Mississippi Early Learning Guidelines For Infants and Toddlers

Mississippi Early Learning Guidelines For Infants and Toddlers
Mississippi
Early Learning Guidelines
For Infants and Toddlers
2010
Mississippi Head Start
Collaboration Office
Suggested Citation
Mississippi Head Start Collaboration Office. (2010). Mississippi early learning guidelines for infants
and toddlers. Jackson, MS: Author.
Mississippi Head Start Collaboration Office
The Mississippi Head Start Collaboration Office facilitates communication and coordination
of services, alignment of planning, enrollment, administration, and reporting systems among
State and local leadership across funding streams and disciplines. More specifically, the
MHSCO enhances collaborative partnerships that:
• Assist in building early childhood systems and access to comprehensive services and
support for all low-income children;
• Promote widespread collaboration and partnership between Head Start and other
appropriate programs, services, and initiatives, including child care and State
preschool; and
• Facilitate the involvement of Head Start in the development of State policies, plans,
processes and decisions affecting the Head Start target population and other lowincome families
P.O. Box 139
Jackson, MS 39205
601-359-3150
www.governorbarbour.com/links/headstart.html
Contents
Acknowledgments ................................................................................................................................1
Introduction ..........................................................................................................................................3
Teaching and Learning Activities .......................................................................................................4
Language, Vocabulary and Literacy Development ...................................................................4
Understanding of Language and Sounds . .................................................................................4
Use of Language ............................................................................................................................7
Awareness of Language in Print ...............................................................................................10
Awareness of Books ...................................................................................................................10
Mathematical Development .......................................................................................................13
Awareness of
Awareness of
Awareness of
Awareness of
Awareness of
Numbers and Operations .................................................................................13
Patterns ................................................................................................................14
Sorting ..................................................................................................................15
Shapes ..................................................................................................................16
Space . ...................................................................................................................18
Scientific Development ...............................................................................................................20
Awareness of Living and Non-Living Things . .......................................................................20
Awareness of Immediate Surroundings ...................................................................................21
Exploration and Experimentation ............................................................................................21
Social-Emotional Development ................................................................................................24
Close and Secure Relationships with Adults ...........................................................................24
Relationships with Peers .............................................................................................................28
Self-Awareness .............................................................................................................................31
Experience, Expression, and Regulation of Emotions .........................................................35
Exploration, Learning, and Independence ..............................................................................40
Physical Development . ...............................................................................................................44
Awareness of Body in Space . ....................................................................................................44
Gross Motor Skills .......................................................................................................................44
Fine Motor Skills . ........................................................................................................................49
Self-Help Development ..............................................................................................................53
Eating . ...........................................................................................................................................53
Toileting . .......................................................................................................................................55
Dressing . .......................................................................................................................................56
Daily Routines ..............................................................................................................................58
Observational Checklists for Competencies and Objectives for Infants and Toddlers ..........60
Language, Vocabulary and Literacy Development .................................................................60
Mathematical Development .......................................................................................................63
Scientific Development ...............................................................................................................65
Social-Emotional Development ................................................................................................66
Physical Development . ...............................................................................................................71
Self-Help Development ..............................................................................................................73
Acknowledgments
Laura Beth Hebbler
Director, Mississippi Head Start Collaboration Office
Early Care and Education Policy Advisor, Office of the Governor
2004-2009
Holly Spivey
Director, Mississippi Head Start Collaboration Office and Early Care and Education
2009 –
Writing Group
Stacy Callender, M.A.
Executive Director
State Early Childhood Advisory Council of
Mississippi
Leigh Ann Gant
Director
Delta State University Child Care Center
Alice L. Camp, Ph.D.
Instructor of Early Childhood Education
Northwest Mississippi Community College
Vanessa Gibson
Director
Head Start Program
Jackson County (Mississippi) Civic Action
Committee
Valerie Rovin Campbell, Ph.D.
Infant/Toddler Specialist
Head Start Training and Technical
Assistance Project
Region IV, U.S. Administration for Children
and Families
Connie Clay, M.S.
Director
Mississippi Child Care Quality Step System
Mississippi State University Early Childhood
Institute
Katherine Culpepper
First Steps Early Intervention Program
Mississippi State Department of Health
Louise Davis, Ph.D.
Extension Professor
School of Human Sciences
Mississippi State University
Jill Dent, Ph.D.
Bureau Director
Office for Children and Youth
Mississippi Department of Human Services
Cathy Grace, Ed.D.
Professor and Founding Director
Mississippi State University Early Childhood
Institute
Ann Henson
Institute for Disability Studies
University Southern Mississippi
Deyanna Jenkins
Mississippi Public Broadcasting
JoAnn Kelly
Director
Horizon Project
Mississippi State University Early Childhood
Institute
Gay Logan
Child Care Licensure Branch
Mississippi State Department of Health
Jessica Moore
Child Care Licensure Branch
Mississippi State Department of Health
Festus Simkins
Bureau Director
Child Care Licensure Branch
Mississippi State Department of Health
Cheryl Mueller, M.S.
Director
Mississippi Power Early Learning Program
Mississippi State University Early Childhood
Institute
Laurie Smith, Ph.D.
Executive Director
Mississippi Building Blocks
Pamela Myrick-Mottley, M.Ed.
Director
Project Joy
Mississippi State University Early Childhood
Institute
JoAnn Thomas, M.S.
Director
Partners for Quality Child Care
Mississippi State University Early Childhood
Institute
Beverly Peden
Director
Crossgates Methodist Children’s Center
Brandon, Miss.
Beverly Willis
Mississippi Building Blocks
Mississippi State University Early Childhood
Institute
Jane Siders, Ed.D.
Executive Director
Institute for Disability Studies
University of Southern Mississippi
Review Group
Stacy Callender, M.A.
Executive Director
State Early Childhood Advisory Council of
Mississippi
Shirley J. Miller
Deputy Director
Bureau of Intellectual and Developmental
Disabilities
Mississippi Department of Mental Health
Bitsy Browne Miller, Ph.D.
Assistant Professor
School of Education
William Carey University
Laurie Smith, Ph.D.
Executive Director
Mississippi Building Blocks
Editorial, Design and Production Services
Elizabeth F. Shores, M.A.P.H.
Mississippi State University Early Childhood Institute
Editor
Lynn Bell
Mississippi State University Early Childhood Institute
Design and Production
2
Introduction
A group of early childhood educators in Mississippi developed these voluntary guidelines
in 2009 to show how teachers can help children from birth to 3 years to learn and grow
in language, social-emotional and physical development and to practice and master basic
concepts and skills in mathematics, science, and self-help.
The authors of the guidelines compiled lists of competencies, such as “understanding of
language and sounds,” in each of those developmental domains, and objectives, such as
“turns head in direction of sounds,” for each competency. For each objective, the authors
provided sample teaching and learning activities such as “place the baby on his back and
gently shake a rattle or bell in a circular motion approximately 12 inches above his head.”
Some objectives, denoted by asterisks, correspond to the 1-36 Months Developmental
Checklists of the First Steps Program of the Mississippi Department of Health (2005a,
2005b, 2005c).
This guide includes the sample activities and observational checklists for each of the six
developmental domains.
References
Mississippi Department of Health. (2005a). One – 12 months developmental checklist. Jackson,
MS: Author.
Mississippi Department of Health. (2005b). Thirteen - 24 months developmental checklist. Jackson,
MS: Author.
Mississippi Department of Health. (2005c). Twenty-five – 36 months developmental checklist.
Jackson, MS: Author.
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Teaching and Learning Activities
To Support Language, Vocabulary and Literacy Development
1.1
Understanding of Language and Sounds
0-12 Months
1.1.1 Turns head in direction of sounds*
• Place the baby on his back and gently shake a rattle or bell in a circular motion
approximately 12 inches above his head.
• Approach the baby from outside her view and sing or say her name, ring a bell,
or use a squeaky toy to attract her attention.
• Ring a bell or musical instrument while children are playing outside.
1.1.2 Repeats a syllable (ma-, ma-, ma-)* or sound 2-3 times
• Say “ma-, ma-, ma-” or “da-, da-, da-” while changing the baby’s diaper.
• Provide a toy barn or farm and toy animals and encourage the children to make
the sounds of the animals as they place them in or around the toy. Introduce
more toy animals from time to time.
• Play recordings of familiar sounds and encourage children to mimic and identify
the sounds.
1.1.3 Responds with gestures to gestures with gestures, name, simple questions*
• Be certain to use the name that the family uses for the child.
• Insert children’s names in songs, poems and chants like the following.
If You Miss Me
If you miss me and you are looking around
And you can’t find me anywhere.
Come on over to ____________’s house,
And I’ll be playin’ round there.
I’ll be playin’ round there,
I’ll be playin’ round there.
Come on over to ___________’s house,
I’ll be playin’ round there.
Today Is ____________’s Birthday
Today is ______________’s birthday.
Let’s make him (her) a cake.
Mix and stir, Stir and mix,
Then into the oven to bake.
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Here is the cake so nice and round,
Frosted with blue and white,
We put two (or three) candles on top.
And blow out the birthday light!
You’ve Been Gone
______________’s been gone
and ____________’s been missed.
Here’s an angel
For a hello kiss!
Dancing Hands
Hold the child’s hands and move them to the directions of the following chant.
_______________’s hands are up
And _________________’s hands are down.
________________’s hands are dancing
All around the town.
Dancing on my knees,
Dancing on my feet,
Dancing on my shoulders,
And dancing on my cheeks.
(Blow raspberries: fill your cheeks with air, then gently touch them, forcing a
squirt of air through your puckered lips.)
____________’s hands are up
And _______________’s hands are down.
_____________’s hands are dancing
All around the town.
Dancing on your knees,
Dancing on your feet,
Dancing on your shoulders,
And dancing on your cheeks.
(Blow raspberries again.)
• Give meaning and intention to children’s gestures, sounds and facial expressions.
Make a “guess or guesses” to what the child is signaling. As you act on your
guesses be aware that when you “hit” on the right need or desire, you can see
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the child physically relax. Responsive care requires this type of attunement to the
child.
• Look directly into the baby’s eyes from a distance of 6-9 inches and coo and play
briefly with him.
• Make facial expressions such as opening your mouth or sticking out your tongue.
• Wave to the baby while saying “Hi, Baby!”
• Play pat -a-cake with the child.
• Ask children questions such as “Is this your bottle?” “Is this your crib?”, and
“Are you hungry?” and demonstrate answers like so: “Yes, I think this is Suzy’s
bottle” and “No, this is Jaden’s crib!”
• Give meaning and intention to children’s gestures, sounds and facial expressions.
Make a “guess or guesses” to what the child is signaling. As you act on your
guesses be aware that when you “hit” on the right need or desire, you can see
the child physically relax. Responsive care requires this type of attunement to the
child.
• Respect a child’s natural schedule. Most babies will settle into a routine for eating,
sleeping, and eliminating. Establish a consistent routine that honors each infant’s
natural schedule.
13-24 Months
1.1.4 Responds to requests to “Give me” or “Show me”*
• Talk to the child while feeding her.
• Ask the child simple questions such as “Do you want that toy?” “Are you
sleepy?” and “Are you hungry?” Point to and name the child's body parts during
routine care.
• Give the child a doll and ask, “Where is the doll’s nose?”
• When the child points to the doll’s nose, encourage him to name it by asking,
“What is that?”
• Sing “Head and Shoulders, Knees and Toes” with children.
1.1.5 Understands 5+ single words, names objects and persons*
• Lay the child on her back and sing her name.
• Make up a song with the child’s name in it, such as to the tune of “B-I-N-G-O”
• Sing the names of children who are present, perhaps using the song “Who Came
to School Today?”
• Name objects in the room during routine care times such as diapering, feeding,
and rocking.
• Give the child a mirror and ask “Whom do you see in the mirror?”
• Point to pictures of familiar objects and ask the child to name the objects.
• Hang interesting pictures of familiar objects near the diapering area, substituting
new pictures often.
• Name objects in the room during routine care times such as diapering, feeding,
and rocking.
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•
•
•
•
Use new words each day.
Use books to give examples of animal sounds.
Engage children in a game of Simon Says.
During Circle Time activities and other times of day, use simple directions such
as “Raise your hand,” “Stomp your feet,” and “Clap your hands.”
1.1.6 Hands book to read or share to an adult*
•
•
•
•
Show the child brief picture books; point to and name objects.
Encourage the child to point to objects in picture books.
Read soft-cover picture books to children.
Display several picture books, with front covers visible, in children’s reach at all
times. Encourage children to bring books to you for reading aloud.
25-36 Months
1.1.7 Pays attention to brief stories, especially ones about self
• Use a puppet while reading a book aloud.
1.1.8 Moves and claps to rhythm and songs
• Include music in daily activities.
• Play musical games such as Hokey Pokey.
• Conduct a musical parade, giving each child instrument and leading the group in
a march around the room or to other classrooms.
1.1.9 Repeats patterns of sounds
• Sing “Old McDonald Had a Farm” during routine care times such as diapering,
feeding, and rocking.
1.1.10 Understands and follows one-step directions*
• Play Follow Me: Ask a child to find an item such as one big blue interlocking
block. Continue the game by asking the child to follow other simple directions.
1.2
Use of Language
0-12 Months
1.2.1 Uses gestures to communicate desires
• Ask children questions such as “Is this your bottle?” “Is this your crib?”, and
“Are you hungry?” and demonstrate answers like so: “Yes, I think this is Suzy’s
bottle” and “No, this is Jaden’s crib!”
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• Give the child a mirror and ask “Whom do you see in the mirror?”
• Point to pictures of familiar objects and ask the child to name the objects.
1.2.2 Uses some words
• Ask children questions such as “Is this your bottle?” “Is this your crib?”, and
“Are you hungry?” and demonstrate answers like so: “Yes, I think this is Suzy’s
bottle” and “No, this is Jaden’s crib!”
13-24 Months
1.2.3 Combines words and gestures to communicate desires*
• Encourage the child to use words with gestures. For example a child indicates
non-verbally that she desires milk, say, “I see you want milk. Can you say milk?”
• Talk with the child about the steps of routine care activities. For example: “I
want to wash your hands so they are clean and have no more germs etc…”
1.2.4 Uses additional words
• Make a book of photographs of animals and common objects and place it in the
reading area for children to examine. Encourage them to name the objects that
they recognize.
• Use familiar and unfamiliar words with children, giving the new words a little
emphasis as you talk with them. For example, ask a child “Could you bring me
that gorgeous doll?” or “Do you think this is an unbelievably wonderful book?”
1.2.5 Participates in conversations
• Act as a “social interpreter” for children. Describe one infant’s actions to
each other, addressing each child by name. Example: “Amy, you are looking at
Sam. Now you are reaching out to Sam. Oh, Sam you touched Amy.” Explain
intentions such as “Amy, you bumped Sam and scared him. Sam, Amy did not
mean to bump you. She was just crawling by.”
• Play News Ball: Children love to tell their own news but sometimes have trouble
listening to each other. News Ball helps children to define their turn to talk
as they hold a ball, and it helps them to wait their turn to talk. Gather 2 or 3
children around you as you hold a medium-sized soft ball. Tell the children that
the ball is going to be a news ball and whoever holds it in their hand gets to tell
some news. It can be good news, sad news, surprising news, or any kind of news
they want to share. Demonstrate the game by telling some news of your own.
When you finish telling your news, pass the ball to a child for him to share his
news. When he finishes, he will pass it to another child. If a child does not want
to share news, she can say “Pass” and pass the news ball to someone else.
8
25-36 Months
1.2.6 Uses at least 50 words
• Ask children to bring favorite objects from home and encourage them to talk
about their show-and-tell items.
1.2.7 Recognizes and names familiar objects*
• Set up dramatic play area. As you observe the children at play, encourage them to
use words to talk about their play. Examples: “Tell me about washing the dishes”
and “Tell me about getting ready for bed.”
1.2.8 Asks “Why?” questions
• Demonstrate “Why?” questions by asking, “Why can’t we go outside today?” or
“Why do we need to take naps?” Praise the children for their answers like so:
“Yes, it’s raining and that’s why we can’t go outside today.”
1.2.9 Engages in rich and continuous interactions
• Once a week, work with small groups to ask individual children to talk about
something that happened during the day. Record their responses on chart paper
and display for children and parents to see.
• Show genuine respect for children’s ideas and questions. Use simple language
to respond to their statements and questions. Example: “I don’t know why Mr.
Smith has a new car, Ashdon. Maybe his old car broke down too many times.”
• Act as a “social interpreter” for children. Describe children’s statements and
questions to each other, addressing each child by name. Examples: “Antonio,
you are telling us a lot of things.” and “Savannah, I am glad to see you are so
interested in tigers.”
• Ask other adults to briefly take your place if children’s constant talking makes
you tired or tense. Do not scold or punish children for being expressive and
engaged with others.
• Listen to children in the same genuine manner you listen to others whom you
respect. Be authentic with children. Avoid asking them too many questions.
Begin your conversations with observations and comments that invite children
into friendship with you. For example, “Oh, Sirah, I notice you have a new
backpack. Will you let me look at it?” Of, course the child will be thrilled to show
it to you. As you explore it together, expand the conversation by building on
what she says. Children know how to spot people who have a genuine interest in
them.
1.2.10 Speaks in simple, correct sentences*
• Once a week, work with small groups to ask individual children to talk about
9
something that happened during the day. Record their responses on chart paper
and display for children and parents to see.
1.2.11 Sings short songs and repeats simple rhymes
• Sing songs and recite short rhyming poems during transition times and
encourage children to sing songs and repeat poems with you.
1.3
Awareness of Language in Print
25-36 Months
1.3.1 Understands differences between pictures and print
• Working with children in small groups and then one child at a time, guide them
in looking at picture books that have a single picture and identifying word per
page. Point to the pictures and then to the labels, naming the objects and reading
the words.
1.3.2 Recognizes familiar symbols such as logos and traffic signs
• Add items from various community businesses, such as clean paper cups from
fast food restaurants, to the Dramatic Play Center. As you introduce new items
in the learning center, talk with the children about them.
1.3.3 Recognizes that symbols have meaning
• Provide toy road signs in the Block Center. As you introduce new items in the
learning center, talk with the children about them.
• Provide a handmade book of pictures of road signs.
1.3.4 Recognizes first name in print
• Display children’s first names on cubbies, artworks, and in an exhibit of
photographs of the children and their families.
1.3.5 Scribbles and draws with various writing and drawing tools*
• Set up an Art Center that is in children’s reach, with a variety of safe art materials
and writing and drawing implements, and make it available to small groups of 2
or 3 children at all times.
1.4
Awareness of Books
0-12 Months
1.4.1 Is interested in books and reading
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1.4.2 Points to pictures in books upon request
13-24 Months
1.4.3 Turns pages of a book, looking at some pages and pictures
• Provide a wide variety of books, displayed with front covers visible, in children’s
reach every day so they have many opportunities to hold and examine the books.
• As you read books aloud to children, demonstrate how you turn the pages, place
books back on the shelf, etc.
25-36 Months
1.4.4 Repeats words when an adult reads a predictable or pattern book
• Read predictable books, such as Brown Bear, Brown Bear, aloud to children in small
groups and one-on-one.
1.4.5 Practices proper use and care of books
• As you read books aloud to children, demonstrate how you turn the pages, place
books back on the shelf, etc.
1.4.6 Holds a book and pretends to read
• Make a book of photographs of animals and common objects and place it in the
reading area for children to examine. Encourage them to name the objects that
they recognize.
1.4.7 Answers simple questions about books and stories
• As you read books aloud to children, talk about how one event leads to another.
Ask questions such as “What will happen next?” and “What happened after
that?”
• Use flannel board stories at eye level to engage children in telling stories and
predicting outcomes.
• Working with children in small groups and then one child at a time, guide them
in looking at picture books that have a single picture and identifying word or
words per page. Point to the pictures and then to the labels, naming the objects
and reading the words.
1.4.8 Acts out stories using dramatic play
• Provide a Pretend Play Center with props and prompts for pretend play
• Encourage children to act out nursery rhymes, such as “Jack and Jill,” and the
stories of simple books you have read to them.
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Teaching and Learning Activities
To Support Mathematical Development
2.1 Awareness of Numbers and Operations
0-24 Months
2.1.1 Understands concepts of 1 and 2
• Repeat the following rhyme with the baby while pointing to child’s body parts.
I see two eyes.
One, two.
I see two ears.
One, two.
I see two hands.
One, two.
I see two feet.
One, two.
• Encourage the child to point to his own body parts.
• During floor time or while changing the baby’s diaper, repeat the following
rhyme.
Arms up,
One, two, three.
Arms out,
One, two, three.
Arms together,
One, two, three.
Arms down,
One, two, three.
Legs up,
One, two, three.
Legs out,
One, two, three.
Legs together,
One, two, three.
Legs down,
One, two, three.
With younger babies, gently move their arms and legs as you repeat the rhyme.
Older babies will soon be able to move as you repeat the words.
12
• Sit with the child on the floor. Place one item, such as a block, in an open
container such as a bowl, box, or bin, saying “One block.” Add another block
and say “Two blocks.” Hand the child a block and repeat the words as she places
the blocks into the container.
2.1.2 Matches two like objects
• Working with children in small groups or one-on-one, show them familiar items
such as stuffed toy animals, dolls, toy dishes, and balls. As you show each item,
ask the child or children to find “something like it” in the classroom. Make sure
there are like objects in view and in reach for the children.
• Place an assortment of small items, such as balls, toy cars, blocks, socks, and
mittens, in a basket, making sure that there are at least two of most types of
items. While sitting with children, ask them to look in the basket and find two
things that are alike.
• Take photos of all of the children in the classroom. Copy the pictures and
laminate two copies of each picture for durability. Place the pictures in a basket
or tray and, working with one child at a time, show him the pictures of his
friends. Name one of the other children and ask him to find two pictures of
that child.
• Ask the children to look around the room and find objects that are alike.
Example: “Can you find something that is red?” and “Can you find two things
that are round?” Praise them as they begin to find like items. Play along if they
have trouble with the game: “Look, I found two things that are red. Can anyone
else find something that is red?”
• Gather several snapping blocks of the same color. Show a child one block and
ask her to find one that is the same color. Snap them together. Keep going until
you and the child have snapped all like colors together.
• Cut several milk jugs in half to create bowls with the bottom halves. Cover the
rough edge of each bowl with masking tape of a different color. Ask children to
place objects in the bowl that match the colored tape. (Colored masking tape is
available at discount stores and paint supply stores.)
25-36 Months
2.1.3 Counts 1-5 objects
• Create a sign, with 1, 2, or 3 shapes such as triangles on it, for each learning
center. Post the signs and show children how to count the shapes. Explain that the
number of shapes is the number of children who can play in a center at one time.
Ask children to count the shapes with you.
• If too many children crowd a center, invite them to again count the shapes on the
sign.
• Count the number of children present each morning. Count cups, plates, and
other items.
• Post signs with the numerals 1-5 at child’s eye level on the wall. Place sets of
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objects beneath each number. Example: Place three balls beneath the numeral 3.
Invite children to count the items in each set aloud.
2.1.4 Recites rhymes or songs with adult
• Recite counting rhymes such as “Five Little Monkeys Jumping on the Bed” and
“Five Green and Speckled Frogs Sitting on a Speckled Log.”
2.1.5 Understands concept of more
• While sitting on the floor with the children, ask them to add “more blocks” to a
container, emphasizing the word more each time: “Will you add more blocks to
the container?”
• Ask a child to bring or give you “one more” of an item. Thank her for giving you
more.
• Encourage children to use the word more when asking for extra servings or when
playing with toys. Say things like, “Can you say ‘Please, may I have more?’”
• While sitting with the children at mealtime, ask a child if he would like more
before giving him another serving. Always ask “Would you like more?” while
using the hand sign for more.
2.1.6 Understands concept of 1, 2, and 3
• Place plastic bowls or drums where the children can reach them. Sit on the floor
and begin tapping on one of the bowls or drums, saying “One, two, three” to the
beat. Children will begin to gather as they hear the sounds. Encourage children
to drum and count with you.
• Count with children as they walk up stairs: “1 step, 2 steps, 3 steps.”
• Give a child set of three items such as blocks, balls, or toy cars. Hand the items,
one at a time, to the child, saying, “One, two, three.” Encourage the child to
repeat “One, two, three” as she hands the items back to you. Do this several
times.
• Recite counting rhymes such as “Five Little Monkeys Jumping on the Bed” and
“Five Green and Speckled Frogs Sitting on a Speckled Log.”
2.2Awareness of Patterns
0-24 Months
2.2.1 Repeat actions
• Repeat sounds, such as “Ma-, ma-,” that the baby makes. Eventually the baby will
repeat the sounds after you and the process will become a game.
• Play a rhyming game such as Pat-a-Cake with the baby and encourage her to play
with you:
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Pat-a-Cake
Pat a cake, pat a cake, baker’s man.
Bake me a cake as fast as you can.
Pat it and prick it and mark it with a “B.”
Put it in the oven for baby and me.
• Clap with a baby by clapping one time and then taking baby’s hands to clap one
time. Gradually increase the amounts of claps as baby begins to clap with you.
• Play In and Out: Engage a child in placing small soft toys or socks in a container,
dumping them out, and repeating.
25-36 Months
2.2.2 Notices simple patterns of sounds and objects
• Introduce a pattern such as the following.
Clap your hands one time.
Pat your legs one time.
Encourage children to copy the pattern. Expand the pattern as children master the
first version:
Clap you hands two times.
Pat your legs three times.
• Sing songs with patterns, such as “Old MacDonald Had a Farm,” “Head, Shoulders,
Knees, and Toes,” and “B-I-N-G-O,” with the children.
• Play Animal Sounds: Make a mooing sound and ask the children to mimic the sound
and name the animal that makes the sound. Make a “meow” sound like a cat and ask
children to mimic you and name the animal. Invite children to repeat the process
until all who wish to play have had a turn.
2.3Awareness of Sorting
0-24 Months
2.3.1 Places objects in containers
• Provide nesting cups, measuring cups, bowls or boxes of varying sizes.
Encourage toddlers to place smaller objects in the larger ones.
• Play What Toy Is It? Place the baby on the floor, propping him if necessary.
Place three different interesting toys on the floor before him. Hold up each toy
one at a time and tell the baby the name of the toy (boat, ball, block, or duck).
Ask the baby to pick up one of the toys: “Can you pick up the ball?” Help the
baby find the right toy and congratulate him: “Yay! You picked up the ball!”
15
Repeat as long as the game interests the baby.
• Play Where Is It? Position or prop a baby who is able to sit without assistance. Sit
facing the baby. Pick two different colored blocks and place them in front of the
baby. Describe one block: “This is a red block.” Then place it in another spot or
under the edge of a blanket. Make sure the baby sees you hide the block. Ask the
baby where the block is: “Where is the red block?” Encourage the baby to pick
up the block. If the baby is correct, show her the block again and offer praise. If
not, help the baby find the block. Repeat with the other block. This activity will
help babies develop eye-hand coordination and memory.
• Help children put learning materials in the proper containers during clean up.
Talk about how the toys fit in the proper containers.
25-36 Months
2.3.2 Understands concept of big or little
• Play Big and Little: Gather various large and small items such as big and little
toy bears, socks for adults and children, or big block and little blocks of a single
color. Show children the individual items and comment on whether each is big or
little. Mix up the items and then show one item, such as the little bear, to a child
and ask him to find the big bear.
• Vary the game of Big and Little: Provide two baskets and encourage the children
to put the big items in one basket and the little items in the other. Leave the
baskets and items in the Dramatic Play or Math Center where they can continue
to play Big and Little.
• Use favorite stories like “The Three Bears” to introduce the concepts of big and
little.
• Cut out big and little paper shapes. Talk with the children about which shapes are
big and which are little. Ask a child to show you a big heart or a little heart, a big
circle and a small circle, etc.
2.4Awareness of Shapes
0-24 Months
2.4.1 Matches objects by shape*
• Show children familiar items such as toy plates or bowls, paper napkins. As
you show each item, talk about its shape and ask the child or children to find
“something with the same shape” in the classroom. Make sure there are like
objects in view and in reach for the children.
• Cut various shapes from wallpaper sample books. (Most paint and wallpaper
retailers will gladly give you old sample books.) Ask children to find the shapes
that match.
• Place an assortment of small items, such as wooden blocks or paper cut-outs,
in a basket, making sure that there are at least two items of each shape. While
16
sitting with children, ask them to look in the basket and find two things that are
the same shape.
• Without showing objects to the children, ask them to look around the room and
find objects that are square, round, or triangular (“a triangle shape”). Example:
“Can you find two things that are round?” Praise them as they begin to find like
items. Play along if they have trouble with the game: “Look, I found two things
that are round. Can anyone else find something that is round?”
2.4.2 Understands concept of shape
• Provide many blocks of various shapes and comment on their shapes as children
play with them. (Make blocks: Stuff small empty boxes in a variety of shapes
with newspaper and tape them shut with packing tape.)
• Provide several shape-sorter toys for children to use. Talk with each child as
he begins to take an interest in the toys. Show the child how to push the item
through the hole. Talk about the shape of the item as you encourage the child to
put the item in the container. (Make shape-sorters: Use clean large margarine or
ice cream tubs. Cut an opening in a lid to match a small block or ball.)
• Use colored masking tape on the floor to outline a small circle, triangle, and
square. Encourage children to trace the shapes with their hands. On another
day, outline large shapes on the floor so that children can walk around the shapes.
• Provide several shape books for babies to handle and examine. Talk with each
child as he begins to take an interest in a shape book, showing him how to feel
the shapes and textures on different pages. (Make shape books: Cut poster board
into six pieces that are 8.5 x 11 inches. Gather brightly colored materials such
as velvet, satin, vinyl, sandpaper, corduroy, and fake fur. Cut out simple shapes
in two sizes. Glue a big circle on the first inside page and a small circle of the
matching texture on the facing page. Continue with 2 rectangles and 2 triangles.
Attach the pages using a hole-punch and string and tie with a double knot.)
• Hang shape posters at eye-level for children to touch and examine. Talk with
each child as he begins to take an interest in a poster, showing her how to feel the
shapes and textures on different posters. (Make shape posters: Cut poster boards
into two pieces. Gather brightly colored materials such as velvet, satin, vinyl,
sandpaper, corduroy, and fake fur. Cut out simple shapes in two sizes. Glue a big
circle and a small circle of the matching texture on one poster. Continue with 2
rectangles and 2 triangles.)
• Hang a shape mobile in windows or over the changing table. When standing with
baby in your arms or at the changing table, gently tap the mobile and talk about
the shapes. (Make a shape mobile: Cut simple shapes in bright colors. Use yarn
and a hole-punch to tie the shapes to a coat hanger and hang from a cup hook.)
• Read books about shapes aloud. Trace a child’s finger around a shape, naming
the shape as you go.
• Talk with children about the shapes of objects in the room: Balls are round and
blocks are square.
17
25-36 Months
2.4.3 Distinguishes straight and curvy lines*
• Demonstrate straight and curvy lines while painting at the easel with toddlers. As
toddlers are busy painting, comment on lines are straight and lines that are curvy.
• Provide non-toxic (not homemade) play dough on a table or at the Art Center.
Show the children how to roll out a tube or “snake” of dough and how to make
it straight or curvy. As children make their own tubes, comment on those that are
straight and those that are curvy.
• Provide pieces of yarn of various lengths on a table or at the Art Center.
Encourage children to glue the yarn to paper in straight and curvy lines.
• Play Musical Chairs: Place chairs in a straight or curving row and explain to
the children that chairs are in a straight line or curvy line. Lead the children in
walking around the chairs while music is playing and stopping and finding a chair
when the music stops. Place the chairs in different patterns and talk with the
children about the shapes that you create with the chairs. For this game, each
child should have a chair.
2.4.4 Identifies basic shapes such as circles and squares
• Read books about shapes, and books with pictures of shapes, aloud to small groups
of children or one-on-one. Name the shapes as you find them in the books. Ask
children to repeat the names of the shapes after you. As the child becomes more
knowledgeable of the names, you can ask them to tell you the names of the shapes
before you name them.
• Provide several shape-sorter toys for children to use. Talk with each child as he
begins to take an interest in the toys. Show the child how to push the item through
the hole. Talk about the shape of the item as you encourage the child to put the item
in the container. (Make shape-sorters: Use clean large margarine or ice cream tubs.
Cut an opening in a lid to match a small block or ball.)
• Cut shapes in various colors and sizes from heavy paper. Provide these in the
Art Center, with glue sticks and art paper, and encourage children to make shape
collages. Invite the children to talk about the shapes they choose for their collages.
2.5Awareness of Space
0-24 Months
2.5.1 Looks for objects that are hidden from sight*
• Play Where Is It? Show a child an item such as a small stuffed toy animal. Place
a box or bowl over the object so that it is hidden and ask, “Where is it?” At first,
cover the toy while the child watches. Later, hide the object while the child’s
attention is elsewhere.
• Use a blanket to cover a favorite object while the baby is watching. Leave a corner
of the object exposed as a hint. Ask, “Where is the ...?”
18
• Play Peek-a-Boo: Place your hands in front of your eyes and ask “Where’s Miss -?” Then move your fingers so the baby can see your eyes and say “Here I am!” or
“Peek-a-boo!” After a while, the baby will mimic your play, hiding his eyes behind
his hands while you ask, “Where’s Baby?”
• Use pillows, boxes, or secure shelving to create space for exploration. Encourage
babies to crawl and reach safely where you can always see them clearly.
25-36 Months
2.5.2 Understands concept of in or out*
• Create a maze using boxes, chairs, and table. Show children how to explore the
maze. As you demonstrate, use the words in, out, around, and through.
• Use every opportunity during the day to reinforce the words in and out.
• Play In and Out: Provide boxes or other containers where children place items in
and take them out.
• During clean-up time, reinforce the concepts of in and out as children put
learning materials away.
2.5.3 Understands words, such as “my cubby,” which describe personal space
• Give children individual spaces where they can store personal belongings. Label
the spaces with their names and photographs.
• Create space in the classroom where toddlers can go to be by themselves.
• Purchase duplicates of favorite learning materials. It is better to buy 2-3 items
that are the same rather than 2-3 different items. Toddlers are by nature selfish
and want what other children have.
2.5.4 Understands concept of whole or part
• Use fruit such as a banana during meals or snack time to demonstrate whole and
part. Cut the banana in front of the child and talk about the whole banana and the
parts of the banana. Ask, “Would you like a whole banana or part of a banana?”
(Children may ask for a whole banana and then only eat part of it. Do not make
an issue of this, as you offered them the choice as a learning activity.)
19
Teaching and Learning Activities
To Support Scientific Development
3.1
Awareness of Living and Non-Living Things
25-36 Months
3.1.1 Notices and names characteristics of self, other people, and objects
• Make a terrarium for the classroom. Plant several plants in the terrarium and
place it where children can observe the plants.
• Take children outside each day. Talk with them about what they see, hear, and
feel.
• Let children observe and help care for pets such as fish. If no aquarium is
available, place a Beta fish in water in a clean, clear plastic bottle. Screw the lid
on tightly and place the bottle at the children’s level where they can observe the
fish. At the end of the day, unscrew the lid and let the fish breath until morning.
Before children arrive replace the lid.
• While on a walk outside, encourage children to collect nature items and bring
them back to class. Have each child put his items in a zip lock bag. Write each
child’s name on his bag and place the bags in the science area for everyone to
examine. Talk with the children about what they found.
• Take a basket or box outside and let the children collect objects such as pine
cones, leaves, nuts, and flowers. Place these finds in a special place in the
classroom so that children can feel and explore the various collections.
• Make an Insect Trap: Choose a clear container such as a plastic cookie canister
or peanut butter jar. Poke air holes in the lid. With the children, place a moist
piece of bread in a clear container. Add a little honey or sugar. Turn the open
container on its side and place it on the ground outside. The next morning, take
the children outside to see if you have attracted any insects. If there are insects
in the container, tightly screw the lid on the container and bring your Insect Trap
inside. Place the trap where children can observe the insects throughout the day.
At the end of the day, take the container back outside and release the insects.
• Install a bird feeder outside a window where children can watch and listen. To
attract a variety of colorful birds, use sunflower seeds instead of a blend of
seeds.
• Sing “Head, Shoulders, Knees and Toes” while naming body parts. Add verses
for the neck, back, stomach, eyes, ears, nose, and mouth.
• Sing “If You’re Happy and You Know It, Touch Your Eyes” or “Hokey Pokey.”
• Display family photographs and photos of class activities at the eye level of the
children. Talk with the children about the pictures. Encourage them to locate and
identify themselves and other children in the pictures.
• Help children create books about their families. Ask parents to send photographs
and other materials about their families. Cut poster board into 5-inch by 7-inch
pieces. Help the children mount pictures on the pages and tie the pages together
with string. The children can keep their books in their cubbyholes and look at
them when they need reassurance.
20
• Cut out a large circle from felt. Use skin tones if possible. Cut out two eyes,
one nose and mouth, and a hat. Make several sets. Using the flannel board, help
children place the features on the faces. Store where children can get the pieces
and play with them as they wish.
3.2
Awareness of Immediate Surroundings
25-36 Months
3.2.1 Notices and names characteristics of seasons and weather*
• Read aloud children’s books about seasons and the weather.
• During outdoor play, talk about point out changes in the seasons and weather.
• Provide seasonal clothes for children and dolls in the Dramatic Play Center.
As they show an interest, talk with the children about items of clothing and
temperature of various seasons.
• Make Feely Bags so that children can experience temperature changes: Squirt
some hair gel into heavy-duty zip lock bags. Add sequins. Seal the bags and add
packing tape across the seals. Chill the bags in the refrigerator and then place
them in the Science Center for children to handle. Allow the bags to reach room
temperature and invite the children to handle them again. Ask, “Are the Feely
Bags still cold?”
• Talk with the children about changing temperatures and how they affect our
surroundings. Let children watch as you place water in an ice tray. When you take
the tray out of the freezer, let the children feel the difference. Place several ice
cubes in a bowl and place the bowl on a table so the children can observe the
changes as the ice gets warmer and begins to melt.
• During outdoor play, give each child an 18-inch piece of crepe paper.
Demonstrate running with the streamers. When they stop running, ask the
children whether the wind is blowing the streamers.
• Provide a collection of clean fly swats, strawberry baskets, drainers, etc. along
with a dishpan full of bubble mixture. Take the materials outside and show
children use the objects to make bubbles. Talk about where the bubbles are
going. Are they flying high or flying low? Explain that wind is what makes the
bubbles travel.
• Go outside during a light rain or after a heavy rain and look for puddles. Pat the
water with the children and talk about the puddles.
3.3
Exploration and Experimentation
0-24 Months
3.3.1 Feels and examines objects with mouth and hands
• Make sure the toys and other materials within their reach are safe and properly
sanitized, with no loose or removable parts and no sharp edges.
21
25-36 Months
3.3.2 Notices differences in textures
• Make a Texture Path: Cut squares of shelf paper, wax paper, sand paper, etc. Tape
the squares to the floor. Invite children to take off their shoes and walk on the
Texture Path.
• Place several objects with different textures, such as a wooden spoon, bath sponge,
soft stuffed animal, hairbrush, cotton ball, and plastic kitchen scrubber, into a cloth
or paper bag. (Never use plastic bags in classrooms with young children.) Ask each
child to reach in the bag and find something soft, hard, smooth, or rough. When the
child pulls out an object talk about the texture of that object.
• Make a Sticky Ball: Take a roll of masking tape and begin rolling the tape into a ball
with the sticky side out. Keep adding tape until the ball is the size of a baseball.
Hand the ball to a child and encourage him to throw it back to you. Talk about how
the ball feels. When the child is comfortable with the ball, encourage him to toss it to
a friend.
• Take small pieces of material with varying textures. Sew the scrap pieces to the
fingers of an old glove. Place the glove on your hand and invite the child to touch
each of the fingertips. Talk about how they feel.
3.3.3 Notices differences in colors
• Provide a Color Basket: Gather items in one color such as blue. Ask parents to
contribute items for the basket. Place the items in a basket. Let the children examine
the items. Ask them to find matching items in the classroom.
• Display colors at children’s eye level. When children appear to be interested in a
particular color, it is the time to talk about the color, find things that are that color,
and use that color to paint or draw.
• Use the names of colors during transitions. Example: “If you have on yellow, you
may go wash your hands.” For younger children you might have to show the color
yellow as well as saying it.
• Provide Color Windows for children to handle and examine: Make a tinted paperplate “window” by cutting the centers from two paper plates. Cut a piece of colored
cellophane to fit between the plates and staple or glue the edges together. Hold
up the “window” for children to look through. (Easter is a good time to purchase
colored cellophane.)
• Provide Color Shakers for children to handle and examine: Thoroughly wash several
plastic bottles. Fill with water and add tempera or food coloring in red, green, yellow,
orange, and blue. Glue the lids on with superglue before giving to the children.
• Play Mix the Colors: Place eyedroppers and ice trays on a cookie sheet. Add water
to several of the compartments in the ice tray. Add food coloring to the water.
Encourage toddlers to use the droppers to mix the colors.
• Make Misty Pictures: Fill a spray bottle with just enough water to work effectively.
(Do not fill the spray bottle or it may be too heavy for the children.) Place large
coffee filters and markers on the art table. Encourage the children to color the filters.
22
Then show them how to spray the filter with water and watch the colors merge and
change. Hang the filters up to dry.
3.3.4 Uses all available senses to explore the environment
• Place a bin that contains items with various textures in the center of the floor. Talk
to the children about things that are hard, soft, smooth, rough, warm, or cold.
• Provide Sound Shakers for children to handle and examine: Partially fill empty
tissue boxes or small plastic containers with small bells, rice, pebbles, etc. Cover the
openings with packing tape. Talk with the children about the sounds they hear.
• During outdoor play, encourage children to listen for surprising sounds. See if the
children can identify some of the sounds.
• Bring several types of fruit to the classroom. Cut the fruits open in front of the
children and talk about the seeds and how they look. Are they big or little? Cut the
fruit into small pieces for children to taste. Talk about how each fruit tastes, what
color it is, and what texture it has.
• Play I Spy: Sit on the floor with a small group of children. Say something like “I see a
red truck in the block area. Can you see it too?” If one child says that she sees it, ask
her to get the toy. Repeat with other items until all children have “spied” something.
Explain that we use our eyes when we are trying to find something.
• Talk about the sounds you hear outside or ones in the classroom, or play a recording
of common sounds and ask children to identify what they hear. (Make your own
recording with a tape recorder.) Explain that we use our ears to hear sounds.
• Make sachets or “smelly socks”: Stuff small clean socks with cotton. Drop scents,
spices, or flavorings, on the cotton. Stitch the tops of the socks together. Place the
sachets in a basket in the Science Center. Ask the children if they can tell you what
they smell. Explain that we smell things with our noses.
23
Teaching and Learning Activities
To Support Social-Emotional Development
4.1
Close and Secure Relationships with Adults
0-12 Months
4.1.1 Shows attachment to familiar adults and anxiety around strangers*
• Let the infant look at your face and see your expressions. Make different
expressions, such as blinking your eyes, making big mouth movements or sticking
out your tongue.
• Foster secure attachment by using daily routines such feeding, dressing and
diaper-changing for close personal interactions. For example, when diapering
the baby, talk about what you are doing. Look into the baby’s eyes, pitch your
voice a little higher, change the tone of your voice to make the activity playful,
and exaggerate facial expressions to gain and maintain the baby’s attention and
interest.
• Pretend that an infant is telling you something when he coos and gurgles.
Expand on his “comments” as you verbally respond to him. Imitate his sounds
and allow him to touch your mouth as you speak.
• Play Peek-A-Boo: Place the infant in your lap, on his back, so he can see your
face. Make eye contact and smile. Hold a colorful soft cloth or scarf in front of
your face, and sing “Peek-a-Boo.” Pull away the scarf revealing your face and
sing “Peek-a-Boo.” Repeat several times. As the infant begins to grab blankets or
other cloths and pull them over her face, say “Peek-A-Boo” as she tugs the cloth
away and reveals her face.
• Lift an infant up into your arms when she reaches out to you.
• Remain in the child’s view while he is free to explore.
• Be supportive and patient with infants as they encounter strangers. Hold them
closely and securely while you whisper gently to them, “You are safe, you are safe.
I am here with you and I’m going to keep you safe.”
• Foster secure attachment by using daily routines such feeding, dressing and
diaper-changing for close personal interactions. For example, when diapering
the baby, talk about what you are doing. Look into the baby’s eyes, pitch your
voice a little higher, change the tone of your voice to make the activity playful,
and exaggerate facial expressions to gain and maintain the baby’s attention and
interest.
• Create greeting and goodbye routines. For example, kiss fingers and toes and recite
a verse or sing a song such as “I Love You a Little,” inserting the baby’s name:
I love you a little,
I love you a lots,
My love for _________
Would fill ten pots!
24
• Encourage parents to create a goodbye ritual that signals to the child that it is
time for goodbye and reassures the child that the parent will return at the end of
the day.
4.1.2 Stops crying when held by a familiar adult
• Respond to infants’ different types of cries. Consistent and loving response
to children’s individual needs nurtures infants’ development of trust, love and
security.
• Comfort crying infants as soon as possible. Children who are comforted quickly
develop trust that their needs will be met. Over time, they cry less than infants
who must wait longer for attention.
• Provide touch time throughout the day.
• Take 10 minutes a day to massage each baby in your group to soothe and calm.
Begin by wiggling individual toes. Slowly move to fingers, arms and legs. If the
baby responds happily, then use long strokes to massage each leg and arm. Use
hand-over-hand palm strokes slowly and gently in a counterclockwise motion
to soothe a baby’s tummy and relieve gas pains. After you have massaged a baby
on one side, turn him over so that you can make long strokes from his neck all
the way down to his toes. You can also gently stroke the baby’s cheeks to ease
teething pain. If touching the baby in this way makes her cry, then stop the
massage.
4.1.3 Uses a blanket or soft toy for comfort and reassurance
• Some babies, such as premature babies, cannot tolerate a lot of stimulation. If the
baby turns away from you or goes to sleep while you are talking to him, he may
be over-stimulated. Try lowering your voice and reducing the amount of facial
expression to limit stimulation. Continue to talk to the child in a quiet, calm voice.
• Provide soft objects in the classroom for children to use for comfort.
• Allow children to bring objects for comfort such as stuffed animals or blankets.
13-24 Months
4.1.4 Seeks an adult to share an activity
• Play Feather Touches: Place the baby in your lap and use soft, colored craft
feathers to gently touch his face. Move the feather across his nose, cheeks, ears,
and around hairline and eyes. You may also move the feather along arms, finger,
hands, legs, feet and toes. Sing or chant a verse such as
Tickle, tickle eyes.
Tickle, tickle nose.
Tickle, tickle cheeks,
And tickle, tickle toes.
25
Are there any tickles
Left to see?
I’ll give you the feather
And you can tickle, tickle me!
Offer the infant the feather and see if he will tickle you or tickle himself. This
soothes the baby, helps to promote trust, and encourages turn-taking behaviors.
(Some children cannot tolerate light touch and show clear avoidance cues. If this
is the case, refrain from using a feather, tickle, or light rub with fingers; instead
use deep touch with a soft but firm rub.)
• Engage in lots of book-sharing times with children. Snuggle a child or several
children into your lap with a simple book. The children may not become fully
engaged with the story, but they will become engaged with you and the book as
you share the pages and talk about the pictures. Choose a book with pictures that
are bright, simple, and uncluttered.
4.1.5 Displays intense feelings when separating or reuniting with a parent
• Offer children who experience separation anxiety understanding and support. As
children develop and mature they are more aware of a parent’s absence and feel
afraid that the parent will not return. Validate those feelings by saying, “You did
not want your mom to leave. You will miss her. You are wondering when you will
see her again. She will be back later. I will hold you and keep you safe until you
feel better.”
4.1.6 Responds to encouragement and recognition
• Comment on what children are doing with their bodies as they explore through
reaching, grabbing, kicking, looking, and chewing.
• Notice, recognize and celebrate new skills. Avoid praise statements such as “good
job.” Instead say, “Look at you, Henry; you hit the mobile with your hand.” “You
pushed and pushed, Sarah, until you rolled all the way over!”
4.1.7 Prefers a familiar adult in unfamiliar situations
• Avoid becoming frustrated with children when they are clingy. The reassurance
and attention you offer, as you remain calm yourself, help them to develop the
security they need to grow out of their clinginess.
• Lift an infant into your arms (grasping the baby around the torso and not by the
arms) when he reaches out to you.
• As you comfort a child, rub her gently on the upper back, between the shoulders.
This part of the back is a “comfort” spot. Gentle rubbing on the back promotes
a feeling of wellbeing and happiness.
• Demonstrate calm behavior and reactions when talking and interacting with
infants. They will begin to learn how to calm themselves by observing your selfcalming skills. Use self-calming strategies for yourself, such as saying to your self,
“I am safe, I am calm, and I can handle this.” Take deep breaths as you say these
26
words to yourself. Call for back-up support and take a break if you feel yourself
really losing control.
• When strangers are present and children demonstrate fear and anxiety, hold
the children close and comfort them. Demonstrate acceptance of other trusted
adults by introducing them to the children and allowing time for children to feel
comfortable.
• Take infants on your hip for brief walks through the center to meet other staff
members. This will give children the opportunity to interact with other adults
while in the safety of your arms.
• Explain to other adults how to interact to the child by looking them in the eyes,
smiling, and refraining from touching them unless the child gestures in some
manner that a touch would be okay.
• Friendship Fort: Use an empty appliance box and place soft pillows in it, or cover
a table with a sheet or a tablecloth to make a cozy area large enough for two
children to go into. Allow them to take a book and some stuffed animals to read
to.
• Invite a clinging child to engage in a meaningful task, such as being a greeter or a
buddy to a new child, with you and one other child.
• When children come to you for contact and reassurance, keep a pump bottle of
lotion handy to put little dots on your fingers and touch to “hurt” spots on the
child. You can look for new “hurts” and old “hurts.”
4.1.8 Says “no” to adults
• Provide freedom for the child to explore her environment and her feelings
while holding constant to your classroom limits and appropriate behavioral
expectations. Accept “No” sometimes when you can live with it. Expect to hear
“No” sometimes when the child doesn’t really mean it, and expect to hear “No”
when he does mean it. You may need to ignore the “No” and calmly help him
do what you need him to do. Being cheerful during this period is possible if you
understand that these behaviors are absolutely normal and expected at this age
and stage of development.
• Maintain a close secure relationship with the child. As a child begins to
understand himself as a separate person from his parents and as he begins
to struggle toward independence he begins to deliberately test limits and
boundaries. He will respond with “No!” to many requests and suggestions
even when he means yes. While this is particularly challenging to caregivers,
these are absolutely necessary and important developmental behaviors for the
formation of the child’s sense of self and formation of individuality. Children
need warmth, love, comfort and support especially during these developmental
challenges.
• Continue to provide limited choices when possible and avoid giving choices
when “No” is not acceptable. Instead of asking, “Are you ready to take your nap
now?” say, “Now it is time for your nap.”
• Play silly Yes-No games when it is okay to say “No.” Example: “Does a dog say,
‘Meow’?”
27
25-36 Months
4.1.9 Shows empathy and caring for others
• Brainstorm with a child who may have hurt another child, or may be feeling
empathy with the pain or distress of another child, ways in which they can offer
comfort. This is a way of holding children responsible for hurtful behavior that
also helps them to recover from a mistake in a positive way. Ideas for offering
help will include things like placing an ice cube or a cold towel on a hurt. You
will be amazed at the ideas children will come up with. (Play out scenarios in
pretend play)
• Play News Ball: Children love to tell their own news but sometimes have trouble
listening to each other. News Ball helps children to define their turn to talk
as they hold a ball, and it helps them to wait their turn to talk. Gather 2 or 3
children around you as you hold a medium-sized soft ball. Tell the children that
the ball is going to be a news ball and whoever holds it in their hand gets to tell
some news. It can be good news, sad news, surprising news, or any kind of news
they want to share. Demonstrate the game by telling some news of your own.
When you finish telling your news, pass the ball to a child for him to share his
news. When he finishes, he will pass it to another child. If a child does not want
to share news, she can say “Pass” and pass the news ball to someone else.
4.1.10 Initiates and accepts gestures of affection
• Validate gentle touches and hugs by naming and describing what you see children
doing. For example, “Look at Amy and Tristan hugging each other. You are
showing each other love and care.”
4.1.11 Enacts warm and close relationships with adults during dramatic play
• Become a partner in children’s play. Sit on the floor near children and when they
approach you to share in an activity, follow their lead. Imitate their actions with
toys. Ask them to tell you what you should do with the toy. Name and describe
what you see the child doing as he plays. Talk about what you are doing as you
partner with a child in the play activity. (Do not simply sit and watch the child
play.)
4.2
Relationships with Peers
0-12 Months
4.2.1 Looks closely at other infants, responding excitedly
• Provide opportunities for children to be with and to look at each other. Seat
children so they face each other. Provide soft floor areas with well-defined
boundaries where infants can play close to others. Sit on the floor with the
children and provide close supervision.
28
• Act as a “social interpreter” for children. Describe infant’s actions to each other.
Call each child by name. For example, “Amy, you are looking at Sam. Now you
are reaching out to Sam. Oh, Sam you touched Amy.” Explain intentions such as
“Amy, you bumped Sam and scared him. Sam, Amy did not mean to bump you.
She was just crawling by.”
4.2.2 Reaches to touch another infant, grabs objects held by another infants
• Encourage children to notice the arrival and departure of their peers. Greet
children by name: “Look who’s here today! It’s ___________. Can you wave ‘Hi’
(or ‘Bye’)?” Demonstrate waving to the babies.
• Provide plenty of toys and duplicates of favorite toys so that extras are available
when conflicts occur.
• Do not expect children to share except where sharing is fun, such as by rolling a
ball to each other or riding in a wagon together.
4.2.3 Laughs or cries when another child laughs or cries
• Comfort crying infants as soon as possible. Children who are comforted quickly
develop trust that their needs will be met. Over time, they cry less than infants
who must wait longer for attention.
4.2.4 Plays beside another child
• Blow Bubbles: Place the infants on their backs and sit in front of them. Make eye
contact with each baby and smile. Blow bubbles into the air so that the children
can see them as they float down. Some children may try to reach for them.
Mobile infants may move to try to touch the bubbles.
13-24 Months
4.2.5 Interacts purposefully and with enjoyment with another child
• Rub-a-Dub Tub: Get three or four plastic tubs for each child to have his own
individual tub. (These are a good alternative to a large water play table where
children have to share space. It is also more sanitary.) Put a small amount of
water in each tub and place them on a towel-covered table inside or outside.
Provide a variety of kitchen tools like slotted spoons, wire whisks, sieves, squeeze
bottles, scoops, ladles, basting tubes, and hand-cranked eggbeaters. Have enough
tools for each child to have one. Add a small amount of dishwashing soap to
each tub for bubbles. Roll up sleeves and provide plastic smocks, because they
will get wet!
4.2.6 With guidance by an adult, joins activities of other children
• Sit on the floor near children to guide their successful interactions.
• Parachute Play: Use a soft scarf, blanket or small parachute to gently lower
29
and raise over a small group of children. As you lower and raise the scarf, say,
“Down, Down, Down, and Up!” Follow the children’s lead. Coo, laugh and
squeal with them. If they seem uncomfortable with the activity, do not continue.
• Provide enough space that children are not crowded into small areas. Inadequate
space sets children up for social frustrations and failure. Place non-mobile
children so that they can be included in play while you protect them from
accidental injury.
• Play cooperative games such as “Pingpong Painting”: You will need a lid from a
cardboard box, such as a carton of copier paper, and two pingpong balls or golf
balls. Cut pieces of construction paper to fit in the bottom of the lid. Put a dab
of washable paint in the middle of the paper. Sit on the floor with two children,
one at each end of the lid, and place the balls in the lid. Help the children tilt the
lid for the balls to roll through the paint. Add a second color and continue to tilt
the lid and roll the balls. Talk about working together to create the art. Use words
like sharing, helping, and cooperation. Allow children to do the activity as many times
as they are interested.
• Play “Dancing Baby”: Select a variety of dance music such as children’s music,
classical, rock and roll, hip-hop, and show tunes. Gather the children in the
middle of the floor and turn on the music. Let them dance any way they want as
you dance with them. Switch tunes to see how children change their movements
to adjust to the rhythm. After a few minutes of dancing, stop the music and
model “freezing” for the children. Then restart the music and dance a little more.
Every so often turn off the music to “freeze”, and notice and mimic children’s
postures. Make sure the floor is not slick. Dancing in bare feet allows for better
traction.
4.2.7 Shows preference for play partners
• Sit on the floor near children to guide their successful interactions.
4.2.8 Takes toy from another child and says “Mine”
• Provide toys such as balls and telephones that promote taking turns.
• Acknowledge that the children are using words such as “Mine” and use the
conflict as an opportunity to demonstrate negotiation skills. Example: “Joachim,
you want Alyssa to share the blocks, don’t you? Alyssa, if you scoot over a little
bit like this, you will both have room to play with the blocks.”
4.2.9 Greets other children with a touch or a hug
• Validate gentle touches and hugs by naming and describing what you see children
doing. For example, “Look at Amy and Tristan hugging each other. You are
showing each other love and care.”
• If a child hits or give “hard” hugs, say “Gentle touches!”
• Encourage children to pay attention to the emotions of other children.
• Express emotions in dramatic play, such as “the doll is scared” to help children
understand their emotions and the effects of their actions.
30
25-36 Months
4.2.10 With guidance by an adult, waits a short time to take turns
• Friendship Fort: Use an empty appliance box and place soft pillows in it, or cover
a table with a sheet or a tablecloth to make a cozy area large enough for two
children to go into. Allow them to take a book and some stuffed animals to read
to.
• Encourage children to bargain and negotiate swaps for different tools. Protect
children who are not quite ready to swap. Give them enough time to get their fill
of the tools they are using.
4.2.11 Imitates the play and actions of other children
• Act as a “social interpreter” for children. Describe one infant’s actions to
each other, addressing each child by name. Example: “Amy, you are looking at
Sam. Now you are reaching out to Sam. Oh, Sam you touched Amy.” Explain
intentions such as “Amy, you bumped Sam and scared him. Sam, Amy did not
mean to bump you. She was just crawling by.”
• Encourage children to participate with a partner in daily routines such as washing
hands and brushing teeth together.
4.2.12 Joins activities of other children
• Comment on children’s positive interactions. Example: “Tawanna, you were nice
to tell Stacy hello.”
4.2.13 Expresses empathy when others are hurt or mad
• Brainstorm with a child who may have hurt another child, or may be feeling
empathy with the pain or distress of another child, ways in which they can offer
comfort. This is a way of holding children responsible for hurtful behavior that
also helps them to recover from a mistake in a positive way. Ideas for offering
help will include things like placing an ice cube or a cold towel on a hurt place.
You will be amazed at the ideas children will come up with. (Play out scenarios in
pretend play)
4.3
Self-Awareness
0-12 Months
4.3.1 Recognizes, holds, and touches own hands and feet*
• Acknowledge the infant’s progress by saying things like “You noticed your hand,
didn’t you?”
31
4.3.2 Imitates adult behavior
• Notice and give real value to children’s efforts to try new things. “Erin, you are
trying to pick up that block. I bet you can try again!”
• Share children’s new accomplishments with parents. When an infant
demonstrates a new skill, write his on a sticky-backed nametag and stick it on the
back of the baby’s shirt. Call parent’s attention to the new skill and demonstrate
how to recognize the child for his special event.
• Break down challenging tasks into manageable steps. For example, if a child
is afraid to go down the slide, go down the slide first to show him it is safe, or
have him push a favorite stuffed animal down the slide first. Then offer to stand
behind or next to him as he climbs the steps. Then try going down the slide with
him on your lap. All along let him know that you believe in him. Also, let him
know it is ok if he is not ready to go down on his own yet.
• Model self-confidence and persistence. Let them see and hear you as you
talk yourself through challenging tasks and moments. Then once you’ve
accomplished your task say, “Yay, I did it!”
4.3.3 Smiles at and points to self in mirror*
• Hold an infant or toddler in your lap and show her a hand mirror, or hold the
baby in your arms as you stand in front of a mirror. Point to the baby’s reflection
and say, “Look, there you are in the mirror!”
• Display family photographs and photos of class activities at the eye level of the
children. Talk with the children about the pictures. Encourage them to locate and
identify themselves and other children in the pictures.
• Mirror Image: Sit in front of a large mirror, or hold a hand mirror, with several
children in your lap or next to you. Make silly faces in the mirror and encourage
the children to do the same. Shake your head, blink your eyes, and do a variety of
other movements children can imitate. Point to and name different body parts.
Throughout the activity, say the children’s names and name what they are doing
in the mirror. Encourage children to point to themselves in the mirror when
you ask, “Where is __________?” If you have children from second language
homes, learn to name the body parts in their languages. Use these words when
you ask them to point to what they see in the mirror.
• Help children notice likenesses and differences during mirror play. As you point
out the ways they are alike and different, focus on the value of uniqueness.
During these conversations stress once again the value of uniqueness, and that
their individual preferences help to make them the wonderful little individuals
they are.
13-24 Months
4.3.4 Shows preferences for foods, toys, and activities
• Store toys on low shelves where children can act on their own initiative to find
32
and select toys. Self-directed play promotes the child’s sense of competence and
positive self-concept.
• Give children many chances through the day to choose playmates, the areas
where they play, the toys and learning materials they use, and how they play.
• Provide open-ended materials such as small blocks, sets of large manipulative
learning materials, containers to drop objects into, finger paints, and large
watercolor markers. Make certain these materials are accessible every day.
• When possible, provide them to select a favorite food or snack from two possible
choices. Plan foods that you know the children will like.
• To help children practice making choices, give them two options within openended activities. Example: Tape a large piece of butcher paper to a table and then
tape individual pieces of drawing paper to it. (You may also use an individual tray,
such as a baking sheet, for each child. The tray provides an individual workspace
with boundaries for each child.) Cut sponges into pieces easy for toddlers to hold
and dampen them. You will also need two-inch paintbrushes, paint shirts, and
paper towels for clean up. Put a small amount of washable paint on a paper plate.
One color will be enough. Allow the children to choose a sponge or brush and
show them how to dip the sponges and brushes into the paint and apply paint
to paper. Some children may prefer only one of the tools, but let them have a
chance to try both.
• Offer non-stereotypical toys that reflect the diversity of ethnicity, gender,
abilities, and cultures of the children in the classroom.
4.3.5 Smiles or claps when successful at a task
• Point out to children the result of their actions so that they can begin to see that
they can make things happen and that they can assume responsibility for making
things happen. “You put the toys away. Now the room is clean and we can find
what we want again tomorrow.”
4.3.6 Looks to adults for approval
• Notice, recognize and celebrate new skills. Avoid praise statements such as “good
job.” Instead say, “Look at you, Henry; you hit the mobile with your hand.” “You
pushed and pushed, Sarah, until you rolled all the way over!”
4.3.7 Uses words you, me, and I
• Ask children to practice new words as you talk about new activities. Example:
“Who wants to blow the bubbles? Who wants to pop the bubbles?” As children
respond, teacher encourages them to say the words bubbles, pop, and blow.
• Once a week, work with small groups to ask individual children to talk about
something that happened during the day. Record their responses on chart paper
and display for children and parents to see.
33
25-36 Months
4.3.8 Recognizes ability to make things happen but not his responsibility for actions
•
•
Use “when/then” statements with children. Example: “When you put the toys
away, then you can go outside.” Such statements help children to begin to see the
causes and effects of their actions.
Play cause-and-effect games such as Toddler Bowling: Stack a few lightweight
plastic cups in a row on the floor. Give a child a beanbag or a soft foam ball.
Take turns tossing the ball or beanbag with the goal of knocking down the cups.
Encourage the child to help you gather and restack the cups. Over time, set the
cups up a little further away and watch the child figure out that she must throw a
little harder to reach the cups.
4.3.9 Speaks proudly of accomplishments, says “Watch me”
• Point out to children the result of their actions so that they can begin to see that
they can make things happen and that they can assume responsibility for making
things happen. “You put the toys away. Now the room is clean and we can find
what we want again tomorrow.”
• Talk to children about ways they change as they grow; they can talk more, they
know more words, and they can do more things with their bodies. Sometimes
trying new things and feeling strong feelings can be scary for toddlers.
Acknowledge their fears and confusion and let them know that you will be near
to support them as they grow and change.
• Break down challenging tasks into manageable steps. For example, if a child
is afraid to go down the slide, go down the slide first to show him it is safe, or
have him push a favorite stuffed animal down the slide first. Then offer to stand
behind or next to him as he climbs the steps. Then try going down the slide with
him on your lap. All along let him know that you believe in him. Also, let him
know it is ok if he is not ready to go down on his own yet.
• Make up stories using a child’s name and emphasize the name as you tell the
story. To engage children in telling the story with you, repeat two or three words
or a phrase and encourage them to repeat these words with you. Example:
• Once upon a time there was a little girl named Kim. Kim had a little dog named
Ellie Belle and they loved to take walks, but Ellie Belle was always getting into
stuff, and Kim would have to say, “Ellie Belle, Elle Belle, stop that now!” So one
day they were walking along and Ellie Belle saw a frog. She ran over and began to
sniff the frog so much that she made him hop, and Kim had to say, “Ellie Belle,
Ellie Belle, stop that now!” Before long Ellie Belle came to a pile of leaves and
she ran right over and jumped into the middle of them and Kim said, “Ellie Belle,
Ellie, Belle, stop that now!” Extend or shorten the story, depending on the child’s
interest and attention span.
4.3.10 Identifies self in photograph, as a boy or girl
• Display family photographs and photos of class activities at the eye level of the
34
children. Talk with the children about the pictures. Encourage them to locate and
identify the girls in the pictures. Then ask them to identify the boys.
• Display family photographs and photos of class activities at the eye level of
the children. Talk with the children about the pictures. Encourage them to find
pictures of themselves.
4.3.11 Acts in an assertive manner to control the environment
• Counter negativity in the classroom environment by using positive language to
tell children what you want them to do. Avoid saying things like “Don’t run.”
Instead tell children what you want them to do. For example, “Let’s walk in the
classroom. That is the way to move safely through the room.”
• Encourage children to participate with a partner in daily routines such as washing
hands and brushing teeth together.
• Approach children’s conflicts calmly. Children need you to model calm to help
them become calm. Place yourself at the child’s level. Using a calm voice and
gentle touch, stop any hurting behaviors that might be occurring by placing
your hand up and saying, “Stop, no hurting.” Acknowledge children’s feelings
by naming and describing them. Example: “It looks like there is one set of keys
and you both want them.” Describe choices or a solution. As you talk about the
solution, ask to hold the keys in your hand until the problem is solved. Never
snatch the item away. Once a solution is reached, stay close to the children
to help them hold to the solution. Toddlers can learn these skills with your
assistance.
• Children are more likely to respond to redirection if given a choice such as,
“Would you like to ride in the wagon or play on the swing while you wait for a
tricycle?”
4.4
Experience, Expression, and Regulation of Emotions
0-12 Months
4.4.1 Comforts self by sucking thumb or hand*
• Encourage infants’ attempts to calm themselves. Say, “Look at you, you are making
yourself calm. You are breathing slowly and getting more and more still. You are
calm now.”
• There is no harm in a young child sucking his thumb, fingers, or a pacifier. Do
not abruptly take calming items like a pacifier or blanket away from a child. Some
children suck their thumbs to calm themselves.
• Schedule eating, sleeping and wakeful play on a consistent schedule to help infants
create patterns of self-regulation.
4.4.2 Shows strong emotions (anger, anxiety, affection, pleasure)*
• In a gentle and positive tone of voice acknowledge and label children’s emotions.
35
Example: “Lashon, I know you want to play with the ball, but Macy is using the ball
so let’s go play with the truck!
4.4.3 Starts, maintains, or stops social contact through looks, gestures, sounds, and smiles
that are understood by others*
• Pay attention to infants’ sucking patterns as you feed them. When an infant
pauses in sucking, talk to her. When she begins to suck again, stop talking
and attend to her as though you are listening to him speak. When she pauses,
speak to her again. This back-and-forth response is the beginning of social
communication.
13-24 Months
4.4.4 Cuddles a comfort object when upset or other children are upset
• There is no harm in a young child sucking his thumb, fingers, or a pacifier. Do
not abruptly take calming items like a pacifier or blanket away from a child. Some
children suck their thumbs to calm themselves.
• Limit stimulation in the environment. Dim the lights, reduce background noise,
play soft quiet music, and avoid eye contact with the infant. Children need quiet
moments as well as nurturing stimulation.
4.4.5 Accepts guidance by adults
• Respond to the child with close attention and comfort. As you are comforting
a child, talk softly and make “guesses” based on their gestures, cries, and body
language to determine how best to meet their needs. The child will usually relax
when you accurately identify the need. Children’s abilities to self-regulate grow as
they come to understand and be secure in the fact that their needs will be met.
• Remain positive with children who are feeling intense emotions. Shame and
punishment do not teach self-control or help children mature emotionally. Shame
and punishment cause stress, fear, resentment, and elevate power struggles. All
of these negative emotions increase the production of brain chemicals that can
negatively effect development of the brain.
• Provide a Calm Area with a warm and quiet atmosphere. This is not a timeout area for punishment but a calming area where a child can work on calming
himself. Accompany the child to the Calm Area. This works well with children
who are easily or over-stimulated.
• Approach children’s conflicts calmly. Children need you to model calm to help
them become calm. Place yourself at the child’s level. Using a calm voice and
gentle touch, stop any hurting behaviors that might be occurring by placing
your hand up and saying, “Stop, no hurting.” Acknowledge children’s feelings
by naming and describing them. Example: “It looks like there is one set of keys
and you both want them.” Describe choices or a solution. As you talk about the
solution, ask to hold the keys in your hand until the problem is solved. Never
snatch the item away. Once a solution is reached, stay close to the children
36
to help them hold to the solution. Toddlers can learn these skills with your
assistance.
• Children are more likely to respond to redirection if given a choice such as,
“Would you like to ride in the wagon or play on the swing while you wait for a
tricycle?”
• Create classroom limits based on these four guidelines:
 Assure the safety of each child and adult.
 Prevent the destruction of non-disposable materials and equipment.
 Assure that children accept responsibility for their actions.
 Assure equal and respectful treatment of all people.
Express these guidelines in language for young children:




We work together to keep each other safe in the classroom.
We work together to take care of our classroom toys and materials.
We work together to overcome our mistakes.
We work together to be fair and respectful to all people.
4.4.6 Responds to warnings or unsafe signals from an adult
• Create classroom limits based on these four guidelines:
 Assure the safety of each child and adult.
 Prevent the destruction of non-disposable materials and equipment.
 Assure that children accept responsibility for their actions.
 Assure equal and respectful treatment of all people.
Express these guidelines in language for young children:




We work together to keep each other safe in the classroom.
We work together to take care of our classroom toys and materials.
We work together to overcome our mistakes.
We work together to be fair and respectful to all people.
• As conflicts arise in the classroom, engage children in solving the problems.
Older toddlers can begin to think and communicate simple ways to keep the
classroom a safe place. For example, when Lisa is climbing on a chair in the
classroom, approach her calmly, and say, “Lisa, it looks like you are wanting
to climb on something. The chair is not a safe place to climb.” Help her off
the chair, and ask, “Can you think of a safe place to climb in the classroom or
outdoors? Let’s find a safe place to climb.” Encourage children to talk to you
about why the safer place to climb is safe.
4.4.7 Uses 1-2 words, such as no, stop, mine, and go away, to express emotions or needs
• Act as a “social interpreter” for children. Describe one infant’s actions to
each other, addressing each child by name. Example: “Amy, you are looking at
37
Sam. Now you are reaching out to Sam. Oh, Sam you touched Amy.” Explain
intentions such as “Amy, you bumped Sam and scared him. Sam, Amy did not
mean to bump you. She was just crawling by.”
• When a child expresses emotions, whether sadness, joy, surprise, or anger,
acknowledge her feeling in words. “I see that you are really angry.” Identify the
cause of a tantrum but do not give in to it: “You wanted the toy and someone
else has it.” Physically comfort the child, show understanding, and offer affection
to ease the anger. Redirect the child’s attention or offer opportunities for the
child to vent their anger in a positive way, perhaps through running, jumping,
or shouting outside, or by punching a pillow pounding some play dough. If
the child is slow to respond, say “I see that you are so upset that you need to
continue to cry (or whatever emotion or behavior is being continued), so I am
going to step away for a little while. Come get me when you feel better.” As soon
as the child begins to calm down, acknowledge her success with, “Look at you!
You are making yourself calm. You have stopped crying and your face is not red
any more.” Show the child face in a mirror as you reconnect and allow the child
to recover in a positive way.
• Play Glad, Sad, and Mad: Draw a variety of faces, with happy, sad, mad, and
scared expressions on paper plates. Hold a child or children in your lap or next
to you and read aloud a story that focuses on emotions. When an emotion arises
in the book, pull out the appropriate paper plate and hold it up to your face.
“Here’s my happy face. Can you make happy faces?” Continue to read the story
and holding up paper plates at appropriate times. With older children you can use
the faces in a pretend play game. Hold up one of the feeling faces and call out
its name using a matching tome of voice (e.g., “Happy!”, “Sad!”, and “Mad!”)
encourage the children to act out the new feeling. As they become more skilled at
acting out the feelings, change the faces faster and faster for a fun game.
• Play Emotion Necklace: Prepare ten small picture cards about two inches square
with simple happy and unhappy faces. Punch a hole at the top of each card
and lace a long piece of yarn through each card. Tie the ends together to make
Emotion Necklaces. Keep the Emotion Necklaces in a small basket easy for
children to reach. Show children how to select a necklace to wear to match how
they are feeling. Explain to the children that you can tell how someone is feeling
by looking at the face card. Say something like, “I see Katie is wearing a happy
necklace today. I wonder what she is happy about. I think I will go ask her.”
25-36 Months
4.4.8 Is sensitive to others’ judging behavior
• Remain calm when young children are not calm. As the young child develops
socially and emotionally, he may become frustrated and angry when he is not
allowed to do what he desires. Temper tantrums emerge often as a result of
the child not having words to express his feelings. Out-of-control behavior is
frightening to the child and often threatening to the adult.
38
4.4.9 Practices some impulse control
• Create quiet and soft corners for children to get away from what can often be
over-stimulating noise and activity in a group setting. Place comfort objects such
as stuffed animals and blankets in the area along with some soothing books.
• Teach relaxation strategies deep breathing. Demonstrate this to children often
and use it for yourself. Explain to children that you are breathing deeply to help
yourself relax and calm down.
To help children relieve stress, invite them to punch and knead non-toxic (not
homemade) play dough.
• Tell children that hitting hurts and they may not hit to solve their problems.
(Remind children to use “gentle touches.”)
4.4.10 Uses words to communicate desires*
• Help children practice using words to solve problems and express wishes. For
example, when one child takes a book from another child, demonstrate: “Malia,
can you say to Andrew, ‘Stop, I don’t want you to take my book. Give it back’?”
Encourage the child to say those words using a strong voice. Use modeling to
help the aggressor practice, too. Example: “Andrew, could you ask Malia, ‘Can I
have the book when you are finished? Will you please come tell me when you are
finished?’”
• Play Glad, Sad, and Mad Faces: Draw a variety of faces, with happy, sad, mad,
and scared expressions on paper plates. Use the faces in a pretend play game.
Hold up one of the feeling faces label it in a matching tone of voice (e.g.,
“Happy!” “Sad!” “Mad!”). Encourage children to act out each feeling. As they
become more skilled at acting out the feelings, change the faces faster and faster
for a fun game.
4.4.11 Engages in simple problem-solving
• Praise the child who settles a conflict or solves a problem. Express your feelings
about the action, not the child. Avoid praise statements such as, “You are such a
good boy.” Instead say, “You figured out a way to share the toy with William. I
can tell you feel good about solving that problem.”
4.4.12 Responds to frustration with tantrums
• Remain positive with children who are feeling intense emotions. Shame and
punishment do not teach self-control or help children mature emotionally. Shame
and punishment cause stress, fear, resentment, and elevate power struggles. All
of these negative emotions increase the production of brain chemicals that can
negatively effect development of the brain.
• Provide a Calm Area with a warm and quiet atmosphere. This is not a timeout area for punishment but a calming area where a child can work on calming
39
himself. Accompany the child to the Calm Area. This works well with children
who are easily or over-stimulated.
4.5
Exploration, Learning and Independence
0-12 Months
4.5.1 Cues caregiver to continue or restart game such as Horsey
• When a child signals you to continue a pleasurable activity, follow her lead. Pause
in the activity to allow her to signal to you again that she wishes to continue. If a
child does not signal for you to continue, encourage them to do so with animated
voice, facial expression, or short start/stop actions. Watch for signs of fatigue
and stop the activity before they completely tire of it.
4.5.2 Recognizes, holds, and touches own hands and feet*
• Notice, recognize and celebrate new skills. Avoid praise statements such as “good
job.” Instead say, “Look at you, Henry; you hit the mobile with your hand.” “You
pushed and pushed, Sarah, until you rolled all the way over!”
4.5.3 Handles objects haphazardly and then purposefully, flinging them, picking up and
dropping them, dumping them, and transferring them from hand to hand
• Provide age-appropriate toys such as soft blocks, soft-cover books, and stacking
cups and rings.
13-24 Months
4.5.4 Eats with fingers
• Many toddlers will try to do things they are not yet ready to do. They might
try to use a spoon and only get a little in their mouth and spill the rest. Allow
them to continue feeding themselves with only a little assistance and lots of
encouragement.
4.5.5 Explores widely, shows little fear of dangerous object or actions
• Place an infant where he can see you and provide an object or a mobile within
reach. Point to objects out of his view and encourage him to move toward the
object or follow your pointing finger with eye gaze.
• Provide safe boundaries for a mobile infant and allow him to play and explore
independently.
• Play a game with mobile infants by encouraging them to find you when you are
out of their line of vision. Place an infant on the floor and move behind her. Call
40
her name. When she turns around to find you, open your arms wide and eagerly
invite her to move toward you. When she reaches you, give her a big hug and say,
“You found me!”
4.5.6 Plays contentedly beside adult activity, entertains self for brief periods
• Provide age-appropriate toys such as soft blocks, soft-cover books, and stacking
cups and rings.
25-36 Months
4.5.7 Is eager to help with classroom routines such as clean up
• Toddlers love to help and they love to feel as though they are doing things
the grown-ups do. Provide child-sized cleaning tools for children to use in
the classroom. Small whiskbrooms with small dustpans are just right for little
hands. Old socks that the children can fit over their hands and arms make great
“dusters” and table-cleaners. Small containers of warm soapy water and sponges
are great fun for children. If they make some water mess on the floor, give them
paper towels and let them wipe it up. Recognize their efforts and tell them how
helpful they are in keeping the room clean.
4.5.8 Insists of trying tasks without help
• Plan activities around the use of classroom tools such as the tape or CD
player, child-safe scissors, and tape in a tape dispenser so children can become
competent in using these tools independently.
4.5.9 Needs support to change activities
• Create a schedule chart that uses pictures of children in the classroom to show
the schedule and activities. Go over the schedule at the beginning of the day
showing the pictures. As activities are started and completed, refer to the pictures
and talk about what activity came before and what comes after. If there is going
to be a change in activity, mark it on the chart with a star to show that there will
be a different activity that day. Give the children time to adjust to changes in
activity and transition times will be less stressful for children.
• Provide 5-minute warnings before a transition is to occur, give children plenty of
time to make the transition, and use ritual activities such as back rubs at rest time.
Allow children to use transitional objects such as teddy bears or blankets. Songs
and rhymes such as the following also help ease children into transitions.
41
Snuggle Up
Snuggle up children
In your safe place.
You can go there,
To have your own space.
When you feel scared
And want to feel loved,
Just cuddle yourself
And the bear with a hug.
Held in My Arms
Rock-a-bye baby,
Held in my arms.
Having you near me,
I see your charms.
When things seem scary,
I’ll hold you tight,
And whisper, “I love you”
All through the night.
Little Bo Peep
Little Bo Peep has lost her sheep
And doesn’t know where to find them.
She’ll look for them and bring them home
Staying always close behind them.
“Little Bo Peep” is a great rhyme for gathering children to you. Recite the first
two lines in a sad voice. With the third line, begin an exaggerated search for the
children. Then begin to name the children who are coming to you and give them
big hugs as you recite the last line.
• Create a schedule chart that uses pictures of children in the classroom to show
the schedule and activities. Go over the schedule at the beginning of the day
showing the pictures. As activities are started and completed, refer to the pictures
and talk about what activity came before and what comes after. If there is going
to be a change in activity, mark it on the chart with a star to show that there will
be a different activity that day. Give the children time to adjust to changes in
activity and transition times will be less stressful for children.
42
4.5.10 Has a sense of humor
• Use humor with children. Children love laughter and silliness and humor brings
joy and fun to life. It reduces stress and frustrations and it brings peace to
conflict. Laugh with the children you teach often.
• Purchase sets of the funny noses with attached goofy eyeglasses. Buy enough for
each child in your class and when you want to break the tension of high emotion
and stress, pull them out and have everyone put them on. Take out mirrors so
children can see themselves and just laugh with them. It will quickly change the
classroom atmosphere.
43
Teaching and Learning Activities
To Support Physical Development
5.1
Awareness of Body in Space
25-36 Months
5.1.1 Moves and claps to rhythm and songs
• Play pat -a-cake with the child.
• Recite short nursery rhymes such as “Hickory Dickory Dock” and invite children
to join you in repeating them.
5.2
Gross Motor Skills
0 – 12 Months
5.2.1 Holds head upright
• Play Look at This: Hold the baby in your lap so that he can lean comfortably
against you and face outward. Hold different interesting toys and books before
him so that you can look at them together. When an item engages the baby’s
attention, move it slowly to the left and right to encourage him to turn his head.
This activity will help babies develop head and neck motor control.
• Play Look, Look, Look: Position or prop the baby so that she is comfortable. Sit
facing the baby, hiding several different toys such as a baby doll, a toy boat, and
a ball, behind your back. Hold up and name one toy at a time. Then put each toy
in the baby’s hand, one by one, and repeat the name of the toy. Ask, “Where is
the ball?” Pick up the ball, hold it in front of the baby, and answer: “Here it is!”
Repeat with each of the toys. Vary the activity by picking up the wrong toy and
then correcting yourself: “No, this is not the ball! This is the duck! Here’s the
ball.” This activity will help babies develop head and neck motor control while
developing their concentration.
5.2.2 Hits or kicks things to make pleasing sights and sounds continue
• Comment on what children are doing with their bodies as they explore through
reaching, grabbing, kicking, looking, and chewing.
• Notice, recognize and celebrate new skills. Avoid praise statements such as “good
job.” Instead say, “Look at you, Henry; you hit the mobile with your hand.” “You
pushed and pushed, Sarah, until you rolled all the way over!”
• Play Kick, Kick, Kick: Lay the baby on a soft floor covering such as a rug or
blanket. Place several soft infant toys near the baby’s feet. One by one place each
item against the baby’s feet. When the baby kicks a toy away congratulate the
baby with soft positive sounds such as “Whee!” or “Wooo!” This activity will
help babies develop their legs by kicking and lifting them.
44
5.2.3 Pushes up on hands while on stomach
• Play Tummy Play: Lie on the floor and hold the baby so that you are tummyto-tummy. Talk to the baby in this position. Place a toy that makes interesting
sounds in front of the baby and play with them to make interesting noises or
sights. This activity will help babies develop their head and neck muscles while
learning to tolerate play on their stomachs. Change to a sitting position and lay
the baby on his tummy across your lap.
5.2.4 Rolls from stomach to back
• Play Rolling Surprise: Choose two colorful toys that the baby enjoys seeing. Place
the baby on his back, on the floor or a bed with guard rails up, and put one toy
on each side of him. Tell the baby: “It’s time to roll.” Gently roll the baby on his
side so he can see the toy and reach for it. Then roll the baby over to the other
side so he can see and reach for the other toy. This activity will help the baby
develop motor control of his trunk and limbs.
• Play Turn Over, Baby: Lay the baby on her back. Sit behind her head and hold a
small toy such as a soft block or toy car over her face. When you have the baby’s
attention, slowly move the toy to one side, allowing her to follow the toy with
her eyes. Encourage the baby to grab for the toy. As the baby turns to follow or
reach for the toy, gently push against her back to help her turn over. When the
baby turns over, give her the toy. Repeat the activity, encouraging the baby to
turn over toward the other side. This activity will help the baby develop visual
tracking skills and motor control of her trunk and limbs.
5.2.5 Pulls to sitting position when grasping adult’s fingers, maintains position for 2
minutes
• Play Pull-Up: Place the baby on his back on a soft rug or blanket on the floor. Sit
cross-legged at the baby’s feet so that you can easily reach him. Supporting his
head and neck with one hand and his back and shoulders with the other, gently
pull the baby forward into a sitting position. Do this several times if the baby
enjoys the activity. This activity helps babies develop strength and motor control
in their trunks.
• Play Sit-Up: One the baby is comfortable with Pull-Up, hold his hands and gently
tug him toward you. If he bends at the waist and rises toward you, continue
tugging. If he does not, continue the Pull-Up game. This activity helps babies
develop strength and motor control in their trunks and limbs.
• As the baby develops more strength and responds to the Sit-Up game, gradually
reduce how much help you give him so that he uses his muscles to pull himself
upward.
• Prop babies who are new at sitting with one hand behind their heads and necks
and the other behind their backs and shoulders. As they develop more strength,
continue to prop their heads and necks.
45
5.2.6 Moves independently to sitting position, to hands-and-knees position, then to onknees position
• Place the baby on his tummy on a blanket or soft rug on the floor. Place a
variety of interesting soft toys and books on the floor in view but out of reach.
Encourage the baby to look at and reach for the toys. If he tries to sit up, help
him as necessary. Do not let the baby become so frustrated that he cries. If he is
not able to sit up independently, give him help.
• Place the baby in a sitting position on a blanket or soft rug on the floor. Place a
variety of interesting soft toys and books on the floor in view but out of reach.
Encourage the baby to look at and reach for the toys. If he tries to move to a
hands-and-knees position, help him as necessary. Do not let the baby become so
frustrated that he cries. If he is not able to reach or crawl to the toys, give him
help.
• Place the baby in a sitting position on a blanket or soft rug on the floor. Place a
variety of interesting soft toys and books on the floor in view but out of reach.
Encourage the baby to look at and reach for the toys. If he tries to move to a
hands-and-knees position, help him as necessary. Do not let the baby become so
frustrated that he cries. If he is not able to reach or crawl to the toys, give him
help.
• Provide a variety of interesting soft toys and books on the floor within the baby’s
reach and make them available throughout the day. This will encourage the baby
to lean on one hand so that she can reach and grasp a toy with the other.
5.2.7 Crawls
• Dress babies who are beginning to crawl in pants with padded knees to make
crawling more comfortable.
• Place the baby on his tummy or in a sitting position on a blanket or soft rug on
the floor. Place a variety of interesting soft toys and books on the floor in view
but out of reach. Encourage the baby to look at and reach for the toys. If he
tries to crawl toward the toys, help him as necessary. Do not let the baby become
so frustrated that he cries. If he is not able to reach or crawl to the toys, give him
help.
• Play Wiggle Worm: Place the baby on his tummy on a smooth floor. Place an
interesting toy a few inches from his head. Call the baby’s attention to the toy.
Sitting behind the baby, press your leg or hands against the bottoms of his feet.
The baby will push against you, causing him to move a few inches toward the
toy. Keep moving the toy and pushing against the baby’s feet until he has inched
forward and covered some ground. Be careful not to move the baby too fast or
let him bump into anything. Afterwards, allow the baby to explore the toy as long
as he enjoys playing with it. This activity takes advantage of the baby’s walking
reflex (when you press a solid surface against babies’ feet they stretch out their
legs) to help her or him practice for crawling.
• Play Tunnel Trip: Open the ends of a large appliance box. Place the baby at one
end and encourage her to crawl through the “tunnel.” If the child needs help
getting all of the way through, gently support her arms and pull her to the other
46
side. Call to her to encourage her to come back through the box. Repeat as long
as the child enjoys the game. (Stay with the baby while she is in the box so she
does not become scared.) To vary the game, place a blanket over your end of the
box so the baby can’t see you. Call to her from behind the blanket and see if she
will crawl through the tunnel.
• Inspect the classroom or living areas carefully for dangers that a baby could
discover. Make his world as safe as possible as he begins to crawl so that you can
encourage his efforts.
5.2.8 Pulls up to standing position, maintains position 1 minute
• Remove loose items such as tablecloths or blankets that the baby might grasp
while pulling up. Carefully observe babies who are mobile and crawling and
encourage their efforts to pull up. Be the baby’s “spotter” so if he loses his
balance, you can catch him.
• Place the baby in sitting or crawling position near a sturdy, low table, chair, or
sofa. Place a variety of interesting soft toys and books on the table, chair, or sofa,
in view but out of reach. Encourage the baby to look at and reach for the toys.
If he tries to pull up to reach the toys, help him as necessary. Do not let the baby
become so frustrated that he cries. If he is not able to pull up and reach the toys,
give him help.
• Help the baby who is beginning to stand by bracing him as he lets go of support.
Let go yourself but move your hands only a few inches away so that you can
catch him if he begins to tumble. Praise his efforts.
5.2.9 Climbs onto adult chair
• Provide one or more sturdy low upholstered chairs or sofas for climbing toddlers
to climb upon. Make a firm habit of limiting toddlers to climbing on furniture
when you are with them and able to brace and spot them.
• Watch mobile children at all times to make sure they do not climb unassisted
onto surfaces from which they can fall.
• Help the climbing baby safely climb onto an upholstered chair or sofa, bracing
him with your hands. Praise his efforts while reminding him not to climb on the
furniture without help from you.
13-24 Months
5.2.10 Walks with minimal support, then independently
• Provide several large dolls or stuffed toy animals in a basket. Be sure to have at
least one doll or animal for each child who will be playing at one time. As a child
picks up a doll, show him how to make the doll walk. Have him hold the doll
facing him and make the doll walk forward as he walks backwards. Let the child
have fun making up new ways to walk with and hold his special new friend.
• Inspect the classroom or living areas carefully for dangers that a toddler could
47
•
•
•
•
discover. Make his world as safe as possible as he begins to walk so that you can
encourage his efforts.
Help the baby who is beginning to walk by holding her hand and walking with
her at her pace. Release her hand if she pulls it away, but move your hand only
a few inches away so that you can catch her if she begins to tumble. Praise her
efforts.
Go for walks so the toddler can show off his new skill: Visit the next classroom
or children or adults on the other side of the room. Take short walks outside,
too.
Inspect the classroom or living areas carefully again for dangers that a toddler
could discover. Make his world as safe as possible as he improves his walking skill
so that you can encourage his efforts.
Play Baby’s House: Place a sturdy table in an open area inside or outside. Cover
the table with a sheet or blanket to form a house, fort, cave, or space ship. Fold
back a corner to make a door. (If any toddler is fearful of the dark, you may
leave one side or corner uncovered to let in more light.) Invite the toddlers to go
inside. If the space is dark, provide child-safe flashlights for them to use. Talk
with the toddlers as they enter the “house” or “fort” by asking them questions or
commenting on where they are playing. (Never leave the toddlers unsupervised.)
5.2.11 Sits independently in chair
• Provide a sturdy child-sized chair and encourage the child to sit in it while eating
or listening to a story. Watch her carefully and brace her to be sure she does not
topple sideways or backwards.
• Do not expect toddlers to sit in chairs for very long. Healthy, growing toddlers
are on the go most of the time! Meals are the best times for inviting toddlers to
sit in chairs.
25-36 Months
5.2.12 Runs
• Do not expect toddlers to sit in chairs for very long. Healthy, growing toddlers
are on the go most of the time! Meals are the best times for inviting toddlers to
sit in chairs.
• Go for walks so the toddler can show off his new skill: Visit the next classroom
or children or adults on the other side of the room. Take short walks outside,
too.
5.2.13 Walks up and down stairs (both feet on each step)
• Give the child practice at walking up and down the stairs. Hold her hand at first,
but help her learn to use the rail as she gets older. Allow the child to go at her
own pace.
• Make sure the children have many chances to climb on low jungle gyms or
climbers.
48
5.2.14 Kicks a stationary ball
• Set up a low target outside in the play area. Use a large box turned on its side or an
empty laundry basket. Place a few 8 to 10-inch balls in front of the target. As the
two-year-old watches, gently kick one of the balls so that it hits the target.
• Put out a box of different-sized balls for the child to kick and throw. Provide small
tennis balls as well as large playground balls. Let them kick and throw these differentsized balls in their own ways.
5.2.15 Hops on one foot, then walks on tiptoe
• Play Bunny Rabbits: Take the children outside and pretend to be bunny rabbits. Hop
all around as you smell the flowers, chase a butterfly, hide behind a tree, or hop up
and down the sidewalk.
• Stand with the child in front of a tall, unbreakable mirror. Ask her to do what you
do. As she watches you, lift one foot and balance on the other. As she tries to lift her
foot, point to the mirror so that she can see what she is doing. At first, you may have
to hold her hands or let her lean on a chair to balance.
• Place a ladder down flat on a rug or other soft area. Let children walk along the
ladder, stepping over each rung carefully. You may want to hold each child’s hand at
first because stepping like this may knock him off balance.
5.2.16 Catches a rolled ball and rolls it forward
• Ask the child to stand near you and hold his arms out in front of him. Throw
a lightweight 8-inch ball to him, practically rolling the ball into his arms. As his
catching improves, stand a little further away or throw the ball a little higher.
5.2.17 Throws a large ball
• Put at least one 6-inch to 10-inch ball for each child in an open play area. Provide a
few extra balls nearby in case a child desires more than one. As a child picks up a
ball, ask her to throw or roll it to you. When she does, throw it back to her so she
can roll or throw it again.
• Put a big basket or box in the middle of the classroom. Give the children a few
small, soft balls to toss into the box. Have fun throwing the balls in different ways or
from different places.
5.3
Fine Motor Skills
0-12 Months
5.3.1 Reaches and grasps objects
• Provide a variety of interesting, safe toys and objects for infants to look at and
touch throughout the day.
49
• Place one or more items in the baby’s view and reach during floor time. When
you see that an object is not engaging the infant’s interest, substitute another
object. Colorful small soft toy animals, jingly plastic key rings, small plastic
stacking rings, and rattles are appropriate for babies to reach, touch, and grasp.
Even brightly colored lids from plastic margarine tubs can be interesting to very
young babies.
• Hold the baby in your lap and show him surprising new objects, toys and books
as well as objects he has seen and examined before. Items that make different
sounds will be especially enticing. Help him reach and touch the objects.
• Observe the infant and remember which objects, toys, and books become his
favorites. Provide those items and a variety of unfamiliar objects to encourage
the baby to think about which he will reach for.
• Place one or more items in the baby’s view and reach during floor time and
throughout the day. When you see that an object is not engaging the infant’s
interest, substitute another object. Colorful small soft toy animals, toy key rings,
small plastic stacking rings, and rattles are appropriate for babies to reach,
touch, and grasp. Even brightly colored lids from plastic margarine tubs can be
interesting to very young babies.
• Hold the baby in your lap and show him surprising new objects, toys and books
as well as objects he has seen and examined before. Items that make different
sounds will be especially enticing. Help him reach and touch the objects.
5.3.2 Feels and examines objects with mouth and hands
• Make sure the toys and other materials within their reach are safe and properly
sanitized, with no loose or removable parts and no sharp edges.
5.3.3 Handles objects haphazardly and then purposefully, flinging them, picking up and
dropping them, dumping them, and transferring them from hand to hand
• Do not scold or punish the child for flinging toys about. This is a natural part
of how they learn about their bodies and the world around them. Make sure the
toys and other learning materials within babies’ reach are soft so that if a flying
toy strikes another child, there will be no injury.
• Place one or more items in the baby’s view and reach during floor time and
throughout the day. When you see that an object is not engaging the infant’s
interest, substitute another object. Colorful small soft toy animals, toy key rings,
small plastic stacking rings, and rattles are appropriate for babies to reach,
touch, and grasp. Even brightly colored lids from plastic margarine tubs can be
interesting to very young babies.
• Play Dump It Out: Provide a lightweight plastic bowl large enough to contain an
assortment of safe, interesting objects for children to handle. Any unbreakable
objects that cannot be swallowed, such as small plastic blocks, rubber and
wooden puzzle pieces, and unbreakable spoons and cups, will do. Demonstrate
placing the objects in a bowl, dumping the bowl, and then placing the objects in
the bowl again. Most babies find this activity very interesting.
50
5.3.4 Uses pincer grasp to pick up objects
• Play Tub Lids: Provide an assortment of clean plastic tub lids in different sizes
and colors for children to handle and manipulate. Do not use heavy plastic or
metal lids for children at this stage, as they could hurt other children by throwing
them.
• Play Pounding: Place a toy mallet or other pounding toy in the middle of an open
space. Place the baby on the floor, helping her to sit if necessary. Place the mallet
in the baby’s right hand showing her how to hammer on the toy appropriately.
Encourage the baby to hammer on the right side of the toy direct across from
his or her trunk. Then encourage the baby to hammer on the left side, across the
middle of her body. Carefully observe the baby so that she does not hit herself
or others with the mallet. This activity will help babies develop fine and gross
motor control in grasping, holding, and reaching across the body.
13-24 Months
5.3.5 Rolls a small ball in imitation
• Sit cross-legged on the floor, facing the child. Gently roll a small ball toward her
and invite her to roll it back to you. Vary the game with balls of different sizes
and textures.
5.3.6 Uses pincer grasp to place objects in and out of containers, in a tower of 3+ objects
• Play Sorting Blocks: Give toddlers a pile of soft blocks with one basket for each
color. Place one block in each color in a different basket. Ask the toddlers to help
each other finish sorting the blocks into baskets. After the toddlers have sorted
the blocks, give a great group cheer!
• Play Jar Lids: Provide an assortment of clean plastic and metal jar lids in different
sizes and colors for children to handle and manipulate. Show them how to stack
smaller lids inside larger ones. Watch children as they handle objects with hard
surfaces, in case they fling them in the direction of other children.
• Provide small assortments of objects, such as stacking rings and small books,
which can be easily stacked. Demonstrate stacking the objects.
• Play Jar Lids: Provide an assortment of clean plastic and metal jar lids in different
sizes and colors for children to handle and manipulate. Show them how to stack
smaller lids inside larger ones. Watch children as they handle objects with hard
surfaces, in case they fling them in the direction of other children.
• Provide small plastic or wooden blocks for building towers after the baby has
shown an interest in stacking.
5.3.7 Makes marks with a crayon or pencil, scribbling in a circular motion
• Play Scribbles: Make paper and large crayons available each day. Reuse junk
mail, paper bags, etc., as drawing material. Demonstrate how to use a crayon to
51
make marks on paper. Help the child wrap her fingers around the crayon. Watch
children who are using crayons to make sure no one is accidentally poked.
• Label (with the date and the child’s name) and display children’s earliest marks on
paper.
• Avoid giving toddlers drawing “assignments” such as “draw a dog” or “draw
a ball.” Children will spend a lot of time scribbling and learning how to use
crayons, fingerpaints, etc., before attempting to draw realistic pictures.
• Play Scribble Circles: During scribbling activities, demonstrate drawing circles
with a red or blue crayon. Invite children to make their own scribble circles. Vary
the activity by making scribble circles with chalk on the pavement outside.
• Invite children to help you wash the table after lunch or snacks. Provide a basin
of soapy water and paper towels. Demonstrate wiping the table in a circular
motion.
25-36 Months
5.3.8 Scribbles and draws with various writing and drawing tools*
• Set up an Art Center that is in children’s reach, with a variety of safe art materials
and writing and drawing implements, and make it available to small groups of 2
or 3 children at all times.
52
Teaching and Learning Activities
To Support Self-Help Development
6.1
Eating
0-12 Months
6.1.1 Sucks and swallows liquids
• Stimulate sucking by massaging the infant’s cheeks, using a forward-backward
motion with your finger, while the nipple of a bottle is in her mouth.
• Place a small amount of formula or breast milk on the tip of a pacifier and place
it in the infant’s mouth. If he does not suck on the pacifier, move it in and out
for him. As child increases sucking response, put some formula or breast milk in
the nipple of the bottle.
• Gently stroke the child’s neck, starting under the chin moving down to the
throat, to encourage swallowing.
6.1.2 Reaches for and holds bottle*
• Hold the bottle so the infant can see it. Move it slowly toward his mouth while
talking to the child. If the child does not reach for the bottle, place his hands on
it before inserting the nipple into the mouth.
• Give the child a bottle and allow him to nurse for a short time. Then move bottle
a short distance away from his mouth and see if he will reach for it. If he does
not, guide his hands with yours to reach the bottle.
• Hold the bottle during part of feeding and help the child to hold it part of the
time. (Never prop a bottle for a baby to feed without assistance.)
• When the child is hungry, let him hold the bottle during first part of feeding. As
he gets full and is not as motivated, hold bottle for him. Gradually encourage
child to place his hands on the bottle for longer periods of time.
• Hold the baby in your arms or lap while feeding her with a bottle. Never place or
leave a baby on her back to drink from a bottle.
6.1.3 Eats strained foods fed by adults
• Place the infant in an upright position. With a small spoon place a small amount
of food toward back of tongue. Repeat with encouragement.
• Use a spoon, never a bottle feeder, for feeding infants strained foods.
• Have foods, bib, and warm washcloth or baby wipes handy so the child can eat
without interruption.
13-24 Months
6.1.4 Eats with fingers
53
• Have foods cut in bite-size pieces, bib, and warm washcloth or baby wipes handy
so the child can eat without interruption.
• Offer finger foods at the beginning of the meal when the child is hungry. Place
several bite-size pieces of a favorite food before the child.
• If the child does not pick up the food on his own, place a small bite-size piece in
his hand and help him by guiding his hand to his mouth. Encourage and engage
the child in feeding himself and gradually reduce how much help you provide as
he learns to feed himself.
6.1.5 Eats from a spoon and drinks from a cup independently*
• Have foods, bib, and warm washcloth or baby wipes handy so the child can eat
without interruption. Place small portions on a plate or bowl. Guide the child in
holding the spoon and tipping the food into his mouth. Repeat.
• Give the child foods that stick to the spoon, such as applesauce and mashed
potatoes.
• Be patient and remember that eating is a messy process for young children.
• Have small portions of foods on a plate or bowl, small amount of liquid in a
training cup, bib, and warm washcloth or baby wipes handy so the child can eat
without interruption.
• Hold the training cup so the child can see it. Move it slowly toward the mouth
while talking to child. If the child does not reach for the training cup, place his
hands on it before inserting it into the mouth.
• Hold the training cup during part of the meal and encourage the child to hold it
part of the time.
25-36 Months
6.1.6 Uses utensils and open cup properly most of the time
• Always sit closely with children during meals to demonstrate the proper way to
use forks and spoons.
• Set a place for a child with a fork and a spoon.
• Offer children meals that require both a fork and a spoon.
• Encourage the child to eat by himself and to use utensils for eating.
• Praise children for their success.
• Always sit closely with children during meals to demonstrate the proper way to
drink from a cup.
• Place a small amount of liquid in an open cup to avoid a big spill. Increase the
amount in the cup as the child’s skill increases.
• Encourage child to drink from the cup. Praise child for their efforts and success.
6.1.7 Attempts to clean up after a meal
• Show children where to place unbreakable dishes and trash.
• Praise the child for his efforts and success.
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• Sing “The Clean Up Song” to encourage children to help.
The Clean Up Song
Clean up, clean up, everybody, everywhere.
Clean up, clean up, everybody, everywhere.
Clean up, clean up, everybody do your share.
6.1.8 Practices correct handwashing before and after meals
• Sing or chant “The Handwashing Song,” to the tune of “Row, Row, Row Your
Boat,” two times, or at least 20 seconds, with the child.
The Handwashing Song
Wash, wash, wash your hands
Play our handy game.
Rub and scrub, scrub and rub.
Germs go down the drain.
6.2
Toileting
0-12 Months
6.2.1 Uses gestures or words to indicate that he is soiled
• Watch for gestures, such as pulling at his penis or fidgeting, that might mean a
child has voided in his diaper or underwear. Acknowledge the child, using the
word associated with toileting, like so: “Did you tinkle? Did you poop? Okay!
Now we’ll clean you up.”
• Use the same words each time you talk about toileting and help a child with
toileting. When the child uses the words, immediately praise him.
6.2.2 Imitates handwashing after toileting
• Place the child’s hands in sink, move them around in splashing motion until she
does this on her own.
• Give verbal directions as the child washes her hands until he no longer needs
verbal help. Praise her for washing hands.
• Sing or chant “The Handwashing Song.” (See 6.1.8.)
13-36 Months
6.2.3 Uses words to report the need to use the toilet
• Use the same words each time you talk about toileting and help a child with
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toileting. When the child uses the words, immediately praise him.
• In addition to regularly scheduled bathroom time encourage children to ask to go
to the bathroom.
• Watch for gestures, such as fidgeting, that might mean she needs to use the toilet.
Acknowledge the child, using the word associated with toileting, like so: “Do you
need to tinkle? Do you need to poop? Okay! Let’s go use the toilet.”
6.2.4 Undresses with little help to use the toilet
• Remind children to ask for help with clothes when they need it.
• Encourage child to independently pull down her pants and underwear to use the
toilet.
• Praise the child for her success.
6.2.5 Wipes self and flushes the toilet with little or no help
• Hand the child the appropriate amount of tissue.
• Encourage child to wipe himself. Praise him for his attempt, but be sure to
follow up with a more thorough wipe.
• After the child has redressed, allow him the reward of flushing the toilet.
6.2.6 Practices correct handwashing after toileting
Sing or chant “The Handwashing Song.” (See 6.1.8.)
6.3
Dressing
0-12 Months
6.3.1 Holds out arms and legs while being dressed*
• Hold garment close to the child’s body with the sleeve near the arm. Encourage
child to raise his arm toward the sleeve. Praise the child when he makes the
effort. If the child does not do this on spoken instructions alone, then help by
raising his arm for him, praising him as you continue to dress him.
• To encourage child to place arms or feet in clothing, play a peek-a-boo game: Say,
“Where’s your hand? There it is!” as his hand disappears into clothing and then
emerges.
6.3.2 Puts on and takes off hat
• Put a hat on your head as the child watches. Remove it and give it to him to try.
• Let the child place a hat on your head and remove it.
• Give the child a hat and guide he hands and place it on her head. Use a child-safe
mirror so the child can see herself do this.
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13-24 Months
6.3.3 Pulls off socks, unfastens shoes, coat, and pants*
• Pull one sock almost off the child’s foot. Place the loose end in his hand, place
your hand over his and pull off the sock, saying “We’re taking off your sock!”
• Pull one sock almost off the child’s foot and encourage the child to complete the
task. Praise him when he pulls it off.
• Remove an unfastened or unlaced shoe most of the way and encourage the child
to pull it off his foot. Repeat each time you help the child undress, leaving shoe
further and further on the child’s foot. Praise his efforts each time.
• Have the child place her hands on either side of the opened coat. Pull the coat
back so that the coat slides off her shoulders. Show her how to tug the sleeve
over her opposite hand so that she can remove the coat easily. Praise her efforts
each time.
• Have the child grasp the waistband of his unfastened pants and show him how
to push it down below his knees. Ask the child to sit and show him how to pull
his pants over his feet until they are off. Praise his efforts each time.
6.3.4 Pushes arms through sleeves and legs through pants
• Hold the sleeve opening near the child’s hand. Encourage her to put her hand
in the sleeve and push her arm through. Praise her for pushing her arm through
without help. Follow same procedure for pushing legs through pants.
• To encourage child to place his arms or feet in clothing, play a peek-a-boo game:
Say, “Where’s your hand? There it is!” as his hand disappears into clothing and
then emerges.
6.3.5 Puts on clothing with little help
• Each time you help a child dress, pull shirts, pants, etc., on most of the way for
the child and invite her to pull them the rest of the way. Praise her efforts each
time. Gradually reduce how much you help.
25-36 Months
6.3.6 Puts on socks and shoes with little help
• Each time you help a child dress, pull a sock on the child’s foot most of the way.
With your hands over his, pull sock up. Be sure to show the child where the heel
part of the sock should be. Praise his efforts each time. Gradually reduce how
much you help.
• Each time you help a child dress, pull a shoe on her foot most of the way. With
your hands over hers, finish pulling the shoe on. Praise her efforts each time.
Gradually reduce how much you help.
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6.3.7 Puts on coat with little help
• Have the child put one arm into the sleeve. Show her how to reach behind with
other arm and place her arm into the other sleeve. Hold coat for her initially.
Praise her efforts each time. Gradually reduce how much you help.
• Place the child’s coat on a low table with collar towards child and the opening
facing up. Have him place his arms in the sleeves and flip the coat over his head.
6.3.8 Uses snaps, zippers, and some buttons
• Each time you help a child dress, guide his hand in pulling a zipper up and down.
Praise his efforts each time. Gradually reduce how much you help.
• Each time you help a child dress, guide her hand in pushing down the top of a
snap. Show her how to hold the bottom part as she pushes the snap. Praise her
efforts each time. Gradually reduce how much you help.
• Beginning with garments with large buttons, each time you help a child dress,
push a lower or middle button partially through a buttonhole and guide his hand
in pushing it the rest of the way. Praise his efforts each time. Gradually reduce
how much you help.
• Provide a zipper doll, button doll, or prop clothes from the Dramatic Play Center
for children to use in practicing these skills.
6.4
Daily Routines
0-24 Months
6.4.1 Cooperates when teeth are brushed*
• Have toothbrush and toothpaste handy so that brushing can continue
uninterrupted. Explain to the child that you are going to brush her teeth and
ask her to open her mouth wide. Gently and thoroughly brush the child’s teeth.
Praise her for allowing you to brush her teeth. Each time you brush the child’s
teeth, extend the length of time and thoroughness.
• Sing or chant “We Brush Our Teeth,” to the tune of “Here We Go ‘Round the
Mulberry Bush,” twice while brushing the child’s teeth.
We Brush Our Teeth
This is the way we brush our teeth, brush our teeth, brush our teeth.
This is the way we brush our teeth, brush our teeth, brush our teeth.
After we eat a meal.
6.4.2 With guidance by an adult, puts away belongings and classroom materials
• Show the children where toys should go to help them learn responsibility.
• Sing “The Clean Up Song” to encourage children to help.
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The Clean Up Song
Clean up, clean up, everybody, everywhere.
Clean up, clean up, everybody, everywhere.
Clean up, clean up, everybody do your share.
6.4.3 Practices wiping his nose
• Each time you wipe a child’s nose and throw away the tissue, hand him a clean
tissue and say “Your turn!” Demonstrate for the child how to bring the tissue
to his nose and wipe his nose. Praise his efforts each time. Demonstrate washing
the child’s hands and your own hands.
25-36 Months
6.4.4 Brushes teeth with little help
• Use a small toothbrush and let the child hold it under the water. Add a small
amount of toothpaste. As you and the child both face the mirror, demonstrate
brushing your teeth and encourage her to do the same with his toothbrush.
Praise child for his efforts and success. Finish brushing his teeth to be sure he
did a thorough job.
6.4.5 With guidance by an adult, selects and puts away belongings and classroom materials
• Label individual children’s coat hooks and cubbyholes with their first names or
photographs. Encourage children to help place their personal belongings in their
cubbyholes. Praise children for helping.
6.4.6 Selects and puts away belongings and classroom materials
• Label low shelves and storage units with pictures and words.
• Encourage children to choose toys and learning materials. Remind them to return
the items to the appropriate places.
• Sing “The Clean Up Song” to encourage children to help. (See 6.4.2.)
6.4.7 Wipes nose
• Place the tissues where children can easily reach them. Tell the child to get a
tissue if he needs to wipe his nose. Praise him for wiping his own nose and
for throwing away the tissue in a waste paper basket. Demonstrate washing the
child’s hands and your own hands.
6.4.8 Practices correct handwashing after wiping nose
Sing or chant “The Handwashing Song.” (See 6.1.8.)
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Competencies and Objectives
Understanding of Language and Sounds
Responds with gestures to gestures, name, simple questions*
1.1.3
Understands 5+ single words, names objects and persons*
Hands book to read or share to an adult
1.1.5
1.1.6
Moves and claps to rhythm and songs
Repeats patterns of sounds
1.1.8
1.1.9
Use of Language
Uses gestures to communicate desires
Quality Step Items: 3.4.5, 4.4.5, 5.5.5
Related Standards
1.2.1
0-12 Months
1.2
1.1.10 Understands and follows one-step directions*
Pays attention to brief stories, especially ones about self
1.1.7
25-36 Months
Responds to requests to “Give me” or “Show me”*
1.1.4
13-24 Months
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Repeats a syllable (ma-, ma-, ma-)* or sound 2-3 times
1.1.2
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Turns head in direction of sounds*
1.1.1
0-12 Months
1.1
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Facility Name:
Child Birth Date:
Child Name:
Observational Checklist
Language, Vocabulary and Literacy Development in Infants and Toddlers
Page 1 of 3
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Uses some words
Uses additional words
Participates in conversations
1.2.4
1.2.5
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Awareness of Language in Print
Recognizes familiar symbols such as logos and traffic signs
Recognizes that symbols have meaning
Recognizes first name in print
Scribbles and draws with various writing and drawing tools*
Awareness of Books
1.3.2
1.3.3
1.3.4
1.3.5
1.4
1.4.1
Is interested in books and reading
0-12 Months
Understands differences between pictures and print
1.3.1
25-36 Months
1.3
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Engages in rich and continuous interactions
1.2.9
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1.2.11 Sings short songs and repeats simple rhymes
Asks “Why?” questions
1.2.8
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1.2.7
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1.2.10 Speaks in simple, correct sentences*
Uses at least 50 words
1.2.6
25-36 Months
Combines words and gestures to communicate desires*
1.2.3
13-24 Months
1.2.2
Number Competencies and Objectives
Observational Checklist
Language, Vocabulary and Literacy Development in Infants and Toddlers
Page 2 of 3
62
Points to pictures in books upon request
Turns pages of a book, looking at some pages and pictures
Repeats words when an adult reads a predictable or pattern book
Practices proper use and care of books
Holds a book and pretends to read
Answers simple questions about books and stories
Acts out stories using dramatic play
1.4.4
1.4.5
1.4.6
1.4.7
1.4.8
25-36 Months
1.4.3
13-24 Months
1.4.2
Number
Competencies and Objectives
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Language, Vocabulary and Literacy Development in Infants and Toddlers
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Competencies and Objectives
Awareness of Numbers and Operations
Matches two like objects
2.1.2
Recites rhymes or songs with adult
Understands concept of more
Understands concept of 1, 2, and 3
Awareness of Patterns
2.1.4
2.1.5
2.1.6
2.2
Repeats actions
Awareness of Sorting
2.3
Places objects in containers
Quality Step Items: 3.4.5, 4.4.5, 5.5.5
Related Standards
2.3.1
0-24 Months
Notices simple patterns of sounds and objects
2.2.2
25-36 Months
2.2.1
0-24 Months
Counts 1-5 objects
2.1.3
25-36 Months
Understands concepts of 1 and 2
2.1.1
0-24 Months
2.1
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Child Birth Date:
Child Name:
Observational Checklist
MATHEMATICAL Development in Infants and Toddlers
Page 1 of 2
64
Awareness of Shapes
2.4
Understands concept of shape
2.4.2
Identifies basic shapes such as circles and squares
Awareness of Space
2.4.4
2.5
Looks for objects that are hidden from sight*
Understands concept of in or out*
Understands words, such as “my cubby,” which describe personal space
Understands concept of whole or part
2.5.2
2.5.3
2.5.4
25-36 Months
2.5.1
0-24 Months
Distinguishes straight and curvy lines*
2.4.3
25-36 Months
Matches objects by shape*
2.4.1
0-24 Months
Understands concept of big or little
2.3.2
13-36 Months
Number Competencies and Objectives
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MATHEMATICAL Development in Infants and Toddlers
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Competencies and Objectives
Awareness of Living and Non-Living Things
Feels and examines objects with mouth and hands
Notices differences in colors
Uses all available senses to explore the environment
3.3.3
3.3.4
Quality Step Items: 3.4.5, 4.4.5, 5.5.5
Related Standards
Notices differences in textures
3.3.2
25-36 Months
3.3.1
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Exploration and Experimentation
3.3
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3.2.1
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Notices and names characteristics of self, other people, and objects
3.1.1
25-36 Months
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Child Birth Date:
Child Name:
Observational Checklist
SCIENTIFIC Development in Infants and Toddlers
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Competencies and Objectives
Close and Secure Relationships with Adults
Stops crying when held by a familiar adult
Uses a blanket or soft toy for comfort and reassurance
4.1.2
4.1.3
Displays intense feelings when separating or reuniting with a parent
Responds to encouragement and recognition
Prefers a familiar adult in unfamiliar situations
Says “no” to adults
4.1.5
4.1.6
4.1.7
4.1.8
Quality Step Items: 3.4.5, 4.4.5, 5.5.5
Related Standards
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4.1.11 Enacts warm and close relationships with adults during
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4.1.10 Initiates and accepts gestures of affection
4.1.9
25-36 Months
Seeks an adult to share an activity
4.1.4
13-24 Months
Shows attachment to familiar adults and anxiety around strangers*
4.1.1
0-12 Months
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Facility Name:
Child Birth Date:
Child Name:
Observational Checklist
SOCIAL-EMOTIONAL Development in Infants and Toddlers
Page 1 of 5
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Relationships with Peers
Reaches to touch another infant, grabs objects held by another infant
Laughs or cries when another child laughs or cries
Plays beside another child
4.2.2
4.2.3
4.2.4
With guidance by an adult, joins activities of other children
Shows preferences for play partners
Takes a toy from another child and says “Mine”
Greets other children with a touch or a hug
4.2.6
4.2.7
4.2.8
4.2.9
4.3.1
Progresses from accidentally sucking hands to examining hands
0-12 Months
Self-Awareness
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4.3
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25-36 Months
Interacts purposefully and with enjoyment with another child
4.2.5
13-24 Months
Looks closely at other infants, responding excitedly
4.2.1
0-12 Months
4.2
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Observational Checklist
SOCIAL-EMOTIONAL Development in Infants and Toddlers
Page 2 of 5
68
Smiles at and points to self in mirror*
4.3.3
Smiles or claps when successful at a task
Looks to adults for approval
Uses words you, me, and I
4.3.5
4.3.6
4.3.7
Experience, Expression, and Regulation of Emotions
Shows strong emotions (anger, anxiety, affection, pleasure)*
Starts, maintains, or stops social contact through looks, gestures, sounds, and smiles that are understood by others*
4.4.2
4.4.3
4.4.4
Cuddles a comfort object when upset or other children are upset
13-24 Months
Comforts self by sucking thumb or hand*
4.4.1
0-12 Months
4.4
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4.3.9
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Recognize ability to make things happen, unsure of responsibility for actions
4.3.8
25-36 Months
Shows preferences for foods, toys, and activities
4.3.4
13-24 Months
Imitates adult behavior
4.3.2
Number Competencies and Objectives
Observational Checklist
SOCIAL-EMOTIONAL Development in Infants and Toddlers
Page 3 of 5
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Responds to warnings or unsafe signals from an adult
Uses 1-2 words, such as no, stop, mine, and go away, to express
emotions or needs
4.4.6
4.4.7
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4.4.11 Engages in simple problem-solving
4.4.12 Responds to frustration with tantrums
Exploration, Learning and Independence
Recognizes, holds, and touches own hands and feet*
Handles objects haphazardly and then purposefully, flinging them,
picking up and dropping them, dumping them, and transferring them from hand to hand
4.5.2
4.5.3
Eats with fingers
Explores widely, shows little fear of dangerous object or actions
4.5.4
4.5.5
13-24 Months
Cues caregiver to continue or restart game such as Horsey
4.5.1
0-12 Months
4.5
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4.4.10 Uses words to communicate desires*
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4.4.9
Practices some impulse control
Is sensitive to others’ judging behavior
4.4.8
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Accepts guidance by adults
4.4.5
Number Competencies and Objectives
Observational Checklist
SOCIAL-EMOTIONAL Development in Infants and Toddlers
Page 4 of 5
70
Plays contentedly beside adult activity, entertains self for brief periods
Insists on trying tasks without help
Needs support to change activities
4.5.8
4.5.9
4.5.10 Has a sense of humor
Is eager to help with classroom routines such as clean up
4.5.7
25-36 Months
4.5.6
Number Competencies and Objectives
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Observational Checklist
SOCIAL-EMOTIONAL Development in Infants and Toddlers
Page 5 of 5
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Competencies and Objectives
Awareness of Body in Space
Gross Motor Skills
5.2
Hits or kicks things to make pleasing sights and sounds continue
Pushes up on hands while on stomach
Rolls from stomach to back
Pulls to sitting position when grasping adult’s fingers, maintains
position for 2 minutes
Moves independently to sitting position, to hands-and-knees
position, then to on-knees position
Crawls
Pulls up to standing position, maintains position 1 minute
Climbs onto adult chair
5.2.2
5.2.3
5.2.4
5.2.5
5.2.6
5.2.7
5.2.8
5.2.9
Quality Step Items: 3.4.5, 4.4.5, 5.5.5
Related Standards
5.2.10 Walks with minimal support, then independently
13-24 Months
Holds head upright
5.2.1
0 – 12 Months
Moves and claps to rhythm and songs
5.1.1
25-36 Months
5.1
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Observe the child during routine activities and enter the dates for any objectives you observe.
Teacher:
Facility Name:
Child Birth Date:
Child Name:
Observational Checklist
PHYSICAL Development in Infants and Toddlers
Page 1 of 2
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5.2.16 Catches a rolled ball and rolls it forward
5.2.17 Throws a large ball
Feels and examines objects with mouth and hands
Handles objects haphazardly and then purposefully, flinging them,
picking up and dropping them, dumping them, and transferring them from hand to hand
Uses pincer grasp to pick up objects
5.3.2
5.3.3
5.3.4
Uses pincer grasp to place objects in and out of containers, in a tower of 3+ objects
Makes marks with a crayon or pencil, scribbling in a circular motion
5.3.6
5.3.7
5.3.8
Scribbles and draws with various writing and drawing tools*
25 – 36 Months
Rolls a small ball in imitation
5.3.5
13-24 Months
Reaches and grasps objects
5.3.1
0-12 Months
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5.2.15 Hops on one foot, then walks on tiptoe
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5.2.14 Kicks a stationary ball
Fine Motor Skills
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5.2.13 Walks up and down stairs (both feet on each step)
5.3
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25 – 36 Months
5.2.11 Sits independently in chair
Number Competencies and Objectives
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Observational Checklist
PHYSICAL Development in Infants and Toddlers
Page 2 of 2
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Eating
Reaches for and holds bottle*
Eats strained foods fed by adults
6.1.2
6.1.3
Eats from a spoon and drinks from a cup independently*
6.1.5
Attempts to clean up after a meal
Practices correct handwashing before and after meals
Toileting
6.1.7
6.1.8
6.2
Imitates handwashing after toileting
6.2.2
Quality Step Items: 3.4.5, 4.4.5, 5.5.5
Related Standards
Uses gestures or words to indicate that he is soiled
6.2.1
0-12 Months
Uses utensils and open cup properly most of the time
6.1.6
25-36 Months
Eats with fingers
6.1.4
13-24 Months
Sucks and swallows
Competencies and Objectives
6.1.1
0-12 Months
6.1
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Facility Name:
Child Birth Date:
Child Name:
Observational Checklist
SELF-HELP Development in Infants and Toddlers
Page 1 of 3
74
Wipes self and flushes the toilet with little or no help
Practices correct handwashing after toileting
Dressing
6.2.5
6.2.6
6.3
Undresses with little help to use the toilet
6.2.4
Puts on and takes off hat
6.3.2
Uses snaps, zippers, and some buttons
Daily Routines
6.3.8
6.4
Cooperates when teeth are brushed*
With guidance by an adult, puts away belongings and classroom materials
6.4.1
6.4.2
0-24 Months
Puts on coat with little help
6.3.7
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Puts on socks and shoes with little help
6.3.6
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6.3.5
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6.3.4
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Pulls off socks, unfastened shoes, coat, and pants*
6.3.3
13-24 Months
Holds out arms and legs while being dressed*
6.3.1
0-12 Months
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6.2.3
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Number Competencies and Objectives
Observational Checklist
SELF-HELP Development in Infants and Toddlers
Page 2 of 3
75
Practices wiping nose
Brushes teeth with little help
With guidance by an adult, selects and puts away belongings and classroom materials
Selects and puts away belongings and classroom materials
Wipes nose
Practices correct handwashing after wiping nose
6.4.4
6.4.5
6.4.6
6.4.7
6.4.8
25-36 Months
6.4.3
Number Competencies and Objectives
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Observational Checklist
SELF-HELP Development in Infants and Toddlers
Page 3 of 3
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