System and method for reproducing pictures and related audio

System and method for reproducing pictures and related audio
United States Patent 1191'
[11]
4,317,131
Jerome '
[45]
Feb. 23, 1982
[54] SYSTEM AND METHOD FOR
REPRODUCING PICTURES AND RELATED
AUDIO INFORMATION
, [75] V Inventor:
[73] Assignee:
‘
4,085,423
4,084,185
4/1978 Tsunoda
de Langg .................... .. 179/ 100.1 G
Primary Examiner-Alan Faber
McDonnell Douglas Corporation, 5
Albritton & Herbert
[57]
ABSTRACT
System, method and record medium for the reproduc
[51]
Int. Cl.3 ............................................. .. H04N 5/76
US. Cl. ................................. .. 358/1285; 360/10;
tion of pictures and related audio information on a tele
vision receiver or monitor. Video information for dis
crete frames of the picture is recorded in spaced apart
369/95; 369/120
tracks on the record medium, and extended audio infor
mation for each frame is recorded in a plurality of indi
Field of Search ............... .. 179/ 100. 1 G, 100.3 V,
l79/15.55 T, 100.3 B, 100.32; 358/1285, 127,
132; 360/10, 8, 19; 250/578; 369/111, 95, 112,
vidually transcribable tracks between the video tracks.
The information is read simultaneously from one of the
video tracks and from all of the audio tracks for one
frame, and the information from successive ones of the
audio tracks is processed sequentially to provide ex
100, 122, 102, 120, 97
References Cited
U.S. PATENT DOCUMENTS
3,198,880 8/1965 Toulon
3,789,137
3,829,610
Teer ........................... .. l79/100.3 V
Attorney, Agent, or Firm—Flehr, Hohbach, Test,
[52]
[56]
5/1977
} Jonathan A. Jerome, Palo Alto, Calif.
Long Beach, Calif.
[21] Appl. No.: 73,939
[22] Filed:
Sep. 10, 1979
[58]
4,022,986
8/1974
l/ 1974 Newell
Meeussen
tended sound during repeated reproduction of the pic
ture.
..
3,878,560 4/1975 Romage ................................ .. 360/8
IF‘
16 Claims, 7 Drawing Figures
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U.S. Patent
Feb. 23, 1982
Sheet 1 of3
4,317,131
US. Patent
Feb. 23, 1982
Sheet 2 of 3
MD
CONVERTER
AUDIO IN
4,317,131
43
I
DIGITAL
/44
DATA STORE
'
D/ A
45
.___/
CONVERTER
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['23
VIDEO IN —->MODULATOR'———> LASER —>
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VIDEO
DISC
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LASER
VIDEO
AUDIO
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24
—> MODULATOR
23S
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33
US. Patent
VIDEO
DISC
Feb. 23, 1982
READING
HEAD
--w
SELECTOR
Sheet 3 of3
4,317,131
VIDEO
MONITOR
CONVERTER
|________
l
READING
HEAD
DATA STORE
CONVERTER
172
I73
4,317,131
1
SYSTEM AND METHOD FOR REPRODUCING
PICTURES AND RELATED AUDIO
INFORMATION
2
in which the audio information is recorded in a digitized
and compressed format on the record medium.
These and other objects are achieved in accordance
with the invention by recording video information for
discrete frames of a television picture in spaced apart
This invention pertains generally to the storage and
tracks on a record medium, recording extended audio
retrieval of information, and more particularly to a
information for each frame in a plurality of individually
transcribable tracks between the video tracks, reading
system, method and record medium for the reproduc
tion of pictures and related audio information on a tele
the information from one of the video tracks to repro
vision receiver or video monitor.
10 duce one frame of the picture, and reading the informa
In recent years, video discs and other record media
tion from successive ones of the audio tracks to repro
such as magnetic tape have found increasing use in the
duce the extended audio information. The audio tracks
recording and reproduction of television pictures and
sound. In such systems, the picture is scanned in dis
crete frames on a line by line basis, and the video infor
mation is recorded sequentially in video tracks on the
record medium. The audio information is likewise re
corded sequentially, and the recorded information is
transcribed to simultaneously reproduce the picture and
for each frame have a predetermined positional relation
ship to the video track, and the audio and video tracks
are scanned simultaneously by a single reading head.
The information is recorded photographically and read
optically, and the audio information is recorded in a
digitized and compressed format to further extend the
amount of audio information for each frame of the pic
sound. In such systems, the amount of sound recorded 20 ture.
for each frame of the picture corresponds generally to
FIG. 1 is a plan view, somewhat schematic, of a re
the time required to scan the frame, and the reproduced
cord medium having video and audio information re
sound is approximately co-extensive in time with the
corded thereon in accordance with the invention.
picture.
FIG. 2 is an enlarged fragmentary view of the record
There have also been attempts to utilize video discs in 25 medium of FIG. 1.
.
the reproduction of television pictures and sound where
FIG. 3 is a simpli?ed block diagram of one embodi
the sound for each frame is of greater duration than the
ment of a system for recording the information on the
‘frame itself, e.g. for the display of still pictures with an
record medium of FIG. 1.
extended verbal description or explanation. This type of
FIG. 4 is a schematic illustration of a portion of the
presentation is particularly useful for educational or 30 recording apparatus in the embodiment of FIG. 3.
training purposes. US. Pat. No. 3,829,610, for example,
FIG. 5 is a simpli?ed block diagram of one embodi
shows a system employing a record disc having several
concentric tracks of video information in one region
thereof and one or more helical sound grooves in an
ment of a playback system for the record medium of
FIG. 1.
FIG. 6 is a schematic illustration of a portion of the
other region, with the sound information for each of the 35 playback apparatus in the embodiment of FIG. 5.
video tracks extending over several convolutions of a
FIG. 7 is an enlarged plan view of one embodiment of
sound groove. The video tracks and sound grooves are
scanned by separate heads, with the video head repeat
edly scanning a single video track while the audio head
a reading head for use in the embodiment of FIG. 5.
As illustrated in FIGS. 1—2, the invention employs a
record medium in the form of a video disc 11 having an
scans the successive convolutions of the corresponding 40 axial opening 12 for receiving a drive spindle. The disc
sound groove. Systems of this type have certain limita
tions and disadvantages in that separate heads for the
sound and picture are relatively expensive, dif?cult to
align, and dif?cult to maintain.
has radially spaced circular recording tracks 14 dis~
posed concentrically about the axis of the disc. In one
presently preferred embodiment, the disc has 5,000
tracks with a 14 micron center-to-center track spacing,
It is in general an object of the invention to provide a 45 occupying an annular recording band having an inner
new and improved system, method and record medium
radius of 8 cm and an outer radius of 15 cm. Each track
for reproducing pictures and related audio information
has a width on the order of ten microns. While the track
on a television receiver or monitor.
spacing is illustrated as being uniform across the entire
Another object of the invention is to provide a sys
recording band, any desired spacing can be employed,
tem, method and record medium of the above character
although for reasons discussed more fully hereinafter,
in which extended audio information is provided for
the spacing is preferably such that the positional rela
each frame of the picture.
tionship of the tracks is similar for each frame of the
Another object of the invention is to provide a sys
picture.
tem, method and record medium of the above character
Each of the tracks contains either the video informa
which are particularly useful for educational and train 55 tion for one complete frame of a television picture or
ing purposes.
audio information relating thereto. For a standard
Another object of the invention is to provide a sys
NTSC video signal having approximately 30 frames per
tem, method and record medium of the above character
second, the disc is rotated at a rate of approximately
utilizing a single head for reading both the video infor
1800 rpm, and the video information for one frame ?lls
mation and the audio information recorded on the me 60 one track. Each frame comprises two interlaced ?elds,
dium.
each of which is made up of 262.5 horizontal lines
Another object of the invention is to provide a sys
which are scanned and recorded in a sequential fashion.
tem, method and record medium of the above character
In the embodiment illustrated, the information for the
in which the video and audio information“ are recorded
?rst ?eld of each frame is recorded in a first segment 16
photographically on the record medium and read opti 65 of the track, the information for the second ?eld is
cally therefrom.
,
'
Another object of the invention is to provide a‘ sys
- tem, method and record medium of the above character
recorded in a second segment 17, and the information
which occurs during the vertical retrace intervals is
recorded in smaller segments 18 between the other
4,317,131
3
sectors. If desired, address coding for the different
tracks can also be recorded in segments 18. Although
illustrated'as being radially aligned, the segments for
different tracks can be positioned in any desired man
ner, even randomly. The audio information for each
frame is recorded continuously in the audio tracks for
the frame, with the start of the information in each track
preferably in radial alignment with the start of the ?rst
video segment for the frame.
_
In order to provide extended audio or sound informa l0
tion, a plurality of audio tracks is provided for each
frame of the picture. During playback, the information
recorded in these tracks can be produced successively
during repeated scanning of the video track to provide
4
has a ?ne-grained silver halide emulsion on the order of
6 microns thick on a 4.5 mil mylar base.
If desired, the record medium can take other forms
such as a cylinder having axially spaced recording
tracks, and other recording techniques can be em
ployed. However, the photographically prepared video
disc is preferred because it is inexpensive and easy to
reproduce, it provides a high storage density, and it can
be stored easily. In addition, it permits the use of rela
tively inexpensive playback apparatus.
Referring now to FIGS. 3-4, a preferred system for
recording the video and audio information on the disc is
illustrated. In this system, both the video information
and the audio information are recorded in an analog
a still picture with extended audio or sound. In the
form on the photographic disc. The video input signal
embodiment illustrated, nine audio tracks are provided
for each video track. With the disc rotating at a speed of
1800 rpm, each track is scanned in 33.33 milliseconds,
and the nine audio tracks for each frame have a total
can be obtained from any suitable source such as a tele
trated'. The video tracks V1, V2, V3, . . . are spaced
'radially'apart, and the audio tracks la-li, 20-21‘, . . . are
arranged in groups A1, A2, . . . between the video
the beam can be aligned with any desired track on the
disc. The carriage is driven by a lead screw 36 and a
tracks for any one frame to be scanned simultaneously
comprises a buffer into which the audio data is read at
a rate of 80,000 bits per second for 3.2768 seconds for
vision camera, a video tape player, or a kinescope, and
this signal is applied to one input of a modulator 22
which controls the intensity of a beam generated by a
20
laser 23. In the preferred embodiment, laser 23 is a
scanning time of 300 milliseconds. By recording the
HeNe laser having a power output on the order of 5
audio information in a compressed format, the amount
milliwatts, and modulator 22 is a acousto-optical modu
of audio information for each frame of the picture can
lator through which the laser beam passes. As illus
be extended even further. For example, with a compres
trated
in FIG. 4, a mirror 24 directs the modulated beam
sion of 100:1, the nine audio tracks can provide up to 30
25 toward an objective lens 26 which focuses the beam on
seconds of sound for each frame. A greater or lesser
the video disc. The video disc is mounted on a turntable
number of audio tracks can be employed, if desired,
31 which is driven by a motor 32 and drive shaft 33. The
with a corresponding increase or decrease in the
disc is clamped to the turntable by a hub 34 and rotates
amount of audio information per frame.
with the turntable. The turntable and motor are
Referring now to FIG. 2, the manner in which the 30
mounted on a carriage (not shown) which is movable in
video and audio tracks are arranged on the disc is illus
a direction perpendicular to the axis of the disc whereby
suitable drive motor and control (not shown).
tracks; The audio tracks for each frame are immediately 35 Referring again to FIG. 3, the audio input is applied
adjacent to the video track for that frame, and in the
to an analog-to-digital converter 43. In the preferred
embodiment illustrated, the recording progresses in an
embodiment, the audio signal is sampled at a rate of
outward direction, with the video track V1 for the ?rst
10,000 samples per second, with 8 bits per sample pro
frame being nearest the center of the disc, followed by
viding a resolution of 256 levels.
the audio tracks for that frame, then the video track V2 40
The output of A/D converter 43 is connected to the
for the next frame, and so on.
data input of a digital data store 44, and the output of
In the embodiment illustrated, the tracks are spaced
the data store is connected to the input of a digital-to
uniformly across the recording band of the disc. With
analog converter 45. The output of this converter is
this spacing and the audio tracks for each frame being
connected to a second input of modulator 22. The digi
adjacent to the video track for the frame, the tracks 45 tized data is read into the data store in real time and is
have a uniform positional relationship from frame to
read out in high speed bursts, whereby the data is com
frame. This relationship enables the video and audio
pressed. In the preferred embodiment, digital store 44
with a single reading head during playback. Since the
relationship is uniform from frame to frame, if the head 50 each frame of the picture. The data for each frame is
is aligned with the video track for any frame, then it will
read outof the buffer at a rate of 8 million bits per
automatically be aligned with the remaining tracks for
second in a time of 32.768 milliseconds to provide a
that frame. This is a signi?cant advantage because it
compression of 100:1.
eliminates the need for separate heads for the video and
Operation and use of the system of FIGS. 3-4 and
audio tracks and thereby avoids the expense and prob 55 therein the recording method of the invention can now
lems of alignment and maintenance associated with
be described. The unexposed video disc is rotated by
separate heads. It should be noted that while a uniform
turntable 31, and the turntable carriage is positioned so
track spacing is employed in the embodiment illus
that the laser beam is focused on the video track for the
trated, any desired spacing can be employed between
?rst frame to be recorded. As the disc rotates, the inten#
the individual tracks. As long as the arrangement is the 60 sity of the laser beam varies in accordance with the
same for each frame, the tracks will have the desired
digitized video information, and the video track is ex? ‘
uniform positional relationship from frame to frame.
posed accordingly. When the video track has been re
In the preferred embodiment, the video disc is fabri
corded, the turntable carriage is moved- l'4.microns to
cated from a circular sheet of ?lm 19 having a photosen
position the laser beam onthe ?rst audio track for the
sitive emulsion on a light transmissive substrate or base, 65 frame. The 3.2768 seconds of audio information for this
the ?lm being exposed and developed to vary the opac
track is read into the compressor buffer in real time and
ity of the disc in accordance with the video and audio 7 read out in 32,768 milliseconds. The compressed'audio
signal is reconverted to analog form and applied to ‘the
information to be recorded thereon. One suitable disc
5
4,317,131
modulator to vary the intensity of the beam and expose
6
then moves another 14 microns, and the next audio
bits per second for a period of 3.2768 seconds to restore
the data to a real time basis.
The decompressed data from data store 72 is recon
track is exposed by the laser beam in accordance with
the next 3.2768 seconds of audio information. The pro
73, and the analog signal is ampli?ed or otherwise pro
the audio track accordingly. The turntable carriage
verted to analog form by a digital-to-analog converter
cessed for application to a suitable audio reproducer 74.
Operation and use of the playback apparatus of
FIGS. 5-7 and therein the playback method of the in
cess continues until the desired number of video and
audio tracks have been recorded. The exposed disc is
then removed from the drive mechanism and devel
oped.
vention can now be described. The previously recorded
video disc 11 is mounted on ?ange 46 and secured by
Referring now to FIGS. 5—7, the playback apparatus
includes a single reading head 41 for simultaneously
scanning the video and audio recording tracks for one
frame of the picture. For playback, video disc 11 is
hub 47. Carriage 57 is positioned to align lens 56 with
the tracks for the desired frame. As the disc rotates, the
video track and all of the audio tracks for the desired
frame are scanned simultaneously by reading head 41.
rotatively supported on an air bearing 42 above a sta
tionary table 43. The disc is mounted on a spindle 44
having a radial ?ange 46 and a hub 47 between which
The video information is processed repeatedly during
successive revolutions of the disc, and the picture repre
sented by that information is reproduced repeatedly.
the disc is clamped. The spindle is driven by a drive
Track selector 69 passes audio information from succes
motor 48.
sive ones of the audio tracks to the data store during
Light for reading the information stored on the disc is
provided by a light source 53 positioned beneath a ra 20 successive revolutions of the disc. Thus, while the video
information is reproduced repeatedly, the audio infor
dial slot 54 in table 43. In one presently preferred em
mation is reproduced sequentially to provide the ex
bodiment, the light source comprises an incandescent
tended audio for the picture. When the audio informa
lamp and a condenser, but any suitable light source,
tion from all of the tracks for the ?rst frame has been
including a laser, can be employed. The light passing
through the table and disc is modulated in intensity by
25
the information recorded on the disc, and an objective
lens 56 projects a magni?ed image of the tracks to be
read onto the reading head. Servomechanisms (not
reproduced, the carriage is shifted to bring the light
source, lens and reading head into position to read the
tracks for another frame. This process continues until
the desired number of frames have been reproduced. If
less than nine tracks of audio are recorded, the disc is
repositioned for the next frame upon completion of the
shown) of a well known type provide automatic track
ing and focusing to maintain the projected image in
proper relationship with the reading head.
number of tracks which are present. In this case, a con
trol signal can be recorded in the last audio‘ track to
condition the apparatus to switch to the next frame.
mounted on a carriage 57, and a lead screw 57 is con
The invention has a number of important features and
nected to the carriage for positioning the same to read a 35 advantages. With nine tracks of audio for each track of
desired track on the disc. Reading head 41 includes
video and a compression ratio of 100: 1, up to 30 seconds
individual sensing elements 61 and 62a~62i in the form
of audio can be provided for each frame. With 5,000
of photodiodes for the video track and the audio tracks,
tracks utilized in this manner, the playing time of the
Light source 53, lens 56 and reading head 41 are all
respectively. The vertical spacing between the diodes
corresponds to the track spacing in the magni?ed image
which is projected onto the reading head, and alternate
disc is over four hours. The disc itself can be repro
40
ones of the diodes are displaced laterally to permit a
closer vertical spacing between the diodes. Additional
diodes 63, 64 are positioned immediately above and
duced readily and economically, it has a high storage
density, and it can be played back on relatively inexpen
sive playback apparatus. All of the video and audio
information for a complete frame is read with a single
head, and any desired number of audio tracks can be
below the horizontal center line of video sensor 61. 45 provided for each frame.
These diodes receive unequal amounts of light from the
It is apparent from the foregoing, that a new and
video track when the image is misaligned on the reading
head, and a correction signal derived from the outputs
of these diodes is applied to a tracking servomechanism
to maintain the image in proper alignment on the read 50
improved system, method and record medium for re
producing pictures and related audio information have
been provided. While only certain presently preferred
embodiments have been described, as will be apparent
to those familiar with the art, certain changes and modi
?cations can be made without departing from the scope
tive traces on the substate and by pins which project
of the invention as de?ned by the following claims.
from the substate. The traces and pins are of a conven
What is claimed is:
tional nature an have been omitted from the drawings 55
1. In a method for the storage and retrieval of video
for clarity of illustration.
and audio information, the steps of: recording video
After suitable ampli?cation, the signal from video
information for discrete frames of a television picture in
sensor 61 is applied to a video reproducer 69 such as a
spaced apart tracks on a record medium, recording
television receiver or a video monitor.
extended audio information for each frame in a plurality
The signals from audio sensors 62a~62i are applied to 60 of individually transcribable tracks between the video
a track selector 69 which delivers the audio information
tracks, the audio tracks for each frame being spaced
from successive ones of the tracks to an analog-to-digi
from each other and from the video track for the frame
tal converter 71, the output of which is connected to the
in a predetermined pattern which is similar for all of the
data input of a digital store 72. The data store includes
frames, simultaneously reading the information from
a buffer into which the compressed audio data is read at 65 the video track and all of the audio tracks for one frame
a rate of 8 million bits per second during the 32.768
of the picture with a single sensing head having a plural
millisecond period the information is read from the disc.
ity of sensing elements arranged in accordance with the
ing head. The diodes are mounted on a ceramic substate
66, and connections to the diodes are made by conduc
The data is then read out of the buffer at a rate of 80,000
predetermined pattern for simultaneously scanning the
7
4,317,131
8
respective tracks for the frame, and sequentially pro
extended audio information for each of the frames re
cessing the information from successive ones of the
audio tracks to reproduce the extended audio informa
corded in a plurality of individually transcribable tracks
between the video tracks, the audio tracks for each
frame being spaced from each other and from the video
track for the frame in a predetermined pattern, the steps
of: scanning the video track and all of the audio tracks
for one frame simultaneously with a single recording
head having a plurality of sensing elements arranged in
accordance with the predetermined pattern for scan
tion during reproduction of the picture.
2. The method of claim 1 wherein the audio informa
tion is recorded in a compressed format.
3. The method of claim 1 wherein the information is
recorded photographically on the record medium.
4. The method of claim 1 wherein up to nine tracks of
audio information are recorded for each track of video
ning the respective tracks, processing the information
from the video track to repeatedly reproduce the pic
information.
5. In a system for the storage and retrieval of video
and audio information: a record medium, recording
ture corresponding thereto, and processing the informa
tion from successive ones of the audio tracks to pro
apparatus including means for recording video informa
vided extended sound for the picture.
tion for discrete frames of a television picture in spaced 15
12. The method of claim 11 wherein the tracks for the
apart tracks on the record medium and recording ex
one frame are scanned repeatedly during successive
tended audio information for each frame in a plurality of
revolutions of the record medium, and the audio infor
individually transcribable tracks between the video
mation from successive ones of the tracks is processed
tracks, the audio tracks for each frame being spaced
during successive revolutions of the record medium to
from each other and from the video track for the frame
provide
the extended sound for the picture.
in a predetermined pattern which is similar for all of the
13. The method of claim 11 wherein the video and
frames, and playback apparatus including means for
audio information is recorded photographically on a
reading the information from one of the video tracks to
reproduce one frame of the picture, and means for read
ing the information from the audio tracks for the one
light transmissive medium and is read by sensing light
passing through the tracks in which the information is
recorded.
14. In playback apparatus for a record medium hav
ing video information for discrete frames of a television
frame and sequentially processing the information from
successive ones of the audio tracks to reproduce the
extended audio information during reproduction of the
picture, said playback apparatus including a single read
ing head having a plurality of sensing elements arranged
picture recorded in spaced apart tracks and extended
30 audio information for each of the frames recorded in a
plurality of individually transcribable tracks between
in accordance with the predetermined pattern for simul
taneously reading the information from the video track
the video tracks for successive frames, the audio tracks
for each frame being spaced from each other and from
the video track for the frame in a predetermined pat
6. The system of claim 5 wherein the record medium
comprises a video disc.
35 tern: a single reading head having a plurality of sensing
elements arranged in accordance with the predeter
7. The system of claim 5 wherein the record medium
mined pattern for simultaneously reading the informa
comprises a photosensitive medium, and the recording
tion from the video track and all of the audio tracks for
apparatus includes a laser for exposure of the photosen
and all of the audio tracks for the one frame.
one of the frames, means for processing the information
sitive medium in accordance with the video and audio
information to be recorded.
from the video track to repeatedly reproduce the pic
ture corresponding thereto, and means for processing
8. The system of claim 5 wherein the recording appa
ratus includes means for compressing the audio infor
the information from successive ones of the audio tracks
mation for recording on the disc, and the playback
apparatus includes means for decompressing the audio
to provide extended sound during the repeated repro
duction of the picture.
information read from the disc.
15. The apparatus of claim 14 wherein the reading
45
head includes means for passing signals from the sensing
9. The system of claim 5 wherein the playback appa
ratus includes switching means for selecting the audio
elements for successive ones of the audio tracks to the
processing means.
information from successive ones of the audio tracks to
reproduce the extended audio information during con
16. The apparatus of claim 15 wherein the record
tinuous reproduction of the picture for the frame.
medium comprises a light transmissive member on
10. The system of claim 5 wherein up to nine tracks of
which the video and audio information is photographi
audio information are recorded for each track of video
cally recorded, the means for reading the information
information.
from the video and audio tracks includes a light source,
11. In a method for the reproduction of a television
and the sensing elements are responsive to light passing
through the video and audio tracks from the light
picture and sound utilizing a record medium having
video information for discrete frames of the picture
recorded in spaced apart circular tracks thereon and
source.
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