as your desktop.
The default file name is pubmed_results.txt. You may change the file name, but we recommend saving the file with the .txt
extension.
8. In EndNote, open the library where you would like to save these references.
9. From the File menu, select Import > File to open a dialog box.
10. Click the Choose button, and then select the downloaded pubmed_result.txt file from your PC.
11. In the Import Option field, select Other Filters, and then select the import filter called PubMed (NLM) from the Choose an
Import Filter dialog.
12. Do not select any options from the Duplicates and Text Translation fields.
13. Click the Import button to import your references.
14. Look in your Groups column to see a new group called Imported References. All the references that you downloaded from
PubMed will appear in this group.
Note: Many information providers have Web sites that include a direct export option that allows you to send copies of references
directly to an EndNote library. See Direct Export Providers for information about this feature relating to the PubMed Web site.
Note: In step 7, if you have a popup blocker enabled, such as the one that comes by default from Windows XP Service Pack 2,
you may need to disable the popup blocker temporarily to allow the PubMed Web site to send you the file.
Summary of Output Formats and Corresponding Import Options
A subset of the supported services and their recommended output formats and import filters are listed under Output Formats with
Corresponding Import Options. At the time this manual was printed, these were the current format options for each information provider listed in the table. If you find that these formats have changed, check the documentation from your information provider or
contact us.
Before you download references from an online source, consider copyright issues.
Copyright Issues and Fair Use of Downloaded Data
EndNote gives you the capability to import references downloaded from
online databases into its libraries. Some producers of online reference databases expressly prohibit such use and storage of their data, others charge
an extra fee for a license to use the data in this way. Before you download
references from a database, be sure to carefully check the copyright and
fair use notices for the database. Note that different databases may have
varying restrictions, even from the same information provider (such as
DIALOG or Ovid).
Copying and Pasting References from a Document into EndNote
If you have a bibliography that is too inconsistent or difficult to parse using your word processor (as suggested in Creating a Custom "Tagged" Format), you can use the Copy and Paste commands as an alternative method for getting your data into EndNote
and still avoid a lot of re-typing. For example, let’s say you have a paper with a bibliography entry such as:
Blocker, C.
To transfer the references into EndNote:
1. Open the list of references in a word processor.
2. Select a reference and copy it using the Copy command in your word processor’s Edit menu. (Some word processors allow
you to triple-click a paragraph to select the whole thing at once. That might be a useful shortcut for quickly selecting a reference.)
3. Open your EndNote library, and select New Reference ( Ctrl+N) from the References menu to create a new reference.
4. Put the cursor in the Title field of the new reference and select Paste from the Edit menu.
This will paste the entire reference into the Title field of the Reference window. From here, you can drag-and-drop (or cut and
paste) the individual pieces of data into their proper fields. Be sure to remove extraneous punctuation, and make sure author
names are each on a separate line. Follow the guidelines for entering references. See Reference Type Preferences for information
about setting a default reference type for new references.
Importing from CD-ROMS and Online Databases
Importing References Downloaded from CD-ROMs and Online Databases
If you have access to an online bibliographic database, a university catalog, or a bibliographic database on CD-ROM, you can
probably use EndNote’s import filters to import text files saved or downloaded from these sources. EndNote filters are configurable so they give you the flexibility to import the reference data you need, and eliminate data you do not need.
There are two main things you need to know in order to correctly import downloaded references into EndNote:
1. How to download the data in the right output format. See Getting Data in the Right Format.
2. Which import filter to use to import the data into EndNote. See Choosing the Correct Import Filter.
The table in Summary of Output Formats and Corresponding Import Options summarizes a number of common sources of bibliographic data, the instructions for downloading tagged files, and the EndNote import option to use to import the references into
EndNote.
Getting Data in the Right Format
To import text with any of the EndNote filters, the data must be consistently "tagged," with each tag starting on a new line, and
the file saved as text. Here are two examples:
AU- CRAMER, TI- AQUATIC
PY- 1993
SO- ENVIRONMENTAL-POLLUTION. VOL. 5, NO. 2, PG.54-79
DE- LAKES, ACIDIFICATION, ENVIRONMENTAL EFFECTS, MACROPHYTES, ECOLOGY, PLANT PHYSIOLOGY
Author: Cramer,
Title: Aquatic macrophytes and lake acidification
Year: 1993
Source: Environmental Air Pollution. Vol. 5(2) pp.54-79
Keywords: lakes--acidification--environmental
Note: If data is inconsistently tagged, or poorly delimited, it may not be possible to import all the data accurately. See A Comment About Difficult Data Files.
If references are sent to you in the body of an email, save the email to a plain text file. You will import the text file.
Choosing the Correct Import Filter
Once you have captured and saved your data file in the appropriate format, you should identify the proper EndNote filter to import
the data. There are hundreds of filters included with EndNote, each designed to read a specific tagged format from a specific information provider.
To see a complete list of available filters, select Import Filters from the Edit menu, and select Open Filter Manager.
Use the Find by button in the Filter Manager window to find all filters for a particular information provider. To search by name, use
the "Quick Search" text box on the EndNote toolbar. You can click the Info triangle button to display additional information about
the filter. The Comments section may give critical information about how to appropriately download information from the source
database.
When you have located the filters that you want to use, mark them as your favorites by clicking the check box to the left of the
filter name. You can also mark all of the filters currently showing after using the Find option by clicking Mark All. Once a filter is
marked as a favorite, it will appear in the Import Options list in the import dialog.
Note: There are many more databases and services that provide data than there are filters included with EndNote, so in some
cases you may need to write your own filter or modify one of ours. See Introduction to Filters for information about creating and
modifying filters. You can also check our Web site periodically for new and updated filters (http://www.endnote.com).
Comparing a Filter to a Data File
If you are uncertain whether a filter matches a data file that you have downloaded, you can compare the format from your downloaded data file to a filter. To do so, select a filter in the Filter Manager, and click the Edit button. When the Filter window opens,
select the Templates option in the list at the left of the window to display the tags recognized by that filter.
The tags and templates in the filter should match the data in the file you want to import. See The Basic Components of a Filter for
information about editing filters.
Changing the Filter Folder
By default, all filters provided with EndNote are stored in the Filters folder found in the EndNote X7 program folder. These are the
filters displayed when you open the Filter Manager. EndNote also displays filters found in your personal Filters folder.
When you create a new filter, it is saved to your personal Filters folder. When you attempt to save changes to an existing filter,
you must use Save As to save a copy to your personal Filters folder. For more information about your personal folders, and information about how to change the location of your personal folders, see Folder Locations Preferences.
Creating Files That EndNote Can Import
Creating Structured Text Files that EndNote Can Import
What do you do if your data is not in a format that EndNote can automatically import? You can do one of several things (or even a
combination these options):
n
Rearrange the reference data using your word processor so that it is in a format that EndNote can import (one of the two
options listed at the end of this topic).
n
Copy and paste each piece of data from its source into the proper fields in EndNote, as described in Copying and Pasting
References.
n
Enter the data manually by typing it into EndNote as described in Entering References.
Creating a file that EndNote can import can be a lot of work if your data is in an arbitrary or inconsistent format. If you only have a
few references to import (less than 30 or 40), it might be faster and easier to retype them or copy and paste the references than to
try to put them into a format that EndNote can import.
However, if you have many references to import, it might save time to first manipulate the data in a word processor as best you
can, and then import the references into EndNote and clean up the references there. Even if the imported data does not come
through perfectly, it can be rearranged with EndNote’s various commands, drag-and-drop, and copy and paste.
These are two different formats that you can put your data into such that it can be imported into EndNote:
n
A tab-delimited format (best if your data is in a database or spreadsheet that can export to a tab-delimited file)
n
A tagged format (best for when your data is in a word processor document and looks like a bibliography)
Note: To allow for the appropriate import of Unicode characters, save TextEdit files as Western (Mac OS Roman), and save
Microsoft Word files as Unicode Text (UTF-8). If the appropriate option does not appear on the Save dialog, you can first select it
under Preferences.
Creating a Tab-Delimited Format
The Tab-delimited import option can import text files in which each reference is separated by a paragraph mark (¶), and the fields
within a reference are separated by tabs. Most databases or spreadsheets can export a tab-delimited text file.
Preparing the Data Before Exporting
Author Names
Before you export data from a database or spreadsheet into a text file, we recommend that you separate multiple author names
with a semicolon (;) or two forward slashes "//". For example:
McCartney, P.//Harrison, G.//Lennon, J.
If you cannot easily do this in your database, you can do it after exporting or manually edit the data after it is in EndNote.
Reference Types
If possible, you should make sure that each reference includes a field indicating the reference type. Use EndNote’s Reference
Type names so that EndNote is able to recognize the formats. If you have only one type of reference (such as Journal Articles), it
is not necessary to do this—the import settings can indicate that all references should be imported as journals by default.
If you cannot label each reference with the appropriate Reference Type name, you should export your data into separate files
based on reference type. This makes it easy to preserve the original reference types of the references when importing the data
files into EndNote.
Preparing the Data File for Import
Once the tab-delimited file(s) are generated, you must open each file in a text editor or word processor and add two lines to it.
These lines tell EndNote what the default reference type is for the data and how the data should be interpreted.
First Line: The Default Reference Type
The first line of the file must define the default reference type for the entire file. The format for the first line is an asterisk immediately followed by a valid EndNote reference type, followed by a paragraph mark (¶). For example:
*Journal Article <¶>
A file of journal articles might look like this:
*Journal Article
< ¶>
Author
<tab> Year < tab> Title
<tab> Journal
<tab> Volume
<¶>
Jones, J//Shoe, S <tab> 1994 <tab> Easy Food
<tab> J. of Eating
<tab> 1
<¶>
Woo, W //Lee, L
<tab> J. of Clothing <tab> 2
<¶>
<tab> 1995 <tab> Rain Hats
Carlos, C\\Luis, L <tab> 1991 <tab> Cell Phone <tab> J. of Phones
Default Reference Type Table
<tab> 3
<¶>
First Line: Customized Reference Type
If you have custom reference types, you may check them by following these instructions.
1. Select Preferences from the Edit menu.
2. Selecting Reference Types.
3. Click the Modify Reference Types button.
A file of articles in which you are using customized reference types might look like this:
*My Reference Type < ¶>
Author
<tab> Year < tab> Title
<tab> Journal
<tab> Volume
<¶>
Jones, J//Shoe, S
<tab> 1994 <tab> Easy Food
<tab> J. of Eating
<tab> 1
<¶>
Woo, W //Lee, L
<tab> 1995 <tab> Rain Hats
<tab> J. of Clothing <tab> 2
<¶>
Carlos, C\\Luis, L
<tab> 1991 <tab> Cell Phone <tab> J. of Phones
Customized Reference Type Table
<tab> 3
<¶>
Note: Ensure that the generic fields for the reference type (Modify Reference Types dialog) appear in line 2.
First Line: Using Multiple Reference Types
If you could not make separate files based on reference type, you can specify each reference type within one file. In this case,
your first line must be the list of field names found in the Generic reference type, starting with a field for "Reference Type." Then
you can use the additional Reference Type column to define the actual EndNote reference type names. For example:
Reference Type <tab> Author
<tab> Year < tab> Title
<tab>
Secondary
Title
<tab> Volume <¶>
Journal Article
<tab> Jones, J//Shoe, S <tab> 1994 <tab> Easy Food
<tab> J. of Eating
<tab> 1
<¶>
Book Section
<tab> Woo, W //Lee, L
<tab> J. of Clothing
<tab> 2
<¶>
Report
<tab> Carlos, C\\Luis, L <tab> 1991 <tab> Cell Phone <tab> J. of Phones
Using Multiple Reference Types Table
<tab> 3
<¶>
<tab> 1995 <tab> Rain Hats
Second Line: EndNote Field Names
The second line of the tab-delimited file must contain the actual field names used by EndNote into which you want the data
imported. The order of the field names does not matter as long as they correspond to the order of the data in the rows beneath
them and correspond to the names of the default reference type.
For example, if your default reference type is "*Journal Article," then the field names in the second line of your file will be those of
the Journal Article reference type:
*Journal Article
< ¶>
Author
<tab> Year < tab> Title
<tab> Journal
<tab> Volume
<¶>
Jones, J//Shoe, S <tab> 1994 <tab> Easy Food
<tab> J. of Eating
<tab> 1
<¶>
Woo, W //Lee, L
<tab> J. of Clothing <tab> 2
<¶>
<tab> 1995 <tab> Rain Hats
Carlos, C\\Luis, L <tab> 1991 <tab> Cell Phone <tab> J. of Phones
EndNote Field Names Table
<tab> 3
<¶>
Note: The field names must be separated by tabs and a paragraph mark must follow the last field name.
Additional Considerations
n
ANSI, ASCII, or UTF-8 formatted text files can be imported. This means that no font styles or text styles can be preserved
during import.
n
All field names and reference type names in the file must be identical to those in EndNote. See the List of Reference Types
for a listing of all of the reference types and field names.
n
Multiple author names should be separated by semicolons (;) or by two forward slashes (//).
n
Fields cannot contain tabs or paragraph marks. Let the lines of data "wrap" to the next line.
n
Leading and trailing spaces are removed during importing.
n
No uppercase or lowercase conversion is made during importing.
n
A reserved field name called "Unused" may be used for data that you do not want imported into EndNote.
Errors While Importing Tab-delimited Files
When you are ready to import this file into EndNote, select Import from the File menu, and then select Tab-Delimited as your
import option. See General Importing Instructions.
If EndNote cannot import a record or a field within a record, it will alert you to the error. There are three basic alerts:
n
Bad Default Reference Type — The default reference type that you specified in the first line of the file is not a valid EndNote reference type name. (The problem can be as simple as extra spaces after the reference type name in your text file.)
n
Bad Field Name — A field name that you entered in line 2 of the file is not a valid EndNote field name.
n
Missing Reference Type Information — There is no default reference type specified for the file and there is no reference
type field defined for the references.
If you get one of these error messages during the import process:
1.
2.
3.
4.
Open the import file in a word processor.
Correct the problem.
Save the file as a text file
Repeat the import process.
Related Topics
Choosing the Correct Import Filter
Creating a Custom "Tagged" Format
Creating a Tagged "EndNote Import" File
Creating Structured Text Files that EndNote Can Import
General Importing Instructions
Import Options
Importing Reference Data into EndNote
Importing References Downloaded from CD-ROMs and Online
Importing References From Other Bibliographic Software Programs
Summary of Output Formats and Corresponding Import Options
Creating a Custom "Tagged" Format
If you have a large bibliography that you would like to import into EndNote, it may be possible to use your word processor’s Find
and Replace commands to insert descriptive tags in front of some of the fields of data so that EndNote can accurately import the
references. In addition to adding tags, you also need to make a filter to read your tags. (See Choosing the Correct Import Filter for
information about using a predefined EndNote Import format if you would rather not create your own filter.)
This topic outlines the basic steps to convert a bibliography into a tagged text file.
Step I. Save a Copy of Your File
n
Open your bibliography in a word processor and save a copy of the file with a new name (this is your backup).
n
Remove everything but the reference data from the file.
Step II. Add Descriptive Field Tags
Use your word processor’s Find and Replace commands to search for unique delimiters between fields, and insert paragraph
marks and descriptive field tags in front of specific fields. For this example, we will show a very simple case where only the start
of each reference is tagged, and the filter does the rest of the work. This works well for reference lists that have clear delimiters
separating the individual components of the reference (author, year, title, and so on). In some cases, you may have better results
making additional replacements in the text file before importing. The more tags you add to your data, the greater degree of accuracy you can get with the import filter.
Suppose your references look like this:
Jones, M.
Billoski,
The process of converting this bibliographic format to a tagged format would be something like this:
n
Search for 2 paragraph marks (since the references are separated by 1 blank line), and replace with two paragraph marks and a
tag "XX-" followed by a space.
The result is a tagged data file that looks like this:
XX- Jones,
XX- Billoski,
Once you have made all the changes to tag as much of the data as necessary, save the file (as a plain text file), and create an
import filter to match the tags and formats of the references.
Step III: Create a Filter
Using EndNote, create a new filter to read your data file (see Creating a New Filter). The template of a filter for the above data file
would look like this:
Tag
Field
XX-
Author (Year) "Title" Journal. Vol. Volume no.
Issue,
Note: Each field listed for the Tag must appear in each of your references. If a reference is missing any of the fields, the entire
reference will not be imported into your EndNote library.
Step IV: Clean Up the Data
After you set up your file with tags and create a filter to import it, you should test and refine the filter by importing into a new
library. Once your filter is working as you would like it, you can use it to import the data file into your real EndNote library.
If you cannot get the filter to import everything exactly as you want, you may have to do some manual editing to correct this either
before or after importing the data into EndNote. You might find it useful to import into a test library, then use the Change Fields,
Move/Copy Fields , and Find and Replace options to clean up the data. Then, transfer these references to your real library with
drag-and-drop, copy and paste, or the Import command.
Creating a Tagged EndNote Import File
The EndNote Import format is a tagged format based on the rules of Refer/BibIX format. In this format, each field of data (that is,
Journal, Volume, or Title) is preceded by an identifying tag: a percent sign (%) followed by a single capital letter, a number, or a
special character. Entire references are separated by one blank line:
%0 Book
%A Geoffrey Chaucer
%D 1957
%T The Works of Geoffrey Chaucer
%E F.
%I Houghton
%C Boston
%N 2nd
%0 Journal Article
%A Herbert H. Clark
%D 1982
%T
%B
%V
%P
Hearers and Speech Acts
Language
58
332-373
%0 Thesis
%A Cantucci, Elena
%T Permian strata in South-East Asia
%D 1990
%I University of California, Berkeley
%9 Dissertation
Author Names in the EndNote Import Format
n
Author names use the %A tag. This tag should repeat for each author, with the names listed one per line:
%A Jones, Mary
%A Simon, Jeff
n
Author names can appear either as:
Geoffrey Chauceror
n
Either initials or full names are accepted.
Defining Reference Types
Set the reference type for each of the imported references by using %0 (zero) and the reference type name.
The default reference types are listed below. If you have modified a reference type, your EndNote data files should use the new
name instead.
%0
%0
%0
%0
%0
%0
%0
%0
%0
%0
%0
%0
%0
%0
%0
%0
%0
Generic Aggregated Database
Ancient Text
Artwork
Audiovisual Material Bill
Blog
Book
Book Section
Case
Catalog
Chart or Table
Classical Work
Computer Program Conference Paper
Conference Proceedings
Dictionary
%0 Government Document
%0 Grant
%0 Hearing
%0 Journal Article
%0 Legal Rule or Regulation
%0 Magazine Article
%0 Manuscript
%0 Map
%0 Music
%0 Newspaper Article
%0 Online Database
%0 Online Multimedia
%0 Pamphlet
%0 Patent
%0 Personal Communication
%0 Report
%0 Serial Publication
%0
%0
%0
%0
%0
%0
%0
Edited Book
Electronic Article
Electronic Book
Encyclopedia
Equation
Figure
Film or Broadcast
%0 Standard
%0 Statute
%0 Thesis
%0 Unpublished Work
%0 Web Page
%0 Unused 1
%0 Unused 2
%0 Unused 3
Reference Types Table
EndNote Tags and Corresponding Fields
The table below shows the tags recognized in the EndNote Import format and the corresponding EndNote field into which each
tagged item is imported for the Generic reference type. For other reference types, many fields may be mapped to the Notes field
since a limited number of fields are included in each reference type.
Note: The Figure field is not included for importing
Tag
EndNote Generic Field Name
%A
Author
%B
Secondary Title (of a Book or Conference
Name)
%C
Place Published
%D
Year
%E
Editor /Secondary Author
%F
Label
%G
Language
%H
Translated Author
%I
Publisher
%J
Journal Name
%K
Keywords
%L
Call Number
%M
Accession Number
%N
Number (Issue)
%O
Alternate Title
%P
Pages
%Q
Translated Title
%R
DOI
%S
Tertiary Title
%T
Title
%U
URL
%V
Volume
%W
Database Provider
%X
Abstract
%Y
Tertiary Author / Translator
%Z
Notes
%0
Reference Type
%1
Custom 1
%2
Custom 2
%3
Custom 3
%4
Custom 4
%6
Number of Volumes
%7
Edition
%8
Date
%9
Type of Work
%?
Subsidiary Author
%@ ISBN/ISSN
%!
Short Title
%#
Custom 5
%$
Custom 6
%]
Custom 7
%&
Section
%(
Original Publication
%)
Reprint Edition
%*
Reviewed Item
%+
Author Address
%^
Caption
%>
File Attachments
%<
Research Notes
%[
Access Date
%=
Custom 8
%~
Name of Database
EndNote Tags Table
Related Topics
Choosing the Correct Import Filter
Creating a Custom "Tagged" Format
Creating a Tab-Delimited Format
Creating Structured Text Files that EndNote Can Import
General Importing Instructions
Import Options
Importing Reference Data into EndNote
Importing References Downloaded from CD-ROMs and Online
Importing References From Other Bibliographic Software Programs
Summary of Output Formats and Corresponding Import Options
Direct Export Formats and Import Formats
About Direct Export and Import Formats
What do we mean by "direct export" and "import formats?"
Direct Export: The information provider includes an option to save directly to EndNote. When you select this option, the information provider automatically looks for the appropriate filter in your EndNote Filters folder. You direct the references to the appropriate EndNote library. How well the information transfers depends on how accurately the information provider has tagged each
item of bibliographic information. For a list of providers that offer direct export, see Direct Export Providers.
Note: UTF-8 (Unicode) is the default character encoding for text, XML, and HTML export from the product. RTF uses ASCII
encoding for ASCII characters and "code page escapes" to encode characters beyond ASCII.
Importing: When an information provider does not provide direct export to EndNote, the process of importing references
becomes a little more complicated. You must save references from the information provider to a text file in a tagged format. Then,
in EndNote, you must use the File > Import feature to select the tagged text file for import, choose the appropriate import filter,
and then start the importing process. For a list of providers with downloading instructions, see Output Formats with Corresponding Import Options.
You also have another option for copying references into your EndNote libraries. See Introduction to Searching Online Databases
for information about directly searching and downloading from various online databases.
Copyright Issues and Fair Use of Downloaded Data
EndNote gives you the capability to import references downloaded from
online databases into its libraries. Some producers of online reference databases expressly prohibit such use and storage of their data, while others
may charge an extra fee for a license to use the data in this way. Before you
download references from a database, be sure to carefully check the copyright and fair use notices for the database. Note that different databases
may have varying restrictions, even from the same information provider
(such as DIALOG or Ovid).
Related Topics
General Importing Instructions
Import Options
Importing References Downloaded from CD-ROMs and Online
Importing References From Other Bibliographic Software Programs
Direct Export Providers
Many information providers have Web sites that include a direct export option that allows you to send copies of references directly
to an EndNote library. The direct export process automatically selects an EndNote import filter to map bibliographic information
into the appropriate EndNote fields. All you need to do is select the EndNote library into which the data should be imported.
Start by opening the EndNote library into which the data should be imported. This "direct export" or "direct download" method
does away with the additional steps of saving the references to a text file, and then importing that file with the appropriate import
filter.
in some cases, you may be required to select an appropriate filter. When the direct export process is started, EndNote first
checks the file for tags that are specific to a common import type, such as the EndNote, Web of Science, or RIS format. If no
match is found, EndNote searches through all filters for a vendor ID and database ID that match the file. If no match is found, you
are prompted to select a filter. You can also check our Web site at http://www.endnote.com for updated information and import
filters.
The systems in the list below provides a direct export of references into EndNote. At the time this file was updated, the URLs
worked and took you to the providers Web site.
This is not a complete list, and the number of providers keeps growing, so check with your information providers to find out
whether they participate!
Note: UTF-8 (Unicode) is the default character encoding for text, XML, and HTML export from the product. RTF uses ASCII
encoding for ASCII characters and "code page escapes" to encode characters beyond ASCII.
Information Provider
ALEPH
American Psychological Association
Type of Data/Access
Various library Web sites
PsycInfo Online
http://www.apa.org
Bibliotech.dk
Subscription required
Library Management System
Bibliotek.dk
http://bibliotech.dk.au
Union Catalog
BioMedCentral
http://bibliotek.dk
All journals
http://www.biomedcentral.com
BioOne
Free access
Biomedical
http://www.bioone.org
Blackwell Synergy
BMJ
Subscription required
All journals published by Blackwell that are online
http://www.blackwell-synergy.com
British Medical Journal;
Tobacco Control Database
http://www.bmj.com/
Buffalo University
Free access
Library catalog
http://library.buffalo.edu/
CABI-Direct
Access for Buffalo University students only
CABI Databases
http://www.cabdirect.org
Subscription required
Canadian Journal of Communication
CCLR
http://www.cjc-online.ca
Subscription required
Reference Sight Database provided by the University
of Waterloo Centre for Contact Lens Research)
(formerly Bausch
http://www.referencesight.com
Delphion
Free subscription
Patent data
http://www.delphion.com
EBSCO
Subscription required
All EBSCO databases
http://www.ebsco.com/
Ei Engineering Village
Subscription required
Elsevier Engineering Information database
http://www.ei.org
Elsevier
Subscription required
Science Direct
http://www.elsevier.com
EMBASE
Subscription required
EMBASE database
http://www.embase.com
ERIC
Subscription required
ERIC database
http://www.eric.ed.gov
ESDS Government
Free access
Economic and Social Data Service for the UK, Government Social Data Survey Information
http://www.esds.ac.uk/government/search/
Google Scholar
Free access
Broad literature search
http://scholar.google.com/
HAPI Online
Free access
Hispanic American Periodical Index (UCLA)
http://hapi.ucla.edu/
IEEE
JAMA and Archives
Subscription required
Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers,
Inc.; All databases
http://ieeexplore.ieee.org/
Journal of the American Medical Association
http://pubs.ama-assn.org/
JISC
Free access
Joint Information Systems Committee Collections
http://www.jisc-collections.ac.uk
JSTOR
Subscription required
The Scholarly Journal Archive
http://www.jstor.org/
Karger Publishing
Subscription required
Medical and scientific journals
http://www.karger.com/
Los Alamos National Laboratory
Free access
Library without walls
http://www.lanl.gov/
MicroPatent
Free access
All articles
http://www.micropat.com
Nature
Subscription required
Scientific data
http://www.nature.com
Nerac
Subscription required
All articles
http://www.nerac.com
NISC
Subscription required
All articles
http://www.nisc.com
OCLC
Subscription required
All databases
http://www.oclc.com
OhioLINK
Subscription required
Multiple databases
http://www.ohiolink.edu
OVID
Subscription required
All databases
Oxford Journals
Subscription required
Journal articles
http://www.ovid.com
http://www.oxfordjournals.org/
Pacific Northwest Labs
Free access
Internal databases
http://www.pnl.gov
Patent Cafe
Internal use only
Patent data
http://www.patentcafe.com
PILOTS
Subscription required
Medical PTS research
http://www.ncptsd.va.gov/publications/pilots/
Internal use only
PNAS Online
ProQuest
Online science journal search tool at Boston University
http://cybele.bu.edu/biomass/
All databases
http://www.proquest.com
PubMed
Subscription required
U.S. National Library of Medicine (NLM)
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed
Free Access
Science Magazine
1. Perform your search.
2. Select the needed records.
3. Select Citation Manager from the "Send to"
menu.
4. Click Create File to export your selected records
directly to EndNote.
Journals
http://www.sciencemag.org
Scopus
Subscription required
Scopus
http://www.scopus.com
St. John of God Library & Information Services
Subscription required
Medical library
http://www.library.sjog.ie
Internal use only
HighWire Press
Stanford University’s HighWire
Press
http://highwire.stanford.edu/
WebFeat
Free access
Federated Search Engine
WilsonWeb
http://www.webfeat.org
General science and social science journals
http://vnweb.hwwilsonweb.com/
Required login
Related Topics
About Direct Export and Import Formats
Importing References Downloaded from CD-ROMs and Online
Importing References From Other Bibliographic Software Programs
Output Formats with Corresponding Import Options
Remote Database Searching
Direct Export of Records from PubMed
Many information providers have a direct export option that allows you to send copies of references directly to an EndNote library.
The direct export process automatically selects an EndNote import filter to map bibliographic information into the appropriate EndNote fields. All you need to do is select the EndNote library into which the data should be imported.
1. Go to the PubMed Web site in your Web browser at http://www.pubmed.gov .
2. In the Search field, enter your search criteria to execute your search.
3. Click the Search button.
4. Select the needed results, and then select Citation Manager from the "Send to" menu.
5. Click Create File to export your selected records directly to EndNote.
The selected PubMed records will appear in a temporary group called Imported References in the Groups panel. Select the references and move them to a group within your open library.
APIs and Plug-ins
The “RSServices API” is technology from Thomson Reuters that provides a way to build on the power of EndNote. It exposes programmatic access to the core functionality of the EndNote application, allowing third parties to access database content and integrate EndNote with other tools. With the RSServices API users can create “plug-ins” that work within the EndNote interface to
add customized functionality to EndNote and extend connectivity with other programs. Most of the RSServices API functions
work with EndNote versions X-X7.
The basic functions of the API enable users to:
n
Build plug-ins that add new functionality to EndNote
n
Provide better integration with third-party tools and products.
n
Create tools that extend the GUI of EndNote
n
Script or batch existing EndNote capabilities and features
n
Directly access records and data in EndNote Libraries (databases)
n
Leverage the power of the EndNote formatting engine (Formatter)
n
Directly Import or Export into or out of EndNote.
The RSServices API is intended for technical audiences who have knowledge of object-oriented programming languages, particularly C and C++. Users should also be familiar with the tools needed to produce compiled application code or DLLs. The API is
available for both the Macintosh and Windows operating systems and behaves identically on each, unless otherwise specified.
Individual customers and third-party partners are encouraged to use the RSServices API to develop tools that closely interact
with EndNote. Users are also encouraged to share their code and ideas with others on the EndNote User Forums at:
http://community.thomsonreuters.com/ts/?category.id=endnote.
While individuals are welcome to use and share their work with others, any party developing a component or tool that uses the
RSServices API for commercial or wide-spread use must also sign a license agreement with Thomson Reuters to legally employ
the API, RDK and any associated tools, documentation, or code.
The RSServices Development Kit (RDK)
Supporting documentation and code samples are provided as part of the RSServices Development Kit (RDK), the RDK is available by request directly from the Thomson Reuters EndNote team. The RDK is designed to work with several compilers and
tools, including Apple's XCode and Microsoft's Visual Studio. In all cases, APIs are published in the C/C++ programming language, as are all samples and example code. It is assumed that the reader has a validly licensed copy of one or more of the aforementioned compilation products, as Thomson Reuters does not supply or warrant such tools as part of the RDK. While it should
be possible to port these interfaces to additional compilers or programming languages, readers should consult their license agreement or the Thomson Reuters EndNote team before doing so.
Contact the Thomson Reuters EndNote team at http://endnote.com//support/contact-support for more information.
Output Formats with Corresponding Import Options
To import references, you must first save references from an information provider as a plain text (.txt) file in a tagged format. If references are sent to you in the body of an email, save the email to a plain text file for importing.
1. In EndNote, select the File > Import > File option to select the tagged text file that you saved from the information provider.
2. Select the appropriate import filter from the Import Filter menu. The Other Filters option opens a dialog that displays all
filters in the EndNote product.
All filters direct tagged bits of bibliographic information to corresponding EndNote fields.
3. Start the import process by clicking the Import button.
The list below provides a direct export of references to EndNote. It is only a small list of information providers. Note the following
before you begin.
n
There are hundreds of import filters available in the EndNote X7 Filters folder.
n
Select Edit > Import Filters> Open Filter Manager to look into the EndNote Import Filters table for information on how to
open, view, and edit filters. Many of the filters include a Comments and Limitations section with tips on how to download
references for importing into EndNote.
n
Go to our Web site at http://www.endnote.com/support/enfilters.asp for updated information and import filters, including
detailed information on how to save and download data directly to EndNote.
See Importing Reference Data into EndNote for more detailed information about importing.
See General Importing Instructions for more step-by-step instructions.
Information
Recommended Download Format
Provider
AARP Age- http://research.aarp.org/ageline/home.html
Line
There is no method for downloading data from this database.
Instead, save the results screen as a plain text file with your web
browser’s Save command. The resulting text file contains tags
which are preceded by 18 spaces.
ACM Digital Users with subscription access to this web site can save multiple
Library
records to a BINDER. Once saved, you can export the records in
Import
Filter
Ageline
(AARP)
filter
EndNote
Import
(Association an EndNote format.
for ComNon-subscribers can download one record at a time:
puting
1. Create a search.
Machinery)
2. Click on an article.
3. Scroll half-way down the page and select DISPLAY EndNote.
Limitations:
Since only plain text files can be imported into EndNote, you cannot import images and graphics.
CAS SciFinder
CSA (formerly Cambridge
Scientific
Abstracts)
DIMDI
Before importing, you may need to edit the file to insert a comma
after corporate author names. Otherwise, EndNote will not be able
to distinguish corporate authors from personal authors.
Save references in the "Tagged Format" (*.txt).
SciFinder (
CAS) filter
From the CSA search results screen, click Save/Print/Email. On Various
the Save/ Print/Email screen, select:
filters for
CSA dataRecord Format: Full Format
bases are
Save File Format: PCMac
Click Save. Your Web browser asks where to save the file. If your provided in
Web browser lets you save in different file formats, make sure you the EndNote Filters
save as a "Text Only" (*.txt) file.
folder.
1. Choose All Fields.
Various
filters avail2. Choose For Saving.
able at our
EndNote
3. Click the Display button.
Web site.
4. Save the data as plain text using your browser's Save As
command.
One may need to edit the data to prepare it for importing, e.g. make
sure all the tags are flush left and intact, &c.
EBSCO
URLs may need to be mended manually after importing.
More than 100 filters available under the EBSCO name for various Various
databases.
filters available at our
1. When viewing the contents of your EBSCO folder, select the
EndNote
items you wish to e-mail, then click the 'Export' link. Do not
Web site.
choose the 'Save' option as this will result in data in a format
that is not quite suitable for import.
2. In the Export Manager, choose "Generic bibliographic management software" then click the Save button.
3. The data will appear in a new window in a format consisting
of two-letter tags. Either choose File > Save As, or copy and
paste the data into a text editor and save it there--in either
case, you must save the file as "plain text." Do not save as
a web page or HTML.
4. Import the file using the appropriate filter.
Emerald
Display the marked list, click "display for download (ASCII)," and
then save as a plain text file.
Emerald
filter
The filter provided works for these Emerald databases:
n
Emerald Management Reviews http://www.emeraldinsight.com/products/reviews/index.htm
n
Emerald Computer Abstracts http://www.emeraldinsight.com/caid
n
Emerald International Civil Engineering Abstracts
http://www.emeraldinsight.com/products/abstracts/icea/
n
Emerald Computer & Communications Security Abstracts
http://www.emeraldinsight.com/products/abstracts/ccsa/
n
Emerald Current Awareness Abstracts http://www.emeraldinsight.com/products/abstracts/caa/
Limitations:
InfoTrac
(Gale)
INNOPAC
Knowledge
Finder
NERAC
PsycINFO
PubMed
Page numbers are separated by a hyphen with spaces on either
side of it. EndNote cannot remove the spaces. You will need to
manually remove the spaces after importing.
From the E-Mail Delivery panel at the bottom of the marked list win- InfoTrac
dow, restrict the contents to Citation. Do not select Full Article.
(GALE)
filter
Limitations:
Records often have extraneous information in the title field, which
must be removed manually after importing.
Save references in the EndNote format.
EndNote
Import
1. Select the documents to be saved, then click View-Export- Various
Email Selected.
filters available at our
2. Export selected references in PC EndNote format to initiate
EndNote
direct export.
Web site.
You may have to save the file to your desktop, then double-click it
to initiate the direct export feature. You may also e-mail records in
the MEDLARS or MEDLARS w/ABSTRACTS format using this
filter to import the data.
Save your file as plain text (*.txt).
NERAC
http://www.apa.org
Use the
PsycINFO
After marking the records you wish to download, select Full Psy- ( APA)
cINFO Record, and then click the Display Marked Records button. filter.
Select the text, then copy and paste it into a text editor, saving the
file it as plain text (*.
For detailed instructions on how to search the PubMed database, PubMed
see Importing References from PubMed in EndNote Help.
(NLM) filter
You can also get detailed instructions from our EndNote Support
site at
http://www.endnote.com/support/faqs/Import/faq1.asp
You can check current download instructions for NLM PubMed at
any time at http://www.pubmed.gov .
UnCover
Using your email software, save references emailed to you as a
(INGENTA) Plain Text or Text Only file.
VHL (Virtual
1. After selecting the desired references, scroll to the bottom
Health
of the page and click "Your collection" (or "Su selleccíon).
Library)
2. Cancel the print dialog, and then save the screen as a plain
text file.
All Databases
Web of
Science
Uncover
(INGENTA)
Various
filters available at our
EndNote
Web site.
1. Go to the All Databases or Web of Science search page and ISI-CE
perform a search.
filter
2. From the Results page, select the records that you want to
export to EndNote.
3. Go to Output Records section at the bottom of the page and
select the Full Record radio button in step 2.
4. Save the records to Plain Text.
5. On the Processing page, click the Export button.
Related Topics
About Direct Export and Import Formats
Direct Export Providers
Import Options
Importing References Downloaded from CD-ROMs and Online
Importing References from Other Bibliographic Software Programs
Microsoft Word / Cite While You Write
Overview of the Cite While You Write Process in Word
Use Cite While You Write™ (CWYW) with Microsoft ® Word2007, 2010, or 2013 to easily and quickly cite references, figures, and
tables, and create a paper with properly formatted citations, a bibliography, figures, and tables.
Cite While You Write gives you access to EndNote references and formatting commands with an EndNote tab in Word.
You can start by basing your paper on a predefined Manuscript Template that is set up with publishing rules applied. Then, insert a
citation into the document. A bibliography formatted according to any one of thousands of styles is created. Instant formatting
technology can automatically update your citations and bibliography as you write. You can even insert figures and tables found in
EndNote references.
A Traveling Library allows you to reformat references in your Word document even when your EndNote library is not available. If
you are collaborating with other authors, you can rely on the Traveling Library to supply reference information.
You can use your EndNote application or EndNote Web to Cite While You Write. See Using Cite While You Write with EndNote
Web.
Related Topics
How to Cite While You Write
Cite While You Write Commands
Word Processor Compatibility
How to Cite While You Write with Microsoft Word
The basic steps required to cite a reference and generate a bibliography with Microsoft Word are summarized below.
To Cite While You Write:
1. Open the EndNote library or libraries that contain the references you wish to cite.
2. Start Microsoft Word and open the paper you are writing. We recommend using the template wizard to create your Word
documents as described in Creating a Word Document Based on a Template.
3. When you are ready to cite a source, position the cursor in the text where you would like to put the citation.
4. From the EndNote tab, select Insert Citation, and then select Find Citation.
A Find & Insert My References dialog appears.
5. In the text box at the top, enter identifying text for EndNote to locate the appropriate reference. This could be an author’s
last name, a year, a keyword, or any other combination of terms found in the reference.
6. Click Find and EndNote compares the identifying text to your EndNote references and then lists the matching reference(s).
7. Identify and highlight the appropriate reference(s).
8. Use the Insert button triangle to display a menu, and select from:
n
Insert: To insert the citation and format it as defined by the currently selected output style
n
Insert & Display as: Author (Year)
n
Insert & Exclude Author
n
Insert & Exclude Year
n
Insert in Bibliography Only
Note: You can click Insert (not the triangle) to quickly select the default Insert command.
9. Go back to step 3 to insert the next citation, and continue citing references this way.
Note: When Instant Formatting is turned on, each time you insert a citation it is formatted and a bibliography is updated at
the end of your document. When you are done inserting citations, your document is done! Instant Formatting is turned on
by default.
10. If your citations are not automatically formatted, and a bibliography is not updated each time you insert a citation,
n
From the EndNote tab, in the Bibliography group, click the corner arrow dialog box launcher.
A Format Bibliography dialog appears, where you can change the style and layout of the bibliography.
Even when Instant Formatting is turned on, you may want to select Format Bibliography in order to change the
style or layout of your citations and bibliography.
Note: The dialog lists the styles that are currently selected as your "favorites" in the Style Manager. If you need to select
a style that is not in the list, click Browse to locate it.
11. Click OK. EndNote scans your paper and, using the selected style, formats any temporary citations, reformats formatted
citations, and appends a bibliography to the end of your paper.
Your paper is ready for publication!
If you want to insert figure or table citations, see Inserting and Formatting Figures and Tables.
Related Topics
Finding and Inserting Citations
Finding and Inserting Figures and Tables
Cite While You Write Commands
Using Predefined Manuscript Templates
Writing Your Paper (Microsoft Word)
You selected the Word template appropriate for your publisher. Then, you followed the template wizard to provide basic information, so your new Word document already contains that information. Now, you are ready to write your paper.
Tag Line Indicators
To start entering text into the document, look for tag line indicators to guide you. For example, you may see a tag that says:
[Insert Introduction text here (no subheadings)]
You can select this tag and overwrite it as you type the introduction. Next, you may see:
[Insert Acknowledgements here]
Again, select the tag and overwrite it as you type your acknowledgements.
Most of the sections of the paper are tagged in this way. These tags may tell you of character limits, indicate whether you should
include subheadings, and contain font and style formatting. They organize your manuscript and help you follow the rules of the
publisher.
Cite While You Write Markers
There are several instances where a section tag acts as a marker for Cite While You Write:
Figure Lists: When you insert a figure citation into your document, and the current output style is set to create a figure list at the
end of the document, the figure list is created at a [Figures] tag. To change the position of the figures in your document, or to move
the figure list to a separate file, see Placing Figures and Tables.
Table Lists: When you insert a figure citation where the image comes from EndNote’s "Chart or Table" reference type, and the
current output style is set to create a table list at the end of the document, the table list is created at a [Tables] tag. To change the
position of the tables in your document or to move the table list to a separate file, see Placing Figures and Tables.
Bibliographies: When you insert an in-text reference citation in the body of your document, the bibliography is created at the
[References] tag.
The manuscript template applies a corresponding output style to the bibliography. For example, the Nature manuscript template
would use the Nature output style to format the bibliography, although you can apply a different output style if you wish.
Related Topics
Creating a Word Document Based on a Template
Supplying Information to the Template Wizard
Using Predefined Manuscript Templates
Word Processor Compatibility
To Cite While You Write, you must use Microsoft Word2007, 2010, or 2013.
Install the latest service pack from Microsoft. Cite While You Write can convert and use Word documents that used earlier versions of Cite While You Write, although we recommend that you first unformat those documents.
Word displays Cite While You Write commands on an EndNote tab.
If you use Apache OpenOffice Writer as your word processor, see How to Cite While You Write with Apache OpenOffice Writer .
If you use a word processor other than Microsoft Wordor Apache OpenOffice Writer , or an older version of these word processors, save your document as an RTF file and use Format Paper.
To create a stand-alone bibliography that is not based on the citations in a paper, see Independent Bibliographies.
Note: Only one word processor at a time should be open when inserting citations and formatting documents.
Setting Cite While You Write Preferences (Microsoft Word)
You can access and set Cite While You Write preferences from either EndNote or Word. The same dialog appears, and changes
are saved in the same place:
n
From EndNote’s Tools menu, go to the Cite While You Write submenu and select CWYW Preferences.
n
In Word, from the EndNote tab, select Preferences.
Cite While You Write preferences include general preferences , the ability to assign keyboard shortcuts to menu commands, and
the ability to control placement of figures.
For information about other EndNote preferences that directly affect Cite While You Write, see Related EndNote Preferences.
EndNote Cite While You Write Tab Missing in Word
The following instructions describe how you can restore the EndNote Cite While You Write tab in Microsoft Word.
1. Word 2007: Click the Office icon, and then click the Word Options button.
Word 2010 and 2013: Click on the File ribbon, and then click the Options button.
2. Select Add-ins from the menu
3. Select Disabled Items from the Manage menu, and then click the Go button.
4. Select any EndNote item in the list, and then click the Enable button.
5. Click OK to enable the EndNote tab.
6. Close and reopen Word.
7. Check to ensure that the EndNote tab appears at the top of the Word document.
Note: If you prompted, select to allow the files to be loaded by Word.
Go to our Frequently Asked Questions support page for instructions on how to restore the EndNote tab in earlier versions of EndNote.
See Application Preferences for information about switching from EndNote to EndNote Web and vice-versa.
Finding, Editing, and Deleting References
Finding Cited References in a Library
You can quickly jump from a bibliographic in-text citation (not a figure citation) to the corresponding EndNote reference.
To find an EndNote reference:
1. Make sure both your Word document and your EndNote library are open.
2. Highlight the citation(s) in your Word document.
3. From the EndNote tab, select Edit Library.
EndNote opens the corresponding reference for editing.
Editing a Reference in the Library (Microsoft Word)
You may insert a citation in a Word document, and then later edit the corresponding reference in EndNote. Are those changes
reflected in your Word document?
Your citations and bibliography will reflect the edits the next time you reformat the paper with the EndNote library open. Open your
document, open your EndNote library, and from the EndNote tab, select Update Citations and Bibliography.
EndNote will not be able to make the update if the library is not open during formatting. Instead, it will take the original reference
information from Word’s Traveling Library.
Note: The author’s last name and the publication year are both used to identify a reference, so changes to these items in an EndNote reference are not reflected in the in-text citation. Cite While You Write will no longer identify a match between the citation
and the reference, and will use reference information from Word’s field codes (the traveling library).
If you make changes to a figure in an EndNote reference, you must manually replace the figure in your Word document.
Deleting a Reference from the Library
The first time a citation is formatted, EndNote uses information from the unformatted citation to look in the open library and find
the corresponding reference. If you later reformat, EndNote again looks in the library for that reference. If the reference has been
deleted from the library, EndNote takes the reference information from hidden field codes in Word (the Traveling Library).
So, if you deleted a cited reference from the library, the required information is still available in the hidden field codes surrounding
each formatted citation–even though the reference is no longer in the library.
However, an unformatted citation is a temporary placeholder. If a citation is unformatted, and you have deleted the corresponding
reference from the EndNote library, EndNote will not be able to find the reference information for formatting.
If you add the reference to the library again, it will be assigned a different record number. You would need to re-insert the citation in
Word.
Record Numbers
EndNote assigns a unique record number to each reference as it is added to your library. These record numbers appear in temporary citations to ensure that the correct reference is used when the paper is formatted:
{Argus, 1991 #11}
The record number for a reference is also visible in the title bar of the Reference window.
Note that:
n
EndNote automatically assigns a record number sequentially to each reference as it is added to a library.
n
If the same reference appears in two different libraries, the record numbers will most likely be different.
n
Record numbers are never reused or reassigned within a library. When you delete a reference, the corresponding record
number is never used again in that library.
n
You cannot modify or reassign record numbers.
n
We recommend that you not rely on EndNote’s record numbers as a means of filing or numbering your office reprints, because
you have no control over this number. Instead, enter your own unique number into the Label field, or any Custom field, and use
that number for your reprints.
If you add the reference to the library again, it will be assigned a new, different record number, so EndNote still will not be able to
find it when formatting your paper. You will need to reinsert the citation into the paper using the new reference in your library.
Related Topics
Editing a Reference in the Library
Inserting and Formatting Figures and Tables
CWYW Commands and Field Codes
Cite While You Write Commands (Word 2007, 2010, 2013)
When Cite While You Write is installed, several EndNote commands appear on an EndNote tab in Word. When you select an EndNote command from the tab, the EndNote program starts (if not already running) and a Cite While You Write submenu becomes
active on EndNote’s Tools menu, displaying some of the same EndNote commands available in Word.
Note: When you use Cite While You Write Preferences to select EndNote Web as the active Cite While You Write Application,
an EndNote Web tab appears in Word. The EndNote Web tab displays a smaller set of CWYW commands than the EndNote
desktop application.
Below are brief descriptions of the Cite While You Write commands that are found from the EndNote tab.
Citations Group
n
Insert Citation > Insert Citation: Search for EndNote references to select and insert as citations in your Word document.
See Finding and Inserting Citations.
n
Insert Citation > Insert Note: Add custom text citations to your Word document. See Including Notes in the List of References.
n
Insert Citation > Insert Selected Citation(s): Insert a citation for each reference currently selected in the open EndNote
library. You can insert up to 250 consecutive in-text citations.
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Insert Citation > Insert Figure: Search for an EndNote reference that contains a figure, and insert a figure or table citation
in your Word document. The citation is numbered, and the figure or table is automatically added to the document. See
Inserting Selected Citations.
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Go To EndNote: Bring EndNote to the front of your screen. This command launches EndNote if it is not already running.
n
Edit & Manage Citation(s): Edit existing individual or multiple citations. You can omit author and/or year from citations or
add prefix or suffix text (such as page numbers) to citations. See Editing Citations.
n
Edit Library Reference(s): Select citations in your Word document, then select this command to directly edit the corresponding references in EndNote.
Bibliography Group
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Style: Select an output style from the list to format (or reformat) your paper according to the rules of the selected style. The
styles listed are marked as "favorites" in the EndNote style manager.
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Update Citations and Bibliography: Format (or reformat) your paper according to the rules of the selected style. The formatting process replaces the temporary citations in your paper with formatted citations, and builds a bibliography at the end
of the document. This command also updates your figure and table citations plus the formatted figures and tables found
within the body of the document or in a list at the end of the document.
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Convert Citations and Bibliography > Convert to Unformatted Citations: Unformat a selected citation before editing
it or unformat the whole document. This removes style formatting for the selected citations, and leaves temporary citations
which usually consist of the author’s last name, the year, and the record number surrounded by delimiters. Use Update
Citations and Bibliography to format the paper again. See Unformatting Citations.
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Convert Citations and Bibliography > Convert to Plain Text: Save a copy of your document without formatted Cite
While You Write field codes. Formatted citations and the bibliography are saved as text. See Removing Field Codes.
n
Convert Citations and Bibliography > Convert Word Citations to EndNote: Convert any Word citations in this document to EndNote Cite While You Write citations.
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Convert Citations and Bibliography > Convert Reference Manager Citations to EndNote: Convert any Word Reference
Manager citations in this document to EndNote Cite While You Write citations. This option assumes that you have converted
your Reference Manager database to an EndNote database. Values include Author Date RefID and RefID.
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Format Bibliography: Click the arrow in the bottom right corner of the Bibliography section to display a tabbed dialog of
formatting options. When you click OK to leave the dialog, EndNote formats (or reformats) your paper according to the
rules of the selected style. See Formatting the Bibliography.
Note: By default, Instant Formatting is turned on, so your citations and bibliography are automatically formatted as you work.
Tools Group
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Export to EndNote > Export Traveling Library: Create an EndNote library from the references used in your paper. See
Exporting Word's Traveling Library.
n
Export to EndNote > Export Word Citations: Create an EndNote library from the Word citations found in the document.
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Export to EndNote > Export Word Master List: Create an EndNote library from the Word master list of citations.
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Preferences: Change general Cite While You Write preferences, change the EndNote keyboard shortcuts available in
Word, change figure and table settings or switch to EndNote Web Cite While You Write. See Setting Cite While You Write
Preferences.
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EndNote Help: Display help about Cite While You Write features.
You may prefer to execute these commands from the keyboard. Note the keyboard shortcuts defined under Cite While You Write
Preferences.
Note: Several Cite While You Write commands also appear on the Tools menu in EndNote. To use these commands from within
EndNote, you must use at least one Cite While You Write command from within Word during the current session.
Field Codes (Microsoft Word)
Cite While You Write places field codes around and inside your formatted citations in Word. These hidden codes allow EndNote to
format, unformat, and reformat citations within Word.
For example, this formatted citation:
(Schwartz and Billoski 1990)
appears with these field codes:
Note: We recommend that you not view field codes in Word. If you choose to view field codes, do not modify them. Always keep
backups of your papers! To automatically turn off the display of field codes when you open a Word document, see General Preferences for Microsoft Word.
Field codes for formatted citations include a Traveling Library of the EndNote references cited. The reference data saved with
each citation includes all fields except Notes, Abstract, Figure, and Caption. This allows you to use the document on a computer
that does not contain a copy of your EndNote library.
EndNote’s Cite While You Write field codes are supported by Word 2007, 2010, and 2013.
Once you start using Cite While You Write, you must take precautions before opening those files in other word processors or
another version of Word. If a formatted document is opened and saved with an incompatible word processor, the formatted EndNote citations and bibliography lose their field codes. When this happens, EndNote cannot reformat the document. Before you open a paper in a different word processor or give a publisher an electronic copy of your final formatted document, see
Sharing Your Word Documents.
Related Topics
Cite While You Write Commands
Forms of Citations
How to Cite While You Write
Installing Cite While You Write Support in Word
Overview of the Cite While You Write Process
Showing Word Processor Codes
Word Processor Compatibility
Installing Cite While You Write Support in Word
EndNote’s installation program installs Cite While You Write support for Microsoft Word 2007, 2010, and 2013 .
If you install Word after installing EndNote, you must either use the Customizer option or manually install Cite While You Write.
See No EndNote Commands in Word
In Word, EndNote commands appear on an EndNote tab.
Citing Sources as You Write
Forms of Citations (Microsoft Word)
A "citation" is the brief bibliographic information in the body of a paper that refers the reader to a complete reference in the bibliography. A citation typically consists of a bibliography number or the author and year in parentheses:
... of the species at hand1.
... of the species at hand (Argus, 1991).
Citations can appear as either unformatted or formatted in your Word document.
Unformatted (Temporary) Citations
An unformatted citation is a temporary placeholder, and does not reflect final output. It may appear after you Find Citation(s) and
Insert, Insert Selected
Note: If you have Instant Formatting turned on, you may never see an unformatted citation. Instant Formatting is turned on by
default.
An unformatted citation typically consists of the first author’s last name, year, and the EndNote record number, with citation delimiters at each end to identify the text:
{Author, Year #Record Number}.
For example:
{Alvarez, 1994 #8}
The unformatted citation makes it easy to identify the record cited. Even if your final goal is numeric citations, you can see meaningful information while you are working on your document.
EndNote relies on these temporary citations to determine which references to include in the bibliography.
Formatted Citations
The Format Bibliography command uses an output style to convert all unformatted citations into formatted citations, and reflects
final output.
Note: When Instant Formatting is turned on, formatting is done as you insert citations–but you can still use Format Bibliography
to change the style or layout of your citations and bibliography.
Formatted citations include hidden Word field codes in case you want to Format Bibliography again later, either after adding more
citations or because you want to format in a different style.
Citations formatted in an Author-Date style might look like this:
(Alvarez 1994; Turnhouse 1987)
This is the same citation formatted in the Numbered style:
[1,2]
You can easily revert from formatted citations back to unformatted citations at any time. See Unformatting Citations.
Related Topics
Customizing Individual Citations
Field Codes
Finding and Inserting Citations
Showing Word Processor Codes
Finding and Inserting Citations (Microsoft Word)
You can search for EndNote references and insert them without ever leaving Word.
This is the easiest way to find and insert a citation into a Word document:
1. Open the EndNote libraries that contain the references you wish to cite.
2. Open the Word document and position the cursor at the location where you would like the citation.
3. From the EndNote tab, click Insert Citation, and then Insert Citation.
4. In the text box at the top, enter text to identify the reference you wish to cite. EndNote assumes an "and" between each
word, and will search all fields in your records.
5. Click Find and EndNote compares the text to text in your EndNote references and lists the matching reference(s).If no references match your text, you need to modify your search text and click Find again.
6. Identify and highlight the appropriate reference(s).
7. Use the Insert button triangle to display a menu, and select from:
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Insert: To insert the citation and format it as defined by the currently selected output style
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Insert & Display as: Author (Year)
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Insert & Exclude Author
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Insert & Exclude Year
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Insert in Bibliography Only
Note: You can click Insert (not the triangle) to quickly select the default Insert command.
Citations are inserted directly into your paper in the same font as the surrounding text. Once a citation is inserted, it contains complete reference information in hidden codes.
You can insert citations in an existing manuscript or as you write. Remember to save your document as you work.
To format your citations and generate a bibliography, see Formatting the Bibliography. In most cases, Instant Formatting applies
as you insert citations.
Related Topics
Citing References in Footnotes and Endnotes
Customizing Individual Citations
Finding and Inserting Figures and Tables
Finding and Inserting from Highlighted Text
Including Notes in the List of References
Inserting Citations into a Formatted Paper
Inserting From Multiple Libraries
Inserting Selected Citations
Typing Citations into Your Paper
Using Drag-and-Drop or Copy and Paste
Inserting Selected Citations (Microsoft Word)
To insert references selected in EndNote:
1. Open the Word document and position the cursor at the location where you would like the citation.
2. From the EndNote tab, select Go to EndNote.
3. Highlight the desired reference(s) in your EndNote library.
4. From the EndNote tab, select Insert Citation, and then Insert Selected Citation(s).
Related Topics
Citing References in Footnotes and Endnotes
Customizing Individual Citations
Finding and Inserting Citations
Finding and Inserting Figures and Tables
Finding and Inserting from Highlighted Text
Forms of Citations
Including Notes in the List of References
Inserting Citations into a Formatted Paper
Inserting From Multiple Libraries
Inserting Multiple Citations
Typing Citations into Your Paper
Using Drag-and-Drop or Copy and Paste
Finding and Inserting from Highlighted Text (Microsoft Word)
To find and insert a citation from highlighted text:
1. As you are typing, enter text to identify the reference you wish to cite, and highlight that text.
2. From the EndNote tab, select Insert Citation, and then select Find Citation.
EndNote inserts your highlighted text into the Find box. Use the Find & Insert My References dialog as described in Finding and
Inserting Citations.
Using Drag-and-Drop or Copy and Paste (Microsoft Word)
You can drag selected citations from your EndNote library and drop them into your paper at the desired location for the citation.
You can also copy citations from the EndNote Library window and paste them into the document (using Copy from EndNote’s Edit
menu and then Paste from Word’s clipboard).
Inserting Multiple Citations (Microsoft Word)
There are several ways to insert multiple references in one in-text citation. When formatted, they appear as one multiple citation,
sorted as your bibliographic style requires:
Unformatted: {Hall, 1988 #77; Baker, 1988 #16}
Formatted: (Baker, 1988; Hall, 1988)
You can insert up to 250 consecutive in-text citations, although the limit could be lower depending upon the number of fields being
formatted with the output style you have chosen.
Note: If one of the citations in a multiple citation is not matched during formatting, the entire citation remains unformatted. Notes
cannot be inserted as part of a multiple citation.
To insert multiple citations from Word:
1. From the EndNote tab, select Insert Citation, and then select Find Citation.
2. Enter a generic search term that will find the references you want, and click Find.
3. Hold down the Ctrl key while clicking on the desired references in the list (or hold down the Shift key to select a continuous
range of references) in order to highlight the references.
4. Click Insert.
To insert multiple selected citations from EndNote:
1. In EndNote, hold down the Ctrl key while clicking on the desired references in your library (or hold down the Shift key to
select a continuous range of references).
2. From the EndNote tab, select Insert Citation, and then select Insert Selected.
To insert multiple citations individually:
Another option is to insert citations individually, but immediately next to each other. Cite While You Write merges adjacent citations during formatting. Citations do not merge if any character separates them–including a space or punctuation mark.
Unformatted: {Hall,1988 #77}{Baker, 1988 #16}
Merged when Formatted: (Baker, 1988; Hall, 1988)
Note: You can add citations to an existing in-text citation or change the order of citations within the delimiters with the Edit Citations dialog.
To insert, remove, or edit citations within an existing in-text citation:
1. Click on the formatted citation.
2. From the EndNote tab, click Edit. All of the cited references in the document are listed in the left column of the dialog. An
ellipses shows where a citation appears within text. The line below shows the cited reference(s).
3. Highlight a citation, and then:
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Click Remove to delete it.
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Click Insert to insert another citation within the same set of delimiters.
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Use the arrow buttons to change the order of the citation in a multiple citation. (If a Citation Sort Order is applied by the current output style, changing the order of citations in a multiple citation has no effect.)
You can use the other features on this dialog as described in Customizing Individual Citations.
Related Topics
Citing References in Footnotes and Endnotes
Customizing Individual Citations
Finding and Inserting Citations
Finding and Inserting Figures and Tables
Forms of Citations
Including Notes in the List of References
Inserting Citations into a Formatted Paper
Inserting From Multiple Libraries
Inserting Selected Citations
Typing Citations into Your Paper
Inserting From Multiple Libraries (Microsoft Word)
You can cite references from multiple libraries. Simply open the selected libraries before you begin inserting citations.
If possible, though, we recommend that you use a single library when writing a paper. Keeping all of your references in one library
simplifies the writing process because you know exactly where to find each reference, there is little likelihood of duplicate references, and you only need to have one library open when inserting citations.
Note: If you plan to insert citations from more than one library into a paper, read about the Merge Duplicates in Bibliography preference
Related Topics
Citing References in Footnotes and Endnotes
Customizing Individual Citations
Finding and Inserting Citations
Finding and Inserting Figures and Tables
Forms of Citations
Including Notes in the List of References
Inserting Citations into a Formatted Paper
Inserting Multiple Citations
Inserting Selected Citations
Typing Citations into Your Paper
Customizing Individual Citations
There may be cases where you want individual citations to differ from the standard format. You may want to remove the year or
author from a citation if either was mentioned in the context of the sentence. Or, you might want to add a page reference or comment before or after the citation.
For example, assume a formatted citation looks like this:
Hall’s discovery (Hall, 1988)
You can omit the author’s name from the citation:
Hall’s discovery (1988)
You can omit the date from the citation:
the 1988 discovery (Hall)
You can add a suffix with page number to the citation:
the discovery (Hall, 1988 p.4)
You can add a prefix to the citation:
the discovery (see Hall, 1988)
To customize a formatted citation:
1. Insert and format the citation.
2. Click on the formatted citation.
3. From the EndNote tab, click Edit & Manage Citations. All of the cited references in the document are listed in the left column of the dialog. An ellipses shows where a citation appears within text. The line below shows the cited references.
4. Highlight the citation you want to customize.
5. Customize as needed:
Default Format: Select this menu option to display the citation and format it as defined by the currently selected output
style.
Display as: Author (Year): Select this menu option to display both the author name and the year in the highlighted citation.
Exclude Author: Select this to omit the author name from the formatted citation.
Exclude Year: Select this to omit the date from the formatted citation.
Prefix: Enter text here to print immediately before the citation text (spaces are significant).
Show Only in Bibliography: Select this option to display the selected citation only in the bibliography, not in the body of
the paper.
Suffix: Enter text here to print after the citation text (spaces are significant). You can enter page numbers here if you
always want them to print after the citation.
Pages: Page numbers entered here are considered entered into a "Cited Pages" field, so they can be manipulated on output just like any other EndNote field. In order to print, the Cited Pages field must be listed in the citation template and/or
footnote template of your output style. This is typically used to print the page numbers within a full footnote citation. Most
EndNote styles that require a special format for citations in footnotes are already configured this way. You can modify the
Citation Template in your output style to include Cited Pages.
6. Click OK to implement the change(s) to the citation.
Related Topics
Citation Prefixes
Citation Suffixes
Citing References in Footnotes and Endnotes
Citing Specific Page Numbers in Footnotes
Editing Citations
Examples of Modified Citations
Forms of Citations
Including Notes in the List of References
Including Semicolons & Other Citation Delimiters in a Citation
Inserting Citations into a Formatted Paper
Notes About Temporary Citations
Omitting Authors or Years from Citations
Typing Citations into Your Paper
Including Notes in the List of References (Microsoft Word)
Some journal styles (such as Science) require that you include notes along with the list of works cited at the end of the document.
In such a system, notes are numbered just like citations, and are included in the reference list in order of appearance, along with
bibliographic references.
Including notes in this way makes sense only when you are formatting your paper with a numbered style (not an author- date
style).
To insert text as a numbered note in the reference list:
1. Position the cursor at the location in your text where you would like the number indicating the note.
2. From the EndNote tab, select Insert Citation, and then Insert Note.
3. Type your note text into the text box. There is no limit on the amount of text you can enter.
4. Click OK to insert a numbered note.
When your paper is formatted by EndNote using a numbered style, the note text is assigned a number and listed along with the references at the end of the paper.
The way that notes are displayed when unformatted can be changed in the Temporary Citations preferences.
To manually type text as a numbered note in the reference list:
1. Type the text into the body of your document where you would want the number for the note to appear.
2. Be sure to surround the entire section of text with your Temporary Citation Delimiters (curly braces by default), and begin it
with "NOTE:". For example:
{NOTE: The authors would like to acknowledge the support of...}
Restrictions on the Use of the "NOTE" Feature:
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This feature requires that a numbered style be used for formatting; otherwise, the note appears as text in the body of your
paper.
n
Enter alphanumeric text only. Do not enter graphics, equations, or symbols.
n
Do not use the temporary citation delimiters as part of the text of the note. Other markers, such as the record number
marker, the prefix marker, and the multiple citation separator may be used.
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Notes cannot be combined with regular bibliographic citations within the same set of delimiters (such as parentheses or
brackets). They must be cited separately— each in its own set of delimiters.
Related Topics
Citing References in Footnotes and Endnotes
Customizing Individual Citations
Finding and Inserting Citations
Finding and Inserting Figures and Tables
Forms of Citations
Inserting Citations into a Formatted Paper
Inserting From Multiple Libraries
Inserting Multiple Citations
Inserting Selected Citations
Typing Citations into Your Paper
Inserting Citations into a Formatted Paper (Microsoft Word)
If you need to add one or more citations to a paper that has already been formatted, insert the new citations into the text (as
described earlier in this chapter) and select Format Bibliography when you are ready to update the bibliography and citations.
To add a new reference to an existing citation, insert the new reference next to (not within) the existing citation, like this:
(Hockney and Ellis, 1996){Argus, 1984 #1}
Adjacent citations are merged during formatting, and the formatted citations are sorted according to the style:
(Argus, 1984; Hockney and Ellis, 1996)
Note: Do not insert a citation into the middle of a formatted citation. Insert it immediately before or after the existing citation, with
no space between them.
Related Topics
Citing References in Footnotes and Endnotes
Customizing Individual Citations
Finding and Inserting Citations
Finding and Inserting from Highlighted Text
Forms of Citations
Inserting From Multiple Libraries
Inserting Multiple Citations
Inserting Selected Citations
Citing References in Footnotes and Endnotes
Once you have created a footnote or endnote in Microsoft Word, you can cite references in that footnote or endnote just like you
cite them in the body of the document.
To cite a reference in a footnote or endnote:
1. Use the appropriate command in Word to create the footnote or endnote. (EndNote does not create the footnote or endnote
in the document, but is used to insert and format citations in the note.)
2. Position the cursor in the footnote or endnote where you would like the citation to appear.
3. Insert the citation as you normally would.
Note: You can edit a full reference footnote citation to exclude author name, year, or author/year. Note that the Author(Year)
option does not apply to footnotes.
The EndNote style that is selected when you select Format Bibliography determines how citations in footnotes and endnotes are
formatted. EndNote can format these citations as brief in-text citations or like complete references in the bibliography. It can also
create a special format specific to footnotes or endnotes, including options like "Ibid." and other variations of shortened references when a citation appears more than once in the footnotes or endnotes. See Bibliography and Footnote Templates.
If you are citing full references in footnotes, you can include specific page numbers to be formatted like a regular EndNote field.
See Customizing Individual Citations. Or, if you are manually typing citations, see Citing Specific Page Numbers in Footnotes.
Related Topics
Citing References in Footnotes and Endnotes
Customizing Individual Citations
Finding and Inserting Citations
Finding and Inserting from Highlighted Text
Forms of Citations
Including Notes in the List of References
Inserting Citations into a Formatted Paper
Inserting From Multiple Libraries
Inserting Multiple Citations
Inserting Selected Citations
Typing Citations into Your Paper
Typing Citations into Your Paper
Typing Citations into Your Paper
There are many ways to insert citations in your paper. The most flexible way is to manually type temporary citations directly into
your paper.
The rules described in the following topics govern how EndNote recognizes and interprets temporary (unformatted) citations. Use
these rules when typing temporary citations directly into your document.
Note: For new documents or documents that have never been formatted, when Instant Formatting is enabled, it is not triggered
when you manually type a reference into a document. You must use the EndNote tab in Word to either insert another citation or
format the citations and a reference list. If a document has been successfully formatted, and you manually type in a temporary
citation, that citation is instantly formatted.
n
Notes About Temporary Citations
n
Components of a Temporary Citation
n
Omitting Authors or Years from Citations
n
Citation Prefixes
n
Citation Suffixes
n
Including Semicolons & Other Citation Delimiters in a Citation
n
Examples of Modified Citations
Related Topics
Finding and Inserting Citations
Forms of Citations
Including Notes in the List of References
Inserting Citations into a Formatted Paper
Inserting From Multiple Libraries
Inserting Multiple Citations
Inserting Selected Citations
Instant Formatting
Notes About Temporary Citations
Overview of the Cite While You Write Process
Using Drag-and-Drop or Copy and Paste
Notes About Temporary Citations
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Each citation must match only one reference in the library.
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When Instant Formatting is turned off, a temporary citation is enclosed in citation delimiters and typically includes the first
author’s last name, the year of publication, and the record number for that reference: { Schwartz, 1990 #5}.
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Within one set of citation delimiters you can have several citations separated by semicolons:
{Schwartz,1990#5;Billoski,1992#28}.
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Curly braces ("{" and "}") are the default temporary citation delimiters, although they can be changed (see Temporary Citations). EndNote looks for these markers to find citations in your word processing documents.
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In addition to the citation delimiters, there are other possible components to a temporary citation: Author, Year, Record
Number, Prefix Text, Suffix Text, and any other text found in the record. You can also use a special tag to format the citation as Author (Year).
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Any part of a temporary citation can be omitted, as long as enough information remains to match just one reference in the
library. If you omit an author or year from a temporary citation, those components are omitted from the formatted citation as
well—although you can change this preference. See Omitting Authors or Years from Citations for more information. Additionally, you can omit the entire citation so that the entry only appears in the bibliography.
Related Topics
Citation Prefixes
Citation Suffixes
Citing Specific Page Numbers in Footnotes
Examples of Modified Citations
Including Semicolons and Other Citation Delimiters in a Citation
Notes About Temporary Citations
Omitting Authors or Years from Citations
Temporary Citation Preferences
Typing Citations into Your Paper
Components of a Temporary Citation
The typical EndNote temporary (unformatted) citation consists of an author’s last name, a year, and a record number, all enclosed
in citation delimiters. However, temporary citations can take on various other formats.
Temporary citations must begin and end with the opening and closing citation delimiters, but the other components of a temporary
citation can vary.
You can type any string of text found in the reference, as in:
{dinosaur extinction}
Or, you can type any of these items in this order (comma placement is significant):
{Prefix \Author, Year #Record Number Suffix}
{Prefix \Author, Year, Any Text, Suffix}
Each component is briefly described below; more detailed information follows.
Author’s Last Name: Only the last name of one author is listed in a temporary citation. It can be any author associated with the
reference, and not just the first author. Include a comma after the author’s name to limit the search only to author fields:
{Schwartz, 1990}
Year: The year should appear exactly as it does in the reference, and it should be preceded by a comma. Even if you leave out the
author name, include a comma before the year to limit the search to the Year field:
{, 2001}
Record Number: The record number is EndNote’s unique number for a reference. It is the only part of a temporary citation that
you can count on to always identify just one reference in your library. The record number must be preceded by a number sign:
{Jones, 1987 #84}
Any Text: Any text that appears in the reference can be used to help EndNote locate the reference in the library. In order for this
to be helpful, select words that are unique to that reference. Enter the specific text only or enter the text in place of the record
number part of the temporary citation and after a second comma:
{greenhouse}
{Schwartz, 1990,
{Schwartz, ,
In the third example, where the date is omitted, you must insert a space between the two commas or EndNote will not recognize
any citation matches.
Prefix Text: To add text to print before the formatted citation, type the text immediately after the opening brace and then a backslash "\" to separate prefix text from the search text:
{see \Jones, 1987 #84}
Suffix Text: To add text to print after a formatted citation, enter the suffix text immediately after the record number or enter a third
comma after the search text and then type the suffix text:
{Smith, 1995 #98 p.293}
{Smith, 1995, dinosaur, p.293}
Author (Year) format: To add a citation that is formatted as Author (Year) in your text, include @author-year after the pages designator:
{Hesse, 2003 #95@@author-year} or {Hesse, 2003 #95@ p. 237@author-year}
Bibliography Only format: To insert a citation that only appears in the bibliography, include @@hidden, where the first @ is
needed as the pages placeholder:
{Smith, 1995 #98@@hidden}
Note: For an easy way to modify individual Cite While You Write citations once they are formatted, see Editing Citations.
Related Topics
Citation Prefixes
Citation Suffixes
Citing Specific Page Numbers in Footnotes
Examples of Modified Citations
Including Semicolons and Other Citation Delimiters in a Citation
Notes About Temporary Citations
Omitting Authors or Years from Citations
Temporary Citation Preferences
Typing Citations into Your Paper
Omitting Authors or Years from Citations
While your style may normally include the author’s name and date in each in-text citation, you may want to omit the author and/or
year from a particular citation. This is useful if you have mentioned the author or year in the context of the sentence and do not
want to repeat the information in the citation.
To remove the author’s name or date from a citation, leave that information out of the unformatted citation.
To omit the author’s name, enter:
...Wyatt’s recent discovery {, 1993 #38}.
which will format as:
...Wyatt’s recent discovery (1993).
To omit the date, enter:
...about his 1993 discovery {Wyatt, #38}.
which will format as:
...about his 1993 discovery (Wyatt).
Note: Numbered citations do not print the author name or year in any case, so these settings would be ignored.
If you want a reference to appear in your bibliography, but not as a citation in your paper, you can exclude both the author and
year, leaving only the record number. When you format your paper with a style that formats authors and years in the citations, this
particular citation will not display in text, but will be included in the bibliography.
However, if you would rather have the author and year appear in the formatted citation regardless of whether or not they are in the
temporary citation, select Preferences from EndNote’s Edit menu, select the Formatting option, and uncheck the setting to Omit
Author and/or Year from formatted citation if removed from temporary citation. With this setting turned off, you may enter just the
record number {#34} as a temporary citation, and still format the paper accurately with a style that requires authors and years in
the in-text citations.
Note: For an easy way to modify individual Cite While You Write citations once they are inserted, see Editing Citations.
Related Topics
Citation Prefixes
Citation Suffixes
Citing Specific Page Numbers in Footnotes
Components of a Temporary Citation
Examples of Modified Citations
Including Semicolons and Other Citation Delimiters in a Citation
Notes About Temporary Citations
Typing Citations into Your Paper
Citation Prefixes
You can type a prefix in front of any unformatted in-text citation, using a backslash to separate the prefix text from the reference.
For example, an in-text citation such as:
{see also \Hall, 1988 #77}
formatted in the APA style would be:
(see also Hall, 1988)
When there is only one prefix in a multiple citation and it is at the beginning of the citation, it will stay there regardless of how the
citations are sorted. For example, this citation:
{e.g. \Hall,1988 #77; Argus, 1991 #11}
after being formatted in the APA style will appear as:
(e.g. Argus, 1991; Hall, 1988)
If the prefix is not at the beginning of the multiple citation, or if there is more than one prefix in a multiple citation, the prefix text
remains with the reference it precedes. For example, this citation:
{Argus, 1984 #11; especially \Hall, 1988 #77}
formatted in the Author-Date style will be:
(Argus, 1984; especially Hall, 1988)
Changing the Citation Prefix Marker
You can change the prefix marker from a backslash to another character by selecting Preferences from EndNote’s Edit menu,
selecting the Temporary Citations option, and changing the character in the "Citation Prefix Marker" box. Use a character that is
not otherwise used in the citations. Letters, numbers, semicolons, "@" and commas cannot be prefix markers. See Temporary
Citations.
Related Topics
Citation Suffixes
Citing Specific Page Numbers in Footnotes
Components of a Temporary Citation
Examples of Modified Citations
Including Semicolons and Other Citation Delimiters in a Citation
Citation Suffixes
Text typed after the record number or search text in an unformatted citation appears immediately after the citation when it is formatted. For example, these citations:
{Hall, 1988 #77, p. 5}
{Smith, 1995, dinosaur,, p.293}
after being formatted in the APA style will appear as:
(Hall, 1988, p. 5)
(Smith, 1995, p.293)
In multiple citations, the suffix text remains with the citation that it follows, even if the citations are sorted differently during the formatting process. For example, this citation:
{Hall, 1988 #77 p. 5; Argus, 1991 #11}
formatted in the Author-Date style will be:
(Argus, 1991; Hall, 1988 p. 5)
Related Topics
Citation Prefixes
Citing Specific Page Numbers in Footnotes
Components of a Temporary Citation
Examples of Modified Citations
Including Semicolons and Other Citation Delimiters in a Citation
Including Semicolons and Other Citation Delimiters in a Citation
In order to print an actual semicolon or the prefix marker (\) as part of a citation, type an accent grave (`) before the character. The
accent grave tells EndNote to treat the following character as regular text, and not as a significant character for parsing the citation. For example, to create a citation that is formatted as:
(see Figure 1; Jackson, 1994)
the unformatted citation must look like this:
{see Figure 1`; \Jackson, 1994 #28}
The ` character before the semicolon tells EndNote not to treat the semicolon as a separator between citations.
Related Topics
Citation Prefixes
Citation Suffixes
Citing Specific Page Numbers in Footnotes
Components of a Temporary Citation
Examples of Modified Citations
Notes About Temporary Citations
Omitting Authors or Years from Citations
Typing Citations into Your Paper
Citing Specific Page Numbers in Footnotes
When citing full references in footnotes, you might want to include specific page numbers. EndNote provides a way to do this
where the page numbers that you type into a temporary citation can be manipulated by the EndNote style just like a field in your
EndNote reference. You can add specific pages to the temporary citation, and have the EndNote style include them wherever
they need to be in the formatted citation. The style can also apply special pages formatting, like deciding whether to add "p." or
"pp. before the page numbers, and how to list the range of pages.
The easiest way to add cited pages is to use the Edit Citation dialog.
To manually include specific page numbers to a reference in an unformatted footnote citation, enter the page number preceded by
"@" at the end of the temporary citation:
{Smith, 1999 #24 @145-6}
All text that follows the @ symbol (up to the next space) is considered the "Cited Pages." You must also configure the EndNote
style used to format the paper to use "Cited Pages" in the footnote template. Most EndNote styles that require a special format for
citations in footnotes are already configured this way.
When EndNote formats the citation, the cited pages ("145-6" in the example above) are inserted in the correct location and formatted as appropriate for the style.
Note: If you enter page numbers at the end of the temporary citation without the "@" character, they will still appear in a formatted in-text citation, but EndNote will not be able to manipulate them by changing the page format or by moving them to a different position in the formatted citation. They will appear, as entered, at the end of the formatted in-text citation. This is a
perfectly acceptable way to enter page numbers for in-text citations (or for footnotes formatted just like your in-text citations).
See Citation Suffixes to see how this works. This method will not work for citations in footnotes that are formatted as full bib-
liographic references or with a special footnote format. For those cases, you must use the @ symbol to identify the cited pages
in the temporary citation.
Related Topics
Citation Prefixes
Citation Suffixes
Components of a Temporary Citation
Including Semicolons and Other Citation Delimiters in a Citation
Notes About Temporary Citations
Omitting Authors or Years from Citations
Typing Citations into Your Paper
Examples of Modified Citations
The following examples demonstrate how different modifications to a temporary citation affect its formatted citation in either an
author/year or numbered style. In the first column is an example of a modified temporary citation before formatting, and to the right
are two examples of that citation formatted in different styles.
Examples of Modified Citations
Unformatted Formatted
Citation
with AuthorDate
{Hall, #77}
(Hall)
Formatted Comments
with Numbered
[1]
To remove the year from the formatted citation, delete it from the
unformatted citation.
{, 1988 #77} (1998)
[1]
To remove the author from the formatted citation, delete just the
author’s name from the unformatted
citation. Note that the comma
remains in the temporary citation to
indicate the omis-s ion of the author.
{#77}
No citation
[1]
This temporary citation removes the
appears
author and the year from the formatted citation. When formatted with
an author-date style, the in-text citation is eliminated, but the reference
still appears in the bibliography. Numbered citations appear as usual.
{Hall,1988
(Hall 1988 p.4) [1 p.4]
To add text after the formatted cita#77 p.4}
tion, add it after the record number in
the unformatted citation. With this
temporary cita-tion, the text after the
record number, including spaces and
punctuation, is added to the formatted citation.
{see \Hall,
1988 #77}
(see Hall 1988) [see 1]
To add text before the formatted citation, type the text imme-diately after
the opening curly brace, and type a
backslash "\" to separate the text
from the author’s name. (See Citation Prefixes.
[1, p.4]
This temporary citation eliminates
the year from the formatted citation,
but adds the additional text ", p.4".
Type additional text after the record
number or after a third comma when
using additional search text.
Modified Citations Table
{Hall, #77,
p.4}
(Hall, p.4)
Related Topics
Citation Prefixes
Citation Suffixes
Citing Specific Page Numbers in Footnotes
Components of a Temporary Citation
Including Semicolons and Other Citation Delimiters in a Citation
Notes About Temporary Citations
Omitting Authors or Years from Citations
Typing Citations into Your Paper
Editing, Moving, Copying, and Deleting Citations
Editing Citations (Microsoft Word)
Once you have inserted and formatted a citation, you should not edit it directly (although you can do so). Direct edits are lost the
next time EndNote formats the bibliography.
You can almost always get EndNote to format your citations exactly to your specifications by editing the style, the EndNote reference, or the citation (as described here).
Note: An easy way to omit the Author or Date from an individual citation is to select the citation, right-click with your mouse,
select Edit Citation(s) and then Exclude Author or Exclude Year.
To edit a formatted citation:
1. Click on the citation you wish to change.
2. From the EndNote tab, select Edit & Manage Citations.
All of the cited references in the document are listed in the left column of the dialog. An ellipses shows where a citation
appears within text. The line below shows the cited references.
3. Select the appropriate citation from the list at the left of the dialog (you can scroll through all citations in the document) and
make any of the following changes to the highlighted citation:
Default Format: Select this menu option to display the citation and format it as defined by the currently selected output
style.
Display as: Author (Year): Select this menu option to display both the author name and the year in the highlighted citation.
This feature does not apply when editing a citation in a footnote.
Exclude Author: Select this to omit the author name from the formatted citation.
Exclude Year: Select this to omit the date from the formatted citation.
Show Only in Bibliography: Select this option to display the selected citation only in the bibliography, not in the body of
the paper.
Prefix: Enter text here to print immediately before the citation text (spaces are significant).
Suffix: Enter text here to print after the citation text (spaces are significant).
Pages: Enter page numbers here to print as Cited Pages. To print, the Cited Pages field must be listed in the citation template or footnote template of the output style.
4. You can add or remove citations from a multiple citation or change the order of citations.
Insert: Use this to add another citation within the same set of delimiters.
Remove: Highlight a citation and click Remove to delete it from the in-text citation.
Up and Down Arrows: Highlight a reference and use the arrows to change the order of display. (If a Citation Sort Order
is applied by the current output style, using this dialog to change the order of citations in a multiple citation has no effect.)
5. Click OK to implement your change(s).
After making changes, select Format Bibliography to (re)format the new or modified citations and regenerate the bibliography.
From the EndNote tab, select Update Citations and Bibliography or click the corner arrow to change bibliography preferences and
Format Bibliography.
Related Topics
Citation Prefixes
Citation Suffixes
Citing Specific Page Numbers in Footnotes
Customizing Individual Citations
Deleting Citations
Examples of Modified Citations
Including Semicolons & Other Citation Delimiters in a Citation
Moving or Copying Citations
Omitting Authors or Years from Citations
Typing Citations into Your Paper
Unformatting Citations
Moving or Copying Citations (Microsoft Word)
You can highlight any text that includes citations, then use the Clipboard commands to Cut or Copy, and then Paste it elsewhere
in the document. You can do this with formatted or temporary (unformatted) citations.
To move or copy only the citation itself, make sure you highlight the entire citation (including surrounding delimiters). Then Cut or
Copy and Paste it elsewhere in the document.
Deleting Citations
To delete an unformatted citation, highlight the entire citation (including delimiters), and press the Backspace or Delete key.
While it is possible to highlight a formatted citation and press the delete key on your keyboard, we do not recommend that you do
that. If you do not completely delete the citation and all associated codes, you could corrupt your document.
To safely delete a formatted citation:
1. In Word, highlight the citation you want to delete.
2. From the EndNote tab, select Edit & Manage Citations.
3. In the Edit & Manage Citations dialog, ensure that the citation you want to delete is highlighted. If the citation is part of a
multiple citation, make sure you select just the citation you want to delete.
4. From the Edit Reference menu, click Remove Citation.
5. Click OK.
Unformatting Citations (Microsoft Word)
Unformatting reverts formatted citations to temporary citations, removes the bibliography, and turns off instant formatting.
If your citations are formatted in a numbered style, you can unformat your paper to easily identify citations as you work. You can
Format Bibliography again later.
Note: Unlike formatted citations, unformatted citations require that you have the corresponding EndNote library open in order to
format the paper again. Unformatting removes the Traveling Library.
To unformat citations:
1. Determine which citations you want to unformat:
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To unformat a particular citation, highlight only that citation.
n
If the citation you want to unformat is part of a multiple citation, highlight the multiple citation. All citations within the delimiters will be unformatted.
n
To unformat a section of the document, highlight that section.
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To unformat the entire document, either select nothing or highlight the entire document.
2. From the EndNote tab, select Convert Citations and Bibliography, and then select Convert to Unformatted Citations. If you
are unformatting the entire document, this unformats all of the in-text citations and removes the current bibliography.
You can tell when a paper is unformatted because the citations appear in the temporary citation format (such as "{Smith, 1999
#25}").
Unformatted citations are temporary placeholders that do not reflect final output. You can format the paper again at any time. To
save the formatted paper as text, see Removing Field Codes.
Note: When you unformat citations, Instant Formatting is disabled. From the EndNote tab, click the corner arrow. From the Format Bibliography dialog, you can enable Instant Formatting again on the Instant Formatting tab.
Related Topics
Components of a Temporary Citation
Field Codes
Forms of Citations
Showing Word Processor Codes
Generating Bibliographies
Adding Styles to the Output Styles Menu
The bibliographic style selected on the Format Bibliography dialog determines how EndNote formats the citations in your paper
and the references in the bibliography. The style is for text styles, punctuation, and sorting required for the citations and bibliography as well as which fields are included in the bibliography.
You can use Format Bibliography to select a different style and reformat your document at any point.
For a typical installation, EndNote initially installs only the most popular output styles, although more the 4,500 styles are available. See Installing Additional Output Styles
To mark an installed output style as a favorite so it will appear in the Output Style menu:
1. In EndNote, go to the Edit menu, select Output Styles, and then select Open Style Manager.
2. Find the style that you need.
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Select a style by typing its name or scroll through the list to find the style you need.
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Click on the column headings to sort the styles by either name or category. Click a second time to reverse the sort
order.
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Use the Find by button to find entire categories of styles or to search for a style by a word in its name.
The "Style Info/Preview" item can be changed from Style Info to Style Preview to display a preview of how the
selected style formats EndNote’s references.
3. Select a check box of a style to select it as one of your favorites. The Mark All button selects all styles The Unmark All
clears all selections.
4. Close the Style Manager by selecting Close Style Manager from the File menu.
Styles marked as favorites appear in the Output Styles menu in Microsoft Word, Microsoft PowerPoint, and OpenOffice.org
Writer.
You can modify any style to meet your specifications. You can also create new styles if necessary. See Modifying Style Templates for more information.
Related Topics
Creating a Bibliography from Multiple Documents
Deleting Bibliographies
Directly Editing Bibliographies
Formatting the Bibliography and/or Changing Bibliography
Generating Bibliographies
Inserting and Formatting Figures and Tables
Instant Formatting
Moving Bibliographies
Reformatting Papers
The Style Manager
Generating Bibliographies (Microsoft Word)
Formatting a bibliography serves two functions:
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It formats each in-text citation according to the selected bibliographic style.
n
It adds a complete bibliography to the document (unless you override this with a setting in the output style).
n
The format used for citations and references is determined by the output style selected. When you have finished writing your
paper in Word, and all of your EndNote citations have been inserted into the text, you are ready for EndNote to format the paper
and generate a bibliography. This can be done in one of these ways:
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Instant Formatting actually works as you insert citations and is enabled when you first start using Cite While You Write.
EndNote uses the currently selected style to format citations and update the bibliography each time a citation is inserted.
However, if you want to change the style or layout of references, you can use the Format Bibliography command.
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Format Bibliography allows you to modify bibliography preferences such as style and layout before formatting your document. This is also where you enable or disable Instant Formatting.
n
Update Citations and Bibliography is available in Word. You will find it on the Tools menu on the Edit & Manage Citation dialog.
EndNote uses the currently selected style to format citations, the bibliography, plus figures and tables. You could also select a
new style from the Style list in the Bibliography group.
From the EndNote tab, in the Bibliography group, click the bottom corner arrow.
1. On the Format Bibliography tab, use the With Output Style option to select an output style to format references.
2. Click OK to format all citations and build the bibliography.
Related Topics
Adding Styles to the Output Styles Menu
Creating a Bibliography from Multiple Documents
Deleting Bibliographies
Directly Editing Bibliographies
Formatting the Bibliography and/or Changing Bibliography
Inserting and Formatting Figures and Tables
Instant Formatting
Moving Bibliographies
Reformatting Papers
Formatting the Bibliography and/or Changing Bibliography Settings (Microsoft Word)
You may be halfway through inserting citations or you may have finished writing your paper. You may have instant formatting enabled or you may have manually inserted citations with formatting disabled. It does not matter. As long as you have citations
entered in your document, you can format your paper at any time. You can reformat after adding more citations or to change the
style or layout settings.
Note: The first time a citation is formatted, the corresponding EndNote library must be open. After that, EndNote can use the
Traveling Library for reference information.
To format citations and generate a bibliography:
1. From the EndNote tab, click the bottom corner arrow.
2. On the Format Bibliography tab, change or verify these settings.
Format document: Make sure the appropriate Word document is selected from the list of open Word documents.
With output style: Select the appropriate output style to format references. You can experiment by reformatting with various output styles. To add more output styles to the list, see Adding Styles to the Output Styles Menu.
Temporary citation delimiters: These are the opening and closing delimiters for temporary citations. Make sure they are
unique delimiters, and not characters you would normally use in your paper. The defaults are curly braces
Link in-text citations to references in the bibliography: This option is selected by default. Clear the selection to
remove linked in-text citations from the bibliography of your paper in Word.
Underline linked in-text citations: Select this option to add underlines to in-text citations. Clear the check box to remove
underlines from in-text citations in your paper. This option is only available if the "Linked in-text citation to reference in the
bibliography" check box is selected.
3. On the Layout tab, change or verify these settings:
Font and Size: These are the text font and size used for the bibliography.
Bibliography title: To print a title at the top of your bibliography, type the title in this text box.
Text Format: Highlight the bibliography title text and then use the Text Format button to display a dialog where you can
change the format of the highlighted text.
Start with bibliography number: Enter a starting reference number if you want to number your bibliography.
First line indent and Hanging indent: Use these settings to set a paragraph indent, a hanging indent, or no indent at all.
The hanging indent applies to the second and subsequent lines of a reference in the bibliography. Type measurements as
centimeters (cm), inches (in), lines (li), or points (pt).
Line spacing and Space after: Set the Line spacing for within a reference and the Space after for spacing between references.
4. On the Instant Formatting tab, you can Turn On or Turn Off Instant Formatting. See Instant Formatting.
5. Click the Libraries Used tab to see which libraries are referenced in the document. This tab lists the name of the library or
libraries that were used for the formatted citations within the document. If your document is unformatted, the list is empty.
6. Click OK to save changes and format your citations and bibliography.
Note: You do not have to verify each tab every time you format. If all you want to do is change the output style, select Format
Bibliography, select the output style on the Format Bibliography tab, and click OK. Go to the EndNote tab, and select a new style
from the Style menu.
Related Topics
Adding Styles to the Output Styles Menu
Creating a Bibliography from Multiple Documents
Deleting Bibliographies
Directly Editing Bibliographies
Generating Bibliographies
Inserting and Formatting Figures and Tables
Instant Formatting
Moving Bibliographies
Reformatting Papers
Instant Formatting (Microsoft Word)
Instant Formatting works while you write your paper. As you insert citations, EndNote uses the currently selected style to format
citations and update the bibliography. By default, Instant Formatting is enabled the first time you insert a citation or format the bibliography.
To change the style or layout of references, or to change Instant Formatting settings, you can use the Format Bibliography command, which is described in the next section.
For new documents or documents that have never been formatted, when Instant Formatting is enabled, it is not triggered when
you manually type a reference into a document. You must use the the EndNote tab in Word to either insert another citation or format the citations and a reference list. If a document has been successfully formatted, and you manually type in a temporary citation, that citation is instantly formatted.
To use Instant Formatting in Word, smart tags must be enabled (they are turned on by default).
To verify that Smart Tags are enabled:
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Click the Office icon, then Word Options, then Proofing, then AutoCorrect Options. On the Smart Tags tab, select the
Label text with smart tags check box and make sure In-text Citation (CWYW Citation Recognizer)" is selected.
To enable or disable Instant Formatting in the current document:
1. From the EndNote tab, click the bottom corner arrow.
2. Click the Instant Formatting tab.
3. Click Turn On or Turn Off to toggle Instant Formatting.
When enabled, you can click the Settings button to change these Instant Formatting controls:
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Scan for temporary citations turns on scanning of temporary citations. This finds and formats all citations, including those you may have entered manually. You can select how often EndNote scans your document.
n
Check for citation changes turns on background scanning that looks for citation changes.
4. Click OK to save changes to the Instant Formatting settings.
5. Click OK to format all citations and build the bibliography.
When Instant Formatting is enabled, leaving the Format Bibliography dialog - whether you click OK or Cancel - will always trigger
formatting in your document.
Note: To turn Instant Formatting on or off for new Word documents, see General Preferences .
Related Topics
Adding Styles to the Output Styles Menu
Basic Instructions
Creating a Bibliography from Multiple Documents
Deleting Bibliographies
Directly Editing Bibliographies
Formatting the Bibliography and/or Changing Bibliography
Inserting and Formatting Figures and Tables
Moving Bibliographies
Reformatting Papers
Reformatting Papers (Microsoft Word)
Adding New Citations to Formatted Papers
If you add more citations to your paper after the formatting process, you can update the citations and the bibliography by selecting
the Format Bibliography command again. Word: Click Update Citations and Bibliographyor click the corner arrow to bring up the
Format Bibliography dialog.
Note: You do not need to unformat your citations in order to reformat them.
Reformatting with Different Styles
To reformat your paper in a different style:
1. From Word, you can select a new Style in the Bibliography group or click the corner arrow to bring up the Format Bibliography dialog.
2. Select a new style from the Format Bibliography dialog and click OK.
Your citations and bibliography are updated for the new bibliographic style. See Adding Styles to the Output Styles Menu for information about expanding the list of available styles.
Related Topics
Creating a Bibliography from Multiple Documents
Deleting Bibliographies
Directly Editing Bibliographies
Formatting the Bibliography and/or Changing Bibliography
Generating Bibliographies
Inserting and Formatting Figures and Tables
Instant Formatting
Moving Bibliographies
Creating a Bibliography from Multiple Documents
You can use the Microsoft Word Master Document feature to generate a single bibliography from multiple documents. This allows
you to create a cumulative bibliography from any number of book chapters. (As an alternative, we recommend using a single Word
document split into Sections. See Creating Multiple Bibliographies in a Single Document.)
To generate a single bibliography:
1. In each of your documents, or chapters, insert your citations to link them to references in an EndNote library.
2. From the EndNote tab, select Convert to Unformatted Citations.
3. Close all of your documents.
4. Create a new document.
5. Use the Outline view to designate the new document as a master document, then insert and display each of your chapters
as subdocuments. (Check Word’s documentation if you need step-by-step instructions.)
Note: If you have collapsed subdocuments to hide their content in Outline view, make sure you expand them in order to
display the contents of all subdocuments before continuing.
6. From the EndNote tab, in the Bibliography group, click the bottom corner arrow.
Note: Your documents must allow read/write access; they cannot be designated Read-only (locked).
7. Verify the formatting options and click OK.
EndNote creates the bibliography, using citations from the master document and all displayed subdocuments, and places it at the
end of the master document. You can move the bibliography anywhere within the master or subdocuments, and it will remain in
that location even when you reformat.
Note: If you select Word’s Insert > File command, and then select the Link option to insert a document into the text, EndNote will
not format the linked document when you format the main document. The text from the linked document will be skipped.
If you want to format a bibliography for each sub-document plus a cumulative bibliography at the end of the master document, follow the instructions above, but use an output style that allows formatting of Sections. SeeCreating Multiple Bibliographies in a Single Document and Sections for additional information. In the case of a master document, subdocuments are treated as sections.
Related Topics
Adding Styles to the Output Styles Menu
Creating Multiple Bibliographies in a Single Document
Deleting Bibliographies
Directly Editing Bibliographies
Formatting the Bibliography and/or Changing Bibliography
Generating Bibliographies
Inserting and Formatting Figures and Tables
Instant Formatting
Moving Bibliographies
Reformatting Papers
Creating Multiple Bibliographies in a Single Document
By default, EndNote creates a single bibliography at the end of each of your Word documents. However, you may want to create a
separate bibliography for each section (or chapter) in your document. Output style options are available so that you can choose to:
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Create a single, complete bibliography at the end of the document (the default setting for almost all of the supplied output
styles).
n
Create a bibliography for each section in the document.
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Create a bibliography for each section and also a complete bibliography at the end of the document.
Note: These options are ignored by versions of EndNote prior to version X7.
In Microsoft Word, break your document into sections
EndNote can format each section individually. You may want to break each chapter into its own section. In the case of a master
document, subdocuments are treated as sections.
From the Page Layout tab, click on Breaks, and then select one of the four options under Section Breaks: ext Page, Continuous,
Even Page, or Odd Page.
Modify the output style as needed
If you want to use a predefined style that formats sections, try APA 5th (sections) or Chicago 15th B (sections). These styles are
already defined to format a bibliography for each section, and do not require modification.
Otherwise, we recommend that you start by copying an existing output style and giving it a unique name. This leaves the original
style intact. See Copying Styles.
Next, click on the Sections panel in the output style. This is where you select the appropriate option for creating a single bibliography from all sections, a separate bibliography for each section individually, or both. For a complete description of the formatting options for Microsoft Word sections, see Sections.
Save your changes and close the output style.
Format your Word document with the new output style
Format your bibliography as you normally would, but make sure you first select the new output style that you created. See Formatting the Bibliography and/or Changing Bibliography in Word.
Again, you can use the predefined styles APA 5th (sections) or Chicago 15th B (sections). These styles are already defined to format a bibliography for each section.
Additional Formatting Notes
When working with sections in Word, note that:
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EndNote will always insert a blank line between the final text of each section and the reference list for that section.
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When you format a reference list at the end of each section, the bibliography title will be used from the Layout tab of Format
Bibliography. If you do not want a title for each section bibliography, make sure the "Bibliography Title" text box on the Layout tab is empty. See Formatting the Bibliography and/or Changing Bibliography in Word.
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If you have instructed the output style to “Create a bibliography for each section and a complete bibliography at the end of
the document," but you have only one section in the Word document, a complete bibliography will appear twice — once for
the end of the section, and once as a complete bibliography for the entire document.
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If you have multiple sections in your Word document, and switch from formatting with a style that formats sections individually to a style that formats a single, cumulative bibliography...you will see the section bibliographies disappear! If you
want them back, make sure to format with a style that formats sections individually.
Related Topics
Adding Styles to the Output Styles Menu
Creating a Bibliography from Multiple Documents in Word
Deleting Bibliographies
Directly Editing Bibliographies
Formatting the Bibliography and/or Changing Bibliography
Generating Bibliographies
Inserting and Formatting Figures and Tables
Instant Formatting
Moving Bibliographies
Reformatting Papers
Sections
Directly Editing Bibliographies (Microsoft Word)
It is always best to make changes to your final bibliography by correcting the data in the EndNote library, editing the output style
you are using, or adding or deleting citations from your paper. Then, after making the necessary changes, format the bibliography
to automatically make the corrections.
It is not always possible for EndNote to format the bibliography exactly as needed, so you might need to manually edit the formatted bibliography. If you must do this, remember that if you reformat a paper after editing the bibliography, EndNote will not preserve your edits. When EndNote reformats a bibliography, it deletes the existing one and puts a new one in its place.
You can edit the bibliography as you would any text. The bibliography may be shaded, but you can still edit it. If you later reformat
the paper, your edits will be gone.
You can add text after the bibliography, but make sure to put it after the end of the formatted bibliography—outside of the bibliography field.
Note: See Modifying Style Templates.
Related Topics
Adding Styles to the Output Styles Menu
Creating a Bibliography from Multiple Documents
Directly Editing Bibliographies
Formatting the Bibliography and/or Changing Bibliography
Generating Bibliographies
Inserting and Formatting Figures and Tables
Instant Formatting
Moving Bibliographies
Reformatting Papers
Moving Bibliographies (Microsoft Word)
Cite While You Write always creates the initial bibliography at the end of the Word document that it has formatted. If you move the
bibliography to a different location in the document, EndNote keeps it there even if you reformat the paper. You can drag-and-drop
the bibliography, or, if Instant Formatting is disabled, you can Cut and Paste the bibliography.
Note: When Instant Formatting is enabled, use drag-and-drop to move a bibliography. If you try to use Cut and Paste, Instant Formatting will create a new bibliography at the end of the document before you have a chance to Paste.
Related Topics
Deleting Bibliographies
Directly Editing Bibliographies
Generating Bibliographies
Reformatting Papers
Deleting Bibliographies (Microsoft Word)
To delete a bibliography, make sure Instant Formatting is disabled, select the bibliography, and then delete it.
Make sure you drag the cursor across the very beginning of the bibliography to select the entire bibliography field. Press the Backspace or Delete key. You can also Cut the bibliography if you want to paste it somewhere else.
Inserting and Formatting Figures and Tables
Inserting and Formatting Figures and Tables (Microsoft Word)
Once images are organized in an EndNote library, they are available for inserting into a manuscript with Cite While You Write commands. The finishing touch is the automatic creation of a figure list and/or a table list that presents a sequential list of all graphics
inserted in a manuscript.
A figure citation is a brief numbered citation in the body of a paper that refers the reader to a figure at the end of the paragraph or to
a figure in a complete list of figures at the end of the paper.
In-text figure citations are sequentially numbered and formatted like this:
Marrella is a small "arthropod" somewhat reminiscent of a trilobite. This illustration also shows the dark "blob" produced by
body contents which were squeezed out of the animal after burial. (Figure 1)
It includes the word "Figure" (or "Table"), the sequential number, and surrounding parentheses. The field may be shaded by Word
to help you see citations, but shading does not print. You can turn field shading off in Word.
The current output style determines the placement of formatted figures and tables. They appear either within the body of the
paper, directly after the paragraph where they are cited, or in a list at the end of the document, after the bibliography.
See Finding and Inserting Figures and Tables.
Related Topics
Deleting a Figure Citation or Figure List
Figures and Tables Preferences
Finding and Inserting Figures and Tables
Moving Figures and Tables
Notes About Formatting Figures and Tables
Placing Figures and Tables
Updating Figures and Tables
Notes About Formatting Figures and Tables (Microsoft Word)
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Do not use Microsoft Word Captioning in conjunction with EndNote figure captioning or in-text citations.
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Images found in the "Chart or Table" reference type are inserted into word as tables, which are labeled and numbered separately from figures. (You still use the generic Insert Figure and Generate Figure List commands.)
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If you open an existing document that already has figure citations in the body (that were not inserted with EndNote’s Insert
Figure command), those figures will not be included in the figure list. You will need to add the existing figures to references
in EndNote, and then use the Insert Figure command to insert them into the document.
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You can format figures either directly after the paragraph in which they are cited or in a list at the end of the document. See
Figures and Tables in Word.
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The Instant Formatting that applies to bibliographies does not apply to figures. In-text figure citations are always formatted
as you insert them, but if you move or delete a figure citation in your paper, you must select from the EndNote tab, Update
Citations and Bibliography.
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Figure and table captions are added from the Caption field in the EndNote reference.
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If more than one in-text figure citation references the same figure with the same caption, those citations are assigned the
same figure number, and the figure appears only once in a figure list.
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You can manually insert a page break between figures if you prefer each figure on a separate page. These page breaks will
be remembered if you select Generate Figure List (or Update Citations and Bibliographyin Word) again.
Related Topics
Deleting a Figure Citation or Figure List
Figures and Tables Preferences
Finding and Inserting Figures and Tables
Inserting and Formatting Figures and Tables
Moving Figures and Tables
Placing Figures and Tables
Updating Figures and Tables
Finding and Inserting Figures and Tables (Microsoft Word)
You can search EndNote references and insert a graphic or file from the figure field of a reference into your Word document. The
figure field in your references may be titled figure or have a custom name assigned by you.
Note: The file types accepted are dependent on your version of Word and other software installed on your computer. For example, some versions of Word will not accept PDF files.
To insert a graphic or file that is stored in an EndNote reference:
1. Open the EndNote library that contains the figure you wish to insert.
2. In the Word document, position the cursor at the location where you would like the figure citation to appear.
3. From the EndNote tab, select Insert Citation, and then select Insert Figure.
4. In the text box at the top, enter text to identify the reference that contains the figure. EndNote assumes an "and" between
each word, and will search all fields in your records, including the Caption field.
5. Click Find, and EndNote compares the text to text in your EndNote references and lists each matching reference that contains an image.
EndNote displays the Author, Year, Title, and Caption field from each matching reference. Drag the vertical bars between
the column titles to display more or less of a field. The Caption field should contain a description of the figure.
6. Identify, highlight, and insert the appropriate figure.
If no references match your text, you need to modify your search text and click Find again.
EndNote places an in-text figure citation at the cursor location and inserts and labels the figure itself.
Note: Images found in the "Chart or Table" reference type are inserted into word as tables, which are labeled and numbered separately from figures.
The figure or table number represents the order of the image in the document.
EndNote inserts the image itself, along with the caption, immediately after the paragraph that cites it. You can modify the output
style to place figures and tables in lists at the end of the document, after the bibliography. See Figures and Tables.
You can insert figures and tables in an existing manuscript or as you write. Remember to save your document as you work.
Note: The Instant Formatting that applies to bibliographies does not apply to figures. In-text figure citations are always formatted
as you insert them, but if you move or delete a figure citation in your paper, you must select from the EndNote tab, Update Citations and Bibliography.
Related Topics
Deleting a Figure Citation or Figure List
Inserting and Formatting Figures and Tables
Moving Figures and Tables
Notes About Formatting Figures and Tables
Placing Figures and Tables
Updating Figures and Tables
Updating Figures and Tables (Microsoft Word)
In-text figure citations are always formatted as you insert them. By default, they appear directly after the paragraph in which they
are cited. However, you can direct the output style to format tables and figures in lists at the end of the document.
If you move or delete a figure citation in your paper, you must manually generate the figure list to update the figure citation numbering and placement.
From the EndNote tab, select Update Citations and Bibliography.
EndNote will number each figure and table citation sequentially in the Word document, as shown in this example:
This family tree is not a chronological progression. Rather, it illustrates how evolution incorporates traits that evolved for
unrelated reasons into a novel structure. (Table 1)
Marella is a small "arthropod" somewhat reminiscent of a trilobite. This illustration also shows the dark "blob" produced by
body contents which were squeezed out of the animal after burial. (Figure 1)
As researchers look at evidence, even the crest on the modern Cockatiel provides insight into the evolution of feathers. (Figure 2)
EndNote also inserts and displays the actual figures (graphics, figures, tables, charts, equations, or files) and labels them with figure or table numbers (to match each in-text reference) and Caption text from the Caption field in the EndNote reference.
If your figures are listed at the end of the document:
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In a figure or table list, if more than one citation references the same figure with the same caption, those citations are
assigned the same figure number, and the figure appears only once in the list.
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You can continue to add figure citations to the Word document. If you change the position of figure citations in your document (with the Copy and Paste commands), go to the EndNote tab, and select Update Citations and Bibliography to
update figures and tables.
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You can manually insert a page break between figures if you prefer each figure on a separate page. These page breaks will
be remembered if you generate the figure list again. Or, direct the output style to always insert page breaks between figures.
Related Topics
Deleting a Figure Citation or Figure List
Finding and Inserting Figures and Tables
Inserting and Formatting Figures and Tables
Moving Figures and Tables
Notes About Formatting Figures and Tables
Placing Figures and Tables
Placing Figures and Tables (Microsoft Word)
Figures and tables are formatted either after the paragraph where cited or in a list at the end of the manuscript. This placement is
determined by the current output style.
Note: Images from any reference type other than "Chart or Table" are inserted and formatted as Figures. Images from the "Chart
or Table" reference type are inserted and formatted as Tables. Both are inserted with the Insert Figure command. Both are formatted with Generate Figure List (in Word, use Update Citations and Bibliography) .
Automatic Placement by the Output Style
The selected output style determines where figures and tables are initially placed in a document and when you Generate Figure
List or Update Citations and Bibliography.
By default, output styles are set up to place figures and tables immediately after the paragraph in which they are cited. You can
edit individual output styles to place figures and tables either after the paragraph in which they are cited or in a list at the end of the
document.
For information about editing your output style for figure placement, see Figures and Tables. The Figures panel determines the
placement of figures and their captions, the Tables panel determines the placement of tables (images from the "Chart or Table" reference type) and their captions, and the Separation and Punctuation panel determines image separation and punctuation of labels
and captions.
Selecting a Different Output Style
To apply a different output style in Word:
From the EndNote tab, in the Bibliography group, choose a different style or click the bottom corner arrow.
Select an output style on the Format Bibliography tab and click OK. You can select a different output style even if you have no bibliographic citations in your paper. If you do have bibliographic citations, remember that your output style choice affects both bibliographic citations and figure and table citations.
Cite While You Write Override of the Output Style
As you work in your document, you may adjust the placement of actual figures and tables by cutting the pictures and pasting them
elsewhere in the document. Normally, when the figure list is generated again, the output style puts them back in their initial location! You can override the output style, and tell EndNote to leave existing figures and tables where they are currently placed. See
Figures and Tables in Word for information about Cite While You Write preferences that affect Figures and Tables.
Related Topics
Deleting a Figure Citation or Figure List
Finding and Inserting Figures and Tables
Inserting and Formatting Figures and Tables
Moving Figures and Tables
Notes About Formatting Figures and Tables
Updating Figures and Tables
Moving Figures and Tables (Microsoft Word)
Moving In-text Figure and Table Citations
To move or copy a figure or table citation:
1. Highlight the entire citation, including the surrounding parentheses. For example: (Figure 1)
2. Use Copy or Cut from the Edit menu to copy or move the citation to the Clipboard. These commands are found in a Clipboard group. You could also use drag-and-drop to move a figure citation.
3. Move the cursor to the new location.
4. From the Edit menu, Paste the Clipboard contents at the new location.
5. From the EndNote tab, select Update Citations and Bibliography.
The selected output style determines whether figures and tables appear directly after the paragraph where cited or in a list at the
end of the document. To modify this section of your output style, see Figures and Tables.
Moving Individual Figures and Tables
To move an individual figure or table within the text of the manuscript:
1. Cut the figure (or table), including the label and caption, and Paste it in the appropriate position in your manuscript.
2. From the EndNote tab, select Preferences.
3. On the Figures and Tables tab, select the bottom button for custom placement of figures and tables and click OK.
4. From the EndNote tab, select Update Citations and Bibliography.
EndNote will update figure and table numbering, but will not change the position of existing figures and tables.
Note: This custom placement is honored only when the current output style is set up to print figures and tables within the text of
the manuscript. When the output style is set up to list figures and tables in lists at the end of the document, regenerating the figure list will move figures and tables to the appropriate list at the end of the document.
Moving Figure and Table Lists
When an output style is modified to print figures and tables in a list at the end of a document, the lists appear after the bibliography. However, you may want the list to appear elsewhere in your document. Some publishers even require that figures be
provided in a separate file.
To move a figure or table list elsewhere in your document, such as before the bibliography:
1. Highlight the entire list, especially the very beginning of the list which contains a hidden marker.
2. Cut the list to move it to the Clipboard.
3. Move the cursor to the new location.
4. Paste the Clipboard contents at the new location.
Each time you select Generate Figure List (orUpdate Citations and Bibliographyin Word) , EndNote looks for the beginning
marker, so the list will be updated in its current location.
If multiple in-text figure citations reference the same figure with the same caption, those citations are assigned the same figure
number, and the figure appears only once in a figure list.
To provide a figure or table list in a separate file:
1. Finalize your manuscript and figure list.
2. Highlight the entire list, and then use the Copy and Paste commands to paste the list into another Word document.
3. Delete the figure or table list from the manuscript file.
Note: Do not select Generate Figure List or Update Citations and Bibliography again within either document.
Related Topics
Deleting a Figure Citation or Figure List
Finding and Inserting Figures and Tables
Inserting and Formatting Figures and Tables
Notes About Formatting Figures and Tables
Placing Figures and Tables
Updating Figures and Tables
Deleting a Figure Citation or Figure List
To delete a figure or table citation:
1. Highlight the entire citation, including the surrounding parentheses.
2. Press the Backspace or Delete key.
3. From the EndNote tab, select Update Citations and Bibliography.
To delete a figure or table list:
To remove a single figure or table from the list, delete the corresponding in-text figure citation. Then, use Generate Figure List to
generate an updated list at the end of the document. From the EndNote tab, select Update Citations and Bibliography.
If you want to completely remove the figure or table list, first delete all in-text figure citations and update the list with Generate Figure List or Update Citations and Bibliography . Then, to completely remove any mention of a figure or table list, highlight the List of
Figures marker or List of Tables marker and press Delete.
Note: Do not delete the figure (picture) itself from the document. Remove the in-text figure citation and then Generate Figure List
or Update Citations and Bibliography. If you do not remove the in-text citation, regenerating the figure list will use the in-text citation to display the picture again!
Related Topics
Finding and Inserting Figures and Tables
Inserting and Formatting Figures and Tables
Moving Figures and Tables
Notes About Formatting Figures and Tables
Placing Figures and Tables
Updating Figures and Tables
Sharing Your Word Documents
Sharing Your Word Documents
You can directly share your Word files with colleagues. Each formatted citation is surrounded by field codes that contain full reference information (see Traveling Library).
If you want to convert your document for use with a previous version of Word or a different word processor, you should Unformat
Citations before saving in the different file format. Then, you may be able to reformat. The corresponding EndNote library (or
libraries) must be available in order to format.
To send a final, formatted document to someone, you may want to Remove Field Codes to save the formatted citations and bibliography as text.
Of course, if you just want to print a copy of the paper for someone, you do not need to do anything to your document other than
print it!
Note: Cite While You Write codes are directly compatible between Word documents.
Related Topics
Exporting Word's Traveling Library to an EndNote Library
Removing Field Codes
Saving Files for Other Versions of Word and Other Word
Submitting the Final Paper to a Publisher
The Traveling Library
Unformatting Citations
Working on Different Computers
The Traveling Library (Microsoft Word)
Each formatted citation in your Word document is saved with field codes that embed reference data in the document. The paper
contains a "Traveling Library" of references cited.
The first time a citation is formatted, EndNote looks in the open library and finds the corresponding reference. If you later reformat,
EndNote again looks in the open library for that reference. However, if the library is not available or not open, EndNote uses the
Traveling Library for reference information.
Because reference data is kept with each formatted citation, you can collaborate with other authors on a paper without each
author having the same EndNote library.
The reference data saved with each citation includes all fields except Notes, Abstract, and Figure.
Note: Do not unformat your document if you do not have the original references in your libraries. Unlike formatted citations, unformatted citations require that you have the corresponding EndNote libraries open in order to format references.
Related Topics
Exporting Word's Traveling Library to an EndNote Library
Removing Field Codes
Saving Files for Other Versions of Word and Other Word
Sharing Your Word Documents
Submitting the Final Paper to a Publisher
Unformatting Citations
Working on Different Computers
Exporting Word’s Traveling Library to an EndNote Library
There may be occasions where you want to copy all of the references used in a Microsoft Word document to an EndNote library.
Perhaps you received only the formatted Word document from a colleague, and would like to create EndNote references to use
later. Or, you may have a large EndNote library, but want to create a smaller EndNote library with only the subset of references
used in your paper.
Note: The Traveling Library does not contain Notes, Abstracts, Figures, or Captions.
To export references from a Word document to an EndNote library:
1. Open the document in Word.
2. From the EndNote tab, select Export to EndNote, and then select Export Traveling Library.
3. On the Export Traveling Library dialog, select either:
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An existing EndNote library:
Select a library from the drop-down list of available libraries, or click Browse to locate a library.
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A new EndNote library:
You will be prompted to name and save the new library.
Note: We recommend that you export to a new EndNote library, so you can review the records before adding them to an existing
library.
There is an alternate way to copy references from your Word document to an EndNote library. Open both your Word document
and the EndNote library. Then, in EndNote, go to the Tools menu, then the Cite While You Write submenu, and select Import Traveling Library.
Note: When you use the Export/Import Traveling Library commands, the exported references are renumbered and do not retain
their original reference numbers.
Related Topics
Removing Field Codes
Saving Files for Other Versions of Word and Other Word
Sharing Your Word Documents
Submitting the Final Paper to a Publisher
The Traveling Library
Unformatting Citations
Working on Different Computers
Converting Word Citations to EndNote (Word 2007, 2010, 2013)
Word includes a Reference tab, where you can use commands to insert Microsoft Word footnote or endnote citations. These footnote and endnote citations are not used directly by EndNote’s Cite While You Write feature (although you can insert an EndNote
citation within a Word footnote). If you have citations already entered into Word, you can copy the reference information into an
EndNote library and then convert the Word citations into EndNote Cite While You Write citations.
Note: The Word citation conversion features requires that your computer have the Microsoft .Net Framework installed.
To export Word citations to an EndNote library:
1. Open the Word document that contains the citations.
2. From the EndNote tab, select Export to EndNote, and then select Export Word Citations.
To export the Word master citation list to an EndNote library:
1. Open the Word document that contains the citations.
2. From the EndNote tab, select Export to EndNote, and then select Export Word Master List.
To convert Word citations to EndNote citations within the document:
1. Open the Word document that contains the citations.
2. From the EndNote tab, select Convert Citations and Bibliography, and then Convert Word Citations to EndNote.
Working on Different Computers (Microsoft Word)
If you are working on a single paper and moving between different computers, it is best to keep a copy of your reference library
with your paper. That way you will always access the same library when inserting citations. If you separately add references to a
copy of the library at home and to a different version at work, record numbers may not match up correctly and EndNote may have
to rely on the Traveling Library for reference information. That is not necessarily bad, but you want to make sure that any library
edits are reflected in your Word document.
If you are inserting citations on only one machine, it is fine to move the document itself to other machines—as long as you will be
accessing the document with the same version of Word.
Note: If you are collaborating with other authors, you will want to rely on the Traveling Library.
Related Topics
Exporting Word's Traveling Library to an EndNote Library
Removing Field Codes
Saving Files for Other Versions of Word and Other Word Processors
Sharing Your Word Documents
Submitting the Final Paper to a Publisher
The Traveling Library
Unformatting Citations
Saving Files for Other Versions of Word and Other Word Processors
Formatted citations are Word "fields" specific to the version of Word that created them and the other compatible versions (Word
2007, 2010, and 2013 ).
If you open your document with a different version of Word, or use the Save As command to save a formatted copy of your paper
in another format, you may lose the ability to format citations in that document.
If you plan to use your document with a different word processor, a different version of Microsoft Word, or on a Macintosh
machine, you should either Unformat Citations or Remove Field Codes (Convert to Plain Textin ) from the Word file before converting the document to the other file format.
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Unformatting Citations: Unformatted citations are regular text; however, they are temporary placeholders that do not
reflect final output. See Unformatting Citations. You may be able to unformat citations, save the document as an RTF file,
and use Format Paper to format citations from these placeholders.
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Removing Field Codes: When you remove field codes, you save a copy of the document and convert formatted fields to
regular formatted text. Graphics are no longer linked, but are saved as though you had used the Copy and Paste commands. The copy reflects final, formatted output, but you cannot reformat later. See Removing Field Codes.
Note: Cite While You Write codes are directly compatible between Word 2007, 2010, and 2013 . Because reference data is kept
with each formatted citation, you can collaborate with other authors on a paper without each author having the same EndNote
library.
For information about using your Word document with OpenOffice.org Writer, see Moving Documents between Word and Writer .
Related Topics
Exporting Word's Traveling Library to an EndNote Library
Removing Field Codes
Sharing Your Word Documents
Submitting the Final Paper to a Publisher
The Traveling Library
Unformatting Citations
Working on Different Computers
Submitting the Final Paper to a Publisher (Microsoft Word)
Many publishers ask that you submit an electronic copy of your paper in addition to a printed copy. Because the field codes in your
document may be incompatible with the publishing software, you may be asked to submit a copy of your paper without field
codes, as described in Removing Field Codes.
Removing Field Codes
You may need to remove Cite While You Write field codes in order to share your document with a publisher or colleague.
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If your colleague is using the same version of Word that you are, you can share your formatted document as is; the document includes a Traveling Library, which includes all required information for the formatted citations and bibliography.
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If your colleague is using a different word processor or an incompatible version of Word, you could remove field codes to
share your final document. However, removing field codes saves the formatted citations and bibliography as text, and does
not allow reformatting.
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Removing field codes means deleting Word’s Cite While You Write field codes and saving the formatted citations and bibliography as text. This removes only Cite While You Write field codes, and not all other Word field codes.
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When field codes are removed, in-text figure citations are no longer linked to an EndNote reference or to the figure list. Intext figure citations become plain text. Pictures in the figure list become GIF files as though they were copied and pasted
into the document.
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Because EndNote and Cite While You Write cannot reformat or unformat your paper once field codes are removed, the
Remove Field Codes command (Convert to Plain Text in Word) makes a copy of your document without codes.
Note: If you are working with master and subdocuments in Word, the Remove Field Codes or Convert to Plain Text command
warns that it will strip codes from the original documents. You should first manually save copies of the master and subdocuments, and then remove codes from the copies.
To remove field codes and save the formatted citations and bibliography as text:
1. Open your formatted Word document.
If you are working with Master and Subdocuments, work with copies of your documents.
2.
From the EndNote tab, select Convert Citations and Bibliography and then Convert to Plain Text. A copy of the document,
without field codes, appears in a new document window.
3. Click the Office icon and then Save.
4. Single document: In Word’s Save As dialog, type a new name for this copy of your document and click OK.
Master and Subdocuments: You may be advised to save a copy of the master and each subdocument.
Word saves your document without embedded formatting codes, so you can submit your paper to a publisher or share your final
paper with a colleague using a different word processor (including a different version of Word).
Note: The copy does not contain Cite While You Write field codes, so you cannot reformat with Cite While You Write. To reformat, start with the original document, which retains field codes.
If you find that removing EndNote field codes produces undesired layout or other formatting changes to your document, you can
remove all Microsoft Word field codes, which may yield better results.
To remove all Microsoft Word field codes:
1. First save a backup copy of your document, because this will irretrievably remove the links between your document and
your EndNote libraries as well as all other Word field codes.
2. Select all text in the document by pressing Ctrl+A.
3. Press Ctrl +6 to remove all Microsoft Word field codes from the document (not just Cite While You Write codes!) and leave
the text, citations, and bibliography as they appear.
Related Topics
Exporting Word's Traveling Library to an EndNote Library
Saving Files for Other Versions of Word and Other Word
Sharing Your Word Documents
Showing Word Processor Codes
Submitting the Final Paper to a Publisher
The Traveling Library
Unformatting Citations
Working on Different Computers
Manuscript Templates
Using Predefined Manuscript Templates (Microsoft Word)
Many predefined Microsoft Word manuscript templates are supplied with EndNote to ease electronic submissions to publishers.
We provide them as guides to make your writing process easier, but they are not required in order to use Cite While You Write.
Plus, you can use a manuscript template even when you do not plan to use Cite While You Write on that particular document.
When you use one of these templates to start your paper, many formatting issues are already set up for your target publication,
such as proper margins, headings, pagination, line spacing, title page, abstract page, graphics placement, and font type and size.
As with bibliographic formats, there are hundreds of variations between publishers.
See Creating a Word Document Based on a Template.
Related Topics
Creating a Word Document Based on a Template
How to Cite While You Write
Supplying Information to the Template Wizard
The Cite While You Write Commands
Writing Your Paper
Creating a Word Document Based on a Template
You can start a new Microsoft Word document based on predefined templates either from within EndNote or directly from Word.
You can also copy and edit one of the predefined manuscript templates.
From Within EndNote
To create a document based on one of the predefined manuscript templates:
1. Start EndNote.
2. From the Tools menu, select Manuscript Templates.
3. In the File dialog, browse to the Templates folder found in the EndNote folder. (EndNote should automatically select this
location.)
4. Select and open the template named for a particular editorial style guide or the publisher to which you intend to submit your
manuscript.
This opens a new document in Microsoft Word that is based on the template file, and starts a manuscript template wizard
to help you set up your paper.
Note: The first time you launch the manuscript template wizard, you may receive a notice about macros. Accept macros to continue with the wizard.
5. Enter the information requested by the template wizard. See Supplying Information to the Template Wizard.
As you enter information, the wizard places it in all of the appropriate places in the document. The windows that appear,
and the information requested, varies depending upon the publisher.
6. To complete the wizard:
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Click Next to continue providing information. If you do not know how to respond to an information request, click Next to continue with the wizard. You can later enter the appropriate information in the designated, bracketed fields in Word.
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On the final template wizard window, click Finish to close the wizard and start writing!
Note: You can click Finish at any time to bypass the wizard and start working in the document. You will need to manually enter
information that would have been inserted by the wizard. Clicking Cancel will stop the creation of a new document.
The resulting Word document already contains the information you provided to the wizard. To start entering text into the document, look for indicators to guide you. See Writing Your Paper.
From Within Word
To use a manuscript template from within Word:
1. Start Microsoft Word.
2. In the upper left corner, click the Office button and then New.
3. In the Templates list, select My Templates and click on the EndNote tab.
4. Select the template you wish to use, select the radio button to Create New Document, and click OK.
5. The EndNote manuscript template wizard will start, as described earlier, and will lead you through the process of
setting up your paper.
When you complete the wizard, you are ready to start writing!
To edit a manuscript template with Word:
1. Start Microsoft Word.
2. In the upper left corner, click the Office button and then New.
3. In the Templates list, select My templates and click on the EndNote tab.
4. Select the manuscript template you wish to modify, select the radio button to Create New Template, and click
OK. Template filenames end with the extension .DOT.
5. Make changes to the template, and then save a copy of the file with a new name.
Note: Changes to a manuscript template may disable the manuscript wizard for that template.
Related Topics
Supplying Information to the Template Wizard
Using Predefined Manuscript Templates
Writing Your Paper
Supplying Information to the Template Wizard (Microsoft Word)
The EndNote document template wizard asks you to supply information, required by the publisher, which the wizard then places
in your document. If the same information is required in more than one place, you enter it once and the wizard copies it as needed
to the appropriate places and in the appropriate format.
Each publisher maintains its own guidelines, and those guidelines vary greatly. As you follow the wizard, you may be asked for:
Title
Depending on the publisher, you may be asked to provide the full title as well as a short title or running header.
Author Contact Information and Affiliation
Publishers typically require author information on title pages, but they may also require it in acknowledgements or in headers
throughout the document. You should provide information about each contributing author.
Click Add Author to type information about each contributing author. You also have the option to click Address Book to link to an
existing Outlook address book and easily insert existing author information.
Once you add an author name with contact information, it is retained in an Authors on File list to use later. For subsequent papers,
you can select names from the list.
Select the check box next to the corresponding author (the contact person).
Keywords
Almost every publisher requires that you provide keywords for indexing the manuscript. You can either provide your own keywords or the publisher may require MeSH terms (the National Library of Medicine’s Medical Subject Headings).
Sections
The manuscript sections required by the publisher are listed, such as Abstract, Introduction, Acknowledgements, Reference List,
Tables, and Figures. These requirements vary significantly between publishers. The wizard lists the required sections, but you
can select or remove sections as needed.
Note: If you need help on one of the windows, press the F1 button on your keyboard to display a context-sensitive help topic.
Related Topics
Creating a Word Document Based on a Template
Using Predefined Manuscript Templates
Writing Your Paper
PowerPoint
Introduction: Inserting Citations and References in PowerPoint
Use the commands at the top of the PowerPoint ribbon to easily and quickly insert citations and references in your PowerPoint
slides. EndNote formats citations and references based on the rules defined for the selected output style.
We recommend that you select a style from the Output Styles menu before you begin inserting citations and references in your
document. Please remember that selecting a new output style will not update the formatting of citations and references already
inserted into the document.
This feature is compatible with Microsoft PowerPoint versions 2007, 2010, and 2013.
Insert Citation
Select this option to search for and insert citations in your document. Selecting this option opens the Find & Insert
My Citations dialog.
Insert Selected Citation(s)
Select this option to insert selected citations from your open EndNote library. First, open EndNote and select the
needed references from the Library reference list. Return to your PowerPoint presentation and click this button. EndNote inserts the citation for selected reference where you position your cursor.
Insert Reference
Select this option to search for and insert references in your document. Selecting this option opens the Find & Insert
My References dialog.
Insert Selected Reference(s)
Select this option to insert selected references from your open EndNote library. First, open EndNote and select the
needed references from the Library reference list. Return to your PowerPoint presentation and click this button. EndNote inserts the selected references where you position your cursor.
Output Styles Menu
Use this menu to select an output style from the Style menu before you begin inserting citations and references in
your document.
Go to EndNote Command
Select this option to open EndNote if it is not currently open. If EndNote is already open, this option brings EndNote
to the front of the screen.
Related Topics
Insert Citations
Insert Reference
Output Styles
Insert Citations (PowerPoint)
Follow these steps to insert citations in your PowerPoint slides.
1. Open the EndNote library that contain the references that you wish to cite.
2. Start PowerPoint and open the document you are writing.
3. Select a style from the Output Styles menu.
4. Position the cursor in the text where you would like to add the citation.
5. From the EndNote X7 tab, select Insert Citation to display a Find & Insert My References dialog.
6. In the text box, enter your search query. This could be an author’s last name, a year, a keyword, or any other combination
of terms found in the reference.
7. Click Find to display a list of matching references.
8. Select one or more items from the dialog.
9. Use the Insert button triangle to display a menu:
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Insert Button: Click the button to insert the citation and format it as defined by the currently selected output style.
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Insert & Display as: Author (Year): Select this option to display both the author name and the year in the formatted citation.
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Insert & Exclude Author: Select this option to omit the author name from the formatted citation.
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Insert & Exclude Year: Select this option to omit the date from the formatted citation.
The Output Styles menu lists the styles that are currently selected as your "favorites" in the Style Manager. To select a style that
is not in the list, click Select Another Style to display an EndNote Styles dialog.
Insert Selected Citation(s)
1. Open the EndNote library that contains the citation that you wish to insert in your PowerPoint document.
2. Start PowerPoint and open the document you are writing.
3. Select a style from the Output Styles menu.
4. Position the cursor at the location where you would like to add the citations.
5. From the EndNote tab, select Go to EndNote.
6. Highlight the desired citation(s) in your EndNote library.
7. From the EndNote tab, select Insert Citation, and then Insert Selected Citation(s).
Related Topics
Insert Reference
Introduction to PowerPoint
Output Styles
Insert References (PowerPoint)
Follow these steps to insert references in your PowerPoint slides.
1. Open the EndNote library that contains the references that you wish to insert in your PowerPoint slides.
2. Start PowerPoint and open the document you are writing.
3. Select a style from the Output Styles menu.
4. Position the cursor in the text where you would like to add the reference.
5. From the EndNote tab, select Insert Reference to display a Find & Insert My References dialog.
6. In the text box, enter your search query. This could be an author’s last name, a year, a keyword, or any other combination
terms found in the reference.
7. Click Find to display a list of matching references.
8. Select one or more items from the dialog.
9. Use the Insert button triangle to display a menu:
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Insert Button: Click the button to insert the citation and format it as defined by the currently selected output style.
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Insert & Display as: Author (Year): Select this option to display both the author name and the year in the formatted citation.
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Insert & Exclude Author: Select this option to omit the author name from the formatted citation.
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Insert & Exclude Year: Select this option to omit the date from the formatted citation.
10. Click the Insert button to insert the reference and to format it as defined in the currently selected output style that appears
in the Output Styles menu.
11. The Output Styles menu lists the styles that are currently selected as your "favorites" in the Style Manager. To select a
style that is not in the list, click Select Another Style to display an EndNote Styles dialog.
Insert Selected Reference(s)
1. Open the EndNote library that contains the references that you wish to insert in your PowerPoint document.
2. Start PowerPoint and open the document you are writing.
3. Select a style from the Output Styles menu.
4. Position the cursor at the location where you would like to add the references.
5. From the EndNote tab, select Go to EndNote.
6. Highlight the desired reference(s) in your EndNote library.
7. From the EndNote tab, select Insert Citation, and then Insert Selected Citation(s).
Related Topics
Insert Citations
Introduction to PowerPoint
Output Styles
Output Styles (PowerPoint)
An output style determines how EndNote formats information in citations and references in your PowerPoint slides.
We recommend that you select a style from the Output Styles menu before you begin inserting citations and references in your
document. Please remember that selecting a new output style will not update the formatting of citations and references already
inserted into the document.
To select a style that does not appear on the Output Styles menu, choose the Select Another Style option to display the EndNote
Styles dialog. Each style that you select from the dialog displays on the Output Styles menu.
Default Output Styles in PowerPoint
EndNote has eight standard default output styles that appear on the Output Styles menu. They include:
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Annotated
APA 6th
Author-Date
MHRA
Numbered
Show All Fields
Turabian Bibliography
Vancouver
See also The Output Styles Menu
You can change what information to display in citations and references when you select the Insert Citation and Insert Reference
options. For example, you can format your citations and references to:
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Display as Author (Year)
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Exclude Author
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Exclude Year
Adding Styles to the Output Styles Menu in PowerPoint
1. In EndNote, go to the Edit menu, select Output Styles, and then select Open Style Manager.
2. Select the check box of each style that you want to see on the Output Styles menu.
Removing Styles from the Output Styles Menu in PowerPoint
1. Go to the Edit menu, select Output Styles, and then select Open Style Manager.
2. Clear the check box of each style that you want to remove from the Output Styles menu.
Related Topics
Adding Styles to the Output Styles Menu
Insert References
Insert Citations
Introduction to PowerPoint
OpenOffice.org Writer / Cite While You Write
Overview of the Cite While You Write Process (OpenOffice.org Writer)
Use Cite While You Write™ (CWYW) with OpenOffice.org version 3 Writer to easily and quickly cite references and create a
paper with properly formatted citations and a bibliography. Cite While You Write gives you access to EndNote references and formatting commands with an EndNote menu in OpenOffice.org Writer.
You can start by inserting a citation into the document. Then, you can format the citation and a bibliography according to any one
of thousands of styles.
Word Processor Compatibility (OpenOffice.org Writer)
You can Cite While You Write with OpenOffice.org version 3 Writer. OpenOffice.org Writer displays Cite While You Write commands on an EndNote menu.
If you use Microsoft Word as your word processor, see How to Cite While You Write with Microsoft Word.
If you use a word processor other than Microsoft Word or OpenOffice.org Writer, or an older version of these word processors,
save your document as an RTF file and use Format Paper.
To create a stand-alone bibliography that is not based on the citations in a paper, see Independent Bibliographies.
Note: Only one word processor at a time should be open when inserting citations and formatting documents.
How to Cite While You Write with OpenOffice.org Writer
The basic steps required to cite a reference and generate a bibliography with OpenOffice.org version 3 Writer are summarized
below.
To Cite While You Write:
1. Open the EndNote library or libraries that contain the references you wish to cite.
2. Start OpenOffice.org Writer and open the paper you are writing.
3. When you are ready to cite a source, position the cursor in the text where you would like to put the citation.
4. In OpenOffice.org Writer, go to the EndNote menu and select Find Citation(s). A Find Citations dialog appears, which
shows the previous search results.
Note: If this is the first time you have used the Find Citations dialog, it may be completely blank because there are no previous search results to display.
5. In the Find box, enter identifying text for EndNote to locate the appropriate reference. This could be an author’s last name,
a year, a keyword, or any other combination of terms found in the reference.
6. Click Search and EndNote compares the identifying text to your EndNote references and then lists the matching reference(s).
7. Identify, highlight, and Insert the appropriate reference(s).
8. Go back to step 3 to insert the next citation, and continue citing references this way.
Note: Each time you insert a citation it is instantly formatted, and a bibliography is updated at the end of your document.
When you are done inserting citations, your document is done!
9. If your citations are not automatically formatted, and a bibliography is not updated each time you insert a citation, go to the
EndNote menu and select Format Bibliography.
A Format Bibliography dialog appears, where you can change or verify the style and layout of the bibliography. (You can
Format Bibliography at any time in order to change the style or layout of your citations and bibliography.)
Note: The dialog lists the styles that are currently selected as your "favorites" in the Style Manager. If you need to choose
a style that is not in the list, click Browse to locate it.
10. Click OK. EndNote scans your paper and, using the selected style, formats any temporary citations, reformats formatted
citations, and appends a bibliography to the end of your paper.
Your paper is ready for publication!
Setting Cite While You Write Preferences (OpenOffice.org Writer)
To access and set Cite While You Write preferences:
In OpenOffice.org Writer, go to the EndNote X7 menu and select Cite While You Write Preferences.
Open EndNote When Starting OpenOffice.org Writer
Select this item to always open EndNote when you start OpenOffice.org Writer.
Close EndNote When Leaving OpenOffice.org Writer
Select this item to always close EndNote when you leave OpenOffice.org Writer. This works only when the EndNote program
was launched with one of the Cite While You Write commands from within Writer or if the "Open EndNote When Starting Writer"
preference is selected.
For information about other EndNote preferences that directly affect Cite While You Write, see Related EndNote Preferences.
General Preferences (OpenOffice.org Writer)
General preferences are useful when you always use your EndNote library along with your word processor, and you always use
your word processor along with your EndNote library.
To access General preferences in OpenOffice.org Writer, go to the EndNote menu and select Cite While You Write Preferences.
Open EndNote When Starting OpenOffice.org Writer
Select this item to always open EndNote when you start OpenOffice.org Writer.
Close EndNote When Leaving OpenOffice.org Writer
Select this item to always close EndNote when you leave OpenOffice.org Writer. This works only when the EndNote program
was launched with one of the Cite While You Write commands from within OpenOffice.org Writer or if the Open EndNote When
Starting Writer preference is selected.
Notes about OpenOffice.org Writer
Installing Cite While You Write Support (OpenOffice.org Writer)
EndNote’s installation program installs Cite While You Write support for OpenOffice.org version 3 Writer. If you installed the OpenOffice suite after installing EndNote, you must either reinstall EndNote or Repair or Modify your installation. For more information, see No EndNote Commands in Word of Writer.
EndNote commands appear on an EndNote X7 menu in OpenOffice.org Writer.
Cite While You Write Commands (OpenOffice.org Writer)
When Cite While You Write is installed, several EndNote commands appear on an EndNote menu in OpenOffice.org Writer.
When you select an EndNote command from the menu, the EndNote program starts (if not already running).
These are brief descriptions of the Cite While You Write commands found on the EndNote menu in OpenOffice.org Writer:
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Find Citation(s): Search for EndNote references to select and insert as citations in your OpenOffice.org document. See
Finding and Inserting Citations.
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Go To EndNote: Bring EndNote to the front of your screen. This command launches EndNote if it is not already running.
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Format Bibliography: Format (or reformat) your paper according to the rules of the selected style. The formatting process
replaces the temporary citations in your paper with formatted citations, and builds a bibliography at the end of the document. See Formatting the Bibliography.
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Insert Selected Citations: Insert a citation for each reference currently selected in the open EndNote library. You can
insert any number of consecutive in-text citations; however, attempting to insert hundreds of EndNote references at one
time may cause a system slowdown or freezing. See Inserting Selected Citations.
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Edit Citations: Edit existing individual or multiple citations. You can omit author and/or year from citations, or add prefix or
suffix text (such as page numbers) to citations. See Editing Citations.
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Unformat Citation(s): Unformat a selected citation before editing it, or unformat the whole document. This removes style
formatting for the selected citations, and leaves temporary citations which usually consist of the author’s last name, the
year, and the record number surrounded by delimiters. See Unformatting Citations.
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Cite While You Write Preferences: Change general Cite While You Write preferences. See Setting Cite While You
Write Preferences.
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Help: Display help about Cite While You Write features.
You can also use the corresponding EndNote X7 toolbar in OpenOffice.org Writer for easy access. Hold your mouse pointer over
an icon to view a tooltip.
Note: Several Cite While You Write commands also appear on the Tools menu in EndNote. To use these commands from within
EndNote, you must use at least one Cite While You Write command from within OpenOffice.org Writer during the current session.
Troubleshooting: See No EndNote Commands in Word or Writer if commands do not appear in Word or Writer.
Citing Sources as You Write
Forms of Citations (OpenOffice.org Writer)
A "citation" is the brief bibliographic information in the body of a paper that refers the reader to a complete reference in the bibliography. A citation typically consists of a bibliography number or the author and year in parentheses:
... of the species at hand1.
... of the species at hand (Argus, 1991).
Citations can appear as either unformatted or formatted in your OpenOffice.org Writer document.
Unformatted (Temporary) Citations
An unformatted citation is a temporary placeholder, and does not reflect final output. It will appear when you Unformat Citation(s)
or manually enter unformatted citations. It contains information to find a unique, corresponding EndNote reference in the currently
open library.
An unformatted citation typically consists of the first author’s last name, year, and the EndNote record number, with citation delimiters at each end to identify the text:
{Author, Year #Record Number}.
For example:
{Alvarez, 1994 #8}
The unformatted citation makes it easy to identify the record cited. Even if your final goal is numeric citations, you can see meaningful information while you are working on your document.
EndNote relies on these temporary citations to determine which references to include in the bibliography.
Formatted Citations
The Format Bibliography command uses an output style to convert all unformatted citations into formatted citations, and reflects
final output.
Formatted citations include hidden information in case you want to Format Bibliography again later, either after adding more citations or because you want to format in a different style.
Citations formatted in an Author-Date style might look like this:
(Alvarez 1994;
This is the same citation formatted in the Numbered style:
[1,2]
You can easily revert from formatted citations to unformatted citations at any time. See Unformatting Citations.
Finding and Inserting Citations (OpenOffice.org Writer)
You can search for EndNote references and insert them without ever leaving OpenOffice.org Writer.
This is the easiest way to find and insert a citation into an OpenOffice.org Writer document:
1. Open the EndNote libraries that contain the references you wish to cite.
2. Open the OpenOffice.org Writer document and position the cursor at the location where you would like the citation.
3. From the EndNote X7 menu, select Find Citation(s) to display the Find Citations dialog.
4. In the "Find" text box, enter text to identify the reference you wish to cite. EndNote assumes an "and" between each word,
and will search all fields in your records.
5. Click Search, and EndNote compares the text to text in your EndNote references and lists the matching reference(s).
6. Identify, highlight, and Insert the appropriate reference(s).If no references match your text, you need to modify your search
text and click Search again.
Citations are inserted directly into your paper in the same font as the surrounding text. Once a citation is inserted, it contains reference information in hidden codes.
You can insert citations in an existing manuscript or as you write. Remember to save your document as you work.
To format your citations and generate a bibliography, see Formatting the Bibliography.
Inserting Selected Citations (OpenOffice.org Writer)
To insert references selected in EndNote:
1. Open the OpenOffice.org Writer document and position the cursor at the location where you would like the citation.
2. Go to the EndNote X7 menu and select Go to EndNote.
3. Highlight the desired reference(s) in your EndNote library.
4. Switch back to the OpenOffice.org Writer document.
5. From the EndNote menu, select Insert Selected Citation(s).
Finding and Inserting from Highlighted Text (OpenOffice.org Writer)
To find and insert a citation from highlighted text:
1. As you are typing, enter text to identify the reference you wish to cite, and highlight that text.
2. From the EndNote X7 menu, select Find Citation(s) to display the Find Citations dialog.
EndNote inserts your highlighted text into the Find box. Use the Find Citation(s) dialog as described in Finding and Inserting Citations.
Using Drag-and-Drop or Copy and Paste (OpenOffice.org Writer)
You can drag selected citations from your EndNote library and drop them into your paper at the desired location for the citation.
You can also copy citations from the EndNote Library window and paste them into the document (using Copy from EndNote’s Edit
menu and then Paste from the OpenOffice.org clipboard).
Inserting Multiple Citations (OpenOffice.org Writer)
There are several ways to insert multiple references in one in-text citation. When formatted, they appear as one multiple citation,
sorted as your bibliographic style requires:
Unformatted: {Hall, 1988 #77; Baker, 1988 #16}
Formatted: (Baker, 1988; Hall, 1988)
You can insert any number of consecutive in-text citations; however, attempting to insert hundreds of EndNote references at one
time may cause a system slowdown or freezing.
Note: If one of the citations in a multiple citation is not matched during formatting, the entire citation remains unformatted.
To insert multiple citations from within OpenOffice.org Writer:
1. From the EndNote X7 menu, select Find Citation(s).
2. Enter a generic search term that will find the references you want, and click Search.
3. Hold down the Ctrl key while clicking on the desired references in the list (or hold down the Shift key to select a continuous
range of references) in order to highlight the references.
4. Click Insert.
To insert multiple selected citations from EndNote:
1. In EndNote, hold down the Ctrl key while clicking on the desired references in your library (or hold down the Shift key to
select a continuous range of references).
2. Switch back to the OpenOffice.org Writer document.
3. From the EndNote X7 menu, select Insert Selected Citation(s).
To insert multiple citations individually:
Another option is to insert citations individually, but immediately next to each other. Cite While You Write merges adjacent citations during formatting. Citations do not merge if any character separates them–including a space or punctuation mark.
Unformatted: {Hall,1988 #77}{Baker, 1988 #16}
Merged when Formatted: (Baker, 1988; Hall, 1988)
Note: You can add citations to an existing in-text citation, or change the order of citations within the delimiters with the Edit Citations dialog.
To insert, remove, or edit citations within an existing in-text citation:
1. Click on the formatted citation.
2. In OpenOffice.org Writer, go to the EndNote X7 menu and then Edit Citation(s) to display the EndNote Edit Citation dialog.
All of the cited references in the document are listed in the left column of the dialog. An ellipses shows where a citation
appears within text. The line below shows the cited reference(s)
3. Highlight a citation, and then:
a. Click Remove to delete it.
b. Click Insert to insert another citation within the same set of delimiters.
c. Use the arrow buttons to change the order of the citation in a multiple citation. (If a Citation Sort Order is applied by the current output style, changing the order of citations in a multiple citation has no effect.)
You can use the other features on this dialog as described in Customizing Individual Citations.
Inserting From Multiple Libraries (OpenOffice.org Writer)
You can cite references from multiple libraries. Simply open the selected libraries before you begin inserting citations.
If possible, though, we recommend that you use a single library when writing a paper. Keeping all of your references in one library
simplifies the writing process because you know exactly where to find each reference, there is little likelihood of duplicate references, and you only need to have one library open when inserting citations.
Note: If you plan to insert citations from more than one library into a paper, read about the Merge Duplicates in Bibliography preference.
Customizing Individual Citations (OpenOffice.org Writer)
There may be cases where you want individual citations to differ from the standard format. You may want to remove the year or
author from a citation if either was mentioned in the context of the sentence. Or, you might want to add a page reference or comment before or after the citation.
For example, assume a formatted citation looks like this:
Hall’s discovery (Hall, 1988)
You can omit the author’s name from the citation:
Hall’s discovery (1988)
You can omit the date from the citation:
the 1988 discovery (Hall)
You can add a suffix with page number to the citation:
the discovery (Hall, 1988 p.4)
You can add a prefix to the citation:
the discovery (see Hall, 1988)
To customize a formatted citation:
1. Insert and format the citation.
2. Click on the formatted citation.
3. From the EndNote menu, select Edit Citation(s) to display the EndNote Edit Citation dialog.All of the cited references in the document are listed in the left column of the dialog. An ellipses shows where a citation appears
within text. The line below shows the cited reference(s).
4. Highlight the citation you want to customize.
5. Customize as needed:
Exclude Author: Select this to omit the author name from the formatted citation.
Exclude Year: Select this to omit the date from the formatted citation.
Prefix: Enter text here to print immediately before the citation text (spaces are significant).
Suffix: Enter text here to print after the citation text (spaces are significant). You can enter page numbers here if
you always want them to print after the citation.
Pages: Page numbers entered here are considered entered into a "Cited Pages" field, so they can be manipulated on output just like any other EndNote field. In order to print, the Cited Pages field must be listed in the citation template and/or footnote template of your output style. This is typically used to print the page numbers within
a full footnote citation. Most EndNote styles that require a special format for citations in footnotes are already
configured this way. You can modify the Citation Template in your output style to include Cited Pages.
6. Click OK to implement the change(s) to the citation.
Inserting Citations into a Formatted Paper (OpenOffice.org Writer)
If you need to add one or more citations to a paper that has already been formatted, insert the new citations into the text (as
described earlier in this chapter) and select Format Bibliography when you are ready to update the bibliography and citations.
To add a new reference to an existing citation, insert the new reference next to (not within) the existing citation, like this:
(Hockney and Ellis, 1996){Argus, 1984 #1}
Adjacent citations are merged during formatting, and the formatted citations are sorted according to the style:
(Argus, 1984; Hockney and Ellis, 1996)
Note: Do not insert a citation into the middle of a formatted citation. Insert it immediately before or after the existing citation, with
no space between them.
Citing References in Footnotes and Endnotes (OpenOffice.org Writer)
Once you have created a footnote or endnote in OpenOffice.org Writer, you can cite references in that footnote or endnote just like
you cite them in the body of the document.
To cite a reference in a footnote or endnote:
1. Use the appropriate command in OpenOffice.org Writer to create the footnote or endnote. (EndNote does not create the
footnote or endnote in the document, but is used to insert and format citations in the note.)
2. Position the cursor in the footnote or endnote where you would like the citation(s) to appear.
3. Insert the citation as you normally would.
The EndNote style that is selected when you choose Format Bibliography determines how citations in footnotes and endnotes are
formatted. EndNote can format these citations as brief in-text citations or like complete references in the bibliography. It can also
create a special format specific to footnotes or endnotes, including options like "Ibid." and other variations of shortened references when a citation appears more than once in the footnotes or endnotes. See Bibliography and Footnote Templates.
If you are citing full references in footnotes, you can include specific page numbers to be formatted like a regular EndNote field.
See Customizing Individual Citations. Or, if you are manually typing citations, see Citing Specific Page Numbers in Footnotes.
Changing Existing Citations
Typing Citations into Your Paper (OpenOffice.org Writer)
Manually entering citations is the same whether you are using Cite While You Write with OpenOffice.org Writer, or Cite While You
Write with Microsoft Word, or Format Paper with an RTF file. See these topics:
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Notes About Temporary Citations
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Components of a Temporary Citation
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Omitting Authors or Years from Citations
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Citation Prefixes
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Citation Suffixes
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Including Semicolons & Other Citation Delimiters in a Citation
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Examples of Modified Citations
Editing Citations (OpenOffice.org Writer)
Once you have inserted and formatted a citation, you should not edit it directly (although you can do so, if you feel you must).
Direct edits are lost the next time EndNote formats the bibliography.
You can almost always get EndNote to format your citations exactly to your specifications by editing the style, the EndNote reference, or the citation (as described here).
Note: An easy way to omit the Author or Date from an individual citation is to select the citation, right-click with your mouse,
select Edit Citation(s) and then Exclude Author or Exclude Year.
To safely edit a formatted citation:
1. Click on the citation you wish to change.
2. From the EndNote menu, select Edit Citation(s) to display the EndNote Edit Citation dialog.All of the cited references in the document are listed in the left column of the dialog. An ellipses shows where a citation appears
within text. The line below shows the cited references.
3. Select the appropriate citation from the list at the left of the dialog (you can scroll through all citations in the document) and make any of the following changes to the highlighted citation:
Exclude Author: Select this to omit the author name from the formatted citation.
Exclude Year: Select this to omit the date from the formatted citation.
Prefix: Enter text here to print immediately before the citation text (spaces are significant).
Suffix: Enter text here to print after the citation text (spaces are significant).
Pages: Enter page numbers here to print as Cited Pages. To print, the Cited Pages field must be listed in the
citation template or footnote template of the output style.
4. You can add or remove citations from a multiple citation, or change the order of citations.
Insert: Use this to add another citation within the same set of delimiters.
Remove: Highlight a citation and click Remove to delete it from the in-text citation.
Up and Down Arrows: Highlight a reference and use the arrows to change the order of display. (If a Citation
Sort Order is applied by the current output style, using this dialog to change the order of citations in a multiple
citation has no effect.)
5. Click OK to implement your change(s).
After making changes, select Format Bibliography to (re)format the new or modified citations and regenerate the bibliography.
Unformatting Citations (OpenOffice.org Writer)
Unformatting reverts formatted citations to temporary citations and removes the bibliography.
If your citations are formatted in a numbered style, you can unformat your paper to easily identify citations as you work. You can
Format Bibliography again later.
Note: You must have the corresponding EndNote library open in order to format the paper again.
To unformat citations:
1. Determine which citations you want to unformat:
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To unformat a particular citation, highlight only that citation.
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If the citation you want to unformat is part of a multiple citation, highlight the multiple citation. All citations within the delimiters will be unformatted.
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To unformat a section of the document, highlight that section.
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To unformat the entire document, either select nothing or highlight the entire document.
2. From the EndNote X7 menu, select Unformat Citation(s).If you are unformatting the entire document, this unformats all of
the in-text citations and removes the current bibliography.
You can tell when a paper is unformatted because the citations appear in the temporary citation format (such as "{Smith, 1999
#25}").
Unformatted citations are temporary placeholders that do not reflect final output. You can format the paper again at any time.
Note: To format your paper again, go the EndNote X7 menu and select Format Bibliography.
Moving or Copying Citations (OpenOffice.org Writer)
You can highlight any text that includes citations, then use the Clipboard commands to Cut or Copy and then Paste it elsewhere
in the document. You can do this with formatted or temporary (unformatted) citations.
To move or copy only the citation itself, make sure you highlight the entire citation (including any surrounding delimiters) as well
as an extra character before and after the citation. Including the characters before and after the citation ensures that you include
the hidden bookmark associated with the citation. (If the hidden bookmark is not part of the selection, you will copy plain text, and
not an EndNote citation.) Then Cut or Copy and Paste it elsewhere in the document.
Deleting Citations (OpenOffice.org Writer)
To delete an unformatted citation, highlight the entire citation (including delimiters), and press the Backspace or Delete key.
While it is possible to highlight a formatted citation and press the Delete key on your keyboard, we do not recommend you do that.
If you do not completely delete the citation and its associated bookmark, you could corrupt your document.
To safely delete a formatted citation:
1. In OpenOffice.org Writer, highlight the citation you want to delete.
2. From the EndNote X7 menu, select Edit Citation(s) to display the EndNote Edit Citation dialog.
Note: All of the cited references in the document are listed in the left column of the dialog. An ellipses shows where a citation
appears within text. The line below shows the cited reference(s). The citation you highlighted in the document should be highlighted in the list.
3. In the left column, make sure the highlighted citation is the one you want to delete. If the citation is part of a multiple citation,
make sure you select just the citation you want to delete.
4. Click Remove.
5. Click OK.
Generating Bibliographies
Generating Bibliographies (OpenOffice.org Writer)
Formatting a bibliography serves two functions:
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It formats each in-text citation according to the selected bibliographic style.
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It adds a complete bibliography to the document (unless you override this with a setting in the output style).
The format used for citations and references is determined by the output style selected.
When you have finished writing your paper, and all of your EndNote citations have been inserted into the text, you are ready for
EndNote to format the paper and generate a bibliography. This can be done in one of these ways:
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Instant Formatting actually works as you insert citations, and is enabled when you first start using Cite While You Write.
EndNote uses the currently selected style to format citations and update the bibliography each time a citation is inserted.
However, if you want to change the style or layout of references, you can use the Format Bibliography command.
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Format Bibliography allows you to modify bibliography preferences such as style and layout before formatting your document.
From the EndNote menu, select Format Bibliography.
These are the basic formatting instructions:
1. In OpenOffice.org Writer, go to the EndNote X7 menu and select Format Bibliography.
2. On the Format Bibliography tab, use the "With output style" option to select an output style to format references.
3. Click OK to format all citations and build the bibliography.
Formatting the Bibliography and/or Changing Bibliography Settings (OpenOffice.org
Writer)
You may be halfway through inserting citations, or you may have finished writing your paper. As long as you have citations
entered in your document, you can format your paper at any time. You can reformat after adding more citations or to change the
style or layout settings.
Note: Each time a citation is formatted, the corresponding EndNote library must be open.
To format citations and generate a bibliography:
1. In OpenOffice.org Writer, go to the EndNote X7 menu and select Format Bibliography.
2. On the Format Bibliography tab, change or verify these settings
With output style: Select the appropriate output style to format references. You can experiment by reformatting with various output styles. To add more output styles to the list, see Adding Styles to the Output Styles Menu.
Temporary citation delimiters: These are the opening and closing delimiters for temporary citations. Make sure they are
unique delimiters, and not characters you would normally use in your paper. The defaults are curly braces.
Link in-text citations to references in the bibliography: This option is selected by default. Clear the selection to
remove linked in-text citations from the bibliography of your paper.
Underline linked in-text citations: Select this option to add underlines to in-text citations. Clear the check box to remove
underlines from in-text citations in your paper. This option is only available if the "Linked in-text citation to reference in the
bibliography" check box is selected.
3. On the Layout tab, change or verify these settings:
Font and Size: These are the text font and size used for the bibliography.
Bibliography title: To print a title at the top of your bibliography, type the title in this text box.
Text Format: Highlight the bibliography title text and then use the Text Format button to display a dialog where you can
change the format of the highlighted text.
Start with bibliography number: Enter a starting reference number if you want to number your bibliography.
4. Click OK to save changes and format your citations and bibliography.
Note: You do not have to verify each tab every time you format. If all you want to do is change the output style, select Format
Bibliography, select the output style on the Format Bibliography tab, and click OK.
Reformatting Papers (OpenOffice.org Writer)
Adding New Citations to Formatted Papers
If you add more citations to your paper after the formatting process, you can update the citations and the bibliography by selecting
the Format Bibliography command again.
Note: You do not need to unformat your citations in order to reformat them.
Reformatting with Different Styles
To reformat your paper in a different style:
1. In OpenOffice.org Writer, go to the EndNote X7 menu and select Format Bibliography again.
2. Select a new style from the Format Bibliography dialog and click OK.
Your citations and bibliography are updated for the new bibliographic style. See Adding Styles to the Output Styles Menu for information about expanding the list of available styles.
Creating a Bibliography from Multiple Documents (OpenOffice.org Writer)
You can use the OpenOffice.org Writer Master Document feature to generate a single bibliography from multiple documents. This
allows you to create a cumulative bibliography from any number of book chapters.
To generate a single bibliography:
1. In each of your documents, or chapters, insert your citations to link them to references in an EndNote library.
2. In each document, go to the EndNote X7menu and select Unformat Citations to unformat all of the citations in the document.
3. Close all of your documents.
4. Create a File > New > Master document.
5. Insert and display each of your chapters as subdocuments. (Check the OpenOffice.org Writer help documentation if you
need step-by-step instructions.)
Note: If you have collapsed subdocuments to hide their content in Outline view, make sure you expand them in order to
display the contents of all subdocuments before continuing.
6. From the EndNote X7 menu, select Format Bibliography.
Note: Your documents must allow read/write access; they cannot be designated Read-only (locked).
7. Verify the formatting options and click OK.
EndNote creates the bibliography, using citations from the master document and all displayed subdocuments, and places it at the
end of the master document. You can move the bibliography anywhere within the master or subdocuments, and it will remain in
that location even when you reformat.
Note: If you select Writer's Insert > File command and select the "Link" option to insert a document into the text, EndNote will
not format the linked document when you format the main document. The text from the linked document will be skipped.
Directly Editing Bibliographies (OpenOffice.org Writer)
It is always best to make changes to your final bibliography by correcting the data in the EndNote library, editing the output style
you are using, or adding or deleting citations from your paper. Then, after making the necessary changes, format the bibliography
to automatically make the corrections.
It is not always possible for EndNote to format the bibliography exactly as needed, so you might need to manually edit the formatted bibliography. If you must do this, remember that if you reformat a paper after editing the bibliography, EndNote will not preserve your edits. When EndNote reformats a bibliography, it deletes the existing one and puts a new one in its place.
You can edit the bibliography as you would any text. The bibliography may be shaded, but you can still edit it. If you later reformat
the paper, your edits will be gone.
You can add text after the bibliography, but make sure to put it well after the end of the formatted bibliography—outside of the bibliography field.
See Modifying Style Templates for more information.
Moving Bibliographies (OpenOffice.org Writer)
Cite While You Write always creates the initial bibliography at the end of the OpenOffice.org Writer document that it has formatted. We recommend that you leave the bibliography at the end of the document, but realize that is not always possible. Below
are some options for moving the bibliography to a different location in your paper.
Note: Please back up your document before you begin!
Add Text After the Bibliography
You may want to add text after the bibliography. You can do this, but make sure you are well beyond the end of the bookmarked
bibliography field. If you add text to the bibliography field, it will disappear the next time you generate a bibliography.
Copy and Paste the Bibliography
You can copy and paste the bibliography, but it gets tricky! First, highlight the entire bibliography field—but make sure you include
the two paragraph markers before the start of the bibliography (or the two paragraph markers before the bibliography title, if you
have included one), plus the complete bibliography, plus the paragraph marker after the bibliography. Then, Cut the bibliography
and Paste it in the new location.
Note: If you have not selected the complete, bookmarked bibliography field, you will have copied and pasted plain text. The text
in the new location will never get updated, and the bibliography in the old location will change as you update citations or reformat
the bibliography.
Once you have moved the complete, bookmarked bibliography field to a different location in the document, EndNote keeps it there
even when you reformat the paper.
Deleting Bibliographies (OpenOffice.org Writer)
To delete a bibliography, select the bibliography and then delete it.
Make sure you drag the cursor from the line above the bibliography to the end of the bibliography in order to select the entire bibliography field. Press the Backspace or Delete key. You can also cut the bibliography if you want to paste it somewhere else.
Making Changes to the EndNote Library
Editing a Reference in the Library (OpenOffice.org Writer)
You may insert a citation into an OpenOffice.org Writer document, and then later edit the corresponding reference in EndNote. Are
those changes reflected in your Writer document?
Your citations and bibliography will reflect the edits the next time you reformat the paper with the EndNote library open. Open your
document, open your EndNote library, and select Format Bibliography from the EndNote X7menu in OpenOffice.org Writer. EndNote will not be able to make the update if the library is not open during formatting.
Note: The author’s last name and the publication year are both used to identify a reference, so changes to these items in an EndNote reference are not reflected in the in-text citation. Cite While You Write will no longer identify a match between the citation
and the reference.
Deleting a Reference from the Library (OpenOffice.org Writer)
The first time a citation is formatted, EndNote uses information from the unformatted citation to look in the open library and find
the corresponding reference. If you later reformat, EndNote again looks in the library for that reference.
If you have deleted the corresponding reference from the EndNote library, EndNote will not be able to find the reference information for formatting.
If you add the reference to the library again, it will be assigned a different record number. You would need to re-insert the citation
with OpenOffice.org Writer.
Record Numbers
EndNote assigns a unique record number to each reference as it is added to your library. These record numbers appear in temporary citations to ensure that the correct reference is used when the paper is formatted:
{Argus, 1991 #11}
The record number for a reference is also visible in the title bar of the Reference window.
Note that:
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EndNote automatically assigns a record number sequentially to each reference as it is added to a library.
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If the same reference appears in two different libraries, the record numbers will most likely be different.
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Record numbers are never reused or reassigned within a library. When you delete a reference, the corresponding record
number is never used again in that library.
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You cannot modify or reassign record numbers.
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We recommend that you not rely on EndNote’s record numbers as a means of filing or numbering your office reprints,
because you have no control over this number. Instead, enter your own unique number into the Label field, or any Custom
field, and use that number for your reprints.
If you add the reference to the library again, it will be assigned a new, different record number, so EndNote still will not be able to
find it when formatting your paper. You will need to reinsert the citation into the paper using the new reference in your library.
Sharing Your Writer Documents
Sharing Your Writer Documents (OpenOffice.org Writer)
You can directly share your OpenOffice.org .ODT files with colleagues.
If you want to convert your document for use with a previous version of Writer or a different word processor, you should Unformat
Citations before saving in the different file format. Then, you may be able to reformat. The corresponding EndNote library (or
libraries) must be available in order to format.
Of course, if you just want to print a copy of the paper for someone, you do not need to do anything to your document other than
print it!
Working on Different Computers (OpenOffice.org Writer)
If you are working on a single paper and moving between different computers, it is best to keep a copy of your reference library
with your paper. That way you will always access the same library when inserting citations. If you separately add references to a
copy of the library at home and to a different version at work, record numbers may not match up correctly. You want to make sure
that any library edits are reflected in your Word document.
If you are inserting citations on only one machine, it is fine to move the document itself to other machines—as long as you will be
accessing the document with the same version of Writer.
You cannot format citations in your OpenOffice.org Writer document unless the associated EndNote library is available.
Saving Files for Other Versions of Writer and Other Word Processors
If you open your document with a different version of Writer, or use the Save As command to save a formatted copy of your paper
in another format, you may lose the ability to format citations in that document.
If you plan to use your document with a different word processor, a different version of OpenOffice.org Writer, you should Unformat Citations before converting the document to the other file format.
Unformatted citations are regular text; however, they are temporary placeholders that do not reflect final output. See Unformatting
Citations.
You can unformat citations and then save the document as a Microsoft Word file, as an older version Writer ODT file, or as an
RTF file. For Word files, use Cite While You Write for Microsoft Word to reformat the paper. For older ODT files or RTF files, use
Format Paper to format citations from these placeholders.
Moving Documents between Microsoft Word and Writer
You can convert your Microsoft Word documents for OpenOffice.org Writer and vice versa. Always start by making a backup of
the original document!
With the original word processor, make sure you first unformat citations, then save the document, and then close the word processor. Then, open the file with the other word processor. You must have the associated EndNote library available and open in
order to format the citations and bibliography.
Note: If you have both Microsoft Word and OpenOffice.org Writer open, the Cite While You Write commands available within
EndNote are active for the word processor that was launched first.
There are several Cite While You Write functions that are available only in Microsoft Word, and not in OpenOffice.org Writer.
These include:
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using the template wizard
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inserting notes
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inserting figures and tables
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constant background instant formatting
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creating multiple bibliographies in a single document with sections
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using a traveling library (rather than always having the library available and open)
RTF Files / Scanning and Formatting
Word Processor Compatibility (Format Paper)
You can create formatted citations and bibliographies for your papers without using Cite While You Write™ for Microsoft® Wordor
OpenOffice.org Writer . Use Format Paper to cite references and create bibliographies for documents that can be saved as RTF,
including documents created with:
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Microsoft® Word
WordPerfect®
OpenOffice.org™ Writer
StarOffice™ StarWriter
Microsoft® Works
WordPad
Almost any application that can save as RTF (Rich Text Format)
Note: EndNote uses Unicode to appropriately display diacritics and other extended characters. If these characters do not display correctly when you format EndNote citations and references in your word processor document, it may be because your word
processor lacks Unicode support. Please refer to your word processor's documentation.
To format references and create a bibliography (Cite While You Write) with Microsoft Word , see How to Cite While You Write
with Microsoft Word.
To format references and create a bibliography (Cite While You Write) with OpenOffice.org Writer, see How to Cite While You
Write with OpenOffice.org Writer .
While you can use the Format Paper feature to format Word files saved as RTF or OpenOffice documents with the extension
ODT, it is much easier and more efficient to use Cite While You Write.
To create a stand-alone bibliography that is not based on the citations in a paper, see Independent Bibliographies.
For up-to-date requirements and compatibility information, see our Web site at http://www.endnote.com.
Basic Instructions (Format Paper)
This topic describes how to create formatted citations and bibliographies for your papers without using Cite While You Write™ for
Microsoft® Word or OpenOffice.org Writer .
The basic steps required to cite references in a paper and "format" that paper using EndNote are covered here. More details about
how to switch between programs and various tips for citing references are described in the sections following these basic instructions.
Citing references is a straight-forward process of copying temporary citations from EndNote and pasting them into your word processing document. While writing a paper in your word processor, you can have EndNote running in the background so that it’s easy
to switch between the two programs when you need to cite a source. Although you can enter the EndNote temporary citations into
a paper at any time, most writers find it convenient to enter the citations as they are writing the paper instead of waiting to insert
them after the text is written.
Note: The Format Paper command works on RTF documents or OpenOffice.org Writer documents. You create your paper and
insert citations with your word processor. You can scan OpenOffice.org Writer documents directly. When you are ready to scan
and format citations for other document types, you must first save a copy of your paper as RTF, and then scan that copy of the
paper..
To practice using the Format Paper feature, you can follow this procedure using one of the example documents found in the EndNote X7\Examples folder. We recommend experimenting with the Sample_RichText.RTF or Sample_OpenDocType.ODT file
along with the Sample_Library_X7.
To cite a reference in a paper:
1. Start your word processor and open the paper you are writing.
As an example, you can locate and open Sample_RichText.RTF found in the EndNote X7\Examplesfolder. If you use OpenOffice.org Writer, you can use Sample_OpenDocType.ODT as an example.
2. When you are ready to cite a source, position the cursor in the text where you would like to put the citation.
...a commonly documented phenomena |.
3. Start EndNote and open your library (if it is not already open). See Opening a Library if you need help with this step.
4. Select the reference(s) in your EndNote library that you want to cite. Press the Ctrl key while clicking on the references to
select multiple references; press the Shift key to select a range of references.
5. Select Copy (Ctrl+C) from the Edit menu, then return to your word processor and Paste (Ctrl+V) the temporary citation into
the text of your document.
OR
Drag-and-drop the selected citations into your paper.
The pasted citation appears in EndNote’s temporary format: first author’s last name, year of publication, and record
number, all enclosed in curly braces:
{Morehouse, 1993 #125}
If multiple references were selected, their citations appear together within one set of delimiters in the order in which
they are listed in the Library window.
{Hall, 1999 #90; Baker, 1988 #38}
This citation is not the final citation, but rather a temporary citation that will be formatted later. The number in the
temporary citation is not a bibliography number but a unique record number. When you format this paper, EndNote
builds a bibliography based on the temporary citations that it finds in the paper, and reformats them according to the
selected style.
Continue following steps 2-5 to insert citations as you write your paper.
To save your document:
6. When you have finished adding citations, select Save from your word processor’s File menu to save all changes to your
document.
7. If the file you created is not an OpenOffice.org Writer document or an RTF document, save a copy of the file as RTF. From
the File menu, select Save As. In the file dialog, set the type of file as RTF. RTF retains most styles and formatting.
8. Close your document by selecting Close from the File menu. You can leave your word processor running.
To generate the bibliography:
1. Return to EndNote.
2. Navigate the file dialog to locate and select the RTF document or ODT document. The next time you select Format Paper you
will see your recently used files listed for easy access.
3. Check the Citations window to make sure that EndNote was able to find matching references for all of the citations.
During the scanning process, EndNote locates temporary citations in the paper, and searches the library to find references that
match each of the citations. When scanning is complete, EndNote displays the Citations window. The Citations window lists
the citations found in the paper together with the number of matching references in the open libraries.
The citations in the Citations window appear in the order they are cited in the paper. If a reference is cited more than once in a
paper, it is listed more than once in this window; however the reference will appear only once in the bibliography.
Every citation listed in the Citations window should have a "1" next to it in the Matches column, meaning that EndNote found
exactly one reference in the library to match the citation in the paper. When all of the citations in the window have a "1" next to
them, you are ready to go on to the next step of formatting a paper. If a "0" or a number greater than one appears in the Matches
column, you may need to resolve mismatched citations.
4. Select a style from the Output Styles menu on the Citation window. Enter a starting bibliography number if you wish.
The individual styles listed are the styles that are currently selected as your "favorites" in the Style Manager. If you need to
choose a style that is not in the list, choose Select Another Style to open the Style Manager. Mark your favorite styles there,
and start this step again. See Adding Styles to the Output Styles Menu.
5. Click Format to have EndNote create a copy of your paper complete with formatted citations and a bibliography.
6. You are then prompted to name and save the formatted copy of the paper.
EndNote automatically adds the name of the output style to your existing filename. You can change the name of the formatted
document if necessary by typing a new name in the text box. You can also use the "Save in:" list at the top of the window to
change the location where EndNote saves the file. By default EndNote saves the formatted file in the same location as the
unformatted file.
Important! Never save the formatted paper with the same name as the original unformatted document. You must have the
unformatted document if you ever want to format the paper again.
While EndNote is formatting, the cursor changes to a wait cursor. When the formatting has finished, the cursor returns to an
arrow and the Citations window remains open. Now that EndNote has generated a formatted copy of the paper, you can open
that paper in your word processor.
7. Switch to your word processor (see Switching Between EndNote and a Word Processor).
8. Select Open from the word processor’s File menu, and then select and open the formatted version of the paper. Remember that
you want to open the file that has the name of the style appended to the file name.
In the formatted paper, EndNote has replaced the temporary citations with formatted citations and inserted a bibliography. The
paper is ready to be printed and submitted!
Making Changes to the Paper
If you need to make changes to the paper (such as change a citation, add more text, or change the bibliographic style), you should
edit the original unformatted document, and then format it again. EndNote will generate a new formatted copy of the paper. See
Reformatting a Paper.
Related Topics
Citing References in Footnotes
Multiple References in One Citation
Switching Between EndNote and a Word Processor
Temporary vs. Formatted Citations
The Citations Window
Typing Citations into Your Paper
Word Processor Compatibility
Tips on Citing Sources
Temporary vs. Formatted Citations
A "citation" is the bibliographic information in the body of a paper that refers the reader to a complete reference in the bibliography.
Normally a citation consists of a bibliography number or the author and year in parentheses:
... of the species at hand1.
... of the species at hand (Argus, 1991).
When you first copy an EndNote citation and paste it into your paper, it appears in EndNote’s temporary citation format. This format consists of the first author’s last name, year, and the EndNote record number, with citation delimiters at each end.
{Author, Year #Record Number}
When EndNote formats this paper it replaces the temporary citations with formatted citations.
Temporary Citation: {Argus, 1991 #11}
Formatted Citation (in APA): (Argus & Matthews, 1991)
EndNote relies on the temporary citations to determine which references to include in the bibliography. During formatting, EndNote scans your word processing document for temporary citations, finds their matching references in the EndNote library, and
creates a duplicate of your document complete with "formatted" in-text citations and a bibliography at the end. This new document
is called your "formatted" paper.
Note: By default, citation delimiters are curly braces. If you have other text within curly braces, you may want to change your
citation delimiters.
Switching Between EndNote and a Word Processor
With your EndNote library and word processing document both open, you can switch between the two files without closing either
program.
To run both programs simultaneously in Windows:
1. Start EndNote by clicking the Windows Start button in the task bar, then select Programs, select EndNote, and pick EndNote Program. EndNote starts and prompts you to open your library. (To set a library to open automatically, see Setting a
Default Library.
2. You can start your word processor in a similar fashion by clicking the Start button, selecting Program Files, and selecting
the option for your word processor.
3. Once you have EndNote and your word processor running, you can switch between the two programs by clicking the task
bar button along the bottom of the screen for the program you wish to use.
You can also press Alt+Tab to switch between the programs. If you are running more than just EndNote and your word processor, keep the Alt key pressed, and press the Tab key repeatedly to cycle through all open programs. When you see the
name of the program you want, release both keys.
Multiple References in One Citation
If you need multiple references in one in-text citation, you can accomplish this in one of two ways. One option is to insert all of the
citations together:
To insert multiple citations:
1. Hold down the Ctrl key while clicking on the desired references in your library (or hold down the Shift key to select a continuous range of references).
2. From the Edit menu, select Copy.
3. Position the cursor in your word processing document where you want the citations, and select Paste from the Edit menu.
The citations are inserted together in one set of delimiters. Once formatted, they appear in one multiple citation, sorted as your bibliographic style requires:
Unformatted: {Hall, 1999 #90; Baker, 1988 #38}
Formatted: (Baker, 1988; Hall, 1999)
The other option is to add the citations to the paper individually. EndNote merges adjacent citations automatically during the formatting process. Citations do not merge, however, if any character, including spaces or punctuation, separates them.
Unformatted: {Hall, 1999 #90}{Baker, 1988 #38}
Merged when Formatted: (Baker, 1988; Hall, 1999)
Note: If one of the citations in a multiple citation cannot be matched during formatting, the entire citation will remain unformatted.
Related Topics
Basic Instructions (Format Paper)
Citing References in Footnotes
Record Numbers
Switching Between EndNote and a Word Processor
Temporary vs. Formatted Citations
The Citations Window
Typing Citations into Your Paper
Word Processor Compatibility
Citing References in Footnotes (Format Paper)
Once you have created a footnote or an endnote in your word processing document, you can cite references in the footnotes or
endnotes just like you cite them in the body of the text.
To cite references in footnotes:
1. In your EndNote library, select the reference(s) that you would like to cite and select Copy from the Edit menu.
2. Create the footnote or endnote using the appropriate command in your word processor. EndNote does not actually create
the footnote or endnote in the document, but it is used to insert and format the citations in the notes.
3. Position the cursor in the footnote or endnote in your paper where you would like the citation(s) to appear and select Paste
from the Edit menu.
Note: You can edit a full reference footnote citation to exclude author name, year, or author/year. Note that the Author(Year)
option does not apply to footnotes.
The EndNote style that is selected when you select Format Bibliography determines how the citations in the footnotes or endnotes will be formatted. EndNote can format these citations as brief in-text citations or like the complete references in the bibliography. It can also create a special format specific to footnotes or endnotes, including options like " Ibid." and other variations
of shortened references when a citation appears more than once in the footnotes or endnotes.
Related Topics:
The Citations Window
Typing Citations into Your Paper
Word Processor Compatibility
Typing Citations into Your Paper (RTF Files)
Manually entering citations is the same whether you are using Format Paper with an RTF file or Cite While You Write with Microsoft Word. See these topics:
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Notes About Temporary Citations
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Components of a Temporary Citation
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Omitting Authors or Years from Citations
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Citation Prefixes
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Citation Suffixes
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Including Semicolons & Other Citation Delimiters in a Citation
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Examples of Modified Citations
Record Numbers (Format Paper)
EndNote assigns a unique record number to each reference as it is added to your library. These record numbers appear in the temporary citations to ensure that the correct reference is used when the paper is formatted:
{Argus, 1991 #31}
The record number for a reference is also visible in the title bar of the Reference window.
You may also see record numbers in the Library window by selecting Record Numbers as one of the display fields for the Library
window. See Display Fields .
Because these record numbers are so important, keep the following points in mind:
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We recommend that you do not rely on EndNote’s record numbers as a means of filing or numbering your office reprints,
because you have no control over this number, and it is subject to change under certain conditions (read on). Instead, enter
your own unique number into the Label field, or any Custom field, and use that number for your reprints.
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EndNote automatically assigns a record number sequentially to each reference as it is added to a library.
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If the same reference appears in two different libraries, the record numbers will most likely be different.
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The record numbers are never reused or reassigned within a library. If you delete a reference, that number is never used again
in that library.
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You cannot modify or reassign record numbers.
Deleting References in the Library
If you delete a reference from your library after you have cited it in a paper, EndNote will not be able to find it when it tries to format
that paper. If you add the reference to the library again, it will be assigned a new, different record number, so EndNote still will not
be able to find it when formatting your paper. You will need to reinsert the citation into the paper using the new reference in your
library.
Related Topics
Basic Instructions (Format Paper)
Multiple References in One Citation
Switching Between EndNote and a Word Processor
Temporary vs. Formatted Citations
The Citations Window
Typing Citations into Your Paper
Word Processor Compatibility
Formatting Citations and Creating Bibliographies
The Citations Window (Format Paper)
The Citation Matches window opens in the EndNote program after you format a paper (or if the formatting process is canceled). It
lists all of the citations found in a document, in the order in which they appear in the paper.
In the Citations window, EndNote brings special attention to unmatched and ambiguous citations. You can choose from the check
box options to show only the Matched Citations, Unmatched Citations, or Ambiguous Citations.
The Citations window lists all of the citations found in the document and displays the number of matching references for each citation.
If any number other than a 1 appears in the Matches column, the corresponding citation will be left unformatted in the document
and will not be included in the bibliography EndNote generates.
Ambiguous Citations (Matches Greater than 1)
A number greater than 1 indicates that multiple references in the currently open library (or libraries) match the citation and EndNote does not know which reference to use. (EndNote automatically checks the matching references to see if any are duplicates.
If so, they are not listed as separate possible matches.) To see which references are considered matches, highlight the citation in
the Citations window and click Lookup. Reinsert the correct citation into the paper.
Unmatched Citations (A "Zero" Match)
A zero in the Matches column indicates that there is no matching reference in any open library for that particular citation. The
Author, Year, and Record Number (if used in the temporary citation) must all match the Author, Year, and Record Number of a reference in the library in order for EndNote to consider it a match.
If text in your document is surrounded by citation delimiters (such as "{sic}), EndNote will treat the text as a mismatched citation.
You can ignore the warning about it being a mismatched citation, and EndNote will leave the text as it was before formatting. (You
could also change the Citation Delimiters.)
Uncheck the Unmatched Citations box at the top of the Citations window to hide these items from view if you have numerous sections of bracketed text in your document and the corresponding unmatched citations are just cluttering the Citations window.
Correcting Mismatched Citations
Mismatched citations must be corrected either in the word processing document or in the EndNote library—whichever contains
the incorrect information. Normally, the easiest way to fix a mismatched citation is to search the word processing document for
the mismatched citation (use the Find command in your word processor’s Edit menu), delete it, and then reinsert the citation from
the library.
If there is a citation for which EndNote lists multiple matches, you can highlight the citation in the Citations window and click
Lookup. EndNote displays the matching references in the Library window. You may then select the appropriate reference and reinsert it into the paper. Mismatches of this type are only possible when the record number has been omitted from the temporary citation in the text.
After you have corrected the mismatched citations and saved your changes to the paper, Format again. (The Citations window is
still available after formatting if you want to see the list of citations.)
The best way to avoid citation mismatches:
n
Keep all of your references in one main library.
n
Copy and paste your citations from EndNote to your word processing documents instead of typing them.
Related Topics
Basic Instructions (Format Paper)
Citing References in Footnotes
Multiple References in One Citation
Switching Between EndNote and a Word Processor
Temporary vs. Formatted Citations
The Citations Window
Typing Citations into Your Paper
Word Processor Compatibility
Bibliographic Styles (Format Paper)
The bibliographic style determines how EndNote formats the citations in your paper and the references in the bibliography. The
style takes care of all text styles, punctuation, and sorting required for the citations and bibliography, as well as which fields are
included in the bibliography.
Select a style on the Citations window after selecting Format Paper. You can always run Format Paper to select a different style
and reformat your unformatted (original) RTF document at any point.
The EndNote Styles collection includes more than 1900 styles, all of which can be modified to meet your specifications. You can
also create completely new styles if necessary.
See also
n
Adding Styles to the Output Styles Menu
n
What is an Output Style?
n
Previewing Formatted References (or Styles)
Related Topics
Basic Instructions (Format Paper)
Copying Formatted References
Creating One Bibliography From Several Papers
Finding EndNote References for Editing
Modifying References in Your Library
Reformatting a Paper
Rescanning the Paper
Specifying the Starting Number of a Bibliography
The Citations Window
Previewing Formatted References (or Styles)
The Preview panel in the Library window displays how the currently selected reference will be formatted in the bibliography by the
current style. This Preview panel shows only one reference at a time.
To preview how multiple references will appear in a bibliography:
1. Select the references in the Library window.
2. From the Edit menu, select Output Styles and select the style that you would like to use.
3. From the Edit menu, select Copy Formatted (Ctrl+K) .
4. Use the Windows Clipboard Viewer to view the contents of the Clipboard or Paste the formatted references into a word
processor document.
Reformatting a Paper
Since EndNote creates a copy of the paper during the formatting process, you can always reformat the original document, if necessary, to create a new document with the changes that you need.
Reformatting with Different Styles
The appearance of both the in-text citations and the bibliography in the formatted paper is determined by the selected style. If you
need to create a copy of your paper in a different style than what you did originally:
1. From the Tools menu in EndNote, select Format Paper > Format Paper. Open the original unformatted copy of your paper
(the one with the EndNote citations surrounded by curly braces or brackets).
2. On the Citations window, select a new output style from the Output Style drop-down list. You can select one of the "favorite" styles currently in the list or choose Select Another Style to pick a style from the 4,500+ styles shipped with EndNote.
3. If the Citations window shows that all the citations in the paper are correctly matched, click the Format button.
4. EndNote will prompt you to name and save the new formatted copy of the paper. Notice that the style name is included as
part of the new paper’s name. That will help you distinguish between various copies of one paper (perhaps formatted to be
submitted to different journals).
When you open the new formatted copy of your paper, you should see that your citations and bibliography use the new bibliographic format.
Important: When you need to make changes in your paper, remember to work only with the unformatted copy of the paper (the
one with the bracketed temporary citations), rather than the formatted copy that EndNote created.
Adding New Citations to Formatted Papers
If you have already formatted your paper, and you see that it needs to be edited by either adding or removing citations, you must
return to the original, unformatted copy of the document (the one with EndNote’s "temporary citations"). Open that document in
your word processor. Add, modify or delete citations as necessary, and then save the paper as RTF. You may now format the
paper (as described above) to create an updated copy of it.
Creating One Bibliography From Several Papers
EndNote can format a series of separate word processing documents and put a cumulative bibliography at the end of the last one.
This is useful if you are collaborating with other EndNote users and you have each written a separate part of the paper or if you
have separated a lengthy paper into different chapters.
To create one bibliography from several papers:
1. From the Tools menu, select Format Paper > Format Paper to open and scan the first paper.
2. A Scan Next button appears on the Citations window . (The Format Paper command on the menu changes to Scan Next).
Click Scan Next in the window or select it from the menu, to open each of the subsequent papers in the correct order. Each
paper’s citations will be added to the list of citations in the Citations window.
3. When the last paper has been scanned, select an output style on the Citations window and click Format.
During the formatting process, EndNote makes a formatted copy of each paper and puts a cumulative bibliography at the end of
the last paper. Only the last paper in the series will include the bibliography. By default, each formatted paper retains its original
name with the style name incorporated into it; however, you have the option to change the names.
Related Topics
Adding Styles to the Output Styles Menu
Basic Instructions (Format Paper)
Copying Formatted References
Finding EndNote References for Editing
Modifying References in Your Library
Reformatting a Paper
Rescanning the Paper
Specifying the Starting Number of a Bibliography
The Citations Window
Specifying the Starting Number of a Bibliography (Format Paper)
When you select Format Paper to display a Citations window, EndNote includes an output style list to confirm or change the style
that should be used to format the paper. It also gives you the option to change the starting number for your citations and bibliography.
If you would like EndNote’s numbering to start with a number other than "1" for the document that you are formatting, enter that
number here. This setting is ignored if you are formatting the paper with a style that does not create numbered references in the
bibliography.
Copying Formatted References
There may be times when you want to insert a fully formatted reference into the body or footnotes of your paper without having to
format an entire document.
To insert a fully formatted reference:
1. Select a style from the list of styles on the Main toolbar.
2. Select the reference(s) in the Library window.
3. Select Copy Formatted from EndNote’s Edit menu.
4. Switch to your word processing document, position the cursor in the text, and select Paste from the Edit menu.
If your word processor supports drag-and-drop, you may also drag the references and drop them on your paper with the Ctrl key
pressed. This produces the same results as using the Copy Formatted command.
Multiple references are sorted according to the rules of the selected style. Fonts and character styles are transferred if you are
pasting into a program that interprets styled text or Rich Text Format (RTF) information on the Clipboard.
Related Topics
Adding Styles to the Output Styles Menu
Basic Instructions (Format Paper)
Creating One Bibliography From Several Papers
Finding EndNote References for Editing
Modifying References in Your Library
Reformatting a Paper
Rescanning the Paper
Specifying the Starting Number of a Bibliography
The Citations Window
Word Processor Compatibility
Rescanning the Paper
If there is a problem with your citation matches after selecting Format Paper, leave the Citations window open and switch to your
word processor to make the necessary changes. After saving your changes, close your document and switch back to EndNote.
On the Citations window, click Rescan Paper.
EndNote then updates the information in the Citations window to reflect the recent changes made to the paper. If the paper was
modified and saved since it was last scanned, EndNote prompts you to rescan the paper before formatting.
Managing Your EndNote Library
Modifying References in Your Library
If you add or change a reference in your library while the Citations window is open, make sure you click Rescan to have those
changes reflected in the Citations window and in the formatted paper.
For example, if you typed the citation {Geoffery, 1988} into your paper but forgot to enter the reference in the library, EndNote
would list a 0 in the Matches column for that citation on the Citations window. You can leave the Citations window open and enter
the Geoffery reference into your library. Bring the Citations window forward and use the Rescan button to recheck the library for
matching references. This should change the "0" match to a "1."
Related Topics
Basic Instructions (Format Paper)
Bibliographic Styles
Copying Formatted References
Creating One Bibliography From Several Papers
Finding and Labeling References Used in a Paper
Finding EndNote References for Editing
Formatting with Multiple Libraries
Reformatting a Paper
The Citations Window
Working on Different Computers
Finding EndNote References for Editing (Format Paper)
In the Citations window, you can select any number of matching references and then click Lookup to search and display those references in EndNote’s Library window. You can open each record for viewing or editing. If you edit a reference, make sure you Rescan your paper to reflect the changes.
Formatting with Multiple Libraries
Although EndNote can format papers using references from more than one library, we do not recommend that you use multiple
libraries when writing a paper. Keeping all of your references together in one library simplifies the writing process because you
know exactly where to find each reference, and you only need to have the one library open when formatting.
If you are collaborating with other authors on a document, however, using multiple libraries for a paper may be a useful and necessary thing to do.
If citations have been inserted into one document from multiple libraries, all of the necessary libraries must be opened in order for
EndNote to format the paper correctly.
Note: Read about the Merge Duplicates in Bibliography preference if you plan to insert citations from more than one library into a
paper.
Related Topics
Basic Instructions (Format Paper)
Bibliographic Styles
Copying Formatted References
Creating One Bibliography From Several Papers
Finding and Labeling References Used in a Paper
Finding EndNote References for Editing
Modifying References in Your Library
Reformatting a Paper
The Citations Window
Working on Different Computers
Finding and Labeling References Used in a Paper
The Citation Matches window appears when you format a word processing document. It lists all of the citations found in a document, and displays the number of matching citations found in the currently open libraries.
The Citations window is visible in the EndNote program after the formatting is finished or if the formatting process is canceled. (If
there are problems during formatting, consult the Citations window. This information can help you resolve problems.)
Double-click citations in the Citations window to find the matching references in your EndNote library.
To locate all of the references in a library that were cited in a paper:
1. After formatting your paper, select all of the citations listed in the Citations window by choosing Select All> from the Edit
menu.
2. Double-click to display the list of references in the Library window.
To add a keyword to all of these references for your own filing purposes:
1. Select Change Field from the References menu.
2. Select Keywords (or any other field you would like to use from the field popup menu.
3. Enter the term or phrase you want to use to identify these references, and click Change.
Related Topics
Basic Instructions (Format Paper)
Bibliographic Styles
Copying Formatted References
Creating One Bibliography From Several Papers
Finding EndNote References for Editing
Formatting with Multiple Libraries
Modifying References in Your Library
Reformatting a Paper
The Citations Window
Working on Different Computers
Working on Different Computers
If you are working on a paper on different computers, be sure to keep a copy of your reference library on the same disk as your
paper. That way, you will always access the same library when inserting citations. If you add references to a copy of the library at
home and to a different version at work, the record numbers may not match, and EndNote will be unable to find references when it
scans your paper.
Independent Bibliographies
Introduction to Independent Bibliographies
There may be times when you want to create a bibliography without an associated paper. We call this an "independent bibliography" because EndNote does not generate the bibliography based on citations found in a paper—instead, the bibliography is
generated independently of a paper.
Any one of the procedures described in this chapter can be used to create an independent bibliography. Each has its own advantages, so look for the option that best suits your needs:
n
Drag-and-drop to instantly transfer a bibliography to a word processing document
n
Copy formatted references from a library and paste them into a word processing document
n
Export references from a library as RTF, Text Only, HTML, or XML
n
Preview and/or Print references from EndNote
Styles Determine the Look of the Bibliography
The appearance of your independent bibliography depends entirely on which EndNote style is selected from the Output Styles submenu of the Edit menu (or the drop-down style list on the Main toolbar). The styles determine what information is included in the
bibliography, how it is arranged, and what punctuation and text styles are used.
Select a style that meets your needs before exporting, printing or formatting references. If you do not see the style that you need
in the Output Styles submenu of the Edit menu, select Open Style Manager from the Output Styles submenu, and mark the styles
that you need. Once the styles are marked as "favorites" in the Style Manager, they will show up in your styles menus. For more
information, see Adding Styles to the Output Styles Menu. For information about modifying styles, see Modifying Style
Templates.
Using Drag-and-Drop to Create an Instant Bibliography
"Drag-and-drop" is a way of moving or copying selected text (or other items) by clicking on the text and dragging it to a new location. Simply release the mouse button when the cursor is over the destination, and the text will either be moved or copied to the
new destination.
If your word processor supports drag-and-drop, you can drag a bibliography from an EndNote Library window directly into your
paper.
To drag your bibliography:
1. Open your library and select the desired references.
2. Select the necessary style from the Output Style submenu of EndNote’s Edit menu.
3. Hold down the Ctrl key as you drag the references from the library and drop them directly onto a word processing document
in the background.
This creates a fully formatted bibliography with the references formatted and sorted according to the selected style. The font used
for the bibliography in this case is the "General Display Font." You can change this font by selecting Preferences from the EndNote
Edit menu, selecting Display Fonts, and selecting a new font and size under the General Display Font heading. All text style information (such as bold and italic) is retained if you "drop" the bibliography into a program that recognizes RTF (Rich Text
Format) text.
If your word processor does not support drag-and-drop, read about the Copy Formatted command.
Note: Dragging with the Ctrl key pressed transfers the formatted references to the word processing document. If you do not hold
down the Ctrl key, only the temporary citation is transferred. Use this latter method to cite references in your paper.
Related Topics
Copy Formatted
Exporting References
Independent Bibliographies
Copy Formatted
Use the Copy Formatted command to quickly create and copy a bibliography that you can paste into a word processing document. The references are sorted and formatted according to the rules of the selected style.
The font used for the Copy Formatted command is the "General Display Font" which can be changed by selecting Preferences
from the Edit menu, selecting Display Fonts, and selecting a new font and size under the General Display Font heading. All text
style information (such as bold and italic) is retained if you paste into a program that recognizes RTF (Rich Text Format) or styled
text.
To copy formatted references from EndNote and paste them into a word processing document:
1. On the toolbar, go to the Output Style list and select the necessary style.
2. Select the desired references in the Library window.
3. From the Edit menu, select Copy Formatted (Ctrl+K) to copy the references to the Clipboard.
4. Open a document in your word processor, and select Paste (Ctrl+V) from the word processor’s Edit menu.
Exporting References
Exporting References
Exporting bibliographies from EndNote is easy and flexible. When you export from a library, EndNote creates a file of references
formatted according to the chosen style.
You can export either all of the references in the current references list, or only the selected (highlighted) references in the current
list. If any references in the Library window are selected, the EndNote export dialog gives you the option of exporting just those
selected references.
To export a bibliography from EndNote:
1. Open the library from which you will export, and show the references you want to export.
n
To export all of the references in the library, click the All References group or select Show All References
from the References menu.
n
To export a subset of references, display a group or use the Search Library, Hide Selected References, or
Show Selected References> commands to show the subset of references you want to include. You can further limit the list of references to export by highlighting just those references in the current list.
2. (Optional) References will be exported in the order specified by the selected output style. If you want to change
the sort order, you must modify the output style:
n
From the Edit menu, select Output Styles, and then Open Style Manager.
n
Select the output style and click Edit.
n
In the left panel of the window, under Bibliography, select Sort Order.
n
Change the current sort order in the right panel. If you want to export references in the order in which they are
listed in the current Library window, select Order of appearance.
n
Close the output style and the style manager.
3. From the File menu, select Export.
4. From the Save File as Type list at the bottom of the dialog, select the type of file to be exported.
5. From the Output style list at the bottom of the dialog, select a style (or choose Select another style to choose
from all available output styles).
6. Select the Export Selected References option if desired. If you want to export all of the references in the current
list, clear the check box.
7. Enter a name for the exported file and use the Save Inlist to specify where it should be saved and use the triangle
button to allow you to browse to the appropriate folder and specify where the file should be saved.
Note: The Export feature creates a new file; it does not append to an existing file. If you enter the name of a file that
already exists, that file will be overwritten.
8. Click Save. (It is best to keep the assigned file extensions as part of the exported file name.)
9. Open the exported file in a word processor to edit or print it. At this point, the file is just like any other text document. You can change the font, margins, line spacing, or other page layout features if necessary. (If you use the
Open command in your word processor, make sure that the open file dialog is set to show files with the correct
extension.)
If you exported the references in HTML format, your exported reference list is ready to be posted directly to your
web site. In your Web browser, set encoding to "Unicode- UTF 8 to appropriately display extended Unicode characters.
Note: The Export command exports only text; images are not included.
Supported Formats (Exporting)
Use the Export command to create a free-standing bibliography in any of the following formats:
n
Text File
The Text File export option is suitable for draft purposes or exporting references to be imported into another database.
n
RTF (Rich Text Format)
The RTF export is an ideal way to create a free-standing bibliography that can be edited or printed using a word processor.
This format can be opened by all popular word processors and preserves font and text style information.
n
HTML
Documents exported in HTML (HyperText Markup Language) provide an easy way to post reference lists on the World Wide
Web.
In your Web browser, set encoding to " Unicode-UTF 8" to appropriately display extended Unicode characters in the exported
document.
n
XML
The XML option exports in a proprietary EndNote XML format.
Note: The Export command exports only text; images are not included. However, if you import the references back into an EndNote library, you can restore images by copying the figure files from the original library’s .DATA folder into the .DATA folder for
the new library.
Related Topics
Copy Formatted
Exporting References
Including Notes, Abstracts, and Other Information
Independent Bibliographies
Using Drag-and-Drop to Create an Instant Bibliography
Printing and Previewing References
Printing and Previewing References
To print references directly from EndNote, go to the File menu, and then select Print ( Ctrl+P) to send a copy to your printer. Or,
select Print Preview to format references onscreen. These are quick ways to view your formatted references on paper or
onscreen—no special page layout options are provided. Typical uses might include trying out various output styles, printing a list
of references to take to the library with you, printing your notes, or generating a complete printout of the references in an EndNote
library.
Important Points (Printing)
The currently active (topmost) window affects which references are printed with the Print command:
n
If a Library window is displayed, you can print either the selected (highlighted) references or all references showing in the
list.
n
If an individual reference is open for viewing, EndNote prints only that specific reference–as displayed on the screen with
field labels. No output style is applied.
n
The Sort References command unselects any selected references, so use the Show Selected References command if necessary before sorting to retain the subset of references you selected.
In addition to the selected style, the appearance of the printed references is determined by the following items:
n
References will be printed in the order specified by the selected output style. If you want to change the sort order, you must
modify the output style. If you want to export references in the order in which they are listed in the current Library window,
change the output style's sort order setting to Order of appearance.
n
Each printed page has 1-inch margins, left-justified text, and a header that displays the library name in the upper left corner
and the page number in the upper right corner. There are no options to customize the margins, headers or footers of the
printouts. Use one of the other options for creating an independent bibliography if you need to modify these aspects of your
printout.
n
The font and size of the printed references are determined by the General Display Font, if that font is a True Type font;
otherwise a font substitution will be made. Select Preferences from the Edit menu, and click the Display Fonts option to
change the font and size if necessary. The double "T" to the left of the font name indicates a True Type font.
n
Select Page Setup from the File menu to specify other printing options including the paper size and page orientation. Page
setup options vary depending on the printer used.
Related Topics
Previewing References
Printing and Previewing References
Printing Instructions
Printing Instructions
To print a list of references directly from EndNote:
1. Make sure that all of the references you want to print are either selected (highlighted) or showing in the Library window.
2. From the Edit menu, go to the Output Styles submenu and select a style.
3. (Optional) References will be printed in the order specified by the selected output style. If you want to change the sort
order, you must modify the output style:
a. From the Edit menu, select Output Styles, and then Open Style Manager.
b. Select the output style and click Edit.
c. In the left panel of the window, under Bibliography, select Sort Order.
d. Change the current sort order in the right panel. If you want to print references in the order in which they are
listed in the current Library window, select Order of appearance.
e. Close the output style and the style manager.
4. From the File menu, select Print (Ctrl+P).
In the print dialog, specify the number of copies and the range of pages to print. By default, EndNote prints only the selected references. To print all of the references showing in the Library window, change the print range option to All. Turn the "Print
Selected References" option off. Depending on your printer software, you might need to select EndNote from the popup list in
the dialog in order to see the "Print Selected References" option. If no references are selected, this option is not available.
5. Click Print to print the references.
Related Topics
Important Points (Printing)
Previewing References
Printing Only the Notes
Previewing References
To preview a list of references onscreen:
1. Make sure that the references you want to print are listed in the Library window.
You can select individual references and then select Show Selected References from the References menu.
2. If you would like to further limit the references to print, select (highlight) those references.
3. From the Edit menu, go to the Output Styles submenu and select a style.
4. (Optional) References will be displayed in the order specified by the selected output style. If you want to change the sort
order, you must modify the output style:
n
From the Edit menu, select Output Styles, and then Open Style Manager.
n
Select the output style and click Edit.
n
In the left panel of the window, under Bibliography, select Sort Order.
n
Change the current sort order in the right panel. If you want to print references in the order in which they are
listed in the current Library window, select Order of appearance.
n
Close the output style and the style manager.
5. From the File menu, select Print Preview.
From the onscreen preview, you can click Print to send a copy to your printer.
Related Topics
Important Points (Printing)
Including Notes, Abstracts, and Other Information in a Reference List
Independent Bibliographies
Printing and Previewing References
Printing Instructions
Printing Only the Notes
Including Notes, Abstracts, Etc.
Including Notes, Abstracts, and Other Information in a Reference List
Most of the styles included with EndNote produce standard bibliographies without including additional information such as notes
or abstracts. Two of EndNote's standard styles are the Annotated style and the Show All Fields style. The Annotated style
includes the Abstract field after each reference, and the Show All Fields style