Advanced Operating System - Department of Higher Education

Advanced Operating System - Department of Higher Education
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Advanced Operating System
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Importance of Operating Systems, Basic Concepts and Terminology, An Operating System Resource
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Memory Management Functions, Processor Management Functions, Device Management Functions,
Information Management Functions., Operating system concepts, Files and Security, System calls for Process
Management, for File Management and for Directory Management.
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Concept, Processes and Threads. Process Model and Thread Model. Job Scheduler, Process Scheduling,
operation on process,.
Overview of Inter-process communication: Race Conditions, Critical Regions, Mutual Exclusion with busy
waiting etc.
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Introduction to Scheduling, Scheduling criteria, Scheduling Algorithms, Algorithm Evaluation and Scheduling
in different Systems.
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Synchronization Hardware, Semaphores, and Classical Problem of Synchronization, Monitors and Atomic
Transaction DEADLOCKS Introduction to Deadlocks: Resources, conditions for Deadlocks and Deadlock
modeling, Deadlock Characterization.
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With one Resource of each type and With Multiple Resource of each type.
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Attacking the Mutual Exclusion, Hold and Wait, No Preemption and Circular conditions. STORAGE
MANAGEMENT Basic Memory Management Partition of Memory. Multiprogramming with fixed
partitions. Logical versus Physical Address Space, Swapping, Contiguous Allocation
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Demand Paging, Page Replacement, Page Replacement Algorithms, and Allocation of Frames, Thrashing,
and Demand Segmentation INFORMATION MANAGEMENT Introduction; File Concept, Directory
Structures, Protection, Overview of File-System Structure, Allocation Method, Free-Space Management,
Directory Implementation
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1. Operating Systems Achyut S. Godbole Tata McGraw Hill 2nd edition
2. Operating Systems D.M. Dhamdhere Tata McGraw Hill 2nd edition
3. Understanding Operating System: Flynn & Mctloes 4th edition, Thomson
4. Operating Systems (5th Ed) – Internals and Design Principles by William Stallings, Prentice Hall,
OPERATING SYSTEMS
COURSE OVERVIEW
The course aims at facilitating students to obtain professional
knowledge and develop an understanding of the properties and
c) Desire to studiously go through the study material and
research books, Net, etc. to gain significant knowledge.
d) Ability to present his point view systematically/logically.
application of Operating Systems
e) Ability to take criticism.
Through this unit we get the Basic Concepts and Terminology,
f) Approach adopted to find solution to a given problem.
g) Communication skills.
Memory Management function, Processor Management
Function, device and information Management Function.
This course give the basic as well as the advance concept of the
Operating System that are required by every computer literate.
Syndicate
It refers to the group of students who are assigned same tasks
to be performed. In our system the assignments are executed
by the Syndicates. This helps in inculcating the culture of team
Summary of outcomes
Upon the completion of the course, students should be able to
Examine the concepts of Operating Systems
• Concept of Process Management
• Concept of Storage Management
• Concept of File-System Management
Course Requirements
Prerequisite:
Lecture: 4 Practical: 0 Credit: 4
work. It also helps those who are not as good in the subject as
some of their other colleagues are. The Syndicate accomplishes
the assignment as under:
a) Initial discussion to identify the job description.
Completion of the assigned job within the allocated time
frame.
b) Integration of the inputs to an unified Syndicate solution
Assignments
Each student is expected to submit two assignments per
subject during the semester. The system of assignment follows
Class Participation:
It forms the backbone of the system of Continuous
evaluation. The students are expected to have gone through the
pre-study material and come prepared for discussion. We
visualize that the quantum and quality of learning through
discussion would be much superior to simple delivery of the
course material in the classroom. The process is intended to
identify the following aspects in a student:
a) Commitment to learning.
b) Regularity to attend classes.
the procedure given below:
a) Different assignment is given to different Syndicate.
b) Each member of the Syndicate is expected to participate
equally to solve the given problem.
c) All students of the syndicate are expected to submit the
assignment individually. While they are expected to present
common solution, they have the opportunity to express
themselves as individuals and demonstrate their exceptional
ability. They may recommend deletion/modification/
addition to the syndicate solution.
d) Students may furnish additional data / information
downloaded from the Internet/other literature and put up
diverse views away from to syndicate solution.
i
e) Each student is required to make self and peer evaluation in
accordance with a format. This is a confidential document
between the students submitting the assignment and the
faculty member.
of the operating system are to make the computer convient for
the users and to make efficient use of computer resources.
Important Terms used in Operating Systems:
Device driver -
Group Presentation
llows the operating system to control the operation of a single
Most professional courses train their students in developing
given device
presentation skills. All the members of the syndicate are
expected to share the presentation of the assignment executed
by them. They shall be prepared to answer queries raised by the
students as well as the faculty members. The students may
correct the error committed by them while submitting the
assignment at the presentation stage.
Utilization - the amount of time the processor spends doing
work. Most computers are attempting to gain a higher
processor utilization to maximize the use of the equipment.
Resident Monitor - a program developed to handle job
sequencing. This program is always running.
Overlapped I/O - the concept that I/O functions should be
Group Project
handed off to a secondary processor to handle while the main
This activity is also aimed at developing the culture of
computer continues on doing important work.
teamwork. The team members shall get together to decide at
sequential access - access to data in the exact same order it was
the share of the work. Each member of the team gathers the
written
desired data, which is integrated together to form the project.
random access - access to data in any order at any given time
The project report is evaluated for the following:
spooling - simultanous peripheral operation on-line
a) Statement of the problem / issues (correctness / quality).
b) Research on existing practices, if any, and their critical analysis,
highlighting their advantages and defects.
multitasking - the ability to switch between many tasks rapidly
c) Suggested Solutions, analysis, correctness, practicability, use
of technology and application of statistical tools.
run.
d) Presentation, clarity of concept, quality of presentation (Slide
/ Power point presentation / OHP Film), ability to respond
to queries, etc.
to keep CPU utilization high, and allow multiple processes to
parallel processing - a system with multiple processors in a
tightly coupled organization. The ratio of speed increases is
always less than 1:1 due to overhead.
e) Recommendation.
graceful degradation - the ability of a computer to continue
The evaluation is made on the basis of the project report and
to operate (thought less efficiently) with part of the machine
presentation.
not operating.
End Semester Examination
symmetric multiprocessing - multiple processors all running
These examinations are conducted in the usual manner. Each
the same operating system and communicating with each other
student is expected to meet the attendance requirement of 75%
to increase processing speed.
in aggregate.
assymmetric multiprocessing - multiple processors controled
A computer system is basically composed of four major parts,
which include the hardware, operating system, applications, and
users. The operating system governs the hardware, handles
resource allocation, and shields the applications from having to
directly know what the hardware is doing. The kernel of the
operating system is the part that is always running, and is
required for the operating system to be operational. The goals
by a single processor, to keep the single processor running at
high utilization. This is very common and used in I/O
controllers.
distributed systems - multiple computers linked together in a
loosely coupled configuration with the intention of sharing
resources, increasing speed, increasing reliability, and allowing
communications. A network is an example of this
configuration.
ii
real-time system - a computer which has a very narrowly
The operating system is the first component of the systems
defined set of response times which it must meet. This is
programs that interests us here. Systems programs are
common in time critical operations
programs written for direct execution on computer hardware in
soft real-time system - the system gives a real-time task high
order to make the power of the computer fully and efficiently
priority but does not guarentee the system reaction time. This
accessible to applications programmers and other computer
is common with multimedia and network servers
users. Systems programming is different from application
hard real-time system - the system gives a guarenteed
programming because the requires an intimate knowledge of
response time and is dedicated to the task. Common in
the computer hardware as well as the end users’ needs.
robotics and medical systems.Introduction into Operating
Moreover, systems programs are often large and more complex
system
than application programs, although that is not always the case.
An operating system is a program that acts as an interface
Since systems programs provide the foundation upon which
between a user of a computer and the computer hardware. The
application programs are built, it is most important that
purpose of an operating system is to provide an environment
systems programs are reliable, efficient and correct.
1.1 Definition
in which a user may execute programs.
In a computer system the hardware provides the basic
An operating system is an important part of almost every
computer system. A computer system can roughly be divided
into three components :
computing resources. The applications programs define the
way in which these resources are used to solve the computing
problems of the users. The operating system controls and
· The hardware (memory, CPU, arithmetic-logic unit, various
bulk storage, I/O, peripheral devices... )
coordinates the use of the hardware among the various
• Systems programs ( operating system, compilers, editors,
systems programs and application programs for the various
loaders, utilities...)
• Application programs ( database systems, business
programs... )
users.
The basic resources of a computer system are provided by its
hardware, software and data. The operating system provides
A computer system can be described or shown in Figure. 1.1
the means for the proper use of these resources in the
operation of the computer system. It simply provides an
environment within which other programs can do useful work.
We can view an operating system as a resource allocator. A
computer system has many resources ( hardware and software)
that may be required to solve a problem: CPU time, memory
space, file storage space, input/output devices etc.
The operating system acts as the manager of these resources
and allocates them to specific programs and users as necessary
Figure 1.1 Conceptual view of a computer system
The central processing unit ( CPU) is located on chips inside the
system unit. The CPU is the brain of the computer. This is the
place where the computer interprets and processes information.
for their tasks. Since there may be many, possibly conflicting,
requests for resources, the operating system must decide which
requests are allocated resources to operate the computer system
fairly and efficiently. An operating system is a control program.
This program controls the execution of user programs to
prevent errors and improper use of the computer.
iii
Operating systems exist because they are a reasonable way to
Though systems programs such as editor and translators and
solve the problem of creating a usable computing system. The
the various utility programs (such as sort and file transfer
fundamental goal of a computer system is to execute user
program) are not usually considered part of the operating
programs and solve user problems.
system, the operating system is responsible for providing access
The primary goal of an operating system is a convenience for
the user. Operating systems exit because they are supposed to
make it easier to compute with an operating system than
without an operating system. This is particularly clear when you
look at operating system for small personal computers.
A secondary goal is the efficient operation of an computer
system. This goal is particularly important for large, shared
multi-user systems. Operating systems can solve this goal. It is
known that sometimes these two goals, convenience and
efficiency, are contradictory.
While there is no universally agreed upon definition of the
concept of an operating system, we offer the following as a
reasonable starting point:
A computer’s operating system ( OS ) is a group of programs
designed to serve two basic purposes:
1. To control the allocation and use of the computing system’s
resources among the various users and tasks, and.
2. To provide an interface between the computer hardware and
the programmer that simplifies and makes feasible the
creation, coding, debugging, and maintenance of application
programs.
Specifically, we can imagine that an effective operating system
should accomplish all of the following:
• Facilitate creation and modification of program and data files
through an editor program,
• Provide access to compilers to translate programs from high-
level languages to machine language,
• Provide a loader program to move the complied program
code to the computer’s memory for execution,
• Provide routines that handle the intricate details of I/O
programming,
• Assure that when there are several active processes in the
computer, each will get fair and no interfering access to the
central processing unit for execution,
• Take care of storage and device allocation,
• Provide for long term storage of user information in the
form of files, and
• Permit system resources to be shared among users when
appropriate, and be protected from unauthorized or
mischievous intervention as necessary.
iv
to these system resources.
ADVANCED OPERATING SYSTEM
CONTENT
.
vi
Lesson No.
Topic
Page No.
Lesson 1
Introduction to Operating Systems
1
Lesson 2
What are different types of Operating Systems?
5
Lesson 3
Operating System as a Resources Manager
13
Lesson 4
Various Operating System Structure
18
Lesson 5
System Calls and its Working
22
Lesson 6
Self-Assessment Interactive
25
Lesson 7
Basic of Process Management-Introduction, Concept
31
Lesson 8
Explaining Processor Scheduling
37
Lesson 9
Explaining Processor Scheduling
41
Lesson 10
Explaining Processor Scheduling
45
Lesson 11
Inter-process communication and Basic of Synchronization
47
Lesson 12
Process Synchronization
52
Lesson 13
Process Synchronization
58
Lesson 14
Process Synchronization
63
Lesson 15
Self-Assessment on UNIT2 + Test
Lesson 16
Deadlocks- Introductions
68
Lesson 17
Deadlocks- Introductions
72
Lesson 18
Deadlock detections and recovery
74
Lesson 19
Deadlock detections and recovery
76
Lesson 20
Self-assessment interactive
81
ADVANCED OPERATING SYSTEM
CONTENT
.
Lesson No.
Topic
Lesson 21
Storage-Management: Introduction,
Page No.
Basic of Memory Management
82
Lesson 22
Multiprogramming with Fixed and Dynamic Partitions
86
Lesson 23
Virtual Memory- Introduction, Paging
89
Lesson 24
Paging Algorithms and Segmentation
95
Lesson 25
99
Lesson 26
103
Lesson 27
110
Lesson 28
113
Lesson 29
Self-Assessment on UNIT4
115
Lesson 30
Introduction to Information Management-Concept of File structures 117
Lesson 31
Concept of Directory Structures and directory implementation
120
Self-Assessment on UNIT5 + Quiz
125
Operating Systems Glossary
127
vii
UNIT 1
LESSON-1
Hello,students, it is your first class and I will introduce you to the
basic concepts of an operating system • You will understand what is an operating system.
• Why should you learn Operating System.
To understand an Operating Systems ,you need to know what is
an Operating System
An Operating System is system software which may be viewed
as an organized collection of software consisting of procedures
for operating a computer and providing an environment for
execution of programs. It acts as an interface between users and
the hardware of a computer system.
Now ,I will explain you the main purpose of an Operating
System
• Convenience: transform the raw hardware into a machine that
is more amiable to users.
• Efficiency: manage the resources of the overall computer
system
Operating system can also be defined as:
• System software which may be viewed as an organized collection
of software consisting of procedures for operating a computer
and providing an environment for execution of programs.
• A large collection of software which manages resources of the
completion or they may be allocated among several programs in
different stages of execution.
Why should you need an Operating System?
The feature of operating system is to execute multiple programs
in interleaved fashion or different time cycle is called multiple
programming systems. Some of the important reasons why do
you need an Operating System are as follows:
• User interacts with the computer through operating system in
order to accomplish his/her task since it is his primary interface
with a computer.
• It helps the user in understand the inner functions of a
computer very closely.
• Many concepts and techniques found in operating system have
general applicability in other applications.
An operating system is an essential component of a computer
system. The primary objectives of an operating system are to
make computer system convenient to use and utilizes computer
hardware in an efficient manner.
An operating system is a large collection of software which manages
resources of the computer system, such as memory, processor,
rite system and input/output devices. It keeps track of the status
of each resource and decides who will have a control over computer
resources, for how long and when. The positioning of operating
system in overall computer system is shown in figure 1.
computer system, such as memory, processor, file system and
input/output devices. It keeps track of the status of each
resource and decides who will have a control over computer
resources, for how long and when.
• It acts as an interface between users and hardware of a computer
system.
Colloquially, the term is most often used to mean all the software
which “comes with” a computer system before any applications
are installed.
Examples of operating systems
• UNIX
• GNU/Linux
• Mac OS
• MS-DOS
Let us discuss the fundamental goal of a Computer System
The fundamental goal of computer system is to solve user
problems. Accordingly to achieve this goal has been designed.
Since hardware alone cannot be used to solve the user problems
software’s are developed. These programs required certain common
operations. The common operations for controlling and allocating
resources are then brought together into one piece of software i.e.
operating system. An operating system may process its tasks
sequentially or concurrently. It means that the resources of the
computer system may be dedicated to a single program until its
1
OPERATING SYSTEMS
Objectives:
Figure 1: Component of computer system
From the diagram, it is clear that operating system directly controls
computer hardware resources. Other programs rely on facilities
provided by the operating system to gain access to computer system
resources. There are two ways one can interact with operating
system:
To see what operating systems are and what operating systems
do, let us consider how they have evolved over the years. By tracing
that evolution, you can identify the common elements of
operating systems and examine how and why they have developed
as they have.
• Directly by means of Operating System Commands
OS and Hardware Development
OS development has gone hand-in-hand with hardware
development:
System Call:
• Interrupts drive data transfer (using multiple CPUs, one
• By means of Operating System Call in a program
System calls provide the interface to a running program and the
operating system. User program receives operating system services
through the set of system calls. Earlier these calls were available in
assembly language instructions but now a days these features are
supported through high-level languages like C, Pascal etc., which
replaces assembly language for system programming. The use of
system calls in C or Pascal programs very much resemble predefined function or subroutine calls.
As an example of how system calls are used, let us consider a
simple program to copy data from one file to another. In an
interactive system, the following system calls will be generated by
the operating system:
1. Prompt messages for inputting two file names and reading it
from terminal.
2. Open source and destination file.
3. Prompt error messages in case the source file cannot be open
because it is protected against access or destination file cannot
be created because there is already a file with this name.
4. Read the source file.
5. Write into the destination file.
6. Display status information regarding various Read/Write error
conditions. For example, the program may find that the end
of the file has been reached or that there was a hardware failure.
The write operation may encounter various errors, depending
upon the output device (no more disk space, physical end of
tape, printer out of paper add so on).
designed exclusively for I/O processing)
• Direct-memory-access (DMA) data transfer
• Hardware memory protection (to validate addresses)
• Hardware instruction protection (only “special” users can execute
some machine instructions)
• Support for other interrupts: clock.
• Old days: “busy wait”, e.g. printing:
Pseudo-code:
1. check hardware switch (physical memory location which printer
can change) to see if printer is ready for next character.
2. if switch not set, go to step 1.
3. send printer next char.
4. if more to print, go to step 1.
5. stop.
(steps 1 and 2 constitute the busy wait.) This same idea works for
buffers as well as single characters: processor fills buffer (of maybe
512 characters), then uses busy wait for external device to signal
that it has emptied the buffer. Though buffers are going to be
more helpful if not using busy wait (why?)
This waste of valuable CPU time (due to speed mismatches
between CPU and external devices) is reduced by introduction of
hardware interrupts.
Interrupt Handling
main memory
7. Close both files after the entire file is copied.
As you can observe, a user program takes heavy use of the
operating system. All interaction between the program and its
environment must occur as the result of requests from the
program to the operating system.
Let us discuss various Operating System Commands:
Apart from system calls, users may interact with operating system
directly by mews of operating system commands.
For example, if you want to list files or sub-directories in MSDOS, you invoke dir command. In either case, the operating system
acts as an interface between users and the hardware of a computer
system. The fundamental goal of computer systems is to solve
user problems. Towards this goal computer hardware is designed.
Since the bare hardware alone is not very easy to use, programs
(software) are developed. These programs require certain common
operations, such as controlling peripheral devices. The command
function of controlling and allocating resources are then brought
together into one piece of software; the operating system.
2
addr | inst
———+————
100 | br 200 Assume HW supports 16 interrupts
101 | br 300
102 | br 350
104 | br 550
.
.
.
.
.
.
115 | br 950
.
.
.
.
.
.
200 | xxxx
201 | xxxx
<— SW to handle interrupt type 0
.
.
.
.
.
.
|
|
60000 +——————+
| J3
300 | yyyy
<— SW to handle interrupt type 1
|
|
|
.
.
|
|
.
.
|
|
.
.
90000 +——————+
HW support: for each interrupt type (e.g. clock interrupt, IO
completion, change to supervisor state, invalid instruction) the
HW changes to program counter to a “prewired” memory address
(in the above example, 100 for interrupt type 0, 101 for interrupt
type 1, etc.) This results in the specific code to handle that interrupt
being executed.
| J4
|
|
|
|
|
+——————+
|/////////////|
Examples:
|/////////////|
1. Suppose clock interrupts are “wired” to memory location 100.
Then in a typical RR system, the interrupt causes a transfer to
code which checks the cause of the timer interrupt. If the cause
is that a process has gotten its “time slice” then scheduling
code will save the state of the current process, maybe do
accounting, pick the next process to execute, restore its state,
and start it.
2. Suppose memory location 102 is associated with the “invalid
instruction” interrupt. What then?
+——————+
Well, for one thing, this allows things the same machine code to
be used in machines that don’t have quite the same instruction
sets (say, across a product line from cheap slow processors to
expensive fast processors). (Homework: explain how this might
be done.)
Once the hardware supports this, then I/O can be handled much
more efficiently. It is also used for security. If some instructions
are privileged, then if a “normal” process attempts to execute
them, the OS (through interrupt code) can validate what is
happening.
The point has been to do things FAST. So that things are only
checked when they need to be. This requires a combination of
HW and SW support.
Memory Protection:
1. Base register: contents of base register are automatically added
(by HW) to each address. Not done by SW since this would be
too slow.
Main Memory
0 +——————+
|
| To switch from J1 to J3, OS changes
| OS
|
| base register contents of 10000 to
| 60000.
10000 +——————+
|
|
2. Limit register: make sure user does not reference beyond
allocation memory size. Load limit register with size of memory
allocated to process. HW traps (that is causes an interrupt) if
the process attempts to use an address larger than limit register
contents.
Note: this is NOT checked in software (much too slow). It must
be done in hardware as a side effect of addressing memory SO
THAT NOTHING SLOWS MEMORY REFERENCES
DOWN. THE SAME GOES FOR THE USE OF THE BASE
REGISTER. If memory references are validated, the
mechanism must be very fast.
How does the OS get around this? Two basic approaches:
• some machines allow interrupts to be turned off, or
• interrupt handler can check to see who is trying to do memory
reference.
Review Exercise:
1. Define an Operating System?
______________________________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________________
2. Explain the need for an Operating System?
______________________________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________________
| This simplifies much system software.
______________________________________________________________________________
| For example, compilers can now “pretend”
______________________________________________________________________________
40000 +——————+ that all code is loaded starting at
______________________________________________________________________________
| J1
|
| J2
| addr 0.
______________________________________________________________________________
3
Reference Books:
Author Dahmke, Mark.
Main Title Microcomputer Operating Systems / Mark Dahmke.
Publisher Peterborough, N.H : Mcgraw-Hill/Byte Books, C1982.
Author Deitel, Harvey M., 1945Main TitleAn Introduction To Operating Systems / Harvey M.
Deitel.
Edition Rev. 1st Ed.
PublisherReading, Mass : Addison-Wesley Pub. Co., C1984.
Author Lister, A. (Andrew), 1945Main Title Fundamentals Of Operating Systems / A.M. Lister.
Edition 3rd Ed.
Publisher London : Macmillan, 1984.
Author Gray, N. A. B. (Neil A. B.)
Main TitleIntroduction To Computer Systems / N.A.B. Gray.
Publisher Englewood Cliffs, New Jersey ; Sydney : Prentice-Hall,
1987.
Author Peterson, James L.
Main TitleOperating System Concepts / James L. Peterson,
Abraham Silberschatz.
Edition 2nd Ed.
Publisher Reading, Mass. : Addison-Wesley, 1985.
Author Stallings, William.
Main Title Operating Systems / William Stallings.
Edition 6th Ed.
Publisher Englewood Cliffs, Nj : Prentice Hall, C1995.
Author Tanenbaum, Andrew S., 1944Main Title Operating Systems : Design And Implementation /
Andrew S. Tanenbaum, Albert S. Woodhull.
Edition 2nd Ed.
Publisher Upper Saddle River, Nj : Prentice Hall, C1997.
Author Nutt, Gary J.
Main Title Operating Systems : A Modern Perspective / Gary J.
Nutt.
Publisher Reading, Mass. : Addison-Wesley, C1997.
Author Silberschatz, Abraham.
Main TitleOperating System Concepts / Abraham Silberschatz,
Peter Baer Galvin.
Edition 6th Ed.
Publisher Reading, Mass. : Addison Wesley Longman, C1998.
Notes
4
LESSON-2
Today I will explain you the evolution of an operating system and
various types of operating systems
Evolution of an Operating system:
As the need for better processing raised due to the increase in
demand for better processing speed and efficiency the operating
systems have been enhanced with extra features.
Let us see what is Serial Processing?
Instructions and data are feeded into the computer by means of
console switches or perhaps through a hexadecimal keyboard.
Programs used to be started by loading the program counter register
with the address of the first instruction of a program and its
result used to be examined by the contents of various registers
and memory locations of the machine. Therefore programming
in this style caused a low utilization of both users and machine.
With the advent of input output devices such as punched cards,
paper tapes and language translators (compiler) assembler) bought
significant computer system utilization. Programs were coded into
programming languages and then they are changed into object
code (binary code) by translator and then automatically loaded
into memory by a program called loader. Then the control is
transferred to loaded program, the exhibition of a program begins
and its result gets displayed or printed. Once in memory, the
program may be re run with a different set of input data.
Let us have the look on the various Problems faced: The
process of development and preparation of a program in such
environment is slow and cumbersome due to serial processing
and numerous manual processing.
In typical programming environment the following steps are
performed.
• The source code is created in the editor by writing a user
program.
• The source code is converted into binary code by the translator
and
• The loader is called to load executable programs into main
memory for execution. If syntax error is detected, the whole
program must be restarted from the beginning.
• The next evolution was the replacement of card - decks with
standard input output with some useful library programs,
which were further linked with user program through system
software called linker. While there’ was a definite improvement
overt machine language approach, the serial mode of operation
is obviously not very efficient. This results in low utilization of
resources.
sequencing of operations involved in program execution and in
the mechanical aspects of program development Programs With
similar requirements were batched together and 11m through the
computer as a group.
Example:
Operator received one FORTRAN program, one COBOL program
and another FORTRAN program. If he runs in that order ,he
would have to load FORTRAN compiler tapes, then COBOL
program Compiler and fma11y FORTRAN compiler again. If he
runs the two FORTRAN programs as a batch to save time.
With batch processing utilization of system resources has
improved quite a bit
Let us see,what happens when a job is stopped?
When the job is stopped, the operator would have to notice that
fact by observing the console, determines why the program is
stopped and then loads the card reader or paper tape reader for the
next job and restarts the computer.
Problems in batch Processing
• The CPU sits idle when there is a job transition.
•
Speed discrepancy between fast CPU and comparatively slow
input/output devices such as card reader, printers.
The fist problem i.e. idle time of CPU can be overcomes by a
small program called a resident monitor will be created, which
resides always in the memory.
Resident Monitor:
It acts according to the directives given by a programmer through
control earth-which contain commands belonging to job control
languages such as information like marking of job’s beginning and
ending, commands for loading and executing programs etc...
Example:
$COB
- Execute the FORTAN compiler
$JOB
$END
$Load
$RUN
- First card of a job.
- Last card of a job.
- Load program into memory.
- Execute the user program.
Card Deck for Simple COBAL batch program
Next Batch Processing has been evolved.
Batch Processing:
During the time that tapes were being mounted or programmer
was operating the console, the CPU sets idle. The next step in the
logical evaluation of operating system was to automate the
5
The second problem has been overcomes over the years through
the technological improvement resulted in faster I/O devices. But
CPU speed increased even faster. Therefore, the need was to
increase the throughput and resource utilization by overlapping
I/O and processing operations. Dedicated I/O processors,
peripheral controllers brought a major development.
The development of Direct Memory Access(DMA) chip Was a
major achievement, which directly transfer the entire block of data
from its own memory buffer to main memory without
intervention of CPU .DMA can transfer data between high speed
I/O devices and main memory ,while the CPU is executing. CPU
requires to be interrupted per block only by DMA. Apart from
DMA, there are other two approaches to improve system
performance by overlapping input/output and processing. These
are:
• Buffering
•
Spooling.
1. Buffering:
It is a method of overlapping input/output and processing of a
single job. The idea is quite simple. After data has been read and
the CPU starts operating on it, the input device is instructed to
begin the next input immediately. The CPU and the input device
are both busy. The CPU can begin the processing of the newly
read data, while the input device starts to read the following data.
Similarly, this can be done for output In this case; the CPU creates
data that is put into buffer until an output device can accept it.
Now ,I will explain you the situation –“,what happens if the CPU
is fast”?
Spooling allows CPU to overlap the input of one job with the
computation and output of other jobs. Even in a simple system,
the spooler may be reading the input of one job while printing
the output of a different job. Compared to buffering approach
spooling is better.
Multi-Programming
Buffering and spooling improve system performance by
overlapping the input, output and computation of a single job,
but both of them have limitations. A single user cannot always
keep CPU or I/O devices busy at all times. Multiprogramming
offers a more efficient approach to increase system performance. It
refers to a computer system’s ability to support more than one
process (program) at the same time. Multiprocessing operating
systems enable several programs to nm concurrently. This is a
kind of parallel processing. More number of programs competing
for system resources which lead to better utilization of system
resources. The idea is implemented as follows. The main memory
of a system contains more than on program as shown in the
figure.
• In the case of input, the CPU finds an empty buffer and has to
wait for the input device.
•
In Case of output, the CPU can proceed at full speed until,
eventually all system buffers are full .Then the CPU waits for
the output device. This situation occurs with input/output
bound jobs where the amount of input/output relation to
computations very high. Since the CPU is faster than the input/
output device, the speed of execution is controlled by the input/
output device, not by the speed of the CPU.
2. Spooling:It stands for simultaneous peripheral operation on
line. It is essentially use the disk as a large buffer for reading and
for storing output files as shown in the figure.
Multiprogramming
The operating system picks one of the programs and start
executing. During execution process program 1 may need some I/
6
O operation to complete. In a sequential Execution environment,
the CPU would sit idle. In a Multiprogramming system, operating
system will simply switch over the next program. When that
program needs to wait for some I/O operation, it switches over to
program 3 and so OIL if there is no other new program left in the
main memory, the CPU will pass its control back to the previous
programs.
Compared to operating system which supports only sequential
execution, multiprogramming system requires some form of CPU
and memory management strategies.
With each new generation of operating systems, you are introduced
to new ways of thinking about how our computers work. To
simplify things for the user, you must deploy a consistent interface
in which they can do their work. It is equally important to extend
this consistency to programmers, so they too can benefit. As an
operating system ages, it gradually becomes burdened with a
plethora of interfaces which break the simplicity of its original
architecture. UNIX originally followed the “everything is a file”
mantra, only to lose sight of that design with numerous taskspecific APIs for transferring files (FTP, HTTP, RCP, etc.), graphics
(X11, svgalib), printers (lp, lpr), etc. Plan 9, introduced in 1989,
and demonstrated how even a GUI can be represented as a set of
files, revitalizing the “everything is a file” idea.
Let us discuss the Types of an Operating System
Memory is usually divided into two areas. One of them is
permanently fixed for containing operating system routines and
the other part contains only user programs to be executed; when
one Program is over, the new program is loaded into the same
area.
Since there is only one Program in the execution at a time, there is
no competition for 110 devices, therefore, allocation and deallocation for 1/0 devices is very trivial.
Access to files is also serial and there is hardly a need of Protection
and file access control mechanism.
2. Multiprogramming Operating System :
Multiprogramming operating systems compared to batch
operating systems are fairly sophisticated. As illustrated in figure
5, multiprogramming has a significant potential for improving
system throughput and resource utilization with very minor
differences. Different forms of multiprogramming operating
system are multitasking, multiprocessor and multi-user operating
systems. In this section, we will briefly discuss the main features
and functions of these systems.
As discussed earlier during batch processing environment it requires
grouping of similar jobs which consist of programs, data and
system commands.
Multitasking Operating Systems:
A running state of a program is called a process or a task. A
multitasking operating system (also called multiprocessing
operating system) supports two or more active processes
simultaneously. Multiprogramming operating system is operating
system which, in addition to supporting multiple concurrent
process (several processes in execution states simultaneously)
allows the instruction and data from two or more separate
processes to reside in primary memory simultaneously.
The suitability of this type of processing is in programs with large
computation time with no need of user interaction/involvement.
Some examples of such programs include payroll, forecasting,
statistical analysis and large scientific number crunching programs.,
Users are not required to wait while the job is being processed.
They can submit their programs to operators and return later to
collect them.
Note that multiprogramming implies multiprocessing or
multitasking operation, but multiprocessing operation (or
multitasking) does not imply multiprogramming. Therefore,
multitasking operation is one of the mechanism that
multiprogramming operating system employs in managing the
totality of computer related resources like CPU, memory and I/O
devices.
But it has two major disadvantages:
The simplest form of multitasking is called serial multitasking or
context switching. This is nothing more than stopping one
temporarily to work on another. If you have used sidekick, then
you have used serial multitasking. While a program is running,
you decide that you want to use the calculator, so you pop it and
use it. When you stop using the calculator, the Program continues
running.
1. Batch Operating System:
• Non-interactive environment
• Off-line debugging
Non-interactive environment: There are some difficulties with a
batch system from the point of view of programmer or user.
Batch operating systems allow little or no interaction between
users and executing programs. The turn around time taken
between job submission and job completion in batch operating
system is very high. Users have no control over intermediate results
of a program. This type, of arrangement does not create flexibility
in software development.
The second disadvantage with this approach is that programs
must be debugged which means a programmer cannot correct
bugs the moment it occurs.
Process scheduling (i.e. allocation strategy for a process to a
processor), memory management file management and I/O
management in batch processing are quite simple.
Jobs are typically processed in the order of submission, that is, in
the first come, first served basis.
Multiuser operating system allow simultaneous access to a
computer system through or more terminals. Although frequently
associated with multiprogramming, multiuser operating system
does, not imply multiprogramming or multitasking. A dedicated
transaction processing system such as railway reservation system
that hundreds of terminals under control of a single program is
an example of multiuser operating system. On the other hand,
general purpose time sharing systems (discussed later in this
section) incorporate features of both multiuser and
multiprogramming operating system. Multiprocess operation
without multiuser support can be found in the operating system
of some advanced personnel computers and in real systems
(discussed later).
Time Sharing System:
7
It is a form of multiprogrammed Operating system which operates
in an interactive mode with a quick response time. The user types
a request to the computer through a keyboard. The computer
processes it and a response (if any) is displayed on the user’s
terminal. A time sharing system allows the many users to
simultaneously share the computer resources. Since each action or
command in a time-shared system take a very small fraction of
time, only a little CPU time is needed for each user. As the CPU
switches rapidly from one user to another user, each user is given
impression that he has his own computer, while it is actually one
computer shared among many users.
Most time sharing system use time-slice (round robin) scheduling
of CPU. In this approach, Programs are executed with rotating
priority that increases during waiting and drops after the service is
granted. In Order to prevent a program from monopolising the
processor, a program executing longer than the system defined
time-slice in interrupted by the operating system and placed at the
end of the queue of waiting program.
Memory management in time sharing system Provides for the
protection and separation of user programs. Input/output
management feature of time-sharing system must be able to handle
multiple users (terminals). However, the processing of terminals
interrupts are not time critical due to the relative slow speed of
terminals and users. As required by most multiuser environment
allocation and deallocation of devices must be performed in a
manner that preserves system integrity and provides for good
performance.
The words multiprogramming, multiprocessing and multitasking
are often confused. There are, of course, some distinctions between
these similar, but distinct terms.
The term multiprogramming refers to the situation in which a
single CPU divides its time between more than one job. Time
sharing is a special case of multiprogramming, where a single
CPU serves a number of users at interactive terminals.
In multiprocessing, multiple CPUs perform more than one job at
one time. Multiprogramming and multiprocessing are not
mutually exclusive. Some mainframes and super mini computers
have multiple CPUs each of which can juggle several jobs.
The term multitasking is described any system that runs or appears
to run more than one application program one time. An effective
multitasking environment must provide many services both to
the user and to the application program it runs. The most
important of these are resource management which divides the
computers time, memory and peripheral devices among competing
tasks and inter-process communication, which lets tasking
coordinate their activities by exchanging information.
Real-time Systems:
It is another form of operating system which is used in
environments where a large number of events mostly external to
computer systems, must be accepted and processed in a short
time or within certain deadlines. Examples of such applications
are flight control, real time simulations etc. Real time systems are
also frequently used in military application.
A primary objective of real-time system is to provide quick
response times. User convenience and resource utilization are of
secondary concern to real-time system. In the real-time system
8
each process is assigned a certain level of priority according to the
relative importance of the even it processes. The processor is
normally allocated to the highest priority process among those
which are ready to execute. Higher priority process usually preemptive execution of lower priority processes. This form of
scheduling called, priority based pre- emptive scheduling, is used
by a majority of real-time systems.
Memory Management:
In real-time operating system there is a little swapping of program
between primary and secondary memory. Most of die time,
processes remain in primary memory in order to provide quick
response, therefore, memory management in real-time system is
less demanding compared to other types of multiprogramming
system. On the other hand, processes in real- time system tend to
cooperate closely thus providing feature for both protection and
sharing of memory.
I/O Management:
Time-critical device management is one of the main characteristics
of real-time systems. It also provides sophisticated form of
interrupt management and I/O buffering.
File Management:
The primary objective of file management in real-time systems is
usually the speed of access rather than efficient utilisation of
secondary storage. In fact, some embedded real-time systems do
not have secondary memory. However, where provided file
management of real-time system must satisfy the same
requirement as those found in time sharing and other
multiprogramming systems.
3. Network Operating System
A network operating system is a collection of software and
associated protocols that allow a set of autonomous computers
which are interconnected by a computer network to be used
together in a convenient and cost-effective manner. In a network
operating system, the users are aware of existence of multiple
computers and can log in to remote machines and copy files from
one machine to another machine.
Some of typical characteristics of network operating systems which
make it different from distributed operating system (discussed in
the next section) are the followings:
• Each computer has its own private operating system instead
of running part of a global system wide operating system.
• Each user normally works on his/her own system; using a
different system requires some kind of remote login, instead
of having the operating system dynamically allocate processes
to CPUs.
• Users are typically aware of where each of their files are kept and
must move file from one system to another with explicit file
transfer commands instead of having file placement managed
by the operating system.
The system has little or no fault tolerance; if 5% of the personnel
computers crash, only 5% of the users is out of business.
Network operating system offers many capabilities including:
• Allowing users to access the various resources of the network
hosts
• Controlling access so that only users in the proper authorisation
are allowed to access particular resources.
• Making the use of remote resources appear to be identical to
the use of local resources
• Providing up-to-the minute network documentation on-line.
As we said earlier, the key issue that distinguishes a network
operating system from a distributed one is how aware the users
are of the fact that multiple machines are being used. This visibility
occurs in three primary areas; file system, protection and program
execution.
File System:
The important issue in file system is related to how a file is placed
(accessed) on one system from another in a network. ‘Mere are
two important approaches to this problem.
• Running a special file transfer program
• Specifying a path name
Running a special file transfer program:
When connecting two or more systems together, the first issue
that must be faced is how to access the rile system available on
some other system. To deal with this issue user runs a special file
transfer program that copies the needed remote file to the local
machine, where they can then be accessed normally. Sometimes
remote printing and mail is also handled this way. One of the best
known examples of network that primarily support file transfer
and mail via special programs is the UNIX’s UUCP (user to user
control program) program and its network USENET.
Path name specification:
The second approach in this direction is that programs from one
machine can open files on another machine by providing a path
name telling where the file is located.
The second approach to process location is to allow users to run
jobs on any machine by first logging in there. In this model,
processes on different machines cannot communicate or exchange
data, but a simple manual load balancing is possible.
The third approach is a special command that the user types at a
terminal to cause a program to be executed on a specific machine.
A typical command might be
remote vax4 who
to run the who program on machine vax4. In M arrangement, the
environment of the new process is the remote machine. In other
words, if that process tries to read or write files from its current
working directory, it will discover that its working directory is on
the remote machine, and that files that were in the parent process’s
directory are no longer present. Similarly, files written in the
working directory will appear on the remote machine, not the local
one.
The fourth approach is to provide the “CREATE PROCESS”
system call with a parameter specifying where to run the new
process, possibly with a new system call for specifying the default
site. As with the previous method, the environment will generally
be the remote machine. In many cases, signals and other forms of
inter-process communication between processes do not work
properly among processes on different machines.
Now let us see how file system protection and program execution
are supported in distributed operating systems.
4. Distributed Operating System
A distributed operating system is one that looks to its users like
an ordinary centralized operating system but runs on multiple
independent CPUs. The key concept here is transparency. In other
words, the use of multiple processors should be invisible to the
user. Another way of expressing the same idea is to say that user
views the system as virtual uniprocessor but not as a collection of
distinct machines. In a true distributed system, users are not aware
of where their programs are being run or where their files are
residing; they should all be handled automatically and efficiently
by the operating system.
Distributed operating systems have many aspects in common
with centralized ones but they also differ in certain ways. Distributed
operating system, for example, often allow programs to run on
several processors at the same time, thus requiring more complex
processor scheduling (scheduling refers to a set of policies and
mechanisms built into the operating systems that controls the
order in which the work to be done is completed) algorithms in
order to achieve maximum utilisation of CPU’s time.
A (virtual) subdirectory above the root directory provides
access to remote tiles protection:
Execution Location
Program execution is the third area in which machine boundaries
are visible in network operating systems. When a user or a running
program wants to create a new process, where is the process created?
At least four schemes have been used thus far. The first of these
is that the user simply says “CREATE PROCESS” in one way or
another, and specifies nothing about where. Depending on the
implementation, this can be the best or worse Way to do it.
Fault-tolerance is another area in which distributed operating
systems are different. Distributed systems are considered to be
more reliable than uniprocessor based system. They perform even
if certain part of the hardware is malfunctioning. This additional
feature, supported by distributed operating system has enormous
implications for the operating system.
I will tell you the Advantages of Distributed Operating Systems
There are three important advantages in the design of distributed
operating system:
1. Major breakthrough in microprocessor technology: Microprocessors have become very much powerful and cheap,
compared with mainframes and minicomputers, so it has
9
become attractive to think about designing large systems
consisting of small processors. These distributed systems clearly
have a price/performance advantages over more traditional
systems.
2. Incremental Growth: The second advantage is that if there is
a need of 10 per cent more computing power, one should just
add 10 per cent more processors. System architecture is crucial
to the type of system growth, however, since it is hard to give
each user of a personal computer another 10 per cent.
3. Reliability: Reliability and availability can also be a big
advantage; a few parts of the system can be down without
disturbing people using the other parts; On the minus side,
unless one is very careful, it is easy for the communication
protocol overhead to become a major source of inefficiency.
Now let us see how file system, protection and program
execution are supported in distributed operating system.
An important difference between network and distributed
operating system is how they are implemented. A common way
to realize a networking operating system is to put a layer of software
on top of the native operating system of the individual machines.
For example one could write a special library package that could
intercept all the system calls and decide whether each one was local
or remote. Although most system calls can be handled this way
without modifying kernel (kernel is that part of operating system
that manages all resources of computer).
Historical Development of Operating Systems
1. Open shop
• Each user was allocated a block of time to load and run his/her
program, which was input from punch cards.
• Debugging consisted of inspecting the internal machine states
and patching them directly.
• Device drivers (device-specific routines), functions, compilers,
File System:
Distributed operating system supports a single global file system
visible from all machines. When this method is used, there is one
directory for executable programs (in UNIX, it is bin directory),
one password file and so on. When a program wants to read the
password file it does something like
Open (*/etc/password”, READ-ONLY)
without reference to where the file is. It is upto the operating
system to locate the file and arrange for transport of data as they
are needed.
The convenience of having a single global name space is obvious.
In addition, this approach means that operating system is free to
move files around among machines to keep all the disks generally
full and busy and that the system can maintain replicated copies
of files if it chooses. When the user or program must specify the
machine name, the system cannot decide on its own to move a file
to a new machine because that would change the (user visible)
name used to access the file. Thus in a network operating system,
control over file placement must be done manually by the users,
whereas in a distributed operating system it can be done
automatically by the system itself.
Protection:
In a true distributed system there is a unique UID for every user,
and that UID should be valid on all machines without any
mapping. In this way no protection problems arise on remote
access to files; a remote access can be treated like a local access with
the same UID. There is a difference between network operating
system and distributed operating system in implementing
protection issue. In networking operating system, there are various
machines, each with its own user to UID mapping but in
distributed operating system there is a single system wide mapping
that is valid everywhere.
Program Execution:
In the most distributed case the system chooses a CPU by looking
at the processing load of the machine, location of file to be used
etc. In the least distributed case, the system always run the process
on one specific machine (usually the machine on which the user is
logged in).
10
and assemblers had to be explicitly loaded.
2. operator-driven shop
• The computer operator loaded the jobs and collected output.
• Users debugged programs by inspecting a core dump, which
was a hexadecimal listing of the exact contents of memory.
• The operator could batch jobs or rearrange them according to
priority, run time, etc.
3. Offline input/output or simple batch system
• A separate computer was used for I/O.
• Several programs were first loaded onto tape, and then the full
tape was read into the main computer.
•
Program output and dumps were written to tape, and then
printed from the tape by the auxiliary computer.
• A small resident monitor program reset the main computer
after each job, interpreted some simple command language,
performed some simple accounting, and did deviceindependent input and output.
4. Spooling systems = multiprogrammed batch systems
• treated separately in text (Sections 1.3.2.2 and 1.4), but were
developed approximately simultaneously
• Example: IBM OS/360
• spool: simultaneous peripheral operations on line
• Disks were used for intermediate storage: faster than tapes and
allowed jobs to be processed in any order.
• A nucleus (or kernel) contained routines to manage processes (
jobs) and device interrupts.
• Used interrupts to perform I/O (device tells computer when it
is finished a task)
• Device drivers included in the nucleus
• A process (running program) requested assistance from the
kernel by making a service call =system call
• A scheduler sorted incoming jobs according to priority and
processor time needed
· Still used a human operator to mount data tapes needed by
jobs, make some policy decisions about which jobs to run, and
to restart the resident monitor if it failed or was overwritten by
a program
•
Could do multiprogramming = multitasking: have more than one
process somewhere between starting and finishing
5. interactive multiprogramming ( timeshared system)
• Examples: CTSS, MULTICS, UNIX
• Users interact with the computer directly through a command
language at a terminal
• A command interpreter defines interface
• A session lasts from logon to logoff
• Text editors allow users to create programs, text files, and data
files online instead of with cards or tape
WindowsNT, v.4 - 1996
Windows98 - 1998
Windows 2000 - 2000
Review Exercise:
1. You explain the difference between Contrast Serial Processing,
Batch Processing and Multiprogramming?
________________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________________
• User has the illusion that he/she is the only user of the
________________________________________________________________________
computer, but there may actually be many simultaneous users
________________________________________________________________________
• recent PC operating systems, such as OS/2 and Windows 95,
are single-user interactive multiprogrammed systems
6. interactive uniprogramming
2. What is Buffering and Spooling?
• One user, one process at a time: personal computers
________________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________________
• Examples: CP/M (Control Program for Microcomputers),
________________________________________________________________________
DOS (derived from Seattle Computing Product’s SCP-DOS
clone of CP/M — 1981)
________________________________________________________________________
• Processes can “terminate and stay resident” in memory, later to
be reactivated by interrupts from the keyboard (primitive
multiprogramming) - Large amounts of processing time can
be devoted to providing a graphical user interface, since only
one process is active at a time
7. distributed computing
• Communication between processes on different processors,
________________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________________
e.g., e-mail, ftp, finger
• Separate computers share devices (printers)
• A user may execute processes on a different machine from the
one he/she is on
• Allows load sharing: automatic movement of processes to
other sites
• Increased fault tolerance for data and processes
• Tightly coupled system: processors share a main memory ...
also called parallel system
3. List the main differences between Network operating systems
and Distributed operating systems.
________________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________________
• Loosely coupled system: processors have their own memory
________________________________________________________________________
and communicate by exchanging messages ... what is usually
meant by a distributed system
________________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________________
Release Dates for Recent Operating Systems
________________________________________________________________________
• UNIX - 1973
________________________________________________________________________
• DOS 1.0 - 1981
• MacOS - about 1984
________________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________________
• MacOS, System 5 - 1986
________________________________________________________________________
• OS/2 1.0 - 1987
Reference Books:
• Windows3.0 - 1990
Author Dahmke, Mark.
• Windows3.1 - 1991
• Windows95 - 1995
• WindowsNT - 1993
Main Title Microcomputer Operating Systems / Mark Dahmke.
Publisher Peterborough, N.H : Mcgraw-Hill/Byte Books, C1982.
11
Author Deitel, Harvey M., 1945Main Title An Introduction To Operating Systems / Harvey M.
Deitel.
Edition Rev. 1st Ed.
Publisher Reading, Mass : Addison-Wesley Pub. Co., C1984.
Author Lister, A. (Andrew), 1945Main Title Fundamentals Of Operating Systems / A.M. Lister.
Edition 3rd Ed.
Publisher London : Macmillan, 1984.
Author Gray, N. A. B. (Neil A. B.)
Main Title Introduction To Computer Systems / N.A.B. Gray.
Publisher Englewood Cliffs, New Jersey ; Sydney : Prentice-Hall,
1987.
Author Peterson, James L.
Main TitleOperating System Concepts / James L. Peterson,
Abraham Silberschatz.
Edition 2nd Ed.
Publisher Reading, Mass. : Addison-Wesley, 1985.
Author Stallings, William.
Main TitleOperating Systems / William Stallings.
Edition 6th Ed.
Publisher Englewood Cliffs, Nj : Prentice Hall, C1995.
Author Tanenbaum, Andrew S., 1944Main Title Operating Systems : Design And Implementation /
Andrew S. Tanenbaum, Albert S. Woodhull.
Edition 2nd Ed.
Publisher Upper Saddle River, Nj : Prentice Hall, C1997.
Author Nutt, Gary J.
Main TitleOperating Systems : A Modern Perspective /Gary J.
Nutt.
PublisherReading, Mass. : Addison-Wesley, C1997.
Author Silberschatz, Abraham.
Main Title Operating System Concepts / Abraham Silberschatz,
Peter Baer Galvin.
Edition 6th Ed.
Publisher Reading, Mass. : Addison Wesley Longman, C1998.
Notes
12
LESSON-3
Objective:
Dear students after learning about the different types of operating
systems , lets us now discuss the different functions and services
of an operating system.
Today I will discuss briefly the services and Functions of an
Operating System. They are listed as follows:
their operating systems, these six tasks define the core of nearly all
operating systems. Let’s look at the tools the operating system
uses to perform each of these functions.
Processor Management
The heart of managing the processor comes down to two related
issues:
• Processor management
• Ensuring that each process and application receives enough of
• Memory management
the processor’s time to function properly.
• Using as many processor cycles for real work as is possible
• Device management
• Storage management
• Application interface
• User interface
With the different types of operating systems in mind, it’s time to
look at the basic functions provided by an operating system.
When the power to a computer is turned on, the first program
that runs is usually a set of instructions kept in the computer’s
read-only memory (ROM) that examines the system hardware
to make sure everything is functioning properly. This power-on
self test (POST) checks the CPU, memory, and basic input-output
systems (BIOS) for errors and stores the result in a special memory
location. Once the POST has successfully completed, the software
loaded in ROM (sometimes called firmware) will begin to activate
the computer’s disk drives. In most modern computers, when
the computer activates the hard disk drive, it finds the first piece
of the operating system: the bootstrap loader.
The bootstrap loader is a small program that has a single function:
It loads the operating system into memory and allows it to begin
operation. In the most basic form, the bootstrap loader sets up
the small driver programs that interface with and control the
various hardware subsystems of the computer. It sets up the
divisions of memory that hold the operating system, user
information and applications. It establishes the data structures
that will hold the myriad signals, flags and semaphores that are
used to communicate within and between the subsystems and
applications of the computer. Then it turns control of the
computer over to the operating system.
The operating system’s tasks, in the most general sense, fall into
six categories:
• Processor management
• Memory management
• Device management
• Storage management
• Application interface
• User interface
While there are some who argue that an operating system should
do more than these six tasks, and some operating-system vendors
do build many more utility programs and auxiliary functions into
The basic unit of software that the operating system deals with in
scheduling the work done by the processor is either a process or
a thread, depending on the operating system.
It’s tempting to think of a process as an application, but that gives
an incomplete picture of how processes relate to the operating
system and hardware. The application you see (word processor or
spreadsheet or game) is, indeed, a process, but that application
may cause several other processes to begin, for tasks like
communications with other devices or other computers. There
are also numerous processes that run without giving you direct
evidence that they ever exist. A process, then, is software that
performs some action and can be controlled by a user, by other
applications or by the operating system.
It is processes, rather than applications, that the operating system
controls and schedules for execution by the CPU. In a singletasking system, the schedule is straightforward. The operating
system allows the application to begin running, suspending the
execution only long enough to deal with interrupts and user input.
Interrupts are special signals sent by hardware or software to the
CPU. It’s as if some part of the computer suddenly raised its
hand to ask for the CPU’s attention in a lively meeting. Sometimes
the operating system will schedule the priority of processes so
that interrupts are masked that is, the operating system will ignore
the interrupts from some sources so that a particular job can be
finished as quickly as possible. There are some interrupts (such as
those from error conditions or problems with memory) that are
so important that they can’t be ignored. These non-maskable
interrupts (NMIs) must be dealt with immediately, regardless of
the other tasks at hand.
While interrupts add some complication to the execution of
processes in a single-tasking system, the job of the operating
system becomes much more complicated in a multi-tasking system.
Now, the operating system must arrange the execution of
applications so that you believe that there are several things
happening at once. This is complicated because the CPU can only
do one thing at a time. In order to give the appearance of lots of
things happening at the same time, the operating system has to
switch between different processes thousands of times a second.
Here’s how it happens.
13
• A process occupies a certain amount of RAM. It also makes
use of registers, stacks and queues within the CPU and operating
system memory space.
• When two processes are multi-tasking, the operating system
allots a certain number of CPU execution cycles to one program.
• After that number of cycles, the operating system makes copies
of all the registers, stacks and queues used by the processes,
and notes the point at which the process paused in its execution.
• It then loads all the registers; stacks and queues used by the
second process and allow it a certain number of CPU cycles.
• When those are complete, it makes copies of all the registers,
stacks and queues used by the second program, and loads the
first program.
must divide the workload among the CPUs, trying to balance the
demands of the required processes with the available cycles on the
different CPUs.
Asymmetric operating systems use one CPU for their own needs
and divide application processes among the remaining CPUs.
Symmetric operating systems divide themselves among the
various CPUs, balancing demand versus CPU availability even
when the operating system itself is all that’s running.
Even if the operating system is the only software with execution
needs, the CPU is not the only resource to be scheduled. Memory
management is the next crucial step in making sure that all
processes run smoothly.
Memory and Storage Management
All of the information needed to keep track of a process when
switching is kept in a data package called a process control block.
The process control block typically contains:
When an operating system manages the computer’s memory, there
are two broad tasks to be accomplished:
• An ID number that identifies the process
and it can neither run into the memory space of another process
nor be run into by another process.
• The different types of memory in the system must be used
properly so that each process can run most effectively.
• Pointers to the locations in the program and its data where
processing last occurred
• Register contents
• States of various flags and switches
• Pointers to the upper and lower bounds of the memory
required for the process
• A list of files opened by the process
• The priority of the process
The status of all I/O devices needed by the process
When the status of the process changes, from pending to active,
for example, or from suspended to running, the information in
the process control block must be used like the data in any other
program to direct execution of the task-switching portion of the
operating system.
This process swapping happens without direct user interference,
and each process gets enough CPU cycles to accomplish its task in
a reasonable amount of time. Trouble can come, though, if the
user tries to have too many processes functioning at the same
time. The operating system itself requires some CPU cycles to
perform the saving and swapping of all the registers, queues and
stacks of the application processes.
If enough processes are started, and if the operating system hasn’t
been carefully designed, the system can begin to use the vast majority
of its available CPU cycles to swap between processes rather than
run processes. When this happens, it’s called thrashing, and it
usually requires some sort of direct user intervention to stop
processes and bring order back to the system.
One way that operating-system designers reduce the chance of
thrashing is by reducing the need for new processes to perform
various tasks. Some operating systems allow for a “process-lite,”
called a thread, that can deal with all the CPU-intensive work of a
normal process, but generally does not deal with the various types
of I/O and does not establish structures requiring the extensive
process control block of a regular process. A process may start
many threads or other processes, but a thread cannot start a process.
So far, all the scheduling we’ve discussed has concerned a single
CPU. In a system with two or more CPUs, the operating system
14
• Each process must have enough memory in which to execute,
The first task requires the operating system to set up memory
boundaries for types of software and for individual applications.
As an example, let’s look at an imaginary system with 1 megabyte
(1,000 kilobytes) of RAM. During the boot process, the operating
system of our imaginary computer is designed to go to the top of
available memory and then “back up” far enough to meet the
needs of the operating system itself. Let’s say that the operating
system needs 300 kilobytes to run. Now, the operating system
goes to the bottom of the pool of RAM and starts building up
with the various driver software required to control the hardware
subsystems of the computer. In our imaginary computer, the
drivers take up 200 kilobytes. So after getting the operating system
completely loaded, there are 500 kilobytes remaining for application
processes.
When applications begin to be loaded into memory, they are loaded
in block sizes determined by the operating system. If the block
size is 2 kilobytes, then every process that is loaded will be given a
chunk of memory that is a multiple of 2 kilobytes in size.
Applications will be loaded in these fixed block sizes, with the
blocks starting and ending on boundaries established by words
of 4 or 8 bytes.
These blocks and boundaries help to ensure that applications
won’t be loaded on top of one another’s space by a poorly calculated
bit or two. With that ensured, the larger question is what to do
when the 500-kilobyte application space is filled.
In most computers, it’s possible to add memory beyond the
original capacity. For example, you might expand RAM from 1 to
2 megabytes. This works fine, but tends to be relatively expensive.
It also ignores a fundamental fact of computing - most of the
information that an application stores in memory is not being
used at any given moment. A processor can only access memory
one location at a time, so the vast majority of RAM is unused at
any moment. Since disk space is cheap compared to RAM, then
moving information in RAM to hard disk can greatly expand
RAM space at no cost. This technique is called virtual memory
management.
Disk storage is only one of the memory types that must be managed
by the operating system, and is the slowest. Ranked in order of
speed, the types of memory in a computer system are:
• High-speed cache - This is fast, a relatively small amount of
memory that are available to the CPU through the fastest
connections. Cache controllers predict which pieces of data the
CPU will need next and pull it from main memory into highspeed cache to speed up system performance.
• Main memory - This is the RAM that you see measured in
megabytes when you buy a computer.
is suspended. Then, when the process needing input is made
active once again, the operating system will command the buffer
to send data.
This process allows a keyboard or a modem to deal with external
users or computers at a high speed even though there are times
when the CPU can’t use input from those sources.
Managing all the resources of the computer system is a large part
of the operating system’s function and, in the case of real-time
operating systems, may be virtually all the functionality required.
For other operating systems, though, providing a relatively simple,
consistent way for applications and humans to use the power of
the hardware is a crucial part of their reason for existing.
• Secondary memory- This is most often some sort of rotating
Interface to the World
magnetic storage that keeps applications and data available to
be used, and serves as virtual RAM under the control of the
operating system.
The operating system must balance the needs of the various
processes with the availability of the different types of memory,
moving data in blocks (called pages) between available memory as
the schedule of processes dictates.
Application Interface
Device Management
The path between the operating system and virtually all hardware
not on the computer’s motherboard goes through a special
program called a driver. Much of a driver’s function is to be the
translator between the electrical signals of the hardware subsystems
and the high-level programming languages of the operating system
and application programs. Drivers take data that the operating
system has defined as a file and translate them into streams of
bits placed in specific locations on storage devices, or a series of
laser pulses in a printer.
Because there are such wide differences in the hardware controlled
through drivers, there are differences in the way that the driver
programs function, but most are run when the device is required,
and function much the same as any other process. The operating
system will frequently assign high-priority blocks to drivers so
that the hardware resource can be released and readied for further
use as quickly as possible.
One reason that drivers are separate from the operating system is
so that new functions can be added to the driver and thus to the
hardware subsystems - without requiring the operating system
itself to be modified, recompiled and redistributed.
Through the development of new hardware device drivers,
development often performed or paid for by the manufacturer of
the subsystems rather than the publisher of the operating system,
input/output capabilities of the overall system can be greatly
enhanced.
Managing input and output is largely a matter of managing queues
and buffers, special storage facilities that take a stream of bits
from a device, perhaps a keyboard or a serial port, hold those bits,
and release them to the CPU at a rate slow enough for the CPU to
cope with.
This function is especially important when a number of processes
are running and taking up processor time. The operating system
will instruct a buffer to continue taking input from the device, but
to stop sending data to the CPU while the process using the input
Application program interfaces (APIs) let application
programmers use functions of the computer and operating system
without having to directly keep track of all the details in the CPU’s
operation. Let’s look at the example of creating a hard disk file for
holding data to see why this can be important.
A programmer writing an application to record data from a scientific
instrument might want to allow the scientist to specify the name
of the file created. The operating system might provide an API
function named MakeFile for creating files. When writing the
program, the programmer would insert a line that looks like this:
MakeFile [1, %Name, 2]
In this example, the instruction tells the operating system to create
a file that will allow random access to its data (1), will have a name
typed in by the user (%Name), and will be a size that varies
depending on how much data is stored in the file (2). Now, let’s
look at what the operating system does to turn the instruction
into action.
1. The operating system sends a query to the disk drive to get the
location of the first available free storage location.
2. With that information, the operating system creates an entry in
the file system showing the beginning and ending locations of
the file, the name of the file, the file type, whether the file has
been archived, which users have permission to look at or modify
the file, and the date and time of the file’s creation.
3. The operating system writes information at the beginning of
the file that identifies the file, sets up the type of access possible
and includes other information that ties the file to the
application.
In all of this information, the queries to the disk drive and
addresses of the beginning and ending point of the file are in
formats heavily dependent on the manufacturer and model of
the disk drive.
Because the programmer has written her program to use the API
for disk storage, she doesn’t have to keep up with the instruction
codes, data types, and response codes for every possible hard disk
and tape drive.
The operating system, connected to drivers for the various hardware
subsystems, deals with the changing details of the hardware - the
programmer must simply write code for the API and trust the
operating system to do the rest.
15
APIs have become one of the most hotly contested areas of the
computer industry in recent years. Companies realise that
programmers using their API will ultimately translate into the
ability to control and profit from a particular part of the industry.
This is one of the reasons that so many companies have been
willing to provide applications like readers or viewers to the public
at no charge. They know consumers will request that programs
take advantage of the free readers, and application companies will
be ready to pay royalties to allow their software to provide the
functions requested by the consumers.
User Interface
A User Interface (UI) brings structure to the interaction between a
user and the computer. In the last decade, almost all development
in user interfaces has been in the area of the graphical user
interface (GUI), with two models, Apple’s Macintosh and
Microsoft’s Windows, receiving most of the attention and gaining
most of the market share. There are other user interfaces, some
graphical and some not, for other operating systems.
Unix, for example, has user interfaces called shells that present a
user interface more flexible and powerful than the standard
operating system text-based interface. Programs such as the Korn
Shell and the C Shell are text-based interfaces that add important
utilities, but their main purpose is to make it easier for the user to
manipulate the functions of the operating system.
There are also graphical user interfaces, such as X-Windows and
Gnome, which make Unix and Linux more like Windows and
Macintosh computers from the user’s point of view.
It’s important to remember that in all of these examples, the user
interface is a program or set of programs that sits as a layer above
the operating system itself. The same thing is true, with somewhat
different mechanisms, of both Windows and Macintosh operating
systems. The core operating-system functions, the management
of the computer system, lie in the kernel of the operating system.
The display manager is separate, though it may be tied tightly to
the kernel beneath.
The ties between the operating-system kernel and the user interface,
utilities and other software define many of the differences in
operating systems today, and will further define them in the future.
Let us take the overview of Additional Operating System
Functions
Additional functions exist not for helping the user, but rather for
ensuring efficient system operations.
Resource allocation-allocating resources to multiple users or
multiple jobs running the same time.
secondary-storage management
main-memory management
file-system access
protection
networking
The program that reads and interprets control statements is called
variously:
control-card interpreter
command-line interpreter
shell (in UNIX) Its function is to get and execute the next
command statement.
Operating System Services
Program execution – system capability to load a program into
memory and to run it.
I/O operations – since user programs cannot execute I/O
operations directly, the operating system must provide some means
to perform I/O.
File-system manipulation – program capability to read, write, create,
and delete files.
Communications – exchange of information between processes
executing either on the same computer or on different systems
tied together by a network. Implemented via shared memory or
message passing.
Error detection – ensure correct computing by detecting errors in
the CPU and memory hardware, in I/O devices, or in user
programs.
List of Additional Operating System Functions
Additional functions exist not for helping the user, but rather for
ensuring efficient system operations.
Resource allocation-allocating resources to multiple users or
multiple jobs running at the same time.
• Accounting-keep track of and record which users use how
much and what kinds of computer resources for account billing
or for accumulating usage statistics.
• Protection-nsuring that all access to system resources is
controlled.
In the next coming lessons we will learn these functions in detail
Review Exercise:1) Explain briefly the general functions of an Operating
System?
________________________________________________________________________
Accounting-keep track of and record which users use how much
and what kinds of computer resources for account billing or for
accumulating usage statistics.
________________________________________________________________________
Protection - ensuring that all access to system resources is
controlled.
________________________________________________________________________
Command-Interpreter System
Many commands are given to the operating system by control
statements which deal with:
process creation and management
I/O handling
16
________________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________________
2) Briefly explain the services of an Operating System?
________________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________________
Notes
________________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________________
Reference Books:
Author Dahmke, Mark.
Main Title Microcomputer Operating Systems / Mark Dahmke.
Publisher Peterborough, N.H : Mcgraw-Hill/Byte Books, C1982.
Author Deitel, Harvey M., 1945Main TitleAn Introduction To Operating Systems / Harvey M.
Deitel.
Edition Rev. 1st Ed.
PublisherReading, Mass : Addison-Wesley Pub. Co., C1984.
Author Lister, A. (Andrew), 1945Main Title Fundamentals Of Operating Systems / A.M. Lister.
Edition 3rd Ed.
Publisher London : Macmillan, 1984.
Author Gray, N. A. B. (Neil A. B.)
Main Title Introduction To Computer Systems / N.A.B. Gray.
Publisher Englewood Cliffs, New Jersey ; Sydney : Prentice-Hall,
1987.
Author Peterson, James L.
Main TitleOperating System Concepts / James L. Peterson,
Abraham Silberschatz.
Edition 2nd Ed.
Publisher Reading, Mass. : Addison-Wesley, 1985.
Author Stallings, William.
Main Title Operating Systems / William Stallings.
Edition 6th Ed.
Publisher Englewood Cliffs, Nj : Prentice Hall, C1995.
Author Tanenbaum, Andrew S., 1944Main Title Operating Systems : Design And Implementation /
Andrew S. Tanenbaum, Albert S. Woodhull.
Edition 2nd Ed.
Publisher Upper Saddle River, Nj : Prentice Hall, C1997.
Author Nutt, Gary J.
Main Title Operating Systems : A Modern Perspective /
Gary J. Nutt.
Publisher Reading, Mass. : Addison-Wesley, C1997.
Author Silberschatz, Abraham.
Main Title Operating System Concepts / Abraham Silberschatz,
Peter Baer Galvin.
Edition 6th Ed.
Publisher Reading, Mass. : Addison Wesley Longman, C1998.
17
LESSON 4:
Objective:
Today I will describe you the Operating Systems Structure
Since you all know operating system is a very large and complex
software, it must be engineered carefully, if it is to be functioned
properly and to be modified easily. It should be developed as a
collection of several smaller modules with carefully defined inputs,
outputs and functions rather than a single piece of software.
Let us now examine different types of operating systems.
1. Simple Structure:
This type of structures is not well defined .Such type of operating
system are as :
• Small
• Simple.
• Limited systems.
• Grew beyond their scope.
Example 1:
MS-DOS was written to provide the most functionality in the
least space.
• not divided into modules
• Although MS-DOS has some structure, its interfaces and levels
of functionality are not well separated.
MS-DOS Layer Structure
• This approach tends to be less efficient than others. For example,
When a user program executes an I/O operation, it executes a
system call that is traped to the I/O Layer, which in turn calls
the memory management layer, which in turn calls the CPUscheduling layer, which is then passed to the hardware. At each
layer , the parameters may be modified, data may need to be
passed, and so on. Each layer adds overhead to the system call,
thus system call takes longer time when compared to a nonlayered system.
OS/2 Operating System Layer
OS/2 is the descendant of MS-DOS adds additional features such
as multitasking and dual-mode operation and other addition
features. In OS/2 fewer layers with more functionality are designed,
providing most of the advantages of modularized code while
avoiding the difficult problems of layer definition and interaction.
The advantage in this type of operating system is ,direct access to
low-level facilities is not allowed, providing the operating system
with more control over the hardware and more knowledge of
which resources each user program is using.
3. Kernel approach: The kernel is the heart of the operating system.
It is the part of operating system which directly makes interface
with hardware system. When the system is booted, the kernel
is read into the memory. It stays in memory while the system is
running .Its main functions are:
• To provide a mechanism for creation and deletion of processes.
2. Layered Approach:The operating system architecture based
on layered approach is divided into a number of layers (levels),
each built on top of lower layers. The bottom layer (layer 0), is
the hardware; the highest (layer N) is the user interface. Higher
level layers uses the functions (operations) and services of
only lower-level layers.
• To provide process scheduling, memory management and I/
An Operating System Layer
• The UNIX operating system is based on kernel approach .It
Example of Windows 2000.
Advantages:
• As the system is divided into layers/modules verification and
debugging of the system is easy/simple.
• Easy to find and rectify the errors ,as we can find in which layer
the error has occurred.
• A layer need now the operations implemented by the lower
layer, thus hides the existence of certain data structures,
operations and hardware.
Let us discuss the Difficulties for designing layered approach:
• The layered approach involves careful definition of the layers,
since the higher level layer uses the services of the lower level
layer.
For Example, the device driver for the secondary memory must
be a lower level than memory management routines since memory
management requires the ability to use the backing store.
18
O management.
• To provide mechanism for synchronization of process so that
processes synchronize their actions.
• To provide mechanism for interprocess communication.
consists of two parts:
Kernel
• System Program:Programs and commands call on the kernel’s
services. The kernel, in turn, consults its data tables as it
schedules user’s programs, allocates resources to the program,
and manages the low-level exchange of data with the computer’s
hardware.
For example, when a program requests file services, the program
gives the kernel a system call. The kernel oversees the accessing of
the disk drive where the file resides. The kernel gets the data and
transfers it to the buffer. The data is then picked up by the parts of
the kernel can be configured to accommodate variations in hardware
.The kernel contains a changeable set of device drivers to
accommodate numerous devices.
Making a system call.
An illustration of UNIX kernel built on the system’s hardware
core.
With in the kernel, individual segments of programs or routines,
carry out the kernel’s work. The routines allocate memory resources,
schedule CPU time, and manage access to system resources.
The kernel also monitors the system for error conditions and
hardware problems. At higher level, the routines provide programs
with entry points to kernel services. All UNIX programs use the
kernel’s system call.
In virtual multiprogramming system, a single real machine gives
an illusion of several virtual machines, each having its own virtual
processor, storage and I/O devices possibly with much larger
capacity. Process scheduling can be used to share the CPU and
make it appear that user’s have their own processors. Virtual
memory organization technique can create illusion of very large
memory for program execution.
Lets us now cover the advantages and disadvantages of Virtual
Machines
Advantages :
4. Virtual Machine: A virtual machine takes the layered approach
to its logical conclusion. It treats hardware and the operating
system kernel as though they were all hardware. A virtual
machine provides an interface identical to the underlying bare
hardware. The operating system creates the illusion of multiple
processes, each executing on its own processor with its own
(virtual) memory.
• The virtual-machine concept provides complete protection of
• The resources of the physical computer are shared to create the
• The higher degree of separation between independent virtual
virtual machines.
• CPU scheduling can create the appearance that users have their
own processor.
• Spooling and a file system can provide virtual card readers and
virtual line printers.
• A normal user time-sharing terminal serves as the virtual
machine operator’s console.
• Protection is excellent, but no sharing possible.
•
Virtual privileged instructions are trapped.
• Useful for running different OS simultaneously on the same
machine.
Virtual System Models
From the user’s point of view, virtual machine can be made to
appear to very similar to existing real machine or they can be entirely
different. An important aspect of this technique is that each user
can run operating system of his own choice.
To understand this concept, let us try to understand the difference
between conventional multiprogramming system and virtual
machine multiprogramming. In conventional multiprogramming
processes are allocated a portion of the real machines resources.
The same machine resources are distributed among several
processes.
system resources since each virtual machine is isolated from all
other virtual machines.
• A virtual-machine system is a perfect vehicle for operatingsystems research and development. System development is
done on the virtual machine, instead of on a physical machine
and so does not disrupt normal system operation.
machine aids in ensuring aids privacy and security.
Disadvantages
permits no direct sharing of resources.
• The virtual machine concept is difficult to implement due to
the effort required to provide an exact duplicate to the underlying
machine.
5. Client-Server Model: A trend in the modern operating system
is to take moving code up into the higher layers even further,
and remove as much as possible from the operating system,
leaving a minimal kernel. The usual approach is to implement
most of the operating system functions in user processes. To
request a service, such as reading a block of a file, a user process
(now known as client process) sends the request to a server
process, which then does the work and sends back the answer.
In this model, the kernel does all the communication between
the clients and servers by splitting the operating system into
parts, each of which only handles:
• File service
• Process service
• Terminal service
• Memory service.
This way, each part becomes small and manageable. Furthermore,
because all the servers run as user-mode processes, and not in
kernel mode, they do not have direct access to the hardware. As a
consequence, if a bug in the file server is triggered, the file service
may crash, but this will not usually bring the whole system down.
19
The Client-Server Model
________________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________________
4. Explain the following with an example?
• Layered Approach.
Advantages :
It is adaptable in distributed systems. If a client communicates
with a server by sending it messages, the client need not know
whether the message is handled locally in its own machine, or
whether it was sent across a network to a server on a remote
machine. As far as the client is concerned, the same thing happens
in both cases, request was sent and a reply came back.
Message from Client to Server
Machine 1 Machine 2
Machine 3
Machine 4
The picture painted above of a kernel that handles only the
transport of messages from clients to servers and back is not
completely realistic. Some operating system functions (such as
loading commands into the physical I/O device registers) are
difficult, if not impossible, to do from user-space programs. Here
are two ways of dealing with this problem.
• Is to have some critical server processes (eg:- I/O device drivers)
actually run in kernel mode, with complete access to all the
hardware, but still communicate with other processes using
the normal message mechanism.
Is to build a minimal amount of mechanism into the kernel, but
leave the policy decisions up to servers in user space. For example,
the kernel might recognize that a message sent to a certain special
address means to take the contents of that message and load in
into the I/O device registers for some disk, to start a disk read. In
this example, the kernel would not even inspect the bytes in the
message to see if they were valid or meaningful; it would just
blindly copy them into the disk’s device registers. (Obviously some
scheme for limiting such message to authorized processes only
must be used). The split between mechanism and policy is an
important concept; it occurs again and again in operating
Systems in various contexts.
Exercise:
1. Contrast Multiprogramming with Client-Server Model?
________________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________________
2. Explain the difficulties in designing a layered approach?
________________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________________
• Kernel Approach.
________________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________________
Reference Books:
Author Dahmke, Mark.
Main Title Microcomputer Operating Systems / Mark Dahmke.
Publisher Peterborough, N.H : Mcgraw-Hill/Byte Books, C1982.
Author Deitel, Harvey M., 1945Main Title An Introduction To Operating Systems / Harvey M.
Deitel.
Edition Rev. 1st Ed.
Publisher Reading, Mass : Addison-Wesley Pub. Co., C1984.
Author Lister, A. (Andrew), 1945Main Title Fundamentals Of Operating Systems / A.M. Lister.
Edition 3rd Ed.
Publisher London : Macmillan, 1984.
Author Gray, N. A. B. (Neil A. B.)
Main Title Introduction To Computer Systems / N.A.B. Gray.
Publisher Englewood Cliffs, New Jersey ; Sydney : Prentice-Hall,
1987.
Author Peterson, James L.
Main Title Operating System Concepts / James L. Peterson,
Abraham Silberschatz.
Edition 2nd Ed.
Publisher Reading, Mass. : Addison-Wesley, 1985.
Author Stallings, William.
Main Title Operating Systems / William Stallings.
Edition 6th Ed.
Publisher Englewood Cliffs, Nj : Prentice Hall, C1995.
Author Tanenbaum, Andrew S., 1944Main Title Operating Systems : Design And Implementation /
Andrew S. Tanenbaum, Albert S. Woodhull.
Edition 2nd Ed.
________________________________________________________________________
Publisher Upper Saddle River, Nj : Prentice Hall, C1997.
________________________________________________________________________
Author Nutt, Gary J.
________________________________________________________________________
Main Title Operating Systems : A Modern Perspective / Gary J.
Nutt.
3. Write the advantages and disadvantages of Virtual Machine?
________________________________________________________________________
20
Publisher Reading, Mass. : Addison-Wesley, C1997.
Notes
Author Silberschatz, Abraham.
Main Title Operating System Concepts / Abraham Silberschatz,
Peter Baer Galvin.
Edition 6th Ed.
Publisher Reading, Mass. : Addison Wesley Longman, C1998.
System Services
Windows
MGR
& GDI
Windows 2000 Kernel
Hardware Abstraction Layer (HAL)
IO
Manager
Graphics
Device
Drivers
VM
Manager
Security
Reference
Monitor
Process
Manager
User Program
(Requests Services)
UNIX System Kernel
(Provides Services)
Call
Request Service
• Type
• Details
• Data
Return
Service complete
• Status
• Data
Job N
Job 2
Virtual Machine
Operating System
Virtual
Machine 1
Virtual
Machine N
Virtual
Machine 2
21
LESSON-5
Objectives:
To make you understand the basic concepts and terminology in
Operating Systems.
Even though new users seem to learn GUIs more quickly to
perform common operations, well designed CLIs have several
advantages:
Let us see what is an Interface?
• All options and operations are invokable in a consistent form,
An operating system is conceptually broken into three sets of
components: a shell, a kernel and low-level system utilities. As the
name implies the shell is an outer wrapper to the kernel which in
turn talks directly to the hardware.
Hardware <-> Kernel <-> Shell <-> Applications
They are two types of interfaces:
• Command line interpreter
• Graphical user interfaces
A command line interpreter is a program which reads a line of
text the user has typed and interprets this text in the context of a
given system.
A graphical user interface (or GUI, often pronounced “gooee”) is a method of interacting with a computer that uses graphical
images and widgets in addition to text.
We are going to discuss the command line inteface in deal now
A command line interface or CLI is a method of interacting
with a Computer by giving it lines of textual commands (ie, a
sequence of characters) either from keyboard input or from a
script. The computer system (ie, the program then accepting such
input) then carries out the command given. The result may be
textual output, or the initialization and running of some program,
or a modification to the graphical output on a monitor or printer,
or some change in a file system (eg, delete a file, modify a file, or
create a file). The term is usually used in contrast to a graphical user
interface (GUI) in which commands are typically issued by moving
a pointer (eg, a mouse cursor) and/or pressing a key (ie, ‘clicking’,
often on a key mounted on a mouse).
Examples of programs implementing command line interfaces
include the (various) Unix shells, VMS’ DCL (Digital Command
Language), and related designs like CP/M and MS-DOS’s
command.com, both based heavily on DEC’s RSX and RSTS
operating system interfaces (which were also command line
interfaces). These programs are often called command line
interpreters.
There are other programs which use CLIs as well. The CAD
program AutoCAD is a prominent example. In some computing
environments like the Oberon or Smalltalk user interface, most
of the text which appears on the screen may be used for giving
commands.
Let us discuss the advantages of a command line interface over
Graphical user Interface:
one ‘level’ away from the basic command. With most GUIs,
the available operations and options often appear on different
menus with differing usage patterns. They may be separated
on several different menu levels as well. In either case, different
applications (or utilities) may have different patterns; if so
there is little advantage in either approach. Both are likely to
annoy users.
• All options and operations are controlled in more or less the
same way. The less in this case is a common accusation against
CLIs. It should be no more difficult to understand and perform
a rare operation than a common one. Few GUIs offer
comparable access to the entire range of available options.
The first graphical user interface was designed by Xerox
Corporation’s Palo Alto Research Center in the 1970s, but it was
not until the 1980s and the emergence of the Apple Macintosh
that graphical user interfaces became popular. One reason for their
slow acceptance was the fact that they require considerable CPU
power and a high-quality monitor, which until recently were
prohibitively expensive.
In addition to their visual components, graphical user interfaces
also make it easier to move data from one application to another.
A true GUI includes standard formats for representing text and
graphics. Because the formats are well-defined, different programs
that run under a common GUI can share data. This makes it
possible, for example, to copy a graph created by a spreadsheet
program into a document created by a word processor.
Many DOS programs include some features of GUIs, such as
menus, but are not graphics based. Such interfaces are sometimes
called graphical character-based user interfaces to distinguish them
from true GUIs.
The use of pictures rather than just words to represent the input
and output of a program. A program with a GUI runs under
some windowing system (e.g. The X Window System, Microsoft
Windows, Acorn RISC OS, NEXTSTEP). rating at them. This
contrasts with a command line interface where communication is
by exchange of strings of text.
Well-designed graphical user interfaces can free the user from
learning complex command languages. On the other hand, many
users find that they work more effectively with a command-driven
interface, especially if they already know the command language.
Graphical user interfaces, such as Microsoft Windows and the one
used by the Apple Macintosh, feature the following basic
components:
ü Pointer : A symbol that appears on the display screen and that
you move to select objects and commands. Usually, the pointer
22
appears as a small angled arrow. Text -processing applications,
however, use an I-beam pointer that is shaped like a capital I.
• Its protection against access or destination file can not create
because there is already a file with this name.
ü Pointing Device:A device, such as a mouse or trackball, that
enables you to select objects on the display screen.
• Read the source file
ü Icons:Small pictures that represent commands, files, or
windows. By moving the pointer to the icon and pressing a
mouse button, you can execute a command or convert the icon
into a window. You can also move the icons around the display
screen as if they were real objects on your desk.
• Display status information regarding various read/write error
ü Desktop: The area on the display screen where icons are grouped
is often referred to as the desktop because the icons are intended
to represent real objects on a real desktop.
ü Windows: You can divide the screen into different areas. In
each window, you can run a different program or display a
different file. You can move windows around the display
screen, and change their shape and size at will.
Program may find that the end of file has been reached or there
was a hardware failure. The write operation may encounter various
errors, depending upon the output device (no disk space, printer
out of paper etc.)
ü Menus: Most graphical user interfaces let you execute commands
by selecting a choice from a menu.
• CLIs often can double as scripting languages (see shell script)
and can perform operations in a batch processing mode without
user interaction. That means that once an operation is analyzed
and understood, a ‘script’ implementing that understanding
can be written and saved. The operation can thereafter be carried
out with no further analysis and design effort. With GUIs,
users must start over at the beginning every time, as GUI
scripting (if available at all) is almost always more limited.
Simple commands do not even need an actual script, as the
completed command can usually be assigned a name (an ‘alias’)
and executed simply by typing <operating system> A means of
communication between a program and its user, based solely
on textual input and output. Commands are input with the
help of a keyboard or similar device and are interpreted and
executed by the program. Results are output as text or graphics
to the terminal.
• Command line interfaces usually provide greater flexibility than
graphical user interfaces, at the cost of being harder for the
novice to use. Consequently, some hackers look down on GUIs
as designed.
System Call:
System call provides the interface to running program and the
operating system.User program receives operating system services
through the set of system calls.
• Write into the destination file.
conditions
• Close both files after the entire file is copied
For example:
From the above observation we can say that a user program takes
heavy use of the operating system. All interactions between the
program and its environment must occur as a result of request
from that program to the operating system.
Let see the three general methods are used to pass parameters
between a running program and the operating system.
• Pass parameters in registers.
• Store the parameters in a table in memory, and the table address
is passed as a parameter in a register.
• Push (store) the parameters onto the stack by the program, and
pop off the stack by operating system.
Now I will explain you the Working of System call.
• Obtain access to system space
• Do parameter validation
• System resource collection ( locks on structures )
• Ask device/system for requested item
• Suspend waiting for device
• Interrupt makes this thread ready to run
• Wrap-up
• Return to user
There are 11 (or more) steps in making the system call read (fd,
buffer, nbytes)
Two ways of passing data between programs.
Message Passing
Shared Memory
Examples of various system calls.
• Generally available as assembly-language instructions.
Review Exercise:
• Languages defined to replace assembly language for systems
1. Compare the advantages and disadvantages of Command line
Interface and Graphical user Interface?
programming allow system calls to be made directly (e.g., C,
C++)
An example of system call, let us consider a simple program to
copy data form one file to another. In an interactive system the
following system calls are generated by the operating system.
• Prompt messages for inputting two file names and reading it
______________________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________
from terminal.
• Open source and destination files.
2. What is system call? How does it work?
• Prompt error messages in case the source file can not opened
______________________________________________________________________
because of
______________________________________________________________________
23
______________________________________________________________________
Edition 6th Ed.
______________________________________________________________________
Publisher Englewood Cliffs, Nj : Prentice Hall, C1995.
______________________________________________________________________
Author Tanenbaum, Andrew S., 1944-
______________________________________________________________________
3. Explain briefly the different types of GUI Interfaces?
Main Title Operating Systems : Design And Implementation /
Andrew S. Tanenbaum, Albert S. Woodhull.
______________________________________________________________________
Edition 2nd Ed.
______________________________________________________________________
Publisher Upper Saddle River, Nj : Prentice Hall, C1997.
______________________________________________________________________
Author Nutt, Gary J.
______________________________________________________________________
Main Title Operating Systems : A Modern Perspective / Gary J.
Nutt.
______________________________________________________________________
Review Exercise
• What is an operating system?
• What are input and output devices?
• Where are operating systems found?
• What is a general purpose operating system?
• A simple operating system for a security system
• What are input output devices
• What is a single-user operating system?
• What is a multi-user operating system?
• Operating system utilities
• Operating system interfaces
• Advantages and problems of multi-user operating systems
• What is a multi-tasking operating system?
Reference Books:
Author Dahmke, Mark.
Main Title Microcomputer Operating Systems / Mark Dahmke.
Publisher Peterborough, N.H : Mcgraw-Hill/Byte Books, C1982.
Author Deitel, Harvey M., 1945Main Title An Introduction To Operating Systems / Harvey M.
Deitel.
Edition Rev. 1st Ed.
Publisher Reading, Mass : Addison-Wesley Pub. Co., C1984.
Author Lister, A. (Andrew), 1945Main Title Fundamentals Of Operating Systems / A.M. Lister.
Edition 3rd Ed.
Publisher London : Macmillan, 1984.
Author Gray, N. A. B. (Neil A. B.)
Main Title Introduction To Computer Systems / N.A.B. Gray.
Publisher Englewood Cliffs, New Jersey ; Sydney : Prentice-Hall,
1987.
Author Peterson, James L.
Main Title Operating System Concepts / James L. Peterson,
Abraham Silberschatz.
Edition 2nd Ed.
Publisher Reading, Mass. : Addison-Wesley, 1985.
Author Stallings, William.
Main Title Operating Systems / William Stallings.
24
Publisher Reading, Mass. : Addison-Wesley, C1997.
Author Silberschatz, Abraham.
Main Title Operating System Concepts / Abraham Silberschatz,
Peter Baer Galvin.
Edition 6th Ed.
Publisher Reading, Mass. : Addison Wesley Longman, C1998.
SELF-ASSESSMENT INTERACTIVE TOPIC 1
1.1 True/False: An operating system can be viewed as “resource
allocator” to control various I/O devices and user programs.
Answer: True
1.2 True/False: “automatic job sequencing” means the System
does not proceeds from one job to the next without human
intervention.
Answer: False
1.3 Which of the following lists the different parts of the monitor.
a. Control card interpreter.
b. Control card interpreter, device drivers, and loader.
c. Loader.
d. None of the above
Answer: B
1.4 In what ways are batch systems inconvenient for users?.
Answer:
a. Users can’t interact with their jobs to fix problems.
b. Turnaround time is too long.
c. B only
d. A and B
e. A only
1.5 What were the advantages of off-line operations?
a. Main computer no longer constrained by speed of card reader.
b. Application programs used logical I/O devices instead of
physical I/O devices; programs didn’t have to be rewritten
when new I/O devices replaced old ones.
c. Both of the above
d. None of the above
Answer: c
1.6 True/False; In a master/slave processor system, the
master computer controls the actions of various slave
computers.
Answer: true
1.7 True/false
MULTICS was a time-sharing system created on a large
mainframe GE computer (since then taken over by Honeywell),
by GE, by Bell Labs, and by faculty at MIT. It was very flexible,
and oriented toward programmers. UNIX was inspired by
MULTICS; but it was designed by Ritchie and Thompson in
1974 at Bell Labs for use on minicomputers. It was designed
for program development, using a device-independent file
system.
Answer: True
deal with the cause of the interrupt; control is then returned to
the interrupted context and instruction. An interrupt can be
used to signal the completion of an I/O to obviate the need
for device polling.
Answer: True
2.2 True/False A trap is a software-generated interrupt. A trap
can be used to call operating system routines or to catch
arithmetic errors.
Answer: True
2.3 True / False How is an interrupt executed? The I/O driver
sends a signal through a special interrupt line to the CPU when
it has finished with an I/O request.
Answer: True
2.4 True / False An interrupt vector is a list giving the starting
addresses of each interrupt service routine.
Answer: True
2.5 True/ False Systems treat slow and fast devices differently, for
slow devices, each character transferred causes an interrupt. For
fast devices, each block of characters transferred causes an
interrupt.
Answer: True
2.6 True/False The Introduction of base and limit registers that
hold the smallest legal physical memory address, and the size
of the range, respectively can prevent users from accessing other
users’ programs and data. As a user’s job is started, the operating
system loads these registers; if the program goes beyond these
addresses, it is aborted. If another job starts up, these registers
are reset for the new job.
Answer: True
2.7 True/False How can the operating system detect an infinite
loop in a program? A timer (hardware) is added to system.
Each user is allowed some predetermined time of execution
(not all users are given same amount). If user exceeds these
time limits, the program is aborted via an interrupt.
Answer: True
2.8 True/False: The operating system determines what mode it is
in by using one bit (the monitor/user-mode bit) that gives
the present state.
Answer: True
2.9 The following is a list of operations, followed by a description
why each can be considered illegal.
a. Programming errors, such as illegal instruction, addressing fault.
c. Halting the computer.
Self-Assessment Interactive Topic 2
d. Masking the interrupt so that none can occur. Turning on
interrupts; or else job will interfere with I/O.
2.1 True/False An interrupt is a hardware-generated change-offlow within the system. An interrupt handler is summoned to
e. Changing mode from user to system; or else user can control
system.
25
f. Using memory outside user area; invasion of privacy.
g. Modifying interrupt vectors in monitor; could crash system.
h. Accessing monitor memory; invasion of privacy.
Which of the following sets of operations the monitor considers
illegal
a. none of the above
b. all of the above
c. only b
Answer: b
Cache Memory (bonus Discussion)
When are caches useful?
Answer: Caches are useful when two or more components need
to exchange data, and the components perform transfers at differing
speeds.
What problems do they solve?
Answer: Caches solve the transfer problem by providing a buffer
of intermediate speed between the components. If the fast device
finds the data it needs in the cache, it need not wait for the slower
device.
What problems do they cause?
Answer: The data in the cache must be kept consistent with the
data in the components. If a component has a data value change,
and the datum is also in the cache, the cache must also be updated.
This is especially a problem on multiprocessor systems where
more than one process may be accessing a datum.
If a cache can be made as large as the device for which it is caching
(for instance, a cache as large as a disk), why not make it that large
and eliminate the device?
Answer: A component may be eliminated by an equal-sized cache,
but only if: a) the cache and the component have equivalent statesaving capacity (that is, if the component retains its data when
electricity is removed, the cache must retain data as well), and b)
the cache is affordable, because faster storage tends to be more
expensive.
Self assessment interactive Topic 3
3.1What is the purpose of the command interpreter? Why is it
usually separate from the kernel?
Answer: It reads commands from the user or from a file of
commands and executes them, usually by turning them into one
or more system calls. It is usually not part of the kernel since the
command interpreter is subject to changes.
3.2 List five services provided by an operating system. Explain
how each provides convenience to the users. Explain also in which
cases it would be impossible for user-level programs to provide
these services.
Answer:
• Program execution. The operating system loads the contents
(or sections) of a file into memory and begins its execution. A
user-level program could not be trusted to properly allocate
CPU time.
• I/O operations. Disks, tapes, serial lines, and other devices
must be communicated with at a very low level. The user need
26
only specify the device and the operation to perform on it,
while the system converts that request into device or controller
specific commands. User-level programs cannot be trusted to
only access devices they should have access to, and to only access
them when they are otherwise unused.
• File-system manipulation. There are many details in file
creation, deletion, allocation, and naming that users should
not have to perform. Blocks of disk space are used by files and
must be tracked. Deleting a file requires removing the name file
information and freeing the allocated blocks. Protections must
also be checked to assure proper file access. User programs
could ensure neither adherence to protection methods nor could
they be trusted to allocate only free blocks and deallocate blocks
on file deletion.
• Communications. Message passing between systems requires
messages be turned into packets of information, sent to the
network controller, transmitted across a communications
medium, and reassembled by the destination system. Packet
ordering and data correction must take place. Again, user
programs might not coordinate access to the network device,
or they may receive packets destined for other processes.
Error Detection.
Error detection occurs at both the hardware and software levels.
At the hardware level, all data transfers must be inspected to ensure
that data have not been corrupted in transit. All data on media
must be checked to be sure they have not changed since they were
written to the media. At the software level, media must be checked
for data consistency; for instance, do the number of allocated and
unallocated
blocks of storage match the total number on the device. There,
errors are frequently process-independent (for instance, the
corruption of data on a disk), so there must be a global program
(the operating system) that handles all types of errors. Also, by
having errors processed by the operating system, processes need
not contain code to catch and correct all the errors possible on a
system.
3.3 What is the main advantage of the layered approach to system
design?
Answer: As in all cases of modular design, designing an operating
system in a modular way has several advantages. The system is
easier to debug and modify because changes affect only limited
sections of the system rather than touching all sections of the
operating system. Information is kept only where it is needed
and is accessible only within a defined and restricted area, so any
bugs affecting that data must be limited to a specific module or
layer.
3.4 What is the main advantage for an operating-system designer
of using a virtual-machine architecture? What is the main
advantage for a user?
Answer: The system is easy to debug, and security problems are
easy to solve. Virtual machines also provide a good platform
for operating system research since many different operating
systems may run on one physical system.
3.5 List system service functions provided for the convenience of
the programmer. Tell what each does.
Answer:Program execution loads and executes programs, allows
debugging I/O operations does all read and write operations
File system management allows you to create, delete, open
files, etc. Communications allows processes to communicate
with each other Error detection CPU, hardware, instructions,
device errors
3.6 List system service functions provided for efficient operation
of the system.
Answer:
• Resource allocation
Answer:
• A method of time sharing must be implemented to allow each
of several processes to have access to the system. This method
involves the preemption of processes that do not voluntarily
give up the CPU (by using a system call, for instance) and the
kernel being reentrant (so more than one process may be
executing kernel code concurrently).
• Processes and system resources must have protections and must
be protected from each other. Any given process must be limited
in the amount of memory it can use and the operations it can
perform on devices like disks.
• Care must be taken in the kernel to prevent deadlocks between
3.7 List five or more functions to control processes and jobs.
processes, so processes aren’t waiting for each other’s allocated
resources.
4.2 Describe the differences among short-term, medium-term,
and long-term scheduling.
Answer:
Answer:
• Set error level
• Short-term (CPU scheduler) - selects from jobs in memory,
• Accounting
• Protection
• Load/link/execute program
• Create new process
• Get/set process attributes
• Terminate process
• Wait for specific event or time
• Dump memory
• Trace instructions
• Create time profile
3.8 List eight or more functions for file manipulation.
Answer: Create, delete, open, close, read, write, and reposition
files, get/set file attributes
3.9 List categories of systems programs.
Answer:
• File manipulation
• Get status information
• Modify files
• Programming language support
• Program loading/execution
•
Communications
• Application programs.
3.10 What is a command interpreter? By what other names is it
known?
Answer: Program that interprets the commands you type in at
terminal, or enter through a batch file; gets and executes next
user-specified command. Names: control card interpreter,
command line interpreter, console command processor, shell.
Self assessment interactive topic 4
4.1 Several popular microcomputer operating systems provide little
or no means of concurrent processing. Discuss the major
complications that concurrent processing adds to an operating
system.
hose jobs which are ready to execute, and allocates the CPU to
them.
• Medium-term - used especially with time-sharing systems as
an intermediate scheduling level. A swapping scheme is
implemented to remove partially run programs from memory
and reinstate them later to continue where they left off.
• Long-term (job scheduler) - determines which jobs are brought
into memory for processing.
The primary difference is in the frequency of their execution. The
short-term must select a new process quite often. Long-term is
used much less often since it handles placing jobs in the system,
and may wait a while for a job to finish before it admits another
one.
4.3 True/False: The long-term scheduler selects a group of I/Obound jobs or a group of CPU-bound programs for subsequent
activity.
Answer: False. It selects a mix of jobs for efficient machine
utilization.
4.4 True / False Time sharing is many users interactively using a
system “simultaneously;” each user gets a share of CPU-time,
after other users have gotten their share. It uses medium-term
scheduling, such as round-robin for the foreground.
Background can use a different scheduling technique.
Answer: True
4.5 True/False Swapping is the process of copying a process out
of memory onto a fast disk or drum, to allow space for other
active processes; it will be copied back into memory when space
is ample.
Answer: True
4.6 True/False context switching is the time needed to switch
from one job to another
Answer: True
4.7 What two advantages do threads have over multiple processes?
What major disadvantage do they have? Suggest one application
that would benefit from the use of threads, and one
27
that would not.
Answer: Threads are very inexpensive to create and destroy, and
they use very little re-sources while they exist. They do use CPU
time for instance, but they don’t have totally separate memory
spaces. Unfortunately, threads must “trust” each other to not
damage shared data. For instance, one thread could destroy
data that all the other threads rely on, while the same could not
happen between processes unless they used a system feature to
allow them to share data. Any program that may do more than
one task at once could benefit from multitasking. For instance,
a program that reads input, processes it, and out-puts it could
have three threads, one for each task. “Single-minded” processes
would not benefit from multiple threads; for instance, a
program that displays the time of day.
4.8 What resources are used when a thread is created? How do
they differ from those used when a process is created?
Answer: A context must be created, including a register set storage
location for storage during context switching, and a local stack
to record the procedure call arguments, return values, and return
addresses, and thread-local storage. A process creation results
in memory being allocated for program instructions and data,
as well as thread-like storage. Code may also be loaded into the
allocated memory.
4.9 Describe the actions taken by a kernel to switch context
a. Among threads.
b. Among processes.
Answer:
a. The thread context must be saved (registers and accounting if
appropriate), and an-other thread’s context must be loaded.
b. The same as (a), plus the memory context must be stored and
that of the next process must be loaded.
4.10 What are the differences between user-level threads and kernelsupported threads? Under what circumstances is one type
“better” than the other?
Answer: User-level threads have no kernel support, so they are
very inexpensive to create, destroy, and switch among. However,
if one blocks, the whole process blocks. Kernel-supported
threads are more expensive because system calls are needed to
create and destroy them and the kernel must schedule them.
They are more powerful because they are independently
scheduled and block individually.
Notes
28
LESSON -6 SELF-ASSESSMENT
Self assessment interactive Topic 5
Answer: True.
5.1 What is a CPU burst? An I/O burst?
5.14 What is the time quantum used for?
Answer: Round-robin scheduling, to give each process the same
processing time.
Answer:
• CPU burst: a time interval when a process uses CPU only.
• I/O burst: a time interval when a process uses I/O devices
only.
5.2 An I/O-bound program would typically have what kind of
CPU burst?
Answer: Short.
5.3 What does “preemptive” mean?
Answer: Cause one process to temporarily halt, in order to run
another.
5.4 What is the “dispatcher”?
Answer: Determines which processes are swapped out.
5.5 What is throughput?
Answer: Number of jobs done per time period.
5.6 List performance criteria we could select to optimize our system.
Answer: CPU use, throughput, turnaround time, waiting time,
response time.
5.7 What is a Gantt chart? Explain how it is used.
Answer: A rectangle marked off horizontally in time units, marked
off at end of each job or job-segment. It shows the distribution
of time-bursts in time. It is used to determine total and average
statistics on jobs processed, by formulating various scheduling
algorithms on it.
5.8 What are the advantages of SJF? Disadvantages?
Answer: Provably optimum in waiting time. But no way to know
length of next CPU burst.
5.9 What is indefinite blocking? How can it occur?
Answer: Also called starvation. A process with low priority that
never gets a chance to execute. Can occur if CPU is continually
busy with higher priority jobs.
5.10 What is “aging”?
Answer: Gradual increase of priority with age of job, to prevent
“starvation.”
5.11 What is SRTF (Shortest-Remaining-Time-First) scheduling?
Answer: A preemptive scheduling algorithm that gives high
priority to a job with least amount of CPU burst left to
complete.
5.15 How should the time quantum be related to the context
switch time?
Answer: Quantum should be very large compared to context
switch time.
5.16 Describe the foreground-background approach.
Answer: Low priority processes run in background; high priority
jobs run in foreground; background runs only when
foreground is empty, or waiting for I/O.
5.17 How can multilevel queues be scheduled? Which might have
priority over others?
Answer:
a. Each queue can have absolute priority over lower queues.
b. Time-slice queues can, giving each queue a certain percent of
time.
5.18 What are multilevel feedback queues?
Answer: Processes move from one queue to another, depending
on changes in its conditions (that is, the CPU burst may change).
5.19 What are the advantages and disadvantages of using
implementation to compare various scheduling algorithms?
Answer:
• Advantages: completely accurate.
• Disadvantages: cost in coding, cost in modifying operating
system, cost in modifying data structures, bad reactions from
users due to changing and comparing various scheduling
schemes.
5.20 List two ways several computers can work together on sharing
load.
Answer:
• One computer controls others.
• Each computer acts independently..
5.21 Consider the following set of processes, with the length of
the CPU-burst time given in milliseconds:
Process Burst Time Priority
P1
P2
10
1
3
1
5.12 What is round-robin scheduling?
P3
2
3
Answer: Each job is given a time quantum slice to run; if not
completely done by that time interval, job is suspended and
another job is continued. After all other jobs have been given a
quantum, first job gets its chance again.
P4
1
4
P5
5
2
The processes are assumed to have arrived in the order P1, P2, P3,
P4, P5, all at time 0.
5.13 True or False: Round-robin scheduling is preemptive.
29
Inroder to solve the following 3 questions Draw four Gantt charts
illustrating the execution of these processes using FCFS, SJF,a
nonpreemptive priority (a smaller priority number implies a higher
priority), and RR (quantum = 1) scheduling.
6.3 Why does Solaris 2 implement multiple locking mechanisms?
Under what circumstances does it use spinlocks, blocking
semaphores, conditional variables, and readers–writers locks?
Why does it use each mechanism?
b. What is the turnaround time of each process for each of the
scheduling algorithms in part a?
Answer: Different locks are useful under different circumstances.
Rather than make do with one type of lock which does not fit
every lock situation (by adding code around the lock, for instance)
it makes sense to include a set of lock types. Spinlocks are the
basic mechanism used when a lock will be released in a short
amount of time. If the lock is held by a thread which is not
currently on a processor, then it becomes a blocking semaphore.
answer :Turnaround time
FCFS
P1 10
RR
19
SJF
19
Priority
16
P2 11
2
1
1
P3 13
7
4
18
P4 14
4
2
19
P5 19
14
9
6.
c. What is the waiting time of each process for each of the scheduling
algorithms in part a?
answer Waiting time (turnaround time minus burst time)
FCFS
P1 0
RR
9
SJF
9
Priority
6
P2 10
1
0
0
P3 11
5
2
16
P4 13
3
1
18
P5 14
9
4
1
d. Which of the schedules in part a results in the minimal average
waiting time (over all processes)?
Answer: Shortest Job First
5.22 Suppose that a scheduling algorithm (at the level of shortterm CPU scheduling) favors those processes that have used
the least processor time in the recent past. Why will this
algorithm favor I/O-bound programs and yet not permanently
starve CPU-bound programs?
Answer: It will favor the I/O-bound programs because of the
relatively short CPU burst request by them; however, the CPUbound programs will not starve because the I/ O-bound
programs will relinquish the CPU relatively often to do their I/
O.
6.1 What is the critical-section problem?
Answer: To design an algorithm that allows at most one process
into the critical section at a time, without deadlock.
6.2 What is the meaning of the term busy waiting? What other
kinds of waiting are there? Can busy waiting be avoided
altogether? Explain your answer.
Answer:
• A process is waiting for an event to occur and it does so by
executing instructions.
• A process is waiting for an event to occur in some waiting
queue (e.g., I/O, semaphore) and it does so without having
the CPU assigned to it.
• Busy waiting cannot be avoided altogether.
30
Condition variables are used to lock longer code sections,
because they are more expensive to initiate and release, but
more efficient while they are held. Readers-writers locks are
used on code which is used frequently, but mostly in a readonly fashion. Efficiency is increased by allowing multiple readers
at the same time, but locking out everyone but a writer when a
change of data is needed.
6.4 Explain the differences, in terms of cost, among the three
storage types: volatile, non-volatile, and stable.
Answer: Volatile storage is storage which fails when there is a
power failure. Cache, main memory, and registers require a steady
power source; when the system crashes and this source is
interrupted, this type of memory is lost. Nonvolatile storage is
storage which retains its content despite power failures. For
example, disk and magnetic tape survive anything other than
demagnetization or hardware/head crashes (and less likely things
such as immersion in water, fire, etc.). Stable storage is storage
which theoretically survives any type of failure. This type of
storage can only be approximated with duplication.
6.5 Explain the purpose of the checkpoint mechanism. How often
should checkpoints be per-formed? How does the frequency
of checkpoints affect:
• System performance when no failure occurs?
• The time it takes to recover from a system crash?
• The time it takes to recover from a disk crash?
Answer: Checkpointing is done with log-based recovery schemes
to reduce the amount of searching that needs to be done after
a crash. If there is no checkpointing, then the entire log must
be searched after a crash, and all transactions “redone” from the
log. If checkpointing is used, then most of the log can be
discarded. Since checkpoints are very expensive, how often they
should be taken depends upon how reliable the system is. The
more reliable the system, the less often a checkpoint should be
taken.
6.6 Explain the concept of transaction atomicity.
Answer: A transaction is a sequence of instructions which, when
executed as an atomic unit, takes the database from a consistent
state to a consistent state.
UNIT-2
LESSON 7:
Today I will be covering the following topics given below :
• What is a Process?
• What is Process Management
• What is Context Switching
• What is a Process State?
• What is Process State Transition?
What is a process?
A container to run software in
What is a Process?
• You can talk about programs executing but what do you mean?
• At the very least, you are recognizing that some program code is
resident in memory and the CPU is fetching the instructions in
this code and executing them.
• Of course, a running program contains data to manipulate in
addition to the instructions describing the manipulation.
Therefore, there must also be some memory holding data.
• You are starting to talk of processes or tasks or even jobs when
referring to the program code and data associated with any
particular program.
• What would you need to save if you wanted to take a snapshot
of a process so that you could put it aside for a short period,
and then resume its execution later?
Process Management
and temporary variables), and a data section containing global
variables.
Process is allocated resources (such as main memory) and is available
for scheduling.
A process is not the same as a program. Each process has a state
which includes:
• a program counter: the location of the next instruction to be
executed.
• value of all registers (or stack)
• values of all variables, including things such as file pointers
(where to start the next read from an input file or where to put
the next write to an output file).
For example, can have several emacs processes running
simultaneously, each has a distinct state, but all processes may be
executing the same machine code.
Note: A program by itself is not a process; a program is a passive
entity, such as the contents of a file stored on disk, whereas a
process is an active entity, with a program counter specifying the
next instruction to execute.
The Process Model
Even though in actuality there are many processes running at
once, the OS gives each process the illusion that it is running alone.
• Virtual time: The time used by just this processes. Virtual
time progresses at a rate independent of other processes.
Actually, this is false, the virtual time is typically incremented a
little during systems calls used for process switching; so if
there are more other processors more “overhead” virtual time
occurs.
This topic deals with handling the many programs that may be in
main memory at once
• Virtual memory: The memory as viewed by the process. Each
Introduction to Process Management
A process is a program in execution. In general, a process will need
certain resources-such as CPU time, memory, files, and I/O devicesto accomplish its task. These resources are allocated to the process
either when it is created, or while it is executing.
process typically believes it has a contiguous chunk of memory
starting at location zero. Of course this can’t be true of all
processes (or they would be using the same memory) and in
modern systems it is actually true of no processes (the memory
assigned is not contiguous and does not include location zero).
A process is the unit of work in most systems. Such a system
consists of a collection of processes: operating system processes
execute system code, and user processes execute user code. All of
these processes can potentially execute concurrently.
Think of the individual modules that are input to the linker. Each
numbers its addresses from zero; the linker eventually translates
these relative addresses into absolute addresses. That is the linker
provides to the assembler a virtual memory in which addresses
start at zero.
The operating system is responsible for the following activities in
connection with process management: the creation and deletion
of both user and system processes; the scheduling of processes,
and the provision of mechanisms for synchronization,
communication, and deadlock handling for processes.
A process is more than the program code plus the current activity.
A process generally also includes the process stack containing
temporary data(such as subroutine parameters, return addresses,
Virtual time and virtual memory are examples of abstractions
provided by the operating system to the user processes so that the
latter “sees” a more pleasant virtual machine than actually exists.
Two-State Process Model
Process may be one of two states
• Running
• Not– running
31
OPERATING SYSTEMS
Objectives
As a process executes, it changes state. The state of a process is
defined in part by that process’s current activity. Each process may
be in one of three states:
Process Not Running State
Process State Diagram
• Running. Instructions are being executed.
• Waiting. The process is waiting for some event to occur(such
as an I/O completion).
• Ready. The process is waiting to be assigned to a processor
Process Hierarchies
These names are rather arbitrary, and vary between operating
systems. The states they represent are found on all systems,
however. It is important to realize that in a single-processor system,
only one process can be running at any instant. Many processes
may be ready and waiting, however.
The PCB serves as the repository for any information that may
vary from process to process.
Process State
• As a process executes, it changes state
• New: The process is being created.
• Running: Instructions are being executed.
• Waiting: The process is waiting for some event to occur.
• Ready: The process is waiting to be assigned to a process.
• Terminated: The process has finished execution.
Modern general purpose operating systems permit a user to create
and destroy processes.
• In unix this is done by the fork system call, which creates a
child process, and the exit system call, which terminates the
current process.
• After a fork both parent and child keep running (indeed they
have the same program text) and each can fork off other
processes.
• A process tree results. The root of the tree is a special process
created by the OS during startup.
• A process can choose to wait for children to terminate. For
example, if C issued a wait() system call it would block until G
finished. Old or primitive operating system like MS-DOS are
not multiprogrammed so when one process starts another,
the first process is automatically blocked and waits until the
second is finished.
Process State
32
Process Control Block (PCB)
Information associated with each process.
• Process state
• Program counter
• CPU registers
• CPU scheduling information
• Pointer to Text (program code)
• Memory-management information
• Pointer to uninitialized data
• Accounting information
• Stack Pointer
• I/O status information
• Program Counter
Process Control Block
• Pointer to Data
Each process is represented in the operating system by its own
process control block (PCB). A PCB is a data block or record
containing many pieces of the information associated with a specific
process, including
• Root directory
• Process State. The state may be new, ready, running, waiting,
or halted.
• Program Counter. The counter indicates the address of the
next instruction to be executed for this process.
• CPU State. This includes the contents of general purpose
registers, index registers, stack pointers, and any conditioncode information. Along with the program counter, this state
of information must be saved when an interrupt occurs, to
allow the process to be continued correctly afterward.
• CPU Scheduling Information. This information includes a
process priority, pointers to scheduling queues, and any other
scheduling parameters.
• Memory-management information. This information
includes limit registers or page tables.
• I/O Status Information. The information includes
outstanding I/O requests and a list of open files.
The PCB serves as the repository for any information that may
vary from process to process.
Process Implementation
The operating system represents a process primarily in a data
structure called a Process Control Block (PCB). You’ll see Tack
Control Block (TCB) and other variants. When a process is created,
it is allocated a PCB that includes
• CPU Registers
Default File Permissions
• Working directory
• Process State
• Exit Status
• File Descriptors
• Process Identifier (pid)
• User Identifier (uid)
• Pending Signals
• Signal Maps
Other OS-dependent information
These are some of the major elements that make up the process
context. Although not all of them are directly manipulated on a
context switch.
Context
The context, in this definition, refers to the contents of the CPU
registers. Remember from earlier when you were talking about the
instruction execution cycle and interrupt handling? The context is
the stuff on the CPU which needs to be saved so that the CPU can
restart execution at the current point at some later date (usually
after an interrupt).
Process
A process is a program in execution. A program is just a collection
of code. For example, you have the code for Netscape
Communicator on your hard-drive. When you run that program
by double clicking on its icon your operating system copies that
code into RAM, sets up a whole lot of data structures (including
33
a context) and starts executing it. That’s a process. A process is the
collection of all the data structures the operating system users to
track what the process is doing and where it is up to. It can be said
that a process consists of two different sections _ a thread of
execution. This is the context. The collection of CPU registers.
Where the process is currently up to and the state of the CPU.
Resource ownership A process owns resources. This includes
resources such as memory, files, semaphores, and signals. The
operating system must always be able to find where the process is
and what resources it owns. That’s usually the job of the Process
Control Block (PCB).
Context Switching
• switch between runnable processes
• remove the running process from the processor and replace it
with another runnable process
Steps in context switch:
1. enter the privileged state
2. copy the register values to a safe place, such as a stack (stored in
memory)
The CPU can be switched from process to process
3. load registers for the new context
Let us now discuss Context switch versus Process switch
4. re-enter user state
The difference between a context switch and a process switch.
Contact Switch is the act of switching from one process to another
is somewhat machine- dependent. A general outline is:
Context switch
• the OS gets control (either because of a timer interrupt or
because the process made a system call.
• Operating system processing info is updated (pointer to the
current PCB, etc.)
• Processor state is saved (registers, memory map and floating
point state, etc)
• This process is replaced on the ready queue and the next process
selected by the scheduling algorithm
• The new process’s operating system and processor state is
restored
• The new process continues (to this process it looks like a block
call has just returned, or as if an interrupt service routine (not
a signal handler) has just returned
CPU Switch From Process to Process
A context switch is where you replace the current context (contents
of the CPU registers) with a new context. A context switch is
usually hardware supported. This means that at least part of a
context switch is performed by the hardware. This means that a
context switch is very, very fast. A context switch usually happens
when an interrupt occurs. Just because a context switch has occurred
it doesn’t mean that a process switch will occur.
Process switch
34
Kernel-level threads have more overhead in the kernel (a kernel
thread control block) and more overhead in their use (manipulating
them requires a system call). However the abstraction is cleaner
(threads can make system calls independently).
Examples include Solaris LWPs, and Java on machines that
support kernel threads (like solaris).
Review Exercise
1. Discuss the role of a process in process management.
________________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________________
A process switch is where the current running process is replaced
with a new process.
A process switch usually has some very limited hardware support.
Most of the activity in a process switch must be performed by
software, the operating system. Some of the decisions which have
to be made during a process switch can be quite complex. This
means that a process switch can be very slow. A process switch
always includes at least one context switch, usually two. Remember,
operating systems are interrupt driven, a process switch happens
in response to an interrupt. That’s one context switch, current
process to interrupt handler. Eventually, the operating system
returns the CPU to the new running process. The second context
switch, operating system to new current process.
Threads
Threads are lightweight processes. They improve performance by
weakening the process abstraction. A process is one thread of
control executing one program in one address space. A thread
may have multiple threads of control running different parts of a
program in one address space.
________________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________________
2. Draw a process state transition diagram using five states and
explain the interpretation of each transition.
________________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________________
3. Explain how the READY and BLOCKED queues would
represent the presence of processes in these states.
________________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________________
Because threads expose multitasking to the user (cheaply) they are
more powerful, but more complicated. Thread programmers have
to explicitly address multithreading and synchronization (which
is the topic of our next unit).
________________________________________________________________________
User Threads
Reference Books:
User threads are implemented entriely in user space. The
programmer of the thread library writes code to synchronize threads
and to context switch them, and they all run in one process. The
operating system is unaware that a thread system is even running.
Author Dahmke, Mark.
User-level threads replicate some amount of kernel level
functionality in user space. Examples of user-level threads systems
are Nachos and Java (on OSes that don’t support kernel threads).
Becuase the OS treats the running process like any other there is
no additional kernel overhead for user-level threads. However,
the user-level threads only run when the OS has scheduled their
underlying process (making a blocking system call blocks all the
threads.)
Kernel Threads
Some OS kernels support the notion of threads and schedule
them directly. There are system calls to create threads and manipulate
them in ways similar to processes. Synchronization and scheduling
may be provided by the kernel.
________________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________________
Main TitleMicrocomputer Operating Systems / Mark
Dahmke.
Publisher Peterborough, N.H : Mcgraw-Hill/Byte Books, C1982.
Author Deitel, Harvey M., 1945Main Title An Introduction To Operating Systems / Harvey M.
Deitel.
Edition Rev. 1st Ed.
Publisher Reading, Mass : Addison-Wesley Pub. Co., C1984.
Author Lister, A. (Andrew), 1945Main Title Fundamentals Of Operating Systems / A.M. Lister.
Edition 3rd Ed.
Publisher London : Macmillan, 1984.
Author Gray, N. A. B. (Neil A. B.)
Main Title Introduction To Computer Systems / N.A.B. Gray.
Publisher Englewood Cliffs, New Jersey ; Sydney : Prentice-Hall,
1987.
35
Author Peterson, James L.
Main Title Operating System Concepts / James L. Peterson,
Abraham Silberschatz.
Edition 2nd Ed.
Publisher Reading, Mass. : Addison-Wesley, 1985.
Author Stallings, William.
Main Title Operating Systems / William Stallings.
Edition 6th Ed.
Publisher Englewood Cliffs, Nj : Prentice Hall, C1995.
Author Tanenbaum, Andrew S., 1944Main Title Operating Systems : Design And Implementation /
Andrew S. Tanenbaum, Albert S. Woodhull.
Edition 2nd Ed.
Publisher Upper Saddle River, Nj : Prentice Hall, C1997.
Author Nutt, Gary J.
Main Title Operating Systems : A Modern Perspective / Gary J.
Nutt.
Publisher Reading, Mass. : Addison-Wesley, C1997.
Author Silberschatz, Abraham.
Main Title Operating System Concepts / Abraham Silberschatz,
Peter Baer Galvin.
Edition 6th Ed.
Publisher Reading, Mass. : Addison Wesley Longman, C1998.
What is a Process?
A container to run software in
Notes
36
LESSON 8:
Objectives
• You will be able to know what operations are performed on
•
• In UNIX, the pid t fork (void) system call can be used to create
a new child with a duplicate address space.
Processes?
Let us now discuss Process Creation using different models
You will Understand about Process Scheduling Criteria.
There are two main models of process creation - the fork/exec
and the spawn models. On systems that support fork, a new
process is created as a copy of the original one and then explicitly
executes (exec) a new program to run. In the spawn model the
new program and arguments are named in the system call, a new
process is created and that program runs directly.
Now I will start with an Operations on Processes
You hopefully now know that the mix of processes present in the
system is dynamic, with the operating system attempting to
manage the mix in order to obtain good resource use efficiency
and good user reactions! I have yet to address the issues involved
in process creation and deletion.
To manage the process mix, the operating system must be able to:
• Setup a process i.e. create it by marshalling all necessary resources
and placing it in the new queue; and
• Delete a process i.e. reallocating the various resources back to
the operating system’s internal inventory data structures
Fork is the more flexible model. It allows a program to arbitrarily
change the environment of the child process before starting the
new program. Typical fork pseudo-code looks like:
if ( fork() == 0 ) {
/* Child process */
change standard input
Process Creation
block signals for timers
• Process creation is obviously critical to the operating system,
run the new program
starting right at the boot up stage where it launches its own
daemons and other service provider processes.
}
else {
• At the core is a process creation system call, which obtains resources
either from the operating system or from the resources already
allocated to the process making the call - these resources are
organized into a PCB and this new process enters the new
queue.
• Using UNIX as an example operating system, we say that a
child processes has been created. A child process will possess a
prototype of int main() so it will return a result to its parent.
• A hierarchical (tree) structure of processes is created.
• Once a parent creates a child process, a number of execution
possibilities exist:
• The parent may immediately enter a wait state for the child to
finish — on UNIX, see the man pages for {wait, waitpid,
wait4, wait3};
• The parent could immediately terminate;
• Both may continue to execute.
• If the parent happens to terminate before the child has returned
its value, then the child will become a zombie process and may
be listed as such in the process status list!
• Once a parent creates a child process, a number of memory
possibilities exist:
• The child can have a duplicate of the parent’s address space - as
each process continues to execute, their data spaces will
presumably diverge;
• The child can have a completely new program loaded into its
address space;
/* Parent process */
wait for child to complete
}
Any parameters of the child process’s operating environment that
must be changed must be included in the parameters to spawn,
and spawn will have a standard way of handling them. There are
various ways to handle the proliferation of parameters that results,
for example AmigaDOS (R) uses tag lists - linked lists of selfdescribing parameters - to solve the problem.
The steps to process creation are similar for both models. The OS
gains control after the fork or spawn system call, and creates and
fills a new PCB. Then a new address space (memory) is allocated
for the process. Fork creates a copy of the parent address space,
and spawn creates a new address space derived from the program.
Then the PCB is put on the run list and the system call returns.
An important difference between the two systems is that the fork
call must create a copy of the parent address space. This can be
wasteful if that address space will be deleted and rewritten in a few
instruction’s time. One solution to this problem has been a second
system call, vfork, that lets the child process use the parent’s memory
until an exec is made. We’ll discuss other systems to mitigate the
cost of fork when we talk about memory management.
Which is “better” is an open issue. The tradeoffs are flexibility vs.
overhead, as usual
I will explain you the various steps used for Process Termination
• Once a process executes its final instruction, a call to exit() is
made.
37
• Even if the user did not program in a call to exit(), the compiler
will have appended one to int main().
• The operating system then flushes any I/O buffers.
• All resources such as physical and virtual memory, I/O buffers,
and open files are deallocated and returned to the operating
system.
• The final result of the process from its int main() is returned to
the parent, with a call to wait() if necessary.
• A parent may terminate execution of children processes.
• Reasons for a call to abort() include the child exceeding its
allocated resources, the process may no longer be required, or
the parent is exiting and the operating system may not allow a
child to exist without a parent.
Scheduling Queues
As processes enter the system, they are put into a job queue. This
queue consists of all processes residing on mass storage awaiting
allocation of main memory. The processes that are residing in
main memory and are ready and waiting to execute are kept on a
list called the ready queue. This list is generally a linked-list. A readyqueue header will contain pointers to the first and last process
control blocks in the list. Each PCB has a pointer field that points
to the next process in the ready queue.
There are also other queues in the system. When a process is
allocated the CPU, it executes for awhile and eventually either quits
or waits for the occurrence of a particular event, such as the
completion of an I/O request. In the case of an I/O request,
such a request may be to disk. Since there are many processes in the
system, the disk may be busy with the I/O request of some other
process. Thus, the process may have to wait for the disk. The list
of processes waiting for a particular I/O device is called a device
queue. Each device has its own device queue.
A common representation for a discussion of process scheduling
is a queueing diagram, shown below. Each rectangular box represents
a queue. Two types of queues are present: the ready queue and a
set of device queues. The circles represent the resources that serve
the queues, and the arrows indicate the flow of processes in the
system.
A new process is initially put into the ready queue. It waits in the
ready queue until it is selected for execution and is given the CPU.
Once the process is allocated the CPU and is executing, one of
several events could occur:
• The process could issue an I/O request, and then be placed in
an I/O queue.
• The process could create a new process and wait for its’
termination.
• The process could be forcibly removed from the CPU, as a
result of an interrupt, and be put back into the ready queue.
In the first two cases, the process eventually switches from the
waiting state to the ready state and is then put back into the ready
queue. A process continues this cycle until it terminates, at which
time it exits from the system.
Now you will learn about the representation of Process
Scheduling
38
CPU Scheduler
• Selects from among the processes in memory that are ready to
execute, and allocates the CPU to one of them.
• CPU scheduling decisions may take place when a process:
• Switches from running to waiting state.
• Switches from running to ready state.
• Switches from waiting to ready.
• Terminates.
Scheduling under 1 and 4 is non-preemptive.
All other scheduling is preemptive.
Dispatcher
• Dispatcher module gives control of the CPU to the process
selected by the short-term scheduler; this involves:
•
switching context
•
switching to user mode
•
jumping to the proper location in the user program to
restart that program
• Dispatch latency – time it takes for the dispatcher to stop one
process and start another running.
Types of Schedulers
In this subsection we describe three types of schedulers: long
term, medium term and short term schedulers in terms of its
objectives, operating environment and relationship to other
schedulers in a complex operating system environment.
Long term scheduler: Sometimes it is also called job scheduling.
This determines which job shall be admitted for immediate
processing.
Medium term scheduler
Long term and short term schedule
There are always more processes than it can be executed by CPU
operating System. These processes are kept in large storage devices
like disk for later processing. The long term scheduler selects
processes from this pool and loads them into memory. In memory
these processes belong to a ready queue. Queue is a type of data
structure which has been discussed in course 4. Figure 3 shows the
positioning of all three type of schedulers. The short term
scheduler (also called the CPU scheduler) selects from among the
processes in memory which are ready to execute and assigns the
CPU to one of them. The long term scheduler executes less
frequently.
If the average rate of number of processes arriving in memory is
equal to that of departuring the system then the long- term
scheduler may need to be invoked only when a process departs the
system. Because of longer time taken by CPU during execution,
the long term scheduler can afford to take more time to decide
which process should be selected for execution. It may also be very
important that long term scheduler should take a careful selection
of processes i.e. processes should be combination of CPU and I/
O bound types. Generally, most processes can be put into any of
two categories: CPU bound or I/O bound. If all processes are I/
O bound, the ready queue will always be empty and the short
term scheduler will have nothing to do. If all processes are CPU
bound. no process will be waiting for I/O operation and again
the system will be unbalanced. Therefore, the long term scheduler
provides good performance by selecting combination of CPU
bound and I/O bound process.
Medium term scheduler:
Most of the processes require some I/O operation. In that case, it
may become suspended for I/O operation after running a while.
It is beneficial to remove these process (suspended) from main
memory to hard disk to make room for other processes. At some
later time these process can be reloaded into memory and continued
where from it was left earlier. Saving of the suspended process is
said to be swapped out or rolled out. The process is swapped in
and swap out by the medium term scheduler. The figure 4 shows
the positioning of the medium term scheduler.
The medium term scheduler has nothing to do with the
suspended processes. But the moment the suspending condition
is fulfilled, the medium term scheduler get activated to allocate the
memory and swap in the process and make it ready for commenting
CPU resources. In order to work properly, the medium term
scheduler must be provided with information about the memory
requirement of swapped out processes which is usually recorded
at the time of swapping and stored in die related process control
block. In term of the process state transition diagram (figure 1)
the medium term scheduler controls suspended to ready transition
of swapped processes.
The short term scheduler:
It allocates processes belonging to ready queue to CPU for
immediate processing. Its main objective is to maximize CPU
requirement. Compared to the other two scheduler it is more
frequent It must select a new process for execution quite often
because a CPU executes a process only for few millisecond before
it goes for I/O operation. Often the short term scheduler executes
at least once very 10 millisecond. If it takes 1 millisecond to decide
to execute a process for 10 millisecond, the 1/(10+1) = 9% of the
CPU is being wasted simply for scheduling the work. Therefore. it
must be very fast.
In terms of the process state transition diagram it is in charge of
ready to running state transition
Scheduling Criteria
• CPU utilization – keep the CPU as busy as possible
• Throughput – # of processes that complete their execution
per time unit
• Turnaround time – amount of time to execute a particular
process
• Waiting time – amount of time a process has been waiting in
the ready queue
• Response time – amount of time it takes from when a request
was submitted until the first response is produced, not output
(for time-sharing environment)
Optimization Criteria
• Max CPU utilization
• Max throughput
• Min turnaround time
• Min waiting time
• Min response time
39
Discussion
Abraham Silberschatz.
• Discuss in brief various operations of Processes
Edition 2nd Ed.
________________________________________________________________________
Publisher Reading, Mass. : Addison-Wesley, 1985.
________________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________________
Author Stallings, William.
Main Title Operating Systems / William Stallings.
________________________________________________________________________
Edition 6th Ed.
________________________________________________________________________
Publisher Englewood Cliffs, Nj : Prentice Hall, C1995.
________________________________________________________________________
Author Tanenbaum, Andrew S., 1944-
________________________________________________________________________
Main Title Operating Systems : Design And Implementation /
Andrew S. Tanenbaum, Albert S. Woodhull.
• Explain the need of a dispatcher
Edition 2nd Ed.
________________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________________
Publisher Upper Saddle River, Nj : Prentice Hall, C1997.
________________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________________
• Briefly explain the Process Scheduling Criteria
________________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________________
Reference Books:
Author Dahmke, Mark.
Main Title Microcomputer Operating Systems / Mark Dahmke.
Publisher Peterborough, N.H : Mcgraw-Hill/Byte Books, C1982.
Author Deitel, Harvey M., 1945Main Title An Introduction To Operating Systems / Harvey M.
Deitel.
Edition Rev. 1st Ed.
Publisher Reading, Mass : Addison-Wesley Pub. Co., C1984.
Author Lister, A. (Andrew), 1945Main TitleFundamentals Of Operating Systems / A.M. Lister.
Edition 3rd Ed.
Publisher London : Macmillan, 1984.
Author Gray, N. A. B. (Neil A. B.)
Main Title Introduction To Computer Systems / N.A.B. Gray.
Publisher Englewood Cliffs, New Jersey ; Sydney : Prentice-Hall,
1987.
Author Peterson, James L.
Main Title Operating System Concepts / James L. Peterson,
40
Author Nutt, Gary J.
Main Title Operating Systems : A Modern Perspective /Gary J.
Nutt.
Publisher Reading, Mass. : Addison-Wesley, C1997.
Author Silberschatz, Abraham.
Main Title Operating System Concepts / Abraham Silberschatz,
Peter Baer Galvin.
Edition 6th Ed.
Publisher Reading, Mass. : Addison Wesley Longman, C1998.
Notes
LESSON-9
Objectives
Today I will teach you the Scheduling Concepts and various
Scheduling Algorithms.
Scheduling Concepts
The objective of multiprogramming is to have some process
running at all times, to maximize CPU utilization. The idea is
quite simple. A process is executed until it must wait, typically for
the completion of some I/O request. In a simple computer
system, the CPU would normally sit idle while the process waited
for the completion of the event. In a multiprogramming system,
several processes are kept in memory at a time. When one process
has to wait, the operating system takes the CPU away from that
process and gives it to another process. This pattern continues.
Every time one process has to wait, another process may take over
use of the CPU.
The benefits of multiprogramming are increased CPU utilization
and higher throughput, which is the amount of work
accomplished in a given time interval.
Scheduling Criteria
• The aim of a scheduler algorithm is to allocate the CPU time
resource in some optimal manner. The definition of optimality
determines the end result — we can consider:
• CPU utilization i.e. the proportion of time that the CPU is
doing work;
• Throughput i.e. the number of processes (or jobs) completed
per unit time (not useful unless the jobs are similar in
complexity);
• Turnaround time i.e. the total elapsed time from when the
job was submitted to when it was complete, including execution
time, IO wait time, ready-to-run queue wait time, and all other
overheads;CPU burst: the amount of time the process uses
the processor before it is no longer ready
system the consequence of missing one interrupt could be
dangerous.
In non-preemptive systems, jobs are made to wait by longer jobs,
but the treatment of all processes is fairer. The decision whether
to schedule preemptive or not depends on the environment and
the type of application most likely to be supported by a given
operating system
First-Come, First-Served Scheduling
By far the simplest CPU scheduling algorithm is the first-come,
first- served (FCFS) algorithm. With this scheme, the process that
requests the CPU is allocated the CPU first. The implementation
of the FCFS policy is easily managed with a First-In-First-Out
(FIFO) queue. When a process enters the ready queue, its PCB is
linked onto the tail of the queue. When the CPU is free, it is
allocated to the process at the head of the ready queue. The FCFS
scheduling is simple to write and understand.
The FCFS scheduling algorithm is nonpreemptive. Once the CPU
has been allocated to a process, that process keeps the CPU until it
wants to release the CPU, either by terminating or by requesting I/
O. The FCFS algorithm is particularly troublesome for time-sharing
systems. Where it is important that each user get a share of the
CPU at regular intervals. It would be disastrous to allow one
process to keep the CPU for an extended period.
Example:
Process
P1
P2
Burst Time
24
3
P3
3
Suppose that the processes arrive in the order: P 1 , P 2 , P 3 The
Gantt chart for the schedule is:
Types of CPU bursts:
• short bursts-process I/O bound (i.e. vi)
Scheduling Algorithms
CPU scheduling deals with the problem of deciding which of the
processes in the ready queue to be allocated the CPU. There are
several scheduling algorithms which you will examine in this
section.
A major division among scheduling algorithms is that whether
they support pre-emptive or non-preemptive scheduling
discipline. A scheduling discipline is non-preemptive if once a
process has been given the CPU, the CPU cannot be taken away
from that process. A scheduling discipline is pre-emptive if the
CPU can be taken away.
Preemptive scheduling is more useful in high priority process
which requires immediate response. For example in Real time
• Waiting time for P1 = 0; P2 = 24; P3 = 27
• Average waiting time: (0 + 24 + 27)/3 = 17
Suppose that the processes arrive in the order: P2, P3 , P1.
• The Gantt chart for the schedule is:
• Waiting time for P1 = 6; P2 = 0; P3 = 3
• Average waiting time: (6 + 0 + 3)/3 = 3
• Much better than previous case.
41
• Convoy effect: short process behind long process
Average waiting time = (0 + 6 + 3 + 7)/4 = 4
Shortest-Job-First Scheduling
Priority Scheduling
The SJF algorithm is a special case of the general priority-scheduling
algorithm. A priority is associated with each process, and the CPU
is allocated to the process with the highest priority. Equal-priority
processes are scheduled in FCFS order.
A different approach to CPU scheduling is the shortest-job-first
(SJF) algorithm.(The term shortest process first is not used because
most people and textbooks refer to this type of scheduling
discipline as shortest-job-first) This algorithm associates with each
process the length of the next CPU burst. When the CPU is
available, it is assigned to the process that has the next smallest
CPU burst. If two processes have the same length CPU burst,
FCFS scheduling is used to break the tie.
The SJF algorithm is provably optimal, in that it gives the minimum
average waiting time for a given set of processes. Given two
processes, with one having a longer execution time than the other,
it can be shown that moving a short process before a long process
decreases the waiting time of the long process. Consequently the
average waiting time decreases.
The real difficulty with the SJF algorithm knows the length of the
next CPU request. For a long-term (job) scheduling in a batch
system, you can use the process time limit. Thus, users are
motivated to estimate the process time limit accurately, since a
lower value may mean faster response. (Too low a value will cause
a “time-limit-exceeded” error and require resubmission.) SJF
scheduling is used frequently in process scheduling.
Although the SJF algorithm is optimal, that is, not other algorithm
can deliver better performance; it cannot be implemented at the
level of short-term CPU scheduling. There is no way to know the
length of the next CPU burst. One approach is to try to
approximate SJF scheduling. We may not know the length of the
next CPU burst, but you may be able to predict its value. We
expect that the next CPU burst will be similar in length to the
previous ones. Thus, by computing an approximation of the
length of the next CPU burst, you can pick the process with the
shortest predicted CPU burst.
The SJF algorithm may be either preemptive or non- preemptive.
The choice arises when a new process arrives at the ready queue
while a previous process is executing. The new process may have a
shorter next CPU burst than what is left of the currently executing
process. A preemptive SJF algorithm will preempt the currently
executing process, whereas a non-preemptive SJF algorithm will
allow the currently running process to finish its CPU burst.
Preemptive SJF scheduling is sometimes called shortest-remainingtime-first scheduling.
Example
Process Arrival Time
Burst Time
P1
0.0
P2
2.0
P3
4.0
P4
5.0
SJF (nonpreemptive)
7
4
1
4·
An SJF algorithm is simply a priority algorithm where the priority(p)
is the inverse of the (predicted) next CPU burst(t ): p = 1/t. The
larger the CPU burst, the lower the priority and vice versa.
Note that you discuss scheduling in terms ofhigh and low priority.
Priorities are generally some fixed range of numbers, such as 0 to
7, or 0 to 4095. However, there is no general agreement on whether
0 is the highest or lowest priority. Some systems use low numbers
to represent low priority; others use low numbers for high priority.
This difference can lead to confusion. In the text, we assume that
low numbers represent high priority.
Priority scheduling can be either preemptive or non-preemptive.
When a process arrives at the ready queue, its priority is compared
with the priority of the currently running process. A preemptive
priority-scheduling algorithm will preempt the CPU if the priority
of the newly arrived process is higher than the priority of the
currently running process. A non-preemptive priority-scheduling
algorithm will simply put the new process at the head of the ready
queue.
A major problem with priority scheduling algorithms is indefinite
blocking or starvation. A process that is ready to run but lacking the
CPU can be considered blocked, waiting for the CPU. A priorityscheduling algorithm can leave some low-priority processes waiting
indefinitely for the CPU. In a heavily loaded computer system, a
steady stream of higher-priority processes can prevent a lowpriority process from ever getting the CPU. Generally, one of two
things will happen. Either the process will eventually be run (At 2
am. Sunday, when the system is finally lightly loaded) or the
computer system will eventually crash and lose all unfinished lowpriority processes.
A solution to the problem of indefinite blockage of low-priority
processes is aging. Aging is a technique of gradually increasing the
priority of processes that wait in the system for a long time. For
example, if priorities range from 0(high) to 127(low), you could
decrement a waiting process’s priority by 1 every minute.
Eventually, even a process with an initial priority of 127 would
have the highest priority in the system and would be executed. In
fact, it would take no more than 2 hours and 7 minutes for a
priority 127 processes to age to priority 0 processes.
Round-Robin Scheduling
The round-robin (RR) scheduling algorithm is designed especially
for time-sharing systems. A small unit of time, called a time
quantum or time-slice is defined. A time quantum is generally
from 10 to 100 milliseconds. The ready queue is treated as a circular
queue. The CPU scheduler goes around the ready queue, allocating
the CPU to each process for a time interval of up to 1 time
quantum.
To implement RR scheduling, you keep the ready queue as a firstin, first-out (FIFO) queue of processes. New processes are added
to the tail of the ready queue. The CPU scheduler picks the first
42
process, sets a timer to interrupt after 1 time quantum, and
dispatches the process.
One of two things will then happen. The process may have a CPU
burst of less than 1 time quantum. In this case, the process itself
will release the CPU voluntarily. The scheduler will then proceed
to the next process in the ready queue. Otherwise, it the CPU
burst of the currently running process is greater than 1 time
quantum; the timer will go off and will cause an interrupt to the
operating system. A context switch will be executed, and the process
will be put at the tail of the ready queue. The CPU scheduler will
then select the next process from the ready queue.
A multilevel queue scheduling algorithm partitions the ready queue
into separate queues as shown below. Processes are permanently
assigned to one queue, generally based on some property of the
process, such as memory size or process type. Each queue has its
own scheduling algorithm. For example, separate queues might
be used for foreground and background processes. A RR algorithm
might schedule the foreground process queue, while the
background an FCFS algorithm schedules queue. In addition,
there must be scheduling between the queues. This is commonly
a fixed-priority preemptive scheduling. For example, the
foreground queue may have an absolute priority over the
background queue.
In the RR scheduling algorithm, no process is allocated the CPU
for more than 1 time quantum in a row. If a process’s CPU burst
exceeds 1 time quantum, that process os preempted and is put back
in the ready queue. The RR scheduling algorithm is inherently
preemptive.
The performance of the RR algorithm depends heavily on the
size of the time quantum. At one extreme, if the time quantum
is very large (infinite), the RR policy is the same as the FCFS policy.
If the time quantum is very small (say 10 milliseconds), the RR
approach is called processor sharing, and appears (in theory) to the
users as though each of n processes has its own processor running
at 1/n the speed of the real processor.
For operating systems, you need to consider the effect of context
switching on the performance of RR scheduling. Let use assume
that you have only 1 process of 10 time units. If the quantum is
12 time units, the process finishes in less than 1 time quantum,
with no overhead. If the quantum is 6 time units, however, the
process will require 2 quanta, resulting in a context switch. If the
time quantum is 1 time unit, then 9 context switches will occur,
slowing the execution of the process accordingly.
Thus, you want the time quantum to be large with respect to the
context switch time. If the context switch time is approximately 5
percent of the time quantum, then about 5 percent of the CPU
time will be spent in context switch.
Summary of CPU Scheduling implementations
+——————+———————————————+
|FCFS
|inherently non-preemptive |
+——————+———————————————+
|SJF
|preemptive or non-preemptive |
+——————+———————————————+
|Priority |preemptive or non-preemptive |
+——————+———————————————+
|Round-Robin |inherently preemptive
|
+——————+———————————————+
Multilevel Queue Scheduling
Another class of scheduling algorithms has been created for
situations in which classes of processes are easily classified into
different groups. For example, a common division is made
between foreground (interactive) processes and background (batch)
processes. These two types of processes have quite different
response-time requirements, and so might have different
scheduling needs, In addition, foreground processes may have
priority(externally defined) over background processes.
Multiple queue Scheduling
Multilevel Feedback Queue Scheduling
Normally, in a multilevel queue-scheduling algorithm, processes
are permanently assigned to a queue on entry to the system.
Processes do not move between queues. If there are separate
queues for foreground and background processes, for example,
processes do not move from one queue to the other, since
processes do not change their foreground or background nature.
This setup has the advantage of low scheduling overhead, but is
inflexible.
Multilevel feedback queue scheduling, however, allows a process to
move between queues. The idea is to separate processes with
different CPU- burst characteristics. If a process uses too much
CPU time, it will be moved to a lower priority queue. This scheme
leaves I/O-bound and interactive processes in the higher priority
queues. Similarly, a process that waits too long in a lower-priority
queue may be moved to a higher-priority queue. This is a form of
aging that would prevent starvation.
In general, a multifeedback queue scheduler is defined by the
following parameters:
• The number of queues
• The scheduling algorithm for each queue
• The method used to determine when to upgrade a process to
a higher- priority queue
• The method used to determine when to demote a process to a
lower-priority queue
• The method used to determine which queue a process will
enter when that process needs service
The definition of a multilevel feedback queue scheduler makes it
the most general CPU scheduling algorithm. It can be configured
to match a specific system under design. Unfortunately, it also
43
requires some means of selecting values for all the parameters to
define the best scheduler. Although a multilevel feedback queue is
the most general scheme, it is also the most complex.
Publisher London : Macmillan, 1984.
Author Gray, N. A. B. (Neil A. B.)
Main Title Introduction To Computer Systems / N.A.B. Gray.
Discussions
Publisher Englewood Cliffs, New Jersey ; Sydney : Prentice-Hall,
1987.
Author Peterson, James L.
Main Title Operating System Concepts / James L. Peterson,
Abraham Silberschatz.
• What would be the effect, using the FCFS scheme, if the running
process got stuck in an infinite CPU loop?
________________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________________
• With respect to the Round Robin scheduling scheme, discuss
the factors, which determine the ideal value for the time
quantum.
________________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________________
• The following series of processes with the given estimated
run-times arrives in the READY queue in the order shown.
For FCFS and SJF scheduling policies, calculate the waiting
time and the wait-time / run-time ratio of each process.
Comment on results.
Job
Est. run time
1
10
2
50
3
2
4
5
100
5
________________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________________
Reference Books:
Author Dahmke, Mark.
Main Title Microcomputer Operating Systems / Mark Dahmke.
Publisher Peterborough, N.H : Mcgraw-Hill/Byte Books, C1982.
Author Deitel, Harvey M., 1945Main Title An Introduction To Operating Systems /Harvey M.
Deitel.
Edition Rev. 1st Ed.
Publisher Reading, Mass : Addison-Wesley Pub. Co., C1984.
Author Lister, A. (Andrew), 1945Main Title Fundamentals Of Operating Systems / A.M. Lister.
Edition 3rd Ed.
44
Edition 2nd Ed.
Publisher Reading, Mass. : Addison-Wesley, 1985.
Author Stallings, William.
Main Title Operating Systems / William Stallings.
Edition 6th Ed.
Publisher Englewood Cliffs, Nj : Prentice Hall, C1995.
Author Tanenbaum, Andrew S., 1944Main Title Operating Systems : Design And Implementation /
Andrew S. Tanenbaum, Albert S. Woodhull.
Edition 2nd Ed.
Publisher Upper Saddle River, Nj : Prentice Hall, C1997.
Author Nutt, Gary J.
Main Title Operating Systems : A Modern Perspective / Gary J.
Nutt.
Publisher Reading, Mass. : Addison-Wesley, C1997.
Author Silberschatz, Abraham.
Main Title Operating System Concepts / Abraham Silberschatz,
Peter Baer Galvin.
Edition 6th Ed.
Publisher Reading, Mass. : Addison Wesley Longman, C1998.
LESSON-10
Objectives
Hello ,today you will learn about the following • Scheduling Mechanism.
• Various Process Scheduling algorithms.
Scheduling Mechanisms
Time multiplexing of the CPU by the multiple processes
simultaneously loaded into RAM. Enqueuer. Ready list (ready
queue) of pointers to process descriptors. Context switcher saves
all register values of currently running process in an area in its
process descriptor. Dispatcher chooses process to run next from
the ready queue based on the policy in effect. Context switcher
loads the registers from the process descriptor of the process
chosen by the dispatcher.
Voluntary release of the CPU when a process yields the CPU,
requests a resource that cannot be immediately granted, or makes
an IO system call. Danger of infinite loops.
Involuntary release of the CPU. Limits negative effect of process
infinite loop to just that process. Interval timer device generates
interrupts periodically. The interrupt handler code for this device
can call the CPU scheduler to schedule some other process to run.
Preemptive scheduling.
Context switches take 5-10 microseconds, depending on memory
speed and how many registers there are in the CPU.
Context switch time is overhead and slows the system down. The
hardware determines context switch time. The time a process
spends in the ready queue before running on the CPU slows
down that process. The scheduling policy determines this time,
not the hardware. If the process is interactive, the user might
sense this time if it is long.
Scheduling Policies (Strategies)
Factors: predictable performance, equitable sharing, optimizes
performance for certain classes of jobs (batch, interactive, real time).
Lots of theoretical work done assuming a collection of processes
in the ready queue, no more processes show up in the ready queue,
and process total CPU needs and IO needs are known in advance.
This is all unrealistic so this theoretical work is of theoretical interest
only.
Definitions: service time is the total CPU time needed by a process
to complete, wait time is the time spent in the ready queue before
getting the CPU for the first time, turnaround time is the total time
from first entering the ready queue (process creation) to leaving
the running state for the last time (process termination).
Batch systems try to minimize average turnaround time (maximize
throughput or jobs completed per minute). Timesharing systems
try to minimize the wait time (also called the response time).
Non preemptive Strategies
First-come-first-served (FCFS).
Suppose five processes have CPU needs of 350, 125, 475, 250, 75
and are run in that order. The average turnaround time is (350 +
(350+125) + (350+125+475) + (350+125+475+250) +
(350+125+475+250+75)) * (1/5) = 4250/5 = 850. The average
wait time is (0 + (350) + (350+125) + (350+125+475) +
(350+125+475+250)) * (1/5) = 2975/5 = 595.
Shortest-job-next (SJN).
The five processes with CPU needs of 350, 125, 475, 250, 75 will
be run in the order 75, 125, 250, 350, 475 The average turnaround
time is (75 + (75+125) + (75+125+250) + (75+125+250+350) +
(75+125+250+350+475)) * (1/5) = 2800/5 = 560. The average
wait time is (0 + (75) + (75+125) + (75+125+250) +
(75+125+250+350)) * (1/5) = 1525/5 = 305. SJN minimizes
average wait time at the expense of increased variance of waiting
times. Starvation of large jobs is possible if new arrivals to the
ready queue with small CPU needs are run first even though the
larger jobs have been waiting longer.
Priority scheduling
External factors are used to determine which process gets the CPU
next, for example, faculty before students, deans before faculty,
etc.
Deadline scheduling.
A program digitizing music and writing a CD must be scheduled
carefully so that the buffer of digitized music to be written does
not empty. If that were to happen, the CD is ruined.
Preemptive Strategies
Round robin (time slicing).
Widely used. Goal is to provide equitable CPU sharing in a
timesharing interactive environment at the expense of considerable
context switch overhead.
Suppose five processes have CPU needs of 350, 125, 475, 250, 75,
are run in that order for time slices of 50. Assume first that the
context switch time is zero. The average turnaround time is (1100
+ 550 + 1275 + 950 + 475) * (1/5) = 4350/5 = 870, comparable
to FCFS. The average wait time is (0 + 50 + 100 + 150 + 200) * (1/
5) = 500/5 = 100, favorably low.
Now suppose the context switch time is not zero but 10 (time
slice is still 50). The average turnaround time is (1320 + 660 +
1535 + 1140 + 565) * (1/5) = 5220/5 = 1044, a substantial increase.
The average wait time is (0 + 60 + 120 + 180 + 240) * (1/5) =
600/5 = 120.
Multiple-level queues.
Foreground ready queue and background ready queue. Foreground
queue is scheduled round robin. Background ready queue is not
scheduled unless foreground ready queue is empty and is scheduled
round robin with a much larger time slice if the foreground queue
is empty.
45
Multiple-level feedback queues.
Main Title Introduction To Computer Systems / N.A.B. Gray.
CPU-bound ready queue and IO-bound ready queue. OS
categorizes processes as they run and switches processes between
the two ready queues dynamically. The IO-bound ready queue is
scheduled before the CPU-bound queue to keep the IO devices
busy.
Publisher Englewood Cliffs, New Jersey ; Sydney : Prentice-Hall,
1987.
There might be a real-time ready queue that is scheduled before
the other two.
Discussion
• Now you explain the concept of a priority used in scheduling.
Why is priority working usually chosen for real-time processes?
________________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________________
• Give your Comments on the principal disadvantages of each
of these scheduling methods:
• FCFS
• SJF
• RR
________________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________________
Reference Books:
Author Dahmke, Mark.
Main Title Microcomputer Operating Systems / Mark Dahmke.
Publisher Peterborough, N.H : Mcgraw-Hill/Byte Books, C1982.
Author Deitel, Harvey M., 1945Main Title An Introduction To Operating Systems / Harvey M.
Deitel.
Edition Rev. 1st Ed.
Publisher Reading, Mass : Addison-Wesley Pub. Co., C1984.
Author Lister, A. (Andrew), 1945Main Title Fundamentals Of Operating Systems / A.M. Lister.
Edition 3rd Ed.
Publisher London : Macmillan, 1984.
Author Gray, N. A. B. (Neil A. B.)
46
Author Peterson, James L.
Main Title Operating System Concepts / James L. Peterson,
Abraham Silberschatz.
Edition 2nd Ed.
Publisher Reading, Mass. : Addison-Wesley, 1985.
Author Stallings, William.
Main Title Operating Systems / William Stallings.
Edition 6th Ed.
Publisher Englewood Cliffs, Nj : Prentice Hall, C1995.
Author Tanenbaum, Andrew S., 1944Main Title Operating Systems : Design And Implementation /
Andrew S. Tanenbaum, Albert S. Woodhull.
Edition 2nd Ed.
Publisher Upper Saddle River, Nj : Prentice Hall, C1997.
Author Nutt, Gary J.
Main Title Operating Systems : A Modern Perspective / Gary J.
Nutt.
Publisher Reading, Mass. : Addison-Wesley, C1997.
Author Silberschatz, Abraham.
Main Title Operating System Concepts / Abraham
Silberschatz, Peter Baer Galvin.
Edition 6th Ed.
Publisher Reading, Mass. : Addison Wesley Longman, C1998.
LESSON-11
Today I will be covering the following objectives.
Advantage of Cooperating process
• Introduction to Cooperating process.
• Information sharing: Several users may be interested in the
same piece of information.
• You will be able to know about Inter-Process Communication
• Basic concept of Inter-Process Communication and
• Computation speedup: If we want particular task to run faster,
we must break it into subtasks, each of which will be executing
in parallel with others.
Synchronization
Basic Concepts of Concurrency
Concurrent Process: I discussed the concept of a process earlier
in this unit. The operating system consists of a collection of such
processes which are basically two types:
Operating system processes: Those that execute system code
and the rest being user processes, those that execute user’s code.
All of these processes can potentially execute in concurrent manner.
Concurrency refers to a parallel execution of a program.
A concurrent program specifies two or more sequential programs
(a sequential program specifies sequential execution of a list of
statements) that may be executed concurrently as parallel processes.
For example, an airline reservation system that involves processing
transactions from many terminals has a natural specifications as a
concurrent program in which each terminal is controlled by its
own sequential process. Even when processes are not executed
simultaneously, it is often easier to structure as a collection of
cooperating sequential processes rather than as a single sequential
program.
A simple batch operating system can be viewed as 3 processes -a
reader process, an executor process and a printer process. The
reader reads cards from card reader and places card images in an
input buffer. The executor process reads card images from input
buffer and performs the specified computation and store the result
in an output buffer. The printer process retrieves the data from
the output buffer and writes them to a printer Concurrent
processing is the basis of operating system which supports
multiprogramming.
The operating system supports concurrent execution of a program
without necessarily supporting elaborate form of memory and
file management. This form of operation is also known as
multitasking. Multiprogramming is a more general concept in
operating system that supports memory management and file
management features, in addition to supporting concurrent
execution of programs.
Cooperating Process
Concurrent process executing in the operating system may be
either independent process or cooperating process. A process is
independent if cannot affect or affected by another process
executing in the system. Any process that doesn’t share any data
with any other process is independent. A process is cooperating if
it can affect or be affected by the process executing in the system.
Any process that shares data with other process is a cooperating
process.
• Modularity: Dividing the system functions into separate
process or threads.
• Convenience: Even an individual user may have many task
on which to work at one time.
Let us consider the producer-consumer problem, A producer is
the process that is consumed by a consumer process. A compiler
produce a assembly code that is consume by the assembler. A
producer is one item and the consumer is the another item. The
producer and consumer must be synchronized so that consumer
does not consume an item that has yet been produced.
This can be done in following ways
• unbounded buffer places no practical limit on the size of the
buffer.
• bounded buffer assumes that there is a fixed buffer size.
• Bounded Buffer - Shared-Memory Solution
Using Shared data
const int n = 5; //Buffer Size
int item;
//may be of any data type
int buffer[n]; //array to hold items
int in = 0;
//indexes for placement and
int out = 0;
//reading of items in buffer
Producer process
·
for (;;)
{
/*Produce Item */
nextp = nextp + 1;
/*Test Pointer Position*/
while(((in+1) % n)== out) //if in pointer catches up
{
//to out pointer, wait for out
/*do nothing*/
//pointer to move on
}
/*Place Item In Buffer*/
buffer[in] = nextp;
/*Increment Pointer*/
in = (in+1)%n;
}
Consumer process
for (;;)
{
47
/*Test Pointer Position*/
while (in == out)
//if out pointer catches up
{
//to in pointer, wait for in
/*do nothing*/
//pointer to move on
}
/*Take Item From Buffer*/
nextc = buffer[out];
/*Increment Pointer*/
out = (out+1)%n;
/*Consume Item*/
cout << nextc ;
}
Now I will explain you Inter-process Communication (IPC)
There are a number of applications where processes need to
communicate with each other. Some examples of inter-process
communication include:
When a process prints a table it communicates with operating
system processes.An airline agent runs a program (processes) in
the reservation system, which communicates with others about:
What flights and seats are available.Which process has access to
critical information (semaphores).
Two user processes on mhc communicate when they implement
the “talk” function.Knowledge sources in a “blackboard system”
communicate their hyphotheses.
Processes can communicate by passing information to each other
via shared memory or by message passing.
Why Do Processes Intercommunicate?
• Often a problem is broken into several stages, each handled by
a process, that passes information to the next stage.
• Sometimes a package is broken up into several parts (e.g for an
accounting package: inventory, credits, debits, invoicing, payroll).
Each part will need to pass/obtain information to/from
another part (e.g sales affect inventory etc.).
• There are many methods of intercommunicating information
between processes.
Files
• Files are the most obvious way of passing information. One
process writes a file, and another reads it later. It is often used
for IPC.
Processes can communicate by passing information to each other
via shared memory or by message passing.
Shared Memory
When processes communicate via shared memory they do so by
entering and retrieving data from a single block of physical memory
that designated as shared by all of them. This memory may be a
single bit or a vast array. Each process has direct access to this block
of memory (see Figure ).
48
Message Passing
Message passing is a more indirect form of communication. Rather
than having direct access to a block of memory, processes
communicate by sending and receiving packets of information
called messages. These messages may be communicated
indirectly or directly. Indirect message passing is done via a
mailbox. Direct message passing is done via a link between the
two communicating processes.
Figure when processes communicate via shared memory; they do
so by having direct access to the same block of physical memory.
This block of memory may be a section of RAM. In this case each
process might view this block of memory as an array. Clearly, we
must be aware that this is a shared resource and, as a consequence,
it is subject to the critical section problem. We will talk more about
critical sections later… but this introduces the issue:
In both cases the messages themselves are sent via the operating
system. The processes do not have direct access to any memory
used in the message passing process.
Only one program can have access to a particular array element at a
time. Otherwise trouble is possible. In some cases, it is possible
for every process to inspect the element at the same time, but no
process should have access to that element while another process
is in a section of the code that may change that element based on
the value of that element. This section of code is called a critical
section.
Another example of shared memory is when processes share the
same disk file or directory. This is the same situation, essentially.
Shared files are used for applications where the amount of memory
to be shared is very large (eg. large databases) and the method of
memory access not random or not quickly changing. Shared RAM
is the choice when communicating large amounts of data when
the access tends to be randomly organized.
Examples of the use of shared memory:
Semaphores. All processes share the integer used for a semaphore.
Buffers. A process doing I/O shares a buffer with the OS.
Blackboard. The “blackboard” in a “blackboard system” is a
shared bank of memory.
49
Figure Processes may communicate by sending messages to each
other via a mailbox scheme. In this kind of communication
individual processes do not have direct access to the memory used
as mailboxes.
In the indirect scheme processes create mailboxes and use them
much as we use the mailbox at home (see Figure). The sending
process sends a message to a mailbox and the receiving process
receives the message by extracting it from the mailbox. This
communication process is implemented using a set of commands:
create(A). This command creates a mailbox A.
send(A, messag). Send message to mailbox A
receive(A, message). Receive a message from mailbox A.
Direct message passing process requires that a direct link be
established between the two communicating processes (see Figure
5.3). These links are, of course, buffered so the link is still indirect
in this sense. The communication path is direct, however. Direct
message passing is implemented using the following commands:
create-link (P,Q). Creates a link between processes P and Q.
send(P, message). Sends a message to process P via the link.
receive(Q, message). Receives a message from process Q via the
link.
Both UNIX and Windows NT support indirect communications.
Both include, for example, pipes (named and unnamed) and socket
based communications. Pipes are usually associated with
communications between processes within one computer system
… although Windows NT does support pipes between processes
in different computer systems.
Socket based communications can take place between processes in
the same or different computer systems, as long as the two
computer systems are connected by a TCP/IP network connection.
Anonymous pipe communication calls (examples).
Unix
pipe(...)
creates
a
pipe.
read(...)
read
from
a
pipe
write(...)
write
to
a
pipe
close(...) - close one of the pipe sections.
Windows NT
CreatePipe(...) - creates a pipe with two handles.
SetStdHandle(...) - establishes a handle as the “standard handle”
GetStdHandle(...) - retreives the standard handle.
ReadFile(...) - reads from the input named by a handle.
WriteFile(...) - writes to the output named by a handle.
CloseHandle(...) - closes the resource referred to by a handle.
Figure Direct message passing takes place over direct links between
processes, rather than via mailboxes.
Message passing can be used, among other things, for
communications between processes running in different machines
connected together via a network. Shared memory is not possible
in this situation.
Let us discuss Basic Concepts of Inter-process Communication
and Synchronization
In order to cooperate concurrently executing processes must
communicate and synchronize. Inter-process communication is
based on the use of shared variables (variables that can be
referenced by more than one process) or message passing.
Synchronization is often necessary when processes communicate.
Processes are executed with unpredictable speeds. Yet to
communicate one process must perform some action such as
setting the value of a variable or sending a message that the other
detects. This only works if the events perform an action or detect
an action are constrained to happen in that order. Thus one can
view synchronization as a set of constraints on the ordering of
events. The programmer employs a synchronization mechanism
to delay execution of a process in order to satisfy such constraints.
To make this concept clearer, consider the batch operating system
again. A shared buffer is used for communication between the
leader process and the executor process. These processes must be
synchronized so that, for example, the executor process never
attempts to read data from the input if the buffer is empty. The
next sections are mainly concerned with these two issues.
Mutual Exclusion
Processes frequently need to communicate with other processes.
When a user wants to read from a file, it must tell the file process
what it wants, then the file process has to inform the disk process
to read the required block.
50
Processes that are working together often share some common
storage that one can read and write. The shared storage may be in
main memory or it may be a shared file. Each process has segment
of code, called a critical section, which accesses shared memory or
files. The key issue involving shared memory or shared files is to
find way to prohibit more than one process from reading and
writing the shared data at the same time. What we need is mutual
Exclusion :
some way of making sure that if one process is executing in its
critical section, the other processes will be excluded from doing
the same thing. Now I present algorithm to support mutual
exclusion. This is applicable for two processes only.
Buffering
1· Queue of messages attached to the link; implemented in one
of three ways.
2. Zero capacity 0 messages Sender must wait for receiver
(rendezvous).
3. Bounded capacity finite length of n messages Sender must
wait if link full. Unbounded capacity infinite length Sender
never waits
Review Exercise
What is Concurrent Process?
________________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________________
Edition 3rd Ed.
Publisher London : Macmillan, 1984.
Author Gray, N. A. B. (Neil A. B.)
Main Title Introduction To Computer Systems / N.A.B. Gray.
Publisher Englewood Cliffs, New Jersey ; Sydney : Prentice-Hall,
1987.
Author Peterson, James L.
Main Title Operating System Concepts / James L. Peterson,
Abraham Silberschatz.
Edition 2nd Ed.
Publisher Reading, Mass. : Addison-Wesley, 1985.
Author Stallings, William.
Main Title Operating Systems / William Stallings.
Edition 6th Ed.
Publisher Englewood Cliffs, Nj : Prentice Hall, C1995.
Author Tanenbaum, Andrew S., 1944Main Title Operating Systems : Design And Implementation /
Andrew S. Tanenbaum, Albert S. Woodhull.
Edition 2nd Ed.
Publisher Upper Saddle River, Nj : Prentice Hall, C1997.
Author Nutt, Gary J.
Main TitleOperating Systems : A Modern Perspective / Gary J.
Nutt.
Publisher Reading, Mass. : Addison-Wesley, C1997.
Author Silberschatz, Abraham.
Main Title Operating System Concepts / Abraham Silberschatz,
Peter Baer Galvin.
Edition 6th Ed.
Publisher Reading, Mass. : Addison Wesley Longman, C1998.
Explain the Basic for Inter-process Communication
________________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________________
Reference Books:
Author Dahmke, Mark.
Main Title Microcomputer Operating Systems / Mark Dahmke.
Publisher Peterborough, N.H : Mcgraw-Hill/Byte Books, C1982.
Author Deitel, Harvey M., 1945Main Title An Introduction To Operating Systems / Harvey M.
Deitel.
Edition Rev. 1st Ed.
Publisher Reading, Mass : Addison-Wesley Pub. Co., C1984.
Author Lister, A. (Andrew), 1945Main Title Fundamentals Of Operating Systems / A.M. Lister.
51
LESSON-12
Objectives that I will be covering today are as
• You will be able to know about Process Synchronization.
• You will be able to concept and functions of Process
Synchronization.
Process Synchronization
• Background
• The Critical Section Problem
• Synchronization Hardware
• Semaphores
• Classical Problems of Synchronization
nextp = nextp + 1 ;
/*Test Counter*/
while(counter ==n)
{
/*do nothing*/
}
/*Place Item In Buffer*/
buffer[in] = nextp;
/*Increment Pointer*/
in = (in+1)%n;
• Critical Regions
• Monitors
• Synchronization in Solaris 2
/*Increment Counter*/
counter = counter+1;
} while(true);
• Atomic Transaction
Background
• Consumer process
• Concurrent access to shared data may result in data inconsistency.
do
{
/*Test Counter*/
while (counter==0)
{
/*do nothing*/
}
• Maintaining data consistency requires mechanisms to ensure
the orderly execution of cooperating processes.
• Shared memory solution to bounded buffer problem allows
at most n - 1 items in buffer at the same time. A solution, were
all N buffers are used is not simple.
•
Suppose that we modify the producer consumer code by
adding a variable counter, initialized to 0 and incremented
each time a new item is added to the buffer.
Bounded-Buffer
Producer/Consumer Problem - One process produces items
(e.g. disk requests, characters, print files) and another process
consumes.
Assumeafixed“buffer”space.
Producermuststopwhenbufferisfull.
Consumermustwaituntilbufferisnonempty.
Algorithm
• Shared data type item
char item;
//can be of any data type
char buffer[n];
int in = 0;
int out = 0;
int counter = 0;
• Producer process
do
{
/*Produce Item */
52
/*Take Item From Buffer*/
nextc = buffer[out];
/*Increment Pointer*/
out = (out+1)%n;
/*Decrement Counter*/
counter = counter - 1;
/*Consume Item*/
cout << nextc ;
} while (true)
• The statements:
•
counter = counter +1;
•
counter = counter 1;
must be executed atomically.
The bounded-buffer with counter solution suffers from problems
associated with atomicity and mutual exclusion.
53
• Which uses the bounded-buffer with counter solution to show
problems with atomicity and mutual exclusion?
54
Critical Section
1. Mutual Exclusion. If process Pi is executing in its critical section,
then no other processes can be executing in their critical sections.
2. Progress. If no process is executing in its critical section and
there exist some processes that wish to enter their critical section,
then the selection of the processes that will enter the critical
section next cannot be postponed indefinitely.
3. Bounded Waiting. A bound must exist on the number of
times that other processes are allowed to enter their critical
sections after a process has made a request to enter its critical
section and before that request is granted.
Number 1 just says the obvious, that no two processes can be
executing their critical section at the same time. Number 2 says
that the choosing process (who will enter the critical section) should
not depend on processes currently executing their critical section the system still has to work even if nobody is executing the critical
section. Number 3 says that no process should have to wait forever
to execute its critical section.
Two-Process Synchronization
• Assume that each process executes at a nonzero speed.
• No assumption concerning relative speed of the n processes.
• Only 2 processes, P0 and P1
Consider a system consisting of several processes, each having a
segment of code called a critical section, in which the process may
be changing common variables, updating tables, etc. The important
feature of the system is that when one process is executing its
critical section, no other process is to be allowed to execute its
critical section. Execution of the critical section is mutually exclusive
in time.
• General structure of process Pi (other process Pj )
The critical section problem is to design a protocol that these
processes can use to cooperate safely. Each process must request
permission to enter its critical section (entry section). The critical
section may be followed by the exit section.
• n processes all competing to use some shared data
• Each process has a code segment, called critical section, in which
the shared data is accessed.
• Problem - ensure that when one process is executing in its
critical section, no other process is allowed to execute in its
critical section.
• Structure of process Pi
• Processes may share some common variables to synchronize
their actions.
Algorithm 1
• Shared variables:
int turn; //turn can have a value of either 0 or 1
//if turn = i, P(i) can enter it’s critical section
· ProcessPi
do
{
while (turn != i)
{
/*do nothing*/
}
critical section
turn = j;
remainder section
}
Solution to Critical Section Problem
55
while (true)
Satisfies mutual exclusion, but not progress.
Algorithm 2
•
• Shared variables
boolean flag[2];
flag[0] = flag[1] = false;
// if flag[i] == true, P(i) ready to
// enter its critical section
initially flag[0] = flag[1] = false.
flag[i] = true ==> P i ready to enter its critical section
• Process P i
do
{
flag[i]= true;
while (flag[j])
{
/*do nothing*/
}
critical section
flag[i] = false;
remainder section
} while (true)
• Does not satisfy the mutual exclusion requirement.
Algorithm 3
• Combined shared variables of algorithms 1 and 2.
• Process P i
do
{
flag[i] = true;
turn = j;
while (flag[j] && turn == j)
{
/*do nothing*/
}
critical section
flag[i] = false;
remainder section
}
while (true)
• max(a0, . . . , an-1) is a number, k , such that k >= ai for i = , . . .
,n-1
• Shared data
boolean choosing[n]; //initialise all to false
int
number[n];
//initialise
all
to
0
• Data structures are initialized to false and 0, respectively
do
{
choosing[i] = true;
number[i] = max(number[0], number[1], ...,number[n-1]) +
1;
choosing[i] = false;
for(int j = 0; j < n; j++)
{
while (choosing[j]== true)
{
/*do nothing*/
}
while ((number[j]!=0) &&
(number[j],j)< (number[i],i))
{
/*do nothing*/
}
}
do critical section
number[i] = 0;
do remainder section
}while (true)
Synchronization Hardware
• Test and modify the content of a word atomically
boolean Test_and_Set(boolean& target)
{
boolean test = target;
target = true;
return test;
}
• Meets all three requirements; solves the critical section problem
Mutual Exclusion with Test and Set
for two processes.
Let us now discuss what is Bakery Algorithm
• Shared data:
Critical section for n processes
• Process Pi
• Before entering its critical section, process receives a number.
Holder of the smallest number enters the critical section.
• If processes P i and P j receive the same number, if i < j , then
P i is served first; else P j is served first.
• The numbering scheme always generates numbers in increasing
order of enumeration; i.e., 1,2,3,3,3,3,4,5...
• Notation <= lexicographical order (ticket #, process id #)
• (a,b) < (c,d) if a < c or if a = c and b < d
56
boolean lock = false;
do
{
while (Test-and-Set(lock))
{
/*do nothing*/
}
critical section
lock = false;
remainder section
}while (true)
Edition 6th Ed.
Publisher Englewood Cliffs, Nj : Prentice Hall, C1995.
Author Tanenbaum, Andrew S., 1944-
Check Your Progress
Main Title Operating Systems : Design And Implementation /
Andrew S. Tanenbaum, Albert S. Woodhull.
Edition 2nd Ed.
Publisher Upper Saddle River, Nj : Prentice Hall, C1997.
Author Nutt, Gary J.
What is a critical Section?
________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________
What is Process Synchronization?
Main Title Operating Systems : A Modern Perspective / Gary J.
Nutt.
Publisher Reading, Mass. : Addison-Wesley, C1997.
Author Silberschatz, Abraham.
Main Title Operating System Concepts / Abraham Silberschatz,
Peter Baer Galvin.
Edition 6th Ed.
Publisher Reading, Mass. : Addison Wesley Longman, C1998.
________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________
Reference Books:
Author Dahmke, Mark.
Main Title Microcomputer Operating Systems / Mark Dahmke.
PublisherPeterborough, N.H : Mcgraw-Hill/Byte Books, C1982.
Author Deitel, Harvey M., 1945Main Title An Introduction To Operating Systems / Harvey M.
Deitel.
Edition Rev. 1st Ed.
Publisher Reading, Mass : Addison-Wesley Pub. Co., C1984.
Author Lister, A. (Andrew), 1945Main Title Fundamentals Of Operating Systems / A.M. Lister.
Edition 3rd Ed.
Publisher London : Macmillan, 1984.
Author Gray, N. A. B. (Neil A. B.)
Main Title Introduction To Computer Systems / N.A.B. Gray.
Publisher Englewood Cliffs, New Jersey ; Sydney : Prentice-Hall,
1987.
Author Peterson, James L.
Main TitleOperating System Concepts / James L. Peterson,
Abraham Silberschatz.
Edition 2nd Ed.
Publisher Reading, Mass. : Addison-Wesley, 1985.
Author Stallings, William.
Main Title Operating Systems / William Stallings.
57
LESSON-13
Objectives
In previous Lesson you learn about Process Synchronization,
Synchronization hardware and critical section. Today I will teach
you about the Process Synchronization with Semaphores
Semaphore
A non-computer meaning of the word semaphore is a system or
code for sending signals, by using arms or flags held in hands, etc.
Various positions represent different letters and numbers. These
are the things that used to be used on ships to coordinate their
motion (before the invention of radios). Presently, you might
have seen them used on aircraft carriers to coordinate the onboard
activities of airplanes.
In a computer sense, a semaphore is an integer variable that, apart
from initialization, is accessed only through two standard atomic
operations: wait and signal. These operations were originally
termed P (for wait; from the Dutch proberen, to test) and V (for
signal; from verhogen, to increment). The classical definition of wait
in pseudocode is
Points you should Remember
• Synchronization tool that does not require busy waiting.
• Semaphore S - integer variable
• can only be accessed via two indivisible (atomic) operations
wait(s)
{
while (S<=0)
{
/*do nothing*/
}
S= S-1;
}
signal(S)
{
S = S + 1;
}
Example: Critical Section for n Processes
• Shared variables
•
semaphore mutex;
•
initially
mutex = 1
• Process Pi
do
{
wait (mutex);
critical section
signal (mutex);
remainder section
58
}
while(true)
Mutual Exclusion with Semaphores
• which shows how to use semaphores for mutual exclusion.
59
A
signal(flag)
• Pj
.
.
.
wait(flag)
B
Semaphores as Process Synchronization
• showing how semaphores can be used for process
synchronization.
Semaphore Implementation
• Define a semaphore as a record/structure
struct semaphore
{
int value;
List *L; //a list of processes
}
• Assume two simple operations:
•
block suspends the process that invokes it.
•
wakeup(P) resumes the execution of a blocked process P.
• Semaphore operations now defined as
wait(S)
{
S.value = S.value -1;
if (S.value <0)
{
add this process to S.L;
block;
}
}
signal(S)
{
S.value = S.value + 1;
if (S.value <= 0)
{
remove a process P from S.L;
wakeup(P);
}
}
Semaphore as General Synchronization Tool
• Execute B in Pj only after A executed in Pi
• Use semaphore flag initialized to 0
• Code:
• Pi
60
Let us discuss Deadlock and Starvation
• Deadlock - two or more processes are waiting indefinitely for
an event that can be caused by only one of the waiting processes.
• Let S and Q be two semaphores initialized to 1
61
Author Dahmke, Mark.
P0
P1
wait(S);
wait(Q);
.
.
.
signal(S);
signal(Q);
wait(Q);
wait(S);
.
.
.
signal(Q);
signal(S);
Starvation indefinite blocking. A process may never be removed from the
semaphore queue in which it is suspended.
Check Your Progress
What is a semaphore? What am its drawbacks?
________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________
Main Title Microcomputer Operating Systems / Mark Dahmke.
Publisher Peterborough, N.H : Mcgraw-Hill/Byte Books, C1982.
Author Deitel, Harvey M., 1945Main Title An Introduction To Operating Systems /Harvey M.
Deitel.
Edition Rev. 1st Ed.
Publisher Reading, Mass : Addison-Wesley Pub. Co., C1984.
Author Lister, A. (Andrew), 1945Main Title Fundamentals Of Operating Systems / A.M. Lister.
Edition 3rd Ed.
Publisher London : Macmillan, 1984.
Author Gray, N. A. B. (Neil A. B.)
Main TitleIntroduction To Computer Systems / N.A.B. Gray.
Publisher Englewood Cliffs, New Jersey ; Sydney : Prentice-Hall,
1987.
Author Peterson, James L.
Main Title Operating System Concepts / James L. Peterson,
Abraham Silberschatz.
Edition 2nd Ed.
What is a DeadLock ? How to break DeadLocks ?
________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________
Publisher Reading, Mass. : Addison-Wesley, 1985.
Author Stallings, William.
Main Title Operating Systems / William Stallings.
Edition 6th Ed.
Publisher Englewood Cliffs, Nj : Prentice Hall, C1995.
Author Tanenbaum, Andrew S., 1944Main Title Operating Systems : Design And Implementation /
Andrew S. Tanenbaum, Albert S. Woodhull.
Edition 2nd Ed.
Publisher Upper Saddle River, Nj : Prentice Hall, C1997.
Author Nutt, Gary J.
Main Title Operating Systems : A Modern Perspective / Gary J.
Nutt.
Publisher Reading, Mass. : Addison-Wesley, C1997.
Author Silberschatz, Abraham.
Main Title Operating System Concepts / Abraham Silberschatz,
Peter Baer Galvin.
Edition 6th Ed.
Publisher Reading, Mass. : Addison Wesley Longman, C1998.
Reference Books:
62
LESSON-14
semaphore mutex = 1;
char nextp, nextc;
Objectives
Hello students, In previous Lesson you learnt about the Process
Synchronization, Synchronization hardware critical section and
Semaphores. Today I will teach you various types of Semaphores,
Monitors and Atomic transactions.
Two Types of Semaphores
• Counting semaphore - integer value can range over an
unrestricted domain.
• Binary semaphore - integer value can range only between 0 and
1; can be simpler to implement.
• Can implement a counting semaphore S as a binary semaphore.
Implementing S (Semaphore) as a Binary Semaphore
//binary semaphore
• Producer process
do
{
produce an item in nextp
wait (empty);
wait (mutex);
add nextp to buffer
signal (mutex);
signal (full);
}
while (true)
•· Data structures:
• Consumer process
binary semaphore S1, S2;
int C;
· Initialization:
do
{
wait( full );
wait( mutex );
remove an item from buffer to nextc
signal( mutex );
signal( empty );
consume the item in nextc;
}
S1 = 1;
S2 = 0;
C = initial value of semaphore S;
• wait operation
wait( S1 );
C = C - 1;
if (C<0)
{
signal( S1 );
wait( S2 );
}
else
signal( S1 );
Readers-Writers Problem
• Shared data
semaphore mutex = 1;
semaphore wrt = 1;
int readcount = 0;
• Writer process
• signal operation
wait( S1 );
C = C+1;
if (C <= 0)
signal( S2 );
signal( S1 );
Let us discuss classical Problems of Synchronization
• BoundedBuffer Problem
• Readers and Writers Problem
• DiningPhilosophers Problem
Bounded Buffer Problem
• Shared data
char item;
//could be any data type
char buffer[n];
semaphore full = 0; //counting semaphore
semaphore empty = n; //counting semaphore
wait(wrt);
writing is performed
signal (wrt);
• Reader process
wait (mutex);
readcount = readcount + 1;
if (readcount ==1)
wait (wrt);
signal (mutex);
reading is performed
wait(mutex);
readcount = readcount - 1;
if (readcount == 0)
signal (wrt);
signal (mutex);
63
Dining Philosophers Problem
Example - Bounded Buffer
• Shared variables:
• Producer process inserts nextp into the shared buffer
CODE GOES HERE
• Consumer process removes an item from the shared buffer
and puts it in nextc
CODE GOES HERE
Implementation: region x when B do S
• Associate with the shared variable x, the following variables:
CODE GOES HERE
Mutually exclusive access to the critical section is provided by mutex.
• If a process cannot enter the critical section because the Boolean
expression B is false, it initially waits on the first delay semaphore;
moved to the second delay semaphore before it is allowed to
reevaluate B.
• Keep track of the number of processes waiting on first delay
and second delay , with first count and second count respectively.
• The algorithm assumes a FIFO ordering in the queuing of
processes for a semaphore.
• For an arbitrary queuing discipline, a more complicated
implementation is required.
Code Goes Here
• Shared data
semaphore chopstick[5];
chopstick[] = 1;
•
Philosopher i:
do
{
wait (chopstick[i]);
wait (chopstick[i+1 mod 5]);
eat;
signal (chopstick [1]);
signal (chopstick [i+1 mod 5]);
think;
}
while (true)
Monitors
High level synchronization construct that allows the safe sharing
of an abstract data type among concurrent processes.
class monitor
{
variable declarations
P(1)
{...}
P(2)
{...}
P(n)
{...}
Critical Regions
• High level synchronization construct
Initialization code
}
• A shared variable v of type T, is declared as:
•
var v: shared T
• Variable v accessed only inside statement:
• region v when B do S
where B is a Boolean expression.
While statement S is being executed, no other process can access
variable v.
• Regions referring to the same shared variable exclude each other
in time.
• When a process tries to execute the region statement, the
Boolean expression B is evaluated. If B is true, statement S is
executed. If it is false, the process is delayed until B becomes
true and no other process is in the region associated with v.
64
• To allow a process to wait within the monitor, a condition
variable must be declared, as:
condition x, y;
• Condition variable can only be used with the operations wait
and signal.
•
The operation
x.wait;
means that the process invoking this operation is suspended
until another process invokes
x.signal;
• The x.signal operation resumes exactly one suspended process.
If no process is suspended, then the signal operation has no
effect.
· For each condition variable x, we have:
semaphore x-sem = 0;
semaphore x-count = 0;
Dining Philosophers Example
monitor dining-philosophers
{
enum state {thinking, hungry, eating};
state state[5];
condition self[5];
void pickup (int i)
{
state[i] = hungry;
test(i);
if (state[i] != eating)
self[i].wait;
}
void putdown (int i)
{
state[i] = thinking;
test(i+4 % 5);
test(i+1 % 5);
}
void test (int k)
{
if ((state[k+4 % 5] != eating) && (state[k]==hungry)
&& state[k+1 % 5] != eating))
{
state[k] = eating;
self[k].signal;
}
}
• The operation x.wait can be implemented as:
x-count = x-count + 1;
if (next-count > 0)
signal(next);
else
signal(mutex);
wait(x-sem);
x-count = x-count - 1;
• The operation x.signal can be implemented as:
if (x-count > 0)
{
next-count = next-count + 1;
signal(x-sem);
wait(next);
next-count = next-count - 1;
}
•
Conditional wait construct: x.wait(c);
•
c - integer expression evaluated when the wait operation
is executed.
•
value of c (priority number) stored with the name of the
process that is suspended.
•
when x.signal is executed, process with smallest associated
priority number is resumed next.
• Check two conditions to establish correctness of system:
•
•
init
{
for (int i = 0; i< 5; i++)
state[i] = thinking;
}
}
Monitor Implementation Using Semaphores
·
Variables
semaphore mutex = 1;
semaphore next = 0;
int next-count;
·
Each external procedure F will be replaced by
wait(mutex);
...
body of F;
...
if (next-count > 0)
signal(next);
else
signal(mutex);
User processes must always make their calls on the monitor
in a correct sequence.
Must ensure that an uncooperative process does not
ignore the mutual exclusion gateway provided by the
monitor, and try to access the shared resource directly ,
without using the access protocols.
Atomic Transactions
• Transaction - program unit that must be executed atomically;
that is, either all the operations associated with it are executed
to completion, or none are performed.
• Must preserve atomicity despite possibility of failure.
• We are concerned here with ensuring transaction atomicity in
an environment where failures result in the loss of information
on volatile storage.
Log Based Recovery
• Write ahead log - all updates are recorded on the log, which is
kept in stable storage; log has following fields:
•
transaction name
•
data item name, old value, new value
• The log has a record of <Ti starts>, and either
• <Ti commits> if the transactions commits, or
• <Ti aborts> if the transaction aborts.
• Recovery algorithm uses two procedures:
·
Mutual exclusion within a monitor is ensured.
65
• undo(Ti ) - restores value of all data updated by transaction Ti
to the old values. It is invoked if the log contains record <Ti
starts>, but not <Ti commits>.
• redo(Ti ) - sets value of all data updated by transaction T i to the
new values. It is invoked if the log contains both <Ti starts>
and <Ti commits>.
Checkpoints - Reduce Recovery Overhead
1. Output all log records currently residing in volatile storage onto
stable storage.
2. Output all modified data residing in volatile storage to stable
storage.
3. Output log record <checkpoint> onto stable storage.
• Recovery routine examines log to determine the most recent
transaction Ti that started executing before the most recent
checkpoint took place.
•
•
Search log backward for first <checkpoint> record.
•
Find subsequent <Ti start> record.
redo and undo operations need to be applied to only transaction
Ti and all transactions T j that started executing after transaction
Ti .
Concurrent Atomic Transactions
• Serial schedule - the transactions are executed sequentially in
some order.
• Example of a serial schedule in which T0 is followed by T1 :
• Locking protocol governs how locks are acquired and released;
data item can be locked in following modes:
• Shared: If Ti has obtained a shared mode lock on data item Q,
then Ti can read this item, but it cannot write Q.
• Exclusive: If Ti has obtained an exclusive mode lock on data
item Q, then Ti can both read and write Q.
Two-phase locking protocol
• Growing phase: A transaction may obtain locks, but may not
release any lock.
• Shrinking phase: A transaction may release locks, but may
not obtain any new locks.
• The two-phase locking protocol ensures conflict serializability ,
but does not ensure freedom from deadlock.
• Timestamp ordering scheme - transaction ordering protocol
for determining serializability order.
• With each transaction Ti in the system, associate a unique fixed
timestamp, denoted by TS(Ti ).
• If Ti has been assigned timestamp TS(Ti ), and a new transaction
Tj enters the system, then TS(Ti ) < TS(Tj ).
• Implement by assigning two timestamp values to each data
item Q.
• Wtimestamp(Q) - denotes largest timestamp of any
• Conflicting operations - Oi and Oj conflict if they access the
same data item, and at least one of these operations is a write
operation.
• Conflict serializable schedule - schedule that can be transformed
into a serial schedule by a series of swaps of non-conflicting
operations.
Example of a Concurrent Serializable Schedule
66
transaction that executed write(Q) successfully.
• Rtimestamp(Q) - denotes largest timestamp of any transaction
that executed read(Q) successfully.
Schedule Possible under Timestamp Protocol
Author Lister, A. (Andrew), 1945Main Title Fundamentals Of Operating Systems / A.M. Lister.
Edition 3rd Ed.
Publisher London : Macmillan, 1984.
Author Gray, N. A. B. (Neil A. B.)
Main Title Introduction To Computer Systems / N.A.B. Gray.
Publisher Englewood Cliffs, New Jersey ; Sydney : Prentice-Hall,
1987.
Author Peterson, James L.
Main TitleOperating System Concepts / James L. Peterson,
Abraham Silberschatz.
Edition 2nd Ed.
Publisher Reading, Mass. : Addison-Wesley, 1985.
• There are schedules that are possible under the two-phase
locking protocol but are not possible under the timestamp
protocol, and vice versa.
The timestamp ordering protocol ensures conflict serializability;
conflicting operations are processed in timestamp order.
Check Your Progress
What are various type of Semaphores?
_______________________________________________________________
_______________________________________________________________
_______________________________________________________________
_______________________________________________________________
_______________________________________________________________
Author Stallings, William.
Main Title Operating Systems / William Stallings.
Edition 6th Ed.
Publisher Englewood Cliffs, Nj : Prentice Hall, C1995.
Author Tanenbaum, Andrew S., 1944Main Title Operating Systems : Design And Implementation /
Andrew S. Tanenbaum, Albert S. Woodhull.
Edition 2nd Ed.
Publisher Upper Saddle River, Nj : Prentice Hall, C1997.
Author Nutt, Gary J.
Main Title Operating Systems : A Modern Perspective / Gary J.
Nutt.
Publisher Reading, Mass. : Addison-Wesley, C1997.
Author Silberschatz, Abraham.
Main Title Operating System Concepts / Abraham Silberschatz,
Peter Baer Galvin.
Edition 6th Ed.
Publisher Reading, Mass. : Addison Wesley Longman, C1998.
What is Atomic Transaction?
_______________________________________________________________
_______________________________________________________________
_______________________________________________________________
_______________________________________________________________
_______________________________________________________________
Reference Books:
Author Dahmke, Mark.
Main TitleMicrocomputer Operating Systems / Mark Dahmke.
Publisher Peterborough, N.H : Mcgraw-Hill/Byte Books, C1982.
Author Deitel, Harvey M., 1945Main Title An Introduction To Operating Systems / Harvey M.
Deitel.
Edition Rev. 1st Ed.
Publisher Reading, Mass : Addison-Wesley Pub. Co., C1984.
67
LESSON-16
Objectives
In this lecture, you will learn about the concept of deadlocks.
You learnt in the earlier lectures that a process is a program in
execution and from the operating system’s point of view; it is a
unit of resource allocation.
You may wonder what these resources are. The resources can be
physical or logical. Physical resources could be disk, printers etc.
while logical resources could be files. The CPU, memory and other
processes could also be resources that are shared.
UNIT-3
• If a deadlock occurs, it can be resolved if one car backs up
(preempt resources and rollback).
• Several cars may have to be backed up if a deadlock occurs.
• Starvation is possible.
Let me explain this with an example:
Suppose that a system has one tape and one printer device and
two processes P1 and P2. Both P1 and P2 require the tape and
printer devices for their functioning. The processes make their
resource requests in the following sequence:
The processes compete for these resources and sometimes get
into a state of deadlock.
1. P1 requests tape
Overall Picture
In a multiprogramming environment where several processes
compete for resources, a situation may arise where a process is
waiting for resources that are held by other waiting processes. This
situation is called a deadlock
3. P1 requests printer
Introduction
Generally, a system has a finite set of resources (such as memory,
IO devices, etc.) and a finite set of processes that need to use these
resources.
A process which wishes to use any of these resources makes a
request to use that resource. If the resource is free, the process gets
it. If it is used by another process, it waits for it to become free.
2. P2 requests printer
4. P2 requests tape
The set of processes {P1 and P2} is now deadlocked. Why?
The first two requests can be granted straightaway. P1 holds the
tape device and P2 holds the printer device. Now when P1 asks for
the printer, it is blocked because the printer is not currently
available. P2 is similarly blocked when it asks for the tape. P1
comes out of the blocked state when P2 releases the resource that
it holds. Similarly P2 comes out of its blocked state when P1
releases the resource it holds. Hence the two processes are
deadlocked.
The diagram below illustrates the concept:
The assumption is that the resource will eventually become free
and the waiting process will continue on to use the resource. But
what if the other process is also waiting for some resource?
“A set of processes is in a deadlock state when every process in the
set is waiting for an event that can only be caused by another
process in the set.”
Imagine a situation where two processes have acquired a lock on
two tape drivers (or hard drives, etc.), but need two such resources
to proceed with execution (for example, to copy something from
one to the other). Each is waiting for the other process to release
the other tape drive, which will never happen, since the other is
also waiting for the same thing.
Well, what is this state of deadlock?
Let me explain with an example.
Bridge Crossing Example
What are the consequences of deadlocks?
• Traffic only in one direction.
• Each section of a bridge can be viewed as a resource.
68
• Response times and elapsed times of processes suffer.
• If a process is allocated a resource R1 that it is not using and if
some other process P2 requires the resource, then P2 is denied
the resource and the resource remains idle.
How do you characterize deadlocks?
Deadlocks are undesirable because processes never finish
executing and system resources are tied up
What are the conditions under which deadlocks can occur in a
system?
A deadlock situation can arise if the following four conditions
hold simultaneously in a system:
Mutual Exclusion: At least one resource must be held in a nonsharable mode; that is, only one process at a time can use the
resource. If another process requests the resource, the requesting
process must be delayed until the resource has been released.
Hold and Wait: A process must be holding at least one resource
and waiting to acquire additional resources that are currently being
held by other processes.
No Preemption: Resources cannot be preempted; that is, a
resource can be released only voluntarily by the process holding it,
after that process has completed its task.
Circular Wait: A set {P0, P1, P2, …, Pn} of waiting processes
must exist such that P0 is waiting for a resource that is held by P1,
P1 is waiting for a resource that is held by P2, …, Pn-1 is waiting
for a resource that is held by Pn, and Pn is waiting for a resource
that is held by P0.
We can use these graphs to determine if a deadline has occurred or
may occur. If for example, all resources only have one instance (all
resource node rectangles have one dot) and the graph is circular,
then a deadlock has occurred. If on the other hand some resources
have several instances, then a deadlock may occur. If the graph is
not circular, a deadlock cannot occur (the circular wait condition
wouldn’t be satisfied).
A set of vertices V and a set of edges E.
• V is partitioned into two types:
• P = {P1 , P2 , ..., P n }, the set consisting of all the processes in the
system.
• R = {R1 , R2 , ..., Rm }, the set consisting of all resource types in
the system.
• request edge - directed edge Pi —> Rj
• assignment edge - directed edge Rj —> Pi
• Process
• Resource type with 4 instances
• Pi requests instance of Rj
• Pi is holding an instance of Rj
All four conditions MUST hold for a deadlock to occur.
Resource-Allocation Graph
The idea is to have a graph. The graph has two different types of
nodes, the process nodes and resource nodes (process represented
by circles, resource node represented by rectangles). For different
instances of a resource, there is a dot in the resource node rectangle.
For example, if there are two identical printers, the printer resource
might have two dots to indicate that we don’t really care which is
used, as long as we acquire the resource.
Example of a Graph with No Cycles
Example of a Graph with a Cycle
The edges among these nodes represent resource allocation and
release. Edges are directed, and if the edge goes from resource to
process node that means the process has acquired the resource. If
the edge goes from process node to resource node that means the
process has requested the resource.
69
only run the process when all the resources are available for the
process to use (not make it wait for individual resources one by
one - which may cause a deadlock).
If you do not provide for deadlock prevention or deadlock
avoidance, the system may enter into deadlock state. At this point,
we may employ some deadlock detection scheme and a recovery
(if there is indeed a deadlock).
If we don’t prevent nor recover from it, the system will eventually
have deadlocks. This is the strategy used by most operating
systems. Luckily, deadlocks are usually rare, and the systems that
are affected usually suffer from other freezing problems (process
not releasing control in a non-preemptive environment, program
errors, etc.) that make deadlocks seem unimportant. [ie: if you
reboot your Windows every day because something gets messed
up, you won’t mind rebooting your Windows every year because
of a deadlock].
Check Your Progress
Basic Facts
List several examples of deadlocks that are not related to computer
system environment. Describe some of its characteristics?
• If graph contains no cycles
_______________________________________________________________
•
No deadlock.
• If graph contains a cycle —>
•
If only one instance per resource type, then deadlock.
•
If several instances per resource type, possibility of
There are four strategies used for dealing with deadlocks.
_______________________________________________________________
_______________________________________________________________
_______________________________________________________________
_______________________________________________________________
_______________________________________________________________
1. Ignore the problem
2. Detect deadlocks and recover from them
What is Deadlock?
3. Avoid deadlocks by carefully deciding when to allocate resources.
_______________________________________________________________
4. Prevent deadlocks by violating one of the 4 necessary conditions.
Ignoring the problem-The Ostrich Algorithm
The “put your head in the sand approach”.
_______________________________________________________________
_______________________________________________________________
• If the likelihood of a deadlock is sufficiently small and the cost
_______________________________________________________________
of avoiding a deadlock is sufficiently high it might be better to
ignore the problem. For example if each PC deadlocks once per
100 years, the one reboot may be less painful that the restrictions
needed to prevent it.
_______________________________________________________________
Reference Books:
Author Dahmke, Mark.
• Clearly not a good philosophy for nuclear missile launchers.
Main Title Microcomputer Operating Systems / Mark Dahmke.
• For embedded systems (e.g., missile launchers) the programs
Publisher Peterborough, N.H : Mcgraw-Hill/Byte Books, C1982.
run are fixed in advance so many of the questions Tanenbaum
raises (such as many processes wanting to fork at the same
time) don’t occur.
Author Deitel, Harvey M., 1945-
Methods for Handling Deadlocks
Main Title An Introduction To Operating Systems / Harvey M.
Deitel.
You can deal with the deadlock issue in several ways:
Edition Rev. 1st Ed.
1. You can use specific protocols to prevent or avoid deadlocks
(preventing it).
2. You can detect the deadlock and recover from it (recovering after
it has occurred).
Publisher Reading, Mass : Addison-Wesley Pub. Co., C1984.
3. You can totally ignore the deadlock problem (pretend it doesn’t
exist). This is what most operating systems do (including UNIX
and Windows).
Preventing deadlocks is ensuring that at least one of the necessary
four deadlock conditions cannot occur. Avoiding a deadlock is
knowing which resources the process will use beforehand and
70
Author Lister, A. (Andrew), 1945Main TitleFundamentals Of Operating Systems / A.M. Lister.
Edition 3rd Ed.
Publisher London : Macmillan, 1984.
Author Gray, N. A. B. (Neil A. B.)
Main Title Introduction To Computer Systems / N.A.B. Gray.
Publisher Englewood Cliffs, New Jersey ; Sydney : Prentice-Hall,
1987.
Author Peterson, James L.
Main TitleOperating System Concepts / James L. Peterson,
Abraham Silberschatz.
Edition 2nd Ed.
Publisher Reading, Mass. : Addison-Wesley, 1985.
Author Stallings, William.
Main TitleOperating Systems / William Stallings.
Edition 6th Ed.
Publisher Englewood Cliffs, Nj : Prentice Hall, C1995.
Author Tanenbaum, Andrew S., 1944Main TitleOperating Systems : Design And Implementation /
Andrew S. Tanenbaum, Albert S. Woodhull.
Edition 2nd Ed.
Publisher Upper Saddle River, Nj : Prentice Hall, C1997.
Author Nutt, Gary J.
Main TitleOperating Systems : A Modern Perspective / Gary J.
Nutt.
Publisher Reading, Mass. : Addison-Wesley, C1997.
Author Silberschatz, Abraham.
Main TitleOperating System Concepts / Abraham Silberschatz,
Peter Baer Galvin.
Edition 6th Ed.
Publisher Reading, Mass. : Addison Wesley Longman, C1998.
Notes
71
LESSON-17
Objectives
In previous lecture, you have learnt about the concept of
deadlocks, In this lecture you will learn about deadlock prevention
and what causes deadlocks.
What are the methods of handling deadlocks?
Deadlocks can be handled in many ways. These are as follows:
• Deadlock prevention
• Deadlock Avoidance
• Deadlock Detection and Recovery
In this lecture, we will discuss about deadlock prevention and in
the next lecture we will look at the other two.
So what is deadlock prevention?
Deadlock prevention involves a set of methods for ensuring that
at least one of the four necessary conditions cannot hold.
Let me explain each of these conditions in detail:
Mutual Exclusion: If no resource were ever assigned exclusively
to a single process, we would never have deadlocks.
Suppose that two processes are allowed to write on the printer at
the same time. This would lead to chaos. By spooling the printer
output, several processes can generate output at the same time.
The only process that actually requests the physical printer is the
printer daemon. Since the printer daemon never requests for any
other resources, deadlock can be eliminated for the printer.
The bottom-line:
“Avoid assigning a resource when that is not absolutely necessary.”
Hold and wait: All processes are required to request all their
resources before starting execution. If everything is available,
process will be allocated whatever it needs and can run to
completion. If one or more resources are busy, nothing will be
allocated and process would just wait.
Disadvantages:
• Many processes do not know how many resources they will
need until they have started running.
• Resources will not be used optimally with this approach
• Starvation may result
Here is an alternative to overcome this disadvantage:
A process can request resources only if it has none. This means it
should first temporarily release all resources it currently holds.
Can you give us an example?
A process copies data from tape drive to disk file, sorts the disk file
and then prints the results on a printer.
If all resources (tape drive, disk drive and printer) are requested at
the beginning, then the process must initially request tape drive,
disk file and printer. It will then hold the printer for its entire
execution even though it needs it only at the end.
72
Alternatively: Initially request tape drive and disk file. Copy from
tape drive to disk file. Then release both. Request again for disk
file and printer. Copy from disk to printer. Release disk and printer.
No Preemption: Process holds some resources. It requests
another resource, which cannot be immediately allocated to it. All
resources currently being held are preempted. Preempted resources
added to available list of resources for which the process is waiting.
Process is restarted only when it can regain all its old resources as
well as new ones that it is requesting.
Here is an example:
Process P1 requests for some resources.
Check if they are available.
If yes, allocate
If No,
Check if they are allocated to some other process that is waiting
for additional resources.
If yes, preempt desired resources from waiting process and allocate
to requesting process.
Circular Wait: To prevent circular wait, impose total ordering of
all resources types. Each process, then, should request resources in
an increasing order of enumeration.
Suppose R = {R1, R2 … Rm} is a set of resource types.
Assign to each resource type, a unique integer.
Define a one-to-one function ‘F’ such that R—>N where N is a
set of natural numbers.
For example, F (Tape drive) = 1, F (Disk drive) = 5, F (Printer) =
12.
Each process requests resource in increasing order of enumeration.
A process can initially request any number of instances of resource
type Ri.After that, process can request instances of resource type
Rj if and only if F (Rj) > F (Ri).
Whenever a process requests an instance of resource type Rj, we
must ensure that it has released any resources Ri such that F (Ri)
>= F (Rj).
Consider another example:
Let i > j. If ‘i’ is allocated to A, then A cannot request ‘j’ because i
> j.
Let i < j. If ‘j’ is allocated to B, then B can not request ‘i’
The function F should be defined according to the normal order
of usage of the resources in a system.
Check Your Progress
What are various method of Deadlock prevention?
_______________________________________________________________
_______________________________________________________________
_______________________________________________________________
_______________________________________________________________
_______________________________________________________________
_______________________________________________________________
_______________________________________________________________
_______________________________________________________________
_______________________________________________________________
_______________________________________________________________
Author Silberschatz, Abraham.
Main Title Operating System Concepts / Abraham Silberschatz,
Peter Baer Galvin.
Edition 6th Ed.
Publisher Reading, Mass. : Addison Wesley Longman, C1998.
Notes
Reference Books:
Author Dahmke, Mark.
Main Title Microcomputer Operating Systems / Mark Dahmke.
Publisher Peterborough, N.H : Mcgraw-Hill/Byte Books, C1982.
Author Deitel, Harvey M., 1945Main Title An Introduction To Operating Systems / Harvey M.
Deitel.
Edition Rev. 1st Ed.
Publisher Reading, Mass : Addison-Wesley Pub. Co., C1984.
Author Lister, A. (Andrew), 1945Main Title Fundamentals Of Operating Systems / A.M. Lister.
Edition 3rd Ed.
Publisher London : Macmillan, 1984.
Author Gray, N. A. B. (Neil A. B.)
Main TitleIntroduction To Computer Systems / N.A.B. Gray.
Publisher Englewood Cliffs, New Jersey ; Sydney : Prentice-Hall,
1987.
Author Peterson, James L.
Main TitleOperating System Concepts / James L. Peterson,
Abraham Silberschatz.
Edition 2nd Ed.
Publisher Reading, Mass. : Addison-Wesley, 1985.
Author Stallings, William.
Main TitleOperating Systems / William Stallings.
Edition 6th Ed.
Publisher Englewood Cliffs, Nj : Prentice Hall, C1995.
Author Tanenbaum, Andrew S., 1944Main Title Operating Systems : Design And Implementation /
Andrew S. Tanenbaum, Albert S. Woodhull.
Edition 2nd Ed.
Publisher Upper Saddle River, Nj : Prentice Hall, C1997.
Author Nutt, Gary J.
Main TitleOperating Systems : A Modern Perspective / Gary J.
Nutt.
Publisher Reading, Mass. : Addison-Wesley, C1997.
73
LESSON-18
Objectives
In the last lecture, you learnt about the deadlocks, their
characterization and deadlock prevention methods. And in this
lecture, you will learn other methods of handling deadlocks such
as deadlock detection & recovery.
Detecting Deadlocks with single unit resources
Consider the case in which there is only one instance of each
resource.
• So a request can be satisfied by only one specific resource.
• In this case the 4 necessary conditions for deadlock are also
sufficient.
• Remember we are making an assumption (single unit resources)
that is often invalid. For example, many systems have several
printers and a request is given for “a printer” not a specific
printer. Similarly, one can have many tape drives.
• So the problem comes down to finding a directed cycle in the
resource
allocation
graph.
Why?
Answer: Because the other three conditions are either satisfied
by the system we are studying or are not in which case deadlock
is not a question. That is, conditions 1, 2, 3 are conditions on
the system in general not on what is happening right now.
To find a directed cycle in a directed graph is not hard. The algorithm
is in the book. The idea is simple.
1. For each node in the graph do a depth first traversal (hoping
the graph is a DAG (directed acyclic graph), building a list as
you go down the DAG.
2. If you ever find the same node twice on your list, you have
found a directed cycle and the graph is not a DAG and deadlock
exists among the processes in your current list.
3. If you never find the same node twice, the graph is a DAG and
no deadlock occurs.
4. The searches are finite since the list size is bounded by the
number of nodes.
Detecting Deadlocks with multiple unit resources
This is more difficult.
• The figure on the right shows a resource allocation graph with
multiple unit resources.
• Each unit is represented by a dot in the box.
• Request edges are drawn to the box since they represent a request
for any dot in the box.
• Allocation edges are drawn from the dot to represent that this
unit of the resource has been assigned (but all units of a resource
are equivalent and the choice of which one to assign is arbitrary).
• Note that there is a directed cycle in black, but there is no
deadlock. Indeed the middle process might finish, erasing the
magenta arc and permitting the blue dot to satisfy the rightmost
process.
74
• The book gives an algorithm for detecting deadlocks in this
more general setting. The idea is as follows.
7. look for a process that might be able to terminate (i.e., all its
request arcs can be satisfied).
8. If one is found pretend that it does terminate (erase all its arcs),
and repeat step 1.
9. If any processes remain, they are deadlocked.
· We will soon do in detail an algorithm (the Banker’s algorithm)
that has some of this flavor.
Detection-Algorithm Usage
Detection algorithms need to be executed to detect a deadlock.
The frequency and time when you run such algorithm is dependent
on how often you assume deadlocks occur and how many
processes they may effect.
If deadlocks may happen often, you run the detection often. If it
affects many processes, you may decide to run it often so that less
processes are affected by the deadlock.
You could run the algorithm on every resource request, but
considering that deadlocks are rare, it is not very efficient use of
resources. You could run the algorithm from time to time, say
every hour, or when CPU utilization crosses some threshold, or at
random times during the system execution lifetime.
Deadlock Recovery
You can recover from a deadlock via two approaches: we either kill
the processes (that releases all resources for killed process) or take
away resources.
Process Termination
When recovering from a deadlock via process termination, you
have two approaches. You can terminate all processes involved in
a deadlock, or terminate them one by one until the deadlock
disappears.
Killing all processes is costly (since some processes may have been
doing something important for a long time) and will need to be
re-executed again.
Killing a process at a time until deadlock is resolved is also costly,
since we must rerun deadlock detection algorithm every time you
terminate a process to make sure we got rid of the deadlock.
Also, some priority must be considered when terminating
processes, since you don’t want to kill an important process when
less important processes are available. Priority might also include
things like how many resources are being held by that process, or
how long has it executed, or how long it has to go before it
completes, or how many resources it needs to complete its job,
etc.
Resource Preemption
This approach takes resources from waiting processes and gives
them to other processes. Obviously, the victim process cannot
continue regularly, and you have a choice of how to handle it. We
can either terminate that process, or roll it back to some previous
state so that it can request the resources again.
Again, there are many factors that determine which process you
choose as the victim.
Note: that if the system has resource preemption, by definition, a
deadlock cannot occur. The type of resource preemption you are
talking about here is non-normal preemption that only occurs
when a deadlock detection mechanism detected a deadlock.
Check Your Progress
Explain Deadlock Detection process?
_______________________________________________________________
_______________________________________________________________
Main Title Operating System Concepts / James L. Peterson,
Abraham Silberschatz.
Edition 2nd Ed.
Publisher Reading, Mass. : Addison-Wesley, 1985.
Author Stallings, William.
Main TitleOperating Systems / William Stallings.
Edition 6th Ed.
Publisher Englewood Cliffs, Nj : Prentice Hall, C1995.
Author Tanenbaum, Andrew S., 1944Main TitleOperating Systems : Design And Implementation /
Andrew S. Tanenbaum, Albert S. Woodhull.
Edition 2nd Ed.
Publisher Upper Saddle River, Nj : Prentice Hall, C1997.
_______________________________________________________________
_______________________________________________________________
Author Nutt, Gary J.
_______________________________________________________________
Main TitleOperating Systems : A Modern Perspective / Gary J.
Nutt.
How to recover from Deadlock?
_______________________________________________________________
Publisher Reading, Mass. : Addison-Wesley, C1997.
_______________________________________________________________
Author Silberschatz, Abraham.
_______________________________________________________________
_______________________________________________________________
Main TitleOperating System Concepts / Abraham Silberschatz,
Peter Baer Galvin.
_______________________________________________________________
Edition 6th Ed.
Reference Books:
Publisher Reading, Mass. : Addison Wesley Longman, C1998.
Author Dahmke, Mark.
Main Title Microcomputer Operating Systems / Mark Dahmke.
Publisher Peterborough, N.H : Mcgraw-Hill/Byte Books, C1982.
Author Deitel, Harvey M., 1945Main Title An Introduction To Operating Systems / Harvey M.
Deitel.
Edition Rev. 1st Ed.
Publisher Reading, Mass : Addison-Wesley Pub. Co., C1984.
Author Lister, A. (Andrew), 1945Main TitleFundamentals Of Operating Systems / A.M. Lister.
Edition 3rd Ed.
Publisher London : Macmillan, 1984.
Author Gray, N. A. B. (Neil A. B.)
Main TitleIntroduction To Computer Systems / N.A.B. Gray.
Publisher Englewood Cliffs, New Jersey ; Sydney : Prentice-Hall,
1987.
Author Peterson, James L.
75
LESSON-19
Objectives
• A system is in a safe state only if there exists a safe sequence.
In the last lecture, you learnt about deadlocks, their characterization
and deadlock detection & prevention methods.In todays lecture,
you will learn other methods of handling deadlocks such as
deadlock avoidance and detection & recovery.
How can you avoid Deadlocks (Deadlock Avoidance)
• A safe state is not a deadlocked state but a deadlocked state is
It turns out that there are algorithms you can use to avoid deadlock.
The principle is as follows:
Whenever you are about to make an allocation, you can run this
algorithm and see if making that allocation would lead to a
deadlock.
This seems like the ideal method but has some important
drawbacks.
Let us see what these drawbacks are:
1. The algorithms are not that fast and there is a lot of overhead
in running them before every resource allocation. The OS might
be allocating resources hundreds of times a second.
2. The algorithms assume that processes know their maximum
resource needs apriori. But this is often not the case.
3. They (processes) assume that they know what resources are
available in the system. Hardware can go down and resources
can become unavailable. This could lead to unpredictable
deadlock situations.
In short, in deadlock avoidance method, the OS must be given in
advance additional information concerning which resources a
process will request and use during its lifetime.
Let me give you an example:
A system has one tape drive and one printer.
• Process P will request first tape drive and then the printer before
releasing both.
• Process Q will request first printer and then tape drive.
• This information should be available apriori so that OS can
decide for each request, whether or not process should wait.
So, in deadlock avoidance, in order to decide whether current
request can be satisfied or must wait to avoid a possible future
deadlock, for each request, the system should consider:
• Resources that are currently available.
• Resources that are currently allocated.
• Future requests and releases of each process.
So how does the algorithm actually work?
Here are some salient points of the algorithm:
• The deadlock avoidance algorithm dynamically examines the
resource allocation state to ensure that there can never be a
circular-wait condition.
• A state is safe if the system can allocate resources to each process
(up to its maximum) in some order and still avoid deadlock.
76
an unsafe state.
• An unsafe state may lead to a deadlock.
Let me explain this with an example:
Consider a system that has ten instances of resource type R, and
three processes A, B and C. The resource allocation and demand is
as follows:
‘A’ has 3 instances of R but may need 9 eventually.
‘B’ has 2 instances of R but may need 4 eventually.
‘C’ has 2 instances of R but may need 7 eventually.
Currently allocated resources: 3 + 2 + 2 = 7
Currently available resources: 10 - 7 = 3
Is this a safe state?
To answer this question, you must find out if there is at least one
sequence of scheduling that allows all processes to complete. Let
us check out the following:
• The scheduler runs process B first which requests two
additional resources and gets it. After this we are left with 1
resource [10 – (3 + 4+ 2)]. Eventually, B completes and releases
all the four resources it holds. The resource pool now has 1 +
4 = 5 resources.
• The scheduler runs process C next which requests five
additional resources and gets it. After this we are left with 0
resource [10 – (3 + 0+ 7)]. Eventually, C completes and releases
all the seven resources it holds. The resource pool now has 0 +
7 = 7 resources.
• The scheduler runs process A next, which requests six
additional resources and gets it. After this we are left with 1
resource [10 – (9 + 0+ 0)]. Eventually, A completes and releases
all the nine resources it holds. The resource pool now has 1 +
9 = 10 resources.
So, you can see that by scheduling the processes in the sequence B
C A, the OS ensures that all processes run to completion. Hence
we conclude that the initial state of the system is safe.
Can you have a formal definition of a safe sequence?
A safe sequence is a sequence of processes <P1, P2, P3, …, Pn>
for the current allocation state if for each Pi, the resources that Pi
can still request can be satisfied by the currently available resources
plus the resources held by all Pj with j <= i .
The Banker’s Algorithm for deadlock avoidance:
One of the most popular deadlock avoidance algorithms is the
Banker’s Algorithm proposed by Dijkstra in 1965.
It is a scheduling algorithm that can avoid deadlocks. The name
was chosen because this algorithm could be used in a banking
system to ensure that the bank never allocates its available cash
such that it can no longer satisfy the needs of all its customers.
• A town banker deals with a group of customers to whom he
has granted lines of credits.
• There are four customers: A, B, C and D, which are analogous
to four processes.
• The credit unit is like the resource
• The banker himself is the OS
• Assume each credit unit = Rs. 1000.
Not all customers need their maximum credit immediately. Hence
only 10 credit units are reserved.
Process Current Max.
Free = 10
A
0
6
B
C
D
0
0
0
5
4
7
How does the algorithm work?
When a new process (customer) enters the system, it (he) must
declare the maximum number of instances of each resource type
(credit units) that it (he) may need. This number may not exceed
the total number of resources (credit units) in the system. When
a user (customer) requests a set of resources (credit unit), the
system must determine whether the allocation of these resources
will leave the system in a safe state. If it will, the resources are
allocated; otherwise, the process must wait until some other
process releases enough resources.
Consider current allocation to various processes is as shown below.
Process Current Max.
Free = 2
A
1
6
B
C
D
1
2
4
5
4
7
Would the System be in a safe state?
‘C’ requests 2 additional units and gets them. It then runs to
completion and frees all the resources it has.
Process
A
B
C
D
Current
Max.
1
1
0
4
Free = 4
6
5
7
Now either ‘B’ or ‘D’ can request and run to completion. Assume
‘B’ requests 4 additional units and gets them. It then runs to
completion and frees all its resources.
Process Current
Max.
Free = 5
A
B
C
D
1
0
0
4
6
7
Now ‘D’ runs and requests 3 additional resources and gets them.
It then runs to completion and releases all its resources.
Process Current
Max.
Free = 9
A
1
6
B
0
C
0
D
0
Finally ‘A’ runs and requests 5 additional resources and gets them.
It then runs to completion and releases all its resources.
Process Current
Max.
Free = 10
A
0
B
0
C
0
D
0
Here is the complete banker’s algorithm:
The banker’s algorithm requires the following data structures to
be defined:
Available: A vector of length m indicates the number of available
resources of each type.
If Available [j] = k, there are k
instances of resource type Rj available.
Max: An n * m matrix that defines the maximum demand of
each process.
If Max [I,j] = k, then process Pi may request at most k instances
of resource type Rj.
Allocation: An n * m matrix defines the number of resources of
each type currently allocated to each process. If Allocation [I, j] =
k, then process Pi is currently allocated k instances of resource type
Rj.
Need: An n * m matrix indicates the remaining resource need of
each process. If Need [I,j] = k, then Pi may need k more instances
of resource type Rj to complete its task..
Note that Need [ I, j] = Max [I, j] – Allocation [I,j].
Having defined the data structures, the algorithm now proceeds
in two phases:
• Safety Algorithm
• Resource Request Algorithm
Safety Algorithm
As discussed earlier, the safety algorithm is for finding out whether
or not a system is in a safe state. It is described below:
3. Let work and finish be vectors of length m and n respectively.
Initialize work = Available and Finish[I] = false for all I = 1,
2, …, n.
4. Find an I such that both
• Finish[I] = false
• Need i <=work
If no such I exists, go to step 4.
5. work = work + allocationi
finish[I] = true
go to step 2
6. If finish[I] = true for all I, then the system is in a safe state.
77
This algorithm may require an order of m * n2 operations to
decide whether a state is safe.
Resource Request Algorithm
Having determined that the system is safe, this algorithm grants
the requested resources to the process.
Let Requesti be the request vector for process P i . If Requesti [j] = k,
then process Pi wants k instances of resource type Rj. When this
request is made, the following actions are taken:
1. If request I <= need I, then go to step 2. Otherwise raise an
error condition because the process has exceeded its maximum
claim.
2. If request I <= available, go to step 3. Otherwise, Pi must
wait since the resources are not available.
3. Have the system pretend to have allocated the requested
resources to process Pi by modifying the state as follows:
a. Available = available – request I
b. Allocation = allocation + request I
c. Need I = Need I – request I
4. Call the Safety algorithm. If the state is safe, then transaction is
completed and process Pi is allocated the resources. If the new
state is unsafe, then Pi must wait and the old resource allocation
state is restored.
Exercise:
Consider a system with five processes P0 through P4 and three
resource types A, B and C. A has 10 instances, B has five instances
and C has seven instances. Consider the following snapshot of
the system:
Process Allocation
Max
Available
A
B
C
A
B
C
A
B
C
P0
0
1
0
7
5
3
3
3
2
P1
2
0
0
3
2
2
P2
3
0
2
9
0
2
P3
2
1
1
2
2
2
P4
0
0
2
4
3
3
Assume that the system is in a safe state. (prove it!).
Suppose now that process P1 requests one additional instance of
resource type A and two instances of resource type C. So Request
= (1,0,2). Apply banker’s algorithm to determine if the request
1
can be granted.
Deadlock detection and recovery
If a system does not employ either deadlock prevention or a
deadlock avoidance algorithm, then a deadlock situation may occur.
The system should first detect the deadlock and then try to recover
from it.
Deadlock in a system can be detected by finding a cycle in a graph
of resource requests.
78
What is this graph of resource requests?
It is also known as a DRAG (Directed resource allocation graph).
The DRAG is a:
• Directed Graph
• Consists of set of vertices V and a set of edges E
• V is partitioned into two sets:
• P (set of all processes) = {P1, P2, P3, … , Pn}
• R (set of all resources) = {R1, R2, R3, … , Rm}
• A directed edge from process Pi to resource Rj is denoted by: Pi
à Rj (known as request edge)
• A directed edge from resource Rj to process Pi is denoted by:
Rjà Pi (known as assignment edge)
• Each process Pi is represented by a circle and each resource
type Rj is represented by a square.
• Multiple instances of a resource type are represented by ‘dots’
The notation Rj ——> Pi indicates:
”Process Pi has been allocated an instance of resource type Rj.”
An assignment edge always points to a Circle (Pi) in the DRAG
and must also designate one of the ‘dots’.
When a process releases a resource, the assignment edge is deleted.
The notation Pi ——> Rj indicates:
“Process Pi has requested for an instance of resource type Rj and is
currently
waiting.”
Request Edge always points to a ‘Square’ (Rj) in a DRAG.
When a process Pi requests an instance of a resource Rj, a request
edge is inserted into the DRAG and after the request is fulfilled,
the edge is converted into an assignment edge.
If a DRAG has no cycles, no process is deadlocked.
If a DRAG has a cycle, deadlock may exist.
If each resource type has only one instance, then a cycle implies
that deadlock occurred. (Necessary and sufficient condition)
If each resource type has several instances, then a cycle does not
necessarily imply a deadlock has occurred.
Example Of A Drag
There are two minimal cycles: P1—>R1—>P2—>R3—>P3—
>R2—>P1 and P2—>R3—>P3—>R2—>P2.
Processes P1, P2, P3 are deadlocked because:
P2 is waiting for R3, which is held by P3.
P3 is waiting for R2 which is held by P1 and P2 and
P1 is waiting for R1, which is held by P2
Once you detect a deadlock using the DRAG, how do you
recover from it?
Once you have discovered a deadlock, you have to figure out how
to break it. This involves preempting a resource, which might
mean canceling a process and starting it over.
Deadlock detection and recovery is the optimistic solution to the
problem. You assume deadlock is unlikely, but detect it and recover
from it when it occurs rather than spending resources trying to
prevent it or avoid it.
Review Questions:
1. List three examples of deadlocks that are not related to
computer-system environment.
2. Is it possible to have a deadlock involving only one single
process? Explain your answer.
3. Consider the following snapshot of a system:
Process
Allocation
A B C D
A B C D
P0
0 0 1 2 0 0 1 2
P1
P2
P3
P4
1
1
0
0
0
3
6
0
0
5
3
1
Max
0
4
2
4
Available
A B C D
1 5 2 0
1
2
0
0
7
3
6
6
5
5
5
5
0
6
2
6
a) What is the content of the matrix need?
b) Is the system in a safe state?
c) If a request from the process P1 arrives for (0,4,2,0) can the
request be granted immediately?
Check Your Progress
Explain Deadlock Avoidance Procedure?
_______________________________________________________________
_______________________________________________________________
_______________________________________________________________
_______________________________________________________________
_______________________________________________________________
_______________________________________________________________
_______________________________________________________________
_______________________________________________________________
_______________________________________________________________
Publisher London : Macmillan, 1984.
Author Gray, N. A. B. (Neil A. B.)
Main Title Introduction To Computer Systems / N.A.B. Gray.
Publisher Englewood Cliffs, New Jersey ; Sydney : Prentice-Hall,
1987.
Author Peterson, James L.
Main TitleOperating System Concepts / James L. Peterson,
Abraham Silberschatz.
Edition 2nd Ed.
Publisher Reading, Mass. : Addison-Wesley, 1985.
Author Stallings, William.
Main Title Operating Systems / William Stallings.
Edition 6th Ed.
Publisher Englewood Cliffs, Nj : Prentice Hall, C1995.
Author Tanenbaum, Andrew S., 1944Main Title Operating Systems : Design And Implementation /
Andrew S. Tanenbaum, Albert S. Woodhull.
Edition 2nd Ed.
Publisher Upper Saddle River, Nj : Prentice Hall, C1997.
Author Nutt, Gary J.
Main Title Operating Systems : A Modern Perspective / Gary J.
Nutt.
Publisher Reading, Mass. : Addison-Wesley, C1997.
Author Silberschatz, Abraham.
Main TitleOperating System Concepts / Abraham Silberschatz,
Peter Baer Galvin.
Edition 6th Ed.
Publisher Reading, Mass. : Addison Wesley Longman, C1998.
_______________________________________________________________
_______________________________________________________________
_______________________________________________________________
_______________________________________________________________
_______________________________________________________________
_______________________________________________________________
_______________________________________________________________
_______________________________________________________________
_______________________________________________________________
Reference Books:
Author Dahmke, Mark.
Main Title Microcomputer Operating Systems / Mark Dahmke.
Publisher Peterborough, N.H : Mcgraw-Hill/Byte Books, C1982.
Author Deitel, Harvey M., 1945Main TitleAn Introduction To Operating Systems / Harvey M.
Deitel.
Edition Rev. 1st Ed.
Publisher Reading, Mass : Addison-Wesley Pub. Co., C1984.
Author Lister, A. (Andrew), 1945Main Title Fundamentals Of Operating Systems / A.M. Lister.
Edition 3rd Ed.
79
SELF-ASSESSMENT INTERACTIVE
7.1 List types of resources we might consider in deadlock problems
on computers.
• available vector Available(m)
Answer: CPU cycles, memory space, files, I/O devices, tape drives,
printers.
7.2 Define deadlock.
• allocation matrix Allocation(n,m)
Answer: A situation where every process is waiting for an event
that can be triggered
only by another process.
7.3 What are the four necessary conditions needed before deadlock
can occur?
• demand matrix Max(n,m)
• need matrix Need(n,m)
7.9 Summarize the banker’s algorithm.
Answer:
a. If request for process i exceeds its need, error has occurred.
b. If request of process i exceeds available resources, process i
must wait.
Answer:
c. The system temporarily allocates the resources process i wants;
if the state is unsafe, the allocation is postponed.
a. At least one resource must be held in a nonsharable mode.
7.10 Summarize the Safety Algorithm.
b. A process holding at least one resource is waiting for more
resources held by other processes.
c. Resources cannot be preempted.
Answer:
d. There must be a circular waiting.
7.4 Give examples of sharable resources.
Answer: Read-only files, shared programs and libraries.
7.5 Give examples of nonsharable resources.
Answer: Printer, magnetic tape drive, update-files, card readers.
7.6 List three overall strategies in handling deadlocks.
Answer:
a. Ensure system will never enter a deadlock state.
b. Allow deadlocks, but devise schemes to recover from them.
c. Pretend deadlocks don’t happen.
7.7 Consider a traffic deadlock situation
a. Show that the four necessary conditions for deadlock indeed
hold in this example.
b. State a simple rule that will avoid deadlocks in this system.
Answer:
a. Each section of the street is considered a resource.
• Mutual-exclusion —only one vehicle on a section of the street.
• Hold-and-wait — each vehicle is occupying a section of the
street and is waiting to move to the next section.
• No-preemption — a section of a street that is occupied by a
vehicle cannot be taken away from the vehicle unless the car
moves to the next section.
• Circular-wait —each vehicle is waiting for the next vehicle in
front of it to move.
a. Initialize vector Work to Available and set vector Finish to false.
b. Find a process such that Finish(i) = false and Need(i) leq Work.
c. If found, add Allocation(i)toWork(i), Finish(i)to true,and go to
step b.
d. If not found, continue here. If Finish(i) = true for all processes
then state is safe, else it is unsafe.
7.11 How can we determine whether current state is “safe” in
systems with only one instance of each resource type?
Answer: State is unsafe if any cycle exists.
7.12 What conditions must exist before a wait-for graph is useful
in detecting deadlocks?
Answer: A cycle.
7.13 What does a cycle in a wait-for graph indicate?
Answer: A deadlock.
7.14 Consider a system consisting of four resources of the same
type that are shared by three processes, each of which needs at
most two resources. Show that the system is deadlock-free.
Answer: Suppose the system is deadlocked. This implies that
each process is holding one resource and is waiting for one
more. Since there are three processes and four resources, one
process must be able to obtain two resources. This process
requires no more resources and therefore it will return its
resources when done.
7.16 What is starvation?
Answer: System is not deadlocked, but at least one process is
indefinitely postponed..
7.17 List three options for breaking an existing deadlock.
b. Allow a vehicle to cross an intersection only if it is assured that
the vehicle will not have to stop at the intersection.
7.8 List the data structures needed for the banker’s algorithm.
Answer:
a. Violate mutual exclusion, risking data.
Answer:
c. Preempt resources of some process.
80
b. Abort a process.
7.18 What three issues must be considered in the case of
preemption?
Answer:
a. Select a victim to be preempted.
b. Determine how far back to rollback the victim.
c. Determine means for preventing that process from being
“starved.”
Notes
81
UNIT-4
LESSON-21
Objectives
4. At execution time
In the last two lectures, you learnt about deadlocks, their
characterization and various deadlock-handling techniques. In this
lecture, you will learn about memory management, swapping and
concept of contiguous memory allocation.
Memory Management is also known as Storage or Space
Management
• Addresses translated dynamically during execution.
What is Memory Management?
Memory management involves
• Hardware needed to perform the virtual to physical address
translation quickly.
• Currently dominates.
• Much more information later.
Now I will explain you MMU - Logical vs. Physical Address
Space
• Subdividing memory to accommodate multiple processes
• Allocating memory efficiently to pack as many processes into
memory as possible
When is address translation performed?
1. At compile time
• Primitive.
• Compiler generates physical addresses.
• Requires knowledge of where the compilation unit will be
loaded.
• Rarely used (MSDOS .COM files).
2. At link-edit time (the “linker lab”)
• Compiler
•
Generates relocatable addresses for each compilation unit.
•
References external addresses.
• Linkage editor
• Concept of logical address space bound to a separate physical
• Converts the relocatable addr to absolute.
address space - central to proper memory management
• Resolves external references.
•
Logical (virtual) address – generated by the CPU
• Misnamed ld by unix.
•
Physical address – address seen by the memory unit
• Also converts virtual to physical addresses by knowing where
•
Logical and physical addresses:
the linked program will be loaded. Linker lab “does” this, but
it is trivial since we assume the linked program will be loaded at
0.
• Loader is simple.
• Hardware requirements are small.
• A program can be loaded only where specified and cannot move
once loaded.
• Not used much any more.
3. At load time
• Similar to at link-edit time, but do not fix the starting address.
• Program can be loaded anywhere.
• Program can move but cannot be split.
• Need modest hardware: base/limit registers.
• Loader sets the base/limit registers.
82
• Same in compile-time and load-time address-binding schemes
•
•
•
Different in execution-time address-binding scheme
Memory Management Unit: HW device that maps virtual
to physical address
Simplest scheme: add relocation register value to every
address generated by process when sent to memory
Dynamic Loading
• Routine is not loaded until it is called.
• Better memoryspace utilization; unused routine is never loaded.
• Useful when large amounts of code are needed to handle
infrequently occurring cases.
• No special support from the operating system is required;
implemented through program design.
Dynamic Linking
• Linking postponed until execution time.
• Small piece of code, stub, used to locate the appropriate
memoryresident library routine.
• Stub replaces itself with the address of the routine, and executes
the routine.
• Operating system needed to check if routine is in processes’
Operating system cannot anticipate all of the memory references a
program will make
What does sharing mean?
Allow several processes to access the same portion of memory
Better to allow each process (person) access to the same copy of
the program rather than have their own separate copy
memory address.
Overlays
What does logical organization of memory mean?
• To handle processes larger than their allocated memory
• Programs are written in modules
• Keep in memory only instructions and data needed at any
• Modules can be written and compiled independently
given time
• Different degrees of protection given to modules (read-only,
• Implemented by user, no special support needed from OS,
programming design is complex
The Need for Memory Management
execute-only)
• Share modules
• What does physical organization of memory mean?
•Memory available for a program plus its data
may be insufficient
Overlay for a two-pass
assembler:
Pass 1
Pass 2
Symbol Table
Common Routines
70KB
80KB
20KB
30KB
Total
200KB
Two overlays: 120 + 130KB
Main memory is generally the most critical resource in a computer
system in terms of the speed at which programs run and hence it
is important to manage it as efficiently as possible.
What are the requirements of Memory Management?
The requirements of memory management are:
•Overlaying allows various modules to be
assigned the same region of memory
•Programmer does not know how much space
will be available
Swapping
Swapping is the act of moving processes
between memory and a backing store. This is
done to free up available memory. Swapping is
necessary when there are more processes than
available memory. At the coarsest level, swapping
is done a process at a time. That is, an entire
process is swapped in/out.
• Relocation
• Protection
• Sharing
• Logical Organization
• Physical Organization
What is meant by relocation?
• Programmer does not know where the program will be placed
in memory when it is executed
• While the program is executing, it may be swapped to disk and
returned to main memory at a different location (relocated)
• Memory references must be translated in the code to actual
physical memory address
What is meant by protection?
• Processes should not be able to reference memory locations in
another process without permission
• Impossible to check absolute addresses in programs since the
program could be relocated
• Must be checked during execution
What are the various memory management schemes
available?
There are many different memory management schemes. Selection
of a memory management scheme for a specific system depends
83
on many factors, especially the hardware design of the system. A
few of the schemes are given here:
• Contiguous, Real Memory Management System
OS
• Non-contiguous Real Memory Management System
• Non-contiguous, Virtual Memory Management System
In this lecture, you will learn about the contiguous memory
management scheme. You will also learn about virtual memory
and concept of swapping.
First let me explain what swapping means. You are all aware by
now that for a process to be executed, it must be in the memory.
Sometimes, however, a process can be swapped (removed)
temporarily out of the memory to a backing store (such as a hard
disk) and then brought back into memory for continued execution.
Let me explain with an example:
User Process
Area
At any time, only one user process is in memory and it is run to
completion and then the next process is brought into the memory.
This scheme is sometimes referred to as the
Single Contiguous Memory Management.
What are the advantages and disadvantages of this scheme?
First, let us look at the advantages:
• Starting physical address of program is known at compile time
• Executable machine code has absolute addresses only. They
need not be changed/translated at execution time
•
Fast access time as there is no need for address translation·
• Does not have large wasted memory
• Time complexity is small·
The disadvantage is that, it does not support multi-programming
and hence no concept of sharing.
Consider a multiprogramming environment with a round-robin
CPU scheduling algorithm. When a quantum (time-slice) expires,
the memory manger will start to swap out processes that just
finished, and to swap in another process to the memory space
that has been freed. In the meantime, the CPU scheduler will
allocate a time slice to some other process in memory. Thus when
each process finishes its quantum, it will be swapped with another
process.
Are there any constraints on swapping?
Yes, there are. If you want to swap a process, you must be sure
that it is completely idle. If a process is waiting for an I/O operation
that is asynchronously accessing the user memory for I/O buffers,
then it cannot be swapped.
Having learnt about the basics of memory management and
concept of swapping, we will now turn our attention to the
contiguous memory management scheme.
What is the meaning of the term contiguous?
Contiguous literally means adjacent. Here it means that the program
is loaded into a series of adjacent (contiguous) memory locations.
In contiguous memory allocation, the memory is usually divided
into two partitions, one for the OS and the other for the user
process.
What about protection?
Since there is one user process and the OS in the memory, it is
necessary to protect the OS code from the user code. This is achieved
through two mechanisms:
• Use of Protection Bits
• Use of Fence Register
Protection Bits:
• One bit for each memory block
• The memory block may belong to either user process or the OS
• Size of memory block should be known
• The bit is 0 if the word belongs to OS
The bit is 1 if the word belongs to user process
A mode bit in the h/w indicates if system is executing in privileged
mode or user mode.
• If mode changes, the h/w mode bit is also changed
automatically.
• If user process refers to memory locations inside OS area, then
the protection bit for the referred word is 0 and the h/w mode
bit is ‘user mode’. Thus user process is prevented from accessing
OS area.
• If OS makes a reference to memory locations being used by a
user process then the mode bit = ‘privileged’ and the protection
bit is not checked at all.·
Y
84
Current process
USER
USER
OS
OS
mode bit prot. bit
u-mode
u-mode
p-mode
p-mode
access
0
1
1
0
status
OS
user
user
OS
Fence Register:
_____________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________
N
Y
Reference
Books:
Y
AuthorY Dahmke, Mark.
Main Title Microcomputer Operating Systems / Mark Dahmke.
Publisher Peterborough, N.H : Mcgraw-Hill/Byte Books, C1982.
• Similar to any other register in the CPU
• Contains address of the ‘fence’ between OS and the user process
(see Fig. 2)
Author Deitel, Harvey M., 1945-
• Fence Register value = P
Main TitleAn Introduction To Operating Systems / Harvey M.
Deitel.
• For every memory reference, when final address is in MAR
Edition Rev. 1st Ed.
(Memory Address Register), it is compared with Fence Register
value by h/w thereby detecting protection violations
Publisher Reading, Mass : Addison-Wesley Pub. Co., C1984.
Author Lister, A. (Andrew), 1945Main TitleFundamentals Of Operating Systems / A.M. Lister.
Edition 3rd Ed.
Publisher London : Macmillan, 1984.
O
Author Gray, N. A. B. (Neil A. B.)
O
S
P
Main TitleIntroduction To Computer Systems / N.A.B. Gray.
FENC
E
User
Process
Area
MA
X
Publisher Englewood Cliffs, New Jersey ; Sydney : Prentice-Hall,
1987.
Author Peterson, James L.
Main TitleOperating System Concepts / James L. Peterson,
Abraham Silberschatz.
Edition 2nd Ed.
Publisher Reading, Mass. : Addison-Wesley, 1985.
Author Stallings, William.
In a multi-programming environment, where more than one
process is in the memory, we have the fixed-partition scheme.
Main TitleOperating Systems / William Stallings.
In this scheme,
Publisher Englewood Cliffs, Nj : Prentice Hall, C1995.
• Main memory is divided into multiple partitions
Author Tanenbaum, Andrew S., 1944-
• Partitions could be of different sizes but ‘fixed’ at the time of
system generation
• Could be used with or without ‘swapping’ and ‘relocation’
Main TitleOperating Systems : Design And Implementation /
Andrew S. Tanenbaum, Albert S. Woodhull.
Edition 2nd Ed.
• To change partition sizes, system needs to be shut down and
Publisher Upper Saddle River, Nj : Prentice Hall, C1997.
generated again with a new partition size
Review Questions:
Edition 6th Ed.
Author Nutt, Gary J.
1. What is Memory Management?
Main Title Operating Systems : A Modern Perspective / Gary J.
Nutt.
_____________________________________________________________________
Publisher Reading, Mass. : Addison-Wesley, C1997.
_____________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________
Author Silberschatz, Abraham.
_____________________________________________________________________
Main Title Operating System Concepts / Abraham Silberschatz,
Peter Baer Galvin.
Edition 6th Ed.
_____________________________________________________________________
Publisher Reading, Mass. : Addison Wesley Longman, C1998.
_____________________________________________________________________
2. What is various type of addressing?
_____________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________
85
LESSON-22
Objectives
• The Process Manager eventually schedules the process
In the last lecture, you have learnt about memory management,
swapping and concept of contiguous memory allocation. In this
lecturer you are going to learn about how OS manages the memory
partitions.
Can a process be allocated to any partition?
The processes are allocated to the partitions based on the allocation
policy of the system. The allocation policies are:
So how does the OS manage or keep track of all these partitions?
• Best Fit
In order to manage all the partitions,
• Worst Fit
• The OS creates a Partition Description Table (PDT)
• Next Fit
• Initially all the entries in PDT are marked as ‘FREE’
Let me explain this with a simple example:
• First Fit
• When a partition is loaded into one of the partitions, the
‘status’ column is changed to ‘ALLOC’
Refer to figure above.
• The PCB of each process contains the Id. of the partition in
which the process is running
How are the partitions allocated to various processes?
The sequence of steps leading to allocation of partitions to
processes is given below:
• The long-term scheduler of the process manager decides which
process is to be brought into memory next.
• It finds out the size of the program to be loaded by consulting
the Information Manager of the OS (the compiler keeps the
size of the program in the header of the executable code)
• It then makes a request to the ‘partition allocate routine’ of the
memory manager to allocate free partition of appropriate size.
• It now loads the binary program in the allocated partition
(address translation may be necessary)
Free partitions are 1 and 4.
So, which partition should be allocated to a new process of size
50K?
First Fit and Worst Fit will allocate Partition 1 while Best Fit will
allocate Partition 4.
Do you know why?
In first fit policy, the memory manager will choose the first available
partition that can accommodate the process even though its size is
more than that of the process.
In worst fit policy, the memory manager will choose the largest
available partition that can accommodate the process.
In best-fit policy, the memory manager will choose the partition
that is just big enough to accommodate the process
• It then makes an entry of the partition-id in the PCB before
the PCB is linked to chain of ready processes by using the
Process Manager module.
• The routine in the Memory Manager now marks the status of
that partition as allocated.
86
Are there any disadvantages of this scheme?
Yes. This scheme causes wastage of memory, referred to as
fragmentation.
Let me explain with an example:
Suppose there is a process, which requires 20K of memory. There
is a partition of size 40K available. Assuming that the system is
following the First-fit policy, then this partition would be allocated
to the process. As a result, 20K of memory within the partition is
unused. This is called internal fragmentation.
Now consider the same 20K process. This time, though there are
three partitions of 10K, 5K and 16K available. None of them are
large enough to accommodate the 20K process. There are no other
smaller processes in the queue. Hence these three partitions remain
unused. This is waste of memory and is referred to as external
fragmentation.
So how does this mechanism work?
Let me explain with the following example:
Consider a physical memory of 64 KB. Assume each block is of
2KB.
• Total No. of blocks = 64/2 = 32 blocks
• ‘Key’ associated with each block is 4 bits long
• ‘Key string’ for 32 blocks is therefore 128 bits long
• System administrator defines a max of 16 partitions of different
sizes (out of the available 32 blocks)
• Each partition is then given a protection key in the range 0000
to 1111
Now a process is loaded into a partition
• ‘Protection key’ for the partition is stored in the PSW (Program
Status Word).
How do you ensure protection of processes in such a scheme?
Protection can be achieved in two ways:
• The process makes a memory reference in an instruction.
• Protection Bits (used by IBM 360/370 systems)
• The 4-bit protection key for that block is extracted from the
• Limit Register
• The resulting address and the block are computed.
protection-key string.
Protection Bits:
• It is then tallied with the value in PSW.
• Divide the memory into 2 KB blocks.
• If there is a match, then fine!
• Each block has 4 bits reserved for protection called the ‘key’.
• Else the process is trying to access an address belonging to
• Size of each partition had to be multiple of such 2K blocks.
• All the blocks associated with a partition allocated to a process
are given the same key.
some other partition.
What are the disadvantages of this mechanism?
• Memory wastage due to internal fragmentation
• Limits maximum number of partitions (due to key length)
• Hardware malfunction may generate a different address but in
the same partition - scheme fails!!
Limit Register:
• The Limit Register for each process can be stored in the PCB
and can be saved/restored during context switch.
• If the program size were 1000, logical addresses generated would
be 0 to 999
• The Limit Register therefore is set to 999
87
• Every ‘logical’ or ‘virtual’ address is checked to ensure that it is
<= 999 and then added to base register. If not, then hardware
generates an error and process is aborted.
Reference Books:
Author Dahmke, Mark.
Main Title Microcomputer Operating Systems / Mark Dahmke.
Publisher Peterborough, N.H : Mcgraw-Hill/Byte Books, C1982.
Author Deitel, Harvey M., 1945Main Title An Introduction To Operating Systems / Harvey M.
Deitel.
Edition Rev. 1st Ed.
Publisher Reading, Mass : Addison-Wesley Pub. Co., C1984.
Author Lister, A. (Andrew), 1945Main TitleFundamentals Of Operating Systems / A.M. Lister.
Edition 3rd Ed.
Publisher London : Macmillan, 1984.
_____________________________________________________________________
Author Gray, N. A. B. (Neil A. B.)
Main Title Introduction To Computer Systems / N.A.B. Gray.
Publisher Englewood Cliffs, New Jersey ; Sydney : Prentice-Hall,
1987.
Author Peterson, James L.
Main Title Operating System Concepts / James L. Peterson,
Abraham Silberschatz.
Edition 2nd Ed.
_____________________________________________________________________
Publisher Reading, Mass. : Addison-Wesley, 1985.
Review Questions:
1. Explain the difference between Internal and external
fragmentation.
_____________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________
Author Stallings, William.
Main TitleOperating Systems / William Stallings.
Edition 6th Ed.
Publisher Englewood Cliffs, Nj : Prentice Hall, C1995.
2. Explain the following allocation algorithms:
a. First-Fit
b. Best-Fit
c. Worst-fit
_____________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________
3. What are the advantages and disadvantages of the fixed partition
memory management scheme?
_____________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________
Author Tanenbaum, Andrew S., 1944Main TitleOperating Systems : Design And Implementation /
Andrew S. Tanenbaum, Albert S. Woodhull.
Edition 2nd Ed.
Publisher Upper Saddle River, Nj : Prentice Hall, C1997.
Author Nutt, Gary J.
Main TitleOperating Systems : A Modern Perspective / Gary J.
Nutt.
Publisher Reading, Mass. : Addison-Wesley, C1997.
Author Silberschatz, Abraham.
Main TitleOperating System Concepts / Abraham Silberschatz,
Peter Baer Galvin.
Edition 6th Ed.
Publisher Reading, Mass. : Addison Wesley Longman, C1998.
_____________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________
88
Notes
LESSON-23
Objectives
In the last two lectures, you will learnt about memory management,
swapping and concept of contiguous memory allocation. In this
lecturer you are going to learn multiprogramming environment
using fixed and Dynamic partitions.
Multiprogramming With Fixed Partition
In a multiprogramming environment, several programs reside in
primary memory at a time and the CPU passes its control rapidly
between these programs. One way to support multiprogramming
is to divide the main memory into several partitions each of which
is allocated to a single process. Depending upon how and when
partitions are created, there may be two types of memory
partitioning:
(1) Static and
(2) Dynamic.
Static partitioning implies that the division of memory into
number of partitions and its size is made in the beginning (during
the system generation process) and remain fixed thereafter. In
dynamic partitioning, the size and the number of partitions are
decided during the run time by the operating system. In this
section we will take up static partitioning and multiprogramming
with dynamic (variable) partitioning will be discussed in the next
section.
In this section, You present several memory management schemes
based on contiguous allocation.
The basic approach here is to divide memory into several fixed
size partitions where each partition will accommodate only one
program for execution. The number of programs (i.e. degree of
multiprogramming) residing in memory will be bound by the
number of partition When a program terminates, that partition
is free for another program waiting in a queue.
An example of partition memory is shown in figure.
Fixed Size Partition
As shown, the memory is partitioned into 6 regions. The first
region Lower area) is reserved for operating system. The remaining
five regions are for user programs. Three partitions occupied by
programs P1, P2 and P3. Only the first and last one are free and
available for allocation.
Once partitions are defined, operating system keeps track of status
(whether allocated or free) of memory partitions. Ibis is done
through a data structure called partition description table (figure).
89
Partition Description Table
The two most Common strategies to allocate free partitions to
ready processes are: (i) first-fit and (ii) best-fit. The approach
followed in the first fit is to allocate the first free partition large
enough to accommodate the process. The best fit approach on
the other hand allocates the smallest free partition that meets the
requirement of the process.
Both strategies require to scan the partition description table to
find out free partitions. However, the first-fit terminates after
finding the first such partition whereas the best-fit continues
searching for the near exact size.
As a result, the first-fit executes faster whereas the best- fit achieves
higher utilization of memory by searching the smallest free
partition. Therefore, a trade-off between execution speed of firstfit and memory utilization of best-fit must be made.
To explain these two strategies, let us take one example. A new
process P4 with size 80K is ready to be allocated into memory
whose partition layout is given in figure 2. Using first-fit strategy,
P4 will get the first partition leaving 120K of unused memory.
Best fit will continue searching for the best possible partition and
allocate the last partition to the process leaving just 20K bytes of
unused memory.
Wherever a new process is ready to be loaded into memory and if
no partition is free, swapping of processes between main memory
and secondary storage is done. Swapping helps in CPU utilization
by replacing suspend able processes but residing into main memory
with ready to execute processes from secondary storages. When
the scheduler admits a new process (of high priority) for which no
partition is free, a memory manager is invoked to make a partition
free to accommodate the process.
The memory manager performs this task by swapping out low
priority processes suspended for a comparatively long time in
order to load and execute the higher priority process. When the
higher priority process is terminated, the lower priority process
can be swapped back and continued.
Swapping requires secondary storage device such as fast disk to
store the suspended processes from main memory. One problem
with swapping process is that it takes lengthy time to access process
from secondary storage device. For example, to get an idea of total
swap time, assume that user program is 100K words and secondary
storage device is a fixed head disk with an average latency of 8m sec
and a transfer rate of 250,000 words/second then a transfer of
100K words to or from memory takes:
One important issue concerning swapping is whether the process
removed temporarily from any partition should be brought back
to the same partition or any partition of adequate size.
This is dependent upon partitioning policy. The binding of process
to a specific partition (static partitioning) eliminates overhead of
run time allocation of partition at the expense of lowest utilization
of primary memory. On the other hand, systems where processes
are not permanently bound to a specific partition (dynamic
partition) are much more flexible and utilizes memory more
efficiently. The only drawback with dynamic partitioning approach
is run time overhead of partition allocation whenever a new process
is swapped in.
As said earlier, the loading of a process into a same partition
where from it was swapped out into a different partition is
dependent upon relocation policy. The term relocation usually
refers to the ability to load and execute a given program into an
arbitrary memory partition as opposed to fixed set of memory
locations specified at program translation time.
Depending upon when and how the addresses translation from
the virtual address to actual address (also called physical address)
of primary memory, takes place, process or program relocation
may be regarded as static relocation and dynamic relocation. There
is a difference between virtual and physical address. Virtual address
refers to information within a program’s address space, while
physical address specifies the actual physical memory locations
where program and data are stored in memory during execution
time.
If the relocation is performed before or during the loading of a
program into memory by a relocating linker or a relocating loader,
the relocation approach is called static relocation. The static
relocation is practically restricted to support only static binding of
processes to partition.
Dynamic relocation refers to run-time mapping of virtual address
into physical address with the support of some hardware
mechanism such as base registers and limit registers. Relocation
of memory references at run-time is illustrated in the following
figure:
8msec + (100K words/250,000 words/sec)
= 8msec + 100000 words/250,000 words/sec
= 8msec + 215 sec
= 8msec + 2000/5 msec
= 8msec + 400 msec
= 408 msec (approximately)
Since you must swap in and swap out the total swap time is
about 408+408 = 816msec.
The overhead must be considered when deciding whether to swap
a process in order to make room for another process.
90
When a process is scheduled, the base register is loaded with the
starting address. Every memory address generated automatically
has the base register contents added to it before being sent to
main memory. Thus, if the base register is 100000 (IOOK), a
MOVE R1, 200 which is supposed to load the contents of virtual
address 200 (relative to program beginning) into register, effectively
turned into a MOVE R1, 100000 + 200, without the instruction
itself being modified. The hardware protects the base register to
prevent user programs from modifying.
An additional advantage of using a base register for relocation is
that a program can be moved anywhere in memory after it has
started execution.
Protection and Sharing: Multiprogramming introduces one
essential problem of protection. Not only that the operating
system must be protected from user programs/processes but
each user process should also be protected from maliciously
accessing the areas of other processes.
In system that uses base register for relocation, a common approach
is to use limit (bound) register for protection. The primary
function of a limit register is to detect attempts to access memory
location beyond the boundary assigned by the operating system.
When a process is scheduled, the limit register is loaded with the
highest virtual address in a program. As illustrated in figure 5,
each memory access of a running program is first compared with
the contents of the limit register. If it exceeds the limit register,
no permission is given to the user process. In this way, any attempt
to access a memory location beyond the boundary is trapped.
Protection through Limit and Base Register
In addition to protection, a good memory management
mechanism must also provide for controlled sharing of data and
code between cooperating processes. One traditional approach to
sharing is to place data and code in a dedicated common partition.
However, any attempt by a participating process to access memory
outside of its own participation is normally regarded as a protection
violation. In systems with protection keys, this obstacle may be
circumvented by changing the keys of all shared blocks upon every
process switch in order to grant access rights to currently running
process.
Fixed partitioning imposes several restrictions:
Multiprogramming With Dynamic Partitions
The main problem with fixed size partition is the wastage of
memory by programs that are smaller than their partitions (i.e.
internal fragmentation). A different memory management
approach known as dynamic partitions (also called variable
partition) which creates partitions dynamically to meet the
requirements of each requesting process. When a process
terminates or becomes swapped-out, the memory manager can
return the vacated space to the pool of free memory areas from
which partition allocations are made.
Compared to fixed partitions, in dynamic partitions, neither the
size nor the number of dynamically allocated partition need be
limited at any other time. Memory manager continues creating
and allocating partitions to requesting processes until all physical
memory is exhausted or maximum allowable degree of
multiprogramming is reached.
The main difference between the fixed partition and variable
partitions is that the number, location and size of partitions vary
dynamically in the latter as processes are created and terminated,
whereas they are
fixed in the
former. The
flexibility of not
being tied to a
fixed number
of partitions
that may be too
large or too
small
for
requesting
processes,
improves
m e m o r y
utilisation but it
also complicates
the process of
allocation and
deallocation of memory.
In variable partition, operating system keeps track of which parts
of memory are available and which are allocated.
Assume that we have 640K main memory available in which 40K
is occupied by operating system program. There are 5 jobs waiting
for memory allocation in a job queue (figure ). Applying FCFS
scheduling policy, Process 1, Process 2 and Process 3 can be
immediately allocated in memory. Process 4 cannot be
accommodated because there is only 600 - 550 = 50K left for it.
This situation is shown in figure (a)
• No single program/process may exceed the size of the largest
partition in a given system.
• It does not support a system having dynamically data structure
such as stack, queue, heap etc.
• It limits the degree of multiprogramming which in turn may
reduce the effectiveness of short-term scheduling.
91
holes of sizes 30K, 20K, 40K and 20K which have been compacted
into one large hole or block of 110 K (figure (b)).
Jobs waiting in a queue for CPU
Memory allocation and Job scheduling
Let us assume that after some time Process 1 is terminated, releasing
200K memory space. This is shown in figure (b). After that the
control is returned to the Process queue and next process (Process
4) is swapped, in the memory which is illustrated in figure (c).
After Process 1, Process 3 gets terminated releasing IOOK memory
(figure (d)) but Process 5 cannot be accommodated due to external
fragmenatoitn.
After
the swapping out of Process 2 due to termination, Process 5 will
be loaded for execution.
This example illustrates one important problem with variable
size partitions. The main problem is external fragmentation. It
exists when the size of memory is large enough for a requesting
process, but it cannot satisfy a request because it is not contiguous;
storage is fragmented into a small number of holes (free spaces).
Depending upon the total size of memory and number and size
of a program, external fragmentation may be either a minor or a
major problem.
One solution to this problem is compaction. It is possible to
combine all the holes (free spaces) into a large block by pushing all
the processes downward as far as possible. The following figure
illustrates the compaction of memory. In figure (a) there are 4
92
Compaction
Compaction is usually not done because it consumes a lot of
CPU time; on a 1M Microcomputer that has the capacity of copying
at a rate of 1 megabyte/sec, CPU takes one second
to compact memory. It is usually done on a large
machine like mainframe or supercomputer
because they are supported with a special hardware
to perform this task (compaction) at a rate of 40
megabytes/sec or more. Solution of an optimal
compaction strategy is quite difficult. This is
illustrated with the following example in figure 9.
Comparison of some different ways to Compact memory
If you apply simplest algorithm, Process 3 and 4 will be moved at
the end, for a total movement of 500K creating a situation in
figure (b). If you simply move Process 4 above 3, then you only
300K is moved or if you move Process 3 down below Process 4,
then you move only 200K. Please observe that a large memory
hole (block) is now in the middle. Therefore, if you have large
number of processes, selection of which process or processes for
shifting downwards or upwards to meet the requirement for
waiting process is quite difficult task.
Advantages:
One advantage with variable partition is that memory utilization
is generally better than fixed size partitions, since partitions are
created accordingly to the size of process.
_____________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________
2.
How to manage in the multiprogramming environment
using dynamic partitions
_____________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________
Reference Books:
Author Dahmke, Mark.
Protection and sharing in static and dynamic partitions are quite
similar, because of same hardware requirement except for some
additional consideration due to compaction of memory during
dynamic partitioning.
Main Title Microcomputer Operating Systems / Mark Dahmke.
One advantage of dynamic partitioning is to support processes
whose memory requirement increase during their execution. In
that case operating system creates a larger partition and moves a
process into it. If there is an adjacent free area it simply expands it.
Author Deitel, Harvey M., 1945-
Disadvantages:
Dynamic memory management requires lots of operating system
space, time, complex memory management algorithm and
bookkeeping operation.
Publisher Reading, Mass : Addison-Wesley Pub. Co., C1984.
Compaction time is very high. Although internal fragmentation
is negligible, external fragmentation may be severe problem
imposing a time penalty for compaction.
Review Questions:
Main Title
1. How to manage in the multiprogramming environment using
fixed partitions
Author Gray, N. A. B. (Neil A. B.)
_____________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________
PublisherPeterborough, N.H : Mcgraw-Hill/Byte Books, C1982.
Main Title An Introduction To Operating Systems / Harvey M.
Deitel.
Edition Rev. 1st Ed.
Author Lister, A. (Andrew), 1945Fundamentals Of Operating Systems / A.M.
Lister.
Edition 3rd Ed.
Publisher London : Macmillan, 1984.
Main Title Introduction To Computer Systems / N.A.B. Gray.
Publisher Englewood Cliffs, New Jersey ; Sydney : Prentice-Hall,
1987.
_____________________________________________________________________
93
Author Peterson, James L.
Main Title
Operating System Concepts / James L.
Peterson, Abraham Silberschatz.
Edition 2nd Ed.
Publisher
Reading, Mass. : Addison-Wesley, 1985.
Author Stallings, William.
Main Title
Operating Systems / William Stallings.
Edition 6th Ed.
Publisher
Englewood Cliffs, Nj : Prentice Hall, C1995.
Author Tanenbaum, Andrew S., 1944Main Title
Operating Systems : Design And
Implementation / Andrew S. Tanenbaum, Albert S. Woodhull.
Edition 2nd Ed.
Publisher
Upper Saddle River, Nj : Prentice Hall, C1997.
Author Nutt, Gary J.
Main Title
Operating Systems : A Modern Perspective /
Gary J. Nutt.
Publisher
Reading, Mass. : Addison-Wesley, C1997.
Author Silberschatz, Abraham.
Main Title
Operating System Concepts / Abraham
Silberschatz, Peter Baer Galvin.
Edition 6th Ed.
Publisher Reading, Mass. : Addison Wesley Longman, C1998.
Notes
94
LESSON-24
Objectives
In the last lecture, you learnt about multiprogramming
environment using fixed and Dynamic partitions. In this lecture,
you will get to know about non-contiguous memory management
scheme and the concept of Paging and Segmentation.
Let us start by defining non-contiguous memory. Non-contiguous
memory means that the available memory is not contiguous but
is distributed.
This scheme has the benefit of minimizing external fragmentation.
How?
The logical address space of the process is allowed to be noncontiguous, thus allowing a process to be allocated physical
memory wherever the later is available. This is achieved using a
concept called paging.
What is paging?
Paging is a process where by
• Physical memory is broken down into fixed size blocks called
page frames.
• Logical memory is broken down into blocks of the same size
as physical memory blocks and is called pages.
• When a process is to be executed, its pages are loaded from the
backing store into any available memory frames.
• Every address generated by CPU is divided into two parts:
pa ge number (p) a nd pa ge offset (d)
• p is used as an index into a page map table
• Page table contains base address of each page in physical memory
• The base address is combined with d to define physical memory
address that is then put into the MAR
• Compiler generates one-dimensional single address in binary
• Assume 16-bit addresses are used
• The address needs to be partitioned into P (page number) and
D (offset)
• How many bits (out of 16) are needed for P and how many for
D?
• Answer depends on page size.
• For example if page size is 1024 bytes, then we require 10 bits
(210=1024) for D and remaining 6 for P
Here is a complete example illustrating paging:
Does this require any hardware support?
Yes. The picture below shows the support required.
Let Page size = 4 bytes and available physical memory = 32 bytes
We therefore have 8 frames and 8 pages as follows:
Page 0
addresses
0
3
Page 1
addresses
4
7
Page 2
addresses
8
11
Page 3
addresses
12
15
Page 4
addresses
16
19
Page 5
addresses
20
23
Page 6
addresses
24
27
Page 7
addresses 28 – 31
95
To access 4 bytes within each page, we need 2 bits
To access 32 bytes of physical memory, we require 5 address lines
Hence, remaining 3 bits are used to access a total of 8 pages
Consider the logical addresses 0, 1, 2, 3 and the page table shown along side:
Logical address 0 is in page 0 at an offset 0 and page 0 is mapped
to frame 5.
Since each frame is 4 bytes, the offset (start address) of frame 5 in
physical memory is 5 x 4 = 20;
Therefore, logical address 0 corresponds to physical address 20 (5
x 4 + 0).
Similarly logical address 4 corresponds to physical address 24 (6 x
4 + 0).
How does the OS keep track of which pages are loaded into
which frames?
The information is kept in a table called the Page Map Table (PMT).
The table typically contains the following entries:
Page number; Frame Number, and the starting address of the
Frame. The page table itself is loaded in the memory and its
reference is kept in the Process Control Block. There is one page
table per process.
TLB or Associative Memory
• Associative registers - parallel search
How are pages mapped to the frames?
• I will answer this with an example.
• Memory manager keeps track of free page frames. Initially all
page frames are free.
• Process Manager requests Information Manager for size of the
program.
• Knowing the size, process manager requests memory manager
to allocate memory of that size.
• Memory manager calculates number of page frames to be
allocated
using
the
formula:
program_size/page_frame_size rounded to next integer.
• Memory manager consults list of page frames and if possible
allocates to the process.
• Memory manager updates list of free page frames and makes
these as ‘allocated’. It then creates a PMT for the process.
• Memory manager signals Information Manager to load the
process.
• Information manager loads various pages of process address
space into allocated physical frames after which the process
manager links the PCB for that process in the list of ready
processes.
• The PCB maintains a pointer to starting address of PMT.
HW implementation of page table
• Keep page table in memory - dedicated set of registers
• Using Page Table Base Register (PTBR)
•
PTBR points to the page table
•
Page-table length register (PRLR) indicates size of page
table
• Every data/instruction access requires two memory accesses.
One for the page table and one for the data/instruction.
• Solution: use special fast-lookup hardware cache - associative
memory or translation look-aside buffers (TLBs)
96
Address translation (A’ , A ’’ )
• If A ’ is in associative register, get frame # out.
• Otherwise get frame # from page table in memory.
Effective Access Time
• Associative lookup = E time unit
• Assure memory cycle time is 1 microsecond
• Hit ratio - percentage of times that a page number is found in
the associative registers; ratio related to number of associative
registers.
Hit ratio = A
Effective Access Time (EAT)
EAT = (1 + E ) A + (2
= 2 +E–A
Let us now discuss Memory Protection
+
E )(1
-
A)
• Memory protection implemented by associating protection bits
with each frame.
• Valid-invalid bit attached to each entry in the page table:
•
“valid” indicates that the associated page is in the process’
logical address space, and is thus a legal page.
•
“invalid” indicates that the page is not in the process’
logical address space.
Page Table Structure
Logical address space is still too big – 64-bit architectures!
Managing big page tables:
• Hierarchical Paging
• Virtual page numbers are compared in this chain searching for
• Hashed Page Tables
a match. If a match is found, the corresponding physical frame
is extracted.
Having understood the basic concept of paging, we will now look
at another concept called segmentation.
• Inverted Page Tables
Hierarchical Page Table - Two-Level
Inverted Page Table
• One entry for each real page of memory.
• Entry: ASID + virtual address of page stored in that real
memory
• Decreases memory needed to store each page table
• Increases time needed to search table when a page reference
occurs
• Use hash table to limit the search
Review Questions:
• A logical address (on 32bit machine with 4K page size) is divided
into:
1. Explain Paging?
•
a page number consisting of 20 bits.
_____________________________________________________________________
•
a page offset consisting of 12 bits.
_____________________________________________________________________
• Since the page table is paged, the page number is further divided
into:
•
_____________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________
a 10bit page number.
a 10bit page offset.
_____________________________________________________________________
• Thus, a logical address is as follows:
2. Describe the mechanism of translating a logical address to
physical address in paging.
•
_____________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________
where p1 is an index into the outer page table, and p2 is the
displacement within the page of the outer page table.
Hashed Page Tables
_____________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________
• Common in address spaces > 32 bits.
_____________________________________________________________________
• The virtual page number is hashed into a page table. This page
_____________________________________________________________________
table contains a chain of elements hashing to the same location.
_____________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________
97
Reference Books:
Author Dahmke, Mark.
Main Title Microcomputer Operating Systems / Mark Dahmke.
Publisher Peterborough, N.H : Mcgraw-Hill/Byte Books, C1982.
Author Deitel, Harvey M., 1945Main Title An Introduction To Operating Systems / Harvey M.
Deitel.
Edition Rev. 1st Ed.
Publisher Reading, Mass : Addison-Wesley Pub. Co., C1984.
Author Lister, A. (Andrew), 1945Main TitleFundamentals Of Operating Systems / A.M. Lister.
Edition 3rd Ed.
Publisher London : Macmillan, 1984.
Author Gray, N. A. B. (Neil A. B.)
Main Title Introduction To Computer Systems / N.A.B. Gray.
Publisher Englewood Cliffs, New Jersey ; Sydney : Prentice-Hall,
1987.
Author Peterson, James L.
Main Title Operating System Concepts / James L. Peterson,
Abraham Silberschatz.
Edition 2nd Ed.
Publisher Reading, Mass. : Addison-Wesley, 1985.
Author Stallings, William.
Main Title Operating Systems / William Stallings.
Edition 6th Ed.
Publisher Englewood Cliffs, Nj : Prentice Hall, C1995.
Author Tanenbaum, Andrew S., 1944Main Title Operating Systems : Design And Implementation /
Andrew S. Tanenbaum, Albert S. Woodhull.
Edition 2nd Ed.
Publisher Upper Saddle River, Nj : Prentice Hall, C1997.
Author Nutt, Gary J.
Main Title Operating Systems : A Modern Perspective / Gary J.
Nutt.
Publisher Reading, Mass. : Addison-Wesley, C1997.
Author Silberschatz, Abraham.
Main Title Operating System Concepts / Abraham Silberschatz,
Peter Baer Galvin.
Edition 6th Ed.
Publisher
Reading, Mass. : Addison Wesley Longman,
C199
98
Notes
LESSON-25
Objectives
In the last lecture, you learnt Paging and memory protection
scheme. In this lecture, you will get to know about non-contiguous
memory management scheme and the concept of Segmentation
Why Segmentation?
1. Pages are of a fixed size
In the paging scheme we have discussed, pages are of a fixed size,
and the division of a process’s address space into pages is of little
interest to the programmer. The beginning of a new page comes
logically just after the end of the previous page.
2. Segments are of variable sizes
An alternate approach, called segmentation, divides the process’s
address space into a number of segments - each of variable size. A
logical address is conceived of as containing a segment number
and offset within segment. Mapping is done through a segment
table, which is like a page table except that each entry must now
store both a physical mapping address and a segment length (i.e.
a base register and a bounds register) since segment size varies
from segment to segment.
3. No (or little) internal fragmentation, but you now have
external fragmentation
Whereas paging suffers from the problem of internal
fragmentation due to the fixed size pages, a segmented scheme
can allocate each process exactly the memory it needs (or very close
to it - segment sizes are often constrained to be multiples of
some small unit such as 16 bytes.) However, the problem of
external fragmentation now comes back, since the available spaces
between allocated segments may not be of the right sizes to satisfy
the needs of an incoming process. Since this is a more difficult
problem to cope with, it may seem, at first glance, to make
segmentation a less-desirable approach than paging.
4. Segments can correspond to logical program units
However, segmentation has one crucial advantage that pure paging
does not. Conceptually, a program is composed of a number of
logical units: procedures, data structures etc. In a paging scheme,
there is no relationship between the page boundaries and the
logical structure of a program. In a segmented scheme, each logical
unit can be allocated its own segment.
2. Several user programs can reference the same segment
Some of the segments of a program may consist of library code
shareable with other users. In this case, several users could
simultaneously access the same copy of the code. For example, in
the above, the Pascal library could be allocated as a shared segment.
In this case, each of the processes using the shared code would
contain a pointer the same physical memory location.
Segment table
user A
Segment table
user B
Segment table
user C
Ptr to private code
Ptr to private code Ptr to private code
Ptr to private code
Ptr to shared code
Ptr to shared code
Ptr to private code Ptr to private code
Ptr to private code
Ptr to shared code
Ptr to private code
Ptr to private code
Ptr to private code
This would not be possible with pure paging, since there is no
one-to-one correspondence between page table entries and logical
program units.
3. Protection issues
Of course, the sharing of code raises protection issues. This is
most easily handled by associating with each segment table entry
an access control field - perhaps a single bit. If set, this bit might
allow a process to read from the segment in question, but not to
write to it. If clear, both read and write access might be allowed.
Now, segments that correspond to pure code (user written or
library) are mapped read only. Data is normally mapped readwrite. Shared code is always mapped read only; shared data might
be mapped read-write for one process and read only for others.
What is segmentation?
In paging, the user’s view of memory and the actual physical
memory are separated. They are not the same. The user’s view is
mapped onto the physical memory.
1. Example with shared segments
Example: A Pascal program consists of three procedures plus a
main program. It uses the standard Pascal IO library for read,
write etc. At runtime, a stack is used for procedure activation records.
This program might be allocated memory in seven segments:
• One segment for the main routine.
• Three segments, one for each procedure.
• One segment for Pascal library routines.
• One segment for global data.
• One segment for the runtime stack.
99
• Since segments vary in length, memory allocation is a dynamic
storage-allocation problem.
• A segmentation example is shown in the following diagram
• A program is a collection of segments. A segment is a logical
unit such as:
main program,
procedure,
function,
method,
object,
local variables, global variables,
common block,
stack,
What is user’s view of memory?
The user of a system does not perceive memory as a linear array of
bytes. The user prefers to view memory as a collection of variable
sized segments with no necessary ordering among segments.
symbol table, arrays
Segmentation Architecture
• Logical address consists of a two tuple:
<segment-number, offset>
• Segment table – maps two-dimensional physical addresses;
each table entry has:
base – starting physical address of segments in memory
limit – length of the segment
• Segment-table base register (STBR) points to the segment table’s
location in memory
• Segment-table length register (STLR) indicates number of
segments used by a program; segment number s is legal if s <
STLR
• Allocation: first fit/best fit and get external fragmentation
• Protection – easier to map; associated with each entry in segment
table:
Let me explain this with an example:
•
validation bit = 0 Þ illegal segment
•
read/write/execute privileges
• Protection bits associated with segments; code sharing occurs
at segment level.
100
Consider how you think of a program when you are writing it.
You think of it as a main program with set of subroutines,
procedures, functions, or variables. Each of these modules is
referred to by a name. You are not concerned about where in
memory these modules are placed. Each of these segments is of
variable length and is intrinsically defined by the purpose of the
segment in the program.
Thus segmentation is a memory management scheme that
supports this user view of memory. Thus a logical address space
is a collection of segments with each segment having a name and
length.
What is a 2-d address?
• In paging, a 1-d virtual address and a 2-d address would be
exactly same in binary form as page size is an exact power of 2
• In segmentation, segment size is unpredictable. Hence we need
to express the address in 2-d form explicitly.
• A system implementing segmentation needs to have a different
address format and a different architecture to decode the address
So, what does the segment address consist of?
The address consists of:
• A segment number (S)
• Let the virtual address to be translated be 2520
• An offset (D) within the segment
So what does the logical address space in segmentation consist
of?
• Each segment is compiled with reference to 0 as the starting
address for that segment
• Application programmer does not necessarily have to declare
different segments in his program explicitly
• The compiler/linkage editor does it on its own as follows:
•
Recognizes different segments
• Builds segment table
• Produces an executable image by assigning a 2-d address.
How is the segment table constructed?
Refer to the figure on page-4.
Putting all the segments, virtually one after the other, we get the
following table:
0 – 999
1000 – 1699
1700 – 2499
2500 – 3399
3400 – 3899
• This corresponds to segment 3 (S) and offset = 20 (D) from
figure-1
• Segment # is used as index into SMT.
• Info. at this entry is: seg-size = 900, base = 6100 (figure-2)
• Displacement D is a virtual address within the segment and
should not exceed seg-size. In this case, D = 20 is less than segsize = 900
• OS then checks access rights.
• Effective address is then: Base + D = 6100 + 20 = 6120 which
• Numbers them
Virtual Address Range
Figure-2
Virtual Segment
Number
0
1
2
3
4
is also the physical address.
• Each process has one SMT
So what is this SMT?
Just as there was a page map table (PMT) associated with each
process, there is a segment map table (SMT) per process. The
segment table specifies physical base address and address range.
Virtual addresses are offsets within a segment, added to base
address and checked against address limit. Multiple segments
handled by address mode or segment register. A typical SMT is
shown in figure-2.
Figure-1
From the table, a virtual address 1100 will mean Segment # 1 and
displacement 100 (S=1, D=100) and a virtual address 3002 will
mean S = 3 and D = 502
How is address translation done in segmentation?
I will explain this with an example:
Segmentation with Paging
101
· The Intel Pentium uses segmentation with paging for memory
management, with a two-level paging scheme.
_____________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________
Reference Books:
Author Dahmke, Mark.
Main Title Microcomputer Operating Systems / Mark Dahmke.
Publisher Peterborough, N.H : Mcgraw-Hill/Byte Books, C1982.
Author Deitel, Harvey M., 1945Main TitleAn Introduction To Operating Systems / Harvey M.
Deitel.
Edition Rev. 1st Ed.
Publisher Reading, Mass : Addison-Wesley Pub. Co., C1984.
Author Lister, A. (Andrew), 1945Main TitleFundamentals Of Operating Systems / A.M. Lister.
Edition 3rd Ed.
Publisher London : Macmillan, 1984.
Author Gray, N. A. B. (Neil A. B.)
Main TitleIntroduction To Computer Systems / N.A.B. Gray.
Publisher Englewood Cliffs, New Jersey ; Sydney : Prentice-Hall,
1987.
Author Peterson, James L.
Main Title Operating System Concepts / James L. Peterson,
Abraham Silberschatz.
What are the advantages and disadvantages of segmentation?
Edition 2nd Ed.
We will first look at the advantages:
Publisher Reading, Mass. : Addison-Wesley, 1985.
1. The page faults are minimized as the entire segment is present
in the memory. Only access violations need to be trapped.
2. No internal fragmentation as the segment size is customized
for each process.
Author Stallings, William.
And now the disadvantages:
1. Allocation/deallocation sequences result in external
fragmentation that needs a periodic pause for compaction to
take place
Review Questions:
1. How does paging differ from segmentation?
_____________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________
Main Title Operating Systems / William Stallings.
Edition 6th Ed.
Publisher Englewood Cliffs, Nj : Prentice Hall, C1995.
Author Tanenbaum, Andrew S., 1944Main Title Operating Systems : Design And Implementation /
Andrew S. Tanenbaum, Albert S. Woodhull.
Edition 2nd Ed.
Publisher Upper Saddle River, Nj : Prentice Hall, C1997.
Author Nutt, Gary J.
_____________________________________________________________________
Main TitleOperating Systems : A Modern Perspective / Gary J.
Nutt.
2. Describe the mechanism of translating a logical address to
physical address in segmentation.
Publisher Reading, Mass. : Addison-Wesley, C1997.
_____________________________________________________________________
Author Silberschatz, Abraham.
_____________________________________________________________________
Main Title Operating System Concepts / Abraham Silberschatz,
Peter Baer Galvin.
_____________________________________________________________________
Edition 6th Ed.
_____________________________________________________________________
Publisher Reading, Mass. : Addison Wesley Longman, C1998.
_____________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________
102
LESSON-26
Objectives
In the last lecture, you learnt about Paging and Segmentation . In
this lecture, you will get to know about Virtual Memory
Virtual memory is a memory management technique that allows
the execution of processes that may not be completely in main
memory and do not require contiguous memory allocation.
The address space of virtual memory can be larger than that physical
memory.
Advantages:
• programs are no longer constrained by the amount of physical
memory that is available
for a very large main memory to alleviate any need for storage
allocation. This solution was not possible due to very high cost.
The second proposal is known as virtual memory
Definition
Virtual memory is a technique that allows processes that may not
be entirely in the memory to execute by means of automatic storage
allocation upon request. The term virtual memory refers to the
abstraction of separating LOGICAL memory-memory as seen
by the process-from PHYSICAL memory-memory as seen by
the processor. Because of this separation, the programmer needs
to be aware of only the logical memory space while the operating
system maintains two or more levels of physical memory space.
• increased degree of multiprogramming
• less overhead due to swapping
Why Do you Need Virtual Memory?
Storage allocation has always been an important consideration in
computer programming due to the high cost of main memory
and the relative abundance and lower cost of secondary storage.
Program code and data required for execution of a process must
reside in main memory to be executed, but main memory may
not be large enough to accommodate the needs of an entire process.
Early computer programmers divided programs into sections that
were transferred into main memory for a period of processing
time. As the program proceeded, new sections moved into main
memory and replaced sections that were not needed at that time.
In this early era of computing, the programmer was responsible
for devising this overlay system.
As higher level languages became popular for writing more complex
programs and the programmer became less familiar with the
machine, the efficiency of complex programs suffered from poor
overlay systems. The problem of storage allocation became more
complex.
Two theories for solving the problem of inefficient memory
management emerged -static and dynamic allocation. Static
allocation assumes that the availability of memory resources and
the memory reference string of a program can be predicted. Dynamic
allocation relies on memory usage increasing and decreasing with
actual program needs, not on predicting memory needs.
Program objectives and machine advancements in the ’60s made
the predictions required for static allocation difficult, if not
impossible. Therefore, the dynamic allocation solution was
generally accepted, but opinions about implementation were still
divided. One group believed the programmer should continue to
be responsible for storage allocation, which would be accomplished
by system calls to allocate or deallocate memory. The second group
supported automatic storage allocation performed by the operating
system, because of increasing complexity of storage allocation
and emerging importance of multiprogramming. In 1961, two
groups proposed a one-level memory store. One proposal called
The virtual memory abstraction is implemented by using secondary
storage to augment the processor’s main memory. Data is
transferred from secondary to main storage as and when necessary
and the data replaced is written back to the secondary storage
according to a predetermined replacement algorithm. If the data
swapped is designated a fixed size, this swapping is called paging;
if variable sizes are permitted and the data is split along logical
lines such as subroutines or matrices, it is called segmentation.
Some operating systems combine segmentation and paging
The diagram illustrates that a program generated address ( 1 ) or
“logical address” consisting of a logical page number plus the
location within that page (x) must be interpreted or “mapped”
onto an actual (physical) main memory address by the operating
system using an address translation function or mapper ( 2 ). If
the page is present in the main memory, the mapper substitutes
the physical page frame number for the logical number ( 3 ). If the
mapper detects that the page requested is not present in main
103
memory, a fault occurs and the page must be read into a frame in
main memory from secondary storage ( 4 , 5 ).
between those pages that are in memory and those that are on the
disk.
What does the Mapper do?
Let me give you an example. Suppose you need white paper for
doing your assignment. You could get it in two ways. In the first
method, you will purchase about 500 sheets of paper. By the time
you complete your assignment, you would have used only 100
sheets! So you are wasting 400 sheets of paper. In the second
method, you could get 10 sheets of paper to start with and later
on, as and when required, you could demand additional sheets of
paper. This way, you will not be wasting money.
You talked about hardware support being required for
demand paging. How does this support work?
An extra bit called the valid-invalid bit is attached to each entry in
the page table. This bit indicates whether the page is in memory or
not. If the bit is set to invalid, then it means that the page is not
in memory. On the other hand, if the bit is set to valid, it means
that the page is in memory. The following figure illustrates this:
The mapper is the part of the operating system that translates the
logical page number generated by the program into the physical
page frame number where the main memory holds the page. This
translation is accomplished by using a directly indexed table called
the page table which identifies the location of all the program’s
pages in the main store. If the page table reveals that the page is,
in fact, not resident in the main memory, the mapper issues a
page fault to the operating system so that execution is suspended
on the process until the desired page can be read in from the
secondary store and placed in main memory.
The mapper function must be very fast if it is not to substantially
increase the running time of the program. With efficiency in mind,
where is the page table kept and how is it accessed by the mapper?
The answer involves associative memory.
Virtual memory can be implemented via:
• Demand paging
• Demand segmentation
What is demand paging?
Demand paging is similar to paging with swapping. Processes
normally reside on the disk (secondary memory). When we want
to execute a process, we swap it into memory. Rather than swapping
the entire process into memory, however, we use a lazy swapper.
What is a lazy swapper?
A lazy swapper never swaps a page into memory unless that page
will be needed. Since we are now viewing a process as a sequence
of pages rather than one large contiguous address space, the use
of the term swap is technically incorrect. A swapper manipulates
entire processes whereas a pager is concerned with the individual
pages of a process. It is correct to use the term pager in connection
with demand paging.
So how does demand paging work?
Whenever a process is to be swapped in, the pager guesses which
pages will be used before the process is swapped out again. So
instead of swapping in the whole process, the pager brings only
those necessary pages into memory. Here, I would like to add that
demand paging requires hardware support to distinguish
104
What happens if a process tries to use a page that was not brought
into memory?
If you try to access a page that is marked invalid (not in memory),
then page fault occurs.
How do you handle such page faults?
Upon page fault, the required page brought into memory by
executing the following steps:
1. Check an internal table to determine whether the reference was
valid or invalid memory access.
2. If invalid, terminate the process. If valid, page in the required
page
3. Find a free frame (from the free frame list).
4. Schedule the disk to read the required page into the newly
allocated frame
5. Modify the internal table to indicate that the page is in memory
6. Restart the instruction interrupted by page fault
What is the advantage of demand paging?
Demand paging avoids reading into memory pages that will not
be used anyway. This decreases the swap time and also the physical
memory needed.
We saw that whenever the referenced page is not in memory, it
needs to be paged in. To start with, a certain number of frames in
main memory are allocated to each process. Pages (through demand
paging) are loaded into these frames.
What happens when a new page needs to be loaded into memory
and there are no free frames available?
Well, the answer is simple. Replace one of the pages in memory
with the new one. This process is called page replacement.
So Virtual memory basics
A. Virtual memory is an extension of paging and/or
segmentation
The basic implementation of virtual memory is very much like
paging or segmentation. In fact, from a hardware standpoint,
virtual memory can be thought of as a slight modification to
one of these techniques. For the sake of simplicity, we will
discuss virtual memory as an extension of paging; but the
same concepts would apply if virtual memory were
implemented as an extension of segmentation.
B. Page table used to translate logical to physical addresses
Recall that in a paging scheme each process has a page table
which serves to map logical addresses generated by the process
to actual physical addresses. The address translation process
can be described as follows:
1. Break the logical address down into a page number and an
offset.
2. Use the page number as an index into the page table to find
the corresponding frame number.
3. Using the frame number found there, generate a physical
address by concatenating the frame number and the offset
from the original address.
Example: suppose the page table for a process looks like this.
Assume that the page size is 256 bytes, that logical addresses are
16 bits long, and that physical addresses are 24 bits long. (All
numbers in the table are hexadecimal):
A logical address 02FE would be translated into the physical
address 01A0FE.
C. Security in a paging system
In a paging system, one security provision that is needed is a
check to be sure that the page number portion of a logical
address corresponds to a page that has been allocated to the
process. This can be handled either by comparing it against a
maximum page number or by storing a validity indication in
the page table. This can be done by providing an additional bit
in the page table entry in addition to the frame number. In a
paging system, an attempt to access an invalid page causes a
hardware trap, which passes control to the operating system.
The OS in turn aborts the process.
D. Situations that cause traps to the Operating System
In a virtual memory system, we no longer require that all of the
pages belonging to a process be physically resident in memory
at one time. Thus, there are two reasons why a logical address
generated by a process might give rise to a hardware trap:
1. violations
The logical address is outside the range of valid logical addresses
for the process. This will lead to aborting the process, as before.
(We will call this condition a memory-management violation.)
2. page faults
The logical address is in the range of valid addresses, but the
corresponding page is not currently present in memory, but
rather is stored on disk. The operating system must bring it
into memory before the process can continue to execute. (We
will call this condition a page fault).
E. Need a paging device to store pages not in memory
In a paging system, a program is read into memory from disk
all at once. Further, if swapping is used, then the entire process
is swapped out or in as a unit. In a virtual memory system,
processes are paged in/out in a piece-wise fashion. Thus, the
operating system will need a paging device (typically a disk)
where it can store those portions of a process which are not
currently resident.
1. When a fault for a given page occurs, the operating system will
read the page in from the paging device.
105
2. Further, if a certain page must be moved out of physical
memory to make room for another being brought in, then the
page being removed may need to be written out to the paging
device first. (It need not be written out if it has not been altered
since it was brought into memory from the paging device.)
3. When a page is on the paging device rather than in physical
memory, the page table entry is used to store a pointer to the
page’s location on a the paging device.
F. Virtual memory has an impact on CPU scheduling
In a virtual memory system, the hardware can behave in basically
the same way as for paging. However, the operating system no
longer simply aborts the process when the process accesses an
invalid page. Instead, it determines which of the above two
reasons caused the trap. If it is the latter, then the operating
system must initiate the process of bringing in the appropriate
page. The process, of course, must be placed into a wait state
until this is completed. So our set of possible process states
must be extended from:
RUNNING
READY
WAITING for IO to complete
to:
RUNNING
READY
WAITING for IO to complete
WAITING for a page to be brought in
(Note, though, that a page wait is in reality just another
form of IO wait, except that here the reason for the wait
is not an explicit IO instruction in the process.)
G. Hardware support beyond that for paging along is required
for virtual memory
Though the burden of recognizing and handling page faults
falls on the operating system, certain provisions must be present
in the hardware that are not needed with simple paging:
1. A page fault could occur while a single instruction is being
carried out
The ability to restart an instruction that caused a fault in midstream. This can be tricky if the instruction accesses large blocks
of memory - e.g. a block move that copies a character string en
masse.
2. Page table entry should include a “dirty” bit
Though it is not strictly necessary, it is desirable to include a
“written-in” bit in the page table entry, along with the valid bit
noted above. This bit is set if any location in the page has been
modified since it was brought into physical memory. This bit
comes into play when the operating system finds it necessary
to take the frame away from a page to make room for a new
page being faulted in. If the old page has not been written in,
then it need not be written back to disk, since it is the same as
the copy on disk that was brought in originally.
3. May want a bit to indicate that a page has been accessed
106
Some implementations also require a per-page accessed bit that
is set whenever any access (read or write) to the page occurs.
This can be used to help decide which pages are no longer
being actively used and so can be paged out to make room for
new pages coming in. Not all memory management strategies
require this, however.
Virtual memory design issues
A. Policy for bringing pages into memory
1. When does the OS decide to bring a page in?
We have already noted that, in general, only a portion of the
pages belonging to a given process will actually be resident in
physical memory at any given time. Under what circumstances
is a given page brought in from the paging device?
2. Demand paging
The simplest policy is demand paging. Simply stated, under
demand paging, a given page is only brought into memory
when the process it belongs to attempts to access it. Thus, the
number of page faults generated by a process will at least be
equal to the number of pages it uses. (The number of faults
will be higher if a page that has been used is removed from
memory and then is used again.) In particular, when a process
starts running a program there will be a period of time when
the number of faults generated by the process is very high:
a. Page faults occur one-by-one as program begins running
To start running the program, the CPU PC register is set to the
first address in the program. Immediately, a page fault occurs
and the first page of the program is brought in. Once control
leaves this page (due either to running off the end or to a
subroutine call) another fault occurs etc. Further, any access to
data will also generate a fault.
b. Startup and post-swapped time can be slow
An implication of pure demand paging is that the initial startup
of a new program may take a significant amount of time, since
each page needed will require a disk access to get it. Likewise, if
a process is ever swapped out of memory due to a long IO
wait then when it is brought back in it will be paged in one page
at a time.
c. No pages are brought into memory unnecessarily
The chief advantage of demand paging is that no pages are
ever brought into memory unnecessarily. For example, if a
program contains code for handling a large number of different
kinds of input data, only the code needed for the actual data
presented to it will ever be brought in.
3. Anticipatory or Pre-paging
Some systems combine demand paging with some form of
anticipatory paging or pre-paging. Here, the idea is to bring a
page in before it is accessed because it is felt that there is good
reason to expect that it will be accessed. This will reduce the
number of page faults a process generates, and thus speed up
its startup at the expense of possibly wasting physical memory
space on unneeded pages. Anticipatory paging becomes
increasingly attractive as physical memory costs go down.
a. Pages known to be initially required can all be loaded at
once
When initially loading a program, there may be a certain
minimum set of pages that have to be accessed for program
initialization before branching based on the input data begins
to occur. These can all be read in at once.
b. All pages swapped out can later be swapped back in at
once
If a process is totally swapped out during a long IO wait, then
swap the whole set of pages that were swapped out back in
when it is resumed instead of paging it back in a little bit at a
time.
c. Structure of page device may make it advantageous to
read several pages at once
Another form of anticipatory paging is based on the clustering
of the paging device. If several pages reside in the same cluster
on the paging device, then it may be advantageous to read all
of them in if any one of them is demanded, since the added
transfer time is only a small fraction of the total time needed
for a disk access. This is especially advantageous if the pages
correspond to logically-adjacent memory locations.
B. Page replacement policies: What page do we remove from
memory?
Over time, the number of pages physically resident in memory
on a system under any significant load will eventually equal the
number of available frames. At this point, before any new
page can be faulted in a currently resident page must be moved
out to make room for it. The question of how to select a page
to be replaced is a very important one. In general, there are two
kinds of page replacement policies.
1. Global policies
When process X needs to fault in a new page, the set of
candidates for replacement includes all pages belonging to all
processes on the system. Note that unless a page belonging to
X already happens to be chosen, this will result in an increase in
the total amount of physical memory allocated to X.
2. Local policies
When process X needs to fault in a new page, the set of
candidates for replacement includes only those pages currently
belonging to process X. Note that this means that the total
amount of physical memory allocated to X will not change.
3. In general, a system will have to incorporate both kinds of
policy:
a. At startup, we must use a global policy
allowed to grow by taking pages from other processes or should
be required to page against itself.
a. The working set is the set of pages that a process has
accessed in the time interval [ T - T , T ]
The working set for a process is defined in terms of some
interval T back from the current time T. Building on the
principle of locality of reference, it is assumed that this is a
good approximation to the set of pages that the process must
have physically resident in order to run for an interval T into
the future without a page fault. (The interval T is chosen to
keep the percentage of memory accesses resulting in a fault to
an acceptable level. A time corresponding to around 10,000
memory accesses being a good rule of thumb.)
b. During the life of a process, there are times when the
working set changes slowly and other times when it changes
rapidly
Studies of the memory access behavior of processes show that
typically there are periods of time during which the working set
of a given process changes very little. During these periods, if
sufficient physical memory is allocated to the process then it
can page locally against itself with an acceptably low rate of
page faults. These periods are separated by bursts of paging
activity when the process’s working set is changing rapidly. These
correspond to major stages in the program execution - e.g. the
termination of one top level subroutine and the starting up of
another. When this happens performance is improved if the
global paging is used.
c. Maintaining a working set requires some system overhead
Of course, determining what the actual working set of a process
is requires a certain amount of overhead - notably keeping track
of what pages have been referenced during a past interval.
(This is one of the places that a hardware referenced bit comes
in.) One way to keep track of a process’s working set involves
using a timer that interrupts at the chosen interval T::
• At the start of the interval, turn off all of the referenced bits in
the page table for the currently running process.
• When the timer interrupts, include in the working set only
those pages whose referenced bit is now on.
d. The working set concept can also be applied without going
to all of the effort needed to determine the exact working
set:
• If the page fault rate for a process lies within a certain
When a process is just starting up, a global policy will have to
be used since the new process has few pages available as
replacement candidates.
empirically determined range, then assume that it has
sufficient physical memory allocated to it to hold its (slowly
evolving) working set and page it locally.
b. Local paging may be used to keep a particular process
from using too much memory
• If the page fault rate increases above the upper limit, assume
Eventually, however, a local policy may have to be imposed to
keep a given process from consuming too much of the system’s
resources.
4. The working set of a process
Many of the policies to be discussed below can be applied
either locally or globally. The notion of a process’s working set
can be used to help decide whether the process should be
its working set is expanding and page it globally, allowing its
physical memory allocation to grow to keep pace with its
presumably growing working set.
• If the page fault rate drops too low, then consider reducing its
physical memory allocation by not only paging it against
itself but also allowing other processes to take page frames
from it. This corresponds to an assumption that the size of
107
its working set is less than the amount of physical memory
currently allocated to it.
_____________________________________________________________________
5. We defer detailed discussion of page replacement policies until
we briefly note one further issue.
_____________________________________________________________________
C. The degree of memory over allocation.
1. It is unusual in today’s multiprogrammed systems for a
single process to exceed the limits of the system’s physical
memory
We have seen that, under a virtual memory system, it is possible
for the logical memory allocated to any one process to exceed
the amount of physical memory available. In practice, however,
this does not often occur, since virtual memory systems are
generally multiprogrammed and thus are configured with
sufficient physical memory to allow portions of many processes
to be resident at once.
_____________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________
2. Explain Demand Paging? What are its advantages and
disadvantages?
_____________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________
2. However, the sum of memory required by all processes on
the system often exceeds the amount of physical memory
_____________________________________________________________________
However, the sum total of the logical address spaces allocated to
all the processes on the system will generally be far greater than
the total amount of physical memory available. (If this were
not so, then virtual memory would be of no benefit.) When
memory is over allocated, each page faulted in will result in
another page having to be moved out to make room for it. In
general:
_____________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________
Reference Books:
Author Dahmke, Mark.
a. Too little over allocation (or none at all)
Main Title Microcomputer Operating Systems / Mark Dahmke.
This means that the resource of physical memory is not really
being used well. Pages that could be moved out to the paging
device without harm are being kept in physical memory
needlessly.
Publisher Peterborough, N.H : Mcgraw-Hill/Byte Books, C1982.
b. But too much over allocation can lead to a serious
performance problem known as thrashing
Main TitleAn Introduction To Operating Systems / Harvey M.
Deitel.
Edition Rev. 1st Ed.
Thrashing occurs when all of the pages that are memory resident
are high-demand pages that will be referenced in the near future.
Thus, when a page fault occurs, the page that is removed from
memory will soon give rise to a new fault, which in turn
removes a page that will soon give rise to a new fault ... In a
system that is thrashing, a high percentage of the system’s
resources is devoted to paging, and overall CPU utilization and
throughput drop dramatically.
c. The only way to prevent thrashing is to limit the number
of processes that are actively competing for physical memory.
This can be done by using a form of intermediate scheduling,
with certain processes being swapped out wholesale as in a non
virtual memory system.
Ex: VMS has the concept of the balance set - which is the set of
processes currently allowed to compete for physical memory. The
size of the balance set is determined by the criterion: sum total of
the working sets of all processes in the balance set <=
available physical memory
Author Deitel, Harvey M., 1945-
Publisher Reading, Mass : Addison-Wesley Pub. Co., C1984.
Author Lister, A. (Andrew), 1945Main TitleFundamentals Of Operating Systems / A.M. Lister.
Edition 3rd Ed.
Publisher London : Macmillan, 1984.
Author Gray, N. A. B. (Neil A. B.)
Main TitleIntroduction To Computer Systems / N.A.B. Gray.
Publisher Englewood Cliffs, New Jersey ; Sydney : Prentice-Hall,
1987.
Author Peterson, James L.
Main TitleOperating System Concepts / James L. Peterson,
Abraham Silberschatz.
Review Questions:
Edition 2nd Ed.
1. What is Virtual Memory? How it is implemented?
Publisher Reading, Mass. : Addison-Wesley, 1985.
_____________________________________________________________________
108
Author Stallings, William.
Main TitleOperating Systems / William Stallings.
Edition 6th Ed.
Publisher Englewood Cliffs, Nj : Prentice Hall, C1995.
Author Tanenbaum, Andrew S., 1944Main TitleOperating Systems : Design And Implementation /
Andrew S. Tanenbaum, Albert S. Woodhull.
Edition 2nd Ed.
Publisher Upper Saddle River, Nj : Prentice Hall, C1997.
Author Nutt, Gary J.
Main TitleOperating Systems : A Modern Perspective / Gary J.
Nutt.
Publisher Reading, Mass. : Addison-Wesley, C1997.
Author Silberschatz, Abraham.
Main TitleOperating System Concepts / Abraham Silberschatz,
Peter Baer Galvin.
Edition 6th Ed.
Publisher Reading, Mass. : Addison Wesley Longman, C1998.
Notes
109
LESSON-27
Objectives
In the earlier lecture, you learnt about demand paging, how it is
different from swapping, its advantages and finally about page
replacement concepts. In this lecture you will learn about page
replacement algorithms.
2. If we have a reference to a page p, then any immediately following
reference to page p will never cause a page fault. Page p will be in
the memory after the first reference.
For example, if we trace a particular process, we might record the
following address sequence:
We will start our discussion with explaining what a page
replacement algorithm is.
0100, 0432, 0101, 0612, 0102, 0103, 0104, 0101, 0611, 0102, 0103,
0104, 0101, 0610, 0102,0103, 0104, 0101, 0609, 0102,0105
In the last lecture, you saw that if there are no free memory frames
to accommodate a newly demanded page, then one of the existing
pages in memory needs to be swapped out and the new page
loaded. The question that arises in our mind is “Which page
should I swap out?”
If the page size is 100 bytes, then we have the following reference
string
that
is
generated:
1,4,1,6,1,6,1,6,1,6,1
To decide on this, we have page replacement policies or algorithms.
The policy:
1. Deals with the selection of page in memory.
2. Determines which page currently in memory is to be replaced.
The objective of all policies is to remove the page least likely to be
referenced in the near future.
What are the different page replacement algorithms?
There are a number of page replacement algorithms each with
their own advantages and disadvantages. We discuss the following
algorithms:
1. FIFO (First-In-First-Out)
2. Optimal (Reference, not practical)
3. LRU (Least Recently Used)
4. Clock
Before I discuss the various algorithms, let me highlight the goals
of these page replacement algorithms.
The goals are to
• Minimize the number of page faults and
• Maintain a healthy page-table hit ratio which is defined as:
(Number of page references found in page table) divided by
(number of page requests)
How can you determine the number of page faults occurring
for a given algorithm?
We evaluate an algorithm by running it on a particular string of
memory references called the reference string and computing the
number of page faults.
We can generate the reference strings artificially or by tracing a given
system and recording the address of each memory reference. This
method may generate a large volume of data. In order to reduce
the data, we note two things:
1. For a given page size, we need to consider only the page number
and not the entire address.
110
To determine the number of page faults for a particular reference
string and page replacement algorithm, we also need to know the
number of page frames available. As the number of page frames
available increases, the page faults will decrease. To illustrate the
page replacement algorithms, we shall use the following reference
string for a memory with three frames.
7
4
2
0
2
0
1
3
1
2
0
7
0
3
0
3
2
1
0
1
Let us start with discussing the FIFO algorithm:
FIFO algorithm:
Idea: Replace the page which is in memory for the longest time.
Associated with each page is the time when that page was brought
into memory. When a page must be replaced, the oldest one is
picked.
Illustration: (Assume the three frames are initially empty)
Reference String
701203 04230 3212 01701
Frame-1
Frame-2
Frame-3
7 7 7 2 H 2 2 4
0 0 0
3 3 3
1 1
1 0 0
* * * ^
^ ^ ^
4
2
0
^
4 0 H H 0 0 H H 7 7 7
2 2
1 1
1 0 0
3 3
3 2
2 2 1
^ ^
^ ^
^ ^ ^
The first three references (7, 0, 1) cause page faults (shown by *)
and get loaded into three empty frames. The next reference (2)
causes a page fault and page replacement (shown by ^). The page
replaced is page 7 (because it was brought in the first). H represents
a ‘HIT’ (referenced page is already in the memory – no page fault).
Performance:
Hit ratio = 5/20 = 25%
Advantages:
Easy to understand/implement.
Disadvantages:
1. It has a poor performance because page usage is ignored.
The page replaced may be an initialization module that was
used a long time ago and is no longer needed. On the other
hand, it could contain a heavily used variable that was initialized
early and is in constant use.
Disadvantages:
2. Suffers from Belady’s Anomaly. Contrary to expectation,
allocating more frames can result in worse page-fault behavior.
1. Difficult to implement. Requires future knowledge of reference
string.
In the illustration above: (check this out by yourself)
Used mainly for comparison studies.
LRU Algorithm
• Hit ratio with 3 frames: 25%
• Hit ratio with 4 frames: 16.7%
Idea: Approximation of optimum algorithm. Replace the page
that has not been used for the longest period of time. Associates
with each page, the time of that page’s last use. When a page has
to be replaced, LRU chooses that page that has not been used for
the longest period of time.
Illustration: (Assume the three frames are initially empty)
Reference String
7 0 1 2 0 3 0 4 2 3 0 3 2 1 2 0 1 7 0 1
Frame-1
7 7 7 2 H 2 H 4 4 4 0 H H 1 H 1 H 1 H H
Frame-2
0 0 0
0
0 0 3 3
3
0
0
Frame-3
1 1
3
3 2 2 2
2
2
7
* * * ^
Optimal Algorithm Idea: Replace the page that won’t be needed
for longest time.
^
^ ^ ^ ^
^
^
^
The first seven references yield same result as in Optimal Algorithm.
When reference to page 4 occurs, , however, LRU algorithm sees
that, of the three frames in memory, page 2 was used least recently.
The most recently used page was page 0 and just before that, page
3 was used. Thus LRU replaces page 2 not knowing that page 2 is
about to be used again. When page 2 is again referenced, LRU
replaces page 3 since it is the least recently used.
Performance
Illustration: (Assume the three frames are initially empty)
Hit ratio = 8/20 = 40%
Reference String
Advantages:
1. Reasonable approximation of Optimal Algorithm
2. Consecutive page references tend to be at pages that are close
together.
7 0 1 2 0 3 0 4 2 3 0 3 2 1 2 0 1 7 0 1
Frame-1
7 7 7 2 H 2 H 2 H H 2 H H 2 H H H 7 H H
Disadvantages:
Frame-2
0 0 0
0
4
0
0
0
1. Requires substantial hardware assistance.
Frame-3
1 1
3
3
3
1
1
2. How to implement? (How to determine an order for frames
defined by the time of last use?)
* * * ^
^
^
^
^
^
The first three references (7, 0, 1) cause page faults (shown by *)
and get loaded into three empty frames. The reference to page 2
replaces page 7, because 7 will not be used until reference 18,
whereas page 0 will be used at reference 5, and page 1 at reference
14.
The reference to page 3 replaces page 1 as it would be the last of
the three pages in memory to be referenced again.
Clock Page Replacement Algorithm
This algorithm is an approximation of the LRU algorithm.
Hardware keeps a use bit or reference (R) bit per page frame and
sets it on every reference to that page. When a page fault occurs,
advance clock hand, and check the use bit (R). If it is 1, then clear
the use bit and continue. If it is 0, then replace that page. The
picture below summarizes the algorithm.
Performance:
Hit ratio = 11/20 = 55%
Advantages:
1. Has the lowest page fault rate for a fixed number of frames
2. Never suffers from Belady’s anomaly.
111
Main TitleFundamentals Of Operating Systems / A.M. Lister.
Edition 3rd Ed.
Publisher London : Macmillan, 1984.
Author Gray, N. A. B. (Neil A. B.)
Main TitleIntroduction To Computer Systems / N.A.B. Gray.
Publisher Englewood Cliffs, New Jersey ; Sydney : Prentice-Hall,
1987.
Author Peterson, James L.
Main TitleOperating System Concepts / James L. Peterson,
Abraham Silberschatz.
Edition 2nd Ed.
Publisher Reading, Mass. : Addison-Wesley, 1985.
Author Stallings, William.
Review Questions
1. Discuss the various implementations of the LRU algorithm.
_____________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________
Main TitleOperating Systems / William Stallings.
Edition 6th Ed.
Publisher Englewood Cliffs, Nj : Prentice Hall, C1995.
Author Tanenbaum, Andrew S., 1944Main TitleOperating Systems : Design And Implementation /
Andrew S. Tanenbaum, Albert S. Woodhull.
_____________________________________________________________________
Edition 2nd Ed.
_____________________________________________________________________
Publisher Upper Saddle River, Nj : Prentice Hall, C1997.
_____________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________
2. What is Belady’s Anomaly?
_____________________________________________________________________
Author Nutt, Gary J.
Main TitleOperating Systems : A Modern Perspective / Gary J.
Nutt.
Publisher Reading, Mass. : Addison-Wesley, C1997.
_____________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________
Author Silberschatz, Abraham.
_____________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________
Main TitleOperating System Concepts / Abraham Silberschatz,
Peter Baer Galvin.
_____________________________________________________________________
Edition 6th Ed.
_____________________________________________________________________
Publisher Reading, Mass. : Addison Wesley Longman, C1998.
_____________________________________________________________________
Reference Books:
Author Dahmke, Mark.
Main Title Microcomputer Operating Systems / Mark Dahmke.
Publisher Peterborough, N.H : Mcgraw-Hill/Byte Books, C1982.
Author Deitel, Harvey M., 1945Main TitleAn Introduction To Operating Systems / Harvey M.
Deitel.
Edition Rev. 1st Ed.
Publisher Reading, Mass : Addison-Wesley Pub. Co., C1984.
Author Lister, A. (Andrew), 1945112
LESSON-28
Objectives
In the last lecture, you learnt about paging and segmentation
which are two methods of implementing virtual memory. You
also saw the advantages and disadvantages of these two methods.
In this lecture, we will study about a method which is the
combination of paging and segmentation.
Paged Segmentation
In this model, the logical memory is composed of segments.
Each segment is composed of pages. The per process segment
table is in memory pointed to by register. Entries map segment
number to page table base. The page table is as described in the
previous lecture.
How is the mapping from the logical address to physical
address done in this combined approach?
The Logical address now consists of segment number, page
number, and offset. The segment number is indexed into segment
table to get base of page table. The page number is then used to
index into page table to get the frame number. The frame number
is then concatenated with the offset to get the physical address.
The figure below gives an example of this mapping.
• Two memory accesses per translation. First the SMT and then
PMT.
• More tables to manage (SMT and PMT)
How can you minimize the memory access?
This can be done by providing something called as TLB
(Translation Look-aside Buffer). The TLB is like a cache. It keeps
the most recent translations. Only when there is a miss in the TLB
will the memory is accessed.
How does the TLB work?
When a reference to a page is made, the TLB is checked to see if
there is an entry. If yes, then the frame number is retrieved from
the TLB. If not, there is a TLB miss and the PMT is accessed. If
the page is in the PMT, then it is loaded from there into the TLB
and the physical address is computed. If the page is not there in
the PMT also, then a page fault occurs and the required page is
retrieved from the virtual memory and loaded into the PMT and
then the TLB.
What is a page fault?
When a page is referenced and it is not in the PMT (and hence in
memory), then it needs to be fetched from the virtual memory.
This is called as page fault.
Review Questions
1. Explain Paged Segmentation
_____________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________
Reference Books:
What are the main advantages of this combined approach?
The advantages stem out from the fact that it combines the
individual advantages of paging and segmentation.
Author Dahmke, Mark.
Main Title Microcomputer Operating Systems / Mark Dahmke.
Publisher Peterborough, N.H : Mcgraw-Hill/Byte Books, C1982.
• Reduces external fragmentation (due to paging within a
segment)
• Distinguishes between access violations and page faults
Author Deitel, Harvey M., 1945Main TitleAn Introduction To Operating Systems / Harvey M.
Deitel.
• Swapping can occur incrementally
Edition Rev. 1st Ed.
• Instructions can have smaller address fields
Publisher Reading, Mass : Addison-Wesley Pub. Co., C1984.
• Multiple address spaces available (for various segments)
• What are the main disadvantages of this combined approach?
Author Lister, A. (Andrew), 1945-
113
Main Title Fundamentals Of Operating Systems / A.M. Lister.
Edition 3rd Ed.
Publisher London : Macmillan, 1984.
Author Gray, N. A. B. (Neil A. B.)
Main TitleIntroduction To Computer Systems / N.A.B. Gray.
Publisher Englewood Cliffs, New Jersey ; Sydney : Prentice-Hall,
1987.
Author Peterson, James L.
Main TitleOperating System Concepts / James L. Peterson,
Abraham Silberschatz.
Edition 2nd Ed.
Publisher Reading, Mass. : Addison-Wesley, 1985.
Author Stallings, William.
Main Title Operating Systems / William Stallings.
Edition 6th Ed.
Publisher Englewood Cliffs, Nj : Prentice Hall, C1995.
Author Tanenbaum, Andrew S., 1944Main Title Operating Systems : Design And Implementation /
Andrew S. Tanenbaum, Albert S. Woodhull.
Edition 2nd Ed.
Publisher Upper Saddle River, Nj : Prentice Hall, C1997.
Author Nutt, Gary J.
Main Title Operating Systems : A Modern Perspective / Gary J.
Nutt.
Publisher Reading, Mass. : Addison-Wesley, C1997.
Author Silberschatz, Abraham.
Main Title Operating System Concepts / Abraham Silberschatz,
Peter Baer Galvin.
Edition 6th Ed.
Publisher Reading, Mass. : Addison Wesley Longman, C1998.
Notes
114
LESSON-29
SELF- ASSESSMENT INTERACTIVE TOPIC
7.1 List types of resources we might consider in deadlock problems
on computers.
• allocation matrix Allocation(n,m)
Answer: CPU cycles, memory space, files, I/O devices, tape drives,
printers.
7.9 Summarize the banker’s algorithm.
• need matrix Need(n,m)
7.2 Define deadlock.
Answer:
a. If request for process i exceeds its need, error has occurred.
Answer: A situation where every process is waiting for an event
that can be triggered only by another process.
b. If request of process i exceeds available resources, process i
must wait.
7.3 What are the four necessary conditions needed before deadlock
can occur?
c. The system temporarily allocates the resources process i wants;
if the state is unsafe, the allocation is postponed.
Answer:
7.10 Summarize the Safety Algorithm.
a. At least one resource must be held in a nonsharable mode.
b. A process holding at least one resource is waiting for more
resources held by other processes.
Answer:
c. Resources cannot be preempted.
d. There must be a circular waiting.
7.4 Give examples of sharable resources.
Answer: Read-only files, shared programs and libraries.
7.5 Give examples of nonsharable resources.
Answer: Printer, magnetic tape drive, update-files, card readers.
7.6 List three overall strategies in handling deadlocks.
Answer:
a. Ensure system will never enter a deadlock state.
b. Allow deadlocks, but devise schemes to recover from them.
c. Pretend deadlocks don’t happen.
7.7 Consider a traffic deadlock situation
a. Show that the four necessary conditions for deadlock indeed
hold in this example.
b. State a simple rule that will avoid deadlocks in this system.
Answer:
a. Each section of the street is considered a resource.
• Mutual-exclusion —only one vehicle on a section of the street.
• Hold-and-wait — each vehicle is occupying a section of the
street and is waiting to move to the next section.
• No-preemption — a section of a street that is occupied by a
vehicle cannot be taken away from the vehicle unless the car
moves to the next section.
• Circular-wait —each vehicle is waiting for the next vehicle in
front of it to move.
b. Allow a vehicle to cross an intersection only if it is assured that
the vehicle will not have to stop at the intersection.
7.8 List the data structures needed for the banker’s algorithm.
Answer:
a. Initialize vector Work to Available and set vector Finish to false.
b. Find a process such that Finish(i) = false and Need(i) leq Work.
c. If found, add Allocation(i)toWork(i), Finish(i)to true,and go to
step b.
d. If not found, continue here. If Finish(i) = true for all processes
then state is safe, else it is unsafe.
7.11 How can we determine whether current state is “safe” in
systems with only one instance of each resource type?
Answer: State is unsafe if any cycle exists.
7.12 What conditions must exist before a wait-for graph is useful
in detecting deadlocks?
Answer: A cycle.
7.13 What does a cycle in a wait-for graph indicate?
Answer: A deadlock.
7.14 Consider a system consisting of four resources of the same
type that are shared by three processes, each of which needs at
most two resources. Show that the system is deadlock-free.
Answer: Suppose the system is deadlocked. This implies that
each process is holding one resource and is waiting for one
more. Since there are three processes and four resources, one
process must be able to obtain two resources. This process
requires no more resources and therefore it will return its
resources when done.
7.16 What is starvation?
Answer: System is not deadlocked, but at least one process is
indefinitely postponed..
7.17 List three options for breaking an existing deadlock.
Answer
a. Violate mutual exclusion, risking data.
b. Abort a process.
c. Preempt resources of some process.
• available vector Available(m)
• demand matrix Max(n,m)
115
7.18 What three issues must be considered in the case of
preemption?
Answer:
a. Select a victim to be preempted.
b. Determine how far back to rollback the victim.
c. Determine means for preventing that process from being
“starved.”
116
UNIT-5
LESSON-30
Today I will be covering basic concepts related to files , basic file
structures ,various file operations
Introduction
Whatever the objectives of the applications, it involves the
generation and use of information. As you know the input of
the application is by means of a file, and in virtually all applications,
output is saved in a file for long-term storage.
You should be aware of the objectives such as accessing of files,
saving the information and maintaining the integrity of the
contents, virtually all computer systems provide file management
services. Hence a file management system needs special services
from the operating system.
1. Files:
The following are the commonly discussed with respect to files:
• Field: Basic element of data. Its length and data type
characterizes it. They can be of fixed or variable length.
• Record: Collection of related fields. Depending on the design,
records may be of fixed or variable length. Ex: In sequential file
organization the records are of fixed length where as in Line
sequential file organization the records are of variable length.
1.2 File Structure:
File can be structured in any of several ways. Three common
possibilities are depicted (a) is an unstructured sequence of bytes
(b) record sequence (c) tree structure.
a) Unstructured sequence of bytes: It provide the maximum
flexibility. User programs can put anything they want in their
files and name them any way that is convenient.
b) Record sequence: In this model, a file is a sequence of fixed
length records each with some internal structure. Central idea
of a file being a sequence of records is the idea that the read
operation returns and the write operation overwrites or appends
one record.
c) Tree structure: In this organization, a file consists of a tree of
records, not necessarily all the same length, each containing a
key field in a fixed position in the record. The tree is sorted on
the key field, to allow rapid searching for a particular key.
Let us discuss File System components
•
Device Drivers:
• Communicates directly with peripherals devices (disks,
tapes, etc)
• File: Collection of similar records and is referenced by name.
• Responsible for starting physical I/O operations on the
They have unique file names. Restrictions on access control
usually apply at the file level. But in some systems, such controls
are enforced at the record or even at the field level also.
device
• Processes the completion of an I/O request
• Schedule access to the device in order to optimize
• Database: Collection of related data. The essential aspects of a
database are that the relationships that exists among elements
of data. The database itself consists of one or more types of
files.
Files are managed by the operating system. How they are structured,
named, accessed, used, protected and implemented are the major
issues in operating system design. As a whole, the part of the
operating system deals with files is known as the file system. The
linked lists and bitmaps are used to keep track of free storage and
how many sectors there are in a logical block are important to the
designers of the file system.
1.1 File Naming:
Files are an abstraction mechanism. The main characteristic feature
of abstraction mechanism is the way the objects being managed
are name. The exact rules for the file naming vary from system to
system, but all current operating system allows strings of one to
eight letters as legal file names. Many file systems support names
as long as 255 characters with a distinguish in upper and lower
case. Many operating systems support two-part file names, with
the two parts separated by a period. The first part is called primary
file name and the second part is called secondary or extension file
name.
performance
• Basic File System:
• Uses the specific device driver
• Deals with blocks of data that are exchanged with the
physical Device
• Concerned with the placement of blocks on the disk
• Concerned with buffering blocks in main memory
•
Logical File System:
•
•
Responsible for providing the previously discussed
interface to the user including:
File access
•
Directory operations
•
Security and protection.
1.3 File Types:
Many operating systems support several types of files. Unix and
Windows, have regular files and directories. Regular files are the
ones that contain user information generally in ASCII form.
Directories are system files for maintaining the structure of the file
system. Character special files are related to input/output and
117
OPERATING SYSTEMS
Objectives
used to model serial I/O devices such as terminals, printers and
networks. Block special files are used to model disks.
1.4 File Access:
Early operating systems provided only one kind of file access:
sequential access. In these system, a process could read all the bytes
or records in a file in order, starting at the beginning, but could
not skip around and read them our of order. Sequential files were
convenient when the storage medium was magnetic tape, rather
than disk. Files whose bytes or records can be read in any order are
called random access files. Two methods are used form specifying
where to start reading. In the first one, every read operation gives
the position in the file to start reading at. In the second one, a
special operation, seek, is provided to set the current position.
This allows the system to use different storage techniques for the
two classes. Where as in modern operating systems all the files are
automatically random access.
1.5 File Attributes:
Every file has a name and its data. In addition all operating systems
associate other information with each file such as the date and
time the file was created and the file’s size. The list of attributes
varies considerably from system to system. Attributes such as
protection, password, creator and owner tell who may access it
and who may not. The flags are bits or short fields that control or
enable some specific property. The record length, key, position
and key length fields are only present in files whose records can be
looked up using a key. The various times keep track of when the
file was created, most recently accessed and most recently modified.
These are useful for a variety of purpose. The current size tells
how big the file is at present.
1.6.6 Write:
Data are written to the file, again, usually at the current position.
If the current position is end of the file then the file size gets
increased.
7.7.7 Append:
This call is a restricted from of write. It can only add data to the
end of the file.
1.6.8 Seek:
For random access files, a method is needed to specify from where
to take the data.
1.6.9 Get attributes:
Processes often need to read file attributes to do their work.
1.6.10 Set attributes:
Some of the attributes are user settable and can be changed after
the file has been created. This system call makes that possible. The
protection mode information is an obvious example.
11.11.11Rename:
It frequently happens that a user needs to change the name of an
existing file.
Review Exercise:
2. What is the importance of a filename having two parts?
________________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________________
1.6 File operations:
Files exist to store information and allow it to be retrieved later.
Different systems provide different operations to allow storage
and retrieval. The few of them of the most common system calls
relating to files are:
3. What are the rules that govern for naming a file?
1.6.1 Create:
________________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________________
The file is created with no data. The purpose of the call is to
announce that the file is coming and to set some of the attributes.
________________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________________
1.6.2 Delete:
When the file is no longer needed, it has to be deleted to free up
disk space.
4. Discuss to make the file system more useful.
1.6.3 Open:
________________________________________________________________________
Before using a file, a process must open, the purpose of the open
call is to allow the system to fetch the attributes and list of disk
addresses into main memory for rapid access on later calls.
1.6.4 Close:
________________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________________
When all the accesses are finished, the attributes and disk addresses
are no longer needed, so the file should be closed to free up
internal table space.
5. What are the components that constitute the file system?
1.6.5 Read:
________________________________________________________________________
Data re read from file. Usually, the bytes a come from the current
position. The caller must specify how much data are needed and
must also provide a buffer to put them in.
118
________________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________________
6. What are the various file attributes that are applicable for different
types of files. Explain?
Publisher Reading, Mass. : Addison-Wesley, C1997.
________________________________________________________________________
Author Silberschatz, Abraham.
________________________________________________________________________
Main Title Operating System Concepts / Abraham Silberschatz,
Peter Baer Galvin.
Edition 6th Ed.
________________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________________
Reference Books:
Publisher Reading, Mass. : Addison Wesley Longman, C1998.
Notes
Author Dahmke, Mark.
Main Title Microcomputer Operating Systems / Mark Dahmke.
Publisher Peterborough, N.H : Mcgraw-Hill/Byte Books, C1982.
Author Deitel, Harvey M., 1945Main Title An Introduction To Operating Systems / Harvey M.
Deitel.
Edition Rev. 1st Ed.
Publisher Reading, Mass : Addison-Wesley Pub. Co., C1984.
Author Lister, A. (Andrew), 1945Main Title Fundamentals Of Operating Systems / A.M. Lister.
Edition 3rd Ed.
Publisher London : Macmillan, 1984.
Author Gray, N. A. B. (Neil A. B.)
Main TitleIntroduction To Computer Systems / N.A.B. Gray.
Publisher Englewood Cliffs, New Jersey ; Sydney : Prentice-Hall,
1987.
Author Peterson, James L.
Main TitleOperating System Concepts / James L. Peterson,
Abraham Silberschatz.
Edition 2nd Ed.
Publisher Reading, Mass. : Addison-Wesley, 1985.
Author Stallings, William.
Main Title Operating Systems / William Stallings.
Edition 6th Ed.
Publisher Englewood Cliffs, Nj : Prentice Hall, C1995.
Author Tanenbaum, Andrew S., 1944Main Title Operating Systems : Design And Implementation /
Andrew S. Tanenbaum, Albert S. Woodhull.
Edition 2nd Ed.
Publisher Upper Saddle River, Nj : Prentice Hall, C1997.
Author Nutt, Gary J.
Main TitleOperating Systems : A Modern Perspective / Gary J.
Nutt.
119
LESSON-31
Objectives
In this lecture I will be covering all the points given below.
• Concept of directories
• Their organization & structure
• And various operations on directories
• Directory Implementations
Directories
You should know that the operating system keeps the track of
files, file systems normally have directories or folders, which, in
many systems are themselves, are files.
To avoid conflicts caused by different users choosing the same file
name for their own files, the next step up is giving each user a
private directory. In that way, names chosen by one user do not
interfere with names chosen by a different user and there is no
problem caused by the same name occurring in two or more
directories. This design used on multi-user computer or on a
simple network of personal computers that shared a common
file server over a local area network. This level structure uses login
procedure, which restricts the unauthorized user access.
These are the Important aspects of Two-Level Directory
• One master file directory.
Directory Organization
• Each user has their own user file directory.
• Goals:
• Each entry in the master file directory points to a user file
•
Efficiency: quickly locating the file.
•
Convenience: naming files in a convenient way to users.
•
Grouping: allowing users to group files based on users
classifications.
• Organization of the file system
•
directory.
• Issues:
•
Sharing - accessing other users files.
•
System files.
•
Grouping problem.
Virtual disks (called volumes, or minidisks, or partitions).
May span a physical disk, part of a physical disk, or several
disks.
•
•
Virtual disk directory.
Directory Structure
Single-Level Directory System:
The simplest form of directory system is having one directory
containing all the files, which is called the root directory. It is
commonly used on personal computers, which is used by only
one user. But the problem arises when multiple users create their
directories, where the name of the directory may coincide resulting
to problem.
Important aspects of Single Level Directory
• All files are contained in the same directory.
• Easy to support and understand.
• Have significant limitations in terms of:
•
•
Large number of files (naming).
Ability to support different users / topics (grouping).
Hierarchical Directory Systems:
The two-level hierarchy eliminates name conflicts among users
but is not satisfactory for users with a large number of files. In
this approach, each user can have as many directories as are needed
so that files can be grouped together in natural ways. The ability
for users to create an arbitrary number of subdirectories provides
a powerful structuring tool for users to organize their work.
Tree-Structured Directory
• The directory structure is a tree with arbitrary height.
• Users may create their own subdirectories.
• Issues
Two-Level Directory Systems:
120
•
Efficient Searching, grouping.
•
Current directory notion / change directory (absolute/
relative naming).
•
Directory semantics (e.g. deletion).
Acyclic-Graph Directory
• Allow sharing of directories and files several times on the tree
structure.
• Issues
General-Graph Directory
• A problem with acyclic graphs - how to ensure that there
are no cycles.
•
Only one actual copy of the file or directory is stored.
•
Can happen only when linking a directory.
•
Can be accessed through one or more paths.
•
•
May have different names.
Every time a link is added to a directory - use a cycle
detection algorithm...
• There are several ways to implement shared files and directories.
• Example - Unix:
• Symbolic links:
•
A different type of a directory entry (other than a file or a
directory).
•
•
Specifies the name of the file that this link is pointing to.
Can be relative or absolute.
•
What happens when one deletes the original file?
•
Duplicate directory entries (also called hard links):
•
The original and copy entries are the same.
•
What happens when one deletes the original or copy
entries?
• General graph directories allow cycles.
• Issues:
How to avoid traversing a component in a cycle while searching.
How to release orphan cycles (garbage collection).
Path Names:
When the file system is organized as a directory tree, some way is
needed for specifying file names. Two different methods are
commonly used. In the first method, each file is given an absolute
path name consisting of the path from the root directory to the
file. The other kind of name is the relative path name in
conjunction with the concept of the working directory.
Directory Operations:
The allowed system calls for managing directories exhibit more
variation from system to system than system calls for files.
121
Create: A directory is created. It is empty except for dot and
dotdot which are put there automatically be the system.
Review Exercise:
Delete:
1. What are the similarities and dissimilarities between files and
directories?
Only an empty except directory can be deleted.
________________________________________________________________________
Opendir:
________________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________________
To list all the files in a directory, a listing program opens the
directory to read out the names of all the files it contains. Before a
directory can be read, it must be opened, analogous to opening
and reading a file.
________________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________________
Closedir:
When a directory has been read, it should be closed to free up
internal table space.
2. What is the advantage of directories over files?
Readdir:
________________________________________________________________________
This call returns the next entry in an open directory. It always
returns one entry in a standard format, no matter which of the
possible directory structures is being used.
________________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________________
Rename:
They can be renamed the same way file can be.
Link:
Linking a technique that allows a file to appear in more than one
directory. This system call specifies an existing file and a path name,
and creates a link from the existing file to the name specified by the
path.
3. Describe the directory structure?
________________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________________
Unlink:
________________________________________________________________________
A directory entry is removed. If the file being unlinked is only
present in one directory, it is removed from the file system. If it is
present in multiple directories, only the path name specified is
removed.
4. Explain various operations on a directory?
________________________________________________________________________
Directory Implementations
We can implement the directory in several ways.
________________________________________________________________________
Linear List
________________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________________
The simplest approach to implementing a directory is simply
maintaining a list (or array) of file names (and other info).
This approach has some problems like: searching for a file means
we must do a linear search, and inserting and deleting from a fixed
list is not simple.
We can also maintain a sorted list, but that would mean maintaining
the sorted structure.
Hash Table
We can also implement the directory as a hash table. This could be
in addition to the linear list. A hash table allows us to quickly find
any individual file.
Hash tables aren’t the perfect solution either. One problem is
hash clashes. These must be resolved, and ways to resolve them
aren’t exactly better than maintaining a linear list.
Let me brief you the description of Directory Operations:
• Create a file.
• Delete a file.
• Search for a file.
• List a directory.
• Rename a file.
• Traverse the file system.
122
________________________________________________________________________
Reference Books:
Author Dahmke, Mark.
Main Title Microcomputer Operating Systems / Mark Dahmke.
Publisher Peterborough, N.H : Mcgraw-Hill/Byte Books, C1982.
Author Deitel, Harvey M., 1945Main TitleAn Introduction To Operating Systems / Harvey M.
Deitel.
Edition Rev. 1st Ed.
Publisher Reading, Mass : Addison-Wesley Pub. Co., C1984.
Author Lister, A. (Andrew), 1945Main Title Fundamentals Of Operating Systems / A.M. Lister.
Edition 3rd Ed.
Publisher London : Macmillan, 1984.
Author Gray, N. A. B. (Neil A. B.)
Main Title Introduction To Computer Systems / N.A.B. Gray.
Publisher Englewood Cliffs, New Jersey ; Sydney : Prentice-Hall,
1987.
Author Peterson, James L.
Main Title Operating System Concepts / James L. Peterson,
Abraham Silberschatz.
Edition 2nd Ed.
Publisher Reading, Mass. : Addison-Wesley, 1985.
Author Stallings, William.
Main Title Operating Systems / William Stallings.
Edition 6th Ed.
Publisher Englewood Cliffs, Nj : Prentice Hall, C1995.
Author Tanenbaum, Andrew S., 1944Main Title Operating Systems : Design And Implementation /
Andrew S. Tanenbaum, Albert S. Woodhull.
Edition 2nd Ed.
Publisher Upper Saddle River, Nj : Prentice Hall, C1997.
Author Nutt, Gary J.
Main Title Operating Systems : A Modern Perspective / Gary J.
Nutt.
Publisher Reading, Mass. : Addison-Wesley, C1997.
Author Silberschatz, Abraham.
Main Title Operating System Concepts / Abraham Silberschatz,
Peter Baer Galvin.
Edition 6th Ed.
Publisher Reading, Mass. : Addison Wesley Longman, C1998.
Notes
123
SELF-ASSESSMENT INTERACTIVE TOPIC
10.1 What is a file?
a. Device directory, describing physical properties of files.
Answer: A named collection of related data defined by the creator,
recorded on secondary storage.
b. File directory, giving logical properties of the files.
10.2 What does OPEN do?
Answer: Search for a file, create a file, delete a file, list a directory,
rename a file, traverse the file system.
Answer: Creates memory buffers, creates data control blocks, and
creates other data structures needed for the I/O. If file is new,
it also allocates space, and enters name in directory.
10.3 What does CLOSE do?
Answer: Outputs last buffer of information. Deletes buffers,
data control blocks, and other data structures.
10.13 List operations to be performed on directories.
10.14 List disadvantages of using a single directory.
Answer: Users have no privacy. Users must be careful in choosing
file names, to avoid names used by others. Users may destroy
each other’s work.
10.15 What is the MFD? UFD? How are they related?
Answer: MFD is master-file directory, which points to the UFDs.
UFD is user-file directory, which points to each of user’s files.
10.4 List advantages of operating system “knowing” and
supporting many file types.
Answer: Can prevent user from making ridiculous mistakes. Can
make system convenient to use by automatically doing various
jobs after one command.
10.16 What advantages are there to this two-level directory?
10.5 List the disadvantages of operating system “knowing” and
supporting many file types.
10.17 What disadvantages are there to this two-level directory?
Answer: Size of operating system becomes large. Every file type
allowed must be de-fined, thus hinders in creating new file
types.
10.6 What is a sequential file?
Answer: A file that is read one record or block or parameter at a
time in order, based on a tape model of a file.
10.7 What is direct access?
Answer: A file in which any record or block can be read next.
Usually the blocks are fixed length.
10.8 How does user specify block to be fetched in direct access?
Answer: By specifying the relative block number, relative to first
block in file, which is block 0.
10.9 Can a direct access file be read sequentially? Explain.
Answer: Yes. Keep a counter, cp, initially set to 0. After reading
record cp, increment cp.
10.10 How can an index file be used to speed up the access in
direct-access files?
Answer: Have an index in memory; the index gives the key and
the disk location of its corresponding record. Scan the index to
find the record you want, and then access it directly.
10.11 Explain what ISAM is.
Answer: Indexed sequential access method. The file is stored in
sorted order. ISAM has a master index file, indicating in what
part of another index file the key you want is; the secondary
index points to the file records. In both cases, a binary search is
used to locate a record.
10.12 List two types of system directories
Answer:
124
Answer: Users are isolated from each other. Users have more
freedom in choosing file names.
Answer: Without other provisions, two users who want to
cooperate with each other are hampered in reaching each other’s
files, and system files are inaccessible.
10.18 How do we overcome the disadvantages of the two-level
directory?
Answer: Provide links from one user directory to another, creating
path names; system files become available by letting the
command interpreter search your directory first, and then the
system directory if file needed is not in first directory.
10.19 What is a file path name?
Answer: A list of the directories, subdirectories, and files we must
traverse to reach a file from the root directory.
10.20 If we use the two-level directory, how do we access common
files and programs, like FORTRAN compiler? Show two or
more ways.
Answer:
a. Keep copy of each common file in each user account.
b. Keep common files in a special account of system files, and
translate the commands to path names to those files.
c. Permit path names from one directory to another.
10.21 Why would we want a subdirectory in our account?
Answer: To group files into collections of similar nature, and to
protect certain groups of files from other users.
10.22 List steps you need to follow to delete a subdirectory in your
account.
Answer: Delete all files in subdirectory. Change protection code
to allow deletion, and then delete the subdirectory. This
procedure must be followed, starting with the deepest
subdirectory.
10.23 What is an acyclic graph?
Answer: A tree that has been corrupted by links to other branches,
but does not have any cyclic paths in it.
10.33 List four ways systems might provide for users to protect
their files against other users.
Answer:
10.24 List ways to share files between directories in operating
systems.
a. Allowing user to use unprintable characters in naming files so
other users can’t determine the complete name.
Answer:
a. Copy file from one account into another.
b. Assigning password(s) to each file that must be given before
access is allowed.
c. Assigning an access list, listing everyone who is allowed to use
each file.
b. Link directory entry of “copied” file to directory entry of original
file.
c. Copy directory entry of file into account file is “copied” into.
10.25 What problems might arise on deletion if a file is shared?
Answer: Copier of file might delete the original shared file,
depriving rest of users. They have a pointer to a deleted directory
entry pointing to the original file or one overwritten by other
users of the system, or a new entry pointing to a new file
created by the original user.
10.26 How can we solve this problem?
Answer: Keep a count of the number of links to a file in original
directory. As each person deletes a file, the count decreases by 1.
d. Assigning protection codes to each file, classifying users as
system, owner, group, and world (everyone else)..
Self-assessment interactive topic
11.1 List three ways of allocating storage, and give advantages of
each.
Answer:
a. Contiguous allocation. Fastest, if no changes are to be made.
Also easiest for random-access files.
b. Linked allocation. No external fragmentation. File can grow
without complications.
10.27 What is a general graph?
Answer: A tree structure where links can go from one branch to a
node earlier in the same branch or other branch, allowing cycles.
c. Indexed allocation. Supports direct access without external
fragmentation.
10.28 What problems arise if the directory structure is a general
graph?
Answer: Allocation of a group of consecutive sectors for a single
file.
Answer: Searching for a particular file may result in searching the
same directory many times. Deletion of the file may result in
the reference count to be nonzero even when no directories
point to that file.
11.3 What main difficulty occurs with contiguous allocation?
10.29 What is garbage collection?
Answer: An unallocated segment of blocks.
11.5 Explain first-fit, best-fit, and worst-fit methods of allocating
space for contiguous files.
Answer: Determining what file space is available, and making it
available for users.
(Note: garbage collection is also done in BASIC, to reclaim space
used by deleted strings.)
10.30 How can we protect files on a single-user system?
Answer:
a. Hide the disks.
b. Use file names that can’t be read.
c. Backup disks.
d. On floppies, place a write-disable-tab on.
10.31 What might damage files?
Answer: Hardware errors, power surges, power failures, diskhead crashes (read/write head scraping magnetic material off
disk), dirt, temperature, humidity, software bugs, fingerprints
on magnetic material, bent disk or cover, vandalism by other
users, storing diskettes near strong magnets which are found
in CRTs, radio speakers, and so on.
10.32 List kinds of access we might want to limit on a multiuser
system.
Answer: Reading files in given account; creating, writing, or
modifying files in given account; executing files in given account;
deleting files in given account.
11.2 What is contiguous allocation?
Answer: Finding space for a new file.
11.4 What is a “hole” in contiguous allocation method?
Answer:
• First-fit: Scan available blocks of disk for successive free sectors;
use the first area found that has sufficient space; do not scan
beyond that point.
• Best-fit: Search for smallest area large enough to place the file.
• Worst-fit: Search for largest area in which to place the file.
11.6 What is external fragmentation in a system with contiguous
files?
Answer: The disk has files scattered all over; fragmentation occurs
when there is enough empty space collectively for the next file,
but there is no single gap large enough for the entire file to fit
in.
11.7 How can we overcome fragmentation?
Answer: We can use an allocation technique that does not result in
fragmentation; or we can move the files around on disk, putting
them closer together, to leave us larger blocks of available sectors.
11.8 What is preallocation? Why do it?
Answer: Allocating space for a file before creating the file to allow
for expansion. This reserves space for a particular file so that
other files can’t grab it. The new file may initially use only a
small portion of this space.
125
11.9 What is linked allocation, as detailed in text?
Answer: Directory contains pointers to first and last blocks of
file. Each block of file (except last) has pointer to the next
block.
e. Hash tables are set up for a maximum number of files; also
there is a problem with collisions.
11.17 Give advantages of each directory structure above.
Answer:
11.10 Can linked allocation have external fragmentation? Internal
fragmentation?
Linear list Simple to program search.
Linked list Easier to process deletes.
Answer: External - no. Internal - Yes.
11.11 Can linked allocation be used for direct-access files?
Sorted list Fast access.
Answer: Not in the form suggested in the book. RSTS on the
PDP-11 stores the sector numbers in the directory, with each
group of seven addresses linked to the next group of seven.
Direct access using this modified linked allocation is possible.
(This approach is really a hybrid of linked and indexed
allocations.)
11.12 What is indexed allocation?
Answer: Each file has its own block of pointers to the sectors of
the file.
11.13 Rank the allocation methods on speed.
Answer: Contiguous is fastest. Linked is slower, because the disk
head may have to move between accesses of file. Indexed is
slowest, unless the entire index can be kept in memory at all
times. If not, then extra time must be used to access next block
of file indexes.
11.14 List four ways a system could use to determine which sectors
are free. Give advantages of each way.
Answer:
a. Free-space list. Each section indicates a sector that is available.
Not encumbered by a used-sector list.
b. Bit vector is a compact version. Has no links that can be broken.
c. Link all free sectors together in an available list. Takes no usable
space. But links could break.
d. List giving start of each block of free sectors, and a count of
number of sectors in this block. This is fast for use in
contiguous storage search.
11.15 What data structures can be used for directory information?
Answer:
a. Linear list
b. Linked list
c. Sorted list
d. Linked binary tree
e. Hash table
11.16 What problems might arise with above data structures?
Answer:
a. Linear list is slow to access particular file. Also must decide how
to take care of deletions (mark, copy last entry to it, ...).
b. Linked list requires storage overhead for pointers; also, if link
goes bad, rest of files are lost.
c. Sorted list requires list always to be sorted, which means extra
work on creating and deleting files.
d. Binary tree suffers like linked list.
126
Linked binary tree Faster access.
Hash table Fastest access...
Notes
OPERATING SYSTEMS GLOSSARY
ANSI
American National Standardisation Institute
as 486, Pentium or Pentium II. Other CPUs exist, like Digitals
Alpha, Suns UltraSPARC, Mips, Hewlett-Packard.
ASCII
American Standard Code for Information Interchange - a table
converting nummeric values into human readable characters.
DASD
Direct Access Storage Device
API
Application Programming Interface - the set of routines/functions
made available to a program developer.
ATA
AT Attachment - also known as IDE.
ATAPI
ATA Packet Interface - minor extension to IDE to control
additional device types.
BASIC
Beginners All-purpose Symbolic Instruction Code - a high-level
interpreted programming language which is very easy to learn.
Binary
A base-2 system written as either 1b or 1 2, unlike our normal base10. Each place is multiplied with 2 as you move left: 00000001b =
1*20 = 1, 00000010b = 1*21+0*20, 00000011b = 1*21+1*20 ,
00000100b = 1*22+0*21+0*20 = 4, etc.
Bit
Binary Digit - the smallets possible piece of information: set or
cleared, 1 or 0, true or false.
Byte
A group of 8 bits making up a base-2 number.
CD-ROM
Compact Disc Read Only Memory - Optical storage media with a
capacity of 74 minutes of digital music or 650-740 MB of read
only storage. Serveral different formats exists, known by their
book-color (red book, yellow book etc.).
CDi
CD Interactive - Philips extended CD-ROM architecture for video
storage.
Char
Character - usually a 1 byte data size representing one character to
the user. In the case of Unicode of DBCS a char may take up two
bytes of memory.
CP/M
Control Program for Microcomputers - A simple single tasking
single user OS used on home PC in the late 1970s. Claimed to be
the blueprint for QDOS.
CPU
Central Processing Unit - the chip that executes a stream of
instructions, like add 2 and 4, read from memory, etc. It control
everything in your computer. Often supplied by Intel and known
DBCS
Dual Byte Character Set - an expansion of ASCII to support
foregin languages better. Special char values are reserved and results
in the char size increasing to two bytes (eg. 4Ah is normal one byte
where F8h,B3h is a double byte character). A very efficient method
to store all possible characters in limited memory space.
Disk
A circular storage media, on which data can be recorded, usually in
sectors. Often magnetically or optically coded.
DLL
Dynamic Link Libary - a set of routines stored in a file. Addresses
to the routines are determined by the OS on load or at run-time.
DOS
Disk Operating System - a simple single user single tasking OS
bought by Bill Gates as QDOS and used on the first IBM PC’s. A
clone, DR-DOS is available.
DOS 8.3
Refers to the naming convention on DOSs FATFS volumes, where
a filename had to be 1-8 chars long and have an extension of 0-3
chars, seperated by a period.
EMS
Expanded Memory Specification - a system to access additional
memory in DOS. It is specified in the so-called LIM (Lotus-IntelMicrosoft) EMS specification. It uses 16K pages which can be
swapped in and out of real-mode addressing space.
GID
Group ID - a number or a string that represents the group to
which a user belongs uniquely within the OS.
GPF
General Protection Fault - a process violated its assigned resources
and tried to access a resource which it was not granted (often
unavailable memory due to pointer errors).
GUI
Graphical User Interface - a representation using squares (windows)
to represent a programs output. Uses buttons and icons to
implement a more user-friendly interface with the computer.
Today, most OS are delivered with a GUI. The GUI was developed
at RankXerox PARC, introduced to the public with Apple
Macintosh and made common by MS Windows 3.0.
Handle
Usually a number used by the operating system to identify an
object, like an open file or a window.
127
Hex
Hexadecimal notation - a base-16 number system, where a=10,
b=11, c=12, d=13, e=14, f=15. Written as 00h, $00 or 0016. Eg.
10h = 16, 2Fh=47 (2*16+15), 123h=291 (1*162+2*16+3).
HMA
High Memory Area - a 64 KB block of memory accessible by the
i80286 and later above 1 MB when running in real mode.
IDE
Integrated Drive Electronics - a system for connecting harddisks
to your computer. Used in PC. Supports upto 2 units. Replaced
by EIDE.
ISO
International Standard Organization
ISO 9660
A specification for a filesystem on the CD-ROM.
Kb
Kilobit - 1024 bit (210) - 128 bytes (27).
Kilobyte - 1024 bytes (210).
LFN
Long File Name - a filename that is longer than the DOS 8.3
specification.
Mb
17
Megabit - 1048576 bit (2 ) = 131072 bytes (2 ).
MB
Megabyte - 1048576 bytes (220).
OS
Operating System(s) - I honestly do not care to write operating
system each time since it occurs quite often in these texts ;).
Paging
The process of realizing virtual memory in physical memory by
moving blocks of physical memory to and from a slower storage
media (usually a disk).
Partition
Sub-division of a disk into smaller logical disks.
PhotoCD
Kodak format for storage of images on CD-ROM
Process
A collection of threads that share resources.
Protected Mode
Refers to the Intel 80286 Protected Mode architecture. When the
CPU runs in this mode, it supports virtual memory, memory
access restrictions and task-switching in hardware. This is the
prefered mode for all new operating system and the only mode
where you can access memory above 1 MB.
Real Mode
Refers to the Intel 80286 Protected Mode architecture. The mode
in which the 8086 ran. It supports upto 1 MB of address space
and has no access restrictions whatsoever.
Ring 0
128
Ring 3
Refers to the Intel 80286 Protected Mode architecture. The most
restricted level of protection. Should be used by all user
applications.
SCSI
Small Computer Systems Interface - a general bus for connecting
additional devices to a computer. Modified and exists in serveral
variations today, known as SCSI-2, SCSI-3, Ultra-SCSI 1+2, Fast
SCSI 1+2, Wide SCSI and serveral other combinations. Basic SCSI
uses a 8-bit parallel bus running at 5 MHz giving it a transfer rate
of 5MB/s.
Sector
Smallets unit data storage on a disk. Often blocks with a size of
512, 1024, 2048 or 4096 bytes (CD-ROM can use 2352).
Storage Media
A media capable of storing data permanently. Often the shape of
a disc or as a tape.
KB
17
Refers to the Intel 80286 Protected Mode architecture. The least
restricted level with access to all system resources. Should only be
used by the OS and its drivers.
Thread
A thread of execution is the series of machine instructions that
the CPU executes.
UID
User ID - a number or a string that represents the user uniquely
within the OS.
UMB
Upper Memory Block - in DOS 5 or later, unused blocks of
memory in the 640 KB - 1 MB memory range can be used to store
device drivers.
Unicode
A newer way of supporting all foregin languages special characters.
Used instead of DBCS. Uses two bytes to represent one character,
supports upto 65536 different characters. Used primarily in WinNT
and Win95/98.
V86 Mode
Refers to the Intel 80386 Protected Mode architecture. A mode
where the CPU emulates the 8086 real mode addressing but
maintains support for paging and certain access restrictions. Often
used by OS’s to implement virtual DOS machines and can be
used to implement a EMS memory manager (like QEMM386 or
EMM386).
Virtual Memory
A CPU-addressible memory area, which does not exist in real
memory, but is created on a slower storage media. The process of
swapping virtual memory in and out of real memory is called
paging.
Volume
An area of a disk containing a filesystem of some kind.
XMS
eXtended Memory Specification - a system to access additional
memory in DOS. It uses a copying mechanism to copy to/from
conventional memory to/from extended memory.
REFERENCE BOOKS:
Author Dahmke, Mark.
Main Title Microcomputer Operating Systems / Mark Dahmke.
Publisher Peterborough, N.H : Mcgraw-Hill/Byte Books, C1982.
Main Title Operating System Concepts / Abraham Silberschatz,
Peter Baer Galvin.
Edition 6th Ed.
Publisher Reading, Mass. : Addison Wesley Longman, C1998.
Author Deitel, Harvey M., 1945Main Title An Introduction To Operating Systems / Harvey M.
Deitel.
Edition Rev. 1st Ed.
Publisher Reading, Mass : Addison-Wesley Pub. Co., C1984.
Author Lister, A. (Andrew), 1945-
Useful Web Sites
• http://www.d.umn.edu/~tpederse/Courses/CS3221-
SPR04/class.html
• http://www.cse.msu.edu/~cse410/
• http://cs.wisc.edu_~solomon_cs537_notes.html/
~solomon_cs537_intro.html
Main Title Fundamentals Of Operating Systems / A.M. Lister.
• http:
Edition 3rd Ed.
ww2.cs.uregina.ca_~hamilton_courses_330_notes_index.ht
~hamilton_courses_330_notes_index.html
• http://cs.nyu.edu_~gottlieb_courses_2000-01spring_os_lectures/~gottlieb_courses_2000-01spring_os_lectures_lectures.html
Publisher London : Macmillan, 1984.
Author Gray, N. A. B. (Neil A. B.)
Main Title Introduction To Computer Systems / N.A.B. Gray.
Publisher Englewood Cliffs, New Jersey ; Sydney : Prentice-Hall,
1987.
• http://cs.gordon.edu_courses_cs322_lectures_index.html/
courses_cs322_lectures_index.html
Author Peterson, James L.
Main Title Operating System Concepts / James L. Peterson,
Abraham Silberschatz.
Edition 2nd Ed.
Publisher Reading, Mass. : Addison-Wesley, 1985.
Author Stallings, William.
Main Title Operating Systems / William Stallings.
Edition 6th Ed.
Publisher Englewood Cliffs, Nj : Prentice Hall, C1995.
Author Tanenbaum, Andrew S., 1944Main Title Operating Systems : Design And Implementation /
Andrew S. Tanenbaum, Albert S. Woodhull.
Edition 2nd Ed.
Publisher Upper Saddle River, Nj : Prentice Hall, C1997.
Author Nutt, Gary J.
Main Title Operating Systems : A Modern Perspective / Gary J.
Nutt.
Publisher Reading, Mass. : Addison-Wesley, C1997.
Author Silberschatz, Abraham.
129
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