INSTRUCTION MANUAL IMUX 2000 8-Port T1/E1 DACS

INSTRUCTION MANUAL IMUX 2000 8-Port T1/E1 DACS
RFL Electronics Inc.
INSTRUCTION MANUAL
IMUX 2000
8-Port T1/E1 DACS
WITH
REDUNDANT CAPABILITY
NOTICE
The information in this manual is proprietary and confidential to RFL Electronics Inc.
Any reproduction or distribution of this manual, in whole or part, is expressly
prohibited, unless written permission is given by RFL Electronics Inc.
This manual has been compiled and checked for accuracy. The information in this
manual does not constitute a warranty of performance. RFL Electronics Inc. reserves
the right to revise this manual and make changes to its contents from time to time. We
assume no liability for losses incurred as a result of out-of-date or incorrect information
contained in this manual.
Publication Number MC 2000DACS8P
Printed In U.S.A.
Revised April 18, 2007
IMUX 2000 DACS8P
April 18, 2007
© Copyright 2007 by
RFL Electronics Inc.
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RFL Electronics Inc.
(973) 334-3100
WARRANTY
Except where noted, all RFL Electronics Inc. products come with a one-year warranty from date of
delivery for replacement of any part which fails during normal operation. RFL will repair or, at its
option, replace components that prove to be defective at no cost to the Customer. All equipment
returned to RFL Electronics Inc. must have an RMA (Return Material Authorization) number, obtained
by calling the RFL Customer Service Department. A defective part should be returned to the factory,
shipping charges prepaid, for repair or replacement FOB Boonton, N.J.
RFL Electronics Inc. is not responsible for warranty of peripherals, such as printers and external
computers. The warranty for such devices is as stated by the original equipment manufacturer. If you
have purchased peripheral equipment not manufactured by RFL, follow the written instructions
supplied with that equipment for warranty information and how to obtain service.
WARRANTY STATEMENT
The IMUX 2000 DACS is warranted against defects in material and workmanship for one year from
date of shipment. This warranty does not apply if the equipment has been damaged by accident,
neglect, misuse, or causes other than performed or authorized by RFL Electronics Inc. This warranty
specifically excludes damage incurred "in shipment" to or from RFL. In the event that an item is
received in damaged condition, the carrier should be notified immediately. All claims for such damage
should be filed with the carrier.
NOTE
If you do not intend to use the product immediately, it is recommended that it be opened immediately
after receiving and inspected for proper operation and signs of impact damage.
This warranty is in lieu of all other warranties, whether expressed, implied or statutory, including but
not limited to implied warranties of merchantability and fitness for a particular purpose. In no event
shall RFL be liable, whether in contract, in tort, or on any other basis, for any damages sustained by
the customer or any other person arising from or related to loss of use, failure or interruption in the
operation of any products, or delay in maintenance or for incidental, consequential, indirect or special
damages or liabilities, or for loss of business or other financial loss arising out of or in connection with
the sale, lease, maintenance, use, performance, failure or interruption of the products.
RFL Electronics Inc.
353 Powerville Road
Boonton Township, NJ 07005-0239
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RFL Electronics Inc.
(973) 334-3100
CAUTION
FOR YOUR SAFETY
THE INSTALLATION, OPERATION, AND
MAINTENANCE OF THIS EQUIPMENT
SHOULD ONLY BE PERFORMED
BY QUALIFIED PERSONS.
WARNING:
The equipment described in this manual
contains high voltage. Exercise due care
during operation and servicing. Read the
safety summary on the reverse of this page
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RFL Electronics Inc.
(973) 334-3100
SAFETY SUMMARY
The following safety precautions must be observed at all times during operation, service, and repair of
this equipment. Failure to comply with these precautions, or with specific warnings elsewhere in this
manual, violates safety standards of design, manufacture, and intended use of this product. RFL
Electronics Inc. assumes no liability for failure to comply with these requirements.
DO NOT SUBSTITUTE PARTS
OR MODIFY EQUIPMENT
GROUND THE CHASSIS
The chassis must be grounded to reduce shock
hazard and allow the equipment to perform
properly. Equipment supplied with three-wire ac
power cables must be plugged into an approved
three-contact electric outlet. All other equipment
is provided with a rear-panel ground terminal,
which must be connected to a proper electrical
ground by suitable cabling. Refer to the wiring
diagram for the chassis or cabinet for the location
of the ground terminal.
Because of the danger of introducing additional
hazards, do not install substitute parts or make
unauthorized modifications to the equipment. The
product may be returned to RFL for service and
repair, to ensure that all safety features are
maintained.
READ THE MANUAL
DO NOT OPERATE IN AN
EXPLOSIVE ATMOSPHERE
OR IN WET OR DAMP AREAS
Operators should read this manual before
attempting to use the equipment, to learn how to
use it properly and safely. Service personnel must
be properly trained and have the proper tools and
equipment before attempting to make adjustments
or repairs.
Do not operate the product in the presence of
flammable gases or fumes, or in any area that is
wet or damp. Operating any electrical equipment
under these conditions can result in a definite
safety hazard.
Service personnel must recognize that whenever
work is being done on the product, there is a
potential electrical shock hazard and appropriate
protection measures must be taken. Electrical
shock can result in serious injury, because it can
cause unconsciousness, cardiac arrest, and brain
damage.
KEEP AWAY FROM
LIVE CIRCUITS
Operating personnel should never remove
covers. Component replacement and internal
adjustments must be done by qualified service
personnel. Before attempting any work inside the
product, disconnect it from the power source and
discharge the circuit by temporarily grounding it.
This will remove any dangerous voltages that
may still be present after power is removed.
IMUX 2000 DACS8P
April 18, 2007
!
Throughout this manual, warnings appear before
procedures that are potentially dangerous, and
cautions appear before procedures that may result
in equipment damage if not performed properly.
The instructions contained in these warnings and
cautions must be followed exactly.
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RFL Electronics Inc.
(973) 334-3100
GOVERNMENT REQUIREMENTS
Certain governments require that instructions pertaining to connection to the telephone network be
included in the installation and operation manual. Specific instructions are listed in the following
sections.
Notice to users in the United States
1. All T1 Ports using the MA-260 I/O module comply with Part 68 of the FCC rules and the
requirements adopted by the ACTA. On the inside front panel of this equipment is a label that
contains, among other information, a product identifier in the format US:AAAEQ##TXXXX. If
requested, this number must be provided to the telephone company.
2. The T1 network connection should be made using a Universal Service Order Code (USOC)
type RJ-48C jack. The Service Order Code 6.0N should be specified to the telephone company
when ordering the T1 line. In addition, the proper Facility Interface Code must be specified to
the telephone company. E.g. 04DU9-1SN is the proper FIC for 1.544 Mbps ANSI ESF and
B8ZS without line power. The equipment can be configured to support several framing
formats and line signaling techniques. The equipment’s configuration must correspond to the
T1 line’s parameters.
3. A plug and jack used to connect the equipment to the premises wiring and telephone network
must comply with the applicable FCC Part 68 rules and requirements adopted by the ACTA.
See installation instructions for details on wiring.
4. If this equipment, 8-Port T1/E1 DACS w/Redundant Capability, causes harm to the telephone
network, the telephone company will notify you in advance that temporary discontinuance of
service may be required. But if advance notice isn't practical, the telephone company will
notify the customer as soon as possible. Also, you will be advised of your right to file a
complaint with the FCC if you believe it is necessary.
5. The telephone company may make changes in its facilities, equipment, operations or
procedures that could affect the operation of the equipment. If this happens the telephone
company will provide advance notice in order for you to make necessary modifications to
maintain uninterrupted service.
6. If trouble is experienced with this equipment, 8-Port T1/E1 DACS w/Redundant Capability, for
repair or warranty information, please contact RFL Electronics, Inc. at 1-973-334-3100. If the
equipment is causing harm to the telephone network, the telephone company may request that
you disconnect the equipment until the problem is resolved. Refer to section 8 for
troubleshooting some common system problems.
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RFL Electronics Inc.
(973) 334-3100
Notice to users in Canada
1. The Industry Canada label identifies certified equipment. This certification means that the
equipment meets certain telecommunications network protective, operational, and safety
requirements. Industry Canada does not guarantee the equipment will operate to user’s satisfaction.
2. Before installing this equipment, users should ensure that it is permissible to be connected to the
facilities of the local telecommunications company. The equipment must also be installed using an
acceptable method of connection. In some cases, the inside wiring associated with a single line
individual service may be extended by means of a certified connector assembly. The customer
should be aware that compliance with the above conditions may not prevent degradation of service
in some situations.
3. Repairs to certified equipment should be made by an authorized Canadian maintenance facility
designated by the supplier. Any repairs or alterations made by the user to this equipment, or
equipment malfunctions, may give the telecommunications company cause to request the user to
disconnect the equipment.
4. Users should ensure for their own protection that the electrical ground connections of the power
utility, telephone lines, and internal metallic water pipe system, if present, are connected together.
This precaution may be particularly important in rural areas.
CAUTION: Users should not attempt to make electrical ground connections by themselves, but
should contact the appropriate inspection authority or an electrician, as appropriate.
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(973) 334-3100
TABLE OF CONTENTS
GOVERNMENT REQUIREMENTS ...................................................................................................................................... v
TABLE OF CONTENTS ....................................................................................................................................................... vii
LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS .................................................................................................................................................. xi
LIST OF TABLES ................................................................................................................................................................ xiii
Section 1. PRODUCT INFORMATION ............................................................................................................................. 1-1
Section 2. FUNCTIONAL DESCRIPTION OF 8-PORT DACS ........................................................................................ 2-1
2.1 INTRODUCTION...................................................................................................................................................... 2-1
2.2 GENERAL DESCRIPTION ...................................................................................................................................... 2-1
2.3 FRONT PANEL DESCRIPTION .............................................................................................................................. 2-2
2.4 CROSS-CONNECT MODE OF OPERATION......................................................................................................... 2-2
2.5 INTELLIGENT LINE SWITCH (ILS) MODE OF OPERATION ........................................................................... 2-4
2.6 COMPARISON OF CROSS-CONNECT AND LINE-SWITCH MODES................................................................ 2-5
2.7 REVERSION .............................................................................................................................................................. 2-7
2.8 REDUNDANT PROTECTION .................................................................................................................................. 2-9
2.9 NORMAL MODE/STAND-ALONE MODE............................................................................................................. 2-9
2.10 DACS MAPPING .................................................................................................................................................. 2-10
2.10.1 INTRODUCTION............................................................................................................................................ 2-10
2.10.2 DS0 GROOMING............................................................................................................................................ 2-11
2.10.3 ERROR DETECTION AND SWITCHING .................................................................................................... 2-11
2.10.4 ERROR RECOVERY ..................................................................................................................................... 2-11
2.10.5 DESCRIPTION OF A TYPICAL DACS MAP............................................................................................... 2-13
2.10.6 MAPPING OF A DACS RING ....................................................................................................................... 2-13
2.10.7 MAP SELECT CRITERIA .............................................................................................................................. 2-13
Section 3. CONFIGURATION AND SETUP ..................................................................................................................... 3-1
3.1 INTRODUCTION...................................................................................................................................................... 3-1
3.2 TERMINAL MULTIPLEXER WITH DACS ........................................................................................................... 3-1
3.3 TWO TERMINAL SYSTEM WITH DACS ............................................................................................................. 3-3
3.4 DROP/INSERT MULTIPLEXER WITH DACS ...................................................................................................... 3-4
3.5 DROP/INSERT SYSTEM WITH DACS .................................................................................................................. 3-5
3.6 DACS USED IN A RING CONFIGURATION ........................................................................................................ 3-6
3.7 DACS IN STAND ALONE MODE ........................................................................................................................... 3-9
Section 4. DACS COMPONENTS ...................................................................................................................................... 4-1
4.1 DACS COMPONENTS ............................................................................................................................................ 4-1
4.1.1 DACS CHASSIS................................................................................................................................................. 4-2
4.1.2 DISPLAY MODULE.......................................................................................................................................... 4-3
4.1.3 JACKFIELD/RELAY MODULE ....................................................................................................................... 4-5
4.1.4 MOTHERBOARD .............................................................................................................................................. 4-8
4.1.5 DACS MODULE .............................................................................................................................................. 4-10
4.1.6 REDUNDANT MODULE ................................................................................................................................ 4-13
4.1.7 POWER SUPPLY MODULES......................................................................................................................... 4-15
4.1.7.1 INTRODUCTION...................................................................................................................................... 4-15
4.1.7.2 SPECIFICATIONS .................................................................................................................................... 4-16
4.1.7.3 THEORY OF OPERATION (9547-910, -920, -930 and -950) ................................................................. 4-17
4.1.7.4 POWER SUPPLY REDUNDANT OPERATION..................................................................................... 4-17
4.1.8 SAG MODULE................................................................................................................................................. 4-18
4.1.9 COMMUNICATIONS I/O ............................................................................................................................... 4-21
4.1.10 LINE I/Os (T1/E1) .......................................................................................................................................... 4-22
4.1.11 COAX LINE I/O (E1) ..................................................................................................................................... 4-23
4.1.12 FIBER I/Os...................................................................................................................................................... 4-24
4.1.12.1 INTRODUCTION.................................................................................................................................... 4-24
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4.1.13 SAG I/O FOR DACS-R, MA 255................................................................................................................... 4-27
4.1.14 POWER SUPPLY ALARM I/O MODULE ................................................................................................... 4-28
4.1.14.1 DESCRIPTION........................................................................................................................................ 4-28
4.2 DETERMINING DACS CHASSIS POWER REQUIREMENTS .......................................................................... 4-30
Section 5. REDUNDANT DACS THEORY OF OPERATION.......................................................................................... 5-1
5.1 INTRODUCTION...................................................................................................................................................... 5-1
5.1.1 SYSTEM LEVEL ............................................................................................................................................... 5-1
5.2 HARDWARE.............................................................................................................................................................. 5-2
5.2.1 COMMON FEATURES ...................................................................................................................................... 5-2
5.2.1.1 JTAG ............................................................................................................................................................. 5-2
5.2.1.2 PROGRAMMABLE TESTPOINTS............................................................................................................. 5-3
5.2.1.3 ACTEL ID & REVISION ............................................................................................................................. 5-3
5.2.1.4 ECB REVISION ........................................................................................................................................... 5-3
5.2.2 SYSTEM LEVEL ................................................................................................................................................ 5-3
5.2.3 PROCESSOR MODULE ..................................................................................................................................... 5-4
5.2.3.1 OVERVIEW ................................................................................................................................................. 5-4
5.2.3.2 POWER SUPPLY ......................................................................................................................................... 5-4
5.2.3.3 PROCESSOR ................................................................................................................................................ 5-6
5.2.4 FRAMER MODULE ........................................................................................................................................... 5-8
5.2.5 REDUNDANCY MODULE.............................................................................................................................. 5-11
5.3 DACS FUNCTIONAL DESCRIPTION................................................................................................................... 5-13
5.3.1 PORT SETTINGS.............................................................................................................................................. 5-13
5.3.1.1 PORT MODES............................................................................................................................................ 5-13
5.3.1.2 PORT CONFIGURATION......................................................................................................................... 5-14
5.3.2 PORT FAILURE DETECTION ........................................................................................................................ 5-14
5.3.3 DACS MAPPING FUNCTIONS....................................................................................................................... 5-15
5.3.3.1 MAP DATA ................................................................................................................................................ 5-15
5.3.3.2 RECEIVE DATA........................................................................................................................................ 5-17
5.3.3.3 TRANSMIT DATA .................................................................................................................................... 5-17
5.3.4 ILS FUNCTIONS .............................................................................................................................................. 5-18
5.3.5 HOT-STANDBY MODE................................................................................................................................... 5-19
5.4 REDUNDANCY FUNCTIONAL DESCRIPTION ................................................................................................. 5-19
5.4.1 OVERVIEW ...................................................................................................................................................... 5-19
5.4.2 GENERAL CONVENTIONS............................................................................................................................ 5-20
5.4.2.1 SIGNAL PASSING..................................................................................................................................... 5-20
5.4.2.2 SPEED......................................................................................................................................................... 5-20
5.4.2.3 UNNECESSARY SWAPPING .................................................................................................................. 5-20
5.4.3 FAULT DETECTION........................................................................................................................................ 5-20
5.4.3.1 FRAMER MODULE FAULT DETECTION ............................................................................................. 5-21
5.4.3.2 PROCESSOR MODULE FAULT DETECTION....................................................................................... 5-22
5.4.3.3 REDUNDANCY MODULE FAULT DETECTION.................................................................................. 5-22
5.4.4 DECISION LOGIC ............................................................................................................................................ 5-24
5.4.5 SWITCHING CONTROL.................................................................................................................................. 5-25
Section 6. INSTALLATION AND CHECK-OUT .............................................................................................................. 6-1
6.1 INTRODUCTION...................................................................................................................................................... 6-1
6.2 HARDWARE INSTALLATION............................................................................................................................... 6-1
6.2.1 UNPACKING ..................................................................................................................................................... 6-2
6.2.1.1 INDIVIDUAL CHASSIS.............................................................................................................................. 6-2
6.2.1.2 INTERCONNECTED CHASSIS.................................................................................................................. 6-2
6.2.2 MOUNTING ....................................................................................................................................................... 6-3
6.2.2.1 INDIVIDUAL CHASSIS............................................................................................................................. 6-4
6.2.2.2 INTERCONNECTED CHASSIS INSTALLED IN RACK OR CABINET................................................ 6-5
6.2.2.3 INTERCONNECTED CHASSIS MOUNTED ON SHIPPING RAILS ..................................................... 6-5
6.2.2.4 VENTILATION ........................................................................................................................................... 6-5
6.2.3 CONNECTIONS................................................................................................................................................. 6-6
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6.2.3.1 MAKING CONNECTIONS TO TERMINAL BLOCKS............................................................................ 6-6
6.2.3.2 MAKING CONNECTIONS TO OPTICAL INTERFACE ADAPTERS..................................................... 6-7
6.2.3.3 INPUT POWER CONNECTIONS .............................................................................................................. 6-8
6.2.3.4 CHASSIS GROUND CONNECTIONS ..................................................................................................... 6-11
6.2.4 POWER SUPPLY INPUT VOLTAGE CHECK .............................................................................................. 6-12
6.2.5 APPLYING POWER ........................................................................................................................................ 6-14
6.3 INSTALLING DACS NETWORK CONFIGURATION FILE ............................................................................... 6-15
6.3.1 INTRODUCTION.............................................................................................................................................. 6-15
6.3.2 NMS STARTUP ................................................................................................................................................ 6-15
6.3.3 CONNECTING YOUR PC TO A NODE ......................................................................................................... 6-16
6.3.4 DOWNLOADING CONFIGURATION FILES................................................................................................ 6-16
6.3.5 VERIFYING CONFIGURATION FILES......................................................................................................... 6-17
6.4 SYSTEM CHECKOUT ............................................................................................................................................ 6-18
6.4.1 INITIAL NETWORK MANAGEMENT COMMUNICATION TEST ............................................................ 6-18
6.4.2 NETWORK STATUS........................................................................................................................................ 6-18
6.4.3 PREVENTING MAP SWITCHING FOR TROUBLESHOOTING ................................................................ 6-19
6.4.4. DS0 VERIFICATION....................................................................................................................................... 6-19
6.5 SAG MODULE INSTALLATION........................................................................................................................... 6-20
6.5.1 MOUNTING ...................................................................................................................................................... 6-20
6.5.2 POWER INPUT ................................................................................................................................................. 6-20
6.5.3 SERIAL PORTS ............................................................................................................................................... 6-21
6.5.4 ETHERNET ...................................................................................................................................................... 6-21
Section 7. NETWORK MANAGEMENT SOFTWARE......................................................................................................... 1
7.1 GENERAL INFORMATION ........................................................................................................................................ 1
7.2 SYSTEM REQUIREMENTS ....................................................................................................................................... 1
7.3 SOFTWARE INSTALLATION ................................................................................................................................... 2
7.3.1 INSTALLING THE SOFTWARE......................................................................................................................... 2
7.3.2 UN-INSTALLING THE SOFTWARE.................................................................................................................. 4
7.4 CONNECTING YOUR PC TO THE NETWORK....................................................................................................... 5
7.5 NETWORK COMMUNICATION PATHS ................................................................................................................ 10
7.6 USING THE NETWORK MANAGEMENT SOFTWARE ICONS.......................................................................... 11
7.7 EXAMPLES OF CONFIGURING A NETWORK .................................................................................................... 14
7.7.1 STEPS REQUIRED TO CONFIGURE A T1 NETWORK WITH AN RFL CM3R (EXAMPLE 1) .................. 14
7.7.1.1 GETTING STARTED................................................................................................................................... 15
7.7.1.2 SETTING UP THE HARDWARE ............................................................................................................... 17
7.7.1.3 CONNECTING THE PC TO THE NETWORK .......................................................................................... 17
7.7.1.4 STARTING THE NETWORK MANAGEMENT SOFTWARE ................................................................. 17
7.7.1.5 STARTING A NEW NETWORK CONFIGURATION .............................................................................. 17
7.7.1.6 SELECTING NETWORK READ ................................................................................................................ 21
7.7.1.7 SELECTING NETWORK VIEW................................................................................................................. 24
7.7.1.8 THE DISPLAY/CHANGE NODE WINDOW............................................................................................. 25
7.7.1.9 VIEW OR CHANGE A CARD WINDOW FOR THE CM3R .................................................................... 26
7.7.1.10 DACS GENERAL CONFIGURATIONS WINDOW FOR NODE 1 ........................................................ 27
7.7.1.11 PORT 1 CONFIGURATION PARAMETERS............................................................................................ 31
7.7.1.12 MAP WINDOW........................................................................................................................................... 35
7.7.1.13 ROBBED BIT SIGNALING SELECT WINDOW ..................................................................................... 42
7.7.1.14 VIEW OR CHANGE A CARD WINDOW FOR THE VF5A .................................................................... 44
7.7.1.15 VIEW OR CHANGE A CARD WINDOW FOR THE VF16B................................................................... 45
7.7.1.16 CONNECTING LINES TO NODES .......................................................................................................... 46
7.7.1.17 WRITING TO THE NETWORK ............................................................................................................... 47
7.7.1.18 VIEWING REPORTS................................................................................................................................. 47
7.7.1.19 POLLING FOR ALARMS IN BATCH MODE ......................................................................................... 55
7.7.1.20 AUTO POLLING........................................................................................................................................ 55
7.7.1.21 SAVE SETTINGS IN A FILE .................................................................................................................... 55
7.7.2 STEPS REQUIRED TO CONFIGURE A NETWORK WITHOUT AN RFL CM3R (EXAMPLE 2) ............... 56
7.7.2.1 STAND-ALONE DACS ................................................................................................................................ 57
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7.8 SEQUENCE OF EVENTS.......................................................................................................................................... 58
7.9 USING MACROS....................................................................................................................................................... 58
7.10 EMERGENCY EXIT................................................................................................................................................ 58
7.11 NETWORK MANAGEMENT SOFTWARE HELP................................................................................................ 59
7.11.1 INTRODUCTION............................................................................................................................................... 59
7.11.2 USING NETWORK MANAGEMENT SOFTWARE HELP ............................................................................ 59
7.11.3 NETWORK MANAGEMENT SOFTWARE HELP TOPICS ........................................................................... 60
7.12 MODULES SUPPORTED BY NETWORK MANAGEMENT SOFTWARE ........................................................ 61
7.13 PASSWORD PROTECTION ................................................................................................................................... 62
7.13.1 ENTERING THE NETWORK MANAGEMENT SOFTWARE ...................................................................... 62
7.13.2 CHANGING THE PASSWORD ....................................................................................................................... 62
7.13.3 BYPASSING THE SIGN ON SCREEN............................................................................................................ 62
Section 8. TROUBLESHOOTING ......................................................................................................................................... 1
8.1 INTRODUCTION......................................................................................................................................................... 1
8.2 GENERAL TROUBLESHOOTING ............................................................................................................................. 1
8.2.1 TROUBLE TYPES ................................................................................................................................................ 1
8.2.2 GENERAL TROUBLESHOOTING HINTS......................................................................................................... 2
8.2.3 T1/E1 CARRIER-LEVEL ERRORS ..................................................................................................................... 3
8.2.4 PAYLOAD (DS0) ERRORS ................................................................................................................................. 3
8.2.5 FUSE REPLACEMENT ........................................................................................................................................ 4
8.2.6 HOW TO ARRANGE FOR SERVICING............................................................................................................. 5
Section 9. INDEX .................................................................................................................................................................... 1
Section 10. GLOSSARY.......................................................................................................................................................... 1
Section 11. APPLICATION NOTES....................................................................................................................................... 1
Section 12. ACCESSORY EQUIPMENT AND SYSTEM DRAWINGS .............................................................................. 1
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LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS
Figure 2-1. DACS front panel ............................................................................................................................................... 2-1
Figure 2-2. Sample mapping of DACS in Cross-connect mode. .......................................................................................... 2-3
Figure 2-3. Simplified diagram of DACS in ILS mode. ....................................................................................................... 2-4
Figure 2-4. DACS Cross-Connect and Line-Switch mode data paths. ................................................................................. 2-5
Figure 2-5. 8-node ring reversion example .......................................................................................................................... 2-8
Figure 2 6. DACS paths and port numbers ......................................................................................................................... 2-10
Figure 2-7. A typical DACS and its active DACS map, for T1 systems............................................................................. 2-12
Figure 2-8. DACS fiber ring configuration before a failure (sample configuration) .......................................................... 2-14
Figure 2-9. DACS fiber ring configuration after a failure (sample configuration) ............................................................ 2-15
Figure 3-1. Terminal multiplexer with DACS (sample configuration) ................................................................................. 3-2
Figure 3-2. Point-to-point System with DACS (sample configuration)................................................................................ 3-3
Figure 3-3. Drop/insert multiplexer with DACS (sample configuration) ............................................................................. 3-4
Figure 3-4. Drop/Insert DACS in a linear system with primary and backup paths (sample configuration) ......................... 3-5
Figure 3-5. DACS ring configuration before a failure (sample configuration).................................................................... 3-7
Figure 3-6. DACS ring configuration after a failure (sample configuration)....................................................................... 3-8
Figure 3-7. DACS in stand-alone (cross-connect) mode ...................................................................................................... 3-9
Figure 4-1. DACS Chassis, front view.................................................................................................................................. 4-2
Figure 4-2. DACS Display Module....................................................................................................................................... 4-4
Figure 4-3. Jackfield/Relay Module..................................................................................................................................... 4-5
Figure 4-4. Display and Jackfield Panel................................................................................................................................ 4-6
Figure 4-5. Motherboard, front and rear views ..................................................................................................................... 4-9
Figure 4-6. DACS Processor Module ................................................................................................................................. 4-11
Figure 4-7. DACS Framer Module ..................................................................................................................................... 4-12
Figure 4-8. DACS Redundant Module................................................................................................................................ 4-13
Figure 4-9. Typical DACS Power Supply module.............................................................................................................. 4-15
Figure 4-10. SAG module used in DACS ........................................................................................................................... 4-18
Figure 4-11. SAG module connectivity overview............................................................................................................... 4-20
Figure 4-12. DACS Communications I/O module, rear panel view ................................................................................... 4-21
Figure 4-13. DACS MA-260 and MA-262-Line I/Os, rear panel views ............................................................................ 4-22
Figure 4-14. DACS Coax Line I/O (E1) module, rear panel view...................................................................................... 4-23
Figure 4-15. Typical DACS Fiber I/O module, rear panel view ......................................................................................... 4-25
Figure 4-16. DACS, SAG I/O module, rear panel view...................................................................................................... 4-27
Figure 4-17. Typical Power Supply Alarm I/O module, rear panel view ........................................................................... 4-28
Figure 5-1. DACS System Block Diagram .......................................................................................................................... 5-2
Figure 5-2. Processor Block Diagram .................................................................................................................................. 5-4
Figure 5-3. Block Diagram of Power Supply Section of Processor Module........................................................................ 5-5
Figure 5-4. Framer Block Diagram ....................................................................................................................................... 5-9
Figure 5-5. Line Interface Block Diagram ......................................................................................................................... 5-10
Figure 5-6. Redundancy Module Block Diagram .............................................................................................................. 5-12
Figure 5-7. Mapping Block Diagram .................................................................................................................................. 5-16
Figure 6-1. Power supply removal and installation............................................................................................................... 6-3
Figure 6-2. DACS chassis mounting dimensions.................................................................................................................. 6-4
Figure 6-3. Typical Rear view, DACS chassis...................................................................................................................... 6-6
Figure 6-4. Terminal strip power connections for DACS chassis with single power supply modules ................................. 6-9
Figure 6-5. Terminal strip power connections for DACS chassis with redundant power supply modules......................... 6-10
Figure 6-6. Label on front door for recording input voltage configuration ....................................................................... 6-13
Figure 6-7. Caution Label inside front door of the DACS................................................................................................. 6-13
Figure 6-8. SAG Module and MA-255 SAG I/O............................................................................................................... 6-20
Figure 6-9. MA-255 SAG I/O Connections ........................................................................................................................ 6-21
Figure 6-10. SAG I/O, DB9 Pin Out................................................................................................................................... 6-21
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Figure 7 1. Typical desktop showing the RFL NMS version 10.2 Icon ................................................................................. 3
Figure 7-2. PC directly connected to a node using an RS-232 cable, or ethernet port............................................................ 5
Figure 7-3. PC connected to a node from a remote location ................................................................................................... 6
Figure 7-4. PC connected to a stand alone DACS .................................................................................................................. 6
Figure 7-5. Construction of a typical RS-232 cable between the PC and an MA-210, MA-215 or OIA ............................... 7
Figure 7-6. PC at a remote location connected to 4 nodes, where each node is in a different network .................................. 8
Figure 7-7. PC at a remote location connected to 4 nodes, where all nodes are in the same network .................................... 9
Figure 7-8. Typical networks and communication paths ...................................................................................................... 10
Figure 7-9. Network Management Software Main window.................................................................................................. 11
Figure 7-10. Basic drawing of the network used in example one ......................................................................................... 15
Figure 7-11. DACS Network Example (configured as a closed ring with three nodes) ....................................................... 16
Figure 7-12. Network Management Software Main window................................................................................................ 18
Figure 7-13. Edit Network Information window .................................................................................................................. 19
Figure 7-14. Read Network Setup Window .......................................................................................................................... 22
Figure 7-15. Auto-Configure Options Window .................................................................................................................... 23
Figure 7-16. Network View window .................................................................................................................................... 24
Figure 7-17. Display/Change Node window for node 1 ....................................................................................................... 25
Figure 7-18. View or Change a Card window for the CM3R ............................................................................................... 26
Figure 7-19. DACS General Configurations window for node 1 of a T1 system ................................................................. 27
Figure 7-20. Port 1 Configuration parameters window for a T1 system............................................................................... 32
Figure 7-21. Port 1 Configurations parameters window for an E1 system ........................................................................... 33
Figure 7-22. DACS Map window for Node 1 of a T1 system .............................................................................................. 35
Figure 7-23. Typical FDL signal routing for map 0.............................................................................................................. 36
Figure 7-24. Map Select Criteria window for Map 1 of a T1 or E1 system.......................................................................... 37
Figure 7-25. DACS DS0 Map 0 window for a T1 system .................................................................................................... 40
Figure 7-26. DACS DS0 Map 0 window for an E1 system .................................................................................................. 41
Figure 7-27. Robbed Bit Signal Selects window for T1 systems only.................................................................................. 43
Figure 7-28. View or Change a Card window for the VF5A ................................................................................................ 44
Figure 7-29. View or Change a Card window for the VF16B .............................................................................................. 45
Figure 7-30. Network View window after connecting lines to nodes................................................................................... 46
Figure 7-31. Typical Alarm Log report................................................................................................................................. 48
Figure 7-32. Page 1 of a typical Complete Network Information Report ............................................................................. 49
Figure 7-33. Typical Connection View Report ..................................................................................................................... 50
Figure 7-34. Page 1 of a typical DACS Map Report............................................................................................................. 51
Figure 7-35. Typical Difference Report ................................................................................................................................ 52
Figure 7-36. Page 1 of a typical Event Log Report............................................................................................................... 53
Figure 7-37. Typical Network Diagram Report .................................................................................................................... 54
Figure 7-38. Stand-alone DACS network used in example .................................................................................................. 57
Figure 8-1. Basic troubleshooting categories .......................................................................................................................... 1
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LIST OF TABLES
Table 2-1.
Table 2-2.
Table 2-3.
Table 2-4.
Table 2-5.
Table 2-6.
Table 2-7.
Table 2-8.
Comparison of cross-connect and line-switch modes of operation .................................................................... 2-6
Overview of 8-port DACS modes of operation ................................................................................................. 2-6
DACS A, MAP 0 (T1 system) .......................................................................................................................... 2-16
DACS A, MAP 1 (T1 system) .......................................................................................................................... 2-17
DACS B, MAP 0 (T1 system) .......................................................................................................................... 2-18
DACS B, MAP 4 (T1 system) .......................................................................................................................... 2-19
DACS C, MAP 0 (T1 system) .......................................................................................................................... 2-20
DACS D, MAP 0 (T1 system) .......................................................................................................................... 2-21
Table 4-1. Display module and Jackfield/Relay modules, controls and indicators.............................................................. 4-7
Table 4-2. Processor module controls and indicators......................................................................................................... 4-11
Table 4-3. Framer module controls and indicators.............................................................................................................. 4-12
Table 4-4. Redundant Module, controls and indicators ...................................................................................................... 4-14
Table 4-5. Power Supply Modules, General Information .................................................................................................. 4-15
Table 4-6. DACS Power Supply Specifications................................................................................................................. 4-16
Table 4-7. SAG module controls and indicators ................................................................................................................ 4-19
Table 4-8. Characteristics of IMUX 2000 Optical Interface Adapters............................................................................... 4-26
Table 4-9. Acceptable received fiber optic power levels ................................................................................................... 4-26
Table 4-10. Power Supply Alarm I/O, General Information.............................................................................................. 4-29
Table 4-11. Power Supply Alarm I/O Application Information......................................................................................... 4-29
Table 4-12. Determining power requirements for the DACS Chassis ............................................................................... 4-30
Table 7-1. List of modules used in the example that must be configured into the network.................................................. 15
Table 7-2. Modules supported by Network Management software ............................................................................................... 61
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LIST OF EFFECTIVE PAGES
When revisions are made to the IMUX 2000 DACS Instruction Manual, the entire section where
revisions were made is replaced. For the edition of this manual dated April 18, 2007 the sections are
dated as follows:
Front Matter
Section 1
Section 2
Section 3
Section 4
Section 5
Section 6
Section 7
Section 8
Section 9
Section 10
Section 11
Section 12
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April 18, 2007
May 2005
September 27, 2002
September 27, 2002
September 18, 2006
September 27, 2002
September 18, 2006
December 1, 2005
September 27, 2002
December 1, 2005
September 27, 2002
September 27, 2002
September 27, 2002
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REVISION RECORD
Rev
Description
Date
Approval
4-30-02
New Release – IMUX 2000 8-Port T1/E1 Instruction Manual
with Redundant Capability
4-30-02
CS
6-25-02
Added Government Requirements to Section 0
Added MA-262 to Section 3
6-25-02
CS
9-27-02
Added Product Information sheet to Section 1. Moved Sections
1 through 11 up by one section number. Added new E1
information. Added E1 information to NMS Section 7.
9-27-02
CS
12-1-05
Added Non-Jackfield Relay info to section 4 as per ECO 2000391.
Revised Section 4 and Section 7 in accordance with CAR#
C2000-270 (See errata sheet MC 2000DACS-001)
Revised Section 7 in accordance with CAR# C2000-0397 (See
errata sheet MC 2000DACS-003)
12-1-05
TG
4-18-07
Revised Section 4 and 6 in accordance with CAR# C2000-0505
4-18-07
TG
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Section 1. PRODUCT INFORMATION
(Please see next page)
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IMUX 2000 8-Port T1/E1 DACS
Management, protection and routing of critical
T1/E1 traffic
Key Features and Benefits
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
Optimizes transmission efficiency
Drastically reduces overall T1/E1 line costs
Provides T1/E1 connectivity to several sites
Ideal for edge access and data back haul
Groom/Concentrate/Hub multiple T1/E1 links
Consolidation of Enterprise network traffic
Enables dual T1/E1 Ring interconnection
Offers automatic re-routing capabilities
Redundant DACS module and power supply
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
The IMUX 2000 8-Port T1/E DACS is designed for stand-alone
operation and/or to interface with the IMUX 2000 Multiplexer
to support various types of network topologies including “Star”,
“Hot-Standby” and “Rings.”
in T1 CSU, or fiber optic interface adapters, using Code Mark
Inversion (CMI) encoding technology. In the event the application is time sensitive in nature the RFL DACS can be configured as an Intelligent Line Switch (ILS) in order to provide ultra
high speed path switching.
The IMUX 2000 8-Port T1/E1 DACS, provides full cross-connect capability as well as a reliable level of system restoration. The RFL DACS enables the termination of up to eight [8]
T1/E1 ports in a common platform while also providing full
DS0 Time Slot Interchange capability. Redundant DACS
modules are available for critical applications, which cannot
tolerate single point of failure network architectures.
System restoration is accomplished through the use of alternate DS0, Time Slot Interchanged maps. The alternate maps
are predetermined and pre-programmed through our user friendly
Network Management Software. An alternate DS0 map is
invoked automatically upon detection of T1/E1 failures (e.g.
AIS, Loss of Frame, excessive BER). The time necessary to
switch to an alternate map, upon detection of failure, is programmable down to 1 millisecond.
Communications interface options for the DACS include built
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Full Time Slot Interchange (TSI) capability
1 ms High Speed Intelligent Line Switch
Rugged design (SWC, EMI, RFI, Temp)
Intuitive GUI with color coded DACS maps
Optional SNMP interface compatibility
Front access T1/E1 maintenance Jack-fields
Up to 8 T1/E1 ports, fiber optic or electrical
DACS map and Tri-color port status Displays
Electrical to fiber optic DS1 migration
1
IMUX 2000 8-Port DACS
Product Applications
Electric Utilities (Investor Owned, Municipal, Cooperatives, Independent Power Producers)
• Inter-substation communications
• System protection control and monitoring
• Corporate Wide Area Networks
• Substation automation
• Remote station data backhaul
• SONET/ATM backbone access
Transportation (Traffic, Intelligent Transportation Systems, Airports, Rail/Transit)
• Advanced Transportation Management Systems (ATMS)
• Traffic operation center data concentration
• Wayside communications and signaling for metro/rail
• Airport enterprise solutions
Telco (RBOC, CLEC,ILEC, ISP)
• Voice, data, video transport
• DSO grooming
• DS1 concentration
• Fractional T1 to subscribers
• Public and private networks
Figure 1 - RFL DACS application DSO grooming of fractional T1.
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IMUX 2000 8-Port DACS
Figure 2 - RFL DACS configured as an Intelligent Line Switch for time sensative high speed
switching applications.
Physical Characteristics
Figure 3 - IMUX DACS back-plane connections (T1 configuration)
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IMUX 2000 8-Port DACS
Product Specifications
T1 Specifications
Line Codes
High Density Bipolar; Order 3 (HDB3) per CCITT G.703 or
Alternate Mark Inversion (AMI)
DS1 Inputs/Outputs Interface
DSX-1 interface per ANSI T1.403-1995
T1 CSU line build outs of –7.5dB, -15dB, and –22.5dB
Line Impedance
Selectable 75 or 120 ohm resistive (nominal)
Rate
Input:
1.544 Mbps ± 30 PPM, using internal timing
Output:
1.544 Mbps ± 30 PPM
Average Reframe Time
<25 ms or <1 ms with Fast Reframing channel (FRC)
enabled (FRC reframe for single frame data payload only)
General Specifications
Pulse Amplitude
Per ANSI T1.403-1995
Propagation Delay
DS1/E1 through Delay DACS:
1 to 3 frames, 2 frames average (250 µsec) for each
pass through
ILS:
25 µsec for each signal pass through the ILS
Formats
Extended Superframe (ESF) per AT&T 62411
D4/Superframe (SF) per AT&T 43801
Line Codes
Bipolar with 8 Zero Substitution (B8ZS)
Alternate Mark Inversion (AMI)
Switch Time
DACS DS0/T1, DS0/E1 Alternate Maps:
Programmable down to 1ms ILS DS1
Switch Time:
Programmable down to 1ms
Line Impedance
100 ohms resistive (nominal)
Avg. Reframe Time
<25 ms or <1 ms with Fast Reframing channel (FRC)
enabled (FRC reframe for single frame data payload only)
Environmental
Operating Temperature:
-20° to +55°C operating
Humidity:
0 - 95% Non-condensing.
SWC & Fast Transient:
ANSI C.37.90-1989 & ANSI C.37-90.1.
EMI: ANSI C.37.90.2.
FCC Compliance:
BCC Part 15 Class A
CE/EMC:
BS EN 5502:1995, BS EN 61000-4-2:1995, BS EN
61000-4-3:1997, BS EN 61000-4-4:1995, BS EN 61004-6:1996, BS EN 61000-4-8:1994, DD ENV 50204:1996
E1 Specifications
E1 Inputs/Outputs
Interface:
Conforms to CCITT G.703
Rate:
Input: 2.048 Mbps ± 50 ppm, using internal timing
Output: 2.048 Mbps ± 200 ppm, when not loop or
through timed
2.048 Mbps ± 130 ppm, when loop or through timed
Pulse Shape
Per CCITT G.703
Physical
Dimensions:
19" (483mm) Wide x 5.25" (134mm) Height x
15" (370mm) Depth
Depth varies depending on I/O in rear of chassis.
Available in 23” width mounting.
Formats
Frame Format CCS or CAS as per CCITT G.704 in 30
channel and 31channel modes
Specifications subject to change without notice.
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IMUX 2000 8-Port DACS
Alarms
Alarm Types:
Alert: Cautionary conditions that do not prevent multiplexer operation
Alarm: Conditions that directly affect multiplexer
operation
Interface:
Front Panel indicators and a RS-232 port for remote
access and interrogation.
Shelf, Form C alarm relays rated for 100 mA at 250 Vdc
Power Supply
The RFL DACS has the capability to be equipped with a
secondary plug-in power supply for redundancy. The
secondary power supply operates on a hot-standby
concept versus a load sharing technique:
Range
Input Voltage
19.0 to 29.0 VDC
24 VDC
38.0 to 150.0 VDC
48/125 VDC
180.0 to 265.0 VDC
220 VAC
90.0 to 130.0 VAC
120 VAC
200.0 to 300.0 VDC
250 VDC
Power Supply Capacity: Typically 50 Watts
Test and Diagnostics
Loopbacks:
Remote, Local and Analog DS0 & DS1/E1
Test pattern:
PRBS pattern generation/detection
16-bit loop-up and loop-down code generation and
detection.
Optical Interface Adapters
Wavelength Emmitter
Type
LED
850
LED
1300
LED
1300
Laser
1300
Laser
1550
Fiber Type
System Gain
Multimode
Multimode
Singlemode
Singlemode
Singlemode
25 dB
25 dB
19 dB
36 dB
30 dB
Specifications Compliance:
ANSI T1.403-1995; ANSI T1.231-1993; ANSI T1.408;
AT&T TR54016; AT&T TR62411; ITU G.703;G.704;
G.706; G.736; G.775; G.823; G.932; I.431; O.151;
O.161; ETSI ETS 300 011; ETS 300 166;ETS 300 233;
CTR4; CTR12; IEC 255-5 & IEC 801-4.
Specifications subject to change without notice.
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May 2005
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IMUX 2000 8-Port DACS
Network Management Software (NMS)
•
•
•
•
The RFL DACS comes factory installed with a user friendly Windows based graphical user interface. This enables the
administrator a large amount of flexibility in configuring which DACS map will be utilized and under which pre-determined
criteria.
The on board craft interface provides the path to access the NMS either locally or remotely. One will have the ability to
provision the system, program the DACS maps, interrogate for alarms, and allow for operation and maintenance.
The NMS offers intuitive color-coded DS0 cross-connect maps to facilitate system programming and to reduce the
possibility of human error.
Optional SNMP access gateway modules are available to interface the network management system in stand- alone
system applications.
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IMUX 2000 8-Port DACS
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IMUX 2000 DACS
IMUX 2000 8-Port DACS
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IMUX 2000 8-Port DACS
Section 2. FUNCTIONAL DESCRIPTION OF 8-PORT DACS
POWER
NORMAL
STATUS
IMUX 2000
LINE
ALERT
PORT 1
DACS
HDW
ALERT
PORT 2
CNFG
ALERT
PORT 3
TX
PORT 1
RX
TX
PORT 5
RX
TX
PORT 2
RX
TX
PORT 6
RX
TX
PORT 3
RX
TX
PORT 7
RX
TX
PORT 4
RX
TX
PORT 8
RX
PORT 4
ALERT
PORT 5
PORT 6
FAIL
PORT 7
RFL Electronics Inc.
PORT 8
MON EQUIP
MON EQUIP
Figure 2-1. DACS front panel
2.1 INTRODUCTION
This section gives a functional description of the IMUX 2000 8-Port T1/E1 DACS (Digital Access CrossConnect System) as shown in Figure 2-1. It also briefly discusses front panel controls, cross-connect and
line-switch modes of operation, and redundant protection.
2.2 GENERAL DESCRIPTION
The DACS provides a DS1 level interface to eight separate communication paths over its eight bidirectional DS1 ports.
The DACS offers great flexibility in its operational configuration. It can operate in a cross-connect
mode, routing any received DS0 of any DS1 port receiver into any DS0 of any DS1 port transmitter.
DS0 routing follows preprogrammed user maps which can be activated by direct command, or as a
result of detected path failures.
For system applications requiring low through delay, the unit can operate in line switch mode. This
configuration, routes complete DS1 streams from one port’s receiver to another port’s transmitter,
without disassembling into DS0 components. Line switch routing follows a hardware encoded set of
maps which are activated as a result of detected failures. These maps are optimized for various path
protection configurations of the communication system, such as backup ring or hot standby.
To accommodate a wide range of applications, the unit can be used with electrical or fiber optic
interfaces. The various interfaces can be installed individually for each DS1 port.
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For applications requiring high system reliability, the unit can be configured in redundant protection
mode. This mode utilizes double Processor/Framer modules and Redundant Control modules. When a
module failure is detected, service is automatically transferred to the other module.
The DACS can be configured using RFL network management software (NMS). This can be
accomplished by either direct connection to the unit over a user port, or remotely from any other node
in the network, through a LAN connection, or over an ethernet 10baseT network. Remote access may
be limited in certain system configurations.
NMS can provide detailed status of the DACS system as well as sequence of events log readouts.
General DACS status information is available to the user by means of front panel indicators.
2.3 FRONT PANEL DESCRIPTION
The front panel of the DACS as shown in Figure 2-1 is divided into two sections. The right hand section
contains the display module and the relay/jackfield modules, which are mounted behind a screwed down
panel. This panel may be removed for servicing but should generally remained fixed. The right hand panel
has eleven LEDs; one LED for each of the eight ports, three additional LEDs, and a seven segment display.
Each of the eight port LEDs will be off if the port is disabled, green if OK, red if failed, and amber if minor
errors are detected. The three additional LEDs indicate Line Alert, Hardware Alert and Configuration Alert.
The LEDs and seven segment display are discussed in more detail in paragraph 4.1.2. The right hand panel
also contains the jackfield, which allows a user to monitior the Tx and Rx status of each of the eight DACS
ports.
The left-hand section of the front panel is hinged at the bottom and can be tilted down to allow access to the
other DACS modules. The modules that may be found in this section are as follows: main power supply,
redundant power supply (optional), SAG module (optional), left framer/processor, right framer/processor,
and redundant module (optional).
2.4 CROSS-CONNECT MODE OF OPERATION
The DACS has eight bi-directional DS1 ports. The DACS allows any received DS0 from any port to be
transmitted as any DS0 on any port.
The DS0 grooming takes place by time slot interchanging. Each incoming DS1 is disassembled into DS0s.
Then each DS0 is temporarily held in memory, until it is needed to be combined into the outgoing DS1
stream. The processor follows the instructions in a time slot interchange map which determines which
incoming DS0s will be aligned with which outgoing DS0s. Each processor contains 8 time slot interchange
maps (0 through 7), one default (normal map) and seven alternate (backup maps). The DACS maps are
normally programmed at the factory to customer specifications but can be re-programmed by the user. This
can be done via the RS-232 Remote Port via the Network Management Software as described in Section 7. A
detailed discussion of DACS mapping can be found in paragraph 2.10. A sample mapping of the DACS can
be seen in Figure 2-2 showing time slot interchanging, pass-thru, and hair pinning modes.
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The DACS processor contains one normal time slot interchange map (map 0), and seven back-up timeslot interchange maps (maps 1-7). During normal operation the DACS monitors the status of all
enabled port receivers. If a problem is detected by a port receiver, the DACS will switch into a backup
(or alternate) map. The exact conditions which cause the map switch, as well as the criteria used to
select which map to use, are programmable by the user. Refer to paragraph 2.10 for more detail on
DACS mapping.
DS0s
DS0s
AAAAAAAAAAAA
ABCDABCDABCD
DS1
DS1
DS1
DS1
BBBBBBBBBBBB
BBBAAADDDCCC
CCCCCCCCCCCC
CCAABBDDCCAA
DDDDDDDDDDDD
DCBACDBCDABC
DS1
DS1
DS1
DS1
A. Time Slot Interchanging
DS0s
DS1
AAAAAAAAAAAA
DS0s
PASS-THRU
AAAAAAAAAAAA
DS1
DS1
DS1
DS1
DS1
CCCCCCCCCCCC
DS1
HAIR PINNING
DS1
B. Pass-Thru and Hairpinning
Figure 2-2. Sample mapping of DACS in Cross-connect mode.
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September 27, 2002
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2.5 INTELLIGENT LINE SWITCH (ILS) MODE OF OPERATION
In ILS mode, normal signal routing is shown in Figure 2-3a. If there is a failure of Port 1, the DACS
switches routing as shown in Figure 2-3b. If there is a failure of Port 4, the DACS switches routing as
shown in Figure 2-3c. ILS mode is only available in T1 systems.
Main Port
1
5
Local Port
Backup Port
2
6
Local Port
Backup Port
3
7
Not Used
Main Port
4
8
Not Used
2-3a. Normal mode routing of DACS in Line-switch mode
Main Port
1
5
Local Port
Backup Port
2
6
Local Port
Backup Port
3
7
Not Used
Main Port
4
8
Not Used
2-3b. Switched upon failure of Port 1
Main Port
1
5
Local Port
Backup Port
2
6
Local Port
Backup Port
3
7
Not Used
Main Port
4
8
Not Used
2-3c. Switched upon failure of Port 4
Figure 2-3. Simplified diagram of DACS in ILS mode.
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September 27, 2002
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2.6 COMPARISON OF CROSS-CONNECT AND LINE-SWITCH MODES.
The DACS can operate in one of two basic modes, Cross-Connect mode or Line-Switch mode. The
basic difference between the two is that Cross-Connect mode utilizes elastic stores and buffers for
interim storage of data, while Line Switch mode feeds the received DS1 stream directly to a
transmitter.
DS1
receiver
DS1
transmitter
Elastic data
store
DS0
disassembly
DS0
reassembly
Timing,
framing
and DSO
grooming
engine
a. DACS Cross-Connect Mode
DS1
receiver
DS1
transmitter
b. DACS Line-Switch Mode
Figure 2-4. DACS Cross-Connect and Line-Switch mode data paths.
Cross-Connect mode provides great flexibility in handling payload data, and is inherently more stable
and immune to DS1-level disturbances.
On the other hand, Line Switch mode offers an order of magnitude shorter through-delay, which is
particularly important in sensitive teleprotection applications. In a typical network, a DS1 path may
cross each DACS twice and the delays add up quickly. The need to remain within delay limits of the
equipment can easily trade off against other performance parameters. A comparison of the
characteristics of each of the two modes is shown in Table 2-1.
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Table 2-1. Comparison of cross-connect and line-switch modes of operation
Mode→
Cross-Connect Mode
Line Switch Mode
Characteristics
↓
Path Programmability
All individual DS0s are mapped
independently
Immunity to DS1 path
disturbances
More stable; small incoming
disturbances may be absorbed by CrossConnect mode DACS.
Map / Route Switching
Behavior
Usually cleaner switch, less
disturbances in the network.
Through-Delay
Short ( hundreds of microseconds per
each pass through DACS).
Routes from receiver to transmitter are
selected for complete DS1 stream, no DS0s
are broken out.
Less stable; moderate incoming disturbances
may affect outgoing DS1 streams of LineSwitch mode DACS.
Switch may cause small disturbances to
propagate through other Line Switches in the
network.
Very short ( tens of microseconds per each
pass through DACS).
Table 2-2. Overview of 8-port DACS modes of operation
Mode
Application
Capability
DACS
Used in rings or in DS0 grooming
(T1/E1)
Line-switch mode: The switching is at the
DS1 level. All timeslots switch together.
Cross-connect mode: The switching is at the
DS0 level. Timeslots can be interchanged.
(See Table 2-1 and paragraph 2.6 for more
information)
ILS
Used in rings
(T1 only)
Fast Reframe must be active
Has predefined primary and backup paths.
Will go into reversion if one or more ILS
nodes in the ring are isolated from the DACS
due to breaks or a defective DACS. Reversion
is a feature in ILS mode that will convert a
non-functioning Ring Topology into a String
Topology, but you lose the backup feature. It
will come out of reversion if it senses the
DACS again.
Hot Standby
Point-to-point
(T1/E1)
Will switch out of the active path if the active
path fails. It will not switch back if healed.
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RFL Electronics Inc.
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2.7 REVERSION
Reversion is a feature in ILS mode that will convert a non-functioning Ring Topology into a String
Topology, but you lose the backup feature. It will come out of reversion if it senses the DACS again.
Figure 2-5 shows an eight node ring with seven nodes in ILS mode and one node in DACS mode. The
DACS has elastic stores to allow the framers to stay in frame. If two breaks occur as shown in the
figure, node 1 and/or node 4 will go into reversion. These are the two nodes closest to the break that
are isolated from the DACS. This means that nodes 1, 2, 3 and 4 will operate as a four node string and
nodes 5, 6, 7 and 8 will operate as a four node ring using back-up paths. The system will come out of
reversion if the two breaks heal.
Before the breaks occur the 7-segment display on each of the display panels at nodes 1, 2, 3, 4, 6, 7,
and 8 will display a solid “L” indicating ILS mode, and the 7-segment display at node 5 will display
map “0” (primary map).
After the breaks occur the 7-segment displays at nodes 2, 3, 6 and 7 will each display a solid “L”,
nodes 1 and 4 will display either a slow or fast flashing “L”, node 8 will display a slow flashing “L”
and the 7-segment display at node 6 will display the number of the alternate map (1-7) that its in. Refer
to Table 4-1 for additional information.
IMUX 2000 DACS8P
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(973) 334-3100
Slow or Fast
Flashing “L”
BREAK
ILS
NODE 1
Slow
Flashing “L”
ILS
NODE 8
ILS
NODE 2
Solid “L”
Solid “L”
ILS
NODE 7
ILS
NODE 3
Solid “L”
Solid “L”
ILS
NODE 6
ILS
NODE 4
Slow or Fast
Flashing “L”
DACS
NODE 5
BREAK
Will indicate the
map # that its in
Figure 2-5. 8-node ring reversion example
IMUX 2000 DACS8P
September 27, 2002
2-8
RFL Electronics Inc.
(973) 334-3100
2.8 REDUNDANT PROTECTION
The 8-Port DACS provides the option of using two DACS modules within the same chassis. In the
event of an internal failure of the currently active module, the inactive module will take over.
To allow redundant operation, both DACS modules must be equipped with the optional Redundant
Control Modules. These modules monitor vital internal parameters of the units and the state of port
receivers and transmitters. The two units interact with each other to further ascertain their condition.
Upon the detection of a failure, the severity of the problem as well as the present state of both units is
evaluated before arriving at the decision to swap.
The swapping process is reversable. This means that once a unit is selected to be inactive, it can be
automatically selected to be active again if the right conditions are met. For example, a faulty unit may
have been replaced and the other unit may have failed since.
On the other hand, the decision process is designed to minimize the number of swaps. If a faulty unit is
replaced, control is not returned to it unless the other one fails or a swap is forced.
2.9 NORMAL MODE/STAND-ALONE MODE
The 8-Port DACS is designed to operate in conjunction with RFL IMUX 2000 Multiplexers. However,
the presence of a Multiplexer is not required.
In Normal Mode, the Multiplexer is connected to the DACS. Typically, this is in situations when
payload traffic is dropped or inserted at this network node. In addition to payload handling, IMUX
Multiplexer contains the FDL processor, which provides an interface to network management traffic
embedded within DS1 overhead.
To allow proper map-switching operation in Normal Mode, ports facing the Multiplexer must be
selected as “Common Module” type. Refer to paragraph 5.3.1.1 for more information on port mode
types.
Occasionally, a DACS may be used only to route DS1 traffic without dropping or inserting any
payload. For example, it may serve as a switching or grooming gateway for the rest of the network or
as a DS1 repeater or fiber-to-wire translator. In such a configuration, a multiplexer is not needed
locally.
Operation without a Multiplexer connected to one of the DACS ports is referred to as Stand-Alone
Mode. In Stand-Alone Mode the 8-Port DACS lacks an on-site FDL processor, and the network
management cannot access the DACS remotely over DS1 overhead.
The DACS can still be accessed locally for network management purposes. For remote access, means
other than FDL, such as LAN or a direct RS-232 connection must be used.
IMUX 2000 DACS8P
September 27, 2002
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RFL Electronics Inc.
(973) 334-3100
2.10 DACS MAPPING
2.10.1 INTRODUCTION
The function of the DACS is to “groom” or break down the DS0 elements in eight DS1 frames and
then recombine them as specified in a map. Each DACS has eight DS0 grooming maps labeled map 0,
and maps 1-7. Map 0 is the primary DACS map for no detected failures in the network path.
A typical DACS application has two sets of paths: six network paths which are connected either to
another T1 system or to a higher order multiplexer, and two paths connected to an IMUX 2000
Multiplexer. These paths are shown in Figure 2-6. The DACS monitors T1 data passing through it on
its six network paths and uses an alternate map if an error is detected on one of these network paths.
The DACS will switch from map 0 to one of the other alternate maps (1-7) depending on which Map
Select Criteria has been met. Map Select Criteria must be programmed by the user using NMS as
described in Section 7 of this manual. The DACS uses programmable and non-programmable criteria
for error detection. The DACS can also detect a recovery from an error and will switch back to the
primary map.
To perform these functions, the DACS uses a microprocessor that monitors its internal circuitry. It is
programmable and can be monitored via the IMUX Serial Control Bus. The DACS also contains LEDs
and alarm contacts.
In T1 systems the DACS can operate in one of two modes: Super Frame (SF) and Extended Super
Frame (ESF). See paragraph 7.7.1.11 for information on how to program SF or ESF formats using NMS.
In E1 systems the DACS can operate with the following framing structures: with CAS on or off, and
with CRC4 on or off. See paragraph 7.7.1.12 for CAS and CRC4 programming information.
TWO PATHS TO
IMUX 2000
MULTIPLEXER
SIX
NETWORK
PATHS
1
6
2
3
IMUX 2000
MULTIPLEXER
DACS
4
7
5
TO
ANOTHER
T1
SYSTEM
OR A
HIGHER ORDER
MULTIPLEXER
8
Figure 2 6. DACS paths and port numbers
IMUX 2000 DACS8P
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RFL Electronics Inc.
(973) 334-3100
2.10.2 DS0 GROOMING
The configuration for DS0 grooming is contained in the active map. There are eight maps, one for no
network path failure, and seven alternate maps. The transmitted DS0 data is mapped to the received
DS0 data. Each transmitted DS0 has a coded index in the map referred to as the DS0 time slot. The
content of the DS0 time slot is the address of the received DS0 data. Figure 2-7 shows a typical DACS
and its active DACS map for a T1 system. The E1 DACS map is similar but has 32 time slots. The T1
map is described in detail in paragraph 2.9.5.
2.10.3 ERROR DETECTION AND SWITCHING
The DACS constantly monitors its network paths for the following errors: bit error rate exceeded, all
ones signal, loss of data, loss of frame and fast loss of frame. Any one of these errors can cause an
alarm condition, but only if the enable for each has been selected via programming. In addition, any
combination of the four paths can go unused. If unused, a failure in a path will not cause an alarm or a
change in operation. Before switching, the DACS will wait a selected time delay. If the error is
removed during this period, the DACS will not switch.
The bit error rate is determined by periodically sampling the CRC failures and comparing them against
a programmed value. The other error conditions are read directly from the internal circuitry of the
Dallas transceiver chip. The loss of frame error is either the severely erred (if enabled) framing event
(SEFE) or the loss of sync (RLOS) signal. The loss of data signal is receive carrier loss (RCL). The all
ones signal is the blue alarm (UA1). The fast loss of frame error is the loss of the fast reframe pattern.
The DACS can only change to one other map, upon the first failure. Subsequent failures on other
channels will not cause it to change to another map.
2.10.4 ERROR RECOVERY
Although a DACS has switched, it will still transmit DS0s along the failed network path as directed by
the new map. Any transceiver affected by an error will undergo recovery, even if it has not caused a
switch.
Since a transceiver can only monitor receive errors, it insures that its fellow transceiver gets an error
by sending an all ones signal for 10 ms. After this, the transceiver waits until all errors are cleared. It
allows an extra 50 ms period after errors are cleared to allow the fellow transceiver to fully reframe.
Then it waits an extra recovery time before going fully on line.
IMUX 2000 DACS8P
September 27, 2002
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RFL Electronics Inc.
(973) 334-3100
Port 1
Port 5
Port 2
Port 6
Port 3
Port 7
Port 4
Port 8
Typical DACS routing for Map 0
Timeslot 1
Example 1
Port 1
Port 2
Port 3
Example 2
Port 4
Port 5
Port 6
Port 7
Port 8
P1RX
P1TX
P2RX
P2TX
P3RX
P3TX
P4RX
P4TX
P5RX
P5TX
P6RX
P6TX
P7RX
P7TX
P8RX
P8TX
1,01
5,01
2,01
3,01
3,01
2,01
4,01
6,01
5,01
1,01
6,01
4,01
7,01
8,01
8,01
7,01
1,03
5,03
2,03
3,03
3,03
2,03
4,03
6,03
5,03
1,03
6,03
4,03
7,03
8,03
8,03
7,03
1,02
1,04
1,05
1,06
1,07
1,08
1,09
1,10
1,11
1,12
1,13
1,14
1,15
1,16
1,17
1,18
1,19
1,20
1,21
1,22
1,23
1,24
5,02
5,04
5,05
5,06
5,07
5,08
5,09
5,10
5,11
5,12
5,13
5,14
5,15
5,16
5,17
5,18
5,19
5,20
5,21
5,22
5,23
5,24
DS1 Frame
2,02
2,04
2,05
2,06
2,07
2,08
2,09
2,10
2,11
2,12
2,13
2,14
2,15
2,16
2,17
2,18
2,19
2,20
2,21
2,22
2,23
2,24
3,02
3,04
3,05
3,06
3,07
3,08
3,09
3,10
3,11
3,12
3,13
3,14
3,15
3,16
3,17
3,18
3,19
3,20
3,21
3,22
3,23
3,24
3,02
3,04
3,05
3,06
3,07
3,08
3,09
3,10
3,11
3,12
3,13
3,14
3,15
3,16
3,17
3,18
3,19
3,20
3,21
3,22
3,23
3,24
2,02
2,04
2,05
2,06
2,07
2,08
2,09
2,10
2,11
2,12
2,13
2,14
2,15
2,16
2,17
2,18
2,19
2,20
2,21
2,22
2,23
2,24
4,02
4,04
4,05
4,06
4,07
4,08
4,09
4,10
4,11
4,12
4,13
4,14
4,15
4,16
4,17
4,18
4,19
4,20
4,21
4,22
4,23
4,24
6,02
6,04
6,05
6,06
6,07
6,08
6,09
6,10
6,11
6,12
6,13
6,14
6,15
6,16
6,17
6,18
6,19
6,20
6,21
6,22
6,23
6,24
5,02
5,04
5,05
5,06
5,07
5,08
5,09
5,10
5,11
5,12
5,13
5,14
5,15
5,16
5,17
5,18
5,19
5,20
5,21
5,22
5,23
5,24
1,02
1,04
1,05
1,06
1,07
1,08
1,09
1,10
1,11
1,12
1,13
1,14
1,15
1,16
1,17
1,18
1,19
1,20
1,21
1,22
1,23
1,24
Timeslot 24
6,02
6,04
6,05
6,06
6,07
6,08
6,09
6,10
6,11
6,12
6,13
6,14
6,15
6,16
6,17
6,18
6,19
6,20
6,21
6,22
6,23
6,24
4,02
4,04
4,05
4,06
4,07
4,08
4,09
4,10
4,11
4,12
4,13
4,14
4,15
4,16
4,17
4,18
4,19
4,20
4,21
4,22
4,23
4,24
7,02
8,02
7,04
8,04
7,05
8,05
7,06
8,06
7,07
8,07
7,08
8,08
7,09
8,09
7,10
8,10
7,11
8,11
7,12
8,12
7,13
8,13
7,14
8,14
7,15
8,15
7,16
8,16
7,17
8,17
7,18
8,18
7,19
8,19
7,20
8,20
7,21
8,21
7,22
8,22
7,23
8,23
7,24
8,24
8,02
8,04
8,05
8,06
8,07
8,08
8,09
8,10
8,11
8,12
8,13
8,14
8,15
8,16
8,17
8,18
8,19
8,20
8,21
8,22
8,23
8,24
7,02
7,04
7,05
7,06
7,07
7,08
7,09
7,10
7,11
7,12
7,13
7,14
7,15
7,16
7,17
7,18
7,19
7,20
7,21
7,22
7,23
7,24
Example 3
Figure 2-7. A typical DACS and its active DACS map, for T1 systems
IMUX 2000 DACS8P
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2.10.5 DESCRIPTION OF A TYPICAL DACS MAP
Figure 2-7 represents a typical DACS (T1) and its active DACS map.The E1 map is similar but has 32
timeslots. Each DACS has eight bi-directional ports labeled Port 1 through Port 8. Each port has a DS1
frame, and each frame has 24 DS0 time slots labeled Time Slot 1 through Time Slot 24. The contents
of each time slot, has two numbers separated by a comma. The first number is the Port number, and the
second number is the Time Slot number.
The map shows where the DS0 data is coming from and where it is going to. The position in the map,
which is the DS0 time slot, and its corresponding port number, is where the data is going to and the
content of that DS0 time slot is where the data is coming from. This can be better understood by
referring to the following examples.
Example 1:
3,01 under the heading Port 2 is located in time slot 1. This indicates that the data
going to Port 2 time slot 1 came from Port 3 time slot 1.
Example 2:
6,11 under the heading Port 4 is located in time slot 11. This indicates that the data
going to Port 4 time slot 11 came from Port 6 time slot 11.
Example 3:
4,19 under the heading Port 6 is located in time slot 19. This indicates that the data
going to Port 6 time slot 19 came from Port 4 time slot 19.
If a time slot is not configured to pass data, it will be labeled 0,FF. Note in Figure 2-7 that each port
has two columns, an RX column and a TX column. The RX column cannot be changed by the user.
The TX column can be changed by the user.
2.10.6 MAPPING OF A DACS RING
Figure 2-8 shows an example of a fiber optic DACS ring consisting of four DACS units labeled DACS
A, DACS B, DACS C, and DACS D. In this example no failures are detected in any of the network
paths. Therefore, each DACS unit is using its own map 0. The outer heavy line represents the primary
path and the inner light line represents the backup path.
Figure 2-9 shows the same DACS ring with a break in the network path between DACS A and DACS
B. The break can be in any one of the four fiber optic cables between DACS A and DACS B. Let’s
assume in this example that the break occurred between DACS A port 1 and DACS B port 4. This will
be detected by DACS A and DACS B and will cause DACS A to switch to map 1 and DACS B to
switch to map 4. DACS C and D will be unaffected and therefore will still use map 0. The remapping
will cause data to be re-routed away from all direct connections between DACS A and DACS B, and
will now follow the backup path as shown by the heavy line in the Figure 2-9.
Table 2-3 shows map 0 for DACS A, Table 2-4 shows map 1 for DACS A.
Table 2-5 shows map 0 for DACS B, Table 2-6 shows map 4 for DACS B.
Table 2-7 shows map 0 for DACS C.
Table 2-8 shows map 0 for DACS D.
2.10.7 MAP SELECT CRITERIA
When a DACS detects a port failure, the failed port switches from Map 0 to an alternate map (Map 1 to
Map 7). The map switching takes place in accordance with Map Select Criteria, which must be
programmed by the user using NMS. Refer to paragraph 7.7.1.12 for more information.
IMUX 2000 DACS8P
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CH1 CH2 CH3
CH4
T.E.
MULTIPLEXER
CH5 CH6
T.E.
MULTIPLEXER
Refer to DACS A
Map 0 (Table 1-1)
5
6
7
DACS A
Refer to DACS B
Map 0 (Table 1-3)
8
4
7
8
5
6
2
3
1
1
4
3
2
2
3
4
1
7
8
6
5
DACS B
DACS D
3
1
2
4
7
DACS C
8
5
6
DROP/INSERT
MULTIPLEXER
CH1 CH2 CH3 CH4 CH5 CH6
Note: DACS B and DACS D are in stand-alone mode and therefore do not drop/insert data.
Figure 2-8. DACS fiber ring configuration before a failure (sample configuration)
IMUX 2000 DACS8P
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CH1 CH2 CH3
CH4 CH5 CH6
T.E.
MULTIPLEXER
Each line represents 2 fiber optic
cables, one for transmit and one
for receive.
Refer to DACS A,
Map 1 (Table 1-2)
T.E.
MULTIPLEXER
“X” represents a break in any
one of these 4 fiber optic
cables. Only the maps for
DACS A and DACS B are
effected. The DACS Map
Select Criteria which was
programmed by the user
causes DACS A to switch to
map 1 and DACS B to switch
to map 4.
5
6
7
DACS A
8
4
7
2
3
1
7
8
6
8
4
1
5
2
3
3
2
1
4
5
6
DACS D
When a break occurs as
shown, DACS D stays in map
0 since it has no knowledge
of the break. Refer to DACS
D, Map 0 (Table 1-6)
DACS B
1
3
2
Refer to DACS B,
Map 4 (Table 1-4)
4
7
DACS C
8
5
6
DROP/INSERT
MULTIPLEXER
When a break occurs as
shown, DACS C stays in
map 0 since it has no
knowledge of the break.
Refer to DACS C, Map 0
(Table 1-5)
CH1 CH2 CH3 CH4 CH5 CH6
= bi-directional communication
= mono-directional
Figure 2-9. DACS fiber ring configuration after a failure (sample configuration)
IMUX 2000 DACS8P
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(973) 334-3100
Table 2-3. DACS A, MAP 0 (T1 system)
P1RX
P1TX
P2RX
P2TX
P3RX
P3TX
P4RX
P4TX
P5RX
P5TX
P6RX
P6TX
P7RX
P7TX
P8RX
P8TX
1,01
5,01
2,01
3,01
3,01
2,01
4,01
6,01
5,01
1,01
6,01
4,01
7,01
0,FF
8,01
0,FF
1,03
5,03
2,03
3,03
3,03
2,03
4,03
6,03
5,03
1,03
6,03
4,03
7,03
0,FF
8,03
0,FF
1,02
1,04
1,05
1,06
1,07
1,08
1,09
1,10
1,11
1,12
1,13
1,14
1,15
1,16
1,17
1,18
1,19
1,20
1,21
1,22
1,23
1,24
5,02
5,04
5,05
5,06
5,07
5,08
5,09
5,10
5,11
5,12
5,13
5,14
5,15
5,16
5,17
5,18
5,19
5,20
5,21
5,22
5,23
5,24
2,02
2,04
2,05
2,06
2,07
2,08
2,09
2,10
2,11
2,12
2,13
2,14
2,15
2,16
2,17
2,18
2,19
2,20
2,21
2,22
2,23
2,24
IMUX 2000 DACS8P
September 27, 2002
3,02
3,04
3,05
3,06
3,07
3,08
3,09
3,10
3,11
3,12
3,13
3,14
3,15
3,16
3,17
3,18
3,19
3,20
3,21
3,22
3,23
3,24
3,02
3,04
3,05
3,06
3,07
3,08
3,09
3,10
3,11
3,12
3,13
3,14
3,15
3,16
3,17
3,18
3,19
3,20
3,21
3,22
3,23
3,24
2,02
2,04
2,05
2,06
2,07
2,08
2,09
2,10
2,11
2,12
2,13
2,14
2,15
2,16
2,17
2,18
2,19
2,20
2,21
2,22
2,23
2,24
4,02
4,04
4,05
4,06
4,07
4,08
4,09
4,10
4,11
4,12
4,13
4,14
4,15
4,16
4,17
4,18
4,19
4,20
4,21
4,22
4,23
4,24
6,02
6,04
6,05
6,06
6,07
6,08
6,09
6,10
6,11
6,12
6,13
6,14
6,15
6,16
6,17
6,18
6,19
6,20
6,21
6,22
6,23
6,24
2-16
5,02
5,04
5,05
5,06
5,07
5,08
5,09
5,10
5,11
5,12
5,13
5,14
5,15
5,16
5,17
5,18
5,19
5,20
5,21
5,22
5,23
5,24
1,02
1,04
1,05
1,06
1,07
1,08
1,09
1,10
1,11
1,12
1,13
1,14
1,15
1,16
1,17
1,18
1,19
1,20
1,21
1,22
1,23
1,24
6,02
6,04
6,05
6,06
6,07
6,08
6,09
6,10
6,11
6,12
6,13
6,14
6,15
6,16
6,17
6,18
6,19
6,20
6,21
6,22
6,23
6,24
4,02
4,04
4,05
4,06
4,07
4,08
4,09
4,10
4,11
4,12
4,13
4,14
4,15
4,16
4,17
4,18
4,19
4,20
4,21
4,22
4,23
4,24
7,02
7,04
7,05
7,06
7,07
7,08
7,09
7,10
7,11
7,12
7,13
7,14
7,15
7,16
7,17
7,18
7,19
7,20
7,21
7,22
7,23
7,24
0,FF
0,FF
0,FF
0,FF
0,FF
0,FF
0,FF
0,FF
0,FF
0,FF
0,FF
0,FF
0,FF
0,FF
0,FF
0,FF
0,FF
0,FF
0,FF
0,FF
0,FF
0,FF
8,02
8,04
8,05
8,06
8,07
8,08
8,09
8,10
8,11
8,12
8,13
8,14
8,15
8,16
8,17
8,18
8,19
8,20
8,21
8,22
8,23
8,24
0,FF
0,FF
0,FF
0,FF
0,FF
0,FF
0,FF
0,FF
0,FF
0,FF
0,FF
0,FF
0,FF
0,FF
0,FF
0,FF
0,FF
0,FF
0,FF
0,FF
0,FF
0,FF
RFL Electronics Inc.
(973) 334-3100
Table 2-4. DACS A, MAP 1 (T1 system)
P1RX
P1TX
P2RX
P2TX
P3RX
P3TX
P4RX
P4TX
P5RX
P5TX
P6RX
P6TX
P7RX
P7TX
P8RX
P8TX
1,01
5,01
2,01
5,01
3,01
1,01
4,01
6,01
5,01
3,01
6,01
4,01
7,01
0,FF
8,01
0,FF
1,03
5,03
2,03
5,03
3,03
1,03
4,03
6,03
5,03
3,03
6,03
4,03
7,03
0,FF
8,03
0,FF
1,02
1,04
1,05
1,06
1,07
1,08
1,09
1,10
1,11
1,12
1,13
1,14
1,15
1,16
1,17
1,18
1,19
1,20
1,21
1,22
1,23
1,24
5,02
5,04
5,05
5,06
5,07
5,08
5,09
5,10
5,11
5,12
5,13
5,14
5,15
5,16
5,17
5,18
5,19
5,20
5,21
5,22
5,23
5,24
2,02
2,04
2,05
2,06
2,07
2,08
2,09
2,10
2,11
2,12
2,13
2,14
2,15
2,16
2,17
2,18
2,19
2,20
2,21
2,22
2,23
2,24
IMUX 2000 DACS8P
September 27, 2002
5,02
5,04
5,05
5,06
5,07
5,08
5,09
5,10
5,11
5,12
5,13
5,14
5,15
5,16
5,17
5,18
5,19
5,20
5,21
5,22
5,23
5,24
3,02
3,04
3,05
3,06
3,07
3,08
3,09
3,10
3,11
3,12
3,13
3,14
3,15
3,16
3,17
3,18
3,19
3,20
3,21
3,22
3,23
3,24
1,02
1,04
1,05
1,06
1,07
1,08
1,09
1,10
1,11
1,12
1,13
1,14
1,15
1,16
1,17
1,18
1,19
1,20
1,21
1,22
1,23
1,24
4,02
4,04
4,05
4,06
4,07
4,08
4,09
4,10
4,11
4,12
4,13
4,14
4,15
4,16
4,17
4,18
4,19
4,20
4,21
4,22
4,23
4,24
6,02
6,04
6,05
6,06
6,07
6,08
6,09
6,10
6,11
6,12
6,13
6,14
6,15
6,16
6,17
6,18
6,19
6,20
6,21
6,22
6,23
6,24
2-17
5,02
5,04
5,05
5,06
5,07
5,08
5,09
5,10
5,11
5,12
5,13
5,14
5,15
5,16
5,17
5,18
5,19
5,20
5,21
5,22
5,23
5,24
3,02
3,04
3,05
3,06
3,07
3,08
3,09
3,10
3,11
3,12
3,13
3,14
3,15
3,16
3,17
3,18
3,19
3,20
3,21
3,22
3,23
3,24
6,02
6,04
6,05
6,06
6,07
6,08
6,09
6,10
6,11
6,12
6,13
6,14
6,15
6,16
6,17
6,18
6,19
6,20
6,21
6,22
6,23
6,24
4,02
4,04
4,05
4,06
4,07
4,08
4,09
4,10
4,11
4,12
4,13
4,14
4,15
4,16
4,17
4,18
4,19
4,20
4,21
4,22
4,23
4,24
7,02
7,04
7,05
7,06
7,07
7,08
7,09
7,10
7,11
7,12
7,13
7,14
7,15
7,16
7,17
7,18
7,19
7,20
7,21
7,22
7,23
7,24
0,FF
0,FF
0,FF
0,FF
0,FF
0,FF
0,FF
0,FF
0,FF
0,FF
0,FF
0,FF
0,FF
0,FF
0,FF
0,FF
0,FF
0,FF
0,FF
0,FF
0,FF
0,FF
8,02
8,04
8,05
8,06
8,07
8,08
8,09
8,10
8,11
8,12
8,13
8,14
8,15
8,16
8,17
8,18
8,19
8,20
8,21
8,22
8,23
8,24
0,FF
0,FF
0,FF
0,FF
0,FF
0,FF
0,FF
0,FF
0,FF
0,FF
0,FF
0,FF
0,FF
0,FF
0,FF
0,FF
0,FF
0,FF
0,FF
0,FF
0,FF
0,FF
RFL Electronics Inc.
(973) 334-3100
Table 2-5. DACS B, MAP 0 (T1 system)
P1RX
P1TX
P2RX
P2TX
P3RX
P3TX
P4RX
P4TX
P5RX
P5TX
P6RX
P6TX
P7RX
P7TX
P8RX
P8TX
1,01
4,01
2,01
3,01
3,01
2,01
4,01
1,01
5,01
0,FF
6,01
0,FF
7,01
0,FF
8,01
0,FF
1,03
4,03
2,03
3,03
3,03
2,03
4,03
1,03
5,03
0,FF
6,03
0,FF
7,03
0,FF
8,03
0,FF
1,02
1,04
1,05
1,06
1,07
1,08
1,09
1,10
1,11
1,12
1,13
1,14
1,15
1,16
1,17
1,18
1,19
1,20
1,21
1,22
1,23
1,24
4,02
4,04
4,05
4,06
4,07
4,08
4,09
4,10
4,11
4,12
4,13
4,14
4,15
4,16
4,17
4,18
4,19
4,20
4,21
4,22
4,23
4,24
2,02
2,04
2,05
2,06
2,07
2,08
2,09
2,10
2,11
2,12
2,13
2,14
2,15
2,16
2,17
2,18
2,19
2,20
2,21
2,22
2,23
2,24
IMUX 2000 DACS8P
September 27, 2002
3,02
3,04
3,05
3,06
3,07
3,08
3,09
3,10
3,11
3,12
3,13
3,14
3,15
3,16
3,17
3,18
3,19
3,20
3,21
3,22
3,23
3,24
3,02
3,04
3,05
3,06
3,07
3,08
3,09
3,10
3,11
3,12
3,13
3,14
3,15
3,16
3,17
3,18
3,19
3,20
3,21
3,22
3,23
3,24
2,02
2,04
2,05
2,06
2,07
2,08
2,09
2,10
2,11
2,12
2,13
2,14
2,15
2,16
2,17
2,18
2,19
2,20
2,21
2,22
2,23
2,24
4,02
4,04
4,05
4,06
4,07
4,08
4,09
4,10
4,11
4,12
4,13
4,14
4,15
4,16
4,17
4,18
4,19
4,20
4,21
4,22
4,23
4,24
1,02
1,04
1,05
1,06
1,07
1,08
1,09
1,10
1,11
1,12
1,13
1,14
1,15
1,16
1,17
1,18
1,19
1,20
1,21
1,22
1,23
1,24
2-18
5,02
5,04
5,05
5,06
5,07
5,08
5,09
5,10
5,11
5,12
5,13
5,14
5,15
5,16
5,17
5,18
5,19
5,20
5,21
5,22
5,23
5,24
0,FF
0,FF
0,FF
0,FF
0,FF
0,FF
0,FF
0,FF
0,FF
0,FF
0,FF
0,FF
0,FF
0,FF
0,FF
0,FF
0,FF
0,FF
0,FF
0,FF
0,FF
0,FF
6,02
6,04
6,05
6,06
6,07
6,08
6,09
6,10
6,11
6,12
6,13
6,14
6,15
6,16
6,17
6,18
6,19
6,20
6,21
6,22
6,23
6,24
0,FF
0,FF
0,FF
0,FF
0,FF
0,FF
0,FF
0,FF
0,FF
0,FF
0,FF
0,FF
0,FF
0,FF
0,FF
0,FF
0,FF
0,FF
0,FF
0,FF
0,FF
0,FF
7,02
7,04
7,05
7,06
7,07
7,08
7,09
7,10
7,11
7,12
7,13
7,14
7,15
7,16
7,17
7,18
7,19
7,20
7,21
7,22
7,23
7,24
0,FF
0,FF
0,FF
0,FF
0,FF
0,FF
0,FF
0,FF
0,FF
0,FF
0,FF
0,FF
0,FF
0,FF
0,FF
0,FF
0,FF
0,FF
0,FF
0,FF
0,FF
0,FF
8,02
8,04
8,05
8,06
8,07
8,08
8,09
8,10
8,11
8,12
8,13
8,14
8,15
8,16
8,17
8,18
8,19
8,20
8,21
8,22
8,23
8,24
0,FF
0,FF
0,FF
0,FF
0,FF
0,FF
0,FF
0,FF
0,FF
0,FF
0,FF
0,FF
0,FF
0,FF
0,FF
0,FF
0,FF
0,FF
0,FF
0,FF
0,FF
0,FF
RFL Electronics Inc.
(973) 334-3100
Table 2-6. DACS B, MAP 4 (T1 system)
P1RX
P1TX
P2RX
P2TX
P3RX
P3TX
P4RX
P4TX
P5RX
P5TX
P6RX
P6TX
P7RX
P7TX
P8RX
P8TX
1,01
3,01
2,01
4,01
3,01
1,01
4,01
1,01
5,01
0,FF
6,01
0,FF
7,01
0,FF
8,01
0,FF
1,03
3,03
2,03
4,03
3,03
1,03
4,03
1,03
5,03
0,FF
6,03
0,FF
7,03
0,FF
8,03
0,FF
1,02
1,04
1,05
1,06
1,07
1,08
1,09
1,10
1,11
1,12
1,13
1,14
1,15
1,16
1,17
1,18
1,19
1,20
1,21
1,22
1,23
1,24
3,02
3,04
3,05
3,06
3,07
3,08
3,09
3,10
3,11
3,12
3,13
3,14
3,15
3,16
3,17
3,18
3,19
3,20
3,21
3,22
3,23
3,24
2,02
2,04
2,05
2,06
2,07
2,08
2,09
2,10
2,11
2,12
2,13
2,14
2,15
2,16
2,17
2,18
2,19
2,20
2,21
2,22
2,23
2,24
IMUX 2000 DACS8P
September 27, 2002
4,02
4,04
4,05
4,06
4,07
4,08
4,09
4,10
4,11
4,12
4,13
4,14
4,15
4,16
4,17
4,18
4,19
4,20
4,21
4,22
4,23
4,24
3,02
3,04
3,05
3,06
3,07
3,08
3,09
3,10
3,11
3,12
3,13
3,14
3,15
3,16
3,17
3,18
3,19
3,20
3,21
3,22
3,23
3,24
1,02
1,04
1,05
1,06
1,07
1,08
1,09
1,10
1,11
1,12
1,13
1,14
1,15
1,16
1,17
1,18
1,19
1,20
1,21
1,22
1,23
1,24
4,02
4,04
4,05
4,06
4,07
4,08
4,09
4,10
4,11
4,12
4,13
4,14
4,15
4,16
4,17
4,18
4,19
4,20
4,21
4,22
4,23
4,24
1,02
1,04
1,05
1,06
1,07
1,08
1,09
1,10
1,11
1,12
1,13
1,14
1,15
1,16
1,17
1,18
1,19
1,20
1,21
1,22
1,23
1,24
2-19
5,02
5,04
5,05
5,06
5,07
5,08
5,09
5,10
5,11
5,12
5,13
5,14
5,15
5,16
5,17
5,18
5,19
5,20
5,21
5,22
5,23
5,24
0,FF
0,FF
0,FF
0,FF
0,FF
0,FF
0,FF
0,FF
0,FF
0,FF
0,FF
0,FF
0,FF
0,FF
0,FF
0,FF
0,FF
0,FF
0,FF
0,FF
0,FF
0,FF
6,02
6,04
6,05
6,06
6,07
6,08
6,09
6,10
6,11
6,12
6,13
6,14
6,15
6,16
6,17
6,18
6,19
6,20
6,21
6,22
6,23
6,24
0,FF
0,FF
0,FF
0,FF
0,FF
0,FF
0,FF
0,FF
0,FF
0,FF
0,FF
0,FF
0,FF
0,FF
0,FF
0,FF
0,FF
0,FF
0,FF
0,FF
0,FF
0,FF
7,02
7,04
7,05
7,06
7,07
7,08
7,09
7,10
7,11
7,12
7,13
7,14
7,15
7,16
7,17
7,18
7,19
7,20
7,21
7,22
7,23
7,24
0,FF
0,FF
0,FF
0,FF
0,FF
0,FF
0,FF
0,FF
0,FF
0,FF
0,FF
0,FF
0,FF
0,FF
0,FF
0,FF
0,FF
0,FF
0,FF
0,FF
0,FF
0,FF
8,02
8,04
8,05
8,06
8,07
8,08
8,09
8,10
8,11
8,12
8,13
8,14
8,15
8,16
8,17
8,18
8,19
8,20
8,21
8,22
8,23
8,24
0,FF
0,FF
0,FF
0,FF
0,FF
0,FF
0,FF
0,FF
0,FF
0,FF
0,FF
0,FF
0,FF
0,FF
0,FF
0,FF
0,FF
0,FF
0,FF
0,FF
0,FF
0,FF
RFL Electronics Inc.
(973) 334-3100
Table 2-7. DACS C, MAP 0 (T1 system)
P1RX
P1TX
P2RX
P2TX
P3RX
P3TX
P4RX
P4TX
P5RX
P5TX
P6RX
P6TX
P7RX
P7TX
P8RX
P8TX
1,01
5,01
2,01
3,01
3,01
2,01
4,01
6,01
5,01
1,01
6,01
4,01
7,01
0,FF
8,01
0,FF
1,03
5,03
2,03
3,03
3,03
2,03
4,03
6,03
5,03
1,03
6,03
4,03
7,03
0,FF
8,03
0,FF
1,02
1,04
1,05
1,06
1,07
1,08
1,09
1,10
1,11
1,12
1,13
1,14
1,15
1,16
1,17
1,18
1,19
1,20
1,21
1,22
1,23
1,24
5,02
5,04
5,05
5,06
5,07
5,08
5,09
5,10
5,11
5,12
5,13
5,14
5,15
5,16
5,17
5,18
5,19
5,20
5,21
5,22
5,23
5,24
2,02
2,04
2,05
2,06
2,07
2,08
2,09
2,10
2,11
2,12
2,13
2,14
2,15
2,16
2,17
2,18
2,19
2,20
2,21
2,22
2,23
2,24
IMUX 2000 DACS8P
September 27, 2002
3,02
3,04
3,05
3,06
3,07
3,08
3,09
3,10
3,11
3,12
3,13
3,14
3,15
3,16
3,17
3,18
3,19
3,20
3,21
3,22
3,23
3,24
3,02
3,04
3,05
3,06
3,07
3,08
3,09
3,10
3,11
3,12
3,13
3,14
3,15
3,16
3,17
3,18
3,19
3,20
3,21
3,22
3,23
3,24
2,02
2,04
2,05
2,06
2,07
2,08
2,09
2,10
2,11
2,12
2,13
2,14
2,15
2,16
2,17
2,18
2,19
2,20
2,21
2,22
2,23
2,24
4,02
4,04
4,05
4,06
4,07
4,08
4,09
4,10
4,11
4,12
4,13
4,14
4,15
4,16
4,17
4,18
4,19
4,20
4,21
4,22
4,23
4,24
6,02
6,04
6,05
6,06
6,07
6,08
6,09
6,10
6,11
6,12
6,13
6,14
6,15
6,16
6,17
6,18
6,19
6,20
6,21
6,22
6,23
6,24
2-20
5,02
5,04
5,05
5,06
5,07
5,08
5,09
5,10
5,11
5,12
5,13
5,14
5,15
5,16
5,17
5,18
5,19
5,20
5,21
5,22
5,23
5,24
1,02
1,04
1,05
1,06
1,07
1,08
1,09
1,10
1,11
1,12
1,13
1,14
1,15
1,16
1,17
1,18
1,19
1,20
1,21
1,22
1,23
1,24
6,02
6,04
6,05
6,06
6,07
6,08
6,09
6,10
6,11
6,12
6,13
6,14
6,15
6,16
6,17
6,18
6,19
6,20
6,21
6,22
6,23
6,24
4,02
4,04
4,05
4,06
4,07
4,08
4,09
4,10
4,11
4,12
4,13
4,14
4,15
4,16
4,17
4,18
4,19
4,20
4,21
4,22
4,23
4,24
7,02
7,04
7,05
7,06
7,07
7,08
7,09
7,10
7,11
7,12
7,13
7,14
7,15
7,16
7,17
7,18
7,19
7,20
7,21
7,22
7,23
7,24
0,FF
0,FF
0,FF
0,FF
0,FF
0,FF
0,FF
0,FF
0,FF
0,FF
0,FF
0,FF
0,FF
0,FF
0,FF
0,FF
0,FF
0,FF
0,FF
0,FF
0,FF
0,FF
8,02
8,04
8,05
8,06
8,07
8,08
8,09
8,10
8,11
8,12
8,13
8,14
8,15
8,16
8,17
8,18
8,19
8,20
8,21
8,22
8,23
8,24
0,FF
0,FF
0,FF
0,FF
0,FF
0,FF
0,FF
0,FF
0,FF
0,FF
0,FF
0,FF
0,FF
0,FF
0,FF
0,FF
0,FF
0,FF
0,FF
0,FF
0,FF
0,FF
RFL Electronics Inc.
(973) 334-3100
Table 2-8. DACS D, MAP 0 (T1 system)
P1RX
P1TX
P2RX
P2TX
P3RX
P3TX
P4RX
P4TX
P5RX
P5TX
P6RX
P6TX
P7RX
P7TX
P8RX
P8TX
1,01
4,01
2,01
3,01
3,01
2,01
4,01
1,01
5,01
0,FF
6,01
0,FF
7,01
0,FF
8,01
0,FF
1,03
4,03
2,03
3,03
3,03
2,03
4,03
1,03
5,03
0,FF
6,03
0,FF
7,03
0,FF
8,03
0,FF
1,02
1,04
1,05
1,06
1,07
1,08
1,09
1,10
1,11
1,12
1,13
1,14
1,15
1,16
1,17
1,18
1,19
1,20
1,21
1,22
1,23
1,24
4,02
4,04
4,05
4,06
4,07
4,08
4,09
4,10
4,11
4,12
4,13
4,14
4,15
4,16
4,17
4,18
4,19
4,20
4,21
4,22
4,23
4,24
2,02
2,04
2,05
2,06
2,07
2,08
2,09
2,10
2,11
2,12
2,13
2,14
2,15
2,16
2,17
2,18
2,19
2,20
2,21
2,22
2,23
2,24
IMUX 2000 DACS8P
September 27, 2002
3,02
3,04
3,05
3,06
3,07
3,08
3,09
3,10
3,11
3,12
3,13
3,14
3,15
3,16
3,17
3,18
3,19
3,20
3,21
3,22
3,23
3,24
3,02
3,04
3,05
3,06
3,07
3,08
3,09
3,10
3,11
3,12
3,13
3,14
3,15
3,16
3,17
3,18
3,19
3,20
3,21
3,22
3,23
3,24
2,02
2,04
2,05
2,06
2,07
2,08
2,09
2,10
2,11
2,12
2,13
2,14
2,15
2,16
2,17
2,18
2,19
2,20
2,21
2,22
2,23
2,24
4,02
4,04
4,05
4,06
4,07
4,08
4,09
4,10
4,11
4,12
4,13
4,14
4,15
4,16
4,17
4,18
4,19
4,20
4,21
4,22
4,23
4,24
1,02
1,04
1,05
1,06
1,07
1,08
1,09
1,10
1,11
1,12
1,13
1,14
1,15
1,16
1,17
1,18
1,19
1,20
1,21
1,22
1,23
1,24
2-21
5,02
5,04
5,05
5,06
5,07
5,08
5,09
5,10
5,11
5,12
5,13
5,14
5,15
5,16
5,17
5,18
5,19
5,20
5,21
5,22
5,23
5,24
0,FF
0,FF
0,FF
0,FF
0,FF
0,FF
0,FF
0,FF
0,FF
0,FF
0,FF
0,FF
0,FF
0,FF
0,FF
0,FF
0,FF
0,FF
0,FF
0,FF
0,FF
0,FF
6,02
6,04
6,05
6,06
6,07
6,08
6,09
6,10
6,11
6,12
6,13
6,14
6,15
6,16
6,17
6,18
6,19
6,20
6,21
6,22
6,23
6,24
0,FF
0,FF
0,FF
0,FF
0,FF
0,FF
0,FF
0,FF
0,FF
0,FF
0,FF
0,FF
0,FF
0,FF
0,FF
0,FF
0,FF
0,FF
0,FF
0,FF
0,FF
0,FF
7,02
7,04
7,05
7,06
7,07
7,08
7,09
7,10
7,11
7,12
7,13
7,14
7,15
7,16
7,17
7,18
7,19
7,20
7,21
7,22
7,23
7,24
0,FF
0,FF
0,FF
0,FF
0,FF
0,FF
0,FF
0,FF
0,FF
0,FF
0,FF
0,FF
0,FF
0,FF
0,FF
0,FF
0,FF
0,FF
0,FF
0,FF
0,FF
0,FF
8,02
8,04
8,05
8,06
8,07
8,08
8,09
8,10
8,11
8,12
8,13
8,14
8,15
8,16
8,17
8,18
8,19
8,20
8,21
8,22
8,23
8,24
0,FF
0,FF
0,FF
0,FF
0,FF
0,FF
0,FF
0,FF
0,FF
0,FF
0,FF
0,FF
0,FF
0,FF
0,FF
0,FF
0,FF
0,FF
0,FF
0,FF
0,FF
0,FF
RFL Electronics Inc.
(973) 334-3100
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IMUX 2000 DACS8P
September 27, 2002
2-22
RFL Electronics Inc.
(973) 334-3100
Section 3. CONFIGURATION AND SETUP
3.1 INTRODUCTION
The DACS has two basic configurations; Line-switch mode and Cross-connect mode. Line-switch
mode is basically a DS1 switch, which has very short delays. Cross-connect mode employs buffering,
which disassembles the data into component DS0s and then reassembles them. This allows more
flexibility but incurs longer delays.
In addition to this, the DACS can be used in normal mode or in stand-alone mode. In normal mode the
DACS is used with a local multiplexer, which allows access to the DS0 data at that node. In standalone mode, the node has no multiplexer and no channel cards. Therefore, it is not possible to
drop/insert DS0s and the user has no access to the DS0 data at that node, but can re-route the DS1 data
between eight ports.
The DACS can be used with an IMUX 2000 T1 or E1 Multiplexer, configured as a terminal or a
drop/insert multiplexer. Each of these configurations can be fitted with an electrical interface, or with
an optical interface using a variety of optical I/Os. The optical I/Os permit the T1 or E1 circuit to
operate over a fiber optic cable and are available in both multimode and single-mode configurations at
several different wavelengths.
3.2 TERMINAL MULTIPLEXER WITH DACS
A terminal multiplexer and DACS can serve as an interface between a single T1/E1 "high-speed"
circuit and multiple voice and data "low-speed" circuit as shown in Figure 3-1. Channel modules
convert voice and data signals into a single or multiple 64,000-bit/second (64-Kbps) digital signals.
These 64-Kbps signals or "time slots" are then combined by time division multiplexing (TDM) into a
1,544,000-bit/second (1.544-Mbps) T1 signal, or into a 2,048,000-bit/second (2.048-Mbps) E1 signal.
The multiplexed voice and data circuit becomes payloads within the T1/E1 circuit.
A single T1 circuit provides 24 full-duplex, 64-kbps time slots for an aggregate payload capacity of
1.536 Mbps in each direction. 23 time slots are available for payload in fast reframe mode. The time
slots are numbered 1 through 24. Because the T1 signal format includes an 8-kbps overhead channel
for frame synchronization, error detection, and other functions, the actual T1 interface rate is 1.544
Mbps. Time slot 24 is used for the fast reframe function, if enabled.
A single E1 circuit provides 31 full-duplex 64 Kbps time slots for an aggregate payload capacity of
1.984 Mbps. The time slots are numbered 0 through 31. Time slot 0 is reserved for system use, and if
CAS (Channel Associated Signaling) is used, time slot 16 is dedicated to this function. Time slot 31 is
used for the NMX (network communications) option, if enabled. Time slot 30 is used for the fast
reframe function, if enabled.
IMUX 2000 DACS8P
September 27, 2002
3-1
RFL Electronics Inc.
(973) 334-3100
PRIMARY
PATH
IMUX 2000 T1 OR E1 TERMINAL MULTIPLEXER
CM3R
COMMON
MODULE
DACS
T1/E1 CIRCUIT
(ELECTRICAL
OR FIBER)
BACKUP
PATH
CHANNEL
MODULES
VOICE
MODULE
VOICE
MODULE
DATA
MODULE
P A Y L O A D
DATA
MODULE
ORDERWIRE
MODULE
Can be in Cross-connect
or line-switch mode
C I R C U I T S
Figure 3-1. Terminal multiplexer with DACS (sample configuration)
IMUX 2000 DACS8P
September 27, 2002
3-2
RFL Electronics Inc.
(973) 334-3100
3.3 TWO TERMINAL SYSTEM WITH DACS
Figure 3-2 shows two terminal-end multiplexers, each with a DACS, configured as a point-to-point
two node system. As the figure illustrates, the same payload circuits will appear at both ends of a
point-to-point system. Most payload types (such as voice and full-duplex data circuits) are bidirectional, and will have both an input and an output at each terminal multiplexer. Figure 3-2a shows
the system before a failure and Figure 3-2b shows the system after a failure. The DS1 data is switched
automatically upon detection of a DS1 failure on the primary path. After a switch to the back-up path
occurs, data will be automatically switched back to the primary path after the DACS detects that the
primary path is available. The time to switch upon detection of a failure is programmable by the user.
Note that in this configuration, only 3 out of 8 DACS ports are being used.
NODE 1
TS0
NODE 2
TS1
TS0
DS1
PRIMARY PATH
DS1
BACK-UP PATH
TS31 TS24
E1
T1
TS1
TS31 TS24
E1
T1
TERMINAL-END
MULTIPLEXER
DACS
DACS
TERMINAL-END
MULTIPLEXER
a. Before Failure
NODE 1
NODE 2
FAILURE
TS0
TS1
TS0
DS1
DS1
TS1
PRIMARY PATH
BACK-UP PATH
TS31 TS24
E1
T1
TS31 TS24
E1
T1
TERMINAL-END
MULTIPLEXER
DACS
DACS
TERMINAL-END
MULTIPLEXER
b. After Failure
Notes:
1. Only 3 out of 8 DACS ports are being used in this configuration.
2. TS = timeslot
3. This drawing indicates typical DACS port assignments
Figure 3-2. Point-to-point System with DACS (sample configuration)
IMUX 2000 DACS8P
September 27, 2002
3-3
RFL Electronics Inc.
(973) 334-3100
3.4 DROP/INSERT MULTIPLEXER WITH DACS
A drop/insert multiplexer permits some DS0s to terminate and others to pass through as shown in
Figure 3-3. It also allows DS0s to be inserted at that location. A drop/insert multiplexer can terminate
payload circuits from either of two different T1/E1 circuits; that is, from either of two different
locations.
PRIMARY
PATH
PRIMARY
PATH
T1/E1 CIRCUIT
(ELECTRICAL
OR FIBER)
T1/E1CIRCUIT
(ELECTRICAL
OR FIBER)
DACS
BACKUP
PATH
BACKUP
PATH
DROP/INSERT MULTIPLEXER
COMMON
MODULE
CHANNEL
MODULES
COMMON
MODULE
VOICE
MODULE
DATA
MODULE
ORDERWIRE
MODULE
P A Y L O A D
DATA
MODULE
VOICE
MODULE
C I R C U I T S
Figure 3-3. Drop/insert multiplexer with DACS (sample configuration)
IMUX 2000 DACS8P
September 27, 2002
3-4
RFL Electronics Inc.
(973) 334-3100
3.5 DROP/INSERT SYSTEM WITH DACS
The addition of one or more drop/insert multiplexers converts a simple point-to-point system into a
drop/insert system. Data, voice, and orderwire (multiple drop) circuits can be established between any
two locations in a T1/E1 drop/insert system. As shown in Figure 3-4, a three-node system can provide
circuits between nodes 1 and 2, nodes 2 and 3, and nodes 1 and 3. The only limiting factor is the
capacity of the T1/E1 circuit between any two adjacent nodes, which is 24 or 32 time slots. Drop/insert
systems are not limited to a single drop/insert multiplexer, and may contain more than three nodes.
NODE 2
NODE 3
CH 1
CH 1
2
CH 2
BACK-UP PATH
BACK-UP PATH
3
6
5
CH 3
CH 2
1
CH 4
CH 3
PRIMARY
4
PATH
PRIMARY
PATH
CH 6
CH 5
CH 7
IMUX 2000
TERMINAL-END
MULTIPLEXER
DACS
DACS
4
3
2
IMUX 2000
TERMINAL-END
MULTIPLEXER
1
DACS
5
6
NODE 1
IMUX 2000
DROP/INSERT
MULTIPLEXER
CH 4
CH 5
CH 3
CH 6
CH 7
Notes:
1. 3 out of 8 DACS ports are being used at nodes 2 and 3 in this configuration.
2. 6 out of 8 DACS ports are being used at node 1 in this configuration.
3. This drawing indicates typical DACS port assignments.
4. CH = channel.
Figure 3-4. Drop/Insert DACS in a linear system with primary and backup paths (sample configuration)
IMUX 2000 DACS8P
September 27, 2002
3-5
RFL Electronics Inc.
(973) 334-3100
3.6 DACS USED IN A RING CONFIGURATION
Self-healing ring operation of the DACS is accomplished using several eight-port DACS units. Four
T1/E1 signals are brought into each location from adjacent nodes to form a ring. (See Figure 3-5).
Two terminal-end multiplexers are head and tailed at a central location (node 1) using a common
DACS. All other units around the ring (Nodes 2, 3 and 4) are drop/insert units, each utilizing a DACS.
Under normal operation each channel is mapped from node to node. At each Drop and Insert node the
signal comes into the DACS, passes through the D&I mux, returns into the DACS which then sends it
to the next node in the network. This is the “primary” path in the network and is represented by the
outer network lines in Figure 3-5 which shows a typical network without any failures.
Two communications links are detailed in Figure 3-5. The path being used for signal “CH1” between
Nodes 2 and 3 is indicated by the heavier path lines. The path used for CH 2 is similarly shown
between nodes 3 and 4.
Figure 3-6 shows the same network with a path break between nodes 2 and 3. In this case the path for
CH 2 is unaffected and continues as before, however, the path previously used for CH 1 is no longer
available. Both Nodes 2 and 3 detect the path failure and switch to the “backup” path. As indicated in
the diagram, the signal now flows from Node 2 in the other direction into the backup path as indicated
in the diagram. The signal is passed through nodes 1 and 4 without passing through the D&Is. At
node 3 the signal is taken out of the backup path and fed into the D&I. When the failure is restored, the
T1/E1 signal is automatically re-routed back to the normal primary path.
IMUX 2000 DACS8P
September 27, 2002
3-6
RFL Electronics Inc.
(973) 334-3100
CH 1
DROP/INSERT
MULTIPLEXER
NODE 2
DACS
PRIMARY PATH
BACK-UP PATH
NODE 1
NODE 3
T.E.
MULTIPLEXER
DACS
DACS
T.E.
MULTIPLEXER
DROP/
INSERT
MULTIPLEXER
CH 1
CH 2
DACS
NODE 4
DROP/INSERT
MULTIPLEXER
CH 2
Figure 3-5. DACS ring configuration before a failure (sample configuration)
IMUX 2000 DACS8P
September 27, 2002
3-7
RFL Electronics Inc.
(973) 334-3100
CH 1
DROP/INSERT
MULTIPLEXER
NODE 2
DACS
PRIMARY PATH
BACK-UP PATH
FAILURE
NODE 1
NODE 3
T.E.
MULTIPLEXER
DACS
T.E.
MULTIPLEXER
DACS
DROP/
INSERT
MULTIPLEXER
CH 1
CH 2
DACS
NODE 4
DROP/INSERT
MULTIPLEXER
CH 2
Figure 3-6. DACS ring configuration after a failure (sample configuration)
IMUX 2000 DACS8P
September 27, 2002
3-8
RFL Electronics Inc.
(973) 334-3100
3.7 DACS IN STAND ALONE MODE
IMUX
2000
IMUX
2000
IMUX
2000
DS1
DS1
DS1
1
T1/E1
DS1 LINK
NETWORK
2
8
3
4
DACS
7
6
DS1
5
DS1
IMUX
2000
DS1
DS1
IMUX
2000
IMUX
2000
IMUX
2000
Figure 3-7. DACS in stand-alone (cross-connect) mode
An application of the DACS in stand alone (cross-connect) mode is shown in Figure 3-7. A DS1 link from
a network enters the DACS on Port 8. The DS1s are re-routed to IMUXs via Ports 1 through 7. In this
mode the user has no access to the data at the DACS.
IMUX 2000 DACS8P
September 27, 2002
3-9
RFL Electronics Inc.
(973) 334-3100
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blank
IMUX 2000 DACS8P
September 27, 2002
3-10
RFL Electronics Inc.
(973) 334-3100
Section 4. DACS COMPONENTS
4.1 DACS COMPONENTS
Each 8-Port DACS may contain a combination the following components:
Nomenclature
RFL Part No.
See Paragraph
1. DACS Chassis
107400
4.1.1
2. Display Module
107425
4.1.2
3. Jackfield/Relay Module
107420
4.1.3
4. Alternate Relay Module (Non Jackfield) 107420-1
4.1.3
5. Motherboard
107430
4.1.4
6. DACS Module
107405
4.1.5
7. Redundancy Module (optional)
107415
4.1.6
8. Power Supply Module(s)
9547-910, 920, 930, 950
4.1.7
9. SAG Module (optional)
106950
4.1.8
10. Communications I/O (MA-250)
107435
4.1.9
11. Line I/Os (MA-260, MA-262)
107440, 107440-1
4.1.10
12. Coax Line I/O (E1) (MA-261)
107450
4.1.11
13. Fiber I/Os
107455-100, 200, 300, 400, 500
4.1.12
14. SAG I/O (MA-255)
107445
4.1.13
15. Power Supply Alarm I/O Module
9547-18801, 02, 04, 05, 06, 07, 08
4.1.14
Each of these components is described in the paragraphs that follow.
IMUX 2000 DACS8P
September 18, 2006
4-1
RFL Electronics Inc.
(973) 334-3100
4.1.1 DACS CHASSIS
The DACS Chassis is the enclosure for all DACS components. The basic chassis houses the display
module, the jackfield/relay modules and motherboard. It has plug-in slots under the front hinged cover
for the main power supply, redundant power supply, DACS module(s) and SAG module. These are the
only modules that plug into the front of the DACS chassis. Plug-in slots at the rear accommodate all of
the I/Os (See Figure 4-1).
Each DACS Chassis can be installed in a standard 19-inch equipment rack. The Chassis is 5.25 inches
(13.3 cm) high, and occupies three rack units of cabinet space (3RU).
POWER
SUPPLY
ALARM I/O
COMMS I/O
or
SAG I/O
MOTHERBOARD
See Figure
3-4 for view
of panel
DACS
Chassis
FRONT
HINGED
COVER
MAIN
POWER
SUPPLY
REDUNDANT
POWER
SUPPLY
(optional)
SAG
MODULE
(optional)
LEFT
REDUNDANT
MODULE
(optional)
LEFT
DACS
MODULE
RIGHT
REDUNDANT
MODULE
(optional)
JACKFIELD/
RELAY
MODULES
DISPLAY
MODULE
RIGHT
DACS
MODULE
(optional)
Figure 4-1. DACS Chassis, front view
IMUX 2000 DACS8P
September 18, 2006
4-2
RFL Electronics Inc.
(973) 334-3100
The following rules control slot assignments at the front of the DACS chassis:
1.
The main power supply and redundant power supply (when used), must be plugged into the
locations shown in Figure 4-1.
2.
The SAG module (when used), must be plugged into slot 1.
3.
The Left DACS module must be plugged into slots 2 and 3.
4.
The Right DACS module (when used), must be plugged into slots 5, 6 and 7. (When you use
the right DACS module you must also use the Right Redundant module.)
5.
Front chassis slots 4 and 7 are reserved for the left and right Redundant modules.
6.
Front chassis slots 8 through 12 are always blank.
The following rules control slot assignments at the rear of the DACS chassis:
1.
The Power Supply Alarm I/O module must be plugged into the location shown in Figure 4-1.
2.
At the rear of the chassis, optical or electrical IOs can be plugged into slots 7, 8, 9, 10, 11, 12,
13 or 14.
3.
The Communications IO and the SAG IO occupy the same slot. Therefore, only one or the
other can be used in a given chassis.
4.
Rear chassis slots 1 through 4 and slots 15 through 18 are always blank.
4.1.2 DISPLAY MODULE
The Display module is a plug-in board located under the screwed down panel on the right side of the
chassis as shown in Figure 4-1. It receives information from the Right and Left DACS modules and
displays status information to the user. It does this via eleven LEDs and a seven-segment display
visible on the front panel. This module is normally installed as part of the chassis but may be ordered
as a spare or replacement.
The Display module consists of two separate boards. Board A is the main board, which plugs into the
chassis. Board B is a smaller LED board which is screwed to the front panel and contains eleven LEDs
and a seven-segment display. The two boards are connected with a ribbon cable between J2 on the
main board and J1 on the LED board. Both of these boards are shown in Figure 4-2.
When installed in the chassis, the eleven LEDs and the seven segment display are visible through
cutouts in the screwed down panel as shown in Figure 4-4.
The Right Redundant module communicates to the Display module, via the right DACS module,
whether or not it wants to take control of the node. If it does take control, the relays on the
Jackfield/Relay boards are energized, thereby giving the Right Redundant DACS module control of
the node. In non-redundant installations, the DACS module will be installed in the left DACS module
slots (slots 2 and 3), the Left Redundant module need not be installed in slot 4, and slots 5 through 7
will be blank.
IMUX 2000 DACS8P
September 18, 2006
4-3
RFL Electronics Inc.
(973) 334-3100
a. Display Module, Board A (Main Board)
b. Display Module, Board B (LED Board)
Figure 4-2. DACS Display Module
IMUX 2000 DACS8P
September 18, 2006
4-4
RFL Electronics Inc.
(973) 334-3100
4.1.3 JACKFIELD/RELAY MODULE
The Jackfield/Relay module is a plug-in module located under the screwed down panel on the right
side of the chassis as shown in Figure 4-1. It contains the redundancy switching relays and the front
panel Bantam jacks. Two of these modules are required per chassis. These modules are normally
installed as part of the chassis but may be ordered as spares or replacement. Two views of the Jackfield
/Relay module are shown in Figure 4-3. When installed in the chassis, the jacks are accessible through
cutouts in the screwed down panel as shown in Figure 4-4. An alternate configuration without the
Jackfield/Relay Modules is also shown in Figure 4-3 and 4- 4.
a. Board View with Jackfield Relay
2002 RFL ELECTRONICS INC
BOONTON NJ USA
DACS JACKFIELD BYPASS
ECB NO. 107423-1 REV A
b. Jackfield View
(Note: See Figure 4-4 for port Assignments)
c. Board View, Alternate Configuration
Figure 4-3. Jackfield/Relay Module
IMUX 2000 DACS8P
September 18, 2006
4-5
RFL Electronics Inc.
(973) 334-3100
STATUS
LINE
ALERT
PORT 1
HDW
ALERT
PORT 2
CNFG
ALERT
PORT 3
TX
PORT 1
RX
TX
PORT 5
RX
TX
PORT 2
RX
TX
PORT 6
RX
TX
PORT 3
RX
TX
PORT 7
RX
TX
PORT 4
RX
TX
PORT 8
RX
PORT 4
PORT 5
PORT 6
PORT 7
MAP
PORT 8
MON EQUIP
DISPLAY
MODULE
JACKFIELD/
RELAY
MODULE NO. 1
MON
JACKFIELD/
RELAY
MODULE NO. 2
a. Display Panel with Jackfield port Assignments
STATUS
LINE
ALERT
PORT 1
HDW
ALERT
PORT 2
CNFG
ALERT
PORT 3
PORT 4
PORT 5
PORT 6
PORT 7
MAP
PORT 8
DISPLAY
MODULE
b. Alternate Display Panel without Jackfield/Relay Modules
Figure 4-4. Display and Jackfield Panel
IMUX 2000 DACS8P
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RFL Electronics Inc.
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Table 4-1. Display module and Jackfield/Relay modules, controls and indicators
Module
Display
Module
Label
LINE Alert
Description
Amber LED: Indicates that a line fault has been detected.
HDW Alert
CNFG Alert
Amber LED: Indicates that a hardware fault has been detected.
MAP
7-segment LED:
Indication
0 to 7
Amber LED: Is activated when the system is configured to operate in a manner other
than the normal protection function. Presently, only turning service off or forcing a
map is considered a configuration alert.
H
L
L (slow flash)
L (fast flash)
E
F
Port 1
4.1.3.1.1.1
Meaning
DACS mode. Number indicates the map currently in use.
0 = primary map, 1 to 7 = alternate maps.
Hot-Standby mode. One or two channels of hot-standby.
ILS Mode
ILS Mode. Has switched to a backup path.
ILS Mode. Has gone into reversion. (See Table 2-2 & para. 2.7)
Error (for example, no DACS module)
Fail. Node failure (for example, MUX failure)
Multi-color LED: Green indicates that the received signal at Port 1 is good.
Amber indicates that the received signal at Port 1 contains errors
insufficient to cause a switch, or that the port is in the process
of recovering.
4.1.3.1.1.2
Red indicates that the received signal at Port 1 is not present or
contains errors sufficient to cause a switch.
Port 2
Same as above for Port 2.
Port 3
Same as above for Port 3.
Port 4
Same as above for Port 4.
Port 5
Same as above for Port 5.
Port 6
Same as above for Port 6.
Port 7
Port 8
Same as above for Port 7.
Jackfield/Relay
Port 1 Tx/Rx
Monitor and Equipment jacks for Port 1 Tx and Rx.
Module No. 1
Port 2 Tx/Rx
Monitor and Equipment jacks for Port 2 Tx and Rx.
Port 3 Tx/Rx
Monitor and Equipment jacks for Port 3 Tx and Rx.
Port 4 Tx/Rx
Monitor and Equipment jacks for Port 4 Tx and Rx.
Jackfield/Relay
Port 5 Tx/Rx
Monitor and Equipment jacks for Port 5 Tx and Rx.
Module No. 2
Port 6 Tx/Rx
Monitor and Equipment jacks for Port 6 Tx and Rx.
Port 7 Tx/Rx
Monitor and Equipment jacks for Port 7 Tx and Rx.
Port 8 Tx/Rx
Monitor and Equipment jacks for Port 8 Tx and Rx.
IMUX 2000 DACS8P
September 18, 2006
Same as above for Port 8.
4-7
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4.1.4 MOTHERBOARD
The Motherboard provides all power and signal connections within the DACS chassis. It is centrally
located in the DACS chassis. Modules plug into the Motherboard from the front or rear of the chassis
as shown in Figure 4-1. The modules that plug into the front of the motherboard are as follows:
Main power supply
Redundant power supply (optional)
SAG module (optional)
Left DACS module (and Redundant module, if used)
Right DACS module and Redundant Module (optional)
Display module
Jackfield/Relay modules
The modules that plug into the rear of the motherboard are as follows:
Communications I/O or SAG I/O
Line I/O
Optical I/Os
Power Supply Alarm I/O
IMUX 2000 DACS8P
September 18, 2006
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Figure 4-5. Motherboard, front and rear views
IMUX 2000 DACS8P
September 18, 2006
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RFL Electronics Inc.
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4.1.5 DACS MODULE
The DACS module is a two-card assembly, which is screwed together. It is made up of the Processor
module (Figure 4-6) and the Framer module (Figure 4-7). It performs all of the DACS functions and
plugs into the front of the DACS chassis as shown in Figure 4-1. This module assembly is hotpluggable.
The Processor module is responsible for controlling all DACS functions. The module contains a Rabbit
2000 8-bit microprocessor as its main processing unit. The module also contains the usual embedded
hardware support devices, which include an ACTEL FPGA (Field Programmable Gate Array)
containing support and control logic, and FLASH, NVRAM and Power Supply control circuits. It also
contains RS232 and RS485 drivers. The processor communicates with all eight framer chips on the
framer module and sets their operating parameters. Any DACS mapping or cross-connect switching is
also controlled by this processor. The processor constantly polls the framer chips for the status of
T1/E1 links and makes routing decisions based on this information.
The Framer module is used to reroute DS1 traffic from one port to another. The module has eight
integrated T1/E1 framer chips, an external clock receive circuit, two dual-port RAMS for payload and
signal mapping, and an ACTEL FPGA for support and control functions (DACS mapping). The eight
incoming T1/E1 signals are framed and decoded by these framer chips. They are then routed to another
FPGA where they are directed toward the appropriate framers for retransmission. All user interface
with this module is controlled by the processor board.
In normal mode, the user interface with the DACS module is through the IMUX 2000 CM3R via the
SCB. A user RS232 port has been provided to communicate with the DACS in stand alone mode. This
is used to configure the DACS or to poll the DACS for status information.
This module has no hardware configurable items.
IMUX 2000 DACS8P
September 18, 2006
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Figure 4-6. DACS Processor Module
Table 4-2. Processor module controls and indicators
Reference
Designation
DS1
DS2
J1
J2
J3
J4
J6
J7
J8
P2
P3
P6
TP0
TP1
TP2
TP3
TP4
TP5
Function
Green LED: ON = local power is good
Green LED: ON = normal, no local failure), OFF = processor board has detected a failure of a
locally monitored signal.
For factory use only.
For factory use only.
For factory use only.
For factory use only.
For factory use only.
For factory use only.
For factory use only.
Provides connections to P2 of Framer module.
Provides connections to J1 of Redundant module.
Provides connections to J3 of Redundant module.
For factory use only.
For factory use only.
For factory use only.
For factory use only.
For factory use only.
For factory use only.
IMUX 2000 DACS8P
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Figure 4-7. DACS Framer Module
Table 4-3. Framer module controls and indicators
Reference
Designation
J1
J9
J10
J11
J12
P2
TP1
TP2
TP3
TP4
TP5
TP6
TP7
TP8
TP9
TP10
Function
For factory use only.
For factory use only.
For factory use only.
For factory use only.
For factory use only.
Provides connections to P2 of Processor module
For factory use only.
For factory use only.
For factory use only.
For factory use only.
For factory use only.
For factory use only.
For factory use only.
For factory use only.
For factory use only.
For factory use only.
IMUX 2000 DACS8P
September 18, 2006
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4.1.6 REDUNDANT MODULE
The Redundant module shown in Figure 4-8 is a plug-on option to the DACS module. It monitors
DACS performance and makes the decision to switch between the left and right DACS modules. This
module has four LED indicators, one toggle switch and five test points. Table 4-4 explains the
functions of each of these components.
Figure 4-8. DACS Redundant Module
IMUX 2000 DACS8P
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Table 4-4. Redundant Module, controls and indicators
Reference
Designation
DS1
Label
Active
Function
Green LED which indicates that the DACS module is currently active.
DS2
Ready
Green LED which indicates that the DACS module does not detect any on-board
failures. When flashing, indicates that the DACS is receiving configuration
data.
DS3
Force
Amber LED which indicates that the DACS module was manually forced to the
active state by switch SW1 or by a software command, or has a port related
(non-critical) problem.
DS4
Fault
Red LED which indicates that the DACS module has detected its own failure.
J1
...
Provides connections to P3 of processor module.
J3
...
Provides connections to P6 of processor module.
J4
Debug/Run
For factory use only.
J5
...
For factory use only.
SW1
Normal/Disable
Disable position causes the module to become inactive if possible.
Normal position permits automatic redundant operation.
TP1
GND
For factory use only.
TP2
PRA
For factory use only.
TP3
PRB
For factory use only.
TP4
...
For factory use only.
TP5
...
For factory use only.
IMUX 2000 DACS8P
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4.1.7 POWER SUPPLY MODULES
4.1.7.1 INTRODUCTION
The 2000 PS power supply modules are the power source for all logic circuits in the Redundant DACS
chassis. As shown in Table 4-5, they are available in both dc-input and ac-input versions. 50 watts of
output power is available as follows: +5 Volts @ 4 Amperes, +15 Volts @ 1.0 Amperes, -15 Volts @
0.75 Amperes, and 48 Volts @ 0.1 Amperes. A typical DACS power supply is shown in Figure 4-9.
Two supplies may be paralleled directly for redundancy by the use of Schottky steering diodes on the
5-Volt and 15-Volt outputs. Input fusing and output overcurrent protection are provided as safety
features. In addition, the supply is designed to meet the 2800-Vdc Hipot, Oscillatory, and FastTransient tests specified in ANSI C37.90.1-1988.
Table 4-5. Power Supply Modules, General Information
Unit
Model Designation
Part
Number
Input Voltage
Power Supply
2000 PS 24DC
9547-910
24 Vdc
Power Supply
2000 PS 48/125DC
9547-920
48 Vdc or125 Vdc
Power Supply
2000 PS 220AC
9547-930
220 Vac
Power Supply
2000 PS 120AC
9547-950
120 Vac
Note: See Paragraph 4.1.14 for Power Supply Alarm I/O application information.
Figure 4-9. Typical DACS Power Supply module
IMUX 2000 DACS8P
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4.1.7.2 SPECIFICATIONS
As of the date this manual was published, the specifications shown in Table 4-6 apply to all DACS
power supply modules, except where indicated. Because all RFL products undergo constant refinement
and improvement, these specifications are subject to change without notice.
Table 4-6. DACS Power Supply Specifications
Power Supply→
Specifications
↓
Input Voltage Range
9547-910
9547-920
9547-930
9547-950
19 to 29 Vdc
38 to 150 Vdc
180 to 265 Vac
90 to 130 Vac
Max Output Current:
+5V
+15V
-15V
-48V
4.00A
1.00A
0.75A
0.10A
Adjustments:
R44
R49
R50
R76
+5 Volt output adjust
+15 Volt output adjust
-15 Volt output adjust
NA
TP1
TP2
TP3
TP4
TP5
TP6
TP7
TP8
TP9
TP10
Output circuit common
+5Volt output
+15 Volt output
-15 Volt output
-48Vdc output
NA
NA
NA
NA
NA
Test Points:
Indicators
DS1 – Normal (Green)
DS2 – Alert (Yellow)
DS3 – Fail (Red)
DS4 – Power (Green)
DS5 – Supply Fail (Red)
Alarm Disable
Switch
SW1
Enables “dropout” of relays K51 & K52 on Power Supply Alarm I/O module when in the ENABLE position.
Keeps relays K51 & K52 on Power Supply Alarm I/O module “pulled in” when in the DISABLED position.
Operating
Temperature
-20oC to +55oC
Humidity
95% @ +40oC
Isolation
2500 Vdc isolation from input terminals to ground, output terminals to ground, input terminals to output
terminals, relay contacts to ground, and relay contacts to coil.
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4.1.7.3 THEORY OF OPERATION (9547-910, -920, -930 and -950)
The RFL IMUX 2000, 50 Watt power supply is a multiple output, forward, dc to dc converter which is
designed around a PWM integrated circuit. The 9547-910 power supply operates from a 19 to 29 Vdc
input, the 9547-920 power supply operates from a 38 to 150 Vdc input, the 9547-930 power supply
operates from a 180 to 265 Vac input, and the 9547-950 power supply operates from a 120 Vac input.
Each of these supplies has four outputs: 5 Vdc at 4.0 Adc, + 15 Vdc at 1.0 Adc, -15 Vdc at -0.75 Adc,
and -48 Vdc at 100 mAdc. All of the outputs are connected to a common ground. The 5 Vdc output is
constantly monitored and signals are provided if the output should exceed lower limits. All outputs
have or’ing diodes which allow two supplies to be connected in parallel, for redundancy. An external
alarm and interface board provides fusing and EMI suppression.
4.1.7.4 POWER SUPPLY REDUNDANT OPERATION
The following discussion assumes that the J11 jumper on the motherboard is in the Redundant position.
When two power supplies are installed in the same multiplexer shelf, they operate in a redundant
fashion that is transparent to the user. Redundancy occurs automatically, as described below. (Since
redundancy works the same for the +15-volt, -15-volt, and +5-volt outputs, only the +15-volt output
will be described.)
The two power supply modules do not produce exactly the same +15-volt output; one will be slightly
higher than the other. The higher-voltage output will become the dominant (or primary) output, and
will bear the entire +15 volt load. This occurs because the feedback voltage present at the redundant
output is higher than its internal reference voltage; this will tend to turn the redundant output off. A
resistor is placed in the feedback divider network to prevent the output from turning off completely.
At this point, a Schottky diode on the redundant output is reverse-biased, preventing current from
flowing from the primary output into the redundant output. If the primary output fails, the diode will
become forward-biased, and the redundant output will then bear the entire +15-volt load. Switchover
occurs quickly and smoothly, preventing system misoperation.
IMUX 2000 DACS8P
September 18, 2006
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4.1.8 SAG MODULE
The SAG (SNMP Access Gateway) module allows a user to connect a DACS to a PC over an ethernet
network to program the Redundant DACS or to poll for status information using NMS. An overview of
SAG connections can be seen in Figure 4-11. The SAG has two serial ports, and one ethernet 10BaseT
network port. Front panel LEDs provide status information about the ethernet connection, serial port
activity, and power status as shown in Figure 4-10 and Table 4-7.
The serial ports can operate from 300 to 19,200 baud, and are used to monitor serial data streams
and/or provide remote pass-through access to connected equipment. These serial ports are labeled
IMUX (I/O 1) and REMOTE (I/O 2). An alarm configuration file can be loaded into the SAG memory,
and the SAG can then monitor the data received on the serial ports for alarm conditions.
The serial ports may be used for pass-through access to connected serial devices, similar to a terminal
server. A TCP/IP connection is made to the SAG, and then characters received from the network
connection are passed to the serial port, and characters received on the serial port are passed to the
network connection. This pass-through mode may be used to remotely access the maintenance ports of
equipment.
When more than one connection is made to the SAG for access to the same pass-through port, then
users may be allowed to “join” connections. This feature can be useful in providing technical support in
the use of the connected equipment. Two remote users, at different locations, can both have access to
the same pass-through port. This allows a person providing technical support, to see what commands or
data is actually being sent and received, which can be quite useful when providing technical support.
Reset Button
Program Button
Network LED
Link Led
Network TX LED
Port 1 RX LED
Port 1 TX LED
Port 2 RX LED
Port 2 TX LED
Power LED
Figure 4-10. SAG module used in DACS
IMUX 2000 DACS8P
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Table 4-7. SAG module controls and indicators
Label
Function
Reset Button
Used to reset the SAG module.
Program Button
Used to silence audible alarms and to enter local command (programming ) mode.
Network LED (green)
Lights when a TCP socket is opened to the unit.
Link LED (yellow)
Lights when an ethernet 10baseT network link connection is found.
Network TX LED (green)
Lights briefly when an ethernet frame is being transmitted.
Port 1 RXD LED (red/green)
Flickers between red and green (appears yellow) when data is being received.*
Port 1 TXD LED (red/green)
Flickers between red and green (appears yellow) when data is being transmitted.*
Port 2 RXD LED (red/green)
Flickers between red and green (appears yellow) when data is being received.*
Port 2 TXD LED (red/green)
Flickers between red and green (appears yellow) when data is being transmitted.*
Power LED (green)
Normally ON constantly with a quick flash every ten seconds.
*Note: See the RFL IMUX 2000 SNMP Access Gateway User’s Manual for additional information on these LEDs.
One of the serial ports (I/O 2) may also be used as a local command port, for configuration or checking
on the status of the device. “Local Command Port Mode” may be entered by using either a push-button
located on the front panel of the SAG or by entering a pre-defined escape sequence on the serial port
itself. This local command port is especially useful when performing static allocation of network IP
addresses, in which case the SAG needs to be configured with an IP address prior to it its use on the
network.
An Events file is maintained by the SAG which contains logged events, such as received alarm
records, etc. Each type of item which may be recorded in the events log, is enabled by its own
configuration setting, so that the events file usage can be customized as appropriate for the installation
site.
All settings and configurations of the SAG may be made remotely, using either commands via a
TCP/IP or modem connection, or by SNMP. The SAG contains a customized management information
base (MIB) which may be used to configure and control the SAG. Configuration settings are stored in
non-volatile memory for preservation in the event of a power loss.
When used with the DACS the SAG module connects to the remote port of the IMUX using port 1. Port
2 is used as a craft interface to both the IMUX and SAG. A serial cable is supplied for connection from
I/O 1 to the REMOTE port on the IMUX CM3R. The power for the gateway is supplied via the IMUX
motherboard.
The unit is programmed at the factory for the proper setup for most IMUX applications. The only
required setup by the user is to program in the proper IP address for the gateway and the destination IP
address for the SNMP traps.
IMUX 2000 DACS8P
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The gateway has been designed to work specifically with version 23 of the IMUX CM3C software or any
version of the CM3R software. When used with any of these versions, RS232 trap messages are created
by the IMUX. This allows the gateway to generate SNMP traps, as a result of a message from the IMUX.
These traps will contain data that defines the fault condition on the IMUX. More information on the
SAG is contained in the RFL IMUX 2000 SNMP Access Gateway User’s Manual.
PC OR
LAPTOP
WITH NMS
ETHERNET
ACCESS
LOCAL ACCESS
RS-232
SERIAL PORT
ETHERNET
NETWORK
ETHERNET
PORT
SAG I/O
DACS
Chassis
SAG
PC OR
LAPTOP
WITH NMS
Figure 4-11. SAG module connectivity overview
IMUX 2000 DACS8P
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4.1.9 COMMUNICATIONS I/O
The DACS Communications I/O module is used for local communications between a DACS and an
IMUX 2000 or a PC. The module has three connectors as shown in Figure 4-12. Connector J1 is a
shielded 8-position modular jack which is used for the SCB connection, J2 is a shielded 6-position
modular jack which is used for external timing, and P1 is a DB-9P male connector which is used for RS232. Pinouts for these connectors are shown below.
MA-250
8
J1
(SCB connector)
Pin
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
Function
SCB_CLK_A
SCB_CLK_B
SCB_SYNC_A
SCB_SYNC_B
SCB_DATA_A
SCB_DATA_B
Pin
1
2
3
4
5
6
Function
TIMINTIMIN+
Pin
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
Function
TXD
RXD
CTS
GROUND
DTR
-
1
J2
(external timing
connector)
P1
(RS232 connector)
6
1
5
1
9
6
Figure 4-12. DACS Communications I/O module, rear panel view
IMUX 2000 DACS8P
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4.1.10 LINE I/Os (T1/E1)
There are two types of DACS Line I/O modules used for communication between nodes in T1 or E1
systems. In T1 systems the required termination impedance is 100 Ohms. The system automatically
sets the 100 Ohm termination impedance during NMS configuration. In E1 systems the required
termination impedance is 120 Ohms and is not set automatically. The 120 Ohm termination impedance
must be set by the user during NMS configuration. The MA-260 uses an RJ48C connector and the
MA-262 uses a DB-9 connector as shown in Figure 4-13.
8
7
6
5 T1-OUT+
4 T1-OUT3
2 T1-IN1 T1-IN+
MA-260
J1
(T1/E1 Line
connector)
RJ48C
MA-262
J1 PINOUTS (3, 6, 7
& 8 NOT USED)
J1
(T1/E1 Line connector)
DB-9
Pin
Function
5, 9
GROUND
1
T1-IN+
2
T1-IN-
3
T1-OUT+
4
T1-OUTJ1 PINOUTS ( 6, 7
& 8 NOT USED)
JP1
J2
CONN
(CSU)
DC PATH
OPEN
J1
Selects CSU mode
(CSU = Channel Service Unit)
Selects T1/E1 mode
Figure 4-13. DACS MA-260 and MA-262-Line I/Os, rear panel views
IMUX 2000 DACS8P
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4.1.11 COAX LINE I/O (E1)
The DACS Coax Line I/O for E1 systems is shown in Figure 4-14. This module is used for E1
communications between nodes using 75 Ohm coax only. The 75 Ohm termination impedance must be
set by the user during NMS configuration.
MA-261
RX
J3
TX
J4
Figure 4-14. DACS Coax Line I/O (E1) module, rear panel view
IMUX 2000 DACS8P
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4.1.12 FIBER I/Os
4.1.12.1 INTRODUCTION
This section provides technical information on the Fiber I/Os which are used to connect the IMUX
2000 DACS to fiber optic cables. Figure 4-15 shows the rear panel view of a typical Fiber I/O module.
Table 4-8 summarizes the differences between the various Fiber I/O modules. Additional information
can be found in Table 4-9.
WARNING
YOUR DACS CHASSIS MAY BE EQUIPPED WITH FIBER INPUT/OUTPUT
MODULES THAT HAVE FIBER OPTIC EMITTER HEADS. FIBER OPTIC
EMITTER HEADS USE A LASER LIGHT SOURCE THAT PRODUCES INVISIBLE
RADIATION. IF YOUR DACS CHASSIS IS EQUIPPED WITH ONE OF THESE
HEADS, STARING DIRECTLY INTO THE LIGHT BEAM MAY RESULT IN
PERMANENT EYE DAMAGE AND/OR BLINDNESS. NEVER LOOK DIRECTLY
INTO THE LIGHT BEAM AND BE CAREFUL NOT TO SHINE THE LIGHT
AGAINST ANY REFLECTIVE SURFACE.
THE LASER SOURCE IS A CLASS IIIb LASER PRODUCT, USING GALLIUM
INDIUM ARSENIDE PHOSPHIDE. ITS RECOMMENDED MAXIMUM POWER
OUTPUT IS 7mW. IT COMPLIES WITH APPLICABLE DHHS STANDARDS
UNDER THE RADIATION CONTROL FOR HEALTH AND SAFETY ACT OF 1968.
NOTE
When interfacing the T1/E1 Fiber Service Unit (RFL part numbers 107600-200 thru
107600-500) to a Fiber Optic port on an 8-Port DACS, the Line Coding of the 8-Port DACS
must be set to AMI
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INTF
850MM
LED
FIBER
RX
TX
Figure 4-15. Typical DACS Fiber I/O module, rear panel view
If your DACS chassis is equipped with Fiber Optic Modules, fiber optic connectors must be connected
to the fiber optic heads on the rear panel of the DACS chassis. Type ST series bayonet fiber optic
connectors (or their equivalent) are used with both singlemode and multimode fibers. The exact
mating connector used will depend upon the head that is installed in the fiber optic module, and the
specific optic cable being used.
When connecting fiber optic cables, make sure the connectors are properly aligned before tightening
and then fully tighten them. This will help minimize losses in the connector.
IMUX 2000 DACS8P
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Table 4-8. Characteristics of IMUX 2000 Optical Interface Adapters
Model Designation
Part
Number
Type
Wavelength/
Mode
Connector
Peak Light
Level*
Average Light
Level*
850-nm MM OIA
107455-100
LED Emitter/Detector
850 nm Multimode
ST
-10dBm
-13dBm
1300-nm MM OIA
107455-300
LED Emitter/Detector
1300 nm Multimode
ST
-10dBm
-13dBm
1300-nm SM OIA
107455-200
LED Emitter/Detector
1300 nm Singlemode
ST
-14dBm
-17dBm
1300-nm Laser OIA
107455-400
LASER Emitter/Detector
1300 nm Singlemode
ST
+3dBm
0dBm
1550-nm Laser OIA
107455-500
LASER Emitter/Detector
1550 nm Singlemode
ST
+2dBm
-3dBm
*Light levels are emitter outputs for fiber optic I/O modules, and detector inputs for fiber optic I/O modules.
Table 4-9. Acceptable received fiber optic power levels
Part Number
Receiver Sensitivity
(Lower Limit)
Receiver Sensitivity
(Lower Limit With
3-dB Margin)
Typical Line Length
850-nm MM OIA
107455-100
-50 dBm
-47 dBm
5 mi (8 km)
1300-nm MM OIA
107455-300
-40 dBm
-37 dBm
11 mi (18 km)
1300-nm SM OIA
107455-200
-40 dBm
-37 dBm
18 mi (29 km)
1300-nm Laser OIA
107455-400
-40 dBm
-37 dBm
36.5 mi (59 km)
1550-nm Laser OIA
107455-500
-40 dBm
-37 dBm
63 mi (102 km)
Model
Designation
IMUX 2000 DACS8P
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4.1.13 SAG I/O FOR DACS-R, MA 255
The SAG I/O is used to connect the DACS to a PC over an ethernet network. The module has three
connectors as shown in Figure 4-16. Connector J1 is used for the ethernet connection, J2 is a shielded
6-position modular jack which is used for external timing, and P1 is a DB-9P male connector used for
RS-232. Pinouts for these connectors are shown below.
Note: MA 255 internally connects to the second SAG serial data port.
J1 PINOUTS (4, 5, 7 & 8 NOT USED)
8
7
6
5
4
3
2
1
MA-255
LAN
J1
(ethernet
connector)
RJ45K-8
TP_RX-
TP_RX+
TP_TXTP_TX+
J2 PINOUTS (3, 4, 5 & 6 NOT USED)
TIMING
6
5
4
3
2 TIMIN+
1 TIMIN-
J2
(external timing
connector)
USER
DCE Port
P1 PINOUTS (1, 6, 7 & 9 NOT USED)
5
P1
(RS232 connector)
Used as a CRAFT
port to configure
SAG
d l
9
6
1
PIN
NUMBER
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
SIGNAL NAME
TXD
RXD
CTS
GROUND
DTR
Figure 4-16. DACS, SAG I/O module, rear panel view
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4.1.14 POWER SUPPLY ALARM I/O MODULE
4.1.14.1 DESCRIPTION
The Power Supply Alarm I/O module consists of an EMI filter, an SWC filter, relay logic, an alert
relay and a fail relay. These indicators and relays respond to fault conditions in DACS modules, or in
the power supply module itself.
When a DACS chassis is equipped with a main power supply and a redundant power supply it will
have only one Power Supply Alarm I/O module. The relays on the Power Supply Alarm I/O module
will respond to alarm and alert conditions from both power supply modules. This insures that Fail
and/or Alert monitoring continues even if one or the other supply is removed. Note that because the
corresponding relay contacts on the Main and Redundant supplies are connected in parallel, the ACO
switches on both must be switched “on” to activate the alarm cut-off, and both must be switched “off”
to de-activate the alarm cut-off.
Each Alarm I/O module operates with a specific Power Supply module. Refer to Tables 4-10 and 4-11
for additional information.
P.S. MAIN
ON
1
!
0
COM
+
_
OFF
NC
NO
F1
4A
+R
R
COM
NC
F2
4A
SB
ON
NO
1
RG
0
OFF
P.S. REDUNDANT
Figure 4-17. Typical Power Supply Alarm I/O module, rear panel view
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Table 4-10. Power Supply Alarm I/O, General Information
Unit
Model Designation
Part
Number
Input Voltage
Power Supply Alarm I/O
2000 PS ALARM I/O 48/125 DC
9547-18804
48 Vdc or125 Vdc
Power Supply Alarm I/O
2000 PS ALARM I/O 180/265 AC
9547-18805
220 Vac
Power Supply Alarm I/O
2000 PS ALARM I/O HYBRID
9547-18806
48 Vdc or 125 Vdc for power supply 1,
and 120Vac for power supply 2.
Power Supply Alarm I/O
2000 PS ALARM I/O 24 DC
9547-18807
24 Vdc
Power Supply Alarm I/O
2000 PS ALARM I/O DC/AC
9547-18808
120 Vac
Note: See Table 4-11 for Power Supply Alarm I/O application information.
Table 4-11. Power Supply Alarm I/O Application Information
Power Supply→
Alarm I/O
↓
9547-18804
9547-18805
9547-18806
9547-18807
9547-18808
9547-910
9547-920
9547-930
9547-950
X
X
X
X
X
X
Logic signals controlling the alarm circuitry are interfaced with the chassis motherboard through edge
connector terminals. After processing, normal and alarm conditions are annunciated by LED indicators
DS1 through DS5 and two on-board relays. The indicators are mounted along the front edge of the
power supply board, and can be viewed with the shelf door closed.
The relay contacts are wired to TB2 as shown in Figure 4-17. One Form C contact per relay is
provided, rated 100 mA @ 300 Vdc (resistive).
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4.2 DETERMINING DACS CHASSIS POWER REQUIREMENTS
To determine how much power the modules in a DACS chassis draw from the +5Vdc, +15Vdc and
-15Vdc supplies, refer to Table 4-12. The power consumption of all DACS modules will be calculated
using this table.
To use the table, write down the number of modules of each type in the DACS chassis in the "Number
of modules" column. Multiply the number in the “Number of modules” column by the current in the
“current draw” column for each voltage shown. Insert this value in one of the last three columns as
applicable. When you are finished, add up the totals in the last three columns and enter the result in the
appropriate box in the table. If the total DACS chassis current draw exceeds 4 Amps from the +5Vdc
supply, 1 Amp from the +15Vdc supply, or 0.75 Amps from the -15Vdc supply, additional power
supply capacity is required.
Table 4-12. Determining power requirements for the DACS Chassis
Module
System
Current draw per module (mA)
Type
Number of
Current draw per module (mA)
modules
Times number of modules
+5Vdc
+15Vdc
-15Vdc
+5Vdc
Non-Redundant
-
150
-
-
-
Redundant
-
300
-
-
-
Non-Redundant
1000
-
-
-
-
Redundant
1400
-
-
-
-
SAG Module & SAG I/O
-
150
-
-
Fiber I/O (107455-100)
-
140
40
-
Fiber I/O (107455-200)
-
100
15
-
Fiber I/O (107455-300)
-
100
15
-
Fiber I/O (107455-400)
-
65
65
-
Fiber I/O (107455-500)
-
65
65
-
Basic Chassis
(Display & Jackfield)
DACS Module
+15Vdc
-15Vdc
-
Total current draw from +5Vdc supply =
Total current draw from +15Vdc supply =
Total current draw from -15Vdc supply =
Notes:
1.
The following modules have no active components and therefore draw no power: Communications I/O, Line I/O,
and Coax Line I/O.
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Section 5. REDUNDANT DACS THEORY OF OPERATION
5.1 INTRODUCTION
The IMUX DACS is an enhanced and expanded version of the Mini-DACS which also includes the
functions of the earlier ILS. The new DACS has two additional ports, bringing the total to eight. The
original DACS imposed some restrictions upon the operation of some of the ports. The new DACS
does not have specific limitations on particular ports, but certain configuration modes assign predefined uses for particular ports.
The DACS may be used as part of an IMUX network with a local multiplexer shelf, or in stand-alone
mode. When used as a stand-alone unit a SAG module may be installed in the chassis to allow
communications and control over a network.
The DACS has enhanced front panel indicators, including an active map indicator. The front of the
unit also includes a full bantam jackfield with monitor and equipment jacks for both transmit and
receive data for all eight ports.
The new DACS also supports redundancy as an option. The basic (non-redundant) DACS module
consists of a two- board assembly. The redundant DACS module consists of a three board assembly,
the third board being the redundant module. If a non-redundant DACS is being used, only the left
DACS position in the chassis will be occupied. If a redundant DACS is used, both the left and right
DACS positions will be occupied. Refer to Figure 4-1 for a front view of the DACS chassis showing
these modules installed.
5.1.1 SYSTEM LEVEL
A basic block diagram of the DACS is shown in Figure 5-1. The diagram shows a redundant DACS
system composed of two identical redundant DACS modules installed in one chassis. There is one
Line I/O per port, which allows the replacement of a single I/O without impacting other ports that may
be on-line. Any port may be equipped with a fiber interface, which uses only one chassis slot.
Following the I/O, all T1/E1 signals are passed to the jackfield where both the transmit and receive
paths are sent to both the monitor and equipment jacks.
The receive signal from the T1/E1 ports is sent to both of the DACS modules. Only one DACS can be
transmitting at a time. One of the two transmit signals is selected using a high reliability relay, and the
signals from all eight ports are switched at once.
The control of the DACS is accomplished by either local RS-232, local SCB (using an IMUX shelf), or
over an Ethernet network (using a SAG module).
The DACS modules send information to the display module where the data from the active module
presents the user with status information.
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Figure 5-1. DACS System Block Diagram
Each non-redundant DACS module is composed of two boards, a processor board and a framer board.
Each redundant DACS module is composed of three boards, a processor board, a framer board and a
redundant module. The Processor board controls the entire DACS and is required to initialize and
monitor the Framer board. The Framer board performs all of the real-time T1/E1 processing. The
redundant module takes care of hardware redundancy.
5.2 HARDWARE
5.2.1 COMMON FEATURES
5.2.1.1 JTAG
Each of the three ECBs that comprise a redundant DACS are designed to be tested using JTAG. JTAG
is a standardized protocol that replaces board-level and in-circuit testing. JTAG is generally superior to
ICT as it verifies interconnections between the insides of the integrated circuits themselves, rather than
between points close to the IC. Using JTAG alone, nearly all of the interconnects on the Framer and
Redundancy boards can be verified. The processor board will require a combination of JTAG and test
software, which is easily downloaded into the on-board FLASH.
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5.2.1.2 PROGRAMMABLE TESTPOINTS
Each of the four Actel FPGAs on the DACS module` (two on the Framer module and one on each of
the Processor and Redundancy modules) has four associated programmable testpoints. There are a
vast number of key system signals inside each Actel. The user can selectively assign many of these
signals to a testpoint for external visibility. Some of the most commonly desired signals are set to be
default selections.
5.2.1.3 ACTEL ID & REVISION
Each Actel has an internal register that contains an ID code to identify the Actel. In addition, another
register is dedicated to identify the particular revision of the chip. These features may be used to
ensure proper assembly of the equipment and also remotely check configuration for support purposes.
5.2.1.4 ECB REVISION
Similar to the Actel identification information described earlier, each ECB in the DACS contains a
byte that is used to identify the revision of the copper. Five bits are used to identify the raw copper
(the code directly reflects the revision letter of the artwork). The remaining three bits are intended to
be used to identify modifications to the original board design. To facilitate this, the code is set (and
changed) by installing three resistors to either pull-up or pull-down the lines.
5.2.2 SYSTEM LEVEL
The DACS consists of two major items, the chassis and the DACS Module itself. For this discussion
the chassis is considered to include the physical chassis (metalwork), motherboard, power supply (and
I/O), Relay/Jackfield boards, and the Display Module.
The physical chassis and motherboard basically only serve to contain and interconnect the remaining
modules which are not covered in detail in this section. These are the power supply and its associated
I/O, the Relay/Jackfield boards, the I/O modules and the Display Module. The main topic of this
section is the Redundant DACS module itself.
The DACS module consists of an assembly of two ECBs, the Framer sub-module and the Processor
sub-module. Redundant capability is an option that requires a third ECB, the Redundancy module, to
be added to the assembly. Only the Framer and Processor ECBs have direct connections to the
motherboard.
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5.2.3 PROCESSOR MODULE
5.2.3.1 OVERVIEW
The Processor sub-module is the basic foundation for the entire chassis. It contains the user interface
functions, configuration and data storage, network monitoring and protections functions, and the
system power supply circuits. The Processor sub-module is not involved with the real-time T1/E1
processing, but it is responsible for the T1/E1 configuration handling and responding to any detected
network faults.
A block diagram of the Processor module is shown in Figure 5-2. The board contains circuitry for:
power supply
microcontroller (U2)
program and data RAM
Real-Time Clock (RTC)
communications ports
buffers and transceivers for the Framer and Redundancy modules
an FPGA (U8) which provides additional circuitry requirements
Figure 5-2. Processor Block Diagram
5.2.3.2 POWER SUPPLY
A simplified block diagram of the power supply section of the Processor Module is shown in
Figure 5-3. The Processor Module is supplied with 5Vdc from the motherboard. The other two ECBs
(Framer and Redundant) receive their power from the Processor Module. This allows a single power
control circuit to properly manage power drawn from the bus as well as power to the various ECBs.
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Figure 5-3. Block Diagram of Power Supply Section of Processor Module
The primary power supply control is the power control circuit, which consists of U22 and Q1. U22
controls the gate of Q1 to gradually ramp the power supplied to the module.The chip also uses a
current-sense resistor to shutdown the power under an over-current condition. When all conditions are
acceptable, the chip outputs a “PWR_GOOD” signal.
While the power is provided through the main connector pins A1, B1, and C1, pin A27 near the
opposite end of the connector is used as a sense pin. This is used to postpone the power-up sequence
until the connector is making contact across its full length. A “supercap” is used to power the real-time
clock (RTC) when the 5V supply is not present. A low leakage diode is used to prevent the other
circuits from drawing from the “supercap”.
A 3.3V switching regulator reduces the 5V supply to 3.3Vdc, and a 2.5V switching regulator reduces
the 5V supply to 2.5Vdc. A quad voltage monitor circuit is used to verify the 5V, 3.3V, and 2.5Vdc
supplies. When the voltage monitor verifies that all supplies are above their thresholds, it causes the
output (“POWER_FAIL”) signal to go high.
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5.2.3.3 PROCESSOR
For this discussion, refer to Figure 5-2. U2 is a Rabbit 2000 microcontroller. The processor clock is derived
from a crystal, which runs the Rabbit at 29.4912 mHz (virtually maximum speed). A header allows direct
external access to several Rabbit I/O lines.
Real Time Clock
The real-time clock (RTC) consists of two major parts, a 32.768 kHz oscillator and the Rabbit itself.
Both of these devices are powered by the 5V supply and “VBATT”. When the 5V supply is active,
VBATT is 5Vdc. U11 uses the 5Vdc supply to temperature stabilize the oscillator, and the Rabbit runs
off the 5Vdc supply. When the 5V supply is not present, VBATT runs U11 at low power without any
temperature compensation. VBATT is also used to power only the RTC of the Rabbit. The RTC
circuits can operate down to approximately 3Vdc and can last several weeks in the absence of main
power.
Flash Memory (U6)
U6 is a 4 Mbit (512 Kbyte) FLASH memory. This memory is normally used to store program
memory. It is programmed in-circuit using the processor, and no special supply voltages are required.
SRAM (U9)
U9 is a 4 Mbit (512 Kbyte) SRAM memory. This memory is intended to be used for development
purposes only and is not normally installed in the module. When it is used for development, it is
usually used to save the program code, rather than the FLASH (U6). Using SRAM allows faster
downloads and breakpoint insertion.
NVRAM (U7)
U7 is a 256 Kbit (32 Kbyte) combination SRAM and FLASH memory. This unique hybrid memory offers
several valuable features. Upon power-up, the contents of the FLASH is dumped into the SRAM. During
normal program operation, the processor has access only to the SRAM memory, which is used to store
configuration and SOE data. The chip has analog circuits that detect power supply failure and initiate a
store to the FLASH memory. This process, due to the unique device structure, takes 10 msec. During this
period, the chip receives power through pin 1 (VCAP), connected to a large capacitor.
Provision is made to prevent an automatic FLASH store in the event of a loss of power, and prevents
erroneous data from being stored in the SRAM. Additionally, the data retention of the FLASH ensures
no loss of configuration or SOE data regardless of the length of time the power is removed, and there
are no batteries to worry about draining, replacing, or disposing of. Since the FLASH is only written
to, upon loss of power, there is no worry of exceeding the maximum number of write cycles which is
greater than 100,000 cycles.
Scratch SRAM (U1)
Device U1 is an additional 32K of SRAM. This memory is used to store temporary information during a
loss of power. This memory is also used during maintenance procedures such as downloading new
programming to the FLASH.
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Bus Interfaces
In order to maintain the integrity of the address and data busses on the processor module, the signals are
buffered prior to being sent to either the Framer or Redundancy boards. This reduces the loading on the
processor and allows the bus to run at maximum speed. Buffering is used on the address, read, and write
lines to the two plug-on boards. The buffers are bi-directional and are powered off of 5Vdc to ensure that
data sent to the processor meets the specified minimum voltage requirements. The processor automatically
inserts a minimum of one wait-state for all off-board accesses. As a result, there are significant safety
margins on these off-board reads and writes.
RS-232 Ports
There are two RS-232 ports on the DACS. One of the ports is brought out to the rear panel for user
access. The second port goes to connector J9 on the front of the module. This connector is designed to
allow a ribbon cable assembly to interface directly between this board and a PC. Normal operation
passes user I/O to the rear port, the front port is used for diagnostic and service purposes. Front
accessible jumpers allow these two physical ports to be functionally swapped, which is why the signals
are sent through the Actel prior to going to the processor.
Mirror Port
The processor has a communication link to the other DACS module (if two are installed in the
chassis). This link is used to pass configuration data from the active module to the inactive module.
The inactive module also passes status data to the active module. This process is called ‘mirroring’.
The mirror port is implemented as a full-duplex channel, where Tx on one module is routed to the Rx
on the other module. The signals conform to RS-485 levels. There is no handshaking on this port.
SCB Port
The processor module has an SCB interface to communicate with an IMUX common logic module
using RS-485 levels. These signals are processed through Actel U8. The Actel has a large SCB engine
that allows for messages up to several bytes in length.
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FPGA (Actel, U8)
U8 performs numerous functions on the board. The chip select lines for the memory chips are generated
through a combined effort of the Rabbit and U8. The Rabbit sets registers in U8 to control the front panel
display. It then converts this data into serial format and sends it to the Display Module. U8 receives inputs
from the power supply ramp-up circuit and monitor circuits. It generates independent reset signals for the
Rabbit, the Framer module, and the Redundancy module. The watchdog timer function is implemented in
U8 and is an input to the reset logic. U8 also performs the Processor board self-monitoring functions
required for redundancy.
Eight signal lines that identify which ports have fiber I/Os are brought into U8, which then makes this
information available to the Rabbit as a register value. U8 also handles the interface to the bi-directional
“PSTAT” lines. U8 also handles the processor interface to a number of other miscellaneous signals such as
the local LEDs and user selectable jumper inputs. Crystal Y2 is used to generate a 4mHz clock which is used
to drive the display interface and perform redundancy functions.
A critical part of the self-monitoring function is to verify the existence of expected repetitive signals
such as clocks and memory strobes. This requires the existence of some known clock to compare the
signals with. For this reason, each ECB has at least one local oscillator that is used for local
evaluation. The circuitry also detects a failure of the local oscillator as opposed to the failure detection
circuitry just ceasing to function.
5.2.4 FRAMER MODULE
The Framer module, shown in Figure 5-4 contains the T1/E1 interface and processing circuitry. Each port
has a dedicated framer associated with it. While these framers are extremely powerful and flexible, they
require control from a host processor. For this reason the framers are connected directly to the processor
address and data buses, although the chip enable signals are generated by an Actel.
The module also has an interface for an external timing input. Two dual-port RAMs are included, one
stores the user defined mapping information, the other serves as a short-term buffer for payload data. Two
Actel FPGAs are also included on the module.
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Figure 5-4. Framer Block Diagram
Framers (U1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, and 8)
There are eight framer/line interface chips (referred to as framers), one for each port (U1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6,
7, and 8). These are advanced framers that do not require crystals and can operate in T1, E1, or J1
(used in Japan, not supported in the DACS).
All of the framer functions are controlled by the processor, and most of the reporting is also through
the bus. The time-critical functions are handled directly through hardware.
Line Interface Circuits
Each of the eight framers has additional line interface circuits. The circuitry associated with port 1 and
framer U1 will be described here. The circuitry is identical for all of the remaining ports. A block
diagram of the interface circuitry is shown in Figure 5-5.
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Figure 5-5. Line Interface Block Diagram
Transformer T1 us used to provide ac coupling while simultaneously providing the dc isolation required.
Note that the isolation is required even when using the front bantam jacks. The additional transformers
located on the line I/Os are required to meet some of the more stringent compliance requirements.
A transient suppressor is used to protect the framer from any residual transients. Relay K2 is used to
disconnect the termination resistors when the module is inactive. K2 is energized by one of the relays
on the Relay/Jackfield module. Since all of the relays on the Jackfield switch simultaneously, proper
termination is ensured.
Relay K1 is used to bypass the transformer when a fiber interface is being used. When energized this
relay connects the transmit Tip pin from the framer directly to the “T1_OUT+” signal and connector
pin. Similarly it connects the receiver Tip pin to “T1_IN+”. Relay K1 is energized when a fiber
interface is installed for port 1. It is shorted to ground on the fiber ECB.
External Timing (U9)
U9 recovers the timing from the externally applied input. It can be configured for either T1 or E1
signals. The signal is coupled through transformer T9. A resistor provides a nominal termination that
will work for T1 or E1 systems.
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Dual-Port RAM (U10 and U11)
There are two dual-port RAM chips on the board. U10 is the data RAM, as data comes in from each
framer it is stored in the memory. Through the other port of the RAM the data is recalled as it is
required to be re-transmitted.
U11 is the mapping RAM. The processor has control of one side of the memory, which it uses to store
the mapping information. The other port of the memory is used to read back the mapping information
for the current map, in real-time.
Mapping FPGA (Actel, U12)
The primary function of U12 is to control the flow of data into and out of the framers. In the process
the data is routed through the dual-port RAM U10. Aside from some self-monitoring tasks, this is
enough to keep this Actel quite busy.
FDL FPGA (Actel, U11)
U11 processes the FDL data and timing signals between framers (in T1 mode). It is also used to
generate the chip-select lines for each framer. The Fast Loss Of Frame (FLOF) detect circuitry is also
located in this Actel. This device also monitors the diagnostic output signals from each framer and, in
conjunction with the Fast detect logic, sends out eight signals indicating the status of each port.
5.2.5 REDUNDANCY MODULE
For this discussion refer to Figure 5-6. The Redundancy module is used to evaluate the performance of
the DACS module and the ‘partner’ redundant DACS module (if there is one installed in the chassis).
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Figure 5-6. Redundancy Module Block Diagram
Framers
The Redundancy Module has eight framers that are configured similarly to those on the Framer
module. These framers are used only to monitor the transmit function of the other redundant DACS
module (if present). As such, the transmit portions of the framers are disabled and are not connected to
anything on the ECB.
The receive signals pass through a transformer, protection network, and into the framer. There is
termination provided on this module, as it is intended to be high impedance and is bridged across the
other modules transmit signal.
There is also a relay to bypass the transformer if a fiber interface is being used. This relay is not hardwired to the I/O module as on the Framer Module, but it is controlled by the user programmable output
pin of the framer through a driver mosfet. The software detects the installation of the fiber interface
through the Actel U8 on the Processor Module, and energizes the relay on the Redundancy Module.
The receive side of these monitoring framers are configured identically to the corresponding port on
the Framer Module, with the following exceptions: There is never any termination used on the
monitoring framers, and the receive gain is severely limited, as the signal should be very clean if the
local transmitter is functioning.
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FPGA (Actel, U9)
This Actel generates the eight chip-select lines for the framers. It also receives inputs from the receive
ports of both the local and the partner DACS which are used to differentiate between line faults and
receiver faults. The eight local framers are monitored to detect failures in the transmitters of the
partner DACS. Additionally, U9 receives fault signals from the other ECBs (one from the Processor
and two from the Framer) as well as from the software.
U9 also monitors the local circuits on the Redundancy board as well as signals coming from the
partner DACS. All of these inputs are sent into decision logic that determines which DACS module
should be used.
5.3 DACS FUNCTIONAL DESCRIPTION
5.3.1 PORT SETTINGS
There are a number of configuration settings that may be varied on a port-by-port basis. It should be noted,
however, that not all settings are compatible with all DACS global configuration settings (e.g. DACS, ILS,
etc).
5.3.1.1 PORT MODES
There are several basic port modes of operation that each port may be set to. The most basic port
mode is “Off” which has the ability to turn a port off if it is not being used. This will turn off the LED
on the front of the DACS and ignore any problems associated with the port.
The most basic operational port mode is “Plain”. This mode makes the port fully functional, but does
not enable any handshaking functions. This is useful in some non-switching applications and during
commissioning and debug of networks.
In order to obtain network break recoveries the outward ports should be set to “Handshake” mode.
One of the primary functions of this mode is to ensure that both nodes facing a network break, know
that a break has occurred, even if it is a unidirectional break that only interrupts traffic to one of the
two nodes.
Another port mode is “CM” (common module). This mode is used on ports that are directly connected
to a multiplexer. It is assumed that there is no logical way to break this local connection, so a failure
on this port indicates a node failure. To ensure that the nodes on either side of the DACS know that the
node has failed, all network facing ports broadcast a bursting all ones signal.
Refer to the table in paragraph 7.7.1.11 for more information on the port modes.
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5.3.1.2 PORT CONFIGURATION
Each of the eight ports may be configured independently regarding framing (SF or ESF), line coding
(AMI or B8ZS).
There are additional parameters such as line termination and line build-out that may be varied. If a
fiber interface is installed for a port, the port configuration will automatically be adjusted to
accommodate for the fiber I/O.
Up to four ports may be configured for FLOF detection. Setting a port for FLOF does not force the
transmit function of that port to contain the Fast pattern, nor does it speed up any reframe functions.
What it does do is quickly detect when a port has gone bad so that appropriate action may be taken.
The actual reframe function continues to be accomplished in the multiplexer.
5.3.2 PORT FAILURE DETECTION
There are several conditions that may be used to determine if a port has a fault or not. The user has the
ability to individually select these criteria.
UA1: Unframed All Ones (also known as AIS, RBL, or ‘all ones’) is a definite sign that something is
wrong. This requires the presence of clocked data that is qualified as being consistent over time, so it
is unlikely to be mistakenly reported. However, as implied above, it is not detected extremely quickly.
LOD: Loss of Data (also known as RCL) is not the most robust fault detection method available. Due to
the (required) automatic gain in the front end of the framers, upon loss of signal ambient noise or crosstalk
may be interpreted as a signal. For this reason LOD is not reported by the DACS prior to qualifying the
detection with other information. As a result, this is also not a very quick, switch criteria.
LOF: Loss of Frame is a fairly quick and reliable status indicator. It is somewhat more reliable than
the (more sensitive) FOS indicator and is normally enabled for switching purposes.
PCV: Path Code Violations (also known as bit errors), due to the random nature of the problem it is
intended to detect, is often less than ideal as a switching criteria. The user can vary the threshold
above which the DACS will initiate a switch. Often, however, a significant level of bit errors will be
accompanied by other, more serious, errors being reported. Microwave links are subject to fading and
other interference problems that the PCV detection may be helpful in detecting.
FLOF: Fast Loss Of Frame is fast and reliable, requires a dedicated a timeslot, and all multiplexers in
the network must be set for Fast Reframe.
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5.3.3 DACS MAPPING FUNCTIONS
A simplified block diagram of the mapping circuitry is shown in Figure 5-7. The receive data from all
eight ports is stored into a dual-port memory (U10) as it arrives. As the data is being transmitted it is
selectively recalled from U10 as required to construct the desired transmit data streams.
The receive functions are independent of the user specified maps - the data is stored into predefined
memory locations. The order in which the data is recalled for transmission is dependent upon the
mapping data. This map data is written into U11 by the processor. All eight maps are written ahead of
time.
During operation, the processor selects which of the eight maps should be used. The mapping Actel (U12)
then reads the required map data from U11 and recalls the appropriate payload data from U10 and sends it
to the specified framer.
5.3.3.1 MAP DATA
The processor stores the desired map information in dual-port memory U11. The processor has control
over the “L” side port of U11. Three address lines are required to specify one of the eight maps. Three
more address lines are required to specify which the port, and finally, five address lines specify the
particular timeslot (allowing up to 32 for E1 use). This accounts for the eleven address lines
(“FR_A0” through “FR_A10”) fed into U11. These are actual bus address lines from the processor.
For each of the individual timeslots identified, the source of the data to transmit is specified in the
map. This requires three lines to identify the port, and five for the timeslot. This constitutes the byte
of memory.
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Mapped TS ID
(MD1 to MD8)
Source TS ID
Addr
Dual-Port
RAM
(U11)
Tx TS ID
(QA to QH)
Dual-Port
RAM
(U10)
CPU
Addr
MAP & TS ID
(FR_A0 to FR_A10)
Rx TS ID
(QA to QH)
Addr
“L”
Active Map #
(MAPSEL0 to
MAPSEL2)
Addr
“R”
“R”
T1 Out
“L”
T1 In
(RD1 to
RD8)
TCLK
TSIG
TSYNC
Actel (U12)
TSER
RSER
8 Framers
RSYNC
RCHCLK
SYSCLK
Figure 5-7. Mapping Block Diagram
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5.3.3.2 RECEIVE DATA
The received data comes into each port (and framer) based upon the timing of the T1/E1 signal. The
DACS has no control over when data will be received. The first task is to gather incoming data and
store it in a useful fashion. This is performed by the mapping Actel (U12). The framer outputs the
received data in a real-time serial data stream (“RSER”). U12 uses the system clock (“SYSCLK”)
coming from the framer, to clock the serial data into a shift-register. The framing sync (“RSYNC”)
and channel clock pulse (“RCHCLK”) signals are used to identify the beginning of frame and timeslot
boundaries, which allow the parallel data to be aligned to match timeslot boundaries and to identify
which timeslot the data comes from.
The Actel then places the data into the “L” side of U10. The eight address lines “QA” through “QH”
are used to select the storage location in U10. There are up to 32 timeslots (in E1), requiring five
address lines (each address stores one byte - one timeslot - of data). There are also eight framers,
requiring three more address lines. Thus the eight address lines.
In a similar fashion, the receive signaling data is captured from the serial data stream provided by the
framer. This data is also converted to parallel, although there are only four signaling bits associated with
each timeslot. Additionally, the signaling data is updated very slowly compared to the payload data, but
the process is much the same. To store this signaling data an additional address line was added.
Although the signaling data only requires four bits per timeslot, an entire byte of U10 is allocated to
each timeslot. This allows direct re-use of much of the payload receive engine circuitry. This
hardware simplification comes at no cost as the memory still contains four times the amount being
used.
Both the payload and signaling data (after serial-to-parallel conversion) are sent to the “L” side data
lines of U10 (“RD1” through “RD8”).
5.3.3.3 TRANSMIT DATA
The transmit process differs from the receive process in two significant ways. The receive circuitry
has no control over the timing of the incoming data, but stores the data in predefined memory
locations. The transmit circuitry generates the timing for the outgoing data but must recall the data
from varying memory locations.
The first step in generating the transmit data stream for a port is to determine which receive timeslot
data is to be transmitted at any particular time. This information is stored in U11. The mapping Actel
U12 specifies which of the eight ports is in question. This requires three bits. U12 must also specify
which timeslot is desired, requiring an additional five bits. This is what constitutes the eight address
lines “QA” through “QH” fed into the “R” side of the map memory U11.
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While the Actel (U12) specifies the port and timeslot of concern, the processor specifies which of the
eight maps is to be used by three address lines (“MAPSEL0” through “MAPSEL2”), completing the
eleven address lines to U11. The three map select lines are controlled by the processor and latched in
U12.
The mapping data read from U11 is contained in “MD1” through “MD8”. This data is directly used as
lookup address (port and timeslot as described in section 5.3.3.1) information for the payload data
memory (U10). As with the receive data, one more address line is added to access the signaling data.
The transmit payload and signaling data are sent out of the “R” side of U10 and into U12 for parallel-toserial conversion and transmission.
The transmit payload data is sent to the framer via the “TSER” signal, the signaling data is “TSIG”.
U12 also generates the transmit clock “TCLK” and sync “TSYNC” signals for the framers.
5.3.4 ILS FUNCTIONS
The ILS functions of the DACS module are considerably more straightforward than the DACS
(grooming capable) functions described above. In the ILS mode, the data is transferred from receive to
transmit as rapidly as possible. For this reason, it is undesirable to store any payload data in the ILS
mode. The port-to-port mapping is very simple and is stored directly in registers in U12. Thus, neither
dual-port RAM is used in ILS mode.
When in ILS mode, U12 essentially sends all receive data from one framer to the transmit side of
another. The signals that are transferred are the clock, sync, payload data, signaling data, and FDL.
As all of this control and data information is passed directly from receive to transmit, disturbances
coming in to one port will tend to propagate out the transmit port. This is why, in an ILS network,
problems are seen to ripple through the entire network, while in a DACS network the problems tend to
be much more contained.
When used in a normal ILS/DACS ring, the port usage for the ILS mode is predefined. This is because the
healing and recovery processes are complex multi-step procedures of handshaking and port priming.
One user selectable configuration parameter in the ILS mode is “Through”. Normally, the transmit
framer re-frames the outgoing data. This ensures that the outgoing signal is in the proper frame format
and does not contain CRC errors. Some applications (such as repeaters) may wish to pass the signal
without change. This may be accomplished using the Through mode.
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5.3.5 HOT-STANDBY MODE
The hot-standby mode is a special configuration that may be used between two Terminal nodes. This
mode uses ILS-like routing, but different switching methodology. The Terminal is connected to port
5, and ports 1 and 2 are connected to ports 1 and 2 of the hot-standby configured DACS at the other
location. The far Terminal is similarly connected to port 5 of the remote DACS.
In hot-standby, the transmit of port 1 and 2 is always receiving data from the receive of port 5. Port 5
transmits the data received from either port 1 or 2. The port being used to receive the remote data will
only be swapped if a problem is detected with the presently active port.
This minimizes the number of switches by not specifying either port 1 or 2 as “primary”, and thus not
reverting back to it when the channel is cleared. Additionally, by always transmitting on both output
ports, the inactive port is always primed with live data, thus minimizing any switching disturbance.
The functions of ports 1, 2, and 5 are pre-defined when in hot-standby mode. A second hot-standby
function is provided on ports 3, 4, and 6. This second hot-standby function is fully independent of the
first.
5.4 REDUNDANCY FUNCTIONAL DESCRIPTION
5.4.1 OVERVIEW
The redundancy features and, to a large extent, hardware exist independently from the basic DACS
functions and features. If there is only one DACS module in the chassis, it performs all required
functions as best as it is able, with or without any detected failures.
However, if two DACS modules are installed in a chassis they both see the incoming T1/E1 signals,
but only one can transmit to the outside world any time. This Process is accomplished by a bank of
high reliability relays located on the Relay/Jackfield boards. These relays are all controlled by the
same signal and are thus all energized or de-energized.
The relays switch the transmit Tip and Ring pairs for all eight ports and the RS-232 transmit and
handshake signals sent to the rear of the chassis. In this way, the DACS acts as a normal DACS, even
if one of the installed units has failed. The active module is the only one that the user sees through the
RS-232 or SCB port, and the only one that controls the transmitted T1/E1 signals.
Each DACS module performs rather extensive self-diagnostics to determine if there are any local
failures. (If local failures are detected, it will also inform the partner module of the failure.) In
addition, each module monitors the transmitted signal from the partner module. (Again, detected
failures will be reported to the other module.)
While each circuit board in a redundant DACS module contains monitoring functions specifically used
for redundancy features, only the Redundancy module itself actually does anything with this
information. In order to simplify the presentation, the redundancy specific features included in the
Framer and Processor sub-modules are primarily discussed in this section.
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5.4.2 GENERAL CONVENTIONS
5.4.2.1 SIGNAL PASSING
Many status signals sent between modules or sub-modules are defined as having three valid
conditions:
Good This indicates that all criteria are acceptable. Good is indicated by the presence of a
250 Hz (nominal) signal on the line.
Fault This indicates that a problem has been detected. Fault is indicated by the presence of a
2 KHz (nominal) signal on the line.
Fail This indicates either a serious problem or that nothing is driving the line. Fail is
assumed if the line is static at either a high or low value.
This not only conveys the information of three possible states, but also allows for the
detection of critical circuit failure or loss of signal. As the redundant actions are
intentionally slow, the delay forced by such a scheme is of no consequence.
5.4.2.2 SPEED
The redundancy feature is not intended to prevent hardware failures, rather, it is intended to allow
recovery from hardware failures without human intervention. The primary function of the DACS,
however, is to allow quick recovery from port/line faults. As such, the speed of a hardware failure
detection is of far less importance than the reliability of the detection. For this reason, all failure
detection mechanisms are conservatively designed. Additionally, no action is taken upon failure
detection until the fault has been qualified by monitoring the reported fault for a duration of time.
5.4.2.3 UNNECESSARY SWAPPING
Swapping between DACS modules necessarily causes a considerable network disturbance. A swap
should only be initiated if the need is firmly demonstrated. The criteria used to initiate a switch is
strongly biased toward keeping the active module active if feasible. Very conservative decision criteria
has been implemented and the intentional slowness of the redundant functions further reduces the
likelihood of unnecessary swaps.
If a receive port fails on a primary path of the active DACS, the DACS will quickly recover by switching to
the backup path. However, after a delay, the inactive DACS will take over control from the (faulty) DACS.
This process will cause a much larger system disturbance than the original break (which will already have
been recovered). While this may seem counter-productive, once the system stabilizes the network will
remain intact with full path redundancy and protection.
5.4.3 FAULT DETECTION
Each circuit board in the DACS assembly contains fault detection circuitry. The software is capable of
monitoring signals and conditions and reporting any detected failures as well as some user commands.
The Redundancy Module also performs analysis of signals to detect local failures, or failures in the
partner module.
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5.4.3.1 FRAMER MODULE FAULT DETECTION
Each of the two Actels on this module (U12 and U13) analyze the signals they have access to in an
effort to detect faults. Each Actel has a dedicated signal (“FR_OK1” from U12, and “FR_OK2” from
U13) that is sent to the Redundancy Module reporting status.
In addition to these signals that indicate a hardware fault on the board, this module monitors each port
for problems. These port-specific problems may be indicative of either a local hardware fault or a line
fault. If the problem lies in the line, not the DACS hardware, no action should be taken by the
redundancy circuits. Given that the Framer module does not have sufficient information with which to
differentiate between these cases, it does not report these port problems as hardware faults. Instead,
eight individual signals (one per port) are sent to the Redundancy board (on this and the partner
DACS) for further processing.
General Clocks
The Actels monitor a number of general clocks (not port specific) and will report a fault if:
1. The system clock is incorrect with respect to the reference clock.
2. The reference clock is incorrect with respect to the system clock (used as a self-test of no.1
above, preventing the lack of fault detection upon loss of reference clock).
3. The external clock is incorrect with respect to the reference clock.
4. The high frequency clock is incorrect with respect to the current system clock.
System Frame
The system frame pulses are missing.
Processor Activity Register
The Rabbit continually writes an alternating pattern into a register in the Actel. If the processor fails to
perform this task as required a fault is declared. This is similar to the watchdog, but verifies a specific
byte pattern rather than using a single bit.
Port Related Problems
The following conditions are included as indicating potential trouble on a receive port:
RLOS
If the framer chip has activated the RLOS (Receive Loss Of Sync) pin.
RCL
If the framer chip has activated the RCL (Receive Carrier Loss) pin.
FLOF
If the Actel has detected a loss of the Fast-Reframe pattern (FLOF).
RSER
If the RSER (Receive Serial data) pin from the framer shows no activity.
RCLK
If the RCLK (Receive Clock) pin from the framer is inconsistent with the
system clock.
Software Flag
If the software has detected a possible receive problem that would not otherwise have been detected it
can force the condition.
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5.4.3.2 PROCESSOR MODULE FAULT DETECTION
The Actel on the Processor Module (U8) monitors several signals and reports status to the Redundancy
Module via the “PR_OK” signal.
Power Supply Under-Voltage
Powewr supply fault detection circuitry determines if any of the three supply voltages (5V, 3.3V and
2.5 Vdc) fall below acceptable levels.
Watchdog Timer
The watchdog signal from the Rabbit is monitored for activity. If this signal does not occur
periodically, then U8 will issue a reset to the Rabbit. If a jumper is installed in J1-1 (“TEST”), loss of
the watchdog signal will not cause a reset.
Missing I/O Read or Write Strobes
The I/O read and write strobes are monitored. If no activity is detected for a period of time a fault is
declared.
Missing FLASH or RAM Select Strobes
The select signals for the FLASH and RAM memories are monitored. If no activity is detected for a
period of time a fault is declared.
Processor Activity Register
The Rabbit continually writes an alternating pattern into a register in the Actel. If the processor fails to
perform this task as required a fault is declared. Note that this is similar to the watchdog, but verifies a
specific byte pattern rather than using a single bit.
Processor Declared Faults
The software will declare a fault if it detects a problem if any of the following conditions are met:
If the software detects that one or more of the Actels installed in the system is incorrect.
If the Rabbit has commanded a forced clock switch, but the clock being used has not actually
switched.
If the configuration memory has become corrupted (as indicated by a failed checksum).
If the board has never been configured.
If the dual-port memory has remained busy for several write attempts, thus preventing the
Rabbit from updating the mapping information.
An additional bit is used to indicate that a problem has been detected with the mirror function. This is not
used as a failure indicator, but is used to control the LED for visual notification.
5.4.3.3 REDUNDANCY MODULE FAULT DETECTION
The purpose of redundancy in the DACS is to identify problems with the DACS module and, if
appropriate, take that DACS out of service and bring another DACS module on-line. The user is then
expected to service the faulty module, but the network will remain fully functional. The DACS
swapping requires bulk switching of all port data and causes significant network disturbances. The
swap is only initiated when the logic is certain that the action is required. Significant delays are built
into the design to avoid misoperation of the redundant functions.
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There are no true backplane signals that one DACS may use to evaluate the performance of the partner
module. The observability of key signals is generally limited to the DACS in which they are used.
This puts numerous limitations on the redundancy monitoring functions. The fault detection logic can
be broken down to three basic groups:
Local on-board self-diagnostics.
Monitoring of partner DACS transmit signals.
Comparison of local and partner receive port status.
XMCLK
The Actel has detected a problem with the XMCLK signal.
Processor Activity Register
The Rabbit continually writes an alternating pattern into a register in the Actel. If the processor fails to
perform this task as required a fault is declared. Note that this is similar to the watchdog, but verifies a
specific byte pattern rather than using a single bit, thus confirming the integrity of the selected address
and data lines.
Redundant Control Register Validation Fail
The processor must have some level of control over the redundant functions, but giving it this control
leaves the system vulnerable to some types of faults. For example, if a problem with the program
memory caused the Rabbit to disable some protection, the fault could go undetected. For this reason,
any settings to the redundant control register must be accompanied by a corresponding write of a
check-byte to another register.
Framer-In-Use Mask Validation Fail
The framer-in-use register is used to ignore trouble reported from ports that are not being used.
Otherwise, differences in framers, crosstalk, etc, could cause only one DACS in a redundant chassis to
report trouble that would normally be indicative of a hardware fault. Similar to the redundant control
register discussed earlier, an incorrect setting of the framer-in-use mask could result in undetected
problems. For this reason, data written to the framer-in-use register goes through a validation process
similar to the redundant control register.
Receive Ports
There may be problems reported from a receive port that are not caused by local hardware problems.
The only way to determine if a reported problem is due to a local hardware problem and not corrupted
incoming T1/E1 data is to compare the status of both of the redundant DACS units in the chassis.
The receive condition of each port is compared with the condition reported by the partner DACS. If
both report bad receive data it is concluded that there is a problem with the incoming data. If, however,
only one DACS reports trouble on a particular port, the unit reporting trouble is declared as having a
hardware problem. It is more likely that a faulty framer would fail to produce conditions that the Actel
would accept as valid, than for a faulty T1/E1 signal to be accepted and a faulty framer to generate the
required signals.
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Transmit Ports
The transmit signals from the partner DACS are constantly monitored for errors. The framers
performing the monitoring are configured corresponding to the configuration programmed into the
transmit framers. A port mask is used to ignore unused ports.
While this task may initially appear trivial (‘the transmit should never be bad, thus any detected
problem indicates a hardware fault’). Unfortunately, nothing is ever that straightforward. Two
potential problems must be provided for.
First, the handshaking process that occurs in a network (required for proper operation of a switching
ring) will cause a port to transmit a signal that is intended to tell the far node that the port has failed.
Note, however, that this is not indicative of any equipment problem and must not be interpreted as
such.
The second situation arises when a configuration change has been made. It is possible that the active
module will respond to the command prior to the inactive module receiving the information through
the mirroring process. This could, in turn, cause a fault to be reported.
5.4.4 DECISION LOGIC
All of the gathered data is sent to decision logic that evaluates the data and passes judgement on the
system. The input data consists of the following:
A determination (from backplane signals) if there is a partner redundant DACS module
installed and, if so, if it is functioning or not.
A signal indicating if the module is presently active (required to avoid unnecessary swaps).
Fault data from the Processor module.
Fault data from the Framer module.
Locally detected faults.
Local hardware disable request (front switch).
A software disable request.
Per port signals for:
Local DACS receive port problem (detected locally, also sent to the partner module).
Partner DACS receive port problem (detected by the partner).
Partner DACS transmitter fault (locally detected).
“I_FAILED_IN” signal from partner module (he has determined that one or more of my
transmitters has failed).
“HE_FAILED_IN” signal from partner module (he has determined that he has a problem).
The output of the decision logic is a “USE_ME” signal. This signal is a request that the module be
used as the active module. Two additional signals are generated, the “I_FAILED_OUT” and
“HE_FAILED_OUT” signals which are sent to the partner module. The details of the decision logic
are not discussed in this document.
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5.4.5 SWITCHING CONTROL
The “USE_ME” signal generated by the decision logic is sent to the Display module. The signal is
sent as a 2 kHz (nominal) pulse train. If this signal is a constant value, or if the line is not driven, it is
treated as an inactive condition. Only the signal from the right position in the chassis is used to control
which module is active.
This structure allows for a very simple and highly reliability circuit to perform the actual switching
function. The vast bulk of the redundancy related functions, including the decision logic, are
implemented in the redundant modules themselves. The key decision and information transfer
functions are implemented with circuitry that is designed to fail in a way that would naturally indicate
failure to external circuits.
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Section 6. INSTALLATION AND CHECK-OUT
WARNING
FOLLOW ALL OF YOUR COMPANY'S POLICIES AND PROCEDURES
REGARDING THE INSTALLATION OF AC-POWERED OR DC-POWERED
EQUIPMENT. IF THERE IS A CONFLICT BETWEEN ANY PROCEDURE IN
THIS SECTION AND YOUR COMPANY'S SAFETY RULES, THEN YOUR
COMPANY'S SAFETY RULES MUST TAKE PRIORITY.
6.1 INTRODUCTION
This section contains installation instructions for the 8-Port DACS, including unpacking, mounting,
and interconnection wiring. Check-out procedures are also provided for verifying operation once
installation is complete.
6.2 HARDWARE INSTALLATION
The 8-Port DACS hardware installation is a five-part process:
1.
Unpacking and inspecting the equipment.
2.
Mounting the equipment.
3.
Making connections.
4.
Checking the power supply input voltage.
5.
Applying input power.
Once the DACS system is installed, it must be configured (programmed) as described in paragraph 6.3.
Programming may not be necessary if the DACS system is already preloaded with a known good
configuration. Subsequently, the system should be checked out as described in paragraph 6.4 of this
section to verify operation before placing the equipment in service.
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6.2.1 UNPACKING
The 8-Port DACS may be supplied as individual chassis or interconnected with other chassis or
assemblies as part of a system. The following paragraphs provide unpacking instructions for individual
chassis and interconnected chassis.
6.2.1.1 INDIVIDUAL CHASSIS
DACS chassis supplied as individual chassis are packed in their own shipping cartons:
1.
Open each carton carefully to make sure the equipment is not damaged.
2.
After the chassis is removed from the carton, carefully examine all packing material to make
sure no items of value are discarded.
3.
Carefully remove any packing materials inserted into the chassis to hold modules in place
during transit.
4.
Make sure all modules are fully seated in the chassis.
If you notice any signs of shipping damage, immediately notify RFL Customer Service at the phone
number listed at the bottom of this page. Save all the packing material and the shipping carton, in case
a damage claim needs to be filed with the shipping company that delivered the unit.
6.2.1.2 INTERCONNECTED CHASSIS
DACS chassis ordered as part of a larger system may be interconnected with other equipment and
mounted in a relay rack or cabinet, or bolted to shipping rails for installation into a rack or cabinet at
the customer's site. In such cases, the entire assembly is enclosed in a wood crate or delivered by airride van:
1.
If the equipment is crated, carefully open the crate to avoid damaging the equipment.
2.
Remove the equipment from the crate and carefully examine all packing materials to make sure
no items of value are discarded.
3.
Carefully remove any packing materials that were inserted into the equipment to hold modules
in place during transit.
4.
Make sure all modules are fully seated in the equipment.
If you notice any signs of shipping damage, immediately notify RFL Customer Service at the phone
number on the front of this manual. Save all the packing material and the shipping carton, in case a
damage claim needs to be filed with the shipping company that delivered the unit.
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6.2.2 MOUNTING
After unpacking, each DACS chassis must be securely mounted following the instructions in the
following paragraphs. DACS chassis are normally shipped pre-configured, with modules already
installed. Except for the power supplies, all modules and Module Adapters can remain installed while
the chassis is bolted into its equipment rack.
Procedures are provided for mounting individual chassis, interconnected chassis installed in racks or
cabinets, and interconnected chassis mounted on shipping rails. Use the procedure that suits your
equipment. Ventilation requirements are also provided.
1.
Refer to Figure 6-1 and remove all power supplies from the chassis as follows:
a. Open the front hinged cover and locate the power supplies on the left side of the chassis.
b. Lift the black locking lever to unlock the power supply heat sink.
c. Pull down on the white, module ejector lever and pull the power supply out of the chassis.
2.
Make sure all remaining modules, and Module Adapters are seated properly.
3.
Bolt the chassis into its 19-inch equipment rack.
ALUMINUM
HEAT SINK
BLACK
LOCKING
LEVER
POWER
SUPPLY
CIRCUIT
BOARD
WHITE MODULE
EJECTOR AND
HANDLE
Figure 6-1. Power supply removal and installation
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RFL Electronics Inc.
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6.2.2.1 INDIVIDUAL CHASSIS
Each DACS chassis has two mounting ears, one on each side. Hole sizes and spacings conform with
EIA standards, so the DACS can be mounted in any standard 19-inch rack or cabinet. Complete
chassis dimensions are shown in Figure 6-2.
5.25 in.
(13.3 cm)
2.25 in.
(5.7cm)
19.0 in.
(48.3 cm)
1.5 in.
(3.8 cm)
NOTE: Allow 15 inches (38 cm) behind the rear panel for chassis and interconnect wiring.
Figure 6-2. DACS chassis mounting dimensions
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6.2.2.2 INTERCONNECTED CHASSIS INSTALLED IN RACK OR CABINET
CAUTION
Any installation using an enclosed cabinet with a swing-out rack must be securely
fastened to the floor. This will prevent the cabinet from falling forward when the
rack is moved outward.
DACS equipment mounted in racks or cabinets at the factory are to be placed in position and then
bolted to the floor or wall, as appropriate, to secure the equipment in place.
The type of hardware used will depend upon the particular surface to which the rack or cabinet is being
mounted. Because of this, mounting hardware is not supplied with the rack or cabinet.
6.2.2.3 INTERCONNECTED CHASSIS MOUNTED ON SHIPPING RAILS
Equipment to be installed in a rack or cabinet at the customer's site is mounted on shipping rails at the
factory. To remove the shipping rails and mount the equipment, proceed as follows:
1.
Place the equipment as close to the front of the rack or cabinet as possible, with the rear panels
of the equipment facing the front of the rack or cabinet.
2.
Remove all the screws securing the shipping rails to the equipment.
3.
Slide the equipment into the rack or cabinet.
4.
Install and tighten screws to all panels to secure the equipment in place.
6.2.2.4 VENTILATION
The specified operating temperature range for DACS equipment is -20oC to +55oC (-4oF to +131oF).
Operation at higher temperatures may affect system reliability and performance. Systems installed in
enclosed cabinets should be ventilated to keep the temperature inside the cabinet within limits.
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6.2.3 CONNECTIONS
Electrical and optical fiber connections are made to each DACS chassis through the terminal blocks
and connectors on the chassis rear panel. The rear panel of a typical DACS chassis is shown in Figure
6-3.
The following paragraphs provide basic descriptions of all the connections that must be made. A
diagram showing input power connections appears in Figures 6-4 and 6-5. Refer to the "as supplied"
drawings furnished with your DACS for more detailed descriptions of the connections that must be
made to your system.
P.S.MAIN
MA???
MA???
LINE
LINE
MA??? MA??? MA??? MA??? MA??? MA???
MA???
ON
I
LINE
LINE
LINE
LINE
LINE
LINE
SCB
O
TIMIMG
ALERT
COM
OFF
NO
HI
AC
LO
NC
F1
4A
HI
R/AC
ALARM
USER
COM
LO
F2
4A
SB
NC
ON
NO
RG
I
9547-18805
O
OFF
P.S. REDUNDANT
Figure 6-3. Typical Rear view, DACS chassis
6.2.3.1 6.2.3.1 MAKING CONNECTIONS TO TERMINAL BLOCKS
Most of the terminal blocks on the rear of the DACS chassis are conventional screw-type barrier
blocks. Some terminal blocks are fitted with terminal blocks with a quick-disconnect feature that
simplifies servicing.
With conventional screw-type barrier blocks, a retaining screw is loosened, a wire is slipped under the
screw head, and the screw is re-tightened to secure the wire in place. Wires can either be stripped or
terminated in spade lugs, depending on local practice.
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6.2.3.2 MAKING CONNECTIONS TO OPTICAL INTERFACE ADAPTERS
WARNING
YOUR 8-PORT DACS MAY BE EQUIPPED WITH FIBER INPUT/OUTPUT
MODULES THAT HAVE FIBER OPTIC EMITTER HEADS. FIBER OPTIC
EMITTER HEADS USE A LASER LIGHT SOURCE THAT PRODUCES
INVISIBLE RADIATION. IF YOUR 8-PORT DACS IS EQUIPPED WITH ONE
OF THESE HEADS, STARING DIRECTLY INTO THE LIGHT BEAM MAY
RESULT IN PERMANENT EYE DAMAGE AND/OR BLINDNESS. NEVER
LOOK DIRECTLY INTO THE LIGHT BEAM AND BE CAREFUL NOT TO
SHINE THE LIGHT AGAINST ANY REFLECTIVE SURFACE.
THE LASER SOURCE IS A CLASS IIIb LASER PRODUCT, USING GALLIUM
INDIUM ARSENIDE PHOSPHIDE. ITS RECOMMENDED MAXIMUM
POWER OUTPUT IS 7mW. IT COMPLIES WITH APPLICABLE DHHS
STANDARDS UNDER THE RADIATION CONTROL FOR HEALTH AND
SAFETY ACT OF 1968.
If your 8-PORT DACS is equipped with a Fiber Optic Module, fiber optic connectors must be
connected to the fiber optic heads on the rear panel of the DACS chassis. Type ST series bayonet fiber
optic connectors (or their equivalent) are used with both singlemode and multimode fibers. The exact
mating connector used will depend upon the head that is installed in the fiber optic module, and the
specific optic cable being used.
When connecting fiber optic cables, make sure the connectors are properly aligned before tightening
and then fully tighten them. This will help minimize losses in the connector.
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6.2.3.3 INPUT POWER CONNECTIONS
The following procedure assumes that the DACS chassis is completely wired before turning on any
T1/E1 or payload circuit. Basic wiring diagrams are shown in Figures 6-3 and 6-4. Also refer to the "as
supplied" drawings furnished with the equipment and the system drawings placed in Section 9 of this
manual at the factory.
1.
Connect a ground wire from the GND ground stud on the rear of the DACS chassis to station
ground.
This is a required connection.
2.
Connect the input power source to the input power terminal block on the rear of the DACS
chassis as follows:
Ac-Powered Chassis:
Connect To:
Ac Input (hot)
Ac Input (neutral)
+ terminal
- terminal
Dc-Powered Chassis:
Connect To:
Station Battery +
Station Battery -
+ terminal
- terminal
>> text continues on page 6-11 <<
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P.S. MAIN
ON
1
!
0
COM
+
_
OFF
NC
NO
COM
NC
F1
4A
+R
R
F2
4A
SB
+
ON
NO
RG
1
STATION
BATTERY
0
OFF
P.S. REDUNDANT
a. Connections for 24-Vdc, 48-Vdc or 125-Vdc operation.
P.S. MAIN
ON
1
!
0
COM
+
_
OFF
NC
NO
F1
4A
+R
NEUTRAL
TO AC
POWER
SOURCE
GROUND
R
COM
NC
HOT
F2
4A
SB
ON
NO
RG
1
0
OFF
P.S. REDUNDANT
b. Connections for 120Vac or 220Vac operation.
Figure 6-4. Terminal strip power connections for DACS chassis with single power supply modules
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P.S. MAIN
ON
+
1
!
0
COM
+
_
OFF
NC
NO
COM
F1
4A
MAIN
STATION
BATTERY
+R
R
F2
4A
SB
NC
ON
NO
RG
1
+
REDUNDANT
STATION
BATTERY
0
OFF
P.S. REDUNDANT
a. Connections for 24-Vdc, 48-Vdc or 125-Vdc operation.
HOT
P.S. MAIN
NEUTRAL
ON
GROUND
1
TO MAIN
AC POWER
SOURCE
!
0
COM
+
_
OFF
NC
NO
COM
NC
F1
4A
+R
R
F2
4A
SB
HOT
NEUTRAL
GROUND
TO
REDUNDANT
AC POWER
SOURCE
ON
NO
RG
1
0
OFF
P.S. REDUNDANT
b. Connections for 120Vac or 220Vac operation.
Figure 6-5. Terminal strip power connections for DACS chassis with redundant power supply modules
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RFL Electronics Inc.
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3.
If the chassis is equipped with a redundant power supply, connect the redundant input
power source to the input power terminal block on the rear of the chassis as follows:
Ac-Powered Chassis:
Connect To:
Redundant Ac Input (hot)
Redundant Ac Input (neutral)
Dc-Powered Chassis:
+ R terminal
- R terminal
Connect To:
Redundant Station Battery +
Redundant Station Battery 4.
Connect all T1/E1 ports to appropriate equipment.
5.
Connect ALARM and ALERT contacts if used.
+ R terminal
- R terminal
6.2.3.4 CHASSIS GROUND CONNECTIONS
The ground stud at the lower right rear corner of the power supply is the main ground for the RFL
DACS chassis. Grounding is accomplished by connecting a wire 6AWG or larger between the ground
stud and rack ground. The grounding wire should be kept as short and straight as possible, to keep its
resistance and inductance to a minimum.
Before attempting to make power connections, make sure the DACS chassis is equipped with a power
supply designated to operate at the available input supply voltage. This can be determined by checking
the model designator on the module handle. If the wrong voltage is connected to the power supply,
component damage will result.
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CAUTION
Before attempting to apply input power to the DACS chassis, you must make sure
that its power supply module(s) will operate at the available input supply voltage.
If an incorrect power supply module is installed, component damage may result.
6.2.4 POWER SUPPLY INPUT VOLTAGE CHECK
Before re-inserting the power supplies into the DACS chassis, check the model number stamped on the
supply to make sure the supply is compatible with the available input power. Four different power
supply modules can be used in the DACS chassis:
Model Designation
Part Number
Input Voltage
2000 PS 24DC
9547-910
24 Vdc
2000 PS 48/125DC
9547-920
48/125 Vdc
2000 PS 220AC
9547-930
220 Vac
2000 PS 120AC
9547-950
120 Vac
NOTE
There is a label on the inside front door of the DACS. (See Figure 6-6.) This label is
marked to indicate which model power supply(s) was installed before it left the factory. If
you change the power supply module(s) with a different model, you must change the
markings on this label to reflect the change.
A CAUTION label is also located on the inside of the front cover of the DACS, which
alerts the user to keep hands away from the power supply module. (See Figure 6-7.)
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THIS SYSTEM LEFT THE FACTORY
CONFIGURED AS FOLLOWS:
LEFT POWER SUPPLY
48 Vdc 125 Vdc 250 Vdc 120 Vac
RIGHT POWER SUPPLY
48 Vdc 125 Vdc 250 Vdc 120 Vac
SEE THE MANUAL FOR FURTHER INFORMATION
Figure 6-6. Label on front door for recording input voltage configuration
CAUTION
TO PREVENT ELECTRICAL SHOCK
KEEP HANDS AWAY FROM
POWER SUPPLY AND TURN
POWER OFF BEFORE REMOVING
Figure 6-7. Caution Label inside front door of the DACS
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6.2.5 APPLYING POWER
After all equipment has been installed and wired, apply power to each chassis after first completing the
following steps.
1.
Refer to Figure 6-1 and re-insert the main and (if provided) redundant power supply modules
into the chassis as follows:
a. Lift up the black locking lever to insure that the heat sink is in the unlocked position.
b. Slide the power supply module into the chassis until it comes in contact with the mother
board connector.
c. Place the white ejector lever into its up (closed) position.
d. Press on the circuit board until the connector pins are fully seated.
e. Place the black locking lever into its down (locked) popsition.
2.
If a local alarm comes on, activate the DACS alarm cut-off by turning on the ACO switch
located on the power supply module.
If the chassis is equipped with redundant power supplies, turn on both ACO
switches.
3.
Check the indicators on each power supply.
On each power supply, the POWER indicator should be lit, and the POWER FAIL
indicator should not be lit.
If no indicators are illuminated on any power supply, then both power modules
have failed, both fuses have blown, or (most likely) power has not been wired to
the shelf. If the POWER indicators turn on, but the POWER FAIL indicator on
one power supply is also on, then that power module is not functioning or has a
blown fuse.
4.
After power is first applied, verify the boot sequence on the Display Module.
Observe a rotating LED display, where all LEDs are lit in sequence for several
seconds.
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6.3 INSTALLING DACS NETWORK CONFIGURATION FILE
6.3.1 INTRODUCTION
Before installing a DACS network, the DACS network configuration file should be created. In most
cases, the DACS network configuration file is created by RFL and installed at the factory. A backup
copy of the file is provided to the customer on a floppy disc. In some cases the network configuration
file is created by the customer and loaded at his facility.
The network configuration file is a database used by the RFL Network Management System (NMS) to
describe all components of all nodes of a particular network. It may also contain separate network
configuration files for each node or shelf in the network.
For a DACS, the network configuration file contains network, node, and module level information,
which includes settings for each port, system timing and control, switching parameters, and grooming
maps or path routings. Even if mechanical installation is complete, the DACS shelf may not operate if
the configuration is not loaded into the unit.
If not preloaded, configuration files must be initially downloaded into each node, one node at a time.
Without the proper settings, adjacent nodes will not communicate with each other and will not be able
to pass information remotely. The user may find it more convenient to preload the configuration file
into each unit before they are installed at the site.
Once the DACS network is operational it can be remotely monitored and reconfigured if necessary.
Care should be taken to avoid unwanted configuration changes, which may result in the loss of
communication between nodes. For example, changing the frame format from ESF to SF will disable
FDL over that path, resulting in loss of NMS access.
6.3.2 NMS STARTUP
Obtain the DACS network configuration file for your network. This file is usually prepared by RFL
but can be prepared by the user.
The network configuration file actually consists of multiple files of the same name, with various
extensions, which, if moved or copied, must be kept in a common directory or folder. The file with the
.NET extension is the top level file of the set.
Launch NMS and open the network configuration file for your application by selecting the appropriate
.NET file.
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6.3.3 CONNECTING YOUR PC TO A NODE
Connect a PC running NMS to the node being programmed. If using an RS-232 serial link, connect the
PC to the serial port at the rear of the Multiplexer shelf, which in turn connects to the DACS shelf over
a Serial Control Bus (SCB) cable. If no Multiplexer is present, as in a stand-alone configuration,
connect the PC directly to the user serial port at the rear of the DACS shelf.
When connecting the PC through a Multiplexer, set the serial communication parameters within the
Common Module. If connecting directly to a DACS, configure the link for 8 bits, no parity, and 1 stop
bit. Set the NMS port parameters to match.
If using a Local Area Network (LAN), connect to the Serial Access Gateway (SAG) port at the rear of
the DACS.
6.3.4 DOWNLOADING CONFIGURATION FILES
To download node configuration files from the NMS into a DACS, use the following procedure:
If connecting to a network through an IMUX Multiplexer Common Module:
1. Click on the NET WRITE button in the NMS main screen.
2. In the subsequent screen, select the desired communication path, and from the pull-down
menu select which node should be configured.
3. Selecting SKIP DACS MAP speeds the download process by bypassing DS0 mapping
information, however, the network may not operate properly if the correct map is not already
stored.
If connecting to a DACS directly, not through a Multiplexer Common Module (stand-alone
application):
1. Click on the NET VIEW button in the NMS main screen.
2. Click on the desired node in the network diagram.
3. In the node information screen, select DACS-R.
4. You will be transferred to configuration screens for the DACS. If all correct values are
shown, select ALL PAGES from the pull-down menu and click the WRITE button.
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6.3.5 VERIFYING CONFIGURATION FILES
If the node configuration is already pre-loaded into the DACS, it may be not necessary to download it
again. However, the user may want to verify the current settings.
The settings of the DACS itself as well as the settings of the Common Modules in Multiplexers
attached to it must be correct in order for the node to operate properly. Verification should be done on
both DACSs and Common Modules.
To verify the current settings, compare the DACS and Multiplexer configurations with the NMS
database, using the following procedure:
If connecting into a network through an IMUX Multiplexer Common Module:
1. Click on the NET READ button in NMS main screen.
2. In the subsequent screen, select the desired communication path and from the pull-down
menu, select which node should be read.
3. Selecting SKIP DACS MAP speeds the process by bypassing DS0 mapping information,
however, this will prevent verifying that aspect of the configuration.
If connecting to a DACS directly, not through a Multiplexer Common Module (stand-alone
application):
1. Click on the NET VIEW button in the NMS main screen.
2. Click on the desired node in network diagram.
3. In the node information screen, select DACS-R.
4. You will be transferred to configuration screens for the DACS. If all correct values are
shown, select ALL PAGES from the pull-down menu and click the READ button.
Once the configuration information is read, return to the NMS main screen. Click on the REPORTS
button and select the DIFFERENCE REPORT. This report lists configuration items, which differ
between the actual value in the file and the actual value in the device.
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6.4 SYSTEM CHECKOUT
The system checkout procedures shown below are intended as general guides. Modify your procedure
to correspond to the actual network configuration.
6.4.1 INITIAL NETWORK MANAGEMENT COMMUNICATION TEST
Activate all system nodes. Launch NMS on a PC and allow it to access the RFL network. The PC
connection can be located anywhere within the network.
Allow NMS to contact individual nodes of the network. Any nodes, which at this stage of
commissioning are already connected over operating DS1 links to the node with NMS, should be
visible, i.e., their status and configuration can be retrieved remotely.
6.4.2 NETWORK STATUS
Using NMS, download the status of the visible nodes.
If the network is complete, all nodes should report no DS1-level errors on DACS DS1 ports. If sections
of the network are missing, but the DACS units were able to heal the ring by switching around the
faults, there should be no errors reported by ports connected to intact DS1 links.
If errors are reported, check the quality of transmitted and received signals. This is best accomplished
by using T1/E1 signal test equipment (such as Fireberd 6000 or SunSet T1) connected to appropriate
jacks of the front panel jack-field.
At the jack-field panel, test the transmitter output into the DS1 signal path resulting in errors.
If problems are detected, investigate possible failure of the transmitter.
At the jack-field panel, test the received signal of the DS1 path reporting errors. If problems are
detected, investigate a possible failure of the link. If no problems are detected and the DACS continues
reporting reception errors, investigate a possible failure of the receiver.
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6.4.3 PREVENTING MAP SWITCHING FOR TROUBLESHOOTING
If a switching network experiences complex problems, it may be changing paths continually, making it
difficult to retrieve the current state of individual nodes. In such situations, forcing individual DACS
units to SERVICE=OFF will keep them locked in Map 0.
The remaining functionality of the DACS is maintained. DS1/DS0 traffic is still processed, assisting in
retrieving diagnostic information and implementing corrections.
Very frequently, DS1 errors are caused by an incorrect or missing configuration. Review the existing
settings, timing, in particular.
If equipment failure is suspected, replace the DACS unit in question, and return the faulty unit to RFL
for diagnostics or repair.
6.4.4 DS0 VERIFICATION
For each DS0 channel in use, verify the signal integrity. Refer to the RFL IMUX Multiplexer Manual
for details on accessing and verifying individual DS0 paths through the channel cards.
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6.5 SAG MODULE INSTALLATION
6.5.1 MOUNTING
The SAG module is packaged in a plug-in module and must be plugged into slot 1 at the front of the 8Port DACS chassis. The SAG I/O module must be installed at the back of the chassis directly in line
with the SAG module as shown in Figure 6-8. Make sure the serial port cable can reach the
CM3R/CM6B remote port. This cable should have enough slack so it is not in danger of being pulled
out of place. Some serial port cables, especially hanging cables of any significant length, may have
enough hanging weight to pull the SAG cable out of place. In such a cases, the serial port cables
should be tied in place to provide the SAG cable with strain relief.
6.5.2 POWER INPUT
The SAG is powered through the DACS chassis motherboard. The SAG uses a maximum power input
of approximately 5 watts, so the maximum current from the DACS power supply is about 1 amp.
MA255
LAN
TIMING
USER
SAG Module
Front
Panel
View
SAG Module
MA-255 SAG I/O
MA-255
Rear
Panel
View
Figure 6-8. SAG Module and MA-255 SAG I/O
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(LAN Connector)
Ethernet 10BaseT network port
MA255
LAN
6
5
4
3
2 TIMIN+
1 TIMIN-
TIMING
I/O 1
USER
8
7
6 TP_RX5
4
3 TP_RX+
2 TP_TX1 TP_TX+
RJ-45 PINOUTS
I/O 2
RJ-12 PINOUTS
Figure 6-9. MA-255 SAG I/O Connections
6.5.3 SERIAL PORTS
The I/O 2 serial port is configured as a DTE port using a male, DB-9 connector. The I/O 1 serial port is
configured as a DTE port using an RJ-12 connector, which is similar to that used on the COM ports of
an IBM-compatible personal computer. Figure 6-9 shows the pin configuration of the I/O 1 port.
Figure 6-10 shows the pin configuration of the I/O 2 port.
1
6
5
9
Pin No.
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
Signal
DCD – INPUT
RXD – INPUT
TXD – OUTPUT
DTR – OUTPUT
SG – SIGNAL GROUND
DSR – INPUT
RTS – OUTPUT
CTS – INPUT
...
Notes
Not Required by Data Link
SMDR, Alarms, etc., from Data Source
Xon/Xoff Flow Control, Maintenance Access,
etc.
Data-Link Handshaking
Signal Ground
Not Required by Data Link
Internal Pullup to +V
For DCE Handshaking
Not used
Figure 6-10. SAG I/O, DB9 Pin Out
The main signals which must be noted are the received data signal line on pin 2 and the signal ground
on pin 5. When receiving serial data, these are the only two connections which the SAG needs.
However, if pass-through access to connected serial devices is required, the transmitted data signal line
on pin 3 must be connected as well. Additionally, some equipment may require an RS-232 high signal
on one or more of its signal lines in order to transmit or accept data. Consult the manual for your other
equipment as needed.
The DCE, DB-9 female cable ends, which mate with the serial port connectors of the SAG will often
have a pair of screw-down cable locks. These cable locks should be used to assure a solid connection
of the cable with the SAG serial port connectors.
6.5.4 ETHERNET
The ethernet 10BaseT connector is an RJ-45 connector. This connector is the commonly used
10BaseT connector, which would connect the SAG to an ethernet hub or switch.
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Section 7. NETWORK MANAGEMENT SOFTWARE
7.1 GENERAL INFORMATION
The IMUX 2000 Network Management Software is a software program which uses the Microsoft
Windows operating system. It enables the user to perform several different tasks related to the IMUX
2000 8-Port T1/E1 DACS when in a system configuration. A brief description of these tasks is listed
below. A more detailed description of how these tasks can be implemented is discussed later in this
section.
1.
Enables the user to communicate with all IMUX 2000 units located in a network.
2.
Enables the user to communicate with all intelligent channel cards located in each
multiplexer.
3.
Enables the user to view a graphical picture of the system from any node.
4.
Enables the user to access information regarding the configuration of any node in the
network.
5.
Enables the user to customize the software for specific requirements.
6.
Enables the user to change card parameters in real time.
7.
Enables the user to perform network troubleshooting and maintenance.
7.2 SYSTEM REQUIREMENTS
In order to use the Network Management Software your PC must meet the following minimum
requirements:
1.
The PC must be IBM compatible with a hard disk drive and a CD-ROM drive.
2.
The PC must use an Intel Pentium microprocessor, or equivalent, or higher.
3.
The PC must have a minimum of 8MB of RAM (16MB of RAM preferred).
4.
The PC must have Windows XP, Windows 2000, Windows 95, Windows 98, or
Windows NT.
5.
The hard disk must have at least 20 megabytes of free disk space for the IMUX 2000
Network Management Software.
6.
The monitor display resolution must be 800 x 600 pixels minimum.
IMUX 2000 DACS8P
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RFL Electronics Inc.
(973) 334-3100
7.3 SOFTWARE INSTALLATION
This section describes how the IMUX 2000 Network Management Software (NMS) is installed into
your PC. The following procedure can also be used to install updated NMS programs into your PC as
they are released.
Before attempting to install the software into your PC, there are some important facts that must be
considered:
1.
The software is shipped from the factory on a CD-ROM labeled “SW2000NM102” or
higher.
2.
Before installing the software, it is recommended that you run CHKDSK or
SCANDISK to verify that no problems exist on your hard disk, and to verify available
disk space. You will need about 20 megabytes free for a complete installation.
3.
As you are installing the software, several lists of choices will appear on the screen; the
exact lists displayed will depend on whether you are installing the software for the first
time or replacing an existing version. Read the instructions below each list carefully
before making your choice.
4.
If this is a new installation, proceed as described in paragraph 7.3.1. If you are
upgrading to a new NMS version, un-install the old NMS version as described in
paragraph 7.3.2, install the new NMS version as described in paragraph 7.3.1, and then
use the “Update Config in Memory to New Version” option as described in Help.
7.3.1 INSTALLING THE SOFTWARE
1.
Insert the CD-ROM into the CD-ROM drive.
2.
From the Start Menu, select Run.
3.
The Run window will appear on the screen.
4.
Type the following in the command line: d:\setup
5.
Then click on OK.
6.
A setup window will appear on the screen.
7.
Click on Next to continue with the setup.
8.
From this point on the Installation Software will prompt you to enter the information it
needs to install the software into your system. When the installation is complete, the
Network Management Icon will be displayed in the desktop window.
9.
This completes the installation of the Network Management Software.
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After the installation is complete, your desktop will be similar to the one shown in Figure 7-1. This
window is the starting point for running the Network Management Software. To run the Network
Management Software double click on the NMS 10.2 Icon on your desktop, or go to the Start menu
and select Programs/RFL IMUX 2000/NMS 10.2. Refer to paragraph 7.6 for information on how to
use the Network Management Software. Refer to paragraph 7.7 for examples showing how to
configure typical networks using the Network Management Software. Refer to paragraph 7.11 for
information on the Network Management Software help screens.
NMS 10.2
Figure 7-1. Typical desktop showing the RFL NMS version 10.2 Icon
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7.3.2 UN-INSTALLING THE SOFTWARE
If for any reason you want to remove the IMUX 2000 Network Management Software from your
computer system, go to the start menu and select Programs/RFL IMUX 2000/Uninstall RFL IMUX
2000. This will cause the Uninstall program to permanently erase all of the programs, icons, directories
and files related to the IMUX 2000 Network Management Software from your hard drive.
NOTE
If you want to save the existing nine network configuration files which are listed below, copy
these files to a diskette prior to using the un-install program. Otherwise they will be lost. Then
copy the diskette files to the new network management directory after installing the new
version of the Network Management Software.
name.ALR
name.DAC
name.NET
name.NOD
name.SLT
name.VAL
name.EVT
name.TSC
name.FPT
IMUX 2000 DACS8P
December 1, 2005
The log of alarms for that network
Information on each DACS in the network
Network information (name, date, communication path)
Information on each node in the network
The cards in each node
The settings of each card
The log of sequence of events for that network
The settings of ethernet port
The table memo file
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7.4 CONNECTING YOUR PC TO THE NETWORK
In order to use the Network Management Software your PC must be connected to a node in the
network. There are several ways a user can do this. A direct connection can be made using an RS-232
cable as shown in Figure 7-2, a remote connection can be made over a public or private phone line as
shown in Figure 7-3, or your PC can be connected to a stand-alone DACS as shown in Figure 7-4. The
user activates a Com Port connection and sets the baud rates of the PC and the CM3R/CM6B to the
same value. The minimum suggested baud rate is 9600. The construction of a typical RS-232 cable can
be seen in Figure 7-5.
REMOTE
CONNECTOR
COM PORT (COM1 . . . . COM8)
MA-210R
OR MA-215R
MUX
RS-232 CABLE
PC
DACS
a. Connecting a PC to the MA-210 or MA-215 Remote Connector.
NODE
RS-232
CONNECTOR
OPTICAL
INTERFACE
ADAPTER
COM PORT (COM1 . . . . COM8)
MUX
RS-232 CABLE
PC
DACS
b. Connecting a PC to the Optical Interface Adapter RS-232 Connector.
NODE
MA215R
RS232
CABLE
MUX
ETHERNET PORT
MA810
SAG
PC
ETHERNET
NETWORK
DACS
c. Connecting a PC to the ethernet port.
NODE
Figure 7-2. PC directly connected to a node using an RS-232 cable, or ethernet port
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COM1 or COM2
RS232 cable
PC
Null modem cable
may be required
PUBLIC OR
PRIVATE
PHONE LINE
MODEM
MODEM
NODE
a. Using modems only.
COM1 or COM2
RS232 cable
PC
TO OTHER
DEVICES
PUBLIC OR
PRIVATE
PHONE LINE
PORT 1
RFL 9660
DIGITAL
SWITCH
MODEM
PORT 2
PORT 3
NODE
Null modem cable
is required
b. Using modem and substation switch.
SUBSTATION SWITCH
Figure 7-3. PC connected to a node from a remote location
ETHERNET PORT
PC
MA255
SAG
I/O
ETHERNET
SAG
DACS
a. Connecting a PC to a stand-alone DACS through an Ethernet port.
RS232
PC
MA250
DACS
b. Connecting a PC to a stand-alone DACS
Figure 7-4. PC connected to a stand alone DACS
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MALE
MALE
FEMALE
FEMALE
1
1
1
1
NC
XMIT DATA OUTPUT
3
3
3
3
REC DATA INPUT
REC DATA INPUT
2
2
2
2
XMIT DATA OUTPUT
NC
4
4
4
4
NC
RS-232 GROUND
5
5
5
5
RS-232 GROUND
NC
6
6
6
6
NC
NC
7
7
7
7
NC
NC
8
8
8
8
NC
NC
9
9
9
9
NC
NC
PC
COM1
PORT
MA-210, MA-215
OR OIA
Figure 7-5. Construction of a typical RS-232 cable between the PC and an MA-210, MA-215 or OIA
Figure 7-6 shows a PC at a remote location connected to 4 nodes, where each node is in a different
network. Phone line #1 through phone line #4 each represent a different communication path.
Figure 7-7 shows a PC at a remote location connected to 4 nodes, where all nodes are in the same
network. The nodes communicate Network Management configuration information via the Facility
Data Link.
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RS232 cable
PHONE LINE #1
PHONE LINE #2
PC
MODEM
PHONE LINE #3
MODEM
*
NODE 1
MODEM
*
NODE 2
MODEM
*
NODE 3
MODEM
*
NODE 4
PHONE LINE
* Null modem cable may be required.
Figure 7-6. PC at a remote location connected to 4 nodes, where each node is in a different network
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Null modem cable
RS232 cable
may be required
PC
MODEM
PHONE LINE #1
MODEM
NODE 1
T1
NODE 2
T1
NODE 3
T1
NODE 4
Notes: 1.
2.
The nodes communicate Network Management
configuration information on T1 via the Facility Data Link.
The network must be in Extended Superframe mode
for the Facility Data Link to operate.
Figure 7-7. PC at a remote location connected to 4 nodes, where all nodes are in the same network
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7.5 NETWORK COMMUNICATION PATHS
Each node in a network is connected to another node, allowing communication to pass from one node
to another. Each communication path must have a beginning and an end as shown in the Figures
below. Each box represents a node in the network. When using the Network Management Software,
the PC can be connected to any node in the network.
Beginning
PC
End
1
2
3
Beginning
PC
Simple Network With
One Communication
Path and Three Nodes
End
1
2
3
Beginning
Simple Network With One
Loop, One Communication
Path and Three Nodes
End
1
2
PC
4
3
Network With Three
Communication
Paths and Eight Nodes
Beginning
Beginning
End
7
5
6
8
End
Note: The numbers in each box represent node numbers
Figure 7-8. Typical networks and communication paths
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7.6 USING THE NETWORK MANAGEMENT SOFTWARE ICONS
To enter the Network Management Software, double click on the NMS 10.2 Icon on your desktop. Then
enter your user ID and password in accordance with paragraph 7.13.1. This will bring you to the Main
window as shown in Figure 7-9. This window has eighteen functions, which correspond to the Icons listed
below.
Version 10.2
Figure 7-9. Network Management Software Main window
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Icon
Function
1.
New
Allows the user to create a new network file to enable the
configuration of a network yet to be installed.
2.
Open
Allows the user to open an existing network file for the purpose
of altering the file or to download the file to a network.
3.
Save
Allows the user to save a network file.
4.
Exit
Allows the user to exit the Network Management Software.
5.
Modify NMS Setup
Allows the user to select the communication path(s), parity,
baud rate, and connection type (direct or phone)
6.
Net Vw
Network View provides the user with a graphical representation
of the network. The nodes are shown as boxes and the connections are
shown as lines. Each node has a site name and address, which are also
displayed.
7.
Cn Vw
Connection View provides a table view of all possible connections in a
network. It provides the user with the information required to assign time
slots to channel cards and modules.
8.
NMS Status
Provides the user with information about the network file setup.
9.
Reports
Allows the user to view seven types of network reports.
10. Help
Provides the user with Network Management Software help.
11. Play Macro
Allows a user to play a macro which has been previously recorded and
edited. To play a macro the user selects the Play Macro icon on the main
screen then selects the macro by name, and it runs. This function can
only be used in real time mode. More information on Play Macro can be
found later in this section.
12. Read Net
Read Network causes the network to be read to a file. This function can
only be used in batch mode.
13. Write Net
Write Network causes a file to be written to the network. This function
can only be used in batch mode.
14. Alarms
Allows the user to gather alarm data and then go to Reports to view the
alarm data. This function can only be used in batch mode, however, an
autopolling option is available in real time mode. More information on
auto polling can be found later in this section.
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15. Events
Causes the Sequence Of Events buffer to be read by the Network
Management Software and allows the user to view or print the
Sequence Of Events buffer.
16. Terminal
Causes the software to enter Terminal Emulation mode. In this mode, NMS
operation is suspended and characters typed by the user are passed directly
from the computer to the device to which it is connected. Terminal
Emulation mode is not used in the normal operation of NMS. It permits
communication with devices other than an IMUX.
17. Real Time
Allows a user to change the configuration parameters of any card
in the network in real time which means that any change that is made
will be written to the network immediately. Real time mode is used when
you have only a few (1 or 2) changes to make in the network.
18. Batch
Allows a user to change the configuration parameters of all nodes
in the network or of just one node in the network in one operation. The
change does not take place immediately. The user must select either a
network write or an individual node write in order to implement the
change. (NOTE: Batch is the default mode. The red dot indicates which
mode is selected)
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7.7 EXAMPLES OF CONFIGURING A NETWORK
This section contains two examples of how to configure a new network using the Network
Management Software. Paragraph 7.7.1, discusses example 1, which shows how to set up a T1 network
with a common module. Paragraph 7.7.2, discusses example 2, which shows how to set up a standalone DACS network without a common module. The examples give step-by-step instructions showing
all windows and settings. The information provided here will enable you to configure more advanced
networks to suit your own requirements.
7.7.1 STEPS REQUIRED TO CONFIGURE A T1 NETWORK WITH AN RFL
CM3R (EXAMPLE 1)
See paragraph
1.
Setup the hardware at each node including all cards, modems
and cables as required.
7.7.1.2
2.
Connect the PC or laptop to the network either directly or remotely
using a modem or an ethernet module.
7.7.1.3
3.
Start the IMUX 2000 Network Management Software from the
desktop.
7.7.1.4
4.
Select NEW to start a new configuration. Complete the network
setup screen. Enter all communication path information.
7.7.1.5
5.
Select the READ option. Then select Auto-configuration Method 3.
7.7.1.6
6.
Select Network View.
7.7.1.7
7.
Enter Display/Change Node window. For each node, add dumb cards,
settings for all cards, and program the DACS maps as required.
7.7.1.8
8.
Enter Network View window. Connect lines to nodes.
7.7.1.15
9.
Use Network Write to configure the cards. When the writing is done
the program will return to the main menu.
7.7.1.16
10.
Look at Reports.
7.7.1.17
11.
Use Poll For Alarms to look for errors.
7.7.1.18
12.
Save Settings in a file.
7.7.1.20
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7.7.1.1 GETTING STARTED
Figure 7-10 shows a simplified drawing of the network that will be used for this example. Figure 7-11
shows a more detailed drawing of the network showing all IMUX 2000 components, modules, cards
and cables used in the network example.
PC OR
LAPTOP
9745
PHONE
4
PHONE
2
9745
PHONE
3
1
Common DACSR
Figure 7-10. Basic drawing of the network used in example one
The network used in this example is configured as a closed ring. The ring itself has three nodes (3
switching points). The tail terminal (node 4) has its own address to allow independent programming. Nodes
1 and 4 each has one terminal end multiplexer, head and tailed at one location to form a ring using a
common DACS. The other two nodes in the ring have Drop and Insert multiplexers, each utilizing a DACS.
A data circuit is established between nodes 2 and 3, which consists of one RFL 9745 teleprotection data
link. A voice circuit is established between nodes 1, 2, and 3, which consists of one phone line. Table 7-1
lists the modules in each node that must be configured into the network.
Table 7-1. List of modules used in the example that must be configured into the network
Node 1 (Head Terminal)
DACS
CM3R-1
VF16B
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Node 2 (Drop/Insert)
DACS
CM3R-1
CM3R-2
VF5A
VF16B
Node 3 (Drop/Insert)
DACS
CM3R-1
CM3R-2
VF5A
VF16B
7-15
Node 4 (Tail Terminal)
CM3R-1
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NODE 3
NODE 2
SCB MA250
CM3R
MA215R
CM3R
MA210R
VF5A
MA301
VF16B
MA304
MA260
5 MA260
1
DS1
4
3
DS1
2
DACS MA260
6
MA260
MA260
2
3
4
1
MA260
6
5
MA260
LINE
SWITCH
MODE
PHONE
MA260
MA260
MA215R
CM3R
MA210R
CM3R
MA301
VF5A
MA304
VF16B
LINE
SWITCH
MODE
9745
D&I MUX
9745
DS1
DS1
DS1
DS1
1
NODE 1
M
A
2
6
0
CROSS
CONNECT
MODE
PC OR
LAPTOP
MA260
MA260 DACS
MA260
D&I MUX
SCB
MA250
3
M
A
2
6
0
2
M
A
2
6
0
PHONE
4
M
A
2
6
0
DACS
MA250
MA260
MA260
5
SCB
6
MA215R
CM3R
MA304
VF16B
NODE 4
DS1
MA215R
PHONE
TERMINAL END MUX
CM3R
TERMINAL
END
MUX
Figure 7-11. DACS Network Example (configured as a closed ring with three nodes)
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7.7.1.2 SETTING UP THE HARDWARE
Since this is an example, we will not be setting up actual hardware. However, you should study Figure
7-11 carefully to familiarize yourself with which modules plug into which chassis, with the cabling at
each node, and with the settings of the cards at each node. Set up all intelligent cards for “remote”
mode. Refer to Sections 15 through 18 of the IMUX 2000 Instruction Manual (RFL publication No.
MC2000R) for Instruction Data sheets for these cards.
Note that each common module and each channel module that plugs into the front of a multiplexer
chassis has a module adapter associated with it, which plugs into the rear of the chassis. For example,
the Terminal End Multiplexer at node 1 has the following two modules plugged into the front of the
chassis: one CM3R and one VF16B. The following two module adapters are plugged into the rear of
the chassis: the MA215R is the module adapter for CM3R-1, and the MA304 is the module adapter for
the VF16B.
The DACS chassis at node 1 has the following seven module adapters plugged into the rear of the
chassis: four MA260s at ports 1, 2, 3 and 4 are line I/O modules for DS1 traffic, two MA260s at ports
5 and 6, and one MA250 communications I/O for SCB communications.
7.7.1.3 CONNECTING THE PC TO THE NETWORK
The next step is to connect your PC to the network. It can be connected to any node, and can be either
directly connected with an RS-232 cable, or remotely connected over a public or private phone line
using a modem or ethernet module. In this example we will connect the PC directly to node 1. Connect
one end of the RS-232 cable to the communication port at the rear of your PC and connect the other
end of the cable to the Remote Connector on the MA215R module adapter at the rear of the
multiplexer at node 1. See Paragraph 7.4 for more information related to the RS-232 cable.
7.7.1.4 STARTING THE NETWORK MANAGEMENT SOFTWARE
To start the Network Management Software, click on the NMS 10.2 Icon on your desktop. Then enter
your user ID and password in accordance with paragraph 7.13.1. This will bring you to the Main
window as shown in Figure 7-12. See paragraph 7.6 for information regarding this window.
7.7.1.5 STARTING A NEW NETWORK CONFIGURATION
Since this is a new network configuration, you should click on the NEW Icon. This will bring you to the
Edit Network Information window as shown in Figure 7-13. Enter the network name, created by, and
comments at the top of the window. This information is optional and does not have to be entered. For E1
networks, check the E1 box. Since this example is for a T1 network, leave the E1 box unchecked.
Note that this window has the following default values entered for communication path 1: baud rate =
9600, data bits = 7, parity = 2, stop bits = 1, connection type = direct. All of these default values can be
used for this example with the exception of the parity bit. You must change the parity bit shown in the
window from 2 to 1, since the values shown in the window must match the values that the Remote Port
operates at. Also make sure that the CM3R at node 1 is set to 9600 baud, and that its parity is odd.
<< text continues on page 7-20 >>
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Version 10.2
Figure 7-12. Network Management Software Main window
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Figure 7-13. Edit Network Information window
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There are two network grids and a network list available. The 8 x 11 grid has more spaces available,
but screen updates take time. The 4 x 10 grid has less spaces available, but screen updates are quicker.
You can switch from the 4 x 10 grid to the 8 x 11 grid at any time.
Since this example has only 4 nodes, you can select the 4 x 10 network grid at the bottom of the
window. The grid that is selected will be highlighted light gray. A phone number is not required in this
example since we are directly connected to node 1. A connect string is not required in this example
since we are not using a substation switch (such as an RFL 9660). You can now click on OK to return
to the main window.
NOTE
In this example the PC is directly connected to Node 1 as shown in Figure 7-11. This
connection is shown in more detail in Figure 7-2a. Since this is a direct connection, “Direct”
is selected in Figure 7-13, and the Phone# and Connect String boxes are left blank. However,
if the PC was connected to Node 1 through a modem with a substation switch as shown in
Figure 7-3b, the following selections would be made in the Edit Network Information window
(Figure 7-13): “Direct” would not be selected, a phone number would be entered, and “{3}”
would be entered in the connect string box to indicate that port 3 of the RFL 9660 Digital
Switch is connected to the node.
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7.7.1.6 SELECTING NETWORK READ
From the Main window, select the Network Read Icon (NET Read). This will open a sub-window
asking you which communication path(s) to read from, as shown in Figure 7-14. This window has a
default for communication path 1, which is correct for this example. Click on Auto-configuration. This
will bring you to the Auto-Configure Options window as shown in Figure 7-15. The Auto-Config
Option, Method 3 will allow the user to “build” a new network. It will automatically read the current
network setup which consists of the nodes, the cards and modules at each node, and either the factory
default or user assigned configuration settings of each card and module. Click on Method 3. Then click
on OK to return to the Read Network Setup window. If you have a real network, click on OK to read
the network, otherwise click on EXIT to return to the main window.
NOTE
Method 1 only works when there is a configuration already installed. Since this is a new
network, a configuration is not yet installed. Therefore if you select Method 1 there is
nothing to be read.
Selecting Method 2 will delete information about the cards in each node, and then it will read
all the information of the network.
Selecting Method 3 will delete information about the cards in each node, and the nodes , and
then it will read all the information of the network.
At 9600 baud it takes about two and one-half minutes to read each node in the network, if the node
does not have a DACS installed. To read a node with a DACS installed takes about an additional seven
minutes per node. In this example, if we were actually reading the network, it would take about thirty
minutes to read the network. While the network is being read, two pop-up windows will get
superimposed over the window shown in Figure 7-14. One of these will be a Communications window
and the other will be an Auto Cfg/Nodes window.
The network is read into a temporary file which contains the following information:
1.
The shelf address of each node in the network (1-500 for CM3Rs)
2.
The cards that are in each node
3.
The card configuration settings (either default settings, or user assigned settings at the
time of hardware installation)
Before the user leaves the Network Management Software, the network configuration information
must be saved in a network file with a .NET extension in the form of netname.NET, where netname is
selected by the user. If this is not done, the network configuration information will be lost. A
description of how to do this will be described later in this Section.
After the network read is complete you will be returned to the main window.
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Version 10.2
Figure 7-14. Read Network Setup Window
NOTE
When reading a new network configuration into memory the Network Management Software
should be in batch mode since all settings must be read for all nodes. After the network has
been read you can change the setting to real time mode. This will allow you to change the
configuration parameters of any card in the network in real time which will nominally take
under 30 seconds.
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Figure 7-15. Auto-Configure Options Window
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7.7.1.7 SELECTING NETWORK VIEW
The Network View window is the first window in a set of several windows that tells the user what
nodes are in the network. The information in these windows was read from the network and stored
in a temporary file. The Network View window is where the user can configure card and module
settings and program the DACS maps. You get to the Network View window by clicking on the
Network View (Net Vw) Icon in the main menu. If this network example actually existed, the 4
node network would have been read as described in paragraph 7.7.1.6, and a Network View window
similar to the one shown in Figure 7-16 would be seen. To make changes to the card settings, first
click on the Change button at the bottom left of the window and then click on the node that you want
to change. If this network example actually exists, click on the Change button, and then click on
node 1 which is located at the upper left of the Network View window. This will bring you to the
Display/Change Node window for node 1 as shown in Figure 7-17.
Since this network does not exist, click on the Add Node button, and then click on the empty dotted
box. This will bring you to the Display/Change Node window for node 1 as shown in Figure 7-17.
1:AutoCfgNet
Term DACS-R
2:AutoCfgNet
D&I DACS-R
3:AutoCfgNet
D&I DACS-R
4:AutoCfgNet
Term
Figure 7-16. Network View window
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7.7.1.8 THE DISPLAY/CHANGE NODE WINDOW
The Display/Change Node window shown in Figure 7-17 is entered from the Network View window
as described in the previous paragraph. As its name implies, the Display/Change Node window has
two main functions. First, it displays the node number, the node address, the communication path used,
the node type, the presence of a DACS, ILS, DACS-R or ILS-R, and a list of all cards and modules at
the node. In addition to this the user can enter a Site ID name at the top of the window. Its second
function is to allow the user to change card settings by going into a sub-window for each card or
module.
Verify that the “Node Type” is Terminal. If not, click on the Terminal radio button. Then click on the
Term button, which is located to right of CM3. This will bring you to the View or Change a Card
window as shown in Figure 7-18.
VF16B(1)
Stand Alone
Figure 7-17. Display/Change Node window for node 1
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7.7.1.9 VIEW OR CHANGE A CARD WINDOW FOR THE CM3R
The View or Change a Card window for the CM3R is shown in Figure 7-18. This is where the user can
view or change CM3R settings. The “Actual” column is what the CM3R module is actually set to, and
the “Set to” column contains settings the user can change. Refer to Table 7-2 in paragraph 7-7 in the
IMUX 2000 Instruction Manual for a list of CM3R parameters. When finished with either viewing or
changing the CM3R settings, click on Exit to return to the Display/Change Node window as shown in
Figure 7-17.
To view the settings of the DACS-R module, click on the DACS-R radio button. This will bring you to
the Redundant DACS General Configurations Window for Node 1 as shown in Figure 7-19.
Figure 7-18. View or Change a Card window for the CM3R
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7.7.1.10 DACS GENERAL CONFIGURATIONS WINDOW FOR NODE 1
The DACS General Configurations window for Node 1 of a T1 system is shown in Figure 7-19. This is
where the user can view or change the DACS general configuration parameters. This window has
eleven top-level pages selectable by the tabs at the top of the window as follows: General, Port 1 to
Port 8, Map and RBS (Robbed Bit Signaling). The General Configurations window for Node 1 of an
E1 system will be identical to the window shown in Figure 7-19 except it will not have the RBS tab.
The following discussion covers the settings on the “General” page.
Figure 7-19. DACS General Configurations window for node 1 of a T1 system
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Module Service:
When used with an IMUX multiplexer shelf, this informs the MUX if the DACS is expected to be used
or not. When enabled (checked), the multiplexer will issue a shelf alert if it cannot communicate with
the DACS through the SCB cable. Clearing this selection will turn off the SCB service allowing the
DACS to be removed from the system without generating alerts.
Disable Left Module:
When enabled, the left DACS module will be requested to relinquish control. Note, that under some
conditions (e.g. if there is no right module installed) the unit may not, in fact, disable itself.
Disable Right Module:
When enabled, the right DACS module will be requested to relinquish control. Note, that under some
conditions (e.g. if there is no left module installed) the unit may not, in fact, disable itself.
Shelf Alert if Service Off:
When the DACS is connected to an IMUX multiplexer shelf, it is desirable to issue an alert when the
multiplexer cannot communicate with the DACS through the SCB cable. If the SCB service is turned
off as described above, loss of SCB communications will not create an alert. For this reason, the
DACS will generate a local shelf alert when the SCB service is turned off. In order to accommodate
systems where the normal operation is with the SCB service disabled, the alert may be disabled by
clearing this feature in the configuration.
Shelf Alert if Force Map:
The user may bypass the automatic selection of maps and manually force the DACS to use a particular
map. Normally this is only done during system commissioning or troubleshooting. As such, most
users will desire the DACS to be in alert (Configuration Alert) when a forced map is selected, to do
this, this function should be enabled. There are, however, some applications where the DACS will be
in a forced map during normal operation. In these systems a constant alert condition would be
undesirable and this function should be disabled.
Port Failure Criteria:
There are five types of Map Switch Criteria as follows: Loss of Frame, Receive Carrier Loss,
Unframed All Ones, PVC Rate Exceeded and Fast Loss of Frame. For example, if “Loss of Frame” is
enabled (checked), the DACS will switch to an alternate map if there is a loss of frame. Any
combination of Map Switch Criteria selections can be enabled (checked) depending on your system
requirements. If “PVC Rate Exceeded” is enabled (checked) the user must also set the PVC Rate
located on the same page. This will allow all ports to switch into an alternate map if the selected PVC
Rate is exceeded.
When the system switches from the normal map (Map 0) to an alternate map (Map 1 to Map 7) it will
automatically switch back to the normal map when the system recovers. “Recovery Delay” is the
amount of time in seconds that will elapse before the system switches back to the normal map (Map 0).
The value of Recovery Delay can be set by the user in accordance with the system specifications.
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Loss of Frame:
Enabling this will instruct the DACS to consider the loss of frame condition when evaluating which
map to use. Note that other types of line faults may also cause a loss of frame.
Receive Carrier Loss:
Enabling this will instruct the DACS to consider the loss of carrier condition when evaluating which
map to use.
Unframed All Ones:
Enabling this will instruct the DACS to consider the UA1 condition when evaluating which map to
use.
PCV Rate Exceeded:
Enabling this will instruct the DACS to consider a PCV (Path Code Violation) condition when
evaluating which map to use. Note that the threshold of PCVs required to consider the port faulted is
programmable and must be set by the user.
Fast Loss of Frame:
Enabling this will instruct the DACS to detect a loss of the RFL Fast Reframe pattern and use this
condition when evaluating which map to use. In order to use this feature, all IMUX multiplexers must
be configured for Fast Reframe mode. Also note that no more than four DACS ports can be
configured for Fast at a time.
System Type:
This configuration screen is only valid for the DACS.
Shelf Address:
This is the DACS Shelf Address, and applies only to nodes containing a stand-alone DACS. If the
node contains a CM3, this setting should be ignored.
Recovery Delay:
This specifies the delay from the restoration of a port to taking action and returning to the default map.
This delay is intentionally long (settable in seconds) to ensure that the network has been properly
healed and is stable prior to changing paths.
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PCV Rate:
If the user has decided to use PCVs as part (or all) of the switching decision inputs, the error threshold
must be set. For user convenience, the input is expressed in bit error rate and converted to units
appropriate for the actual PCV detection. Note that due to limitations in the basic T1/E1 framing
structure, only PCVs are detected, not actual bit errors - the bit error rate entered by customer is only
used as an approximation.
Primary Clock:
The primary source of timing for the DACS must be specified by the user. Note that incorrect network
timing can cause system errors and instability. The available timing options are:
Internal clock,
External clock, and
Timing recovered from any of the 8 T1/E1 ports as a Master Timing source. This may be set at
one node of a network to help improve system performance in the event of a catastrophic
failure of the node that is intended to provide the system timing. To do this the node adjacent
to the timing source is configured to use the port connected to the master timing node as a
master timing port.
Timing recovered from any of the 8 T1/E1 ports.
Secondary Clock:
The secondary source of timing for the DACS must be specified by the user, this is the timing that will
be used if the primary source of timing becomes unavailable. Note that incorrect network timing can
cause system errors and instability. The available timing options are:
Internal clock (also called “not used” by some RFL employees),
External clock, and
Timing recovered from any of the 8 T1/E1 ports.
Note that not all combinations of primary/secondary timing sources are valid.
Use PC Time:
The user can instruct NMS to use the PC’s clock to set the DACS clock, or, the user may manually set
the time and date as discussed below.
Date:
If the user wishes to manually set the date, the date must be entered here.
Time:
If the user wishes to manually set the time, the time must be entered here.
After all settings are made on the “General” page (Figure 7-19), click on the Port 1 tab to get to the
Port 1 configuration parameters window as shown in Figure 7-20. After the Port 1 parameters are set,
set Port 2 through Port 8 parameters as required. Then set MAP page parameters and the RBS page
parameters.
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7.7.1.11 PORT 1 CONFIGURATION PARAMETERS
NOTE
This section presumes a basic knowledge of T1/E1 systems on the part of the user.
Misapplication of these settings may cause system misoperation.
The Port 1 Configuration parameters window for T1 is shown in Figure 7-20. The Port 2 through Port 8
windows are identical to this one, and therefore are not shown. Each of the eight T1 DACS ports has ten
configurations that must be set by the user. Each of these configurations is described below.
The Port 1 Configuration parameters window for E1 is shown in Figure 7-21. The Port 2 through Port 8
windows are identical to this one, and therefore are not shown. Each of the eight E1 DACS ports has
thirteen configurations that must be set by the user. Each of these configurations is described below.
1. When “Fast LOF Detector” is (checked) the Fast Loss Of Frame Detector is enabled. In each
DACS, only four out of eight ports can have FLOF enabled. Normally only the two network facing
primary ports are set to FLOF. This means that a port failure will be recognized if an RFL FRP
(Fast Reframe Pattern) is missing from the DS1 stream. FRP is generated by RFL IMUX common
modules when programmed to do so. This setting does not pertain to RLOS. If you use Fast
Reframe, all common modules (CM3s and CM6s) at all nodes must be set to Fast Reframe.
2. The Switch Delay setting is the amount of time in milliseconds that a failed condition must exist
before a MAP or Routing switch takes place. The range is from 0.5ms to 127.5ms in 0.5ms steps.
A typical setting for a 4 node network is 1.0ms. RFL recommends adding at least 0.5ms for each
additional node.
3. The LOF Delay setting is the amount of time in milliseconds LOF (Loss Of Frame) is present
before a MAP or routing switch takes place. The range is from 0.00ms to 1275.00ms in 5ms steps.
A typical LOF Delay setting for a DACS or ILS is 85ms for a system with Fast LOF Detector
enabled and 300ms for a system with Fast LOF Detector disabled.
4. There are two Path Types, XC and Line. XC (cross connect mode) allows DS0 grooming. If Line
(line switch mode) is selected, no DS0 grooming is possible.
5. The Jitter Buffer setting sets the depth of the jitter buffer. The three possible settings are 128 bits,
32 bits or Disabled.
6. Termination (E1 only). This setting selects the line interface termination. The three possible
settings are: 75 Ohm, 120 Ohm and Disable.
7. I/O type (E1 only). I/O type is read only, and can be read by clicking on the Read button at the
bottom of the window. It has two values: Electrical and Fiber Optic.
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Figure 7-20. Port 1 Configuration parameters window for a T1 system
NOTE
The “Port Mode” parameter must be set to OFF for any unused ports. For example, if your
DACS uses ports 1 through 6 only, set the “Port Mode” on ports 7 and port 8 configuration
parameters windows to OFF. All other parameters in ports 7 and port 8 windows can be left
untouched.
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Figure 7-21. Port 1 Configurations parameters window for an E1 system
8a. There are two Frame Types for T1. These are SF (superframe) and ESF (extended superframe).
These settings are dependent on your system application.
8b. There are two Frame Types for E1. These are CAS (Channel Associated Signaling) and CCS
(Common Channel Signaling). When CAS is selected, channel 16 carries the signaling for the DS0
timeslots. When CCS is selected, timeslot 16 is not used for CAS and is used for DS0 traffic. These
settings are dependent on your system application.
9a. There are two Line Code types for T1. These are B8ZS (Bipolar Eight Zero Substitution) and AMI
(Alternate Mark Inversion). These settings are dependent on your system application.
9b. There are two Line Code types for E1. These are HDB3 (High Density Bipolar 3) and AMI
(Alternate Mark Inversion). These settings are dependent on your system application.
NOTE
When interfacing the T1/E1 Fiber Service Unit (RFL part numbers 107600-200 thru
107600-500) to a Fiber Optic port on an 8-Port DACS, the Line Coding of the 8-Port DACS
must be set to AMI
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10. CRC4 (E1 only). The CRC4 (cyclic redundancy check) setting is either ON or OFF. When set to ON
the framer will send the CRC4 value out to the remote end. On the receiving end, the CRC4 value will
be verified.
11. There are seven Port Modes as follows, Handshake, CM, Plain, ATT, ANSI, Through and Off.
Each of these Port Modes is described below.
Port Mode
Description
1
Handshake
The port is monitored for failures and performs AIS handshaking upon CM (common
module) failure or port failure.
2
CM
The port is monitored for failures. CM (common module) ports are connected to IMUX 2000
multiplexer. A failure of the CM port is considered a failure of the entire node. Ports which
are considered as handshake will broadcast AIS until the port configured as CM recovers
(goes out of failure mode).
3
Plain
The port is monitored for failures and has no other special attributes.
4
ATT
The port is monitored for failures and conforms to AT&T standard TR54016 for a CSU
(Customer Service Unit) interface.
5
ANSI
The port is monitored for failures and conforms to ANSI standard T1.403-1999 for a CSU
interface.
6
Through
The port is monitored for failures. All signaling of the corresponding “through port” is
passed through the port. There is no DS0 remapping and no regeneration of framing.
Requires Path Type to be LINE, and both ports in the link must be set to THROUGH. This is
a special configuration and is only used in some repeater configurations.
7
Off
The port is not monitored for failures and the DACS front panel LED is not illuminated for
that port. (See note on page 7-32)
12a. In T1 systems there are eight Line Buildout settings as follows: 0-133 ft, 133-266 ft, 266-399 ft, 399533 ft, 533-655 ft, -7.5dB, -15 dB and –22.5 dB. These settings are used to accommodate varying
lengths of electrical connections for the DS1 link. For optical links use the 0-133 ft setting.
12a. In E1 systems there are four Line Buildout settings as follows: 75 Ohm, 120 Ohm, 75-loss and 120loss. These settings are used to accommodate varying lengths of electrical connections for the DS1
link. For optical links use the 0-133 ft setting.
13.
There are two Gain Limit settings as follows: -15 dB and –36 dB. These settings are used to set a
maximum sensitivity of the electrical DS1 receiver. For optical links these settings are irrelevant.
14.
The Framer Type is set to T1 or E1 For an E1 DACS the framer type must be set to E1.
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7.7.1.12 MAP WINDOW
When the DACS system is operating normally it is in Map 0. The first time a DACS is powered up, all
maps (Map 0 through Map 7) have random information in them and must be programmed by the user. To
do this, click on the “Map” tab. This will bring you to the DACS Map window shown in Figure 7-22 for T1
systems. The DACS Map window for E1 systems is very similar to the window shown in Figure 7-22 and
therefore is not shown.
In the “Select Active Map” box click on the “Automatic” radio button. This will allow the DACS to
switch to an alternate map automatically upon a failure. This is the normal setting. The “Map 1 On”
through “Map 7 On” radio buttons will allow the user to force the DACS to switch to a specific map
immediately after clicking on the “Write” button at the bottom of the window.
Figure 7-22. DACS Map window for Node 1 of a T1 system
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The next step is to select the FDL/Line Route for “Map 0”. Program the routing of the FDL/Line Route
signal for “Port 1 Tx” through “Port 8 Tx” as shown in the figure and table below. The number
entered for each port indicates which Rx Port to take the FDL data from.
Port 1
Port 5
Port 2
Port 6
Port 3
Port 7
Port 4
Port 8
FDL/Line Route
Port 1 TX
Port 2 TX
Port 3 TX
Port 4 TX
Port 5 TX
Port 6 TX
Port 7 TX
Port 8 TX
Map 0
5
3
2
6
1
4
8
7
Figure 7-23. Typical FDL signal routing for map 0
Then program the FDL/Line Route for “Map 1” through “Map 7” in a similar way depending on your
system requirements. After all FDL/Line Routes have been programmed click on “Map Select Criteria”.
This will bring you to the Map Select Criteria window as shown in Figure 7-24.
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The Map Select Criteria window is shown in Figure 7-24. Map 0 does not have a Map Select Criteria
since it is the default state of the DACS. Select Map 1 at the bottom of the window. Check the
appropriate boxes in columns A, B, C and D to set the Map Select Criteria for Map 1.
For example if you check Port 1 in column A only, the DACS will switch from Map 0 to Map 1 only if
Port 1 fails. If you check Port 1 in column A and Port 8 in column D, the DACS will switch from Map
0 to Map 1 only if Port 1 fails and Port 8 does not fail. Any combination of boxes in columns one and
two can be checked or unchecked.
Figure 7-24. Map Select Criteria window for Map 1 of a T1 or E1 system
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The user can force the DACS to use any of the eight maps, or the DACS may be configured to
automatically change maps based upon the status of the eight ports.
The user is allowed a large amount of flexibility in configuring which map will be used under which
circumstances. Each of maps 1 through 7 has programmable criteria that must be met for that map to
be used. If the criteria is met for more than one map, the map with the highest number is used (the
higher number indicates higher priority). Map 0 is the default map and is used whenever no other map
satisfies the specified criteria.
Each map is configured to protect the network from one or more port failures. The map select criteria
for a port consists of three port failure tests represented by columns A, B, and C in Figure 7-24.
Criteria A is considered met only if all of the ports specified (checked by the user) are faulted. The
same is true for criteria B. Criteria C is considered met whenever any one or more of the specified
ports are faulted.
The combination of these three criteria is chosen to define the faulted conditions that the map is
designed to work around. The criteria is such, that if criteria C is met and either criteria A or B (or
both) is met, the fault requirements for the map are considered met. However, in order to protect from
faulted ports, the map will require other ports to be operational. (For example, if port 4 fails and we
create a map to re-route this data through port 2, this map will only work if port 2 is good.) For this
reason, criteria D is considered met only if none of the selected ports are faulted. Thus, in order for a
map to be used, criteria C and D, and (either A or B) must be met.
If one or more ports is faulted and a map has been switched into to protect the network, a line alert is
declared (there is a problem but the system has worked around it). Also, if a port has a fault but no
map has been created to protect from this fault (for example, if the port is only used for backup
purposes so no corrective action is called for), a line alert is also declared. If however, a fault was
detected and a map was created to accommodate the fault (as defined by criteria A, B, and C), but the
map cannot be used because a required port (as defined by criteria D) is also faulted, a line alarm is
declared.
If no ports are selected for criteria A, B, C, or D, the criteria is ignored in the evaluation. Additionally,
note that it would not make sense to select a port for criteria D if it were selected for any other criteria
for the same map.
After the Map Select Criteria is programmed for Map 1, then select Map Select Criteria for Maps 2
through 7 and program them accordingly. After Map Select Criteria is set for all seven maps click on
the “Exit” button to return to the previous window as shown in Figure 7-22.
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The next step is to program DACS DS0 Maps 0 through 7. To do this click on the “DS0 Map” button
in the Map Window shown in Figure 7-22. This will bring you to the “DACS DS0 Map 0” window
shown in Figure 7-25 for a T1 system, and Figure 7-26 for an E1 system.
In the upper left hand box you will see 1,01 which means Port 1, Timeslot 1.
In the lower left hand box you will see 1,24 which means Port 1, Timeslot 24.
In the upper right hand box you will see 8,01 which means Port 8, Timeslot 1.
In the lower right hand box you will see 8,24 which means Port 8, Timeslot 24.
Each timeslot, in each port must be programmed by the user, by entering values in the TX columns.
The values shown in the RX columns cannot be changed by the user.
Only RX values can be dragged and dropped into TX columns. A whole RX column can be dragged
and dropped or an individual box (value) can be dragged and dropped.
For example, to drag and drop a whole column, do the following:
1. Click and release box P5RX.
2. Then click and hold box P5RX, and drag the whole column to column P1TX.
3. When you release the button, the P5RX column will be dropped into the P1TX column.
For example, to drag and drop a single value, do the following:
1. Click and release box 3,05 in the P3RX column.
2. Then click and hold box 3,05, and drag the box to the P2TX column directly to the right of 2,04.
3. When you release the button, the box 3,05 will be dropped into the P2TX column.
NOTE
When the “Drag Online” box is checked at the bottom of the window, the drag and drop will
send the DS0 Map command to the DACS system immediately upon releasing the button. In
addition to this, the star in the box means that there is a difference between the “set to” value
and the “actual” value.
The DACS DS0 map is what defines how T1/E1 data is transferred from the receive ports to the
transmit ports. The DS0 map is only applicable to ports that have a path type of XC (cross connect),
the following discussion assumes that the paths are set for XC type.
The user may send any incoming DS0 out on any one or more outgoing DS0(s). In order to
accommodate this, the user configures the Tx DS0 by defining what incoming data is to be used (to
transmit). By configuring where the Tx data comes from rather than where received data is to be sent,
multiple transmit DS0s may share a single Rx DS0.
After DS0 Map 0 is programmed, continue the programming procedure for DS0 Maps 1 through 7 in a
similar fashion according to your system requirements. After all eight DS0 maps have been
programmed click on the “Exit” box at the bottom of the window to return to the previous window as
shown in figure 7-22. Next click on the “RBS” tab. This will bring you to the “Robbed Bit Signaling
Select” window as shown in Figure 7-27.
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CAUTION
When mapping cross-connections on an in-service DACS-R System (8-Port DACS), there may be
a slight disruption of service on channels that use RBS (Robbed Bit Signaling). If telephone
circuits are a part of your system, the telephone may ring sporadically during a write command, or
during a “Drag Online” operation. This disruption is only temporary.
Figure 7-25. DACS DS0 Map 0 window for a T1 system
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Figure 7-26. DACS DS0 Map 0 window for an E1 system
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7.7.1.13 ROBBED BIT SIGNALING SELECT WINDOW
The Robbed Bit Signaling Select window applies to T1 systems only and is shown in Figure 7-27. Select
“Port 1’ in the Port select box. To enable RBS in a particular time slot, the appropriate box must be
checked. Any combination of boxes can be checked or unchecked according to your system requirements.
The RBS window must be setup for each timeslot (TS1 through TS24) and for each port (Port 1 through
Port 8) as required.
After all eleven Tab windows have been programmed, select “All Pages” at the lower left of this
window. Then click on “Write” at the bottom of the window. This will cause NMS to write all the
configuration settings into the DACS system and then read back the configurations.
To look at the system status, click on the “Status” radio button, then select “All Pages”, and then click
on “Read”. This will cause NMS to retrieve all current system status information from the DACS
system.
When “This Page” is selected after clicking on the “Read” or “Write” button, the current page will
display the actual value in the DACS system. The Read button just reads the DACS system settings or
status. The Write button “Writes” the settings to the DACS system and then reads the settings back.
NOTE
Robbed bit signaling (typically used to pass information such as onhook/offhook, ring, etc)
requires special handling by the DACS. RBS “robs” an LSB (least significant bit) data bit
from every sixth frame of data. Due to the frame alignment process in the DACS, the
transmit data stream may require the RBS data to be inserted in different frames (still in every
sixth frame). This process is unavoidable and is not of concern on voice channels where RBS
signaling is typically used. However, it will corrupt digital data traffic in the DS0.
For this reason, only DS0s identified by the user as containing RBS signaling should be
configured to pass the RBS data. This is accomplished by the user specifying which receive
ports contain RBS signals. The DACS then automatically determines which transmit DS0s
must contain RBS based upon the DS0 maps.
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Figure 7-27. Robbed Bit Signal Selects window for T1 systems only
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7.7.1.14 VIEW OR CHANGE A CARD WINDOW FOR THE VF5A
The View or Change a Card window for the VF5A is shown in Figure 7-28. This is where the user can
view or change VF5A settings. The “Actual” column is what the VF5A card is actually set to, and the
“Set to” column contains settings the user can change. Refer to Table 7-20 of the IMUX 2000
Instruction Manual for a list of VF5A parameters. When finished with either viewing or changing the
VF5A settings, click on Exit to return to the Display/Change Node window as shown in Figure 7-17.
Figure 7-28. View or Change a Card window for the VF5A
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7.7.1.15 VIEW OR CHANGE A CARD WINDOW FOR THE VF16B
The View or Change a Card window for the VF16B is shown in Figure 7-29. This is where the user
can view or change VF16B settings. The “Actual” column is what the VF16B card is actually set to,
and the “Set to” column contains settings the user can change. Refer to the Instruction Data sheet in
Section 17 of the IMUX 2000 Instruction Manual for a list of VF16B parameters. When finished with
either viewing or changing the VF16B settings, click on Exit to return to the Display/Change Node
window as shown in Figure 7-17.
Figure 7-29. View or Change a Card window for the VF16B
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7.7.1.16 CONNECTING LINES TO NODES
After the entire network has been configured return to the Network View window shown in Figure 716. Connect the lines between nodes in accordance with Figure 7-30. To make the Network View more
readable the nodes can be moved to different locations by using the Move Node button. Then use the
Add Line button to add connecting lines between nodes. When you are finished connecting lines to
nodes, your Network View window should be similar to the one shown below in Figure 7-30.
1:AutoCfgNet
Term DACS-R
2:AutoCfgNet
D&I DACS-R
3:AutoCfgNet
D&I DACS-R
4:AutoCfgNet
Term
Figure 7-30. Network View window after connecting lines to nodes
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7.7.1.17 WRITING TO THE NETWORK
The next step in this example is to write the network configuration to the network. Up to this point in
time, all of the network configuration data has been saved in a temporary file in the Network
Management Software. To write this data to the network you must return to the main window shown in
Figure 7-12, and then click on the Write NET Icon. Writing to the network takes approximately six
minutes per node and an additional ten minutes per DACS. For this example the writing will take
approximately 54 minutes. The Network Management Software first writes to the network and then
reads it back to verify any errors that might have occurred. The user can look at a difference report to
verify that all settings were written correctly, and then read back correctly. While the data is being
written a window will appear similar to the one shown in Figure 7-14 with two additional pop-up
windows at the bottom. After the network writing is complete you will be returned to the main
window. The network is now operating.
7.7.1.18 VIEWING REPORTS
The Network Management Software provides the user with eight different reports which are made up
of information from various sources. These reports and a description of each is listed below. An
example of what these reports look like is shown in figures 7-31 through 7-37. Note that these reports
are not related to the network example shown earlier in this section.
Report Name
Description
See
Figure
Alarm Log Report
Lists all alarms found in the network
7-31
Complete Network Information Report
(Complete Listing Report)
Lists all settings of all cards in the network
7-32
Connection View Report
Lists which cards are in which time slots for each node
7-33
DACS Map Report
Displays all DACS maps for all nodes in the network
7-34
DACS Map Difference Report
Similar in structure to the DACS Map Report
7-34
Difference Report
Lists the actual versus the configured setup
7-35
Event Log (This does not appear as a
report)
Lists the Sequence Of Events for each node in the
network.
7-36
Network Diagram Report
Lists the nodes and the cards in each node
7-37
Note that the Difference Report compares the “Set to” column to the “Actual” column for all cards and
modules in the network. It then displays only the ones that are different. To see the Difference Report
click on the Reports Icon in the Main window. A Report Description window will be displayed. Click
on Difference Report and then click on Ok. The Difference Report will then be displayed.
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Alarm Log
Alarms logged from 03/01/01 15:24:01 to 03/01/01 15:25:05
Report Name
Page
Date/Time
Date
03/01/01
Time
15:24:01
15:24:08
15:24:16
15:24:16
15:24:16
15:24:16
15:24:16
15:24:16
15:24:16
15:24:58
15:25:05
AlarmLog
1
03/01/01 15:31:30
Node
2: AutoCfg Net
3: AutoCfg Net
DI-A
DI-B
DAC
TER
C11
CM3R
New Common logic module
DACS
Digital Access Cross
Connect
CM3R
DS-64NC
New Common logic module
Wide band data channel
card
Comment
Create Date
Last Saved
Shelf status (alert)
Shelf status (alert)
Loss of frame on framer 2
Bit error rate exceeded fram4
Loss of data on framer 4
Alert on the dacs
Bit error rate exceeded fram2
Loss of frame on framer 4
Loss of data on framer 4
Shelf status (alert)
Configuration Error
Version 14, 3 nodes with dacs & 9 ch cards
03/01/01
11:28:00
03/01/01
15:26:59
Figure 7-31. Typical Alarm Log report
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Complete Listing
Type
Address
Term
1
Node
1
DACS
ILS
CM3-1
R
CM3-2
-
Channel
Card/Description
Set To
Actual
AutoCfg Net Address1
DACS-R
DACS-R
8 Port DACS module
Module Service
On
On
Enable Unframed all Ones
Off
Off
Primary Clock Source
Internal
Internal
Secondary Clock Source
Not Used
Not Used
Disable left module
Off
Off
Disable right module
Off
Off
Force map
Auto
Auto
Enable Receive Carrier Loss
Off
Off
Enable PCV Rate
Off
Off
Enable Loss of Frame
Off
Off
Enable fast loss of frame
Off
Off
PCV rate base
2
2
PCV rate exponent
4
4
Recovery Time Delay
10
10
Port 1 line coding
B8ZS
B8ZS
Port 1 framing type
ESF
ESF
Port 1 loss of frame delay
300
300
Port 1 Path
Line
Line
Port 1 switch time delay
5
5
Port 1 port mode
Plain
Plain
Port 1 line build out
0-133 ft.
0-133 ft.
Port 1 Jitter Attenuator Depth
128 bits
128 bits
Port 1 Equalizer Gain Limit
-36dB
-36dB
Port 2 line coding
B8ZS
B8ZS
Port 2 framing type
ESF
ESF
Port 2 loss of frame delay
300
300
Port 2 Path
XC
XC
Port 2 switch time delay
5
5
Port 2 port mode
Plain
Plain
Port 2 line build out
0-133 ft.
0-133 ft.
Network Name
Author’s Name
Comment
Create Date
Last Saved
T1 network with 8 port DACS
Frank Luo
* Created by Auto Cfg
3/19/02
11:59:07
03/20/02 10:09:15
Figure 7-32. Page 1 of a typical Complete Network Information Report
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Connection View
Report Name
Page
Date/Time
Site ID
Shelf Addr
Term / D&I
DACS / ILS
Direction
Tslot. 1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
17
18
19
20
21
22
23
24
AutoCfg Net
1
Term
DACS
TXA >
VF5A
AutoCfg Net
2
D&I
DACS
<TXB TXA>
DS-562I
AutoCfg Net
3
D&I
DACS
<TXB
TXA>
VF5A
VF11B
DS-562I
Network Name
Author’s Name
Comment
Create Date
Last Saved
ConnView
1
03/06/01 15:31:18
AutoCfg Net
4
D&I
DACS
<TXB TXA>
AutoCfg Net
5
Term
< TXA
Demo T1 network
Frank Luo
Created by Auto Cfg
03/06/01
12:30:51
03/06/01
15:00:54
Figure 7-33. Typical Connection View Report
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DACS Map
Type
Address
Term
1
Node
DACS
ILS
CM3-1
1
R
CM3-2
-
AutoCfg Net Address1
- Timeslots Map 0 1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14 15
16
17
18
19
20
21
22
23
24
FDL
1
2,02 2,02 1,03 1,04 1,05 1,06 1,07 1,08 1,09 2,10 1,11 1,12 1,13 1,14 1,15 1,16 1,17 1,18 1,19 1,20 1,21 1,22 1,23 1,24
1
2
1,01 2,02 2,03 2,04 2,05 2,06 2,07 2,08 2,09 2,10 2,11 2,12 2,13 2,14 2,15 2,16 2,17 2,18 2,19 2,20 2,21 2,22 2,23 2,24
2
3
3,01 3,02 3,03 3,04 3,05 3,06 3,07 3,08 3,09 3,10 3,11 3,12 3,13 3,14 3,15 3,16 3,17 3,18 3,19 3,20 3,21 3,22 3,23 3,24
3
4
3,01 4,02 4,03 4,04 4,05 4,06 4,07 4,08 4,09 4,10 4,11 4,12 4,13 4,14 4,15 4,16 4,17 4,18 4,19 4,20 4,21 4,22 4,23 4,24
4
5
5,01 5,02 5,03 5,04 5,05 5,06 5,07 5,08 5,09 5,10 5,11 5,12 5,13 5,14 5,15 5,16 5,17 5,18 5,19 5,20 5,21 5,22 5,23 5,24
5
6
5,01 5,02 5,03 5,04 5,05 5,06 5,07 5,08 5,09 5,10 5,11 5,12 5,13 5,14 5,15 5,16 5,17 5,18 5,19 5,20 5,21 5,22 5,23 5,24
6
7
7,01 7,02 7,03 7,04 7,05 7,06 7,07 7,08 7,09 7,10 7,11 7,12 7,13 7,14 7,15 7,16 7,17 7,18 7,19 7,20 7,21 7,22 7,23 7,24
7
8
8,01 8,02 8,03 8,04 8,05 8,06 8,07 8,08 8,09 8,10 8,11 8,12 8,13 8,14 8,15 8,16 8,17 8,18 8,19 8,20 8,21 8,22 8,23 8,24
8
Values printed below “set to” values indicate actual values, when different than settings
Figure 7-34. Page 1 of a typical DACS Map Report
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Difference Report
Report Name
Page
Date/Time
Type
D&I
Address Node
2
DACS
ILS
CM3-1
2
CM3-2
Channel
Card/Description
NetList
1
03/01/01 13:13:10
Set To
Actual
AutoCfg Net Address2
C14
VF16
Time Slot
C15
VF11B
Time Slot
Comment
Create Date
Last Saved
Dual Channel 2 wire F. E. Stat.
5
10
2 Wire Foreign Exch. Stat. End
11
7
Version 14, 3 nodes with dacs & 9 ch cards
03/01/01
11:28:00
03/01/01
12:10:07
Figure 7-35. Typical Difference Report
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Sequence of Events Log for Redundant DACS
Report Name
Page
Date/Time
Date/Time
01/01/1970
00:08:27:425
Node
Event#
1
21
SOE Log
1
03/01/01 13:13:10
Description
Trigger Source: Port 2 is ok
Severity: Normal
System status: 00 hex DACS status: 00 hex
Latched processor self-monitor: 02 hex
Latched interface fail: 81 hex
Latched hardware fail: 39 hex
Latched framer fail: FF hex
Latched this module status: 6E hex
Latched other module status: 6E hex
Latched monitor board status: 6E hex
Latched decision: 6E hex
Latched monitor framer fail: 6E hex
Latched this module receive fail: 6E hex
Latched other module receive fail: 6E hex
Port 1 actel status: 16 hex
Port 1 general control: 00 hex
Port 1 non-switch errors: 00 hex
Port 2 actel status: 56 hex
Port 2 general control: 00 hex
Port 2 non-switch errors: 00 hex
Port 3 actel status: 16 hex
Port 3 general control: 00 hex
Port 3 non-switch errors: 00 hex
Port 4 actel status: 56 hex
Port 4 general control: 00 hex
Port 4 non-switch errors: 00 hex
Port 5 actel status: 56 hex
Port 5 general control: 00 hex
Port 5 non-switch errors: 00 hex
Port 6 actel status: 16 hex
Port 6 general control: 00 hex
Port 6 non-switch errors: 00 hex
Port 7 actel status: 56 hex
Port 7 general control: 00 hex
Port 7 non-switch errors: 00 hex
Port 8 actel status: 56 hex
Port 8 general control: 00 hex
Port 8 non-switch errors: 00 hex
Port 1 general status: 02 hex
Port 1 latched errors: C4 hex
Port 1 monitor framer latched status: 6E hex
Port 2 general status: 11 hex
Port 2 latched errors: 00 hex
Port 2 monitor framer latched status: 6E hex
Port 3 general status: 02 hex
Port 3 general status: C4 hex
Port 3 monitor framer latched status: 6E hex
Port 4 general status: 11 hex
Port 4 latched errors: 00 hex
Port 4 monitor framer latched status: 6E hex
Port 5 general status: 11 hex
Port 5 latched errors: 00 hex
Port 5 monitor framer latched status: 6E hex
Port 6 general status: 02 hex
Port 6 latched errors: C4 hex
Port 6 monitor framer latched status: 6E hex
Port 7 general status: 11 hex
Port 7 latched errors: 00 hex
Port 7 monitor framer latched status: 6E hex
Port 8 general status: 11 hex
Port 8 latched errors: 00 hex
Port 8 monitor framer latched status: 6E hex
Network Name
Author’s Name
Comment
Create Date
Last Saved
T1 Network with 8 port DACS
Frank Luo
* Created by Auto Cfg
03/19/02 11:59:07
04/24/02 12:22:04
Figure 7-36. Page 1 of a typical Event Log Report
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Network View
Report Name
Page
Date/Time
Type Address Node
C d/D
i ti
Term
Term
1
2
1
2
DACS
ILS
CM3-1 CM3-2 Channel
R
R
-
-
NetView
1
03/01/01 13:13:10
Card
AutoCfg Net Address1
DACS-R
DACS-R
8-Port DACS module
TERM
CM3R
New Common Logic module
C6
DA-121I
Intell. 7 port polling RS-232
Node 2
ILS-R
ILS-R
8 Port ILS module
TERM
CM3R
New Common logic module
Network Name
Author’s Name
Comment
Create Date
Last Saved
T1 network with 8 port DACS
Frank Luo
* Created by Auto Cfg
03/01/01
11:28:00
03/01/01
12:10:07
Figure 7-37. Typical Network Diagram Report
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7.7.1.19 POLLING FOR ALARMS IN BATCH MODE
The next step in this example is to poll the network for alarms, which causes the Network Management
Software to look for network failures. It polls every card in every node in the network. You can then
look at an alarm report for a list of failures. To activate this feature, click on the Alarms Icon in the
Main window. A sub-window will be displayed called Poll The Network For Alarms. Click on Com
Path 1 and then click on Start. If failures are detected they can be viewed by clicking on the Reports
Icon in the Main window and then selecting Alarm Log Report. After polling is completed you will be
returned to the Main window.
7.7.1.20 AUTO POLLING
Auto polling is an option selected from the Communications Preferences window which determines
whether or not the network will be polled for alarms while in Real Time mode. This feature is
normally selected when a user is troubleshooting a network and is looking for alarms. To select this
option click on Auto polling ON.
7.7.1.21 SAVE SETTINGS IN A FILE
The last step in this example is to save the settings in a file. Click on the Save Icon in the Main
window. An Open window will be displayed which contains a file directory. The file will be saved
with a .NET extension in the form of filename.NET. Type the filename in the box under the words
“Save Untitled As”. Then click on the Save button. The file is now saved. To exit the Network
Management Software click on the Exit button.
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7.7.2 STEPS REQUIRED TO CONFIGURE A NETWORK WITHOUT AN
RFL CM3R (EXAMPLE 2)
1.
Setup the hardware including all cards, modems and cables as required.
2.
Connect the PC or laptop to the network either directly or remotely
using a modem or an ethernet module.
3.
Start the IMUX 2000 Network Management Software from the desktop.
4.
Select NEW to start a new configuration. Complete the network
setup screen. Enter all communication path information.
5.
Click on NetVw.
6.
Click on empty box.
7.
Click on DACS-R.
8.
Setup general configurations page.
9.
Setup Port1 through Port8 configuration pages as required.
10.
Go to the Maps page and setup map select criteria, FDL map
and DSO map as required.
11.
Go to the RBS page to setup the robbed bit signaling as required.
12.
Change “this page” to “all pages”. Then click on WRITE.
13.
Go back to general page and verify that the “set to” values
agree with the “actual” values.
14.
Click on STATUS and check the DACS status information.
15.
Exit all windows until you get to the main window.
16.
Click on SAVE.
Note: For information on setting up the above example, refer to example 1 in paragraph 7.7.1.
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7.7.2.1 STAND-ALONE DACS
Figure 7-38 shows a drawing of a stand-alone DACS network that will be used for this example. The
drawing shows a stand-alone DACS connected to three T1 networks on DACS ports 1, 2, and 3. A PC
is connected to the DACS using an MA250 module adapter. This will allow a user to set up the DACS
parameters using NMS.
T1
NETWORK
#1
PC
OR LAPTOP
DS1 LINK
1
MA250
MA260
MA260
2
DS1 LINK
T1
NETWORK
#2
DACS
MA260
3
DS1 LINK
T1
NETWORK
#3
Figure 7-38. Stand-alone DACS network used in example
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7.8 SEQUENCE OF EVENTS
The Sequence Of Events feature of the Network Management Software allows a user to view network
events (alerts or alarms) in the order in which they have occurred. Each event has a date and time
stamp associated with it. There is one icon on the main screen for accessing Sequence Of Events. This
causes the sequence of events buffer to be read by the Network Management Software, and allows the
user to view or print the sequence of events buffer.
Page one of a typical Event Log Printout can be seen in Figure 7-34.
7.9 USING MACROS
The macro feature of the Network Management Software will enable a user to make multiple settings
on several cards for a specific network. To play a macro the user simply hits the PLAY icon on the
main screen (or selects PLAY from the MACROS menu under SETUP). The user then selects the
macro by name and it runs. You can only run macros in Real Time mode. To set up macros (a feature
that will be used only by RFL or advance users) perform the following steps:
1.
Go into Real Time mode.
2.
Start macro recording: From SETUP select MACROS and then RECORD.
3.
Give the macro a name, up to twenty characters (including spaces) are allowed.
4.
Make the required settings. Each setting will be recorded.
5.
At any time you can pause and then resume the recording, use the options in the
MACRO menu under SETUP.
6.
At the conclusion of recording, select the STOP RECORDING option from the
MACRO MENU.
7.
You can edit the macro, including merging two macros together by selecting the EDIT
option under MACROS.
To merge two macros, edit the second one, and copy the commands, then edit the first macro and paste
the commands at the end.
There is a MACRO button on the View or Change Card screen that allows you to start recording a
macro, stop it, or pause/resume it. You can not play a macro from this screen. Also, after recording a
macro you can remove some redundant lines (caused by Pn=settings that repeat over and over). Also,
you can add comments to the macro by adding a /* */ at the end of any line. For example, you can
have a macro line that reads:
1:TERM:SET:EQPT-LB=OFF;
/* Turn Equip off */
7.10 EMERGENCY EXIT
The Network Management Software has an Emergency Exit key sequence. If for some reason the user
gets “stuck” or a screen freezes, hit <CTRL> <PgDn> then X, and the NMS session will terminate.
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7.11 NETWORK MANAGEMENT SOFTWARE HELP
7.11.1 INTRODUCTION
The Network Management Software has a help system that is common to all other programs using the
Microsoft Windows operating system. A description of how it is used is explained below.
7.11.2 USING NETWORK MANAGEMENT SOFTWARE HELP
Network Management Software Help is activated by clicking on Help in the Network Management
Software main menu bar, or by clicking on the Help Icon. This will get you into a sub-window giving
you the following four choices:
1.
Contents
2.
Search
3.
How
4.
About
Clicking on Contents will give you a list of the Network Management Software Help Topics. Clicking
on Search will give you an alphabetized list of Help Topics to choose from. Clicking on How will give
you an alphabetized list of how to use Help. Clicking on About will give you the nomenclature and
version number of the Network Management Software, and a telephone number and fax number for
Network Management Software support.
The most useful of the four choices is Contents, which will display a list of all topics relevant to
Network Management Software help. When you are in the Help contents, and when you move the
mouse pointer to any of the “green underlined” topics shown, the mouse pointer will change into a
hand with a pointing finger. Click once to select help for that topic.
When you are finished using help, you can close the help window by double-clicking on the Icon in the
upper left of the help window, or by clicking on File and then Exit. As a reference to the user, para.
7.6.3 has been included which contains the Network Management Software Help Topics as it actually
appears on the PC terminal.
Network Management Software Help can also be activated by pressing F1 twice from any sub-menu.
This feature will take you to a help screen that is associated with the sub-menu that you were in
immediately before F1 was pressed.
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7.11.3 NETWORK MANAGEMENT SOFTWARE HELP TOPICS
The following is a list of Help Topics contained in this section. Click on the desired topic for more
information.
What is the IMUX 2000?
Hardware Required
Description of Cards
IMUX 2000 Program Group
Learning to use the Menu Options
Communication Paths
Using the IMUX 2000 Network Management Software
Answers to Common Questions
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7.12 MODULES SUPPORTED BY NETWORK MANAGEMENT SOFTWARE
The modules shown in Table 7-2. are supported by the Network Management Software. The settings,
alarms, readings and commands for each of these modules are listed in Tables 7-2 through 7-32 of the
IMUX2000 Instruction Manual (Publication Number MC2000R).
Table 7-2. Modules supported by Network Management software
Module
CM3B
CM3C
CM3R
CM6B
DACS
DACSR
DA91
DA91E
DA91I
DA121
DA121I
DA191
DA191A
DA191B
DS562I
DS562B
DS64NC
DS961D
DS961DE
DSTT
E1DACS
ILS
ILSR
OCUDP
OIA
STATUS
TMX/TMR
V5A
VF5AE
VF5B
VF6
VF6I
VF7A
VF8A
VF10B(FXO)
VF10D
VF11B(FXS)
VF15
VF15C
VF15E
VF16
VF16B
VF16D
VF16E
VF17
VF18
VF25
VF25E
*
Description
Common Logic Module
Common Logic Module (with enhancements)
Common Logic Module (with redundancy)
Table
7-2
7-3
7-4
Digital Access Cross-Connect System (6-port DACS)
Digital Access Cross-Connect System (8-port DACS with redundancy)
Two-port asynchronous Data Polling Channel Module *
7-5
7-6
Asynchronous Data Polling Channel Module *
Asynchronous Data Channel Module *
Seven-port asynchronous Data Channel Module *
Four-Port Asynchronous Data Channel Module
Four-Port Asynchronous Data Channel Module
Four-Port Asynchronous Data Channel Module
Synchronous Data Module (RS-449, CCITT V.35, G.703, X.21 or SHOF Interface)
7-7
7-8
7-9
Wideband Synchronous Data Module
Five-Port Multi-Rate Synchronous Data Module
7-12
7-13
Transfer Trip Module
Digital Access Cross-Connect System (6-port DACS)
Intelligent Line Switch
Intelligent Line Switch (with redundancy)
Office Channel Unit Data Port Module
Optical Interface Adapters
Transmits and receives data via the T1 serial link
Telemetry Transmitter Module/Telemetry Receiver Module
Dual-Channel Four-Wire E&M Voice Module
Dual-Channel Four-Wire E&M Voice Module
Dual-Channel Four-Wire E2 & M2 Voice Module
Orderwire Voice Frequency Channel Module
Orderwire Voice Frequency Channel Module
Dual ADPCM Four-Wire E&M Voice Module
Selective Calling Unit
Foreign Exchange Voice Module (office end)
Foreign Exchange Voice Module (office end)
Foreign Exchange Voice Module (station end)
Dual-Channel Foreign Exchange Voice Module (office end)
Dual-Channel Foreign Exchange Voice Module (office end)
7-14
7-10
7-11
7-15
7-16
7-17
7-32
7-18
7-20
7-21
7-22
7-23
7-24
7-25
7-26
7-27
Dual-Channel Foreign Exchange Voice Module (station end)
Dual-Channel Foreign Exchange Voice Module (station end)
7-28
Dual-Channel ADPCM Foreign Exchange Voice Module (office end)
Dual-Channel ADPCM Foreign Exchange Voice Module (station end)
Four-Port PCM, Four-Wire E&M Voice Module
Four-Port PCM, Four-Wire E&M Voice Module
7-29
7-30
7-31
These modules are not remotely configurable, and their settings must be manually entered into the network by the user.
All other modules can be configured remotely, and their presence can be verified by the Network Read menu option.
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7.13 PASSWORD PROTECTION
NOTE
This is the only page where the user ID and password are discussed. This page can be
removed from the Instruction Manual for added security.
Password protection is used in this system to prevent unauthorized persons from gaining access to the
Network Management Software settings and parameters.
7.13.1 ENTERING THE NETWORK MANAGEMENT SOFTWARE
Upon starting the Network Management Software the user will be presented with a sign on screen. The
user must enter a user ID and a password to continue. Enter the word “control” for the user ID, then hit
the “enter” key. Enter the word “password” for the password, then click on “OK”. This will allow the
main window to be displayed.
7.13.2 CHANGING THE PASSWORD
The user ID or password can be changed by entering the security file window. This window is entered
from the main window by clicking on Setup and then clicking on Setup User ID. In this window, other
user ID’s can be setup as “Master” which means they can setup or change other users (including other
“masters” or “users”). A “user” class cannot set up other users or see other passwords.
7.13.3 BYPASSING THE SIGN ON SCREEN
Two keywords in the INI file are used in conjunction with security. If the user enters the INI file and
then enters a value for USERID and for PASSWORD, and these are valid values the sign on screen
will be bypassed. A user that is not interested in security can change their INI file after the first sign on
and then not have to enter the sign on screen to get into the main Network Management Software
window. At a later date the security can be reactivated.
From the main window click on Setup, and then click on Edit INI. This will bring you to the software
settings window. Click on the Expert Mode button. This will bring you to the rfl.ini file. Scroll down
to the [SECURITY] section and type in the following two lines:
USERID=CONTROL
PASSWORD=PASSWORD
Then exit the rfl.ini window and click on the Yes buttons to get back to the main window. The sign on
screen will now be bypassed.
IMUX 2000 DACS8P
December 1, 2005
7-62
RFL Electronics Inc.
(973) 334-3100
Section 8. TROUBLESHOOTING
8.1 INTRODUCTION
This section contains a general approach to troubleshooting the RFL 8-Port DACS. The DACS is a
complicated device that can have a significant interaction with the other equipment it is connected to
through the eight ports. As such, this is a generalized approach and cannot cover every possible
system configuration or problem. If you have reached what appears to be a dead end, or if the
information in this section does not seem to apply to your case, please contact RFL for assistance in
troubleshooting your IMUX 2000 system.
8.2 GENERAL TROUBLESHOOTING
8.2.1 TROUBLE TYPES
IMUX 2000 system troubles generally fall into three categories:
1.
Setup Errors
2.
T1/E1 Network Problems
3.
DACS Equipment Problems
Details of these three major categories appear in Figure 8-1.
DACS TROUBLESHOOTING
SET-UP ERRORS
T1/E1 NETWORK PROBLEMS
DACS EQUIPMENT PROBLEMS
T1/E1 TRANSMIT TIMING MODE
NO SIGNAL OR LOW LEVEL
POWER SUPPLY
T1/E1 FRAME FORMAT
ALARM INDICATION SIGNAL (AIS)
DACS MODULE
T1/E1 LINE CODE
BIT ERRORS
FIBER INTERFACE
DACS MAPPING
EXCESSIVE JITTER OR WANDER
WIRING CONNECTOR
OR JACKFIELD
SENSITIVITY TO 1S DENSITY
TIMING
Figure 8-1. Basic troubleshooting categories
IMUX 2000 DACS8P
September 27, 2002
8-1
RFL Electronics Inc.
(973) 334-3100
The basic objective of any troubleshooting procedure is to determine the type and location of a
problem. Once this is accomplished, taking one of the following actions will usually restore the IMUX
2000 system:
1.
For setup problems, re-configure the DACSs that are not set up correctly.
2.
For public network problems, work with your Local or Inter-exchange carrier to correct the
situation. For private network problems, consult the network manager.
3.
For equipment problems, replace the bad module or modules with spares.
8.2.2 GENERAL TROUBLESHOOTING HINTS
In general, always check for setup errors before performing in-service or out-of-service tests. This is
especially true during the check-out of a new installed system. Setup problems may not appear
immediately. For example, if at installation time one or both DACSs in a point-to-point system are
incorrectly configured for AMI operation (instead of B8ZS), errors may not occur until later when a
data pattern with very low ones density is transmitted. Use the following hints as general guides when
troubleshooting an IMUX 2000 system:
1.
At each location, verify that the POWER LED on the DACS power supply is on. If the
POWER LED is off, then there is a power-related problem.
2.
If any of the port status indicators on the front of the DACS is yellow or red, the port is
receiving a bad signal (or is not properly configured). A T1/E1 test set should be connected to
the receive monitor jack for the appropriate port on the front of the DACS.
Note: The front panel jacks should be used with caution for ports that have fiber
interfaces installed. The signals present on the jacks for fiber interfaces contain
unipolar logic-level signals, not bipolar carrier-level signals. These jacks may be used to
interconnect (or loopback) ports that are all configured with fiber interfaces, but cannot
be used with standard T1/E1 signals or test sets. Incorrect use of these jacks may result
in damage to the DACS and/or test equipment.
If the signal coming into the port is confirmed to be faulty, the problem lies either at the remote
end of the link, or in the link itself.
If the signal is determined to be valid but the DACS is erroneously reporting faults, the output
of the port should be looped-back using a bantam cable between the transmit and receive
equipment jacks on the front of the DACS (this is typically disruptive to the network
considering the port was already faulted). If the port continues to report problems the DACS
module should be replaced. If the errors clear with the loopback, the configuration of the local
and remote ends should be checked again.
3.
If the remote node is reporting receive errors the transmit side of the DACS port should be
checked by connecting a test set to the transmit monitor jack on the front of the DACS. A bad
signal indicates that the DACS module should be replaced. If the signal is clean, the problem
lies either in the link or the remote equipment.
IMUX 2000 DACS8P
September 27, 2002
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RFL Electronics Inc.
(973) 334-3100
8.2.3 T1/E1 CARRIER-LEVEL ERRORS
A port may have errors even if the front panel status indicator is green. For example, low-level bit
errors may be occurring, but at a level under the user set threshold. A detailed report regarding the
condition of a port may be viewed as described in paragraph 8.7.1.18.
Low-level errors may be caused by a bad transmit from the remote equipment, a poor link between
nodes (such as a weak or noisy signal), or a faulty receiver in the DACS. These problems are
evaluated similarly to the port problems discussed as gross errors above, but require a more careful
examination to evaluate performance.
No errors reported by the receiver on the port indicates that the data has passed between nodes without
errors. That is, the data was received by the DACS as it was transmitted by the connected equipment.
If the information in the data stream was corrupted prior to reaching the transmit circuits of the other
equipment, this cannot be detected by the DACS.
8.2.4 PAYLOAD (DS0) ERRORS
Occasionally errors may occur in the payload of a signal without any errors being reported on the
T1/E1 level. Given the very nature of the DACS this implies errors are suspected between two remote
pieces of equipment whose data passes through the DACS. Therefore this type of error necessarily
includes numerous pieces of equipment and can have virtually limitless configuration options.
Diagnosing payload problems becomes further complicated because of the different types of payload
data and how they can be traced and monitored. In general the first step is to confirm that the problem
lies within the DACS and not elsewhere in the system.
1. When possible the signal being received by the DACS should be confirmed to be free of errors.
This can usually be performed with an appropriate test set configured to monitor the timeslot(s) of
interest (using the receive monitor jack).
2. After verifying the received data is correct, the transmit signal should be similarly verified. If the
data passes directly through the DACS (same timeslot, different port), the DACS may be bypassed
using a bantam cable.
3. If the problem is isolated to within the DACS, the configuration should be re-checked. Particular
attention must be made to ensure that the incoming DS0 is correctly mapped to the outgoing DS0.
The signaling configuration must also be verified. In a T1 system if a DS0 is configured for RBS
when it is not supposed to be it will corrupt the data. If is supposed to be configured for RBS and
it is not, the signaling will not be passed by the DACS. In E1 systems signaling (e.g. voice
channels) require CAS be enabled, which precludes the use of timeslot 16 for payload.
4. If the problem is confirmed to lie within the DACS and that the configuration is correct, the DACS
module should be replaced.
IMUX 2000 DACS8P
September 27, 2002
8-3
RFL Electronics Inc.
(973) 334-3100
8.2.5 FUSE REPLACEMENT
CAUTION
1.
Never attempt to remove or replace a fuse with the Main or Redundant
Power Supply Modules energized; component damage may result.
2.
For continued safe operation, always replace a fuse with one having the
correct voltage and current ratings.
The DACS input fuses are located on the rear panel of the Power Supply Alarm I/O Module. Each
Power Supply Alarm I/O Module has two input fuses.
To check the fuses in a DACS power supply, proceed as follows:
1.
On the rear panel of the Power Supply Alarm I/O Module, place the MAIN POWER switch
and the REDUNDANT POWER switch to the OFF position.
2.
Using a flat-blade screwdriver, remove the F1 and F2 fuse caps by turning the caps counter
clockwise. Remove the fusecaps and inspect the fuses for damage. The fuses should be checked
visually and should also be checked for continuity.
If the fuse is bad, it must be replaced. If the fuse is good, check for presence of
input voltage at terminal blocks TB1-9 and TB1-10 on the Power Supply I/O
Module. If voltage is present and the power supply module does not function, the
power supply module is defective and must be replaced.
3.
Insert a fuse with the proper voltage and current ratings into the fusecap, and install the fusecap
in its correct location.
Fuse replacement data for the 48/125 Vdc supply is as follows:
Input Fuses F1 and F2:
3AG slow-blow, 3A, 250V; Littelfuse 313003 or equiv.
(RFL P/N 6607)
10-Volt Output Fuse F3:
3AG normal-blow, 1/4A, 250V; Littelfuse 312250 or equiv.
(RFL P/N 91967)
Fuse replacement data for the 38-150 Vdc wide-range supply is as follows:
Input Fuse F1 :
2A, 250V, slo-blo, 5x20mm; Littelfuse 218002 or equiv.
(RFL P/N 103389)
IMUX 2000 DACS8P
September 27, 2002
8-4
RFL Electronics Inc.
(973) 334-3100
4.
On the rear panel, place the MAIN POWER switch and the REDUNDANT POWER switch on
the Power Supply I/O Module to the ON position.
5.
If the DACS is equipped with a redundant power supply, place the POWER switch on the
Power Supply I/O Module behind the Redundant Power Supply Module in the ON position.
6.
Look at the indicator on the front of the Main Power Supply Module.
If the indicator on the front of the Main Power Supply Module lights, the module
is working properly. If it does not light or if one or more fuses blow again, the
module is defective and must be replaced.
7.
If the DACS is equipped with a redundant power supply, look at the indicator on the front
of the Redundant Power Supply Module.
If the indicator on the front of the Redundant Power Supply Module lights, the
module is working properly. If it does not light or if one or more fuses blow again,
the module is defective and must be replaced.
8.
Once the power supply indicator is lit, raise the front door back into its closed position, and
tighten the two screws to secure it in place.
8.2.6 HOW TO ARRANGE FOR SERVICING
If necessary, Power Supplies and Power Supply Alarm I/O Modules may be returned to RFL for
repair. Contact our Customer Service Department using the telephone number listed at the bottom of
this page. You will be given an authorization number and shipping instructions.
IMUX 2000 DACS8P
September 27, 2002
8-5
RFL Electronics Inc.
(973) 334-3100
Section 9. INDEX
Connection view report, 7-47, 7-50
Controls and indicators
Framer module, 4-12
Jackfield/relay module, 4-7
Processor module, 4-11
Redundant module, 4-14
SAG module, 4-19
T1 test jacks, 4-5
Control register, 5-23
Cross-connect mode, 2-2, 2-3, 2-5, 2-6, 3-9
Customer service, 8-5
A
Accessory equipment, 12-1
Acronyms, glossary of, 10-1
ACTEL ID, 5-3
Activity register, 5-21, 5-23
Adapters, optical interface, 4-26
Alarm I/O module, 4-28, 4-29
Alarm log report, 7-47, 7-48
Alternate Relay Module (Non Jackfield), 4-1
AMI, 10-1
Application notes, 11-1
Applying power, 6-14
Auto-configure window, 7-23
Auto polling, 7-55
D
DACS
chassis, 4-1, 4-2
components, 4-1
fiber ring, 2-14, 2-15
framer module, 4-12
front panel, 2-1, 2-2
general description, 2-1
in ILS mode, 2-6
left 4-3
map, 2-10, 2-11, 7-35
map report, 7-51
mapping 2-10, 5-15
module, 4-1, 4-10
module power supply, 5-4
port numbers, 2-4, 2-10
processor module, 4-11
redundant module, 4-13
right, 4-3
ring, 2-13, 2-14, 2-15
system level, 5-3
Date, 7-30
Decision logic, 5-24
Declared faults, 5-21
Desktop, 7-3
Difference report, 7-51, 7-52
Disable left module, 7-28
Disable right module, 7-28
Display/change node window, 7-25
Display module, 4-1, 4-3, 4-4
Display panel, 4-6
Downloading configuration files, 6-16
Drop/insert, 3-4, 3-5
DS0 grooming, 2-11
DS0 map, 7-39
DS0 verification, 6-19
Dual port RAM, 5-11
B
Baud rate, setting,
Blinking indicators, meaning of,
Block diagrams, DACS
DACS, 5-2
DACS power supply, 5-5
framer, 5-9
line interface, 5-10
mapping, 5-16
processor, 5-4
redundancy module, 5-12
Bypassing the sign-on screen, 7-62
B8ZS, 7-33
C
Caution label, 6-13
Change node window, 7-25
Changing the password, 7-62
Chassis
DACS, 4-1, 4-2, 6-2
ground, 6-11
power requirements, 4-30
Clock, 7-30
Coax line I/O, 4-1, 4-23
Communications I/O, 4-1, 4-21
Complete listing report, 7-47, 7-49
Complete network information report, 7-49
Components, 4-1
Configuration
file, 6-15, 6-16
parameters, 7-31, 7-32, 7-33
Configuring a network, 7-14, 7-56
Connecting PC to network, 7-5
Connections, 6-6
IMUX 2000 DACS8P
September 27, 2002
E
9-1
RFL Electronics Inc.
(973) 334-3100
E1, 3-1
Emergency exit from NMS, 7-58
Error detection, 2-11
Error recovery, 2-11
Ethernet, 6-21, 7-5, 7-6
Event log, 7-47
Event log report, 7-53
External timing, 5-10
Icons, 7-11
ILS
Functions, 5-18
mode, 2-4
Input power, 6-8
Input voltage, 6-12
Installation, 6-1
Installation, software,
I/O modules
coax I/O, 4-23
communications I/O, 4-21
fiber I/O, 4-24, 4-25
line I/O, 4-22
SAG I/O, 4-27, 6-20, 6-21
F
Fast loss of frame, 7-29
Fault detection, 5-20, 5-21
FDL signal routing, 7-36
Fiber ring, 3-7
Fiber I/O, 4-1, 4-24, 4-25
Fiber optic power levels, 4-26
Flash memory, 5-6
Flashing indicator, 2-7, 4-7
FLOF, 7-31
Formats
SCL command line,
SCL responses,
SF and ESF,
FPGA, 5-8, 5-11, 5-13
Frame types, 7-33
Framer
Block diagram, 5-9
module, 4-12, 5-8, 5-21
Framers, 5-9, 5-12
Front-panel
Description, 2-2
Fuse replacement, 8-4
J
Jackfield panel, 4-6
Jackfield/Relay module, 4-1, 4-5
Jacks, front-panel,
Jitter buffer, 7-31
L
Line-switch mode, 2-5, 2-6
Line
buildout, 7-34
interface circuits, 5-9
I/O module, 4-1, 4-21 to 4-29
Line code types, 7-33
M
Macros, 7-58
Main window, 7-18
Map data, 5-15
Map select criteria, 2-13, 7-35
Map window, 7-35
Mapping block diagram, 5-16
Mapping FPGA, 5-11
Meaning of blinking indicators, 4-7
Mirror port, 5-7
Modules supported by NMS, 7-61
Motherboard, 4-1, 4-8
Mounting, 6-3
Multiplexer, terminal, 3-1
G
Gain limit, 7-33
General
configurations window, 7-27
troubleshooting hints, 8-1
Glossary of acronyms, 10-1
Ground, chassis, 6-11
H
Hairpinning, 2-3
Hardware installation, 6-1
Help, 7-59
Help topics 7-60
Hints, general troubleshooting, 8-2
Hot-standby mode, 2-6, 5-19
N
Network, 7-5, 7-10
configuration file, 6-15
communication paths, 7-10
diagram report, 7-54
example, 7-14, 7-16
information window, 7-19
view window, 7-24, 7-46
I
IMUX 2000 DACS8P
September 27, 2002
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RFL Electronics Inc.
(973) 334-3100
Network management software, 6-15, 7-1, 7-17
cards supported by, 7-61
communication paths, 7-10
configuring, 7-14
desktop, 7-3
help, 7-59
icons, 7-11
installing, 7-2
modules, 7-61
saving settings, 7-55
sequence of events, 7-58
software help, 7-59
software installation, 7-2
starting, 7-17
system requirements, 7-1
uninstalling the software, 7-4
using macros, 7-58
view, 7-24
view or change card, 7-26
viewing reports, 7-47
writing to, 7-47
Nodes, 7-8, 7-9
Normal mode, 2-9
Normal mode routing, 2-4
NVRAM, 5-6
configuration, 5-14
failure detection, 5-14
modes, 5-13, 7-33
numbers, 2-4, 2-10
Power levels, fiber optic, 4-26
Power requirements, 4-30
Power supply input voltage check, 6-12
Power supply
alarm I/O, 4-1, 4-28, 4-29
description, 4-28
general information, 4-15
model designations, 4-15
module, 4-1, 4-15
redundant operation, 4-17
specifications, 4-16
theory of operation, 4-17
Power, applying, 6-14
Procedures
applying power, 6-14
installation,
mounting, 6-3
power supply input voltage check, 6-12
system checkout, 6-18
troubleshooting, 8-1
unpacking, 6-2
wiring, 6-6
Processor module, 5-4
Product applications, 1-2
Product information, 1-1
Programmable test points, 5-3
O
Optical interface adapters (OIA), 4-26
Optical emitter heads, warning, 6-7
R
P
Real time clock, 5-4, 5-6
Rear view, 1-3
Receive
data, 5-17
ports, 5-23
Recovery delay, 7-29
Redundancy
module, 4-1, 5-11
Redundant
Functional description, 5-19
module, 4-13
protection, 2-9
Relay module, 4-1, 4-5
Reports, viewing, 7-47
Reversion, 2-7
Reversion example, 2-8
Revision record, xv
RFL servicing, 8-5
Ring configuration, 3-6, 3-7
RLOS, 5-21
Robbed bit
signaling, 7-39, 7-42
window, 7-43
RS232 ports, 5-7, 7-5, 7-7
Panel views
communications I/O, 4-21
coax line I/O, 4-23
line I/O, 4-22
fiber I/O, 4-25
SAG I/O, 4-27
power supply alarm I/O, 4-28
Panel
jackfield, 4-6
relay, 4-6
Pass-thru mode, 2-3
Password, changing the, 7-62
Password protection, 7-62
Path types, 7-31
PC, 7-17
PC time, 7-30
Pinouts
communications I/O, 4-21
line I/O, 4-22
SAG I/O, 4-27, 6-21
Primary clock, 7-30
Point-to-point system, 3-3
Polling for alarms, 7-55
Port
IMUX 2000 DACS8P
September 27, 2002
9-3
RFL Electronics Inc.
(973) 334-3100
Un-installing the software, 7-4
Using macros, 7-58
S
Safety summary, iv
Safety warning, iii
SAG I/O 4-27
SAG I/O connections, 6-21
SAG module, 4-1, 4-18, 4-20, 6-20
SAG power, 6-20
Save settings in a file, 7-55
Scratch RAM, 5-6
SCB port, 5-7
Secondary clock, 7-30
Sequence of events, 7-58
Shelf alert, 7-28
Signal passing, 5-20
Signal routing, 7-36
Slot assignments, 4-3
Software
Help, 7-59
Icons, 7-11, 7-12, 7-13
installing, 7-2
un-installing, 7-4
Specifications, DACS, 1-4
Specifications, power supply modules, 4-16
Speed, 5-20
SRAM, 5-6
Stand-alone DACS, 7-57
Stand-alone mode, 2-9, 3-9
Swapping, 5-20
Switch delay, 7-31
Switching control, 5-25
System checkout, 6-18
V
Ventilation, 6-5
View or change a card window, 7-26, 7-44, 7-45
Viewing reports, 7-47
Voltage check, power supply input, 6-12
W
Warranty information, ii
Warning, fiber optic, 6-7
Watchdog timer, 5-22
Writing to the network, 7-47
X
XMCLK, 5-23
T
T1, 3-1
Test jacks,
Test points, power supply, 4-16
Theory of operation, 5-1
Time slot interchanging, 2-3
Terminal blocks, 6-6
Terminal MUX, 3-1
Terminal strip, 6-9, 6-10
Test points, programmable, 5-3
Time, 7-30
Transmit data, 5-17
Troubleshooting, 8-1
Troubleshooting hints, general, 8-2
10baseT, 6-21
U
Unframed all ones, 7-29
Unpacking, 6-2
IMUX 2000 DACS8P
September 27, 2002
9-4
RFL Electronics Inc.
(973) 334-3100
Section 10. GLOSSARY
ACO
Alarm Cut Off
AIS
Alarm Indication Signal = unframed all ones
AMI
Alternate Mark Inversion (a type of line code)
ANSI
American National Standards Institute
BER
Bit Error Rate
B8ZS
Bipolar Eight Zero Substitution (a type of line code)
CAS
Channel Associated Signaling
CCS
Common Channel Signaling
CD
Compact Disc
CH
Channel
CM
Common Module
COM
Communication
CRC
Cyclic Redundancy Check
CSU
Customer Service Unit
IMUX 2000 DACS8P
September 27, 2002
10-1
RFL Electronics Inc.
(973) 334-3100
DACS
Digital Access Cross-Connect System
DACSR
Digital access Cross-Connect System with Redundant Capability
Db
Decibel
DCE
Data Communications Equipment
DS0
Digital Service Level 0 (64,000 bps)
DS1
Digital Service Level 1 (1.544 Mbps in North America, 2.048 Mbps elsewhere)
DTE
Data Terminal Equipment
E1
A digital transmission link with a capacity of 2.048 Mbps
ECB
Electronic Circuit Board
EIA
Electronic Industries Association
EMI
Electro Magnetic Equipment
ESF
Extended Super Frame
FDL
Facility Data Link (no FDL in E1)
FLOF
Fast loss Of Frame
FPGA
Field Programmable Gate Array
FRP
Fast Reframe Pattern
IMUX 2000 DACS8P
September 27, 2002
10-2
RFL Electronics Inc.
(973) 334-3100
GND
Ground
HDB3
High Density Bipolar 3
ILS
Intelligent Line Switch (Used in T1 systems only)
IMUX
Intelligent Multiplexer
IP
Internal Protocol
LAN
Local Area Network
LED
Light Emitting Diode
LOD
Loss Of Data
LOF
Loss Of Frame
LSB
Least Significant Bit
MIB
Management Information Base
MUX
Multiplexer
NET
Network
NMS
Network Management Software
NMX
Network Communications
NVRAM
Non-Volatile RAM
IMUX 2000 DACS8P
September 27, 2002
10-3
RFL Electronics Inc.
(973) 334-3100
PC
Personal Computer
PCV
Path Code Violations
RAM
Random Access Memory
RBS
Robbed Bit Signaling
RCL
Receive Carrier Loss
RCLK
Receive Clock
RLOS
Receive Loss Of Sync
RMA
Return Material Authorization
ROM
Read Only Memory
RSER
Receive Serial Data
RTC
Real Time Clock
RU
Rack Unit – A unit of vertical rack space equal to 1.75 inches (4.4 cm). The DACS chassis is
5.25 inches high (13.3 cm). This equals 3RU (3 Rack Units).
SAG
SNMP Access Gateway
SCB
Serial Control Bus
SEFE
Severely Erred Framing Event
SF
Super Frame
IMUX 2000 DACS8P
September 27, 2002
10-4
RFL Electronics Inc.
(973) 334-3100
SNMP
Simple Network Management Protocol
SOE
Sequence Of Events
SRAM
Static RAM
SWC
Surge Withstand Capability
T1
A digital transmission link with a capacity of 1.544 Mbps
TCP/IP
Transmission Control Protocol/Internet Program
TDM
Time Division Multiplexing
UA1
Unframed All Ones
XC
Cross-connect mode
IMUX 2000 DACS8P
September 27, 2002
10-5
RFL Electronics Inc.
(973) 334-3100
Section 11. APPLICATION NOTES
IMUX 2000 DACS
September 27, 2002
11-1
RFL Electronics Inc.
(973) 334-3100
IMUX 2000 DACS
September 27, 2002
11-2
RFL Electronics Inc.
(973) 334-3100
Section 12. ACCESSORY EQUIPMENT AND SYSTEM
DRAWINGS
IMUX 2000 DACS8P
September 27, 2002
12-1
RFL Electronics Inc.
(973) 334-3100
IMUX 2000 DACS8P
September 27, 2002
12-2
RFL Electronics Inc.
(973) 334-3100
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