Supporting Users and Troubleshooting a Microsoft Windows XP

Supporting Users and Troubleshooting a Microsoft Windows XP
PUBLISHED BY
Microsoft Press
A Division of Microsoft Corporation
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Copyright © 2005 by Microsoft Corporation
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Acquisitions Editor: Lori Oviatt
Project Editor: Laura Sackerman
Project Manager: Susan H. McClung, nSight, Inc.
Technical Editors: Michael Bell, L.J. Zacker, and Steve Hambruch
Copy Editor: Roger LeBlanc
Desktop Production Specialists: Peter Amirault and Mary Beth McDaniel
Proofreaders: Jan Cocker, Tempe Goodhue, and Katie O'Connell
Indexer: James Minkin
SubAssy Part No. X11-02859
Body Part No. X11-02850
CONTENTS AT A GLANCE
CHAPTER 1:
Introduction to Desktop Support . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1
CHAPTER 2:
Installing Windows XP . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .33
CHAPTER 3:
Supporting Local Users and Groups . . . . . . . . . . .79
CHAPTER 4:
Supporting the Windows Desktop . . . . . . . . . . . 119
CHAPTER 5:
Supporting Windows XP File and
Folder Access . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 147
CHAPTER 6:
Installing and Managing Hardware . . . . . . . . . . 209
CHAPTER 7:
Supporting Display Devices, I/O Devices,
and ACPI . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 241
CHAPTER 8:
Supporting Storage Devices in
Windows XP . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 265
CHAPTER 9:
Managing Local and Network Printers
CHAPTER 10:
Supporting Network Connectivity . . . . . . . . . . 333
CHAPTER 11:
Supporting Internet Explorer in
Windows XP . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 387
CHAPTER 12:
Monitoring System Performance in
Windows XP . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 419
APPENDIX A:
Microsoft Windows XP Service Pack 2 . . . . . . . 445
. . . . . . 299
Glossary . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 469
Index . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 481
iii
CONTENTS
About This Book . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . xiii
Target Audience . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . xiii
Prerequisites . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . xiii
The Textbook . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . xiv
The Supplemental Course Materials CD-ROM . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . xv
Readiness Review Suite Setup Instructions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . xv
eBook Setup Instructions. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . xvi
The Lab Manual . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . xvi
Notational Conventions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . xvii
Keyboard Conventions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . xviii
Coverage of Exam Objectives. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . xviii
The Microsoft Certified Professional Program. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . xxv
Certifications . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . xxv
MCP Requirements . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . xxvi
About the Authors . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . xxvii
Microsoft Official Academic Course Support . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . xxix
Evaluation Edition Software Support . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . xxx
CHAPTER 1:
Introduction to Desktop Support . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1
Introduction to Supporting Users . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2
The End User’s Level of Expertise . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2
Traits of a Qualified DST . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3
Overview of Corporate Environments . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .5
Types of Networks . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .5
Tier Structure . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .7
Job Titles and Requirements . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .8
Overview of Noncorporate Environments . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .9
Telephone Call Centers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .9
Repair Shops and Private Businesses . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .10
Internet Service Providers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .10
Overview of Basic Troubleshooting . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .11
Asking Who, When, What, Why, and How . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .11
Reproducing the Problem . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .14
Understanding General Troubleshooting Procedures . . . . . . . . . . .14
Locating the Answers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .16
Working Through Possible Solutions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .22
Review Questions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .26
Case Scenarios . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .30
v
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CONTENTS
Scenario 1-1: Matching Skills to the Job . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .30
Scenario 1-2: Gaining Personal Skills . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .30
Scenario 1-3: Working with Knowledgable Users . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .31
CHAPTER 2:
Installing Windows XP . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .33
Installing Windows XP . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .34
Meeting the System Requirements . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .34
Checking the Windows Catalog . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .35
Preparing the BIOS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .35
Understanding Installation Types . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .36
Understanding Installation Methods . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .37
Preparing the Hard Disk . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .43
Understanding the Installation Process . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .47
Upgrading from a Previous Version of Windows . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .49
Migrating Existing User Environments . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .51
Troubleshooting Windows XP Installations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .53
Troubleshooting Common Installation Problems . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .54
Troubleshooting CD-ROM-Based Installations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .58
Troubleshooting Upgrades . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .58
Troubleshooting Problems with Answer Files . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .59
Activating and Updating Windows XP . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 59
Activating Windows Following Installation
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .59
Using the Windows Update Site . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .60
Configuring Automatic Updates . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .62
Applying Service Packs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .63
Troubleshooting Windows XP Startup Problems . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .65
Understanding How a Computer Starts . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .66
Understanding How Window XP Starts . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .67
Using Advanced Boot Options . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .69
Using Recovery Console . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .72
Review Questions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .76
Case Scenarios . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .77
Scenario 2-1: Meeting Minimum Requirements . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .77
Scenario 2-2: Troubleshooting Startup Problems . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .78
Scenario 2-3: Troubleshooting RIS Installation
CHAPTER 3:
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .78
Supporting Local Users and Groups . . . . . . . . . . .79
Supporting Local User Accounts and Groups . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 80
Understanding Logon . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .80
Default User Accounts . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .82
Creating User Accounts . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .83
Managing User Accounts . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 86
CONTENTS
Supporting Groups . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .88
Security Identifiers (SIDs) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .92
Understanding the Limitations of Windows XP Home Edition . . .93
User Profiles . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .93
Using Fast User Switching . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .97
Troubleshooting User Logon . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .99
Troubleshooting Password Problems . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .99
Troubleshooting Domain Logon Problems . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 101
Troubleshooting Profile-Related Problems . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 102
Supporting Security Settings and Local
Security Policy. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 103
Understanding Security Policy . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 104
Configuring Local Security Policy . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 106
Review Questions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 117
Case Scenarios . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 117
Scenario 3-1: Managing User Accounts . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 117
Scenario 3-2: Recovering Lost Passwords . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 117
CHAPTER 4:
Supporting the Windows Desktop . . . . . . . . . . . 119
Troubleshooting the Windows Taskbar and
Start Menu . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 120
Common Start Menu and Taskbar Requests . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 120
Troubleshooting the Notification Area . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 121
Locking and Unlocking the Taskbar . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 125
Grouping Similar Items and Enabling Quick Launch . . . . . . . . . 126
Troubleshooting a Locked, Hidden, or Missing Taskbar . . . . . . . 128
Configuring Toolbars on the Windows Taskbar . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 130
Troubleshooting the Start Menu . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 130
Troubleshooting the Classic Start Menu . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 134
Supporting Accessibility Options . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 135
Supporting Multiple Languages . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 137
Understanding Regional and Language Settings . . . . . . . . . . . . . 137
Configuring Correct Currency, Time, and Date . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 138
Configuring Input Languages . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 139
Troubleshooting Language-Related Problems . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 140
Review Questions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 142
Case Scenarios . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 145
Scenario 4-1: Finding a Missing Program . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 145
Scenario 4-2: Using the Classic Start Menu . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 145
vii
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CONTENTS
CHAPTER 5:
Supporting Windows XP File and
Folder Access . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 147
Managing Files and Folders . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 148
Understanding File and Folder Types . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 148
Understanding File Extensions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 149
Understanding File and Folder Attributes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 151
Configuring Folder Options . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 152
Supporting File Compression . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 153
Supporting File Encryption . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 155
Managing Disk Space by Using Disk Quotas . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 158
Troubleshooting Folder Access . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 161
Supporting NTFS Permissions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 164
Basic File and Folder Permissions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 164
Viewing NTFS Permission Assignments . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 165
Understanding Default Permissions on an NTFS Volume . . . . . . 166
Understanding Allow and Deny Permission Assignments . . . . . . 168
Basic Permission Relationships . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 168
Advanced File and Folder Permissions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 169
Calculating Effective NTFS Permissions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 170
Controlling NTFS Permission Inheritance . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 173
Moving and Copying Files . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 175
Understanding Ownership . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 175
Troubleshooting NTFS Permissions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 176
Supporting Shared Folders . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 177
Configuring Shared Folders . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 177
Controlling Access to Shared Folders . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 182
Administrative Shares . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 188
Managing Shared Folders in Computer Management . . . . . . . . 189
Troubleshooting Access to Shared Folders in Windows XP . . . . 192
Supporting Simple File Sharing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 192
Understanding Simple File Sharing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 192
Enabling and Disabling Simple File Sharing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 193
Sharing a File on the Network . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 193
Sharing a File with Other Users on the Same Computer . . . . . . . 194
Making a Folder Private . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 195
Troubleshooting Simple File Sharing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 195
Supporting Offline Files . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 196
Configuring Offline Files on the Server . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 196
Configuring Offline Files on the Client . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 198
Accessing Offline Files . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 200
Synchronizing Offline Files . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 200
Troubleshooting Offline File Access and
Synchronization Issues . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 202
CONTENTS
Review Questions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 205
Case Scenarios . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 207
Scenario 5-1: Supporting Compression and Disk Quotas . . . . . . 207
Scenario 5-2: Working with Simple File Sharing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 207
CHAPTER 6:
Installing and Managing Hardware . . . . . . . . . . 209
Installing Hardware . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 210
Installing Hardware in Windows XP . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 210
Understanding Plug and Play Devices . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 211
Installing Hardware by Using the Add Hardware Wizard . . . . . . 212
Supporting and Troubleshooting Hardware . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 216
Using the System Information Tool . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 216
Using Device Manager . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 219
Using Windows Troubleshooters . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 226
Troubleshooting General Hardware Problems . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 227
Supporting and Troubleshooting Device Drivers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 228
Understanding the Driver.cab File . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 229
Updating Drivers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 229
Driver Signing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 230
Supporting Hardware Profiles . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 232
Creating a Hardware Profile . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 233
Managing Hardware Profiles . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 235
Configuring Hardware Settings for a Profile . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 236
Selecting a Profile During Startup . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 236
Review Questions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 237
Case Scenarios . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 239
Scenario 6-1: Updating Hardware Drivers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 239
Scenario 6-2: Controlling Driver Signing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 239
CHAPTER 7:
Supporting Display Devices, I/O Devices,
and ACPI . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 241
Configuring and Troubleshooting Display Devices . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 242
Configuring Display Settings in Windows XP . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 242
Supporting Multiple Displays . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 244
Troubleshooting Display Devices in Windows XP . . . . . . . . . . . . . 246
Configuring and Troubleshooting I/O Devices . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 247
Configuring I/O Devices . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 247
Configuring and Troubleshooting ACPI . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 257
Understanding ACPI . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 257
Understanding APM Support in Windows XP . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 258
Configuring Power Schemes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 258
Case Scenarios . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 264
Scenario 7-1: Managing Power Settings . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 264
Scenario 7-2: Troubleshooting Display Settings . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 264
ix
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CONTENTS
CHAPTER 8:
Supporting Storage Devices in
Windows XP . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 265
Supporting and Troubleshooting Hard Disks . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 266
Understanding Basic and Dynamic Disks . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 266
Managing Hard Disks with the Disk Management Tool . . . . . . . 269
Managing Disks Remotely . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 284
Managing Disks from the Command Line . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 284
Maintaining Disks . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 285
Troubleshooting Disks and Volumes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 290
Supporting and Troubleshooting Removable Media . . . . . . . . . . . . . 291
Monitoring and Troubleshooting CD-ROM and DVD Devices . . 291
Support for Removable Media . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 293
Understanding Removable Storage . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 293
Review Questions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 296
Case Scenarios . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 297
Scenario 8-1: Configuring Hard Disks . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 297
Scenario 8-2: Using Volume Mount Points . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 297
CHAPTER 9:
Managing Local and Network Printers
. . . . . . 299
Supporting Printers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 300
Understanding Printer Terminology . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 300
Understanding Print Job Formats . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 302
Understanding the Printing Process . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 303
Installing Local Printers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 305
Installing Network-Attached Printers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 310
Troubleshooting Printer Driver Issues . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 310
Configuring Printers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 311
Troubleshooting Printers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 319
Using Print Permissions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 320
Understanding Print Permissions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 320
Basic Print Permissions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 321
Advanced Print Permissions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 322
Default Print Permissions Assignments . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 323
Calculating Effective Print Permissions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 324
Print Permission Inheritance . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 324
Sharing a Printer . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 325
Sharing a Printer . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 325
Installing Additional Print Drivers for Non–Windows XP
Operating Systems . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 326
Connecting to Shared Printers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 327
Review Questions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 330
Case Scenarios . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 331
Scenario 9-1: Configuring Printers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 331
Scenario 9-2: Controlling Print Jobs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 331
CONTENTS
CHAPTER 10:
Supporting Network Connectivity . . . . . . . . . . 333
Overview of TCP/IP . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 334
Understanding TCP/IP . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 334
Troubleshooting Network Connectivity . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 346
Troubleshooting Cable Connections . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 346
Troubleshooting Networking Hardware . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 347
Using the Windows Troubleshooters . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 348
Configuring Network Connections . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 350
Troubleshooting Modem Connections . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 356
Troubleshooting Cable and DSL Connections . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 358
Using TCP/IP Troubleshooting Tools . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 359
Troubleshooting Name Resolution on a Client Computer . . . . . 363
Supporting Internet Connection Firewall . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 364
Understanding Internet Connection Firewall . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 364
ICF and the Small Office . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 364
Configuring, Viewing, and Using ICF Log Files . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 366
ICMP and ICF . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 367
Allowing Services in ICF . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 370
Troubleshooting Internet Connection Firewall . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 373
Using Remote Access Tools . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 374
Remote Assistance . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 374
Remote Desktop . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 378
Review Questions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 384
Case Scenarios . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 386
Scenario 10-1: Configuring Remote Desktop . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 386
Scenario 10-2: Troubleshooting Network Connectivity . . . . . . . 386
CHAPTER 11:
Supporting Internet Explorer in
Windows XP
387
Configuring Internet Explorer . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 388
Configuring General Settings . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 388
Configuring Content Settings . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 392
Configuring Connection Settings . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 394
Configuring Program Settings . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 396
Configuring Advanced Settings . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 397
Configuring Security Settings . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 399
Configuring Privacy Settings . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 402
Troubleshooting Internet Explorer Problems . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 404
Resolving Common User Requests . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 405
Resolving Problems with Viewing Web Pages . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 411
Review Questions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 416
Case Scenarios . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 418
Scenario 11-1: Configuring Internet Explorer . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 418
Scenario 11-2: Configuring Internet Explorer Security . . . . . . . . 418
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CONTENTS
CHAPTER 12:
Monitoring System Performance in
Windows XP . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 419
Configuring Windows XP for Performance . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 420
Optimizing Windows Startup . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 420
Removing Unnecessary Background Applications . . . . . . . . . . . . 421
Optimizing Hard Disk Performance . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 422
Turning Off Fast User Switching . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 423
Disabling Visual Effects . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 423
Managing Virtual Memory Paging Files . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 426
Setting Advanced Performance Options . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 427
Monitoring Windows XP Performance . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 428
Monitoring Performance by Using Task Manager . . . . . . . . . . . . 428
Monitoring Performance by Using the Performance Console . . 431
Review Questions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 442
Case Scenarios . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 443
Scenario 12-1: Working with the Performance Console . . . . . . . 443
Scenario 12-2: Improving Computer Performance . . . . . . . . . . . 443
APPENDIX A:
Microsoft Windows XP Service Pack 2 . . . . . . . 445
Automatic Updates . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 446
Windows Firewall . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 450
Internet Explorer . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 459
Outlook Express . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 464
Security Center . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 466
Glossary. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .469
Index . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .481
ABOUT THIS BOOK
Welcome to Supporting Users and Troubleshooting a Microsoft Windows XP Operating System (70-271), a part of the Microsoft Official Academic Course (MOAC)
series. Through lectures, discussions, demonstrations, textbook exercises, and
classroom labs, this course teaches students the skills and knowledge necessary
to support end users who run Windows XP Professional Edition in a corporate,
small business, or home environment, or run Windows XP Home Edition in a
home environment. The 12 chapters in this book walk you through key concepts
of end user and computer management, including installing and updating Windows XP, supporting local users and groups, managing hardware, configuring file
and folder access, installing and configuring printers, troubleshooting network
connectivity, and monitoring performance.
TARGET AUDIENCE
This textbook was developed for beginning information technology students who
want to learn to support computers and end users who run Microsoft Windows XP
Professional Edition. The target audience will provide direct, front-line, corporate
and home, end user support, either at a Help Desk or call center, or they will use
their knowledge to work in their own computer support business.
PREREQUISITES
This course assumes that you have basic knowledge of using a Microsoft
Windows operating system. In particular, you should have the following prerequisite knowledge:
■
Basic experience using Windows XP or Windows 2000 and Windows
accessories, including Microsoft Internet Explorer
■
Basic understanding of core operating system technologies, including
installation and configuration
■
Basic understanding of hardware components, major desktop components, interfaces and their functions
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ABOUT THIS BOOK
■
Basic understanding of Transmission Control Protocol/Internet Protocol (TCP/IP) settings, using command-line utilities to manage the operating system, and technologies that are available for establishing
Internet connectivity
■
Prerequisite knowledge and coursework as defined by the learning
institution and the instructor
THE TEXTBOOK
The textbook content has been crafted to provide a meaningful learning experience to students in an academic classroom setting.
Key features of the Microsoft Official Academic Course textbooks include the
following:
■
Learning objectives for each chapter that prepare the student for the
topic areas covered in that chapter.
■
Chapter introductions that explain why the information is important.
■
An inviting design with screen shots, diagrams, tables, bulleted lists,
and other graphical formats that makes the book easy to comprehend
and supports a number of different learning styles.
■
Clear explanations of concepts and principles, and frequent exposition
of step-by-step procedures.
■
A variety of reader aids that highlight a wealth of additional information, including:
❑
Note—Real-world application tips and alternative procedures, and
explanations of complex procedures and concepts
❑
Caution—Warnings about mistakes that can result in loss of data or are
difficult to resolve
❑
Important—Explanations of essential setup steps before a procedure
and other instructions
❑
More Info—Cross-references and additional resources for students
■
End-of-chapter review questions that assess knowledge and can serve
as homework, quizzes, and review activities before or after lectures.
(Answers to the textbook questions are available from your instructor.)
■
Chapter summaries that distill the main ideas in a chapter and reinforce learning.
ABOUT THIS BOOK
■
Case scenarios, approximately two per chapter, that provide students
with an opportunity to evaluate, analyze, synthesize, and apply information learned during the chapter.
■
A comprehensive glossary that defines key terms introduced in the
book.
THE SUPPLEMENTAL COURSE MATERIALS CD-ROM
This book comes with a Supplemental Course Materials CD-ROM, which contains a variety of informational aids to complement the book content:
■
An electronic version of this textbook (eBook). For information about
using the eBook, see the section titled “eBook Setup Instructions” later
in this introduction.
■
The Microsoft Press Readiness Review Suite built by MeasureUp. This
suite of practice tests and objective reviews contains questions of varying complexity and offers multiple testing modes. You can assess your
understanding of the concepts presented in this book and use the
results to develop a learning plan that meets your needs.
■
An eBook of the Microsoft Encyclopedia of Networking, Second Edition
■
Microsoft PowerPoint slides based on textbook chapters, for notetaking.
■
Microsoft Word Viewer and Microsoft PowerPoint Viewer.
A second CD contains a180-day evaluation edition of Microsoft Windows XP
Professional Edition with Service Pack 2.
The 180-day evaluation edition of Windows XP provided with this
book is not the full retail product; it is provided only for the purposes of
training and evaluation. Microsoft technical support does not support
evaluation editions.
NOTE
Readiness Review Suite Setup Instructions
The Readiness Review Suite includes a practice test of 300 sample exam questions and an objective review with an additional 125 questions. Use these tools to
reinforce your learning and to identify areas in which you need to gain more experience before taking your final exam for the course, or the certification exam if
you choose to do so.
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ABOUT THIS BOOK
Installing the Practice Test
1. Insert the Supplemental Course Materials CD into your CD-ROM
drive.
If AutoRun is disabled on your machine, refer to the Readme.txt
file on the Supplemental Course Materials CD.
NOTE
2. On the user interface menu, select Readiness Review Suite and follow
the prompts.
eBook Setup Instructions
The eBook is in Portable Document Format (PDF) and must be viewed using
Adobe Acrobat Reader.
Using the eBooks
1. 2.On the user interface menu, select Textbook eBook and follow the
prompts. You also can review any of the other eBooks provided for
your use.
If AutoRun is disabled on your machine, refer to the Readme.txt
file on the CD.
NOTE
2. 1.Insert the Supplemental Course Materials CD into your CD-ROM
drive.
You must have the Supplemental Course Materials CD in your
CD-ROM drive to run the eBook.
NOTE
THE LAB MANUAL
The Lab Manual is designed for use in either a combined or separate lecture and
lab. With one exception (students should perform Labs 1 and 2 only after they
have completed textbook chapters 1 and 2), the exercises in the Lab Manual correspond to textbook chapters and are for use in a classroom setting supervised by
an instructor.
The Lab Manual presents a rich, hands-on learning experience that encourages
practical solutions and strengthens critical problem-solving skills:
ABOUT THIS BOOK
■
Lab Exercises teach procedures by using a step-by-step format. Questions interspersed throughout Lab Exercises encourage reflection and
critical thinking about the lab activity.
■
Lab Review Questions appear at the end of each lab and ask questions
about the lab. They are designed to promote critical reflection.
■
Lab Challenges are review activities that ask students to perform a variation on a task they performed in the Lab Exercises, but without
detailed instructions.
■
Troubleshooting Labs, which appears after a number of regular labs
and consist of mid-length review projects, are based on true-to-life scenarios. These labs challenges students to “think like an expert” to solve
complex problems.
■
Labs are based on realistic business settings and include an opening
scenario and a list of learning objectives.
Students who successfully complete the Lab Exercises, Lab Review Questions,
Lab Challenges, and Troubleshooting Labs in the Lab Manual will have a richer
learning experience and deeper understanding of the concepts and methods covered in the course. They will be better able to answer and understand the test
bank questions, especially the knowledge application and knowledge synthesis
questions. They will also be much better prepared to pass the associated certification exams if they choose to do so.
NOTATIONAL CONVENTIONS
The following conventions are used throughout this textbook and the Lab
Manual:
■
Characters or commands that you type appear in bold type.
■
Terms that appear in the glossary also appear in bold type.
■
Italic in syntax statements indicates placeholders for variable information. Italic is also used for book titles and terms defined in the text.
■
Names of files and folders appear in Title caps, except when you are to
type them directly. Unless otherwise indicated, you can use all lowercase letters when you type a filename in a dialog box or at a command
prompt.
■
Filename extensions appear in all lowercase.
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ABOUT THIS BOOK
■
Acronyms appear in all uppercase.
■ Monospace
type represents code samples, examples of screen text, or
entries that you might type at a command prompt or in initialization
files.
■
Square brackets [ ] are used in syntax statements to enclose optional
items. For example, [filename] in command syntax indicates that you
can type a filename with the command. Type only the information
within the brackets, not the brackets themselves.
■
Braces { } are used in syntax statements to enclose required items. Type
only the information within the braces, not the braces themselves.
KEYBOARD CONVENTIONS
■
A plus sign (+) between two key names means that you must press
those keys at the same time. For example, “Press ALT+TAB” means that
you hold down ALT while you press TAB.
■
A comma (,) between two or more key names means that you must
press the keys consecutively, not at the same time. For example, “Press
ALT, F, X” means that you press and release each key in sequence.
“Press ALT+W, L” means that you first press ALT and W at the same
time, and then you release them and press L.
COVERAGE OF EXAM OBJECTIVES
This book is intended to support a course that is structured around concepts and
practical knowledge fundamental to this topic area, as well as the tasks that are
covered in the objectives for the Microsoft Certified Desktop Support Technician
(MCDST) 70-271 exam. The following table correlates the exam objectives with
the textbook chapters and Lab Manual lab exercises. You might also find this
table useful if you decide to take the certification exam.
The Microsoft Learning Web site describes the various
Microsoft Certified Professional (MCP) certification exams and their
corresponding courses. It provides up-to-date certification information
and explains the certification process and the course options. See
http://www.microsoft.com/learning/ for up-to-date information about
MCP exam credentials and other certification programs offered by
Microsoft.
NOTE
ABOUT THIS BOOK
Textbook and Lab Manual Coverage of Exam Objectives for MCDST Exam 70-271
Objective
Installing a Windows Desktop Operating System
Perform and troubleshoot an attended installation of a
Windows XP operating system.
■
Answer end-user questions related to performing an attended installation of a Windows XP
operating system.
■
Troubleshoot and complete installations in which
an installation does not start. Tasks include configuring the device boot order and ascertaining
probable cause of the failure to start.
■
Troubleshoot and complete installations in
which an installation fails to complete. Tasks
include reviewing setup log files and providing
needed files.
Textbook
Chapter
Lab
Manual
Content
Chapter 2 Lab 1
Lab 1
■
Perform postinstallation configuration. Tasks
include customizing installations for individual
users and applying service packs.
Perform and troubleshoot an unattended installation of a Chapter 2 Lab 2
Windows desktop operating system.
■
Answer end-user questions related to performing an unattended installation of a Windows
XP operating system. Tasks include starting an
installation, answering questions asked by an
end user during an installation, and performing postinstallation tasks.
■
Configure a PC to boot to a network device and
start installation of a Windows XP operating
system. Tasks include configuring PXE compliant network cards.
■
Perform an installation by using unattended
installation files.
Lab 2
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ABOUT THIS BOOK
Textbook and Lab Manual Coverage of Exam Objectives for MCDST Exam 70-271
Objective
Upgrade from a previous version of Windows.
■
Answer end-user questions related to upgrading from a previous version of Windows. Considerations include available upgrade paths
and methods for transferring user state data.
■
Verify hardware compatibility for upgrade.
Considerations include minimum hardware
and system resource requirements.
■
Verify application compatibility for upgrade.
Tasks include ascertaining which applications
can and cannot run, and using the application
compatibility tools.
■
Migrate user state data from an existing PC to a
new PC.
Textbook
Chapter
Lab
Manual
Content
Chapter 2
■
Install a second instance of an operating system on a computer.
Managing and Troubleshooting Access to Resources
Monitor, manage, and troubleshoot access to files and
folders.
■
Answer end-user questions related to managing
and troubleshooting access to files and folders.
Chapter 5 Lab 5
■
Monitor, manage, and troubleshoot NTFS file
permissions.
Lab 5
■
Manage and troubleshoot simple file sharing.
Lab 5
Lab 5
■
Manage and troubleshoot file encryption.
Manage and troubleshoot access to shared folders.
■
Answer end-user questions related to managing
and troubleshooting access to shared folders.
Chapter 5 Lab 5
■
Create shared folders.
Lab 5
■
Configure access permission for shared folders
on NTFS partitions.
Lab 5
■
Troubleshoot and interpret Access Denied
messages.
ABOUT THIS BOOK
Textbook and Lab Manual Coverage of Exam Objectives for MCDST Exam 70-271
Objective
Connect to local and network print devices.
■
Answer end-user questions related to printing
locally.
■
Configure and manage local printing.
■
Answer end-user questions related to networkbased printing.
Textbook
Chapter
Lab
Manual
Content
Chapter 9 Lab 9
Lab 9
■
Connect to and manage printing to a networkLab 9
based printer.
Manage and troubleshoot access to and synchronization Chapter 5
of offline files.
■
Answer end-user questions related to configuring and synchronizing offline files.
■
Configure and troubleshoot offline files.
■
Configure and troubleshoot offline file synchronization.
Configuring and Troubleshooting Hardware Devices and Drivers
Configure and troubleshoot storage devices.
Chapter 8 Lab 8
■
Answer end-user questions related to configuring hard disks and partitions or volumes.
■
Manage and troubleshoot disk partitioning.
■
Answer end-user questions related to optical
drives such as CD-ROM, CD-RW, DVD, and
DVD-R.
Lab 8
■
Configure and troubleshoot removable storage
devices such as pen drives, flash drives, and
memory cards.
Configure and troubleshoot display devices.
■
Answer end-user questions related to configuring desktop display settings.
Chapter 7 Lab 7
■
Configure display devices and display settings.
Lab 7
■
Troubleshoot display device settings.
Lab 7
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ABOUT THIS BOOK
Textbook and Lab Manual Coverage of Exam Objectives for MCDST Exam 70-271
Objective
Configure and troubleshoot Advanced Configuration
and Power Interface (ACPI).
■
Answer end-user questions related to configuring ACPI settings.
■
Textbook
Chapter
Lab
Manual
Content
Chapter 7
Configure and troubleshoot operating system
power settings.
■
Configure and troubleshoot system standby
and hibernate settings.
Configure and troubleshoot I/O devices.
■
Answer end-user questions related to configuring I/O devices.
Lab 7
Chapter 7
■
Configure and troubleshoot device settings.
Chapter 7 Lab 7
■
Configure and troubleshoot device drivers for
I/O devices.
Chapter 7 Lab 7
■
Configure and troubleshoot hardware profiles.
Chapter 6
Configuring and Troubleshooting the Desktop and User Environments
Lab 4
Configure the user environment.
Chapter 4
■
Answer end-user questions related to configuring the desktop and user environment.
■
Configure and troubleshoot task and toolbar
settings.
Chapter 4 Lab 4
■
Configure and troubleshoot accessibility options.
Chapter 4
■
Configure and troubleshoot pointing device
settings.
Chapter 7 Lab 7
Configure and troubleshoot fast-user switching.
Configure support for multiple languages or multiple
locations.
■
Answer end-user questions related to regional
settings.
Chapter 3
Chapter 4 Lab 4
■
■
Configure and troubleshoot regional settings.
■
Answer end-user questions related to language
settings.
■
Configure and troubleshoot language settings.
Lab 4
ABOUT THIS BOOK
Textbook and Lab Manual Coverage of Exam Objectives for MCDST Exam 70-271
Objective
Troubleshoot security settings and local security policy.
■
Answer end-user questions related to security
settings.
■
Textbook
Chapter
Lab
Manual
Content
Chapter 3
Identify end-user issues caused by local security policies such as Local Security Settings and
Security Configuration and Analysis.
■
Identify end-user issues caused by network
security policies such as Resultant Set of Policy
(RSoP) and Group Policy.
Configure and troubleshoot local user and group
Chapter 3 Lab 3
accounts.
■
Answer end-user questions related to user accounts.
■
Configure and troubleshoot local user accounts.
■
Answer end-user questions related to local
group accounts.
Lab 3
■
Configure and troubleshoot local group accounts.
Considerations include rights and permissions.
Troubleshoot system startup and user logon problems.
■
Answer end-user questions related to system
startup issues.
Chapter 2
■
Troubleshoot system startup problems.
Chapter 2
■
Answer end-user questions related to user
logon issues.
Chapter 2
■
Troubleshoot local user logon issues.
Chapter 3 Lab 3
■
Troubleshoot domain user logon issues.
Monitor and analyze system performance.
■
Answer end-user questions related to system
performance.
■
Use Help and Support to view and troubleshoot system performance.
■
Use Task Manager to view and troubleshoot
system performance.
■
Use the Performance tool to capture system
performance information.
Chapter 3 Lab 2
Chapter 12 Lab 12
Lab 12
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ABOUT THIS BOOK
Textbook and Lab Manual Coverage of Exam Objectives for MCDST Exam 70-271
Objective
Textbook
Chapter
Lab
Manual
Content
Troubleshooting Network Protocols and Services
Troubleshoot TCP/IP. Tools include ARP; the Repair util- Chapter 10 Lab 10
ity; connection properties; and the Ping, Ipconfig, Pathping, and Nslookup commands.
■
Answer end-user questions related to configurLab 10
ing TCP/IP settings
■
Configure and troubleshoot manual TCP/IP
configuration.
■
Configure and troubleshoot automated TCP/IP
address configuration.
■
Configure and troubleshoot Internet Connection Firewall (ICF) settings such as enable and
disable. Considerations include indications of
issues related to enabling or disabling ICF.
Troubleshoot name resolution issues.
■
Configure and troubleshoot host name resolution issues on a client computer. Considerations include Hosts files and DNS.
Chapter 10
■
Configure and troubleshoot NetBIOS name
resolution issues on a client computer. Considerations include Lmhosts files and WINS.
Configure and troubleshoot remote connections.
■
Configure and troubleshoot a remote dialup connection. Tasks include client-side configuration.
Chapter 10
■
Configure and troubleshoot a remote connection across the Internet. Tasks include clientside configuration.
Configure and troubleshoot Internet Explorer.
■
Configure and troubleshoot Internet Explorer
connections properties.
Chapter 11 Lab 11
■
Configure and troubleshoot Internet Explorer
security properties.
Lab 11
■
Configure and troubleshoot Internet Explorer
general properties.
Lab 11
ABOUT THIS BOOK
Textbook and Lab Manual Coverage of Exam Objectives for MCDST Exam 70-271
Textbook
Chapter
Objective
Configure and troubleshoot end-user systems by using
remote connectivity tools.
■
Use Remote Desktop to configure and troubleshoot an end user’s desktop
■
Lab
Manual
Content
Chapter 10
Lab 10
Use Remote Assistance to configure and troubleshoot an end user’s desktop.
THE MICROSOFT CERTIFIED PROFESSIONAL PROGRAM
The MCP program is one way to prove your proficiency with current Microsoft
products and technologies. These exams and corresponding certifications are
developed to validate your mastery of critical competencies as you design and
develop, or implement and support, solutions using Microsoft products and technologies. Computer professionals who become Microsoft-certified are recognized
as experts and are sought after throughout the industry. Certification brings a
variety of benefits to the individual and to employers and organizations.
MORE INFO For a full list of MCP benefits, go to http://
www.microsoft.com/learning/itpro/default.asp.
Certifications
The MCP program offers multiple certifications, based on specific areas of technical expertise:
■
Microsoft Certified Professional (MCP) In-depth knowledge of at
least one Windows operating system or architecturally significant platform. An MCP is qualified to implement a Microsoft product or technology as part of a business solution for an organization.
■
Microsoft Certified Systems Engineer (MCSE) Qualified to effectively analyze the business requirements for business solutions and
design and implement the infrastructure based on the Windows and
Windows Server 2003 operating systems.
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ABOUT THIS BOOK
■
Microsoft Certified Systems Administrator (MCSA) Qualified to
manage and troubleshoot existing network and system environments
based on the Windows and Windows Server 2003 operating systems.
■
Microsoft Certified Database Administrator (MCDBA) Qualified
to design, implement, and administer Microsoft SQL Server databases.
■
Microsoft Certified Desktop Support Technician
(MCDST) Qualified to support end users and to troubleshoot desktop environments on the Windows operating system.
MCP Requirements
Requirements differ for each certification and are specific to the products and job
functions addressed by the certification. To become an MCP, you must pass rigorous certification exams that provide a valid and reliable measure of technical proficiency and expertise. These exams are designed to test your expertise and ability
to perform a role or task with a product, and they are developed with the input of
industry professionals. Exam questions reflect how Microsoft products are used
in actual organizations, giving them real-world relevance.
■
Microsoft Certified Professional (MCP) candidates are required to pass
one current Microsoft certification exam. Candidates can pass additional Microsoft certification exams to validate their skills with other
Microsoft products, development tools, or desktop applications.
■
Microsoft Certified Systems Engineer (MCSE) candidates are required
to pass five core exams and two elective exams.
■
Microsoft Certified Systems Administrator (MCSA) candidates are
required to pass three core exams and one elective exam.
■
Microsoft Certified Database Administrator (MCDBA) candidates are
required to pass three core exams and one elective exam.
■
Microsoft Certified Desktop Support Technician (MCDST) candidates
are required to pass two core exams.
ABOUT THIS BOOK
ABOUT THE AUTHORS
The textbook, lab manual, pretest, test bank, and PowerPoint slides were written
by instructors and developed exclusively for an instructor-led classroom environment.
Walter Glenn is a Microsoft Certified Systems Engineer (MCSE), Microsoft Certified Desktop Support Technician (MCDST), and Microsoft Certified Trainer
(MCT). He has been working in the computer industry for more than 17 years
and currently works in Huntsville, Alabama, as a consultant, trainer, and writer.
He is the author or coauthor of nearly 20 computer titles, including Microsoft
Exchange Server 2003 Administrator’s Companion (Microsoft Press, 2003), MCSE
Self-Paced Training Kit (Exam 70-271): Supporting Users and Troubleshooting a
Microsoft Windows XP Operating System (Microsoft Press, 2004), MCSE Self-Paced
Training Kit (Exam 70-272): Supporting Users and Troubleshooting Desktop Applications on a Microsoft Windows XP Operating System (Microsoft Press, 2004), and
MCSE Self-Paced Training Kit (Exam 70-297): Designing a Microsoft Windows Server
2003 Active Directory and Network Infrastructure (Microsoft Press, 2003). Walter
has also written a number of Web-based courses that are geared toward Microsoft
certification training.
Craig Zacker is a writer, editor, and networker whose computing experience
began in the days of teletypes and paper tape. After making the move from minicomputers to PCs, he worked as an administrator of Novell NetWare networks
and as a PC support technician while operating a freelance desktop publishing
business. After earning a masters degree in English and American literature from
New York University, Craig worked extensively on the integration of Microsoft
Windows NT into existing internetworks, supported fleets of Windows workstations, and was employed as a technical writer, content provider, and Webmaster
for the online services group of a large software company. Since becoming a fulltime writer/editor, Craig has authored entirely or contributed to many books on
networking topics, operating systems, and PC hardware, including MCSE SelfPaced Training Kit (Exam 70-293): Planning and Maintaining a Microsoft Windows Server 2003 Network Infrastructure and Windows XP Pro: The Missing
Manual. He has also developed educational materials for college courses and
online training courses for the Web, and he has published articles with top industry publications. For more information on Craig’s books and other works, see
http://www.zacker.com.
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ABOUT THIS BOOK
Don Lesser, an MCP, is the president of Pioneer Training, a computer training and
programming company in western Massachusetts. After earning a master of fine
arts degree in English from the University of Massachusetts at Amherst, he began
working as a technical writer and course developer in 1981. In 1985, he founded
Technical Communications Associates, Inc., a company that provided computer
training for corporate clients. For the last 15 years, as the head of Pioneer Training, he has developed and written course materials about many aspects of
Microsoft software and computing, including MS-DOS, Windows, and Microsoft
Office. He has also been the technical editor for a number of books about
Microsoft software, including Microsoft Visual Basic 6.0 (Microsoft Press, 2000),
This Wired Home, Editions 2 and 3 (Microsoft Press, 2000 and 2002), and
Microsoft Office System 2003 Inside Out (Microsoft Press, 2003).
Emanuel White is director of training at Pioneer Training, a computer training
and programming company in western Massachusetts. He has worked as a technical editor, courseware developer, and software consultant for more than 10
years. He also has earned a Microsoft Office Specialist Expert certification in
Microsoft Word 2000. He has served as the technical editor for many publications
about Microsoft programs, including Microsoft Office Visual Basic for Applications Fundamentals (Microsoft Press, 1999), Microsoft Office XP Inside Out
(Microsoft Press, 2001), and Microsoft Office System 2003 Inside Out (Microsoft
Press, 2003).
George Owens is a writer, instructional designer, and project manager with 23
years of experience developing custom instructional and communications materials for Fortune 500 clients. His areas of expertise include interactive media,
Web-based delivery, print production, instructor-led programs, and audio production. Clients of his user training and documentation programs have included
Lucent Technologies, American Airlines, Bank of New England, Bank of Boston,
Blue Cross/Blue Shield of Massachusetts, Chase Manhattan Bank, Hilton Hotels,
Kensington Microware, McNeil Consumer Products, National Data Corporation,
Pratt & Whitney, and UNUM Life Insurance. He earned a master of fine arts
degree in English from the University of Massachusetts at Amherst in 1981.
Patricia L. Barton is a consultant and technical trainer at Boston University. She
began working with desktop operating systems in 1982 and has been involved in
the design, installation, management, and training of local area network (LAN)
and wide area network (WAN) technologies since 1988. Her initial networking
focus was on Novell NetWare with MS-DOS and Windows clients, but when customer demand began to shift to Windows NT 3.51 in 1995, she became certified
ABOUT THIS BOOK
to support and instruct the full line of Microsoft operating systems. She has been
working heavily with Windows 3.x, Windows 9x, Windows NT, Windows 2000,
Windows XP, Windows Server 2003, and associated products since that time. In
her years at Boston University, Pat has worked with IT professionals at all levels.
This experience has given her a strong background on different methods of presentation and instruction that are effective with many types of students, and it has
also given her a good perspective on the needs and mindset of the IT professional. In addition to performing classroom instruction, Pat performs IT project
and operational management functions and is involved with curriculum development for BU’s technology programs. Pat currently holds MCSE, MCT, and CCNP
certification status, and is a Microsoft Solutions Framework (MSF) practitioner.
Chuck Brooks is currently the President of Marcraft International Corporation,
located in Pasco, Washington, and co-owner of eIT Prep LLC. He has authored
several books on subjects ranging from electronic speech synthesis, pneumatic
instrumentation, and linear integrated circuits to computer hardware courses,
IBM PC peripheral troubleshooting and repair books, and MCSE and A+ Certification preparation manuals. A former electronics instructor and technical writer,
Chuck has taught and written on technical subjects for more than 20 years. At
Marcraft and eITPrep, Chuck oversees development and production of a variety
of technical book titles.
Brian Alley has been in the IT field since 1985—first working with Netware 2.2,
and then with Windows NT 3.1. Brian has been teaching at Boston University
since 1992, as both a staff instructor and consultant. He currently holds CompTIA’s A+, Network +, Server +, and I-net + certifications, and he has sat on various
A+ committees. He is an MCDST and MCSE for Windows NT and Windows 2000
and had been an MCT. Currently, Brian is the owner of Connected Executive and
eIT Training, where he consults and conducts training for small to medium size
businesses in various IT areas, including networking, security, integration, and
automation. Brian is also co-owner of eIT Prep, an on-line certification site. He is
co-author of several Windows 2000 books and numerous training manuals.
MICROSOFT OFFICIAL ACADEMIC COURSE SUPPORT
Every effort has been made to ensure the accuracy of the material in this book
and the contents of the CD-ROM. Microsoft Learning provides corrections for
books through the World Wide Web at the following address:
http://www.microsoft.com/learning/support/
xxix
xxx
ABOUT THIS BOOK
If you have comments, questions, or ideas regarding this book or the companion
CD-ROM, please send them to Microsoft Learning using either of the following
methods:
Postal Mail:
One Microsoft Way
Attn: MOAC 70-271 Editor
Redmond, WA 98052-6399
E-mail: [email protected]
Please note that product support is not offered through the above addresses.
EVALUATION EDITION SOFTWARE SUPPORT
A 180-day software evaluation edition of Windows XP Professional Edition is provided with this textbook. This is not the full retail product and is provided only
for training and evaluation purposes. Microsoft and Microsoft Technical Support
do not support this evaluation edition. It differs from the retail version only in
that Microsoft and Microsoft Technical Support does not support it, and it
expires after 180 days. For information about issues relating to the use
of evaluation editions, go to the Support section of the Microsoft Learning Web
site (http://www.microsoft.com/learning/support/).
For online support information relating to the full version of Windows XP Professional Edition that might also apply to the evaluation edition, go to http://support.microsoft.com. For information about ordering the full version of any
Microsoft software, call Microsoft Sales at (800) 426-9400 or visit http://
www.microsoft.com.
CHAPTER 1
INTRODUCTION TO
DESKTOP SUPPORT
Upon completion of this chapter, you will be able to:
■ Differentiate among workgroups, domains, and multiple domains
■ Identify your support role in an organization’s tier structure
■ Identify the key differences among the various types of support environments
■ Identify the traits of a successful desktop technician
■ Identify basic troubleshooting techniques, such as asking relevant questions,
identifying possible solutions, and determining solutions or resolutions
■ Document problems and the solutions
■ Inform and teach the end user
As a desktop support technician (DST), your job is to isolate and solve problems.
To do this, you must understand your role in the support environment. You must
also know how to talk to users with different levels of experience—how to ask
questions, how to interpret what users say, and how to suggest changes. You must
know where to search for answers to problems and how to apply and document
the solutions to those problems.
The goal of this chapter is to introduce you to desktop support and common network configurations and to teach you how best to support the end user in these
varied settings. The chapter begins with an introduction to supporting users and
then discusses corporate environments, the help and support tier structure, and
common job titles and duties. A discussion of workgroups, domains, and reasons
for multiple domains is also included. Noncorporate environments are introduced, including Internet service providers (ISPs), call centers, and large and
small repair shops. This chapter also introduces you to basic troubleshooting
techniques, including how to gather information about a problem, research and
implement solutions, and document your activities.
1
2
SUPPORTING USERS AND TROUBLESHOOTING WINDOWS XP
INTRODUCTION TO SUPPORTING USERS
Being a DST involves much more than answering the phone and resolving a problem. It also involves understanding, communicating with, and pleasing the end
user. You must be able to listen to a customer, gather information from that customer, diagnose and resolve the problem (or escalate the problem to a senior
technician or system administrator), and properly document the resolution of the
problem in the manner that is dictated by company policy. The end user must
also be satisfied with the solution and believe that he or she was treated fairly and
with respect.
The End User’s Level of Expertise
There are many types of end users. Each user has a different level of expertise, and
each one has expertise in varying degrees. Some end users have no computer
experience at all and barely understand basic computer terms; some have targeted experience; still others have many years of general computer experience.
Table 1-1 shows the different types of users you might encounter.
Table 1-1
Users Have Varying Skill Levels
Skill Level
Description
Highly experienced
These users are extremely experienced and most
likely know more than you do concerning the problem at hand. Their problems generally need to be
escalated quickly.
These users can use e-mail and the Internet, download and install programs, follow wizards, install
and configure programs, set up simple networks,
and do minor troubleshooting. Tier 1 or tier 2 support personnel can generally assist these users.
These users have experience in one or two applications that they use daily to do their jobs. Other than
this experience, they have almost no computing
skills. Depending on the application in question,
tier 1 or tier 2 support personnel can generally
assist these users.
These users are completely new to computing and
have little or no experience with using e-mail,
accessing the Internet, or installing or using applications. Tier 1 personnel should be able to handle
most of these calls.
Generally experienced
Targeted experience
No experience
CHAPTER 1:
INTRODUCTION TO DESKTOP SUPPORT
After you gain some experience as a DST, you will be able to determine how experienced the user is after speaking with him or her for only a few minutes. In the
interim, you will learn how to work with and assist the different types of end
users by communicating with them through written scripts and by following specific (and proven) troubleshooting guidelines.
NOTE Value Expert Users Keep in mind at all times that you will be
assisting all levels of users; never assume that the user knows less than
you do. In fact, you will not have time to become an expert in every application that is running within a company, so knowing whom to go to with
your questions can help keep things running smoothly. You are also likely
to find a user or two in each department who can help field questions
when you are not available or whom you can ask to sit down at a user’s
desk if that user is having trouble explaining the problem to you.
The End User’s Previous Experiences with Technical Support
Chances are that the end user whom you are speaking with on the phone or at his
or her desk has dealt with a DST before. If that experience was not satisfactory,
you might have to deal with an angry, dissatisfied, or frustrated client. You might
also be the second or third DST who tried to solve the problem, or the problem
might be a recurring one. In any of these cases, concentrate on verifying the problem, be polite and respectful, and use whatever resources it takes to solve the
problem quickly and effectively.
Traits of a Qualified DST
Companies and clients want to hire and keep the best DSTs that they can find,
and they look for several specific traits and qualities. It does not matter whether
you work in a corporate environment or offer in-home computer repair services;
the traits and skills are the same. To be the best DST you can be, work to demonstrate as many of the following qualities as possible:
■
Excellent customer service skills Successful DSTs have the ability
and emotional intelligence to teach highly technical content to users
with any level of experience. They can speak to any user about any
problem and define that problem in terms the user can understand
(without making the user feel inadequate or stupid). They have skills
that any successful customer service employee has: They are polite, are
concerned for the customer, and have a sincere desire to service the customer’s needs. Beyond emotional intelligence, they also have social intelligence, which is the ability to handle their (or others’) anxieties, anger,
and sadness; to be self-motivated; and to have empathy for others.
3
4
SUPPORTING USERS AND TROUBLESHOOTING WINDOWS XP
■
Talent for communicating Qualified DSTs can communicate with
end users of any level of experience, any personality, and any level of
the corporate ladder. They can communicate technical information to
nontechnical users and can acquire technical information from those
who cannot explain the problem clearly. Qualified DSTs also take the
time to explain in simple terms why the problem occurred, how it can
be avoided in the future, and how and where to get help when no DST
is available. Qualified DSTs document the problems, their communications with users, and the solutions they try so that they can communicate even better with users the next time around.
■
Ability to multitask and stay calm under pressure DSTs must
deal with ongoing problems, multiple open troubleshooting tickets,
deadlines for meeting service level agreements (SLAs), accountability
to upper management and end users, and ambiguous problems. While
dealing with these issues, DSTs must be able to work effectively and
calmly under pressure. DSTs must also respond calmly when an end
user becomes frustrated or angry, and they must maintain a professional demeanor at all times.
■
Technical aptitude DSTs have a natural aptitude for computers,
hardware, and software and for configuring each. They enjoy working
with the technologies; have workstations at home at which they troubleshoot problems in their spare time; welcome new technologies; and
show a talent for seeing the big picture in terms of networks, components, shared files and folders, and problems. Having the ability to see
the big picture is the first step to becoming an expert in your field.
■
Capacity to solve problems Talented DSTs have the capacity to
solve problems quickly. They are good at solving logic problems, uncovering hidden clues, chasing leads, and discovering and attempting solutions without complicating the problem further. Communication and
linear and logical troubleshooting abilities are the top skills employers
look for. The technical aspect can be taught much more easily than
these skills because they have more to do with overall intelligence, personality, and social abilities than technical skills do. You must strive to
develop critical thinking and problem-solving skills and learn to “read
the signs” when dealing with a problem. The better you are at seeing the
signs and the big picture, the better you will be as a DST. The capacity to
solve problems can be improved through training, experience, trial and
error, observation, and working with higher-level DSTs.
CHAPTER 1:
INTRODUCTION TO DESKTOP SUPPORT
OVERVIEW OF CORPORATE ENVIRONMENTS
There are several types of environments in which you might be employed. Understanding these environments and your place in them is crucial to your success.
This section provides a brief overview of the corporate environment, including
common network setups, tier structure, job titles, and job requirements.
Types of Networks
From a user’s perspective, there are three basic types of logical networks: workgroups, domains, and multiple domains. In each of these environments, users
can share common resources such as files, folders, and printers; and there are
security measures available that keep users’ personal data, network resources,
and company data secure and protected from outside forces.
Workgroups
Workgroups, which are logical groupings of networked computers that share
resources, are often referred to as peer-to-peer networks. Of the three network
types, the workgroup is the easiest to set up and maintain, but it is the least
secure. Each computer maintains its own local security database, which contains
the valid user accounts for logging on to and using that computer. The user
accounts secure data on the computer and protect the computer from unwanted
access. Because no single computer provides centralized security of user accounts
for all the computers on the network, the network is considered decentralized.
Figure 1-1 shows an example of a workgroup.
Local Security
Database
Windows XP
Professional
Local Security
Database
Windows XP
Professional
Local Security
Database
Windows XP
Professional
Figure 1-1 A workgroup, often referred to as a peer-to-peer network
FT01su01
5
6
SUPPORTING USERS AND TROUBLESHOOTING WINDOWS XP
When Workgroups Are Used Workgroups are typically configured for home networks, small home offices, and small businesses in
which the computers are in close proximity to one another and can be
connected using a hub, switch, or router. Because they are not the
most secure option for a network, they are not often used in larger
corporations.
NOTE
Domains
Domains are logical groupings of networked computers that share a common
database of users and centrally managed security on a single server (or group of
servers) called a domain controller. A single domain must have one or more
domain controllers, and these computers provide Active Directory directory services such as providing access to resources, security, and a single point of administration. Domains are logical groupings, so they are independent of the actual
physical structure of the network. Domains can span a building, city, state, country, or even the globe; or they can be configured for a small office. The computers
can be connected by dial-up, Ethernet, Integrated Services Digital Network
(ISDN) lines, satellite, or even wireless connections. Figure 1-2 shows an example
of a domain with two domain controllers.
When Domains Are Used Domains are typically configured for
networks in larger companies and corporations because they are the
most secure option for a network, offer centralized security and management, and are extensible. Smaller companies generally opt against
domains because domains have more overhead, are more expensive, and
require more attention than workgroups.
NOTE
Domain
Controller
Active
Directory
Active
Directory
Central
Security
Database
Central
Security
Database
Domain
Controller
Member
Server
Client
Computer
Client
Computer
Figure 1-2 Domains, which share a common database and are centrally managed
FT01su02
CHAPTER 1:
INTRODUCTION TO DESKTOP SUPPORT
Logical vs. Physical Network Layout Workgroups, domains, and
multiple domains describe the logical grouping of computers. Do not confuse this logical grouping with the physical layout of the network. A small
network of three computers connected by a single hub can be logically
grouped into a domain, just as a larger network consisting of thousands
of computers across multiple subnets can also be grouped into a domain.
The reason for the distinction between logical and physical structures is
one of abstraction. The physical layout has to do with where computers
are located and how they are connected to the network. The logical layout
has to do with the function of the computer, how it is used, and how it is
managed. By separating the two, the administration of computers does
not have to be affected by the network infrastructure.
NOTE
Multiple Domains
Networks can also be arranged into multiple domains, which are still managed as
a single, cohesive, yet decentralized unit. Multiple administrators manage the network, and the domains represent specific parts of a larger organization. Multiple
domains are generally created when the network (and corporation) spans multiple countries or when two established companies merge. In a multiple domain
configuration, there must be at least one domain controller in each domain.
MORE INFO Learn More About Domains and Active Directory To
learn more about domains and Active Directory, visit http://
www.microsoft.com/technet and search using the keywords “Active
Directory.”
Tier Structure
Corporations define technical support roles in tiers; generally, there are four tiers,
as detailed in Table 1-2. Each of these four tiers can also have its own tier structure. The tier position that we are concerned with is tier 1, which is highlighted in
the table. The employees in the corporate tier 1 group are also categorized in
three additional internal tiers. The internal tier 1 employees usually provide frontline support, and internal tiers 2, 3, and 4 accept escalations. These roles are
defined in more detail in the section “Telephone Call Centers” later in this chapter. Your position in the corporation will be in the tier 1, help desk position.
Table 1-2
An Overview of the Corporate Tier Structure
Tier
Description
Tier 4, architect
Strategic: Analyzes and designs enterprises.
Makes budget and purchasing decisions.
Tactical: Analyzes and designs within a single
technology and implements the technology. Handles complex troubleshooting, including escalations from administrators.
Tier 3, engineer
7
8
SUPPORTING USERS AND TROUBLESHOOTING WINDOWS XP
Table 1-2
An Overview of the Corporate Tier Structure
Tier
Description
Tier 2, administrator
Operational: Provides day-to-day server and software troubleshooting. Performs operating system
management and support.
Tier 1, help desk
Support: Supports day-to-day client operating systems, applications, and hardware troubleshooting. Follows prescriptive guidelines and provides
end user phone support.
Corporate tier structures allow for growth by clearly defining technical support
roles and requirements for moving up the tier ladder. The Microsoft Certified
Desktop Support Technician (MCDST) certification prepares candidates for jobs
in the tier 1 environment and provides a good foundation for moving up in the
corporation.
Job Titles and Requirements
As a tier 1 entry-level technical support employee, your job is to provide direct enduser support. At a high level, you should be prepared to perform the following tasks:
■
Perform general troubleshooting of the operating system and installed
applications
■
Provide customer service, including listening to the customer, defining
and solving the problem, and educating the user on how to avoid the
problem in the future
■
Install, configure, and upgrade software, including applications and
operating systems
■
Monitor and maintain systems
■
Document calls, and close them or escalate them as required by company policy and time limits set by SLAs
NOTE Service Level Agreements An SLA defines the parameters of
service provided by a company to a user. SLAs typically cover the services
to be delivered, fees and expenses, customer responsibilities, documentation requirements, and support policies.
CHAPTER 1:
INTRODUCTION TO DESKTOP SUPPORT
More specifically, you will be consulted to troubleshoot and provide information
about a variety of aspects of the Windows XP operating system. You will be called
on to resolve installation and connectivity issues; configure and troubleshoot
users’ desktop environments; troubleshoot multiple boot or multiuser computers; and install, configure, and troubleshoot hardware. You will be expected to
resolve or escalate 80 percent of the incident requests you receive from end users,
employ proper procedures to document the incident, and operate within the
environment’s SLAs. SLAs might require that a call be resolved in a particular
amount of time or within a specified budget.
There are various job titles and job roles for DSTs; common tier 1 entry-level job
titles are listed here. When creating a resumé, looking for employment, or interviewing, make sure that you are familiar with these titles. Each of these job titles
is a tier 1 entry-level job, and all are quite similar.
■
Call center support representative
■
Customer service representative
■
Help desk specialist (or technician)
■
Product support specialist
■
PC support specialist
OVERVIEW OF NONCORPORATE ENVIRONMENTS
Not all DSTs acquire or hold jobs in a large corporate environment; many
obtain employment through telephone call centers, repair shops, private businesses, and ISPs.
Telephone Call Centers
Telephone call centers accept calls from end users and resolve problems over the
telephone. These calls can be hardware- or software-related, depending on the
company and its clients. A DST’s place in these environments is defined by using
a tier system similar to that in a corporate environment. Table 1-3 shows a general
tier structure for a telephone call center. An entry-level DST falls in either of the
first two tiers (highlighted in the table), depending on experience.
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Table 1-3
Overview of the Telephone Call Center Tier Structure
Experience
Scope of Responsibilities
Tier 4: 4+ years of
experience
Receives calls that are escalated from tier 3 personnel
and tries to resolve them. This involves complex troubleshooting; employees in this tier are hardware and software engineers and architects.
Tier 3: 1 to 2 years of Receives calls that are escalated from tier 2 personnel
experience
and tries to resolve them. This involves a combination of
experience, directed training in specific hardware and
software, and application of previous knowledge. These
employees might have other certifications.
Tier 2: 6 months to 1 Receives calls that are escalated from tier 1 personnel
and tries to resolve them. Like tier 1 employees, the tier
year of experience
2 employee works by using a set of predetermined questions and solutions. Supports operating system, application, and hardware troubleshooting.
Tier 1: Less than 6
Answers the phone and works using a script. The tier 1
months of experience employee instructs the user to reboot the computer, disconnect and reconnect, stop and restart an application,
and perform other common troubleshooting tasks.
Determines the appropriate time to escalate calls to
tier 2 personnel.
Repair Shops and Private Businesses
DSTs also find their niche as members of small repair shops, large repair shop
chains, computer sales chains, computer manufacturers, or hardware testing labs.
They can also start their own computer-repair business.
If you intend to work as a DST in any of these settings, you should also be either
A+ or Network + certified. Unlike a DST, an employee at a repair shop or one who
owns his or her own business has much more hands-on computer work than
those who answer phones. These DSTs replace hardware, add memory, repair
printers, and perform similar tasks in addition to the tasks required of a DST.
Internet Service Providers
ISPs are companies that provide Internet access to subscribers for a monthly fee.
Subscribers can be individuals or entire corporations. Some ISPs do more than
offer Internet access, however: They design Web pages, consult with businesses,
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provide feedback concerning Web page traffic, and send out virus warnings.
Some also set up, secure, and maintain e-commerce Web sites for clients.
If you choose to work for an ISP, you will most likely answer the phones and perform general help desk duties, as previously defined. The most common tasks
required of an ISP DST include the following:
■
Set up new accounts using Microsoft Outlook or Microsoft Outlook
Express, Netscape Mail, Apple OSX Mail, Eudora, and other e-mail
clients
■
Configure settings to filter spam by creating rules and blocking senders
■
Troubleshoot Internet and e-mail access
■
Troubleshoot servers and physical connections
■
Resolve problems with various connection types, including dial-up
modems, digital subscriber line (DSL), cable, and wireless connections
■
Resolve and escalate calls when necessary
DSTs working for an ISP must be familiar with Internet technologies, Domain
Name System (DNS) name resolution, connection types, available modems, and
other common ISP tools. ISPs, like other DST employers, generally work using a tier
system, and moving up the tier is dependent on experience, education, and training.
OVERVIEW OF BASIC TROUBLESHOOTING
This section discusses the techniques involved with resolving service calls. The
most important part of troubleshooting is asking pertinent questions and listening to and making notes of the answers. After you have asked the proper questions and noted the answers, you will need to formulate a plan of action for
researching and isolating the problem and then for resolving the call.
Asking Who, When, What, Why, and How
A reporter or police officer asks these questions to obtain the required information to perform his or her job, and you will ask the same questions in your role as
a DST. The information that you acquire helps you determine why the problem
occurred. Then, with that knowledge, you can often resolve the problem on your
own. The following sections list some common questions and possible answers.
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Who?
The following questions will help you identify the person affected by a problem:
■
Who was using the computer when the problem first occurred?
■
Who else has been using the computer, and have they experienced
similar problems?
■
Who has worked on this problem previously (if it has happened
before)?
■
Who has the same problem on another computer (that you know of)?
The answers to these questions tell you who has firsthand knowledge of the problem and whether other users who access the same computer (under a different
account) also encounter the problem. If multiple users have access but only one
user encounters the problem, you have already narrowed the issue. You will also
learn from these questions who has worked on the problem before (and you
might even find out that the user has) and whether other users on the network
are having the same problem on their computers. If the latter is true, the problem
could be a network-wide problem, such as a security policy issue, a virus, or some
other glitch in the entire system.
When?
The following questions will help you determine when a problem occurred and
establish a timeline of activities that might relate to the problem:
■
When did this problem occur the first time, and has it occurred since?
■
When was the last time you downloaded or installed an application?
■
When was the last time you installed new hardware?
■
When did you last clean your hard drive with Disk Cleanup or Disk
Defragmenter, delete temporary files or cookies, or perform similar
deletions of data?
■
When was the last time you uninstalled any applications?
The answers to these questions tell you how long the user has had this problem,
whether the problem occurred after the user installed a new piece of hardware or
a new application, and whether the user routinely maintains the computer. If the
problem occurred after installing or uninstalling hardware or software, you have
a good lead. Asking pointed questions about maintenance can also be helpful for
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finding out whether the user has recently cleaned out program or system folders,
or has deleted any necessary files.
What?
The following questions will help you learn information about what the user
thinks might be the cause of the problem and any solutions the user has already
attempted:
■
What are your thoughts on what caused the problem?
■
What have you tried doing to troubleshoot the problem yourself?
■
What do you think can be done to solve the problem?
The answers to these questions tell you what the user believes happened and give
you an opportunity to involve him or her in the solution. Asking the user what he
or she thinks can be done to solve the problem could also reveal a very simple
solution. If the user recently reconfigured settings for a program or uninstalled a
necessary file or program, you know where to begin. If the user has already tried
to troubleshoot the problem, you need to know what changes he or she has made.
Finally, if the user thinks that reconfiguring the e-mail account will solve the
problem, he or she might have been doing something to that account earlier, but
does not want to admit it.
Why and How?
The following questions can often summon a solution quickly:
■
Why do you think the problem occurred?
■
How do you think the problem occurred?
If the user says, “The problem occurred because I spilled coffee on the keyboard,”
or “The problem occurred because I opened an attachment in an e-mail,” you
know exactly where to start. Keep in mind, however, that these answers will not
always be useful; they might sometimes even be misleading. (A user might have
opened an attachment, but might tell you he or she did not, for instance.)
Remember, you are the expert.
As you work through these questions with an end user, document the answers
carefully, listen to everything he or she has to say, be polite and professional, and
make notes of possible solutions as you think of them. If you need to, leave the
situation for a few minutes to digest the information and then check company
documentation, online support, or other resources for answers.
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Reproducing the Problem
If you or the end user can reproduce the problem, you will have quite a bit of additional information to work with. Problems that cannot be reproduced, such as
applications that shut down for no apparent reason, are much more difficult to
diagnose than those that can be reproduced, such as being unable to send or
receive e-mail. If the end user can reproduce the problem, make a note of which
applications were open and which components were being used, and then troubleshoot those applications and their configurations.
Be Careful Do not try to reproduce any problem that has
previously caused loss of data or is a known network problem, such as a
virus or worm. Doing so can cause additional problems and further damage.
CAUTION
Understanding General Troubleshooting Procedures
If you work for an ISP or a telephone call center, your plan of action might involve
only reading a set of directions from a script and escalating the call up a tier, but
it is still a course of action. If you have already determined a solution and solved
the problem, you need to only document your solution.
If you own your own business or are otherwise on your own when fielding a service call, solving the problem might involve more groundwork. When physically
assisting users in their homes or at their desks, you cannot easily turn the call
over to someone else. If you own your own business, conferring with someone
else can cost you time and money, as well as clients. If you walk across the corporate campus to field a call, calling in someone else means waiting for that person
to arrive and then explaining the problem again. In either instance, when you are
given more responsibility for servicing calls, you must have a plan of action for
uncovering, documenting, and resolving the call without another DST. In this
section, you will learn the steps involved in resolving a service call on your own,
instead of calling in another DST or escalating the call. In general, a specific procedure should be followed, and a common technique is listed here.
To locate answers and to determine a solution after speaking with the end user,
follow these general steps. (Each step is detailed in the following sections.)
1. Locate a solution by searching the computer’s Help And Support Center. If you find a solution, attempt to solve the problem and document
the solution. If the solution does not work, document that as well, and
undo any changes made to the computer.
2. Locate a solution by searching the company’s support files. If you find
a solution, attempt to solve the problem and document the solution. If
the solution does not work, document that as well, and undo any
changes made to the computer.
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3. Search manufacturers’ Web sites. If you find a solution, attempt to solve
the problem and document the solution. If the solution does not work,
document that as well, and undo any changes made to the computer.
4. Search technical sites. If you find a solution, attempt to solve the problem and document the solution. If the solution does not work, document that as well, and undo any changes made to the computer.
5. Search newsgroups. If you find a solution, attempt to solve the problem and document the solution. If the solution does not work, document that as well, and undo any changes made to the computer.
6. If you do not find a solution, document the information and attempted
solutions, and undo any changes made to the computer during the
troubleshooting process.
7. Escalate the call.
8. When the problem is solved, document the solution.
The troubleshooting process covered in the preceding steps is shown in further
detail in the flowchart shown in Figure 1-3.
Start
Yes
Can you resolve
the problem with the
current information?
No
Does searching the
computer's online Help and
Support files produce
a solution?
No
Yes
Undo changes made
to the computer and
document attempted
solution.
Does searching the
manufacturer's Web sites
produce a solution?
Yes
Yes
Document the
solution.
Escalate
the call.
Does searching technical
sites produce
a solution?
No
End
Figure 1-3 Troubleshooting a problem systematically
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No
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Locating the Answers
There are several places to look for help in troubleshooting a computer problem,
and if you have good research skills, you will most likely be able to locate a solution without escalating the call. Because escalations require more work, more
downtime, and more expense for both you and the end user, you should do all
you can to resolve problems without having to call in someone else to help. As for
finding a solution, chances are quite good that this is not the first time an end
user has encountered this problem, and the answer will probably be easy to find
either in company documents or on the Internet.
It’s All in the Training The ability to research and find answers
is not an innate skill; a good researcher learns where to look for answers.
NOTE
Help And Support Center
The Help And Support Center in Windows should be the first place you look for
information about common operating system problems. The Help And Support
Center offers information ranging from performing basic tasks, such as logging
on and off, to complex ones such as working remotely. It also offers tools to help
you access advanced system information, check network diagnostics, and run
software and hardware troubleshooting wizards. Figure 1-4 shows the default
Help And Support Center page for Microsoft Windows XP Professional Edition. It
is easy to use—simply browse the categories or type in a few keywords.
Figure 1-4 The Windows XP Professional Edition default Help And Support Center
page, which offers an abundance of information
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Company Documentation
As time passes, more and more businesses customize the help files in the Help
And Support Center so that the files offer resources to end users that are specific
to their department, job role, company, or domain. This localized help information is useful—not only to the end user, but also to DSTs who do not work for the
company and are instead hired as vendors or contract employees. Computer
manufacturers already personalize help files for home users and include help files
directly related to the user’s specific computer configuration.
Targeted help such as this enables users to locate answers to their own problems
easily, and it allows you to access information quickly as well. Figure 1-5 shows an
example of a customized Help And Support Center interface, created by Sony
Corporation for the home user. Notice that there are additional help topics,
including “VAIO User Guide,” “VAIO Multimedia,” and “VAIO Support Agent
Help.” These topics are specific to the machine, and they can be quite helpful for
troubleshooting computer problems.
Figure 1-5 An example of a customized Help And Support Center page
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Depending on your work environment, this type of customized documentation
might be available. At the very least, almost every company offers some access to
a database that contains answers to commonly asked questions. If you cannot
find the answer to your troubleshooting query by using the Windows Help And
Support Center, try the manufacturer’s Web site.
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Manufacturers’ Web Sites
Many times, a problem occurs because a piece of hardware has failed, a device
driver is corrupt, new software is incompatible with Windows XP or other
installed software, or a computer’s basic input/output system (BIOS) needs
updating. You can research these problems and others through a manufacturer’s
Web site. Web sites are an especially appropriate tool when troubleshooting a
home user’s computer or a computer that has recently been upgraded from one
operating system to another. If you have yet to find the problem and a troubleshooting wizard has listed hardware, software, or BIOS problems as the culprit,
then visit the manufacturer’s Web site for help and updates.
About the Home User Home users are more likely to install
new drivers, applications, and third-party utilities than office users—
mainly because companies place more limitations on office users. Office
users are often not allowed to install devices and applications because of
network policies. When troubleshooting a home user’s computer, make
sure that you know what has been installed recently; a new hardware
device might be causing the problem. When troubleshooting for an office
user, make sure that the user is (or you are) allowed to implement the
proposed solutions.
NOTE
The Microsoft Knowledge Base
The Microsoft Knowledge Base (available at http://support.microsoft.com/
default.aspx) offers answers to known issues and can be of significant help when
you are trying to solve seemingly unresolvable issues. Figure 1-6 shows the
Microsoft Help And Support Web site, in which Knowledge Base and other
resources can be accessed. Notice that you can also access announcements, link
to visitors’ top links, acquire downloads and updates, get product support, and
locate other support centers (for Microsoft Outlook, Microsoft Windows 2000,
and so on).
The Knowledge Base contains support articles that are identified by an ID number, and you can search for information by using that number or using keywords.
These articles address known issues with the operating system, third-party software, and hardware; and they provide workarounds and solutions. The Knowledge Base also offers how-to articles, such as article 291252, “How To: Publish
Pictures to the Internet in Windows XP,” and article 813936, “How to Set Up a
Small Network with Windows XP Home Edition” (the first part of a series of articles on the subject).
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Figure 1-6 The Microsoft Knowledge Base, offering solutions to known issues
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Search the Knowledge Base after you have tried the previous options and when
you need to know the following:
■
Why a specific piece of hardware such as a camera, scanner, printer, or
other device does not work as expected and the problem can be reproduced easily
■
Why a specific third-party application does not install, does not start,
does not work as expected, or produces error messages
■
How to resolve operating system errors, including boot errors, problems during installation, access violation errors, and standby issues;
and how to resolve other known issues
■
How to create boot disks, view system requirements, configure file
associations, or perform other common tasks
■
How to resolve errors that occur when accessing operating system
components, such as when configuring system properties or using System Restore
■
What a stop error message means and how to resolve it
■
How to resolve errors that occur after installing updates
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Search for a Specific Error Message Search the Knowledge
Base for the specific error message if a text message exists. This is an
especially helpful resource when the error is caused by third-party software or hardware. Information about third-party tools is not available in
the Windows XP help files.
NOTE
TechNet
Microsoft TechNet (http://www.microsoft.com/technet/default.mspx) offers comprehensive help on applications, operating systems, and components such as
Active Directory, Microsoft Internet Explorer, and Windows XP Professional
Edition—including planning, deployment, maintenance, and support. You can
also access information about security, get downloads, read how-to articles, read
columns, and access troubleshooting and support pages. Because your job will
revolve around troubleshooting and resolving end user requests, you will likely
spend most of your time accessing the troubleshooting pages. A sample TechNet
page is shown in Figure 1-7.
Figure 1-7 A TechNet page, which provides a wealth of information that is written for
IT professionals
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Much of the information available from TechNet, including the Knowledge Base,
is also available through the Microsoft Help And Support Web site, but TechNet
is more geared toward information technology (IT) professionals. You will find
that the articles from TechNet are often more technical and sometimes more
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INTRODUCTION TO DESKTOP SUPPORT
slanted toward large organizations and networks. The TechNet and the Microsoft
Help And Support Web sites are both useful sites, and you will develop a feel for
which is the most useful in different situations.
Search the TechNet support pages after you have tried the Microsoft Help And
Support Web site and when you need to do any of the following:
■
Locate product documentation
■
View the latest security bulletins
■
Get information about service packs, Windows updates, and drivers
■
Get help with dynamic-link library (DLL) errors
■
Subscribe to TechNet
■
Locate highly technical information about technologies
TechNet Subscriptions TechNet offers two types of annual
subscriptions for a single user or a single server: TechNet Standard and
TechNet Plus. Prices for subscriptions range from around $350 to
$1,000 (U.S.). A one-year subscription delivers up-to-date technical
information every month, including the complete Knowledge Base and the
latest resource kits, service packs, drivers and patches, deployment
guides, white papers, evaluation guides, and much more. This information
is on a set of CDs or DVDs that can be accessed anywhere and at any
time—even when you cannot get online. Installing service packs from a
disc is much faster than downloading them, which is another reason to
consider the subscription. Finally, TechNet Plus offers beta and evaluation software, allowing you to gain experience with software before it is
released to the public.
NOTE
Newsgroups
Newsgroups are a valuable resource for locating answers that you are unable to
resolve using any other method. Members of newsgroups are your peers in IT,
computer enthusiasts, beginners, and advanced business or home users, and
they have various abilities. Some are looking for answers, and some frequent the
newsgroup to provide answers to issues they have resolved and to share their
expertise. You can join a newsgroup that addresses the application or operating
system you need help with, immediately post your question, and almost as
quickly receive an answer. Sometimes, answers even come from Microsoft
experts, such as Microsoft Most Valuable Professionals (MVPs). Microsoft MVPs
are chosen based on their practical expertise in Microsoft technologies, and these
MVPs are deemed experts in their fields.
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You can access newsgroups in a number of ways, including the following:
■
To access newsgroups via a newsreader (which is the best method,
because you can access all the newsgroups and it is easiest to stay
current this way), configure your newsreader to access the
msnews.microsoft.com news server.
■
To access a full list of available newsgroups via the Web (a good
choice if you do not have newsreader software), visit http://
communities2.microsoft.com/communities/newsgroups/en-us/
default.aspx.
■
To access newsgroups via the Microsoft Help And Support Web site,
the Windows XP Expert Zone, or the TechNet Web site, visit those
sites and click the Newsgroups link. Some people favor this method
because the newsgroups are more clearly identified and are a bit more
accessible. However, the newsgroups presented on these sites are just a
subset of what is available.
You will find newsgroups for a variety of applications, operating systems, components, and levels of end user. Table 1-4 lists some of the available newsgroup categories, although each category can have multiple newsgroups (such as different
newsgroups on Windows XP for subjects such as hardware, customizing, and
networking).
Table 1-4
Selecting the Right Newsgroup
For Help With…
Join These Knowledge Base Newsgroups
Operating systems
microsoft.public.windowsxp
microsoft.public.windowsme
microsoft.public.windows.server
microsoft.public.windows.inetexplorer
microsoft.public.windowsxp.network_web
microsoft.public.windows.networking
microsoft.public.certification.networking
microsoft.public.security
microsoft.public.security.virus
microsoft.public.windowsxp.security_admin
Internet Explorer
Connectivity and
networking
Security
Working Through Possible Solutions
Working through a solution after you have found it requires a little more knowhow than simply clicking the mouse a few times and then walking away or hanging up the phone. You will have to perform some pre-repair and post-repair tasks
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INTRODUCTION TO DESKTOP SUPPORT
such as ordering the solutions (if there are more than one), backing up the user’s
data, and attempting the solutions and documenting the results. If a solution
does not work, you will have to undo it, try another, and possibly escalate the
problem as required by your company.
Attempting Solutions
Most of the time, you will find a single solution to your problem after researching
it, and working through that solution will resolve the problem. Solutions you will
uncover in a tier 1 position generally involve running a command-line utility,
reconfiguring an e-mail account, installing a patch, re-creating a network connection, reseating a card on the motherboard, or even simply rebooting the
computer or removing a floppy disk from the A drive. However, no matter how
simple the solution seems, you should always prepare for the worst. Before
attempting any solution (besides removing a floppy disk or rebooting),
perform as many of the following tasks as you can within your time frame,
job scope, and corporate limitations:
■
Locate and make a note of previous settings so that you can revert to
them if your solution fails or causes additional problems.
■
List the solutions, putting ones obtained from reputable sources first.
(List Help And Support Center, Knowledge Base, TechNet, the manufacturer’s Web site, and so on first; and then list solutions found
through newsgroups or third-party sites.)
■
Back up the end user’s data to a network resource, CD-R, or external
hard disk.
■
Create a system restore point.
■
Perform any additional tasks required by your company.
■
Completely document all attempted solutions and their results.
The higher you move up the tier ladder, the more of these tasks you will need to
perform or be able to perform. If you provide phone support and work from a
script, you might not be able to perform any of these tasks, but if you own your
own business and visit the user on-site (or if you go to a user’s desk to solve the
problem), you will likely have more leeway (and responsibility) and can do more.
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Protect the User’s Data! Protect the end user’s data at
all costs. If that means postponing an attempt at a risky or undocumented solution until another DST can back up the data or until you can
bring in a CD-R drive to back up a home user’s data, you must wait.
CAUTION
While working to repair the problem, if you attempt a solution that does not
work, you must undo any changed settings, configurations, uninstalled programs, or other specific alterations to a computer before you attempt another
solution. This is especially critical if you need to escalate the call; the next DST
needs to see the computer in its previous state. In addition, fully test the solution
that you think resolves the problem. For instance, verify that e-mail can be sent
and received after you have changed POP3 mail settings, or make sure that the
user can access a Web site after you have changed Internet Explorer’s privacy settings. Attempt solutions that are within your realm of responsibility, too; do not
perform a repair installation if that task is not on your list of repair options.
Documenting the Problem and Attempted Solutions
Documenting the problem, attempted solutions, and solutions that work are a
major part of a DST’s job. Although companies, call centers, ISPs, repair shops,
and small business owners each has its own way of documenting, documentation
tasks usually involve creating (or accessing) a file for a specific client, subscriber,
end user, or company computer and then updating that file each time there is a
service call regarding it. The documentation might be handwritten on a documentation worksheet and then transferred to a computer file later (for home or
desktop technical support), or it might be immediately entered into a computer
(for call center or ISP technical support).
Depending on the job you hold and your position in the tier structure, you might
be required only to fill in a few fields of a documentation worksheet. However, if
you own your own company and keep your own records, you will want to keep
much more detailed information. Here are a few items that you should almost
always document, regardless of the type of job or position that you hold:
■
The date and time the service call was initiated
■
The name, address, phone number, logon information, and any other
pertinent data that identifies the end user
■
The computer ID, operating system version, connection type, and
installed applications, as appropriate
■
The problem in definite terms, with as much detail as time allows
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■
The attempted solutions and the results
■
The solution or escalation information
■
Whether the issue has been resolved and how long the resolution took
Keeping customer and service call documentation (with even minimal information) is crucial to being a good DST, running a successful business, acquiring
experience, or advancing in your field. Keeping a separate log of problems and
solutions that you have dealt with can also become quite a reference tool; you can
refer to your own personal documentation when the problem arises again with
another client. In the next section, you will learn how to create a personal knowledge base.
Creating a Personal Knowledge Base
There are several options for collecting and maintaining the data you will compile
while performing your job as a DST. Microsoft Excel and Microsoft Access make
good databases and organizational tools, and third-party software might also be
appropriate, depending on how much data you want to keep. Keeping your own
personal knowledge base of problems you have encountered and their solutions
can make it easier for you to access the answers to those problems the next time
they arise.
When creating a personal knowledge base of problems and their solutions, document the following:
■
The problem in detail, using keywords so that a search for the problem
or one similar to it will produce results
■
The cause of the problem, using keywords so that a search for the problem or one similar to it will produce results
■
The resource that offered a solution to the problem, including a Uniform Resource Locator (URL)
■
The solution
■
Problems that resulted from the solution (if any)
■
How many times the problem has been encountered and solved
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SUMMARY
■
As a DST, you will encounter users of all skill levels. Never assume that
you know more than the user with whom you are talking. DSTs must
be good at gathering information from people who might not be able
to explain the problem clearly and must be good at explaining technical information to nontechnical users.
■
DSTs must be prepared to work in various environments, including
workgroups, domains, and multiple domains. A DST’s place in the corporate, ISP, or company hierarchy is generally the tier 1 position and is
considered an entry-level position. If you work for a telephone call center or an ISP, you will likely work in a tier structure similar to the structures found in corporate environments.
■
Noncorporate environments in which a DST might work include telephone call centers, repair shops, private businesses, and ISPs. Each of
the noncorporate environments requires different skills, but you must
be friendly, helpful, capable, and competent in each instance.
■
To solve a problem, first get answers to the questions who, when, what,
why, and how. The answers often point quickly to a solution. To find a
solution, search these resources in the following order: Help And Support Center, Help And Support Web site, company documentation,
manufacturers’ Web sites, technical sites, and newsgroups. Apply possible solutions in the same order.
■
Before attempting any solution, back up the user’s data, create a System Restore point, and document previous settings and configurations
if doing so is within your job role.
■
Always document the service call fully, including the user’s name, the
computer ID, the problem, the attempted solution, the result, and how
long it took to resolve the call.
REVIEW QUESTIONS
1. Give yourself five minutes to list as many traits as you can that relate to
the three categories listed here:
❑
Communication skills
❑
Aptitude skills
❑
Personal skills
CHAPTER 1:
INTRODUCTION TO DESKTOP SUPPORT
2. You are working as a tier 1 support technician. You are speaking to a
user whom you quickly assess as being highly experienced. The user
starts the conversation by telling you what she has already tried and
what she suspects is the cause of her problem. What is the likely outcome of this support call?
3. You are speaking with a user who has been on hold for nearly 20 minutes. The first thing the customer tells you is that he has already spoken with two other DSTs that day, and the “fixes” they recommended
have made things even worse for him. How should you handle this?
4. Briefly, what types of businesses, corporations, or companies would
choose to configure a workgroup? A domain? A multiple domain?
Why?
5. Which of the following is not a job function of a tier 1 corporate desktop support technician? (Choose all that apply.)
a. Perform general troubleshooting of the operating system
b. Perform general troubleshooting of operating system components, such as Internet Explorer
c. Troubleshoot network problems that do not directly affect the
end user
d. Install, configure, and upgrade software, including applications
and operating systems
e. Set group or local security policies for end users, including which
security settings a user should have, and determine what he or
she can or cannot access on the network
6. For each of the following descriptions, decide whether each refers to a
workgroup, a domain, or multiple domain network configurations. If
the description applies to more than one network configuration, list all
that apply.
a. This network configuration is a logical grouping of computers
created for the purpose of sharing resources such as files and
printers.
b. This network configuration does not use Active Directory services.
c. This network configuration can include multiple domain
controllers.
d. This network configuration provides a single point of administration for security.
e. This network configuration is easy to design and implement, and
it is best configured for users in close proximity to one another.
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SUPPORTING USERS AND TROUBLESHOOTING WINDOWS XP
7. You have just been hired by an ISP and have been assigned a tier 1 position. Which of the following can you expect in your first week at work?
(Choose all that apply.)
a. To walk users through re-creating their e-mail accounts or reconfiguring their Internet security settings
b. To configure local security policies
c. To answer phones and instruct users to reboot their computer,
close and restart applications, and disconnect from and reconnect to the ISP
d. To read from a script of questions and make decisions based on
users’ answers
e. To help users reinstall their e-mail clients
8. Taking into account what you have learned about workgroups and
domains, network topologies, corporate and noncorporate tier structures, call center environments, hands-on repair shops, and ISPs,
describe which environment you would most like to work in. Cite five
reasons for your decision.
9. Questions asked of clients often trigger quick solutions to basic problems. Match the question on the left to the solution it triggered on the
right.
1. Who is affected by this a. The user states that she recently deleted all
problem?
temporary files and cookies from her computer,
explaining why she is no longer able to automatically sign in to Web sites she visits.
b. John cannot send or receive messages using
2. When was the first
time you noticed the
Outlook. It is determined that the problem is
related only to his configuration of Outlook
problem? Was it after a
because other users who log on to the same
new installation of softcomputer under a different account can use
ware or hardware?
Outlook to send and receive e-mail messages
without any problem.
3. Has the user recently c. The keyboard keys are sticky because coffee
deleted any files or perwas spilled on the keyboard.
formed any maintenance?
4. How did this problem d. The user states that the first time the comoccur?
puter acted strangely was after he installed a
new screen saver.
CHAPTER 1:
INTRODUCTION TO DESKTOP SUPPORT
10. Decide where to look first for solutions to the problems that are listed
here. Match each question on the left to the appropriate choice on the
right.
1. After a recent upgrade to Windows XP Professional,
a user’s scanner no longer functions as it should. The
user remembers that the scanner was listed as incompatible during the upgrade, and you believe that it
might be a driver issue. Where will you likely find the
new driver?
2. A user cannot access a network application. The
application was designed specifically for the company
and is not a Microsoft product or any other common
third-party application. Where will you likely find
information about this application?
3. You have searched the Knowledge Base and TechNet for the solution to a problem but have not had
any luck finding the answer. Where should you look
now?
4. You need to search through the latest security bulletins to find out whether the problem you are having
is related to a known security problem. Which online
resource offers access to these bulletins?
5. You need to find out why a home user’s camera
does not work with the Windows Picture And Fax
Viewer. Specifically, the Rotate tool causes the computer to freeze up each time it is used. Where should
you look first?
6. You want to access the Hardware Troubleshooter to
resolve a problem with a user’s sound card. Where
can this troubleshooter be found?
a. Newsgroup
b. TechNet
c. Knowledge Base
d. Manufacturer’s
Web site
e. Company
documentation
f. Help And
Support Center
11. Create three simple questions you could ask an end user who is having
a problem accessing data on the network server, which would in turn
provide answers to common connectivity problems. Explain what each
solution might uncover. For instance, a yes answer to the question,
“Has the computer been moved or bumped recently?” could indicate
that a network card is loose inside the computer.
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SUPPORTING USERS AND TROUBLESHOOTING WINDOWS XP
CASE SCENARIOS
Scenario 1-1: Matching Skills to the Job
John earned his MCDST and is in the process of obtaining an entry-level IT job.
He enjoys working with people, but he also enjoys the hands-on aspect of the
technology. He has several computers at home, and he has connected them and
configured a small domain just for the fun of it. He likes working inside the computer, too, adding memory, replacing cards, and so on; and he is certain that
someday he wants to own his own computer-repair or network-consulting business. He wants to make sure that he gets the best work experience possible. What
type of entry-level job do you think is best for John while he works to meet his
goals? Why?
Scenario 1-2: Gaining Personal Skills
You recently earned your A+ certification and are currently working in a small
family-owned repair shop. You work in the repair section of the shop and do a lot
of hands-on computer work, but you do not have much interaction with the public. Although you are extremely talented at repairing hardware, adding memory,
repairing printers, and performing similar tasks and you have exceptionally good
problem-solving skills, you know that you lack some of the delicate personal
skills required of a successful DST. Your boss has even mentioned that you could
be a little more personable.
Which of the following offer the best solutions to this problem? (Select two.)
a. Consider moonlighting two or three nights a week as a telephone call
support technician. There, you will learn some of the basic personal
skills required of a good DST.
b. Quit the repair shop, and go to work immediately for an ISP. You can
learn to create Web sites, you will learn about e-commerce, and if you are
lucky, you will have to deal with people face-to-face only occasionally.
c. Take a course on interpersonal skills at your local community college.
There you will learn basic communication skills, such as how to listen
and how to converse effectively with all types of people.
d. Consider a different line of work. Communication skills, ability, talent,
and personal skills come naturally to good DSTs and cannot be taught.
CHAPTER 1:
INTRODUCTION TO DESKTOP SUPPORT
Scenario 1-3: Working with Knowledgable Users
An end user calls to report a problem with a locally attached printer. The user is
in an office on the other side of the corporate complex, you are busy, and no
other DST is available. You find out after asking a few questions that the printer
actually works fine; it just prints slowly. You will not be able to visit the user’s
desk in person until tomorrow, and you have learned from the user that she has
quite a bit of experience with computers.
Which of the following solutions (all of which are valid) is best under these circumstances?
a. Tell the user to join a printer newsgroup and ask other users for advice.
b. Tell the user to open Help And Support Center, locate the printer troubleshooter, and work through the options. There is an option to allow
Windows to investigate the problem, and this might produce a solution.
c. Tell the user to visit http://www.windrivers.com and download a new
driver for the printer.
d. Tell the user to uninstall and reinstall the printer.
31
CHAPTER 2
INSTALLING WINDOWS XP
Upon completion of this chapter, you will be able to:
■ Identify the hardware requirements for installing Windows XP
■ Verify that hardware is supported by checking the Windows Catalog
■ Identify the methods that are available for installing Windows XP
■ Perform an attended installation of Windows XP
■ Upgrade to Windows XP from a previous version of Windows
■ Troubleshoot common Windows XP installation errors
■ Troubleshoot upgrades
■ Troubleshoot unattended installations
■ Activate Windows XP following installation
■ Use the Windows Update site to scan a computer, display available updates,
and apply the updates
■ Configure Automatic Updates to download and install updates automatically
■ Apply service packs
■ Explain the Windows XP startup process
■ Configure advanced boot options
■ Use the Recovery Console to troubleshoot startup problems
This chapter teaches you how to install Microsoft Windows XP. It covers actions
that you must take prior to installing Windows XP, such as verifying that a computer meets minimum hardware requirements, and prepares you for decisions
that you must make during the installation process. This chapter covers three primary types of installations: clean installations (those in which the computer does
not already have an operating system installed), upgrades from previous versions
of Windows, and multiple-boot installations. To help users install Windows XP
and troubleshoot failed installations, you must understand the various phases of
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SUPPORTING USERS AND TROUBLESHOOTING WINDOWS XP
the installation process and be able to identify where trouble can occur in the
installation process. You must also be able to resolve these problems and complete a successful installation. This chapter also covers post-installation tasks,
such as activating and updating Windows XP.
INSTALLING WINDOWS XP
As a desktop support technician (DST), you will be called upon to troubleshoot
issues with computers that already have Windows XP installed. Occasionally,
however, users will ask you to help them install Windows XP or troubleshoot an
installation. If you are working in a corporate environment, chances are high that
a network administrator will have an automated (or semi-automated) installation
method in place, so you must be familiar with the types of automated installations that you might encounter. If you are supporting a home user or a small network, you more likely will help users install Windows XP from a CD-ROM, so you
must be familiar with the decisions that must be made during installation.
Meeting the System Requirements
Before installing Windows XP, you must determine whether the computer meets
the minimum hardware requirements for the installation. The hardware requirements for Windows XP Professional Edition and Windows XP Home Edition are as
follows:
■
CPU Windows XP requires a 233 MHz Intel Pentium II/Celeron or
AMD-compatible processor, although a 300 MHz processor (or higher)
is strongly recommended. Windows XP Professional supports up to
two processors.
■
Memory Windows XP requires a minimum of 64 MB of random
access memory (RAM), although 128 MB or more is recommended.
Generally, the more memory a computer running Windows XP has,
the better the performance. Windows XP supports a maximum of 4 GB
of RAM.
■
Hard disk space Windows XP requires 1.5 GB of free space for
installation. However, you might need additional disk space depending on the applications and features you choose to install.
■
Display Windows XP requires a Super Video Graphics Array
(SVGA)–compatible or better display adapter, with a monitor capable
of 800 x 600 resolution.
CHAPTER 2:
INSTALLING WINDOWS XP
■
Input devices The computer must have a keyboard and a Microsoft
Mouse, Microsoft IntelliMouse, or other pointing device.
■
CD-ROM The computer must have a CD-ROM or DVD-ROM drive if
you will be performing Setup from CD-ROM.
■
Floppy disk drive The computer must have a high-density 3.5” drive
if you will be performing Setup across the network using a network client or boot disk or if your computer does not support booting with the
Windows XP installation CD.
■
Network adapter card The computer must have a network adapter
card appropriate for your network if you will be performing Setup from
a network installation point.
Checking the Windows Catalog
Microsoft maintains the Windows Catalog, which lists devices that Microsoft
has tested and supports for use with Windows XP. If a device in the computer is
not listed in the catalog, Microsoft does not support it. However, you can contact the device’s manufacturer to determine whether the manufacturer provides
drivers and support for the device under Windows XP. You should be aware
that even if the manufacturer supports the device, there is no guarantee that it
will function correctly with Windows XP. You can find the Windows Catalog at
http://www.microsoft.com/windows/catalog.
Preparing the BIOS
A computer’s basic input/output system (BIOS) is a set of basic software routines that resides in a special area of permanent memory on a computer. When
you turn on a computer, BIOS tests and initializes the computer’s hardware, and
then starts the operating system. If a computer has an outdated BIOS, it can often
cause problems with disk partitioning, power management, peripheral configuration, and Windows installation.
Before you install Windows XP, you should check with the manufacturer of the
computer (or of the computer’s motherboard) to determine whether the BIOS
supports Windows XP. You might need to download and apply a BIOS update
prior to installation.
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SUPPORTING USERS AND TROUBLESHOOTING WINDOWS XP
Understanding Installation Types
You can install Windows XP using three types of installation. The type of installation you choose greatly affects the decisions you will make during installation. The
three types of installations that are available in Windows XP are the following:
■
Clean installation A clean installation is one in which there is no
existing operating system on the computer or one in which you do not
want to preserve the existing installation. You will always perform a
clean installation on a computer that does not have an operating system installed already. The biggest advantage of performing a clean
installation is that you can be certain that nothing is carried over from
a previous installation, which usually results in somewhat better performance and stability. The only real disadvantage of performing a
clean installation over an upgrade is that you will have to reinstall all
your applications and reconfigure your Windows settings. However,
even that disadvantage presents you with the opportunity to “clean
house,” as it were.
Leaving a Previous Version on the Computer You can perform
a clean installation on a computer that is already running a previous version of Windows. In this case, Windows Setup leaves intact the existing
data on the hard drive (including application folders, document folders,
and so on) and installs Windows XP into its own folder. However, you still
cannot use the existing applications until you reinstall them. The only
reason to perform this kind of clean installation is if you do not have a
way to back up the data on your hard disk prior to installation.
NOTE
■
Upgrade An upgrade is an installation in which Windows XP is
installed over an existing installation of a previous version of Windows.
The advantage of an upgrade over a clean installation is that you can
retain application installations and user settings. Following a successful
upgrade, you should be able to log on to Windows XP and start working
again right away. The disadvantage of an upgrade is really the same as
the advantage: Windows XP retains all settings and applications, and
these are often settings and applications that users could do without.
Although performing a clean install takes more time, it ensures that the
user has a more stable and less cluttered system.
■
Multiple boot installation A multiple boot installation is one in
which multiple operating systems are installed on a computer, and the
user can select which operating system to use during system startup. If
you install Windows XP as an additional operating system on a com-
CHAPTER 2:
INSTALLING WINDOWS XP
puter, you still have to reinstall any applications you want to use when
running Windows XP. The advantage of using a multiple boot installation over an upgrade or clean installation is that you can retain the previous operating system and installed applications. This is useful if you
want to test or experiment with Windows XP or if you have important
applications that you know will not run on Windows XP.
Multiple Boot, Multiboot, and Dual-Boot The terminology
regarding computers that have more than one operating system installed
can be confusing. You will hear such computers referred to as “multiboot,”
“multiple boot,” and “dual-boot.” The objectives for this exam use the term
“multiboot,” but this chapter uses the term “multiple boot” for one important reason: the majority of articles you will find on TechNet and in the
Microsoft Knowledge Base also use the term “multiple boot” (although
they occasionally use “dual-boot” as well). When you are reading this
chapter (and when taking the exam), understand that the terms “multiboot,” “multiple boot,” and “dual-boot” all refer to the same basic setup: a
computer running more than one operating system. When you search
online for help on this subject, be sure to check for articles that mention
both “multiple boot” and “dual-boot.”
NOTE
Understanding Installation Methods
After you have identified the type of installation you want to perform, you should
next decide on a method for the installation. The different methods of installing
Windows XP are as follows:
■
Standard (attended) installation The standard installation is the
one with which you are probably already familiar, and it is the method
most likely used by home and small business users. During a standard
installation, the user remains at the computer to supply information
that is needed by Windows.
■
Network installation A network installation is one in which the
Windows XP installation files are located on a network share. This is
the method that is used in some small businesses and corporations.
Network installations remove the need for the user to have an installation CD.
■
Automated installation An automated installation is one that
does not require a user to provide information during setup. There are
several ways to automate an installation, but they all share a common
purpose: reducing or eliminating the amount of user intervention that
is required during the setup process. Automated installations are most
often used on larger corporate networks.
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SUPPORTING USERS AND TROUBLESHOOTING WINDOWS XP
Starting a Standard (Attended) Installation
A standard installation of Windows XP requires that the person performing the
setup provide information during the installation process. This information
includes the location for the Windows files (and whether to create and format a
partition to use as that location), the name of the computer, and basic network
settings. As a DST, you will be called on to help users with standard installations
and possibly to perform the installation yourself.
There are several ways to start a standard installation:
■
If the computer is already running a previous version of Windows, you
can simply insert the Windows XP installation CD and use a setup wizard to begin the installation. Setup gives you the choice of upgrading
the existing operating system or performing a clean installation.
■
Whether the computer is running a previous version of Windows or
has no operating system installed, you can start the computer from the
installation CD. If you start a computer by using the installation CD,
you can only perform a clean installation; upgrading is not an option.
The computer’s BIOS must support booting using the CD-ROM drive
to use this option. Check the BIOS to make sure that the CD-ROM
drive is a supported boot device. You should also make sure that the
order of boot devices listed in BIOS places the CD-ROM drive ahead of
the hard drive in the boot sequence.
■
If a computer does not support booting from CD, you can create a set
of floppy disks that will start the computer and then initiate setup from
the CD. After the installation has started, this method proceeds just
like booting from CD.
MORE INFO Creating Installation Floppy Disks Microsoft
makes the tools for creating boot floppy disks for Windows XP Professional Edition and Windows XP Home Edition available for download. Visit http://www.microsoft.com/downloads and search by using
the keywords “Windows XP boot floppy” to locate these utilities.
■
You can also start Windows XP installation from the command line.
You can use the command Winnt.exe to start the installation from the
command prompt in MS-DOS or Microsoft Windows 3.x. This command is especially useful for starting the Windows XP installation
when booting using a DOS boot disk. You can use the command
Winnt32.exe to start installation from the command prompt in
CHAPTER 2:
INSTALLING WINDOWS XP
Microsoft Windows 95, Windows 98, Windows Millennium Edition
(Windows Me), or Windows 2000.
MORE INFO Starting Installation from the Command Line Starting Windows XP installation from a command line is used mostly when
starting Setup after starting the computer with an MS-DOS boot disk
or when performing unattended installations. The commands also allow a
number of advanced parameters. You can learn more about using these
commands by searching for “winnt” or “winnt32” in the Help And Support
Center.
Network Installation
Installing an operating system by booting from the CD is practical only when
there are a limited number of installations to perform. When working on larger
networks, you’ll find it is inconvenient to carry CDs around to many different
computers. Also, because Windows XP is often licensed for numerous installations, there might not actually be a CD to carry around.
A network installation differs from a standard installation only in the location of
the installation files. For network installations, the Windows XP installation files
are stored in a shared network folder. You can start either an upgrade or a clean
installation from a network installation point.
When you perform a network installation, the computer on which you are installing Windows XP must have a way to connect to the network share that contains
the installation files. If you are starting Setup on a computer that already has an
operating system installed, you likely already have network connectivity. To start
the installation, you can simply locate the shared folder and run the Setup program (Setup.exe).
Starting a network installation on a computer that does not already have an operating system installed is a little more complex. The most common way to start
such an installation is to use an MS-DOS boot disk that contains DOS-based network drivers and client software. After starting the computer with this disk, you
can connect to the network share and start the installation by using the
Winnt.exe command. It is also possible that network administrators will have created a boot disk with a batch file (a text file that automatically executes commands) that starts the computer, initializes the network, locates the installation
files, and then starts the installation automatically.
Automated Installation
An automated installation is simply one in which little or no user intervention is
required during the setup process. As a DST, you will not normally be responsible
for designing or creating automated installations. However, you should under-
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SUPPORTING USERS AND TROUBLESHOOTING WINDOWS XP
stand which methods are available for automating installations and be able to
help a user start and troubleshoot such an installation, if necessary.
There are several methods for performing automated installations, including the
following:
■
An unattended installation is one in which an administrator uses a program named Setup Manager to specify answers to many of the options
that are required during setup, such as the computer name, administrator password, installation folder, and so on. Setup Manager creates a
text file called an answer file from which Windows XP Setup can pull
this information.
■
Administrators can also use disk duplication to automate installations. First, the administrator installs Windows XP on a standardized
computer. Next, the administrator creates an image of the hard disk on
that computer, which is essentially a single file that contains all the
information on the hard disk. Finally, the administrator uses a tool
named System Preparation to strip machine-specific settings from the
disk image. The image is then copied to other computers by using
third-party disk duplication utilities.
■
Remote Installation Services (RIS) is available for servers running
Microsoft Windows 2000 Server and Microsoft Windows Server 2003.
The RIS server is a disk image server that contains as many disk images
as are necessary to support the different configurations of Windows
XP on a network. A RIS client is a computer that connects to the RIS
server and downloads an image. The RIS server might be preconfigured to download a particular image to a client computer, or the user
might be able to select an image manually from the RIS Administration
menu.
Supporting Unattended Installations by Using Answer Files At several
points during a standard installation, Setup requires that the user provide information, such as the time zone, network settings, and so on. One way to automate
an installation is to create an answer file that supplies the required information.
As a DST, you will not be responsible for using Setup Manager to create answer
files, but you should understand how answer files are used during installation so
that you can troubleshoot setup problems.
Answer files are really just text files that contain responses to some of or all the
questions that Setup asks during the installation process. After an answer file is
created, it can be applied to as many computers as necessary. However, there also
are certain settings that must be unique to each computer, such as the computer
name. To answer this need, Setup Manager also allows the creation of a file called
CHAPTER 2:
INSTALLING WINDOWS XP
a uniqueness database file (UDF), which is used in conjunction with the standard answer file. The UDF contains the settings that are unique to each computer.
MORE INFO More Information on Answer Files For more information on answer file structure, syntax, and configurable options, see the
Deployment User Tools Guide on the Windows XP Professional Edition CD.
You can find it in the following location: \Support\Tools\Deploy.cab\Deploy.chm.
If you are helping a user start Setup from the command line (the most common
way to start an unattended installation), you must use a specific parameter and
indicate the location of the answer file.
To use the Winnt.exe command from an MS-DOS or Windows 3.x command
prompt to perform a clean installation of Windows XP, you must use the following syntax:
winnt [/s:SourcePath] [/u:answer file] [/udf:ID [,UDB_file]]
To use the Winnt32.exe command from a Windows 95, Windows 98, Windows
Me, or Windows 2000 command prompt to perform a clean installation of
Windows XP, you must use the following syntax:
winnt32 [/unattend[num]:[answer_file] [/udf:ID [,UDB_file]]
Using Winnt32.exe to Upgrade You can also use the
Winnt32.exe command to upgrade from a previous installation of
Windows. In this case, you do not need to specify an answer file
because Setup takes settings from the previous installation. To
use the Winnt32.exe command to perform an upgrade, just type
winnt32 /unattend at the command prompt.
NOTE
Disk Duplication Windows XP Professional Edition includes a program named
System Preparation (Sysprep.exe) that allows administrators to prepare images
of a Windows XP installation for distribution by removing machine-specific information from the image. The first step in creating a disk image is for the administrator to install Windows XP on a reference computer. The reference computer
can contain just the Windows XP Professional Edition operating system, or it can
contain the operating system and any number of installed applications. After the
reference computer is configured properly, the administrator uses a disk duplication utility to create a base disk image. The disk image is simply a compressed file
that contains the contents of the entire hard disk on which the operating system
is installed.
Many settings on a Windows XP Professional Edition computer must be unique,
such as the Computer Name and the Security Identifier (SID), which is a number
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used to track an object through the Windows security subsystem. The System
Preparation tool removes the SID and all other user- and computer-specific information from a disk image.
When a client computer starts Windows XP Professional Edition for the first time
after loading a disk image that has been prepared with Sysprep, Windows automatically generates a unique SID, initiates Plug and Play detection, and starts the
Mini Setup Wizard. The Mini Setup Wizard prompts the user for user- and computer-specific information, such as the following:
■
End-User License Agreement (EULA)
■
Regional options
■
User name and company
■
Product key
■
Computer name and administrator password
■
Time zone selection
Disk Images When an administrator creates a disk image, all
the hardware settings of the reference computer become part of the
image. Thus, the reference computer should have the same (or similar)
hardware configuration as the destination computers. If the destination
computers contain Plug and Play devices that are not present in the reference computer, they are automatically detected and configured at the
first startup following installation. The user must install any non–Plug
and Play devices manually. (You will learn more about installing devices in
Chapter 6, “Installing and Managing Hardware.”)
NOTE
Remote Installation Services (RIS) As a DST, you will not be responsible for
configuring or managing RIS servers. However, you might be called on to help a
user start a RIS installation on a client computer.
To start an installation from a RIS client, use one of the following:
■
On computers that are equipped with a Preboot Execution Environment (PXE)–compliant network adapter, you can start the computer
from a server on a network instead of using a floppy disk, CD, or hard
disk. A computer with a PXE-compliant network adapter broadcasts its
presence on the network. A server then provides the computer with the
information that is necessary to access the RIS server. After the computer starts, installation can happen automatically, or the RIS server
can allow the user to select an operating system to install.
CHAPTER 2:
■
INSTALLING WINDOWS XP
On computers that do not have a PXE-compliant network adapter, the
user must start the computer with a RIS disk that is supplied by a
network administrator. The computer starts, loads the appropriate network drivers from the RIS disk, and then emulates a PXE boot environment. After the client computer connects to a RIS server, installation
works the same way as when the computer has a PXE-compliant network adapter.
More Information on RIS For more information on RIS,
see “Remote Installation Services” at http://www.microsoft.com/
resources/documentation/WindowsServ/2003/datacenter/proddocs/enus/Default.asp?url=/resources/documentation/WindowsServ/2003/
datacenter/proddocs/en-us/sag_RIS_Default_topnode.asp.
MORE INFO
Preparing the Hard Disk
Before you install Windows XP, you must understand some basic concepts
regarding hard disks, including hard disk partitions and file systems.
Understanding Disk Partitions
A disk partition is a logical section of a hard disk on which the computer can
write data. Partitions offer a way to divide the space on a single physical hard disk
into multiple areas, each of which is treated as a different disk within Windows.
Partition information is stored in the master boot record of a hard drive and is
independent of any operating systems installed on the computer. You must partition every hard disk before you can use it. Most often, you will configure a hard
disk as one big partition that takes all the space on the disk, but you can also
divide a disk into several partitions. When you partition a disk, you must decide
how much disk space to allocate to each partition.
Some people create separate partitions to help organize their files. For example, you
might store the Windows system files and application files on one partition, usercreated documents on another partition, and backup files on another partition.
Another reason to use multiple partitions is to isolate operating systems from one
another when you install more than one operating system on a computer.
Although it is technically possible to install some operating systems on the same
partition, Microsoft does not recommend or support this practice. You should
always create a separate partition for each operating system.
You can create the following types of disk partitions on a hard drive:
■
Primary You can configure up to four primary partitions on a computer running a Windows operating system (or three if you also have
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SUPPORTING USERS AND TROUBLESHOOTING WINDOWS XP
an extended partition on the disk). You can configure any primary partition as the active (or bootable) drive, but only one primary partition
is active at a time. When you configure a multiple boot computer, you
should create a primary partition for each operating system, and then
install each operating system onto a different primary partition.
■
Extended An extended partition provides a way to bypass the four
primary partition limit. You cannot format an extended partition with
any file system. Rather, extended partitions serve as a shell in which
you can create any number of logical partitions.
■
Logical You can create any number of logical partitions inside
an extended partition. You cannot set a logical partition as an active
partition, however, so you cannot use logical partitions to hold most
operating systems. Instead, logical partitions are normally used for
organizing files. All logical partitions are visible, no matter which operating system is started, so logical partitions provide a good method for
making files available to any of the operating systems installed on a
multiple boot computer.
Figure 2-1 shows an example of a hard drive with several disk partitions. There
are two primary partitions: one with Windows XP installed and the other with
Windows 2000 installed. There is a single extended partition that holds two logical partitions: One logical partition is used to store documents, and the other is
used to store backup files.
\Windows XP
Primary Partition
\Windows 2000
Primary Partition
Documents
Backup
Extended Partition
Logical Partition
Logical Partition
Figure 2-1 Using partitions to divide hard drive space for different purposes
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You can create disk partitions by using a number of methods. Windows XP Setup
provides basic partitioning utilities that you can use after you have started the
installation. You can also create a partition by using a partitioning utility prior to
starting the installation of Windows XP. Some partitioning utilities, such as the
FDISK utility that is included with MS-DOS, Windows 95, and Windows 98, are
limited in the size and number of partitions that they can create. Third-party diskpartitioning utilities are often much more flexible.
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INSTALLING WINDOWS XP
Managing System and Boot Partitions
Regardless of how you configure disk partitions on a computer, you must also
decide which partitions will hold the two major sets of files that are required to
start the operating system: hardware-specific boot files and operating system
files. The disk partition that holds the initial hardware-specific boot files is
referred to as the system partition. The disk partition that holds the Windows
operating system files is referred to as the boot partition.
System and Boot Partitions Unfortunately, the names of the
system and boot partitions are a little confusing. The system partition
holds hardware boot files, and the boot partition holds operating system
files. It helps if you think of the system partition as holding files necessary for starting the system and think of the boot partition as holding
the files necessary to start the operating system.
NOTE
On computers with only one operating system installed, the system partition and
the boot partition are typically found on the same primary disk partition. You will
not have to decide which partition holds the different system and boot files.
On computers with multiple operating systems installed, things are a little more
complicated. Assuming that you follow the recommended procedure and install
each operating system onto its own disk partition, each operating system will
have its own boot partition. The system partition on a multiple boot computer
might share a disk partition with one of the operating system’s boot partitions, or
the system partition might be given a disk partition of its own.
Selecting a File System
After you decide how to partition a hard disk, you must then decide what file
system to use to format the partition onto which you will install Windows XP.
Windows XP supports two file systems: NTFS and the file allocation table
(FAT).
Using NTFS NTFS is the preferred file system for Windows XP. Microsoft recommends that you always use NTFS unless there is a specific reason to use
another file system (such as when you are installing more than one operating system on a computer and one of those operating systems does not recognize NTFS
partitions). NTFS provides many features that the other file systems do not have,
such as the following:
■
File and folder security In Windows XP Professional edition,
NTFS allows you to control which users can access applications and
data. Windows XP Home Edition offers only simple file sharing, so
you cannot configure NTFS file permissions. You can learn more
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about configuring NTFS partitions in Chapter 5, “Supporting
Windows XP File and Folder Access.”
■
Increased performance NTFS uses a more efficient mechanism for
locating and retrieving information from the hard disk than FAT or
FAT32.
■
Disk quotas In Windows XP Professional, NTFS provides the ability
to control how much disk space each user can have. Windows XP
Home Edition does not support disk quotas.
■
Disk compression NTFS can compress files to create more available
disk space.
■
File encryption In Windows XP Professional, NTFS allows you to
encrypt data that is stored on the hard disk. Windows XP Home Edition does not support file encryption.
File Allocation Table (FAT) Windows XP uses the term FAT to refer to two
related file systems: the original FAT file system and its 32-bit successor, FAT32.
When you format a partition by using FAT during Windows XP Setup, Windows
uses FAT for partitions that are smaller than 2 GB and FAT32 for partitions that
are larger than 2 GB.
All Microsoft operating systems support FAT. FAT32 is supported by Windows
95 Official Service Release 2 (OSR2) and later, Windows 98, Windows Me,
Windows 2000, and Windows XP. Note that Microsoft Windows NT 3.5 and
4.0 do not support FAT32.
File System Considerations on Multiple Boot Computers Table 2-1 shows
the file systems that are supported in various Microsoft operating systems. Keep
in mind that the support that is listed here refers to the local file system only. Any
operating system that can access network shares can do so regardless of the file
system that is used on the computer that is sharing the data.
Table 2-1
Supported File Systems
Operating System
Supports FAT
Supports FAT32
Supports NTFS
MS-DOS
Windows 3.1
Windows NT Server
and Workstation
Windows 95
Windows 95 OSR2
Windows 98
Yes
Yes
Yes
No
No
No
No
No
Yes
Yes
Yes
Yes
No
Yes
Yes
No
No
No
CHAPTER 2:
Table 2-1
INSTALLING WINDOWS XP
Supported File Systems
Operating System
Supports FAT
Supports FAT32
Supports NTFS
Windows Me
Windows 2000
Professional and Server
Windows XP
Windows Server 2003
Yes
Yes
Yes
Yes
No
Yes
Yes
No
Yes
Yes
Yes
Yes
File system access problems can occur when a user is logged on to one operating
system and tries to access a file or folder on another partition that is using a file
system that the operating system does not support. For example, assume that a
computer has one partition that is formatted with NTFS on which Windows XP is
installed and another partition that is formatted with FAT32 on which Windows
98 is installed. When the computer is running Windows XP, the operating system
can access both partitions. When the computer is running Windows 98, the operating system can access only the FAT32 partition because Windows 98 cannot
recognize NTFS partitions. An operating system that can access only a FAT partition does not recognize any files on a FAT32 or NTFS partition; an operating
system that can access only FAT or FAT32 partitions does not recognize an NTFS
partition.
Understanding the Installation Process
Regardless of how you install Windows—whether it is an unattended or attended
installation, a clean installation, or an upgrade—the installation process is almost
the same. The differences in the various installation methods affect how a user
starts the installation and whether the user is required to supply information during setup.
Installation takes place in the following phases:
1. Setup copies a number of installation files from the installation source
to the local hard disk. These files are used to start the installation after
you restart the computer. If you start an installation by using the installation CD, Setup does not perform this step and loads files directly
from the CD instead of first copying them to the hard disk.
2. Text mode setup begins. During a clean installation, this phase of
Setup initializes the storage devices on your computer, allows you to
select or create a disk partition (as shown in Figure 2-2), and then
allows you to format the partition prior to installation. At the end of the
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SUPPORTING USERS AND TROUBLESHOOTING WINDOWS XP
text mode installation, Setup copies the Windows files to the selected
Windows folder, and then restarts the computer.
Figure 2-2 The text mode phase of Setup, during which you create or
select a partition
FT02su02
3. Graphical user interface (GUI) mode setup begins after the computer
restarts. This is the graphical portion of Windows Setup, shown in
Figure 2-3, and is also referred to as the Setup Wizard. In a clean
attended installation, this phase occurs when you select regional settings, such as language and time zone, and enter details such as the
product key, computer name, and administrator password.
Figure 2-3 The GUI mode phase of Setup, during which you specify
regional, time zone, and other settings
FT02su03
4. The network setup phase begins during the graphical portion of setup
if Setup detects networking hardware on the computer, as shown in
Figure 2-4. You must choose one of the following networking options:
❑
Choose Typical Settings if you want Setup to configure networking
components automatically. Typical components include Client For
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INSTALLING WINDOWS XP
Microsoft Networks, File And Print Sharing For Microsoft Networks,
and Transmission Control Protocol/Internet Protocol (TCP/IP). TCP/
IP is configured to automatically obtain an Internet Protocol (IP)
address from a Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol (DHCP) server
by default.
❑
Choose Custom Settings if you need to configure IP settings manually,
install additional protocols or services, or both.
Figure 2-4 Specifying network settings during the network setup phase
FT02su04
5. After the network setup is finished, the graphical portion of the installation ends and the computer restarts. Windows starts for the first time
and gives you the option to create user accounts and activate Windows.
Upgrading from a Previous Version of Windows
If a computer is already running Windows 98, Windows Me, Windows NT
Workstation 4.0 Service Pack 5 (SP5), or Windows 2000 Professional, you can
upgrade it directly to Windows XP. This includes computers with partitions that
are formatted by using FAT or NTFS because Windows XP can recognize both file
systems. You cannot directly upgrade computers running earlier versions of
Windows such as Windows 95 or Windows NT Workstation 3.51. These operating systems require interim upgrades to a version of Windows that supports a
direct upgrade to Windows XP. Table 2-2 shows the available Windows XP
upgrade paths.
Table 2-2
Windows XP Upgrade Paths
Current Operating System
Upgrade Path
Windows 95
Must first be upgraded to Windows 98
and then to Windows XP
Direct upgrade to Windows XP
Direct upgrade to Windows XP
Windows 98
Windows Me
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Table 2-2
Windows XP Upgrade Paths
Current Operating System
Upgrade Path
Windows NT 3.51 Workstation
Must first be upgraded to Windows
NT 4.0 SP5 and then to Windows XP
Windows NT 4.0 Workstation without Must first have SP5 applied and then
SP5 or later
be upgraded to Windows XP
Windows NT 4.0 Workstation with
Direct upgrade to Windows XP
SP5 or later
Windows 2000 Professional
Direct upgrade to Windows XP
Windows XP Home Edition
Direct upgrade to Windows XP
Professional
Upgrading Server Products to Windows XP You cannot
upgrade computers running Windows NT 4.0 Server and Windows 2000
Server directly to Windows XP. In addition, you cannot upgrade computers
running Small Business Server or trial editions of older Windows versions
to Windows XP.
NOTE
Before starting an upgrade, there are a few considerations that you should take
into account, including the following:
■
Ensure that the computer meets the hardware and software compatibility requirements for Windows XP. Consult the Windows Catalog on
the Web for supported hardware.
■
You should also generate a system compatibility report prior to starting
the upgrade process. This report analyzes potential problems that you
might encounter after an upgrade and provides possible solutions. You
can generate this report by selecting the Check System Compatibility
option on the splash page that appears when you insert the installation
CD. You can also generate the report when starting Setup from the
command line by typing winnt32 /Checkupgradeonly. If the compatibility check reports any hardware or software incompatibilities, you
should obtain and apply the proper updates before proceeding with
the upgrade.
■
Uninstall any incompatible software until you can load new compatible replacements.
■
Because Windows XP is relatively new, you should take the time to check
the system’s basic input/output system (BIOS) version to verify that the
version is the latest revision available. You should also verify that BIOSbased virus protection is disabled before initiating the Windows XP
CHAPTER 2:
INSTALLING WINDOWS XP
upgrade. BIOS antivirus features interpret attempts by Setup to modify
the boot sector as virus-like activity and prevents the modifications, causing Setup to fail.
■
Back up important files and data before performing an upgrade to
avoid potential loss. There is always the possibility of system failure
during any major operation.
■
Scan for viruses, and remove them from the computer before performing an upgrade.
■
Uncompress any drive that is compressed with anything other than
NTFS compression before performing an upgrade. The only type of
compression that is supported by Windows XP is NTFS compression.
Windows XP does not support DriveSpace, DoubleSpace, or any thirdparty compression formats.
Migrating Existing User Environments
You can use two tools to transfer the files and user settings from an old computer
to a new computer running Windows XP: the Files And Settings Transfer Wizard and the User State Migration Tool (USMT). Both tools transfer many of the
same items, but each tool is useful in a different setting:
■
Files And Settings Transfer Wizard The Files And Settings Transfer Wizard is designed for home and small business users. It uses a
simple wizard interface that allows you to copy files and user settings
from an old computer to removable media or across a network, and
then import those files and settings into a user profile on a computer
running Windows XP.
■
User State Migration Tool (USMT) The USMT allows administrators to transfer user configuration settings and files from computers
running Windows 95 or later to a new Windows XP installation. (It
does not work with upgrades.) Unlike the Files And Settings Transfer
Wizard, you can configure the USMT for different environments by
using INF files to control the items that are transferred. Also, administrators can incorporate USMT into scripts because USMT relies on two
command-line tools: scanstate.exe for copying files and loadstate.exe
for importing them.
By default, both utilities transfer many settings, including the following:
■
The majority of user interface settings, such as display properties,
fonts, mapped network drives, network printers, browser settings,
folder options, taskbar options, and many files and settings that are
associated with the configuration of Microsoft Office
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■
The My Documents, My Pictures, Desktop, and Favorites folders
■
Files with extensions such as .ch3, .csv, .dif, .doc, .dot, .dqy, .iqy, .mcw,
.oqy, .pot, .ppa, .pps, .ppt, .pre, .rqy, .scd, .sh3, .txt, .wpd, .wps, .wql,
.wri, and .xls
Using the Files And Settings Transfer Wizard
Using the Files And Settings Transfer Wizard requires that you perform two distinct steps. First, copy the files and settings from the old computer. Then, transfer
these files and settings to your Windows XP computer.
Windows XP Service Pack 2 The information and procedures in
this chapter are based on a default installation of Windows XP Professional. Some of the information and procedures might change if you have
installed Windows XP Service Pack 2. Please consult Appendix A,
“Microsoft Windows XP Service Pack 2,” for more details.
NOTE
To copy files and settings from the old computer by using the Files And Settings
Transfer Wizard, use the following steps:
1. On the old computer, insert the Windows XP installation CD. When
the splash page loads, close the screen and use Windows Explorer to
locate the \Support\Tools folder on the CD.
2. Double-click the file named Fastwiz.exe to start the Files And Settings
Transfer Wizard.
3. To continue, click Next in the Welcome To The Files And Settings
Transfer Wizard window. Note that you are reminded to close any
other programs before continuing.
4. On the Which Computer Is This? page, select the Old Computer
option and click Next.
5. After the wizard gathers information, it displays the Select A Transfer
Method page, which allows you to choose where you want to save the
files and settings. Choose an appropriate location, and then click Next.
6. On the What Do You Want To Transfer? page, select Both Files And Settings, and then click Next.
7. The wizard might display a window informing you that certain programs need to be installed before you transfer information to the new
computer. Make note of these programs, and click Next.
8. After the wizard collects the files and settings, you are prompted to
provide the storage media for the transfer. After you have indicated a
location, click OK, and then click Finish to complete the process.
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INSTALLING WINDOWS XP
To transfer the copied files and settings to the new computer running Windows
XP, use the following steps:
1. Log on to the new computer running Windows XP as the user for
which you want to restore files and settings.
2. On the Start menu, point to All Programs, Accessories, System Tools;
and then select Files And Settings Transfer Wizard.
3. Click Next to advance past the Welcome page.
4. On the Which Computer Is This? page, select New Computer, and
then click Next.
5. Select the I Don’t Need The Wizard Disk. I Have Already Collected My
Files And Settings From My Old Computer option, and then click
Next.
6. On the Where Are The Files And Settings? page, select the same transfer method that you selected when copying the files and settings from
the old computer. Click Next.
7. If you selected Floppy Drive Or Other Removable Media, you are
prompted to insert the first disk. Do so, and then click OK.
8. Click Finish.
9. When the wizard is finished, it displays a message letting you know
that you must log off for the changes to take effect. Click Yes to log off.
10. Log on to the computer to apply your transferred settings.
TROUBLESHOOTING WINDOWS XP INSTALLATIONS
As you learned in the previous section, the best way to avoid trouble when installing Windows XP is to properly prepare the computer for the installation and
understand the decisions that you will be required to make during the installation process. Unforeseen problems do sometimes occur, and as a DST, you are
likely to be the first person called to troubleshoot a failed installation. To deal
with issues that might occur during the installation of Windows XP, you must be
familiar with the Windows installation process, typical symptoms that are produced by different types of failures, and corrective actions you can use to remedy
the issue.
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Troubleshooting Common Installation Problems
Fortunately, installation problems do not happen often and are usually minor
issues. Although good preparation can help avoid almost all installation problems, you might not always have that luxury as a DST. More than likely, a user will
call you after a failed installation attempt rather than to get your help preparing
an installation. Table 2-3 summarizes common installation errors that can occur
during a Windows XP installation and suggests actions for solving the problem.
Table 2-3
Common Windows XP Installation Errors
Error Condition
Insufficient hard disk space.
Suggested Action
If the user is upgrading to Windows XP, you
might need to delete files or remove programs to free up some disk space. If that is
not possible, the user could install an additional hard disk or create an additional
partition to hold Windows XP. Help the
user determine the best course to take.
Setup failure during early text
Verify that Windows XP supports the mass
mode portion of Setup.
storage devices that are on the computer. If
there are unsupported devices, press F6
when prompted and supply the necessary
drivers for these devices from a floppy disk
with drivers from the manufacturer.
When Setup attempts to write to the boot
During Setup, the computer’s
BIOS-based virus scanner gives sector of the hard disk so that it can start
an error message indicating that Windows XP, BIOS-based virus scanners
a virus is attempting to infect the might interpret the action as an attempt by a
virus to infect the computer. Disable the virus
boot sector. Setup fails.
protection in the BIOS, and enable it again
after Windows XP is fully installed.
Verify that all hardware is in the Windows
Setup fails during hardware
detection or component
Catalog. Remove nonsupported devices to
installation.
try to get past the error. If you are unsure
which devices are not supported, consider
removing all devices except those that are
necessary to run the computer (such as the
motherboard, display adapter, memory, and
so on) during the installation and then reconnecting them after Windows is installed.
CHAPTER 2:
Table 2-3
INSTALLING WINDOWS XP
Common Windows XP Installation Errors
Error Condition
Suggested Action
Errors accessing the CD.
Clean the CD. If that does not resolve the
issue and you have another CD available, try
the other CD. If it works, you know the first
CD is bad. If you do not have another installation CD, you can also try to use a different
CD-ROM drive.
This will occur most likely because the computer cannot locate a domain controller. This
lack of connectivity can occur because the
network card is not functioning correctly, the
network configuration is incorrect, or the client cannot contact the appropriate servers.
This connectivity problem can also occur if
the computer does not have an account in
the domain and the user does not have permissions to create an account in the domain.
To try to resolve the issue, join a workgroup
to complete Setup, troubleshoot the issue,
and join the domain after the issue has been
resolved. After installation, you can add computers to the domain from the Computer
Name tab in the Properties of My Computer.
Inability to join the domain
during Setup.
Using the Windows XP Setup Logs
The Setup utility creates two log files in the installation folder that you can use to
help you in the troubleshooting process:
■
Setupact.log Contains information about the files that are copied
during Setup and other Setup activity
■
Setupapi.log Contains information about device driver files that are
copied during Setup
These logs are text documents that you can view in Notepad, WordPad, or
Microsoft Word. Some of the documents are very large. Consider searching the
document for the word “fail,” which can help you locate instances in the log files
that contain information on failed operations.
Troubleshooting Stop Errors
Stop errors, also referred to as blue screen errors, occur when the computer detects
a condition from which it cannot recover. The computer stops responding and displays a screen of information on a blue background, as shown in Figure 2-5. The
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SUPPORTING USERS AND TROUBLESHOOTING WINDOWS XP
most likely time when you might experience stop errors is after the text mode
phase of Setup has finished, your computer restarts, and the GUI mode phase
begins. During this transition, Windows XP loads the newly installed operating
system kernel for the first time and initializes new hardware drivers.
Figure 2-5 Stop errors, which are most likely to occur when the GUI mode phase of
FT02su05
Setup begins
Stop errors are identified by a 10-digit hexadecimal number. The two most common stop errors you will encounter during Windows XP installation are Stop:
0x0000000A and Stop: 0x0000007B.
Resolving Stop: 0x0000000A Errors The Stop error 0x0000000A error usually indicates that Windows attempted to access a particular memory address at
too high a process internal request level (IRQL). This error usually occurs when
a hardware driver uses an incorrect memory address. This error can also indicate
an incompatible device driver or a general hardware problem.
To troubleshoot this error, take the following actions:
■
Confirm that your hardware is listed in the Windows Catalog.
■
Disable all caching in the computer’s BIOS, including L2, BIOS, and
write-back caching on disk controllers. Consult the documentation for
the computer or motherboard for details on disabling these options.
■
Remove all unnecessary hardware, including network cards, modems,
sound cards, and additional drives.
■
If the installation drive is Small Computer System Interface (SCSI)–
based, you must obtain the correct device driver from the manufacturer, confirm that termination is set properly and that you have no ID
conflicts, and then turn off sync negotiation at the SCSI host adapter.
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INSTALLING WINDOWS XP
■
If the installation drive is an Integrated Device Electronics (IDE) drive,
verify that the installation drive is attached to the primary channel and
that it is set to be the master drive.
■
Verify that your memory modules are compatible with each other and
that you have not mixed types, speeds, or manufacturers. A defective
memory module can also produce this type of error message.
■
Verify that the motherboard BIOS is current and compatible with
Windows XP. The manufacturer’s Web site will contain information
about each motherboard it produces. You might need to update the
BIOS with a newer version.
■
Turn off any BIOS-based virus protection or disk write protection that
might be enabled.
Resolving Stop: 0x0000007B Errors The Stop: 0X0000007B error normally
indicates that you have an inaccessible boot device, meaning that Windows cannot
access your hard disk. The common causes for this type of error are as follows:
■
Boot sector virus You must eliminate all boot sector viruses before
proceeding with the installation of Windows XP. The exact removal
process depends on which virus has infected the drive. You must scan
the drive with an up-to-date virus-scanning utility and then check the
antivirus manufacturer’s Web site for the proper procedure to repair
the disk.
■
Defective or incompatible hardware Verify that all the hardware
on the computer is in the Windows Catalog and that no components
are defective.
■
Defective or missing third-party device driver If any third-party
device drivers are required to install Windows XP, you will be
prompted to press F6 during the first phase of the installation process.
You might need to obtain the latest drivers for your controller card
before proceeding with the installation of Windows XP. With the correct drivers on a floppy disk, restart the installation of Windows XP,
press F6 when prompted, and insert the driver disk.
Search the Knowledge Base for Stop Error Numbers
Although these are the two most common stop errors you will see during
Windows XP installation, you might encounter other stop errors. If a user
gets a stop error, have the user write down the stop error number and
the parameters that follow the error. Search the Knowledge Base by
using the number as your keyword, and you will find information on resolving the error.
NOTE
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Troubleshooting CD-ROM-Based Installations
Installing Windows XP from the installation CD is perhaps the most common
installation method. Although troubleshooting issues that occur during this type
of installation also include using the general Windows XP troubleshooting steps
that are listed in the previous section, there are a few issues that are specific to
CD-based installations.
Problems specific to CD-based installations include the following:
■
If you try to start the computer by using the installation CD, but Windows Setup does not start, check the BIOS settings on the computer to
make sure that the CD-ROM drive is a valid start device and that the
current order of boot devices has the CD-ROM drive ahead of the hard
disk.
■
If a computer does not support starting from a CD, create a set of boot
floppy disks for Windows XP.
■
If the computer supports starting from a CD and the order of boot
devices is correct, you might have a damaged installation CD or CDROM drive. Verify that the CD-ROM drive is operational by using
another disk in the CD drive. It is also possible that the CD-ROM drive
lens needs cleaning; several commercial products are available to clean
CD-ROM drive lenses.
■
If the CD-ROM drive appears functional, try cleaning the installation
CD and starting Setup again. If this fails, it is possible that the installation CD is damaged and needs to be replaced.
Troubleshooting Upgrades
You can prevent most upgrade-specific problems by taking a few measures before
starting the upgrade. Before upgrading any computer, you should perform all the
following actions:
■
Ensure that the computer meets minimum hardware requirements
■
Check the compatibility of programs and hardware
■
Run the Windows XP Upgrade Advisor
■
Back up all data on the computer, and verify that the data can be
restored
■
Update the computer BIOS
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INSTALLING WINDOWS XP
■
Turn off any power management and antivirus features in the computer’s BIOS
■
Remove all antivirus software
■
Uncompress all hard disks
■
Run ScanDisk and ScanReg
■
Download available driver updates
■
Stop all running programs
Troubleshooting Problems with Answer Files
When troubleshooting problems with answer files, by far the most common
problem is an answer file that was not configured correctly. If an answer file was
configured incorrectly or incompletely, you can either edit the file directly by
using any text editor—Microsoft Notepad, for example—or you can re-create the
answer file. However, if you are working as a DST, you must be careful to ensure
that you are authorized to reconfigure the answer file. More than likely, your
responsibility is simply to notify an administrator of the failure. You should also
be prepared to provide the administrator with setup logs and an explanation of
problems that occurred during setup.
ACTIVATING AND UPDATING WINDOWS XP
After installing Windows XP for a home or small business user, you must activate
Windows. If not activated, Windows can be used for only 30 days. Corporate installations typically do not need to be activated because most corporations use a volume
licensing system. You will also need to install any available updates and preferably
configure Windows to download and install critical updates automatically.
Activating Windows Following Installation
Windows XP Professional requires that the operating system be activated with
Microsoft within 30 days of installation. If the operating system is not activated
within this time, Windows ceases to function until it is activated. You are not
allowed to log on to the computer until you contact one of Microsoft’s product
activation centers.
Windows Product Activation (WPA) requires each installation to have a unique
product key. When you enter the 25-character product key during Windows
installation, the Setup program generates a 20-character product ID (PID).
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During activation, Windows combines the PID and a hardware ID to form an
installation ID. Windows sends this installation ID to a Microsoft license clearinghouse, in which the PID is verified to ensure that it is valid and that it has not
already been used to activate another installation. If this check passes, the license
clearinghouse sends a confirmation ID to your computer, and Windows XP Professional is activated. If the check fails, activation fails.
Windows XP prompts you to perform activation the first time Windows starts
after installation. If you do not perform the activation, Windows continues to
prompt you at regular intervals until you activate the product.
Personal Information Microsoft does not collect any personal
information during the activation process. Instead, an identification key
is generated based on the types of hardware that are on your computer.
NOTE
Using the Windows Update Site
Windows Update is an online service that provides updates to the Windows family of operating systems. Product updates such as critical and security updates,
general Windows updates, and device driver updates are all easily accessible.
When you connect to the Windows Update Web site, shown in Figure 2-6, the
site scans your computer (a process that happens locally without sending any
information to Microsoft) to determine what is already installed and then presents you with a list of available updates for your computer.
Figure 2-6 Using the Windows Update site
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You can access Windows Update in the following ways:
■
Through Internet Explorer, by selecting Windows Update from the
Tools menu
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■
Through any Web browser by using the URL http://
www.microsoft.com/windowsupdate
■
Through the Help And Support Center by selecting Windows Update
■
Through the Start menu by selecting All Programs and then Windows
Update
■
Through Device Manager by selecting Update Driver in the Properties
dialog box of any device
Using the Windows Update Site
To obtain updates manually from the Windows Update site, follow these steps:
1. From the Start menu, choose All Programs, and then choose Windows
Update.
2. On the Microsoft Windows Update Web site, click Scan For Updates.
3. After the scan is complete (a process that is performed locally—no
information is sent to Microsoft’s servers), select a category under Pick
Updates To Install, and then click Add for each update you want to
install. After the updates have been selected, click Review And Install
Updates. The following categories are available:
❑
Critical updates are crucial to the operation of the computer, so you
should always install them. These updates provide solutions to known
issues, include patches for security vulnerabilities, and might contain
updates to the operating system or other applications. Service Packs
are also included as critical updates.
❑
Windows updates, which are less critical than the previously detailed
updates, range from application updates for third-party software to
updates for previously applied operating system service packs.
Not everyone needs all updates, however, so you should read the
descriptions prior to adding them to the installation list and add
only necessary updates.
❑
Driver updates offer new and updated drivers for a user’s particular
computer and setup. When Windows Update scans the computer, it
acquires information about the modem, network card, printer, and
similar hardware and then offers any available driver updates. Users
often find that driver updates enhance the performance of the computer.
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4. The Windows Update site selects critical updates and service packs for
you automatically, but you must pay attention to the updates that you
select. Some updates must be installed independently of other
updates.
5. When prompted, click Install Now.
6. Click Accept after reading the license agreement. Wait while the
updates are installed, and then restart the computer if prompted.
Configuring Automatic Updates
Windows XP also supports Automatic Updates, a feature that automatically
downloads and installs new critical updates on the computer when the updates
become available. You should encourage users to configure the Automatic
Updates feature in Windows XP.
If a user reports problems acquiring updates, verify that Windows Update is
enabled and configured appropriately by following these steps:
1. Click Start, and then select Control Panel.
2. In the Control Panel window, select Performance And Maintenance.
3. In the Performance And Maintenance window, select System.
4. On the Automatic Updates tab, select the Keep My Computer Up To
Date check box, as shown in Figure 2-7.
Figure 2-7 The wide range of options on the Automatic Updates tab
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5. Under Settings, you can specify whether the user should be notified
before downloading and installation, have downloads happen automatically and be notified before installation, or download and install
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automatically according to a schedule. For the highest level of security
(and the least intervention required by users), use the fully automatic
option and configure a time when the computer will not be used.
6. Click OK.
Applying Service Packs
Microsoft periodically releases service packs for Windows XP. A service pack
(SP) is a collection of all updates released to that point and often includes new
features. You must be familiar with the deployment of service packs to ensure that
all operating systems on the network are up to date and to avoid issues later.
Windows XP ships with a utility called Winver.exe, which you can use to determine the version of Windows you are running and what level of service pack (if
any) is installed. Figure 2-8 displays the output of Winver.exe prior to any service
pack being installed. If a service pack has been installed, the version is noted after
the build number.
Figure 2-8 Using Winver.exe to determine the current Windows version and service
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pack
Obtaining a Service Pack
Service packs are free, and you can get them in the following ways:
■
Use Windows Update to update a single computer with a service pack.
■
Download the service pack from Windows Update to deploy to many
computers. The download is a single, large, self-extracting executable,
which will have a different name depending on the service pack version that you are installing. The file is quite large (85 MB or more), so
be sure that you have sufficient bandwidth available to support the
download.
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■
Order the service pack CD. You can order the service pack CD from
Microsoft for a nominal fee that covers the cost of manufacture and
shipping. In addition to containing the service pack, the CD contains
operating system enhancements and other advanced utilities.
■
Use Microsoft subscription services. Microsoft has several subscription
services, such as Microsoft TechNet, which will automatically provide
you with service packs with the next issue after the release of the service pack.
Installing a Service Pack
Service pack setup programs can have various names, although most Windows
Service Packs use a program named update.exe. Regardless of the file name, most
Microsoft Windows updates support the same command-line parameters, which
control how the service pack deploys. Table 2-4 lists these parameters.
Table 2-4
Switch
Common Command-Line Parameters for Windows Updates
Function
/f
Forces all applications to close prior to restarting the
computer.
/n
Does not back up Uninstall files. You cannot uninstall the
service pack if this switch is used.
/o
Overwrites original equipment manufacturer (OEM)–
provided files without prompting the user.
/q
Installation runs in quiet mode with no user interaction
required. (Requires –o to update OEM-supplied files.)
/s:[path to distribu- Creates an integration installation point.
tion folder]
/u
Unattended installation. (Requires –o to update OEMsupplied files.)
/x
Extracts files without starting Setup. This is useful if you
want to move installation files to another location.
/z
Disables automatic restart when installation is finished.
Service pack installations require a significant amount of disk space (hundreds of
MBs). The uninstall folder consumes the majority of this disk space. You can
install a service pack without saving uninstall files by using the –n switch when
you install the service pack.
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When applying service packs, you must choose an installation method from the
following options:
■
Update installation The service pack executable is started locally,
across the network, or through Windows Update.
■
Integrated installation Also called slipstreaming, this installation
is one in which the service pack is applied to the installation files on a
distribution server by using the –s switch, integrating the installation
files and the service pack into a single set of updated installation files.
You can then perform new installations that include the service pack
by using the integrated distribution point. This eliminates the need to
apply the service pack after the installation. However, you cannot uninstall the service pack if it is applied by using this method.
■
Combination installation This installation involves using a combination of an integrated installation, an answer file to control the
installation process, and a Cmdlines.txt file to launch additional
application setup programs after the operating system setup has
completed.
When you install new operating system components after installing a service
pack, Setup will require the location of both the operating system and service
pack installation files. This allows Setup to install the updated version of the
component.
Uninstalling a Service Pack
By default, the service pack setup program automatically creates a backup of the
files and settings that are changed during the service pack installation and places
them in an uninstall folder named \$NTServicepackUninstall$. You can uninstall
the service pack by using Add/Remove Programs in Control Panel or from a command line by running Spuninst.exe in the \$NTServicepackUninstall\Spunints
folder.
If you installed a service pack without creating a backup, you cannot uninstall the service pack.
NOTE
TROUBLESHOOTING WINDOWS XP STARTUP PROBLEMS
After you install Windows XP, the first opportunity for problems to occur happens when Windows XP starts. Understanding how Windows XP starts up is
an important part of understanding Windows XP. After you understand the
startup procedure, you will have a better idea of what you can modify about the
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way that Windows starts and how to troubleshoot startup problems. This section examines how the startup process works and covers important startup
troubleshooting tools and techniques.
Understanding How a Computer Starts
When you press the power button on a computer, power is provided to all the
components, and the boot process begins. This process happens as follows:
1. When you supply power to the motherboard on a computer, the BIOS
begins a process called power-on self test (POST). During POST, the
BIOS tests important hardware that is on the computer, including the
display adapter, memory, storage devices, and the keyboard.
2. BIOS first gives control of the testing process to the display adapter,
which has its own testing routine built in. This is why the first screen
you see when starting a computer is usually a blank screen with information at the top about your display adapter.
3. The display adapter then gives control back to the POST routine, and
the main POST screen appears, as shown in Figure 2-9.
Figure 2-9 The main POST screen displaying information about the hardware on a computer
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4. POST tests your processor and displays the processor version on the
screen.
5. After the processor test is complete, POST gives control of your computer back to the BIOS. At this point, you can press the DELETE key (or
whatever key allows you to enter the BIOS setup on your computer) to
configure BIOS settings.
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INSTALLING WINDOWS XP
6. Assuming that you do not enter BIOS setup, BIOS tests your memory
next. This step (the memory countdown) is probably the one that you
will be the most familiar with. The memory is displayed on the next
line after the processor.
7. BIOS then checks the connection to your various hard drives, CD drives,
and floppy drives. If no connections are present, or if connections are
different from what is listed in the BIOS settings, BIOS displays an error
message, and the boot process halts. You must enter BIOS setup to correct these problems.
8. Assuming that all goes well, BIOS next displays a screen that summarizes the state of your computer.
9. BIOS then calls a special software code named the BIOS operating system bootstrap interrupt (Int 19h). This code locates a bootable disk by
attempting to load each disk that is configured as a bootable in the
BIOS settings.
10. After BIOS finds a bootable disk, it loads the program that is found at
the Master Boot Record (MBR) of the disk into your computer’s memory and gives control of the computer to that program. Assuming that
BIOS gives control to the MBR on the boot partition that contains
Windows XP, the startup phase now moves from the starting of your
computer to the starting of Windows.
Understanding How Window XP Starts
After the computer starts and hands off the process to the operating system,
Windows XP continues to load in the following manner:
1. The MBR is a small program typically found on the first sector of a hard
drive. Because the MBR is so small, it cannot do much. In fact, the MBR
that is used in Windows XP has only one function: it loads a program
named NTLDR into memory.
NTLDR NTLDR is probably a name that you recognize.
When a computer tries to start from a disk that is not bootable but
has been formatted with a file system that is compatible with Windows XP, you will often see the message “NTLDR is missing. Press
CTRL+ALT+DEL to restart” (or something like it). If you see this message, Windows is telling you that either the disk that you are trying
to start from is not a valid boot disk (maybe a floppy disk is still in
the drive) or that the NTLDR file is invalid.
NOTE
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2. NTLDR switches your computer to a flat memory model (thus bypassing the 640-KB memory restrictions placed on PCs) and then reads the
contents of a file named BOOT.INI. The BOOT.INI file contains information on the different boot sectors that exist on your computer.
3. If a computer has multiple bootable partitions, NTLDR uses the information in the BOOT.INI file to display a menu. That menu contains
options on the various operating systems that you can load. If a computer has only one bootable partition, NTLDR bypasses the menu and
loads Windows XP.
4. Before Windows XP loads, NTLDR opens yet another program into
memory named NTDETECT.COM. NTDETECT.COM performs a
complete hardware test on your computer. After determining the hardware that is present, NTDETECT.COM gives that information back to
NTLDR.
5. NTLDR then attempts to load the version of Windows XP that you
selected in step 3 (if you selected one). It does this by finding the
NTOSKRNL file in the System32 folder of your Windows XP directory.
NTOSKRNL is the root program of the Windows operating system: the
kernel. After the kernel is loaded into memory, NTLDR passes control
of the boot process to the kernel and to another file named HAL.DLL.
HAL.DLL controls Windows’ famous hardware abstraction layer
(HAL), which is the protective layer between Windows and a computer’s hardware that enables such stability in the Windows XP
environment.
6. NTOSKRNL handles the rest of the boot process. First, it loads several
low-level system drivers. Next, NTOSKRNL loads all the additional
files that make up the core Windows XP operating system.
7. Next, Windows verifies whether there is more than one hardware profile configured for the computer. (See Chapter 6 for more information
on hardware profiles.) If there is more than one profile, Windows
displays a menu from which to choose. If there is only one hardware
profile, Windows bypasses the menu and loads the default profile.
8. After Windows knows which hardware profile to use, Windows next
loads all the device drivers for the hardware on your computer. By this
time, you are looking at the Welcome To Windows XP boot screen.
9. Finally, Windows starts any services that are scheduled to start automatically. While services are starting, Windows displays the logon
screen.
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INSTALLING WINDOWS XP
Using Advanced Boot Options
In addition to the regular boot menu, there is another menu behind the scenes of
the Windows startup process. Pressing the F8 function key during the Windows
XP boot process displays the Advanced Options menu. Table 2-5 summarizes the
functionality of each of the options on the Advanced Options menu. Options that
require further description are explained in detail in the sections immediately following the table.
Table 2-5
Summary of Advanced Boot Options
Option
Summary Description
Safe Mode
Loads only the basic devices and drivers that are
required to start the computer. Devices that are initialized include mass storage devices, standard
Video Graphics Adapter (VGA), mouse, keyboard,
and other essential drivers and computer services.
Same as Safe Mode, but with the addition of networking drivers and services. Use when troubleshooting
problems that require network connectivity.
Same as Safe Mode, but starts a command prompt
(Cmd.exe) instead of the Windows Explorer GUI.
Generally used when Safe Mode does not function.
Starts the computer normally, but records driver
loading and initialization information to a text file
for subsequent analysis.
Currently installed video driver loaded in 640 x
480 mode. Useful when the display adapter is
configured to a resolution that the monitor cannot
support.
The computer is started with the configuration that
was in use the last time a user was able to log on
successfully.
Enables debugging mode on the computer, allowing
debug information to be sent over the computer’s
COM2 serial port.
Performs a standard Windows XP boot.
Safe Mode With
Networking
Safe Mode With
Command Prompt
Enable Boot Logging
Enable VGA Mode
Last Known Good
Configuration
Debug Mode
Boot Normally
Use Safe Mode and Last Known Good Configuration
First The Safe Mode and Last Known Good Configuration options are
two of the most useful tools to try first when troubleshooting Windows
startup. Enabling Boot Logging is also useful typically when you are having trouble locating the source of the problem.
IMPORTANT
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Using Safe Mode
Safe mode is one of the most important tools for solving startup problems. In
safe mode, Windows loads only essential drivers and services. Windows does not
load programs referenced in the Startup folders and through the Run options in
the Registry. Windows also does not process local or group policies when starting in safe mode.
Loading only essential driver and service items makes safe mode a useful tool for
troubleshooting and resolving issues with faulty services, device drivers, and
application programs that are automatically loaded at startup. From safe mode,
you can make configuration changes that are necessary to solve a problem, and
then restart the computer normally. Figure 2-10 displays the Windows XP desktop when started in safe mode.
Safe mode, which often allows you to change settings you cannot change
in normal mode
FT02su10
Figure 2-10
You can use safe mode for troubleshooting the following types of situations:
■
The computer no longer starts after loading a new device driver or application program. If this is the case, start in safe mode and use Event Viewer
to check the event logs. Most likely an error will be associated with the
driver or application. If the error indicates that a reconfiguration is necessary, attempt to correct the problem and start normally. If you cannot
correct the problem, start in safe mode, remove the newly installed component, and contact the manufacturer for further information.
■
The video is not displaying correctly. (Selecting the Enable VGA mode
option from the Advanced Options menu is also useful in this situation.) This situation most commonly occurs when the computer is
configured to a resolution that the monitor does not support. Starting
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in safe mode loads a standard VGA driver, and you can then reconfigure the resolution or load a different display device driver.
■
The operating system begins to perform slowly or stalls for extended
periods of time, or the operating system simply does not seem to be
working correctly. If starting in safe mode corrects the problem, the
issue is with something that loads normally but does not load in safe
mode.
Boot Logging
When you select the Enable Boot Logging option from the Advanced Options
menu, the computer starts normally and records boot-logging information in a
file named Ntbtlog.txt. This log file contains a listing of all the drivers and services that the computer attempts to load during startup and is useful when trying
to determine which service or driver is causing the computer to fail. Figure 2-11
displays a sample boot log file.
Figure 2-11 Using the boot log file (Ntbtlog.txt) to isolate startup problems
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NOTE Boot Logging During Safe Mode Boot logging is enabled automatically when you start the computer with any of the safe mode boot
options.
Last Known Good Configuration
The Last Known Good Configuration option holds the configuration settings
that existed the last time that a user successfully logged on to the computer. This
option is useful if you have added or reconfigured a device driver that subsequently has caused the computer to fail. Using Last Known Good Configuration
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might allow you to start the computer so that you can try again with a different
configuration or driver.
When starting by using the Last Known Good Configuration, you lose all system-setting changes that have been made since the last successful boot. In some
situations, this means you might have to reconfigure the computer to some
degree. You should consider troubleshooting by using safe mode before using
the Last Known Good Configuration option to avoid this issue.
Missing or Corrupt Files Last Known Good Configuration does
not solve problems associated with drivers or files that are missing or
have become corrupt. It is useful only in situations where drivers have
been added or reconfigured since the last successful boot.
NOTE
Using Recovery Console
Recovery Console is a command-line utility that gives you access to the hard
disks when the operating system will not boot. You can use Recovery Console to
access all partitions on a drive, regardless of the file system.
You can use the Recovery Console to perform the following tasks:
■
Copy files between hard disks and from a floppy disk to a hard disk
(but not from hard disk to a floppy disk), which allows you to replace
or remove items that might be affecting the boot process or retrieve
user data from an unsalvageable computer
■
Control the startup state of services, which allows you disable a service
that could potentially be causing the operating system to crash
■
Add, remove, and format partitions on the hard disk
■
Repair the MBR or boot sector of a hard disk or volume
■
Restore the Registry
Accessing the Recovery Console
You can permanently install the Recovery Console on a computer and make it
accessible from the Boot menu. You can also access it at any time without having
installed it by starting from the Windows XP installation CD.
To install the Recovery Console on a computer, access the Windows XP installation files (on the installation CD or at a network installation point) and execute
the following command:
winnt32 /cmdcons
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Windows XP Setup starts and installs the Recovery Console. After installation,
the Recovery Console is accessible from a startup menu when the operating system is starting.
To access the Recovery Console on a computer in which Recovery Console is not
installed, follow these steps:
1. Start the computer by using the Windows XP Professional CD.
2. When the text mode portion of Setup begins, follow the initial
prompts. At the Welcome To Setup screen, press the R key to repair the
Windows XP installation.
3. Enter the number that corresponds to the Windows XP installation
that you want to repair. (This number is required even if only a single
installation of Windows XP is on the computer.)
4. When prompted, enter the local administrator’s password.
Table 2-6 shows the commands that are available in Recovery Console and provides brief descriptions of each one.
Table 2-6
Recovery Console Command Descriptions
Command
Description
Attrib
Changes attributes on one file or directory (Wildcards are not supported.)
Executes commands specified in a text file
Scans hard disks to locate Windows installations, and
modifies or re-creates Boot.ini accordingly
Displays the name of the current directory, or
switches to a new directory
Same as the CD command
Checks a disk, and displays a status report
Clears the screen
Copies a single file to another location (Wildcards are
not supported.)
Deletes one file (Wildcards are not supported.)
Displays a list of files and subdirectories in a
directory
Disables a Windows system service or driver
Manages partitions on a hard disk, including adding
and deleting partitions
Enables a Windows system service or driver
Batch
Bootcfg
Cd
Chdir
Chkdsk
Cls
Copy
Del (also Delete)
Dir
Disable
Diskpart
Enable
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Table 2-6
Recovery Console Command Descriptions
Command
Description
Exit
Quits the Recovery Console, and restarts the
computer
Expands a compressed file
Writes a new boot sector to the system partition
Repairs the MBR of the system partition
Formats a disk for use with Windows XP
Displays a list of available commands
Lists all available services and drivers on the
computer
Lists the detected installations of Windows XP, and
prompts for Administrator logon
Displays drive letter to physical device mappings
Displays the Address Resolution Client (ARC) path
instead of the Windows XP device path for physical
device mappings
Creates a directory
Same as MD command
Displays a text file to the screen
Removes a directory
Renames a single file (Wildcards are not supported.)
Same as REN command
Same as RD command
Used to set Recovery Console environment variables
Sets the current directory to system_root
Displays a test file to the screen (same as MORE
command)
Expand
Fixboot
Fixmbr
Format
Help
Listsvc
Logon
Map
Map arc
Md
Mkdir
More
Rd
Ren
Rename
Rmdir
Set
System_root
Type
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INSTALLING WINDOWS XP
SUMMARY
■
Before installing Windows XP, you must ensure that the computer
meets or exceeds minimum hardware requirements. You should also
make sure that all hardware devices are listed in Microsoft’s Windows
Catalog.
■
Windows XP supports three types of installations: clean installations,
upgrades, and multiple boot installations. Windows XP also supports
three methods of installations: standard (attended), network, and
automated.
■
The Files And Settings Transfer Wizard and the USMT can both be
used to transfer files and settings. The Files And Settings Transfer Wizard is intended for home and small business users and provides a simple wizard interface. USMT is intended for users on larger networks.
■
Common reasons for a Windows XP installation failure include insufficient disk space, a BIOS-based virus scanner that is preventing Setup
from running properly, incompatible or malfunctioning hardware, and
problems with the installation CD (or accessing the installation files on
the network). You can use the Windows Setup log files (Setupact.log and
Setupapi.log) to view information about the setup process and help
identify the cause of installation failures.
■
You can use the Windows Update site to scan a computer and display
available critical, Windows, and driver updates. Automatic Updates is a
Windows XP feature that downloads and installs critical updates automatically. Although you can specify that Automatic Updates prompt
users before downloading or installing, Microsoft recommends that
you configure Automatic Updates to download and install automatically according to a preset schedule. Service packs are collections of
updates (and sometimes new features) that Microsoft has tested to
ensure that they work together correctly. Microsoft occasionally issues
new service packs for its products.
■
The safe mode and Last Known Good Configuration options are two
of the most useful tools to try first when troubleshooting Windows
startup. Enabling Boot Logging is also useful typically when you are
having trouble locating the source of the problem. The Recovery Console is a command-line utility that gives you access to the hard disks
when the operating system does not start. The Recovery Console can
access all volumes on the drive, regardless of the file system type. As
the administrator of a Windows XP computer, you should be familiar
with the Recovery Console and how you can use it to correct operating system problems.
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REVIEW QUESTIONS
1. A Windows XP Professional volume that is formatted with FAT32 cannot support which of the following? (Choose all that apply.)
a. Disk quotas
b. Disk compression
c. File encryption
d. Drives larger than 2 GB
2. What are the two files that are created by Setup Manager that you can
use to automate the Windows XP installation process? (Choose two.)
a. Standard answer files
b. Remote installation files
c. Uniqueness database files
d. System information files
3. From which of the following versions of Windows can you upgrade
directly to Windows XP Professional?
a. Windows 95 OSR2
b. Windows 98
c. Windows NT 4.0 Workstation (with Service Pack 3)
d. Windows NT 4.0 Workstation (with Service Pack 5)
e. Windows 2000 Professional
4. List the tools that are available for copying files and settings from an
old computer running a previous version of Windows to a new computer running Windows XP. What are the differences between the
tools?
5. A user calls and tells you that she is trying to install Windows XP Professional by using the installation CD-ROM. However, she cannot get
the computer to start using the CD-ROM. What steps should you take?
6. You are helping a user perform a remote installation from a RIS server
on his notebook computer. He has a boot disk that his administrator
told him will force the computer to boot from the network and start the
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INSTALLING WINDOWS XP
installation. However, when he tries to start the computer by using the
boot disk, he receives an error stating that a supported network card
could not be found. You verify that the user’s network adapter is functional by installing it on another computer and connecting to the network. What is likely to be the problem?
7. List the types of updates that are available from the Windows Update
site, and explain the differences between them.
8. What is the recommended way to configure the Automatic Updates
feature in Windows XP?
9. You believe that you have installed a faulty device driver and want to
start up Windows XP to remove it. What mode should you start in to
accomplish this?
10. A user reports to you that his computer running Windows XP Professional displays a series of errors on startup, stating that certain drivers
are not loading. How could you have the user start the computer and
easily send you a record of the startup process so that you can identify
the problem drivers?
11. Which of the following advanced boot options loads only the basic
devices and drivers required to start the computer and access the
network?
a. Safe Mode
b. Safe Mode With Networking
c. Last Known Good Configuration
d. Safe Mode With Command Prompt
CASE SCENARIOS
Scenario 2-1: Meeting Minimum Requirements
You have been given a computer with the following hardware installed:
■
233 MHz Pentium II processor
■
64 MB of RAM
■
4 GB hard disk, 500 MB free
■
48x CD-ROM drive
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■
Floppy drive, mouse, keyboard
■
SVGA monitor and video card
■
10 Mbps Ethernet network card
You will reformat the hard disk and install Windows XP Professional. What additional hardware do you need to install on the computer prior to installing
Windows XP?
Scenario 2-2: Troubleshooting Startup Problems
You install a new device on a Windows XP computer and restart the computer
because the device installation procedure prompted you to do so. When the
computer restarts, you can log on, but the computer stops responding shortly
thereafter. You suspect that the newly installed device is causing the problem,
and you want to remove it. How do you accomplish this?
Scenario 2-3: Troubleshooting RIS Installation
You are helping a user who is trying to perform an automatic installation of
Windows XP on a network that has a RIS Server. The RIS server contains the
CD-based image and several other images that have been prepared. None of
your client computers contain PXE-compliant network cards. What do you have
to do to enable these clients to connect to the RIS server?
CHAPTER 3
SUPPORTING LOCAL USERS
AND GROUPS
Upon completion of this chapter, you will be able to:
■ Explain the difference between local and domain accounts
■ Identify the built-in user accounts that are available in Windows XP
Professional Edition
■ Create and modify a user account in Windows XP Professional Edition
■ Explain the use of groups
■ Create and add members to a group in Windows XP Professional Edition
■ Configure Fast User Switching
■ Troubleshoot common password and logon problems
■ Explain how Local Security Policy affects a computer running Windows XP
■ Identify the Resultant Set of Policy (RSoP) that is in effect on a computer
■ Use the Local Security Policy tool to change security settings
■ Identify the important security settings that are available through Local
Security Policy
As a desktop support technician (DST), you will be responsible for troubleshooting
logon and resource access problems that are associated with local user accounts
and security groups. This task is particularly important for home and small network
users because local accounts provide the primary means for securing resources on
a computer in a workgroup setting. In a domain setting, you will not be responsible
for creating and managing user accounts and groups, but you should understand
how they work because you might be called on to help troubleshoot domain logon
and resource access. This chapter covers supporting and troubleshooting local user
accounts and security groups, as well as troubleshooting common local and
domain logon problems. Finally, this chapter covers working with local security settings and security policy on a computer running Microsoft Windows XP.
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SUPPORTING LOCAL USER ACCOUNTS AND GROUPS
A user account is a collection of settings that define the actions that a user can
perform after the user has logged on to Windows XP. Windows controls access to
system resources based on the permissions and user rights that are associated
with each user account. User rights are very different from permissions. User
rights pertain to a user’s ability to perform specific functions on a computer. Permissions control a user’s ability to access resources such as files, folders, and
printers. Local user accounts control access to resources on the local computer,
and domain user accounts control access to resources on a network running
Active Directory directory service. You can use security groups (both at the local
and domain level) to organize users according to common access needs. As a
DST, you are responsible for creating, configuring, and troubleshooting local user
accounts and local security groups in a workgroup setting. In a domain setting,
you are not responsible for creating and managing user accounts or groups, but
you might be called on to help troubleshoot logon problems for domain users.
Understanding Logon
As you learned in Chapter 1, “Introduction to Desktop Support,” a computer running Windows XP Professional Edition can be a member of either a workgroup or
a domain. (Windows XP Home Edition does not support domain membership.)
Even if you have a single computer running in isolation, it is still a member of a
workgroup. Computers in a workgroup rely on local security databases that are
stored on each computer. Computers in a domain rely on a security database that
is part of Active Directory.
When you log on to a computer that is in a workgroup, you log on locally to that
computer. This means that the user name and password that you enter is checked
against the local accounts database of the computer on which you are working. If
you provide proper credentials, you gain access to the Windows desktop and any
local resources that you have permission to use.
When you log on to a computer that is a member of a domain, you have two
choices presented to you at the logon screen. You can log on to the local computer
or you can log on to the domain. If you log on to the domain, your credentials are
checked against a list of users that are defined in Active Directory. These credentials control your access to resources both on the local computer and on the network. Users in a domain environment should almost always log on to the domain
rather than to the local computer, making local user accounts less important in a
domain than they are in a workgroup. However, the ability to log on locally is useful for troubleshooting logon problems because it bypasses Active Directory.
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SUPPORTING LOCAL USERS AND GROUPS
Windows XP Professional Edition vs. Home Edition This section focuses on features that are provided by Windows XP Professional
Edition. Windows XP Home Edition provides only a subset of these features. At the end of the section, you will find detailed information on the
differences between Windows XP Professional Edition and Windows XP
Home Edition.
NOTE
You will use local user accounts for the following purposes:
■
To gain initial access to the computer
■
To control access to local computer resources
■
To control access to network resources in a workgroup environment
In Windows XP Professional Edition, you can create groups by using one of the
following tools:
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■
User Accounts tool The User Accounts tool is available in Control
Panel. This tool provides a simple interface for creating user accounts
and a limited set of options for managing accounts, such as the ability
to change passwords and change the basic account type.
■
Local Users And Groups tool The Local Users And Groups tool,
which is shown in Figure 3-1, can be accessed through the Administrative Tools folder. This tool provides a much richer environment for creating and managing users than does the User Accounts tool. You can use
the Local Users And Groups tool to perform all actions allowed by the
User Accounts tool, as well as a number of additional actions. For this
reason, this section focuses on using the Local Users And Groups tool.
Figure 3-1 Using the Local Users And Groups tool to manage accounts
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Default User Accounts
When you install Windows XP Professional Edition, the setup program creates several initial user accounts automatically. These built-in user accounts are as follows:
■
Administrator The local Administrator account is arguably the
most important user account on a computer. This account is a member of the Administrators group and has full access to the computer.
You should use the Administrator account to manage a computer; it is
not for daily use. If you find that a user is using the Administrator
account regularly, encourage the user to create a separate account for
regular use.
Default Administrator Password The initial password
for the Administrator account is assigned during the installation
of Windows XP Professional Edition. If you log on to a computer
running Windows XP for the first time and do not recall being
asked to assign a password during installation, you might have
created a blank password by accident. If you did assign a password and it is not being recognized at first logon, you might be
entering the password in the incorrect case. Windows XP passwords are case-sensitive.
NOTE
■
Guest The Guest account has limited privileges and is used to provide access to users who do not have a user account on the computer.
Although the Guest account can be useful for providing limited access
to a computer, the account does present security problems because by
design the Guest account allows anyone to log on to the computer. For
a more secure environment, disable the Guest account and create a
normal user account for anyone who needs to use the computer.
■
HelpAssistant The HelpAssistant account is not available for standard logon. Instead, this account is used to authenticate users who
connect by using Remote Assistance. Windows enables this account
automatically when a user creates a Remote Assistance invitation and
disables the account automatically when all invitations have expired.
You will learn more about Remote Assistance in Chapter 10, “Supporting Network Connectivity.”
■
SUPPORT_xxxxx The SUPPORT_xxxxx account (where xxxxx is a
random number generated during Windows setup) is used by
Microsoft when providing remote support through the Help And Support Service. It is not available for logon or general use.
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SUPPORTING LOCAL USERS AND GROUPS
Although you cannot delete any of the built-in user accounts, you can rename or
disable them. To rename a user account, right-click the account in the Computer
Management window and then select Rename. You will learn more about disabling accounts later in this section.
Creating User Accounts
Each user in an organization should have a unique user account, which allows
Windows to control what each user can access and allows an administrator to
monitor users’ access to resources by using the auditing features in Windows XP.
You should encourage users not to share accounts because it is harder to secure
resources according to the needs of individual users when users share accounts.
To create a local user account, you must log on to a computer by using the builtin Administrator account or by using any user account that is a member of the
Administrators or Power Users groups.
Creating user accounts in Windows XP Professional Edition
To create user accounts in Windows XP Professional Edition, follow these steps:
1. From the Start menu, select Control Panel.
2. In Control Panel, select Performance And Maintenance.
3. In the Performance And Maintenance window, select Administrative
Tools.
4. In the Administrative Tools window, select Computer Management.
NOTE Use the Manage Shortcut There is a shorter way to
open the Computer Management window than by going through Control Panel. Just right-click the My Computer icon and then select
Manage.
5. In the Computer Management window, expand the System Tools node
and then expand the Local Users And Groups node.
6. Under the Local Users And Groups node, right-click the Users folder
and select New User.
7. In the New User dialog box, enter the appropriate information, as
shown in Figure 3-2.
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SUPPORTING USERS AND TROUBLESHOOTING WINDOWS XP
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Figure 3-2 Creating a new user
8. Click Create when finished. The new user will appear in the Users
folder.
When you create a user, you can supply the following information:
■
User Name The user name is the name that the user will enter to log
on to the computer. You must specify a user name for each user. When
you enter the user name, Windows XP preserves the case, but user
names are not case-sensitive. User names can be up to 20 characters in
length, cannot consist entirely of spaces or periods, and must be
unique in the local accounts database. User names cannot contain the
following characters: * / \ [ ] : ; = , + ? < > “.
■
Full Name You can also enter the user’s complete name. This is
optional information that helps more clearly identify the user. The full
name does not have any functional relationship to the logon user name.
■
Description The description is also optional and is used for informational purposes only. You could enter a user’s title, department, or
any other information that you think is appropriate.
■
Password Passwords can be up to 128 characters in length and are
case-sensitive. You must confirm the entry of the password to ensure
that no typing errors were made in the initial password entry. For more
information on passwords, see the sidebar, “Creating Strong Passwords.”
■
User Must Change Password At Next Logon This option, which is
selected by default, configures Windows XP to prompt users to change
the password the next time that they log on. It is a good idea to specify
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SUPPORTING LOCAL USERS AND GROUPS
this setting for new user accounts. You can assign all user accounts the
same initial password and then have users change their password to
something more appropriate for them.
■
User Cannot Change Password This option prevents users from
ever changing their passwords. This option is not selected by default
and is rarely used because it is a good security practice to have users
change their passwords regularly. However, sometimes you might want
the administrator to be in control of the passwords, such as for the
Guest account or other accounts that could be shared by multiple
users. This option is not available if the User Must Change Password At
Next Logon option is selected.
■
Password Never Expires This option overrides any password expiration policies that are configured by using Local Security Policy or
Group Policy. See the “Supporting Security Settings and Local Security
Policy” section for more information. This option is not available if the
User Must Change Password At Next Logon option is selected.
■
Account Is Disabled This option prevents the account from being
used for logon purposes. If a user tries to log on as a disabled account,
that user will receive an error message and is not granted access. For
security purposes, you can choose to leave all new user accounts disabled until the first time the user needs access. This is especially true if
you assign all new users the same password (because that password
will be commonly known in your organization).
Creating Strong Passwords
Weak passwords are one of the big security risks in most environments. For this
reason, you should encourage users to select and use strong passwords, even if
they do not really want to. The following list shows why common password selections are considered weak:
■
Using no password at all is not a good practice because it is then easy
for other users to just walk up to an unsecured computer and log on.
■
Using a real name, user name, or company name makes for an easy-toguess password. Also avoid using common passwords such as “letmein” or “password.”
■
Using a common dictionary word makes you vulnerable to automated
programs that are designed to guess passwords.
■
Using any password that you write down or that you share with someone else is not secure.
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On the other hand, you can use the following guidelines to create strong passwords:
■
Passwords should be at least eight characters long—and longer is better.
■
Passwords should use a combination of lowercase and uppercase letters, numbers, and symbols (for example, ` ~ ! @ # $ % ^ & * ( ) _ + = { } | [ ] \ : " ; ' < > ? , . / or a space character).
■
Passwords should be changed regularly.
An example of a strong password using these guidelines is X2#hg&5T.
If users find that complex passwords are difficult to remember, tell them that
Windows XP allows the use of passphrases instead of passwords. For example,
a perfectly valid password in Windows XP is “My grandmother enjoys gardening 3 times each week.” Another technique is to join together simple words with
numbers and symbols. An example of a password that uses this technique is
“2roosters+2hens=4chicks” (which might be bad math, but it’s an easy-toremember password).
Managing User Accounts
During the creation of a user account, you can configure only a subset of the available account properties. After you create an account, you can configure several
more properties by right-clicking the user account in the Local User And Groups
tool and then selecting Properties.
The General tab of the Properties dialog box for a user account, shown in Figure
3-3, allows you to reconfigure information that you provided when you created
the account. The General tab also provides the option to disable an account,
which is a useful security measure if the user has left the organization or will be
out of the office for a long time.
Using the General tab of a user account’s Properties dialog box to modify
basic account properties
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Figure 3-3
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SUPPORTING LOCAL USERS AND GROUPS
The Member Of tab in the user account’s Properties dialog box shows the groups
that the user account is a member of. You will learn more about groups in the
“Supporting Groups” section later in this section.
The Profile tab, shown in Figure 3-4, allows you to configure user profiles and the
path to the user’s home folder. These options allow administrators to customize
the user’s working environment, if necessary.
Figure 3-4 Using the Profile tab of the user account’s Properties dialog box to specify
a user profile and home folder
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You will learn more about using user profiles in the “User Profiles” section later in
this chapter. Home folders are shared folders on a network server in which users
can store files. In a networked environment, using centralized network storage for
user documents instead of storing documents on each local computer can make
security and backups easier to manage. As a DST, you will not be asked to configure home folders in a domain-based environment. However, you might need to
configure home folders for users in a workgroup.
In addition to configuring user account settings by using the user account’s Properties dialog box, you can also perform the following important user-management
functions by right-clicking a user account in the Local User And Groups window:
■
Set Password Use this option to reset a user’s password. You do not
need to know the existing password to change it.
■
Delete Use this option to delete user accounts if they are no longer necessary. Note that after you delete an account, you cannot recover it. For
this reason, it is usually better to disable accounts than to delete them.
■
Rename Use this option to rename a user account if someone leaves
an organization and someone else takes over that user’s job responsibilities. You can rename the existing user account and change the password (for security reasons); you do not have to create a new account
for the new user.
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Supporting Groups
Groups simplify the assignment of permissions and user rights to user accounts.
You can assign permissions and user rights to a group and then include users in
that group instead of assigning the permissions and rights to each user account.
For example, assume that there are 20 users who all need access to one particular
printer. You could handle this task in one of two ways:
■
You could assign access to the printer to each of those 20 user accounts
individually. This method is time-consuming and introduces a greater
possibility of error with each additional user account that you configure.
■
You could create a single group, make the 20 user accounts members
of that group, and then assign access to the printer to the group. All
users who are members of a group automatically receive permissions
that are assigned to the group. This method simplifies administrative
tasks. If an additional user account needs access to the printer, you can
simply add that user account to the group. If a user no longer needs
access, you can remove the user account from the group.
Default Group Accounts
Windows XP Professional Edition includes several built-in groups:
■
Administrators group Has full control over the computer and can
perform all management functions. The Administrator user account is
a member of this group by default.
■
Backup Operators group Backs up and restores all files on the
computer. When using the backup utility, backup operators have
access to the entire file system, even if they do not normally have permission to access each of the files. This group has no members by
default.
■
Guests group Has very limited access to the computer. In addition,
members of this group cannot maintain individual user profile information—all members of the Guests group share the same profile. The
Guest user account is a member of this group by default.
■
Network Configuration Operators group Manages some aspects
of the network configuration of the computer. Tasks that members of
this group can perform include modifying Transmission Control Protocol/Internet Protocol (TCP/IP) properties, renaming local area network (LAN) connections, enabling and disabling LAN connections,
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SUPPORTING LOCAL USERS AND GROUPS
and issuing Ipconfig release and renew commands. This group has no
members by default.
■
Power Users group Performs many management tasks on the computer, but does not have the full administrative privileges of the Administrator account. For example, Power Users can create user accounts
and groups (and manage the user accounts and groups that they create), but they cannot manage objects that are created by members of
the Administrators group. Also, Power Users do not have access to files
and folders unless they are granted permissions. This group has no
members by default.
■
Remote Desktop Users group Grants the right to log on to the
computer from a remote computer, which is required for Remote Desktop access. The group has no members by default.
■
Replicator group Facilitates directory and file replication in domain
environments. This group has no members by default.
■
Users group Has limited permissions by default. You can add or
remove user accounts from this group as necessary. All user accounts
on a computer (except for the Guest account) are members of this
group by default.
■
HelpServices group Uses certain helper applications and diagnoses
computer problems. By default, the member of this group is an
account associated with Microsoft support applications, such as
Remote Assistance, and you should not add regular users to this group.
The HelpServices group has no explicit User Privileges by default. The
SUPPORT user account is a member of this group by default.
When a Windows XP computer joins a domain, Windows automatically adds several domain-based groups to local groups. These new memberships are as follows:
■
The domain group Domain Admins is added to the local Administrators group, allowing the administrators of the domain to have administrative control over the computers that join the domain.
■
The domain group Domain Guests is added to the local Guests group.
■
The domain group Domain Users is added to the local Users group.
Domain Admins, Domain Guests, and Domain Users are predefined groups that
exist on Windows domain controllers only. These group membership additions
are not permanent and can be removed after the computer has joined the
domain. The automatic addition of these domain-based groups allows domain
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administrators to configure access to resources that are connected to the local
computer. For example, a Windows XP Professional Edition computer might
have a shared printer to which all users in the domain should have access. By
default, the local Users group has access to the printer. After the Domain Users
group is made a member of the local Users group, Domain Users can also access
the printer without requiring any additional configuration.
Special Groups
Special groups are also built into Windows XP. The operating system classifies
users based on different properties and places them into special groups accordingly. Special group membership is automatic; you cannot manage the membership of special groups with any Windows XP utility. You have access to special
groups only when assigning user rights and permissions; you cannot access special groups through the Local Users And Groups tool.
Windows XP Professional Edition includes the following special groups:
■
Everyone group Includes all users who can access the computer in
any way, including the Guest account
■
Authenticated Users group
cated to a trusted domain
■
Interactive group Includes the user who is currently logged on
locally to the computer
■
Network group Includes users who are currently accessing the computer through a connection over the network
Includes all users who have authenti-
When a user logs on locally to a computer running Windows XP, Windows
makes that user a member of the Everyone and Interactive groups (and the
Authenticated Users group if the user has authenticated to a domain from the
computer). If the user connects to the computer over the network with a valid
user name and password, Windows makes that user a member of the Everyone,
Network, and (potentially) Authenticated Users groups.
If you want a user to have permission to access a certain resource, such as a printer,
only when logged on locally, you assign access to the Interactive special group.
Conversely, if you want a user to have access to a certain resource only when connecting through the network, you assign access to the Network special group.
CHAPTER 3:
SUPPORTING LOCAL USERS AND GROUPS
The Everyone and Authenticated Users groups allow you to differentiate between
users who have logged on to a domain and users who have logged on using an
account in the local accounts database of a computer running Windows XP.
Domain accounts are more secure than local accounts because the administrators
of the domain create and manage domain accounts, whereas anyone who has
local administrative privileges on a particular computer can manipulate local
accounts. For resources that require higher security, you should assign access to
the Authenticated Users group, not to the Everyone group.
Creating Groups
To create a group, you must be logged in as a member of the Administrators or
Power Users groups.
To create a group, follow these steps:
1. In the Computer Management window, expand the System Tools node
and then expand the Local Users And Groups node.
2. Right-click the Groups folder, and select New Group.
3. Enter the group name and description as well as the group members,
as illustrated in Figure 3-5. Group names can be up to 256 characters
long.
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Figure 3-5 Entering a name and description for a new group
4. Click Create when finished. The new group appears in the Groups
folder.
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Power Users Group Members of the Power Users group can
manage only the groups that they create. They cannot manage groups
that are created by the Administrators group and they cannot manipulate the membership of the default group accounts.
NOTE
Adding User Accounts to Groups
You can modify group membership at the time you create the group or afterward. After creating a group, you can add user accounts to the group in the
following ways:
■
Open the Properties dialog box for a user, and add the group on the
Member Of tab.
■
Open the Properties dialog box of a group, and add members on the
General tab.
Select Multiple Users To select multiple users simultaneously,
select the first user, and then press and hold either the SHIFT or CTRL key.
The SHIFT key allows you to select an entire range of users. The CTRL key
allows you to add individual users to the selection. After you have
selected users, right-click any of the selected users and choose Properties to modify settings common to the users, such as group membership.
NOTE
Security Identifiers (SIDs)
User accounts and groups are considered security principals, meaning that you
can grant them access to resources on a computer. Windows assigns each security principal a unique Security Identifier (SID) when you create the user
account.
Although you manage user accounts and groups by name, Windows tracks these
objects by using the SIDs. It is more efficient for the operating system to use the
SID (instead of the user name or full name) to identify a user because those
names can change.
Keep the following items in mind concerning SIDs:
■
When you rename a user or group account, the SID does not change,
and all rights and permissions are preserved.
■
If you delete a user or group account, all security assignments that are
associated with the account are also deleted. Windows does not reuse
the SID that was assigned to the account. If you create a new account
by using the same user name, the new account will not receive the
CHAPTER 3:
SUPPORTING LOCAL USERS AND GROUPS
same security assignment as the previous account. Even if the accounts
share the same name, they do not share the same SID.
Understanding the Limitations of Windows XP Home
Edition
Until now, this discussion has focused on supporting users and groups
in Windows XP Professional Edition. Although you can create user accounts in
Windows XP Home Edition, you cannot create groups or perform as much user
account management as you can in Windows XP Professional Edition.
When supporting Windows XP Home Edition, you should be aware of the following limitations:
■
Windows XP Home Edition does not support the creation of local
groups.
■
The Local Users And Groups tool is not available in Windows XP Home
Edition. Instead, you must create and manage users through the User
Accounts tool in Control Panel. You are limited to creating and deleting
accounts, changing passwords, and several other minor activities.
■
Windows XP Home Edition supports only two types of accounts: Computer Administrator, which works much like the Administrators group
in Windows XP Professional Edition; and Limited, which limits access
to certain resources.
■
Windows XP Home Edition does not have an account named Administrator. Following setup, Windows allows you to create one or more
user accounts. Each of the accounts you create at this point is made a
Computer Administrator account, although you can change any of the
accounts to a Limited account if you want.
■
Computers running Windows XP Home Edition cannot join a domain.
User Profiles
Each user account in Windows XP Professional Edition and Windows XP Home
Edition has an associated user profile that stores user-specific configuration settings, such as a customized desktop or personalized application settings. Understanding how user profiles function and how to control them allows you to
effectively manage the user’s desktop environment.
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Windows XP supports the following types of user profiles:
■
Local A local user profile is available only on the computer on which
it was created. A unique local user profile is created and stored on each
computer that a user logs on to. Both Windows XP Professional Edition and Windows XP Home Edition support local user profiles.
■
Roaming Roaming profiles are stored in a shared folder on a network server and are accessible from any location in the network. Only
Windows XP Professional supports roaming user profiles.
■
Mandatory Mandatory user profiles are roaming user profiles that
users cannot make permanent changes to. Mandatory profiles are used
to enforce configuration settings. Only Windows XP Professional Edition supports roaming user profiles.
As a DST, you will mostly be concerned with local user profiles. You should
understand where Windows stores local profiles and the type of information
found in a local profile. If you are working in a corporate environment, you might
also encounter roaming and mandatory profiles. However, you will not have to
create or configure them.
Local Profile Storage
Windows stores local user profiles in the Documents And Settings folder hierarchy on the System_root drive. When a user first logs on to a computer running
Windows XP, Windows creates a folder in Documents And Settings that matches
the user’s user name. Figure 3-6 shows a Documents And Settings folder that
includes several user profile folders.
Figure 3-6 The Documents And Settings folder
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Within each user profile, several files and folders contain configuration information and data, including the following:
■
Application Data Contains application configuration information.
Applications that are designed for Windows XP can take advantage of
this folder to store user-specific configuration settings. This folder is
hidden by default.
■
Cookies Contains cookie files, which Web sites usually create to
store user information and preferences on the local computer. When
you return to a site, the cookie files allow the site to provide you with
customized content and track your activity within the site.
■
Desktop Contains files, folders, and shortcuts that have been placed
on the Windows XP desktop.
■
Favorites Stores shortcuts to locations that a user has added to the
Favorites list in Windows Explorer or Internet Explorer.
■
Local Settings Holds application data, history, and temporary files
(including temporary Internet files). This folder is hidden.
■
My Documents Stores documents and other user data. My Documents is easily accessible from the Start menu.
■
My Recent Documents Contains shortcuts to recently accessed
documents and folders. You can also access My Recent Documents
from the Start Menu. This folder is hidden.
■
NetHood Holds shortcuts created by the Add Network Place option
in My Network Places. This folder is hidden.
■
PrintHood Contains shortcuts to printer folder items. This folder is
hidden.
■
SendTo Contains shortcuts to document-handling utilities, such as
e-mail applications. These shortcuts are displayed on the Send To
option on the action menu for files and folders. This folder is hidden.
■
Start Menu Holds the shortcuts to programs that are displayed in
the Start menu. One way to modify the Start menu is to add or delete
folders and shortcuts to the Start Menu folder within a user’s profile
folder.
■
Templates Contains template items that are created by user applications and are used by those applications when a user creates a new
document. This folder is hidden.
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■
NTUSER.DAT The user-specific portion of the Registry. This file contains configuration changes made to Windows Explorer and the taskbar,
as well as user-specific Control Panel and Accessories settings. These settings are visible under HKEY_CURRENT_USER in the Registry.
■
NTUSER.DAT.LOG A log file used as part of the process of committing changes to NTUSER.DAT and also in the recovery of
NTUSER.DAT if the computer crashes.
Built-In User Profiles
Windows stores user profiles locally by default. A local user profile is available
only on the computer on which it was created. Windows creates two built-in local
user profiles during installation:
■
Default User profile Windows uses the Default User profile as a
template to create all new profiles on the computer. When a new user
logs on, the user receives a copy of the Default User profile as his or her
own personal user profile. You can customize the Default User profile
to control which options and settings a new user will receive. Modifications to the Default User profile affect only the profiles of new users—
existing personal profiles are not affected. The Default User profile is
stored in the \Documents and Settings\Default User folder, which is
hidden. To view and work with this folder, you must set the Folder
Options in Windows Explorer to include hidden files and folders.
■
All Users profile The All Users profile contains settings that apply
to every user who logs on to the computer. Windows merges the settings in All Users with the current user’s profile for the duration of the
logon session, but the settings are not made a permanent part of the
user’s profile. You can modify the All Users profile to contain settings
that all users logging on to the computer should have. For example,
many applications create shortcuts in the Start menu or desktop of the
All Users profile during installation. This ensures that all users who log
on to the computer have easy access to those applications. As the
Administrator, you can directly edit the All Users profile to add and
remove items as necessary. The All Users profile is stored in the
\Documents and Settings\All Users folder. The folder contains only a
subset of the folders contained in other profiles on the computer,
because it is concerned only with settings that could potentially apply
to everyone.
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SUPPORTING LOCAL USERS AND GROUPS
Using Multiple Profiles for the Same User Account
If a computer running Windows XP Professional Edition is a member of a Windows
domain, there is the potential for two users with the same user account name to
log on to the same computer. An example of this might involve the local Administrator account (stored in the local accounts database of the Windows XP computer) and the domain Administrator account (stored in the Active Directory
database on the domain controllers). The local account and the domain account
are discrete entities, each maintaining a different user profile.
Windows XP does not allow two user accounts with the same name to share the
same profile folder (for example, C:\Documents and Settings\Administrator). If
Windows did allow this to happen, the profile of one user would overwrite the
profile of the other. Instead, Windows creates the profile of the first user to log on
using the user name of the user in \Documents and Settings\%Username%.
Windows stores subsequent user accounts with the same name using the path
\Documents and Settings\%Username%.x. The folder extension (x) varies as
follows:
■
If the additional user to log on with the same user name is a domain
account, Windows creates the folder extension using the name of the
domain.
■
If the additional user to log on with the same user name is a local
account, Windows creates the folder extension using the name of the
computer.
For example, if the local Administrator logs on first and the domain Administrator logs on second, Windows stores the local Administrator’s profile in the
Administrator folder, and the domain Administrator’s profile is stored in a folder
named Administrator.<domain_name>.
Multiple user profiles are an issue only when the computer is a member of a
domain because domain membership enables both local and domain accounts to
log on. In a workgroup environment, Windows XP relies solely on the local
accounts database, and you cannot create two user accounts of the same name on
the same computer.
Using Fast User Switching
Fast User Switching is a feature introduced with Windows XP that allows multiple
local user accounts to log on to a computer simultaneously. When you enable Fast
User Switching, users can switch sessions without logging off or closing programs.
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Although Fast User Switching is a useful tool on computers with multiple users,
you should use it with care. When a user leaves programs running to switch to
another user account, those programs still consume computer resources. If several users remain logged on with programs running, the performance of the computer will decline noticeably.
Fast User Switching Can Slow Programs Down If a user, especially a home user, complains to you about a computer seeming to run
slowly, be sure to ask whether the computer has Fast User Switching
enabled.
NOTE
Fast User Switching is enabled by default in Windows XP Home Edition and
Windows XP Professional Edition on computers with more than 64 MB of RAM.
However, Fast User Switching is not available on computers running Windows
XP Professional Edition that are members of a domain.
To enable Fast User Switching, follow these steps:
1. Log on to the computer with a user account that has administrative
privileges.
2. From the Start menu, select Control Panel.
3. In Control Panel, select User Accounts.
4. In the User Accounts window, select User Accounts.
5. In the User Accounts dialog box, select Change The Way Users Log On
Or Off.
6. Select Use Fast User Switching and then click Apply Options.
When a user initiates the Switch User option, the computer returns to the Welcome screen. The current user’s session remains active, and another user can
then log on and use the computer. You can initiate the Switch User command by
using one of the following options:
■
Click Start, click Log Off, and then click Switch User.
■
Press CTRL+ALT+DELETE to open Task Manager. From the Shut Down
menu, click Switch User.
■
Hold down the Windows key, and then press the L key.
CHAPTER 3:
SUPPORTING LOCAL USERS AND GROUPS
TROUBLESHOOTING USER LOGON
As a DST, you might be called for troubleshooting help when a user has problems
logging on to a computer or a domain. Although many logon problems are
caused by underlying problems with network connectivity (which is discussed in
more detail in Chapter 10), there are a number of other logon-related problems
you should understand how to resolve.
Troubleshooting Password Problems
Password problems are the second most common type of logon problem, following problems with network connectivity. If users see the error message Unknown
Username Or Bad Password, they probably are not logging on correctly. The common causes of this error message are the following:
■
The user is mistyping the user name, password, or both.
■
The user has the CAPS LOCK key engaged.
Have the user make sure that the correct information is being typed and that the
CAPS LOCK key is not engaged. If this fails to resolve the issue and the user is trying to log on to a domain, have the user contact an administrator.
Resolving Lost Passwords for Local User Accounts
Users who are not connected to a domain and are trying to log on to a local computer can often use a different account with administrative privileges to log on to
the computer and then reset their own password. However, if users reset their
own password, the following information is lost:
■
E-mail that is encrypted with the user’s public key
■
Internet passwords that are saved on the computer
■
Files that the user has encrypted
To reset a local user account password, the user must log on to the computer with
a different account, such as a local Administrator account. To reset a local user
account password, follow these steps:
1. From the Start menu, select Control Panel.
2. In Control Panel, select Performance And Maintenance.
3. In the Performance And Maintenance window, select Administrative
Tools.
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4. In the Administrative Tools window, select Computer Management.
5. In the Computer Management window, expand the Local Users And
Groups node and then select the Users folder.
6. Right-click the user account and then select Set Password.
7. Read the warning message and then click Proceed.
8. In the New Password and Confirm New Password boxes, type the new
password and then click OK.
Creating a Password Reset Disk
The password reset disk is a floppy disk that contains encrypted password information and allows users to change their password without knowing the old password. As standard practice, you should encourage users to create a password
reset disk and keep it in a secure location.
To create a password reset disk for a domain-based user account, follow these
steps:
1. Press CTRL+ALT+DEL and then click Change Password.
2. In the User Name box, type the user name of the account for which you
want to create a password reset disk.
3. In the Log On To box, click ComputerName, where ComputerName is
your assigned computer name, and then click Backup.
4. Follow the steps in the Forgotten Password Wizard until the procedure
is complete. Store the password reset disk in a secure place.
To create a password reset disk for a local user account, follow these steps:
1. From the Start menu, select Control Panel.
2. In Control Panel, select User Accounts.
3. In the User Accounts window, select User Accounts.
4. If you are logged on using a Computer Administrator account, click the
account name and then, in the Related Tasks list, select Prevent A Forgotten Password. If you are logged on using a Limited account, the Prevent
A Forgotten Password option is located on the main page of the User
Accounts window. (You do not have to click the account name first.)
CHAPTER 3:
SUPPORTING LOCAL USERS AND GROUPS
5. Follow the steps in the Forgotten Password Wizard until the procedure
is complete. Store the password reset disk in a secure place.
Users cannot change their password and create a password reset disk at the same
time. If a user types a new password in the New Password and Confirm New Password boxes before the user clicks Backup, the new password information is not
saved. When the wizard prompts a user for his current user account password,
the user must type the old password.
Users can change their password any time after they create a password reset disk.
They do not have to create a new password reset disk if they change their password or if the password is reset manually.
When logging on, if a user forgets the password and has previously created a
password reset disk, the user is presented with an option to reset his password by
using the password reset disk. Select the option on the logon screen to launch the
Password Reset Wizard. The Password Reset Wizard asks users to create a new
password and hint. Log on with the new password and then return the password
reset disk to its safe storage place. The user does not need to make a new password reset disk.
Troubleshooting Domain Logon Problems
When users log on to a domain, they must authenticate with the domain controller that contains their user account. Some corporate infrastructures are large and
contain many domains. In this scenario, a user might have to choose which
domain to log on to from a drop-down list on the logon screen. If users do not
know which domain the user account is on, they cannot log on to the computer.
The Windows Log On dialog box does not show a list of available domains by
default. The user can click Options in the Windows Log On dialog box and then
select the correct domain name from the Log On To List box.
Resolving Problems with Cached Credentials
When users join a domain, there might be times when they must log on to their
computers but the computers cannot contact the domain controller to validate
the logon. In this scenario, users can log on to their computers by using cached
credentials, which are copies of the security credentials that were last used to
access the domain.
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Common issues when working with cached credentials are as follows:
■
The user has installed Windows XP but has not installed a service pack
and cannot log on using cached credentials. This is a known issue; the
user must install Service Pack 1 (SP1) or greater to resolve it.
■
After logging on with cached credentials and connecting to a network
from home, the user cannot connect to resources on a mapped drive.
The user cannot access the resources because the user has not received
a current access token from the domain. To resolve this issue, the user
should create a new map to a network resource. This process will reissue an access token to the remote computer.
Troubleshooting Missing Domain Controller Issues
A domain user might experience an error message during logon, stating that a
domain controller could not be located to perform the logon. This commonly
occurs when a user is logging on to a computer on the domain for the first time,
but the domain controller is not currently available or the computer is not connected to the domain. See Chapter 10 for information on troubleshooting network connections. If network connections are working properly for the
computer, the user should contact an administrator for further assistance.
Troubleshooting Profile-Related Problems
Issues related to user profiles usually appear during the logon process. You can
resolve some of these issues by starting the computer in safe mode. For example,
if an application that is set to launch at startup becomes a problem, standard safe
mode troubleshooting procedures can detect and correct this issue.
If starting in safe mode does not resolve the issue, or if you cannot locate the
cause of the issue by using standard safe mode troubleshooting procedures, you
should consider troubleshooting the user profile. The first step of troubleshooting the user profile is to determine whether the user profile is the issue. For local
profiles, consider the following:
■
Can another user log on to the same computer with a different user
account? Does the other user experience the issue? If not, the problem
is definitely a user profile issue.
■
If no other user accounts can access the computer, try to create a new
user account. Then, log off the computer and log on again as the new
user account. This forces the creation of a new local profile from the
CHAPTER 3:
SUPPORTING LOCAL USERS AND GROUPS
default user profile. Does the issue go away? If so, this is a user profile
issue.
■
If either of the preceding steps fails to solve the issue, troubleshoot the
All Users profile.
For roaming profiles, consider the following:
■
If the user attempts to log on to another computer, does the issue go
away? If so, the issue is most likely with the All Users profile on the
afflicted computer.
■
If the user cannot log on to another computer, see whether another
user can log on to the afflicted computer. Does the issue still occur? If
so, the issue is most likely with the All Users profile.
If you isolate a profile as the problem, try some or all of the following:
■
Examine the amount of space that is available on the volume. If it is
extremely low, instruct the user to create some free space.
■
If you suspect the problem is within a certain profile subfolder, back
up the contents of that folder and then delete its contents.
■
Ensure that the user’s account has sufficient permissions to access the
profile folder.
■
Restore the profile to previous settings using System Restore, following
the steps outlined in Knowledge Base article 306084, “HOW TO:
Restore the Operating System to a Previous State in Windows XP.”
■
If the preceding efforts fail, the user profile is probably corrupt and you
must create a new profile. To create a new profile, you must log on to
the computer as a user with administrative rights. After logging on,
delete the old profile and then log on to the computer with the user’s
account. Windows will create a new profile when the user logs on.
SUPPORTING SECURITY SETTINGS AND LOCAL
SECURITY POLICY
A security policy is a combination of security settings that affect the security on
a computer. Computers that are members of a workgroup are subject only to
Local Security Policy—settings that are applied to the computer when a user logs
on. Computers that are members of a domain are subject to both Local Security
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Policy and Group Policy. As a DST, you must be able to configure, manage, and
troubleshoot Local Security Policy. You should also understand how Group Policy affects a computer in a domain, but you will usually not be called on to configure or troubleshoot Group Policy.
Understanding Security Policy
As the name implies, Local Security Policy applies only to the local computer.
Using Local Security Policy, you can control the following:
■
Who accesses the computer
■
Which resources users are authorized to use on their computer
■
Whether a user or group’s actions are audited (which is recorded in
the Windows Event Log)
If you want to use Local Security Policy to control the computers in a workgroup,
you must configure Local Security Policy on each computer in the workgroup.
Administrators manage Windows security in a domain environment by using
Group Policy, which enables the enforcement of security policies across all users
in a specific site or domain. In an Active Directory environment, administrators
can apply Group Policy to domains, sites, or organizational units (OUs), each of
which is a type of container that is used to group user and computer accounts in
the domain.
Learn More About Active Directory For more information on
Active Directory structure, see “Active Directory Collection” at http://
www.microsoft.com/resources/documentation/WindowsServ/2003/all/
techref/en-us/Default.asp?url=/resources/documentation/windowsServ/
2003/all/techref/en-us/W2K3TR_ad_over.asp.
NOTE
Order of Policy Application
For computers that are members of a domain, both Local Security Policy and
Group Policy are often used. As a result, policies can come from more than one
source and are applied in the following order:
1. Local Computer Policy is applied to the computer.
2. Group Policy settings are applied for the Active Directory site of which
the computer is a member. Policy settings that are configured at this
level override Local Security Policy.
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SUPPORTING LOCAL USERS AND GROUPS
3. Group Policy settings are applied for the Active Directory domain of
which the computer is a member. Policy settings configured at this
level override settings made at the previous levels.
4. Group Policy settings configured for the Active Directory OU of which
the computer is a member are applied. Policy settings configured at
this level override settings made at the previous levels.
Resultant Set of Policy (RSoP)
A single computer can be affected by Local Security Policy and any number of
Group Policies at different levels. Policy settings are cumulative, so all settings
contribute to effective policy. The effective policy is called the Resultant Set of
Policy (RSoP).
You can view the RSoP for a computer by using the command-line tool Gpresult.exe.
To display RSoP, open the command prompt on a computer running Windows
XP and type gpresult. Windows calculates the RSoP for the computer and displays the results, as shown in Figure 3-7.
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Figure 3-7
The Gpresult tool, displaying the RSoP for a computer running Windows XP
MORE INFO Get Help with Gpresult To learn more about the Gpresult tool and for a list of options you can use with it, type gpresult /? at
the command prompt.
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The Help And Support Center also includes a tool that shows effective Group Policy settings for the current user. If you are troubleshooting policy settings for a user
from a remote location, you can have the user use this tool to export the information to a file. The user can then e-mail the file to you or to an administrator.
To access the Group Policy tool, follow these steps:
1. From the Start menu, select Help And Support.
2. In the right pane of the Help And Support Center window, select Use
Tools To View Your Computer Information And Diagnose Problems.
3. In the left pane, in the Tools list, select Advanced System Information.
4. In the right pane, select View Group Policy Settings Applied.
5. Scroll to the bottom of the report that is displayed, and select Save This
Report To An .Htm File.
6. In the Explorer User Prompt dialog box, type a path and name for the
file and click OK.
Configuring Local Security Policy
You can access the Local Security Policy tool, shown in Figure 3-8, from the
Administrative Tools window on a computer running Windows XP Professional
Edition. The Local Security Policy tool is not available on computers running
Windows XP Home Edition.
Figure 3-8 Local Security Settings administrative utility
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SUPPORTING LOCAL USERS AND GROUPS
The Local Security Settings Window Notice that after you
launch the Local Security Policy utility, the window is named Local Security Settings. These settings are a subset of the Local Computer Policy
and can also be modified through the Group Policy utility.
NOTE
The Local Security Policy settings that you should be concerned with as a DST are
as follows:
■
■
Account Policies These include the following:
❑
Password Policy, which controls settings such as the minimum and
maximum password age, minimum password length, and whether
passwords must be complex.
❑
Account Lockout Policy, which controls whether user accounts are
locked out after a preconfigured number of failed logon attempts.
Local Policies These include the following:
❑
Audit Policy, which controls whether various user activities are logged
to the Windows Event Log.
❑
User Rights Assignment, which controls settings that give users the
ability to perform particular operating system tasks, such as backing
up the computer, changing the time, or shutting down the computer.
❑
Security Options, which control a number of important security settings regarding access to the computer and resources.
Specific settings that are important to DSTs are covered in the following sections.
Password Policy
Password Policy allows you to increase the effectiveness of users’ passwords. By
default, users are not required to have passwords, and little control is placed on
password usage. Password policies allow you to configure the following settings:
■
Enforce Password History Specifies the number of passwords that
Windows XP tracks for each user. When a user attempts to change his
or her password, the user is not permitted to repeat the passwords that
Windows is tracking. A setting of 0 (zero) effectively disables this
option–all passwords, even the current password, could be used.
■
Maximum Password Age Causes passwords to expire after the
specified number of days. When the password expires, the user is
prompted to change it. This setting ensures that even when passwords
are discovered by unauthorized users, they will be changed periodically to increase security.
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■
Minimum Password Age Prevents a user from changing a password
for the specified number of days.
■
Minimum Password Length Specifies the minimum number of
characters that a password must contain. The longer the password, the
more difficult it is to guess and the more secure it is.
■
Passwords Must Meet Complexity Requirements Forces users to
configure passwords that support a password filter that you install on
domain controllers. Password filters enforce more secure password
policies. For example, Microsoft provides a filter that forces passwords
to be at least six characters long, does not permit the password to contain the user name or parts of the full name, and requires the use of at
least three of the following: lowercase letters, uppercase letters, numbers, and symbols.
■
Store Password Using Reversible Encryption For All Users In The
Domain Allows passwords to be recovered from the password database in case of emergency. Normally, passwords are stored in an
encrypted format that cannot be reversed. Microsoft does not recommend this option. If someone were to break in to the domain, it would
then be a simple matter to extract all the user passwords. The option
applies in an Active Directory domain environment only.
Account Lockout Policy
Account Lockout Policy allows you to configure the computer to stop responding
to logon requests from a user who has a valid logon name but who keeps entering
the incorrect password. This is called an invalid logon attempt. Generally, too
many invalid logon attempts in a short period of time indicates that someone is
trying to guess the password and break in using that account.
You can configure the following Account Lockout Policy settings:
■
Account Lockout Duration Controls how long the account will be
locked out for. Setting this value to 0 locks the account indefinitely
until an administrator manually unlocks it. The default setting for this
value is 30 minutes.
■
Account Lockout Threshold Controls how many invalid logon
attempts will trigger account lockout. Setting this value to 0 (zero) disables account lockout. The default value for this setting is 0 (zero).
(Account lockout features are disabled by default, providing for an infinite number of incorrect logon attempts.)
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■
SUPPORTING LOCAL USERS AND GROUPS
Reset Account Lockout Counter After Enables you to configure
the number of minutes that have to pass before the account lockout
count is reset to 0 (zero). For example, if this option were set to 15 minutes, the account lockout threshold would have to be reached within a
15-minute time frame. If not, the counter would be reset. The default
setting for this value is 5 minutes.
When Account Lockout Policy locks an account, an event is placed in the Windows
System log, viewable through Event Viewer (which is available in the Administrative Tools folder in Control Panel). You can unlock the account by accessing the
properties of the user account in Local Users And Groups or by waiting the number of minutes specified in the account lockout duration.
Audit Policy
The auditing functionality of Windows XP allows you to monitor user and operating system activities on a computer. You can then use this information to detect
intruders and other undesirable activity. Understanding how to implement and
manage auditing is an important part of overall security policy.
Auditing consists of two major components:
■
Audit Policy Defines the types of events that will be monitored and
added to the security logs. The system administrator controls Audit
Policy.
■
Audit entries The individual entries added to the Windows security
log when an audited event occurs. You can view entries in the security
log by using Event Viewer.
Choosing Events to Audit You can audit many types of events. You must
determine which events to audit based on the specific security needs that are
associated with the computer that you are configuring. Events that you can audit
are displayed in Table 3-1.
Table 3-1
Auditable Events
Auditable Event
Activated When
Account Logon Event
A domain controller receives a logon request, or a
connection attempt is made to a domain resource.
A user or group account is created, modified, or
deleted.
An Active Directory object is accessed.
A user logs on to or logs off of a local computer.
An object—such as a file, folder, or printer—is
accessed.
Account Management
Directory Service Access
Logon Event
Object Access
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Table 3-1
Auditable Events
Auditable Event
Activated When
Policy Change
A policy affecting security settings, user rights, or
auditing is modified.
A user right is exercised to perform some type of
action, such as changing the system time.
An application executes an action. Generally, this
option is used only by programmers who need to
track program execution.
A computer is shut down or rebooted, or various
events occur that affect security.
Privilege Use
Process Tracking
System Event
Auditing impairs overall system performance, so be careful when choosing events
to be audited. The more events that you audit, the greater the impact on overall
system performance, and the larger and more difficult the security logs will be to
analyze. Minimize the events to be audited, but make sure that you are auditing
enough to meet your security needs. Typically, you will enable auditing when you
suspect that there is a security problem and want to verify your suspicion, or
when you have particularly sensitive files or computers to protect. Table 3-2 provides several suggestions on events to audit.
Table 3-2
Potential Events to Audit and Reasons to Audit Them
Action to Audit
Choose This Auditable Event
Shutting down and restarting the computer,
potentially indicating an unauthorized reconfiguration or break-in attempt
Users logging on at odd hours or logging on to
computers that they would not normally log on to,
indicating a potential break-in or theft
Users unsuccessfully attempting to log on, indicating a potential break-in attempt
System Events
Changes to user and group accounts, potentially
indicating that an administrative-level user is making unauthorized changes or providing someone
with unauthorized access
Printer usage, looks for excessive or unauthorized
access
Access to particular files and folders, looking for
access by unauthorized users or for odd access
patterns that could indicate a potential sabotage or
theft incident
Logon Events (and
Account Logon Events in
domain environment)
Logon Events (and
Account Logon Events in
domain environment)
Account Management
Object Access
Object Access
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Auditing File, Folder, and Printer Access It is not practical for Windows XP to
enable auditing automatically on every file, folder, and printer on the computer
when object access auditing is enabled. It would create unnecessary overhead
and significantly affect computer performance. Therefore, when you configure
Audit Policy for file, folder, and printer access, you need to take additional steps.
In addition to configuring the Audit Policy, you must also enable auditing on the
object that you want to audit. For files and folders to be audited, they must exist
on an NTFS partition.
To configure auditing on a file or folder, follow these steps:
1. In Windows Explorer, right-click the file or folder to be audited and
select the Properties option.
2. In the Security tab, click Advanced.
3. In the Auditing tab, click Add. The Select User Or Group dialog box is
displayed.
4. Add the users or groups whose access you want to audit and then click
OK. (If you want to audit all access, choose the group Everyone.)
5. Configure the type of access that you want to audit. Click OK to exit.
6. The Auditing tab is displayed again. Verify that you have configured
auditing the way that you intended and click OK.
To configure auditing for a printer, complete the following steps:
1. In the Printer folder, right-click the printer to be audited and select the
Properties option.
2. In the Security tab, click Advanced.
3. In the Auditing tab, click Add. The Select User Or Group dialog box
will be displayed.
4. Select the users or groups whose access you want to audit and then
click OK. The Auditing Entry dialog box is displayed.
5. Configure the type of access that you want to audit. Click OK when
complete.
6. The Auditing tab is displayed again. Verify that you have configured
auditing the way that you intended and then click OK.
Viewing Audit Entries in the Security Log For auditing to be a useful security
tool, you must review and archive the Security Log regularly. You can view the
Security Log by using the Event Viewer.
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Figure 3-9 shows the Security Log on a typical Windows XP computer. Notice
that both success and failure entries are stored in the same log.
Figure 3-9 Using Event Viewer to view the Windows XP Security Log
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Figure 3-10 shows a failed audit entry—in this case, a failed logon attempt. The
event properties contain the date and time that the event occurred, the user name
that was used, and the computer on which the event occurred. Other types of
audit entries will contain different information at a similar level of detail.
Figure 3-10 Viewing a failed audit entry
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User Rights Assignment
A User Rights Assignment gives the user the ability to perform a particular task,
such as backing up the computer, changing the time, or shutting down the computer. User rights are very different from permissions. User rights pertain to a
user’s ability to perform specific functions on a computer. Permissions control a
user’s ability to access resources such as files, folders, and printers.
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SUPPORTING LOCAL USERS AND GROUPS
There are many user rights that you can assign. The following are several of the
more commonly used options:
■
Access This Computer From The Network Allows users to connect to the computer through the network. This is enabled for Everyone by default. If you remove Everyone from this setting, no one could
connect to any shares on this computer, including home folders and
roaming profile folders.
■
Add Workstations To Domain
the domain.
■
Back Up Files And Directories Allows users to bypass file system
security and back up all files and folders on the computer. There is a
corresponding user right called Restore Files And Directories, which
gives users the ability to perform file and folder restores.
■
Change The System Time Allows users to change the time, date,
and time zone on a computer. Some functions are time-dependent,
such as logon time restrictions, and you might not want general users
to be able to change the time and interfere with such operations.
■
Log On Locally Allows users to log on directly to a computer. To
clarify, it means that the user can sit in front of the computer, do a
CTRL+ALT+DELETE, and log on. The other method of connecting to a
computer is through the network, which is controlled through the
Access This Computer From The Network user right.
■
Shut Down The Computer Allows users to shut down the computer. Computer shutdown interferes with the users’ ability to access a
server’s resources. Also, shutting down and restarting the computer is
required to activate certain critical reconfiguration options. The right
to shut down the computer should be severely limited on machines
that are functioning as servers, but can be granted as necessary on
workstations.
■
Take Ownership Of Files Or Other Objects Allows users to take
ownership of any resource on the computer. If a user owns a resource,
that user has the ability to assign permissions to it. You need to be careful
assigning this right because it allows users access to every resource on
the computer. By default, only administrators can take ownership, which
is required for them to fully manage the resources on the computer.
Allows users to join computers with
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Security Options
Security options apply to the entire system rather than to a particular user. All
users on the computer will be affected by security options. You can configure
options such as prompting users to change their passwords a certain number of
days before the passwords expire and displaying a message to the users at logon.
There are many security options available. Important settings include the following:
■
Shutdown: Allow System To Be Shut Down Without Having To
Log On Allows users to perform a shutdown without having to be
authenticated to the computer. Users perform this action by pressing
CTRL+ALT+DELETE and selecting the Shutdown option at the Log On
To Windows dialog box. This option is disabled by default.
■
Microsoft Network Server: Amount Of Idle Time Required Before
Suspending A Session Defines how long, in minutes, a connection
to this computer can be idle before it is disconnected. If a user connects
to a server but then does not use the connection for awhile, it takes up
resources on the server. By default, the computer automatically drops
idle connections after 15 minutes.
■
Network Security: Force Logoff When Logon Hours Expire
Works in conjunction with the logon hours that are defined for user
accounts. This setting controls whether users will be automatically disconnected when their logon hours expire. If this option is disabled, it
means that users can stay logged on after their logon hours expire if
they are already logged on, but they cannot establish a new session.
■
Interactive Logon: Do Not Require CTRL+ALT+DELETE Allows
you to control whether the user has to press that keystroke combination when logging on. This is an important feature of Windows XP
because the CTRL+ALT+DELETE sequence suspends processing during
logon and prevents applications from running that might be trying to
capture a user’s credentials.
■
Interactive Logon: Do Not Display Last User Name Causes the
computer to not display the name of the last user who logged on in the
Log On To Windows dialog box. If someone is trying to break into the
computer, that person needs a user name and password; and if a valid
user name is displayed when CTRL+ALT+DELETE is entered, the user
already has half of the needed information.
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SUPPORTING LOCAL USERS AND GROUPS
■
Interactive Logon: Message Text/Title For Users Attempting To
Log On Displays a dialog box when a user uses CTRL+ALT+DELETE to
log on. The message is generally used to warn users that unauthorized
access to the computer is prohibited for legal reasons, but you can use
it for general communication if you need to.
■
Interactive Logon: Prompt User To Change Password Before
Expiration Causes the computer to start prompting users for a new
password a specific number of days before their password actually
expires. This is an important option because if a user’s password
expires, the user might not be able to log on to change it, and the network administrator will have to change the user’s password manually.
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SUMMARY
■
User accounts allow users to log on to a computer or to a domain and
subsequently gain access to local and network resources. Group
accounts simplify the assignment of security features by enabling you
to assign access to groups and then include users in those groups.
Windows XP Home Edition does not support the use of groups, does
not support the ability to join a domain, nor does it include the Local
Users And Groups tool.
■
Fast User Switching is a feature introduced with Windows XP that
allows multiple local user accounts to log on to a computer simultaneously. When Fast User Switching is enabled, users can switch sessions without logging off or closing programs.
■
Password problems are the second most common type of logon problem (following problems with network connectivity). If users see the
error message Unknown Username Or Bad Password, make sure that
the user is typing the information correctly and that the CAPS LOCK key
is not engaged. The password reset disk is a floppy disk that contains
encrypted password information. The password reset disk allows users
to change their password without knowing the old password.
■
Local Security Policy enables the administrator to do such things as set
minimum password lengths, set account lockout policies to protect
against break-ins, and control who can access the computer through
the network. Password Policy enables you to increase the effectiveness
of users’ passwords. Account Lockout Policy enables you to configure
the computer to stop responding to logon requests from a user who
has a valid logon name but who keeps entering an incorrect password.
■
The auditing functionality of Windows XP enables you to monitor user
and operating system activities on a computer. You can then use this
information to detect intruders and other undesirable activity. Understanding how to implement and manage auditing is an important part
of overall security policy.
■
A User Rights Assignment gives the user the ability to perform a particular task, such as backing up the computer, changing the time, or shutting down the computer. User rights are very different from
permissions. User rights pertain to a user’s ability to perform specific
functions on a computer. Permissions control a user’s ability to access
resources such as files, folders, and printers.
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REVIEW QUESTIONS
1. What utilities can you use to create user accounts on a Windows XP
Professional Edition computer?
2. What important limitations should you be aware of when supporting
Windows XP Home Edition?
3. List the default user accounts in Windows XP Professional Edition.
4. A user complains that when he tries to log on, he receives the error
message Unknown Username Or Bad Password. What are the common causes of this problem?
5. When a local user must reset a password, what information is lost?
6. Which Password Policy setting permits you to specify the number of
passwords that Windows XP keeps track of for each user so that when
a user attempts to change a password, the user cannot reuse any of the
passwords that the computer is keeping track of?
a. Enforce Password History
b. Maximum Password Numbers
c. Minimum Password Numbers
d. Password Must Meet Complexity
7. What is the primary disavantage associated with auditing? Under what
circumstances should you use auditing?
CASE SCENARIOS
Scenario 3-1: Managing User Accounts
A user calls you and reports that he has mistakenly deleted a user account from a
local computer. He re-created the user account before restarting or logging off,
and he cannot access any of the files he once had access to. How would you help
this caller so that he can access all his old files?
Scenario 3-2: Recovering Lost Passwords
A user calls and tells you that she created a Limited user account for her son on
her home computer that is running Windows XP Professional Edition. Her son
created a password for his account but now cannot remember the correct password. How can you help this user?
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WINDOWS DESKTOP
Upon completion of this chapter, you will be able to:
■ Identify the types of questions that relate to the Start menu and taskbar
■ Troubleshoot and customize the notification area
■ Troubleshoot and customize the taskbar
■ Troubleshoot and customize the Start menu
■ Configure and troubleshoot accessibility options
■ Configure the correct currency, date, and time for a user
■ Configure input languages
■ Troubleshoot language-related problems
The Microsoft Windows XP desktop environment provides a user interface that is
easily customized. Appropriate configuration of the desktop enhances a user’s
experience with the operating system and can increase productivity. It is important that you, as a desktop support technician (DST), understand the options
that are available for desktop configuration and management. The requirement
for multiple-language support is also increasing in today’s multinational corporate environment. Users often need to create, view, and edit documents in multiple languages. You should understand the multilingual features that Windows XP
offers and be able to configure and troubleshoot those features.
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TROUBLESHOOTING THE WINDOWS TASKBAR AND
START MENU
The taskbar and the Start menu are two of the primary connections between the
user and the Windows desktop. The taskbar displays files and programs that are
currently open and running. The taskbar also allows the user to switch easily
between open files and applications, group items, and open the most-often-used
programs quickly. The notification area to the right of the taskbar displays the
system clock and programs that are running in the background. The Start menu
provides access to the available programs, network places, connections, help and
support files, recent documents, and more.
Common Start Menu and Taskbar Requests
Because of the amount of time the end user spends using these two components,
you are likely to receive numerous calls about configuring or troubleshooting the
taskbar and Start menu. These calls will include the following problems:
■
The taskbar is always disappearing, and I want that to stop. I also want
to be able to move the taskbar to another area of the screen.
■
One of my colleagues has an icon next to his Start menu that he uses to
open our accounting program. I do not have any icons there. How do I
create one of them so that I do not always have to locate the program
on the Start menu or place a shortcut on the desktop?
■
I do not have enough room on my taskbar to show all my open programs, and I have to scroll to see the additional programs. Is there
some way of grouping the programs together?
■
Can I remove or hide the icons for my antivirus software, my pop-up
stopper program, and other programs that run in the background? If I
remove them, do they stop running?
■
There are a lot of icons in the notification area that I do not think I
need. How can I get rid of them? I do not think they should be running
in the background, and I do not even know what some of them are.
■
There are many programs in my Start menu that I do not need, and
there are some that I need that are not there. Can you fix that for me?
■
I want to be able to open My Network Places, open Control Panel, and
access System Administrative Tools from the Start menu, but I do not
want my recent documents to be listed. I also do not want to see the My
Music or My Pictures folder or any other folders that are not work-related.
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To answer questions like these, you must understand the options that are available and how to access and configure them. By the time you reach the end of this
section, you will be able to resolve all these issues and more.
Troubleshooting the Notification Area
The notification area shows the time, volume control, and icons for programs
that start and run automatically. These program icons can be for antivirus programs, music programs, CD-burning programs, or third-party programs that
have been downloaded or purchased. If an item is in the notification area, its program is running in the background, which will make it quickly available when
needed. The notification area also shows icons for network connections, and it
can show whether the connections are enabled or disabled.
In this section, you will learn to configure and troubleshoot the notification area.
Troubleshooting can also include cleaning up the area by removing unnecessary
programs. After completing this section, you will be able to do the following:
■
Add items to the notification area if the program supports it
■
Hide inactive icons so that the notification area does not take up too
much room on the taskbar
■
Remove icons and close running programs temporarily
■
Remove icons and close running programs permanently
Adding Items to the Notification Area
You can add an icon to the notification area only if a program supports that feature in its preferences or configuration options, and many times icons are added
by default when a new program is installed. You can also add icons that indicate
when network connections are active, including local area networks (LANs),
wireless connections, and dial-up connections to the Internet.
If a user requests that you add an icon to the notification area for an application
such as an antivirus program, open the program and browse through the available options and preferences. If an option to show the program in the notification
area is available, it should look similar to the one shown in Figure 4-1.
Figure 4-1 Microsoft OneNote, which offers the option to remove the icon from
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the tray
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Removing an Icon Might Not Disable the Program When you
remove an item from the notification area, it does not necessarily disable
the program; it might only remove the icon. Check the instructions for the
application to make sure.
NOTE
If a user requests that you add an icon to the notification area for any network or
Internet connection on a computer running Windows XP, follow these steps:
1. From the Start menu, select Connect To, and then select Show All Connections. If the Connect To option is not available on the Start menu,
open Control Panel, select Network And Internet Connections, and
then select Network Connections.
2. Right-click the connection that you want to show in the notification
area, and then click Properties.
3. On the General tab of the connection’s Properties dialog box, select
the Show Icon In Notification Area When Connected check box, and
then click OK.
Figure 4-2 shows a notification area that has three active network connections. One
is a wireless connection, one is a dial-up Internet connection, and one is a connection to a LAN. It also shows antivirus software and Instant Messenger icons.
Figure 4-2 The notification area showing active programs and connections
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Hiding Inactive Icons
If the computer has several programs that start automatically when Windows
loads and there are multiple icons in the notification area (as shown in Figure 4-2),
the end user might complain that the notification area is taking up too much
space on the taskbar. If this happens, enable the Hide Inactive Icons feature, and
Windows will hide the icons for programs that are inactive but are still running in
the background. To hide inactive icons, follow these steps:
1. Right-click an empty area of the taskbar, and choose Properties.
2. On the Taskbar tab, select the Hide Inactive Icons check box, and then
click OK.
The inactive icons are hidden behind the arrow. Figure 4-3 shows a notification
area configured with hidden icons. Compare the view in Figure 4-3 with the view
in Figure 4-2; both views show the same notification area.
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SUPPORTING THE WINDOWS DESKTOP
Figure 4-3 Hidden icons in the notification area, accessed by clicking the arrow
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Check the Whole Notification Area Remember that items in
the notification area might be hidden behind the arrow. You (or the
user) might not see them, but that does not mean they are not there.
Check there before you access the program’s preferences or restart the
program.
NOTE
Removing Icons and Temporarily Closing Background Programs
To close a program and remove an item from the notification area temporarily so
that you can free up resources, disable the program or briefly unclutter the notification area by right-clicking the icon and looking at the choices. Figure 4-4 shows
the choices for MSN Messenger 6.1, a program that a home user might have
installed.
Figure 4-4 Choices for MSN Messenger
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The choices for removing the icon and editing the program vary depending on
the application or connection. Common options include the following:
■
Exit
■
Disable
■
Close
■
End
■
Preferences (locate the Exit command in the dialog box)
Removing icons from the notification area in this manner does not remove
them permanently; this action removes an icon only until the program is
started again or you restart the computer. Removing items permanently
requires a little more work.
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Removing Icons and Permanently Closing Programs That Are Running
A cluttered notification area is a good indicator that too many programs are starting when you start Windows. Having too many programs running can cause
many common problems, including a slower than necessary startup process, an
unstable system, or a computer that displays slow response times when accessing
applications or performing calculations. When a user complains that the system
exhibits these systems, check the notification area first.
Even if the computer seems to be running smoothly, you should remove items
from a computer’s notification area if the applications are never used. There is no
reason to allow unused programs to start each time Windows does; this only
drains necessary system resources. You can control the Windows startup environment, including programs that start with Windows and appear in the notification area, by using the System Configuration Utility.
If you decide to remove programs from the notification area permanently, follow
these steps:
1. Click Start and then click Run.
2. In the Run dialog box, type msconfig.exe and click OK.
3. In the System Configuration Utility dialog box, click the Startup tab.
4. Scroll through the list, as shown in Figure 4-5, and clear the check box
of any third-party item you do not want to start automatically when
Windows does.
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The System Configuration Utility dialog box, which offers information about items that open automatically with Windows
Figure 4-5
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5. Restart the computer, and, when prompted by the System Configuration Utility, verify that you understand that changes have been made.
Be Careful with the System Configuration Utility Be
careful when selecting programs not to start with Windows by using the
Msconfig.exe tool. Many programs listed in the System Configuration
Utility dialog box are vital to Windows and to applications that the user
might need. If you are not absolutely sure what a program does or
whether it is safe to remove, you should err on the side of caution and
leave it running. If you suspect that such a program is causing problems
at startup, disable only that program and restart Windows to test the
theory. You can also discover the purpose of many programs by searching
the Internet. Many Web sites provide details about programs commonly
found in the Windows startup routine.
CAUTION
Users Might Not Know What to Call Things
Part of your job as a DST is learning to listen to users. Remember that users are
not trained and often do not know the proper terminology to use. For example,
you might know what the notification area is, but it is not a name that is posted
anywhere obvious or that just suggests itself. If a user is trying to explain something to you, feel free to let the user know the proper terminology, but try not to
make it sound like something he or she should have known.
If you are explaining something to a user, use the proper terminology so that the
user has the chance to hear it, but be prepared to help him or her navigate the first
couple of times. Users are often embarrassed to speak up and tell you that they
do not know what something is. Use landmarks that everyone understands to
help guide the way. For example, you might tell a user, “Look in the notification
area; it is on the bottom right where the clock and all the other icons are.”
Locking and Unlocking the Taskbar
By default, the taskbar’s position on the desktop is locked, which means that the
user cannot move it to any other location and cannot resize it. When the taskbar is
locked, users also cannot move or resize the toolbars that are displayed on the taskbar. If a user wants to unlock the taskbar, the procedure is easy: right-click an empty
area of the taskbar and clear the Lock The Taskbar command. (The command toggles on and off; the current setting is indicated by a check mark next to the command.) Remember to lock the taskbar again when you get things the way the user
wants them. When locked, the taskbar is protected from accidental changes, and
you gain a little extra room because the toolbar handles are not displayed.
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NOTE Locked Taskbars If a toolbar is enabled and the taskbar is
locked, there will be no handle (the rows of dotted lines) in front of the
toolbar area. If a toolbar is enabled and the taskbar is unlocked, the handle is visible, as shown in the figures in this chapter. You can reposition a
toolbar or even move it off the taskbar entirely by dragging the handle
when the taskbar is unlocked.
Grouping Similar Items and Enabling Quick Launch
Two additional ways to enhance the taskbar are by enabling the Group Similar
Taskbar Buttons option and by enabling the Quick Launch toolbar. (Both of
these settings are available options in the Taskbar And Start Menu Properties dialog box.) Grouping similar taskbar buttons saves room on the taskbar by grouping similar entries (for example, all open Microsoft Word documents) together.
Turning on the Quick Launch toolbar allows you to add icons to the Quick
Launch area of the taskbar for any program that a user accesses often.
Grouping Similar Taskbar Buttons
As a DST, you will work with users of all levels. Some users are just learning how
to use e-mail, some work with a single program and one or two files most of the
day, and others work with multiple programs and have multiple open files. Users
who multitask among multiple programs and have several open files probably
have a crowded taskbar and might ask you about their options for organizing the
files and programs shown on the taskbar.
Figure 4-6 shows a crowded taskbar, and Figure 4-7 shows the same taskbar with
the grouping option enabled. Both taskbars include Microsoft Outlook Express,
three open Windows Explorer folders, three open Microsoft Excel worksheets, two
open graphics in Microsoft Paint, and three open Word documents. In Figure 4-6,
you cannot see some of these open files without using the arrow on the taskbar.
Figure 4-6 An unlocked and crowded taskbar, which makes the taskbar seem
disorganized
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Figure 4-7 A locked and crowded taskbar that is better organized with grouping
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enabled
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If the user wants you to configure his or her computer to use these grouping
options, open the Taskbar And Start Menu Properties dialog box, as discussed
earlier in this chapter. On the Taskbar tab, select the Group Similar Taskbar Buttons check box and click OK.
Enabling Quick Launch
Quick Launch is the area of the taskbar directly to the right of the Start menu that
contains icons for programs that a user needs to launch frequently. If you enable
Quick Launch right after installing Windows XP, three icons are available by
default: E-mail, Launch Internet Explorer Browser, and Show Desktop, as shown
in Figure 4-8. Clicking the respective icons opens these programs. You can also
customize the Quick Launch area to include whichever programs you access
most often, and you can even resize the toolbar if the taskbar is unlocked. (Figure
4-9 shows a customized Quick Launch area.) Some programs also add icons to
the Quick Launch area automatically during the program’s installation, so what
you see when you first enable Quick Launch can vary.
Figure 4-8 The Quick Launch toolbar, shown here with the taskbar unlocked
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If a user contacts you and wants to use Quick Launch, or asks you to add or
remove program icons from it, follow these steps:
1. Right-click an empty area of the taskbar, and choose Properties.
2. In the Taskbar And Start Menu dialog box, click the Taskbar tab.
3. Select the Show Quick Launch check box, and then click OK.
4. To remove any item from the Quick Launch area, right-click the icon
and select Delete. Click Yes in the Confirm File Delete dialog box. (You
are not deleting the program; you are removing only the shortcut from
the Quick Launch area.)
5. To add a shortcut for any item to the Quick Launch area, locate the
program (or folder or file) in Windows Explorer, the Start menu, or
the All Programs list; right-click it; drag the program to the Quick
Launch area; and then choose Create Shortcuts Here. If this option is
not available, choose Copy Here. A new icon will be added to the
Quick Launch area.
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Drag Shortcuts to the Quick Launch Toolbar The quickest
way to get things onto your Quick Launch toolbar is to drag them there.
Use your right mouse button to drag any shortcut from the Start menu
(or from the desktop or any folder) to the Quick Launch area. When you
let go of the mouse button, a menu pops up asking whether you want to
copy or move the shortcut. Choose Copy to add the item to Quick Launch
and also leave a copy in its original location. You might move items to the
Quick Launch bar if, for example, you are cleaning shortcuts off a cluttered desktop.
NOTE
Figure 4-9 shows a personalized Quick Launch area with icons (from left to right)
for Microsoft Outlook, Microsoft Internet Explorer, Microsoft Photo Editor, MSN
Messenger 6.1, Help And Support, Backup, and Control Panel. Depending on the
user’s needs and preferences, you might be called on to create a Quick Launch
area like this one.
Figure 4-9 A personalized and resized Quick Launch toolbar with the taskbar
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unlocked
Troubleshooting a Locked, Hidden, or Missing Taskbar
If an end user contacts you about a locked, hidden, or missing taskbar, carrying
out the repair is most likely a simple procedure; this taskbar issue is also a surprisingly common complaint. Most of the time, the Start Menu And Taskbar
Properties dialog box simply has the Lock The Taskbar, Auto-Hide The Taskbar,
or Keep The Taskbar On Top Of Other Windows check box selected. Clearing the
check box solves the problem immediately.
■
Lock The Taskbar When this check box is selected, the user cannot
move or resize the taskbar by dragging. The user might complain that
the taskbar is “locked.”
■
Auto-Hide The Taskbar When this check box is selected, the taskbar is hidden until the user moves his or her cursor over the area where
the taskbar should be. The user might complain that the taskbar is
“missing” or “malfunctioning.”
■
Keep The Taskbar On Top Of Other Windows When this check
box is selected, the taskbar stays on top of all other running applications. The user might complain that the taskbar is “always in the way.”
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The user might also complain that the taskbar is too large or in the wrong area of
the desktop. When this happens, inform the user that he or she can drag the top
of the taskbar (when the mouse pointer becomes a two-headed arrow) to resize it.
Move the taskbar to another area of the screen by dragging it there.
Advanced Troubleshooting
If you cannot solve a taskbar problem by using the preceding techniques, the
problem is more advanced. Table 4-1 lists some known issues with the taskbar
and the Microsoft Knowledge Base article number and brief solution.
Table 4-1
Advanced Taskbar Problems and Solutions
Problem
Knowledge Base Article Number and Brief Solution
The taskbar is missing
when you log on to
Windows.
Article 318027, “Taskbar Is Missing When You Log
On to Windows.” This behavior can occur if the
Windows settings for a particular user account are
corrupted. The solution involves checking for bad
drivers, followed by creating a new user account, followed by performing an in-place repair of the operating system.
Article 314228, “The Windows XP Taskbar May
Stop Responding for Some Time.” This is caused if
the Language Bar is minimized and a Windowsbased program is busy. Installing the latest service
pack solves this problem.
Article 303137, Background Picture Is Not Displayed Correctly After You Move the Taskbar.”
Microsoft has confirmed that this is a problem. To
solve this problem, click once on an empty area of
the desktop and then press F5 to refresh the background.
Article 307499, “ToolTips and Messages from the
Status Area of the Taskbar May Remain.” To resolve
this behavior, right-click another location that does
not contain the leftover message, click the displayed
message, move the mouse pointer over the icon, or
resize the taskbar.
The taskbar stops
responding
intermittently.
After moving the taskbar
from the bottom of the
screen to the right side,
the background picture
is not displayed
correctly.
A part of the ToolTips or
a message from the status area remains behind
or partially displayed on
the status area of the
taskbar after it should
be gone.
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Configuring Toolbars on the Windows Taskbar
Adding one of the built-in toolbars to the Windows taskbar typically adds a few
shortcuts that allow a user to access certain components quickly. For example,
adding the Desktop toolbar allows a user to access items on the desktop easily by
clicking the shortcut to them on the taskbar. Adding the Links toolbar allows a
user to quickly access Internet sites stored in his or her Links folder (in Internet
Explorer Favorites) without first opening Internet Explorer.
You can add toolbars to the taskbar by right-clicking any open space on the taskbar, pointing to Toolbars, and making the appropriate selection from the choices
available. Some choices you can add include the following:
■
Address
■
Windows Media Player
■
Links
■
Language Bar
■
Desktop
■
Quick Launch
■
New Toolbar
If users often need access to any of these items, show them how to add the appropriate toolbar.
Troubleshooting the Start Menu
Usually, service calls regarding the Start menu involve what does or does not
appear on the menu. One user might need access to My Network Connections,
My Recent Documents, Internet, E-Mail, and the company’s accounting program. A user in a graphics department might need access to My Pictures, Printers And Faxes, My Music, and his or her favorite graphics program. When you
are queried to personalize the Start menu, the combinations of ways in which
the service call comes in are numerous. Figure 4-10 shows an example of a personalized Start menu.
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Start menu items
Pinned
items
Frequently
Used
Programs
All
Programs
List
Figure 4-10 A customized Start menu offering personalized access to programs
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Two types of Start menus are available in Windows XP: the Start menu and the
Classic Start menu. In this section, you learn about the Start menu and how to
resolve the most basic troubleshooting calls. The tasks include adding or removing programs or Start menu items, permanently pinning items to the Start menu,
and reordering the All Programs list. The Classic Start menu is discussed briefly
in the next section.
Adding or Removing Items in the All Programs List
How to add and remove items from the All Programs list on the Start menu is a
common request from end users. You can add a program in many ways, but you
learn the easiest way here. Removing a program is the simpler of the two tasks.
To add an item to the All Programs list, follow these steps:
1. Right-click the Start menu, and choose Open All Users.
2. Click File, point to New, and click Shortcut.
3. In the Create Shortcut dialog box, click Browse.
4. Locate the local or network program, file, folder, computer, or Internet
address to create a shortcut for, and then click OK.
5. Click Next. On the Select A Title For The Program page, type a name
for the shortcut and click Finish.
6. Close the Documents And Settings\All Users\Start Menu window.
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To see the new addition, click Start, point to All Programs, and look toward the top
of the All Programs list. You can now move that item by dragging it to any other
area of the All Programs list, the Frequently Used Programs area of the Start menu,
or the pinned items list. You can also add a shortcut for an item to the Start
menu by dragging the item’s icon to a position on the Start menu.
To remove an item from the All Programs list, simply right-click it and choose
Delete. Click Yes when prompted to verify this action.
Reordering the All Programs List You can reorder items on the
All Programs list by dragging and dropping, or you can order them alphabetically by right-clicking any entry and choosing Sort By Name.
NOTE
Adding to or Removing Items from the Start Menu
An end user often initiates a service call because a colleague’s Start menu contains
an item that the user’s Start menu does not, or there are items on the Start menu
that the user simply does not need. The user might call to say that sometimes a
desired program is in the frequently used area of the Start menu and sometimes
it is not, and the user wants it to always be available. Start menu items can include
just about anything, such as frequently accessed programs; pinned items; and
operating system components such as Control Panel, My Network Places, Help
And Support, Search, Run, and similar items.
Windows adds items to the frequently used programs area as a user opens them.
Windows then moves the items up or down the list automatically depending on
how often a user opens them. When a computer is new and there are no items in
this list, Windows adds programs to the list the first time a user opens them. As
users continue to open programs, Windows orders the list automatically by how
frequently the programs are opened. If a user does not need specific items that
appear on the list, you can remove items by right-clicking and choosing Remove
From This List. In addition, you can remove all items and even disable the frequently used programs list altogether from the Customize Start Menu dialog box
by following these steps:
1. Right-click Start, and select Properties.
2. In the Taskbar And Start Menu Properties dialog box, verify that Start
Menu is selected and click Customize.
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3. In the Customize Start Menu dialog box, in the Programs section, click
Clear List to clear all items from the Frequently Used Programs area of
the Start menu.
4. To increase or decrease the number of programs shown, change the
value for Number Of Programs On Start Menu by using the arrows.
Zero disables the Start menu. Figure 4-11 shows an example of the
Customize Start Menu dialog box. Click OK, and click OK again to
apply the changes.
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Figure 4-11 The Customize Start Menu dialog box, which offers many ways
to personalize the Start menu
You can pin or unpin an item on the Start menu by right-clicking the item in the
Start menu or All Programs list and then choosing Pin To Start Menu. Pinning an
item to the Start menu places it in the upper-left corner of the Start menu with
other pinned items such as Internet and E-Mail, allowing for easier access. This
option is also available for items in the Frequently Used Programs area.
Finally, if a user asks you to add or remove an operating system component such
as Favorites, Control Panel, Run, My Documents, or My Pictures to or from the
Start menu or to configure how it is displayed, follow these steps:
1. Right-click Start, and choose Properties.
2. In the Taskbar And Start Menu Properties dialog box, verify that Start
Menu is selected and click Customize.
3. In the Customize Start Menu dialog box, click the Advanced tab.
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4. In the Start Menu Items window, scroll through the options. Selecting
an item will show it on the Start menu. Other choices for an item
include the following:
❑
The Display As A Link option causes Windows to display the item on
the Start menu.
❑
The Display As A Menu option causes Windows to display the item as
a menu that expands to show the objects in that folder.
❑
The Don’t Display This Item option causes Windows not to display
the item.
5. In the Recent Documents area, click Clear List to clear the list of
recently opened documents, or clear the List My Most Recently
Opened Documents check box to prevent items from being shown.
Click OK twice to apply the changes and exit.
Use the Knowledge Base Remember, if the troubleshooting call
goes beyond these basic configuration issues, visit the Knowledge Base
for help.
NOTE
Troubleshooting the Classic Start Menu
The Classic Start menu is another option for users. If, after an upgrade, users complain that the Start menu is too complicated or say that they want it to look more
like their old Microsoft Windows 98 or Windows 2000 computer did, this is the
menu to use. Troubleshooting the Classic Start menu is similar to troubleshooting
the Start menu, as discussed earlier, except for the minor differences in the Customize dialog box. Figure 4-12 shows the Customize Classic Start Menu dialog box.
Figure 4-12 Customizing the Classic Start menu through a dialog box
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In the Customize Classic Start Menu dialog box, you can perform the following
actions:
■
Click Add to add any item to the Start menu.
■
Click Remove to remove any item from the Start menu.
■
Click Advanced to start Windows Explorer to add items to or remove
items from the Start menu.
■
Click Clear to remove records of recently accessed documents, programs, and Web sites.
■
Click any item in the Advanced Start Menu Options list to show that item.
Supporting Accessibility Options
Windows XP provides a number of features to help users with disabilities use
their computers more effectively. You can configure accessibility options by
selecting Accessibility Options in the Control Panel window. Following are the
accessibility options in Windows XP:
■
StickyKeys Allows a user to use key combinations (such as
CTRL+ESC) by pressing one key at a time instead of having to press the
keys simultaneously. StickyKeys works for the CTRL, ALT, and DEL
keys, as well as for the Windows logo key. When a user presses one of
these keys, Windows registers the key as “pressed” until the user completes the key combination. You can also enable a keyboard shortcut
for StickyKeys, in which case the feature is activated when a user
presses the SHIFT key five times in a row.
■
FilterKeys Causes Windows to ignore repeated keystrokes, which is
useful for people who have involuntary hand movements that cause
them to press keys in rapid succession or hold a key longer than they
intend to. There is also a keyboard shortcut for FilterKeys: the user
holds down the right SHIFT key for 8 seconds.
■
ToggleKeys Causes Windows to play a sound when a user presses
the CAPS LOCK, NUM LOCK, or SCROLL LOCK keys. The keyboard shortcut for ToggleKeys is to hold down the NUM LOCK key for 5 seconds.
■
SoundSentry Causes Windows to generate visual warnings when
the system makes a sound, which is useful for hearing-impaired users.
You can have Windows flash the caption bar at the top of a window or
dialog box, flash the active window itself, or flash the entire desktop.
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■
ShowSounds Causes Windows to display an icon or a text note on
the screen to indicate the particular sound that Windows makes.
■
High Contrast Uses a visual scheme that is easier for the visually
impaired to see than the standard Windows desktop color scheme.
You can choose from a wide variety of black-and-white and color high
contrast schemes.
■
MouseKeys Allows a user to use the numeric keypad on the keyboard to control pointer movements instead of (or in addition to)
using a mouse. There is a keyboard shortcut available for activating
MouseKeys; the user must simultaneously press the left ALT key, the
left SHIFT key, and the NUM LOCK key.
■
SerialKeys Allows a user to use an alternative input device attached
to one of the computer’s serial ports instead of using a standard keyboard and mouse.
In addition to configuring these options individually by using the Accessibility
Options dialog box that is accessible from Control Panel, Windows XP also provides an Accessibility Wizard that helps users configure accessibility options to
suit their particular needs. Access the wizard in the All Programs/Accessories
folder on the Start menu.
You will not be called on to do much troubleshooting of accessibility options.
Instead, most users will need help enabling and configuring the options, and
deciding whether to use the keyboard shortcuts. However, you might occasionally
get calls from users who do not use accessibility options and are surprised when
Windows turns the features on after they press a keyboard shortcut accidentally.
In addition to the accessibility options mentioned previously, Windows XP also
includes three accessibility accessories, all of which you can find in the Accessories folder on the Start menu:
■
Narrator This program works with some applications and can read
text aloud from the screen using a synthesized voice.
■
Magnifier This tool presents an enlarged version of the area directly
surrounding the pointer in a separate window, making interface elements and text easier to see for the visually impaired.
■
On-Screen Keyboard This tool opens a software-based keyboard in
an on-screen window. Users can press the keys on the keyboard by
clicking them with their mouse or other pointing device.
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SUPPORTING MULTIPLE LANGUAGES
Regional and language options, available from Control Panel, define the standards and formats that the computer uses to perform calculations; provide information such as date and time; and display the correct format for currency,
numbers, dates, and other units. These settings also define a user’s location,
which enables help services to provide local information such as news and
weather. Language options define the input languages (and one computer can
accept input in many languages); therefore, the computer must be configured
with the proper settings. As a DST, you should be able to configure support for
multiple languages or multiple locations.
Understanding Regional and Language Settings
You will perform almost all regional and language configuration and troubleshooting tasks in Control Panel by selecting Date, Time, Language, And Regional
Options and then selecting Regional And Language Options. Figure 4-13 shows
the Regional And Language Options dialog box.
Figure 4-13 The Regional And Language Options dialog box, which offers a place to
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select available languages and customize formatting
As a DST, you might be asked to help users configure and troubleshoot these settings. In many instances, users need to add a region or an input language because
they travel, work, or live in two different countries or regions; an input language
needs to be added because users who share a computer speak different languages; or a currency, time, and date need to be changed temporarily on a user’s
laptop while he or she is on a business trip. You learn how to perform these tasks
in the next few sections.
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Configuring Correct Currency, Time, and Date
When a user requests a change to the currency, time, or date standards and formats on a computer, you make those changes in the Regional And Language
Options dialog box on the Regional Options tab. Changing the standard and format is as simple as clicking the drop-down list in the Standards And Formats area
and selecting a new option. In Figure 4-14, English (United States) is no longer
selected; instead, French (France) is. Notice that the date is written in French,
that the currency has changed, and that the date—January 12, 2004—is written
12/01/2004, which is different from the English version of 1/12/2004.
Changing standard and format options to make changes in the currency,
date, language, and more
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Figure 4-14
To make changes and to access the other regional and language options, follow
these steps:
1. From the Start menu, select Control Panel.
2. In Control Panel, select Date, Time, Language, and Regional Options,
and then select Regional And Language Options.
3. In the Regional And Language Options dialog box, on the Regional
Options tab, in the Standards And Formats section, click the dropdown list to view the additional choices. Select one of these choices.
4. In the Location section, choose a country or region from the list to
change the default location.
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5. To further customize the settings, click Customize.
6. When finished, click OK in each open dialog box to exit.
Customizing Regional Options
If a user requests a specific change to the default settings—such as changing the
currency symbol, the time or date format, or the system of measurement—but
wants to keep other default settings intact, click Customize, as shown in Figure 413, and make the appropriate changes. Each option has a drop-down list, and
selecting a different option requires only selecting it from the list.
Configuring Input Languages
The input language that is configured for the computer tells Windows how to
react when a user types text using the keyboard. A user might want you to add a
language if he or she works or travels between two or more countries that use different languages and he or she needs to work in those languages or perform calculations with the currencies in those countries. With multiple languages
configured, the user can toggle between them as needed. In addition, users might
want to change language settings even if they do not travel because they do work
with an international group or conduct business with other countries.
To add (or remove) an input language, follow these steps:
1. From the Start menu, select Control Panel.
2. In Control Panel, select Date, Time, Language, and Regional Options,
and then select Regional And Language Options.
3. In the Regional And Language Options dialog box, select the Languages tab, and then click Details.
4. In the Text Services And Input Languages dialog box, click Add to add
a language. (If you want to remove a language, select it and click
Remove.)
5. In the Add Input Language dialog box, select the language you want to
add. To choose a specific keyboard layout, select the Keyboard Layout/
IME check box and choose the appropriate layout. To add a keyboard
layout or input method editor (IME), you need to have installed it on
your computer first. Click OK.
6. In the Text Services And Input Languages dialog box, select which language should be the default language from the Default Input Language
drop-down list and click OK.
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Figure 4-15 shows two available languages, English (United States)—US and Italian (Italy)—Italian. The user can now switch between these languages easily by
using the Language Bar (located on the taskbar).
Figure 4-15 Making two languages available for the user
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Troubleshooting Language-Related Problems
When users have multiple languages configured, language-related problems will
probably occur. One of the more common issues occurs when a user who has multiple languages configured accidentally changes the default language in use by
unintentionally hitting the key combination that switches between them. By
default, pressing the left ALT + SHIFT switches between languages. Users who accidentally use that combination might suddenly find themselves with a keyboard
that does not act as it is supposed to, and they will not have any explanation for
why it happened. You have to use the Language Bar to switch back to the default
language, and you might want to disable this feature while you are at the computer.
The following are other common language-related problems that you should
know:
■
If a user complains that while using the On-Screen Keyboard accessibility tool, most keys on the screen do not blink when he or she presses
a key on the physical keyboard, inform the user that this behavior is
intended and correct. (See Knowledge Base article 294519, “On-Screen
Keyboard May Not Indicate External Keyboard Activity.”)
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■
If, after installing a new IME as the default keyboard layout, the user
complains that the previous keyboard layout is still being used, install
the latest service pack to resolve the problem. (See Knowledge Base
article 318388, “The Original Keyboard Layout Is Used After You Configure a New Default Input Method Editor.”)
■
If a user complains that after choosing a new language he or she cannot
view the menus and dialog boxes in that language, inform the user that
the Windows Multilingual User Interface Pack must be purchased and
installed for these items to be changed. (See Microsoft Help And Support Center.)
Less common and more complex problems are covered in various articles in the
Knowledge Base. Remember to search there for answers if the problem cannot
be resolved through general reconfiguration and common troubleshooting
techniques.
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SUMMARY
■
To resolve problems involving the taskbar, use the Taskbar And Start
Menu Properties dialog box. On the Taskbar tab, you can lock or hide
the taskbar, group similar items, show Quick Launch, hide inactive
icons, and keep the taskbar on top of other windows.
■
To resolve problems involving the Start menu, use the Taskbar And
Start Menu Properties dialog box. On the Start menu tab, click Customize to define what should and should not appear on the taskbar,
clear the taskbar of recently used programs or documents, and more.
■
To allow a user to work in different languages on one computer, make
changes in the Regional And Language Options dialog box. There, you
can select and configure options for currency, time, and dates, and
select input languages.
■
When troubleshooting language-related problems, the most common
problem is that a user has unknowingly switched to another language
and is having problems with keyboard function.
REVIEW QUESTIONS
1. Match the end user request on the left with the correct solution on the
right.
1. The taskbar is always disappearing, and I want that to stop.
I also want to be able to move
the taskbar to another area of
the screen.
2. John, my colleague down the
hall, has an icon next to his Start
menu that he uses to open our
accounting program. I do not
have any icons there. How do I
create one of these icons so that I
do not always have to locate the
program in the Start menu or
place a shortcut on the desktop?
a. Open the Taskbar And Start Menu
Properties dialog box. On the Taskbar
tab, select the Show Quick Launch
check box. Then, on the Start menu,
locate the program to display in the
Quick Launch area, right-click it, and
drag and drop it there. Select Copy
Here.
b. Open the Taskbar And Start Menu
Properties dialog box. On the Taskbar
tab, select the Group Similar Taskbar
Buttons check box.
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3. I do not have enough room on
my taskbar to show all my open
programs, and I have to scroll to
see the additional programs. Is
there some way of grouping the
programs?
4. Can I remove or hide the icons
for my antivirus software, my
pop-up stopper program, and
other programs that run in the
background? If I remove them,
do they stop running?
5. In my notification area are a lot
of icons that I do not think I
need. How can I get rid of them? I
do not think they should be running in the background, and I do
not even know what some of
them are.
6. On my Start menu are lots of
programs that I do not need and
some that I need but are not
there. Can you fix that for me?
SUPPORTING THE WINDOWS DESKTOP
c. Open the Taskbar And Start Menu
Properties dialog box. On the Taskbar
tab, clear the Auto-Hide The Taskbar
check box. Then verify that the Lock
The Taskbar check box is cleared.
Instruct the user to move the taskbar
by dragging it.
d. Notification area icons can be
removed by setting preferences in the
program’s configuration choices. If you
right-click an item in the notification
area and its shortcut menu lets you
choose Exit or Close, the program will
stop running when you choose the
appropriate option.
e. Open the Taskbar And Start Menu
Properties dialog box. On the Start
Menu tab, click Customize. In the Customize Start Menu (or Customize Classic Start Menu) dialog box, make the
appropriate changes.
f. Click Start, and click Run. At the Run
line, type msconfig.exe and click OK.
On the Startup tab, clear the check
boxes for the items that you do not
want to start when the computer boots.
7. I want to be able to open My
g. Open the Taskbar And Start Menu
Network Places, open Control
Properties dialog box. On the Start
Panel, and access System Admin- Menu tab, select Classic Start Menu
istrative Tools from the Start
and click Customize. Use the Add and
Menu, but I do not want my
Remove buttons to customize the
recent documents to be listed. I
menu. Apply the changes. If desired,
also do not want to see My Music, select Start Menu to return to the
My Pictures, or any of that other default Start Menu look.
stuff that is not work-related.
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2. You want to have as few items as possible on the taskbar. Which of the
following items can you easily remove from the taskbar?
a. Start button
b. System clock
c. Notification area
d. Quick Launch items
e. Inactive icons in the notification area
3. You receive a call from a user who creates blueprints for clients all over
the world, and he uses the metric system instead of the U.S. system of
measurement. The user’s regional settings are configured to use the
English (United States) standard. Which of the following is the best
option for changing the default system of measurement on the user’s
computer from U.S. to metric?
a. Change the default regional options for standards and formats to
English (Canada). Canada is the nearest country that uses the
metric system.
b. Change the default regional options for standards and formats to
English (United Kingdom). The United Kingdom uses the metric
system, and many of your clients live there.
c. Keep the English (United States) setting, but customize the measurement system to use the metric system. Do not make any other
changes.
d. Install a metric keyboard.
4. A user has multiple languages configured on her laptop and often
needs access to the Language Bar. However, she does not want the Language Bar to be open continuously, taking up space on the taskbar.
What can you tell the user to do? (Select the best answer.)
a. In Regional And Language Options, remove and reinstall the languages each time she needs them.
b. In the Text Services And Input Languages dialog box, select the
Turn Off Advanced Text Services check box.
c. Add the Language Bar to the taskbar only when it is needed by
right-clicking the taskbar, pointing to Toolbars, and choosing
Language Bar.
d. None of the above. When multiple languages are configured, the
Language Bar is always on the taskbar.
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5. What tool does Windows supply to control the startup environment?
6. A user cannot resize the Quick Launch toolbar on the taskbar so that
all her shortcuts appear. How can you unlock the toolbar so that the
user can adjust it to suit her needs?
CASE SCENARIOS
Scenario 4-1: Finding a Missing Program
A user reports to you that she can no longer locate her messaging program. When
you ask her to explain the problem in more detail, you discover that she believed
the icon was taking up too much space “in the area of the taskbar where the clock
is,” so she removed it by right-clicking and choosing Exit. Now she cannot find it
and is afraid she has deleted it from her computer. What is the problem, and how
do you help her resolve it?
Scenario 4-2: Using the Classic Start Menu
After an upgrade from Windows 2000 Professional Edition to Windows XP
Professional Edition, a user reports that he finds the new Start menu and taskbar in Windows XP too confusing and prefers the interface used in Windows
2000 Professional Edition. What can you do to make this user more comfortable with the new operating system?
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FILE AND FOLDER ACCESS
Upon completion of this chapter, you will be able to:
■ Identify the types of files and folders in Windows XP
■ Identify common file and folder attributes
■ Configure folder options in Windows XP
■ Compress files and folders
■ Encrypt files and folders
■ Manage disk space using disk quotas
■ Troubleshoot folder access
■ Use NTFS permissions to secure files and folders
■ Troubleshoot NTFS permissions
■ Configure and monitor shared folders
■ Troubleshoot access to shared folders
■ Configure and troubleshoot Simple File Sharing
■ Configure files for offline use
Files, folders, and printers are the most commonly accessed resources on a computer or on a network. As a desktop support technician (DST), you must understand how Microsoft Windows XP controls these resources. You must also
understand how you can secure and share resources with multiple users on the
same computer and with other users on a network. This chapter focuses on supporting file and folder access in Windows XP. You will learn more about supporting printers in Chapter 9, “Managing Local and Network Printers.” As a DST, you
must understand the tools that Windows XP offers for managing files and folders
and how to secure access to these resources.
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MANAGING FILES AND FOLDERS
A file is a collection of data that has a name, which is called a file name. Windows
supports file names of up to 256 characters and appends each file name with a
three-letter file extension (such as .txt or .doc) to indicate the file type. You use
folders to group files. Windows allows you to configure a number of file options
that govern how Windows displays, and it allows access to all files and folders
collectively.
Files and folders also have certain attributes that control how Windows displays or allows access to the individual objects. File compression is a file
attribute that increases the amount of available disk space, giving users the ability to store more data on a hard disk. File encryption is a file attribute that
allows you to protect files and folders by making them unreadable by anyone
except users to whom you provide access. Disk quotas allow the administrator
to control how much disk space is being consumed by any particular user and
can prevent a user from filling up a hard disk and causing system problems. As
a DST, it is your responsibility to understand how files and folders work on a
computer running Windows XP.
Understanding File and Folder Types
Windows XP provides access to the following types of files and folders:
■
Local
■
Shared Files and folders that are shared between users. These files
and folders can be shared from another computer or over the network.
■
Offline Files and folders from network shares that are available
when you are not connected to the network. Offline files are available
only in Windows XP Professional Edition, not in Windows XP Home
Edition. When you enable a shared file or folder for offline use,
Microsoft Windows caches a copy of that file or folder on the hard disk
of your local computer so that while you are disconnected from the
network, you can work with the local copy exactly as if it were the original. When you reconnect to the network, Windows synchronizes your
cached files with the remote counterpart so that the file or folder is current on both your local computer and the remote network share. You
will learn more about offline files in the section “Supporting Offline
Files” later in this chapter.
Files and folders that are stored on the local computer.
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Understanding File Extensions
A file extension is a set of characters at the end of a file name that describes the type
of information that is stored in the file. For example, in the file name Winword.exe,
the .exe extension indicates that it is an executable file.
A file extension can also indicate which application is associated with the file. For
example, in the file name mydocument.doc, .doc is the extension that indicates
that it is a Microsoft Word file.
When you access a file, Windows XP compares the file extension to a list of
installed applications so that it can launch the appropriate application for viewing that file. This process of matching an extension to an application is referred to
as file association. File association determines which application will run or
open the file by default.
Table 5-1 shows some common file type associations. In the far right column,
additional programs are listed that can be used to open the same file. This is by
no means a complete list of file types; it contains only a few of the hundreds of
available file types. Users might ask you to change the program that is used to
open a specific file type because they prefer one program to another or because
company policy requires them to use a specific program.
Table 5-1
Common File Type Associations
File Extension
Common Default Programs
.avi
Microsoft Windows Media Third-party media tools
Player
Microsoft Paint
Microsoft Photo Editor,
third-party graphics programs, Microsoft Internet
Explorer
Word
WordPad, Notepad, or
third-party word processing programs
Paint, Windows Picture
Third-party graphics proAnd Fax Viewer
grams, Internet Explorer
Internet Explorer, Notepad WordPad, Microsoft
FrontPage, third-party Web
browsers
Windows Media Player
Third-party media tools
.doc
.gif, .jpg, .jpeg, .tiff
.htm, .html
.mp3, .wav
Alternate Programs
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Table 5-1
Common File Type Associations
File Extension
Common Default Programs
Alternate Programs
.txt
Notepad
.xls
Microsoft Excel
WordPad, Internet
Explorer, Word
Third-party database applications
Changing the default way that a file type opens
If a user requests that a specific type of file should open with a specific program
every time that file type is encountered, you need to change the details for that
particular file extension to create a permanent default for that file type. For
instance, if a user requests that all .gif files always open with Windows Picture
And Fax Viewer, you can configure it by following these steps:
1. From the Start menu, select Control Panel.
2. In Control Panel, select Appearance And Themes.
3. In the Appearance And Themes window, select Folder Options.
4. On the File Types tab of the Folder Options dialog box, scroll down
and select GIF.
5. In the Details For ‘GIF’ Extension area, next to Opens With: <program
name>, click Change.
6. In the Open With dialog box, shown in Figure 5-1, click Windows Picture And Fax Viewer and then click OK.
7. Click Close in the Folder Options dialog box.
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Figure 5-1
the user
The Open With dialog box, offering personalization options for
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SUPPORTING WINDOWS XP FILE AND FOLDER ACCESS
From this point on, or until this new default configuration is changed manually,
all .gif files will open by using Windows Picture And Fax Viewer. You can use this
same procedure to change any file type and the program that it opens.
Changing the way that a file type opens one time
If a user wants the file to open with a different program only one time, it is as simple as right-clicking. Suppose a user who has never edited a picture has one that
she wants to brighten using the tools in Photo Editor, but all her graphics files
open in the Windows Picture And Fax Viewer by default. You can instruct her to
open the picture in another program easily by following these steps:
1. Browse to the file by using Windows Explorer or My Computer; or by
opening My Documents, My Pictures, or another folder that contains
the file.
2. Right-click the file, point to Open With, and then select the program
from the list. The file opens in the designated program.
NOTE Always Use a Program to Open a File The Open With dialog box
includes the Always Use The Selected Program To Open This Kind Of File
check box. If you select this check box, the program will always open with
this type of file. Do not select this check box if you do not want to make
this program the default program.
Understanding File and Folder Attributes
You can define the following attributes (settings for files and folders) in
Windows XP:
■
Read-Only The file can only be read; it cannot be changed or
deleted.
■
Hidden The file is hidden from view, which protects the resource
from unintended access. Windows XP hides critical system files and
folders to protect them from deletion or modification. You can view
hidden files and folders by selecting the option to show hidden files
and folders in the Folder Options dialog box on the View tab.
■
Ready For Archiving The file has not been backed up recently.
When a backup utility backs up a resource, it marks the resource as
archived. If the resource changes in any way, the archived flag is
removed.
In addition to the Hidden file attribute, Windows XP displays a warning message
when the following critical files are accessed:
■
System Volume The entire system volume is protected from being
accessed by users with limited rights.
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■
Program Files This folder contains the majority of applicationspecific files on the computer and is therefore protected.
■
Windows The system folder contains the operating system and is
protected.
Hidden Files Are Not Secure Any user can access hidden
resources and protected folders by taking the appropriate steps if the
user is not blocked by a Local or Group Policy.
NOTE
Configuring Folder Options
You can use folder options to resolve many types of service calls and requests
from end users. You can access folder options from Control Panel or from the
Tools menu in Windows Explorer. Following are brief descriptions of the four
available tabs in the Folder Options dialog box and some common tasks that you
can perform by using them:
■
General tab Use the options on this tab to change how folders look
and how they open. You can configure Windows to use Windows classic folders for a pre–Windows XP look and feel, and opening a folder
inside another folder can be configured to appear in different ways.
You can configure folders so that the new folder opens either in the
same window or in a different one. You can also configure folders to
open with a single click or double click.
■
View tab Use the options on this tab to apply folder views (Details,
Tiles, Icons, and so on) system-wide or to reset the folder views to their
default. Configure advanced settings to remember (or not remember)
each folder’s view settings, to show (or not show) pop-up descriptions
of folder and desktop items, to use (or not use) Simple File Sharing, to
automatically search for network folders and printers—and more.
■
File Types tab Use the options on this tab to view, add, or reconfigure which types of files open with which particular program. When an
end user requests that a specific file open with a specific program,
make that change here.
■
Offline files tab You can enable and configure offline files here.
When offline files are enabled, a user can work on network files even if
he or she is not connected to the network.
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Supporting File Compression
File compression reduces the amount of disk space that is required to store files
and increases the amount of information that you can place on a single volume.
This capability is useful on a volume that is running low on available disk space.
Windows XP Professional Edition supports file compression on NTFS volumes
only. (For more information on NTFS and file systems, see Chapter 2, “Installing
Windows XP.”)
You can enable compression for an entire NTFS volume, for one or more folders,
or for individual files. Each file and folder has its own compression attribute that
you can control on an individual basis.
Windows provides compression entirely through NTFS, and after a file or folder
is compressed, that compression is transparent to applications and users. The
NTFS compression filter automatically decompresses files into memory when
you open them and compresses any files again when they are saved to the disk.
To enable compression of a volume, folder, or file on an NTFS partition, follow
these steps:
1. In Windows Explorer, right-click the volume, folder, or file that you
want to compress and select the Properties option from the action
menu.
2. In the Properties dialog box for the volume, folder, or file, on the General tab, click Advanced.
3. In the Advanced Attributes dialog box, shown in Figure 5-2, select the
Compress Contents To Save Disk Space option and click OK.
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Figure 5-2 Using the Advanced Attributes dialog box to enable compression for a folder
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4. If you have selected a folder that contains files and subfolders, you will
be prompted to apply compression—either to the folder only or to the
files and subfolders, as shown in Figure 5-3. Select the appropriate
option and click OK.
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Figure 5-3 Choosing the scope of compression
Moving and Copying Compressed Files and Folders
When you move and copy compressed files and folders in Windows, those files
and folders are affected in the following manner:
■
When you move files and folders within the same NTFS volume, the
compression attribute remains the same in the new location. For example, if files were compressed in the original location, they will remain
compressed in the new location, even if the new parent folder is not
compressed.
■
When you copy files and folders within the same volume, the compression attribute is lost, and the files will take on the compression
attribute of the new parent folder.
■
When you move or copy files and folders to a different volume, the files
and folders take on the compression attribute of the new parent folder.
■
When you move or copy files or folders to a volume that is formatted
with FAT or FAT32, compression is lost because these file systems do
not support compression.
Compressed (Zipped) Folders
Windows XP contains a new feature called compressed (zipped) folders. You
can create these folders on any FAT, FAT32, or NTFS volume, including floppy
disks, and any files copied into the folders will be compressed. Compressed
(zipped) folders are compatible with other programs that create zipped files, so
you can easily share the compressed folders with other users, even if those users
are not running Windows XP Professional Edition or using a drive formatted with
NTFS.
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To create a compressed (zipped) folder, follow these steps:
1. Open Windows Explorer.
2. From the File menu, select New, and then select Compressed (Zipped)
Folder.
A zipped folder is represented by a folder icon with a zipper on it, so it is easily differentiated from nonzipped folders. After you have created a zipped folder, you
can drag files into the folder to compress them.
Supporting File Encryption
In Windows XP Professional Edition, you can protect files and folders by using
the Encrypting File System (EFS). EFS is not available in Windows XP Home
Edition.
EFS encodes your files so that even if a person can obtain the file, he or she cannot read it. The files can be read-only when you log on to the computer by using
your user account and password. Windows uses your user account’s public key to
create a file encryption key that can be decrypted only by your personal encryption certificate, which is generated from your user account’s private key.
There are two restrictions when implementing EFS:
■
You cannot use EFS on storage volumes that are not formatted with
NTFS.
■
You cannot use EFS to encrypt a file that has been compressed by
using NTFS compression.
Although NTFS manages access to file system resources in Windows or on an
internal network, when you have a dual-boot configuration, NTFS permissions
can be circumvented by the second operating system. This issue is especially
pertinent to portable computers because they can easily be moved or stolen,
which would enable a second installation of Windows to be installed as a dual
boot. The protected NTFS files would then be accessible on the second installation of Windows. EFS addresses this security issue by requiring you to enter
your user account and password information before it will encrypt a file. In a
dual-boot environment, the EFS protected files would still be inaccessible.
When an unauthorized user attempts to access an EFS-encrypted resource, the
user receives an “Access Denied” message. This message is similar to what a user
experiences when attempting to access an NTFS resource that he or she does not
have permission to access.
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Determining whether a file or folder is encrypted
As a DST, you might receive calls from users who are attempting to access
encrypted data, and they might not understand why they cannot access certain
files. To recommend an appropriate solution, you must determine whether their
files are encrypted or whether they have the proper NTFS permissions.
Windows XP displays the names of encrypted files in green by default, but you
can change this setting. To verify that a folder or file is encrypted:
1. Right-click the file or folder and then click Properties.
2. On the General tab, click Advanced.
3. If the Encrypt Contents To Secure Data check box is selected, the file or
folder is encrypted.
Enabling and disabling file encryption
In Windows XP, you can use Windows Explorer to encrypt or disable encryption
on individual files or folders.
To encrypt a file or folder:
1. In Windows Explorer, right-click the file or folder, and then select
Properties.
2. On the General tab, click Advanced.
3. In the Advanced Attributes dialog box, select Encrypt contents to
secure data.
4. Click OK twice.
If the file or folder contains any files or subfolders, the operating system displays
a confirmation message that asks whether you want to apply the changes to the
folder only or also to subfolders and files. If you select the Apply Changes To This
Folder Only option, Windows does not encrypt any of the files that are in the
folder. However, any new files that you create in the folder, including files that you
copy or move to the folder, will be encrypted.
If you receive an error message when you attempt to encrypt or access an
encrypted file or folder, it might indicate that EFS has been disabled on your computer by local or group policy.
EFS Recovery Agents
An EFS recovery agent is a user account that is explicitly granted rights to recover
encrypted data. The purpose of a recovery agent is to allow a company to recover
encrypted files on a company resource at any time if the user that encrypted the
files cannot (or is not available) to decrypt them.
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To grant a user account recovery agent rights, an administrator must first generate
a recovery agent certificate, which grants permission to the user account to access
encrypted resources. After the recovery agent rights are granted, the certificate
should be removed from the computer or domain, and then stored in a safe place.
You must create a recovery agent certificate before a resource is encrypted to
allow the user account to access this resource. Files and folders that are encrypted
before a recovery agent certificate has been created cannot be accessed by that
recovery agent certificate.
If a computer is not part of a domain, there is no default recovery agent and you
should create one. To create a data recovery agent, you must first create a data
recovery certificate and then designate a user to be the data recovery agent.
To generate a recovery agent certificate, follow these steps:
1. Log on using a user account with administrator privileges.
2. Open a command prompt, and type cipher /r: filename, where filename is the name of the recovery agent certificate.
3. When prompted, type a password that will be used to protect the
recovery agent certificate.
When you create the recovery agent certificate, it creates both a .pfx file and a .cer
file with the file name that you specify. You can designate any user account as a
data recovery agent, but do not designate the account that encrypts the files as a
recovery agent. Doing so provides little or no protection of the files. If the current
user profile is damaged or deleted, you will lose all the keys that allow decryption
of the files.
To designate an EFS recovery agent, follow these steps:
1. Log on using the user account that you want to designate as an EFS
recovery agent. This can be the Administrator account, or you might
want to create a special account just for this purpose. If you create a
special account, make sure that you make the account a member of the
Local Administrators group.
2. Click Start, click Run, type certmgr.msc, and then click OK.
3. In Certificates, under Certificates—Current User, expand Personal, and
then click Certificates.
4. On the Action menu, click All Tasks, click Import to launch the Certificate Import Wizard, and then click Next.
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5. On the File To Import page, enter the path and file name of the encryption certificate (a .pfx file) that you exported, and then click Next. If
you click Browse, in the Files Of Type box you must select Personal
Information Exchange to see .pfx files, and then click Next.
6. Enter the password for this certificate, select Mark This Key As Exportable, and then click Next.
7. Select Automatically Select The Certificate Store Based On The Type Of
Certificate, click Next, and then click Finish.
8. Click Start, click Run, type secpol.msc, and then click OK.
9. In Local Security Settings, under Security Settings, expand Public Key
Policies, and then click Encrypting File System.
10. On the Action menu, click Add Data Recovery Agent, and then click Next.
11. On the Select Recovery Agents page, click Browse Folders, and then
navigate to the folder that contains the .cer file that you created.
12. Select the file, and then click Open. The Select Recovery Agents page
now shows the new agent as USER_UNKNOWN. This is normal
because the name is not stored in the file.
13. Click Next and then click Finish.
The current user is now the recovery agent for all encrypted files on this computer.
Best Practices for Encryption All encrypted files and folders will be inaccessible if you reinstall the operating system. For this reason, make a copy of your personal encryption certificate and (if possible)
the recovery agent certificate on a disk. Store the disk in a safe place.
For more information about EFS best practices, see Microsoft Knowledge
Base article 223316, “Best Practices for the Encrypting File System.”
CAUTION
Managing Disk Space by Using Disk Quotas
Disk quotas allow you to track and control disk space usage. You can enable disk
quotas strictly for the purpose of monitoring how much disk space each user is
consuming, or you can take the additional step to create and enforce quota limits.
You must manage disk quotas on a user-by-user basis; you cannot assign disk
quotas to groups.
Disk quotas are available only on NTFS volumes and only in Windows XP Professional Edition. You must configure disk quotas at the root of the volume (for
example, on an entire partition). Disk quotas apply to the entire volume; you can-
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not configure disk quotas on a folder-by-folder basis. If you enable disk quotas on
a volume that contains multiple shared folders, the total amount of disk space
users can consume in all shared folders on the volume cannot exceed their quota
limit for that volume. (You will learn more about sharing in the section “Supporting Shared Folders.”)
Windows calculates the amount of disk space that a user is consuming by adding
up the space consumed by all the files where the user is listed as the owner. By
default, the owner of a file is the user who created it. If quota limits are enforced,
the amount of disk space shown as available in applications (such as Windows
Explorer) will be the remaining space in the quota assigned to the user, not the
total space available on the volume. When a user reaches his or her quota limit,
the user must delete files to make space, ask another user to take ownership of
some files, or ask an administrator to increase the quota. Also, compressed files
are charged to the owner’s disk quota using the uncompressed file size. If a user
is approaching the quota limit, you cannot increase the user’s available disk space
simply by compressing files.
To configure disk quotas and enforce quota limits for all users, follow these steps:
1. In Windows Explorer, right-click the volume (C, D, and so on) on
which you want to enforce quota limits, and then select Properties.
2. Select the Quota tab, as shown in Figure 5-4. If the Quota tab does not
exist, either you did not select the root of the volume, the volume is not
formatted with NTFS, or you are not a member of the Administrators
group.
FT05su04
Figure 5-4 Enabling disk quota management before you assign specific
quotas to user accounts
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3. Select the Enable Quota Management check box.
4. If you want to limit the disk space provided to users, select the Deny
Disk Space To Users Exceeding Quota Limit check box. If you just
want to use disk quotas to monitor disk usage for users, do not select
this option.
5. Select the Limit Disk Space To option, and configure the default quota
limit and warning level. You can also select whether Windows adds an
event to the Windows Event Log when users exceed their quota or
their warning level.
6. Click OK to enable disk quotas. There will be a short delay while Windows XP Professional Edition scans the volume and builds the quota
information.
If you click Quota Entries in the Quota tab, you can view the amount of space
used, quota limit, and warning level for each user. The Quota Entries window is
shown in Figure 5-5. New users on the volume receive the default quota limit.
Quota limits can be modified on a per-user basis, including the ability to assign
no quota limit to particular users.
Figure 5-5 Using the Quota Entries dialog box to view quota information for users
FT05su05
Users do not receive a message when they exceed their warning level or when
they reach their quota limit. The drive simply acts as if it is full when the quota
limit is reached.
The following are additional points concerning disk quotas:
■
By default, members of the Administrators group are not subject to
disk quotas when they are enabled. However, you can enable quota
limits for all users except the built-in Administrator account.
■
The user who installs a software program owns all files that are associated with that program. Make sure that the amount of space used by
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applications that the user can install is included in the user’s quota
limit.
■
You cannot delete a quota entry for a user who owns files and folders
on the volume. You must either delete, take ownership of, or move the
files and folders before you can delete the quota entry.
Troubleshooting Folder Access
Although there are many issues that can occur when managing files and folders,
most issues occur when users try to access and configure files and folders that are
corrupt or have been encrypted.
When troubleshooting management of files and folders, you can begin to develop
a general idea of the problem and possible solutions by asking your user the following questions:
■
What were you trying to do when the error occurred?
■
Whose resources are you working with?
■
Where are these resources located?
■
When were the resources created?
■
How were the resources created?
■
How are you accessing the resources?
Troubleshooting Folder View Settings
When a user requests help regarding how folders are viewed, how windows open,
and what can and cannot be seen inside a folder, check the configured folder
options first. There, you can discover the cause of many common problems and
resolve them easily.
Before starting any troubleshooting in the Folder Options dialog box, ask the
user if he or she has made any changes there already. If the user has made
changes to the folder options but cannot remember what the changes were, use
the Restore Defaults button on the General tab and the View tab to restore the
defaults. Many times this solves the problem. Table 5-2 shows some other common problems and their resolutions, all of which are available in the Folder
Options dialog box.
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Table 5-2
Common Folder View Issues and Their Solutions
Common Problem
Solution
A user reports that each time he opens
a folder or clicks an icon in Control
Panel, it opens a separate window.
Sometimes he has 15 open windows
on his desktop, and he finds it quite
annoying. He wants you to change this
behavior.
A user reports that she needs to view
encrypted and compressed folders in a
different color when using Windows
Explorer to locate them. She wants to
know how to do this.
A user reports that his coworkers often
see new folders and printers in My
Network Places, but he never does. He
has to search for and add them manually. He wants you to resolve this problem.
Your CEO wants to be able to view and
access protected system files and hidden files and folders. How do you
allow this?
In the Folder Options dialog box, on
the General tab, in the Browse Folders
area, select Open Each Folder In The
Same Window.
In the Folder Options dialog box, on
the View tab, select the Show
Encrypted Or Compressed NTFS Files
In Color check box.
In the Folder Options dialog box, on
the View tab, select the Automatically
Search For Network Folders And Printers check box.
In the Folder Options dialog box, on
the View tab, select the Show Hidden
Files And Folders check box and clear
the Hide Protected Operating System
Files (Recommended) check box.
A user who has recently upgraded
In the Folder Options dialog box, on
from Microsoft Windows 98 to Winthe General tab, click Use Windows
dows XP does not like the “Web” look Classic Folders.
that is associated with the folders and
the interface. What can you do to make
the user more comfortable?
Troubleshooting Compression Issues
Compression issues are usually related to disk space issues, moving files, and
conflicts with open files. To troubleshoot compression issues, remember the
following:
■
You cannot use file encryption on compressed resources.
■
You cannot compress open files that are currently being accessed by
applications or the operating system.
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■
When you uncompress compressed resources, the resulting files might
exceed the available space on the storage volume. This problem can
also occur when you move a compressed resource to another volume
and compression is lost. To resolve this issue, you must increase the
amount of empty drive space or move portions of the compressed data
separately.
■
You should not compress high-performance areas of a volume, such as
system folders, databases, and video game directories. If the user has
compressed the entire volume, recommend that the user undo the
compression and then recompress files and folders on a case-by-case
basis.
■
You can enable color coding of compressed and encrypted files for
easy identification.
Troubleshooting Encryption Issues
Issues with EFS are generally caused by conflicts with domain policies, lost certificates, or operating system reinstallations. To troubleshoot EFS issues, remember
the following:
■
You cannot encrypt compressed resources, nor can you compress
encrypted resources.
■
Only the user who encrypted the resource or a user account equipped
with a recovery agent certificate at the time the resource was encrypted
can access the resource. If you can obtain a copy of one of the certificates, you can reestablish access; otherwise, the resource is lost.
Troubleshooting Corrupted Files
Occasionally, files can become corrupted. Corruption can occur when a user
shuts down a computer or application unexpectedly, when file system problems
occur, or even because of malicious activities such as viruses. To verify that files
are not corrupt, do the following:
■
Run Chkdsk on the volume to verify its integrity. (You can learn
more about this utility in Chapter 8, “Supporting Storage Devices in
Windows XP.”)
■
Try to copy or move the affected resources to another location or volume.
■
Attempt to access the resource with an application, such as Notepad.
■
Check for viruses with a third-party virus scanner.
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SUPPORTING NTFS PERMISSIONS
As an administrator, you must give users appropriate access to files and folders
while still protecting the computer as much as possible. You do this through the
proper assignment of NTFS permissions. As the name suggests, NTFS permissions are available only on volumes that are formatted with NTFS. NTFS permissions allow you to control which user accounts and groups can access files and
folders, and specifically which actions the users can perform. NTFS permissions
are in effect when users log on locally to the computer and when they connect to
a resource across the network. As a DST, you must understand how NTFS permissions work and how to properly assign them to user accounts and groups.
Basic File and Folder Permissions
Every file and folder on an NTFS volume has a discretionary access control list
(DACL) associated with it. The DACL contains the user accounts and groups that
have been granted permissions to a resource and the specific permissions that
have been granted. Each entry in the DACL is called an access control entry
(ACE). A user account or a group that the user account is a member of must be
listed as an ACE in the DACL for the user account to gain access to a resource.
Otherwise, access is denied.
You will generally control file security by using basic folder permissions. Basic
permissions allow users to perform the tasks that are most commonly required.
Table 5-3 lists the six basic NTFS folder permissions.
Table 5-3
Basic NTFS Folder Permissions
Permission
Tasks Allowed
List Folder Contents
User can view the names of files and subfolders in
the folder, but this permission does not allow any
access to the files and folders
User can see the files and subfolders of the folder
and view the properties of the folder, including
permissions, ownership, and folder attributes
User can create new files and subfolders within
the folder, change folder attributes, and view permissions and folder ownership
User can perform all actions that are allowed by
the Read and List Folder Contents permissions
and traverse folders (that is, move through the
folder to reach other files and folders that are further down in the hierarchy)
Read
Write
Read & Execute
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Table 5-3
SUPPORTING WINDOWS XP FILE AND FOLDER ACCESS
Basic NTFS Folder Permissions
Permission
Tasks Allowed
Modify
User can perform all actions that are allowed by
the Write and Read & Execute permissions and
delete the folder
User can perform all actions that are allowed by
the other basic permissions, assign permissions to
other users, take ownership of the folder, and
delete subfolders and files
Full Control
By default, a file’s DACL inherits the same entries as that of the parent folder.
However, you can control permissions on individual files if necessary. Although
file and folder permissions are similar to each other, there are some small differences. Table 5-4 lists the five basic NTFS file permissions.
Table 5-4
Basic NTFS File Permissions
Permission
Tasks Allowed
Read
User can read the contents of the file and view
the properties of the file, including permissions, ownership, and file attributes
User can overwrite the file entirely (but not
modify its contents), change file attributes, and
view permissions and file ownership
User can perform all actions that are allowed
by the Read permission and run application
programs
User can perform all actions that are allowed
by the Write and Read & Execute permissions,
modify the contents of the file, and delete the
file
User can perform all actions that are allowed
by the other basic permissions, assign permissions to other users, and take ownership of the
file
Write
Read & Execute
Modify
Full Control
Viewing NTFS Permission Assignments
You can view NTFS permissions on the Security tab of the Properties dialog box
of any file or folder on an NTFS volume. If the Security tab is not visible, first
verify that you are working on an NTFS volume. If the volume is formatted with
NTFS and you still do not see the Security tab, the computer most likely has
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Simple File Sharing enabled. (You will learn more about Simple File Sharing in
the section “Supporting Simple File Sharing.”) You must disable Simple File
Sharing to access the Security tab.
To view the NTFS permissions assignments of any file or folder, follow these
steps:
1. In My Computer, locate the file or folder for which you want to view
the NTFS permissions.
2. Right-click the file or folder, and select Properties from the action
menu.
3. Select the Security tab. Figure 5-6 shows the Security tab on the Properties dialog box of a folder named Data.
FT05su06
Figure 5-6 Using the Security tab of a folder’s Properties dialog box to
assign NTFS permissions
Objects gain permissions in one of two ways: a user specifically assigns permissions, or the object inherits permissions from the parent folder.
Windows Displays an SID Instead of an Object Name When
you are viewing permission assignments, Windows usually identifies a user
account or group by name. However, if Windows cannot resolve the name,
it displays the Security Identifier (SID) for the object instead. Windows
can display the SID when the security principal is a domain account and
the computer is disconnected from the network.
NOTE
Understanding Default Permissions on an NTFS Volume
When an NTFS volume is created, there are a series of default permission assignments. These assignments are listed in Table 5-5.
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Default NTFS Permissions Have Changed in Windows XP Professional Edition The default NTFS permission assignment in previous versions of Windows was to assign the Full Control permission to the group
Everyone. This permission allows a significant level of access to all users.
Windows XP Professional Edition takes a more protective approach and
assigns a much more limited set of permissions.
NOTE
Table 5-5
Default Permissions at the Root of an NTFS Volume
Group or User Name
Permission Assigned
Administrators
CREATOR OWNER
Everyone
SYSTEM
Users
Full Control to the root, subfolders, and files
Full Control to subfolders and files only
Read & Execute to the root only
Full Control to the root, subfolders, and files
Read & Execute to the root, subfolders, and files
Create Folders/Append Data to the root and subfolders
Create Files/Write Data to subfolders only
You can add, edit, and remove NTFS permission assignments from the Security
tab in the Properties dialog box of the file or folder.
To add basic file and folder permission assignments, follow these steps:
1. On the Security tab of the file or folder’s Properties dialog box, click
Add.
2. In the Select Users Or Groups dialog box, enter the name of the object
to be selected, as shown in Figure 5-7, and click OK. If you are unsure
of the name of the object, click Advanced, select the object type and
location, and click Find Now.
FT05su07
Figure 5-7 Adding user accounts or groups by using the Select Users Or
Groups dialog box
3. The default permissions assignments are Read & Execute and List
Folder Contents (Folders Only). Modify the permissions as necessary
by selecting or clearing the individual permission boxes, and click OK
or Apply.
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When you assign permissions, the generally recommended rule is that you grant
the user the lowest level of permission that is required to access the resource in
the appropriate fashion. Granting Everyone the Full Control permission will
always provide access and allow users to perform any task that they need to.
However, granting the Everyone group Full Control can potentially give some
users too much power, and a user can accidentally (or purposefully) change or
delete files and folders, and even modify permission assignments. These actions
can result in application program failures and data loss.
Understanding Allow and Deny Permission Assignments
For each permission, you can choose one of two states: allow or deny. In most
cases, you will allow specific permissions, which provide the user with the ability
to perform the specified function. If a user is not allowed a particular permission,
the user cannot perform that function. If a user is not allowed any permissions at
all, the user cannot access the resource.
Deny permissions, which prevent a user from performing the specified function,
are used in only special circumstances. An example of deny permission usage is
as follows: if a user is a member of one or more groups that has been granted permission to access a resource but you do not want that particular user to access the
resource, you can assign deny permissions to that user. The deny permission
overrides the allow permission that is assigned to the group, and the user is prevented from accessing the resource. Combining different types of permissions is
discussed in more detail in the section “Calculating Effective NTFS Permissions”
later in this chapter.
Basic Permission Relationships
When selecting basic permissions, additional permissions are automatically
selected in some cases. This situation occurs when the selected permission
includes the actions of another permission. Table 5-6 describes these permission
relationships.
Table 5-6
Permission Relationships
Selecting This Permission
Automatically Includes These Permissions
Read & Execute
List Folder Contents (Folders Only) and
Read
Read & Execute, List Folder Contents
(Folders Only), Read, and Write
Modify, Read & Execute, List Folder Contents (Folders Only), Read, and Write
Modify
Full Control
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Advanced File and Folder Permissions
Although you can manage most permissions assignments by using basic file and
folder permissions, sometimes you need to work with advanced permissions.
Advanced permissions allow you to assign specific and potentially unusual levels
of permission. An example of an advanced permission assignment is granting a
user the ability to read the attributes (properties) of a file without being able to
open the actual file.
To add advanced permission assignments, follow these steps:
1. In the Security tab of the file or folder’s Properties dialog box, click
Advanced. The Advanced Security Settings dialog box appears, as
shown in Figure 5-8.
FT05su08
Figure 5-8 Using the Advanced Security Settings dialog box to configure
advanced permissions
2. Click Add. Select the appropriate users and groups, and then click OK
to continue.
3. The Permission Entry dialog box appears next. Notice that there is no
default permissions assignment.
4. Modify the permissions as necessary and click OK. You will return to
the Advanced Security Settings dialog box.
5. Click OK again to return to the Security tab.
Users Might Have Advanced Permissions Assigned If you
highlight users or groups in the Security tab and they have no basic
permissions assigned to them, they have an advanced permissions
assignment.
NOTE
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Calculating Effective NTFS Permissions
A user can receive NTFS permissions from multiple sources. You can assign permissions directly to a user, permissions can be inherited from a parent folder, or
a user might receive permissions based on group membership. Effective NTFS
permissions are the permission levels that a user actually has after combining
the permissions from all sources.
The rules for calculating effective permissions are as follows:
■
Allow permissions from all sources are combined, and the user
receives the highest possible level of permission.
■
Deny permissions override allow permissions.
■
If a user has not been assigned any permission from any sources,
access is denied.
The following sections provide several examples of effective permission calculations. In all cases, we are looking at permissions for the user JSmith, who is a
member of the Managers, IT, and Everyone groups.
Calculating Allow Permissions
When calculating effective permissions, allow permissions from all sources are
combined, and the user receives the highest possible level of permission. However, if the user has not been assigned permissions from any sources, access is
denied. Table 5-7 illustrates several examples of combining allow permissions
and the resulting effective permissions.
Table 5-7
Calculating Effective Permissions, Allow Permissions Only
Example Number
User or Group
Allow Permissions
Assigned to User or
Group
1
JSmith (user)
Managers (group)
IT (group)
Everyone (group)
JSmith (user)
Managers (group)
IT (group)
Everyone (group)
JSmith (user)
Managers (group)
IT (group)
Everyone (group)
(None assigned)
Modify
Write
Read
Read
Full Control
(None assigned)
Write
(None assigned)
(None assigned)
(None assigned)
(None assigned)
2
3
JSmith’s Effective
Permission
Modify
Full Control
Access Denied
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The effective permission calculations in Table 5-7 are as follows:
■
Example 1 Modify is the highest level of permission assigned to the
user or any group the user is a member of, and it is therefore the effective permission.
■
Example 2 Full Control is the highest level of permission assigned
to the user or any group the user is a member of, and it is therefore the
effective permission.
■
Example 3 No permissions have been assigned to the user or any
group the user is a member of. The user cannot access the resource.
These types of calculations are fairly simple and are most likely the type of calculations that you will need to perform.
Determining the Effect of Deny Permissions
Deny permissions override allow permissions. If a deny permission has been
assigned to the user or to any group that the user is a member of, that permission
is denied. When the permission is denied, any related permission will also be
denied. (Refer to Table 5-6 for permission relationships.) Table 5-8 provides two
examples of the way effective permissions are calculated when deny permissions
are involved.
Table 5-8
Calculating Effective Permissions When Deny Permissions Are
Assigned
Example Number User or Group
1
JSmith (user)
Managers (group)
IT (group)
Everyone (group)
JSmith (user)
Managers (group)
IT (group)
Everyone (group)
2
Allow Permissions Assigned to
User or Group
JSmith’s Effective
Permission
Write—Allow
Read—Deny
(None assigned)
Full Control—Allow
Full Control—Deny
Write—Allow
(None assigned)
Read—Allow
Write
Access Denied
The following points demonstrate effective permission calculations for the scenario outlined in Table 5-8:
■
Example 1 The group Managers is denied the Read permission. The
Full Control permission assigned to the group Everyone is also denied
because Read is related to Full Control. The Write permission allowed
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to JSmith is allowed because it is not related to the Read permission.
The effective permission is therefore Write.
■
Example 2 JSmith is denied Full Control. The Write permission
assigned to Managers and the Read permission assigned to Everyone is
also denied because they are related to Full Control. Access is denied
because no permissions have been allowed.
Calculation of effective permissions when deny permissions have been applied is
difficult. Because it is easy to make a permissions assignment error when deny
permissions are involved, it is recommended that you do not assign deny permissions except when you have no alternative.
Viewing effective permissions
Windows XP contains an Effective Permissions tab in Advanced Security Settings.
This is a new feature that was not available in earlier versions of Windows.
To view the effective permissions for a user or group, follow these steps:
1. In the Security tab of the file or folder’s Properties dialog box, click
Advanced.
2. In the Advanced Security Settings dialog box, select the Effective Permissions tab.
3. Click Select, choose the user or group for whom you want to view effective permissions, and then click OK. The effective permissions are displayed, as illustrated in Figure 5-9.
FT05su09
Figure 5-9 Windows XP display of the effective permissions for a user or
group
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Controlling NTFS Permission Inheritance
By default, when you assign permissions to a parent folder, all files and folders in
the parent folder inherit those permissions automatically. However, you can control inheritance at either the parent or child level.
To control permission inheritance on a per-user basis at the parent folder, follow
these steps:
1. On the Security tab of the parent folder’s Properties dialog box, click
Advanced.
2. In the Advanced Security Settings dialog box for the parent folder, on
the Permissions tab, select the user account or group for whom you
want to control permissions inheritance, and then click Edit.
3. In the Permission Entry dialog box for the user account or group,
shown in Figure 5-10, use the Apply Onto drop-down list to select one
of the options listed in Table 5-9 and then click OK.
4. In the Advanced Security Settings dialog box, click OK.
5. In the Properties dialog box for the folder, click OK.
FT05su10
Figure 5-10 Controlling permissions inheritance at the level of the parent
folder
Table 5-9
Controlling Inheritance from the Parent Folder
Permission
This Folder Only
Tasks Allowed
Grants permissions for the folder but not
for any files or subfolders within it.
This Folder, Subfolders And Files Grants permissions for the folder, and
allows those permissions to be inherited by
all files and subfolders within the folder.
This is the default inheritance setting.
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Table 5-9
Controlling Inheritance from the Parent Folder
Permission
Tasks Allowed
This Folder And Subfolders
Grants permissions for the folder, and
allows those permissions to be inherited by
subfolders only. Files do not inherit the permissions.
Grants permissions for the folder, and
allows those permissions to be inherited by
files only. Subfolders do not inherit the permissions.
Does not grant permissions for the folder,
but allows the permissions to be inherited
by files and subfolders within the folder.
Does not grant permissions for the folder,
but allows the permissions to be inherited
by subfolders within the folder only.
Does not grant permissions for the folder,
but allows the permissions to be inherited
by files within the subfolder only.
This Folder And Files
Subfolders And Files Only
Subfolders Only
Files Only
To block inheritance from a parent folder at the level of a child file or folder, follow these steps:
1. On the Security tab of the child file or folder’s Properties dialog box,
click Advanced.
2. Clear the Inherit From Parent The Permission Entries That Apply To
Child Objects check box.
3. In the Security dialog box that opens, choose one of the following
options:
❑
When you select the Copy option, the permissions that the child
object is inheriting are retained, but future inheritance from the parent
folder is not allowed.
❑
When you select the Remove option, the permissions that the child
object is inheriting are removed, and future inheritance from the parent folder is not allowed.
❑
The Cancel option cancels the action without affecting any inherited
permissions or affecting future inheritance.
4. In the Advanced Security Settings dialog box, click OK.
5. In the Properties dialog box for the child object, click OK.
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Moving and Copying Files
When you move or copy files and folders on NTFS volumes, permissions can be
affected. The following basic rules apply:
■
When you copy files or folders to a new location, the objects do not
retain permission assignments. The file or folder inherits permissions
from the new parent folder.
■
When you move files or folders within an NTFS volume, the objects
retain permission assignments. However, inherited permissions are left
behind. Permissions will be inherited from the new parent.
■
When you move files or folders between NTFS volumes, the objects do
not retain permission assignments. The file or folder inherits permissions from the new parent folder.
■
When you move or copy files or folders to a FAT or FAT32 partition, all
NTFS permission information is lost.
Understanding Ownership
By default, the owner of a file, folder, or printer is the user who created it. The owner
of a resource has the ability to grant permissions and share the resource, thereby
controlling access. Ownership guarantees the ability to perform these functions
whether or not the owner has been granted any other level of permission.
Administrators are granted the user right to take ownership of any resource,
which ensures that the administrators can always control access to all resources
on the computer. Most likely, an administrator takes ownership in situations in
which the current owner has left the organization and the administrator needs to
gain control of the resource to manage it.
Users who are not administrators can take ownership if they have been granted
the Take Ownership special permission, which is included with the Full Control
file or folder permission and the Manage Printers printer permission. To view
ownership and to take ownership of a file, folder, or printer, complete the following steps:
1. On the Security tab of a file or folder’s Properties dialog box, click
Advanced.
2. In the Advanced Security Settings dialog box for the file or folder,
access the Owner tab. You can view the current owner, as shown in Figure 5-11.
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Figure 5-11 Using the Owner tab in the Advanced Security Settings dialog
box to view and take ownership
FT05su11
3. The Change Owner To section displays user accounts that have permission to take ownership of the object. If you are a member of the
Administrators group, you have the option to change ownership to
either your user account or the Administrators group.
4. Click OK.
Troubleshooting NTFS Permissions
You are working at your company’s help desk supporting users who call in with
problems. You have just finished resolving a logon problem call from a user who
could not log on by using her user name and password. You determined that she
needed to log on by using her domain credentials instead of her local user
account credentials. The user has now called back, and the call is forwarded to
you for resolution. She tells you that she can log on without a problem; however,
she cannot access some files on her local computer that she created while working from home. These files are necessary for a presentation that she is giving in
one hour, and she has no time to create the information again. What can you do
to help this user?
One of the biggest challenges that users encounter with permissions is knowing
what the current permissions are. Whenever you work with permissions, you
must take the following items into account:
■
Permissions are inherited from above in the folder hierarchy.
■
Permissions are cumulative, except for the deny permission.
■
Permissions are assigned to users and groups.
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■
Windows XP computers that are members of a domain have two lists
of users and groups: the local user accounts and the domain user
accounts.
■
The user who creates a new file or folder becomes the Creator Owner
who has Full Control of that object.
To resolve the caller’s problem, you must determine the assigned permissions
that are on the files, usually by examining the Security tab in the file’s Properties
dialog box. After you determine the permissions, you need to assign the appropriate permissions based on the user’s needs.
Based on this caller’s symptoms, you should suspect that when the user logged
on to the local computer, she accessed those files using a local user account. Now
that she is logging on to a domain, her domain user account does not have the
necessary permissions to access the files. She should log on to the computer
locally (or have an administrator do so) and grant her domain user account the
permissions necessary to access the files.
SUPPORTING SHARED FOLDERS
Shared folders provide users with access to resources across the network. As a
DST, you must understand how to share folders, how to manage shared folders,
and how to troubleshoot shared folder access issues if the need arises. This section covers sharing folders on a computer running Windows XP Professional Edition on which Simple File Sharing is disabled.
Configuring Shared Folders
The first step of providing network access to file and folder resources is to create
shared folders. After you create a shared folder, network users with the appropriate permissions can connect to the folder and access resources. When a shared
folder is no longer needed, you should disable the share so that it is no longer
accessible from the network.
To create shared folders on a computer running Windows XP Professional Edition, you must be a member of the Administrators or Power Users groups. Also,
users who are granted the Create Permanent Shared Objects user right are also
allowed to share folders. You can share only folders; you cannot share individual
files. If you need to provide users network access to files, you must share the
folder that contains the files.
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To create a shared folder on a computer running Windows XP Professional Edition on which Simple File Sharing is disabled, follow these steps:
1. In Windows Explorer, right-click the folder to be shared and select
Sharing And Security.
2. In the Properties dialog box of the folder, on the Sharing tab, select
the Share This Folder check box, as shown in Figure 5-12. By default,
Windows assigns a Share Name that is the same as the name of the
folder. You can change the name if you want and optionally enter a
description that helps users further identify the contents of the
folder. Click OK.
FT05su12
Figure 5-12 Sharing a folder by using the Sharing tab of a folder’s Properties dialog box
After you share a folder, the folder’s icon will change to the shared folder icon (a
folder with a hand beneath it). The shared folder icon is visible only to users who
have permission to share folders. Users who do not have permission to share
folders do not see this visual indicator and therefore are not aware of which folders have been shared.
Other Ways to Create Shared Folders You can also create
shared folders by using Computer Management, which is discussed in the
section “Managing Shared Folders in Computer Management” later in
this chapter, and by using the net share command-line utility. For help
using net share, type net share /? from a command prompt.
NOTE
Setting User Limits on Shared Folders
By default, the User Limit option on the Sharing tab of a shared folder’s Properties dialog box is set to the maximum allowed, which indicates that the number of
users who can connect to the share is limited only by the number of connections
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the computer allows. Computers running Windows XP Professional Edition are
limited to 10 simultaneous connections. There are some cases in which you might
want to limit the number of users who can connect to a shared folder, including
the following:
■
Licensing limits on software If you purchase a limited number of
user licenses for a particular software program, limiting the number of
users who can connect to the share and therefore run the program can
help you stay within your licensing limits.
■
Performance considerations If an application program’s performance degrades significantly with many users accessing it simultaneously, you can limit the number of users who can connect to the
share to keep performance at an acceptable level.
Sharing an Existing Shared Folder with Another Name
You can share the same folder multiple times with different share names and different permissions assignments. This sharing is useful if diverse groups of users
would recognize the same data more intuitively under different share names or if
different users require different levels of share permissions for the same folder.
Existing shared folders have a New Share button at the bottom of the Sharing tab,
as shown in Figure 5-13. This button enables you to share the folder again with a
different name and a unique set of properties.
Figure 5-13 The New Share button, which lets you create additional shares
FT05su13
When you click New Share, you simply enter a name and comment, configure
user limits, modify the permissions if necessary, and click OK to create the new
share.
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After you create an additional share, you can choose which share you want to
modify by selecting it from the Share Name drop-down list on the shared folder’s
Properties dialog box, as shown in Figure 5-14. Also notice the addition of the
Remove Share button at the bottom of the Sharing tab, which you can use to
remove a selected share. When only one share name remains for a shared folder,
the Remove Share button is not present. To remove the last share name, you must
stop sharing the folder entirely.
Figure 5-14 The Sharing tab, allowing you to select and modify each share after
you’ve created additional shares
FT05su14
Changing the Share Name of a Shared Folder
You cannot modify the share name of a shared folder. However, you can effectively change the share name by creating a new share name by using one of the
following methods:
■
Stop sharing the folder and then share it again with the new name.
■
Use the New Share button to share the folder again with the new name.
Click the Share Name drop-down list, and select the old name. Click
Remove Share to remove the old name.
If the share has been in existence for some time and users are already using it, you
might want to share the folder again with the new name and also leave the old
name in place. When you are sure that no one is connecting to the old share name
any more, you can remove it.
Hidden Shares
Using a dollar sign ($) at the end of a share name creates a hidden share, which
prevents users who are browsing the network from seeing the share. Users have
to know the name and location of the share to connect to it. The $ is part of the
share name and needs to be specified in the path.
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For example, if you share the folder C:\Private with the share name Private$ on a
computer named Computer1, the user has to use the following path to access the
shared folder:
\\Computer1\Private$
Figure 5-15 illustrates a user connecting to a hidden share by using the Run
option from the Start menu.
Figure 5-15 Connecting to a hidden share
FT05su15
Removing Shared Folders
When network access to a shared folder is no longer needed, you can stop sharing
the folder. When you stop sharing a folder, it does not affect the folder’s contents;
it affects only users’ ability to connect to the folder across the network.
To stop sharing a folder, select the Do Not Share This Folder option on the Sharing tab of the shared folder’s Properties dialog box, and then click the OK button
to continue.
Removing a Shared Folder That Is in Use If any users are
connected to the shared folder when you attempt to stop sharing it, you
will receive a warning message. Pay careful attention to this warning. If a
user is working with files in this folder and you take the share privilege
away from that user, data can be lost. If you receive this message, use
the Computer Management utility to determine who is connected to the
share and then contact that person before you take further action.
CAUTION
Additional Shared Folder Characteristics
Some general characteristics of shared folders to be aware of include the following:
■
By default, the share name is the same as the name of the folder. However, you can change the share name to anything that you think is
appropriate.
■
Use intuitive share names and include comments that will help users
identify the share’s contents.
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■
Do not use spaces in share names if you are working with computers
running Microsoft Windows 95, Windows 98, or Microsoft Windows
3.x clients on the network. Share names with spaces do not display
appropriately when those types of clients are browsing for network
resources.
■
Computers running Microsoft Windows NT, Microsoft Windows 2000,
and Windows XP can recognize 80-character share names; Windows 95
and Windows 98 can recognize 12-character share names; and Microsoft
Windows 3.x and MS-DOS can recognize only share names that follow
the 8.3 naming convention. If you have client computers running previous versions of Windows that support only shorter names, consider
using a naming convention that all the operating systems on the network support.
■
When you copy a shared folder, the shared folder configuration does
not copy with it. The new folder will not be shared.
■
When you move or rename a shared folder, sharing configuration is
lost. You will need to share the folder again after a move or rename
operation.
Controlling Access to Shared Folders
You have just helped a caller create a shared folder on a volume that is formatted
by using NTFS. Now, you need to grant both shared and NTFS permissions so
that only selected users have access to the share. You gather information from the
user who called with the problem, and now you must assist him with setting permissions.
To grant permissions so that only selected users can access the files, you must
know how to control access to shared folders by using permissions. You can protect shared folders by using shared folder permissions or through a combination of shared folder and NTFS permissions. You must understand how shared
folder permissions and NTFS permissions interact to ensure that users have the
proper level of access to application programs and data on the network.
Shared folder permissions are in effect only when a user connects to the shared
folder across the network; they have no effect when the user is accessing a
resource while logged on locally to the computer. This structure is different than
that of NTFS permissions, which are in effect both when the user logs on locally
and when the user accesses the resource across the network.
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Shared Folder Permissions
Shared folder permissions are simple. Unlike NTFS permissions, there is no differentiation between basic and advanced permissions. Shared folder permissions
are described in Table 5-10.
Table 5-10
Shared Folder Permissions
Permission
Allows These Actions
Read
User can view file and folder names, execute applications, open and read data files, view file and
folder attributes, and navigate the folder hierarchy
from the level of the shared folder down
User can perform all actions that are allowed by the
Read permission, create and delete files and folders,
edit files, and change file and folder attributes
User can perform all actions that are allowed by the
Change permission, modify permission assignments, and take ownership
Change
Full Control
You grant shared folder permissions on the folder that is shared. Shared permissions are automatically inherited by all files and folders contained in the shared
folder, and you cannot disable share permission inheritanceæall files and folders
within the shared folder have the same level of share permissions. If you need
varying levels of permissions to files within a shared folder, you have to use a
combination of shared folder and NTFS permissions.
Shared folder permissions are in effect only when users connect to the shared
folder across the network. If a user logs on to a computer locally, the only permissions that take effect are NTFS permissions.
Viewing shared folder permissions
You can view shared folder permissions on the Sharing tab in the Properties dialog box of a shared folder. To view shared folder permissions, follow these steps:
1. In Windows Explorer, locate the folder for which you want to view
shared folder permissions.
2. Right-click the folder, and then select Sharing And Security.
3. Click Permissions to view the Permissions dialog box for the folder,
shown in Figure 5-16. In this case, we are viewing the share permissions of a folder called Data.
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FT05su16
Figure 5-16 Configuring share permissions using the Permissions dialog
box
Notice the shared folder permissions assignment in Figure 5-16. The group
Everyone has been allowed the Full Control permission. This is the default
shared folder permission assigned to all shared folders.
Modifying shared folder permissions
You can add, edit, and remove shared folder permissions from the Permissions
dialog box.
To add shared folder permission assignments, follow these steps:
1. In the Sharing tab of the folder’s Properties dialog box, click Permissions.
2. In the Share Permissions dialog box, click Add.
3. Select the user accounts or groups to which you want to assign permissions, and click OK. You are returned to the Permissions dialog box.
4. The default permissions assignment is Read, as shown in Figure 5-17.
Modify the permissions as necessary, and click OK or Apply.
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Adding user accounts or groups in the Permissions dialog box
and assigning specific permissions
FT05su17
Figure 5-17
Calculating Effective Shared Folder Permissions
The rules for calculating effective shared folder permissions are the same as those
used for NTFS permissions:
■
Allow permissions from all sources are combined, and the user will
receive the highest possible level of permission allowed.
■
Deny permissions override allow permissions.
■
If a user has not been assigned any permission from any sources,
access is denied.
FAT and FAT32 Do Not Support NTFS Permissions Shared
folder permissions are the only way to control network access to
resources on non-NTFS volumes. FAT and FAT32 systems do not have any
local file and folder security features. When determining effective permissions on FAT or FAT32 volumes, you calculate only effective shared folder
permissions.
NOTE
Calculating effective permissions of shared folders on NTFS volumes
When users connect to shared folders that are located on NTFS volumes, share
permissions and NTFS permissions will combine to control the actions that a
user can perform. Determining effective permissions can be somewhat difficult
when both NTFS and shared permissions are involved.
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Calculating effective permissions for resources within a shared folder on an NTFS
partition is a three-step process:
1. Calculate the NTFS effective permissions for the user.
2. Calculate the shared folder effective permissions for the user.
3. Analyze the results of steps 1 and 2, and select the result that is the
more restrictive of the two. This will be the user’s effective permission
for the shared folder.
Table 5-11 illustrates effective permissions calculations for shared folders on
NTFS partitions. In these examples, the user JSmith is a member of the groups
Managers, IT, and Everyone. For simplicity, all permissions specified are allow
permissions.
Table 5-11
Calculating Effective Permissions for Shared Folders on NTFS
Partitions
Example
Number
1
2
3
User or Group
JSmith (user)
Managers
(group)
IT (group)
Everyone
(group)
JSmith (user)
Managers
(group)
IT (group)
Everyone
(group)
JSmith (user)
Managers
(group)
IT (group)
Everyone
(group)
Share Permissions
Allowed
NTFS Permissions
Allowed
Effective
Permissions
(None assigned)
(None assigned)
(None assigned)
Full Control
(None assigned)
(None assigned)
(None assigned)
Read
Read
(None assigned)
(None assigned)
(None assigned)
Read
(None assigned)
(None assigned)
Write
Full Control
Read
(None assigned)
(None assigned)
(None assigned)
Full Control
(None assigned)
Modify
Read
(None assigned)
Modify
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Table 5-11
SUPPORTING WINDOWS XP FILE AND FOLDER ACCESS
Calculating Effective Permissions for Shared Folders on NTFS
Partitions
Example
Number
4
User or Group
JSmith (user)
Managers
(group)
IT (group)
Everyone
(group)
JSmith (user)
Managers
(group)
IT (group)
Everyone
(group)
JSmith (user)
Managers
(group)
IT (group)
Everyone
(group)
5
6
Share Permissions
Allowed
NTFS Permissions
Allowed
Effective
Permissions
(None assigned)
(None assigned)
(None assigned)
Full Control
(None assigned)
(None assigned)
(None assigned)
(None assigned)
Access
Denied
(None assigned)
Full Control
(None assigned)
Read
Full Control
Read
(None assigned)
(None assigned)
Full
Control
(None assigned)
(None assigned)
(None assigned)
(None assigned)
(None assigned)
(None assigned)
(None assigned)
Full Control
Access
Denied
The effective permission calculations in Table 5-11 are as follows:
■
Example 1 The user’s effective share permission is Full Control, and
the effective NTFS permission is Read. The more restrictive of those
two permissions is Read, so it is the effective permission. Even if the
share permissions allow Full Control, the NTFS permissions further
limit access to the resource.
■
Example 2 The user’s effective share permission is Read, and the
effective NTFS permission is Full Control. The more restrictive of those
two permissions is Read, so it is the effective permission. Even if the
NTFS permission is Full Control, the user never has more permission
than the share permissions allow.
■
Example 3 The user’s effective share permission is Full Control, and
the effective NTFS permission to the resource is Modify. (Read and
Modify combine to allow the user the maximum level.) The more
restrictive of the two is Modify, so it is the effective permission. Even if
the share permissions allow Full Control, the NTFS permissions further limit access to the resource.
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■
Example 4 The user’s effective share permission is Full Control, and
the effective NTFS permission is None. The more restrictive of the two
permissions is None, so it is the effective permission and access will be
denied. A user must be assigned permissions to gain access to a
resource.
■
Example 5 The user’s effective share permission is Full Control
(with Read and Full Control combining to give the user the maximum
level), and the effective NTFS permission is Full Control (with Read
and Full Control combining to allow the user the maximum level).
Both permissions are equal (neither is more restrictive), and the effective permission is Full Control.
■
Example 6 The user’s effective share permission is None, and the
effective NTFS permission is Full Control. The more restrictive of the
two permissions is None, so it is the effective permission and access is
denied.
You can assign different levels of NTFS permissions to file and folder resources
within the same shared folder, giving users varying levels of permissions in different areas. You might need to do multiple calculations to get a full picture of the
actions that a user can perform within a single shared folder.
Administrative Shares
Several built-in administrative shares exist on all Windows XP computers. These
shares are created automatically and cannot be unshared through conventional
shared folder administration. The names of these shares all end in $, which
means that they are hidden shares and cannot be viewed when users are browsing for shared folder resources.
The root of each volume is shared as drive_letter$ (that is, C$, D$, E$, and so on).
Members of the Administrators and Power Users groups can connect to these
shares to gain access to the entire volume. Because the shares are hidden, you
must specify the path used to connect to them. For example, to connect to the
root of the C drive on a server named Computer1, from the Start menu, select
Run, and then type \\Computer1\C$ in the Run dialog box.
The following are additional administrative shares:
■
Admin$ The Windows SystemRoot folder is shared as Admin$. This
share allows administrators to connect to the SystemRoot for maintenance purposes without specifically knowing the name of the folder in
which Windows is installed.
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■
Print$ The SystemRoot\System32\spool\drivers folder is shared as
Print$ when the first printer is shared. Client computers automatically
connect to this folder to download print device drivers when connecting to shared printers.
■
IPC$ IPC$ is the share that is used when connections are established to the computer but not to any particular shared resource. For
example, if you connect to a computer by using Computer Management to manage the computer, you are not connecting to a particular
shared folder. Instead, you are connecting to the IPC$ share. Interprocess communication (IPC is a term used to describe connections
between applications that are running on different computers across
the network.
Managing Shared Folders in Computer Management
You can fully manage shared folders in the Computer Management utility. Available shared folder management options are as follows:
■
View a list of all folders that are currently shared
■
Create additional shared folders
■
View and edit the properties of shared folders
■
Remove shared folders
■
View users connected to shared folders
■
Remotely manage shared folders on other computers
Viewing a list of shared folders in Computer Management
You can view all folders that are currently shared in a single location within Computer Management. To view shared folders, follow these steps:
1. Start Computer Management, either by right-clicking My Computer
and selecting Manage, or by selecting it from the Administrative Tools
folder in Control Panel.
2. Expand the System Tools node.
3. Under the System Tools node, expand the Shared Folders node, and
then select the Shares folder. Shared folders are displayed in the details
pane, as shown in Figure 5-18.
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Figure 5-18 Viewing shared folders in Computer Management
Creating new shared folders in Computer Management
You can easily share folders by using Computer Management. To share a folder,
complete the following steps:
1. In Computer Management, right-click the Shares folder (under the
Shared Folders node) and select New File Share.
2. In the Create Shared Folder dialog box, type the path to be shared, the
share name, and the share description. Click Next to continue.
3. If the folder to be shared does not exist, Windows opens a dialog box
asking whether or not you want to create the folder. Click Yes to create
the folder and continue.
4. In the Create Shared Folder dialog box, select the appropriate permissions option and click Finish to create the shared folder.
Viewing and Editing the Properties of Shared Folders in Computer
Management
You can view and edit the properties of any shared folder through Computer
Management by right-clicking the shared folder and selecting Properties. Figure
5-19 shows the Properties dialog box of a shared folder named Public. Notice the
Security tab; you can also manage the NTFS permissions of the folder.
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Figure 5-19
SUPPORTING WINDOWS XP FILE AND FOLDER ACCESS
Using Computer Management to modify the properties of a shared folder
Managing Users Who Are Connected to Shared Folders
To view the users who are connected to the server, expand the Shared Folders
node in Computer Management and then select the Sessions folder. Occasionally,
you might need to disconnect users from the computer so that you can perform
maintenance tasks on hardware or software. To disconnect users from the server,
do one of the following:
■
To disconnect a single user, right-click the user name in the Sessions
folder and then select the Close Session option from the action menu.
■
To disconnect all users from the server, right-click the Sessions folder
and then select the Disconnect All Sessions option from the action
menu.
To view users who have shared files and folders open, select the Open Files
option under the Shared Folders entry, as illustrated in Figure 5-20. The details
pane displays the files and folders that are currently in use on the server. This
information is valuable if you are trying to work with a shared folder or file and
need to know who is currently accessing the resource so that you can ask that
person to disconnect.
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Figure 5-20 Viewing open files and folders by using Computer Management
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Troubleshooting Access to Shared Folders in Windows XP
When you troubleshoot access to shared folders, you must examine several
issues. Most of the time, you should check share permissions first. If the share
permissions are not granted so that the user has at least the Read permission, the
user cannot access the resource. If the folder is on an NTFS volume, examine the
security settings to ensure that the user has proper permissions. Finally, determine whether the share is available. (Has someone disabled sharing on the folder,
or is the computer that is sharing the resource still available on the network?)
SUPPORTING SIMPLE FILE SHARING
Simple File Sharing, as its name implies, is a simplified sharing model that allows
users to easily share folders and files with other local users on the same computer
or with users in a workgroup without configuring NTFS permissions and standard shared folders. Simple File Sharing is the only option on computers running
Windows XP Home Edition. On computers running Windows XP Professional
Edition that are members of a workgroup, you can use Simple File Sharing, or you
can disable Simple File Sharing and use NTFS permissions and shared folders.
On computers running Windows XP Professional Edition that are members of a
domain, Simple File Sharing is not available. As a DST, you will encounter Simple
File Sharing on home computers and on small networks.
Understanding Simple File Sharing
When you create a home office network with Windows XP, Simple File Sharing is
enabled by default. This is exactly what it sounds like: a simple way for home
users to share files on a network. When Simple File Sharing is enabled, users can
share files easily and in just one step.
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With Simple File Sharing, a user can do the following:
■
Share folders with everyone on the network
■
Allow other users who access the folder to view the files, edit the files,
or both
■
Make folders in his or her user profile private
Simple File Sharing does not permit a user to do the following:
■
Prevent specific users and groups from accessing folders
■
Assign folder permissions to specific users and groups
■
View the Security tab of a shared folder’s Properties dialog box
Enabling and Disabling Simple File Sharing
To enable or disable Simple File Sharing or to see whether Simple File Sharing is
in use, follow these steps:
1. From the Start menu, select Control Panel.
2. In Control Panel, select Appearance And Themes and then select
Folder Options.
3. Select the View tab and, under Advanced Settings, scroll down the list
of choices to the last option.
4. Simple File Sharing is enabled if the Use Simple File Sharing (Recommended) check box is selected. To disable it, clear the check box. For
the purposes of this section, verify that it is selected. Click OK.
Sharing a File on the Network
After you have verified that Simple File Sharing is enabled, sharing a folder on the
network is easy. Just follow these steps:
1. Using Windows Explorer, locate the folder you want to share, rightclick it, and choose Sharing And Security.
2. In the Properties dialog box, on the Sharing tab, select the Share This
Folder On The Network check box, which is shown in Figure 5-21.
Notice that a share name is automatically assigned. This is the name
that the users will see when they browse the network for this shared
folder. Change the name if you want to; if the share must be readable to
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earlier operating systems such as MS-DOS and Windows 3.1, the share
name must be 12 characters or fewer.
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Figure 5-21 Sharing a file in one step when Simple File Sharing is enabled
3. To allow others to make changes to the files in the shared folder, select
the Allow Network Users To Change My Files check box and then click
OK.
When sharing a folder on a network in this manner, you give permission for
everyone on the network to access and read the files in the folder. With Simple
File Sharing, you cannot choose who can and cannot access a folder. When you
also choose to allow users to make changes to the files in the shared folder, you
allow them to write to (or make changes to) those files.
Sharing a File with Other Users on the Same Computer
The Sharing tab of a folder’s Properties dialog box also provides an option for
sharing a folder with other users on the same computer. Such a share is called a
local share. In the Local Sharing And Security dialog box, click the Shared Documents link. (You can also open the Shared Documents folder from the My Computer window.) Share a folder with other users on the same computer by
dragging the folder to the Shared Documents folder. Anyone who is logged on to
the workgroup or the local computer can access the Shared Documents folder.
The folder is stored at C:\Documents And Settings\All Users\Documents, as
shown in Figure 5-22. Sharing a folder in this manner works only for workgroups,
however—not domains.
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Figure 5-22 Using the Shared Documents folder to share files on a computer or in a
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workgroup
Making a Folder Private
You can also use the Sharing tab of a folder’s Properties dialog box to make a
folder private. When you make a folder private, only the owner of the folder can
access its contents. You can make folders private only if they are in the user’s personal user profile (and only if the disk is formatted with NTFS). As you learned in
Chapter 3, “Supporting Local Users and Groups,” a user profile defines customized desktop environments. Personal user profile folders include My Documents
and its subfolders Desktop, Start Menu, Cookies, and Favorites.
Simple File Sharing Works with FAT or NTFS Simple File Sharing works on volumes formatted to use the FAT or NTFS file system. However, you can make a folder private only if the volume is formatted with
NTFS.
NOTE
Troubleshooting Simple File Sharing
There are only a few problems that you will run into when troubleshooting shares
that are configured with Simple File Sharing, and they deal with user access to the
shared resource. Assuming that all network connections are functional, all computers and hubs are working properly, and Simple File Sharing is in use, Table 5-12
details some common problems and their solutions.
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Table 5-12
Troubleshooting Simple File Sharing
Scenario/Report
Cause/Solution
A Windows Me user reports that he
cannot access a shared folder.
If the share name is longer than 12
characters, computers running
Microsoft Windows 98 SE, Windows
Me, Windows NT 4.0, or earlier
Microsoft operating systems cannot
access the folder. Rename the share.
On the Sharing tab of the shared
folder, select the Allow Network Users
To Change My Files check box.
An owner of a file reports that users
can access the file but cannot make
changes. The owner wants users to be
able to make changes.
The owner of a file dragged the file to
the Shared Documents folder and
logged off the computer. When others
log on, no one can access or even view
the Shared Documents folders.
A user wants to share a file and assign
specific permissions from the Security
tab. However, the Security tab is not
available.
Users are logging on to a domain.
Users must log on to the workgroup to
access the file.
With Simple File Sharing, the Security
tab is not available. This is by design.
SUPPORTING OFFLINE FILES
Offline files, which increase the availability of network files and folders, are used
primarily by users of portable computers. When files and folders on network
servers are made available offline, users will continue to have access to those
resources even when they are not connected to the network. As a DST, you must
be aware of the procedures for making files available offline and for synchronizing offline content between the client and the server.
Configuring Offline Files on the Server
To use offline files, the following conditions must be met:
1. The shared folder must be made available offline. Windows configures
all shared folders to be available offline by default.
2. You must configure the client computer to use the share as an offline
resource.
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Offline files are available by default on all shared folders. To access the Offline
Files configuration options for a shared folder on the computer that is sharing the
folder, complete the following steps:
1. In Windows Explorer, right-click the shared folder that you want to
make available offline, and then select the Sharing option from the
action menu.
2. Click Caching.
3. In the Caching Settings dialog box, shown in Figure 5-23, in the Setting
drop-down menu, select one of the following options and then click OK:
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❑
The Manual Caching Of Documents option (the default setting) is recommended for folders containing user documents. Users are required
to manually specify which documents will be cached. The server versions of the files are always opened unless the user is working offline.
❑
The Automatic Caching Of Documents option is also recommended
for folders containing user documents. Documents that a user accesses
are automatically cached. Files that the user does not access are not
cached. The server versions of the files are always opened unless the
user is working offline.
❑
The Automatic Caching Of Programs and Documents option is recommended for application programs or read-only data. Files are automatically cached on the client, but changes cannot be copied back to the
network. This effectively provides read-only caching.
Configuring the caching (offline file) settings on the computer
sharing the file
Figure 5-23
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4. If you do not want the files to be available for offline use, clear the
Allow Caching Of Files In This Shared Folder check box.
5. After you have made the desired settings, click OK.
Configuring Offline Files on the Client
Configuring the client for offline files is a two-part process:
1. You must enable the Offline Files feature. After you perform this
action, automatic caching of documents or programs will be supported immediately.
2. For shared folders configured for manual caching, you then must configure the shared folders that you want to have available offline.
To enable the Offline File feature on the client, follow these steps:
1. From the Start menu, select Control Panel.
2. In Control Panel, select Appearance And Themes.
3. In the Appearance And Themes window, select Folder Options.
4. In the Folder Options dialog box, on the Offline Files tab (shown in Figure 5-24), select the Enable Offline Files check box and then click OK.
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Figure 5-24 Enabling offline files on the client
NOTE Offline Files Are Incompatible with Fast User Switching You
must disable Fast User Switching before configuring offline files.
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To make a specific file or folder available offline and enable automatic synchronization with the network, follow these steps:
1. Right-click the shared folder or file that you want to make available
offline, and then select the Make Available Offline option.
2. In the Offline Files Wizard’s Welcome page, click Next.
3. Select the Automatically Synchronize The Offline Files When I Log On
And Log Off My Computer check box, as shown in Figure 5-25, and
click Next.
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Figure 5-25 Enabling automatic synchronization of offline files
4. Optionally, you can enable reminders and create a shortcut to the
Offline Files folder on your desktop, as displayed in Figure 5-26. Click
Finish. The files will be synchronized to your computer.
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Figure 5-26 Enabling reminder balloons for offline files
Files with extensions that are associated with certain database applications initially cannot be cached. By default, the following file types cannot be cached:
*.slm; *.mdb; *.ldb; *.mdw; *.mde; *.pst; *.db
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Accessing Offline Files
When you make network resources available offline, Windows automatically copies them to the computer’s local hard disk drive, along with a reference to the
original network path. Windows stores offline files and information about the
files in a database in the SystemRoot\CSC folder. (CSC is an acronym for clientside caching, which is another name for offline files.) The database emulates the
network resource when it is offline.
When a user works offline, he or she continues to access offline resources as if
connected to the network, but the user is actually using the local copy of the file.
When the network share becomes available again, the client will switch from the
local offline files to the live files automatically, provided that the following conditions are met:
■
The user does not have any files currently open from that network
share.
■
Synchronization is not required for any offline files in the share.
■
The user is not connecting to the network over a slow link.
If any of these conditions are not met, the user will continue to work with the
offline version of the share until all files are closed and synchronization occurs.
Users have the same permissions to the locally stored versions of offline files as
they do to the original network versions.
Synchronizing Offline Files
By default, synchronization of offline files is configured to happen at logoff, when
offline files are initially made available on the client. You can reconfigure or manually launch synchronization by using Synchronization Manager. You can access
Synchronization Manager in the following ways:
■
From the Start menu, select All Programs, Accessories, and then
Synchronize.
■
From the Tools menu in Windows Explorer, select Synchronize.
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Figure 5-27 shows Synchronization Manager. You can force synchronization of
any offline item by selecting the item and clicking Synchronize.
Figure 5-27 Choosing an item to synchronize manually
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Clicking Setup in the Items To Synchronize dialog box opens the Synchronization Settings dialog box, depicted in Figure 5-28. You can configure synchronization to run at logon, at logoff, or after a certain amount of idle time has passed.
You can also schedule it to run whenever you choose. You can control these configuration options separately for each network connection.
For example, you can configure different synchronization settings for a dial-up
connection and for a local area network (LAN) connection. This can be useful for
users who travel because you can limit the amount of synchronization that occurs
over a slow dial-up link.
Notice the Ask Me Before Synchronizing The Items option at the bottom of the figure. This is another way that you can give the user control over file synchronization.
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Figure 5-28 Configuring synchronization settings
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Troubleshooting Offline File Access and Synchronization
Issues
Resolving issues with offline file access and synchronization typically involves
determining whether there is a connectivity problem between the computer and
the server or with the user account that is currently logged on. To resolve connectivity problems between the local computer and the server where the original files
are stored, refer to Chapter 10, “Supporting Network Connectivity.” If the user
has logged on by using an account that is different from the account that was
used to create the offline files, no synchronization occurs. The offline files are not
accessible to the user until the user has logged on with the proper credentials.
File Conflicts
Normally, the network version of a file is modified only when the user is working
online. If the user is working offline, the local versions are modified and then
uploaded to the server during synchronization. If Synchronization Manager
detects that the network version of the file has been modified while a user was
offline, the user is given the following options:
■
Keep Both Versions Saves the local version to the network with a
different file name (username vX).doc
■
Keep Only The Version On My Computer Saves the local version
to the network
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Keep Only The Network Version Copies the network version to
the local offline file cache
Be careful when making shared data files available offline. If many users are sharing the same offline file and they all have the ability to make modifications to it,
issues can arise when the files are synchronized to the network.
Deleting offline files and folders from the cache
When files are deleted normally from a network share, they will be removed from
the offline files folder (SystemRoot\CSC) as well. However, if you want to delete
the offline versions of files and folders without deleting the network versions, you
can follow these steps:
1. Open the Folder Options dialog box.
2. In the Offline Files tab, select View Files.
3. Select the files to be deleted.
4. From the File menu, select Delete.
If you manually delete cached files in this manner, Windows does not automatically cache the files again; you have to reselect them for caching.
Do Not Delete Offline Files Directly Do not delete offline
files directly from the SystemRoot\CSC folder because deleting them can
cause the synchronization process to cache the files again automatically.
CAUTION
In some cases, you might need to reinitialize the cache to relieve synchronization
errors. To do that, follow these steps:
1. Open the Folder Options dialog box.
2. Select the Offline Files tab.
3. Press CTRL+SHIFT and then click Delete Files.
4. Restart the computer.
You must restart the computer to complete the initialization of the cache. All
offline files are permanently removed from the computer during this process, and
they cannot be recovered.
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SUMMARY
■
File compression reduces the amount of disk space required for the
storage of files and increases the amount of information that you can
place on a single volume. This is useful on a volume that is running low
on available disk space. Windows XP Professional Edition supports file
compression on NTFS volumes only. (Windows XP Home Edition
does not support file compression.)
■
In Windows XP Professional Edition, you can protect files and folders
by using the Encrypting File System (EFS). (EFS is not available in
Windows XP Home Edition.) EFS encodes your files so that even if a
person can obtain the file, he or she cannot read it.
■
Disk quotas allow you to track and control disk space usage. You can
enable disk quotas strictly for the purpose of monitoring how much
disk space each user is consuming, or you can take the additional step
to configure and enforce quota limits.
■
Basic file and folder permissions include: List Folder Contents, Read,
Write, Read & Execute, Modify, and Full Control. You should grant the
user the lowest level of permission required to access the resources in
the appropriate fashion. For each permission, you can choose one of
two states: allow or deny. When you deny a permission, that denial
overrides any allowances of the same permission that might come
from other sources.
■
To create shared folders on a computer running Windows XP Professional Edition, you must be a member of the Administrators or Power
Users groups. Also, users granted the Create Permanent Shared
Objects user right can also share folders. When shared and NTFS permissions are applied, the cumulative permissions of both are determined, and the most restrictive of those permissions create the user’s
effective permission.
■
Simple File Sharing is a simplified sharing model that allows users to
easily share folders and files with other local users on the same computer or with users in a workgroup without having to worry about configuring NTFS permissions and standard shared folders. Windows XP
Home Edition supports only Simple File Sharing. Windows XP Professional Edition supports Simple File Sharing in a workgroup setting,
but not when a computer is a member of a domain.
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When files and folders on network servers are made available offline,
users will continue to have access to those resources even when they are
not connected to the network. All shared folders are available offline by
default, although you can control the caching settings available or disable offline access. Offline files are synchronized at logon and logoff by
default, although you can also initiate a manual synchronization.
REVIEW QUESTIONS
1. There are many ways to access the Folder Options dialog box. Which
of the following are valid examples?
a. In Windows Explorer, click Tools, and click Folder Options.
b. In the My Documents folder, click Tools, and click Folder
Options.
c. In Control Panel, open Folder Options.
d. In My Computer, click Tools, and click Folder Options.
e. From the All Programs list, under Accessories, click Folder
Options.
2. Which of the following allows you to open a file with an unknown file
type? (Choose two.)
a. Install the application used to create the file, and then open the
file in that program.
b. Register the file type in the Folder Options dialog box, and associate it with a program already installed on the computer that has
the capability to open the file.
c. Use the Web to determine which programs can be used to open
the file.
d. Register the file type, and allow Windows to choose a program to
open the file with.
3. One of your users has a computer running Windows XP Professional
Edition at her office and a portable computer running Windows XP
Home Edition. She copies the contents of an encrypted folder to her
portable computer, which she then takes home with her. At home, her
son often needs to use her computer, so she configured a separate user
account for him. She calls you to say that her son can access the contents of the encrypted folder even when logging on using his own
account. What should you tell her?
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4. List the basic folder and file permissions.
5. A user wants to configure NTFS permissions on a folder that contains
personal information. Following your instructions, the user opens the
Properties dialog box for the folder in Windows XP, but he does not see
a Security tab. What might this situation indicate?
6. You are moving a folder named Old to a folder named New on the
same volume. The volume is formatted using NTFS. Which of the following is true?
a. The permissions on the folder named Old remain intact.
b. The folder named Old inherits the permissions of the folder
named New.
c. All permissions on the folder named Old are lost.
d. The permissions on the folder named Old revert to the default
permissions for a new folder.
7. Which of the following built-in groups in Windows XP Professional
Edition have the permissions to create shared folders by default?
a. Administrators
b. Backup Operators
c. Power Users
d. Users
8. One of your users is a sales executive with a folder named Customers
on her computer, and she wants to share the folder with other sales
executives on the network. She understands that she can secure the
folder by assigning permission to access the folder to only the appropriate users. However, she prefers that other users on the network not even
see the folder when they browse My Network Places on their computers. What would you name the share for this folder so that it is hidden?
a. Customers#
b. #Customers
c. Customers$
d. $Customers
9. You receive a call from a user who manages a small business network.
The business has 10 computers on a network, all running Windows XP
Professional Edition and all members of the same workgroup. One of
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the computers has several folders on it that the manager shares on the
network, but there are certain folders that the manager does not want
anyone else to access—not even other users on the same computer. The
manager right-clicks the folder and selects Properties. You ask her to
switch to the Sharing tab and select the Make This Folder Private check
box. She says the option is there, but she cannot select it. The option is
dimmed. What is the likely problem?
10. List the caching options that are available when you make a shared
folder available offline on the computer sharing the file.
11. List the steps that you must take to use offline files on a client computer.
12. When does Windows synchronize offline files by default?
a. At logon
b. At logoff
c. During idle time on the computer
d. Only when you initiate synchronization manually
CASE SCENARIOS
Scenario 5-1: Supporting Compression and Disk Quotas
A user has a user home folder on a server named DATA. The administrator has
assigned the user a 100 MB disk quota on the volume that contains the home
folder. The user notices in My Computer that he is running low on disk space in
his home folder. In an attempt to recover some space, he compresses all files in
the home folder. However, after the compression, he does not notice an increase
in available disk space. Why is this the case?
Scenario 5-2: Working with Simple File Sharing
A user in a small, three-employee office has just purchased a new computer running Windows XP and has configured a network by using a four-port hub. She
connected her three existing computers running Windows 98 and her new computer running Windows XP, and then she used the Network Setup Wizard on the
computer running Windows XP to create the network. She reports that she made
no other changes. After sharing a few folders, she reports that everyone on the
network can view and make changes to her shared files. She wants the users on
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her network to be able to view the files only, not edit or change them. What
should you tell the owner to do? (Choose all that apply.)
1. Disable Simple File Sharing.
2. Convert the file system of the Windows XP computer to NTFS.
3. Clear the Allow Users To Change My Files check box on the Sharing
tab of each shared folder.
4. Drag the shared folders to the Shared Documents folder.
5. Upgrade all the computers to Windows XP.
CHAPTER 6
INSTALLING AND
MANAGING HARDWARE
Upon completion of this chapter, you will be able to:
■ Install hardware in a Microsoft Windows XP system
■ Use Windows XP hardware troubleshooting tools
■ Manage device drivers in a Windows XP system
■ Perform general hardware troubleshooting
Problems with the installation, configuration, and maintenance of hardware
devices account for a significant number of the issues that you will face as a desktop support technician (DST). Supporting and troubleshooting hardware means
installing and configuring devices, keeping device drivers updated to ensure optimal operation, solving hardware problems, and removing devices when they are
no longer connected to the computer.
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INSTALLING HARDWARE
Installing new hardware on a computer is typically a three-step process. First, you
must physically connect the hardware device to the computer. Second, you must
install the device in Windows, which usually means installing hardware drivers
and any other software that is used to control the device. Third, you must test the
device to make sure that it works as you expect. This section focuses on installing
hardware in Windows XP.
Installing Hardware in Windows XP
It is easier to install hardware in Windows XP than it is in any previous version of
Windows. Support for Plug and Play devices that largely configure themselves
and the inclusion of more hardware drivers than ever before with Windows XP
means that users are more comfortable installing hardware themselves. However,
there are still many details that you must get right, and often users will call on you
to help them install and configure new hardware.
To install any new hardware, you must perform the following general steps:
1. Connect the device to the computer. Sometimes, this means opening
the computer case and adding new memory or an expansion card.
Other times, it simply means plugging a new device into an external
port and turning the device on.
2. Install the device drivers and other software in Windows so that the
operating system can recognize and communicate with the device.
Windows XP might already have the necessary drivers, or you might
need to supply them.
3. Test the new device to make sure that it works properly and does not
interfere with other devices on the computer.
Read the Manuals Although the previous steps are accurate
most of the time, you will occasionally encounter a device that requires a
different method. For example, some devices require that you first install
the drivers and software for the device and then connect the device to
the computer. You should always read the manufacturer’s instructions
before installing a hardware device. If you are troubleshooting a device for
a user, ask the user to locate the instructions and tell you how he or she
installed the device.
NOTE
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Understanding Plug and Play Devices
Plug and Play is a set of specifications that is used to design and build devices that
install with little or no user intervention. Windows XP Professional Edition contains comprehensive Plug and Play support, but it is reliant on the hardware, device
drivers, and the basic input/output system (BIOS) to provide full functionality.
Installing Plug and Play devices is usually straightforward. When the device is
connected to the computer, Windows XP detects it, installs any necessary drivers,
and automatically configures the device. Windows makes sure that there are no
resource conflicts between the new device and other Plug and Play devices on the
computer.
Plug and Play Support in Windows XP Windows XP Plug and
Play support works optimally on computers that use the Advanced Configuration and Power Interface (ACPI), which is covered in detail in Chapter
7, “Supporting Display Devices, I/O Devices, and ACPI.” Windows supports
the use of Plug and Play devices on older computers that use Advanced
Power Management (APM) or Plug and Play BIOS, but a computer must
have ACPI to support the full scope of Plug and Play features.
NOTE
The level of Plug and Play support for any device depends on both the device and
the device drivers. If the device supports Plug and Play but the driver does not (or
vice versa), the device presents itself as a non–Plug and Play device to the operating system. This can result in a loss of functionality.
If you connect a new hardware device to a computer running Windows XP Professional Edition and the device is not automatically recognized, the device is
most likely to be one of two types:
■
A Plug and Play device that Windows does not recognize
automatically Windows XP does not recognize some Plug and Play
devices until you either restart the computer or run the Add Hardware
Wizard (discussed in the next section).
■
A Non–Plug and Play device Non–Plug and Play devices do not
contain Plug and Play functionality at all. If you install a non–Plug and
Play device, you must run the Add Hardware Wizard and manually
install the device driver. It is your responsibility to ensure that the hardware resource settings for non–Plug and Play devices do not conflict
with any other devices on the computer. Windows XP does not configure non–Plug and Play devices automatically.
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Installing Hardware by Using the Add Hardware Wizard
As a DST supporting Windows XP, you will find that the vast majority of devices you
encounter are likely to be Plug and Play devices, which makes your job a lot easier.
However, if you are supporting computers with older devices or older computers
that have been upgraded to Windows XP, you might run into non–Plug and Play
devices that require a little more effort to install than simply connecting the device.
You can use the Add Hardware Wizard to install and configure non–Plug and
Play devices and Plug and Play devices that have been recently connected to the
system (but that were not detected automatically for whatever reason). You can
also use the Add Hardware Wizard to access Windows XP troubleshooting tools
for all installed hardware.
Adding a device by using the Add Hardware Wizard
To install a new device by using the Add Hardware Wizard, follow these steps:
1. From the Start menu, select Control Panel.
2. In the Control Panel window, select Printers And Other Hardware.
3. In the Printers And Other Hardware window, in the See Also list, select
Add Hardware to start the Add Hardware Wizard. After reading the
Welcome To The Add Hardware Wizard page, click Next.
4. The wizard searches the system for new devices and then asks whether
the new hardware is attached to the computer, as shown in Figure 6-1.
Select Yes, I Have Already Connected The Hardware, and then click Next.
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Figure 6-1 Specifying whether or not you have already connected the
hardware device
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5. The Add Hardware Wizard displays a list of the hardware it detected,
as shown in Figure 6-2. Scroll down the list to see whether you can
locate the device that you want to install.
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Figure 6-2
The Add Hardware Wizard displaying a list of detected hardware
6. If you find the device in the list, select the device and click Next. The
Wizard displays the current status of the device, as shown in
Figure 6-3.
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Figure 6-3 The Add Hardware Wizard detecting a device and showing its
status
7. If your device is not listed in the Installed Hardware window in step 6
(shown in Figure 6-2), scroll to the bottom of the list and choose Add
A New Hardware Device, as shown in Figure 6-4. Click Next.
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Figure 6-4 Using the Add A New Hardware Device option if the device is
not detected
8. The wizard offers to help you install other hardware, as shown in
Figure 6-5. You can choose one of two options:
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❑
You can have the wizard search for and install the hardware device
automatically. If you choose this option and the wizard finds the
appropriate device and drivers, the installation finishes. If the wizard
fails to find any new hardware, it informs you that the detection has
failed and prompts you to choose the device from a list.
❑
You can also skip the automatic detection and install the device manually by selecting the device from a list. The remainder of this procedure
assumes that you are choosing the device from this list.
Figure 6-5 Choosing whether to perform an automatic search or to select
a device manually
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9. Whether you choose from the outset to select a device from a list of
available hardware devices or whether you are forced to choose from
the list because the Add Hardware Wizard cannot detect a new device,
the process from this point is the same. The wizard displays a page with
a list of device types for you to choose from, as shown in Figure 6-6.
Select the correct category for your type of hardware and then click Next.
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Figure 6-6 Choosing from a list of device types
10. Next, the Add Hardware Wizard displays a list of hardware manufacturers for the chosen device type in a column on the left and the different models that the selected manufacturer offers on the right, as shown
in Figure 6-7. When you select a manufacturer from the list on the left,
the list on the right is updated to include only the drivers that are available for that manufacturer’s devices. If the device you are trying to
install appears in this list, select it and then click Next to continue.
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Figure 6-7 Choosing the manufacturer and model of the device
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11. If the Add Hardware Wizard cannot locate the installation files, you are
prompted for the location of the necessary drivers. If the device you are
installing does not appear anywhere in the list, you must click Have
Disk and provide the path to the drivers.
NOTE Use the Latest Version of Drivers It is a good idea to
install the latest version of any device driver. The drivers that ship
with Windows XP are current as of the release date of the installation CD. Microsoft also updates the driver.cab file with new drivers
each time they release a new service pack. If the device you are
installing comes with a newer Windows XP–compatible driver, choose
the Have Disk option and install the new driver, rather than using
the driver from the Windows XP installation CD.
12. When the installation and configuration processes are complete, the
wizard displays the Completion page. If prompted, click Finish and
restart your computer.
Restarting the Computer In some cases, Windows XP prompts
you to restart the computer after a configuration change. It is not
always necessary to restart immediately. If you are in the process of
making several changes that will require restarting, you can try performing all the changes and then restarting only once.
NOTE
SUPPORTING AND TROUBLESHOOTING HARDWARE
Windows XP provides many tools for managing and troubleshooting a computer.
The key tools that are used for troubleshooting hardware problems include the
System Information and Device Manager utilities, and various Windows troubleshooters that can walk you through the troubleshooting process.
Using the System Information Tool
System Information allows you to view a vast amount of Windows XP configuration information. The majority of this information is available in other utilities,
but System Information consolidates it into a single source. You can easily document a system’s current configuration by printing the information that is in System Information or by saving the information to a file.
You can launch System Information in one of two ways:
■
From the Start menu, select All Programs, Accessories, System Tools,
and then System Information.
■
Type msinfo32.exe in the Run dialog box.
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When you first open the System Information window, you might experience a
delay while the utility scans your system for the most current configuration information. After the scan is complete, a System Summary (shown in Figure 6-8) displays general information about the system, including the operating system
version, computer name, processor type, BIOS version, and memory statistics.
Figure 6-8 The detailed summary of a system found in System Information
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In addition to viewing the System Summary, you can also find more detailed
information in several categories, including the following:
■
Hardware Resources Expanding the Hardware Resources node displays resources that are in use, including interrupt requests (IRQs),
Input/Output (I/O) addresses, direct memory access (DMA), and
memory addresses. You can also view conflicts and shared resources.
System Information allows you only to view this information; to
change resource assignments, you must use Device Manager.
■
Components Expanding the Components node displays a summary of the hardware components that are on the system and their
associated settings.
■
Software Environment Expanding the Software Environment node
displays device driver status, environment variables, processes that are
currently running, service status, and programs that load automatically at startup.
■
Internet Settings Expanding the Internet Settings node displays
many configuration settings that are related to Microsoft Internet
Explorer. Other available information includes cipher strength, cached
objects, and security configuration information.
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Saving System Information
You can save the report that is displayed by System Information. Saving a report
provides a way to document a system’s condition at a specific point, which often
is useful in troubleshooting. Also, if you have previously saved a baseline configuration of the system (a snapshot of the system when it is performing properly),
you can compare the baseline information with the information at the point at
which the system experiences problems and potentially determine what changes
have occurred to the system that could have contributed to the problem.
You can save the System Information report to a file in one of two ways:
■
The Save command on the File menu saves the information to a System
Information file (.nfo). Only the System Information utility can read
these files. You can open, view, and print them at any time.
■
The Export command on the File menu saves information to a text file,
which you can then view or print from any text editor.
Be Patient Extracting the volume of information from the system that is required to create either an .nfo or .txt file in System Information takes several minutes and might consume a noticeable amount of
system resources during the export process.
NOTE
Using the System Information Tools Menu
The Tools menu in System Information provides shortcuts to many other system
and troubleshooting utilities. Table 6-1 lists these tools and alternate methods of
accessing the tools.
Table 6-1
Tools Available Through System Information
Tool
Use
Net
Diagnostics
Gathers information about
your computer to help troubleshoot network-related
problems. For more information, see Chapter 10,
“Supporting Network
Connectivity.”
Alternate Method of Accessing
the Tool
From the Start menu, select
Help And Support. In the Pick
A Task section of the Help And
Support Center window, select
Use Tools To View Your Computer Information And Diagnose Problems. From the list
of tools, select Network
Diagnostics.
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Table 6-1
INSTALLING AND MANAGING HARDWARE
Tools Available Through System Information
Tool
Use
System
Restore
Creates restore points by
saving Windows configuration information. You can
revert to a previous restore
point to restore important
configurations.
Scans hardware drivers on a
computer and displays any
unsigned drivers. See the
section, “Supporting and
Troubleshooting Device
Drivers,” later in this chapter.
Displays information about
and lets you troubleshoot
the DirectX graphics engine.
Traps program faults so that
you can troubleshoot program errors.
File Signature
Verification
Utility
DirectX
Diagnostic
Tool
Dr. Watson
Alternate Method of Accessing
the Tool
On the Start menu, select All
Programs, then Accessories,
then System Tools, and then
System Restore.
Type sigverif.exe at the command prompt or in the Run
dialog box.
Type dxdiag.exe at the command prompt or in the Run
dialog box.
Type drwtsn32.exe at the
command prompt or in the
Run dialog box.
MORE INFO Using Dr. Watson For detailed information on using
Dr. Watson to troubleshoot program errors, see the Microsoft Knowledge
Base article 308538, “Description of the Dr. Watson for Windows
(Drwtsn32.exe) Tool.”
Using Device Manager
Device Manager, shown in Figure 6-9, displays all installed devices and provides
an environment for managing those devices. Device manager allows you to perform the following types of tasks:
■
View current device settings
■
Reconfigure device settings
■
Scan for hardware changes
■
Enable/disable devices
■
Remove devices
■
Troubleshoot devices
■
View the names of the device driver files
■
Update device drivers
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Figure 6-9 Device Manager, a central interface for managing hardware devices
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You can access Device Manager in the following ways:
■
Select Performance And Maintenance in Control Panel, select the System tool, and then click the Device Manager button on the Hardware
tab of the System Properties dialog box.
■
Right-click My Computer and then select Properties. Click the Device
Manager button on the Hardware tab of the System Properties dialog
box.
■
Right-click My Computer and then select Manage. Expand the System
Tools node and then select Device Manager.
Changing Views in Device Manager
You can change the view in Device Manager by selecting a command from the
View menu. Device Manager offers the following views:
■
Devices By Type This is the default view. Devices are organized by
device type such as display adapters, keyboards, modems, and network adapters.
■
Devices By Connection This view organizes devices by how they
are connected to the computer. This view is useful if you want to see all
the devices that are connected to a Peripheral Component Interconnect (PCI) bus or see how devices are linked together in a universal
serial bus (USB) chain.
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■
Resources By Type This view is organized by the four major
resource types—DMA channels, I/O port addresses, IRQs, and memory
addresses. Expanding a resource type displays devices that are using
that resource and details on resource allocation.
■
Resources By Connection This view is also organized according to
the four major resource types. Within each resource type, devices are
organized by the way they are connected.
Device Manager hides some devices by default. For example, Device Manager
hides printers because you typically manage them by using the Printers And
Faxes folder. Device Manager also hides many non–Plug and Play devices that
you normally would not need to configure and devices that were connected to the
computer at one time but are not currently connected. To view hidden devices in
Device Manager, from the View menu, select Show Hidden Devices.
Identifying Devices in Device Manager
The icon that Device Manager displays next to each device indicates the device’s
type. When a device is working normally, a standard icon appears. However,
when a specific condition exists for a device (such as being disabled), Device
Manager overlays the device’s icon with a symbol. Device Manager uses the following symbols on device icons to denote particular conditions:
■
Yellow exclamation point Indicates a problem with a device. This
could mean that the device has a resource conflict or that Windows is
unable to locate the device.
■
Red “x”
■
Blue lowercase “i” Indicates that the device has been configured
manually. This icon is viewable only in the Resources By Type and
Resources By Connection views.
■
Yellow question mark Indicates that Windows recognizes that a
device is present but cannot determine the correct device type. This
usually means that drivers have not yet been installed for the device.
Indicates that the device is disabled.
Viewing and Modifying Device Properties
In Device Manager, you can access the Properties dialog box of any device either
by double-clicking the device or by right-clicking the device and selecting Properties. Figure 6-10 shows the Properties dialog box of a typical network adapter. The
tabs available in a device’s Properties dialog box vary depending on the device
being examined.
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Figure 6-10
A device’s Properties dialog box, which provides tools for configuring the
device
The standard tabs that you encounter on the Properties dialog boxes for hardware devices include the following:
■
General tab The General tab shows basic information about the
device, such as device type and manufacturer. The Device Status section lets you know that the device is working properly and provides
access to the Windows Troubleshooter for the device. You can also
enable or disable the device from this tab.
■
Driver tab The Driver tab shows details about the driver currently
installed for the device and provides tools for managing the driver.
Drivers are covered in the section “Supporting and Troubleshooting
Device Drivers,” later in this chapter.
■
Resources tab The Resources tab shows the system resources used
by the device. Managing resources is covered in the section “Resource
Assignments” later in this chapter.
■
Device-specific tabs Most devices also feature tabs for viewing and
configuring device-specific settings. The options available on these
tabs vary widely according to the type of device that you are working
with. The names of these tabs also vary with the type of device. For
example, network adapters have a tab named Advanced (shown in Figure 6-10), whereas modems have a tab named Modem.
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INSTALLING AND MANAGING HARDWARE
Resource Assignments
Windows XP Professional Edition automatically handles the assignment of
resources to Plug and Play devices, but you can manipulate resource assignments
on some Plug and Play devices. Non–Plug and Play devices generally require that
you manually configure resource assignments, including DMA channels, I/O port
address, IRQs, and memory addresses.
The Resources tab, shown in Figure 6-11, lets you configure the hardware
resources that are assigned to the device. The Conflicting Device List notifies you
if any other devices are configured to use the same resources. This list makes it
easier to troubleshoot resource conflicts.
Figure 6-11 Managing resources by using the Resources tab
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Occasionally, you might run into situations in which two devices are requesting
the same resource. To remedy the situation, you must use Device Manager to
identify the conflict, determine what resources are currently available, and try to
reconfigure one of the devices to eliminate the conflict.
Hardware manufacturers limit the settings that you can configure for each
required resource. For example, a particular non–Plug and Play network card
might permit you to configure only an IRQ value of 3 or 10. If both of those IRQ
values were in use, you would need to reconfigure the device that is using either an
IRQ value of 3 or 10 to free up that resource and then assign it to the network card.
Device Manager’s Resources By Type view (configurable from the View menu) is
useful for determining which devices are using which resources and which
resources are currently available. Figure 6-12 displays the Resources By Type view.
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The Resources By Type view, which is useful for troubleshooting resource
conflicts on non–Plug and Play devices
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Figure 6-12
NOTE Using Automatic Resource Assignments Plug and Play
devices have a Use Automatic Settings option, which allows Windows XP
to determine the resource assignments for the device. Unless you have a
compelling reason to do otherwise, you should always choose Use Automatic Settings if the option is available. This allows the operating system
to ensure that resource assignments do not conflict.
Scanning for Hardware Changes
Windows XP detects and installs most Plug and Play devices without requiring
any configuration by the user. Windows might not automatically detect some
Plug and Play devices. Although you can force Windows to detect such devices by
restarting Windows or by running the Add Hardware Wizard, you can also initiate the detection process by right-clicking the computer name in Device Manager and selecting Scan For Hardware Changes. Scanning for hardware changes
in Device Manager is equivalent to the hardware search performed by the Add
Hardware Wizard.
Removing and Disabling Devices
You can remove a device in Device Manager by right-clicking the device and
then selecting Uninstall. If you remove a Plug and Play device from Windows by
using Device Manager, but do not physically disconnect the device from the
computer, Windows will automatically detect and install the device again the
next time you restart the computer. If you want to leave a Plug and Play device
connected to the computer, but do not want it to be initialized, disable the
device instead of removing it.
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You disable a device in Device Manager by right-clicking the device and then
selecting Disable. Device Manager overlays a red x on the device icon to indicate
a disabled state. Disabling a device makes the device temporarily unavailable. The
device driver and all configuration information are still present; the device is simply not activated. A disabled device does not consume any system resources. If
two devices in a system are experiencing a resource conflict, disabling one of the
devices will resolve the conflict. However, if both devices are required and should
not be disabled, you will need to take further action to remove the conflict so that
both devices can be accessible simultaneously.
Right-click a disabled device in Device Manager and then select Enable to enable
the device. You can also enable and disable devices by using the General tab of
the Properties dialog box for a device.
Safely Removing Hot-Plugged Devices
A hot-plugged device is one that you can connect or disconnect while a computer
is running. Most PC Card (PCMCIA), USB, and FireWire (IEEE 1394) devices fall
into this category.
Some hot-plugged devices require the extra step of stopping the device in Windows
before you can safely disconnect it from the computer. If any connected devices
require safe removal, the Safely Remove Hardware icon appears in the notification
area of the taskbar. Double-click this icon to open the Safely Remove Hardware dialog box, as shown in Figure 6-13. Select the device you want to disconnect and then
click Stop. Windows notifies you when it is safe to disconnect the device.
Figure 6-13 Using the Safely Remove Hardware dialog box to stop a device before disconnecting it
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The practice of disconnecting a device that requires safe removal without first
stopping the device is referred to as a surprise removal. If the device is being
accessed in any way when it is disconnected, Windows might react unpredictably.
If the device is a hard disk with write caching enabled, for example, data in the
cache that has not yet been saved to disk will be lost.
Using Windows Troubleshooters
Windows Troubleshooters are a special type of help file available in the Windows
XP Help And Support Center. Troubleshooters help you pinpoint problems and
identify solutions by asking a series of questions and then providing you with
detailed troubleshooting information based on your responses to those questions.
Troubleshooters provide support for hardware and software issues. When you
are troubleshooting problems with a specific device, the easiest way to access an
appropriate troubleshooter is to click the Troubleshoot button on the General tab
of the device’s Properties dialog box in Device Manager. Figure 6-14 displays a
generic hardware Troubleshooter.
Figure 6-14 Troubleshooters for walking through potential solutions to a problem
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In addition to using Troubleshooters yourself to help solve problems, you should
also teach users how to access them. Often, users can identify and solve minor
problems themselves with pointers in the right direction.
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Access the full list of Troubleshooters by following these steps:
1. From the Start menu, select Help And Support.
2. In the Help And Support Center window, select the Fixing A
Problem link.
3. In the Fixing A Problem section, select Troubleshooting Problems.
4. In the Troubleshooting Problems list, select List of Troubleshooters.
Use Troubleshooters as a Learning Tool You can use Troubleshooters to practice and enhance your troubleshooting skills and to look
for answers to common problems. The Troubleshooters work through the
problem-solving process as you should, suggesting obvious solutions first
and then moving on to more complex ones. Take the time to work through
the available Troubleshooters, and you can learn a lot about troubleshooting hardware in Windows XP.
NOTE
Troubleshooting General Hardware Problems
You can use Device Manager to identify devices that are not functioning correctly,
either because the device is not properly configured or because it has become
inoperable. You might receive an error when the system starts up that sends you
to Device Manager to troubleshoot the problem, or you might simply notice a loss
of functionality. When you open Device Manager, devices that are experiencing
problems are identified with either a yellow exclamation point or a red x icon.
If a device is not functioning, consider the following:
■
Verify that the device is plugged in and turned on.
■
Verify that the device is listed on the Hardware Compatibility List (HCL).
■
If the device has been functioning for a time and suddenly stops functioning, determine whether there have been any configuration changes
to the system. If changes have occurred, look for potential conflicts
associated with new hardware or software. If there have not been any
configuration changes (hardware or software), most likely the device
drivers have become corrupted and need to be updated, or else the
device is physically damaged in some way and needs to be repaired or
replaced.
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■
Make sure that you are using the latest version of the device drivers.
You can use the Drivers tab in the device properties to update device
drivers to the most current version. You will learn more about working
with drivers in the following section, “Supporting and Troubleshooting
Device Drivers.”
■
Consider shutting Windows down and turning the computer off. This
action causes all hardware to reinitialize and all device drivers to
reload, potentially eliminating a transient problem.
■
In some cases, you might need to update the firmware on a device.
(Firmware is a set of software instructions written onto read-only memory [ROM] on a device.) If there is a firmware update for the device,
attempt to apply it to see whether the problem is corrected.
■
Move the device to another slot or port on the system to determine
whether the slot or port is malfunctioning.
■
If you suspect a physical device malfunction, install a known good
replacement for the device that is configured in the same fashion and
determine whether the replacement device functions. If it does, the
original device is most likely damaged and needs to be replaced.
■
If you have installed a device driver that is causing the system to crash,
attempt to boot into safe mode and update or remove the driver. If you
are unable to boot into safe mode, try the Last Known Good Configuration. If both of these methods fail, use the Recovery Console. The
Recovery Console’s Disable command will disable a driver, enabling
the system to boot properly so that the driver can be updated or
removed.
SUPPORTING AND TROUBLESHOOTING DEVICE
DRIVERS
Hardware drivers are software that govern the interactions between Windows
and a hardware device. As a DST, part of your job will be to ensure that drivers are
reliable and up to date. Device Manager provides a simple method of viewing and
updating drivers for any device in the system. Windows XP also supports driver
signing, which provides a method to verify that Microsoft has tested the designated device drivers for reliability.
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Understanding the Driver.cab File
Drivers that ship with Windows XP are stored on the installation CD in a single
cabinet file called Driver.cab. Windows XP Setup copies this file to the SystemRoot\Driver Cache\x86 folder on the local hard disk during installation. Windows
uses this file during and after installation to install drivers when new hardware is
detected. This process helps by ensuring that users do not have to provide the
installation CD whenever drivers are installed. All drivers in the Driver.cab file
are digitally signed.
SystemRoot SystemRoot refers to the directory in which
Windows XP is installed. In various documentation and literature, you
will see this directory referred to as “%system_root%,” “system_root,”
and “SystemRoot.”
NOTE
Updating Drivers
It is important to keep device drivers updated for all devices in a system. Using
up-to-date drivers ensures optimum functionality and reduces the chance of an
outdated device driver causing problems.
The Driver tab of a device’s Properties dialog box (shown in Figure 6-15) displays
basic information about the device driver (for example, the date of the driver and
version number). You can also perform the following actions on the Driver tab:
■
View the names of the actual driver files by clicking Driver Details.
■
Update a device driver to a more recent version by selecting Update
Driver. Windows prompts you for the location of the newer version of
the driver. You can obtain new drivers from the device’s manufacturer.
You can also use the Update Driver option to reinstall drivers for a
device that has ceased to function correctly because of a driver problem. If updating the drivers does not successfully restore device functionality, consider removing the device by using Device Manager and
then restarting the computer. If the device supports Plug and Play,
Windows will recognize the device when the computer restarts. Non–
Plug and Play devices require manual reinstallation.
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■
Revert to a previous version of a driver by selecting Roll Back Driver.
This feature restores the last device driver that was functioning before
the current driver was installed. Windows supports driver rollback for
all devices except printers. In addition, driver rollback is available only
on devices that have had new drivers installed. When a driver is
updated, the previous version is stored in the SystemRoot\System32
\Reinstallbackups folder.
■
Remove the device from the computer by selecting Uninstall.
Figure 6-15 Using the Driver tab of a device’s Properties dialog box to view driver
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details
NOTE When to Roll Back Drivers You should consider rolling back a
driver when you are sure that a new driver is causing a problem and you do
not want to affect other system configurations or drivers with a tool
such as System Restore.
Driver Signing
Often, hardware drivers can cause a computer running Windows XP to become
unstable or to fail entirely. Windows XP implements driver signing as a method to
avoid such issues. Driver signing allows Windows XP to identify drivers that have
passed all Windows Hardware Quality Labs (WHQL) tests and that have not
been altered or overwritten by any program’s installation process.
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INSTALLING AND MANAGING HARDWARE
Configuring the Way That Windows Reacts to Unsigned Drivers
You can configure how Windows XP handles unsigned drivers by using the System Properties dialog box. On the Hardware tab, select the Driver Signing option
to open the Driver Signing Options dialog box, as shown in Figure 6-16. You can
control the way that Windows reacts if you attempt to load a driver that Microsoft
has not signed. You can choose from the following options:
■
Ignore Checks for digital signatures in the background, logs the
installation of unsigned drivers, and permits the installation of
unsigned drivers. Windows warns users only when an attempt is made
to replace a signed driver with an unsigned driver.
■
Warn Warns the user that a driver has not been signed and then
allows the user to determine whether the driver should be installed.
This is the default setting.
■
Block
■
Make This Action The System Default Specifies that the signature
verification setting applies to all users who log on to the computer.
When you disable this option, the selected settings apply only to the
user who is currently logged on. Only users who are members of the
local Administrators group can configure this option.
Prevents all unsigned drivers from being installed.
Figure 6-16 The Driver Signing Options dialog box, used for allowing or blocking the
installation of unsigned drivers, or for having Windows prompt the user
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Using the File Signature Verification Utility
The File Signature Verification utility (Sigverif.exe) scans a computer running
Windows XP and notifies you if there are any unsigned drivers on the computer.
You can start the utility by typing sigverif.exe at the command prompt or at the
Run dialog box. After the File Signature Verification utility scans your computer,
the utility displays the results in a window similar to the one shown in Figure 6-17.
Note that you cannot use the utility to remove or modify unsigned drivers; the utility only scans for unsigned drivers and shows you their location.
Figure 6-17 The File Signature Verification utility
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The File Signature Verification utility also writes the results of the scan to a log file
named Segverif.txt, which is found in the SystemRoot folder. You can change this
log file’s name and location, as well as configure advanced search options, by
clicking the Advanced button in the File Signature Verification dialog box.
SUPPORTING HARDWARE PROFILES
A hardware profile is a collection of configuration information about the hardware that is installed on your computer. Within a profile, you can enable or disable each piece of hardware (such as networking adapters, ports, monitors, and
so on) or provide specific configuration information. You can have many hardware profiles on a computer and switch between different profiles when booting
into Windows XP. As a DST, you might decide to configure additional hardware
profiles for users who need them or be asked to troubleshoot hardware on a computer that has multiple hardware profiles.
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Creating a Hardware Profile
Hardware profiles provide a way to configure a single computer for different situations. Within a profile, you can enable or disable specific hardware devices and
configure those devices differently. As an example, assume that you have a user
with a portable computer. When the user is at home, the computer is connected
to an external monitor, keyboard, mouse, and printer. When the user takes the
computer away from home, none of these devices is connected. You could set the
user’s computer up with two hardware profiles: one in which those devices are
enabled, and one in which they are disabled. Whenever the computer starts, the
user would choose the hardware profile to use, preventing the user from having
to make configuration changes or be notified of missing devices.
By default, one hardware profile is created during the installation of Windows XP:
Profile 1. To create an additional hardware profile, perform the following steps:
1. From the Start menu, select Control Panel.
2. In the Control Panel window, select Performance And Maintenance.
3. In the Performance And Maintenance window, select System.
4. In the System Properties dialog box, on the Hardware tab, click Hardware Profiles.
5. In the Hardware Profiles dialog box, shown in Figure 6-18, select Profile 1 (Current) and then click Copy. You cannot create a new profile
directly; you must copy an existing profile and then modify the copy.
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Figure 6-18 Copying and modifying an existing hardware profile
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6. In the Copy Profile dialog box, type a name for the new profile and
then click OK.
7. In the Hardware Profiles dialog box, select the new profile you just
named and then click Properties.
8. In the Properties dialog box for the profile, shown in Figure 6-19, you
can configure two options:
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❑
Select This Is A Portable Computer if the computer is a portable computer that uses a docking station (and if that docking station is one
that Windows XP supports). When a supported docking station is
used, Windows XP can determine whether a portable computer is
docked or undocked and then apply the correct profile automatically.
If you do not use a docking station (or just prefer to set up and control
your own profiles), leave this option deselected.
❑
Select Always Include This Profile As An Option When Windows Starts
if you want the profile to appear on the boot menu as a selectable profile.
Figure 6-19 Configuring properties for the hardware profile
9. In the Properties dialog box for the profile, click OK to return to the
Hardware Profiles dialog box.
10. Click OK to return to the System Properties dialog box, and then click
OK again to return to Windows.
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Managing Hardware Profiles
After you have created a profile, you can control generally how Windows XP treats
profiles by using the Hardware Profiles dialog box shown in Figure 6-20. (Open
the System Properties dialog box, switch to the Hardware tab, and then click
Hardware Profiles to access the dialog box.)
Figure 6-20 Managing hardware profiles by using the Hardware Profiles dialog box
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First, you can specify how Windows uses hardware profiles during startup. You
have the following options:
■
Have Windows wait until you select a hardware profile before it continues booting.
■
Have Windows automatically select the first hardware profile on the
list and continue booting after a specified amount of time. If you select
this option, you can specify how long Windows should wait before
going on without you. The default is 30 seconds.
You can also specify the order in which hardware profiles appear on the list during startup. The order is important, mostly because Windows will boot the first
profile on the list if you configure Windows to select a profile automatically.
Select any profile on the list and use the up or down buttons on the right to
change the order of the profiles.
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Configuring Hardware Settings for a Profile
After you have created the necessary profiles and configured Windows to display
and start them the correct way, the next step is to configure hardware settings for
each profile. To configure hardware settings for a profile, you must start the computer by using that profile. After you have started Windows by using a profile, use
Device Manager to enable, disable, and configure individual devices. The settings
you make will affect the currently loaded profile.
The only tricky part of setting up hardware devices in profiles is actually remembering which profile you are currently using because neither Device Manager nor
a device’s Properties dialog box provides information on the current profile. You
can always switch back to the System Properties dialog box and open the Hardware Profiles window to determine your current profile.
Selecting a Profile During Startup
After you create and configure hardware profiles, using them is easy. Whenever
you start your computer, Windows displays a menu early in the boot process that
looks like the one in Figure 6-21.
Figure 6-21 Choosing a hardware profile during Windows startup
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By default, if you do not select a profile within 30 seconds, Windows loads the
first profile on the list. If you configured Windows not to start a profile automatically, you will not see the timer at the bottom of the screen. Use the arrow keys to
select a profile, and press ENTER to start the computer.
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INSTALLING AND MANAGING HARDWARE
SUMMARY
■
In Windows, you control the installation and removal of devices
through the Add/Remove Hardware tool in Control Panel. Windows XP
also supports Plug and Play devices, which greatly simplifies installation and configuration.
■
Device Manager is the primary tool for managing and troubleshooting
hardware devices. Device Manager provides a central location to view
the status of hardware devices, enable and disable devices, change
hardware settings, and troubleshoot hardware issues.
■
System Information displays configuration information about a computer. You can document a computer’s current configuration by printing the information or by saving it to a file.
■
Faulty hardware drivers can cause a computer running Windows XP to
become unstable or to fail entirely. Driver signing allows Windows XP
to identify drivers that have passed all WHQL tests.
■
Windows Troubleshooters are a special type of help file that allow you
to pinpoint problems and identify solutions. They ask a series of questions and then provide you with detailed troubleshooting information
based on your responses.
■
A hardware profile is a collection of configuration information about
the hardware on your computer. Within a profile, each piece of hardware (such as networking adapters, ports, monitors, and so on) can be
enabled, disabled, or given specific configuration information. You can
have any number of hardware profiles on a computer and switch
between different profiles when booting up Windows XP.
REVIEW QUESTIONS
1. Which Windows feature is the primary tool for installing and removing
devices in Windows XP?
a. Add Hardware Wizard
b. Device Manager
c. Ipconfig
d. Event Viewer
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2. What are the three general steps for installing a new hardware device in
Windows XP?
3. Which Windows XP Professional Edition tool would you use to check
for resource conflicts, and what indications does the tool give when it
detects such conflicts?
4. Which Windows XP utility can you use to both remove and disable
devices?
a. Add Hardware Wizard
b. Task Manager
c. Device Manager
d. Administrative Tools
5. You suspect that a user has installed device drivers that are causing
compatibility issues with an installation of Windows XP. What utility
would you use to identify all unsigned drivers, and what would you set
to provide a warning to the user if the system detects that an unsigned
driver is being installed?
6. A user complains to you that he recently downloaded and installed the
newest drivers for his video card. Since then, his computer occasionally
restarts spontaneously. The customer did not make any other changes to
his computer before the problem started. What would you recommend?
7. You are helping a user who has recently configured a second hardware
profile on her computer. She tells you that by following a friend’s
instructions, she copied an existing profile and then renamed it. She
then restarted her computer so that she could configure her hardware
for the new profile, but Windows did not display a menu that allowed
her to select the new profile. What do you suspect is the problem?
CHAPTER 6:
INSTALLING AND MANAGING HARDWARE
CASE SCENARIOS
Scenario 6-1: Updating Hardware Drivers
You upgrade a computer running Windows 98 to Windows XP. After the installation, the sound card does not work. You check Device Manager: The sound card
is installed, but it indicates an error condition. You decide to update the drivers to
see whether that will resolve the problem. How do you update the sound card
drivers?
Scenario 6-2: Controlling Driver Signing
A user is attempting to install a device driver for a new video card that she has
obtained for her Windows XP computer. She is receiving an error message that
says that unsigned drivers cannot be installed. The user has done some research
and has located the Driver Signing option on the Hardware tab of the System
Properties dialog box. However, the option to disable driver signing is not available to her. What must you do to enable the user to control driver signing on her
computer?
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SUPPORTING DISPLAY
DEVICES, I/O DEVICES,
AND ACPI
Upon completion of this chapter, you will be able to:
■ Configure display settings in Windows XP
■ Configure multiple display configurations
■ Troubleshoot problems with display devices
■ Configure general I/O devices in Windows XP
■ Troubleshoot I/O devices
■ Troubleshoot additional devices, including PC cards, modems, universal
serial bus (USB) devices, and infrared devices
■ Explain the use of ACPI on a computer running Windows XP
■ Explain the use of APM on a computer running Windows XP
■ Configure power options
In Chapter 6, “Installing and Managing Hardware,” you learned the basics of supporting hardware in Microsoft Windows XP, including the use of Device Manager,
working with hardware drivers, and using hardware profiles. This chapter looks
specifically at configuring and troubleshooting three types of hardware: display
devices, input/output (I/O) devices, and devices that support the Advanced Configuration and Power Interface (ACPI).
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CONFIGURING AND TROUBLESHOOTING DISPLAY DEVICES
Display devices include the display adapter (often referred to as a video card or
graphics adapter) and the monitor. You can manage some of the properties of
these individual components by using Device Manager, but you will perform the
majority of display support and customization tasks by using the Display Properties dialog box available in Control Panel.
Configuring Display Settings in Windows XP
You will manage the majority of display settings in Windows XP by using the Display
Properties dialog box. You can access this dialog box in one of the following ways:
■
In the Control Panel window, select Appearance And Themes, and
then select Display.
■
Right-click any empty area on the Windows desktop, and choose
Properties.
The Display Properties dialog box contains a number of tabs that you can use to
control various settings, including the screen saver and many qualities of the
Windows desktop appearance. Most of these settings are covered in Chapter 4,
“Supporting the Windows Desktop.”
You control settings that are specific to display configuration by using the Settings tab of the Display Properties dialog box, shown in Figure 7-1. The Settings
tab allows you to configure screen resolution, color quality, and several other
advanced display settings.
Figure 7-1 Using the Settings tab of the Display Properties dialog box to control display settings
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The resolution options that are available on a computer depend largely on the display adapter and monitor that are installed on the computer. With most configurations, you can change two settings:
■
Screen resolution Screen resolution governs the number of pixels
that are displayed on the screen. Pixels are measured horizontally and
vertically. Using a larger screen resolution means that more information (windows, dialog boxes, icons, and so on) can fit on the screen at
one time, but it also means that the relative size of those elements
appears smaller than at lower resolutions. To change the resolution,
drag the Screen Resolution slider to the appropriate setting.
■
Color quality Color quality governs the number of colors used to
display the Windows desktop and other on-screen elements. Common
settings include Medium (16 bit), High (24 bit), and Highest (32 bit);
the exact settings that are available depend on your display adapter
and monitor. Using a higher color quality setting improves how desktop elements look and does not really affect performance on most computers. So you typically should use the highest setting available. If a
color setting is not available, it means that the setting is not supported
by your display hardware or that the appropriate device drivers are not
installed.
When you make a change to the screen resolution or color quality and then apply
the new settings, Windows reconfigures the display (which might cause the
screen to flicker and go blank momentarily) and then gives you 15 seconds to
confirm the new settings. If you do not confirm the new settings, Windows
reverts the resolution to the previous setting. Requiring a confirmation ensures
that if you switch to a configuration that makes you unable to see the display,
reversion is automatic.
Clicking the Advanced button on the Settings tab opens a Properties dialog box
that lets you configure additional settings, including the following:
■
The (dpi) setting that Windows uses to display screen elements. The
default dpi setting is Normal Size (96 dpi). Changing to a larger setting
often helps users who have trouble seeing or clicking on window components such as title bars, scroll bars, close buttons, and so on.
■
Whether Windows restarts or prompts you to confirm the new settings
when you change a display.
■
The refresh rate that Windows uses to redraw the display. Typically,
you should set the refresh rate to the highest setting that the video
hardware can accommodate. Higher settings help reduce the flicker
effect on conventional displays.
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■
The level of hardware acceleration that Windows uses. By default, the
Hardware Acceleration option is set to Full. If a computer is having display issues, reducing hardware acceleration can help you isolate and
remedy the problem.
NOTE Custom Tabs In addition to the settings listed, you might
see tabs on the Properties dialog box that are particular to the video
adapter installed on a computer. Video adapters that support 3D in particular often provide many additional settings for controlling advanced
features for the adapter.
Supporting Multiple Displays
From time to time, users might require more than one monitor on a computer.
Users who work with desktop publishing, Web design, or any graphic design programs frequently need to see more than can be displayed on a single monitor.
Windows XP allows you to configure up to 10 monitors on a single computer. You
can configure each monitor with a different screen resolution and color depth.
The Windows XP desktop is spread across all monitors so that you can actually
drag windows and dialog boxes from monitor to monitor. Multiple monitor support is especially useful in situations in which users need easy access to multiple
applications simultaneously.
To support additional monitors, you must first install additional video adapters
(often called secondary display adapters) onto a computer. Secondary display
adapters must meet a particular set of criteria:
■
They must be Peripheral Component Interconnect (PCI) or Accelerated Graphics Port (AGP) devices. Note that computers support only
one AGP device, so additional devices would have to be PCI-based.
■
They must be able to run in GUI mode or without using Video Graphics Adapter (VGA) resources. (Otherwise, the secondary display causes
a resource conflict with the primary video adapter when the computer
is starting up.)
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Adding an additional monitor to a computer running Windows XP
To add an additional monitor to a computer, complete the following steps:
1. Verify that the primary display adapter works properly and that the
correct driver is installed.
2. Install the additional video adapter and the appropriate drivers, and
then plug in the additional monitor.
3. In Display Properties, select the Settings tab. Verify that the appropriate monitors are displayed.
4. Make sure that the physical configuration of your monitors matches
the on-screen arrangement, as shown in the Figure 7-2. You can control
the placement of the secondary displays by dragging and dropping the
monitor icons.
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Figure 7-2 Configuring the arrangement of monitors to match your phys-
ical setup
5. Select the additional display by clicking the display or by choosing it
from the Display drop-down list.
6. Select the Extend My Windows Desktop Onto This Monitor check
box.
7. Configure the appropriate screen resolution and color quality for the
new display.
8. Click Apply to enable the new display.
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Identify a Monitor On computers with multiple displays, it
sometimes can be hard to tell which display is which. On the Settings tab
of the Display Properties dialog box, notice that the displays are numbered. Right-click a display and choose Identify to have Windows display
that number on the corresponding monitor.
NOTE
Potential problems with multiple display configurations include the following:
■
If the computer has a motherboard with an on-board display adapter,
you sometimes must configure that display adapter as the power-on
self test (POST)/VGA-compatible primary display device.
■
You should not remove portable computers from a docking station
while you are using multiple displays. Use the Display properties to
disable the secondary display before removing the computer from its
docking station. You could also create a hardware profile that does not
use the additional display adapters and restart the computer using that
profile before removing the computer from its docking station.
■
If Windows does recognize the secondary display but nothing appears
on the monitor, verify that the Extend My Windows Desktop Onto
This Monitor check box is selected in the Display Properties dialog
box.
■
If you have any problems running an MS-DOS application in a multiple
monitor configuration, configure the MS-DOS application to run fullscreen. The application is then displayed on the POST display device.
■
Make sure that the display with the best DirectX support is the primary
monitor. Only the primary monitor can run DirectX applications in
full-screen mode and fully accelerate DirectX Graphics.
Troubleshooting Display Devices in Windows XP
You can view display adapter information, monitor properties, and driver information by using either Device Manager or the Display Properties dialog box.
When a user experiences problems with display devices, you should first make
sure that the appropriate drivers are installed. Also, try to set a different screen
resolution or color depth to see whether you can correct the problem until you
find an appropriate driver.
If Windows XP does not recognize a display adapter, try loading the basic VGA
driver. If you cannot start Windows successfully because of the currently
installed driver, you can use the advanced boot options Enable VGA Mode or Safe
Mode to start the computer with basic VGA support. (See Chapter 2, “Installing
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SUPPORTING DISPLAY DEVICES, I/O DEVICES, AND ACPI
Windows XP,” for more details.) Many features are not available in these modes
(including high-resolution rates and multiple-monitor support), but at least you
might be able to get Windows to recognize the device while you search for the
correct driver.
Hardware acceleration improves display performance, but it also has the potential to cause problems. Consider turning off hardware acceleration as part of your
troubleshooting process.
CONFIGURING AND TROUBLESHOOTING I/O DEVICES
I/O devices extend the capabilities of the basic PC computer. Standard input
devices associated with personal computers include the keyboard and mouse,
although other devices exist. Standard output devices include monitors and
printers. In addition, users routinely add many other types of peripheral equipment to their computers. As long as a computer has open expansion slots or
other standard I/O connectors available, you can add compatible devices to the
computer.
Configuring I/O Devices
You are providing telephone support at a help desk when a caller contacts you
wanting to add several pieces of new hardware to her computer. While talking to
the user, you determine that some of the hardware is completely new to the computer and other pieces are upgrades to what she currently has installed. What can
you do to help her get the hardware installed?
As a DST, you must be familiar with the operation of various types of I/O devices
and the procedures used to troubleshoot them when they fail. In many cases,
Windows XP identifies a class of hardware and installs generic drivers that make
only basic features available to the user. To take advantage of the advanced features that might be available with many devices, you must install the proper hardware drivers (and sometimes software applications bundled with the hardware).
Supporting Printers
You usually install printers directly by using the Add Printer Wizard, but you can
also install them by using the Add Hardware Wizard. The installation and management of printers is discussed fully in Chapter 9, “Managing Local and Network Printers.”
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Supporting Scanners and Cameras
Windows XP detects most scanners and cameras automatically during the installation of Windows, if the hardware devices are connected to the computer. Windows
usually detects and installs Plug and Play devices automatically when you connect
them to the computer. If Windows does not detect and install an imaging device
automatically, you must use the Add Hardware Wizard or the Scanners And Cameras tool in Control Panel to perform the installation. If a device does not support
Plug and Play, the user must log on to Windows XP using an account with administrator privileges to complete the installation of the device.
You use the Scanners And Cameras tool in Control Panel to manage imaging
devices. Configuration options vary depending on the device that is connected,
but at a minimum you will be able to test the device to verify that it is functioning,
set the rate at which data is transferred from the camera or scanner to the computer, and control color profiles. It is important to not set the data transfer rate
higher than what the device supports. If the transfer rate is set too high, image
transfer might fail.
Infrared Picture Transfer Windows XP Professional Edition supports Infrared Picture Transfer (IrTran-P), which is an image-transfer protocol that is used to send images by using infrared technology. Both the
imaging device and the computer must support infrared data transfer for
this option to be available.
NOTE
Supporting Mice
Mice are generally Plug and Play devices and are recognized when they are connected to the computer, or at least when Windows starts up. In some cases,
though, you must install a mouse by using the Add Hardware Wizard. Mice connect to computers through a mouse (PS/2) port, serial port, or USB port. Wireless
mice are also available, although they usually communicate with a receiver that
connects to the computer using a USB port.
The Mouse tool in Control Panel lets you configure mouse properties and other
pointing device settings. You can update mouse drivers on the Hardware tab of
the Mouse Properties dialog box, as well as through Device Manager.
The Buttons tab of the Mouse Properties dialog box, shown in Figure 7-3, lets you
configure properties such as button configuration, double-click speed, and ClickLock functionality. Be careful not to set the double-click speed too fast for the
user. If users cannot double-click at the selected speed, they will have difficulty
navigating the operating system.
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Figure 7-3 Configuring mouse settings with the Mouse tool
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The Pointers tab of the Mouse Properties dialog box, shown in Figure 7-4, allows
you to customize the pointer scheme to reflect your preferences. Microsoft provides several pointer schemes with Windows XP, such as Hands, Dinosaur, Conductor, and Magnified. You can customize and save existing schemes under
another name. You also can click Browse and direct the computer to a pointer
scheme configuration file to add schemes.
Figure 7-4 Using the Pointers tab to customize pointer appearance
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The Pointer Options tab of the Mouse Properties dialog box, shown in Figure 7-5,
lets you configure how fast the pointer on the screen moves in relation to movements of the mouse on the mouse pad. Selecting the Snap To option causes
Windows to place the pointer automatically over the default button (such as
OK or Apply) of new windows or dialog boxes. Although some users find that
this feature increases productivity, many users who are not accustomed to the
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feature might experience undesirable results because it unexpectedly changes
where the pointer is on the screen. This change can be especially frustrating to
users of portable computers, on which the pointer is sometimes hard to locate.
Figure 7-5 Using the Pointer Options tab to control the way the pointer behaves in
different situations
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Multiple Pointing Devices Windows XP Professional Edition supports the use of multiple pointing devices simultaneously (such as a portable computer with an add-on mouse and a built-in touch pad).
NOTE
Erratic mouse behavior is a common hardware problem. If a user experiences
mouse problems, use the following troubleshooting techniques:
■
Verify that the mouse is securely connected to the computer.
■
Clean the mouse ball and contacts.
■
Replace the mouse driver because it might have become corrupted.
■
Substitute a different mouse to see whether the problem is eliminated.
If so, replace the mouse.
Supporting Keyboards
Like mice, keyboards are generally Plug and Play devices. Keyboards are usually
connected to the computer through a (PS/2) keyboard port or a USB port. Wireless keyboards are also available, although (like wireless mice) they typically communicate with a receiver that connects to the computer using a USB port.
You use the Keyboard tool in Control Panel to configure keyboard properties. You
can manage device drivers through the Hardware tab of the Keyboard Properties
dialog box and through Device Manager.
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SUPPORTING DISPLAY DEVICES, I/O DEVICES, AND ACPI
The Speed tab of the Keyboard Properties dialog box, shown in Figure 7-6, lets
you configure the following options:
■
Repeat Delay Controls how long a user can hold a key down before
Windows begins repeating the key press. For users who have difficulty
using the keyboard, consider suggesting a longer repeat delay.
■
Repeat Rate Controls how fast Windows repeats a key press. Use
the Click Here And Hold Down A Key To Test Repeat Rate text box to
test the repeat delay and repeat rate settings.
■
Cursor Blink Rate Controls how fast the cursor blinks. The cursor
is the blinking vertical line that indicates where you are typing text. In
many word processing programs, the cursor is also referred to as the
insertion point.
Figure 7-6 Configuring keyboard properties with the Keyboard dialog box
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Supporting Smart Card Readers
Smart cards are small, credit-card-sized devices that are used to store information. Smart cards are generally used to store authentication credentials, such as
public and private keys, and other forms of personal information. They are highly
portable, allowing users to easily carry their credentials and other personal information with them.
A computer must have a smart card reader to access a smart card. The reader is
generally a PS/2, USB, or Personal Computer Memory Card International Association (PCMCIA) device. Windows XP supports Plug and Play smart card
readers that follow the Personal Computer/Smart Card (PC/SC) standards. A
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manufacturer might provide a device driver for its legacy smart card device, but
Microsoft recommends using only Plug and Play smart card readers.
In addition to installing drivers for a smart card reader, you must enable the Smart
Card service for Windows XP Professional Edition to read smart cards. After you
have installed and configured the smart card reader, make sure that the Smart
Card service is started by using the Services tool in Computer Management.
Supporting Modems
Analog modems connect a computer to a remote device through the Public
Switched Telephone Network (PSTN). Modems are used to connect to the Internet through an Internet service provider (ISP) or to connect to a remote private
network, such as a corporate network.
A modem can be either an internal or external device. Internal modems connect
to one of the computer’s internal expansion slots. External modems connect to
one of the computer’s serial or USB ports.
You can manage modems through the Phone And Modem Options tool in Control Panel and through Device Manager. In Control Panel, select Printers And
Other Hardware, and then select Phone And Modem Options. In the Phone And
Modem Options dialog box, on the Modems tab, double-click a modem to open
a modem’s Properties dialog box, as shown in Figure 7-7. The Properties dialog
box allows you to control speaker volume for the modem or disable modem
sound entirely. This is actually a common request from users who do not like
hearing the modem sounds every time they connect to the Internet.
The Maximum Port Speed setting controls how quickly communications programs are permitted to send information to the modem. This is not the same as
the modem’s connection speed, which is negotiated when the modem dials out
and establishes a connection. The maximum port speed is generally configured
during installation and does not need to be reconfigured to match the modem’s
connection speed.
The Wait For Dial Tone Before Dialing check box is enabled by default. The telephone systems of some countries do not use a dial tone, in which case this option
must be disabled or the modem will never dial.
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Figure 7-7 Configuring general modem properties on the Modem tab
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The Diagnostics tab of the modem’s Properties dialog box, shown in Figure 7-8,
lets you query the modem to see whether it can respond to standard modem
commands. When you are troubleshooting, this is a useful way to determine
whether the modem is initializing and functioning correctly.
Figure 7-8 Troubleshooting modems by using the Diagnostics tab of a modem’s Properties dialog box
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During installation, Windows XP often installs a standard modem driver rather
than the specific driver for the modem. This happens in cases where Windows
cannot find a device-specific driver. The standard modem driver provides basic
functionality, but it does not support advanced modem features. You can use this
driver temporarily until you obtain the appropriate driver from the manufacturer.
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USB Devices
Universal serial bus (USB) is a type of connection developed to provide a fast
and flexible method of attaching as many as 127 peripheral devices to a computer. USB provides a connection format designed to replace the computer’s traditional serial-port and parallel-port connections. The term “universal” indicates
that many kinds of devices can take advantage of USB. USB is fully Plug and Play–
compliant.
The USB system comprises a single USB host and USB devices. The host is at the
top of the USB hierarchy. In a Windows XP environment, the operating system
and the hardware work together to form the USB host. Devices include hubs,
which are connection points for other USB devices and nodes. Nodes are end
devices such as printers, scanners, mice, keyboards, and so on. Some nodes also
function as hubs, allowing additional USB devices to be connected to them.
You can connect USB peripherals together by using connection hubs that allow
the bus to branch out through additional port connections. A practical USB desktop connection scheme is presented in Figure 7-9. In this example, some peripheral devices are simply devices, whereas others serve as both devices and
connection hubs. The computer provides a USB host connection that serves as
the main USB connection.
USB Hub
USB Hub
Figure 7-9 Chaining USB hubs and devices together, a process that can support as
many as 127 nodes
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A special hub, called the root hub, is an integral part of the host system (typically
built into the motherboard) and provides one or more attachment points for USB
devices (the ports available on the computer). The built-in USB ports on computers function as the root hub. USB provides for a total of up to five levels of devices.
The root hub is at the first level. Regular hubs can form up to three additional levels, and nodes can function as the last level.
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You can add or remove most USB devices from a computer while the computer is
turned on. This practice is often referred to as hot-plugging the device. Plug and Play
detects the presence (or absence) of the device and configures it for operation.
The USB interface provides power to the peripheral that is attached to it. The root
hub provides power directly from the host computer to directly connected
devices. Hubs also supply power to connected devices. Even if the interface supplies power to the USB devices, USB devices also can have their own power
sources, if necessary. Many devices, such as digital cameras and scanners, draw
more power than a USB hub can provide. If you find that a USB device that is connected to an unpowered USB hub is not working as expected, try replacing the
unpowered USB hub with a self-powered hub.
Because you can add nearly any type of peripheral device to the PC through the
USB port, the range of symptoms associated with USB devices include all the symptoms that are listed for peripheral devices in this chapter. Problems that are associated specifically with the USB technology occur in the following general areas:
■
USB hardware device
■
USB controller
■
USB drivers
The first step in troubleshooting USB problems is to check the BIOS setup
screens to make sure that the USB function is enabled for the computer. If USB
functionality is enabled in the BIOS, check Device Manager next to make sure
that the USB controller appears there. In Windows XP, the USB controller should
be listed under the Universal Serial Bus Controllers entry (using the default
Devices By Type view in Device Manager).
If the controller does not appear in Device Manager, or if a yellow warning icon
appears next to the controller, the computer’s BIOS might be outdated. Contact
the BIOS manufacturer for an updated copy of the BIOS.
If the controller is present in Device Manager, right-click the USB controller and
then select Properties. If there are any problems, a message should appear in the
Device Status section on the General tab of the controller’s Properties dialog box.
If the BIOS and controller settings appear to be correct, check the USB port drivers next. USB ports are listed in Device Manager as USB Root Hubs. Right-click a
USB Root Hub entry and then select Properties. Use the Driver tab of the USB
Root Hub Properties dialog box to update or roll back drivers, if necessary.
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When troubleshooting USB devices, you must be aware that the problem could
be a result of general USB issues or with the device itself. Usually, but not always,
general USB issues affect more than one device. If you suspect a problem with a
specific device, uninstall the device by using Device Manager, disconnect the
device from the computer, and then restart the computer. After the computer
restarts, reconnect the device and let Plug and Play detect, install, and configure
it again. If the device still does not function correctly, investigate the possibility
that the device is damaged in some way or that you need to obtain updated drivers from Microsoft or the device manufacturer.
FireWire Port
Many newer media centers and high-end computers now come with FireWire
ports (often called IEEE 1394 ports after the Institute of Electrical and Electronics
Engineers standard that defines the technology). FireWire can transfer data at a
rate of 400 or 800 Mbps. FireWire is used mainly for video transfer from digital
movie cameras, but it will soon become a popular option for newer personal digital
assistants (PDAs) and handhelds, including cradles, chargers, and synchronizers.
When troubleshooting a device that connects by using a FireWire port, you can
verify that the port is functional by plugging in another device (such as a digital
camera). You should also ensure that the connection to and from the peripheral
and the computer is solid and verify that the cable that connects the two is not
worn or damaged.
Handheld Devices
Most handheld devices support either Infrared Data Association (IrDA) standards or connect to the computer through a serial or USB port. For handheld
devices that use a port, some connect directly to the port and some connect to a
cradle, which in turn is connected to the port.
You will need to install software so that Windows XP can communicate correctly
with the handheld device. For example, Palm-based PDAs require you to install the
Palm desktop software to allow the PDA to transfer data to and from a Windowsbased PC. Handheld devices running Windows Mobile software, such as the
Pocket PC, require that you install a program named ActiveSync on the computer.
MORE INFO Learn about Windows Mobile Software For more
information on supporting handheld devices running Windows Mobile
software, visit the Windows Mobile Web site at http://www.microsoft.com/
windowsmobile/default.mspx.
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CONFIGURING AND TROUBLESHOOTING ACPI
Advanced Configuration and Power Interface (ACPI) lets computers running
Windows XP use power more efficiently. Windows XP also supports the older
Advanced Power Management (APM) standard for backward compatibility with
older computers. In this section, you will learn about ACPI and APM, and how to
configure power options in Windows XP.
Understanding ACPI
Advanced Configuration and Power Interface (ACPI) is a specification that controls power consumption in computers. With ACPI, a computer allows the operating system to control power management instead of controlling it through the
BIOS. ACPI supports power management on desktop and portable computers.
However, because portable computers are capable of running on batteries, power
management is of greater concern, and more configuration options are available
when a computer has a battery. Desktop computers connected to a uninterruptible power supply (UPS) also provide extended capabilities. In addition to power
management, ACPI also provides Plug and Play functionality in Windows XP.
On computers that support ACPI, Windows XP maintains a power policy that
controls which devices to turn off (and when to turn them off) and also when to
put the computer into a reduced power mode. Each device connected to the computer has different power management features for the different types of devices.
For example, you can configure hard disks to power down after a certain period
of time has elapsed or network cards to request a low-power state when a network
cable is not connected.
ACPI supports two important power modes: standby and hibernate. In standby
mode, Windows takes devices offline but does not shut down the computer.
When you activate the computer (usually by moving the mouse or by pressing a
key on the keyboard), the computer automatically brings devices back online.
Processing then continues normally.
In hibernate mode, Windows stores the current contents of memory to the hard
disk, and the computer shuts down entirely. Windows does not close applications or log the current user off the computer. When you restart the computer,
the computer returns to the same state it was in when it went into hibernation. By
default, the user is prompted to enter a user name and password to regain access
to the desktop.
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To gain full ACPI support, a computer’s BIOS must support ACPI. During the
installation of Windows XP, the Setup program detects the level of ACPI support
that is provided and configures itself appropriately. If Windows XP is installed on
a computer without ACPI support, only limited power management functionality
is available.
BIOS Upgrade Effect on ACPI If you perform an upgrade on the
BIOS to enable ACPI on a computer that is already running Windows XP,
you must reinstall the operating system to enable ACPI support.
NOTE
To determine whether ACPI support is enabled on a computer that is running
Windows XP, follow these steps:
1. Open Device Manager.
2. Expand the Computer node. If Advanced Configuration And Power
Interface (ACPI) PC is listed, the operating system supports ACPI.
If a computer’s BIOS claims to be ACPI-compliant but support is not enabled in
Windows XP, the BIOS actually might not be compliant. Contact the manufacturer to see whether an update is available.
Understanding APM Support in Windows XP
Advanced Power Management (APM) was introduced in Windows 95. APM is
designed to support battery status, suspend, resume, and automatic hibernation
functions. Windows XP supports APM version 1.2 on computers with an APMcompatible BIOS. If APM support is enabled, it is detected and installed during
Windows XP setup.
Testing APM BIOS Compatibility Microsoft provides a utility
called Apmstat.exe, which you can use to determine the APM BIOS compatibility on a computer. Apmstat.exe is located in the Support\Tools
folder of the Windows XP CD-ROM.
NOTE
Configuring Power Schemes
You can access power management options by using the Power Options tool in
Control Panel. On the Power Schemes tab of the Power Options Properties dialog
box, shown in Figure 7-10, you can control the power-consumption behavior of
the monitor and the hard disks, and when the computer enters standby. Portable
computers and desktop computers with which you use a UPS offer separate
options for when the computer is plugged in and when it is running on batteries.
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Figure 7-10 Using the Power Schemes tab to configure basic power options
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When Windows XP is installed on a portable computer, several power schemes
are available, such as Portable/Laptop, Presentation, and Max Battery. Each of
these schemes has different default configurations for monitor and hard disk
behavior. For example, Presentation never shuts down the monitor, even when
running on batteries, whereas Max Battery shuts down both the monitor and
hard disks after very brief periods of inactivity.
You can easily edit existing power schemes to reflect personal preferences. You
can create new power schemes by selecting an existing power scheme, clicking
the Save As button, and then saving it under a different name. You can then edit
the new scheme as needed by simply configuring new options.
You can view and modify the way that a computer works when a battery is close
to running out of power by using the Alarms tab, shown in Figure 7-11. You can
configure low battery and critical battery alarm levels and actions for each.
Actions include sounding an alarm, displaying a message, forcing the computer
into Standby or shutting it down, and running a program (useful for custom programs that log problems or send status alerts).
Figure 7-11 Configuring the Alarms tab to alert you to low battery situations
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The Power Meter tab, shown in Figure 7-12, displays the current charge level and
status of each battery in the computer. You can display the type of battery (NiCad,
Lithium Ion, and so on) and the manufacturer by clicking the battery icon.
Figure 7-12 The Power Meter tab, showing you the remaining battery power
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Figure 7-13 shows the Advanced tab, on which you can configure the following
options:
■
The Always Show Icon On The Taskbar option places a power icon in
the System Tray for fast access to the Power Meter tab of Power
Options.
■
The Prompt For Password When Computer Resumes From Standby
option configures Windows XP to prompt the user for logon credentials when the user restarts a computer that has gone on standby.
Because standby does not log the user off the computer, this option is
an important security feature that should be enabled unless there is a
compelling reason not to.
■
The Power Buttons section has options that control system behavior
when the power button or sleep button on a computer is pressed. If a
computer does not feature a sleep button, the option is not shown.
Also note that on some portable computers, closing the display usually
activates the sleep function. If a computer supports it, you can choose
the following options: Do Nothing, Ask Me What To Do, Standby,
Hibernate (if the computer supports it), and Shut Down.
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Figure 7-13 Configuring advanced power options on the Advanced tab
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The Hibernate tab, shown in Figure 7-14, lets you enable hibernate support for a
computer. After hibernate support is enabled, hibernate options appear within
the Power Options Properties and the Shutdown dialog boxes. If the Hibernate
tab is not available, the computer does not support Hibernate mode.
Figure 7-14 Configuring hibernation in the Power Options Properties dialog box
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NOTE Enabling Hibernation Changes the Turn Off Computer Dialog
Box When hibernation is enabled, some computers show the Hibernate
option in the Turn Off Computer dialog box, but some computers still
show the Standby option. No matter which option Windows displays, you
can access the other option by holding down the SHIFT key.
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SUMMARY
■
Windows XP supports up to 10 displays, and you can configure each
display with different screen resolution and color depth settings. This
flexibility is useful in situations when users must have easy access to
multiple applications simultaneously.
■
You can view display adapter and monitor properties and driver information through both Device Manager and Display Properties. When
you are experiencing problems with display devices, first always make
sure that the appropriate drivers are installed. Also, try to set a different
screen resolution or color depth to determine whether the problem
can be corrected until you locate an appropriate driver.
■
I/O devices extend the capabilities of the basic PC. Standard input
devices associated with personal computers include the keyboard and
mouse, although other devices exist. Standard output devices include
monitors and printers.
■
Windows detects and installs most Plug and Play devices automatically. If a device does not support Plug and Play, a user must log on to
Windows XP using an account with administrator privileges to complete the installation of the device.
■
Windows XP Professional Edition supports ACPI, which is a specification that controls power consumption in computers. With ACPI, the
computer can pass power management responsibility to the operating
system. ACPI supports power management on desktop and portable
computers. However, because portable computers are capable of running on batteries, power management is of greater concern, and more
configuration options are available.
REVIEW QUESTIONS
1. How many monitors can you configure to work with Windows XP
simultaneously?
2. A user tells you that he has recently installed a new video adapter. He
downloaded what he thought were the most recent drivers for the
device from a Web site, but came to realize that the drivers he downloaded were not from the manufacturer of the device. He was able to
install the drivers, but when he restarted Windows, the display was
garbled and he now cannot adjust any settings. What should you tell
the user to do?
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3. What is the first step associated with troubleshooting USB problems?
4. You receive a call from a user who is having trouble installing a scanner
on her computer running Windows XP. She disconnected her printer
from the computer’s parallel port and connected the scanner in its
place. She then turned the scanner on and ran the Add Hardware Wizard. She thinks that Windows XP did detect the scanner, but she
received a number of error messages and was unable to complete the
installation. She downloaded the most recent drivers for the scanner
that the manufacturer’s Web site claimed would support Windows XP,
and she tried the Add Hardware Wizard again but got the same results.
What is the likely problem?
a. She must log on to the computer with administrator privileges to
install hardware devices that are not Plug and Play.
b. The scanner is not compatible with Windows XP.
c. The parallel cable is damaged.
d. The scanner is not working.
5. One of your users has Windows XP Professional Edition installed on
his portable computer. He often carries the portable computer from
office to office and must occasionally leave the computer unattended.
The user wants to maximize the battery life on his computer, yet still be
able to resume work as quickly as possible. He does not want to shut
the computer down because he prefers not to have to restart applications whenever he comes back to the computer. What should you tell
him to do?
a. Use the Power Options in Control Panel to select the Max Battery
power scheme.
b. Use the Power Options in Control Panel to create a custom power
scheme.
c. Put the computer into standby mode when left unattended.
d. Put the computer into hibernate mode when left unattended.
6. Which of the following standards does Windows XP use for Plug and
Play support, as well as for supporting extended power options?
a. APM
b. ACPI
c. USB
d. BIOS
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CASE SCENARIOS
Scenario 7-1: Managing Power Settings
One of your users works from home using a computer running Windows XP Professional Edition that supports ACPI. She tells you that her son often presses the
power button on her computer, and she asks you whether there is a way to disable the power button. What do you tell her?
Scenario 7-2: Troubleshooting Display Settings
You are providing support for a user who recently purchased a new computer.
The display adapter in the computer supports a number of advanced features, but
the computer does not have the appropriate software installed to take advantage
of these features. Your customer downloaded the new drivers and extra software
from the manufacturer of the display adapter. He used the installation program
that was part of the download to install the new drivers and software. Now, when
he starts his computer, Windows seems to start normally, but just after startup,
the customer sees an error message stating that the display settings have been
restored to their default level. The user notes that the display settings seem to be
a low resolution and color quality, but when he tries to open the Display Properties dialog box, the computer freezes. What do you tell him?
CHAPTER 8
SUPPORTING STORAGE
DEVICES IN WINDOWS XP
Upon completion of this chapter, you will be able to:
■ Explain the use of basic and dynamic disks
■ Manage hard disks by using the Disk Management utility
■ Use the hard disk maintenance tools that are available in Windows XP
■ Monitor and troubleshoot CD-ROM and DVD-ROM devices
■ Troubleshoot problems with other removable devices
A storage device is any device installed on a computer that is designed to store
data. Microsoft Windows sorts storage devices into two categories: fixed storage
and removable storage. Hard disks are considered to be fixed storage devices
because the hard disk’s media are not removable. Most other storage devices,
including those for CD-ROM and DVD-ROM, are considered removable because
you can remove either the device itself or the storage media that the device uses.
This chapter covers the support and troubleshooting of hard disks and removable storage devices.
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SUPPORTING AND TROUBLESHOOTING HARD DISKS
Hard disks are fixed storage devices that are connected to a computer by Integrated Device Electronics (IDE) or Small Computer System Interface (SCSI)
controllers. Portable hard disks are also available, and they can be connected with
universal serial bus (USB) and Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers
(IEEE) 1394 interfaces. However, because Windows typically treats portable hard
disks as removable storage devices, this section focuses on fixed hard disks. As a
desktop support technician (DST), you must understand how to configure and
troubleshoot hard disks in Microsoft Windows XP. You should also be able to use
the tools that Windows XP provides for managing, maintaining, and troubleshooting hard disks.
Understanding Basic and Dynamic Disks
Windows XP Professional Edition supports two types of hard disk storage: basic
disks and dynamic disks. Windows XP Home Edition supports only basic disks.
You cannot use dynamic disks on portable computers, even if they are running
Windows XP Professional Edition.
Basic Disks
Basic disks are the traditional type of storage that is available in earlier versions of
Windows. Basic disks are also the default storage type in Windows XP, so all hard
disks begin as basic disks. Windows XP recognizes all disks as basic by default,
including all new installations and upgrades from previous versions of Windows.
To use a dynamic disk, you must convert a basic disk to a dynamic disk.
On a basic disk, you must create one or more partitions (also called basic volumes). Partitions were covered in detail in Chapter 2, “Installing Windows XP,”
but a brief review is in order.
You must configure a basic disk with at least one partition. In fact, most computers that you will encounter have a single hard disk with one partition that takes
up all the physical space on the disk. You can also divide a hard disk into multiple
partitions for the purpose of organizing file storage or supporting multiple operating systems on a single computer. You can create the following three types of
partitions on a basic hard disk:
■
Primary You can configure up to four primary partitions on a computer running a Windows operating system (three partitions if you
also have an extended partition on the disk). You can configure any
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primary partition as the active, or bootable, drive, but only one primary
partition is active at a time. Other primary drives are typically hidden
from the operating system and are not assigned a drive letter.
■
Extended An extended partition provides a way to exceed the four
primary partition-limit. You cannot format an extended partition with
any file system. Rather, extended partitions serve as a shell in which
you can create any number of logical partitions.
■
Logical You can create any number of logical partitions inside an
extended partition. Logical partitions are normally used for organizing
files. All logical partitions are visible, no matter which operating system
is started.
Microsoft introduced dynamic disks with Windows 2000, and Windows XP Professional Edition supports dynamic disks. Instead of using partitions, you can
divide dynamic disks into dynamic volumes, which support features that basic
disks do not, such as the creation of more than four partitions per disk and volumes that span multiple hard disks.
You can extend partitions on dynamic disks, provided that contiguous disk space
is available. However, partitions on basic disks cannot span multiple hard disks.
Windows stores partition information for basic disks in the partition table, which
is not part of any operating system. (It is an area of the drive that is accessible by
all operating systems.) Other configuration options, such as drive letter assignments, are controlled by the operating system and are stored in the Windows
Registry.
Basic disks are generally sufficient for a computer with a single hard disk. Also, if
a computer is configured to start multiple operating systems, you must use basic
disks instead of dynamic disks.
Dynamic Disks
Windows XP Professional Edition supports dynamic disks. (Dynamic disks are
not supported in Windows XP Home Edition or on portable computers.)
Dynamic disks offer several advantages over basic disks:
■
You can divide a dynamic disk into many volumes. The basic disk concept of primary and extended partitions does not exist when using
dynamic disks.
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■
Windows stores configuration information for dynamic disks entirely
on the disk. If there are multiple dynamic disks, Windows replicates
information to all other disks so that each disk has a copy of the configuration information. This information is stored in the last 1 MB of
the disk.
■
You can extend dynamic volumes by using contiguous or noncontiguous disk space. Dynamic volumes can also be made up of areas of disk
space on more than one disk.
Windows XP supports the following types of dynamic volumes:
■
Simple volumes A simple volume contains disk space from a single
disk and can be extended if necessary.
■
Spanned volumes A spanned volume contains disk space from 2 or
more (up to a maximum of 32) disks. The amount of disk space from
each disk can vary. You will most often use spanned volumes when a
simple volume is running low on disk space and you need to extend
the volume by using space on another hard disk. You can continue to
extend spanned volumes to include areas from additional hard disks
as necessary. When Windows writes data to a spanned volume, it
writes data to the area on the first disk until the area is filled, then to
the area on the second disk, and so on. There is no fault tolerance in
spanned volumes. If any of the disks containing the spanned volume
fail, you lose all data in the entire spanned volume.
■
Striped volumes A striped volume contains disk space from 2 or
more (up to a maximum of 32) disks. Unlike spanned volumes, striped
volumes require that you use an identical amount of disk space from
each disk. When Windows writes data to a striped volume, it divides
the data into 64-KB chunks and writes to the disks in a fixed order.
Thus, Windows will split a 128-KB file into two 64-KB chunks and
then store each chunk on a separate disk. Striped volumes provide
increased performance, because it is faster to read or write two smaller
pieces of a file on two drives than to read or write the entire file on a
single drive. However, you cannot extend striped volumes and they
provide no fault tolerance. If any of the disks that contain the striped
volume fail, you lose all data on the volume. Striped volumes are also
referred to as RAID-0.
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Managing Hard Disks with the Disk Management Tool
As a DST, managing hard disks on users’ computers will be an important part of
your job. You must be able to create volumes on hard disks and configure hard
disks to suit users’ needs. You use the Disk Management tool to create and manage volumes on fixed and removable disks. You access Disk Management from
within the Computer Management window, as shown in Figure 8-1. You can also
access Computer Management by using the Administrative Tools icon in Control
Panel or by right-clicking My Computer and selecting Manage.
Figure 8-1 Using the Disk Management tool to manage fixed and removable storage
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Supporting Basic Disks
You make unallocated space on basic disks available to the operating system by
creating a partition and then formatting that partition with the file system of your
choice.
Creating a Primary Partition To create a primary partition, follow these steps:
1. In Disk Management, right-click the unallocated space in which you
want to create the primary partition, as shown in Figure 8-2, and then
select New Partition.
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Figure 8-2 Creating a partition on a basic disk
2. On the Welcome page for the New Partition Wizard, click Next.
3. On the Select Partition Type page, shown in Figure 8-3, choose Primary
Partition and click Next.
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Figure 8-3 Selecting a partition type on a basic disk
4. On the Specify Partition Size page, enter the amount of disk space in
megabytes (MB) that you want to use for this partition and then click
Next.
5. On the Assign Drive Letter Or Path page, choose an available drive letter or a path for a volume mount point and click Next.
6. On the Format Partition page, choose Format This Partition, select a
file system, and then assign a volume label. Click Next.
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7. On the Completion page, click Finish to create and format the partition. Be patient: Windows must perform a number of functions, which
can take several minutes.
Creating Extended Partitions
steps:
To create an extended partition, follow these
1. In Disk Management, right-click the unallocated space in which you
want to create the extended partition and select New Partition.
2. On the Welcome page for the Create Partition Wizard, click Next.
3. On the Select Partition Type page, choose Extended Partition and click
Next.
4. On the Specify Partition Size page, enter the amount of disk space in
MB that you want to use for this partition and click Next.
5. On the Completion page, click Finish to create the extended partition.
You are not prompted to assign a drive letter or to format an extended partition
because the extended partition serves only as a shell to contain logical partitions.
You will format and assign drive letters to logical partitions.
Creating Logical Drives To create a logical drive inside an extended partition,
follow these steps:
1. In Disk Management, right-click the free space in the extended partition where you want to create the logical drive and select Create Logical Drive.
2. On the Welcome page for the Create Partition Wizard, click Next.
3. On the Select Partition Type page, choose Logical Drive and click Next.
4. On the Specify Partition Size page, enter the amount of disk space in
MB that you want to use for this logical drive and click Next.
5. On the Assign Drive Letter Or Path page, choose an available drive letter and click Next.
6. On the Format Partition page, choose Format This Partition, select a
file system, and then assign a volume label. Click Next.
7. On the Completion page, click Finish to create and format the logical drive.
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Figure 8-4 shows an extended partition on Disk 1, containing a 502 MB logical
drive and 612 MB of remaining free space.
Figure 8-4 Viewing extended and logical partitions in Disk Management
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Formatting Volumes
Formatting a basic or dynamic volume with a file system prepares the volume to
accept data. Unformatted volumes contain no file system and are not accessible
by using Windows Explorer or any other application.
You can format volumes in the following ways:
■
By using Disk Management and formatting the new volume as it is
being created
■
By using Disk Management, right-clicking an existing volume, and
then selecting Format
■
By using Windows Explorer, right-clicking the drive letter, and then
selecting Format
■
By using a command prompt, using the Format.exe command, and
selecting the appropriate parameters
If you format an existing volume that contains data, all data is lost. Windows XP
protects itself by preventing you from formatting the system and boot partition
for the operating system by using any of the built-in Windows utilities.
Formatting options, shown in Figure 8-5, include the following:
■
Volume Label The character name for a volume of up to 11 characters. This is the name that is displayed in Disk Management and
Windows Explorer. You should choose a label that describes the
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type of information that is stored on the volume, such as System for
the volume that contains the operating system or Documents for a volume that contains user documents.
■
File System Allows you choose from the FAT (for FAT16), FAT32,
or NTFS file systems. (See Chapter 2 for more information on file
systems.)
■
Allocation Unit Size Allows you to change the default cluster size
for any of the file systems. Microsoft recommends leaving this value at
its default setting.
■
Perform A Quick Format Specifies that you want to format the
drive without having Windows perform an exhaustive scan of the drive
to check for bad sectors. Select this option only if you have previously
performed a full format and are certain that the disk is not damaged.
■
Enable File And Folder Compression Specifies that all files placed
on the disk will be compressed by default. Compression is always
available on an NTFS volume, and you can enable or disable it at any
time through the properties of the files and folders on the volume.
File And Folder Compression is available only when you format a volume with NTFS.
Figure 8-5 Formatting a partition using the Disk Management tool
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Assigning Drive Letters to Volumes
When you create a basic or dynamic volume, you assign it a drive letter, such as
C or D. The drive letter is used to access the volume through Windows Explorer
and other applications. Floppy drives, CD-ROM and DVD drives, removable
drives, and tape devices are also assigned drive letters.
To change the currently assigned drive letter for a volume, right-click the volume
in Disk Management, select Change Drive Letter And Paths from the action menu,
and then click Change. Note that you can change a volume only to a drive letter
that is not already being used. Also, Windows XP does not allow you to modify
the drive letter for the system and boot partitions.
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Using Volume Mount Points
Windows XP also allows you to mount a volume by using a path instead of assigning a drive letter. For example, you could create a folder named C:\Data. You
could then assign the C:\Data path to a new volume labeled Data. When you
open the C:\Data folder within Windows Explorer, you would actually see the
information that is stored on the Data volume. This type of volume is referred to
as a mounted volume, and the folder that the mounted volume is attached to is
referred to as a volume mount point. You can create multiple volume mount points
for a single volume. You can dismount and move a mounted volume to another
volume mount point, if necessary.
Mounted volumes provide a method of extending the perceived available space
on an existing volume without extending the volume’s actual size. Technically, a
mounted volume is a separate volume, but in the user’s eyes it appears to be an
extension of an existing volume. Therefore, you can use mounted volumes to
increase the amount of disk space that is available on a basic volume to include
disk space on another hard disk (remember that you cannot actually extend a
basic volume to include space on another disk). Also, mounted volumes provide a
method for managing multiple volumes of information from the same drive letter.
Volume mount points are supported on NTFS volumes only. The volume that is
being mounted can be formatted with any supported file system.
To add a mounted volume to an existing volume, follow these steps:
1. By using Windows Explorer, create a folder on an NTFS volume to
serve as the volume mount point.
2. In Disk Management, locate the volume for which you want to modify
the drive letter or path information.
3. Right-click the volume, and select Change Drive Letter And Path from
the action menu.
4. In the Change Drive Letter And Paths For New Volume dialog box,
click Add to create a new mounted volume.
5. In the Add Drive Letter Or Path dialog box, choose Mount In The Following Empty NTFS Folder and enter the path to the volume mount
point, as shown in Figure 8-6.
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Figure 8-6 Mounting a volume into the C:\Mounted folder
6. Click OK and then click Close.
Mounted volume paths have a different icon in Windows Explorer, as shown in
Figure 8-7, and are represented by the <JUNCTION> identifier when viewed at a
command prompt, as shown in Figure 8-8.
Figure 8-7 Viewing a volume mount point in Windows Explorer (C:\Mounted)
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Figure 8-8 Viewing a volume mount point at a command prompt (C:\Mounted)
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The following list contains some additional information about drive letters and
paths:
■
You cannot assign multiple drive letters to a single volume.
■
You cannot assign the same drive letter to multiple volumes on the
same computer.
■
You can mount a volume into multiple paths simultaneously.
■
A volume can exist without a drive letter or mount path assigned; however, the volume will not be accessible by applications.
Converting a Basic Disk to a Dynamic Disk
All disks are basic disks by default. When you need to take advantage of the functionality that dynamic disks provide, you must convert the basic disks to dynamic
disks. (Remember that this feature is available only in Windows XP Professional
Edition and Windows 2000 and that you cannot use dynamic disks on portable
computers.) You can convert a basic disk to a dynamic disk without losing existing
data.
For the conversion to be successful, there must be at least 1 MB of free, unpartitioned space available on the basic disk. This 1 MB is necessary to store the
dynamic disk database, which tracks the configuration of all dynamic disks in the
computer. If Windows XP Professional Edition created the existing partitions, it
will have automatically reserved the 1 MB of space required for the conversion. If
another operating system or a third-party utility program created the partitions
prior to upgrading, there is a chance that no free space is available. In that case,
you will probably have to repartition the drive so that 1 MB of space is reserved as
blank space.
During the conversion, all primary and extended partitions become simple
dynamic volumes, and the disk will join the local disk group and receive a copy of
the dynamic disk database.
Dynamic Disks Do Not Support Multiple Boot Computers
Recall that after disks have been upgraded to dynamic disks, supporting
multiple operating systems is no longer an option.
CAUTION
To convert a basic disk to a dynamic disk, follow these steps:
1. In Disk Management, right-click the basic disk that you want to convert and select Convert To Dynamic Disk, as shown in Figure 8-9.
Make sure that you right-click the actual disk, not one of the partitions
on the disk.
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Figure 8-9 Using Disk Management to convert a basic disk to a dynamic
disk
2. In the Convert To Dynamic Disk dialog box, verify the disks that you
want to convert and then click OK.
3. In the Disks To Convert dialog box, click Convert and then click Yes to
confirm.
Windows returns you to the Disk Management tool and begins the
conversion.
Restart after Converting System and Boot Volumes If the
disk contains the system or boot volume or any part of the paging file,
you need to restart the computer before the conversion process is
complete.
NOTE
You can verify that Windows completed the conversion by viewing the disk type
in Disk Management, as shown in Figure 8-10.
Figure 8-10 The dynamic disk type as displayed in Disk Management
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If you right-click the disk and do not see the Convert To Dynamic Disk option,
one of the following conditions might exist:
■
The disk has already been converted to dynamic.
■
You have right-clicked a volume instead of the disk.
■
The disk is in a portable computer. Portable computers do not support
dynamic disks.
■
There is not 1 MB of available space at the end of the disk to hold the
dynamic disk database.
■
The disk is a removable disk, such as a Zip disk or a detachable USB
disk device. Dynamic disks are not supported on removable disks.
■
The sector size on the disk is larger than 512 bytes. Windows XP Professional Edition supports dynamic disks only on disks with a sector
size of 512 bytes. The vast majority of hard disks use this sector size.
Reverting from a Dynamic Disk to a Basic Disk
To make a dynamic disk locally accessible by an operating system other than
Windows XP Professional Edition (for example, to allow a computer running
Windows 98 to access the hard disk when you install the hard disk in that computer), you must convert the dynamic disk back to a basic disk. Data is not preserved when reverting to a basic disk; the downgrade process requires that all
data be removed from the disk.
Dynamic Disks Do Not Affect Sharing Folders Whether a disk
is dynamic or basic has no effect on whether clients running any operating system can connect to shared folders on that disk remotely over the
network. Computers running previous versions of Windows cannot locally
access a dynamic disk when you install the disk into the computer.
NOTE
To revert from a dynamic disk back to a basic disk, follow these general steps:
1. Back up all files and folders on the entire disk.
2. In Disk Management, delete all the volumes from the disk.
3. Right-click the dynamic disk you want to convert, and select Revert To
Basic Disk.
4. Follow the on-screen instructions.
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5. Create an appropriate partition scheme on the disk, and format the
newly created drives.
6. Restore data as necessary.
Creating a Simple Dynamic Volume
A simple dynamic volume contains space on a single disk. Although it is similar to
a primary basic volume, there are no limits to how many simple volumes you can
create on a single disk.
To create a simple volume, follow these steps:
1. In Disk Management, right-click the unallocated space on which you
want to create the simple volume and then select Create Volume.
2. On the Create Volume Wizard welcome page, click Next.
3. On the Select Volume Type page, select Simple Volume and click Next.
4. On the Select Disks page, enter the desired size in MB and click Next.
5. On the Assign A Drive Letter Or Path page, select a drive letter or enter
a path for a mounted volume and then click Next.
6. On the Format Volume page, select the file system and enter a volume
label. Click Next.
7. On the Completion page, click Finish to create the volume.
Creating a Striped Dynamic Volume
Striped volumes can contain from 2 to 32 disks. Data is written to and read from
multiple disks simultaneously, increasing disk performance. Data is written
(striped) in 64-KB blocks. Striped volumes do not provide any fault tolerance. If
one or more of the disks in a striped volume fails, all data on the entire volume is
lost. Striped volumes are also known as RAID-0.
To create a striped volume, complete the following steps:
1. In Disk Management, right-click the unallocated space on one of the
disks on which you want to create the striped volume and select Create
Volume.
2. On the Create Volume Wizard welcome page, click Next.
3. On the Select Volume Type page, select Striped Volume and click Next.
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4. On the Select Disks page, select the disks to be included in the striped
volume. Adjust the size of the striped volume accordingly and then
click Next.
5. On the Assign A Drive Letter Or Path page, select a drive letter or enter
a path for a mounted volume and then click Next.
6. On the Format Volume page, select the file system and enter a volume
label. Click Next.
7. On the Completion page, click Finish to create the volume.
The amount of disk space that is consumed on each disk in the striped volume
must be equal. The disk with the smallest amount of available space limits the
maximum amount of space available on a striped volume. For example, assume
that you have the following drive configuration on your computer:
■
Disk 0—No space available
■
Disk 1—2 GB available
■
Disk 2—2 GB available
■
Disk 3—1 GB available
If you attempt to create a striped volume with Disks 1, 2, and 3, the maximum volume size that you can create is 3 GB. Because Disk 3 has only 1 GB of space available, you are limited to using only 1 GB from each of the disks in the set.
However, if you create a striped volume using only Disks 1 and 2, the maximum
volume size you can create is 4 GB because both disks have 2 GB of available
space.
Extending Volumes
Windows XP Professional Edition supports extending volumes on both basic and
dynamic disks, whereas Windows XP Home Edition supports extending volumes
only on basic disks. You extend volumes on basic disks by using the DiskPart
command-line utility. You can extend volumes on dynamic disks using either the
Disk Management utility or the DiskPart command-line utility.
Extending Volumes on Basic Disks You can extend primary partitions and
logical drives on basic disks if the following conditions are met:
■
The volume to be extended is formatted with NTFS.
■
The volume is extended into contiguous, unallocated space (adjacent
free space) that follows the existing volume (as opposed to coming
before it).
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■
The volume is extended on the same hard disk. Volumes on basic disks
cannot be extended to include disk space on another hard disk.
■
The volume is not the system or boot volume. The system or boot volumes cannot be extended.
You extend volumes by running the DiskPart utility from the command line,
selecting the appropriate volume, and then executing the following command:
extend [size=n] [noerr]
For further information on the use of DiskPart, refer to the “Managing Disks from
the Command Line” section later in this chapter.
Extending Volumes on Dynamic Disks You can extend a simple volume as
long as it has been formatted with NTFS. You do this by attaching additional
unallocated space from the same disk, or from a different disk, to an existing simple volume. Disk space that is used to extend a simple volume does not have to be
contiguous. If the additional space comes from a different disk, the volume
becomes a spanned volume. Spanned volumes can contain disk space from 2 to
32 disks.
If the volume is not formatted with NTFS, you must convert the volume to NTFS
before you can extend it.
You extend simple volumes by using Disk Management or the DiskPart commandline utility. Perform extensions of simple volumes with DiskPart the same way that
you perform extensions of basic volumes.
To extend a simple volume using Disk Management, follow these steps:
1. In Disk Management, right-click the simple volume that you want to
extend and select Extend Volume.
2. On the Extend Volume Wizard welcome page, click Next.
3. On the Select Disks page, select the disks that contain free space that
you want to attach to this volume, enter the amount of space for each
disk, and then click Next.
4. On the Completion page, click Finish to extend the volume.
Figure 8-11 shows the Select Disks page on a single-drive system. In this case, the
maximum available space on the selected disk that you can use to extend the volume is 2048 MB.
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Figure 8-11 Extending a simple dynamic volume by attaching disk space
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You are not prompted for any information concerning drive lettering or formatting because the added space assumes the same properties as the existing volume.
Moving Disks
If a computer fails but the hard disks are still functional, you can install the disks
into another computer to ensure that the data is still accessible. However, you
need to consider the following issues that are associated with moving disks:
■
You cannot move dynamic disks to computers running Microsoft
Windows 95, Windows 98, Windows Millennium Edition (Windows
Me), Windows NT 4.0 or earlier, or Windows XP Home Edition because
these operating systems do not support dynamic disks. To move a disk
to these operating systems, you must first convert it to a basic disk.
■
When moving spanned or striped volumes, move all disks that are
associated with the volume at the same time. If one disk is missing
from a spanned or striped volume, none of the data on the entire volume is accessible.
■
Windows XP Professional Edition does not support volume sets or
stripe sets that were created in Windows NT 4.0. You must back up the
data, delete the volumes, install the disks into the Windows XP Professional Edition computer, create new volumes, and then restore the
data. Alternatively, you can install the disks into a computer running
Windows 2000 (which does support Windows NT volume and stripe
sets), convert the disks to dynamic disks (which converts volume sets
to spanned volumes and stripe sets to striped volumes), and then
install the disks into a computer running Windows XP Professional
Edition.
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After moving disks, the disks appear in Disk Management on the new computer.
Basic disks are immediately accessible. Dynamic disks initially appear as foreign
disks and need to be imported before you can access them.
Importing Foreign Disks
All dynamic disks on a computer running Windows XP Professional Edition are
members of the same disk group. Each disk in the group contains the dynamic
disk database for the entire group, stored in the 1 MB reserved disk area at the
end of the disk. When you move a dynamic disk from one computer to another,
Windows displays it as a foreign disk because it does not belong to the local disk
group. You must import foreign disks, which merges the disk’s information into
the dynamic disk database on the new computer and places a copy of the database on the newly installed disk.
To import a foreign disk, follow these steps:
1. In Disk Management, right-click the disk that is marked Foreign and
select Import Foreign Disks from the action menu.
2. Select the disk group that you want to import. (There might be more
than one foreign disk group if you have moved multiple disks from different computers into the same computer running Windows XP Professional Edition.)
3. In the Foreign Disk Volumes dialog box, review the information to
ensure that the condition for the volumes in the disk group being
imported is displayed as OK. If all the disks for a spanned or striped
volume are not present, the condition is displayed as incomplete. You
should resolve incomplete volume conditions before continuing with
the import.
4. If you are satisfied with the information that is in the Foreign Disk Volumes dialog box, click OK to import the disks.
Removing Disks from the Dynamic Disk Database
If you remove a dynamic disk from a computer running Windows XP, Disk Management displays the disk as either Offline or Missing because the disk’s configuration is still present in the dynamic disk database stored on the other disks on
the computer. You can remove the missing disk’s configuration from the dynamic
disk database by right-clicking the disk and selecting Remove Disk.
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Managing Disks Remotely
You can perform disk functions on a remote computer by connecting to that computer through Computer Management. To connect to a remote computer in Computer Management, follow these steps:
1. From the Start menu, right-click My Computer and select Manage to
open the Computer Management window.
2. In the Computer Management window, right-click Computer Management and select Connect To Another Computer from the action menu,
as shown in Figure 8-12.
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Figure 8-12 Connecting to another computer in Computer Management
3. In the Select Computer dialog box, select the computer that you want
to manage remotely and then click OK. Computer Management displays the remote computer’s information, and you can manage the
disks on that computer by using the Disk Management tool.
Managing Disks from the Command Line
You can use the Diskpart.exe command to execute disk-management tasks from
a command prompt and to create scripts for automating tasks that you need to
perform frequently or on multiple computers.
Executing DiskPart from a command prompt opens the DiskPart command
interpreter. When you are in the DiskPart command interpreter, the command
prompt changes to DISKPART>. You can view available commands for the DiskPart tool by typing commands at the DiskPart command prompt, as shown in
Figure 8-13. Note that you use the EXIT command to close the DiskPart command interpreter and return to the normal command prompt.
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Figure 8-13 Viewing DiskPart command options
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One feature that is not available in DiskPart is the capability to format volumes.
To format volumes, you must use the Format.exe command from the standard
command prompt.
Maintaining Disks
The Windows XP Professional Edition operating system includes several utilities
for maintaining hard disks. This section covers the following utilities:
■
Chkdsk.exe
■
Disk Defragmenter
■
Disk Cleanup
Performing Error Checking by Using Chkdsk.exe
In Windows XP, you perform error checking on hard disks by using the
Chkdsk.exe command-line utility. Chkdsk verifies and repairs the integrity of the
file system on a volume. If file system errors are detected on a volume, Chkdsk
schedules itself to run automatically the next time Windows XP is started and
fixes the errors. As a DST, you should encourage users to run Chkdsk periodically. You should also use Chkdsk as one of your initial troubleshooting steps
when you suspect a hard disk problem.
You can run Chkdsk with or without additional parameters. When you simply
type chkdsk at the command prompt with no additional parameters, Chkdsk
analyzes the disk and generates a report, but it does not repair errors. To fix
errors, you must use one of the following additional parameters:
■
/f Locks a volume and fixes errors, scheduling a repair on the next
restart if the volume contains files currently in use
■
/r Locks a volume, locates bad sectors, and recovers readable information
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Chkdsk can take a long time to repair a volume. When a volume is being repaired,
it is locked and inaccessible. If Chkdsk cannot lock the volume, it will offer to
repair the volume at the next computer restart. The boot volume can never be
locked while the computer is up and running, and you can repair it only by
restarting the computer.
In addition to command-line Chkdsk, Windows also provides a graphical utility.
To access the graphical version of Chkdsk, shown in Figure 8-14, right-click the
volume letter in Windows Explorer, select the Tools tab, and in the Error-Checking section, click Check Now.
Figure 8-14 Using the graphical version of Chkdsk
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Using the Disk Defragmenter
Fragmented files and folders are stored in locations scattered throughout the disk
rather than in one contiguous location. The more fragmented a file or folder is,
the more reads it takes to access, and the more Windows performance suffers.
Fragmentation generally occurs when files are frequently added and removed
from the disk or when the disk begins to fill up. In both of these cases, it can be
difficult for the operating system to locate a contiguous area of the disk to write
to, and data can become fragmented.
Defragmentation refers to the process of rearranging the various pieces of files
and folders on the disk into contiguous spaces, thereby improving performance.
In Windows XP, you use the Disk Defragmenter tool to defragment hard disks. In
addition to defragmenting the existing files and folders, Disk Defragmenter can
also consolidate free space, making it less likely that a new file or folder will
become fragmented in the near future.
You access Disk Defragmenter from the Start menu by selecting All Programs,
Accessories, System Tools, and then Disk Defragmenter. This utility first performs
an analysis of the selected volume and lets you know if the drive would benefit
from being defragmented.
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Figure 8-15 shows a Disk Defragmenter Analysis Report. In this case, the disk is
significantly fragmented (23%) and would benefit from defragmentation.
Figure 8-15 Viewing a Disk Defragmenter Analysis Report
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A defragmentation in process is shown in Figure 8-16. The analysis display gives an
indication of the amount and location of fragmented files. The defragmentation display shows the progress that is being made as the defragmentation proceeds.
Figure 8-16 Viewing a defragmentation in process
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Windows XP also provides a command-line version of Disk Defragmenter, called
Defrag.exe. Figure 8-17 shows the parameters available with Defrag.exe.
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Figure 8-17 Viewing the Defrag.exe command-line parameters
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For optimal performance, you should perform disk defragmentation in the following circumstances:
■
After you have deleted a large number of files, to defragment and consolidate disk space.
■
Before you add a large number of files, to ensure that the newly added
files occupy contiguous disk space.
■
After installing application programs, to defragment and consolidate
disk space. Application programs can use temporary files during installation. After these files are deleted, disk space allocation is no longer
optimal.
■
After installing Windows XP, to ensure optimal operating system performance.
Disk defragmentation is best performed during periods of low system activity.
Prior to running Disk Defragmenter, consider deleting unnecessary files to free
up disk space and to minimize the work that Disk Defragmenter has to do.
Disk Cleanup
If a computer is getting low on available hard disk space, you can delete certain
types of files to create more available space. Users might not be aware of which
files they can delete safely, so Windows includes the Disk Cleanup utility to help
with this process.
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You access the Disk Cleanup utility, shown in Figure 8-18, from the Start menu by
selecting All Programs, Accessories, System Tools, and then Disk Cleanup. When
you start Disk Cleanup, the utility calculates the amount of space that you can
gain by deleting selected items.
Figure 8-18 Using the Disk Cleanup utility to delete unnecessary files
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The following list describes the most common options in Disk Cleanup for deleting files and saving space:
■
Downloaded Program Files Files that have been downloaded from
the Internet and stored in the Downloaded Program Files folder on the
hard disk.
■
Temporary Internet Files Copies of previously visited Web pages
that are stored on the hard disk for faster access the next time you need
to view the same Web pages.
■
Recycle Bin Files that have been deleted but not yet removed from
the hard disk.
■
Temporary Files Files that are used for temporary workspace by
any number of applications and that are usually stored in the TEMP
folder. Temporary files are supposed to be deleted by the application
that created them, but that does not always happen.
■
Temporary Offline Files Files that have been cached locally for use
when the network is offline. You can remove them from the computer,
but synchronize beforehand to ensure that all changes have been copied to the network.
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■
Compress Old Files Compresses infrequently used files on NTFS
partitions, which often saves a significant amount of disk space.
Your Disk Cleanup Results Might Differ The Disk Cleanup
options list is built dynamically, based on the types of data present in
the computer when the utility is started. Therefore, this example does
not represent all the options you might encounter—only the most common ones.
NOTE
To delete any of the listed items, you must select the item. As you select items for
deletion, Disk Cleanup displays the total amount of disk space that you will gain.
By default, only Downloaded Program Files, Temporary Internet Files, and Temporary Offline Files are selected for deletion.
Troubleshooting Disks and Volumes
Disk Management displays the status of each disk and volume. If you refer to Figure 8-1, you notice that all disks are online and all volumes are showing the
desired status of Healthy.
Disk status types are as follows:
■
Online Displayed by basic and dynamic disks. The disk is accessible.
No user action is required.
■
Online (Errors) Displayed by dynamic disks only. The disk is accessible, but input/output (I/O) errors have been detected. If the I/O
errors are intermittent, right-click the disk and select Reactivate Disk.
This normally returns the disk to Online status.
■
Offline Or Missing Displayed by dynamic disks only. This disk is
not accessible. Attempt to rescan the disks on the computer by selecting Rescan Disks from the Action menu in Disk Management. If the
scan is unsuccessful, look for a physical reason for the drive failure
(cables disconnected, no power to disk, failed disk). If you must
replace a failed drive, first delete all volumes on the disk and then rightclick the disk and select Remove Disk.
■
Foreign Displayed by dynamic disks only. The disk has been moved
to this computer from another computer. Right-click the disk and
select Import Foreign Disk. If you do not want to keep the information
on the disk, you can select Convert To Basic Disk, and all information
on the disk will be lost.
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■
Unreadable Displayed by basic and dynamic disks. The disk is not
accessible. Disks might show this status while they are initializing. If a
disk continues to show this status, the disk might have failed entirely.
Restart the computer to determine whether the disk will become accessible. If it is a dynamic disk, attempt to repair the disk by right-clicking
it and selecting Rescan Disks.
■
Unrecognized The disk is an unknown type, and Windows XP cannot recognize it.
■
No Media This status is on drives with removable media, such as a
CD-ROM drive, when the drive is empty.
Volume status types and the recommended action (if required) are as follows:
■
Healthy The volume is accessible and has no detected problems.
■
Healthy (At Risk) If the disk status is Online (Errors), the volumes
will be accessible, but all volumes will display this status. Restoring the
disk to Online will clear this status from the volume.
■
Initializing The volume is in the process of initializing. No action is
required. Once the initialization is complete, the volume should show
a status of Healthy.
SUPPORTING AND TROUBLESHOOTING REMOVABLE
MEDIA
Windows XP contains built-in support for both CD-ROM and DVD-ROM devices.
Windows XP also supports a number of other removable media types, such as
tape drives and memory storage. This section covers the monitoring and troubleshooting of removable media.
Monitoring and Troubleshooting CD-ROM and DVD
Devices
Most CD-ROM and DVD-ROM devices are Plug and Play–compliant and therefore require little configuration. To view the status and configuration of these
types of devices, access the device’s Properties dialog box through Device Manager. (See Chapter 6, “Installing and Managing Hardware,” for detailed informa-
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tion on using Device Manger.) The General tab of the device’s Properties dialog
box indicates whether the device is functioning properly within Windows. The
Properties tab, shown in Figure 8-19, provides configuration options.
Figure 8-19 Configuring CD-ROM and DVD-ROM devices using Device Manager
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If Device Manager indicates that the device is installed and functioning, but the
device does not appear to be working properly, there might be a physical problem
with the device installation or the device itself might be faulty. If the disk tray
does not eject properly or the power/usage light-emitting diode (LED) indicators
are not illuminated, open the computer and verify that all connections have been
properly established.
If a CD or DVD device appears to read data correctly but does not playback audio,
there is most likely a device driver problem or additional required components are
not currently configured. Always verify that the device is listed in the Windows
Catalog. Also, make sure that the latest version of the device driver and associated
software is installed.
To troubleshoot an audio playback problem, take the following additional steps:
■
Verify that the sound card is properly configured and functional.
■
Verify that the speakers are plugged in and turned on.
■
Verify that the sound has not been muted.
■
Verify that the audio cables connecting the CD/DVD to the sound card
are properly connected.
■
Make sure that the CD is clean.
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If the CD device supports it, you can enable the digital CD playback feature in the
drive’s Properties dialog box in Device Manager. On the Properties tab, select the
Enable Digital CD Audio For This CD-ROM Device check box. Digital CD playback requires that CD devices support Digital Audio Extraction (DAE), which
older devices might not support. When digital CD playback is enabled, the CDROM drive does not have to be connected to the sound card, and audio output
from the headphone jack on the CD-ROM drive is disabled.
Support for Removable Media
Removable media consist of devices such as disks, tape, and optical media, which
are stored either online in the form of information libraries or offline on a shelf or
in a file drawer. These media are used primarily for backup of applications and
data. They are also used to archive data that is not accessed frequently.
Previous versions of Windows (pre–Windows 2000) did not provide strong support for removable devices. Each application that required access to a removable
device needed a custom solution for accessing and managing removable storage
media. Windows XP centralizes the management of these devices with Removable Storage technology. Removable Storage allows the operating system to manage removable media centrally, and applications gain access to removable devices
through the Removable Storage interface. Devices with drivers that have been
written to take advantage of Removable Storage are easily accessible and sharable
by both the operating system and applications.
Understanding Removable Storage
Removable Storage uses media pools to structure removable media. Media pools
group media by usage, allow media to be shared by multiple applications, control
media access, and provide for tracking of media usage. Other aspects of Removable Storage include the following:
■
Media units The actual devices that store information, such as a
CD-ROM, tape cartridge, or removable disk.
■
Media libraries Encompass both online libraries and offline media
physical locations. Online libraries, which include robotic libraries and
stand-alone drives, are data-storage devices that provide a method of
reading and writing to media when necessary. Offline media physical
locations are a holding place for media units that are cataloged by
Removable Storage, but are not currently immediately available
through an online library.
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■
Work queues Hold library requests until resources become available. For example, a robotic tape library has a fixed number of tape
drives to access media. A request submitted to the library is held in a
work queue until a tape drive becomes available and the requested
tape is mounted.
■
Operator (administrator) requests Hold requests for offline
media. The operator must make the media available before processing
can continue. Other situations that generate operator requests include
the failure of a device or a device needing to be cleaned when no
cleaner cartridge is available. After a request is satisfied, the administrator must inform Removable Storage so that processing can continue.
NOTE Removable Storage Limitations Removable storage devices
can contain primary partitions only, and those partitions cannot be
marked as active.
Using the Removable Storage Utility
You perform initial installation, configuration, and troubleshooting of removable
storage devices by using the Add Hardware Wizard and Device Manager, as
described in Chapter 6. After being recognized by the operating system, removable storage devices are available for management through the Removable Storage utility. Access Removable Storage by expanding the Storage node in the
Computer Management window.
Figure 8-20 shows the Removable Storage utility, launched on a computer with a
single CD-ROM drive only. By using the Removable Storage utility, you can insert
and eject removable media, control access to media, and manage the use of media
by applications. Systems with standard, stand-alone, removable devices (such as
a CD-ROM or DVD-ROM drive, Zip drive, or tape drive) do not require management and configuration by using Removable Storage. Removable Storage is
required for computers with more complex configurations, which can include
tape or optical disk libraries, especially if multiple applications will access those
devices. You should always consult the documentation for the removable device
to determine how it is best managed.
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Figure 8-20 Using the Removable Storage utility
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Removable storage devices that require management through the Removable
Storage utility are most likely attached to Windows servers in a network environment. Further discussion of Removable Storage management is beyond the scope
of this text. For more information, see http://www.microsoft.com and search for
“Removable Storage.”
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SUMMARY
■
Windows XP Professional Edition provides the Disk Management utility to configure, manage, and monitor hard disks and volumes. Using
this utility, you can accomplish tasks such as the creation and formatting of volumes, moving disks from one computer to another, and
remote disk management. You can use additional disk utilities such as
Disk Defragmenter and Chkdsk to ensure optimal disk performance.
■
Windows XP Professional Edition supports two types of disk storage:
basic disks and dynamic disks. Windows XP Home Edition supports
only basic disks. Portable computers also support only basic disks.
■
All disks are basic disks by default. When you need to take advantage
of the functionality that dynamic disks provide, you must upgrade the
basic disks to dynamic disks. (Remember that this feature is available
only in the Windows XP Professional Edition version.) You can perform this operation with no loss of data.
■
You must format a volume before it can accept data, and each volume
can be formatted with only a single file system. Volumes are usually
assigned drive letters, such as C or D, which are used to reference the
volume from within the operating system and through applications.
■
Mounted volumes provide a method of extending the perceived available space on an existing volume without extending the volume’s size.
Technically, a mounted volume is a separate volume, but in the user’s
eyes it appears to be an extension of an existing volume.
REVIEW QUESTIONS
1. What is the process of rearranging files and folders into contiguous
blocks called?
2. On what types of computers can you use dynamic disks?
3. What actions must you take to revert from a dynamic disk to a basic
disk? What limitations does this process impose?
4. If Device Manager indicates that the CD-ROM is installed and functioning, yet the device does not appear to be functioning properly, what is
indicated?
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CASE SCENARIOS
Scenario 8-1: Configuring Hard Disks
One of the users for whom you provide support has two identical hard disks
installed in her computer. She says that she has more than enough space on just
one drive and has not stored anything on the second drive. The user has read
about Windows XP Professional Edition’s support of disk striping and wants you
to help her configure these two disks as a striped volume. Both disks are currently configured as basic disks, and you know that you must upgrade the disks
to dynamic disks to support striping. You cannot upgrade one of the disks, however. What might prevent you from upgrading the disk, and how can you resolve
the issue?
Scenario 8-2: Using Volume Mount Points
You have a user who needs to increase the amount of free space available to
Windows XP Professional Edition. The current hard disk is a 20-GB drive with
1 GB of available free space and is formatted as FAT32.
You help the user complete the installation of an additional 40-GB hard disk. You
configure the basic input/output system (BIOS) to recognize the newly installed
drive, and Disk Management recognizes both drives.
The user does not want an additional drive letter assigned to the new hard disk
space. She does want to retain the original drive and its contents. How can you
configure this computer to meet the user’s needs? What, if any, changes will she
notice to the file system? What, if any, are the disadvantages of using volume
mount points?
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NETWORK PRINTERS
Upon completion of this chapter, you will be able to:
■ Explain the printing process in Windows XP
■ Install and configure local and network printers
■ Manage print jobs
■ Troubleshoot printers
■ Use print permissions to secure a printer
■ Share a printer
■ Install additional printer drivers for a shared printer
■ Connect to a shared printer
Users can connect a printer directly to a local computer and print documents
from that computer, or they can share the local printer with other users on the
network. A user on a network might also connect to a shared network printer that
is attached to another computer on the network, or even attached directly to the
network itself. Microsoft Windows XP offers many advanced options for implementing printers locally or on a network. As a desktop support technician (DST),
you need to know how to install a local printer and share it on the network. You
should also understand how to access a shared printer. You must understand
how to control access to printers, configure printers, and manage documents that
are waiting to be printed.
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SUPPORTING PRINTERS
As a DST, being able to deal with printers is paramount. You should have a good
understanding of how printers work in Windows XP and be able to help users
install, configure, and troubleshoot printers.
Understanding Printer Terminology
To manage printers successfully, you must first understand the printing concepts
and terminology that are used in a Microsoft environment. You must know the
following terms:
■
Printer The physical device that performs the printing. This device
is usually a printer, but it can also be a fax device or a plotter.
■
Logical printer The software configuration that is created in
Windows XP and is represented by an icon in the Printers And Faxes
window. The logical printer controls the printer’s configuration and
the way in which Windows sends documents to the printer.
NOTE Printers and Print Devices
In previous versions of Windows,
Microsoft made an important distinction between the terms “printer”
and “print device.” Prior to Windows XP, a “printer” was the software on
the computer that controlled printing, and a “print device” was the
actual hardware device. The two terms were not used interchangeably.
In Windows XP, that terminology has changed. The Windows XP documentation generally defines the “printer” as “a device that puts text
or images on paper or other print media” and the “logical printer” as
the “collection of software components that interface between the
operating system and the printer.”
■
Printer driver The software driver that contains printer-specific
information. The printer driver is used by Graphical Device Interface
(GDI) to render print jobs.
■
Print job A document that Windows has prepared for printing. Print
jobs wait in a printer’s print queue until it is their turn to be printed.
While a print job is waiting in the queue, users can manage or delete
the print job.
■
Graphical Device Interface A Windows component that creates
print jobs by interpreting document information from an application
and combining it with printer information that is obtained from the
printer driver. This process is called rendering.
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■
Print server A computer or other network device that has a printer
physically attached to it and shares that printer with the network.
When a user’s computer running Windows XP shares a locally
attached printer with the network, the user’s computer is referred to as
the print server.
■
Print spooling The process of saving a print job to the hard disk
before sending it to the printer. The process increases user productivity
because after the job has been spooled, the application is released, and
the user can continue working while the printing process continues in
the background. Print spooling also ensures that print jobs will be
saved in the event of a computer, application, or printer failure. In addition, when a client is printing to a printer on the network, print spooling also manages the routing of the print job from the client to the
appropriate print server.
■
Spool directory The spool directory is the folder to which print
documents are spooled. This is %System_root%\System32\Spool\
Printers by default.
■
Print spooler The Windows operating system service that controls
the print spooling process. The file Winspool.drv is the client-side
spooler, and Spoolsv.exe is the server-side spooler.
■
Print router When a user prints to a network printer, the print
router locates a remote print provider that can service the print job’s
protocol. The file Spoolss.exe contains the print router.
■
Remote print provider A service that can forward jobs to remote
print servers. The remote print provider exists on the client-side of the
printing process. (The term “remote” refers to the physical location of
the printer.)
■
Local print provider A Windows service that receives print jobs,
spools them to the hard disk, and keeps track of job information while
the job is in the print queue. The local print provider exists on the
server-side of the printing process. (The term “local” refers to the physical location of the printer.) The local print provider sends a print job
through the print processor and separator page processors and then
forwards the job to the appropriate port monitor. The local print provider is contained in the Localspl.dll file. You will learn more about
local and remote print providers in the “Understanding the Printing
Process” section later in this section.
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■
Print processor Software that makes any necessary modifications to
the print job and then calls on the GDI to further render the job, if necessary. Windows XP includes Winprint as its only print processor.
Winprint is included in the Localspl.dll file.
■
Printer pool A single logical printer is configured for multiple printers. A printer pool allows you to divide the printing workload among
several printers of the same manufacturer and model.
■
Separator page processor Software that adds separator pages
between print jobs as required. A separator page is a page that indicates the name of the document and time of printing. Separator pages
help users distinguish between different documents on printers in
which multiple documents are routinely printed.
■
Port monitor Software that controls communication with the ports
to which printers are attached. The local port monitor (included in
Localspl.dll) controls parallel and serial ports where a printer might be
attached. The standard port monitor controls communication with
network printers using the Transmission Control Protocol/Internet
Protocol (TCP/IP) protocol, such as Hewlett-Packard printers containing JetDirect network adapters. The Hypertext Transfer Protocol
(HTTP) port monitor is used when Internet printing is enabled.
Understanding Print Job Formats
When a print job is created, the print spooler looks at the format of the print job
to determine whether the print job requires further processing by the print processor. Print job formats include the following:
■
RAW Ready to be printed, no further processing required. Most nonWindows applications generate print jobs in RAW format.
■
RAW [FF appended] Same as the RAW format, except that it
requires a form-feed character to be appended to the end of the print
job before sending it to the printer. This format ensures that the last
page of the job is ejected from the printer.
■
RAW [FF auto] Same as RAW format, but checks to see whether a
form-feed character exists at the end of the print job. If not, a form-feed
character is added.
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■
EMF Enhanced Metafile (EMF) format is a device-independent print
job format that can be created much more quickly than the RAW format. The application that requested printing is released faster, allowing
the user more productive work time. Processing continues in the background. EMF documents are sent to the print processor and GDI for
further rendering into RAW format prior to printing. Most Windows
applications generate EMF format jobs.
■
TEXT American National Standards Institute (ANSI) text data. The
print processor and GDI further process the data. The text is printed in
the printer’s default font.
EMF format print jobs are much smaller in size than RAW format print jobs. In
Windows XP, print jobs that are created in EMF format are transmitted across the
network as an EMF and further rendered on the print server. This conserves network bandwidth. In previous versions of Windows, jobs were fully rendered to
RAW format prior to being sent across the network.
Understanding the Printing Process
The local printing process happens as follows:
1. The user prints from within an application.
2. The application contacts the GDI.
3. The GDI contacts the print driver for printer-specific information, renders the job, and delivers the job to the print spooler.
4. The client-side of the spooler contacts the server-side spooler.
5. The server-side spooler contacts the print router.
6. The print router sends the print job to the local print provider.
7. The local print provider polls the print processors to find one that can
process the type of data that is contained in the print job and then
send the job to the appropriate print processor.
8. The print processor contacts the GDI to further render the job if
required to make it print properly.
9. The print processor sends the job to the page separator processor,
where a separator page is added, if required.
10. The print job is then sent to the appropriate port monitor, which ultimately delivers the job to the printer.
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In local printing, the client server and print server are the same computer. Printing processes differentiate between client-side and server-side components,
regardless of whether printing is local or remote. This explains why you see the
client-side spooler needing to contact the server-side spooler even during the
local printing process.
The remote printing process is largely the same as the local printing process, except
for the need to forward the print job across the network to the print server in the
middle of the process. The following steps outline the remote printing process:
1. The user prints from within an application.
2. The application contacts the GDI.
3. The GDI contacts the print driver for printer-specific information, renders the job, and delivers the job to the print spooler.
4. The client-side of the spooler contacts the server-side spooler.
5. The server-side spooler contacts the print router.
6. The print router locates a remote print provider that can forward the
job to the appropriate print server and transfers the job to the remote
print provider.
7. The remote print provider forwards the job across the network to the
remote print server, where the local print provider receives it.
8. The local print provider polls the print processors to find one that can
process the type of data that is contained in the print job and send the
job to the appropriate print processor.
9. The print processor contacts the GDI to further render the job if
required to make it print properly.
10. The print processor sends the job to the page separator processor, in
which a separator page is added, if required.
11. The job is then sent to the appropriate port monitor, which ultimately
delivers the job to the printer.
The flowchart in Figure 9-1 illustrates the local and remote printing processes in
Windows XP, with the differences between the processes highlighted for easy
comparison.
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Printing Process
User prints from within the application
Application contacts the GDI
Printing Process
GDI contacts printer driver, renders the job,
and delivers the job to the printer spooler
Client-side spooler contacts server-side
spooler
Local Printing
Path
Server-side spooler contacts print router
Print router sends a print job to local print
provider
Remote Printing
Path
Local print provider locates appropriate print
processor, and transfers job to that print
processor
Remote print provider forwards job across
the network to remote print server, where it
is received by local print provider
Local print provider locates appropriate print
processor, and transfers job to that print
processor
Print processor contacts GDI to further
render job if required
Print processor sends job to page separator
processor
Page separator processor sends job to
appropriate port monitor for delivery to print
device
Figure 9-1 The local and remote printing processes in Windows XP, which are similar
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Installing Local Printers
Installing printers is a basic function that all administrators and most users
should be able to perform. Many printers support automatic Plug and Play–detection, and Windows automatically begins the installation process when the printers are first connected to the computer. Windows automatically installs drivers
from the Drivers.cab file. Drivers.cab contains thousands of commonly used files,
including print drivers. Drivers.cab is installed as part of the Windows XP Professional Edition operating system installation.
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If the printer is not Plug and Play–compliant, you must use the Add Printer
Wizard to install it. The Add Printer Wizard is located in the Printers And Faxes
folder, which is accessible from Control Panel or the Start menu.
To install a printer, a user running Windows XP Professional Edition must be a
member of the Administrators or Power Users groups and must have the Load
And Unload Device Drivers user right assigned. A user running Windows XP
Home Edition must have a Computer Administrator user account. For information on assigning user rights, refer to Chapter 3, “Supporting Local Users and
Groups.”
To install a local printer, follow these steps:
1. From the Start menu, select Printers And Faxes.
2. In the Printers And Faxes window, double-click the Add Printer icon
to start the Add Printer Wizard. On the Welcome page of the wizard,
click Next.
3. On the Local Or Network Printer page, shown in Figure 9-2, select the
Local Printer Attached To This Computer option. You can select the
Automatically Detect And Install My Plug And Play Printer option if you
have a Plug and Play printer that was not automatically detected when it
was connected to the computer. Click Next to continue. If Windows
detects a printer, Windows installs the printer automatically. If not, you
need to select a printer manually.
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Figure 9-2 Configuring a local printer attached to the computer
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4. On the Select A Printer Port page, shown in Figure 9-3, select one of the
following ports that are available by default, and then click Next:
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❑
LPT1-3, standard printer (parallel) ports.
❑
COM1-4, standard serial ports.
❑
FILE, which enables you to print to a file on the hard disk rather than
directly to a printer. The file can then be forwarded to a printer when
necessary.
Figure 9-3 Selecting a printer port
5. On the Install Printer Software page, shown in Figure 9-4, select the
printer’s manufacturer and model. If your printer is not available in the
list, or if you have a driver that is newer than the one that shipped with
Windows, select the Have Disk option and provide Windows with the
path to the printer driver. When you are finished, click Next.
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Figure 9-4 Selecting the printer to install, or providing a driver disk
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6. On the Name Your Printer page, shown in Figure 9-5, choose a name
that is descriptive of the type of printer. You should limit the name to
31 or fewer characters to maintain compatibility with older applications and previous versions of operating systems. Also, select
whether or not you want this printer to be the default printer and
then click Next.
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Figure 9-5 Naming your printer and choosing whether it should be the
default printer
7. On the Printer Sharing page, shown in Figure 9-6, indicate whether you
want this printer to be available to users on the network by sharing it
or to be available only to users who use this computer. If you choose to
share the printer, you are required to enter a share name, and then you
will be given an opportunity to configure a location and description for
the printer. (You will learn more about sharing printers in the “Sharing
a Printer”section later in this chapter.) Click Next.
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Figure 9-6 Specifying whether the printer should be shared
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8. On the Print Test Page page, shown in Figure 9-7, select Yes to print a
test page, which is a single page of text and images that are designed to
verify that the printer is functioning correctly and that the appropriate
printer driver has been selected. Click Next.
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Figure 9-7 Specifying whether to print a test page
9. On the Add Printer Wizard Completion page, verify that you have
selected the appropriate settings and then click Finish to install the
printer.
Figure 9-8 shows the Printers And Faxes window with the newly installed printer.
Figure 9-8 Viewing the new printer in the Printers And Faxes window
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Installing Network-Attached Printers
If the printer has a network adapter installed and is plugged directly into the network, you need to create a port for the printer on a computer running Windows
XP so that you can use the Windows interface to control and share the printer. On
the Printer Port page (step 3 of the instructions for installing a local printer), select
the Create A New Port option and then create the appropriate connection to the
printer. In most cases, this is what is called a standard TCP/IP printer port. When
you define this type of port, you are providing Windows with the printer’s Internet
Protocol (IP) address so that Windows can establish a connection with the network printer. Figure 9-9 illustrates this process. You will learn more about using
TCP/IP and IP addresses in Chapter 10, “Supporting Network Connectivity.”
Figure 9-9 Creating a TCP/IP printer port
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Troubleshooting Printer Driver Issues
Choosing the correct printer driver is critical for proper printer operation. If you
choose an incorrect driver, one of two things is likely to happen: not all features of
the printer will be available, or the printer output will be incorrect.
If you choose a compatible but incorrect driver, you can use whatever features of
the printer that the driver you selected allows. For example, if you chose an HP
LaserJet 4 driver for use with an HP LaserJet 5si printer, you would get basic
printer functionality, but the enhanced font and paper-handling capabilities of
the LaserJet 5si would be unavailable because the driver does not support them.
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If you choose an incompatible printer driver, the printer’s output will be significantly affected and (in most cases) unrecognizable. A common symptom of an
incompatible driver is that the printer will produce a given character or a line of
characters on a page for a significant period of time (potentially hundreds or
thousands of pages). If this condition occurs, turn off the printer to clear its memory, delete the print job from the print queue if it is still there, and then install an
appropriate driver.
Using Drivers from Similar Devices If Windows XP does not
support your printer and you do not have drivers from the manufacturer,
try using the driver for a similar or older printer from the same manufacturer. You will often get partial functionality until you can get the appropriate drivers for the printer. You should also check the printer’s user
manual for compatibility with other printers that have a Windows XP
driver.
NOTE
Configuring Printers
After you have installed a printer, you have access to a number of options for configuring the printer. As a DST, you must understand what options are available
and how to implement them because users are likely to ask you to help them set
up printers and to help troubleshoot printing options when printing does not
occur as they expect. You access some options for managing a printer by rightclicking the printer’s icon in the Printers And Faxes window and selecting a command, as shown in Figure 9-10.
Figure 9-10 Selecting a command from a printer’s shortcut menu
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Commands that you can perform from the printer’s shortcut menu include the
following:
■
Set As Default Printer Specifies this printer as the default printer
for use in all programs. When a user prints and does not specify a
printer, this is the printer that Windows uses. You can specify only one
printer as the default at a given time.
■
Printing Preferences Enables the configuration of the default page
orientation, page order, pages per sheet, and so on.
■
Pause Printing Stops print documents from being sent to the
printer. When the printer is paused, there is a check mark next to this
option in the action menu. To restart the printer, select the Pause Printing option again to clear the check mark. Pausing printing is useful
when a number of documents are waiting to be printed and you need
to make adjustments to or fix a problem with the printer configuration.
■
Sharing Allows the management of shared printer resources.
■
Use Printer Offline/Online Allows the printer to be used offline if
the computer is not connected to the printer or the network, or if the
user wants to hold all jobs locally for a period of time. When you bring
the printer back online, all documents waiting in the local queue are
printed.
■
Properties Provides access to the printer’s Properties dialog box,
from which you can configure a number of options, including many of
the options that you can also access from a printer’s shortcut menu.
The options that are available in the Properties dialog box are covered
in the next few sections.
Configuring General Properties
The General tab of a printer’s Properties dialog box, shown in Figure 9-11, allows
you to perform the following tasks:
■
Change the name of the printer
■
Configure the printer’s location
■
Enter a comment about the printer that helps to identify its use
■
View the printer model and feature settings
■
Configure printing preferences, such as portrait or landscape, and page
order (front-to-back or back-to-front)
■
Print a test page to verify printer functionality
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Figure 9-11 Configuring basic printer settings using the General tab of a printer’s
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Properties dialog box
Configuring Printer Ports
The Ports tab of a printer’s Properties dialog box, shown in Figure 9-12, allows
you to reconfigure the port to which the printer is connected. In addition, you can
configure bidirectional communication support (if available) and use a printer
pool. Bidirectional communication support enables Windows to receive setting
and status information from the printer. Most modern printers and computer
support bidirectional communication.
Configuring printer port settings using the Ports tab of the printer’s Properties dialog box
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Figure 9-12
Configuring Printer Pools
The Ports tab also allows you to enable a printer to use a printer pool. A printer
pool allows you to associate two or more printers to a single logical printer. When
documents enter the queue of a printer pool, Windows assigns the document to
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the first available printer, automatically distributing the printing load to all printers. This feature allows you to combine several lower-speed printers into a single,
higher-speed logical printer. For example, if you have three printers that are each
capable of printing 10 pages per minute, you can combine them into a printer
pool and receive a total of 30 pages per minute from the pool.
Setting up a printer pool is often more efficient than setting up three separate logical printers and assigning a group of users to each of them. When using separate
logical printers, there is always the chance that one printer is busy while the others sit idle. Creating a printer pool ensures that Windows distributes the printing
load among all printers in the pool and that users receive their output more
quickly. Also, if one of the printers fails, the others continue to process print documents, preventing interruptions of service.
Ideally, all printers in a printer pool should be the same make and model. You can
create a printer pool using printers if all the printers support the same print
driver, but you might lose any advanced print functionality supported by the different printers. If the printers do not support the same driver, the output on the
printers that does not support the installed driver might be problematic. For
more information, see the “Troubleshooting Printer Driver Issues” section earlier
in this chapter.
To establish a printer pool, follow these steps:
1. Identify the printers that will be part of the printer pool and the ports
that they are attached to.
2. Use the Add Printer Wizard to create a logical printer for one of the
printers. The wizard permits you to assign only a single port to the
printer. Assign a port that has one of the printers attached to it.
3. After creating the first logical printer, open the Properties dialog box
for the logical printer and select the Ports tab.
4. Enable printer pooling.
5. Select each additional port that contains a printer that will be part of
the pool.
When documents are sent to a printer pool, Windows does not notify users about
which printer their document was printed to. Users must check all printers in the
pool. For this reason, you should ensure that all the printers in a printer pool are
in close proximity to one another.
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MANAGING LOCAL AND NETWORK PRINTERS
Configuring Advanced Printer Properties
The Advanced tab of a printer’s Properties dialog box, shown in Figure 9-13,
allows you to configure features associated with the way the printer handles documents. These features vary from printer to printer, depending on the features
associated with the particular printer, but you should be aware of a few important
settings:
■
Availability By default, a printer is available 24 hours a day. You can
limit the hours that a printer is available by selecting the Available
From option on the Advanced tab and entering a time range.
■
Priority The printer Priority option allows you to define a priority for
the printer that ranges from 1 to 99 (the higher the number, the higher
the printer’s priority). Priority comes into effect only if you have multiple logical printers defined for a single printer. For example, you can
create two logical printers, each printing to the same printer. You can
name one logical printer HIGHPRIORITY and assign a priority of 99.
You can name the other logical printer LOWPRIORITY and assign a
priority of 1. Documents printed to the HIGHPRIORITY logical printer
always take precedence over documents printed to the LOWPRIORITY
logical printer.
■
Spooling Select the Spool Print Documents So Program Finishes
Printing Faster to enable printer spooling. Select Print Directly To The
Printer to disable spooling. If spooling is enabled, you need to decide
whether you want the document to be spooled in its entirety before
printing (the best option for remote printers) or to start printing immediately upon receiving the first page (the best option for local printers).
■
Hold Mismatched Documents A mismatched document is a print
document that requires a different type of paper than that which is currently installed in the printer. Selecting the Hold Mismatched Documents option causes the spooler to check the current printer setup
against the document setup before sending the document to the
printer. This prevents mismatched documents from blocking the
queue. For example, many printers do not have envelope trays and
require envelopes to be fed manually. If a user prints an envelope,
someone must be at the printer to feed the envelope through so that
the job can complete. If no one is at the printer to feed the envelope,
the print queue is blocked until someone either feeds the envelope or
deletes the print job.
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■
Print Spooled Documents First When this option is disabled, the
spooler determines which document to print next based only on the
document’s priority and the time the document arrived in the queue.
Also, the spooler prints jobs that are completely spooled before jobs
that are in the process of being spooled, even if the completely spooled
job has a lower priority. This is intended to improve printer efficiency
by preventing the printer from sitting idle while waiting for a highpriority job to be completely spooled.
■
Keep Printed Documents Configures the spooler to not delete documents after they have been printed. This makes it easy to resubmit a
document to the queue. Print documents need to be manually deleted.
It is important that the jobs are deleted when no longer needed, as they
take up disk space on the hard disk that contains the spool directory.
■
Enable Advanced Printing Features Activates EMF spooling and
enables printer features such as Page Order, Pages Per Sheet, and other
printer-specific features. Advanced printing features are enabled by
default and should remain enabled unless you have problems with the
printer. EMF spooling can sometimes cause compatibility issues and
therefore should be disabled as part of the troubleshooting process.
■
Printing Defaults Configures default document settings for all
users of the printer. These settings include such options as orientation
(portrait or landscape), page order (front-to-back or back-to-front),
number of pages printed per sheet of paper, and paper source.
■
Print Processor Configures the print processor and default data
type. Recall that the print processor is responsible for processing print
documents into a format that is suitable to be sent to the printer, and
Windows XP contains only the Winprint processor by default. The
default print processor and data types are suitable for the vast majority
of printing, and you should not change them unless you have an application that specifies the need for a different print processor or additional data type.
■
Separator Page Separates one print job from the next. In some
cases, the separator page contains information about the print document and the user who sent it. In other cases, the separator page contains printer commands that can switch a printer between different
print modes, such as Postscript and Hewlett Packard’s Printer Control
Language (PCL).
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Figure 9-13 Advanced properties, which vary depending on the type of printer
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installed
Configuring Device Settings
The Device Settings tab of a printer’s Properties dialog box, shown in Figure 9-14,
allows you to configure settings that are specific to the printer. Options available
in this tab vary depending on the type of printer that you are using, but you
should be aware of one common device setting: the Form To Tray Assignment setting. If the printer has multiple paper trays, you might need to assign different
sizes of paper or forms to the different trays. By default, Windows assumes that
all paper trays have letter-sized paper. If you need to change this default behavior,
you must select the tray and then define the type of paper (such as legal size) that
is in it. When users print, they can select the forms they want to use, and the
printer knows which forms are in which paper tray.
Figure 9-14 Configuring printer-specific settings on the Device Settings tab
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Managing Print Jobs
A print job simply refers to a document that is waiting in a printer queue to be
printed. You can view the print jobs that are in a queue by double-clicking the
printer icon in the Printers And Faxes window. In the queue window, you can
manage documents in one of two ways:
■
Right-click the document and manage it by using the commands on
the shortcut menu, as illustrated in Figure 9-15.
■
Select a document and use the commands on the Document menu.
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Figure 9-15 Managing print jobs in the printer queue window
Regardless of which method you use to manage documents, the available commands are as follows:
■
Pause Stops printing of the document until you resume or restart
the printing. If a document is already paused, the Resume command
appears instead of the Pause command.
■
Resume Causes the document to start printing from the point at which
it was paused. This command appears only if a document is paused.
■
Restart Causes the document to start printing from the beginning.
■
Cancel
■
Properties Provides access to the document’s Properties dialog box,
shown in Figure 9-16. You can use the settings on the General tab to
perform the following actions:
Deletes the document from the print queue.
❑
View basic properties of the print document.
❑
Change the name of the user who is to be notified when the document
prints. By default, this will be the user who printed the document.
❑
Reset the document’s priority within the queue. This process moves
the document up or down the printing order in the queue. The user
needs a minimum of Manage Documents permission for this option to
be implemented.
❑
Change the time that the document is scheduled to print. If the printer
itself has time restrictions that are set that limit availability, the documents automatically have the same time restrictions.
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Figure 9-16 Configuring settings for a document by using the document’s
Properties dialog box
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Troubleshooting Printers
If a user cannot print, you should first make sure that the print jobs are making it
to the print queue. Double-click the printer icon in the Printers And Faxes window to view the list of print jobs waiting to be printed. If the user’s jobs are
present in the queue, you most likely need to troubleshoot a problem with the
print server or printer. If the jobs are not making it to the print queue, troubleshoot the user’s printer configuration on the user’s local computer.
If you need to troubleshoot the printer, make sure that:
■
The printer is plugged in and turned on.
■
The cabling connections are secure.
■
There is paper in the paper tray or trays that the printer is trying to use.
■
The printer does not indicate an error of some sort, such as paper jam
or a hardware problem.
If the printer appears to be functioning correctly, turn it off and on. Restarting the
printer often resolves many types of problems. If restarting the printer does not
work, try restarting the computer to which the printer is connected.
If a user has multiple printers configured, determine which printer is the default
printer. If the default printer is configured incorrectly, the user’s print jobs might
simply be going to the wrong location, and the user is unaware of it.
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If a user can print but the output is garbled, most likely an incorrect print driver
is the problem. You can view and update the driver that is being used in the
Advanced tab of the printer’s Properties dialog box. If the appropriate driver is
installed, there is a chance that the application that is generating the print job is
experiencing a problem. Try printing from other applications. If other applications produce correct print output, you need to troubleshoot the application to
correct the problem.
If pages are coming out only partially printed, verify that the printer has sufficient
memory to print the document. Also, verify that the page size you are selecting
when printing matches the actual size of the paper. Printing an 11" x 17" document to an 8.5" x 11" piece of paper results in an incomplete print job or the job
is printed on multiple pages. If text is missing from the pages, verify that the font
for the missing text is available to the printer.
EMF format can occasionally cause problems with printing, especially with the
printing of graphics. In these situations, consider disabling EMF spooling on the
Advanced tab of the printer’s Properties dialog box by clearing the Enable
Advanced Printing Features check box.
USING PRINT PERMISSIONS
As a DST, you must know how to control access to printers by using permissions.
Print permissions allow you to control which users can access a printer and
which actions the users can perform. Each printer has a discretionary access control list (DACL) that is associated with it that is similar to the DACL that is
attached to files and folders that you learned about in Chapter 5, “Supporting
Windows XP File and Folder Access.” A user or group must be listed in the DACL
to use the printer.
Understanding Print Permissions
Although you can assign print permissions to printers in Windows XP Professional Edition, Windows XP Home Edition does not support print permissions. In
Windows XP Professional Edition, there is only one set of permissions that apply
to printers, and these permissions are in effect when a printer is accessed both
locally and remotely. This is unlike file system permissions, where there are potentially two types of permissions at work: share permissions and NTFS permissions.
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You can access print permissions on the Security tab of a printer’s Properties dialog box, as shown in Figure 9-17.
Figure 9-17 Assigning print permissions by using the Security tab of a printer’s PropFT09su17
erties dialog box
Basic Print Permissions
For each user account or group, you can assign the following three basic print
permissions:
■
Print Allows users or groups to connect to a printer, connect to print
documents, and manage their own documents in the print queue.
Managing a document includes the ability to pause, resume, restart,
and cancel the document.
■
Manage Printers Allows users or groups to perform all the tasks
included in the Print and Manage Documents permissions. In addition, the user can pause and resume the printer, take the printer
offline, share the printer, change printer properties, delete a printer,
and change print permissions.
■
Manage Documents Allows users or groups to connect to the
printer, manage all documents in the print queue, and control print
settings for all documents. This permission does not include the ability
to print documents.
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You add, edit, and remove print permissions in much the same manner as you
would for NTFS permissions on files and folders. To add basic print permission
assignments, follow these steps:
1. On the Security tab of a printer’s Properties dialog box, click Add.
2. In the Select Users Or Groups dialog box, enter the user accounts or
groups that you want to assign permissions to, and then click OK. Use
the Advanced button to search for user accounts and groups if you do
not know the exact names.
3. On the Security tab, Windows assigns the Print permission to newly
added accounts by default. Modify the permissions as necessary and
click Apply.
Advanced Print Permissions
You can provide most printer security requirements by using basic permissions,
but sometimes you might need to use advanced permissions. Advanced print permissions include Read Permissions, Change Permissions, and Take Ownership.
To add advanced permission assignments, follow these steps:
1. On the Security tab of the printer’s Properties dialog box, click
Advanced.
2. In the Advanced Security Settings dialog box shown in Figure 9-18,
click Add.
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Figure 9-18 Configuring advanced printer permissions in the Advanced
Security Settings dialog box
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MANAGING LOCAL AND NETWORK PRINTERS
3. In the Select Users Or Groups dialog box, select the user accounts or
groups that you want to assign permissions to, and then click OK. Use
the Advanced button to search for user accounts and groups if you do
not know the exact names.
4. In the Permission Entry dialog box shown in Figure 9-19, modify the
permissions as necessary and click OK.
Figure 9-19 Modifying the permissions in the Permission Entry dialog box
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5. In the Advanced Security Settings dialog box, click OK to return to the
Security tab, and then click OK again.
Default Print Permissions Assignments
After you install a new printer, Windows automatically creates the following
default permission assignments:
■
The Everyone group has Print permission to the printer.
■
The CREATOR OWNER user (which represents the user that installed
the printer) has the Manage Documents permission, which permits
users to manage their own documents only.
■
The local groups’ Administrators and Power Users have the Print, Manage Documents, and Manage Printers permissions—giving them full
control to use and manage the printer and all print documents that are
in the print queue.
If you want to limit access to the printer, you must remove the default permission
assignment to the Everyone group and then assign permissions to the appropriate users and groups.
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Calculating Effective Print Permissions
You calculate effective print permissions in the same manner as effective NTFS
permissions on files and folders. To determine effective print permissions for a
user account or group, follow these steps:
1. Combine the Allow permissions from all sources. The user receives the
highest possible level of permission from this combination.
2. Apply any Deny permissions. Remember that Deny permissions
always override Allow permissions.
Print Permission Inheritance
Inheritance of print permissions controls whether the permissions that you
assign to a printer apply to the printer only, to the documents that are printed on
the printer, or to both the printer and documents.
You control print permission inheritance by using the Apply Onto drop-down list
in the Permission Entry dialog box, as shown in Figure 9-20. You can select from
the following settings:
■
This Printer Only
■
Documents Only
■
This Printer And Documents
Figure 9-20 Controlling print permission inheritance in the Permission Entry
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dialog box
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MANAGING LOCAL AND NETWORK PRINTERS
SHARING A PRINTER
On a network, many users might need to access a printer. In a business environment, users might require access to a number of different printers that have special features, such as color high-speed capabilities. In a home or small office
environment, there might be only a single printer available for all users to share.
Most businesses need to control who has access to certain printers, whereas in
the home or small office all users normally have unlimited access to the printer.
Both Windows XP Professional Edition and Windows XP Home Edition allow
you to share a printer. However, as you learned in the previous section, you cannot limit access to a shared printer in Windows XP Home Edition.
Sharing a Printer
To make a local printer available to network users, you must share the printer.
There are two ways to share a printer:
■
During printer installation
■
By using the Sharing tab of the printer’s Properties dialog box after you
have installed the printer
During the installation of a local printer, Windows gives you the option to share the
printer on the Printer Sharing page of the Add Printer Wizard, shown in Figure 9-21.
To share the printer, select Share Name and then type a share name. You must perform any additional configuration and administration of the shared printer, such as
permissions assignments, after the printer is installed. To share a printer during
installation, you must be a member of the Administrators or Power Users groups on
the Windows XP Professional Edition print server or have a user account of the
Computer Administrator type on Windows XP Home Edition.
Figure 9-21 Sharing a printer during installation
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If a printer is already installed, you can share it by using the Sharing tab of the
printer’s Properties dialog box. To share an existing printer, your user account
must have the Manage Printers permission. To share a printer that has already
been installed, follow these steps:
1. Open the printer’s Properties dialog box.
2. On the Sharing tab, select Share This Printer.
3. Type the share name for the printer, and then click OK.
Installing Additional Print Drivers for Non–Windows XP
Operating Systems
Windows XP printer drivers are compatible with Windows 2000, but they are not
compatible with previous versions of Windows. If a computer on the network
running Windows NT, Windows 98, or Windows 95 connects to a shared printer
on a computer running Windows XP Professional Edition, the connecting computer cannot use the Windows XP printer drivers. Instead, the computer running
the older version of Windows prompts the user to provide drivers.
To avoid forcing users running previous versions of Windows to supply their own
drivers, you can supply the drivers for them. Windows XP Professional Edition
allows you to install printer drivers for other versions of Windows. When you
make drivers for previous versions of Windows available, those drivers are
installed automatically when a user of an older version of Windows connects to
the printer.
You can install additional drivers by clicking the Additional Drivers button on the
Sharing tab of the printer’s Properties dialog box. When you select any of the
environments that are listed, as shown in Figure 9-22, you are prompted to provide a path to the printer drivers for that operating system. Windows XP then
installs the drivers. From that point forward, when users running an operating
system for which you have installed drivers connect to the shared printer, they
receive the printer drivers automatically.
CHAPTER 9:
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Figure 9-22
MANAGING LOCAL AND NETWORK PRINTERS
Installing non–Windows XP print drivers so that other users do not have to
Connecting to Shared Printers
Windows XP provides many methods to access shared printers, including the
following:
■
Using the Add Printer Wizard
■
Browsing My Network Places
■
Using the Run dialog box
■
From within an application
Remember that printer access is controlled through the assignment of permissions. If a user does not have at least the Print permission to a printer, that user
cannot establish a connection to the printer.
Connecting by Using the Add Printer Wizard
You can connect to a shared printer by running the Add Printer Wizard. On the
Local Or Network Printer page, choose A Network Printer Or A Printer Attached
To Another Computer. The Add Printer Wizard asks you to specify the name of
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the shared printer that you want to connect to. If you do not know the name of
the printer, you can use the following search options:
■
If the computer is a member of a Microsoft Windows 2000 Server or
Windows Server 2003 domain, you are given the option to Find A
Printer In The Directory. This option enables you to search Active
Directory directory service for a printer. After you locate the printer
that you want to connect to, select it and click OK to continue with the
installation.
■
Choosing the Connect To This Printer option gives you the opportunity to enter the path of the printer or to click Next to browse My Network Places in search of the printer.
■
Choosing the Connect To A Printer On The Internet Or On Your Intranet option allows you to specify the printer’s URL.
Connecting by Browsing My Network Places
If you know the name of the computer that shares the printer, you can browse My
Network Places to connect to the printer. After you locate the printer, you can
right-click the printer and choose Connect, or you can drag and drop the printer
to the Printer And Faxes folder on your computer.
Connecting by Using the Run Dialog Box
If you know the location to the printer (or at least the name of the print server
that the printer is attached to), you can enter the path in the Run dialog box
(available by selecting Run from the Start menu). Entering the full Universal
Naming Convention (UNC) path of the printer (for example, \\Computer1\
HPLaser6P) automatically connects you to the printer. Entering just the name of
the server (for example, \\Computer1) displays all the resources on that computer. You can then right-click the printer and select the Connect option, just as if
you had browsed for it in My Network Places.
Connecting from Within Applications
When you are working in an application and it is time to print, you usually have
the option to choose any printer that you currently have installed. Some applications also permit you to install a new printer from within the application’s Print
dialog box.
CHAPTER 9:
MANAGING LOCAL AND NETWORK PRINTERS
Figure 9-23 shows the Print dialog box in Notepad. Clicking the Find Printer button opens a dialog box that allows you to locate and install an available printer.
Figure 9-23 Installing a printer from within certain applications by using the Find
Printer button
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SUMMARY
■
In Windows XP, the term “printer” refers to the actual hardware device.
The term “logical printer” refers to the software interface created in the
Printers And Faxes window.
■
Print spooling is the process of saving a print job to the hard disk
before sending it to the printer. The process increases user productivity
because after the job has been spooled, the application is released, and
the user can continue working while the printing process continues in
the background.
■
Windows automatically detects and installs most Plug and Play–
compliant printers. If Windows does not detect a printer automatically,
you must install the printer by using the Add Printer Wizard.
■
You configure most of the settings for a printer by using the Properties
dialog box for the printer, which is available by right-clicking the printer
icon in the Printers And Faxes window and choosing Properties.
■
Windows XP Professional Edition does not distinguish between share
and NTFS permissions for printers the way that it does for files and
folders. There is only one set of permissions for printers. You cannot
assign printer permissions in Windows XP Home Edition.
■
You can share a printer that is connected to a computer running
Windows XP by using the Sharing tab on the printer’s Properties
dialog box. Users can connect to a shared printer by using the Add
Printer Wizard, browsing My Network Places, using the Run dialog
box, or connecting from within certain applications.
REVIEW QUESTIONS
1. One of your users has a printer with a built-in network adapter. She
connected the printer directly to the network but is unsure what to do
next. What should you tell her to do?
2. What is the recommended limit to the number of characters used for a
printer name?
3. You have a user with several printers. The user wants to configure
those printers to be in a single printer pool. What requirements must
the printers meet to establish a printer pool?
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MANAGING LOCAL AND NETWORK PRINTERS
4. List and describe the basic print permissions in Windows XP Professional Edition.
5. What steps must you take to limit access to a printer on a computer
running Windows XP Professional Edition?
6. List several ways in which a user can connect to a shared printer.
CASE SCENARIOS
Scenario 9-1: Configuring Printers
One of your small business users has a printer that is connected to his computer
running Windows XP Professional Edition. He shares the printer with other
users on the network. Often, the other users print large documents that take a
long time to print, but sometimes your user has important documents that need
to be printed before any long documents that are waiting in the printer queue.
What would you suggest to this user?
Scenario 9-2: Controlling Print Jobs
A user calls to tell you that she just printed a large document to the wrong printer.
The printer is a network-attached printer that is used by many people, so the user
does not think her document has printed yet. If possible, she wants to stop the
document from being printed. What would you suggest to the user?
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CHAPTER 10
SUPPORTING NETWORK
CONNECTIVITY
Upon completion of this chapter, you will be able to:
■ Identify the required and optional parameters that are defined for comput-
ers on TCP/IP networks
■ Explain how IP addresses and subnetting work
■ Explain how name resolution works, and identify the primary name resolu-
tion mechanisms that are used on Windows networks
■ Troubleshoot networking problems caused by cable connections, network
adapters, and modems
■ Identify and use TCP/IP troubleshooting tools
■ Troubleshoot name resolution problems
■ Configure and troubleshoot Internet Connection Firewall
■ Configure Remote Assistance
■ Configure Remote Desktop
Whether in the home or in a business, you are likely to find networked computers.
As a desktop support technician (DST), your responsibilities are to help users connect computers to a network and to troubleshoot network problems when they
occur. This chapter provides an overview of Transmission Control Protocol/
Internet Protocol (TCP/IP), the networking protocol that is used on the Internet
and on most local area networks (LANs). This chapter also teaches you to configure and troubleshoot network connectivity on a computer running Microsoft
Windows XP. You will learn how to protect a network computer with Internet
Connection Firewall (ICF). Finally, this chapter introduces you to using Remote
Desktop and Remote Assistance to help troubleshoot computers from a remote
location.
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Windows XP Service Pack 2 The information and procedures in
this chapter are based on a default installation of Windows XP Professional Edition. Some of the information and procedures might change if
you have installed Windows XP Service Pack 2. For more information on
Windows XP Service Pack 2, see Appendix A, “Microsoft Windows XP Service Pack 2.”
NOTE
OVERVIEW OF TCP/IP
As a DST, you must be able to configure and troubleshoot TCP/IP, which is used
in the majority of networks and is the preferred network protocol in a Windows
XP environment. Many options are associated with this protocol, which the
administrator must understand to ensure proper configuration and operation of
TCP/IP. Understanding TCP/IP, its configuration issues and options, and how
to troubleshoot connectivity problems is necessary to successfully manage a
Windows XP network.
Understanding TCP/IP
TCP/IP is not a single protocol but rather a group of protocols that all work
together. A group of protocols working together is called a protocol stack. Transmission Control Protocol (TCP) and Internet Protocol (IP) are two of the most
commonly used protocols in the TCP/IP protocol stack.
Windows XP installs TCP/IP automatically when it detects a network adapter.
After TCP/IP is installed, you must configure several options for the protocol to
function properly. The following are the options that are necessary for a computer
to function in a TCP/IP environment:
■
IP address (required)
■
Subnet mask (required)
■
Default gateway (required)
■
Domain Name System (DNS) configuration (optional)
■
Windows Internet Naming Service (WINS) configuration (optional)
IP addressing and configuration is a comprehensive topic, and there are many
texts written strictly on the subject. The following sections provide an overview of
TCP/IP information.
CHAPTER 10:
SUPPORTING NETWORK CONNECTIVITY
IP Addressing
An IP address is a number that uniquely identifies a device such as a computer
on a TCP/IP network. Devices on IP networks are typically called hosts. An IP
address consists of a 32-bit binary number that is logically divided into four
groupings of eight bits each. Each eight-bit grouping is called an octet or a byte.
Binary is a numbering scheme that is difficult for most people to work with, so IP
addresses are normally presented in dotted decimal notation. With dotted decimal notation, each octet in an IP address is represented as a decimal number
between 0 and 255, and each of these numbers is separated by a period. An example of an IP address is 192.168.0.1, which is represented in binary notation as
11000000 10101000 00000000 00000001.
Converting Between Decimal and Binary 255 is the largest
decimal number that can be represented by an 8-bit binary number
(11111111 binary = 255 decimal). You can use the Windows Calculator to
translate decimal numbers to binary numbers, and vice versa.
NOTE
An IP address contains two important pieces of information: the network ID for
the network segment to which the computer is connected and the host ID for
that computer. The network ID identifies the network on which a host is found.
The host ID identifies the host within that network. This addressing scheme is
similar to street addresses within a city or town, such as 123 Main Street. The
street name is similar to the network ID, and the house number is similar to the
host ID. All devices on the same network subnet must be assigned an IP address
that has the same network ID but a unique host ID. This is analogous to the
address of each house on a street having the same street name, but a different
house number. IP addressing uses a different order, however. The network number, or “street,” comes first, and the host ID, or “house number,” comes second.
The street address analogy can be taken a step further to describe how routers
work in a TCP/IP network. The purpose of a router is to move network traffic to
the appropriate network in a multiple network environment. When the mail carrier is delivering, she will first make sure that the mail is being taken to the correct
street name. After the mail carrier arrives at the appropriate street, she will deliver
the mail based on the house number. Routers work in a similar fashion: they first
examine the network ID of the IP address and then route the packet to the specified network subnet. After the packet has reached the correct network subnet, the
routers forward the packet to the appropriate device based on the device’s host ID.
The IP network ID must be unique within a TCP/IP network. If two networks had
the same number, the routers would generally attempt to deliver the packet to the
network that was the closest to them, which would not necessarily be the correct
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one. Also, the client’s host ID must be unique within the network subnet so that
when a packet reaches the correct IP network, there is no doubt about which
device it is destined for.
IP Address Classes IP addresses are divided into the following classes, with
each class having different network ID and host ID properties:
■
Class A addresses If the first octet of an IP address is between 0 and
127, it is a Class A address. By default, the first octet of a Class A
address represents the network ID, and the remaining three octets are
the unique host ID on that network. An example of a Class A IP
address is 10.2.4.78¯the network ID is 10, and the host ID is 2.4.78.
There are 128 Class A network numbers, each capable of supporting
16,777,214 unique hosts. The first (0.0.0.0) and last (127.0.0.0) network numbers are reserved, leaving 126 potential Class A networks
and making the actual range of the first octet 1 through 126. The highest order binary bit (the leftmost bit of the 32-bit binary representation) is always 0 in a Class A address.
■
Class B addresses If the first octet of an IP address is between 128
and 191, it is a Class B address. By default, the first two octets of a Class
B address are the network number, and the remaining two octets are
the unique host ID on that network. An example of a Class B address is
172.16.89.203—the network number is 172.16, and the host ID is
89.203. There are 16,384 Class B network numbers, each capable of
supporting 65,534 unique hosts. The first (128.0.0.0) and last
(191.255.0.0) network numbers are reserved, leaving 16,382 potential
Class B networks. The two highest-order binary bits are always 1 0 in a
Class B address.
■
Class C addresses If the first octet of an IP address is between 192
and 223, it is a Class C address. By default, the first three octets of a
Class C address are the network number, and the remaining octet is
the unique host ID on that network. An example of a Class C address is
192.168.0.1—the network number is 192.168.0 and the host ID is 1.
There are 2,097,152 Class C network numbers, each capable of supporting 254 unique hosts. The first (192.0.0.0) and last
(223.255.255.0) network numbers are reserved, leaving 2,097,150
potential Class C networks. The three highest-order binary bits are
always 1 1 0 in a Class C address.
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■
Class D addresses The first octet of a Class D address falls in the
range of 224 to 239. Class D addresses are not assigned to individual
devices on a TCP/IP network. Instead, they are used for multicasting to
a group of IP hosts and also to facilitate the transmission of network
control information between certain types of IP devices. The four highest-order binary bits are always 1 1 1 0 in a Class D address.
■
Class E addresses The first octet of a Class E address falls in the
range of 240 to 255. Class E addresses cannot be assigned to individual devices on a TCP/IP network. They are reserved for experimental
and future use. The four highest order bits are always 1 1 1 1 in a Class
E address.
■
Loopback addresses IP addresses that have 127 in the first octet are
called loopback addresses. The most commonly used loopback
address is 127.0.0.1. Loopback addresses are used for testing TCP/IP
configuration and cannot be assigned to individual hosts on a TCP/IP
network.
Table 10-1 provides a summary of IP addressing information, using w.x.y.z to represent the four octets that are used in dotted decimal notation.
Table 10-1
IP Address Summary
Class
1st Octet
Range
Assignable
to Hosts?
Network
ID
Host ID
Number of
Networks
Number of Host
IDs per Network
A
1–127
Yes
w
x.y.z
126
16,777,214
B
128–191
Yes
w.x
y.z
16,382
65,534
C
192–223
Yes
254
224–239
240–255
127
No
No
No
z
N/A
N/A
N/A
2,097,150
D
E
Loopback
w.x.y
N/A
N/A
N/A
N/A
N/A
N/A
N/A
N/A
N/A
Network IDs In dotted decimal notation, IP network IDs are
usually presented as an IP address, with the host ID portion configured
to all zeros. For example, the Class A network of 10 is referred to as
10.0.0.0, the Class B network of 172.16 is referred to as 172.16.0.0, and
the Class C network of 192.168.0 is referred to as 192.168.0.0.
NOTE
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IP Address Validity You must make sure that the IP addresses you configure are
valid. To make sure that the IP addresses are valid, remember the following rules:
■
The first byte of the IP address must fall within the following ranges:
❑
1 through 126
❑
128 through 191
❑
192 through 223
■
IP addresses that begin with 0, 127, or 224 through 255 are invalid.
■
The host ID cannot be all binary 0s or 1s. In decimal, it commonly
translates to all 0s or all 255s.
■
No number in an IP address can be greater than 255.
Table 10-2 displays several invalid IP addresses and gives the reasons why they
are invalid.
Table 10-2
Table 10-2 Invalid IP Addresses
IP Address
Why IP Address Is Invalid
0.36.78.231
127.54.79.100
126.255.255.255
197.34.8.0
235.17.234.202
154.12.287.243
The first octet is 0.
The first octet is 127.
The host ID is all binary 1s/decimal 255s.
The host ID is all 0s.
The first octet is between 224 and 255.
The third octet is greater than 255.
In addition, remember that all devices on the same network must be assigned a
unique host ID, but the same network ID. For example, if you are using the Class
C network ID of 192.168.1.0, all hosts on the network must have 192.168.1 as the
first three octets of their IP address.
Choosing an IP Addressing Scheme The Internet is a huge TCP/IP network,
and no two networks or hosts connected to the Internet can have the same full IP
address (the combination of network ID and host ID). If your network is directly
connected to the Internet, you must follow the specific IP addressing scheme that
has been assigned to you by your Internet service provider (ISP) or the Internet
Corporation for Assigned Names and Numbers (ICANN). As a DST, it will not be
your responsibility to design IP addressing schemes on large networks. However,
you should understand the IP addressing scheme that is in place so that you can
assist users in troubleshooting network problems.
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Learn about ICANN For more information on ICANN, see http://
www.icann.org.
NOTE
If your network is not directly connected to the Internet, you can theoretically
choose any valid IP addressing scheme that you want. However, the governing
body of the Internet requests that you choose an addressing scheme that uses
one of the private IP address ranges. These ranges are never used on devices that
are connected directly to the Internet. Using private IP addresses ensures that
data from your network will never accidentally travel across the public Internet.
This provides you with privacy and ensures that there will not be any accidental
addressing conflicts. The private IP address ranges are as follows:
■
10.0.0.0 through 10.255.255.255
■
172.16.0.0 through 172.31.255.255
■
192.168.0.0 through 192.168.255.255
Although private IP addresses cannot be used directly on the Internet, you will
find that many devices with Internet access do use private addressing. When this
is the case, a device that translates the private address into a public address is
used to facilitate Internet connectivity.
For example, if you use a router at home to connect to your cable or digital subscriber line (DSL) modem, your ISP assigns the IP address that you use for the
public network interface on the router (the interface connected to the Internet).
The router automatically distributes private IP addresses to the internal devices
(devices on your home network) that are connected to the router. Most routers
that are sold to the home and small business market use the 192.168.0.0 private
range. When an internal device makes a request to communicate with the Internet, the client computer forwards the request to the router, the router communicates directly with the Internet resource and then passes information back to the
client computer.
Essentially, the router acts as a middleman between the internal client and the
Internet resource. The router can perform this function for multiple devices
simultaneously. Using a router that functions in this manner reduces the need for
multiple unique public IP addresses, and serves to protect internal devices from
external threats because the internal devices are never communicating directly
on the Internet.
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Subnet Masks
The subnet mask tells a TCP/IP host how to interpret IP addresses by defining
what portion of the IP address is the network ID and what portion is the host ID.
The number 255 in the subnet mask indicates that the corresponding octet in an
IP address is to be interpreted as part of the network number. The number 0 in
the subnet mask indicates that the corresponding octet in an IP address is to be
interpreted as part of the host ID.
The default subnet masks for Class A, B, and C network numbers are as follows:
■
Class A: 255.0.0.0
■
Class B: 255.255.0.0
■
Class C: 255.255.255.0
If you compare these mask values with the information that was already presented on Class A, B, and C IP addresses, you would notice the correlation
between the placement of 255s in the mask and octets that represent the network
number. For example, the default Class B subnet mask is 255.255.0.0, indicating
that the first two octets are to be interpreted as the network number, and the
remaining octets are to be interpreted as the host ID. In the Class B address of
172.16.89.203, we determined 172.16 to be the network number and 89.203 to
be the host ID. The same logic applies to the Class A and Class C IP addresses
that we analyzed.
Hosts use the subnet mask to determine their network number and also to determine whether a destination host is on the same or a different network. If a destination host is on the same network, the source host will attempt to communicate
with the destination directly. If the destination host is on a different network, the
source host will use its configured default gateway (typically a router) to communicate with the destination host.
The subnet mask can be referenced in either dotted decimal notation or classless
interdomain routing (CIDR) notation. Dotted decimal notation is the format
used to enter subnet mask values when configuring Windows XP. The subnet
mask values of 255.0.0.0, 255.255.0.0, and 255.255.255.0 are in dotted decimal
notation.
CIDR notation makes note of the number of binary 1 bits in the subnet mask, and
that number of bits is placed at the end of the network ID. For example, the network number 192.168.1.0 with a subnet mask value of 255.255.255.0 is referenced as 192.168.1.0/24 in CIDR notation. The value of 24 represents 24 binary
one bits in the subnet mask—each value of 255 represents 8 bits, there are three
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255s in the mask, and 3 multiplied by 8 equals 24. Table 10-3 displays several
more examples of CIDR notation contrasted with dotted decimal notation.
Table 10-3
Table 10-3 Dotted Decimal vs. CIDR Subnet Mask Notation
IP Network Address
Subnet Mask, Dotted Decimal
Notation
CIDR Notation
10.0.0.0
172.16.0.0
192.168.0.0
255.0.0.0
255.255.0.0
255.255.255.0
10.0.0.0/8
172.16.0.0/16
192.168.0.0/24
Subnetting an IP Network Number Subnetting is the process of dividing a
single IP network number into multiple IP networks by modifying the subnet
mask value. When a subnet mask is modified from the default, it changes the way
that TCP/IP devices interpret the network number and host ID portion of an IP
address.
For example, if a subnet mask of 255.255.255.0 is applied to the Class B IP network address of 172.16.0.0, the first three bytes (172.16.0) are interpreted as the
network number, and only the last byte is interpreted as the host ID. It is still a
Class B address, but the third byte of this address can now be used to define several subnetworks, or subnets, that each support fewer host IDs. In this example,
up to 254 subnets can be defined, each with up to 254 host IDs.
Table 10-4 outlines the first few ranges of the subnet information for this example. When looking at this table, pay close attention to the third octet because that
is where the subnetting is occurring.
Table 10-4 Subnet Information for Network 172.16.0.0 with Subnet
Mask 255.255.255.0 (172.16.0.0/24)
Table 10-4
Subnet Number
Range of Host IDs
172.16.1.0/24
172.16.2.0/24
172.16.3.0/24
172.16.4.0/24
172.16.5.0/24
172.16.1.1–172.16.1.254
172.16.2.1–172.16.2.254
172.16.3.1–172.16.3.254
172.16.4.1–172.16.4.254
172.16.5.1–172.16.5.254
All hosts on the same subnet must have the same subnet mask to communicate
correctly with one another. However, the subnet mask can vary from network to
network.
NOTE Subnet Masks Are Not IP Addresses Do not make the mistake of interpreting a subnet mask to be an IP address. Subnet masks
are displayed in dotted decimal notation, but they are not IP addresses.
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NOTE Learn More About Subnetting Further exploration of subnetting is beyond the scope of this discussion. For more information on subnetting, see “Planning Classless IP Addressing,” at http://
www.microsoft.com/resources/documentation/WindowsServ/2003/all/
deployguide/en-us/Default.asp?url=/resources/documentation/windowsserv/2003/all/deployguide/en-us/dnsbb_tcp_wgyq.asp.
Default Gateway
By default, TCP/IP clients can communicate only with other devices on the same
network. If you have a multiple network environment or if you are connected to
the Internet, you must configure each host with a default gateway address. The
default gateway is the router to which the TCP/IP client will forward packets that
are destined for computers on other networks. The default gateway then examines the destination IP address in the packets and ensures that the packet is
routed to the final destination.
Because TCP/IP clients can communicate only directly within their network and
require the default gateway to communicate with other networks, the host’s
default gateway must reside on the same network as the host.
Figure 10-1 depicts a router that connects four networks, with the IP addresses of
each of the router interfaces noted.
192.168.4.63
192.168.1.2
192.168.4.106
192.168.2.10
192.168.4.1
192.168.1.1
192.168.3.1
192.168.2.1
Router
192.168.3.221
192.168.1.18
192.168.3.13
192.168.2.25
Figure 10-1 A router, which can connect several IP networks
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The default gateway is a required TCP/IP parameter that is configured only in a
multiple network environment. A connection to the Internet is considered a multiple network environment, and a default gateway is required for Internet access.
If you neglect to configure the default gateway or if you configure it incorrectly, a
TCP/IP client cannot communicate with devices on other networks, including
the Internet.
Domain Name System (DNS)
For computers, it is easy to work with numbers such as IP addresses and subnet
masks. For people, it is easier to work with names. Host names are standard language names given to TCP/IP devices. Generally, users try to establish connections by using the host name or computer name of the device rather than the IP
address. However, for TCP/IP hosts to communicate with one another, they must
have the IP address of the device they are connecting to. Therefore, computers
must be able to resolve the host names into the IP address of the destination host
before the computer can establish a connection. The process of resolving a name
into an IP address is called name resolution. Domain Name System (DNS) is a network service that is designed to perform name resolution for TCP/IP clients.
DNS Resolves Services and Names In addition to providing
name resolution services, DNS also provides service resolution. Clients
can query DNS looking for a server that provides a particular service,
such as a domain controller or a mail server, and DNS can return the IP
address of a device that provides that service.
NOTE
DNS servers maintain a list of name-to-IP-address mappings called a DNS database. When a client submits a name resolution request to a DNS server, the server
searches through the DNS database, locates the host name that was submitted,
resolves the IP address, and returns the IP address to the client. In larger private
networks and on the Internet, the DNS database is too large to be handled by a
single computer. In cases like this, the DNS database is distributed across many
DNS servers, and the DNS servers are configured to communicate with one
another so that they can resolve a name regardless of where the name-to-IPaddress mapping is actually stored. Clients do not need to be aware of the DNS
server relationships; they simply submit a request to their DNS server, and the
server handles the rest.
DNS is designed to resolve two types of names into IP addresses. A host name is
a single-word name, similar to a computer name. Host names can be up to 255
characters long. A fully qualified domain name (FQDN) is a multipart name separated by periods (for example, computer1.contoso.com) that specifies the host
name and the host’s exact location in the DNS naming hierarchy.
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NOTE When You Do Not Need Name Resolution The use of nameresolution methods such as DNS, WINS, hosts files, and Lmhosts files
are not necessary in single-network, Microsoft-only environments. Clients
automatically perform name resolution by using broadcast packets. This
method is sufficient in single-network, Microsoft-only environments.
Learn More About DNS For more details on DNS structure,
see “Understanding DNS” at http://www.microsoft.com/resources/
documentation/WindowsServ/2003/standard/proddocs/en-us/
Default.asp?url=/resources/documentation/WindowsServ/2003/
standard/proddocs/en-us/sag_DNS_und_Topnode.asp.
NOTE
TCP/IP Hosts File In smaller environments, the implementation of a DNS
server might not be practical. A standard TCP/IP hosts file can be used to support name resolution if necessary. The hosts file is a simple text file that contains
IP addresses followed by the name of the host, as illustrated in Figure 10-2. In
Windows XP, the hosts file is stored in SystemRoot\System32\Drivers\etc.
There is a default hosts file stored in this path that contains information on how
to create and use the file.
FT10su02
Figure 10-2
A hosts file, which is a simple text file that stores IP address to host name
mappings
Hosts files are simple to create and use, but they can be difficult to manage. Each
computer has an individual hosts file. Whenever a change occurs on the network
(such as the addition or deletion of a host, or a host name or IP address changes),
each individual hosts file must be updated. This can be a time-consuming process, and you must be careful to ensure that all machines receive updates to prevent problems with a client accessing resources.
NOTE The Hosts File Does Not Have an Extension The hosts file is
simply called hosts, and it does not have an extension. If an extension is
placed on the file, TCP/IP cannot find it.
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WINS
In addition to having host names, computers running Windows also have a
NetBIOS name. NetBIOS names are based on a protocol called Network Basic
Input/Output System (NetBIOS), which assists in the establishment of connections over the network. In a NetBIOS environment, each computer is assigned a
NetBIOS name up to 16 characters in length. The first 15 characters are the
actual name of the computer, and the sixteenth character is a reserved character
used to represent different resources or services offered by the computer.
In Windows operating systems that are not part of a domain, the Client and
Server network services use NetBIOS to establish connections.
Earlier versions of Windows, such as Microsoft Windows 2000 and Windows XP,
do not require the use of NetBIOS to establish connections, but they support NetBIOS functions to facilitate connections with previous versions of Windows.
In a single-network environment, NetBIOS name resolution is handled by using a
broadcast message. The client sends out a packet containing the NetBIOS name
of the computer to which the client needs to connect, requesting the computer
with that name to send back its IP address. The computer with the requested
name sends a packet containing its IP address back to the requesting computer.
However, NetBIOS name resolution broadcasts are not forwarded by routers, so
the client cannot resolve names that are not on the local network.
In multiple-network environments, a service named Windows Internet Naming
Service (WINS) can be implemented. The WINS server maintains a database of
NetBIOS name-to-IP-address mappings, similar to the way that a DNS server
maintains a database of host name-to-IP-address mappings. The WINS server can
perform NetBIOS name resolution for clients. If clients are configured with the IP
address of the WINS server, the clients send name resolution requests to the
WINS server before broadcasting on their local subnet.
The NetBIOS name and the DNS host name are usually the same for a Windows
computer. Both name-resolution services might be required in a previous version
of Windows because of the different methods that are used to establish connections, not because the names themselves are different.
Lmhosts File In smaller environments, the implementation of a WINS server
might not be practical. Microsoft supports the use of the Lmhosts file to support
NetBIOS name resolution, if necessary. The Lmhosts file is a simple text file that
contains IP addresses followed by the name of the host, similar to a TCP/IP hosts
file. Lmhosts is stored in System_root\System32\drivers\etc. There is a sample
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Lmhosts file called Lmhost.sam stored in this path that can be used to build a
working file. To be recognized by the system, the actual file name has to be
Lmhosts without an extension.
Lmhosts files can have support issues similar to those of TCP/IP hosts files. Each
computer has an individual copy of the file, and it can be time-consuming to keep
all the files updated.
TROUBLESHOOTING NETWORK CONNECTIVITY
As a DST, resolving connectivity problems typically involves testing the network
cable connections, testing the network adapter in a computer, testing the network
configuration on a computer, and verifying that any required servers are online. A
user might have several connections configured, including a direct Internet connection through a cable or DSL modem or a network connection to another computer or to a router. You should be able to use the Windows interface to verify
connectivity settings and use various tools in Windows XP to isolate different
types of network problems.
Troubleshooting Cable Connections
You can resolve a surprising number of network connectivity problems by simply
making sure that the network cable or phone line is properly connected to the
network adapter or modem on a user’s computer. This is especially true in an
office environment in which the furniture is moved or relocated often, or when a
cleaning crew comes in each night and works around users’ computers. When a
user reports that he or she cannot access the network, always suggest that the
user double-check cable connections first.
Besides making sure that the cables are properly connected to a user’s computer,
you should also verify the following:
■
On large networks, users typically have network jacks on the walls in
their offices. Make sure that the network cable is properly connected to
the jack.
■
On small networks, computers can be cabled directly to a router
instead of to a wall jack. Check the connections at the router to make
sure that the cables are securely connected. If other computers are also
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not connecting to the network properly, check to make sure that the
router is turned on and that the cable from the router to the Internet
connection device (usually a cable or DSL modem) is secure.
■
For users of wireless networks, make sure that the computer is within
the acceptable range from the wireless router or access point.
Look for Damaged Cables If you notice that a desk, chair, or
other piece of furniture is positioned on top of a network cable, or that
the cable is crimped, try replacing the cable with a new one. The cable
could be damaged.
NOTE
Troubleshooting Networking Hardware
If the cable connections are good, your next step is to check the networking hardware that is installed on the computer so that you can rule out malfunctioning
hardware as the cause of the problem. Checking physical hardware connections
includes verifying in Device Manager that the connectivity devices are working
properly. If they are not, you must troubleshoot those devices. If problems persist,
verify that the hardware is installed properly.
Device Manager details the hardware components that are on the computer and
denotes any malfunctioning hardware with either a red x or a yellow exclamation
point. You should use Device Manager if physical connectivity is not the problem
and before you attempt other troubleshooting techniques. If you find a problem
with a modem or network adapter, you might need to replace the hardware to get
the user connected to the network again.
To use Device Manager to locate and troubleshoot hardware devices installed on
the computer, follow these steps:
1. From the Start menu, right-click My Computer and select Properties.
2. In the System Properties dialog box, on the Hardware tab, select
Device Manager.
3. Check for devices that have red xs or yellow exclamation points overlaid
on their icons. (See Chapter 6, “Installing and Managing Hardware,” for
more information about using Device Manager.) Figure 10-3 shows
Device Manager with the Modems and Network Adapters categories
expanded. In this figure, each component is functioning correctly.
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FT10su03
Figure 10-3 Device Manager showing installed hardware, including
modems and network adapters
4. If problems are noted in Device Manager, the component most likely
has a device driver issue, is disabled, or has malfunctioned. You should
use the troubleshooting techniques detailed in Chapter 6 to troubleshoot the hardware.
Use the Troubleshooting Wizards The Help and Support troubleshooting wizards are a great way to troubleshoot hardware because
they walk you though current reliable techniques for solving common problems with hardware. In addition, they offer exceptional learning tools for
beginning DSTs.
NOTE
Using the Windows Troubleshooters
The Microsoft Windows Help and Support Center offers a modem troubleshooter that you can use if you believe that a modem is the cause of the connectivity problem. If Device Manager reports that the modem is working properly,
you can try using the Modem Troubleshooter to help resolve modem configuration issues.
This troubleshooter guides you through the steps to take if users have problems
connecting to the Internet by using the modem, if Windows does not detect the
modem, or if the Network Setup and New Connection Wizards are not working
properly. In this case, you would choose to follow the wizard through the options
for solving a problem using the modem to connect to the Internet.
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To use the Modem Troubleshooter, follow these steps:
1. From the Start menu, select Help And Support.
2. Under Pick A Help Topic, select Fixing A Problem.
3. Under Fixing A Problem, select Networking Problems; from the right
pane, select Modem Troubleshooter.
4. On the What Problem Are You Having? page, select I Have Problems
Using My Modem To Connect To The Internet. Click Next.
5. Work through the various troubleshooting pages to do the following:
a. Verify that the COM port is turned on.
b. Verify that the modem is functional.
c. Verify that the physical connection is configured properly.
d. Verify that the modem is turned on.
e. Verify that the COM port settings are correct.
f. Verify that the modem is listed in the Windows Catalog.
g. Verify that the COM port, modem, or cable is not faulty.
h. Upgrade the basic input/output system (BIOS) of the internal
modem if necessary.
i. Locate conflicting devices.
j. Upgrade the modem’s .inf file (a file that lists commands the
modem supports) or driver.
k. Verify that the modem is installed correctly.
l. Re-create dial-up connections.
m. Visit the Windows Update Web site or the manufacturer’s Web site.
The Windows Help and Support troubleshooting wizards are quite thorough. If
Device Manager reports that a network adapter is working properly, yet you
believe the network adapter is causing a network connectivity problem, work
through the Help And Support Center’s Drives And Network Adapters Troubleshooter. Whenever possible, access these wizards to help you to resolve end user
problems. In your spare time, work through the wizards to learn new techniques
for resolving problems.
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Configuring Network Connections
Windows XP provides a central location for viewing and configuring Network
Connections: the Network Connections window, shown in Figure 10-4.
Red x indicates that
connection is disconnected
Figure 10-4 The Network Connections window showing local area network and dialFT10su04
up connections
You can open the Network Connections window in several ways, including the
following:
■
In Control Panel, double-click Network Connections.
■
On the Start menu, right-click My Network Places or desktop (if it is
displayed) and then select Properties.
■
Directly from the Start menu if you first configure the Start menu to display Network Connections. (See Chapter 4, “Supporting the Windows
Desktop,” for more information.)
The icons that are used for each connection provide visual clues for the type and
status of the connection. These visual clues include the following:
■
Dial-up connections (such as the Contoso.com connection in Figure 10-4)
have a small picture of a phone and modem.
■
LAN or high-speed Internet connections (such as the Local Area Connection in Figure 10-4) have a small picture meant to represent a network cable connection.
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■
Disabled connections (such as the 1394 Connection in Figure 10-4)
have a dimmed icon to show that they are disabled.
■
Disconnected connections have a small red x on the icon (such as the
Contoso.com connection in Figure 10-4).
■
Connections that are protected with the Internet Connection Firewall
have a small picture of a lock (such as the Contoso.com connection in
Figure 10-4). You will learn more about Internet Connection Firewall
in the “Supporting Internet Connection Firewall” section.
To view a connection’s properties, open Network Connections, right-click the
connection, and then select Properties, as illustrated in Figure 10-5.
Figure 10-5 Configuring a connection by using its Properties dialog box
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In addition to the network adapter, the following networking components are
installed by default:
■
Client For Microsoft Networks
■
File And Printer Sharing For Microsoft Networks
■
Internet Protocol (TCP/IP)
Adding, Disabling, and Removing Network Components
You can add and remove network components, such as additional network clients and protocols, by using the Properties box of the network connection. You
can have multiple clients, services, and protocols loaded and functioning simultaneously on a single connection.
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To add a network component, follow these steps:
1. Open the Properties dialog box for the network connection.
2. Click Install. The Select Network Component Type dialog box appears,
as shown in Figure 10-6.
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Figure 10-6 Choosing network components to install
3. Select the type of network component that you want to install and then
click Add.
4. Select the desired component and click OK, or click Have Disk to
install a component that does not appear on the list.
When you add a network component, the component becomes available to all
connections automatically. You should disable components that are not used by
a particular network connection. This process reduces the amount of network
traffic generated on the connection, therefore increasing overall performance. To
disable a component without removing it, open the properties of the network
connection and clear the check box.
When a component is no longer required by any connection, you can remove it.
Removing a component removes it from all connections.
To remove a network component, follow these steps:
1. Open the Properties dialog box of the network connection.
2. Select the network component that you want to remove.
3. Click Uninstall, and then click Yes to confirm the uninstall operation.
Renaming and Disabling a Local Area Connection
If you have more than one network card installed, Windows names the first connection Local Area Connection, the second connection Local Area Connection 2,
and so on. For clarity, consider using a naming scheme that makes it easy to identify what the different connections are for. To rename a connection, right-click the
connection in Network Connections and select the Rename option from the
action menu.
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There might be cases in which you will want to temporarily disable a connection
without deleting it. To disable a connection, right-click the connection and select
Disable. To enable a connection, perform the same steps and select Enable from
the shortcut menu.
Configuring TCP/IP for a Network Connection
You configure the TCP/IP settings for a particular connection by first opening the
Properties dialog box for the connection. For local area connections, on the General tab of the Properties dialog box, in the This Connection Uses The Following
Items section, select Internet Protocol (TCP/IP) and then click Properties. For
dial-up connections, you can find Internet Protocol (TCP/IP) on the Networking
tab of the dial-up connection’s Properties dialog box. For both local area and dialup connections, the Internet Protocol (TCP/IP) Properties dialog box is the same.
(See Figure 10-7.)
Figure 10-7 TCP/IP information, which is obtained automatically by default in
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Windows XP
Obtaining TCP/IP Settings Automatically By default, TCP/IP is configured to
obtain an IP address automatically in Windows XP. When TCP/IP is configured
to obtain an IP address automatically, it first attempts to locate a Dynamic Host
Configuration Protocol (DHCP) server on the network. The DHCP server can
be a Windows server or a third-party DHCP service (often built into routers).
Administrators configure the DHCP server with a range of IP addresses and other
TCP/IP configuration parameters that it will automatically assign to clients. In
addition to IP addresses, DHCP servers can assign a subnet mask, default gateway, DNS and WINS configuration, and a variety of other parameters.
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DHCP servers lease clients their IP configuration for a period of time specified by
the DHCP administrator. (The default lease duration for a Windows-based DHCP
server is eight days.) Clients contact the DHCP server to renew their lease every
time that the clients are started or when half of the lease time has expired, whichever comes first. Clients lose their TCP/IP configuration if they do not contact the
DHCP server before the lease time expires, which can happen if the computer is
not started for an extended period of time or if the DHCP server is unavailable as
a result of issues with the server or the network.
DHCP clients communicate with the DHCP server by using broadcast messages.
Broadcasts are not forwarded by routers, which means that a client cannot communicate directly with a DHCP server that is not on the local network. Rather
than putting a DHCP server on every network in a multiple network environment, administrators can place a service called a DHCP Relay Agent on the local
network. DHCP Relay Agents pick up DHCP broadcast messages and forward
them to a DHCP server on another network.
If a client that is automatically configured to obtain TCP/IP configuration information cannot locate a DHCP server, there are two alternate configuration methods to choose: Automatic Private IP Addressing (APIPA) and a user-defined IP
address. These alternate methods are used only when automatic configuration is
selected. If manual configuration is being performed, alternate options are not
available.
Obtaining TCP/IP Settings from Automatic Private IP Addressing (APIPA)
APIPA is the default method for alternate TCP/IP configuration. The APIPA process is as follows:
1. If the client computer is configured to obtain IP addressing information automatically but cannot locate a DHCP server, the client randomly assigns itself an IP address from the Class B network
169.254.0.0, with a subnet mask of 255.255.0.0. The range of IP
addresses that a computer running Windows XP can assign itself is
from 169.254.0.1 through 169.254.255.254.
2. The client sends a broadcast message to verify that no other client on
the network has chosen the same address.
3. If the client does not receive any responses to the broadcast (which is
likely because there are 65,534 possible addresses in the range), it initializes TCP/IP by using the random IP address and a subnet mask of
255.255.0.0.
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If the client receives a response to the broadcast indicating that another client is
already using the address, another address is randomly selected and the process
begins again. This process continues until the client chooses an address that is
not already in use by another computer.
APIPA assigns an IP address and subnet mask only, and configures no additional
parameters. This service is very useful in smaller, single-network environments in
which there is no need for connectivity to other networks. APIPA provides a very
simple way to configure TCP/IP—the network administrator does not need any
knowledge of the necessary configuration parameters. However, if connectivity to
other networks is required, or if the client requires the name-resolution services
of DNS or WINS, APIPA is not sufficient. APIPA does not provide a default gateway, DNS server, or WINS server address to the client.
Configuring Alternate TCP/IP Settings User-configured alternate settings
allow you to manually specify the IP address, subnet mask, default gateway, DNS
server, and WINS servers to be used when a DHCP server is not available. This is
an ideal configuration for portable computers that function with DHCP at one
location but use a static address at another location. If the portable computer is
connected to the network that supports DHCP, it automatically obtains an
address from the DHCP server. However, if it is connected to a network without
DHCP services, it uses the configuration specified here.
Figure 10-8 displays the Alternate Configuration tab of TCP/IP properties, with
user-configured settings.
Figure 10-8 Configuring an alternate TCP/IP configuration for when a DHCP server is
not available
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Manual Configuration of TCP/IP Properties
Automatic configuration of TCP/IP properties is convenient, but there will be
times when you want the control that you have in manual configuration. To configure TCP/IP properties manually, select the Use The Following IP Address
option in the General tab, as illustrated in Figure 10-9.
Figure 10-9 Configuring TCP/IP information manually
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The General tab of TCP/IP Properties allows you to configure the most commonly used TCP/IP parameters in Windows XP:
■
IP address
■
Subnet mask
■
Default gateway
■
DNS servers
You can configure a preferred and an alternative DNS server. The client will
attempt to use the preferred DNS server for name-resolution requests. If the preferred server is unavailable or cannot resolve the request, the alternative DNS
server will be contacted.
Troubleshooting Modem Connections
Internet connectivity problems that involve modems occur for a variety of reasons. A problem can be caused by something as simple as dialing an incorrect
phone number or having the connection automatically disconnect after a period
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of time. Or it might be something as complicated as an improperly configured
name server address.
Table 10-5 details how to resolve common modem problems using the Properties
dialog box for the dial-up connection.
Table 10-5 Resolving Common Internet Connectivity Problems with Dial-Up
Connections
Complaint
Possible Solution
My modem does not connect to
my ISP.
Call the ISP and verify or obtain a phone
number. On the General tab, retype the
phone number.
Call the ISP and obtain a new phone number. On the General tab, retype the phone
number.
On the General tab, click Configure. Select
the Enable Modem Speaker check box. In
Device Manager, double-click the modem;
on the Modem tab, configure the speaker
volume.
On the General tab, select Configure. Clear
the Enable Modem Speaker check box.
On the Options tab, change the setting for
Idle Time Before Hanging Up to Never, 24
Hours, 8 Hours, 4 Hours, or any other
setting.
On the Options tab, select the Redial If
Line Is Dropped check box.
When the modem dials, I get an
error message that the number is
not in service.
I cannot hear my modem when it
dials.
I hear my modem when it dials.
I keep getting disconnected from
the Internet after 20 minutes of
inactivity.
When I get disconnected from
the Internet, the connection is
not redialed automatically.
When I disconnect from my ISP
at night, the computer redials and
connects even if I do not want it
to.
I keep getting prompted for my
name and password, phone number, and other information.
Sometimes my ISP’s phone number is busy. I have an alternative
number. How do I change it?
On the Options tab, change the value for
Redial Attempts to 0. Clear the Redial If
Line Is Dropped check box.
On the Options tab, clear the Prompt For
Name And Password, Certificate, Etc.,
Include Windows Logon Domain, and
Prompt For Phone Number check boxes,
as applicable to the network.
On the General tab, click Alternates. In the
Alternate Phone Numbers dialog box, click
Add. Add the new number, and click OK to
exit the dialog boxes.
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Troubleshooting Cable and DSL Connections
Internet connectivity problems that involve cable and DSL modems also occur
for a variety of reasons. A problem can be caused by something as simple as a
disconnected cable or as complicated as troubleshooting a slow connection or
identifying the source of DSL interference. Table 10-6 lists common connectivity problems reported with cable and DSL connections.
Table 10-6 Resolving Common Internet Connectivity Problems with Cable and
DSL Connections
Complaint
Possible Solution
My dial-up modem
keeps trying to
dial out.
Open Control Panel, open Network And Connections,
and then open Internet Options. Choose the Connections tab, and select LAN Settings. Clear all checked
settings. Click OK twice to close the two open dialog
boxes. Open Internet Explorer, and from the Tools
menu, select Internet Options. On the Connections
tab, select Never Dial A Connection. Click OK.
Check all physical connections to and from modems,
routers, and the computer. Swap out questionable
cables for new ones. If problems still exist, right-click
the connection in Network Connections, choose Properties, select Internet Protocol (TCP/IP), and click
Properties. Note that if you are using a dial-up connection, the Internet Protocol (TCP/IP) information is on
the Networking tab of the network connection’s Properties dialog box. Verify that the settings are correct
with the ISP. A common setting is Obtain An IP
Address Automatically. Click OK to work out of the
dialog boxes.
Verify that all power supplies to modems or routers
are plugged in and that all hardware is turned on. Verify that the network adapter and all hardware are functional by using Device Manager, as detailed earlier.
Contact the ISP first. The problem could lie in the
ISP’s capabilities. It is possible that the servers are
overloaded. A newer modem might also be available.
Yes. Interference can be caused by lighting dimmer
switches, AM radio stations, and other sources.
My Internet connection is unavailable.
I try to connect, but
nothing happens
at all.
My Internet connection is slow.
I think I am getting
interference. Could
something be
causing that?
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Using TCP/IP Troubleshooting Tools
Windows XP provides a number of TCP/IP tools for troubleshooting network
connectivity problems. As a DST, you should be familiar with the following tools:
■
Ping
■
Ipconfig
■
Net view
■
Tracert
■
Pathping
Using Ping
When the problem appears to be with TCP/IP (either because you have ruled
out problems with cables and network adapters, physical connections, and the
other causes detailed in this chapter or because the Network Troubleshooter
pointed out a TCP/IP address problem), start the troubleshooting process with
the Ping command, which allows you to check for connectivity between devices
on a network.
When you use the Ping command, you ping from the inside out. You want to find
out where the communication and connection fail. For example, you ping the
loopback address first, then a local computer on the same network, then a DNS
or DHCP server on the local subnet if one exists, then the default gateway, then a
remote computer on another network, and finally a resource on the Internet. You
should be able to find out where the breakdown occurs by compiling the results
of these checks.
NOTE You Can Ping a Name or IP Address When using the Ping command, you can use either the computer name or the computer’s IP
address.
Pinging the Loopback Address The loopback address (127.0.0.1) is the first
thing you should check when a TCP/IP problem appears. If this check fails, the
TCP/IP configuration for the local machine is not correct. To ping the loopback
address, follow these steps:
1. From the Start menu, point to All Programs, point to Accessories, and
select Command Prompt.
2. Type ping 127.0.0.1. A successful ping to a loopback address is shown
in Figure 10-10.
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Figure 10-10 Pinging the loopback address to verify that TCP/IP is config-
ured correctly
If pinging the loopback address fails, check the configuration of TCP/IP by following these steps:
1. Open the Network Connections window, right-click the configured
connection, and choose Properties.
2. Select Internet Protocol (TCP/IP), and click Properties to view the configuration. If a static address is configured and a DHCP server is available, select Obtain An IP Address Automatically. If Obtain An IP
Address Automatically is selected but a static IP address is necessary,
select Use The Following IP Address; then enter the address, subnet
mask, and gateway to use. If the configuration is correct, you might
have to reset TCP/IP.
3. Click OK in the Properties dialog box and OK in the connection’s
Properties dialog box. Reboot the computer if prompted.
Learn More About Resetting TCP/IP If reconfiguring the TCP/IP
settings did not help solve the loopback problem, you can try resetting
TCP/IP. See Knowledge Base article 299357, “How to Reset Internet Protocol (TCP/IP) in Windows XP” for details.
NOTE
Pinging Other Resources To ping any other computer on the network, simply
replace the loopback address with the TCP/IP address of the resource on the network. Ping a local computer on the same subnet first, and then ping the gateway
address. If you can ping the loopback address (a local computer on the same subnet) but the Ping command to the gateway fails, you probably found the problem.
In this case, check the configuration on the local computer for the gateway
address and verify that the gateway (or router) is operational.
If the ping to the gateway address is successful, continue to ping outward until
you find the problem. For instance, ping a computer on a remote subnet and verify that the DNS server is operational.
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Learn More About Ping For more information about troubleshooting by using Ping and similar commands, read Knowledge Base article 314067, “How to Troubleshoot TCP/IP Connectivity with Windows XP.”
NOTE
Using Ipconfig
You can use the Ipconfig command-line utility to view current TCP/IP configuration information for a computer. To use Ipconfig, open the command prompt
window and type Ipconfig to view basic TCP/IP parameters, Ipconfig /all to view
the complete TCP/IP configuration (as shown in Figure 10-11), or Ipconfig /? to
view additional options.
Figure 10-11 Using the Ipconfig /all command to display a complete TCP/IP
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configuration
You Cannot Run Ipconfig Using the Run Command You must
run Ipconfig from a command prompt. If you try to execute it by using the
Run command on the Start menu, the command window will close before
you have a chance to read the information that is displayed.
NOTE
Additional Ipconfig options include the following:
■
/release Releases DHCP-supplied configuration information
■
/renew Renews DHCP-supplied configuration information
■
/flushdns Purges the local DNS cache (the area of memory that
stores recently resolved names so that the client does not have to contact the DNS server each time)
■
/registerdns Renews DHCP-supplied configuration information
and registers the DNS name to IP address information with DNS
■
/displaydns Displays the contents of the local DNS cache
■
/setclassid Provides for the configuration of DHCP user classes,
which can control the way that IP addresses are assigned
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Using Net View
The Net View command is another command that you can use to test TCP/IP
connections. To use the command, log on with the proper credentials that are
required to view shares on a remote or local computer, open a command prompt,
and type net view \\ComputerName or net view \\IP Address. The resulting
report lists the file and print shares on the computer. If there are no file or print
shares on the computer, you see the message There Are No Entries In The List.
If the Net View command fails, check the following:
■
The computer name in the System Properties dialog box.
■
The gateway or router address in the TCP/IP Properties dialog box.
■
The gateway or router status.
■
The remote computer is running the File And Printer Sharing for
Microsoft Networks Service. (This service can be added in the TCP/IP
Properties dialog box.)
Using Tracert
When a route breaks down on the way from the destination computer to its target
computer, communication fails. The Tracert command-line utility can help you
figure out exactly where along the route the breakdown happened. Sometimes
the connection breaks down at the gateway on the local network and sometimes
at a router on an external network.
To use Tracert, at the command prompt type tracert followed by the IP address of
the remote computer. The resulting report shows where the packets were lost.
You can use this information to uncover the source of the problem.
Using Pathping
The Ping command is used to test communication between one computer and
another; Tracert is used to follow a particular route from one computer to
another. The Pathping command is a combination of both Ping and Tracert, displaying information about packet loss at every router between the host computer
and the remote one. The Pathping command provides information about data
loss between the source and the destination, allowing you to determine which
particular router or subnet might be having network problems. To use the Pathping command, at the command prompt, type pathping followed by the target
name or IP address.
Command-Line Reference The Windows Help And Support Center offers a list of all the commands that you can perform by using the
command line. Search for Command-Line Reference A-Z. Each command
reference includes a description of the command and how to use it.
NOTE
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Troubleshooting Name Resolution on a Client Computer
Name resolution is the process that allows network and Internet users to access
resources by their names instead of their IP addresses. Names that are used might
be (among others) computer names, server names, printer names, or FQDNs.
Without name resolution, users would be forced to remember the IP addresses of
each resource on the network or on the Internet. Thus, name resolution makes
accessing resources much simpler. When problems occur with accessing network
resources, often the solution involves troubleshooting these components.
DNS Issues
DNS servers resolve the names of hosts on the network to their respective IP
addresses. Administrators install DNS servers and configure the IP addresses of
resources on the network. When something is wrong with the DNS configuration on a computer or the DNS server on a network, client computers cannot
resolve computer names or FQDNs to their IP addresses, and connectivity to
resources fails.
If you believe (because of results of Ping, Ipconfig /all, Tracert, or other command-line tests) that an incorrect DNS configuration is preventing a user or users
from resolving names to IP addresses, and you have verified the IP address of the
DNS server and that the server is online, you should check the DNS settings on
the local computer.
WINS Issues
In addition to DNS, WINS is sometimes used on a network. WINS servers resolve
NetBIOS names to their associated IP addresses. NetBIOS names allow computers running previous versions of Windows (such as Windows NT, Windows Millennium Edition [Windows Me], and Windows 98) to participate in a network
and to access resources.
Not all networks use WINS servers. WINS integration is necessary only if the network includes computers running previous versions of Windows. If the network
includes a WINS server, if you believe that an incorrect WINS configuration is
preventing a computer from resolving NetBIOS names to IP addresses, and if you
have verified the IP address of the WINS server (and that it is online), you should
check the WINS settings on the local computer.
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SUPPORTING INTERNET CONNECTION FIREWALL
A firewall protects a computer from the outside world (specifically, the Internet) by blocking all network traffic except that which you specifically configure
the firewall to allow through. This section introduces firewalls and looks at the
software-based firewall that is included with Windows XP: the Internet Connection Firewall (ICF).
Understanding Internet Connection Firewall
A firewall acts as a security system that creates a border between the computer or
network and the Internet. This border determines what traffic is allowed in or out
of the local network or computer. Firewalls help keep hackers, viruses, and other
damaging intruders from infiltrating the computer and network. Any computer
connected directly to the Internet should have ICF enabled.
ICF has the following characteristics:
■
Limits the data that comes into a computer or a network by scanning
the data that tries to enter. Unwanted data is discarded.
■
Does not limit what happens on a stand-alone computer or inside the
network, or limit the data that passes between computers on a local
network.
■
Works independently of any networking hardware (because ICF runs
on a computer running Windows XP). You can use ICF with dial-up
connections, DSL modems, cable modems, and similar hardware.
■
Can be configured to keep a security log of discarded packets so that
an administrator can view the types of packets that have been dropped,
lost, opened, or closed.
■
Does not protect against power surges, lightning, or natural disasters.
Do Not Use ICF on VPNs You should not enable ICF on virtual private networks (VPNs). VPNs provide access to private networks
through the Internet, and VPN access can incorporate the remote network’s remote access rules, routed connections, and authentication procedures. When you enable ICF on a computer that uses a VPN, it can
cause problems with file and printer sharing between that computer and
resources on the network.
CAUTION
ICF and the Small Office
ICF is generally enabled on computers in small office networks and home networks because it is designed for use on computers that connect directly to the
Internet, and in smaller networks there are usually one or more computers that
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do. In larger companies, network computers connect to a proxy server that provides access to the Internet, and the network servers have their own firewall system that usually consists of multiple hardware- and software-based firewalls. You
should not enable ICF on computers that do not access the Internet directly
because ICF can interfere with communications between the computer and other
computers on the network.
If a user wants to enable ICF, or if you believe that ICF has been enabled on a connection that does not access the Internet directly, you must access the Internet or
the Properties dialog box of the local area connection and make the appropriate
changes as follows:
1. From the Start menu, select Control Panel.
2. In Control Panel, select Network And Internet Connections.
3. In the Network And Internet Connections window, select Network
Connections.
4. In the Network Connections window, right-click the connection that
connects directly to the Internet and choose Properties.
5. In the Properties dialog box, shown in Figure 10-12, select the
Advanced tab.
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Figure 10-12 The local area connection’s Properties dialog box
6. To enable ICF, select the Protect My Computer And Network By Limiting Or Preventing Access To This Computer From The Internet check
box. To disable ICF, clear this check box. Click OK.
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Configuring, Viewing, and Using ICF Log Files
Security logging, which is the collection of information that provides details
about Internet connections and other firewall activity, is not enabled by default
when you enable ICF. However, you can configure ICF to log activity, such as
what network traffic is permitted and rejected when coming into or leaving the
network. Logging consists of three basic tasks: enabling logging, accessing the
log, and reading log entries.
Enabling ICF Logging
To view and use ICF log file information, you need to enable logging. To enable
logging, follow these steps:
1. From the Start menu, select Control Panel.
2. In Control Panel, select Network And Internet Connections.
3. In the Network And Internet Connections window, select Network
Connections.
4. Right-click the connection that has ICF enabled, and then choose
Properties. Select the Advanced tab.
5. On the Advanced tab, click Settings.
6. In the Advanced Settings dialog box, select the Security Logging tab.
Under Logging Options, select the Log Dropped Packets and/or Log
Successful Connections check boxes, which act as follows:
❑
Log Dropped Packets—Logs all dropped packets originating from the
local network or the Internet.
❑
Log Successful Connections—Logs all successful connections originating
from the network or the Internet.
7. Note the location of the security log. By default, it is in the
\Windows\Pfirewall.log file. Click OK. Click OK to close the Properties dialog box.
Accessing the Log Files
After you enable logging, you can access the log file by browsing to the log file’s
location and opening the file. To open the log file by browsing to it from Network
Connections, follow these steps:
1. Click Start, and then select Control Panel.
2. In Control Panel, select Network And Internet Connections.
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3. In the Network And Internet Connections window, select Network
Connections.
4. Right-click the connection that has ICF enabled, and choose Properties. Select the Advanced tab.
5. On the Advanced tab, click Settings.
6. In the Advanced Settings dialog box, select the Security Logging tab;
under Log File Options, click Browse.
7. Right-click the Pfirewall.txt file and choose Open. Notice that the text file
has several headings, including Date, Time, Action, Protocol, and more.
Reading Log Entries
Log entries provide insight about which packets have been successful in getting
into the network and which have been rejected. There are two sections of the log:
the header and the body. The header includes information about the version of
ICF, the full name of the ICF, where the time stamp on the log learned of the time,
and the field names used by the body of the log entry to display data. The body
details the log data.
There are 16 data entries per logged item that include information about the date
and time the log was written and information about the data that passed.
Although this information is quite technical, in brief it tells which types of packets
were opened, closed, dropped, and lost; which protocol was used in the data
transmission; the destination IP address of the data; the port used by the sending
computer; the port of the destination computer; and the size of the packet logged.
ICMP and ICF
Internet Control Message Protocol (ICMP) allows routers and host computers to
swap basic control information when data is sent from one computer to another.
ICMP error and configuration information is attached to the data and includes
whether or not the data sent reaches its final destination, whether it can or cannot
be forwarded by a specific router, and what the best route for the data is. ICMP
tools such as Ping and Tracert are often used to troubleshoot network connectivity.
ICMP troubleshooting tools and their resulting messages are helpful when used
by a network administrator, but harmful when used by an attacker. For instance,
a network administrator sends a ping request in the form of an ICMP packet that
contains an echo request message to the IP address that is being tested. The reply
to that echo request message allows the administrator to verify that the computer
is reachable. An attacker, on the other hand, can send a broadcast storm of pings
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that can overload a computer so that it cannot respond to legitimate traffic. By
configuring ICMP, you can control how a system responds (or does not respond)
to such ping requests. By default, no ICMP messages are enabled or allowed.
Configuring Advanced ICMP Settings
DSTs and network administrators use ICMP requests to troubleshoot network
connectivity. Generally, you enable the ICMP options when you need them, and
then disable them after you complete troubleshooting.
To configure advanced ICMP options on the ICF host, follow these steps:
1. From the Start menu, select Control Panel.
2. In Control Panel, select Network And Internet Connections.
3. In the Network And Internet Connections window, select Network
Connections.
4. Right-click the connection that has ICF configured, and then choose
Properties.
5. On the Advanced tab, click Settings.
6. In the Advanced Settings dialog box, select the ICMP tab. Figure 10-13
shows the default settings. Notice that no ICMP requests are enabled.
To enable an option, select it.
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Figure 10-13 The default ICMP settings
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You can view what each option does by selecting that option on the ICMP tab.
For instance, selecting the first option, Allow Incoming Echo Request, states that
echo messages that are sent to the computer will be repeated (echoed) back to
the sender. This means that if a ping message is sent to the computer, an ICMP
message will be sent back noting that the ping was received. Although this can
be an excellent tool for troubleshooting network connectivity, it is not a good
option to leave enabled all the time because it leaves the computer vulnerable to
Internet attacks.
ICMP Options
Table 10-7 provides details about the available ICMP options that are shown in
Figure 10-13. As a DST, make sure that you do not allow or enable these options
without a full understanding of them and the consequences and risks involved.
Enable these options when troubleshooting connectivity, and then disable them
when finished.
Table 10-7
ICMP Options
ICMP Option
Description
Allow Incoming Echo
Request
Controls whether a remote computer can ask for and
receive a response from the computer. Ping is a command that requires you to enable this option. When
enabled (as with other options), attackers can see
and contact the host computer.
Sends a reply to another computer stating that an
incoming message was received and includes time
and date data.
Provides the sender with the subnet mask for the
network of which the computer is a member. The
sender already has the IP address; giving the subnet
mask is all an administrator (or attacker) needs to
obtain the remaining network information about the
computer’s network.
Provides information about the routes the computer
recognizes, and passes on information it has about
any routers to which it is connected.
The computer sends a “Destination Unreachable”
message that provides information about why discarded packets were not received. These messages
refer to nonexistent and unreachable hosts on the
network.
Allow Incoming
Timestamp Request
Allow Incoming Mask
Request
Allow Incoming Router
Request
Allow Outgoing
Destination
Unreachable
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Table 10-7
ICMP Options
ICMP Option
Description
Allow Outgoing Source
Quench
Offers information to routers about the rate at which
data is received; tells routers to slow down if too
much data is being sent and it cannot be received
fast enough to keep up.
The computer sends a “Bad Header” error message
when the computer discards data it has received that
has a problematic header. This message allows the
sender to understand that the host exists, but that
there were unknown problems with the message
itself.
The computer sends the sender a “Time Expired”
message when the computer must discard messages
because the messages timed out.
Data that is sent from this computer will be rerouted
if the path changes.
Allow Outgoing
Parameter Problem
Allow Outgoing Time
Exceeded
Allow Redirect
As you gain experience, you will enable and disable these tools when troubleshooting the network and resource access.
Allowing Services in ICF
In ICF, services refer to applications that run on your computer and provide a
resource that can be accessed by other computers on the network or the Internet.
Examples of services include a Web server, File Transfer Protocol (FTP) server,
mail servers, and so on. If you are running a service that you want people to be
able to access, you must configure ICF to allow traffic that is related to the service
through the firewall. (You configure ICF on the Services tab of the Advanced Settings dialog box for ICF, shown in Figure 10-14.)
Each of the following servers or services requires you to manually configure the
firewall to allow the service’s traffic:
■
FTP Server
■
Internet Mail Access Protocol Version 3 (IMAP3), Internet Mail Access
Protocol Version 4 (IMAP4), Post Office Protocol 3 (POP3), or Simple
Mail Transfer Protocol (SMTP) servers
■
Remote Desktop
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■
Secure Web Server (HTTP Secure)
■
Telnet Server
■
Web Server (HTTP)
SUPPORTING NETWORK CONNECTIVITY
After you know what a user wants to configure, adding the service is easy, as discussed in the following section.
Figure 10-14 ICF, which must be configured to allow traffic for services that your computer provides
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Adding a Service Definition
To configure a firewall to allow the service traffic that you define, you must have
the following, which might need to be obtained from an administrator, from the
service’s documentation, or from the service’s Web site:
■
The name or IP address of the computer hosting the service
■
ICF or ICS enabled on the connection
■
The ability to log on as an administrator
■
Any necessary permissions on the network
■
The external port number for the service
■
The internal port number for the service
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To allow traffic for a predefined service, such as FTP, POP3, IMAP4, Hypertext
Transfer Protocol (HTTP), and others, you need only the name or IP address of
the computer hosting the service on the network. To add a predefined service definition, follow these steps:
1. From the Start menu, select Control Panel.
2. In Control Panel, select Network And Internet Connections.
3. In the Network And Internet Connections window, select Network
Connections.
4. Right-click the shared connection or the Internet connection being
protected by ICF, and choose Properties.
5. In the Properties dialog box, on the Advanced tab, click Settings.
6. On the Services tab, select the check box for the service you want to
add.
7. When prompted, type the name or IP address of the computer hosting
the service on the network, as shown in Figure 10-15. Click OK.
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Figure 10-15 Adding the Web Server (HTTP) service by inputting the
appropriate information
8. After you add the service or services, click OK in the Advanced Security
dialog box to close it, and click OK in the Properties dialog box to
apply the changes.
Adding New Service Definitions You can add new service definitions by clicking the Add button on the Services tab. (See Step 4 earlier.) In the Service Settings dialog box, type the required information.
NOTE
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Troubleshooting Internet Connection Firewall
There are a few common problems that end users encounter when using ICF,
including the inability to enable ICF on a connection, problems with file and print
sharing, a network user’s inability to access a server on the network (such as a Web
server), problems with Remote Assistance, and problems running Internet programs. The solutions to all these problems (and others) are well-documented and
easily available from the Microsoft Knowledge Base at http://support.microsoft.com.
When troubleshooting ICF, make sure that you remember to check the obvious
first. The following are some basic rules that you must follow, and any deviation
from them can cause many of the common problems that are encountered when
using ICF:
■
ICF can be enabled only by administrators and only on outgoing connections such as connections to the Internet. ICF can be disabled from a
group or domain policy, preventing access even by a local administrator.
■
ICF should be configured only on the computers on the network that
connect directly to the Internet. If ICF is enabled on other computers
on the network, problems with file and print sharing can ensue.
■
Network users cannot access a Web server, FTP server, game server, or
other network server unless the appropriate service definition has also
been added.
■
Remote Assistance can be affected if ICF has been enabled after a
Remote Assistance invitation was created. This problem can be solved
by creating a new invitation while ICF is enabled or by disabling the
firewall temporarily.
■
Internet programs might not work as expected when ICF is enabled.
To work around the problem, temporarily disable ICF.
As with other troubleshooting sections in previous chapters, you can find solutions to common problems in the Windows Help And Support files, the Knowledge Base, TechNet, third-party Web sites, and newsgroups.
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USING REMOTE ACCESS TOOLS
As a DST, you must be able to configure, manage, and troubleshoot Remote Desktop and Remote Assistance. Remote Assistance and Remote Desktop are both
Windows XP Professional Edition features that allow remote access to a computer. However, the purpose of each feature, the method of connection establishment, and the tasks that you can perform remotely are different.
Remote Assistance
The Remote Assistance feature allows a user to electronically request help from
another user. For example, a customer might invite you to provide remote assistance on his computer. Both users must agree to the connection, and after the
connection is established, you can take shared control of the user’s desktop, chat
with the user, and send and receive files. Taking shared control of the desktop
requires the user’s permission. Remote Assistance can minimize or eliminate the
need to physically visit a remote computer to solve a problem.
Establishing a Remote Assistance Session
A Remote Assistance session requires that both the user and the DST actively participate in establishing the connection. The session is established in the following
phases:
1. The user who requires support sends a Remote Assistance invitation to
the DST.
2. The DST responds to the invitation.
3. The user accepts the DST’s assistance.
To send a Remote Assistance invitation, follow these steps:
1. From the Start menu, select Help And Support.
2. In the Help And Support Center, under Ask For Assistance, select
Invite A Friend To Connect To Your Computer With Remote Assistance, and then select Invite Someone To Help You.
3. Select the method that you want to use to create the invitation, as
shown in Figure 10-16. You can send invitations directly by using Windows Messenger, by using an e-mail attachment, or by saving an invitation file and transmitting it to the helper user (for example, you could
save the file to a shared folder on the network).
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Figure 10-16 Choosing the method to create an invitation
4. When prompted, enter the requested information, including your
name, a message, when the invitation should expire, and (optionally) a
password to be used to establish the connection.
5. Click Send Invitation.
Finding an Invitation File When an invitation is sent through
an e-mail attachment or saved as a file, the file has a .MsRcIndicent
extension.
NOTE
When you receive a Remote Assistance invitation, you must respond to continue
the process. If the invitation is sent using Windows Messenger, you must accept
the invitation that is presented in the Messenger pop-up window. If the invitation
is sent by e-mail, you must open the attached invitation. If the invitation file is
transmitted in some other fashion, you must access and open it. If a password is
required, you must enter the password in the Remote Assistance dialog box.
Windows then notifies the user requiring assistance that the request has been
accepted. The user must click Yes in the Remote Assistance dialog box as a final
indication of acceptance, and Remote Assistance then establishes the connection.
Remote Assistance Console
After the Remote Assistance connection is established, the user requiring assistance sees a User Console and the helper sees a Helper Console.
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The User Console is shown in Figure 10-17. You can use the Chat History and
Message Entry windows for online chatting. The Connection Status window
displays the helper who has connected and the connection’s capabilities
(Screen View Only or In Control). The functionality of the remaining buttons is
as follows:
■
Stop Control (ESC) Permits the user to regain control if the helper
user has taken control. (This can also be accomplished by pressing the
ESC key.)
■
Send A File Sends a file from the user’s computer or a network share
to the helper’s computer.
■
Start Talking Enables voice communication on computers with
voice capabilities.
■
Settings Enables the user to adjust sound quality.
■
Disconnect Ends the Remote Assistance connection.
■
Help Provides access to Remote Assistance help features.
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Figure 10-17
The Remote Assistance User Console, which is seen by the user request-
ing assistance
Figure 10-18 displays the Helper Console. The Chat History and Message Entry
windows are for online chatting. The user’s desktop is displayed in the Status
window on the right side of the display. The controls for the Helper Console are
found across the top of the screen and include the following:
■
Take Control/Release Control Sends a request to the user to take
shared control of the user’s desktop. The user must accept the request
and can cancel it at any time by clicking Disconnect on the User Console or by pressing ESC.
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■
Send A File Sends a file from the helper’s computer or a network
share to the user’s computer.
■
Start Talking Enables voice communication on computers with
voice capabilities.
■
Settings Enables the user to adjust sound quality and console size.
■
Disconnect Ends the Remote Assistance connection.
■
Help Provides access to Remote Assistance help features.
Figure 10-18 The Remote Assistance Helper Console that the user sees
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Taking Shared Control of the User’s Computer
To take shared control, the helper sends a request to the user by clicking Take
Control. The user must accept the request and can cancel it at any time by clicking Disconnect on the User Console or by pressing ESC.
When the helper establishes shared control of the user’s system, the helper can
fully manipulate the computer, including loading and unloading drivers, starting
applications, and viewing event logs. However, the helper cannot copy files from
the user’s hard disk. The only way for the helper to get a file from the user’s computer is for the user to send it.
When shared control is established, both users can manipulate the mouse and
keyboard simultaneously, so consider using the chat or voice communication
functions to coordinate input device usage and minimize overlap. Also, the helper
must be careful not to do anything that might affect the network connection; otherwise the Remote Assistance connection might be disconnected.
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Remote Desktop
Remote Desktop is designed to allow users to remotely gain access to their
Windows XP Professional Edition desktop, applications, data, and network
resources from another computer on the network. Users who have been
granted permission can connect remotely. After a connection is established, the
local desktop is locked for security reasons, preventing anyone from viewing the
tasks that are being performed remotely.
Remote Desktop is designed to allow a user to have full control over his or her
Windows XP Professional Edition desktop from another computer on the network. This is useful when a user is working from home, another office, or another
site and requires access to information from his or her primary office computer.
While a user is remotely accessing his or her computer, local access by another
user is not permitted. An exception to this is an administrator—administrators are
permitted to log on locally while another user is connected remotely, but the
remote session is then terminated.
Remote Desktop requires the following:
■
A remote computer that is running Windows XP Professional Edition
and that is connected to a LAN or the Internet. This is the computer to
which you want to gain access remotely.
■
A client computer with access to the host computer through a LAN,
dial-up, or VPN connection that has the Remote Desktop Connection
program or the Terminal Services Client installed. A version of the
Remote Desktop Connection program is available for most versions of
Windows.
■
A user account with appropriate permissions. The user must be an
administrator or a member of the Remote Users group.
Configuring Remote Desktop
Remote Desktop configuration is a two-part process. First, configure the remote
computer to allow Remote Desktop connections. Then, configure the client computer with the Remote Desktop Connection client software.
To configure a computer running Windows XP Professional Edition to allow
Remote Desktop connections, follow these steps:
1. From the Start menu (or from the desktop or in Windows Explorer)
right-click My Computer and select Properties.
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2. On the Remote tab, in the Remote Desktop section, select Allow Users
To Connect Remotely To This Computer, as shown in Figure 10-19.
When you select this check box, the Remote Sessions dialog box
appears, warning you that only users that are members of the Remote
Users group and the Administrators group can connect remotely.
Click OK.
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Figure 10-19 Enabling Remote Desktop on a computer running
Windows XP Professional Edition
3. If the user account to be used to connect remotely is not a member of
the Administrators group, press Select Remote Users, add the appropriate user account, and then click OK.
4. Click OK.
Verify that the user account to be used to connect remotely has a password
assigned to it. User accounts used for remote connections must have passwords.
Learn More About Using Remote Desktop with Firewalls If
you are using ICF or another personal firewall, you must enable inbound
connections on TCP port 3389 to support Remote Desktop connections.
You can also change the port on which Remote Desktop accepts connections. For more information on changing this port number, read Knowledge
Base article #306759, “How to Change the Listening Port for Remote
Desktop.”
NOTE
After a computer running Windows XP Professional Edition is configured to
allow Remote Desktop connections, you can connect to that computer by using
the Remote Desktop Connection client software on another computer. From the
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Start menu, select All Programs, then Accessories, then Communications, and
then Remote Desktop Connection. In the Remote Desktop Connection dialog
box, click Options to display configurable options, as shown in Figure 10-20. The
only information that you must enter to establish a connection is the name or IP
address of the computer. Other configurable options include the following:
■
General options, including the user name, password, and domain
name used for authentication and the ability to save connection settings
■
Display options, including the configuration of the size of the remote
connection display (all the way up to full screen) and color settings
■
Local Resources options, including sound and keyboard configuration, and which local devices to connect to when logged on the remote
computer
■
Programs options, which provide the ability to automatically launch a
program when a connection is established
■
Experience options, which allow the configuration of the connection
speed to optimize performance and provide the ability to control the
display of the desktop background, themes, menu and windows animation, and other items that can affect performance
Figure 10-20 Configuring options for connecting to a remote computer
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Managing Remote Desktop Sessions
When you establish a Remote Desktop session from a Windows XP Professional
Edition computer, use the Remote Desktop Connections client as follows:
1. From the Start menu, select All Programs, then Accessories, then Communications, and then Remote Desktop Connection.
2. In the Remote Desktop Connection dialog box, depicted in Figure 10-21,
enter the name or IP address of the remote computer and click Connect.
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Figure 10-21 Establishing a Remote Desktop session
3. Enter the appropriate user account and password and then click OK.
4. If another user is currently logged on to the remote system, a Logon
Message dialog box appears, indicating that in order to continue, that
user must be logged off and any unsaved data will be lost. If this
occurs, click Yes to continue.
5. The Remote Desktop session is established. Figure 10-22 displays a
remote connection window.
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Figure 10-22 Gaining complete control of the remote computer after
connecting
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After connecting to a remote desktop, you have complete control of the remote
computer. When you press the CTRL+ALT+DELETE keys simultaneously during a
Remote Desktop session, either Task Manager or the Windows Security dialog
box for the local computer appears. To access Task Manager or the Windows
Security dialog box on the remote computer, select Windows Security from the
Start menu.
There are two ways to end a remote session:
■
Log off from the remote computer normally, which closes all programs,
logs the user off, and then closes the Remote Desktop connection.
■
Disconnect by either closing the Remote Desktop dialog box or selecting Disconnect from the Start menu. Disconnecting leaves the user
logged on at the remote computer, and all programs continue processing. The user will be reconnected to the same session the next time the
user connects.
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SUMMARY
■
Each interface on a TCP/IP network is assigned a unique IP address,
which is typically shown as four decimal numbers ranging from 0 to
255. An IP address is divided into a network ID, which determines the
subnet on which a host exists, and a host ID, which uniquely identifies
the host on that subnet. The separation of network ID and host ID is
determined by a subnet mask.
■
A default gateway is the IP address to which a client sends data that is
destined for a host that is not on the same network as a client. The
default gateway is typically a router.
■
Name resolution is the process of mapping IP addresses to computer
or host names. DNS is the primary name resolution mechanism used
on modern Windows networks and on the Internet. WINS is a name
resolution mechanism used on older Windows-based networks.
■
To resolve network-connectivity problems, you should test network
cabling connections, test the network adapter in a computer, test the
network configuration on a computer, and verify that any required
servers are online.
■
Windows XP computers can obtain an IP address automatically by
searching the network for a DHCP server. If found, the DHCP server provides TCP/IP configuration information to the client. If the computer
cannot contact a DHCP server, Windows XP assigns the computer an IP
address in the 169.254.0.0 range automatically by using APIPA. You can
also configure the TCP/IP information for a computer manually.
■
Use the Ping, Tracert, and Pathping commands to test TCP/IP connectivity. Use the Ipconfig /all command to show detailed information
about the TCP/IP configuration of a computer—including the IP
address, subnet mask, default gateway, DNS servers, and DHCP information about every network connection on a system.
■
Internet Connection Firewall is a software-based firewall built in to
Windows XP. You can enable ICF for any network connection, and
configure what types of traffic it allows to enter or leave the computer.
■
Remote Assistance enables users to request support from a more
advanced user or from computer support personnel. With Remote
Assistance, the user providing support can connect to the troubled
user’s desktop, view what is happening remotely, and take control of
the system to resolve a problem if necessary. Remote Desktop enables
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users to remotely access their computers across the network and use
the desktop as if they were sitting in front of the computer. Remote
Assistance and Remote Desktop are features of Windows XP Professional Edition.
REVIEW QUESTIONS
1. List the required and optional parameters that you can assign to a host
on a TCP/IP network.
2. List the three primary address classes used for assigning IP addresses
to hosts on the Internet and the corresponding range of IP addresses
available in each class.
3. Which of the following default subnet masks would be used on a computer connected to the Internet with the IP address 157.54.4.201?
a. 255.0.0.0
b. 255.255.0.0
c. 255.255.255.0
d. 255.255.255.255
4. You are troubleshooting a networking problem for a user. Although the
user had no problem connecting to the network when she left the
office yesterday afternoon, she cannot connect to the network this
morning. You know that other users on the network are not having the
same problems. What is the first thing you should check?
5. A user complains to you that he cannot connect to any network
resources after he installed a new networking card. You open the Command Prompt window on the user’s computer and type ipconfig/all.
You get the following results:
Ethernet adapter Local Area Connection:
Connection-specific DNS Suffix
Description . . . . . . . . . . . . : Intel(R) PRO/1000 CT
Physical Address . . . . . . . . : 0B-01-C4-32-E1-2C
DHCP Enabled . . . . . . . . . : Yes
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IP Address . . . . . . . . . . . . . : 169.254.023.102
Subnet Mask . . . . . . . . . . . : 255.255.0.0
Default Gateway . . . . . . . . :
DNS Servers . . . . . . . . . . . . :
What do these results tell you? (Choose all that apply.)
a. The computer is configured to connect to a DHCP server
b. The computer is not configured to connect to a DHCP server.
c. The computer is successfully connecting to a DHCP server.
d. The computer is not successfully connecting to a DHCP server.
6. You are troubleshooting a network connectivity problem on a user’s
computer. At the command prompt, you type the Ipconfig/all command and receive the following results:
❑
IP Address . . . . . . . . . . . . . 192.168.0.5
❑
Subnet Mask . . . . . . . . . . . 255.255.255.255
❑
Default Gateway . . . . . . . . 192.168.0.7
Which of these values is most likely configured incorrectly?
7. Which of the following ICMP options allows the host computer to
respond to ping commands issued by another computer on the Internet?
a. Allow Incoming Router Request
b. Allow Incoming Echo Request
c. Allow Outgoing Source Quench
d. Allow Redirect
8. One of your users has a home computer running Windows XP Professional Edition and has a dedicated Internet connection. The customer
has ICF configured on the computer. The user installed Web server
software on the computer so that she can host her own Web site. However, users from the Internet cannot view the Web site. What should
the customer do?
a. On the Services tab of the ICF’s Advanced Settings dialog box,
select the Web Server (HTTP) check box.
b. On the Services tab of the ICF’s Advanced Settings dialog box,
define a custom service.
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c. On the ICMP tab of the ICF’s Advanced Settings dialog box, select
the Web Server (HTTP) check box.
d. The customer must disable ICF to allow access to the Web site.
9. A user calls you to ask for help configuring a hardware driver, but he is
having trouble following the instructions that you give him over the
telephone. You decide that it is easier to show the user how to perform
the configuration by taking control of his desktop. What tool is better
suited to this task?
10. What are the requirements for running Remote Desktop?
CASE SCENARIOS
Scenario 10-1: Configuring Remote Desktop
A user calls to tell you that he has tried to configure Remote Desktop so that he
can use his home computer running Windows XP Home Edition to connect over
the Internet to his office computer running Windows XP Professional Edition.
The user enabled Remote Desktop on the office computer, which is one of 12
computers on a small network. He then successfully established a Remote Desktop connection from one of the other computers on the office network. However,
when the user tries to connect from his home computer, he receives an error message stating that he cannot connect to the computer and that the problem is most
likely a networking error. What should you suspect?
Scenario 10-2: Troubleshooting Network Connectivity
A user on a small office workgroup has returned from a weeklong vacation. She
starts her computer, and everything seems to be functional. As the day progresses,
she accesses data from a workgroup file server and prints to a network printer. Later,
she tries to access another workgroup resource, a printer that is attached to a user’s
computer in the office upstairs, but she receives an error saying that the printer cannot be found. She reports that the network cable is connected and that she can
access other resources on the network. What is the first thing you should do?
1. Check the status of the network router.
2. Check the status of the computer upstairs.
3. Ping the computer’s loopback address.
4. Use the Tracert command at a command prompt to view the route and
possible packet losses.
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EXPLORER IN WINDOWS XP
Upon completion of this chapter, you will be able to:
■ Configure Internet Explorer general settings
■ Configure Internet Explorer security settings
■ Configure Internet Explorer privacy settings
■ Identify and resolve common user requests involving Internet Explorer
■ Resolve problems viewing Web pages
As a desktop support technician (DST), you will be asked to resolve a wide range
of service calls regarding Microsoft Internet Explorer, including configuring Internet Explorer to connect to the Internet, setting security and privacy options, and
performing troubleshooting tasks. These calls generally have to do with a user’s
inability to view Web pages or problems with the speed at which Web pages are
loaded, but the requests can also be about performing maintenance tasks such as
deleting temporary files or asking for advice on dealing with cookies.
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CONFIGURING INTERNET EXPLORER
Internet Explorer is the Web browser provided with Windows XP. Internet
Explorer provides access to local and Internet resources using many protocols,
such as Hypertext Transfer Protocol (HTTP) and File Transfer Protocol (FTP).
As a DST, you will be called on to help users personalize and maintain Internet
Explorer.
Configuring General Settings
You will perform the vast majority of configuration in Internet Explorer by using the
Internet Options dialog box. You can access this dialog box in the following ways:
■
Right-click the Internet Explorer icon in the Start menu or on the desktop and then select Internet Properties.
■
In Internet Explorer, from the Tools menu, select Internet Options.
■
In Control Panel, select Network And Internet Connections, and then
select Internet Options.
The General tab of the Internet Options dialog box, shown in Figure 11-1, allows
you to configure the following:
■
The home page that Internet Explorer opens when you start the program
■
How Internet Explorer stores temporary files during browsing sessions
■
How long Internet Explorer tracks the history of Web pages you have
visited
■
The general appearance of Internet Explorer and Web pages
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Figure 11-1
log box
Configuring basic settings on the General tab of the Internet Options dia-
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Configuring the Home Page
A home page is the Web site that opens automatically when you start Internet
Explorer. You can customize the home page in the following ways:
■
Type an address You can type any URL in the Address box to use
that URL as the home page.
■
Use Current This option sets the home page to the page that Internet Explorer is currently displaying. This option is available only if
Internet Explorer is open.
■
Use Default This option sets the home page to http://www.msn.com.
Note, however, that on some computers, the computer manufacturer
might have changed the default home page to another URL.
■
Use Blank This option configures Internet Explorer not to display a
home page at all. This is useful if you connect to the Internet with a
slow dial-up link and do not want to wait for the home page to download each time you connect.
Managing Temporary Internet Files
Internet Explorer automatically stores (or caches) copies of Web pages that you
access to a folder on the local hard disk. These copies are called temporary Internet files. The next time you access the same page, Internet Explorer can load the
page from the local cache rather than having to connect to the Web server and
download it again. This increases performance and decreases Internet traffic.
However, problems occur when the Temporary Internet pages cache is full.
Resolving these problems is as simple as deleting the files in the Temporary Internet Files folder. Unfortunately, recognizing problems caused by a full Temporary
Internet Files folder can be difficult. Here are some common warning signs of a
full Temporary Internet Files folder:
■
An end user reports that she cannot use the Save Picture As command
to save a graphics file to her hard disk as a JPEG or GIF, but the file can
be saved as a BMP file. The file name might also appear as Untitled.
■
An end user reports problems viewing History files by date, or no data
appears.
■
An end user reports that when he selects Source on the View menu to
view the source for a Web page, the source code does not appear as
expected.
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■
An end user reports that when she visits the Windows Update Product
Catalog Web site, she receives the message Cannot Display Page. (This
happens because the user has an earlier version of the site control in
her browser cache, and the cache is full.)
■
An end user reports that he gets unrecoverable errors (faults) when
using Internet Explorer.
Although these problems can occur for other reasons, deleting the files in the
Temporary Internet Files folder often solves the problem.You can delete temporary Internet files by clicking the Delete Files button on the General tab of the
Internet Options dialog box. You can also use the Disk Cleanup utility (discussed
in Chapter 8, “Supporting Storage Devices in Windows XP”) to delete temporary
Internet files.
You can also customize the way that Internet Explorer stores and uses temporary
Internet files. On the General tab of the Internet Options dialog box, click the Settings button. This action opens the Settings dialog box shown in Figure 11-2. You
have four ways to control when Internet Explorer checks for newer versions of
the pages that are stored in its local cache. These four options are as follows:
■
Every Visit To The Page This option causes Internet Explorer to
connect to the Web site and check whether the page has been updated
each time you access the page. If a newer page than the one stored in
the local cache is available, Internet Explorer downloads the new page
from the Web site and places it in the cache. If the page has not been
updated, Internet Explorer loads the page from the local cache instead.
■
Every Time You Start Internet Explorer This option causes Internet Explorer to connect to the Web site and check whether the page
has been updated only the first time you access the page in any given
Internet Explorer session. Subsequent accesses to the page in the same
session are always loaded from the cache.
■
Automatically This option is similar to the Every Time You Start
Internet Explorer option, except that Internet Explorer monitors how
often pages change. If Internet Explorer determines that a page does
not change very often, it checks for updates less frequently than once
per session.
■
Never This option causes Internet Explorer to never check for
updated versions of the page unless you manually refresh the page.
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Figure 11-2 Configuring temporary Internet Files settings
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The Settings dialog box also allows you to control the amount of disk space that
temporary Internet files can consume on a hard disk and the folder that Internet
Explorer uses to store the files. You should consider moving the temporary Internet files to another location only if the drive on which they are currently stored
runs low on disk space. To view the contents of the folder, click View Files; to
view downloaded program files, click View Objects.
Managing Internet Explorer History
Internet Explorer automatically stores a list of links to pages that you have
recently visited in a folder named History. You can access the recent history by
clicking the History button on the Internet Explorer toolbar.
The History section of the General tab of the Internet Options dialog box allows
you to manage how long Internet Explorer stores recent links. Use the Days To
Keep Pages In History option to specify the number of days the history is maintained. The default value is 20 days. Setting this value to 0 disables the History
feature. Use the Clear History button to clear the current history list.
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Controlling Internet Explorer’s Appearance
The remaining options on the General tab of the Internet Options dialog box
allow you to alter the appearance of Internet Explorer and the Web pages it displays. Available options are as follows:
■
Colors Allows you to manipulate the colors Internet Explorer uses
on Web pages for text, background, and hyperlinks.
■
Fonts Allows you to specify the font Internet Explorer uses to display
text on Web pages that do not specify a particular font.
■
Languages Allows you to control which language is used to display
content if a site offers more than one language.
■
Accessibility Allows you to control additional settings about how
Internet Explorer displays colors and fonts. In particular, you can have
Internet Explorer ignore settings that are specified by Web pages and
use settings you configured. This feature is useful for users who have
configured accessibility options.
Configuring Content Settings
The Content tab of the Internet Options dialog box, shown in Figure 11-3, provides controls for managing Content Advisor, certificates, and the storage of personal information.
Figure 11-3 Using the Content tab to control Content Advisor, certificates, and perFT11su03
sonal information
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Using Content Advisor
Content Advisor controls the display of Web sites based on rating levels defined
by the Recreational Software Advisory Council on the Internet (RSACi). The
most common use for Content Advisor is on a home computer on which parents
want to control the Web sites that their children can view. Use Content Advisor to
configure the following:
■
A supervisor password, which prevents unauthorized users from
changing Content Advisor settings.
■
Rating levels for language, nudity, sex, and violence. Users must type in
the supervisor password to access sites that exceed the configured rating levels.
■
Specific sites that Internet Explorer can display regardless of whether
the site is rated or not.
■
Specific sites that Internet Explorer cannot display, regardless of the
rating level, unless the user enters the supervisor password.
Web content providers employ the RSACi and other content rating systems voluntarily. Many sites that contain potentially objectionable content are not rated.
Content Advisor provides a method to block all unrated sites, and the approved
sites list can then be used to provide access to unrated sites deemed appropriate
by the supervisor.
Managing Certificates
The Certificates section of the Content tab provides a method of managing the
security certificates that are used to establish secure, encrypted connections
using the Secure Sockets Layer (SSL) protocol. Certificates contain the information required to establish a secure connection, such as identification information
and encryption keys. Generally, a certificate is required only on the server; however, for some applications, such as secure e-mail, a personal certificate is also
required on the client.
Clicking the Certificates button allows you to add and remove personal certificates and to configure what types of server certificates are acceptable. If a server
requests a secure connection, but Internet Explorer does not recognize the
server’s certificate as acceptable, the user receives a warning message and can
either allow the connection to continue or terminate the connection before any
personal data is transmitted to the server.
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When a secure connection is established with a server through Internet Explorer,
a lock icon appears in the status bar (lower-right corner of the window) and the
protocol in the address bar might be listed as HTTPS (HTTP Secure) instead of
HTTP. In some circumstances, a secure connection is established, but the protocol remains HTTP because the secure link is being established through a secondary connection, and the address bar is not updated. However, the lock icon
always appears when a secure connection has been established.
Personal Information Management
The Personal Information section of the Content tab allows you to configure the
following settings:
■
AutoComplete AutoComplete automatically lists possible matches
for Web addresses and form entries as the user types the information.
■
My Profile Click My Profile to open Profile Assistant. Profile Assistant stores personal information, which can then be sent automatically
to a Web site when the Web site requests the information. Profile Assistant saves the information in a secure location on the client’s computer
and prompts the user to send the information if the Web site supports
this technology. The user can accept or deny this service each time she
encounters it. Profile Assistant saves time for the user because she does
not have to enter the same information each time she visits a new Web
site, and it allows her to determine when and for what sites to use the service. As a DST, you might get requests from users who want an easier way
to enter personal information than by keying it in each time.
Configuring Connection Settings
The Connections tab of the Internet Options dialog box, shown in Figure 11-4,
allows you to control how Internet Explorer connects to the Internet. If the computer uses a dial-up or virtual private network (VPN) connection to connect to the
Internet, those connections are shown in the Dial-Up And Virtual Private Network
Settings section. Click Add to start the New Connection Wizard, which you use to
configure networking connections (and which you learn more about in Chapter
10, “Supporting Network Connectivity”). When you select one of the displayed
connections, you can configure the following options for that connection:
■
Never Dial A Connection Requires that you manually establish a
connection before opening Internet Explorer.
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■
Dial Whenever A Network Connection Is Not Present Causes
Internet Explorer to use the current default connection if it detects that
there is no existing connection to the Internet.
■
Always Dial My Default Connection Causes Internet Explorer to
always dial the current default connection.
Figure 11-4 Configuring the way Internet Explorer connects to the Internet
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To configure the default connection, select a connection from the list and click Set
Default.
You can also use the Connections tab to configure proxy server settings. A proxy
server is a centralized network device that provides Internet access to the client
computers on the network. Proxy servers are used to centralize Internet connection settings, increase security by controlling which resources a client can access,
and speed up Internet access by caching Web pages to the server. After you configure Internet Explorer to use a proxy server, Internet Explorer requests Internet
content from the proxy server, which in turn connects to the actual Internet
resource on the client’s behalf, retrieves the information, and forwards it to the
client.
To configure Internet Explorer to use a proxy server for dial-up and VPN connections, select the connection and then click Settings. To configure Internet
Explorer to use a proxy server for local area network (LAN) connections, click
LAN Settings.
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Figure 11-5 shows the available proxy server configuration options, which are as
follows:
■
Automatically Detect Settings Allows the client to automatically
receive proxy server configuration from a properly configured
Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol (DHCP) or Domain Name System (DNS) server.
■
User Automatic Configuration Script Specifies the path to a configuration script containing proxy server information.
■
Use A Proxy Server For This Connection Allows you to enter the
address of the proxy server and the port that Internet Explorer should
use to connect to the proxy server.
■
Bypass Proxy Server For Local Addresses Allows the client to connect directly to an address on the local network (such as an internal
company Web server) instead of connecting to the proxy server.
Figure 11-5 Configuring proxy server settings
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Configuring Program Settings
The Programs tab of the Internet Options dialog box, shown in Figure 11-6,
allows you to configure the programs that are associated with particular services.
For example, if a user is browsing a Web site and selects an e-mail address link,
Internet Explorer must lauch the appropriate e-mail program. Other configurable
services include the HTML editor, the newsgroup client, the program to be used
to establish a call across the Internet, and the programs to access the user’s calendar and contact list.
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Figure 11-6 Configuring programs associated with certain services
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At the bottom of the Programs tab, you find an option named Internet Explorer
Should Check To See Whether It Is The Default Browser. When you enable this
option, Internet Explorer checks to see whether it is configured as the default
browser each time you open the program.
Configuring Advanced Settings
The Advanced tab of the Internet Options dialog box, shown in Figure 11-7,
allows you to configure a variety of Internet Explorer settings. The exact options
that are available on this tab vary, depending on whether additional components
have been installed. You can right-click any particular setting and select What’s
This? to see a description of the setting.
Figure 11-7 Configuring advanced settings on the Internet Options dialog box
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Advanced settings are divided into categories such as Accessibility, Browsing,
Multimedia, and Security. Following are some of the important advanced settings
you should be aware of as a DST:
■
Browsing: Enable Personalized Favorites Menu When this
option is enabled, favorites that you have not recently accessed are hidden from view and are accessible by clicking the down arrow at the bottom of the Favorites menu.
■
Browsing: Enable Third-Party Browser Extensions (Requires
Restart) Clearing this option disables non-Microsoft browser extensions, which can be useful when troubleshooting problems with Internet Explorer. Often, browser extensions can cause Internet Explorer to
crash or have problems displaying Web pages.
■
Browsing: Enable Visual Styles On Buttons And Controls In Web
Pages When this option is enabled, button and control styles in
Internet Explorer match those set in Display properties.
■
Browsing: Notify When Downloads Complete Enabling this
option causes Internet Explorer to display a message at the end of a file
download indicating that the download is complete.
■
Browsing: Show Friendly HTTP Error Messages Web servers
send error messages to browsers when problems occur. When this
option is enabled, Internet Explorer will display a detailed message
outlining potential solutions for the problem. When this option is disabled, Internet Explorer shows only the error number and name of the
error.
■
Browsing: Underline Links This option controls the way Internet
Explorer displays hyperlinks. Available options are Always (links are
always underlined), Hover (links are underlined when the cursor is
moved over them), or Never (links are never underlined).
■
Browsing: Use Inline Autocomplete When this option is enabled,
Internet Explorer completes what you are typing in the address bar
based on previous entries.
■
Multimedia: Enable Automatic Image Resizing When this option
is enabled, Internet Explorer automatically resizes large images so that
they fit in the browser window.
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■
Multimedia: Play Animations In Web Pages Enabling this option
allows Internet Explorer to display animated pictures. These animations are often slow to load and distracting. Consider clearing this
option for smoother access.
■
Multimedia: Show Image Download Placeholders When this
option is enabled, Internet Explorer draws placeholders for images
while they are downloading. This process allows the items on the page
to be properly positioned before images are fully downloaded.
■
Multimedia: Show Pictures When this option is enabled, Internet
Explorer shows pictures normally. For users with slow connections,
images can take a long time to download, so you can increase perceived
performance by clearing this option.
■
Printing: Print Background Colors And Images When this
option is selected, background colors and images will be printed,
which can slow down printing and affect the quality of printing
(depending on the printer’s capabilities).
■
Security: Empty Temporary Internet Files Folder When Browser
Is Closed Enabling this option causes Internet Explorer to delete
temporary Internet files when you close Internet Explorer.
■
Security: Warn If Changing Between Secure And Not Secure
Mode When enabled, Internet Explorer will warn the user when
switching from a secure site to a nonsecure site. This warning can prevent the user from accidentally providing personal information across
a nonsecure connection.
■
Security: Warn If Forms Submittal Is Being Redirected Enabling
this option causes Internet Explorer to warn the user if information
entered into a form is being redirected to a Web site other than the one
that is being viewed.
Configuring Security Settings
As a DST, you should be able to help users configure Internet Explorer security
settings that control what types of content Internet Explorer can download and
use—content such as ActiveX controls, files, and fonts. Internet Explorer contains
many settings designed to protect the computer and the user from security hazards when browsing the Internet. Knowing the available configuration options
gives you a greater understanding of potential threats and of the methods you can
use to help protect users against them.
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The Security tab of the Internet Options dialog box, shown in Figure 11-8, provides a method of controlling security based on security zones. Security zones
contain a list of Web sites deemed to have similar security settings requirements.
You’ll be asked to resolve problems that have to do with zone configurations;
these problems will mainly be related to the inability to view or access something
or to comply with company security directives. To resolve these types of issues,
you’ll need an understanding of the default settings for each zone.
Figure 11-8 Configuring security zones in Internet Explorer
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The four zones provided are as follows:
■
Internet
zones.
■
Local Intranet Contains all Web sites that are on the local network.
By default, this zone includes all sites that bypass the proxy server (if a
proxy server is being used) and all local network paths. You can add
sites to this zone by selecting the zone and clicking Sites.
■
Trusted Sites Contains Web sites that are believed to be safe. There
are no sites in this zone by default. You can add sites to this zone as you
see fit by selecting the zone and clicking Sites.
■
Restricted Sites Contains Web sites that could potentially be harmful. There are no sites in this zone by default. You can add sites to this
zone as you see fit by selecting the zone and clicking Sites.
Contains all Web sites that you have not placed in other
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Service calls involving security zones can have to do with an end user’s need to
have more (or less) access to Web content than she currently has or to place a
Web site in a specific zone and use that zone’s default security settings. You might
also receive calls to configure users’ computers to comply with a company security policy requirement to enable or disable a specific security setting.
Although it is generally a good idea to leave each security zone set to its defaults,
you can customize the security level for each site if the default settings are not
adequate for a user. For example, some users might enjoy a more secure environment, but they would prefer that Internet Explorer give them the option of blocking content rather than blocking the content automatically. Customize the
security level of a site by selecting the site and clicking Default Level; then drag
the slider that appears to the desired security level.
The security levels that you can configure are as follows:
■
■
■
■
High, which is appropriate for sites that might have harmful content.
❑
Less-secure features are disabled.
❑
This is the safest way to browse, but functionality is potentially lost.
Medium, which is appropriate for most Internet sites.
❑
Prompts the user before downloading potentially unsafe content.
❑
Unsigned ActiveX controls are not downloaded.
Medium-Low, which is appropriate for local sites.
❑
Most content is run without prompts.
❑
Unsigned ActiveX controls are not downloaded.
Low, which is appropriate for sites that are trusted.
❑
Minimal safeguards and warning prompts are provided.
❑
Most content is downloaded and runs without prompts.
❑
All ActiveX content can run.
Default security levels for each zone are as follows:
■
The Internet zone has a Medium security level.
■
The Local Intranet zone has a Medium security level.
■
The Trusted Sites zone has a Low security level.
■
The Restricted Sites zone has a High security level.
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Custom Security Levels
You can modify each security level to suit the particular needs of the user or organization by selecting the security level that is closest to what you want to configure and then clicking Custom Level. The Security Settings window is displayed,
as shown in Figure 11-9. You can right-click any security setting and select the
What’s This? command to get information about that setting.
Figure 11-9 Configuring a custom security level
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Configuring Privacy Settings
The Privacy tab of the Internet Options dialog box allows you to control how
Internet Explorer handles cookies. A cookie is a small text file stored on your
computer by a Web site. Web sites use cookies to store user preferences for personalized sites, and cookies often contain personal information used to identify
the user to the Web site.
Although most cookies are legitimate, some are not. Unsatisfactory cookies are
those that are used to provide personally identifiable information for a secondary
purpose, such as selling your e-mail address to third-party vendors or sharing
your name and address with other companies. Because there are unsatisfactory
cookies, it is important to understand the different types of cookies, how to delete
cookies, and how to change privacy settings to prevent different types of cookies
from being saved to the computer. Your company might require that changes be
made to the default settings for cookies, too, so you need to know how to make
changes if asked.
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Cookies can be either persistent (which means they remain after Internet
Explorer is closed and can be reused) or temporary (which means they are
deleted when Internet Explorer is closed). Also, there are first-party and thirdparty cookies. First-party cookies originate from the Web site that you are currently viewing. Third-party cookies originate from a site different from the one
that you are currently viewing but are somehow related to the current Web site.
For example, many sites use advertising from third-party sites, and those sites
commonly use cookies to track your Web site usage for advertising purposes.
Cookies and Personal Information Cookies can also store personally identifiable information such as a name, e-mail address, telephone
number, or even a person’s marital status. However, Web sites gain this
information only by asking for it outright. Make sure that users know
that cookies cannot obtain any personally identifiable information from
them unless they specifically provide it.
NOTE
Figure 11-10 shows the Privacy settings for Internet Explorer. You can configure
the following settings to manage cookies:
■
Block All Cookies Blocks new cookies from being created and prevents access to existing cookies. If per-site privacy settings are configured, they do not override this setting.
■
High Blocks all cookies that use personal information without the
user’s explicit consent. If per-site privacy settings are configured, they
override this setting.
■
Medium High Blocks all third-party cookies that do not have a compact privacy policy or that use personal information without the user’s
explicit consent, as well as all first-party cookies that use personal
information without implicit consent. If per-site privacy settings are
configured, they override this setting.
■
Medium Blocks all third-party cookies that do not have a compact
privacy policy or that use personal information without the user’s
explicit consent. First-party cookies that use personal information
without implicit consent are allowed, but they are deleted when the
browser is closed. Access to first-party cookies is restricted to first-party
context if the cookie does not have a compact privacy policy. If per-site
privacy settings are configured, they override this setting.
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■
Low Permits Web sites to store all cookies on the computer. When
the browser is closed, third-party cookies are deleted. Access to firstparty cookies is restricted to first-party context if the cookie does not
have a compact privacy policy. If per-site privacy settings are configured, they override this setting.
■
Accept All Cookies Enables all Web sites to store and access cookies
on the computer. If per-site privacy settings are configured, they do not
override this setting.
Figure 11-10 Configuring privacy settings in Internet Explorer
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Some Web Sites Require Cookies to Function Properly If you
select a privacy level that does not allow cookies, you might not be able to
view certain Web sites.
NOTE
You can configure per-site privacy settings by clicking the Edit button in the Web
Sites section of the Privacy tab. Per-site settings override the way that cookies are
handled for specific Web sites.
TROUBLESHOOTING INTERNET EXPLORER PROBLEMS
DSTs are often called on to troubleshoot problems with Internet Explorer, and
these service calls generally consist of two types. They are user requests to make
Internet Explorer work faster and smarter, look better, have more functionality, or
resolve simple interface issues; the calls might also be user requests to resolve
problems that have to do with the inability to view Web pages properly.
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Resolving Common User Requests
End users will have various requests that involve how Internet Explorer looks
and performs, and they will ask you to resolve problems with the interface. You
can resolve many of these problems by customizing the Standard toolbar, changing what is selected in the View menu, or personalizing the Advanced settings in
the Internet Options dialog box.
Learn About Connectivity Issues This section assumes that
Internet Explorer is connected to the Internet properly. Chapter 10
focuses on network connectivity.
NOTE
Missing Toolbar, Links Bar, or Status Bar
A common complaint from end users is that an Internet Explorer toolbar is missing, or a toolbar that they used to have is not available anymore. The toolbars that
you can configure include the Standard toolbar, the Address bar, and the Links
bar. Users might also complain that they cannot see the information at the bottom of the screen that shows which security zone they are in, denoting a missing
Status bar. You can add and remove these toolbars by using the View menu; you
can customize the placement of the Standard toolbar, Address bar, and Links bar
by dragging and dropping.
To show or hide any of the toolbars, follow these steps:
1. Open Internet Explorer and, from the View menu, point to Toolbars.
2. The Toolbars list contains Standard Buttons, Address Bar, Links, Lock
The Toolbars, and Customize selection. Toolbar options that have a
check mark are showing; toolbars without a check mark do not show.
To select or clear a toolbar, select it from the list. Figure 11-11 shows an
example of all three toolbars. In this example, the Links bar is incorporated into the Address bar.
Menu Bar
Standard Toolbar
Links Bar
Address Bar
Figure 11-11 Customizing Internet Explorer toolbars to suit any user’s needs
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To customize the placement of the Standard toolbar, Address bar, or Links bar,
follow these steps:
1. In Internet Explorer, make sure that the toolbars are unlocked by
going to the View menu, pointing at Toolbars, and ensuring that the
Lock The Toolbars command does not have a check mark next to it. If
it does, choose the command to toggle it off.
2. Position the pointer at the far left of the toolbar you want to move.
3. Click and hold the mouse button; the pointer will change to a fourheaded arrow.
4. Drag the toolbar to a new position to combine it with an existing toolbar or to move its position on the screen.
5. Position the pointer on the light dotted lines that separate combined
toolbars until the pointer becomes a two-headed arrow. Drag to resize
the toolbar.
Internet Explorer Toolbars Only at the Top The Standard toolbar, Address bar, and Link bar must remain at the top of the Internet
Explorer window. You cannot move them to the left, right, or bottom of
the screen (as you can the Windows taskbar).
NOTE
Locked Toolbar
If a user complains that the toolbar is locked and cannot be moved, click View,
point to Toolbars, and clear the Lock The Toolbars command.
Personalizing the Favorites Menu
When users call to report that they cannot access all their favorites or that they
have saved favorites but they are not listed in the Favorites list, it is most likely
because the Enabled Personalized Favorites Menu option is selected in the
Advanced options of Internet Explorer. Personalized menus keep the Favorites list
clean by hiding links that are not used very often. The list shows only the links
that are accessed frequently. Tell the users that they can access the less-frequently
accessed links by clicking the down arrow at the end of the Favorites list.
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Enabling personalized favorites menus
To disable or enable personalized favorites menus, follow these steps:
1. Open Internet Explorer and, from the Tools menu, select Internet
Options.
2. On the Advanced tab, scroll down to the Browsing section and select
or clear the Enable Personalized Favorites Menu check box. Click OK.
Restart Internet Explorer Applying the change to personalized
favorites might require that you close and restart Internet Explorer.
NOTE
Importing and Exporting Internet Favorites
If you use Internet Explorer on multiple computers, you can easily share favorite
items among computers by exporting them on one computer and then importing
them on another. Exporting favorites is also a good way to back them up, share
them with a friend, or even create a single Web page with links to all your favorites.
Exporting Internet Favorites
To export Internet Favorites to an .htm file, follow these steps:
1. On the File menu of Internet Explorer, select Import And Export.
2. On the Welcome page of the Import/Export Wizard, click Next.
3. Select the Export Favorites option, and click Next.
4. You can specify the primary Favorites folder or any particular subfolder
for your export. When you select a folder for export, all subfolders in
that folder are also exported. Select the folder you want to export, and
click Next.
5. Click Browse, select a location and name for the export file, and click
Save. Click Next and then click Finish.
6. Internet Explorer informs you that the export is successful. Click OK.
The exported file is saved as a Web page. Double-click it to open it in Internet
Explorer, and you see a list of all your favorites—complete with hyperlinks. You
can transfer this file to another computer and import it, back it up to a safe place,
or even use it as a Web page.
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Importing Internet Favorites
To import Internet Favorites from an .htm file, follow these steps:
1. On the File menu of Internet Explorer, select Import And Export.
2. On the Welcome page of the Import/Export Wizard, click Next.
3. Select the Import Favorites option, and click Next.
4. Click Browse, locate and select the .htm file you want to import, and
then click Save.
5. Click Next and then select a folder in which the imported favorites will
be placed. Click Next and then click Finish.
6. Internet Explorer informs you that the import is successful. Click OK.
Using AutoComplete
AutoComplete is a feature that helps end users work, browse, and purchase items
on the Internet faster than normal by automatically listing possible matches for
Web addresses, forms, and user names and passwords on forms. Although this
can be a good feature for a computer administrator who does not share a computer, for the average home user or the owner of a small, home-based business, it
is not a good idea under all circumstances.
You should not use AutoComplete when the computer is
located in a nonsecure environment, such as a break room, lunchroom, or
kiosk or when two or more people share a computer and computer
account. In addition, when a computer is transferred to a new user or
sold to another person, the AutoComplete form and password information should be cleared.
CAUTION
Enabling or disabling AutoComplete
As a DST, you will be asked to enable or disable AutoComplete (depending on the
circumstance), enable or disable Internet Explorer’s capability to save passwords,
and clear the AutoComplete history. To do these tasks, follow these steps:
1. Open Internet Explorer, and from the Tools menu, select Internet
Options.
2. On the Content tab, and in the Personal Information area, select AutoComplete.
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3. To enable or disable AutoComplete, in the AutoComplete Settings dialog box, select or clear the Use AutoComplete check boxes for Web
Addresses, Forms, and User Names And Passwords On Forms.
4. To clear the AutoComplete history for forms, click Clear Forms.
5. To clear the AutoComplete history for passwords, click Clear Passwords.
6. To remove the capability of Internet Explorer to save any passwords in
the future, clear the Prompt Me To Save Passwords check box.
7. Click OK to close the AutoComplete Settings dialog box, and click OK
to close the Internet Options dialog box.
Using Inline AutoComplete
Inline AutoComplete completes entries in the Address bar as you type (based on
entries you have used before) and offers a list of choices under the Address bar for
other links that start the same way.
Enabling InlineAutoComplete
You can enable Inline AutoComplete using the Advanced options of Internet
Explorer by following these steps:
1. Open Internet Explorer and, from the Tools menu, select Internet
Options.
2. From the Advanced tab, scroll down to the end of the Browsing section.
3. Select the Use Inline AutoComplete check box. Click OK.
Using Default Search Actions
Users can perform searches in many ways, including using the Search Explorer
bar, using a Web browser or search engine, or typing their requests in the Address
bar. If a user’s choice is to search for information using the Address bar, there are
several ways in which the results of that search can be shown. In addition, searching from the Address bar can be disabled. Following are the advanced choices for
searching from the Address bar:
■
Display Results, And Go To The Most Likely Site
■
Do Not Search From The Address Bar
■
Just Display The Results In The Main Window
■
Just Go To The Most Likely Site
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Changing default actions
The default search action is to go to the most likely site. To change that default,
follow these steps:
1. Open Internet Explorer and, from the Tools menu, select Internet
Options.
2. Click the Advanced tab, and scroll down to Search From The Address
Bar.
3. In the When Searching list, select the appropriate choice and then click
OK.
Script Errors
Users might report that script error notifications appear on their monitors while
surfing Web sites, and they might also complain that they are continually asked if
they want to debug those errors. You might also have users with the opposite
problem; a developer or technician might need to see these errors when testing a
new Web site. Whatever the case, script options exist in the Advanced options of
Internet Explorer, and they can be easily enabled or disabled.
Enabling and disabling script debugging
To enable or disable script debugging, or if a user should be notified of all script
errors, follow these steps:
1. Open Internet Explorer and, from the Tools menu, select Internet
Options.
2. On the Advanced tab, in the Browsing section, select or clear the following check boxes and then click OK: Disable Script Debugging and
Display A Notification About Every Script Error.
3. Click OK to close the Internet Options dialog box.
Download Complete Notification
By default, Internet Explorer notifies users when a download is complete by leaving the download dialog box open and playing a sound. It is possible, however,
that a user has turned the notification off (by means of a check box on the download dialog box that makes this easy to do), and he now wants to turn the feature
back on.
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Enabling download notification
To enable download complete notification, follow these steps:
1. Open Internet Explorer and, from the Tools menu, select Internet
Options.
2. From the Advanced tab, and in the Browsing section, select the Notify
When Downloads Complete check box.
3. Click OK to close the Internet Options dialog box.
As you learned in this section, you can resolve many problems by using the View
menu or the Internet Options dialog box. The Content tab, Programs tab, and
Advanced tab of the Internet Options dialog box allow you to change the program defaults and personalize Internet Explorer. The View menu enables personalization of the toolbars.
Resolving Problems with Viewing Web Pages
There are several reasons why users have trouble viewing Web pages properly,
and many times the problem is the result of changes to the defaults that the users
have made on their own. Problems can also occur because of default security settings. For example, a site is in the Restricted Sites zone, or the site requires cookies to be placed on the computer, but cookies are not allowed. Users might report
specific errors as well; they get internal page faults or they cannot hear sounds,
see videos, or view pictures. These are common problems, and solutions to them
are detailed in this section.
Screen Resolution
If a user reports problems viewing a single Web page, but other pages look fine,
check to see whether there is a note at the bottom of the page that says, “This page
is best viewed using 800 x 600 screen resolution” or something similar. If it is a
corporate Web site or one the user relies on heavily, the user might need to reconfigure his display settings permanently. Display settings are changed in Control
Panel. (See Chapter 7, “Supporting Display Devices, I/O Devices, and ACPI,” for
more information.)
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Cookie Handling
Many Web sites require that cookies be enabled on a user’s computer if the user
wants to visit and browse the site. A user cannot view Web sites that have this
requirement if the user’s privacy setting is configured to block all cookies, if the
privacy setting is High, or if the company has a strict cookie policy that blocks
first-party cookies or does not allow session cookies.
Allowing a user access to sites requires that the default privacy settings be
changed. Changing privacy settings is detailed in the “Configuring Internet
Explorer” section earlier in this chapter.
Sounds, Videos, and Pictures
Some of the Advanced options of Internet Explorer restrict what users can and
cannot see on a Web page. These settings are often configured to speed up access
to a page by not playing videos or showing pictures when the site is loaded, and
sound can be disabled as well. If a user reports problems that are associated with
sound, video, or pictures, check the advanced options first by following these
steps:
1. Open Internet Explorer and, from the Tools menu, select Internet
Options.
2. Click the Advanced tab, and scroll down to the Multimedia section.
3. Verify that the appropriate items are selected:
❑
Play Animations In Web Pages
❑
Play Sounds In Web Pages
❑
Play Videos In Web Pages
❑
Show Pictures
4. On the Advanced tab, verify that the Show Image Download Placeholders check box is cleared. Click OK.
Invalid Page Faults
A page fault is a normal process that occurs when a program requests data that
is not currently loaded into the computer’s real memory. When this occurs,
Windows attempts to retrieve the data from the virtual memory that is stored to
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hard disk. If the data cannot be mapped to virtual memory, the result is an
invalid page fault—and often a crashed application. Invalid page faults are often
difficult to diagnose. Connectivity settings; a full Temporary Internet Files
folder; and third-party Internet software including firewalls, file-sharing software, Internet optimizers, and on-screen animation programs can cause page
faults. Network protocols, cookies, corrupted favorites, services, and Internet
software installations can also cause invalid page faults.
Invalid page faults can be represented in Internet Explorer by several types of
errors, including the following:
■
An actual invalid page fault error.
■
Iexplore.exe has generated errors and must be shut down.
■
The page could not be displayed.
■
Internet Explorer could not open the search page.
■
An access violation occurred in MSHTML.DLL.
If specifics about the error are provided in the error message (as in the last item
on the previous list), see the Microsoft Knowledge Base and type in the exact
error message as the keywords for a search. Downloading and installing a particular update might solve this particular error. These are the easiest of all page
faults to solve. If no specifics are given, you will have to resolve the errors using
trial-and-error troubleshooting techniques.
Make Sure Users Have the Latest Versions Before you do too
much troubleshooting, verify that the user has the most recent version
of Internet Explorer and the latest service packs for both the operating
system and Internet Explorer. To check the version number and which service packs are installed, open Internet Explorer and, from the Help menu,
select About Internet Explorer.
NOTE
If you are at the user’s desk when the error occurs, use the Internet Explorer
Reporting tool to report the error, and then view the error details. If the error
report gives any indication of the cause of the error, disable the program or service associated with it. If that process does not work, and if the user has the most
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up-to-date service packs installed, continue troubleshooting in the following
order:
1. Verify that the proxy settings for the LAN, if they exist, are correctly
configured. You can locate these settings by clicking LAN Settings on
the Connections tab of the Internet Options dialog box.
2. Disable third-party browser extensions or other third-party downloaded components. Applications like these can often be disabled from
the system tray or from the application itself, and uninstalling the component from Control Panel is the best option if one of these programs
caused the page fault.
3. Delete all temporary Internet files. You can do this on the General tab
of the Internet Options dialog box.
4. Delete cookies. You can do so on the General tab of the Internet
Options dialog box.
5. Troubleshoot the Favorites folder. It is possible that corruption in the
Favorites folder or some of the files it holds is to blame. Try moving the
contents of the user’s Favorites folder to a temporary folder. If that
solves the problem, add the shortcuts back to the Favorites folder a few
at a time. If the problem recurs, it is usually easy to find the culprit.
6. Verify that the system has enough RAM and that the RAM is performing properly.
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SUMMARY
■
Internet Explorer is the Web browser provided with Windows XP. Internet Explorer provides access to local and Internet resources using
many protocols, such as Hypertext Transfer Protocol (HTTP) and File
Transfer Protocol (FTP).
■
Internet Explorer automatically stores (or caches) copies of Web pages
that you access to a folder on the local hard disk. The next time you
access the same page, Internet Explorer can load the page from the
local cache rather than having to connect to the Web server and download it again.You can control how much disk space this feature uses as
well as when Internet Explorer looks for updated pages.
■
Content Advisor controls the display of sites based on rating levels
defined by the Recreational Software Advisory Council on the Internet
(RSACi.) The most common use for Content Advisor is on a home
computer in which parents want to control what sites their children
can view.
■
You can use the various tabs in the Internet Options dialog box to control general Internet Explorer settings, security and privacy settings, the
way Internet Explorer connects to the Internet, which programs are
associated with specific resources, and a number of advanced settings.
■
Many interface requests that you receive can be resolved by customizing
the Standard toolbar, changing what is selected in the View menu, or
personalizing the Advanced settings in the Internet Options dialog box.
■
Many problems can cause problems viewing Web pages, including connectivity issues, security zone configuration, privacy settings, Internet
Explorer configuration, and even the graphics settings in Windows XP.
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REVIEW QUESTIONS
1. Match the type of cookie on the left with its description on the right.
1. Persistent
2. Temporary
3. First-party
4. Third-party
5. Session
a. These cookies are sent to a computer from the Web
site being viewed. They can be persistent or temporary, and are generally harmless.
b. These cookies are sent to a computer from a Web
site not currently being viewed. They generally come
from advertisers on the Web site being viewed for the
purpose of tracking Web page use for advertising and
marketing purposes. They can be persistent or temporary, and most third-party cookies are blocked by
default using the Medium privacy setting.
c. These cookies are stored on a computer during
only a single browsing session and are deleted when
Internet Explorer is closed. They are used by Web
sites to determine which client browser, language,
and screen resolution are used and they allow a user
to move back and forth among the Web pages at the
site without losing previously input information. If
these cookies are disabled, a user cannot access a site
that requires them.
d. A temporary cookie that is deleted from a computer when Internet Explorer is closed.
e. These cookies remain on a computer even when
Internet Explorer is closed, the user has disconnected from the Internet, or the computer has been
turned off. These cookies store information such as
logon name, password, e-mail address, color
schemes, purchasing history, and other preferences.
When a site is revisited, this information is available
and can be applied.
2. One of your customers enabled Content Advisor on her home computer to protect her child from questionable content on the Internet.
However, there are a number of sites with acceptable content that the
child cannot access. This is most likely because Content Advisor is not
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letting Internet Explorer display sites that have not been rated. Your
customer wants to let the child view the acceptable sites yet still maintain control of the sites the child visits. What is the best solution?
a. Disable Content Advisor, and instead set the Privacy setting in
Internet Explorer to High.
b. Configure Content Advisor so that users can see sites that have
no rating.
c. Enter the sites the child needs to access into Content Advisor’s
list of approved sites.
d. You cannot configure this using Content Advisor. The customer
should purchase a third-party filtering program.
3. A company has placed a computer in a break room so that users can
access the computer during their lunch and coffee breaks. How should
the computer be configured? (Choose all that apply.)
a. Disable AutoComplete.
b. Clear forms and clear passwords from the AutoComplete Settings
dialog box.
c. Disable Personalized Favorites.
d. Set Privacy settings to block all cookies.
e. Configure a custom level for the Internet zone to disable the
installation of desktop icons.
4. One of your users has recently upgraded his computer from Windows
98 to Windows XP Professional Edition. The computer is connected to
the Internet using a cable modem. The upgrade went fine, but he
notices that the Web pages that he sees in Internet Explorer do not
always seem to be up to date. What do you suspect is the problem?
a. The temporary Internet files folder is full.
b. The temporary Internet files settings are not configured to check
for newer versions of stored pages.
c. Internet Explorer is configured to use a dial-up connection
instead of a LAN connection.
d. The network adapter or cable modem is malfunctioning.
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CASE SCENARIOS
Scenario 11-1: Configuring Internet Explorer
A customer calls and tells you that she recently got a new broadband DSL connection to the Internet. When the service person came to hook it up, everything was
working fine, but whenever the customer opens Internet Explorer, Windows
attempts to dial into her old ISP using her standard modem. The customer does
not want to disable the standard modem or remove her dial-up network connection because she is not certain how reliable her new DSL connection will be. She
does want Internet Explorer to automatically use her new DSL connection when
she accesses the Internet. What should you tell this customer to do?
Scenario 11-2: Configuring Internet Explorer Security
A user reports that each time he accesses a particular Web site, he is inundated
with content he does not want to see. He thinks that this might have to do with
ActiveX, Java applets, or scripts running on the site. He reports that the site takes
a long time to load, too. He wants to visit this site and read only the data; he has
no interest in the other items on the site. You need to make this site available
without making any changes to the default settings for the Internet zone. What
should you do?
1. Add this site to the Local Intranet zone.
2. Add this site to the Trusted Sites zone.
3. Add this site to the Restricted Sites zone.
CHAPTER 12
MONITORING SYSTEM
PERFORMANCE IN
WINDOWS XP
Upon completion of this chapter, you will be able to:
■ Optimize Windows startup
■ Stop unnecessary background applications
■ Optimize hard drive performance
■ Turn off Fast User Switching
■ Disable visual effects to increase performance
■ Configure advanced performance options
■ Use Task Manager to view real-time performance data
■ Use the Performance console to capture and view performance data
As a desktop support technician (DST), one of your responsibilities is to help
users keep their computers running well and to troubleshoot performance problems when they occur. This chapter covers basic measures that you can take to
improve operating system performance. It also covers the two major tools that
Microsoft Windows XP provides for monitoring and troubleshooting performance: Task Manager and the Performance console.
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CONFIGURING WINDOWS XP FOR PERFORMANCE
As a DST, you should be able to configure the Windows XP operating system to
optimize performance. Windows XP provides a number of methods for increasing actual system performance and the perceived performance to the user.
Optimizing Windows Startup
After you first install Windows XP, the operating system begins to optimize system settings automatically to speed up subsequent startups. Similarly, Windows
XP optimizes program files so that applications launch more quickly as you use
them. For this reason, you should allow a sufficient number of restarts and
launches to let Windows perform these configurations before deciding whether
you need to optimize the performance of a computer.
Windows startup is fairly complicated (and you can learn the details about the
Windows startup process in Chapter 2, “Installing Windows XP”), but there are
many ways that you can optimize the process for a quicker startup time, such as
the following:
■
Check the basic input/output system (BIOS) settings for your computer to see whether there are unnecessary actions that you can eliminate from the startup process. For example, on many computers, you
can skip the memory check that occurs when you turn on your computer—a process that can take quite some time when you have a lot of
memory.
■
If a computer is configured with multiple operating systems, you can
reduce the amount of time that Windows displays the menu of operating system choices at startup. Configure this setting by opening Control Panel, selecting the Advanced tab, and then clicking Settings in the
Startup And Recovery section.
■
Remove any unnecessary applications that start automatically with
Windows. Preventing applications from starting with Windows is
covered in the next section, “Removing Unnecessary Background
Applications.”
■
When you remove a hardware device from your computer, make sure
that you also remove any drivers and software that were installed with
the device. You can learn more about working with hardware devices
in Chapter 6, “Installing and Managing Hardware.”
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Removing Unnecessary Background Applications
Many applications install software that runs in the background as you use
Windows. Normally, this software is a useful piece of the application, such as
the monitor that allows your antivirus software to check files for viruses during download. Often, this software is a program that you could easily live without. When this is the case, it is best to prevent the software from loading with
Windows so that the software does not consume system resources.
You can sometimes tell what background programs are running because the programs are represented by icons in the notification area, but this is not always the
case. Even if there is an icon present, turning off different programs usually
requires different steps, depending on the program.
To prevent unnecessary background applications from running, try the following:
■
If there is an icon in the notification area, right-click or click the icon to
see if a menu opens. Often, there is a command for setting preferences
that you can use to figure out how to prevent the program from loading
when Windows starts. You can learn more about the notification area
in Chapter 4, “Supporting the Windows Desktop.”
■
If there is no menu for the icon, check the Startup folder on the Start
menu. Often, programs place shortcuts here to load components at
Windows startup. You can also try running the program that is associated with the icon to see whether there are instructions for preventing
the program from loading.
■
You should also check the Startup folder for applications that load, but
do not place an icon in the notification area.
Windows also includes the System Configuration Utility, which you can use to
control Windows startup. Run the program by typing msconfig at the Run dialog
box or command prompt. The System Configuration Utility, shown in Figure 12-1,
contains many tabs that you can use to configure different aspects of the startup
process, including the following:
■
General Use the General tab to select a type of startup to use the
next time that Windows starts. A diagnostic startup is the same thing
as starting Windows XP in safe mode. A selective startup allows you to
choose which types of components should be loaded (represented by
the other tabs on the utility).
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■
SYSTEM.INI, WIN.INI, BOOT.INI These tabs allow you to control
the system files that Windows XP uses primarily for compatibility with
previous versions of Windows. In earlier versions of Windows, these
files were used instead of a centralized system Registry. Turning items
on and off by using these tabs is generally safer than editing these files
directly.
■
Services This tab presents a list of services that load with Windows.
Although you can use this tab to prevent services from loading, it is
much safer (and just as easy) to use the Services node in the Computer
Management window.
■
Startup This is probably the most important tab used for optimizing Windows startup. It presents a list of all program components
that load with Windows, whether or not they are represented in the
notification area. Turn off the programs you do not want to load, and
restart Windows. You can return and reselect the applications whenever you want.
Figure 12-1 Using the System Configuration Utility to control Windows startup
FT12su01
Optimizing Hard Disk Performance
Many of the functions in Windows XP rely on having enough disk space free to
operate, including Windows’ virtual memory system and programs that need to
create temporary files, to name just two of the most important. In addition,
almost every function in Windows relies on quick hard-disk access. Windows
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MONITORING SYSTEM PERFORMANCE IN WINDOWS XP
includes a number of utilities that can help you optimize hard-disk performance,
including the following:
■
Disk Cleanup Wizard Scans your hard disk looking for files that
can be safely removed, helping you to free up disk space.
■
Disk Defragmenter Rearranges the data on your hard drive so that
files are written to disk contiguously. During the defragmentation, it
also places more frequently used files toward the front of the disk so
that they load faster.
■
Chkdsk Scans the files and directory structure of your disk to make
sure that they are free of errors.
You can find details on using each of these utilities in Chapter 8, “Supporting
Storage Devices in Windows XP.”
Turning Off Fast User Switching
Fast User Switching in Windows XP allows users to switch between different user
accounts without logging off. Each user can even have his own applications running while another user uses the computer. Although this feature presents obvious advantages, it also comes with an equally obvious disadvantage. The more
applications that your computer runs at the same time, the slower the computer
will perform, regardless of whether those applications are run by one or multiple
users. If users frequently have problems with other users leaving applications
running, and if this situation tends to slow down the computer, suggest that users
turn off the Fast User Switching feature. You can learn more about Fast User
Switching in Chapter 3, “Supporting Local Users and Groups.”
Disabling Visual Effects
Many of the new visual effects that are available in Windows XP can slow the perceived performance of a computer by making dialog boxes, windows, and menus
take longer to open and work with. By default, Windows enables visual effects
based on the capabilities of a computer, but you can enable or disable specific
visual effects to strike your own balance between performance and appearance.
Windows XP provides quick access for enabling and disabling visual effects.
From the Start menu, right-click My Computer and then choose Properties. In the
System Properties dialog box, on the Advanced tab, click Settings in the Performance section to open the Performance Options dialog box, shown in Figure 12-2.
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FT12su02
Figure 12-2
Using the Performance Options dialog box to disable unnecessary visual
effects
You can choose from these four options for visual effects:
■
Let Windows Choose What’s Best For My Computer
■
Adjust For Best Appearance, which enables all the effects
■
Adjust For Best Performance, which disables all the effects
■
Custom, which allows you to enable and disable the effects yourself
Table 12-1 lists the visual effects along with descriptions of those that are not selfexplanatory.
Table 12-1
Windows XP Visual Effects
Visual Effect
Description
Animate Windows
When Minimizing And
Maximizing
Fade Or Slide Menus
Into View
Causes a zoom effect when you minimize or maximize a window. Disabling this effect makes windows minimize and maximize faster.
Causes menus to fade or slide into view instead of
simply appearing. Disabling this effect makes
menus appear more quickly.
Causes ToolTips to fade or slide into view instead of
simply appearing. ToolTips are the pop-up descriptions that appear beside certain items when you
hold your pointer over them. Disabling this effect
makes ToolTips appear more quickly
Causes menus to fade out after you select a command. Disabling this effect makes menus disappear
instantly after selecting a command.
Fade Or Slide ToolTips
Into View
Fade Out Menu Items
After Clicking
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Table 12-1
MONITORING SYSTEM PERFORMANCE IN WINDOWS XP
Windows XP Visual Effects
Visual Effect
Description
Show Shadows Under
Menus
Causes Windows to display a drop shadow behind
menus for a three-dimensional effect. Disabling this
effect makes menus appear more quickly.
Causes Windows to display a drop shadow behind
the mouse pointer. Disabling this effect can make
the mouse more responsive. Also, some older applications do not work well when this feature is
enabled.
Draws a filled-in rectangle when selecting multiple
items on the desktop instead of just a rectangle outline. Disabling this effect slightly increases the
speed with which you can select items.
Causes Windows to redraw a window while the
window is being moved. Disabling this command
makes dragging open windows noticeably faster.
Causes combo boxes to slide open instead of simply
appearing. A combo box is a drop-down list of items
that you open from within a dialog box. Disabling
this effect makes combo boxes appear more quickly.
Causes taskbar buttons to slide to the left when
other programs are closed or to the right when new
programs are opened. Disabling this effect makes
taskbar buttons appear instantly in the new location instead of sliding. Disabling this effect makes
taskbar buttons available more quickly when they
change locations.
Makes screen fonts easier to read, especially at
higher resolutions. Disabling this effect increases
the speed at which Windows displays windows and
dialog boxes.
Causes the contents of a list box to scroll smoothly
when you click the scroll bar rather than just jump
down a few items in the list. Disabling this effect
makes list boxes scroll faster, but some users might
find the resulting jumpy movement disorienting.
Show Shadows Under
Mouse Pointer
Show Translucent Selection Rectangle
Show Window Contents While Dragging
Slide Open Combo
Boxes
Slide Taskbar Buttons
Smooth Edges Of Screen
Fonts
Smooth-Scroll List Boxes
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Table 12-1
Windows XP Visual Effects
Visual Effect
Description
Use A Background
Image For Each Folder
Type
Different types of folders in Windows XP can use
different background images. Many of the special
Windows folders, such as Control Panel, use
this effect.
Causes folders in Windows XP to display a task
pane on the left side of the folder. The task pane
lists tasks that are related to the files in the folder.
Creates a transparency effect on text labels for
icons, but this transparency really only allows you
to see any other icons obscured by an icon on top of
them. The transparency does not allow you to “see
through” to the actual desktop background. Disabling this effect causes Windows to display the
desktop more quickly.
This setting is an important one because it controls
the new look of Windows XP. If you disable it, your
desktop will look like previous versions of
Windows.
Use Common Tasks In
Folders
Use Drop Shadows For
Icon Labels On The
Desktop
Use Visual Styles On
Windows And Buttons
Managing Virtual Memory Paging Files
Like most modern operating systems, Windows XP uses virtual memory, which
is created by extending the physical memory assigned to an application to the
computer’s hard drive. Windows can assign some memory to an application, but
not necessarily enough to satisfy all that application’s needs. Instead, Windows
monitors memory access and continuously reorganizes memory structure to
meet applications’ needs. By correctly anticipating applications’ needs, and by
storing pages of memory to hard disk as necessary, Windows uses virtual memory to allow a computer to operate with less physical memory.
When Windows stores memory to hard disk, it uses a special file called a paging
file. You can configure some aspects that relate to how Windows uses the paging
file by using the Virtual Memory dialog box, shown in Figure 12-3. To open the
Virtual Memory dialog box, follow these steps:
1. From the Start menu, right-click My Computer and select Properties.
2. In the System Properties dialog box, on the Advanced tab, click the Settings button in the Performance section.
3. In the Performance Options dialog box, on the Advanced tab, click
Change.
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Figure 12-3 Using the Virtual Memory dialog box to control the paging file
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The Virtual Memory dialog box shows the size of the paging file for each disk on
a computer and the total paging file size for all the drives combined. The files on
all disks are combined and treated as a single area for paging memory to disk.
Breaking the paging file up across multiple disks (especially disks on different
disk controllers) can decrease the time it takes to write memory information to
the paging file. Note, however, that breaking up a file across multiple volumes on
the same hard disk can actually decrease the performance of the paging file.
For the most part, Windows does a good job of managing the size of the file itself.
Unless you have a good reason for changing the paging file, you should probably
just leave it alone. However, if possible, you want to avoid having your paging file
on the same disk as your system files.
Setting Advanced Performance Options
The Advanced tab of the Performance Options dialog box, shown in Figure 12-4,
also contains two other performance options for configuring a computer to run
under special circumstances. These options are the following:
■
Processor Scheduling By default, Windows optimizes the use of
the processor for running programs. You can set this option to optimize the processor for running background services. This option is
best if the computer that you are configuring is acting mainly as a file,
print, or Web server.
■
Memory Usage Windows also optimizes memory for running programs by default. If the computer that you are configuring is running
mainly services instead, select the System cache option.
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Figure 12-4 Using the Advanced tab of the Performance Options dialog box to adjust
processor scheduling and memory usage
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MONITORING WINDOWS XP PERFORMANCE
In addition to configuring Windows XP for optimal performance, you can also use
two tools to monitor performance and troubleshoot performance problems. Task
Manager provides a real-time view of certain performance measures, such as the
current load on a processor and current memory usage. The Performance console
is a more sophisticated performance-monitoring utility that captures many types of
performance data and allows you to display that data as a graph or save it to a log.
Monitoring Performance by Using Task Manager
Task Manager provides information about applications and processes that are
currently running on a computer and also provides real-time performance information about the processor, memory, and network usage. You can start Task
Manager in the following ways:
■
Right-click any open area on the Windows taskbar, and select Task
Manager.
■
Press CTRL+ALT+DELETE.
■
Press CTRL+SHIFT+ESC.
The two tabs in the Task Manager window that measure performance are the Performance tab and the Networking Tab.
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Monitoring Processor and Memory Performance
The Performance tab, shown in Figure 12-5, has four gauges that indicate various
aspects of system performance:
■
CPU Usage Indicates the percentage of processor cycles that are not
idle at the moment. If this graph displays a high percentage continuously (and not when there is an obvious reason, such as a big application), your processor might be overloaded. If your computer has two
processors, two graphs are shown. If this value runs continuously over
80 percent, you might need to upgrade your processor.
■
PF Usage Indicates the percentage of the paging file that is currently
being used. If this value runs near 100 percent continuously, you might
need to increase the size of the paging file or decide whether you need
more memory.
■
CPU Usage History Indicates how busy the processor has been
recently, although the gauge shows values only after Task Manager was
opened. You can use the Update Speed command on the View menu to
specify how often the values are refreshed. The High value updates
about twice per second; Normal value updates once every two seconds; Low value updates once every four seconds. You can also pause
the updates and update the view manually by pressing F5. This is a
useful method if you want to monitor some specific activity.
■
Page File Usage History Indicates how full the page file has been
over time, although it also shows values only after Task Manager was
opened. Values that are set using the Update Speed command affect
this history as well.
Figure 12-5 The Performance tab of Task Manager, which shows real-time processor
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and memory usage
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In addition to displaying these four graphs, the Performance tab also displays the
following sections:
■
Totals Provides totals for the number of processes, threads, and handles that are currently running. A process is a single executable program. A thread is an object within a process that runs program
instructions. A handle represents a specific input/output (I/O)
instance. A process can have multiple threads, each of which in turn
can have multiple handles.
■
Physical Memory (K) Indicates the total and available physical
memory, and the amount of memory in the system cache.
■
Commit Charge (K) Indicates the memory that is currently committed to running processes.
■
Kernel Memory (K) Indicates the memory that is used by the operating system. Paged kernel memory is available only to system processes. Nonpaged kernel memory can be used by applications when
necessary.
Monitoring Network Activity
The Networking tab in Task Manager, shown in Figure 12-6, indicates the current
network traffic on various network connections on the computer. You can use
this information to quickly determine whether the network is causing a bottleneck that would result in performance problems for applications that require network connectivity. The detailed information at the bottom of the tab displays
current network utilization and link speed for each enabled adapter.
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Figure 12-6
The Networking tab of Task Manager, which shows current network activity
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MONITORING SYSTEM PERFORMANCE IN WINDOWS XP
Monitoring Performance by Using the Performance
Console
When troubleshooting performance issues, you might need more detail than
Task Manager provides. If so, you can use the Performance console to collect vast
amounts of performance information. In addition to providing access to more
detailed information, the Performance console allows you to monitor other systems remotely, log information for future analysis, and configure alerts to notify
you of potential error conditions.
The Performance console classifies information in the following areas:
■
Object An object represents a major system component (hardware
or software) of the computer or operating system. Examples of objects
include physical disks, processor, and memory.
■
Instance Each occurrence of an object is considered an instance.
For example, if there are two processors on a computer, there are two
processor instances. If there are three hard disks on a computer, each
disk is represented by a separate instance.
■
Counter A counter is a particular aspect of an object that the Performance console can measure. For example, the physical disk object contains the following counters:
❑
Percentage Disk Read Time
❑
Average Disk Bytes Per Read
❑
Disk Reads Per Second
To start the Performance console, follow these steps:
1. From the Start menu, select Control Panel.
2. In Control Panel, select Performance And Maintenance.
3. In the Performance And Maintenance window, select Administrative
Tools.
4. In the Administrative Tools window, select Performance.
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When you first start the Performance console, the graph displays three counters
by default (as shown in Figure 12-7):
■
Pages/sec Represents the rate at which pages are read from or written to disk during virtual memory operations. Consistently high values
can indicate that not enough memory is present on a system.
■
Avg. Disk Queue Length Represents the average number of read
and write requests queued for the selected disk. Consistent values
above zero means that requests are backing up, which might indicate
not enough memory or a slow disk system.
■
%Processor Time Represents the percentage of elapsed time that
the processor spends executing nonidle tasks. Consistently high values (over approximately 80 percent) might indicate that your processor is slowing down your system.
Figure 12-7 The Performance console, which starts working right away
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These three counters do a very good job of representing the basic aspects of a
computer’s performance. Of course, they are only three of the hundreds of
counters that are available in the Performance console. The counters that you
monitor depend on whether you are trying to collect general baseline information, troubleshoot a performance problem, diagnose an issue with an application,
and so on. Detailed information on commonly monitored objects and counters is
presented later in this section.
To add a counter to the Performance console, follow these steps:
1. Right-click the graph, and select Add Counters.
2. In the Add Counters dialog box, shown in Figure 12-8, select the computer that you want to monitor.
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Figure 12-8 Selecting a counter to add to the Performance console graph
3. Select the appropriate Performance Object.
4. Select All Counters or a specific counter from the list. You can use the
SHIFT and CTRL keys to select multiple counters. Click Explain for an
explanation of any counter.
5. Select All Instances, or choose a specific instance of the object.
6. Click Add to add the counter.
7. Repeat steps 3 through 6 as often as necessary to add all the desired
counters.
8. Click Close to return to the Performance window.
In the Performance window, you can view counter data in the following formats:
■
As a graph, similar to the one previously shown in Figure 12-7
■
As a histogram, similar to the one shown in Figure 12-9
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Figure 12-9 A histogram, which represents values as vertical bars
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■
As a report, such as the one shown in Figure 12-10
Figure 12-10 A report displaying values as simple text
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To change the view, right-click the current view, select Properties, and access the
General tab.
Performance Logs And Alerts
The Performance Logs And Alerts utility allows you to log counter information
to a file and to trigger alerts that are based on configured events. This utility contains the following three subsections:
■
Counter Logs Log activity for selected counters at regular intervals
■
Trace Logs Log activity for selected counters when a particular
event occurs
■
Alerts Log activity and notify a user when a particular counter
exceeds a certain threshold
You can view and analyze performance logs by using the Performance console or
an external data-analysis program, such as Microsoft Excel.
To enable performance logging, follow these steps:
1. In the Performance window, expand Performance Logs And Alerts.
2. Right-click Counter Logs, and select New Log Settings.
3. In the New Log Setting dialog box, enter the name for the log and
click OK.
4. On the General tab, shown in Figure 12-11, add the counters that you
want to log. Modify the sampling interval, if necessary.
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Figure 12-11 Configuring general log properties
5. On the Log Files tab, you can modify the name and location of the log
file, as well as the type of file, if desired.
6. On the Schedule tab, shown in Figure 12-12, configure the start and
stop times for logging. You can manually stop and start logging or configure logging to start and stop at specified times.
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Figure 12-12 Configuring log-scheduling properties
7. Click OK to save the log configuration.
After you create a log, you can load the log into the Performance console and view
it the same way you would view real-time performance data. To view a performance log, follow these steps:
1. In the Performance window, select System Monitor, right-click the data
display, and then select Properties.
2. In the System Monitor Properties dialog box, on the Source tab, select
Log Files, as shown in Figure 12-13. Click Add, and enter the name of
the log file that you want to view. Click OK to continue.
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Figure 12-13 Choosing the log file to view in System Monitor
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3. Right-click the data display and then select Add Counters.
4. Add the counters that you want to view and then click OK. The available counters are limited to those that are present in the log.
In addition to other monitoring techniques, you can use alerts to notify users or
administrators when conditions exceed preset criteria. For example, you can configure an alert to send a message to the administrator when processor utilization
exceeds 80 percent.
When an alert is triggered, you can perform the following actions:
■
Log an entry in the application event log. This option is enabled by
default.
■
Send a network message to a particular user.
■
Start a performance log that can further monitor the alert condition.
■
Run a program that can be used to launch any application program.
You can use this option to launch a script that would send e-mail to the
administrator.
To configure an alert, follow these steps:
1. In the Performance window, expand Performance Logs And Alerts.
2. Right-click the Alerts folder, and select New Alert Settings.
3. Enter a name for the alert, and click OK.
4. On the General tab, add the counters and the alert value, as shown in
Figure 12-14.
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Figure 12-14 Configuring an alert to warn you when counters cross performance thresholds
5. On the Action tab, configure the actions to be performed when an alert
is triggered.
6. On the Schedule tab, configure the start and stop times for when the
alert should be scanned. You can turn scanning on and off manually or
configure scanning to occur on a schedule.
7. Click OK to create the alert.
Establishing a Baseline of Performance Data
It is important to establish a baseline, or reference point, of performance data at a
time when the computer has adequate resources and is performing well. Having
a baseline for comparison is necessary to identify changes in resource usage if
computer performance begins to decline.
You establish a baseline by monitoring key counters for an extended period of
time—several days to a week is generally adequate. Use the logging feature to
gather baseline information. As you analyze your baseline logs, you will notice
spikes and dips in the recorded values, but do not focus on them. Instead, look at
the averages, identify trends, and define acceptable ranges for each of the
counters. When constructing a baseline, use just a few important counters for the
disk, memory, and processor objects.
Important Memory Counters
You can detect memory bottlenecks by monitoring and evaluating several important physical memory, paging file, and file system cache counters. Table 12-2 contains a listing of these counters and brief descriptions.
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Table 12-2
Important Memory-Related Counters
Object
Counter
Description
Memory
Pages/sec
Memory
Available
Bytes
Paging File
% Usage
Paging File
% Usage Peak
(bytes)
Copy Read
Hits %
The number of pages that were either read
from disk or written to disk to make room in
physical memory for other pages. This counter
is the primary indicator of whether or not the
computer has sufficient memory. An average
value in excess of 20 can indicate insufficient
memory in the computer.
Amount of physical memory that is unallocated in the computer. Does not include any
memory that is allocated to working sets or file
system cache.
Percentage of the paging file that is currently in
use.
Peak percentage of the paging file in use.
Cache
The percentage of time that information was
found in the file system cache and did not have
to be read from disk.
Important Processor Counters
Monitoring and evaluating several important counters allow you to detect processor
bottlenecks. Table 12-3 contains a listing of these counters and brief descriptions.
Table 12-3
Important Processor-Related Counters
Object
Counter
Description
Processor
% Processor
Time
Processor
Interrupts/sec
The percent of time that the processor is
processing information (processing a nonidle thread). This counter is the primary
indicator of processor activity. Sustained
values over 80 percent indicate a potential
processor bottleneck.
The average rate per second that the process handles interrupt requests from applications and hardware devices. This counter
indicates the activity of the devices in a
computer that uses interrupts. When a
computer is idle, values average around
100. Averages in excess of 300 indicate a
potential problem.
CHAPTER 12:
Table 12-3
MONITORING SYSTEM PERFORMANCE IN WINDOWS XP
Important Processor-Related Counters
Object
Counter
Description
System
Processor Queue
Length
System
Context Switches
Process
% Processor
Time
Number of threads in the processor queue,
waiting to be processed. This counter is a
true indicator of processor efficiency. If this
counter averages two or more, it indicates
that the processor cannot keep up with the
number of requests for processing and has
become a bottleneck.
Rate at which the processor is switched
from one thread to another. If this value is
high (that is, more than 500), you might
have an inefficient application that uses too
many threads or a problem with a device
driver.
The percent of processor time used by all
the threads of a particular process.
Important Disk Counters
Before you can effectively manage disk concerns in Windows XP, you need to be
aware of the following concepts:
■
Physical disk A physical disk corresponds to a hard disk in the system. If there are two hard disks in a computer, it has two physical disks.
Monitoring a physical disk gives an overall indicator of hard-disk performance.
■
Logical disk A logical disk is a volume on a physical disk. A physical
disk can have multiple logical disks. Monitoring a logical disk gives an
indicator of how often that volume is being accessed by applications or
how much disk space is available on that volume.
■
Disk reads A disk read operation occurs when the operating system
requests information from the disk. After information is read from the
disk, it can be stored in file system cache. On a system with sufficient
memory to support file system caching, the number of disk reads
should be relatively low because most read requests are serviced from
cache (fast reads).
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■
Disk writes A disk write operation occurs when the operating system receives a request to save data to the hard disk. Windows XP supports write-behind caching, which permits the operating system to
gather many disk write requests together and write them to the disk
simultaneously, reducing the overall number of disk writes performed.
■
Disk queue The disk queue is where disk read and write requests
are stored while waiting to be processed by the hard disk. The more
requests waiting in the queue, the more difficulty the disk has meeting
the computer’s needs.
You can detect disk bottlenecks by monitoring and evaluating several important
physical and logical disk counters. Physical disk counters provide information on
the activity of a hard disk as a whole. Logical disk counters report statistics on the
volumes (drive letters) that are created on the disks. Table 12-4 lists and briefly
describes these counters.
Table 12-4
Important Disk-Related Counters
Object
Counter
Description
Logical Disk
% Free Space
Physical Disk
% Disk Time
Logical Disk
Physical Disk
Disk Bytes/sec
Logical Disk
Physical Disk
Avg. Disk Bytes/
Transfer
Physical Disk
Avg. Disk Queue
Length
Ratio of free disk space that is available to total usable disk space on a
particular logical disk.
The percentage of time that the
selected physical disk is busy servicing read or write requests. If this value
is consistently over 50 percent, the
hard disk is having trouble keeping
up with the load that is being placed
on it.
The rate at which bytes are being
transferred. The higher the number,
the better the disk is performing.
Measures the size of I/O operations. A
higher value indicates more efficient
disk usage.
The average number of both read and
write requests that are queued for the
selected disk. If this value averages
two or more, the disk is a bottleneck.
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SUMMARY
■
After you first install Windows XP, the operating system begins to automatically optimize system settings to improve subsequent startup
times. After letting Windows start up several times, you can judge and
then try to improve the startup performance.
■
Many applications install software that runs in the background as
you use Windows. You can sometimes tell what background programs are running because they are represented by icons in the notification area, but this is not always the case. Even if there is an icon
present, turning off the program usually requires different steps,
depending on the program.
■
Many functions in Windows XP rely on having enough disk space free
to operate, including Windows’ virtual memory system and programs
that need to create temporary files. Make sure to use Disk Cleanup,
Disk Defragmenter, and Chkdsk regularly.
■
Many new visual effects in Windows XP can slow the perceived performance of a computer by making dialog boxes, windows, and menus
take longer to open and work with.
■
Task Manager provides information about applications and processes
currently running on a computer, and it also provides real-time performance information about processor, memory, and network usage.
■
You can use the Performance console to collect more detailed performance information than Task Manger provides. In addition, the Performance console allows you to monitor other computers remotely, log
information for future analysis, and configure alerts to notify you of
potential error conditions.
■
In the Performance console, an object represents a major computer
component. An instance represents an occurrence of an object. A
counter represents a particular aspect of an object that you can measure directly.
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REVIEW QUESTIONS
1. List some common measures that you can take to help improve startup
performance.
2. Which of the following tools can you use to control the Windows
startup process?
a. System Information
b. System Configuration Utility
c. Chkdsk
d. Virtual Memory
3. Which of the following pieces of information can you view by using
Task Manager?
a. Current CPU usage
b. The percentage of time that a physical disk is busy
c. The amount of available physical memory
d. The percentage of the paging file currently in use
4. You are using the Performance console to monitor the performance of
a user’s computer. You notice that the processor regularly averages
over 80 percent utilization when the computer is used normally. You
also notice that the Pages/sec counter for the memory object averages
around 4. What does this indicate to you?
a. The processor is a potential bottleneck.
b. The physical disk is a potential bottleneck.
c. The memory is a potential bottleneck.
d. This value is within the acceptable range for normal computer use.
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CASE SCENARIOS
Scenario 12-1: Working with the Performance Console
You receive a call from a user who recently upgraded her computer from
Microsoft Windows 98 to Windows XP Professional Edition. After the upgrade,
the computer’s performance has worsened, and it is functioning at unacceptably
slow speeds when running resource-intensive applications. The computer is configured as follows:
■
Processor: Pentium II/233 MHz
■
RAM: 64 MB
■
Hard disk: 4 GB EIDE
You start the Performance console on the computer and configure it to monitor
key memory, processor, and physical disk counters. You then launch the applications that are significantly degrading performance. The Performance console
records the following counter values during the test:
■
Memory, Pages/sec: 107
■
Processor, % Processor Time: 40%
■
Physical Disk, % Disk Time: 67%
What is causing the computer performance problem, and how can you resolve it?
Scenario 12-2: Improving Computer Performance
You receive a call from a user who reports that his computer seems to run more
slowly than it used to. Upon further questioning, you suspect that the problem
might not be hardware-based, but that the user probably needs to optimize the
performance of his hard disk. What three actions would you suggest to the user
for optimizing his hard disk before resorting to using the Performance console to
measure the computer’s performance?
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APPENDIX A
MICROSOFT WINDOWS XP
SERVICE PACK 2
As part of a major effort to increase the security of desktop computers, in the
summer of 2004, Microsoft released an update to Windows XP named
Microsoft Windows XP Service Pack 2. As with all Windows service packs,
Windows XP Service Pack 2 includes all the critical updates released for
Windows XP to date. In addition, Service Pack 2 includes a large number of
new enhancements to Windows XP—enhancements aimed at increasing the
default level of security for the operating system.
Although there is not sufficient room in a single appendix to detail all the
enhancements provided in Windows XP Service Pack 2, you’ll find many listed
here that will prove important to you as a desktop support technician (DST). This
chapter covers security enhancements in the following areas:
■
Automatic Updates As you know, an important part of keeping
Windows XP secure is keeping it up to date with the latest software
updates released by Microsoft. You must also make sure that you
understand what updates are available and how they affect a system.
Windows XP Service Pack 2 provides a number of enhancements to
the Automatic Updates feature in Windows XP, including the ability to
download more categories of updates, better bandwidth management,
and consolidation of updates so that less user input is required.
■
Windows Firewall In the original release of Windows XP, the
software-based firewall included with the operating system was named
Internet Connection Firewall (ICF). With the release of Windows XP
Service Pack 2, ICF has been renamed Windows Firewall, and several
features have been added. The updates include enabling Windows
Firewall by default on all network connections, closing ports except
when they are in use, improving the user interface, improving application compatibility when Windows Firewall is on, and providing a way
to configure global settings for all network connections.
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■
Internet Explorer Security enhancements to Microsoft Internet
Explorer provide improved protection against malicious content on
the Web, and they also provide interface enhancements that make configuring security easier. A new Information Bar consolidates many of
the dialog boxes Internet Explorer uses to provide information to
users. For the first time in its history, Internet Explorer now includes a
built-in pop-up window blocker. Also, several new settings have been
added to the security zones available in Internet Explorer.
■
Outlook Express Service Pack 2 also provides security enhancements for Microsoft Outlook Express users. You can block external
content from being automatically downloaded and displayed in
HTML-formatted messages, and even configure Outlook Express to
display messages only in plaintext format. As a result, potentially
unsafe attachments sent through e-mail and instant messages are isolated so that they cannot affect other parts of the system.
■
Security Center Security Center is an entirely new feature that provides a central interface for determining the status of security configurations of your computer. The Security Center window lets you view
settings for Automatic Updates, Windows Firewall, and some third-party
antivirus software. Security Center also runs as a background service and
provides real-time alerts when certain security conditions are detected.
With the enhanced security technologies provided by Windows XP Service Pack 2,
you and the users that you support will experience a more secure desktop environment than ever before.
When you study for the exam, make sure that you are familiar with the changes
that are covered in this appendix. Because the exam was updated shortly after
Windows XP Service Pack 2 was released, you might encounter questions that are
based on the changes in Windows XP Service Pack 2.
MORE INFO This chapter covers the aspects of Windows XP Service
Pack 2 that are most important to you as a DST. This includes updates
of many of the procedures found in this book, as well as new procedures
for helping you support users. For detailed information on all features
included with Service Pack 2, visit http://www.microsoft.com/technet
and search using the keywords “changes to functionality in Microsoft
Windows XP Service Pack 2.”
AUTOMATIC UPDATES
Software updates help keep computers protected from new vulnerabilities that
are discovered (and new threats that are created) after the initial shipping of an
APPENDIX A:
MICROSOFT WINDOWS XP SERVICE PACK 2
operating system. Updates are crucial to keeping computers secure and functioning properly. Updates provided by Microsoft include solutions to known issues,
such as patches for security vulnerabilities, and updates to the operating system
and some applications.
Windows XP features an automatic updating service named Automatic Updates
that can download and apply updates automatically in the background. Automatic Updates connects periodically to Windows Update on the Internet (or possibly to a Windows Update Services server on a corporate network). When
Automatic Updates discovers new updates that apply to the computer, it can be
configured to install all updates automatically (the preferred method) or to notify
the computer’s user that an update is available.
Windows XP Service Pack 2 provides several enhancements to the Automatic
Updates feature, including the following:
■
The latest version of Automatic Updates offers expanded support for
Microsoft products, including Microsoft Office.
■
Previous versions of Automatic Updates could download only critical
updates. Now, Automatic Updates can download updates in the following categories: security updates, critical updates, update roll-ups, and
service packs.
■
Automatic Updates now prioritizes the download of available updates
based on the importance and size of the updates. For example, if a
large service pack is being downloaded and a smaller security update is
released to address an exploit, that security update will be downloaded
more quickly than the service pack.
■
Automatic Updates is now more automated. The need for users to
accept end user license agreements (EULAs) has been eliminated.
Also, the user now has a choice of whether to restart the computer following the installation of updates that might require a restart. Updates
that do require a restart can now be consolidated into a single installation so that only one restart is required.
■
A forthcoming update to the online Windows Update Web site will
provide users of Windows XP Service Pack 2 who choose not to use
Automatic Updates with many of the same features as Automatic
Updates provides. This includes the ability to download updates for
Microsoft applications in addition to operating system updates, perform express installations that require minimal user input, and to
research updates more easily.
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When preparing for the exam, you should be familiar with the following updated
(or new) procedures available after the installation of Windows XP Service Pack 2.
Configuring Automatic Updates with Windows XP Service Pack 2
As a DST, you should make it a practice to recommend that users enable fully automatic updating in Windows. To configure Automatic Updates after Windows XP
Service Pack 2 is installed, follow these steps:
1. Click Start, and then select Control Panel.
2. In the Control Panel window, select Performance And Maintenance.
3. In the Performance And Maintenance window, select System.
4. In the Automatic Updates tab, select the Automatic (recommended)
option, as shown in Figure A-1.
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Figure A-1 The Automatic Updates interface, which has changed slightly in
Windows XP Service Pack 2
5. Select how often and at what time of day updates should be downloaded and installed. For users with high-bandwidth, dedicated connections (such as a cable modem), you should configure Windows to
check for updates daily at a time when the user is not using the computer. Users with lower bandwidth connections might want to check
less frequently or use one of the manual options.
6. Click OK.
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Using the Windows Update Web site
The Windows Update site offers a more hands-on approach to updating
Windows than using Automatic Updates. If a user resists using the Automatic
Updates feature, teach the user to visit the Windows Update site frequently
and perform an Express Install that scans for, downloads, and then installs
critical and security updates.
To perform an Express Install from the Windows Update site, follow these steps:
1. From the Start menu, select All Programs, and then select Windows
Update.
2. On the Microsoft Windows Update Web site, shown in Figure A-2,
click Express Install (Recommended).
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Figure A-2 Express Install, which scans a computer and then downloads
and installs critical and security updates
3. After the scan is complete (a process that is performed locally—no
information is sent to Microsoft’s servers), click Install.
4. If you are prompted with a EULA, read the agreement, and click I
Accept.
5. Wait while the updates are downloaded and installed. If you are
prompted to restart your computer, click Restart Now. If you are not
prompted to restart, click Close.
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WINDOWS FIREWALL
A firewall protects a computer from malicious attacks originating outside the
computer (specifically, the Internet) by blocking all incoming network traffic
except that which you specifically configure the firewall to allow through. Any
computer connected directly to the Internet, whether it is a standalone computer
or a computer that provides Internet Connection Sharing (ICS) services for other
computers on a network, should have a firewall enabled.
Previous versions of Windows XP include a software-based firewall, ICF. After
installing Windows XP Service Pack 2, this firewall is renamed Windows Firewall.
Windows Firewall is a stateful, host-based firewall that drops all incoming traffic
that does not meet one of the following conditions:
■
Solicited traffic (valid traffic that is sent in response to a request by the
computer), which is allowed through the firewall
■
Expected traffic (valid traffic that you have specifically configured the
firewall to accept), which is allowed through the firewall
In addition to its new name, Windows Firewall also boasts a number of enhancements, including the following:
■
Enabled by default Windows Firewall is now enabled by default on
all network connections. This includes local area network (LAN, wired
and wireless), dial-up, and virtual private network (VPN) connections
that exist when Windows XP Service Pack 2 is installed. When a new
connection is created, Windows Firewall is also enabled by default.
■
Global settings In Windows XP (prior to installing Windows XP
Service Pack 2), ICF settings must be configured individually for each
connection. After installing Windows XP Service Pack 2, Windows
Firewall provides an interface for configuring global settings that apply
to all the connections of the computer. When you change a global
Windows Firewall setting, the change is applied to all the connections
on which Windows Firewall is enabled. Of course, you can still apply
configurations to individual connections as well.
■
New interface In previous versions, ICF is enabled by selecting a
single check box in the Advanced tab of the Properties dialog box for a
connection. A Settings button opens a separate dialog box, in which
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you can configure services, logging, and Internet Message Control Protocol (ICMP) allowances. In Windows XP Service Pack 2, the check
box in the Advanced tab has been replaced with a Settings button that
launches the new Windows Firewall Control Panel tool, which consolidates global and connection-specific settings, service and ICMP allowances, and log settings in a single, updated interface.
■
Prevent excepted traffic In previous versions, ICF is either enabled
or disabled. When enabled, solicited traffic and excepted traffic are
allowed. When disabled, all traffic is allowed. In Windows XP Service
Pack 2, Windows Firewall supports a new feature that lets you keep
Windows Firewall enabled and also not allow any exceptions; only
solicited traffic is allowed. This new feature is intended to create an
even more secure environment when connecting to the Internet in a
public or other unsecured location.
■
Startup security In previous versions, ICF becomes active on connections only when the ICF/ICS service is started successfully. This
means that when a computer is started, there is a delay between when
the computer is active on the network and when the connections are
protected with ICF. In Windows XP Service Pack 2, a startup Windows
Firewall policy performs stateful packet filtering during startup so that
the computer can perform basic network tasks (such as contacting
DHCP and DNS servers) and still be protected.
■
Traffic source restrictions In previous versions, excepted traffic
can originate from any IP address. In Windows XP Service Pack 2, you
can configure Windows Firewall so that excepted traffic is restricted by
IP address (or IP address range), meaning that only traffic from computers with valid IP addresses is allowed through the firewall.
■
Create exceptions using application filenames In previous versions, you configure excepted traffic by specifying the Transmission
Control Protocol (TCP) and User Datagram Protocol (UDP) ports used
by a service or application. In Windows XP Service Pack 2, you can also
configure excepted traffic by specifying the filename of the application.
When the application runs, Windows Firewall monitors the ports on
which the application listens and automatically adds them to the list of
allowed incoming traffic.
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When preparing for the exam, you should be familiar with the following updated
(or new) procedures available after the installation of Windows XP Service Pack 2.
Enabling or disabling Windows Firewall for all network connections
The only users who can make changes to Windows Firewall settings are those
who log on to the computer with a user account that is a member of the local
Administrators group. To enable or disable Windows Firewall for a specific network connection, use these steps:
1. Click Start, and then select Control Panel.
2. In the Control Panel window, select Network And Internet Connections.
3. In the Network And Internet Connections window, select Windows
Firewall.
4. In the General tab of the Windows Firewall dialog box, shown in
Figure A-3, select the On (Recommended) option to enable the firewall for all connections. Select Off (Not Recommended) to disable the
firewall for all connections.
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Figure A-3 Enabling and disabling Windows Firewall for all network
connections
5. Click OK.
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Enabling or disabling Windows Firewall for a specific network
connection
To enable or disable Windows Firewall for a specific network connection, follow
these steps:
1. Click Start, and then select Control Panel.
2. In the Control Panel window, select Network And Internet Connections.
3. In the Network And Internet Connections window, select Network
Connections.
4. In the Network Connections window, right-click the connection for
which you want to enable or disable Windows Firewall, and select
Properties.
5. In the Properties dialog box of the network connection, select the
Advanced tab.
6. In the Advanced tab, click Settings.
7. In the Windows Firewall dialog box, select the Advanced tab, shown in
Figure A-4.
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Figure A-4 Enabling and disabling Windows Firewall for specific network
connections
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8. To enable Windows Firewall for a connection, select the check box for
that connection. To disable Windows Firewall for a connection, clear
the check box for that connection.
9. Click OK to close the Windows Firewall dialog box.
10. Click OK to close the Properties dialog box for the network connection.
Enabling Windows Firewall logging
You can configure Windows Firewall to log network activity, including any
dropped packets or successful connections to the computer. Security logging is
not enabled by default for Windows Firewall. To enable security logging for Windows Firewall, follow these steps:
1. Click Start, and then select Control Panel.
2. In the Control Panel window, select Network And Internet Connections.
3. In the Network And Internet Connections window, select Windows
Firewall.
4. In the Windows Firewall dialog box, select the Advanced tab. In the
Security Logging section, click Settings to open the Log Settings dialog
box, shown in Figure A-5.
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Figure A-5 Enabling security logging for Windows Firewall
5. In the Logging Options section, select one or both of the following
check boxes:
❑
Log Dropped Packets—Logs all dropped packets originating from the
local network or the Internet
❑
Log Successful Connections—Logs all successful connections originating
from the network or the Internet
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6. Note the location of the security log. By default, it is in the \Windows
\Pfirewall.log file. Click OK to close the Log Settings dialog box. Click
OK again to close the Windows Firewall dialog box.
Accessing the Windows Firewall log file
After you enable logging, you can access the log file by browsing to its location
and opening the file. To locate and open the Windows Firewall log file, follow
these steps:
1. Click Start, and then select Control Panel.
2. In the Control Panel window, select Network And Internet Connections.
3. In the Network And Internet Connections window, select Windows
Firewall.
4. In the Windows Firewall dialog box, select the Advanced tab.
5. In the Security Logging section, click Settings.
6. In the Log Settings dialog box, in the Log File Options section, click
Save As.
7. In the Browse dialog box, right-click the Pfirewall.txt file, and select
Open. Notice that the text file has several headings, including Date,
Time, Action, Protocol, and more.
8. After reviewing the firewall log, close the Notepad window, click OK to
exit the Log Settings dialog box, and then click OK again to close the
Windows Firewall dialog box.
Creating an exception for a service or application
By default, Windows Firewall blocks all unsolicited traffic. You can create exceptions so that particular types of unsolicited traffic are allowed through the firewall.
To create a global exception that applies to all network connections for which
Windows Firewall is enabled, follow these steps:
1. Click Start, and then select Control Panel.
2. In the Control Panel window, select Network And Internet Connections.
3. In the Network And Internet Connections window, select Windows
Firewall.
4. In the Windows Firewall dialog box, select the Exceptions tab, shown
in Figure A-6.
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Figure A-6 Creating a global exception for all connections in Windows
Firewall
5. In the Programs And Services list, select the check box for the service
you want to allow.
6. Click OK to close the Windows Firewall dialog box.
To create an exception for a particular network connection for which Windows
Firewall is enabled, follow these steps:
1. Click Start, and then select Control Panel.
2. In the Control Panel window, select Network And Internet Connections.
3. In the Network And Internet Connections window, select Windows
Firewall.
4. In the Windows Firewall dialog box, select the Advanced tab.
5. In the Network Connection Settings section, select the connection for
which you want to configure an exception, and click Settings.
6. In the Services tab of the Advanced Settings dialog box, shown in
Figure A-7, select the check box for the service you want to allow.
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MICROSOFT WINDOWS XP SERVICE PACK 2
Figure A-7 Creating an exception for a particular network connection in
Windows Firewall
7. Click OK to close the Advanced Settings dialog box. Click OK again to
close the Windows Firewall dialog box.
Creating a custom service definition
In addition to the predefined services for which you can create an exception in
Windows Firewall, you can also define a custom service and then configure it as
an exception.
To create a global custom service exception that applies to all network connections for which Windows Firewall is enabled, follow these steps:
1. Click Start, and then select Control Panel.
2. In the Control Panel window, select Network And Internet Connections.
3. In the Network And Internet Connections window, select Windows
Firewall.
4. In the Windows Firewall dialog box, select the Exceptions tab.
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5. To create a global exception, do either of the following:
❑
Click Add Program to specify the executable file for a particular program installed on your computer. Windows Firewall will monitor
the program and configure the proper TCP or UDP port information
for you.
❑
Click Add Port to create an exception based on a TCP or UDP port
number. You must know the proper port number used by an application or service to use this option.
6. Once you have added an exception, it shows up in the Programs And
Services list in the Exceptions tab of the Windows Firewall dialog box.
Select the check box for the exception to enable it.
7. Click OK to close the Windows Firewall dialog box.
To create a service exception for a particular network connection for which
Windows Firewall is enabled, follow these steps:
1. Click Start, and then select Control Panel.
2. In the Control Panel window, select Network And Internet Connections.
3. In the Network And Internet Connections window, select Windows
Firewall.
4. In the Windows Firewall dialog box, select the Advanced tab.
5. In the Network Connection Settings section, select the connection for
which you want to configure an exception, and click Settings.
6. In the Services tab of the Advanced Settings dialog box, click Add.
7. In the Service Settings dialog box, type a description of the service,
type the IP address of the computer on the network that hosts the service, and configure the port information for the service.
8. Click OK to close the Service Settings dialog box. Click OK to close the
Advanced Settings dialog box. Click OK again to close the Windows
Firewall dialog box.
Configuring ICMP exceptions for a network connection
Desktop technicians and network administrators use ICMP requests to troubleshoot network connectivity. Generally, you enable the ICMP options when you
need them, and then disable them after you have completed troubleshooting. You
cannot set global ICMP exceptions; you must create an exception for a particular
network connection.
APPENDIX A:
MICROSOFT WINDOWS XP SERVICE PACK 2
To create an ICMP exception for a network connection, follow these steps:
1. Click Start, and then select Control Panel.
2. In the Control Panel window, select Network And Internet Connections.
3. In the Network And Internet Connections window, select Windows
Firewall.
4. In the Windows Firewall dialog box, select the Advanced tab.
5. In the Network Connection Settings section, select the connection for
which you want to configure an exception, and click Settings.
6. In the Advanced Settings dialog box, select the ICMP tab, shown in
Figure A-8.
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Figure A-8 Configuring an ICMP exception for a network connection
7. Select the check box for the exception you want to create.
8. Click OK to close the Advanced Settings dialog box. Click OK again to
close the Windows Firewall dialog box.
INTERNET EXPLORER
Windows XP Service Pack 2 introduces a number of new security features to
Internet Explorer 6. As with the rest of the enhancements introduced with
Windows XP Service Pack 2, most of the updates to Internet Explorer are
intended to provide better security. As a DST, you should understand how
these enhancements affect the interface and the user experience.
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Internet Explorer enhancements provided by Windows XP Service Pack 2
include the following:
■
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Information Bar The Internet Explorer Information Bar in
Windows XP Service Pack 2 replaces many of the common dialog
boxes that prompt users for information and provides a common area
for displaying information. Notifications such as blocked ActiveX
installs, blocked pop-up windows, and downloads all appear in the
Information Bar, which appears below the toolbars and above the main
browsing window, as shown in Figure A-9. Either clicking or rightclicking the Information Bar brings up a menu that relates to the notification that is presented. A new custom security zone setting lets users
change the settings of the Information Bar for each security zone,
including the ability to disable the Information Bar and return to using
separate dialog boxes.
Figure A-9 The Internet Explorer Information Bar, which provides a
common notification area
NOTE Microsoft does not use pop-up ads or windows on the
Microsoft.com site. The Internet Explorer window in Figure A-9 was created to show the functionality of the new Information Bar and Pop-Up
Blocker features in Windows XP Service Pack 2.
■
Pop-Up Blocker When Windows XP Service Pack 2 is installed,
Internet Explorer provides a Pop-Up Blocker feature for blocking popup windows (shown in Figure A-9) that displays a notification in the
Information Bar when a pop-up is blocked. Clicking the Information
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MICROSOFT WINDOWS XP SERVICE PACK 2
Bar allows you to show the blocked pop-up, allow all pop-ups on the
current site, and configure other settings.
■
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■
File download prompt With Windows XP Service Pack 2 installed,
Internet Explorer presents a new dialog box when a user downloads a
file, as shown in Figure A-10. The new dialog box displays publisher
information for the file (if available) and a section with information on
the risks of downloading the file.
Figure A-10 The Internet Explorer File Download dialog box, which provides additional file information
Add-on management With Windows XP Service Pack 2 installed,
Internet Explorer prompts users when add-on software tries to install
itself into Internet Explorer. Users can also view and control the list of
add-ons that can be loaded by Internet Explorer. Internet Explorer also
attempts to detect crashes in Internet Explorer that are related to addons. If an add-on is identified, this information is presented to the user
and the user can disable the add-ons to prevent future crashes.
When preparing for the exam, you should be familiar with the following updated
(or new) procedures available after the installation of Windows XP Service Pack 2.
Enabling the Pop-Up Blocker in Internet Explorer
Pop-up windows are not only annoying to users; they can also cause instability in
Internet Explorer. Windows XP Service Pack 2 introduces the first Pop-Up
Blocker built in to Internet Explorer. To enable pop-up blocking in Internet
Explorer, follow these steps:
1. Click Start, and then select Control Panel.
2. In the Control Panel window, select Network And Internet Connections.
3. In the Network And Internet Connections window, select Internet
Options.
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4. In the Internet Properties dialog box, select the Privacy tab, shown in
Figure A-11.
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Figure A-11 Enabling the Pop-Up Blocker in Internet Explorer
5. In the Pop-Up Blocker section, select the Block Pop-Ups check box.
6. Click OK to close the Internet Properties dialog box.
Blocking or allowing a Web site regardless of Internet Explorer privacy
settings
Although the ability to block or allow a Web site regardless of Internet Explorer
privacy settings is present in previous versions of Windows XP, the interface
changes slightly when you install Windows XP Service Pack 2.
To block or allow a Web site in Internet Explorer, follow these steps:
1. In Internet Explorer, from the Tools menu, select Internet Options.
2. In the Privacy tab of the Internet Options dialog box, click Sites.
3. In the Per Site Privacy Actions dialog box, in the Address Of Web Site
text box, type the name of the site you want to block or allow.
4. Perform one of the following actions:
❑
Click Block to block access to the site you typed even if Internet
Explorer’s privacy settings would otherwise allow the site.
❑
Click Allow to allow access to the site you typed even if Internet
Explorer’s privacy settings would otherwise block the site.
5. Click OK to close the Per Site Privacy Actions dialog box.
6. Click OK to close the Internet Options dialog box.
APPENDIX A:
MICROSOFT WINDOWS XP SERVICE PACK 2
Managing add-ons in Internet Explorer
With Windows XP Service Pack 2, you can enable and disable each add-on individually and view information about how often the add-ons have been used by
Internet Explorer. To manage add-ons in Internet Explorer, follow these steps:
1. Click Start, and then select Internet Explorer.
2. From the Tools menu, select Manage Add-Ons.
3. In the Manage Add-Ons dialog box (shown in Figure A-12), from the
Show drop-down list, select one of the following options:
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❑
Add-Ons Currently Loaded In Internet Explorer—This option lists the addons that have been loaded into memory within the current Internet
Explorer process and those that have been blocked from loading. This
includes ActiveX controls that were used by Web pages that were previously viewed within the current process.
❑
Add-Ons That Have Been Used By Internet Explorer—This option lists all
add-ons that have been referenced by Internet Explorer and are still
installed.
Figure A-12 Managing add-ons in Internet Explorer
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4. Select any add-on from the list, and then perform one of the following
actions:
❑
Select the Enable option to re-enable a previously disabled add-on. The
add-on might have been disabled by the user or by Internet Explorer
following a crash.
❑
Select the Disable option to disable an add-on.
❑
Click the Update ActiveX button to update ActiveX controls to their latest version. Windows searches for an update at the location where the
original control was found. If a newer version is found at that location,
Internet Explorer attempts to install the update.
5. Click OK to close the Manage Add-Ons dialog box.
OUTLOOK EXPRESS
Outlook Express is a basic e-mail and newsreader client application included
with Internet Explorer and Windows XP. Windows XP Service Pack 2 includes a
number of new security features, some of which made their debut in Microsoft
Outlook 2003. As a DST, you’ll find that a majority of home users and small business users use Outlook Express as their primary e-mail software. Enhancements
to Outlook Express in Windows XP Service Pack 2 include the following:
■
Outlook Express e-mail attachment prompt When you open or
save an attachment on a message, Outlook Express now uses the same
technology used in Internet Explorer to control file downloads. Executable files are checked for a publisher, and if the executable file does not
include a publisher signature, has an invalid publisher, or has a publisher who has been previously blocked, the file is not allowed to run.
■
Plaintext mode With Windows XP Service Pack 2 installed, Outlook Express now gives you the option to display all incoming mail
messages in plaintext instead of HTML, avoiding common security
problems presented by HTML messages.
■
Block external HTML content HTML messages often include content that must be downloaded from an external server. Senders of
spam frequently use this type of content to include references to
images that reside on their Web servers (sometimes messages that are
only a single pixel in size). When the user opens such a message, previous versions of Outlook Express automatically download and display the images, verifying to the sender that you have an active e-mail
address. With Windows XP Service Pack 2 installed, the default setting
in Outlook Express is to not automatically download external content.
APPENDIX A:
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When preparing for the exam, you should be familiar with the following updated
(or new) procedures available after the installation of Windows XP Service Pack 2.
Blocking images and external content in HTML e-mail
Blocking images and external content in HTML mail prevents senders of spam
from including content in spam messages that is automatically downloaded from
their servers when a user opens a message or views it in the Preview pane in Outlook Express. Blocking external content also prevents Outlook Express from frequently needing to reconnect to the Internet when a user uses a dial-up Internet
connection.
To block images and external content in HTML e-mail, follow these steps:
1. In Outlook Express, from the Tools menu, select Options.
2. In the Options dialog box, select the Security tab, shown in Figure A-13.
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Figure A-13 Blocking external content in HTML e-mail in Outlook Express
3. In the Security tab, select the Block Images And Other External Content In HTML E-Mail check box.
4. Click OK to close the Options dialog box.
Enabling plaintext mode in Outlook Express
Users of Outlook Express frequently complain about delays when displaying
HTML messages. In addition, HTML-formatted messages present security risks.
Viewing messages in plaintext is safer, faster, and often easier for users.
To enable plaintext mode in Outlook Express, follow these steps:
1. In Outlook Express, from the Tools menu, select Options.
2. In the Options dialog box, select the Read tab, shown in Figure A-14.
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Figure A-14 Enabling plaintext mode in Outlook Express
3. In the Read tab, select the Read All Messages In Plain Text check box.
4. Click OK to close the Options dialog box.
SECURITY CENTER
Security Center is an entirely new feature provided by Windows XP Service Pack 2.
The Security Center service runs as a background process in Windows XP and
routinely checks the status of the following components.
■
Windows Firewall Security Center detects whether Windows Firewall is enabled or disabled. Security Center can also detect the presence of some third-party software firewall products.
■
Automatic Updates Security Center detects the current Automatic
Updates setting in Windows XP. If Automatic Updates is turned off or
is not set to the recommended settings, Security Center provides
appropriate recommendations.
■
Virus protection Security Center detects the presence of many
third-party antivirus software programs. If the information is available,
the Security Center service also determines whether the software is up
to date and whether real-time scanning is turned on.
When Security Center is running, its presence is indicated by an icon in the notification area on the Windows taskbar, as shown in Figure A-15. When Security
Center detects an important security condition (such as improper settings), it displays a pop-up notice in the notification area.
APPENDIX A:
MICROSOFT WINDOWS XP SERVICE PACK 2
Figure A-15 The Security Center icon in the notification area, which provides access to
the Security Center window and alerts the user to security conditions
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You can also double-click the Security Center icon in the notification area to open
the main Security Center window, shown in Figure A-16. The Security Center window provides the following information:
■
Resources where you can learn more about security-related issues.
■
An indication of whether Windows Firewall is enabled or disabled, as
well as a shortcut for opening the Windows Firewall dialog box.
■
The current configuration for Automatic Updates, as well as a link for
changing Automatic Updates settings.
■
The current status of antivirus software installed on the computer. For
some antivirus products, Security Center can also determine whether
the antivirus software is up to date.
■
Additional shortcuts for opening the Internet Options and System
dialog boxes.
Figure A-16 The Security Center window, which provides a central interface for managing security on a computer running Windows XP
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In cases where you are running firewall or antivirus software that
is not detected by Security Center, Security Center presents options for
bypassing alerting for that component. If you see a Recommendations
button, you can use it to open a window that lets you disable alerts or
research appropriate third-party products.
NOTE
467
GLOSSARY
Accelerated Graphics Port (AGP) A
bus specification based on Peripheral
Component Interconnect (PCI) but
optimized for the demands of 3-D
graphics adapters.
Administrator account Arguably the
most important user account on a computer, this account is a member of the
Administrators group and has full
access to the computer.
access control entry (ACE) An entry in
the discretionary access control list for
a file or folder that defines the permissions associated with a particular user
account or group.
Advanced Configuration and Power
Interface (ACPI) An open industry
specification that defines power management on a wide range of mobile,
desktop, and server computers and
peripherals. ACPI provides for the
OnNow industry initiative that allows
computer manufacturers to configure a
computer that will start at the touch of
a keyboard. ACPI design is essential to
taking full advantage of power management and Plug and Play.
Accessibility Options Built-in features
of Windows XP designed to help users
with disabilities use their computers
more effectively.
ACE
See access control entry (ACE).
ACPI See Advanced Configuration and
Power Interface (ACPI).
Active Directory A single point-ofadministration database that contains
information about a network’s users,
workstations, servers, printers, and
other resources. Active Directory
(found on a domain controller) determines who can access what and to what
degree. Active Directory is essential to
maintaining, organizing, and securing
the resources on a larger network. It
allows network administrators to centrally manage resources, and it is extensible—meaning that it can be
configured to grow and be personalized for any company.
Add Printer Wizard A wizard used to
install local and network printers.
administrative shares Shares that are
created automatically and cannot be
unshared through conventional shared
folder administration. The names of
these shares all end in $, which means
that they are hidden shares and cannot
be viewed when users are browsing for
shared folder resources.
Advanced Power Management
(APM) An advanced Plug and Play
specification that is designed to support battery status, suspend, resume,
and autohibernate functions.
AGP See Accelerated Graphics Port
(AGP).
answer file A text file that supplies
configuration information during an
unattended installation. Setup Manager
is used to create answer files.
APIPA See Automatic Private IP
Addressing (APIPA).
APM See Advanced Power Management
(APM).
attribute A property assigned to a file
or folder that controls how Windows
displays or allows access to the object.
AutoComplete A feature that helps
users work, browse, and purchase
items on the Internet faster than normal by automatically listing possible
matches for Web addresses, forms, and
user names and passwords on forms.
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GLOSSARY
automated installation An installation that does not require a user to provide information during setup. There
are several ways to automate an installation, but they all share a common purpose: reducing or eliminating the
amount of user intervention that is
required during the setup process.
Automatic Private IP Addressing
(APIPA) A method of automatically
assigning an IP address to a computer
when either no address is assigned or
no DHCP server is available.
baseline A reference point of performance data collected at a time when
the computer has adequate resources
and is performing well.
basic disk A physical disk that can be
accessed locally by MS-DOS and all
Windows-based operating systems.
Basic disks can contain up to four primary partitions or three primary partitions and an extended partition with
multiple logical drives. To create partitions that span multiple disks, first convert the basic disk to a dynamic disk
using Disk Management or the Diskpart.exe command-line utility. Note
that whether a disk is basic or dynamic
has no bearing on whether computers
running other operating systems can
connect to shared folders on the disk.
basic input/output system (BIOS) A
set of basic software routines that
resides in a special area of permanent
memory on a computer. A computer’s
BIOS program determines in what
order the computer searches for system
files on bootup, and it manages communication between the operating system and the attached devices on
bootup. It is an integral part of the computer.
bidirectional communication Allows
Windows to receive setting and status
information from the printer. Most
modern printers and computers support bidirectional communication.
BIOS See basic input/output system
(BIOS).
boot partition The disk partition that
possesses the system files required to
load the operating system into memory.
certificates Contain the information
required to establish a secure connection, such as identification information
and encryption keys.
Chkdsk A command-line utility that
verifies and repairs the integrity of the
file system on a volume.
clean installation An installation in
which there is no existing operating
system on the computer, or one in
which the existing installation will not
be preserved.
color quality Governs the number of
colors used to display the Windows
desktop and other on-screen elements.
Common settings include Medium (16
bit), High (24 bit), and Highest (32 bit).
compressed folder A folder that has
been condensed so that it appears as a
single file that takes up less space.
Compressed folders are compatible
with other programs that create zipped
files so that the compressed folders can
be shared easily with other users, even
if those users are not running Windows
XP Professional Edition. Also known as
a zipped folder.
Computer Management A Microsoft
Management Console window that provides tools for managing shared folders, users and groups, storage,
hardware devices, and event logs.
Content Advisor Controls the display
of sites based on rating levels defined
by the Recreational Software Advisory
Council on the Internet (RSACi).
cookie A small text file that a Web site
creates and stores on the user’s computer. Cookies detail what users’ preferences are, what they purchased, and
GLOSSARY
any personal information offered by
the user.
counter A particular aspect of an object
that the Performance tool can measure.
DACL See discretionary access control
list (DACL).
default gateway The router to which
the Transmission Control Protocol/
Internet Protocol (TCP/IP) client will
forward packets destined for computers on other networks.
defragmentation The process of rearranging the various pieces of files and
folders on the disk into contiguous
spaces, thereby improving performance.
device driver A software component
that permits a computer system to communicate with a device. In most cases,
the driver also manipulates the hardware to transmit the data to the device.
Device drivers that are incompatible,
corrupt, outdated, or of the wrong version for the hardware can cause errors
that are difficult to diagnose.
Device Manager An administrative tool
that can be used to manage the devices
on a computer. Device Manager can be
used to view and change device properties, update device drivers, configure
device settings, and uninstall devices.
DHCP See Dynamic Host Configuration
Protocol (DHCP).
discretionary access control list
(DACL) Contains the user accounts
and groups that have been granted permissions to a resource and the specific
permissions that have been granted.
Each entry in the DACL is called an
access control entry.
Disk Cleanup A utility that calculates
the amount of space that can be gained
by deleting certain types of files, such
as temporary files and downloaded
program files.
Disk Defragmenter The program used
in Windows XP to defragment a disk.
See also defragmentation.
disk duplication An installation process in which an administrator creates a
disk image based on a Windows XP
installation on a standardized computer. The image is then copied to other
computers.
Disk Management The process of creating, managing, and monitoring disks
in Windows XP, as well as the name of
the Windows XP utility used to perform these functions.
disk partition A logical section of a
hard disk on which the computer can
write data.
disk quota A system that allows administrators to control the amount of disk
space that any individual user can
consume.
DiskPart A command used to execute
disk management tasks from a command prompt and to create scripts
for automating tasks that the user
needs to perform frequently or on
multiple computers.
Display Properties The dialog box
used to perform the majority of display
support and customization tasks in
Windows XP.
DNS
See Domain Name System (DNS).
Domain Name System (DNS) This
technology maps user-friendly Internet
addresses to the more complex
numeric Transmission Control Protocol/Internet Protocol (TCP/IP)
addresses. This enables users to type
friendly Uniform Resource Locators
(URLs), such as www.microsoft.com, in
their Web browser instead of longer
and more complicated numerical
names.
471
472
GLOSSARY
domain user account A type of
account created using the Active Directory Users And Computers utility on
domain controllers and stored in the
Active Directory database.
drive letter Used to identify a volume
so that it can be accessed through
Windows Explorer and other applications. Hard disks, floppy drives,
CD-ROM and DVD drives, removable
drives, and tape devices are assigned
drive letters.
Driver.cab A single cabinet file that
contains all the drivers shipped with
Windows XP. Having access to these
drivers enables the user to add a
new device without accessing the
installation CD .
driver rollback A feature in Windows
XP that permits a previously installed
driver to be reinstalled, or rolled back.
The uninstalled drivers are stored in
the SystemRoot\System32\Reinstallbackups folder.
driver signing A process in which
device drivers that have passed a series
of tests by Microsoft are digitally
signed, enabling the operating system
to determine whether the drivers are
acceptable for use.
dynamic disk A physical disk that can
be accessed locally only by Windows
2000 and Windows XP. Dynamic disks
provide features that basic disks do not,
such as support for volumes that span
multiple disks. Dynamic disks use a
hidden database to track information
about dynamic volumes on the disk
and other dynamic disks in the computer. Basic disks are converted to
dynamic disks by using the Disk Management snap-in or the DiskPart command-line utility. When a basic disk is
converted to a dynamic disk, all existing basic volumes become dynamic volumes. Note that whether a disk is basic
or dynamic has no bearing on whether
computers running other operating
systems can connect to shared folders
on the disk.
Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol
(DHCP) A service that automatically
handles requests for Transmission
Control Protocol/Internet Protocol
(TCP/IP) configuration information to
client systems.
effective permissions The permissions
level that a user actually has, taking all
permission sources into account.
EFS
See Encrypting File System (EFS).
EFS recovery agent A user account
that is explicitly granted rights to
recover encrypted data.
Encrypting File System (EFS) A system that allows administrators to
encrypt files and folders (protect them
by making them unreadable by anyone
except users to whom the administrator provides access).
Fast User Switching Allows multiple
local user accounts to log on to a computer simultaneously. When Fast User
Switching is enabled, users can switch
sessions without logging off or closing
programs.
FAT
See file allocation table (FAT).
file
A collection of data that has a name.
file allocation table (FAT) A file system
used in previous versions of Windows
and still supported in Windows XP.
Older versions of Windows, such as
Windows 3.1, use a 16 bit version of
FAT named FAT16. More recent versions of Windows, such as Windows
98, use a 32 bit version of FAT named
FAT32.
file association The process of matching a file extension to an application.
File association determines which
application will run or open the file by
default.
file compression A file attribute that
increases the amount of available disk
space, giving users the ability to store
more data on a hard disk.
file encryption See Encrypting File
System (EFS).
GLOSSARY
file extension Three characters
appended to a file name that indicate
how Windows uses a program. For
example, the file extension can indicate
that a file is executable (such a .exe file)
or can indicate the application used to
open the file in Windows (such as .xls
to signify Microsoft Excel).
File Signature Verification Utility
(Sigverif.exe) A utility that is used to
scan a Windows XP system for
unsigned files, providing a simple
method to identify unsigned drivers.
Group Policy Enables the enforcement
of security policies across all users in a
specific site or domain. In an Active
Directory environment, administrators
can apply Group Policy to domains,
sites, or organizational units (OUs),
each of which is a type of container that
is used to group user and computer
accounts in the domain.
Group Similar Taskbar Buttons An
option that saves room on the taskbar
by grouping similar entries (for example, all open Word documents).
File Transfer Protocol (FTP) A protocol used for exchanging files over a
Transmission Control Protocol/Internet Protocol (TCP/IP)–based network.
Guest account An account with limited
privileges which is used to provide
access to users who do not have a user
account on a computer or network.
Files And Settings Transfer Wizard A
wizard used by administrators to transfer user configuration settings and files
from systems running Windows 95 or
later to a clean Windows XP installation.
hidden share A method of preventing
users who are browsing the network
from also viewing the share. If a dollar
sign ($) is appended to a share name,
the share becomes hidden.
FireWire A specification that allows for
data transfer rates of 400 or 800 Mbps.
Also known as IEEE 1394.
History A folder in which Internet
Explorer automatically stores a list of
links to pages recently visited.
fixed storage Storage devices that are
not removable, such as a hard drive.
home page The Web site that opens
automatically when Internet Explorer
starts.
folder An object that is used to group
files and other folders in Windows.
host ID Portion of an IP address that
identifies the host within that network.
fragmentation Occurs when files are
frequently added and removed from
the disk or when the disk begins to fill
up. In both of these cases, it can be difficult for the operating system to locate
a contiguous area of the disk to write
data to, and the data can become fragmented.
HTTP See Hypertext Transfer Protocol
(HTTP).
FTP
See File Transfer Protocol (FTP).
Gpresult A command-line tool that lets
administrators view the policy settings
in effect for a computer.
group A type of account created in
Windows XP Professional Edition that
can be granted rights and permissions
only to a local computer.
Hypertext Transfer Protocol
(HTTP) A protocol used to define
how Web browsers and Web servers
communicate. It is used to carry
requests from a browser to a Web
server, and to transport pages from
Web servers back to the requesting
browser.
ICF See Internet Connection Firewall
(ICF).
IDE See Integrated Device Electronics
(IDE).
473
474
GLOSSARY
Inline AutoComplete Completes
entries in the Address bar as they are
typed (based on previous entries), and
offers a list of choices under the
Address bar for other links that start
the same way.
input language Tells Windows how to
react when a user types text using the
keyboard.
instance A specific occurrence of an
object in the Performance tool.
Integrated Device Electronics (IDE) A
specification for a mass storage device
controller in which the controller is
integrated with the storage device.
Internet Connection Firewall (ICF) A
software-based firewall that is included
with Windows XP.
Internet Explorer The Web browser
that is provided with Windows XP.
Internet Options The dialog box available in Internet Explorer for configuring program settings.
IP address A number that uniquely
identifies a device on a Transmission
Control Protocol/Internet Protocol
(TCP/IP) network.
Ipconfig A command-line utility that
can be used to view Transmission Control Protocol/Internet Protocol (TCP/
IP) configuration information.
Last Known Good Configuration The
configuration settings that existed the
last time the computer started
successfully.
local print provider A service that
sends a print job through the print processor and separator page processors
and then forwards the job to the appropriate port monitor. The local print provider service exists on the server side of
the printing process.
Local Security Policy A group of policies set by the administrator to secure
or monitor a specific computer.
local user account A user account created on a local computer.
Local Users And Groups tool Provides
a much richer environment for creating
and managing users than does the User
Accounts tool. For example, the Local
Users And Groups tool can be used to
control group membership, reset passwords, disable accounts, and so on.
Windows XP Professional Edition provides the Local Users And Groups tool;
Windows XP Home Edition does not.
logical partition A disk storage area
that is created within an extended partition on a basic Master Boot Record
(MBR) disk. Logical drives are similar to
primary partitions, except that an
unlimited number of logical drives
can be created per disk. A logical drive
can be formatted and assigned a drive
letter.
logical printer The software configuration that is created in Windows and displayed as an icon in Printers And Faxes.
loopback address An address that is
used for testing Transmission Control
Protocol/Internet Protocol (TCP/IP)
configuration and that cannot be
assigned to individual devices on a
TCP/IP network. Normally it is
127.0.0.1.
multiple boot installation An installation in which multiple operating systems are installed on a computer, and
the user can select which operating system to use during system startup.
NetBIOS name A 16-character name
assigned to a computer that is used by
NetBIOS applications when establishing connections.
network ID Portion of an IP address
that identifies the network on which a
host is found.
network installation An installation in
which the Windows XP installation
files are located on a network share.
GLOSSARY
notification area Displays the system
clock and programs that are running in
the background.
NTFS The native file management system for Windows XP. However,
Windows XP is also capable of using
file allocation table (FAT) and FAT32
file systems to maintain compatibility
with previous versions of Windows.
NTFS permissions Allow administrators to control which user accounts and
groups can access files and folders, and
specifically which actions the users can
perform. NTFS permissions are available only on volumes that are formatted with NTFS.
Pathping A command-line utility that is
used to trace routes across a series of
networks, combining the features of
Ping and Tracert.
PCI See Peripheral Component Interconnect (PCI).
Performance Logs And Alerts A function of the Performance tool that allows
administrators to log counter information to a file and to trigger alerts that are
based on configured events.
Performance console A utility that captures performance information for various subsystems on a computer and
displays the results graphically or logs
the results to a file.
object An element that represents a
major system component (hardware or
software) of the computer or operating
system in the Performance tool. Examples of objects include physical disks,
processor, and memory.
Peripheral Component Interconnect
(PCI) A bus specification that is the
standard implementation on modern
computers. PCI replaced the older ISA
architecture.
offline files Files and folders that are
available to a user when the user is no
longer connected to the network share.
permission A specific security setting
that controls a user’s ability to access
resources such as files, folders, and
printers.
owner The user who created a file,
folder, or printer.
page fault A normal process that
occurs when a program requests data
that is not currently loaded into the
computer’s real memory. When this
occurs, Windows attempts to retrieve
the data from the virtual memory that
is stored to hard disk.
paging file A section of hard disk space
set aside to act as virtual memory.
Sometimes called a swap file.
Password Policy A policy in which the
length, reuse, and complexity of a password can be set.
password reset disk A floppy disk that
contains encrypted password information and allows users to change their
password without knowing the old
password.
Ping A command-line utility for testing
basic Transmission Control Protocol/
Internet Protocol (TCP/IP) communications.
pixel A single point on a monitor or
graphic image. The picture displayed
on a monitor is divided into thousands
of pixels arranged in rows and columns.
Plug and Play A technology that
enables the computer to determine
automatically which hardware devices
are installed on the computer and then
to allocate the system resources to
those devices as required.
Preboot Execution Environment
(PXE) A standardized client/server
interface that allows a client computer
without an operating system to be
booted remotely by a server. A computer with a PXE-compliant network
475
476
GLOSSARY
adapter broadcasts its presence on the
network. A server then provides the
computer with the information that is
necessary to access the RIS server. After
the computer starts, installation can
happen automatically, or the RIS server
can allow the user to select an operating system to install.
print job A document that Windows
has prepared for printing. Print jobs
wait in a printer’s print queue until it is
their turn to be printed.
print permissions Permissions that
enable administrators to control which
users can access a printer and which
actions they will be able to perform.
print processor Software that makes
any necessary modifications to the
print job, and then calls on the Graphical Device Interface (GDI) to further
render the job, if necessary. Windows
XP includes Winprint as its only print
processor.
print router Locates a remote print
provider that can service the print job’s
protocol. The file Spoolss.exe contains
the print router.
print server The computer or other
remote device that has a network
printer physically connected to it.
print spooling The process of saving a
print job to the hard disk before sending it to the printer.
printer The physical device used for
printing. This device is usually a standard printer, but it can also be a fax
device, a plotter, or a file. It might also
refer to the combination of the physical
and logical printer.
printer driver The software driver containing printer-specific information.
printer pool A printing option that permits two or more printers to be attached
to a single printer configuration.
Profile Assistant Stores personal information, which can then be sent automatically to a Web site when the Web
site requests the information.
proxy servers Used to centralize Internet connection settings, increase security by controlling which resources a
client can access, and speed up Internet
access by caching Web pages to the
server.
PSTN See Public Switched Telephone
Network (PSTN).
Public Switched Telephone Network
(PSTN) The international phone system that carries voice transmissions
over copper lines.
PXE See Preboot Execution Environment (PXE).
Quick Launch toolbar A toolbar that
appears on the Windows Taskbar and
holds shortcuts for frequently used programs, folders, or files.
Recovery Console A command-line
utility that supplies access to the hard
disks and many command-line utilities
when the operating system will not
start. The Recovery Console can access
all volumes on the drive, regardless of
the file system type. The Recovery Console can be used to perform several
operating system troubleshooting
tasks.
Recreational Software Advisory Council on the Internet (RSACi) An organization that provides a voluntary
content-rating system used to assess
the levels of language, nudity, sex, and
violence on a Web site. Internet
Explorer can be configured to block or
allow the display of Web pages based
on RSACi ratings.
Remote Assistance A service that
enables users to request support from a
more advanced user or from computer
support personnel.
GLOSSARY
Remote Desktop A process that enables
users to access their computers
remotely across the network and use
the desktop as if they were sitting in
front of the computer.
Remote Installation Services (RIS) A
service that is available for servers running Windows 2000 Server and
Windows Server 2003. The RIS server
is a disk image server that contains as
many disk images as are necessary to
support the different configurations of
Windows XP on a network. A RIS client
is a computer that connects to the RIS
server and downloads an image.
remote print provider A service that
can forward jobs to remote print servers.
removable storage A storage device
that allows the user to remove either
the device itself or the storage media
that the device uses.
Resultant Set of Policy (RSoP) The
effective cumulative set of local and
group policies applied to a computer.
RIS See Remote Installation Services
(RIS).
RSACi See Recreational Software Advisory Council on the Internet (RSACi).
RSoP
See Resultant Set of Policy (RSoP).
safe mode An alternative startup mode
that loads a minimal set of device drivers, such as keyboard, mouse, and standard-mode Video Graphics Array
(VGA) drivers, that are activated to start
the computer.
screen resolution A setting that governs the number of pixels that are displayed on the screen. Using a larger
screen resolution means that more
information (windows, dialog boxes,
icons, and so on) can fit on the screen
at one time, but it also means that the
relative size of those elements appears
smaller than at lower resolutions.
SCSI See Small Computer System Interface (SCSI).
Secure Sockets Layer (SSL) A protocol
that uses a private key system to transmit private documents securely over a
Transmission Control Protocol/Internet Protocol (TCP/IP)–based network.
Security Identifier (SID) A unique
identifier assigned at the time an
account is created.
security policy A combination of security settings that affect the security on a
computer.
security zone A list of Web sites
deemed to have similar security settings requirements. You can configure a
different level for each security zone
and then place sites into these zones
according to how much you trust the
sites.
separator page A page that indicates
the name of the document and time of
printing. Separator pages help users
distinguish between different documents on printers in which multiple
documents are routinely printed.
service level agreement (SLA) An
agreement between parties (such as a
call center and the company that hires
it) that defines how long a call should
take, how much should be spent on
each incident, and which reports and
documents must be maintained. The
SLA also defines penalties for not meeting those requirements.
service pack A collection of software
updates and new features for Microsoft
products.
Setup Manager A program used to create an answer file that specifies configuration information for unattended
installations.
Shared Documents folder The folder
used in Simple File Sharing that contains all shared files and folders.
477
478
GLOSSARY
shared folder permission A security
setting that defines the network access
granted to users or groups for a shared
folder.
shared folder A folder that is made
accessible to users on the network.
SID
See Security Identifier (SID).
Simple File Sharing A type of sharing
that is used when a Windows XP computer has not joined a domain or is running Windows XP Home Edition.
simple volume A dynamic volume that
contains disk space from a single disk
and that can be extended if necessary.
SLA
See service level agreement (SLA).
Small Computer System Interface
(SCSI) A parallel interface specification for mass storage devices that provides faster data transmission than
standard serial and parallel ports.
smart card A small, credit-card-sized
device that is used to store information,
generally authentication credentials,
such as public and private keys, and
other forms of personal information.
spanned volume A dynamic volume
that contains disk space from 2 to 32
disks. The amount of disk space from
each disk can vary. There is no fault tolerance in spanned volumes. If any of
the disks containing the spanned volume fail, all data in the entire spanned
volume is lost.
spool directory The folder to which
print documents are spooled. This
folder is SystemRoot\System32\
Spool\Printers by default.
SSL
See Secure Sockets Layer (SSL).
standard installation An installation
in which the user remains at the computer to supply information that is
needed by Windows.
Start menu Provides access to the available programs, network places, connections, help and support files, recent
documents, and other items on the
computer.
stop error An error that occurs when
the computer detects a condition from
which it cannot recover. The computer
stops responding and displays a screen
of information on a blue background.
striped volume A dynamic volume that
contains disk space from 2 to 32 disks.
Unlike spanned volumes, striped volumes require that an identical amount
of disk space from each disk is used.
Striped volumes provide increased performance because it is faster to read or
write two smaller pieces of a file on two
drives than to read or write the entire
file on a single drive. However, striped
volumes cannot be extended, and they
provide no fault tolerance.
subnet mask A method of separating
the network portion of an IP address
from the host portion of an IP address.
Super Video Graphics Array
(SVGA) A set of graphics standards
that support a palette of 16 million colors and up to 800 x 600 resolution.
SVGA See Super Video Graphics Array
(SVGA).
System Configuration Utility A tool
that provides an interface for controlling the Windows XP startup environment, including programs that start
when Windows starts. The System
Configuration Utility is launched by
typing msconfig at the Run dialog box
or command prompt.
System Information A utility that
allows the user to view the status
of different components of a Windows
XP system, including hardware devices.
system partition Contains the hardware-specific files that are required to
load and start Windows XP. Often, but
GLOSSARY
not always, the system partition is the
same as the boot partition.
System Preparation (Sysprep.exe) A
program that allows administrators to
prepare images of a Windows XP
installation for distribution by removing machine-specific information from
the image.
Task Manager A utility that provides
information on currently running
applications and processes as well as
basic performance and networking
information.
taskbar Displays files and programs
that are currently open and running in
Windows XP.
TCP/IP See Transmission Control Protocol/Internet Protocol (TCP/IP).
temporary Internet file A cached file
stored temporarily to the hard disk.
Temporary Internet files allow a user to
use the Back and Forward buttons,
access History, and use offline files and
folders. Retrieving information from
the Temporary Internet Files folder is
much faster than retrieving information
from the Internet.
Tracert A utility used to follow the communication path from router to router
between the source and destination
hosts.
Transmission Control Protocol/Internet Protocol (TCP/IP) The networking protocol that is used on the Internet
and on most local area networks
(LANs).
UDF See uniqueness database file
(UDF).
uniqueness database file (UDF) A
text file used in conjunction with an
answer file that specifies configuration
information unique to each computer
on which Windows XP will be
installed.
universal serial bus (USB) An external
serial bus developed to provide a fast,
flexible method of attaching up to 127
peripheral devices to a computer.
upgrade An installation in which
Windows XP is installed over an
installation of a previous version of
Windows.
USB
See universal serial bus (USB).
user account A collection of settings
that define the actions that a user can
perform after the user has logged on to
Windows XP. In Windows XP, the user
can log on using a local or a domain
user account.
User Accounts tool A tool that provides a simple interface for creating
user accounts and a limited set of
options for managing accounts, such as
the ability to change passwords and
change the basic account type.
user profile A group of user-specific
configuration settings, such as a customized desktop or personalized application settings.
user rights A feature that gives the user
the ability to perform a particular task.
User State Migration Tool (USMT) A
tool that allows administrators to transfer user configuration settings and files
from systems running Windows 95 or
later to a clean Windows XP installation.
USMT See User State Migration Tool
(USMT).
virtual memory Created by extending
the physical memory assigned to an
application to the computer’s hard
drive. By correctly anticipating applications’ needs, and by storing pages of
memory to hard disk as necessary,
Windows uses virtual memory to allow
a computer to operate with less physical memory.
479
480
GLOSSARY
Windows Catalog A list of devices that
Microsoft has tested and supports for
use with Windows XP.
Windows XP. This utility allows users
to pinpoint problems and identify solutions to those problems.
Windows Internet Naming Service
(WINS) A service that runs on one or
more Windows NT, Windows 2000
Server, or Windows .NET Server computers in the network.
Winnt.exe A command used to start a
Windows installation from the command prompt in MS-DOS or Windows
3.x.
Windows Product Activation
(WPA) Windows XP Professional
Edition requires that the operating system be activated with Microsoft within
30 days of installation. If the operating
system is not activated within this time,
Windows ceases to function until it is
activated.
Windows Troubleshooters A special
type of help that is available in
Winnt32.exe A command used to start
a Windows installation from the command prompt in Windows 95,
Windows 98, Windows Millennium
Edition (Windows Me), or Windows
2000.
WINS See Windows Internet Naming
Service (WINS).
WPA See Windows Product Activation
(WPA).
INDEX
Symbols
$ (dollar sign), 180–81, 188
A
Accelerated Graphics Port (AGP), 244
access control entry (ACE), 164
Accessibility Options, 135–36, 392
Accessibility Wizard, 136
Account Lockout Policy, 107, 108–9
ACE (access control entry), 164
ACPI. See Advanced Configuration and Power
Interface (ACPI)
activating Windows, 59–60
Active Directory, 6, 104
Add Hardware Wizard, 212–16
Add Printer Wizard, 306, 327–28
Address bar, Internet Explorer, 405–6
Admin$ share, 188
administrative shares, 188–89
Administrator account, 82
administrators, 8
Administrators group, 88
Advanced Attributes dialog box, 153
advanced boot options, 69–72
Advanced Configuration and Power Interface
(ACPI), 257–61
configuration of, 258–61
overview of, 257–58
Plug and Play devices and, 211
advanced permissions
for files and folders, 169
for printers, 322–23
Advanced Power Management (APM), 211, 258
Advanced Security Settings dialog box, 169
Effective Permissions tab, 172
Owner tab, 175–76
Permissions tab, 173, 322
AGP devices, 244
alarms, 259
alerts, 434, 436–37
All Programs list, 131–32
All Users profile, 96
allow permissions, 168, 170–71
American National Standards Institute (ANSI), 303
answer files, 40
troubleshooting problems with, 59
unattended installations using, 40–41
APIPA (Automatic Private IP Addressing), 354–55
APM (Advanced Power Management), 211, 258
Apmstat.exe utility, 258
Application Data folder, 95
applications
Internet Explorer options for, 396–97
removing unnecessary background, 421–22
shared printer connections from, 328–29
architects, 7
archived files, 151
associations. See file associations
attributes, 148, 151–52
audio playback problems, 292
Audit Policy, 107, 109–12
choosing events to audit, 109–10
configuring audit settings, 111
reasons for using, 110
viewing audit entries, 111–12
auditable events, 109–10
Authenticated Users group, 90, 91
AutoComplete feature, 394, 408–9
enabling or disabling, 408–9
Inline AutoComplete, 409
automated installations, 37, 39–41
answer files used for, 40–41
methods for performing, 40
automatic caching, 197
Automatic Private IP Addressing (APIPA), 354–55
Automatic Updates feature, 62–63
Avg. Disk Queue Length counter, 432
B
background applications, 421–22
Backup Operators group, 88
Bad Password error message, 99
baseline information, 432, 437
basic disks, 266–67
converting to dynamic disks, 276–78
extending volumes on, 280–81
logical drives on, 271–72
partitions on, 266–67, 269–71
reverting from dynamic disks to, 278–79
basic input/output system. See BIOS (basic
input/output system)
basic permissions
for files and folders, 164–65
for printers, 321–22
battery power, 259–60
bidirectional communication, 313
binary numbers, 335
BIOS (basic input/output system), 18
ACPI support, 258
APM compatibility, 258
checking USB function in, 255
preparing for installation, 35
startup process and, 66–67
blue screen errors, 55–57
boot floppy disks, 38
BOOT.INI file, 422
boot logging, 69, 71
boot partitions, 45
boot process. See also startup process
advanced boot options, 69–72
Recovery Console and, 72–74
steps in process of, 66–68
browsing options, 398
C
cable connections, 346–47, 358
cached credentials, 101–2
Caching Settings dialog box, 197
481
482
calculating effective permissions
calculating effective permissions
NTFS permissions, 170–72
print permissions, 324
shared folder permissions, 185–88
cameras, 248
CAPS LOCK key, 99
case scenarios. See also review questions
about desktop support, 30–31
about disk quotas, 207
about display settings, 264
about file compression, 207
about hard disks, 297
about hardware drivers, 239
about installing Windows XP, 77–78
about Internet Explorer, 418
about network connectivity, 386
about performance issues, 443
about power settings, 264
about printers, 331
about Remote Desktop, 386
about Simple File Sharing, 207–8
about the Start menu, 145
about startup problems, 78
about the taskbar, 145
about user accounts, 117
about volume mount points, 297
CD-ROM drives, 35
problems with installations from, 58
troubleshooting problems with, 291–93
certificates, 393–94
Certmgr.msc command, 157
Change permission, 183
Chkdsk utility, 285–86, 423
CIDR (classless interdomain routing)
notation, 340–41
Cipher /r: filename command, 157
classes, IP address, 336–37
Classic Start menu, 131, 134–35, 145
classless interdomain routing (CIDR)
notation, 340–41
clean installations, 36
clients, offline file configuration, 198–99
Cmdlines.txt file, 65
color
Internet Explorer, 392
Windows XP, 243
color quality, 243
combination installation, 65
command line
installing Windows XP from, 38–39
managing disks from, 284–85
reference on using, 362
Windows update parameters, 64
commands. See also specific commands
Recovery Console, 73–74
TCP/IP troubleshooting, 359–62
Windows setup, 41
commit charge, 430
communication
bidirectional, 313
talent for, 4
company documentation, 17
Components node, System Information, 217
compressed files and folders, 153–55. See also file
compression
creating, 153–54
disk cleanup and, 290
moving and copying, 154
troubleshooting, 162–63
volume formatting and, 273
zipped folders, 154–55
compressed (zipped) folders, 154–55
\\Computer1\C$ command, 188
Computer Management utility
group creation in, 91
managing shared folders in, 189–92
remote computer connection in, 284
shared folder creation in, 190
shortcut for opening, 83
user account creation in, 83–84
viewing shared folders in, 189–90
computer-repair businesses, 10
computers
monitoring performance of, 428–40
multiple monitors on, 244–46
optimizing performance of, 420–28
sharing files on, 194–95
startup process for, 66–67
configuring
audit settings, 111
disk quotas, 159–60
display devices, 242–44
hardware profiles, 236
I/O devices, 247–56
ICMP options, 368–70
Internet Explorer, 388–404
language options, 139–40
network connections, 350–56
offline files, 196–99
power management, 258–61
printers, 311–19
regional options, 138–39
Remote Desktop, 378–80
security policy, 106–15
shared folders, 177–82
Conflicting Device List, 223
Connections tab, Internet Options dialog
box, 394–96
connectivity problems, 346–48
cable connections, 346–47
networking hardware, 347–48
Content Advisor, 392, 393
Content tab, Internet Options dialog box, 392–94
Control Panel
Accessibility Options, 135–36
Regional and Language Options, 137
cookies, 402–4
privacy settings for, 403–4
Web site display problems and, 412
Cookies folder, 95
corporations, 5–9
job titles/requirements in, 8–9
tier structure in, 7–8
types of networks in, 5–7
corrupted files, 163
counter logs, 434
counters, 431
adding, 432–33
default, 432
disk, 439–40
memory, 437–38
processor, 438–39
CPUs
monitoring usage of, 429
system requirements for, 34
Create Shared Folder dialog box
Create Shared Folder dialog box, 190
critical updates, 61
CSC folder, 200
customer service skills, 3
Customize Classic Start Menu dialog box, 134
Customize Start Menu dialog box, 133
D
DACL (discretionary access control list), 164, 320
DAE (Digital Audio Extraction), 293
data, protecting, 24
debugging mode, 69
decimal numbers, 335
default gateway, 340, 342–43
default NTFS permissions, 166–68
default print permissions, 323
default search actions, 409–10
Default User profile, 96
defragmentation, 286–88
deny permissions, 168, 171–72
desktop configuration, 119, 120–36
Desktop folder, 95
desktop support technicians (DSTs), 1
case scenarios about, 30–31
corporations and, 8–9
ISPs and, 10–11
overview of troubleshooting for, 11–25
private businesses and, 10
review questions about, 26–29
summary points about, 26
telephone call centers and, 9–10
traits of qualified, 3–4
device drivers. See drivers
Device Manager, 219–26
CD-ROM/DVD-ROM options in, 292
changing views in, 220–21
disabling devices in, 224–25
hidden devices in, 221
hot-plugged devices and, 225–26
identifying devices in, 221
methods for accessing, 220
networking hardware and, 347–48
removing devices in, 224, 225–26
resource assignments in, 223–24
scanning for hardware changes in, 224
troubleshooting with, 227–28, 347–48
USB problems and, 255
viewing device properties in, 221–22
device settings, 317
device-specific tabs, 222
DHCP servers, 353–54
diagnostics, modem, 253
dial-up connections, 350
Digital Audio Extraction (DAE), 293
digital subscriber line (DSL), 339, 358
DirectX Diagnostic Tool, 219
disabled connections, 351
disconnected connections, 351
discretionary access control list (DACL), 164, 320
Disk Cleanup utility, 288–90, 423
disk compression, 46
Disk Defragmenter, 286–88, 423
disk duplication, 40, 41–42
disk images, 42
Disk Management tool, 269–83
disk partitions, 43–45
creating, 269–72
system and boot, 45
types of, 43–44, 266–67
disk queue, 440
disk quotas, 46, 148, 158–61
case scenario about, 207
configuring, 159–60
considerations about, 160–61
disk reads, 439
disk writes, 440
DiskPart command interpreter, 284–85
display adapters, 34, 244
display devices, 242–47
case scenario on, 264
configuring settings for, 242–44
multiple monitor support, 244–46
review questions about, 262
summary points about, 262
system requirements for, 34
troubleshooting, 246–47, 264
Display Properties dialog box, 242
DNS. See Domain Name System (DNS)
documentation
company, 17
problem/solution, 24–25
Documents And Settings folder, 94
dollar sign ($), 180–81, 188
Domain Admins group, 89
domain controllers, 102
Domain Guests group, 89
Domain Name System (DNS), 11, 343–44
information resource about, 344
troubleshooting, 363
domain user accounts, 80
Domain Users group, 89, 90
domain-based groups, 89–90
domains, 6
logon problems, 101–2
multiple, 7
dotted decimal notation, 340, 341
download notification, 410–11
downloaded program files, 289
dpi setting, 243
Dr. Watson tool, 219
drive letters, 273, 276
Driver.cab file, 229, 305
driver rollback, 230
driver signing, 228, 230–32, 239
Driver Signing Options dialog box, 231
Driver tab, Properties dialog box, 222
drivers, 18, 228–32
case scenarios about, 239
installing, 216
missing/defective, 57
modem, 253
printer, 31, 300, 310–11, 326
review questions about, 238
rolling back, 230
signing, 228, 230–32, 239
troubleshooting, 310–11
uninstalling, 230
updating, 61, 229–30, 239
DSL (digital subscriber line), 339, 358
DSTs. See desktop support technicians (DSTs)
483
484
dual-boot installation
dual-boot installation, 37
DVD-ROM drives, 35, 291–93
dynamic disks, 267–68
converting basic disks to, 276–78
extending volumes on, 281–82
importing foreign, 283
multiple boot computers and, 276
removing from the database, 283
reverting to basic disks from, 278–79
shared folders and, 278
Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol (DHCP),
353–54
dynamic volumes, 268
simple, 279
striped, 279–80
E
effective permissions
NTFS, 170–72
print, 324
shared folder, 185–88
EFS. See Encrypting File System (EFS)
EFS recovery agents, 156–58
EMF format, 303
Encrypting File System (EFS), 155. See also file
encryption
best practices, 158
EFS recovery agents, 156–58
troubleshooting, 163
end users
experiences with DSTs, 3
protecting data of, 24
skill levels of, 2–3
engineers, 7
errors. See also troubleshooting
Bad Password, 99
invalid page fault, 413
Knowledge Base searches for, 20
stop or blue screen, 55–57
Unknown Username, 99
Windows XP installation, 54–55
Event Viewer, 111–12
Everyone group, 90, 91
expert users, 3
Export command, 218
exporting Internet favorites, 407
extended partitions
creating, 271
explained, 44, 267
extended volumes, 280–82
external modems, 252
F
Fast User Switching, 97–98
offline files and, 198
turning off, 423
FAT file systems, 46
NTFS permissions and, 185
Simple File Sharing and, 195
Favorites, 406–8
exporting, 407
importing, 408
Favorites folder, 95
Favorites menu, 406–7
file associations, 149–50
changing defaults for, 150–51
common examples of, 149–50
one-time use of, 151
file compression, 148, 153–55. See also compressed
files and folders
case scenario about, 207
disk cleanup and, 290
steps for enabling, 153–54
troubleshooting, 162–63
volume formatting and, 273
zipped folders and, 154–55
file conflicts, 202–3
file encryption, 46, 148, 155–58
best practices, 158
determining, 156
EFS recovery agents, 156–58
enabling and disabling, 156
troubleshooting, 163
file extensions, 148, 149–51
file sharing, 192–96. See also shared folders
computer-based, 194–95
enabling and disabling, 193
explanation of, 192–93
network-based, 193
private folders and, 195
troubleshooting, 195–96
File Signature Verification utility, 219, 232
file systems, 45–47
FAT, 46
NTFS, 45–46
File Transfer Protocol (FTP), 388
File Types tab, Folder Options dialog box, 152
files, 148. See also folders
attributes of, 148, 151–52
auditing access to, 111
conflicting versions of, 202–3
copying, 175
corrupted, 72, 163
missing, 72
moving, 175
offline, 148, 196–203
permissions for, 165, 169, 175
review questions about, 205–7
sharing, 192–96
temporary, 289
transferring between computers, 51–53
troubleshooting, 161–63
types of, 148
Files And Settings Transfer Wizard, 51–53
FilterKeys option, 135
Find Printer button, 329
firewalls. See also Internet Connection Firewall (ICF)
using Remote Desktop with, 379
FireWire ports, 256
first-party cookies, 403
fixed storage, 265
floppy disk drive, 35
floppy disks
boot, 38
password reset, 100–101
Folder Options dialog box, 152, 161, 162, 198, 203
folders, 148. See also files
attributes of, 148, 151–52
auditing access to, 111
configuring options for, 152
determining encryption of, 156
permissions for, 164–65, 169
private, 195
folders
folders (continued)
review questions about, 205–7
shared, 177–92
troubleshooting, 161–63
types of, 148
user profile, 94–95
view settings for, 161–62
fonts, 392
foreign disks, 283, 290
formatting volumes, 272–73
FQDNs (fully qualified domain names), 343
fragmentation, 286
FTP (File Transfer Protocol), 388
Full Control permission, 165, 168, 183
fully qualified domain names (FQDNs), 343
G
GDI (Graphical Device Interface), 300
General tab
Folder Options dialog box, 152
Internet Options dialog box, 388–92
Properties dialog box, 86, 222
Gpresult tool, 105
Graphical Device Interface (GDI), 300
graphical user interface (GUI), 48
Group Policy, 104. See also Local Security Policy
Help And Support Center tool, 106
order for application of, 104–5
Resultant Set of Policy, 105–6
Group Similar Taskbar Buttons option, 126–27
groups, 88–93
adding accounts to, 92
built-in, 88–89
creating, 91
domain-based, 89–90
effective permissions for, 172
security identifiers for, 92–93
special, 90–91
supporting, 88–92
tools for creating, 81
Guest account, 82
Guests group, 88
GUI (graphical user interface), 48
H
handheld devices, 256
hard disks, 266–91
basic disks, 266–67, 269–72
case scenarios about, 297
command line options for, 284–85
concepts pertaining to, 439–40
converting and reverting, 276–79
counters related to, 440
Disk Management tool, 269–83
dynamic disks, 267–68, 283
importing foreign, 283
maintaining, 285–90
managing, 269–83
monitoring performance of, 439–40
moving, 282–83
optimizing performance of, 422–23
partitions on, 43–45, 266–67, 269–72
remote management of, 284
removing from the database, 283
review questions about, 296
space requirements for, 34
status types for, 290–91
summary points about, 296
troubleshooting, 290–91
volumes on, 272–76, 279–82
hardware, 209–39
ACPI specification, 211, 257–61
Add Hardware Wizard, 212–16
case scenarios about, 239, 264
Device Manager utility, 219–28
display devices, 242–47
drivers for, 216, 228–32, 239
hard disks, 266–91
I/O devices, 247–56
installing, 210–16
managing, 219–26
networking, 347–48
Plug and Play, 210, 211
printers, 299–331
profiles for, 232–36
removable media, 291–95
review questions about, 237–38, 262–63
stop error related to, 57
storage devices, 265–97
summary points about, 237, 262
System Information tool, 216–19
troubleshooting, 216–28
hardware acceleration, 244
Hardware Compatibility List (HCL), 227
hardware profiles, 232–36
configuring, 236
creating, 233–34
managing, 235
selecting during startup, 236
Hardware Profiles dialog box, 233–34, 235
Hardware Resources node, System Information, 217
HCL (Hardware Compatibility List), 227
Healthy status, 291
help desk, 8
Help And Support Center, 16
customized interface, 17
Group Policy tool, 106
Troubleshooters, 226–27, 348–49
HelpAssistant account, 82
Helper Console, Remote Assistance, 376–77
HelpServices group, 89
hibernate mode, 257, 261
hidden devices, 221
hidden files, 151
hidden icons, 122–23
hidden shares, 180–81
High Contrast option, 136
high-speed Internet connections, 350
History folder, 391
home folders, 87
home pages, 389
home users, 18
host ID, 335
hosts file, 344
hot-plugged devices, 225–26, 255
HTTP (Hypertext Transfer Protocol), 302, 388
hubs, USB, 254, 255
Hypertext Transfer Protocol (HTTP), 302, 388
485
486
I/O devices
I
I/O devices, 247–56
cameras, 248
configuring, 247–56
FireWire ports, 256
handheld devices, 256
keyboards, 250–51
mice, 248–50
modems, 252–53
printers, 247
review questions about, 263
scanners, 248
smart card readers, 251–52
summary of, 262
troubleshooting, 247–56
USB devices, 254–56
ICANN (Internet Corporation for Assigned Names
and Numbers), 338, 339
ICF. See Internet Connection Firewall (ICF)
ICMP. See Internet Control Message Protocol (ICMP)
icons, 121–25
adding, 121–22
hiding, 122–23
removing, 123–25
IDE controllers, 266
IEEE 1394 ports, 256
imaging devices, 248
IME (input method editor), 139, 141
importing
foreign disks, 283
Internet favorites, 408
information technology (IT) professionals, 20
Infrared Data Association (IrDA), 256
Infrared Picture Transfer (IrTran-P), 248
inheritance, permission, 173–74, 324
Initializing status, 291
Inline AutoComplete, 409
input devices, 35
input language, 139–40
input method editor (IME), 139, 141
insertion point, 251
installations, 38
automated, 37, 39–41
CD-based, 58
clean, 36
hardware, 210
local printer, 305–9
multiple boot, 36–37
network, 37, 39
network-attached printer, 310
Plug and Play, 211
printer driver, 326
service pack, 64–65
shared printer, 325
standard, 37, 38–39
upgrade, 36, 58–59
installing Windows XP, 33–78
activation process and, 59–60
automatic updates and, 62–63
case scenarios about, 77–78
CD-based problems with, 58
common errors with, 54–55
hard disk preparation for, 43–47
methods of, 37–43
migration/transfer tools and, 51–53
phases in process of, 47–49
preparing the BIOS for, 35
product updates and, 60–63
review questions about, 76–77
service packs and, 63–65
setup logs for, 55
startup problems after, 65–74
stop errors in, 55–57
summary points about, 75
system requirements for, 34–35
troubleshooting problems with, 53–59
types of installations for, 36–37
upgrade installations and, 49–51, 58–59
Windows Catalog and, 35
instances, 431
Integrated Device Electronics (IDE), 266
integrated installation, 65
Interactive group, 90
interactive logon options, 114–15
internal modems, 252
Internet. See also Web sites
high-speed connections to, 350
temporary files from, 289, 389–91, 399
Internet Connection Firewall (ICF), 333,
351, 364–73
characteristics of, 364
ICMP and, 367–70
log files for, 366–67
services allowed in, 370–72
setting properties for, 365
small offices and, 364–65
troubleshooting, 373
VPNs and, 364
Internet Control Message Protocol (ICMP), 367–70
advanced settings for, 368–69
options for, 369–70
Internet Corporation for Assigned Names and
Numbers (ICANN), 338, 339
Internet Explorer, 387–418
advanced settings, 397–99
AutoComplete feature, 408–9
case scenarios about, 418
checking version of, 413
configuring, 388–404, 418
connection settings, 394–96
content settings, 392–94
cookie handing in, 402–4, 412
display options, 392
download notification, 410–11
Favorites, 406–8
general settings, 388–92
History folder, 391
home page, 389
invalid page faults in, 412–13
multimedia settings, 398–99, 412
newsgroups about, 22
privacy settings, 402–4
program settings, 396–97
review questions about, 416–17
script debugging, 410
search actions, 409–10
security settings, 399–402, 418
summary points about, 415
temporary Internet files, 389–91
toolbars, 405–6
troubleshooting, 404–14
user requests about, 405–11
Web page display problems, 411–14
Internet Explorer Reporting tool, 413
Internet Options dialog box
Internet Options dialog box, 388–404
Advanced tab, 397–99
Connections tab, 394–96
Content tab, 392–94
General tab, 388–92
Privacy tab, 402–4
Programs tab, 396–97
Security tab, 399–402
Internet Protocol (TCP/IP) Properties dialog box,
353
Alternate Configuration tab, 355
General tab, 356
Internet service providers (ISPs), 10–11, 252, 338
Internet Settings node, System Information, 217
Internet zone, 400, 401
invalid page faults, 412–13
invitations, Remote Assistance, 374–75
IP addresses, 335–39
classes of, 336–37
hosts file for, 344
name resolution and, 343
schemes for, 338–39
subnet masks and, 340–41
validity of, 338
IPC$ share, 189
Ipconfig command-line utility, 361
Ipconfig/all command, 361
IrDA (Infrared Data Association), 256
IrTran-P (Infrared Picture Transfer), 248
ISPs (Internet service providers), 10–11, 252, 338
IT professionals, 20
Items to Synchronize dialog box, 201
J
job titles/requirements, 8–9
<JUNCTION> identifier, 275
K
kernel memory, 430
Keyboard Properties dialog box, 251
keyboards
layout options, 139, 141
on-screen, 136, 140
supporting, 250–51
knowledge base
Microsoft, 18–20
personal, 25
L
Language Bar, 140
language options, 137–41. See also regional options
configuring, 139–40
explained, 137
Internet Explorer, 392
review questions about, 144
summary points about, 142
troubleshooting, 140–41
LANs (local area networks), 333, 350
Last Known Good Configuration option, 69, 71–72
licensing limits, 179
Links bar, Internet Explorer, 405–6
List Folder Contents permission, 164
Lmhosts file, 345–46
Local Area Connections, 352
local area networks (LANs), 333, 350
local files and folders, 148
Local Intranet zone, 400, 401
local print provider, 301
local printer installation, 305–9
local printing process, 303–4, 305
Local Security Policy, 103–15. See also Group Policy
Account Lockout Policy, 108–9
Audit Policy, 109–12
configuring, 106–15
functions controlled by, 104
order for application of, 104–5
Password Policy, 107–8
Resultant Set of Policy, 105–6
review questions about, 117
Security Options, 114–15
summary points about, 116
User Rights Assignment, 112–13
Local Security Settings utility, 106, 107
Local Settings folder, 95
local user accounts, 80, 81. See also user accounts
local user profiles, 94–96. See also user profiles
Local Users and Groups tool, 81
locking and unlocking
taskbar, 125–26
toolbars, 406
lockout policy, 108–9
log files
ICF logging, 366–67
performance logging, 434–36
Windows XP setup, 55
logical disks, 439, 440
logical drives, 271–72
logical network layout, 7
logical partitions
creating, 271–72
explained, 44, 267
logical printer, 300
logon process, 80–81
domain logon problems, 101–2
interactive logon options, 114–15
invalid logon attempts and, 108
password problems, 99–101
profile-related problems, 102–3
strong passwords and, 85–86
troubleshooting, 99–103
user names and, 84
loopback addresses, 337
pinging, 359–60
M
Magnifier tool, 136
maintaining disks, 285–90
defragmentation, 286–88
disk cleanup, 288–90
error checking, 285–86
mandatory user profiles, 94
manual caching, 197
maximum port speed, 252
MBR program, 67
media libraries, 293
media pools, 293
media units, 293
Member Of tab, Properties dialog box, 87
487
488
memory
memory
counters related to, 437–38
monitoring performance of, 429–30, 437–38
optimizing usage of, 427
paging files and, 426–27
system requirements for, 34
mice, supporting, 248–50
Microsoft Certified Desktop Support Technician
(MCDST), 8
Microsoft Excel, 434
Microsoft Help And Support Web site, 18, 19
Microsoft Internet Explorer. See Internet Explorer
Microsoft Knowledge Base, 18–20, 57, 134, 373, 413
Microsoft Most Valuable Professionals (MVPs), 21
Microsoft TechNet, 20–21
migrating user environments, 51–53
Mini Setup Wizard, 42
mismatched documents, 315
Modem Troubleshooter, 348–49
modems, 252–53
configuring, 252–53
troubleshooting, 253, 348–49, 356–57
Modify permission, 165, 168
monitoring performance, 428–40. See also
performance issues
case scenario about, 443
Performance Tool for, 431–40
review questions about, 442
summary points about, 441
Task Manager for, 428–30
monitors. See also display devices
supporting multiple, 244–46
system requirements for, 34
mounted volumes, 274–75
Mouse Properties dialog box, 248–50
mouse support, 248–50
MouseKeys option, 136
Msconfig.exe command, 124, 421
Msinfo32.exe command, 216
multiboot installations, 37
Multilingual User Interface Pack, 141
multimedia options, 398–99, 412
multiple boot installations, 36–37
file system considerations, 46–47
terminology related to, 37
multiple domains, 7
multitasking, 4
My Documents folder, 95
My Network Places, 328
My Profile, 394
My Recent Documents folder, 95
N
name resolution, 343–44, 363
naming
printers, 308
user accounts, 83, 87
volumes, 272–73
Narrator program, 136
Net Diagnostics tool, 218
net share utility, 178
Net View command, 362
NetBIOS names, 345
NetHood folder, 95
network adapter card, 35
Network Configuration Operators group, 88–89
Network Connections window, 350–51
Network group, 90
network IDs, 335, 337
network installations, 37, 39
network setup phase, 48–49
network-attached printers, 310
networks, 333–86
adding components to, 352
cable connections on, 346–47, 358
case scenarios about, 386
configuring connections on, 350–56
connectivity problems on, 346–48
disabling components on, 352
DSL connections on, 358
hardware problems on, 347–48
installing Windows XP on, 37, 39
Internet Connection Firewall on, 364–73
logical vs. physical layout of, 7
modem problems on, 348–49, 356–57
monitoring activity on, 430
newsgroups about, 22
peer-to-peer, 5
remote access tools on, 374–82
removing components from, 352
renaming connections on, 352
review questions about, 384–86
sharing files on, 193–94
summary points about, 383–84
TCP/IP used on, 334–46, 353–56
troubleshooting, 346–49, 356–63, 386
types of, 5–7
New Group dialog box, 91
New Partition Wizard, 270
New User dialog box, 83–84
newsgroups, 21–22
No Media status, 291
noncorporate environments, 9–11
notification area, 121–25
adding items to, 121–22
hiding inactive icons in, 122–23
removing icons from, 122, 123–25
NTFS file system, 45–46
file compression and, 153
permissions and, 164–77
Simple File Sharing and, 195
NTFS permissions, 164–77. See also shared folder
permissions
advanced, 169
allow, 168, 170–71
basic, 164–65
calculating effective, 170–72
default, 166–68
deny, 168, 171–72
inheritance, 173–74
moving and copying files, 175
ownership and, 175–76
relationships, 168
shared folders and, 185–88
troubleshooting, 176–77
viewing, 165–66, 172
NTLDR file, 67
NTUSER.DAT file, 96
NTUSER.DAT.LOG file, 96
objects
O
objects, 431
Offline File feature, 198
offline files, 148, 196–203
accessing, 200
client configuration for, 198–99
configuring, 201–2
deleting from the cache, 203
Fast User Switching and, 198
file conflicts and, 202–3
review questions about, 207
server configuration for, 196–98
synchronizing, 200–202, 203
troubleshooting, 202–3
Offline files tab, Folder Options dialog box, 152,
198, 203
Offline Files Wizard, 199
Offline or Missing status, 290
offline printer, 312
Online status, 290
On-Screen Keyboard tool, 136, 140
Open With dialog box, 150, 151
operating systems
file system support by, 46–47
newsgroups about, 22
operator requests, 294
optimizing performance, 420–28. See also
performance issues
advanced options for, 427–28
background programs and, 421
case scenario about, 443
Fast User Switching and, 423
hard disks and, 422–23
review questions about, 442
summary points about, 441
virtual memory and, 426–27
visual effects and, 423–26
Windows startup and, 420, 421–22
owner, 159
ownership, 175–76
P
page faults, 412–13
Pages/sec counter, 432
paging files
managing, 426–27
monitoring usage of, 429
parent folders, 173–74
partitions, 43–45
boot, 45
creating, 269–72
extended, 44, 267
logical, 44, 267
primary, 43–44, 266–67
system, 45
types of, 43–44, 266–67
passphrases, 86
Password Policy, 107–8
password reset disk, 100–101
Password Reset Wizard, 101
passwords
Administrator account, 82
case-sensitivity of, 82, 84
creating reset disk for, 100–101
guidelines for creating, 85–86
recovering lost, 99–100, 117
remote connections and, 379
resetting for users, 87, 99–100
security policy settings, 107–8
setup options for, 84–85
troubleshooting problems with, 99–101
Pathping command, 362
PC Card devices, 225
PC/SC standards, 251
PCI devices, 244
PDA devices, 256
performance issues, 419–43
auditing and, 110
background applications and, 421
case scenarios about, 443
Fast User Switching and, 98, 423
hard disks and, 422–23
memory usage and, 427–28
monitoring process and, 428–40
notification area and, 124
optimization process and, 420–28
Performance Tool and, 431–40, 443
processor scheduling and, 427–28
review questions about, 442
shared folders and, 179
summary points about, 441
Task Manager and, 428–30
virtual memory and, 426–27
visual effects and, 423–26
Windows startup, 420, 421–22
Performance Logs And Alerts utility, 434–37
Performance Options dialog box
Advanced tab, 427–28
Visual Effects tab, 423–24
Performance console, 419, 431–40
adding counters to, 432–33
alerts triggered in, 436–37
case scenario on, 443
default counters in, 432
establishing a baseline in, 437
information categories in, 431
performance logs in, 434–36
starting, 431
viewing data in, 433–34
Peripheral Component Interconnect (PCI), 244
Permission Entry dialog box, 169, 173, 323, 324
permissions, 80, 112, 164–77, 183–88
advanced, 169
allow, 168, 170–71
basic, 164–65
calculating, 170–72
default, 166–68
deny, 168, 171–72
effective, 170–72
inheritance, 173–74
moved/copied files and, 175
NTFS, 164–77
ownership and, 175–76
print, 320–24
relationships between, 168
review questions about, 206
shared folder, 182–88
troubleshooting, 176–77
viewing, 165–66, 172
Permissions dialog box, 183–85
Personal Computer/Smart Card (PC/SC)
standards, 251
personal knowledge base, 25
personalized Start menu, 130–31
Phone And Modems Options tool, 252
489
490
physical disk
physical disk, 439, 440
physical memory, 430
physical network layout, 7
PID (product ID), 59–60
Ping command, 359–61
information resource about, 361
loopback address and, 359–60
pixels, 243
Plug and Play devices, 210, 211
pointing devices, 250
port monitor, 302
portable hard disks, 266
ports
FireWire, 256
printer, 307, 313
USB, 255
POST (power-on self test), 66
power management, 257–61
ACPI specification, 257–61
Advanced Power Management, 258
case scenario about, 264
configuring, 258–61
review questions about, 263
Power Options Properties dialog box, 258–61
Advanced tab, 260–61
Alarms tab, 259
Hibernate tab, 261
Power Meter tab, 260
Power Schemes tab, 258–59
Power Users group, 89, 92
power-on self test (POST), 66
Preboot Execution Environment (PXE)–compliant
network adapter, 42–43
predefined services, 372
primary partitions
creating, 269–70
explained, 43–44, 266–67
Print$ share, 189
print device, 300
Print dialog box, 329
print jobs, 300
formats, 302–3
managing, 318–19, 331
pausing, 312, 318
properties, 318
print permissions, 320–24
advanced, 322–23
basic, 321–22
calculating effective, 324
default, 323
explained, 320–21
inheritance, 324
print processor, 301, 302, 316
print router, 301
print server, 301
print spooler, 301, 316
print spooling, 301, 315, 316
printer drivers, 31, 300
non–Windows XP, 326–27
troubleshooting, 310–11
printer pools, 302, 313–14
printer queue window, 318
printers, 299–331
auditing access to, 111
case scenarios about, 331
configuring, 311–19, 331
default, 312
device settings, 317
drivers for, 31, 300, 310–11, 326
installing, 305–10
job formats, 302–3
local, 305–9
logical, 300
network-attached, 310
permissions assigned to, 320–24
port settings, 307, 313
printer pool settings, 313–14
priority options, 315
property settings, 312–13, 315–17
review questions about, 330–31
sharing, 308, 325–29
shortcut menu commands, 312
summary points about, 330
supporting, 247, 300–320
terminology related to, 300–302
troubleshooting, 319–20
Printers And Faxes window, 306, 309, 311
PrintHood folder, 95
printing process, 303–4
flowchart of, 305
local, 303–4, 305
remote, 304, 305
privacy settings, 402–4
Privacy tab, Internet Options dialog box, 402–4
private businesses, 10
private folders, 195
problem solving. See also troubleshooting
attempting solutions, 23–24
capacity for, 4
documenting solutions, 24–25
reproducing problems, 14
processor counters, 438–39
processor performance, 429–30, 438–39
processor scheduling, 427–28
%Processor Time counter, 432
product ID (PID), 59–60
product updates, 60–63
Profile Assistant, 394
Profile tab, Properties dialog box, 87
profiles
hardware, 232–36
user, 93–97
Program Files folder, 152
programs. See applications
Programs tab, Internet Options dialog box, 396–97
Properties dialog box
Computer Management utility, 190–91
Device Manager utility, 221–22
Local User And Groups tool, 86–87
protecting data, 24
protocol stack, 334
proxy servers, 395–96
Public Switched Telephone Network (PSTN), 252
PXE-compliant network adapter, 42–43
Q
questions, asking, 11–13
Quick Launch toolbar, 126, 127–28
dragging shortcuts to, 128
steps for enabling, 127
Quota Entries dialog box, 160
quota limits, 158–61. See also disk quotas
RAW format
R
RAW format, 302
Read & Execute permission, 164, 165, 168
Read permission, 164, 165, 183
read-only files, 151
ready for archiving file, 151
Recovery Console, 72–74
accessing, 72–73
command descriptions, 73–74
tasks performed by, 72
Recreational Software Advisory Council on the
Internet (RSACi), 393
Recycle Bin, 289
refresh rate, 243
Regional and Language Options dialog
box, 137, 138
regional options, 137–39. See also language options
configuring, 138–39
customizing, 139
explained, 137
review questions about, 144
relationships, permission, 168
Remote Assistance, 333, 374–77
consoles used in, 375–77
establishing sessions in, 374–75
ICF troubleshooting and, 373
sending invitations in, 374–75
shared control and, 377
remote computers
disk management on, 284
establishing access to, 378–82
requesting help from, 374–77
Remote Desktop, 333, 378–82
case scenario about, 386
configuring, 378–80
ending sessions on, 382
managing sessions on, 381–82
options available for, 380
requirements for using, 378
Remote Desktop Connection dialog box, 381
Remote Desktop Users group, 89
Remote Installation Services (RIS), 40, 42–43, 78
remote print provider, 301
remote printing process, 304, 305
removable media, 291–95
CD-ROM/DVD-ROM devices, 291–93
support provided for, 293
removable storage, 265, 293–95
explanation of, 293–94
limitations of, 294
management of, 294–95
Removable Storage utility, 294–95
Remove Share button, 180
repair shops, 10
Replicator group, 89
resolution, 243
resources
managing, 223–24
viewing, 221
Resources By Type view, 223
Resources tab, Properties dialog box, 222, 223
Restricted Sites zone, 400, 401
Resultant Set of Policy (RSoP), 105–6
review questions. See also case scenarios
about desktop support, 26–29
about device drivers, 238
about display devices, 262
about files and folders, 205–7
about hard disks, 296
about hardware devices, 237–38, 262–63
about I/O devices, 263
about installing Windows XP, 76–77
about Internet Explorer, 416–17
about network connectivity, 384–86
about performance, 442
about permissions, 206
about power management, 263
about printers, 330–31
about regional and language options, 144
about security policy, 117
about the Start menu, 142–43
about the startup process, 77
about the taskbar, 142–45
about user accounts, 117
RIS (Remote Installation Services), 40, 42–43, 78
roaming user profiles, 94, 103
Roll Back Driver option, 230
root hub, 254, 255
routers
connectivity problems and, 346–47
default gateway and, 342–43
IP addressing and, 339
TCP/IP networks and, 335
RSACi (Recreational Software Advisory Council on
the Internet), 393
Run dialog box, 328
S
safe mode, 69, 70–71, 102
Safely Remove Hardware dialog box, 225
Save command, 218
scanners, 248
screen resolution, 243
script debugging, 410
SCSI controllers, 266
search actions, 409–10
secpol.msc command, 158
Secure Sockets Layer (SSL), 393
security
certificates for, 393–94
ICF logging and, 366–67
Internet Explorer, 399–402, 418
newsgroups about, 22
Security Identifiers (SIDs), 92–93, 166
security levels, 401–2
Security Log, 111–12
Security Options, 107, 114–15
security policy, 103–15
Account Lockout Policy, 108–9
Audit Policy, 109–12
configuring, 106–15
explanation of, 104
Group Policy, 104–6
Local Security Policy, 103–15
order for application of, 104–5
Password Policy, 107–8
Resultant Set of Policy, 105–6
Security Options, 114–15
User Rights Assignment, 112–13
security principals, 92
Security Settings window, 402
Security tab, Internet Options dialog box, 399–402
491
492
security zones
security zones, 400–401
Select Network Component Type dialog box, 352
Select Users Or Groups dialog box, 167
SendTo folder, 95
separator page, 302, 316
SerialKeys option, 136
servers
offline file configuration, 196–98
print, 301
service level agreements (SLAs), 4, 8
service packs (SPs), 63–65
installing, 64–65
obtaining, 63–64
uninstalling, 65
Service Settings dialog box, 372
services
adding definitions for, 371–72
allowing in ICF, 370–72
loaded on startup, 422
Services tab, System Configuration Utility, 422
Settings dialog box, 391
Setup.exe program, 39
Setup logs, 55
Setup Manager program, 40
Setupact.log, 55
Setupapi.log, 55
share names, 180, 181–82
shared control, 377
Shared Documents folder, 194–95
shared files, 148
shared folder permissions, 182–88. See also NTFS
permissions
calculating effective, 185–88
modifying, 184–85
types of, 183
viewing, 183–84
shared folders, 148, 177–92. See also Simple File
Sharing
administrative shares and, 188–89
characteristics of, 181–82
Computer Management utility and, 189–92
configuring, 177–82
controlling access to, 182–88
creating, 178, 190
dynamic disks and, 278
editing properties of, 190–91
hidden shares and, 180–81
managing users connected to, 191–92
new shares for, 179–80
NTFS volumes and, 185–88
permissions for, 182–88
removing, 181
review questions about, 206–7
share names of, 180
troubleshooting access to, 192
user limits on, 178–79
viewing list of, 189–90
shared printers, 308, 325–29
configuring, 325–26
connecting to, 327–29
non–Windows XP drivers and, 326–27
shortcuts
Computer Management utility, 83
dragging to Quick Launch toolbar, 128
ShowSounds option, 136
Shutdown option, 114
SIDs (Security Identifiers), 92–93, 166
signing, driver, 228, 230–32
Sigverif.exe command, 232
simple dynamic volumes, 279
Simple File Sharing, 166, 192–96. See also shared
folders
case scenario about, 207–8
computer-based, 194–95
enabling and disabling, 193
explanation of, 192–93
network-based, 193–94
private folders and, 195
troubleshooting, 195–96
simple volumes, 268
skills
desktop support, 30
end user, 2–3, 31
research, 16
SLAs (service level agreements), 4, 8
slowness issues. See performance issues
Small Computer System Interface (SCSI), 266
smart card readers, 251–52
smart cards, 251
Software Environment node, System Information,
217
solutions, 22–25
documenting problems and, 24–25
guidelines for attempting, 23–24
SoundSentry option, 135
spanned volumes, 268
special groups, 90–91
spool directory, 301
SSL (Secure Sockets Layer), 393
standard (attended) installations, 37, 38–39
Standard Toolbar, Internet Explorer, 405–6
standby mode, 257
Start menu, 120, 130–36
Accessories folder, 136
adding and removing items from, 132–34
All Programs list, 131–32
case scenario on, 145
common requests about, 120–21
personalized, 130–31
pinning items to, 133
review questions about, 142–43
summary points about, 142
troubleshooting, 130–35
Start Menu folder, 95
startup process, 65–74
advanced options, 69–72
case scenario on, 78
computer, 66–67
hardware profile selection, 236
optimizing, 420
Recovery Console, 72–74
review questions about, 77
summary points about, 75
Windows XP, 67–68
Startup tab, System Configuration Utility, 422
StickyKeys option, 135
stop errors, 55–57
storage
fixed vs. removable, 265
local profile, 94–96
storage devices
storage devices, 265–97
hard disks, 266–91
removable media, 291–95
striped volumes, 268, 279–80
subnet masks, 340–42
information resource on, 342
IP network numbers and, 341
reference notations for, 340–41
Super Video Graphics Array (SVGA), 34
SUPPORT_xxxxx account, 82
surprise removal, 226
SVGA (Super Video Graphics Array), 34
Switch User option, 98
symbols, Device Manager, 221
Synchronization Manager, 200–201
Synchronization Settings dialog box, 201–2
synchronizing offline files, 200–202
configuring settings for, 201–2
troubleshooting errors with, 203
System Configuration Utility, 124–25, 421–22
System Information tool, 216–19
information categories, 217
methods for launching, 216
saving reports from, 218
System Summary, 217
Tools menu, 218–19
SYSTEM.INI file, 422
System Monitor Properties dialog box, 435–36
system partitions, 45
system performance. See performance issues
System Preparation (Sysprep.exe) tool, 41–42
system requirements, 34–35
System Restore tool, 219
System Volume folder, 151
SystemRoot folder, 188, 229
T
Take Ownership special permission, 175
Task Manager, 419, 428–30
methods for starting, 428
monitoring performance in, 429–30
taskbar, 120–30
adding toolbars to, 130
case scenario about, 145
common requests related to, 120–21
enabling Quick Launch toolbar on, 127–28
grouping similar buttons on, 126–27
locking and unlocking, 125–26
notification area and, 121–25
review questions about, 142–45
summary points about, 142
troubleshooting, 128–29
TCP/IP (Transmission Control Protocol/Internet
Protocol), 333, 334–46
alternate settings for, 355
APIPA process and, 354–55
configuring for networks, 353–56
default gateway and, 342–43
DHCP servers and, 353–54
DNS and, 343–44
hosts file and, 344
IP addresses and, 335–39
Lmhosts file and, 345–46
manual configuration of, 356
obtaining settings for, 353–55
options necessary for, 334
port monitor and, 302
resetting, 360
subnet masks and, 340–42
troubleshooting, 359–62
WINS server and, 345
TCP/IP tools, 359–62
Ipconfig utility, 361
Net View command, 362
Pathping command, 362
Ping command, 359–61
Tracert command, 362
TechNet, 20–21
technical aptitude, 4
telephone call centers, 9–10
Templates folder, 95
temporary files, 289
temporary Internet files, 289, 389–91, 399
temporary offline files, 289
text format, 303
text mode setup, 47–48
Text Services And Input Languages dialog box, 139–
40
third-party cookies, 403
tier structures
corporate, 7–8
telephone call center, 10
ToggleKeys option, 135
toolbars
adding to the taskbar, 130
Internet Explorer, 405–6
Quick Launch toolbar, 126, 127–28
Tools menu, System Information, 218–19
trace logs, 434
Tracert command-line utility, 362
Transmission Control Protocol/Internet Protocol.
See TCP/IP (Transmission Control Protocol/
Internet Protocol)
Troubleshooters, 226–27
Modem Troubleshooter, 348–49
steps for accessing, 227
troubleshooting, 11–25
asking questions for, 11–13
CD-based installations, 58
compression issues, 162–63
corrupted files, 163
desktop configuration problems, 120–36
display devices, 246–47, 264
DNS issues, 363
domain logon problems, 101–2
encryption issues, 163
file and folder management, 161–63
general procedures for, 14–15
hard disks, 290–91
hardware, 216–28
I/O devices, 247–56
important resources for, 16–22
Internet Connection Firewall, 373
Internet Explorer, 404–14
language-related problems, 140–41
modems, 253, 348–49, 356–57
name resolution, 363
network connectivity, 346–49, 356–63, 386
notification area, 121–25
offline files, 202–3
password problems, 99–101
permissions, 176–77
printers, 310–11
profile-related problems, 102–3
reproducing the problem for, 14
493
494
troubleshooting
troubleshooting (continued)
shared folder access, 192
Simple File Sharing, 195–96
Start menu problems, 130–35
startup problems, 65–74, 78
stop errors, 55–57
taskbar problems, 128–29
TCP/IP connections, 359–62
USB devices, 255–56
user logon problems, 99–103
volumes, 291
Windows XP installations, 53–59
WINS issues, 363
working through solutions, 22–25
Trusted Sites zone, 400, 401
Turn Off Computer dialog box, 261
U
UDF (uniqueness database file), 41
unattended installations. See automated installations
uninstalling
drivers, 230
service packs, 65
uniqueness database file (UDF), 41
Universal Serial Bus (USB), 254–56
Unknown Username error message, 99
Unreadable status, 291
Unrecognized status, 291
Update Driver option, 229
Update.exe program, 64
updates, 60–63
Automatic Update feature, 62–63
categories of, 61
device driver, 229–30, 239
Windows Update site, 60–62
upgrade installations, 36, 49–51
considerations related to, 50–51
troubleshooting, 58–59
Windows XP upgrade paths and, 49–50
USB controllers, 255
USB devices, 254–56
connecting, 254–55
troubleshooting, 255–56
USB ports, 255
user accounts, 80–87
built-in, 82–83
case scenarios about, 117
creating, 83–86
deleting, 87
disabling, 85
effective permissions for, 172
Fast User Switching, 97–98
groups and, 88–92
logon process and, 80–81, 99–103
managing, 86–87, 117
passwords for, 84–86, 99–101, 117
remote connections and, 379
renaming, 83, 87
review questions about, 117
security identifiers for, 92–93
selecting multiple, 92
summary points about, 116
transferring settings from, 51–53
troubleshooting, 99–103
user profiles and, 93–97
User Accounts tool, 81
User Console, Remote Assistance, 376
User Limit option, 178–79
user names, 84
user profiles, 93–97
built-in, 96
multiple, 97
storage of local, 94–96
troubleshooting, 102–3
types of, 94
user rights, 80
User Rights Assignment, 107, 112–13
User State Migration Tool (USMT), 51
Users group, 89
V
VGA mode, 69, 246
video adapters, 244
View tab, Folder Options dialog box, 152
virtual memory, 426–27
Virtual Memory dialog box, 426–27
virtual private networks (VPNs), 364
viruses
boot sector, 54, 57
disabling protection against, 54
stop error related to, 57
visual effects, 423–26
enabling and disabling, 423–24
Windows XP list of, 424–26
volume mount points, 274–75, 297
volumes
creating, 279–80
drive letters for, 273, 276
dynamic, 268, 279–80
extending, 280–82
formatting, 272–73
mounted, 274–76
naming, 272–73
simple, 279
status types for, 291
striped, 279–80
troubleshooting, 291
VPNs (virtual private networks), 364
W
Web browser. See Internet Explorer
Web sites
cookies and, 402–4, 412
history of visited, 391
invalid page faults and, 412–13
manufacturer help/updates from, 18
multimedia options for, 398–99, 412
problems with viewing, 411–14
rating levels for, 393
screen resolution issues for, 411
security zones and, 400–401
temporary files from, 389–91
Windows Update site, 60–62
What’s This? command
What’s This? command, 397, 402
Who, When, What, Why, and How questions, 11–13
WIN.INI file, 422
Windows Catalog, 35
Windows Explorer
configuring disk quotas in, 159–60
creating shared folders in, 178
encrypting files and folders in, 156
viewing volume mount points in, 275
Windows Hardware Quality Labs (WHQL), 230
Windows Internet Naming Service
‘(WINS), 345, 363
Windows Log On dialog box, 101
Windows Messenger, 375
Windows Mobile software, 256
Windows Product Activation (WPA), 59–60
Windows system folder, 152
Windows Troubleshooters. See Troubleshooters
Windows Update Web site, 60–62
Windows updates, 61
Windows XP
activating, 59–60
advanced boot options, 69–72
automatic updates, 62–63
hardware installation, 210
Help And Support Center, 16
installation process, 33–50
migration and transfer tools, 51–53
monitoring performance of, 428–40
optimizing performance of, 420–28
Plug and Play support, 210, 211
product updates, 60–63
Professional vs. Home editions, 81, 93
Recovery Console, 72–74
service packs, 52, 63–65
startup process, 67–68, 420
system requirements, 34–35
troubleshooting, 53–59, 65–74
upgrading to, 49–51
visual effects, 423–26
Windows XP Home Edition, 93
Windows XP Professional Edition
creating user accounts in, 83–85
Windows XP Home Edition compared to, 81, 93
Windows XP Service Pack 2, 52, 334
Winnt.exe command, 41
Winnt32.exe command, 41
WINS server, 345, 363
Winver.exe utility, 63
Wizards
Accessibility, 136
Add Hardware, 212–16
Add Printer, 306, 327–28
Files And Settings Transfer, 51, 52–53
Mini Setup, 42
New Partition, 270
Offline Files, 199
Password Reset, 101
work queues, 294
workgroups, 5–6
World Wide Web. See Web sites
WPA (Windows Product Activation), 59–60
Write permission, 164, 165
Z
zipped folders, 154–55
zones, security, 400–401
495
SYSTEM REQUIREMENTS
STUDENT AND WORKSTATION REQUIREMENTS
To complete the exercises in this book, you need to meet the following minimum
system requirements:
■
Microsoft Windows XP Professional Edition
■
Personal computer with an Intel Pentium 233 megahertz (MHz) or
faster processor (300 MHz or faster processor recommended)
■
64 megabytes (MB) of RAM or higher (128 MB or higher recommended)
■
1.5 gigabytes (GB) of available hard disk space
■
CD-ROM drive or DVD drive
■
Super VGA (800 x 600) or higher resolution monitor
■
Network adapter card
■
Keyboard and Microsoft Mouse or compatible pointing device
In addition, several chapters have practices that require an Internet
connection.
The 180-day Evaluation Edition provided with this training
is not the full retail product and is provided only for the purposes of
training and evaluation. This time-limited release of Microsoft Windows
XP Professional Edition will expire 180 days after installation. Upon the
expiration of the software, you may install the full retail version of Windows XP Professional Edition or discontinue use of the software. If you
decide to discontinue use of this software, you will need to reinstall
your original operating system and possibly reformat your hard drive.
Microsoft Technical Support does not support these evaluation editions. For additional support information regarding this book and the
CD-ROMs (including answers to commonly asked questions about
installation and use), visit the Microsoft Press Technical Support Web
site at http://www.microsoft.com/learning/support/. You can also
e-mail [email protected] or send a letter to Microsoft Press,
Attn: Microsoft Press Technical Support, One Microsoft Way,
Redmond, WA 98502-6399.
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