Trimble SPS585 GNSS Smart Antenna Getting Started

Trimble SPS585 GNSS Smart Antenna Getting Started
Trimble SPS585 GNSS Smart Antenna
Version 5.00
Revision A
April 2015
Corporate Office
Trimble Navigation Limited
935 Stewart Drive
Sunnyvale, CA 94085
Heavy Highway business area
Trimble Navigation Limited
Heavy Highway business area
5475 Kellenburger Road
Dayton, Ohio 45424-1099
800-538-7800 (toll free in USA)
+1-937-245-5600 Phone
+1-937-233-9004 Fax
Legal Notices
© 2006–2015, Trimble Navigation Limited. All rights reserved.
Trimble, the Globe & Triangle logo, and CenterPoint are trademarks of
Trimble Navigation Limited, registered in the United States and in other
countries. AutoBase, CMR, CMR+, Connected Community, EVEREST,
HYDRO pro, Maxwell, Micro-Centered, Trimble Geomatics Office,
SiteNet, SitePulse, TRIMMARK, TRIMTALK, TSCe, VRS, Zephyr, and
Zephyr Geodetic are trademarks of Trimble Navigation Limited.
Microsoft, Windows, and Windows Vista are either registered
trademarks or trademarks of Microsoft Corporation in the United States
and/or other countries.
The Bluetooth word mark and logos are owned by the Bluetooth SIG,
Inc. and any use of such marks by Trimble Navigation Limited is under
All other trademarks are the property of their respective owners.
Support for Galileo is developed under a license of the European Union
and the European Space Agency (SPS985/SPS855/SPS555H).
NTP Software Copyright
© David L. Mills 1992-2009. Permission to use, copy, modify, and
distribute this software and its documentation for any purpose with or
without fee is hereby granted, provided that the above copyright notice
appears in all copies and that both the copyright notice and this
permission notice appear in supporting documentation, and that the
name University of Delaware not be used in advertising or publicity
pertaining to distribution of the software without specific, written prior
permission. The University of Delaware makes no representations about
the suitability this software for any purpose. It is provided "as is" without
express or implied warranty.
Release Notice
This is the April 2015 release (Revision A) of the SPS585 documentation.
It applies to version 5.00 of the receiver firmware.
Product Limited Warranty Information
For applicable product Limited Warranty information, please refer to the
Limited Warranty Card included with this Trimble product, or consult your
local Trimble authorized dealer.
COCOM limits
This notice applies to the SPS351, SPS555H, SPS585, SPSx61, SPS855,
and SPS985/SPS985L receivers.
The U.S. Department of Commerce requires that all exportable GPS
products contain performance limitations so that they cannot be used in
a manner that could threaten the security of the United States. The
following limitations are implemented on this product:
– Immediate access to satellite measurements and navigation results is
disabled when the receiver velocity is computed to be greater than
1,000 knots, or its altitude is computed to be above 18,000 meters. The
receiver GPS subsystem resets until the COCOM situation clears. As a
result, all logging and stream configurations stop until the GPS
subsystem is cleared.
Class B Statement – Notice to Users. This equipment has been
tested and found to comply with the limits for a Class B digital device
pursuant to Part 15 of the FCC Rules. Some equipment configurations
include an optional 410 MHz to 470 MHz UHF radio transceiver module
SPS585 GNSS Smart Antennas Getting Started Guide
compliant with Part 90. These limits are designed to provide reasonable
protection against harmful interference in a residential installation. This
equipment generates, uses, and can radiate radio frequency energy and,
if not installed and used in accordance with the instructions, may cause
harmful interference to radio communication. However, there is no
guarantee that interference will not occur in a particular installation. If
this equipment does cause harmful interference to radio or television
reception, which can be determined by turning the equipment off and
on, the user is encouraged to try to correct the interference by one or
more of the following measures:
– Increase the separation between the equipment and the receiver.
– Connect the equipment into an outlet on a circuit different from that to
which the receiver is connected.
– Consult the dealer or an experienced radio/TV technician for help.
Changes and modifications not expressly approved by the manufacturer
or registrant of this equipment can void your authority to operate this
equipment under Federal Communications Commission rules.
This equipment must be installed and operated in accordance with
provided instructions and the antenna(s) used for this transmitter must
be installed to provide a separation distance of at least 20 cm from all
persons and must not be co-located or operated in conjunction with any
other antenna or transmitters (except in accordance with the FCC multi transmitter product procedures).
The Federal Communications Commission (FCC, USA) has dictated that
on 1 January 2013, all radio users transmitting data between 421 and
512 MHz within the United States of America, must operate within 12.5
kHz channels or transmit using the bits per second (bps) settings of
19200 bps when using a 25 kHz channel. For more information on the
FCC mandate, please view or search the Internet.
This Class B digital apparatus complies with Canadian ICES-003.
Cet appareil numérique de la classe B est conforme à la norme NMB-003
du Canada.
This apparatus complies with Canadian RSS-GEN, RSS-310, RSS-210, and
Cet appareil est conforme à la norme CNR-GEN, CNR-310, CNR-210, et
CNR-119 du Canada.
The product covered by this guide are intended to be
used in all EU member countries, Norway, and
Switzerland. Products been tested and found to
comply with the requirements for a Class B device
pursuant to European Council Directive 89/336/EEC
on EMC, thereby satisfying the requirements for CE Marking and sale
within the European Economic Area (EEA). Contains a Bluetooth radio
module. These requirements are designed to provide reasonable
protection against harmful interference when the equipment is operated
in a residential or commercial environment. The 450 MHZ (PMR) bands
and 2.4 GHz are non-harmonized throughout Europe.
CE Declaration of Conformity
Hereby, Trimble Navigation, declares that the GPS receivers are in
compliance with the essential requirements and other relevant
provisions of Directive 1999/5/EC.
Australia and New Zealand
This product conforms with the regulatory requirements of
the Australian Communications and Media Authority
(ACMA) EMC framework, thus satisfying the
requirements for C-Tick Marking and sale within Australia
and New Zealand.
Taiwan – Battery Recycling Requirements
ANATEL approval applies to SPS985 (P/N 82500-60) and SPS985L
(P/N 93985-67) only.
Restriction of Use of Certain Hazardous Substances in Electrical
and Electronic Equipment (RoHS)
Trimble products in this guide comply in all material respects with
COUNCIL of 27 January 2003 on the restriction of the use of certain
hazardous substances in electrical and electronic equipment (RoHS
Directive) and Amendment 2005/618/EC filed under C(2005) 3143, with
exemptions for lead in solder pursuant to Paragraph 7 of the Annex to
the RoHS Directive applied.
Waste Electrical and Electronic Equipment (WEEE)
For product recycling instructions and more information,
please go to
Recycling in Europe: To recycle Trimble WEEE (Waste
Electrical and Electronic Equipment, products that run on
electrical power.), Call +31 497 53 24 30, and ask for the
“WEEE Associate”. Or, mail a request for recycling instructions to:
Trimble Europe BV, c/o Menlo Worldwide Logistics, Meerheide 45, 5521
DZ Eersel, NL
Unlicensed radios in products
This device complies with part 15 of the FCC Rules.
Operation is subject to the following two conditions:
(1) This device may not cause harmful interference, and
(2) This device must accept any interference received, including
interference that may cause undesired operation.
Licensed radios in products
This device complies with part 15 of the FCC Rules.
Operation is subject to the condition that this device may not cause
harmful interference.
SPS585 GNSS Smart Antennas Getting Started Guide
Safety Information
Before you use your Trimble product, make sure that you have read and understood all safety
WARNING – This alert warns of a potential hazard which, if not avoided, could result in severe injury or even
CAUTION – This alert warns of a potential hazard or unsafe practice that could result in minor injury or property
damage or irretrievable data loss.
Note – An absence of specific alerts does not mean that there are no safety risks involved.
Use and care
This product is designed to withstand the rough treatment and tough environment that typically
occurs in construction applications. However, the receiver is a high-precision electronic instrument
and should be treated with reasonable care.
WARNING – The magnetic mount option for this device must not be used on vehicles while they are being driven
on public roads and highways due to the possible risk of personal injury or property damage should the unit
become detached. Use the permanent exterior mounting options or secure the unit inside the vehicle if driving on
public roads and highways.
CAUTION – Operating or storing the receiver outside the specified temperature range can damage it.
Regulations and safety
Some receiver models with base station capability contain an internal radio-modem for
transmission or can transmit through an external data communications radio. In some countries,
the unit can be used without obtaining an end-user license. Other countries require end-user
licensing. For licensing information, consult your local Trimble dealer.
All Trimble receiver models described in this documentation are capable of transmitting data
through Bluetooth wireless technology.
Bluetooth wireless technology and 2.4 GHz radio-modems operate in license-free bands.
Before operating a Trimble receiver or GSM modem, determine if authorization or a license to
operate the unit is required in your country. It is the responsibility of the end user to obtain an
operator's permit or license for the receiver for the location or country of use.
For FCC regulations, see Notices.
SPS585 GNSS Smart Antennas Getting Started Guide
Type approval
Type approval, or acceptance, covers technical parameters of the equipment related to emissions
that can cause interference. Type approval is granted to the manufacturer of the transmission
equipment, independent from the operation or licensing of the units. Some countries have unique
technical requirements for operation in particular radio-modem frequency bands. To comply with
those requirements, Trimble may have modified your equipment to be granted type approval.
Unauthorized modification of the units voids the type approval, the warranty, and the operational
license of the equipment.
Exposure to radio frequency radiation
For Bluetooth radio
The radiated output power of the internal Bluetooth wireless radio and the Wi-Fi radio included in
some Trimble receivers is far below the FCC radio frequency exposure limits. Nevertheless, the
wireless radio(s) shall be used in such a manner that the Trimble receiver is 20 cm or further from the
human body. The internal wireless radio(s) operate within guidelines found in radio frequency safety
standards and recommendations, which reflect the consensus of the scientific community. Trimble
therefore believes that the internal wireless radio(s) are safe for use by consumers. The level of
energy emitted is far less than the electromagnetic energy emitted by wireless devices such as
mobile phones. However, the use of wireless radios may be restricted in some situations or
environments, such as on aircraft. If you are unsure of restrictions, you are encouraged to ask for
authorization before turning on the wireless radio.
Lithium-ion Battery safety
WARNING – Charge and use the rechargeable Lithium-ion battery only in strict accordance with the instructions.
To prevent injury or damage:
– Discontinue charging a battery that gives off extreme heat or a burning odor.
– Use the battery only in Trimble equipment that is specified to use it.
– Use the battery only for its intended use and according to the instructions in the product documentation.
SPS585 GNSS Smart Antennas Getting Started Guide
Safety Information
Use and care
Regulations and safety
Type approval
Exposure to radio frequency radiation
For Bluetooth radio
Lithium-ion Battery safety
1 Introduction
SPS585 GNSS smart antenna features
High precision positioning
xFill technology
Related information
Technical support
2 Charging the SPS585 Smart Antenna
3 Parts of the SPS585 GNSS Smart Antenna
Front panel
Lower housing
4 Button and LED Operations
5 Connecting to a Device
Connecting to a Bluetooth device
Connecting to a Wi-Fi device
Configuring a PC USB port as a virtual serial port
Windows 7 Professional operating system
Windows Vista and Windows 7 operating system
Windows XP operating system
6 Default Settings
Resetting the receiver to factory defaults
Default behavior
SPS585 GNSS Smart Antennas Getting Started Guide
The SPS585 GNSS smart antenna can be used for a number of construction site applications
Initial site measurements to verify design levels and regular subsequent measurements to
determine progress volumes
Vehicular-mounted site supervisor applications
Measurements and grade/thickness checks on laid materials
Digital design interrogation
Site positioning for environmental and geotechnical services
The SPS585 GNSS smart antenna incorporates a GNSS antenna, receiver, Wi-Fi Access Point, and
battery in a rugged light-weight magnetic-mounted unit that is ideally suited for vehicle and polemounted applications. LEDs enable you to monitor position tolerance, correction status, Wi-Fi,
Bluetooth wireless technology, and power. Wi-Fi and Bluetooth wireless technology provides cablefree communications between the receiver and the device (such as a tablet, smartphone, or laptop).
You can use the SPS585 GNSS smart antenna as part of an RTK GNSS system with the Trimble
SCS900 Site Controller and the Trimble SitePulse™ software.
The SPS585 GNSS smart antenna has no front panel controls for changing settings. To configure the
Directly access the SPS web interface from a connected device
Connect via Bluetooth wireless technology from a device running the SCS900 Site Controller or
SitePulse software
SPS585 GNSS Smart Antennas Getting Started Guide
SPS585 GNSS smart antenna features
The SPS585 GNSS smart antenna has the following features:
10 cm (0.34 ft) horizontal and vertical precision when using RTK or RTX corrections
Supported by version 1.0 of the SitePulse™ field software and version 3.41 of the SCS900
CenterPoint® RTX ready; just purchase a subscription
Small, lightweight design – 0.73 kg (1.62 lb) (GNSS receiver, GNSS antenna, and battery)
Integrated magnets for mounting on a vehicle roof or pole top mounting bracket.
USB power cable and chargers included
Fully functional out-of-the-box, with dual-frequency GNSS tracking (GPS, GLONASS, BeiDou, and
Trimble xFill™ RTK service is already installed.
220-channel GNSS tracking (all available constellations)
Internal, rechargeable, smart Lithium-ion battery provides more than four hrs GPS rover
operation per charge
Bluetooth wireless technology for cable-free, no-hassle operation with the SCS900 or SitePulse
field software
Simple keypad with on/off key and LED indicators for power, corrections, communications, and
5 Hz update rate
Operates within a VRS network or IBSS for conventional base station-free rover capability
Integrated Bluetooth and Wi-Fi
Two SBAS channels
RoHS compliant
High precision positioning
The Trimble CenterPoint® RTX™ service is a high-accuracy, low convergence-time Precise Point
Positioning (PPP) service that provides real-time high precision positioning without the need for an
RTK base station or VRS™ network. GNSS corrections are delivered over the air using L-band
satellites. Once subscribed, the SPS585 GNSS Smart Antenna delivers 10 cm precise positions to
your Trimble applications. For more information, contact your SITECH or Trimble authorized dealer.
xFill technology
Trimble xFill™ uses Trimble RTX technology, delivered via satellite, to "fill in" for RTK corrections in
the event of temporary correction outages. The xFill technology maintains the RTK 10 cm accuracy
for five minutes after the loss of RTK corrections. Trimble xFill capability is factory installed on the
SPS585 GNSS Smart Antenna.
SPS585 GNSS Smart Antennas Getting Started Guide
Related information
Sources of related information include the following:
Release notes – The release notes describe new features of the product, information not
included in the manuals, and any changes to the manuals. They can be downloaded from the
Trimble website at
Trimble training courses – Consider a training course to help you use your GNSS system to its
fullest potential. For more information, go to the Trimble website at
Technical support
If you have a problem and cannot find the information you need in the product documentation,
contact your local dealer. Alternatively, go to the Support area of the Trimble website
( Select the product you need information on. Product updates,
documentation, and any support issues are available for download.
SPS585 GNSS Smart Antennas Getting Started Guide
Charging the SPS585 Smart Antenna
The rechargeable Lithium-ion batteries are supplied partially charged. Charge the battery completely
for 12 hours before using the device for the first time. If the SPS585 GNSS Smart Antenna has been
stored for longer than three months, charge it before use.
The charge time is 3 hours when the product is running or turned off. For the best charging
performance, use the Trimble provided cable and charger. The internal battery charger stops
charging when the internal temperature of the receiver is greater than 50 °C (122 °F) or less than 5 °C
(41 °F).
WARNING – Charge and use the rechargeable Lithium-ion battery only in strict accordance with the instructions.
To prevent injury or damage:
– Discontinue charging a battery that gives off extreme heat or a burning odor.
– Never attempt to remove, replace, or repair the battery yourself.
– If the battery requires attention, send the receiver to an authorized Trimble Service Center.
SPS585 GNSS Smart Antennas Getting Started Guide
Parts of the SPS585 GNSS Smart
All operating controls are located on the front panel. Ports and connectors are located on the
bottom of the unit.
Front panel
The front panel contains the Power button (❶) and four indicator LEDs (❷).
The Power button controls the receiver’s power on or off functions and can be used to reset
the receiver.
The indicator LEDs show the status of the battery, corrections, wireless reception, and
The LEDs on the front panel indicate various operating conditions. For more information, see
Button and LED Operations, page 13.
Power button
Position icon
GNSS corrections icon
SPS585 GNSS Smart Antennas Getting Started Guide
Battery icon
Wireless communications icon
Lower housing
The lower housing contains the magnetic mounts (❶), three M5 threaded holes for permanent
mounting (❷), and one USB port (❸).
SPS585 GNSS Smart Antennas Getting Started Guide
Button and LED Operations
To turn on the SPS585 GNSS smart antenna, hold the On/Off button down for 2 seconds until the
Positioning icon flashes and then release the button.
To turn off the SPS585 GNSS smart antenna, hold the On/Off button down until the Positioning icon
turns off and then release the button.
To reset the SPS585 GNSS smart antenna to factory default settings, hold the On/Off button down
until only the battery icon is illuminated. Continue to hold the button down until the Positioning
icon flashes (about 15 seconds) and then release immediately.
The general rules to interpret the LED flash patterns are as follows:
Solid. Indicates you are getting what you want and it is okay to do a positioning task.
Slow flash. Indicates an intermediary condition, the mode is ready, or you have to wait until
something improves.
Fast flash. Indicates an error condition and you need to take action to fix it.
Wireless communications icon
Note – On this dual-color LED, blue represents Bluetooth® wireless technology and amber
represents Wi-Fi. If both types of wireless communications are active, the LED alternates every
15 seconds.
Solid Blue
Solid amber
Slow Flash Blue
Slow Flash Amber
Very Slow Flash Amber
Positioning icon
Slow Flash
Fast Flash
Bluetooth is not discoverable or the Wi-Fi client is not
Bluetooth is connected to an external device (any of
the three available ports).
Wi-Fi in Access Point (AP) mode and an external Wi-Fi
client device is connected.
Wi-Fi in Client mode and connected to an external
Access Point (AP).
Bluetooth is discoverable but not connected.
Wi-Fi Access Point (AP) mode is available but no Wi-Fi
Client device is connected.
Wi-Fi Client mode is on but not connected to a Wi-Fi
Fewer than 4 satellites are being tracked.
Positioning at specified precision (user-defined H and
V tolerance).
Computed position is below the specified precision.
Tracking 4 or more satellites but not computing a
SPS585 GNSS Smart Antennas Getting Started Guide
Corrections icon
Slow Flash
Very Slow Flash
No corrections detected on any incoming port.
Corrections are being used.
xFill is in use for positioning.
Corrections are being used and xFill is not
available/not ready.
Battery icon
Slow Flash
Good battery condition and not charging.
Fast charging, 10 W input (for example, using cable
and charger supplied in the kit).
Very Slow Flash
Slow charging, less than 10 W input (for example,
connected to tablet).
Fast Flash
Low battery (less than 15% remaining).
Positioning, corrections, and battery icon together
Slow Flash
Firmware expired.
Very Slow Flash
If this problem persists, contact Trimble Support.
Very Fast for 30 sec then Off Contact Trimble Support.
File system formatting.
SPS585 GNSS Smart Antennas Getting Started Guide
Connecting to a Device
Connecting to a Bluetooth device
By default, the SPS585 GNSS smart antenna is Discoverable and will be listed on your Bluetooth
capable device when you scan for nearby Bluetooth devices. The default Bluetooth device name is in
the format SPS585 <Serial number>: <System Name>, for example: "SPS585 5436R00074: My
On a device running the Windows 7 operating system, the SPS585 GNSS smart antenna will appear
as a Network Infrastructure Device with an Access Point connection. When connected using the
Access Point, the smart antenna can be accessed using a web browser on the default IP address of Select Security / Login. The default username is admin. The default password is
Connecting to a Wi-Fi device
By default, the device is configured as an Access Point, so you can connect to it using any Wi-Fi
capable device with a standard web browser.
1. On a Wi-Fi enabled device, search for the SPS585 SSID. This is in the format Trimble GNSS 1234
where 1234 are the last 4 digits of the serial number.
2. Connect using the default WEP64 encryption key: abcdeabcde.
3. Open a web browser on your Wi-Fi enabled device and then type GNSS into the address bar.
Note – With some devices, you may need to enter either http://GNSS or to access the web interface.
4. Log in to the web interface. Select Security / Login. The default username is admin. The default
password is password. For detailed information on each page, use the Help links in the web
SPS585 GNSS Smart Antennas Getting Started Guide
Configuring a PC USB port as a virtual serial port
For example, the Trimble WinFlash utility can be run on a computer that has no physical serial port
by connecting the USB cable between the computer and the receiver.
Windows 7 Professional operating system
1. This file contains a Support Note and installation program.
2. Run the installation program. It will load the virtual serial port for the USB interface on your
Note – If you have installed the Trimble WinFlash utility ( on your
computer, then another way to install the virtual serial port for the USB interface is to run the
USB Installer program, which is located in C:\Program Files\Common Files\Trimble\USBDriver.
If this process does not work for your computer, or if you have a different Windows operating
system on your computer, then follow the procedure below.
Windows Vista and Windows 7 operating system
1. Go to the Trimble Support website ( and search for the receiver you
have. In the Support Notes section, download the file called GNSS Interface to a Virtual COM
port on a Computer to your computer.
2. Open the file and place the trmbUsb.inf file in a temporary folder on your computer.
3. On the computer, select Control Panel / Device Manager.
4. Click on the name of the computer and then from the Action menu, select Add Legacy Driver.
5. A wizard prompts you to locate the TrimbleUsb.inf file. Locate the file and then follow the
prompts in the wizard to continue.
Windows XP operating system
1. Go to the Trimble Support website ( and search for the GNSS
receiver. In the Support Notes section, download the file called GNSS Interface to a Virtual
COM port on a Computer to your computer.
2. Open the file and place the trimble.Usb.INF file in a temporary folder on your computer.
3. Turn on the receiver and then connect the USB cable to the computer. The New Hardware
wizard appears.
4. Select the No, not this time option and then click Next.
5. A dialog prompts you to specify the location of the USBSer.sys file. For example,
6. On some computers you may need to repeat Step 4 for the TrimbleUsb.inf file.
7. Check that the receiver is available for use. Go to the Device Manager menu on the computer.
The receiver should appear in the Ports list.
SPS585 GNSS Smart Antennas Getting Started Guide
Note – If you are running an application such as WinFlash software on the computer and you
physically disconnect the USB cable from the computer and then reconnect it, it does not always
re-establish the connection. This is because opening the serial port from the application locks the
device handle and when the USB device is disconnected, the application does not close the serial
port and the device handle is still locked. On reconnecting, the USB cable is unable to get the device
handle since it is locked. You must close the application before the reconnect to the port will work.
This limitation is due to the behavior of the Microsoft USB serial driver.
SPS585 GNSS Smart Antennas Getting Started Guide
Default Settings
Resetting the receiver to factory defaults
To reset the receiver to its factory defaults, press
for 15 seconds.
Default behavior
If a power-up application file is present in the receiver, its settings are applied immediately after the
default settings. This means you can use a power-up file to define your own set of defaults. The
factory defaults are also applied when you perform a full reset of the receiver because resetting the
receiver deletes the power-up files.
When starting any of the SPS receivers as a base station or rover receiver using the Trimble SCS900
Site Controller software, the SitePulse™ software, or the HYDROpro Construction software, the
settings required for those operations are automatically set and configured in that software. To
change the receiver settings for special applications or for use with third-party software, use the web
SPS585 GNSS Smart Antennas Getting Started Guide
base station
Pulse-per-second. Used in hardware timing. A pulse is generated in conjunction
with a time stamp. This defines the instant when the time stamp is applicable.
A file that contains orbit information on all the satellites, clock corrections, and
atmospheric delay parameters. The almanac is transmitted by a GNSS satellite to a
GNSS receiver, where it facilitates rapid acquisition of GNSS signals when you start
collecting data, or when you have lost track of satellites and are trying to regain
GNSS signals.
The orbit information is a subset of the ephemeris/ephemerides data.
AutoBase technology uses the position of the receiver to automatically select the
correct base station; allowing for one button press operation of a base station. It
shortens setup time associated with repeated daily base station setups at the same
location on jobsites.
Also called reference station. In construction, a base station is a receiver placed at a
known point on a jobsite that tracks the same satellites as an RTK rover, and
provides a real-time differential correction message stream through radio to the
rover, to obtain centimeter level positions on a continuous real-time basis. A base
station can also be a part of a virtual reference station network, or a location at
which GNSS observations are collected over a period of time, for subsequent
postprocessing to obtain the most accurate position for the location.
Source of RTCM DGPS corrections transmitted from coastal reference stations in
the 283.5 to 325.0 kHz range.
The BeiDou Navigation Satellite System (also known as BDS or Compass) is a Chinese
satellite navigation system.
The first BeiDou system (known as BeiDou-1), consists of four satellites and has
limited coverage and applications. It has been offering navigation services mainly
for customers in China and from neighboring regions since 2000.
The second generation of the system (known as Compass or BeiDou-2) consists of
satellites in a combination of geostationary, inclined geosynchronous, and medium
earth orbit configurations. It became operational with coverage of China in
December 2011. However, the complete Interface Control Document (which
specifies the satellite messages) was not released until December 2012. BeiDou-2 is
a regional navigation service which offers services to customers in the Asia-Pacific
broadcast server
carrier frequency
A third generation of the BeiDou system is planned, which will expand coverage
globally. This generation is currently scheduled to be completed by 2020.
BInary EXchange format. BINEX is an operational binary format standard for
GPS/GLONASS/SBAS research purposes. It is designed to grow and allow
encapsulation of all (or most) of the information currently allowed for in a range of
other formats.
An Internet server that manages authentication and password control for a network
of VRS servers, and relays VRS corrections from the VRS server that you select.
A radio wave having at least one characteristic (such as frequency, amplitude, or
phase) that can be varied from a known reference value by modulation.
The frequency of the unmodulated fundamental output of a radio transmitter. The
GPS L1 carrier frequency is 1575.42 MHz.
SPS585 GNSS Smart Antennas Getting Started Guide
carrier phase
cellular modems
Is the cumulative phase count of the GPS or GLONASS carrier signal at a given time.
A wireless adapter that connects a laptop computer to a cellular phone system for
data transfer. Cellular modems, which contain their own antennas, plug into a PC
Card slot or into the USB port of the computer and are available for a variety of
wireless data services such as GPRS.
Compact Measurement Record. A real-time message format developed by Trimble
for broadcasting corrections to other Trimble receivers. CMR is a more efficient
alternative to RTCM.
A real-time message format developed by Trimble for transmitting more satellite
corrections resulting from more satellite signals, more constellations, and more
satellites. Its compactness means more repeaters can be used on a site.
See BeiDou.
A statistical measure of the variance of two random variables that are observed or
measured in the same mean time period. This measure is equal to the product of
the deviations of corresponding values of the two variables from their respective
Also called geodetic datum. A mathematical model designed to best fit the geoid,
defined by the relationship between an ellipsoid and, a point on the topographic
surface, established as the origin of the datum. World geodetic datums are typically
defined by the size and shape of an ellipsoid and the relationship between the
center of the ellipsoid and the center of the earth.
Because the earth is not a perfect ellipsoid, any single datum will provide a better
model in some locations than in others. Therefore, various datums have been
established to suit particular regions.
For example, maps in Europe are often based on the European datum of 1950 (ED50). Maps in the United States are often based on the North American datum of
1927 (NAD-27) or 1983 (NAD-83).
deep discharge
differential correction
differential GPS
All GPS coordinates are based on the WGS-84 datum surface.
Withdrawal of all electrical energy to the end-point voltage before the cell or
battery is recharged.
See real-time differential GPS.
Differential correction is the process of correcting GNSS data collected on a rover
with data collected simultaneously at a base station. Because the base station is on a
known location, any errors in data collected at the base station can be measured,
and the necessary corrections applied to the rover data.
Differential correction can be done in real-time, or after the data is collected by
See real-time differential GPS.
Dilution of Precision. A measure of the quality of GNSS positions, based on the
geometry of the satellites used to compute the positions. When satellites are
widely spaced relative to each other, the DOP value is lower, and position precision
is greater. When satellites are close together in the sky, the DOP is higher and GNSS
positions may contain a greater level of error.
PDOP (Position DOP) indicates the three-dimensional geometry of the satellites.
Other DOP values include HDOP(Horizontal DOP) and VDOP (Vertical DOP), which
indicate the precision of horizontal measurements (latitude and longitude) and
vertical measurements respectively. PDOP is related to HDOP and VDOP as follows:
SPS585 GNSS Smart Antennas Getting Started Guide
A type of receiver that uses both L1 and L2 signals from GPS satellites. A dualdual-frequency GPS
frequency receiver can compute more precise position fixes over longer distances
and under more adverse conditions because it compensates for ionospheric delays.
European Geostationary Navigation Overlay Service. A Satellite-Based
Augmentation System (SBAS) that provides a free-to-air differential correction
service for GNSS. EGNOS is the European equivalent of WAAS, which is available in
the United States.
The vertical distance from a geoid such as EGM96 to the antenna phase center. The
geoid is sometimes referred to as Mean Sea Level. In the SPS GNSS receivers, a
user-defined sub gridded geoid can be loaded and used, or for a small site, an
inclined vertical plane adjustment is used as an approximation to the geoid for a
small site.
The angle below which the receiver will not track satellites. Normally set to 10
elevation mask
degrees to avoid interference problems caused by buildings and trees, atmospheric
issues, and multipath errors.
An ellipsoid is the three-dimensional shape that is used as the basis for
mathematically modeling the earth’s surface. The ellipsoid is defined by the lengths
of the minor and major axes. The earth’s minor axis is the polar axis and the major
axis is the equatorial axis.
Height above ellipsoid.
ephemeris/ephemerides A list of predicted (accurate) positions or locations of satellites as a function of time.
A set of numerical parameters that can be used to determine a satellite’s position.
Available as broadcast ephemeris or as postprocessed precise ephemeris.
The measurement interval of a GNSS receiver. The epoch varies according to the
measurement type: for real-time measurement it is set at one second; for
postprocessed measurement it can be set to a rate of between one second and
one minute. For example, if data is measured every 15 seconds, loading data using
30-second epochs means loading every alternate measurement.
A feature is a physical object or event that has a location in the real world, which
you want to collect position and/or descriptive information (attributes) about.
Features can be classified as surface or non-surface features, and again as points,
lines/break lines, or boundaries/areas.
The program inside the receiver that controls receiver operations and hardware.
Galileo is a GNSS system built by the European Union and the European Space
Agency. It is complimentary to GPS and GLONASS.
The geoid is the equipotential surface that would coincide with the mean ocean
surface of the Earth. For a small site this can be approximated as an inclined plane
above the Ellipsoid.
Height above geoid.
Global Orbiting Navigation Satellite System. GLONASS is a Soviet space-based
navigation system comparable to the American GPS system. The operational system
consists of 21 operational and 3 non-operational satellites in 3 orbit planes.
Global Navigation Satellite System.
General Serial Output Format. A Trimble proprietary message format.
Horizontal Dilution of Precision. HDOP is a DOP value that indicates the precision of
horizontal measurements. Other DOP values include VDOP (vertical DOP) and
PDOP (Position DOP).
SPS585 GNSS Smart Antennas Getting Started Guide
NTrip Protocol
Using a maximum HDOP is ideal for situations where vertical precision is not
particularly important, and your position yield would be decreased by the vertical
component of the PDOP (for example, if you are collecting data under canopy).
The vertical distance above the Ellipsoid. The classic Ellipsoid used in GPS is WGS84.
Internet Base Station Service. This Trimble service makes the setup of an Internetcapable receiver as simple as possible. The base station can be connected to the
Internet (cable or wirelessly). To access the distribution server, the user enters a
password into the receiver. To use the server, the user must have a Trimble
Connected Community site license.
The ITRF2008 datum is the current realization of the International Terrestrial
Reference System (ITRS). This datum can be transformed to ITRF2008 epoch 2005
(fixed), or be used in the current epoch. The fixed epoch allows for selecting
individual tectonic plates that have been closely modeled to the actual current
location. However, there may be large differences due to natural events (such as
earthquakes) or proximity to the perimeter of a tectonic plate.
The primary L-band carrier used by GPS and GLONASS satellites to transmit satellite
The secondary L-band carrier used by GPS and GLONASS satellites to transmit
satellite data.
A modernized code that allows significantly better ability to track the L2 frequency.
The third L-band carrier used by GPS satellites to transmit satellite data. L5 will
provide a higher power level than the other carriers. As a result, acquiring and
tracking weak signals will be easier.
Every single NTripSource needs a unique mountpoint on an NTripCaster. Before
transmitting GNSS data to the NTripCaster, the NTripServer sends an assignment of
the mountpoint.
MTSAT Satellite-Based Augmentation System. A Satellite-Based Augmentation
System (SBAS) that provides a free-to-air differential correction service for GNSS.
MSAS is the Japanese equivalent of WAAS, which is available in the United States.
Interference, similar to ghosts on an analog television screen, which occurs when
GNSS signals arrive at an antenna having traversed different paths. The signal
traversing the longer path yields a larger pseudorange estimate and increases the
error. Multiple paths can arise from reflections off the ground or off structures
near the antenna.
National Marine Electronics Association. NMEA 0183 defines the standard for
interfacing marine electronic navigational devices. This standard defines a number
of 'strings' referred to as NMEA strings that contain navigational details such as
positions. Most Trimble GNSS receivers can output positions as NMEA strings.
Networked Transport of RTCM via Internet Protocol (NTrip) is an application-level
protocol that supports streaming Global Navigation Satellite System (GNSS) data
over the Internet. NTrip is a generic, stateless protocol based on the Hypertext
Transfer Protocol (HTTP). The HTTP objects are extended to GNSS data streams.
The NTripCaster is basically an HTTP server supporting a subset of HTTP
request/response messages and adjusted to low-bandwidth streaming data. The
NTripCaster accepts request messages on a single port from either the NTripServer
or the NTripClient. Depending on these messages, the NTripCaster decides whether
there is streaming data to receive or to send.
SPS585 GNSS Smart Antennas Getting Started Guide
Orthometric elevation
real-time differential
Trimble NTripCaster integrates the NTripServer and the NTripCaster. This port is
used only to accept requests from NTripClients.
An NTripClient will be accepted by and receive data from an NTripCaster, if the
NTripClient sends the correct request message (TCP/UDP connection to the
specified NTripCaster IP and listening port).
The NTripServer is used to transfer GNSS data of an NTripSource to the NTripCaster.
An NTripServer in its simplest setup is a computer program running on a PC that
sends correction data of an NTripSource (for example, as received through the
serial communication port from a GNSS receiver) to the NTripCaster.
The NTripServer - NTripCaster communication extends HTTP by additional message
formats and status codes.
The NTripSources provide continuous GNSS data (for example, RTCM-104
corrections) as streaming data. A single source represents GNSS data referring to a
specific location. Source description parameters are compiled in the source-table.
The OmniSTAR HP/XP service allows the use of new generation dual-frequency
receivers with the OmniSTAR service. The HP/XP service does not rely on local
reference stations for its signal, but utilizes a global satellite monitoring network.
Additionally, while most current dual-frequency GNSS systems are accurate to
within a meter or so, OmniSTAR with XP is accurate in 3D to better than 30 cm.
The Orthometric Elevation is the height above the geoid (often termed the height
above the 'Mean Sea Level').
Position Dilution of Precision. PDOP is a DOP value that indicates the precision of
three-dimensional measurements. Other DOP values include VDOP (vertical DOP)
and HDOP (Horizontal Dilution of Precision).
Using a maximum PDOP value is ideal for situations where both vertical and
horizontal precision are important.
Postprocessing is the processing of satellite data after it is collected, in order to
eliminate error. This involves using computer software to compare data from the
rover with data collected at the base station.
Quasi-Zenith Satellite System. A Japanese regional GNSS eventually consisting of
three geosynchronous satellites over Japan.
Also known as real-time differential correction or DGPS. Real-time differential GPS is
the process of correcting GPS data as you collect it. Corrections are calculated at a
base station and then sent to the receiver through a radio link. As the rover
receives the position it applies the corrections to give you a very accurate position
in the field.
Most real-time differential correction methods apply corrections to code phase
Roving mode
While DGPS is a generic term, its common interpretation is that it entails the use of
single-frequency code phase data sent from a GNSS base station to a rover GNSS
receiver to provide sub-meter positionaccuracy. The rover receiver can be at a
long range (greater than 100 kms (62 miles)) from the base station.
A rover is any mobile GNSS receiver that is used to collect or update data in the
field, typically at an unknown location.
Roving mode applies to the use of a rover receiver to collect data, stakeout, or
control earthmoving machinery in real time using RTK techniques.
Radio Technical Commission for Maritime Services. A commission established to
SPS585 GNSS Smart Antennas Getting Started Guide
signal-to-noise ratio
triple frequency GPS
define a differential data link for the real-time differential correction of roving
GNSS receivers. There are three versions of RTCM correction messages. All Trimble
GNSS receivers use Version 2 protocol for single-frequency DGPS type corrections.
Carrier phase corrections are available on Version 2, or on the newer Version 3
RTCM protocol, which is available on certain Trimble dual-frequency receivers. The
Version 3 RTCM protocol is more compact but is not as widely supported as Version
real-time kinematic. A real-time differential GPS method that uses carrier
phasemeasurements for greateraccuracy.
Trimble RTX (Real Time eXtended) is a high accuracy GNSS correction service. This
breakthrough technology provides real-time corrections without the use of a
traditional reference station-based infrastructure. The delivery of the correction
service is the same as OmniSTAR, as they are both Mobile Satellite Services (MSS).
However, the method in which the correction is calculated is different and is more
accurate with RTX.
Satellite-Based Augmentation System. SBAS is based on differential GPS, but applies
to wide area (WAAS/EGNOS/MSAS) networks of reference stations. Corrections
and additional information are broadcast using geostationary satellites.
SNR. The signal strength of a satellite is a measure of the information content of the
signal, relative to the signal’s noise. The typical SNR of a satellite at 30° elevation is
between 47 and 50 dBHz.
The satellite skyplot confirms reception of a differentially corrected GNSS signal and
displays the number of satellites tracked by the GNSS receiver, as well as their
relative positions.
See signal-to-noise ratio.
The NTripCaster maintains a source-table containing information on available
NTripSources, networks of NTripSources, and NTripCasters, to be sent to an
NTripClient on request. Source-table records are dedicated to one of the following:
data STReams (record type STR)
CASters (record type CAS)
NETworks of data streams (record type NET)
All NTripClients must be able to decode record type STR. Decoding types CAS and
NET is an optional feature. All data fields in the source-table records are separated
using the semicolon character.
A type of receiver that uses three carrier phase measurements (L1, L2, and L5).
Universal Time Coordinated. A time standard based on local solar mean time at the
Greenwich meridian.
Trimble xFill™ is a new service that extends RTK positioning for several minutes
when the RTK correction stream is temporarily unavailable. The Trimble xFill
service improves field productivity by reducing downtime waiting to re-establish
RTK corrections in black spots. It can even expand productivity by allowing short
excursions into valleys and other locations where continuous correction messages
were not previously possible. Proprietary Trimble xFill corrections are broadcast by
satellite and are generally available on construction sites globally where the GNSS
constellations are also visible. It applies to any positioning task being performed
with a single-base, Trimble Internet Base Station Service (IBSS), or VRS™ RTK
SPS585 GNSS Smart Antennas Getting Started Guide
correction source.
A statistical measure used to describe the spread of a variable in the mean time
period. This measure is equal to the square of the deviation of a corresponding
measured variable from its mean. See also covariance.
Vertical Dilution of Precision. VDOP is a DOP value (dimensionless number) that
indicates the quality of GNSS observations in the vertical frame.
Virtual Reference Station. A VRS system consists of GNSS hardware, software, and
communication links. It uses data from a network of base stations to provide
corrections to each rover that are more accurate than corrections from a single
base station.
To start using VRS corrections, the rover sends its position to the VRS server. The
VRS server uses the base station data to model systematic errors (such as
ionospheric noise) at the rover position. It then sends RTCM correction messages
back to the rover.
Wide Area Augmentation System. WAAS was established by the Federal Aviation
Administration (FAA) for flight and approach navigation for civil aviation. WAAS
improves the accuracy and availability of the basic GNSS signals over its coverage
area, which includes the continental United States and outlying parts of Canada and
The WAAS system provides correction data for visible satellites. Corrections are
computed from ground station observations and then uploaded to two
geostationary satellites. This data is then broadcast on the L1 frequency, and is
tracked using a channel on the GNSS receiver, exactly like a GNSS satellite.
Use WAAS when other correction sources are unavailable, to obtain greater
accuracy than autonomous positions. For more information on WAAS, refer to the
FAA website at
The EGNOS service is the European equivalent and MSAS is the Japanese equivalent
of WAAS.
World Geodetic System 1984. Since January 1987, WGS-84 has superseded
WGS-72 as the datum used by GPS.
The WGS-84 datum is based on the ellipsoid of the same name.
SPS585 GNSS Smart Antennas Getting Started Guide
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