Trends in Secure ID Cards, U.S. Driver`s License and International
industry standards… By David Tushie, Magellan Consulting, Inc., ICMA Standards and Technical Representative Trends in Secure ID Cards, U.S. Driver’s License and International Driver’s License Standards In the USA, identity theft was the top complaint made to the Federal Trade Commission (FTC) in 2010 when 8.1 million incidents were reported. Fraudulent ID’s, manufactured in countries like China and Panama, are now being purchased online and exported throughout the world. More troubling is the sophistication exhibited by these fake ID’s, including digital holograms and UV sensitive inks. Consequently, government issued identity documents, often in the form of driver licenses, are becoming more sophisticated and expensive. Several initiatives are in motion that highlight this trend. State governments issue driver licenses in the USA, while national governments typically issue these licenses in Europe and Asia. The American Association of Motor Vehicle Administrators (AAMVA) is a standards setting body for the States. ISO/IEC 18013 defines the International Driver License (IDL) Standard. Parts 1 and 2 specify the physical and machine-readable features of the license while Part 3 adds the requirements for IC chip technology. The AAMVA 2011 standard and proposed 2012 standard are moving towards compliance with ISO/ IEC 18013 -1, 2. While long term contracts mean that the states’ implementations always take time, harmonization of the ISO and AAMVA standards may eventually occur. Real ID, the Western Hemisphere Travel Initiative (passport card) and the Enhanced Driver License initiatives are some additional standardization efforts ongoing in the USA. The Real ID Act of 2005 is a federal law that imposes certain security, document identity, authentication and issuance procedures for state driver licenses and state ID cards in order for them to be accepted for official purposes as defined by the Department of Homeland Security. Some examples of such uses are boarding commercially operated airline flights and entering federal buildings and nuclear power plants. The licenses and ID cards must have certain data elements and must also feature specific security features intended to prevent tampering, counterfeiting or duplication of the document for fraudulent purposes. These cards must also present data in a common, machine-readable format employing the types of technology as described for the IDL. Enhanced driver licenses essentially combine a regular driver’s license with the same specifications of the new U.S. passport card. Thus, in addition to proving driving privileges, the enhanced license also is proof of U.S. citizenship and can therefore be used to cross the U.S.-Canadian and U.S.-Mexican borders by road, rail or sea, but not air (this still requires a traditional passport book). These cards have RFID chips so they may be used at border crossings, to speed up the border crossing process. The State of Washington’s enhanced driver’s license was the first such license approved. Vermont, New York, Michigan, Minnesota, California, Texas and Arizona are among the states who have announced that they are exploring the issuance of such cards. The Transportation Security Administration (TSA) has recognized the security risk of fraudulent ID’s and boarding documents. They recently started a pilot program to test technologies that provide their inspectors the ability to spot fake documents via electronic scanning, without the use of magnifying glasses or black lights. While speeding up the process is desirable, it raises the question of what are the necessary characteristics of a technology to determine the validity of identity documents? It would seem that the following features would need to be present for any technology to get widespread adoption in determining a valid ID: • Quick, non-intrusive • Reliable • Low cost • Un-clonable function • Machine readable/free from confrontation between the credential holder and the inspector continued on page 29 .: 26 :. August 2012 | ICMA Card Manufacturing industry standards… Industry Standards, continued from page 26 When reviewing ISO/IEC 18013 against these criteria, it is apparent that the security elements are enhanced from those in typically issued driver licenses. Part 1 of the Standard, Physical Characteristics and Basic Data Sets, describes mandatory and optional data elements, placement of the data elements on the license, and other graphical and card security characteristics. Part 2 of ISO/IEC 18013-2, Machine Readable Technologies, adopts the philosophy that human-readable and machine-readable data elements should not conflict. Barcode, magnetic stripe, IC with contacts, contactless IC and optical memory technologies are all included. Stated elements of the machine-readable data include identity verification, residence, biometric authentication and age verification. It also includes a specification for the storage of images. A conceptual data structure is provided and encoding rules for barcode, magnetic stripe, IC and optical memory are specified. Part 3 of ISO/IEC 18013-3, Access Control, Authentication and Integrity Validation, specifies the mechanisms for how the various data storage technologies permit access, authenticate documents and validate data integrity. These mechanisms consist of passive authentication (digital signature), active authentication (challenge-response used with a contact or contactless IC chip), an alert if human-readable and machine-readable data elements differ, and what are defined as Basic Access Control (BAC) and Extended Access Control (EAC). BAC allows access to machine-readable data only if visual access to the IDL can be confirmed. Communication between the IDL and its reader is required to be encrypted. EAC provides for IC chip authentication, conditional authenticated access to data groups and strong secure messaging. Similarly, Real ID and EDL initiatives in the U.S. are an advance in security over the typical drivers license in circulation today. Other technologies, such as those utilizing the magnetic stripe media characteristics, offer similar protections at a very low cost of issuance. Longer term, some of the new technologies like electronic displays on cards with biometric features could offer additional security functionality. The pressure to defeat the ever more sophisticated fraudulent ID cards will continue to build. Marketplace Ready to be an Official Licensee of the ICMA EcoLabel Standard Program? The first global green card standard We are pleased to support this program which: • Establishes criteria for the environmental performance of a manufacturer’s cards • Is administered by the International Card Manufacturers Association Learn more at www.icma.com. August 2012 | ICMA Card Manufacturing .: 29 :.
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