Chapter 5

Chapter 5
Cables, Connectors and
Performance Testing
Chapter 5
5.0.0 CABLES, CONNECTORS AND PERFORMANCE TESTING
5.1.0 GENERAL COMMENTS
When choosing cables and connectors for LVDS it is important to remember:
1. Use controlled impedance media. The cables and connectors you use should have a differential
impedance of about 100Ω. They should not introduce major impedance discontinuities that cause
signal reflections.
2. Balanced cables (twisted pair) are usually better than unbalanced cables (ribbon cable, multi-conductor)
for noise reduction and signal quality. Balanced cables tend to generate less EMI due to field canceling
effects and also tend to pick up electromagnetic radiation as common-mode (not differential-mode)
noise, which is rejected by the receiver.
3. For cable distances < 0.5m, most cables can be made to work effectively. For distances 0.5m < d <
10m, CAT 3 (Category 3) twisted pair cable works well and is readily available and relatively inexpensive. Other types of cables may also be used as required by a specific application. This includes
twin-ax cables built from separate pairs and ribbon style constructions, which are then coiled.
5.2.0 CABLING SUGGESTIONS
As described above, try to use balanced cables (twisted pair, twin-ax, or flex circuit with closely coupled
differential traces). LVDS was intended to be used on a wide variety of media. The exact media is not
specified in the LVDS Standard, as it is intended to be specified in the referencing standard that specifies
the complete interface. This includes the media, data rate, length, connector, function, and pin assignments. In some applications that are very short (< 0.3m), ribbon cable or flex circuit may be acceptable.
In box-to-box applications, a twisted pair or twin-ax cable would be a better option due to robustness,
shielding and balance. Whatever cable you do choose, following the suggestions below will help you
achieve optimal results.
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45
5.2.1 Twisted Pair
Conductor
Insulation
Core Wrap
Shield
Jacket
Drawing of Twisted Pair Cable, Cross-Section
Twisted pair cables provide a good, low cost solution with good balance, are flexible, and capable of
medium to long runs depending upon the application skew budget. It is offered with an overall shield or
with shields around each pair as well as an overall shield. Installing connectors is more difficult due to
its construction.
a) Twisted pair is a good choice for LVDS. Category 3 (CAT3) cable is good for runs up to about 10m,
while CAT5 has been used for longer runs.
b) For the lowest skew, group skew-dependent pairs together (in the same ring to minimize skew
between pairs).
c) Ground and/or terminate unused conductors (do not float).
5.2.2 Twin-ax Cables
Quantity of Shielded
Pairs for P/N
Alum-Poly Shield (1)
Braid Shield
Jacket
Drawing of Individually Shielded Parallel Pair Twin-ax Cable - Cross Section
Twin-ax cables are flexible, have low skew and shields around each pair for isolation. Since they are not
twisted, they tend to have very low skew within a pair and between pairs. These cables are for long runs
and have been commonly deployed in Channel Link and FPD-Link applications.
a) Drain wires per pair may be connected together in the connector header to reduce pin count.
b) Ground and/or terminate unused conductors.
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5.2.3 Flex Circuit
Flex circuit is a good choice for very short runs, but it is difficult to shield. It can be used as an interconnect between boards within a system.
≥2S
+
-
SW
+
-
Flex Circuit - Cross-Section
a) Closely couple the members of differential pairs (S < W). Do not run signal pairs near the edges of
the cable, as these are not balanced.
b) Use a ground plane to establish the impedance.
c) Use ground shield traces between the pairs if there is room. Connect these ground traces to the
ground plane through vias at frequent intervals.
5.2.4 Ribbon Cable
Ribbon cable is cheap and is easy to use and shield. Ribbon cable is not well suited for high-speed
differential signaling (good coupling is difficult to achieve), but it is OK for very short runs.
+
-
+
-
+
-
Flat Cable - Cross-Section
a) If ribbon cable must be used, separate the pairs with ground wires. Do not run signal pairs at the
edges of the ribbon cable.
b) Use shielded cable if possible, shielded flat cable is available.
5.2.5 Additional Cable Information
Additional information on cable construction may be found in National Application Note AN-916. Also,
many cable, connector and interconnect system companies provide detailed information on their respective
websites about different cable options. A non-inclusive list of a few different options is provided below:
3M
www.3M.com/interconnects/
Spectra-Strip Cable Products
www.spectra-strip.amphenol.com/default.CFM
AMP
http://connect.amp.com/
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LVDS Owner’s Manual
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5.2.6 Connectors
Connectors are also application dependent and depend upon the cable system being used, the number
of pins, the need for shielding and other mechanical footprint concerns. Standard connectors have been
used at low to medium data rates, and optimized low skew connectors have been developed for medium
to high-speed applications.
G
+-
-
+-
-
+-
-
G
G
--
+
--
+
--
+
G
G
+-
-
+-
-
+-
-
G
G
--
+
--
+
--
+
G
Potential
Skew-connector
Dependent
Typical Connector Pinouts
a) Choose low skew, impedance matching connectors if possible.
b) Group members of each pair together. Pins of a pair should be close together (adjacent) not separated from each other. This is done to maintain balance, and to help ensure that external noise, if
picked up, will be common-mode and not differential in nature.
c) Some connectors have different length leads for different pins. Group pairs on same length leads.
Consult the connector manufacturer for the orientation of pins that yield the lowest skew and
crosstalk for your particular connector. Shorter pin lengths tend to be better than long ones, minimize this distance if possible.
d) Place ground pins between pairs where possible and convenient. Especially use ground pins to separate TTL/CMOS signals for LVDS signals.
e) Ground end pins. Do not use end pins for high-speed signals, if possible, as they offer less balance.
f)
Ground and/or terminate unused pins.
Many different connector options exist. One such cable-connector system that has been used for LVDS
with great results is the 3M “High-speed MDR Digital Data Transmission System.” This cable system is
featured on the National Channel-Link (48-bit) and LDI Evaluation Kits. The connector is offered in a surface mount option that has very small skew between all the pins. Different cable types are also supported.
5.3.0 CABLE GROUND AND SHIELD CONNECTIONS
In many systems, cable shielding is required for EMC compliance. Although LVDS provides benefits of
low EMI when used properly, shielding is still usually a good idea especially for box-to-box applications.
Together, cable shielding and ground return wires help reduce EMI. The shielding contains the EMI and
the ground return wire (the pair shield or drain wire in some cables) and provides a small loop area
return path for common-mode currents. Typically one or more pairs are assigned to ground (circuit common). Using one or more pair reduces the DCR (DC Resistance) of the path by the parallel connection of
the conductors. This provides a known, very low impedance return path for common-mode currents.
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Driver
or
Receiver
Shield
Separate Ground System
(Shield Only)
or
Typical Grounding Scheme
In most applications the grounding system will be common to both the receiver and the driver. The
cable shield is connected at one end with a DC connection to the common ground (frame ground). Avoid
“pig-tail” (high inductance) ground wiring from the cable. The other end of the shield is typically connected with a capacitor or network of a capacitor and a resistor as shown in the above example. This
prevents DC current flow in the shield. In the case where connectors are involved that penetrate the system’s enclosure, the cable shield must have a circumferential contact to the connector’s conductive backshell to provide an effective shield and must make good contact.
Note: It is beyond the scope of this book to effectively deal with cabling and grounding systems in detail.
Please consult other texts on this subject and be sure to follow applicable safety and legal requirements
for cabling, shielding and grounding.
5.4.0 LVDS SIGNAL QUALITY
Signal quality may be measured by a variety of means. Common methods are:
• Measuring rise time at the load
• Measuring Jitter in an Eye Pattern
• Bit Error Rate Testing
• Other means
Eye Patterns and Bit Error Rate Testing (BERT) are commonly used to determine signal quality. These
two methods are described next.
5.4.1 LVDS Signal Quality: Jitter Measurements Using Eye Patterns
This report provides an example of a data rate versus cable length curve for LVDS drivers and receivers
in a typical application for a particular twisted pair cable. The questions of: “How Far?” and “How Fast?”
seem simple to answer at first, but after detailed study, their answers become quite complex. This is not
a simple device parameter specification. But rather, a system level question where a number of other
parameters besides the switching characteristics of the drivers and receivers must be known. This
includes the measurement criteria for signal quality that has been selected, and also the pulse coding
that will be used (NRZ for example). Additionally, other system level components should be known too.
This includes details about cables, connectors, and the printed circuit boards (PCB). Since the purpose is
to measure signal quality, it should be done in a test fixture that closely matches the end environment —
or even better — in the actual application. Eye pattern measurements are useful in measuring the
amount of jitter versus the unit internal to establish the data rate versus cable length curves and therefore are a very accurate way to measure the expected signal quality in the end application.
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5.4.2 Why Eye Patterns?
The eye pattern is used to measure the effects of inter-symbol interference on random data being transmitted through a particular medium. The prior data bits effect the transition time of the signal. This is
especially true for NRZ data that does not guarantee transitions on the line. For example in NRZ coding,
a transition high after a long series of lows has a slower rise time than the rise time of a periodic
(010101) waveform. This is due to the low pass filter effects of the cable. The next figure illustrates the
superposition of six different data patterns. Overlaid, they form the eye pattern that is the input to the
cable. The right hand side of this figure illustrates the same pattern at the end of the cable. Note the
rounding of the formerly sharp transitions. The width of the crossing point is now wider and the opening of the eye is also now smaller (see application note AN-808 for an extensive discussion on eye patterns).
When line drivers (generators) are supplying symmetrical signals to clock leads, the period of the clock,
rather than the unit interval of the clock waveform, should be used to determine the maximum cable
lengths (e.g., though the clock rate is twice the data rate, the same maximum cable length limits apply).
This is due to the fact that a periodic waveform is not prone to distortion from inter-symbol distortion as
is a data line.
Constant
“One” Bits
V
Constant
“Zero” Bits
V
OH
0
OL
0
Isolated
0-1 Transition
Isolated
1-0 Transition
Isolated
0-1-0
Isolated
1-0-1
Superposition of
Above Signals
Binary Eye
Patterns
1 Unit
Interval
1 Unit
Interval
Formation of an Eye Pattern by Superposition.
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The figure below describes the measurement locations for minimum jitter. Peak-to-Peak Jitter is the
width of the signal crossing the optimal receiver thresholds. For a differential receiver, that would correspond to 0V (differential). However, the receiver is specified to switch between –100mV and +100mV.
Therefore for a worse case jitter measurement, a box should be drawn between ±100mV and the jitter
measured between the first and last crossing at ±100mV. If the vertical axis units in the figure were
100mV/division, the worse case jitter is at ±100mV levels.
Unit Interval
tui
VOH
(100% Reference)
Optimum Receiver Threshold
Level for Minimum Jitter
±100mV
VOL
(0% Reference)
Worst Case Jitter
ttcs Threshold Crossing Jitter
Peak-to-Peak Jitter = ttcs / tui * 100%
NRZ Data Eye Pattern.
5.4.3 Eye Pattern Test Circuit
LVDS drivers and receivers are typically used in an uncomplicated point-to-point configuration as shown
in the figure below. This figure details the test circuit that was used to acquire the Eye pattern measurements. It includes the following components:
PCB#1: DS90C031 LVDS Quad Driver soldered to the PCB with matched PCB traces between the device
(located near the edge of the PCB) to the connector. The connector is an AMP amplite 50 series connector.
Cable: The cable used for this testing was Berk-Tek part number 271211. This is a 105Ω (Differentialmode) 28 AWG stranded twisted pair cable (25 Pair with overall shield) commonly used on SCSI applications. This cable represents a common data interface cable. For this test report, the following cable
lengths were tested: 1, 2, 3, 5, and 10 meter(s). Cables longer that 10 meters were not tested, but may be
employed at lower data rates.
PCB#2: DS90C032 LVDS Quad Receiver soldered to the PCB with matched PCB traces between the
device (located near the edge of the PCB) to the connector. The connector is an AMP amplite 50 series
connector. A 100Ω surface mount resistor was used to terminate the cable at the receiver input pins.
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LVDS Owner’s Manual
51
PCB#2 1/4 DS90C032
PCB#1 1/4 DS90C031
CABLE
Length = L
TEST POINTS
TP-A', TP-B' (TP')
ENABLE
RIN+
DOUT+
A
DIN
ENABLE
A'
RT
100 Ω
DR
DOUT–
B
B'
C
+
REC
ROUT
-
RIN–
C'
LVDS Signal Quality Test Circuit
5.4.4 Test Procedure
A pseudo-random (PRBS) generator was connected to the driver input, and the resulting eye pattern
(measured differentially at TP’) was observed on the oscilloscope. Different cable lengths (L) were tested, and the frequency of the input signal was increased until the measured jitter equaled 20% with
respect to the unit interval for the particular cable length. The coding scheme used was NRZ. Jitter was
measured twice at two different voltage points. Jitter was first measured at the 0V differential voltage
(optimal receiver threshold point) for minimum jitter, and second at the maximum receiver threshold
points (±100mV) to obtain the worst case or maximum jitter at the receiver thresholds. Occasionally jitter
is measured at the crossing point alone and although this will result in a much lower jitter point, it
ignores the fact that the receivers may not switch at that very point. For this reason, this signal quality
test report measured jitter at both points.
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5.4.5 Results and Data Points
20% Jitter Table @ 0V Differential (Minimum Jitter)
Cable Length (m)
Data Rate (Mbps)
Unit Interval (ns)
Jitter (ns)
1
2
3
5
10
400
391
370
295
180
2.500
2.555
2.703
3.390
5.550
0.490
0.520
0.524
0.680
1.160
As described above, Jitter was measured at the 0V differential point. For the case with the 1 meter cable,
490ps of jitter at 400Mbps was measured, and with the 10 meter cable, 1.160ns of jitter at 180Mbps was
measured.
20% Jitter Table @ ±100 mV (Maximum Jitter)
Cable Length (m)
Data Rate (Mbps)
Unit Interval (ns)
Jitter (ns)
1
2
3
5
10
200
190
170
155.5
100
5.000
5.263
5.882
6.431
10.000
1.000
1.053
1.176
1.286
2.000
The second case measured jitter between ±100mV levels. For the 1 meter cable, 1ns of jitter was measured at 200Mbps, and for the 10 meter cable, 2ns of jitter occurred at 100Mbps.
1000
20% Jitter Measured at 0V Differential
20% Jitter Measured at ±100mV Differential
100
CAT3 Cable
Typical Data Rate
vs. Cable Length
(DS90C031)
10
1
1
2
3
5
10
Cable Length (m)
Typical Data Rate vs Cable Length for 0-10m CAT3 Cable
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LVDS Owner’s Manual
53
1000
20% Jitter Measured at 0V Differential
100
CAT5 Cable
Typical Data Rate
vs. Cable Length
(DS90LV017)
10
1
2
10
20
50
100
Cable Length (m)
Typical Data Rate vs Cable Length for 2-100m CAT5 Cable (See AN-1088)
Care should be taken in long cable applications using LVDS. When directly coupled, LVDS provides up to
±1V common-mode rejection. Long cable applications may require larger common-mode support. If this
is the case, transformer coupling or alternate technologies (such as RS-485) should be considered.
The figures above are a graphical representation of the relationship between data rate and cable length
for the application under test. Both curves assume a maximum allotment of 20% jitter with respect to
the unit interval. Basically, data rates between 200-400 Mbps are possible at shorter lengths, and rates of
100-200Mbps are possible at 10 meters. Note that employing a different coding scheme, cable, wire
gauge (AWG), etc. will create a different relationship between maximum data rate versus cable length.
Designers are greatly encouraged to experiment on their own.
5.4.6 Additional Data on Jitter & Eye Patterns
For additional information on LVDS “Data Rate vs Cable Length” please consult the list of LVDS application notes on the LVDS web site at: www.national.com/appinfo/lvds/
At this time of this printing the following application notes were available:
AN#
AN-977
AN-1088
Devices Tested
DS90C031/032
DS90LV017/027, DS92LV010A
5.4.7 Conclusions – Eye Pattern Testing
Eye patterns provide a useful tool to analyze jitter and the resulting signal quality as it captures the effects
of a random data pattern. They provide a method to determine the maximum cable length for a given
data rate or vice versa. Different systems, however, can tolerate different levels of jitter. Commonly 5%,
10%, or 20% is acceptable with 20% jitter usually being an upper practical limit. More than 20% jitter
tends to close down the eye opening, making error-free recovery of NRZ data more difficult. This report
illustrates data rate versus distance for a common, inexpensive type of cable.
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5.5.0 BIT ERROR RATE (BER) TESTING
Bit error rate testing is another approach to determine signal quality. This test method is described next.
5.5.1 LVDS Cable Driving Performance using BERT
The questions of: “How Far?” and “How Fast?” seem simple to answer at first, but after detailed study,
their answers become quite complex. This is not a simple device parameter specification. But rather, a
system level question, and to be answered correctly a number of other parameters besides the switching
characteristics of the drivers and receivers must be known. This includes the measurement criteria for
signal quality that has been selected, and the pulse coding that will be used (Non-Return to Zero (NRZ)
for example — see application note AN-808 for more information about coding). Additionally, other system level components should be known too. This includes details about the cable, connector and information about the printed circuit boards (PCB). Since the purpose is to measure signal quality/performance, it should be done in a test fixture that matches the end environment precisely if possible. The
actual application would be best if possible. There are numerous methods to measure signal quality,
including eye pattern (jitter) measurements and Bit Error Rate tests (BER).
This report provides the results of a series of Bit Error Rate tests performed on the DS90C031/032 LVDS
Quad Line driver/receiver devices. The results can be generalized to other National LVDS products. Four
drivers were used to drive 1 to 5 meters of standard twisted pair cables at selected data rates. Four
receivers were used to recover the data at the load end of the cable.
5.5.2 What is a BER Test?
Bit Error Rate testing is one way to measure of the performance of a communications system. The standard equation for a bit error rate measurement is:
Bit Error Rate = (Number of Bit errors)/(Total Number of Bits)
Common measurement points are bit error rates of:
≤ 1 x 10-12 => One or less errors in 1 trillion bits sent
≤ 1 x 10-14 => One or less errors in 100 trillion bits sent
Note that BER testing is time intensive. The time length of the test is determined by the data rate and
also the desired performance benchmark. For example, if the data rate is 50Mbps, and the benchmark is
an error rate of 1 x 10-14 or better, a run time of 2,000,000 seconds is required for a serial channel.
2,000,000 seconds equates to 555.6 hours or 23.15 days!
5.5.3 BER Test Circuit
LVDS drivers and receivers are typically used in an uncomplicated point-to-point configuration as shown in
the next figure. This figure details the test circuit that was used. It includes the following components:
PCB#1: DS90C031 LVDS Quad Driver soldered to the PCB with matched PCB traces between the device
(located near the edge of the PCB) to the connector. The connector is an AMP amplite 50 series connector.
Cable: Cable used for this testing was Berk-Tek part number 271211. This is a 105Ω (Differential-mode)
28 AWG stranded twisted pair cable (25 Pair with overall shied) commonly used in SCSI applications.
This cable represents a common data interface cable. For this test report, cable lengths of 1 and 5
meters were tested.
PCB#2: DS90C032 LVDS Quad Receiver soldered to the PCB with matched PCB traces between the
device (located near the edge of the PCB) to the connector. The connector is an AMP amplite 50 series
connector. A 100Ω surface mount resistor was used to terminate the cable at the receiver input pins.
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LVDS Owner’s Manual
55
CABLE
PCB#1 DS90C031
PCB#2 DS90C032
Length = L
RIN+
DOUT+
A
DR
DIN
From
BERT
Transmitter
A'
CHANNEL
DOUT-
RT
100Ω
1
B'
B
A
DR
RT
100Ω
2
B'
B
A
DR
DOUT+
B'
ROUT
To
BERT
Receiver
+
REC
-
ROUT
To
BERT
Receiver
RINRIN+
A
A'
CHANNEL
DOUT-
RT
100Ω
3
B
DR
DIN
From
BERT
Transmitter
REC
-
RIN-
A'
CHANNEL
DOUT-
+
RIN+
DOUT+
DIN
From
BERT
Transmitter
ROUT
To
BERT
Receiver
RIN-
A'
CHANNEL
DOUT-
REC
-
RIN+
DOUT+
DIN
From
BERT
Transmitter
+
B
RT
100Ω
4
B'
C
+
REC
-
ROUT
To
BERT
Receiver
RIN-
C'
LVDS BER Test Circuit
5.5.4 Test Procedure
A parallel high-speed BER transmitter/receiver set (Tektronix MultiBERT-100) was employed for the tests.
The transmitter was connected to the driver inputs, and the receiver outputs were connected to the BERT
receiver inputs. Different cable lengths and data rates were tested. The BER tester was configured to
provide a PRBS (Pseudo Random Bit Sequence) of 215-1 (32,767 bit long sequence). In the first test, the
same input signal was applied to all four of the LVDS channels under test. For the other tests, the PRBS
was offset by 4-bits, thus providing a random sequence between channels. The coding scheme used
was NRZ. Upon system test configuration, the test was allowed to run uninterrupted for a set amount of
time. At completion of the time block, the results were recorded which included: elapsed seconds, total
bits transmitted and number of bit errors recorded. For the three tests documented next, a power supply
voltage of +5.0V was used and the tests were conducted at room temperature.
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5.5.5 Tests and Results
The goal of the tests was to demonstrate errors rates of less than 1 x 10-12 are obtainable.
TEST #1 Conditions:
Data Rate = 50Mbps
Cable Length = 1 meter
PRBS Code = 215-1 NRZ
For this test, the PRBS code applied to the four driver inputs was identical. This created a “simultaneous
output switching” condition on the device.
TEST #1 Results:
Total Seconds: 87,085 (1 day)
Total Bits: 1,723 x 1013
Errors = 0
Error Rate = < 1 x 10-12
TEST #2 Conditions:
Data Rate = 100Mbps
Cable Length = 1 meter
PRBS Code = 215-1 NRZ
For this test, the PRBS code applied to the four driver inputs was offset by four bits. This creates a
random pattern between channels.
TEST #2 Results:
Total Seconds: 10,717 (~3 hr.)
Total Bits: 4.38 x 1012
Errors = 0
Error Rate = < 1 x 10-12
TEST #3 Conditions:
Data Rate = 100Mbps
Cable Length = 5 meter
PRBS Code = 215-1 NRZ
For this test, the PRBS code applied to the four driver inputs was offset by four bits. This creates a
random pattern between channels.
TEST #3 Results:
Total Seconds: 10,050 (~2.8 hr.)
Total Bits: 4 x 1012
Errors = 0
Error Rate = < 1 x 10-12
5.5.6 Conclusions - BERT
All three of the tests ran error free and demonstrate extremely low bit error rates using LVDS technology.
The tests concluded that error rates of < 1 x 10-12 can be obtained at 100Mbps operation across 5 meters
of twisted pair cable. BER tests only provide a “Go — No Go” data point if zero errors are detected. It is
recommended to conduct further tests to determine the point of failure (data errors). This will yield
important data that indicates the amount of margin in the system. This was done in the tests conducted
by increasing the cable length from 1 meter to 5 meters, and also adjusting the data rate from 50Mbps to
100Mbps. Additionally, bench checks were made while adjusting the power supply voltage from 5.0V to
4.5V and 5.5V, adjusting clock frequency, and by applying heat/cold to the device under test (DUT). No
errors were detected during these checks (tests were checks only and were not conducted over time, i.e.
24 hours). BER tests conclude that the PRBS patterns were transmitted error free across the link. This
was concluded by applying a pattern to the input and monitoring the receiver output signal.
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LVDS Owner’s Manual
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NOTES
58
LVDS Reference
Chapter 8
8.0.0 LVDS REFERENCE – APPLICATION NOTES, STANDARDS, WHITE PAPERS,
MODELING INFORMATION AND OTHER DESIGN GUIDES
8.1.0 NATIONAL DOCUMENTS
National also offers more in depth application material on LVDS in the form of application notes, conference papers, white papers and other documents. Please visit the LVDS website for the viewing or downloading of documents. The website’s URL is: www.national.com/appinfo/lvds/
8.1.1 National LVDS Application Notes
The following application notes on LVDS are currently available:
AN-Number
Topic
Parts Referenced
AN-971
AN-977
AN-1040
AN-1041
AN-1059
AN-1060
AN-1084
AN-1088
AN-1108
AN-1109
AN-1110
AN-1115
AN-1123
Introduction to LVDS
Signal Quality – Eye Patterns
Bit Error Rate Testing
Introduction to Channel Link
Timing (RSKM) Information
LVDS - Megabits @ milliwatts (EDN Reprint)
Parallel Application of Link Chips
Bus LVDS/LVDS Signal Quality
PCB and Interconnect Design Guidelines
Multidrop Application of Channel Links
Power Dissipation of LVDS Drivers and Receivers
Bus LVDS and DS92LV010A XCVR
Sorting Out Backplane Driver Alphabet Soup
DS90C031/DS90C032
DS90C031
DS90C031/DS90C032
DS90CR2xx
DS90CRxxx
DS90Cxxx
DS90LV017/27, DS92LV010A
DS90CR2xx
DS90CR2xx
DS90C031/2, DS90LV031A/32A
DS92LV010A
8.1.2 National Application Notes on Generic Data Transmission Topics
National also offers many application notes devoted to the general topics of data transmission, PCB
design and other topics pertaining to Interface. A few of these are highlighted below.
AN-Number
Topic
AN-216
AN-643
AN-806
AN-807
AN-808
AN-912
AN-916
AN-972
AN-1111
An Overview of Selected Industry Interface Standards
EMI/RFI Board Design
Data Transmission Lines and Their Characteristics
Reflections: Computations and Waveforms
Long Transmission Lines and Data Signal Quality
Common Data Transmission Parameters and their Definitions
A Practical Guide to Cable Selection
Inter-Operation of Interface Standards
An Introduction to IBIS Modeling
A complete list of all application notes is located at: http:www.national.com/apnotes/apnotes_all_1.html
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LVDS Owner’s Manual
89
8.1.3 National Application Notes on Flat Panel Display Link /LVDS Display Interface
A series of application notes is available on the FPD-Link and LDI chipsets. Please see the FPD website
for a list of application notes that are currently available at:
www.national.com/appinfo/fpd/
8.1.4 Conference Papers/White Papers from National
The following conference papers are currently available from the LVDS website at:
www.national.com/appinfo/lvds/
• BLVDS White Paper
Signal Integrity and Validation of Bus LVDS (BLVDS) Technology in Heavily Loaded Backplanes.
DesignCon99 Paper
• BLVDS White Paper
A Baker's Dozen of High-Speed Differential Backplane Design Tips.
DesignCon2000 Paper
• BLVDS White Paper
Bus LVDS Expands Applications for Low Voltage Differential Signaling (LVDS).
DesignCon2000 Paper
8.1.5 Design Tools - RAPIDESIGNERS
The National Semiconductor Transmission Line RAPIDESIGNERs make quick work of calculations frequently used in the design of data transmission line systems on printed circuit boards. Based on principles contained in the National Interface Databook, the Transmission Line RAPIDESIGNER benefits from
our many years of experience in designing and manufacturing data transmission and interface products
and from helping our valued customers obtain the most from National's Interface Products.
The following calculations can be made with the RAPIDESIGNER for both Microstrip and Stripline
geometries.
• Characteristic Impedance (ZO)
• Intrinsic Delay
• Unterminated Stub Length
• Loaded Impedance
• Differential Impedance
• Propagation Delay
• Reflection Coefficient
• CO and LO
• Reactance Frequency
Two versions of the popular RAPIDESIGNER are available while supplies last. The two RAPIDESIGNERs
differ in the dimensions supported; one is for METRIC units while the other supports ENGLISH units.
• RAPIDESIGNER, Metric Units, LIT# 633200-001
• RAPIDESIGNER, English Units, LIT# 633201-001
A full Operation and Application Guide is provided in AN-905. Also included in the application note are
the formulas for the calculations, accuracy information, example calculations and other useful information.
To obtain a RAPIDESIGNER, contact the National Customer Support Center in your area.
90
www.national.com/appinfo/lvds/
8.2.0 LVDS STANDARD – ANSI/TIA/EIA-644
Copies of the ANSI/TIA/EIA-644 LVDS Standard can be purchased from Global Engineering Documents.
Contact information that was current at the time this book was printed is:
Global Engineering Documents
15 Inverness Way East
Englewood, CO 80112-5704
or call
USA and Canada: 1.800.854.7179
International: 1.303.397.7956
http://global.ihs.com/
8.3.0 IBIS I/O MODEL INFORMATION
I/O Buffer Information Specification (IBIS) is a behavioral model specification defined within the
ANSI/EIA-656 standard. LVDS IBIS models are available from National’s Website which can be used by
most simulators/EDA tools in the industry. Please see: http:www.national.com/models/ibis/Interface/
Also, visit the ANSI/EIA-656 Website: www.eia.org/EIG/IBIS/ibis.htm for a vendor listing or contact your
software vendor.
Chapter 13 of National’s 1999 Interface Databook (LIT# 400058) describes IBIS models in detail. A major
portion of this material is also covered in National’s Application Note AN-1111.
www.national.com/appinfo/lvds/
LVDS Owner’s Manual
91
NOTES
92
www.national.com/appinfo/lvds/
DSM DTMROC
Analog Block Description
ATLAS TRT
Block Name: LVDSdsm3Ncd
Low Level Differential Driver with Tristate and Wire OR.
(Requires external termination for current output.)
Used to provide both ‘cmd_out’ data and a fast trigger mode.
Size: Area = 354 X 243µm
Power Requirement: - 2.5V +/- 0.2V , 14mW
Inputs:
Digital • wr - wire ‘or’ enable
• oe - output enable
• wr_datain - logic levels for ‘or’ output
• cmd_datain – standard data output for Low Level Driver
Analog –
• adjCur - Adjusts current will attach to Vdd in this version
• monSF- Allows monitoring of current source gate voltate.
Diagnostic only. àNot pinned out.ß
Outputs:
• outPlus – positive (voltage) going output. (3mA sink-source)
• outMinus – negative (voltage) going output. (3mA sink-source)
Output Reference – Current outputs must be referenced to an external voltage
(provided by the receiver) of 1.25V +/-.3V A small net current, due to the
mismatch in PMOS and NMOS output current mirrors is expected. (~50uA)
Functionality:
Low Level Driver is enabled by ‘oe’ = hi for either of two operational modes.
Outputs nominal 3mA +/-.5mA
1) wr = low (0V)
Full current (3mA) output mode. Intended for use with only
one device ‘enabled’ at at time when multiple devices are connected on the same
databus.
cmd_datain
Lo (0V)
Hi (2.5V)
OutPlus
3mA sink
3mA source
outminus
3mA source
3mA sink
2) wr=high (2.5V) 1/2 current , zero offset mode. Outputs source or sink current
only when input is high. This allows a wire ’or’ mode of several chips together.
wr_datain
OutPlus
outminus
Lo (0V)
~0mA
~0mA
Hi (2.5V)
1.5mA source
1.5mA sink
PENN
October 2001
-1-
FMN/NCD
DSM DTMROC
Analog Block Description
ATLAS TRT
Wire ‘Or’ mode was added as part of a fastout option to allow a self triggering
mode, useful for initial checkout of detector mounted electronincs. In this mode,
any of the 16 ternary inputs (attached and enabled) that has dete cted a signal
over its selected threshold will apply a logic high at the wr_datain Note that wire
‘or’ refers only to the connection of multiple , enabled, low level drivers in wire or
mode.
When multiple outputs are connected in parallel (up to ~13) the currents add.
More than one Low Level Driver output triggering can be detected with a level
sensitive receiver. Since the output is ~0 when wr_datain is low no
cumumulative offset results when multiple low level drivers are connected in
parallel.
Termination - In order to allow careful termination the long twisted pair lines, a
high impedance output is utilized. A fixed reference of ~1.25V at the receiver is
required and will be part of the termination network. The load used in our
SPICE characterization includes 50Ω on each output to a common node
connected to a termination voltage through a 75Ω resistor. Stray capacitance is
modeled using 12.5pF between outputs and 12.5pF on each output to gnd.
SPICE calculations and tests of prototypes indicate that the LOW Level Driver
should be able to operate at data rates well in excess of 50MHz. An measured
output can be found in the Fastout section.
Hookup - a special mode will need to be built into the ROD receiver to
accommodate both output modes of this driver. One possibility could be to
utilize a programmable offset and threshold in a differential comparator.
Schematics –
The Single ended to Differential drive (see schematic) has been designed to
match the transition times of high to low and low to high transitions to minimize
common mode on the output lines.
Output Drive with current sources - utilizes a constant current bridge drive
network.
Each output (OutPlus, OutMinus) is connected to the drain of one NMOS and
one PMOS switch. Current flows from the data selected PMOS switch through
the output cable and termination and back through the cable to the NMOS
switch.
A mode dependent matched current is provided to the NMOS and PMOS
switches by a parallel current mirror pair in 1/4 and 3/4 proportion.
In ‘Data Out’ mode the parallel current mirror slaves are both switched on
resulting in a matched ‘sink’ and ‘source’ current of ~3mA. Small differences in
the output current can be expected due to differences in matching of the NMOS
and PMOS current mirrors.
In wire ‘or’ mode the current source providing 3/4 of the data mode current is
shunted around the switch allowing only 1/4 of the current to be switched by the
bridge network. A parallel network is connected to the output providing 1/4 of
PENN
October 2001
-2-
FMN/NCD
DSM DTMROC
Analog Block Description
ATLAS TRT
the data mode current to the outputs in a fixed state. It is wired so that when
‘wr_datin’ is low the currents cancel; no current flows through the cable and
when ‘wr_datin’ is high the currents add resulting in a total current of 1/2 of the
normal data mode value.
This block is designed to have constant current draw in all modes of operation.
Current Mirror masters for Low Level Driver - A simple resistor based
mirror master is used to provide the output current reference. of approximately
750µA. Output current depends most directly on the fabricated value of sheet
resistance, PCres, (211Ω/sq). No difficulty is envisioned with the +/-20% spec,
however we expect this is a very conservative value.
Single ended to Differential Drive
(Digital Logic)
PENN
October 2001
-3-
FMN/NCD
DSM DTMROC
Analog Block Description
ATLAS TRT
Output Drive with Current sources
PENN
October 2001
-4-
FMN/NCD
DSM DTMROC
Analog Block Description
ATLAS TRT
Current Mirror Masters for Low Level Driver
PENN
October 2001
-5-
FMN/NCD
DSM DTMROC
Analog Block Description
ATLAS TRT
SPICE Calculations
Outputs Disabled
Wire ‘or’ triggers
Data Out mode
Wire ‘or’ pulses
Wire ‘or’ mode select
Output
Data mode select
Enable (oe)
DATA
PENN
October 2001
-6-
FMN/NCD
DSM DTMROC
Analog Block Description
LVDSdsm3Ncd
ATLAS TRT
Layout
354 X 243µm
PENN
October 2001
-7-
FMN/NCD
Glossary, Index and
Worldwide Sales Offices
Appendix
GLOSSARY
AN
Application Note
ANSI
American National Standards Institute
ASIC
Application Specific Integrated Circuit
B/P
Backplane
BER
Bit Error Rate
BERT
Bit Error Rate Test
BLVDS
Bus LVDS
BTL
Backplane Transceiver Logic
CAT3
Category 3 (Cable classification)
CAT5
Category 5 (Cable classification)
CISPR
International Special Committee on Radio Interference
(Comité International Spécial des Perturbations Radioélectriques)
D
Driver
DCR
DC Resistance
DUT
Device Under Test
ECL
Emitter Coupled Logic
EIA
Electronic Industries Association
EMC
Electromagnetic Compatibility
EMI
Electromagnetic Interference
EN
Enable
ESD
Electrostatic Discharge
EVK
Evaluation Kit
FCC
Federal Communications Commission
FPD
Flat Panel Display
FPD-LINK
Flat Panel Display Link
Gbps
Gigabits per second
GTL
Gunning Transceiver Logic
Hi-Z
High Impedance
IC
Integrated Circuit
I/O
Input/Output
IBIS
I/O Buffer Information Specification
IDC
Insulation Displacement Connector
IEEE
Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers
kbps
kilobits per second
LAN
Local Area Network
LVDS Owner’s Manual
97
GLOSSARY (continued)
98
LDI
LVDS Display Interface
LVDS
Low Voltage Differential Signaling
Mbps
Mega bits per second
MDR
Mini Delta Ribbon
MLC
Multi Layer Ceramic
NRZ
Non Return to Zero
PCB
Printed Circuit Board
PECL
Pseudo Emitter Coupled Logic
PHY
Physical layer device
PLL
Phase Lock Loop
PRBS
Pseudo Random Bit Sequence
R
Receiver
RFI
Radio Frequency Interference
RS
Recommended Standard
RT
Termination Resistor
RX
Receiver
SCI
Scalable Coherent Interface
SCSI
Small Computer Systems Interface
SDI
Serial Digital Interface
SER/DES
Serializer/Deserializer
SUT
System Under Test
T
Transceiver
TDR
Time Domain Refletometry
TEM
Transverse Electro-Magnetic
TFT
Thin Film Transistor
TI
Totally Irrelevant
TIA
Telecommunications Industry Association
TP
Test Point
TTL
Transistor Transistor Logic
TWP
Twisted Pair
TX
Transmitter
UTP
Unshielded Twisted Pair
VCM
Voltage Common-mode
VCR
Video Cassette Recorder
www.national.com/appinfo/lvds/
19-1932; Rev 1; 1/02
SC70, 5ns, Low-Power, Single-Supply,
Precision TTL Comparators
____________________________Features
♦ Ultra-Fast, 5ns Propagation Delay
♦ Low Quiescent Current:
900µA (MAX9010/MAX9011)
1.3mA (MAX9013)
2.4mA (MAX9012)
♦ Single-Supply 4.5V to 5.5V Applications
♦ Input Range Extends Below Ground
♦ No Minimum Input Signal Slew-Rate Requirement
♦ No Supply-Current Spikes During Switching
♦ Stable when Driven with Slow-Moving Inputs
♦ No Output Phase Reversal for Overdriven Inputs
♦ TTL-Compatible Outputs (Complementary for
MAX9013)
♦ Latch Function Included (MAX9011/MAX9013)
♦ High-Precision Comparators
0.7mV Input Offset Voltage
3.0V/mV Voltage Gain
♦ Available in Tiny 6-Pin SC70 and SOT23 Packages
Ordering Information
Applications
PART
High-Speed Signal Squaring
TEMP RANGE
PINPACKAGE
TOP
MARK
MAX9010EXT-T
-40°C to +85°C
6 SC70-6
Zero-Crossing Detectors
MAX9011EUT-T
-40°C to +85°C
6 SOT23-6
AAA
High-Speed Line Receivers
MAX9012EUA
-40°C to +85°C
8 µMAX
—
High-Speed Sampling Circuits
MAX9012ESA
-40°C to +85°C
8 SO
—
High-Speed Triggers
MAX9013EUA
-40°C to +85°C
8 µMAX
—
Fast Pulse-Width/Height Discriminators
MAX9013ESA
-40°C to +85°C
8 SO
—
AADD
Selector Guide appears at end of data sheet.
Pin Configurations
TOP VIEW
OUT 1
6
VCC
OUT 1
5
VCC
GND 2
4
IN-
IN+ 3
6
VCC
5
LE
4
IN-
INA+ 1
+
_
INA- 2
GND 2
+ –
IN+ 3
+ –
MAX9010
MAX9011
SC70
SOT23
INB+
3
+
_
INB- 4
8
VCC
VCC 1
7
OUTA
IN+ 2
6
OUTB
IN-
5
GND
3
+
_
N.C. 4
MAX9012
MAX9013
SO/µMAX
SO/µMAX
8
OUT
7
OUT
6
GND
5
LE
________________________________________________________________ Maxim Integrated Products
For pricing, delivery, and ordering information, please contact Maxim/Dallas Direct! at
1-888-629-4642, or visit Maxim’s website at www.maxim-ic.com.
1
MAX9010–MAX9013
General Description
The MAX9010/MAX9011/MAX9013 single and MAX9012
dual, high-speed comparators operate from a single
4.5V to 5.5V power supply and feature low-current consumption. They have precision differential inputs and
TTL outputs. They feature short propagation delay (5ns,
typ), low-supply current, and a wide common-mode
input range that includes ground. They are ideal for lowpower, high-speed, single-supply applications.
The comparator outputs remain stable through the linear
region when driven with slow-moving or low input-overdrive signals, eliminating the output instability common
to other high-speed comparators. The input voltage
range extends to 200mV below ground with no output
phase reversal. The MAX9013 features complementary
outputs and both the MAX9011/MAX9013 have a latch
enable input (LE). The MAX9013 is an improved plug-in
replacement for the industry-standard MAX913 and
LT1016/LT1116, offering lower power and higher speed
when used in a single 5V supply application.
For space-critical designs, the single MAX9010 is available in the tiny 6-pin SC70 package. The single
MAX9011 is available in a space-saving 6-pin SOT23
package. The dual MAX9012 and the single MAX9013
are available in 8-pin µMAX and 8-pin SO packages. All
products in the family are guaranteed over the extended
temperature range of -40°C to +85°C.
MAX9010–MAX9013
SC70, 5ns, Low-Power, Single-Supply,
Precision TTL Comparators
ABSOLUTE MAXIMUM RATINGS
Power Supply (VCC to GND) ...................................-0.3V to +6V
Analog Input (IN+ or IN-) to GND...............-0.3V to (VCC + 0.3V)
Input Current (IN+ or IN-) .................................................±30mA
LE to GND ..................................................-0.3V to (VCC + 0.3V)
Continuous Output Current...............................................±40mA
Continuous Power Dissipation (TA = +70°C)
6-Pin SC70 (derate 3.1mW/°C above +70°C) .............245mW
6-Pin SOT23 (derate 8.7mW/°C above +70°C)...........696mW
8-Pin µMAX (derate 4.5mW/°C above +70°C) ............362mW
8-Pin SO (derate 5.9mW/°C above +70°C).................471mW
Operating Temperature Range ...........................-40°C to +85°C
Junction Temperature ......................................................+150°C
Storage Temperature Range .............................-65°C to +150°C
Lead Temperature (soldering, 10s) .................................+300°C
Stresses beyond those listed under “Absolute Maximum Ratings” may cause permanent damage to the device. These are stress ratings only, and functional
operation of the device at these or any other conditions beyond those indicated in the operational sections of the specifications is not implied. Exposure to
absolute maximum rating conditions for extended periods may affect device reliability.
ELECTRICAL CHARACTERISTICS (MAX9010/MAX9011)
(VCC = 5V, VLE = 0 (MAX9011 only), VCM = 0, TA = TMIN to TMAX, unless otherwise noted. Typical values are at TA = +25°C.) (Note 1)
PARAMETER
SYMBOL
Supply Voltage Range
Power-Supply Current (Note 2)
VCC
Input Offset Voltage
(Note 3)
Input Offset-Voltage Drift
Input Bias Current
Input Offset Current
MIN
VOS
TYP
MAX
4.5
ICC
TA = +25°C
UNITS
5.5
V
0.90
2.1
mA
±1
±5
TA = TMIN to TMAX
±7
mV
∆VOS/∆T
±2
IB
±0.5
±2
µA
IOS
±40
±200
nA
Differential Input Resistance
(Note 4)
RIN(DIFF)
VIN(DIFF) = ±10mV
Common-Mode Input
Resistance (Note 4)
RIN(CM)
-0.2V ≤ VCM ≤ (VCC - 1.9V)
Common-Mode Input Voltage
Range (Note 4)
VCM
Inferred from VOS tests
Common-Mode Rejection
Ratio
CMRR
-0.2V ≤ VCM ≤ (VCC - 1.9V)
Power-Supply Rejection Ratio
PSRR
VCC = 4.5V to 5.5V
µV/°C
250
kΩ
1
MΩ
-0.2
VCC - 1.9
95
V
dB
82
dB
3000
V/V
Small-Signal Voltage Gain
AV
1V ≤ VOUT ≤ 2V
Output Low Voltage
VOL
VIN ≥ 100mV
Output High Voltage
VOH
VIN ≥ 100mV,
VCC = 4.5V
Output Short-Circuit Current
IOUT
Latch Enable Pin High Input
Voltage
VIH
MAX9011 only
Latch Enable Pin Low Input
Voltage
VIL
MAX9011 only
0.8
V
MAX9011 only,
VLE = 0 and VLE = 5V
±25
µA
Latch Enable Pin Bias Current
2
CONDITIONS
Inferred from VOS tests
IIH, IIL
ISINK = 0
0.3
0.5
ISINK = 4mA
0.5
0.6
ISOURCE = 0
2.7
3.3
ISOURCE = 4mA
2.4
2.9
Sinking
20
Sourcing
30
V
mA
2
_______________________________________________________________________________________
V
V
SC70, 5ns, Low-Power, Single-Supply,
Precision TTL Comparators
(VCC = 5V, VLE = 0 (MAX9011 only), VCM = 0, TA = TMIN to TMAX, unless otherwise noted. Typical values are at TA = +25°C.) (Note 1)
MIN
TYP
Latch Setup Time (Note 8)
PARAMETER
tSU
MAX9011 only
2
0
ns
Latch Hold Time (Note 8)
tH
MAX9011 only
2
0.5
ns
Latch Propagation Delay
(Note 8)
tLPD
MAX9011 only
5
ns
Input Noise-Voltage Density
Propagation Delay (Note 6)
SYMBOL
en
tPD+, tPD-
CONDITIONS
f = 100kHz
6
VOVERDRIVE = 100mV
CLOAD = 5pF,
TA = +25°C
VOVERDRIVE = 5mV
CLOAD = 5pF,
TA = TMIN to TMAX
Output Rise Time
tR
0.5V ≤ VOUT ≤ 2.5V
Output Fall Time
tF
2.5V ≥ VOUT ≥ 0.5V
Input Capacitance
CIN
Power-Up Time
tON
MAX
nV/√Hz
5
8
5.5
9
VOVERDRIVE = 100mV
9
VOVERDRIVE = 5mV
UNITS
ns
10
3
ns
2
ns
MAX9010EXT
0.8
MAX9011EUT
1.2
pF
1
µs
ELECTRICAL CHARACTERISTICS (MAX9012/MAX9013)
(VCC = 5V, VLE = 0 (MAX9013 only), VCM = 0, TA = TMIN to TMAX, unless otherwise noted. Typical values are at TA = +25°C.) (Note 1)
PARAMETER
Supply Voltage Range
SYMBOL
VCC
Power-Supply Current (Note 2)
ICC
Input Offset Voltage
(Note 5)
VOS
Input Offset-Voltage Drift
Input Bias Current
Input Offset Current
CONDITIONS
Inferred from PSRR test
TYP
4.5
MAX
UNITS
5.5
V
MAX9012
2.4
4.2
MAX9013
1.3
2.3
TA = +25°C
±0.7
TA = TMIN to TMAX
±3
±5.5
mA
mV
∆VOS/∆T
±2
IB
±0.5
±2
µA
IOS
±40
±200
nA
Differential Input Resistance
(Note 4)
RIN(DIFF)
VIN(DIFF) = ±10mV
Common-Mode Input
Resistance (Note 4)
RIN(CM)
-0.2V ≤ VCM ≤ (VCC - 1.9V)
Common-Mode Input Voltage
Range (Note 4)
MIN
VCM
Inferred from CMRR test
µV/°C
250
kΩ
1
MΩ
-0.2
VCC - 1.9
V
Common-Mode Rejection
Ratio
CMRR
-0.2V ≤ VCM ≤ (VCC - 1.9V)
75
95
dB
Power-Supply Rejection Ratio
PSRR
VCC = 4.5V to 5.5V
63
82
dB
_______________________________________________________________________________________
3
MAX9010–MAX9013
ELECTRICAL CHARACTERISTICS (MAX9010/MAX9011) (continued)
MAX9010–MAX9013
SC70, 5ns, Low-Power, Single-Supply,
Precision TTL Comparators
ELECTRICAL CHARACTERISTICS (MAX9012/MAX9013) (continued)
(VCC = 5V, VLE = 0 (MAX9013 only), VCM = 0, TA = TMIN to TMAX, unless otherwise noted. Typical values are at TA = +25°C.) (Note 1)
PARAMETER
Small-Signal Voltage Gain
SYMBOL
AV
CONDITIONS
1V ≤ VOUT ≤ 2V
MIN
TYP
1000
3000
MAX
UNITS
V/V
ISINK = 0
0.3
0.5
ISINK = 4mA
0.5
0.6
Output Low Voltage
VOL
VIN ≥ 100mV
Output High Voltage
VOH
VIN ≥ 100mV,
VCC = 4.5V
Output Short-Circuit Current
IOUT
Latch Enable Pin High Input
Voltage
VIH
MAX9013 only
Latch Enable Pin Low Input
Voltage
VIL
MAX9013 only
0.8
V
MAX9013 only
VLE = 0 and VLE = 5V
±25
µA
Latch Enable Pin Bias Current
Input Noise-Voltage Density
Propagation Delay (Note 6)
Differential Propagation Delay
(Notes 6, 7)
Channel-to-Channel
Propagation Delay (Note 6)
IIH, IIL
en
tPD+, tPD-
ISOURCE = 0
2.7
3.3
ISOURCE = 4mA
2.4
2.9
Sinking
20
Sourcing
30
CLOAD = 5pF,
TA = +25°C
CLOAD = 5pF,
TA = TMIN to TMAX
V
mA
2
f = 100kHz
V
6
VOVERDRIVE = 100mV
VOVERDRIVE = 5mV
V
nV/√Hz
5
8
5.5
9
VOVERDRIVE = 100mV
9
VOVERDRIVE = 5mV
10
ns
∆tPD±
VIN = 100mV step, CLOAD = 5pF,
VOD = 5mV
2
∆tPD(ch-ch)
MAX9012 only, VIN = 100mV step,
CLOAD = 5pF, VOD = 5mV
500
ps
3
ns
Output Rise Time
tR
0.5V ≤ VOUT ≤ 2.5V
3
ns
Output Fall Time
tF
2.5V ≥ VOUT ≥ 0.5V
2
ns
Latch Setup Time (Note 8)
tSU
MAX9013 only
2
0
ns
Latch Hold Time (Note 8)
tH
MAX9013 only
2
0.5
ns
Latch Propagation Delay
(Note 8)
tLPD
MAX9013 only
5
ns
Input Capacitance
CIN
Power-Up Time
tON
MAX9012EUA/MAX9013EUA
1.5
MAX9012ESA/MAX9013ESA
2
1
pF
µs
Note 1: All specifications are 100% tested at TA = +25°C; temperature limits are guaranteed by design.
Note 2: Quiescent Power-Supply Current is slightly higher with the comparator output at VOL. This parameter is specified with the worstcase condition of VOUT = VOL for the MAX9010/MAX9011 and both outputs at VOL for the MAX9012. For the MAX9013, which
has complementary outputs, the power-supply current is specified with either OUT = VOL, OUT = VOH or OUT = VOH, OUT =
VOL (power-supply current is equal in either case).
Note 3: Input Offset Voltage is tested and specified with the Input Common-Mode Voltage set to either extreme of the Input CommonMode Voltage Range (-0.2V to (VCC - 1.9V)) and with the Power-Supply Voltage set to either extreme of the Power-Supply
Voltage Range (4.5V to 5.5V).
4
_______________________________________________________________________________________
SC70, 5ns, Low-Power, Single-Supply,
Precision TTL Comparators
MAX9010–MAX9013
Note 4: Although Common-Mode Input Voltage Range is restricted to -0.2V ≤ VCM ≤ (VCC - 1.9V), either or both inputs can go to either
absolute maximum voltage limit, i.e., from -0.3V to (VCC + 0.3V), without damage. The comparator will make a correct (and fast)
logic decision provided that at least one of the two inputs is within the specified common-mode range. If both inputs are outside
the common-mode range, the comparator output state is indeterminate.
Note 5: For the MAX9012, Input Offset Voltage is defined as the input voltage(s) required to make the OUT output voltage(s) remain
stable at 1.4V. For the MAX9013, it is defined as the average of two input offset voltages, measured by forcing first the OUT
output, then the OUT output to 1.4V.
Note 6: Propagation delay for these high-speed comparators is guaranteed by design because it cannot be accurately measured
with low levels of input overdrive voltage using automatic test equipment in production. Note that for low overdrive
conditions, VOS is added to the overdrive.
Note 7: Differential Propagation Delay, measured either on a single output of the MAX9012/MAX9013 (or between OUT and OUT
outputs on the MAX9013) is defined as: ∆tPD(±) = |(tPD+) - (tPD-)|.
Note 8: Latch times are guaranteed by design. Latch setup time (tSU) is the interval in which the input signal must be stable prior to
asserting the latch signal. The hold time (tH) is the interval after the latch is asserted in which the input signal must remain
stable. Latch propagation delay (tLPD) is the delay time for the output to respond when the latch enable pin is deasserted
(see Figure 1).
Typical Operating Characteristics
(VCC = 5V, CL = 15pF, TA = +25°C, unless otherwise noted.)
MAX9010–13 toc02
+100mV
IN
5.5
0
3V
3V
OUT
6.0
PROPAGATION DELAY (ns)
0
IN
-100mV
PROPAGATION DELAY
vs. INPUT OVERDRIVE
RESPONSE TO -5mV OVERDRIVE
MAX9010–13 toc01
MAX9010–13 toc03
RESPONSE TO +5mV OVERDRIVE
OUT
0
tPD(+)
5.0
4.5
tPD(-)
4.0
3.5
0
3.0
t = 5ns/div
IN: 50mV/div
OUT: 1V/div
t = 5ns/div
IN: 50mV/div
OUT: 1V/div
1
10
100
OVERDRIVE (mV)
_______________________________________________________________________________________
5
Typical Operating Characteristics (continued)
(VCC = 5V, CL = 15pF, TA = +25°C, unless otherwise noted.)
PROPAGATION DELAY
vs. LOAD CAPACITANCE
30
25
20
tPD(+)
15
10
5
7.5
7.0
tPD(-)
6.5
6.0
tPD(+)
5.5
5.0
6.0
5.5
0
100
1k
10k
4.5
tPD(-)
4.0
3.0
4.0
10
tPD(+)
5.0
3.5
4.5
tPD(-)
MAX9010–13 toc03
35
8.0
MAX9010–13 toc05
10
20
30
40
50
1
60
10
100
SOURCE RESISTANCE (Ω)
LOAD CAPACITANCE (pF)
OVERDRIVE (mV)
RESPONSE TO 50MHz ±10mV
SINE WAVE
RESPONSE TO 10kHz TRIANGLE WAVE
OFFSET VOLTAGE
vs. TEMPERATURE
MAX9010–13 toc08
MAX9010–13 toc07
A
A
0
0
-0.3
MAX9010–13 toc09
PROPAGATION DELAY (ns)
40
PROPAGATION DELAY (ns)
MAX9010–13 toc04
45
PROPAGATION DELAY
vs. INPUT OVERDRIVE
PROPAGATION DELAY (ns)
PROPAGATION DELAY
vs. SOURCE RESISTANCE
B
B
0
0
OFFSET VOLTAGE (mV)
-0.4
-0.5
-0.6
-0.7
-0.8
-0.9
1.0
TA = -40°C
0.5
VCM = -0.2V
0.5
0.4
VCM = 3.1V
4.75
5.00
5.25
VCC (V)
5.50
5.75
6.00
85
TA = +25°C
2.0
TA = +85°C
1.5
1.0
0.5
TA = -40°C
0
0.2
4.50
6
0.6
0.3
0
60
2.5
OUTPUT VOLTAGE (V)
TA = +25°C
1.5
0.7
MAX9010–13 toc11
2.5
35
OUTPUT VOLTAGE vs.
DIFFERENTIAL INPUT VOLTAGE
INPUT BIAS CURRENT vs. TEMPERATURE
INPUT BIAS CURRENT (µA)
MAX9010–13 toc10
3.0
10
TEMPERATURE (°C)
MAX9010–13 toc12
SUPPLY CURRENT vs. SUPPLY VOLTAGE
(PER COMPARATOR)
TA = +85°C
-15
A: Input, 20mV/div
B: Output, 2V/div
A: Input, 10mV/div
B: Output, 2V/div
2.0
-40
20µs/div
10ns/div
ICC (mA)
MAX9010–MAX9013
SC70, 5ns, Low-Power, Single-Supply,
Precision TTL Comparators
-40
-15
10
35
60
TEMPERATURE (°C )
85
-3
-2
-1
0
1
2
DIFFERENTIAL INPUT VOLTAGE (mV)
_______________________________________________________________________________________
3
SC70, 5ns, Low-Power, Single-Supply,
Precision TTL Comparators
PIN
NAME
FUNCTION
MAX9010
MAX9011
MAX9012
MAX9013
1
1
—
7
OUT
2
2
5
6
GND
Ground
3
3
—
2
IN+
Noninverting Input
4
4
—
3
IN-
Inverting Input
5, 6
6
8
1
VCC
Positive Power-Supply Voltage. Pins 5 and 6 of the
MAX9010 must BOTH be connected to the powersupply rail. Bypass with a 0.1µF capacitor.
—
5
—
5
LE
—
—
1
—
INA+
Noninverting Input, Channel A
—
—
2
—
INA-
Inverting Input, Channel A
—
—
3
—
INB+
Noninverting Input, Channel B
—
—
4
—
INB-
Inverting Input, Channel B
—
—
6
—
OUTB
Comparator Output, Channel B
—
—
7
—
OUTA
Comparator Output, Channel A
—
—
—
4
N.C.
No Connection. Not internally connected. Connect to
GND for best results.
—
—
—
8
OUT
Comparator Complementary Output
Detailed Description
These high-speed comparators have a unique design
that prevents oscillation when the comparator is in its
linear region, so no minimum input slew rate is required.
Many high-speed comparators oscillate in their linear
region. One common way to overcome this oscillation is
to add hysteresis, but it results in a loss of resolution
and bandwidth.
Latch Function
The MAX9011/MAX9013 provide a TTL-compatible latch
function that holds the comparator output state (Figure 1).
With LE driven to a TTL low or grounded, the latch is
transparent and the output state is determined by the
input differential voltage. When LE is driven to a TTL high,
the existing output state is latched, and the input differential voltage has no further effect on the output state.
Input Amplifier
A comparator can be thought of as having two sections: an input amplifier and a logic interface. The input
amplifiers of these devices are fully differential, with
input offset voltages typically 0.7mV at +25°C. Input
common-mode range extends from 200mV below
ground to 1.9V below the positive power-supply rail. The
Comparator Output. OUT is high when IN+ is more
positive than IN-.
Latch Enable Input
total common-mode range is 3.3V when operating from a
5V supply. The amplifiers have no built-in hysteresis. For
highest accuracy, do not add hysteresis. Figure 2 shows
how hysteresis degrades resolution.
Input Voltage Range
Although the common-mode input voltage range is
restricted to -0.2V to (VCC - 1.9V), either or both inputs
can go to either absolute maximum voltage limit, i.e.,
from -0.3V to (VCC + 0.3V), without damage. The comparator will make a correct (and fast) logic decision
provided that at least one of the two inputs is within the
specified common-mode range. If both inputs are outside the common-mode range, the comparator output
state is indeterminate.
Resolution
A comparator’s ability to resolve a small-signal difference, its resolution, is affected by various factors. As
with most amplifiers and comparators, the most significant factors are the input offset voltage (VOS) and the
common-mode and power-supply rejection ratios
(CMRR, PSRR). If source impedance is high, input offset current can be significant. If source impedance is
unbalanced, the input bias current can introduce
another error. For high-speed comparators, an addi-
_______________________________________________________________________________________
7
MAX9010–MAX9013
Pin Description
MAX9010–MAX9013
SC70, 5ns, Low-Power, Single-Supply,
Precision TTL Comparators
tSU
VIN
(DIFFERENTIAL)
tH
LATCH
ENABLE (LE)
tPD+
OUT
Figure 1. Timing Diagram
IN+
IN-
HYSTERESIS
BAND*
OUT
WITH HYSTERESIS
IDEAL (WITHOUT HYSTERESIS)
* WHEN HYSTERESIS IS ADDED, A COMPARATOR CANNOT RESOLVE ANY INPUT SIGNAL WITHIN THE HYSTERESIS BAND.
Figure 2. Effect of Hysteresis on Input Resolution
tional factor in resolution is the comparator’s stability in
its linear region. Many high-speed comparators are
useless in their linear region because they oscillate.
This makes the differential input voltage region around
zero unusable. Hysteresis helps to cure the problem
but reduces resolution (Figure 2). The devices do not
oscillate in the linear region and require no hysteresis,
which greatly enhances their resolution.
Applications Information
Power Supplies, Bypassing, and
Board Layout
These products operate over a supply voltage range of
4.5V to 5.5V. Bypass VCC to GND with a 0.1µF surfacemount ceramic capacitor. Mount the ceramic capacitor
as close as possible to the supply pin to minimize lead
inductance.
As with all high-speed components, careful attention to
board layout is essential for best performance. Use a
PC board with an unbroken ground plane. Pay close
attention to the bandwidth of bypass components and
place them as close as possible to the device.
8
Minimize the trace length and area at the comparator
inputs. If the source impedance is high, take the utmost
care in minimizing its susceptibility to pickup of unwanted signals.
Input Slew Rate
Most high-speed comparators have a minimum input
slew-rate requirement. If the input signal does not
transverse the region of instability within a propagation
delay of the comparator, the output can oscillate. This
makes many high-speed comparators unsuitable for
processing either slow-moving signals or fast-moving
signals with low overdrive. The design of these devices
eliminates the minimum input slew-rate requirement.
They are excellent for circuits from DC up to 200MHz,
even with very low overdrive, where small signals need
to be resolved.
_______________________________________________________________________________________
SC70, 5ns, Low-Power, Single-Supply,
Precision TTL Comparators
PART
COMPARATORS LATCH
COMPLEMENTARY
OUTPUTS
MAX9010
1
No
MAX9011
1
Yes
No
No
MAX9012
2
No
No
MAX9013
1
Yes
Yes
Chip Information
MAX9010 TRANSISTOR COUNT: 106
MAX9011 TRANSISTOR COUNT: 137
MAX9012 TRANSISTOR COUNT: 212
MAX9013 TRANSISTOR COUNT: 145
PROCESS: Bipolar
SC70, 6L.EPS
Package Information
_______________________________________________________________________________________
9
MAX9010–MAX9013
Selector Guide
SC70, 5ns, Low-Power, Single-Supply,
Precision TTL Comparators
6LSOT.EPS
MAX9010–MAX9013
Package Information (continued)
10
______________________________________________________________________________________
SC70, 5ns, Low-Power, Single-Supply,
Precision TTL Comparators
8LUMAXD.EPS
______________________________________________________________________________________
11
MAX9010–MAX9013
Package Information (continued)
SC70, 5ns, Low-Power, Single-Supply,
Precision TTL Comparators
SOICN.EPS
MAX9010–MAX9013
Package Information (continued)
Maxim cannot assume responsibility for use of any circuitry other than circuitry entirely embodied in a Maxim product. No circuit patent licenses are
implied. Maxim reserves the right to change the circuitry and specifications without notice at any time.
12 ____________________Maxim Integrated Products, 120 San Gabriel Drive, Sunnyvale, CA 94086 408-737-7600
© 2002 Maxim Integrated Products
Printed USA
is a registered trademark of Maxim Integrated Products.
National’s LVDS Website
Chapter 9
9.0.0 LVDS WEBSITE CONTENTS
9.1.0 NATIONAL WEBSITE
National provides an extensive website targeted for Design Engineers and also Purchasing/Component
Engineers. From the main page, you can find:
• Product Tree/Selection Guide
• Datasheets
• Application Notes
• Product Folders
– View/Download: General Descriptions, Features or the Entire Datasheet
– Product Status and Pricing Information
– Application Note Reference
• Packaging Information
• Marking Information
• Technical Support
• Search Engine
• Databooks, CD ROMs and Samples
The website’s URL is: www.national.com
9.2.0 NATIONAL’S LVDS APPINFO WEBSITE
National provides an in depth application site on LVDS. This site provides the design community with
the latest information on National’s expanding LVDS family. Please visit the LVDS website to view or
download documents. On this site, you can locate:
• LVDS Selection Tables
• Frequently Asked Questions (and Answers)
• Application Note Cross Reference Table (AN Number – Topic – Device ID)
• Interface IBIS Models
• Evaluation Boards – Documentation and Ordering Information
• Family Introductions/Overviews
• Design Tools – RAPIDESIGNERS
• Press Releases
The website’s URL is: www.national.com/appinfo/lvds/
LVDS Owner’s Manual
93
Design
Product Families
Click on the Product Family Name for a brief overview, or
click on the bullet items for selection tables and / or
datasheets.
LVDS
Channel Link
Line Drivers And Receivers
Digital Crosspoint Switches
Purchasing
Quality
Company
Jobs
Design Tools
Transmission Line RAPIDESIGNER
English Units RAPIDESIGNER
Metric Units RAPIDESIGNER
RAPIDESIGNER Operation and Applications Guide
Click here to view the PDF of AN-905
IBIS Interface Models
LVDS Application Note Selection Guide
Bus LVDS (BLVDS)
LVDS FAQs A dozen Frequently Asked Questions (and
Answers) on LVDS.
Transceivers and Repeaters
Serializers / Deserializers
Flat Panel Display - Information Click here to view the
all NEW FPD feature site for Flat Panel Display Circuits.
This includes information on FPD-Link, LVDS Display
Interface (LDI), Panel Timing Controllers and more!
Information on Other
Interface Devices
Bus LVDS SER/DES FAQs Frequently Asked Questions
(and Answers) on the Serializer / Deserializer Bus LVDS
chipsets.
Evaluation / Demo Boards
Datasheets / Application Notes
Serial Digital Interface
Data Transmission Circuits
Bus Circuits
Click here to jump to the Interface Feature Site!
INTERFACE Datasheets and Application Notes on CDROM
Design Guides
What's New
LVDS Design Guide LVDS Owner's Manual & Design
Guide
BLVDS White Paper (PDF Format) Signal integrity and
validation of Bus LVDS (BLVDS) technology in heavily
loaded backplanes. DesignCon99 Paper
BLVDS White Paper (PDF Format) A Bakers's Dozen of
High-Speed Differential Backplane Design Tips.
DesignCon2000 Paper
BLVDS White Paper (PDF Format) Bus LVDS Expands
Applications for Low Voltage Differential Signaling (LVDS).
DesignCon2000 Paper
November 22, 1999: DS92CK16: National Semiconductor
Announces LVDS Clock Chip with 50ps skew for Data and
Telecoms Systems
Quick Search
September 7, 1999: DS92LV1212: National
Semiconductor Announces 40MHz Data Deserializer That
Enables Hot Board Swapping In Growing Data And
Telecommunications Applications
Parametric
Search
System
Diagrams
Product
Tree
Home
About Languages . About the Site . About "Cookies"
National is QS 9000 Certified . Privacy/Security
Copyright © National Semiconductor Corporation
Account . Feedback
Screen shot of LVDS APPINFO website: www.national.com/appinfo/lvds/
9.3.0 OTHER NATIONAL’S APPINFO WEBSITES
9.3.1 “INTERFACE” Products
National provides an application site on INTERFACE. This site provides the design community with the
latest information on National’s expanding SDI (Serial Digital Interface) and RS-xxx families. Please visit
the INTERFACE website to view or download documents.
9.3.2 “FPD” Products
National provides an in depth application site on Flat Panel Display devices. This site provides the
design community the latest information on National’s expanding FPD-Link, LDI and TCON families.
Please visit the FPD website to view or download documents.
94
www.national.com/appinfo/lvds/
9.3.3 Other/APPINFO/Websites
National provides other in depth application sites. Please visit the main-page for an updated list of pages.
This site can be viewed at: http:www.national.com/appinfo. It currently includes information on:
• A/D Converters
• Advanced I/O
• Amplifiers
• Audio Products
• Automotive
• Compact RISC
• Custom
• Die Products
• Enhanced Solutions
• Flat Panel Display
• Information Appliance Solutions
• Interface
• LTCC Foundry
• LVDS Interface Products
• Microcontroller
• Micro SMD
• Power
• Scanners
• Temperature Sensors
• USB Technologies
• Wireless Products
• Wireless Basestation Products
www.national.com/appinfo/lvds/
LVDS Owner’s Manual
95
NOTES
96
Selecting an LVDS Device /
LVDS Families
Chapter 3
3.0.0 SELECTING AN LVDS DEVICE
3.1.0 GENERAL
National is continually expanding its portfolio of LVDS devices. The devices listed below are current at
the time this book goes to press. For the latest list of LVDS devices, please visit our LVDS website at:
www.national.com/appinfo/lvds/
On this site, you will find the latest LVDS datasheets, application notes, selection tables, FAQs, modeling
information/files, white papers, LVDS News, and much much more! The Web is constantly updated with
new documents as they are available.
Application questions should be directed to your local National Semiconductor representative or to the
US National Interface Hotline: 1-408-721-8500 (8 a.m. to 5 p.m. PST).
LVDS products are classified by device types. Please see below for a short description of each device
type and selection table that was current at the time this edition of the LVDS Owner’s Manual was printed. Again, visit our web site for the latest information.
3.1.1 Do I need LVDS?
If Megabits or Gigabits @ milliwatts are needed, then LVDS may be the answer for you! It provides highspeed data transmission, consumes little power, rejects noise, and is robust. It is ideal for interconnects
of a few inches to tens of meters in length. It provides an ideal interface for chip-to-chip, card-to-card,
shelf-to-shelf, rack-to-rack or box-to-box communication.
3.1.2 Which part should I use?
If point-to-point or multidrop configuration is needed – see the LVDS Line Driver/Receivers or Channel
Link Family.
If multipoint or certain multidrop configurations are needed – then Bus LVDS offers the technology best
suited for these applications.
Parallel? Serialize? Or Serial? – depends upon the application. Small busses typically use the simple PHY
parts. However, if the bus is wide, then serialization may make the most sense. Serialization provides a
smaller interconnect and reduces cable and connector size and cost. For this application, refer to the
Channel Link and also the Bus LVDS SER/DES parts.
3.2.0 LVDS LINE DRIVERS & RECEIVERS
LVDS line drivers and receivers are used to convey information over PCB trace or cable if;
1. You only have a few channels of information to transmit, or
2. Your data is already serialized.
www.national.com/appinfo/lvds/
LVDS Owner’s Manual
17
The following table summarizes National’s LVDS line drivers and receivers. These devices are also
referred to as simple PHYs.
LVDS Driver/Receiver/Transceiver Products
Order
Number
DS90LV047ATM
#
Dr.
4
#
Sup.
Speed per
Rec. Volt. Temp Channel
0
3.3
Ind >400Mbps
Typ
~ICC@
1Mbps
(mA)
20
Max
ICC
Disabled
(mA)
6
Driver
Max
tpd
(ns)
1.7
Driver
Max
Ch Skew
(ns)
0.5
Receiver
Max
tpd
(ns)
—
Receiver
Max
Ch Skew
(ns)
—
Package
16SOIC
16TSSOP
Comments
DS90LV047ATMTC
4
0
3.3
Ind
>400Mbps
20
6
1.7
0.5
—
—
DS90LV048ATM
0
4
3.3
Ind
>400Mbps
9
5
—
—
2.7
0.5
16SOIC
DS90LV048ATMTC
0
4
3.3
Ind
>400Mbps
9
5
—
—
2.7
0.5
16TSSOP
DS90LV031ATM
4
0
3.3
Ind
>400Mbps
21
6
2.0
0.5
—
—
16SOIC
DS90LV031ATMTC
4
0
3.3
Ind
>400Mbps
21
6
2.0
0.5
—
—
16TSSOP
DS90LV032ATM
0
4
3.3
Ind
>400Mbps
10
5
—
—
3.3
0.5
16SOIC
DS90LV032ATMTC
0
4
3.3
Ind
>400Mbps
10
5
—
—
3.3
0.5
16TSSOP
DS90LV031BTM
4
0
3.3
Ind
>400Mbps
22
6
2.0
0.5
—
—
16SOIC
Available soon
DS90LV031BTMTC
4
0
3.3
Ind
>400Mbps
22
6
2.0
0.5
—
—
16TSSOP
Available soon
DS90LV032BTM
0
4
3.3
Ind
>400Mbps
10
5
—
—
3.0
0.5
16SOIC
Available soon
DS90LV017ATM
1
0
3.3
Ind
>600Mbps
7
—
1.5
—
—
—
8 SOIC
DS90LV017M
1
0
3.3
Com
>155Mbps
5.5
—
6.0
—
—
—
8 SOIC
DS90LV018ATM
0
1
3.3
Ind
>400Mbps
5.5
—
—
—
2.5
—
8 SOIC
DS90LV019TM
1
1
3.3/5
Ind
>100Mbps
16/19
7/8.5
7.0/6.0
—
9.0/8.0
—
14 SOIC
DS90LV027ATM
2
0
3.3
Ind
>600Mbps
14
—
1.5
0.8
—
—
8 SOIC
DS90LV027M
2
0
3.3
Com
>155Mbps
9
—
6.0
—
—
—
8 SOIC
DS90LV028ATM
0
2
3.3
Ind
>400Mbps
5.5
—
—
—
2.5
0.5
8 SOIC
DS90LV031AW-QML
4
0
3.3
Mil
>400Mbps
21
12
3.5
1.75
—
—
16CERPAK
DS90C031TM
4
0
5
Ind
>155Mbps
15.5
4
3.5
1.0
—
—
16SOIC
DS90C032TM
0
4
5
Ind
>155Mbps
5
10
—
—
6.0
1.5
16 SOIC
DS90C031BTM
4
0
5
Ind
>155Mbps
15.5
4
3.5
1.0
—
—
16 SOIC
Pwr Off Hi-Z
DS90C032BTM
0
4
5
Ind
>155Mbps
5
10
—
—
6.0
1.5
16 SOIC
Pwr Off Hi-Z
DS90C031E-QML
4
0
5
Mil
>100Mbps
15.5
10
5.0
3.0
—
—
20 LCC
Military-883
DS90C032E-QML
0
4
5
Mil
>100Mbps
5
11
—
—
8.0
3.0
20 LCC
Military-883
DS90C031W-QML
4
0
5
Mil
>100Mbps
15.5
10
5.0
3.0
—
—
16Flatpack
Military-883
DS90C032W-QML
0
4
5
Mil
>100Mbps
5
11
—
—
8.0
3.0
16Flatpack
Military-883
DS90C401M
2
0
5
Ind
>155Mbps
4
—
3.5
1.0
—
—
8 SOIC
DS90C402M
0
2
5
Ind
>155Mbps
4.5
—
—
—
6.0
1.5
8 SOIC
DS36C200M
2
2
5
Com
>100Mbps
12
10
5.5
—
9.0
—
14 SOIC
Mil spec
1394 Link
Note: Evaluation boards utilize a quad driver/receiver pair to perform generic cable/PCB/etc LVDS driver/receiver evaluations, order number LVDS47/48EVK.
3.3.0 LVDS DIGITAL CROSSPOINT SWITCHES
For routing of high-speed point-to-point busses, crosspoint switches may be used. They are also very
useful in applications with redundant backup interconnects for fault tolerance. This first device in this
planned family of products is now available. It is a 2x2 Crosspoint that operates above 800Mbps and
generates extremely low jitter.
LVDS Digital Crosspoint Switches
Order Number
DS90CP22M-8
18
Description
2 x 2 800Mbps LVDS Crosspoint Switch
Supply Voltage
3.3V
Speed
800Mbps
Number of Inputs
2
Number of Outputs
2
Package
16SOIC
www.national.com/appinfo/lvds/
3.4.0 LVDS CHANNEL LINK SERIALIZERS/DESERIALIZERS
If you have a wide TTL bus that you wish to transmit, use one of National’s Channel Link devices.
Channel Link will serialize your data for you, saving you money on cables and connectors and helping
you avoid complex skew problems associated with a completely parallel solution. The following table
summarizes National’s Channel Link devices.
LVDS Channel Link Serializer/Deserializer Products
Order
Number
DS90CR211MTD
Mux/Demux
Ratio
21:3
Type
Transmitter
Supply
Voltage
5
Clock
Frequency
20-40MHz
Max
Throughput
840Mbps
Package
48TSSOP
DS90CR212MTD
DS90CR213MTD
21:3
Receiver
5
20-40MHz
840Mbps
48TSSOP
CLINK5V28BT-66
21:3
Transmitter
5
20-66MHz
1.38Gbps
48TSSOP
CLINK5V28BT-66
DS90CR214MTD
21:3
Receiver
5
20-66MHz
1.38Gbps
48TSSOP
CLINK5V28BT-66
DS90CR215MTD
21:3
Transmitter
3.3
20-66MHz
1.38Gbps
48TSSOP
CLINK3V28BT-66
DS90CR216MTD
21:3
Receiver
3.3
20-66MHz
1.38Gbps
48TSSOP
DS90CR216AMTD
21:3
Receiver
3.3
20-66MHz
1.38Gbps
48TSSOP
DS90CR217MTD
21:3
Transmitter
3.3
20-85MHz
1.78Gbps
48TSSOP
See Note
DS90CR218AMTD
21:3
Receiver
3.3
20-85MHz
1.78Gbps
48TSSOP
See Note
DS90CR218MTD
21:3
Receiver
3.3
20-75MHz
1.575Gbps
48TSSOP
See Note
DS90CR281MTD
28:4
Transmitter
5
20-40MHz
1.12Gbps
56TSSOP
CLINK5V28BT-66
DS90CR282MTD
28:4
Receiver
5
20-40MHz
1.12Gbps
56TSSOP
CLINK5V28BT-66
DS90CR283MTD
28:4
Transmitter
5
20-66MHz
1.84Gbps
56TSSOP
CLINK5V28BT-66
DS90CR284MTD
28:4
Receiver
5
20-66MHz
1.84Gbps
56TSSOP
CLINK5V28BT-66
DS90CR285MTD
28:4
Transmitter
3.3
20-66MHz
1.84Gbps
56TSSOP
CLINK3V28BT-66
DS90CR286MTD
28:4
Receiver
3.3
20-66MHz
1.84Gbps
56TSSOP
DS90CR286AMTD
28:4
Receiver
3.3
20-66MHz
1.84Gbps
56TSSOP
DS90CR287MTD
28:4
Transmitter
3.3
20-85MHz
2.38Gbps
56TSSOP
See Note
DS90CR288MTD
28:4
Receiver
3.3
20-75MHz
2.10Gbps
56TSSOP
See Note
DS90CR288AMTD
28:4
Receiver
3.3
20-85MHz
2.38Gbps
56TSSOP
See Note
DS90CR483VJD
48:8
Transmitter
3.3
32.5-112MHz
5.37Gbps
100TQFP
CLINK3V48BT-112
DS90CR484VJD
48:8
Receiver
3.3
32.5-112MHz
5.37Gbps
100TQFP
CLINK3V48BT-112
Comments
Eval Board
Order Number
CLINK5V28BT-66
CLINK3V28BT-66
Enhanced Set/Hold Times
CLINK3V28BT-66
CLINK3V28BT-66
Enhanced Set/Hold Times
CLINK3V28BT-66
Note: 85MHz eval boards will be available in the future. For immediate needs, use CLINK3V28BT-66 with 75 or 85MHz parts.
www.national.com/appinfo/lvds/
LVDS Owner’s Manual
19
3.5.0 LVDS FPD-LINK
Use National’s FPD Link to convey graphics data from your PC or notebook motherboard to your flat
panel displays. The next table summarizes National’s FPD Link devices. This family has been extended
with the LVDS Display Interface chipset that provides higher resolution support and long cable drive
enhancements. The LDI Chipset is ideal for desktop monitor applications and also industrial display
applications. The FPD-Link receiver function is also integrated into the timing controller devices to provide a small single-chip solution for TFT Panels.
LVDS Flat Panel Display Link (FPD-Link) and LVDS Display Interface (LDI)
Order
Number
DS90CF561MTD
Color
Bits
18-bit
Type
Transmitter
Supply
Voltage
5
Max Clock
Frequency
40MHz
Clock Edge
Strobe
Falling
Package
48TSSOP
DS90CR561MTD
18-bit
Transmitter
5
DS90CF562MTD
18-bit
Receiver
5
40MHz
Rising
48TSSOP
FLINK5V8BT-65 *
40MHz
Falling
48TSSOP
DS90CR562MTD
18-bit
Receiver
FLINK5V8BT-65 *
5
40MHz
Rising
48TSSOP
DS90CR581MTD
24-bit
FLINK5V8BT-65 *
Transmitter
5
40MHz
Rising
48TSSOP
DS90CF563MTD
FLINK5V8BT-65
18-bit
Transmitter
5
65MHz
Falling
48TSSOP
FLINK5V8BT-65 *
DS90CR563MTD
18-bit
Transmitter
5
65MHz
Rising
48TSSOP
FLINK5V8BT-65 *
DS90CF564MTD
18-bit
Receiver
5
65MHz
Falling
48TSSOP
FLINK5V8BT-65 *
DS90CR564MTD
18-bit
Receiver
5
65MHz
Rising
48TSSOP
FLINK5V8BT-65 *
DS90CF583MTD
24-bit
Transmitter
5
65MHz
Falling
56TSSOP
FLINK5V8BT-65
DS90CR583MTD
24-bit
Transmitter
5
65MHz
Rising
56TSSOP
FLINK5V8BT-65
DS90CF584MTD
24-bit
Receiver
5
65MHz
Falling
56TSSOP
FLINK5V8BT-65
DS90CR584MTD
24-bit
Receiver
5
65MHz
Rising
56TSSOP
FLINK5V8BT-65
DS90C363AMTD
18-bit
Transmitter
3.3
65MHz
Programmable
48TSSOP
FLINK3V8BT-65 *
DS90CF363AMTD
18-bit
Transmitter
3.3
65MHz
Falling
48TSSOP
FLINK3V8BT-65 *
DS90CF364MTD
18-bit
Receiver
3.3
65MHz
Falling
48TSSOP
DS90CF364AMTD
18-bit
Receiver
3.3
65MHz
Falling
48TSSOP
DS90C383AMTD
24-bit
Transmitter
3.3
65MHz
Programmable
56TSSOP
FLINK3V8BT-65
DS90CF383AMTD
24-bit
Transmitter
3.3
65MHz
Falling
56TSSOP
FLINK3V8BT-65
DS90CF384MTD
24-bit
Receiver
3.3
65MHz
Falling
56TSSOP
DS90CF384AMTD
24-bit
Receiver
3.3
65MHz
Falling
56TSSOP
DS90C365MTD
18-bit
Transmitter
3.3
85MHz
Programmable
48TSSOP
See Note *
DS90CF366MTD
18-bit
Receiver
3.3
85MHz
Falling
48TSSOP
See Note *
DS90C385MTD
24-bit
Transmitter
3.3
85MHz
Programmable
56TSSOP
See Note
DS90CF386MTD
24-bit
Receiver
3.3
85MHz
Falling
56TSSOP
See Note
DS90C387VJD
48-bit
Transmitter
3.3
112MHz
Programmable
100TQFP
DS90C387AVJD
48-bit
Transmitter
3.3
112MHz
Programmable
100TQFP
DS90CF388VJD
48-bit
Receiver
3.3
112MHz
Falling
100TQFP
DS90CF388AVJD
48-bit
Receiver
3.3
112MHz
Falling
100TQFP
Comments
Eval Board
Order Number
FLINK5V8BT-65 *
FLINK3V8BT-65 *
50% CLKOUT
FLINK3V8BT-65 *
FLINK3V8BT-65
50% CLKOUT
FLINK3V8BT-65
LDI3V8BT-112
Non-DC Balanced
NA
LDI3V8BT-112
Non-DC Balanced
NA
* For 18-bit evaluation, use 24-bit board for evaluation purposes.
Note: 85MHz eval boards will be available in the future. For immediate needs, FLINK3V8BT-65 can be used with 85MHz part.
LVDS Flat Panel Display Timing Controller Products
Order
Number
FPD85310VJD
Color
Bits
6 or 8
Resolutions
Supported
XGA/SVGA
Supply
Voltage
3.3
Max Clock
Frequency
65MHz
TCON
Core
Programmable
FPD87310VJD
6 or 8
XGA/SVGA
3.3
65MHz
Programmable
Package Input/Output
TQFP
LVDS input/TTL dual port output
TQFP
LVDS input/RSDS single port output
Eval Board
Order Number
Call
Call
Note: FPD8710 in sampling phase.
20
www.national.com/appinfo/lvds/
3.6.0 BUS LVDS
Bus LVDS is an extension of the LVDS line drivers and receivers family. They are specifically designed
for multipoint applications where the bus is terminated at both ends. They may also be used in heavily
loaded backplanes where the effective impedance is lower than 100Ω. In this case, the drivers may see a
load in the 30 to 50Ω range. Bus LVDS drivers provide about 10mA of output current so that they provide LVDS swings with heavier termination loads. Transceivers and Repeaters are currently available in
this product family. A "10-bit" Serializer and Deserializer family of devices is also available that embeds
and recovers the clock from a single serial stream. This chipset also provides a high level of integration
reducing complexity and overhead to link layer ASICs. Clock recovery and "Random Lock" digital blocks
are integrated with the core interface line driving and receiving functions. The Deserializer
(DS92LV1212/1224) can also be hot-plugged into a live data bus and does not require PLL training.
Special functions are also being developed using BLVDS/LVDS technology. This family provides additional
functionality over the simple PHY devices. Currently a special low-skew clock transceiver with 6 CMOS
outputs (DS92CK16) and a Repeater/MUX with selectable drive levels (DS92LV222A) are available.
Bus LVDS Products
Order
Number
DS92LV010ATM
Description
Single Bus LVDS Transceiver
Supply
Voltage
3.3/5
DS92LV222ATM
Bus LVDS or LVDS Repeater/Mux
3.3
200Mbps/Ch Repeater, Mux, or 1:2 Clock Driver Modes
16SOIC
DS92LV090ATVEH
9-Channel Bus LVDS Transceiver
3.3
200Mbps/Ch Low Part-to-Part Skew
64PQFP
DS92LV1021TMSA
10:1 Serializer w/Embedded Clock
3.3
40MHz
400Mbps Data Payload Over Single Pair
28SSOP
DS92LV1210TMSA
1:10 Deserializer w/Clock Recovery
3.3
40MHz
400Mbps Data Payload Over Single Pair
28SSOP
DS92LV1212TMSA
1:10 Random Lock Deserializer w/Clk Recovery
3.3
40MHz
400Mbps Data Payload Over Single Pair
28SSOP
DS92LV1023TMSA
10:1 Serializer w/Embedded Clock
3.3
66MHz
660Mbps Data Payload Over Single Pair
28SSOP
DS92LV1224TMSA
1:10 Random Lock Deserializer w/Clk Recovery
3.3
66MHz
660Mbps Data Payload Over Single Pair
28SSOP
DS92CK16TMTC
1:6 Clock Distribution
3.3
125MHz
50ps TTL output channel-to-channel skew
24TSSOP
Speed
Features
155Mbps/Ch 3.3V or 5V Operation
Package
8SOIC
More to come…
3.7.0 SUMMARY
Over 75 different LVDS products are currently offered by National. For the latest in product information,
and news, please visit National’s LVDS web site at: www.national.com/appinfo/lvds/
www.national.com/appinfo/lvds/
LVDS Owner’s Manual
21
NOTES
22
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