oxford - Deakin

oxford - Deakin
OXFORD
Deakin University guide to referencing
deakin.edu.au/referencing
You should always check your unit guide and/or with your unit chair, lecturer or tutor to make sure that
this is the recommended style for your unit.
Table of Contents
General principles ............................................................................................................ 3
First citations ................................................................................................................................... 3
Repeat citations............................................................................................................................... 4
Quotation style ................................................................................................................................ 5
Bibliography..................................................................................................................................... 5
Multiple authors of a single work ................................................................................................... 7
Group author ................................................................................................................................... 7
No author ........................................................................................................................................ 7
No date ............................................................................................................................................ 8
Secondary sources........................................................................................................................... 8
Multiple works by the same author ................................................................................................ 8
Books ............................................................................................................................... 9
Print book ........................................................................................................................................ 9
e-book............................................................................................................................................ 10
Chapter in an edited book ............................................................................................................. 10
Dictionary or encyclopedia............................................................................................................ 10
Periodicals...................................................................................................................... 11
Journal article – print .................................................................................................................... 11
Journal article – online, electronic database ................................................................................ 11
Newspaper article – print .............................................................................................................. 12
Newspaper article – online, electronic database .......................................................................... 12
Review in a periodical.................................................................................................................... 13
Web, audiovisual ............................................................................................................ 14
Website, webpage, web document .............................................................................................. 14
Social media .................................................................................................................................. 15
Blog ................................................................................................................................................ 15
Online audio, podcast ................................................................................................................... 16
Online video, vodcast .................................................................................................................... 16
Film, DVD, video ............................................................................................................................ 17
Television, radio ............................................................................................................................ 17
Other Sources................................................................................................................. 17
ABS statistics.................................................................................................................................. 17
Conference paper .......................................................................................................................... 18
Course material ............................................................................................................................. 18
Government publication ............................................................................................................... 19
Media release ................................................................................................................................ 19
Personal communication............................................................................................................... 20
Thesis ............................................................................................................................................. 20
The following sources were consulted in the creation of this referencing guide:
Snooks & Co., Style manual for authors, editors and printers, 6th edn, rev., John Wiley & Sons, Milton,
Qld, 2002.
New Oxford style manual, 2nd edn, Oxford University Press, Oxford, 2012.
Deakin guide to referencing: Oxford
2
Please note that there are many variations on the Oxford style of referencing. The information
presented in this guide is a recommendation and is not compulsory. Check your unit guide for any
further recommendations. No matter which variations on this style you use, the most important thing
is to be consistent throughout your assignment.
General principles
The Oxford style consists of the following elements:
1. Citations in the body of the paper refer to footnotes at the bottom of the paper. They consist of
a superscript (raised) number, generally at the end of a sentence.
2. Footnotes provide the bibliographic details of a source and appear at the bottom of the page.
Footnotes are known as endnotes if they appear at the end of a chapter or section. Footnotes are
numbered consecutively throughout a chapter or paper.
3. A bibliography is a full list of sources cited in the text, sources consulted in preparing a paper and
other sources thought to be of interest to the reader. It is ordered alphabetically according to the
family name of the first-listed author.
First citations
The first time a source is cited, the footnote must provide full bibliographic details.
Sources need to be cited in a footnote whenever ideas from those sources are discussed, summarised,
paraphrased or quoted.
A superscript number placed after the relevant text refers to a footnote at the bottom of the page. The
footnote provides information about the author, title and other publication details.
For quotes and paraphrases, provide a page number (or equivalent reference) in the footnote. For
summaries or general references to works: you do not have to provide a page number, but you may wish
to provide one in order to direct the reader to a specific passage in the text.
Kostof notes, 'Ggantija is a wholly manmade form, which is to say it is thought out and
reproduceable'.1
__________________________________________
1.
S. Kostof, A history of architecture: settings and rituals, 2nd edn, Oxford University Press,
New York, 1995, p. 35.
Footnotes for subsequent references to the same source do not repeat all the details, but use a
shortened form. See Repeat citations below for details.
Footnotes usually provide information about the author, title, other publication details, and a page (or
equivalent) reference.
Author
•
•
•
Check your unit guide to determine if there is a preference for providing initials of the first name
or the first name in full.
Provide initials/first name before the family name.
Where there are two or three authors, the names of all the authors are included and an
ampersand ‘&’ separates the names of the last two authors.
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•
Where there are more than three authors, include the family name of the first-listed author only,
followed by ‘et al.’
Title
•
•
Titles of books, journals and websites are formatted in italics
Titles of articles, chapters are placed within single quote marks.
2.
S. Kostof, A history of architecture: settings and rituals, 2nd edn, Oxford University Press,
New York, 1995, p. 35.
3.
M. Specter, ‘The dangerous philosopher’, The graduate forum NYU [website], 2 April 2001,
para. 8, <http://www.cns.nyu.edu/~pillow/gradforum/materials/DangerousPhilosopher.pdf>,
accessed 3 Feb. 2014.
4.
E. Arnau et al. ‘The extended cognition thesis: its significance for the philosophy of
(cognitive) science’, Philosophical Psychology, vol. 27, no. 1, Feb. 2014, pp. 15–7, Academic
Search Complete [online database], accessed 16 June 2014.
Footnotes follow the same order of elements, punctuation and capitalisation as bibliography entries, with
the following exceptions.
In footnotes:
•
•
The first name/initials of authors come before family names.
Only specific page numbers (or equivalent markers) being cited in a quote or paraphrase are
included.
In a bibliography:
•
•
•
•
The first name/initials of authors come after family names.
Entries are arranged alphabetically according to the family names of authors.
The hanging indent style paragraph is used.
The range of page numbers identifying the beginning and end of chapters in books or journal
articles is included.
Repeat citations
When sources are referred to more than once in the footnotes, full bibliographic details do not need to
be given after the initial footnote.
'ibid.'
Use 'ibid.' in a footnote where the immediately preceding footnote refers to the same source.
1.
S. Kostof, A history of architecture: settings and rituals, 2nd edn, Oxford University Press,
New York, 1995, p. 35.
2.
ibid.
If it is the same source, but a different page, add the page number.
1.
S. Kostof, A history of architecture: settings and rituals, 2nd edn, Oxford University Press,
New York, 1995, p. 35.
2.
ibid., p. 45.
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‘op. cit.’ and ‘loc. cit.’
While ‘ibid.’ is used for citing an immediately preceding footnote, ‘op. cit’ and ‘loc. cit’ are used for citing
all other previously cited sources.
•
•
Use ‘op. cit.’ to refer to a work previously cited that has a different page number.
Use ‘loc. cit’ to refer to the same page of a previously cited work.
1.
S. Kostof, A history of architecture: settings and rituals, 2nd edn, Oxford University Press,
New York, 1995, p. 35.
2.
R. Tansey & F. Kleiner, Gardner's art through the ages, 10th edn, Harcourt Brace College
Publishers, Sydney, 1996, p. 29.
3.
Kostof, op. cit., p. 46.
4.
Tansey & Kleiner, loc. cit.
Quotation style
In the body of the text, use single quotation marks for short quotes of less than 30 words.
Kostof notes, 'Ggantija is a wholly manmade form, which is to say it is thought out and
reproduceable'.1
For quotes longer than 30 words, do not use quotation marks. Start the quote on a new line, indented
and in a smaller font size.
Morley-Warner suggests that students should focus on how journal articles in their subject are
written and structured. She describes another benefit of this process:
You will also gain a sense of the complexity of being an apprentice writer in an academic culture, or
rather cultures, where expectations may vary from discipline to discipline, even subject to subject and
where you can build a repertoire of critical thinking and writing skills that enable you to enter the
academic debates, even to challenge.24
Where there are multiple references to the same source in one paragraph, it is more economical to cite
in a single footnote, as long as this cannot be confused with citations to other works in the same
paragraph.
Bibliography
A bibliography is an alphabetically ordered list of all the sources cited, as well as sources consulted in
preparing a paper and other sources thought to be of interest to the reader. There is no need to divide a
bibliography into subsections, unless you have been instructed to do so, for example, into Primary and
Secondary Sources.
It is important to note that the term 'bibliography' is sometimes used for what would more accurately be
called a reference list (which consists only of sources cited in a paper). Check with unit staff to determine
what is required in your assignment.
Author
•
•
Check your unit guide to determine if there is a preference for providing initials of the first name
or the first name in full.
Provide initials/first name after the family name.
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•
•
Where there are two or three authors, the names of all the authors are included and an
ampersand ‘&’ separates the names of the last two authors.
Where there are more than three authors, include the family name of the first-listed author only,
followed by ‘et al.’
Title
•
•
Titles of books, journals and websites are formatted in italics
Titles of articles, chapters are placed within single quote marks.
Note that bibliography entries follow the same order of elements, punctuation and capitalisation as
footnotes, with the following exceptions:
In the bibliography
•
•
•
•
The initials of all authors come after family names.
Entries are arranged alphabetically.
Page numbers identifying the beginning and end of chapters in books or journal articles are
included.
The hanging indent style paragraph is used.
In footnotes
•
•
The initials of all authors come before family names.
Only specific page numbers (or equivalent markers) being cited in a quote or paraphrase are
included.
Sample Bibliography
Arakawa, Y., Zen painting, trans. J. Bester, Kodansha International, Tokyo, 1970.
Arnau, E. et al., ‘The extended cognition thesis: its significance for the philosophy of (cognitive)
science’, Philosophical Psychology, vol. 27, no. 1, Feb. 2014, pp. 1-18, Academic
Search Complete [online database], accessed 16 June 2014.
Australian Bureau of Statistics, Industrial disputes, Australia, June 2013, cat. no.
6321.0.55.001, 5 Sep 2013, <http://www.abs.gov.au>, accessed 8 Oct. 2013.
Crafti, S., 'Winning design moored in Spain', The Age, Business Day, 25 Aug. 2010, p. 16.
Goldthwaite, R.A., 'The Florentine palace as domestic architecture', American Historical
Review, vol. 77, no. 4, 1972, pp. 977-1012.
Gombrich, E.H., 'The early Medicis as patrons of art', in ed. E.F. Jacob, Italian Renaissance
studies, Faber and Faber, London, 1960, pp. 279-311.
Kleiner, F.S., Mamiya, C.J. & Tansey, R.G., Gardner's art through the ages, 11th edn, Harcourt
College Publishers, Fort Worth, 2001.
Lobo, J., 'Latin American construction at a glance', Construction Review, vol. 41, no. 1, 1995,
pp. iv-vi, Expanded Academic ASAP [online database], accessed 5 Nov. 2004.
Parliamentary Standing Committee on Public Works, Proposed common use infrastructure on
Christmas Island, Parliament of the Commonwealth of Australia, Canberra, 2002.
Specter, M., ‘The dangerous philosopher’, The graduate forum NYU [website], 2 April 2001,
<http://www.cns.nyu.edu/~pillow/gradforum/materials/DangerousPhilosopher.pdf>,
accessed 3 Feb. 2014.
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Multiple authors of a single work
For works written by two or three authors, separate the final two authors with an ampersand ‘&’.
Footnote
23.
F.S. Kleiner, C.J. Mamiya & R.G. Tansey, Gardner's art through the ages, 11th edn,
Harcourt College Publishers, Fort Worth, 2001, p. 38.
Bibliography
Kleiner, F.S., Mamiya, C.J. & Tansey, R.G., Gardner's art through the ages, 11th edn, Harcourt
College Publishers, Fort Worth, 2001.
If a work has more than three authors, use only the family name of the first-listed author, followed by ‘et
al.’ (meaning 'and others').
Footnote
36.
E. Arnau et al., ‘The extended cognition thesis: its significance for the philosophy of
(cognitive) science’, Philosophical Psychology, vol. 27, no. 1, Feb. 2014, p. 14, Academic
Search Complete [online database], accessed 16 June 2014
Bibliography
Arnau, E. et al., ‘The extended cognition thesis: its significance for the philosophy of (cognitive)
science’, Philosophical Psychology, vol. 27, no. 1, Feb. 2014, pp. 1-18, Academic
Search Complete [online database], accessed 16 June 2014.
Group author
Sometimes the author is an organisation, government agency, association or corporate body. Cite the
full name of the organisation and the bibliographic details of the work appropriate to the source.
Footnote
1.
Parliamentary Standing Committee on Public Works, Proposed common use infrastructure
on Christmas Island, Parliament of the Commonwealth of Australia, Canberra, 2002, p. 52.
Bibliography
The entry is listed alphabetically under the name of the organisation (excluding ‘The’).
Parliamentary Standing Committee on Public Works, Proposed common use infrastructure on
Christmas Island, Parliament of the Commonwealth of Australia, Canberra, 2002.
No author
Footnote
For works that do not indicate the name of an author, the footnote should begin with the title of the
work.
5.
The remedy of love, Chadwyck-Healey, Cambridge, UK, 1995, English Poetry Full-text
[online database], accessed 15 Dec. 2013.
Bibliography
Provide the author as ‘Anon.’ or ‘Anonymous’.
Anon., The remedy of love, Chadwyck-Healey, Cambridge, UK, 1995, English Poetry Full-text
[online database], accessed 15 Dec. 2013.
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No date
If a source has no publication date, use the latest copyright date. If no date can be found, place ‘n.d.’
where the date would usually be.
Footnote
23.
P. Jones, The hanging hypothesis, Metzger & Son, New York, n.d., p. 14.
Bibliography
Jones, P. The hanging hypothesis, Metzger & Son, New York, n.d.
Secondary sources
Footnote
When citing an author (secondary source) who is citing another author that you have not read (primary
source), provide bibliographic details of both works in the footnote. Use the phrase ‘cited in’.
In the example below, you have read Brown (secondary source), who refers to Smith (primary source),
but you have not read Smith yourself.
10.
A. Smith, Italian architecture, Penguin, Melbourne, 2000, cited in D. Brown, Renaissance
Italy, Faber and Faber, London, 2002, p. 45.
Bibliography
Provide only the details of the source you have read (the secondary source).
Brown, D., Renaissance Italy, Faber and Faber, London, 2002.
Multiple works by the same author
Footnotes
Use ‘ibid.’, ‘op. cit.’ and ‘loc. cit.’ as detailed in Repeat citations above.
In addition, add the title to the repeat citation, so that works will not be confused by the reader. Long
titles may be shortened.
5.
S. Žižek, Enjoy your symptom!: Jacques Lacan in Hollywood and out, Routledge, London,
2001, pp. 23–4.
…
8.
S. Žižek, On belief, Routledge, London, 2001, p. 57.
…
12.
S. Žižek, Enjoy your symptom!, loc. cit.
Bibliography
If you are citing more than one work by an author (or group of authors listed in the same order),
order the bibliography entries by the year of publication.
If you are citing more than one work by an author (or group of authors listed in the same order)
Deakin guide to referencing: Oxford
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and the works are published in the same year, order the bibliography entries by the titles of the
works.
In both cases, use a long dash instead of the author’s name for the second and subsequent
references.
Žižek, S., Enjoy your symptom!: Jacques Lacan in Hollywood and out, Routledge, London,
2001.
—— On belief, Routledge, London, 2001.
Books
Print book
•
•
Include the edition number for all editions except the first.
If relevant to the citation, place the names of editors or translators after the title preceded by
‘ed.’, ‘eds’ or ‘tr.’
Footnote
A. Author, B. Author & C. Author, Title of book, edition number, volume number, tr./ed. A.
Translator/Editor, Publisher, Place, year, page.
21.
F.S. Kleiner, C.J. Mamiya & R.G. Tansey, Gardner's art through the ages, 11th edn,
Harcourt College Publishers, Fort Worth, 2001, p. 26.
22.
J. Hocking, Gough Whitlam: a moment in history: the biography, vol. 1, Melbourne
University Publishing, 2008, pp. 211–2.
23.
E. Galeano, Open veins of Latin America: five centuries of the pillage of a continent, tr. C.
Belfrage, Monthly Review Press, New York, 1973, p. 38.
Bibliography
Author, A., Author, B. & Author, C., Title of book, edition number, volume number, tr./ed. A.
Translator/Editor, Publisher, Place, year.
Kleiner, F.S., Mamiya C.J. & Tansey, R.G., Gardner's art through the ages, 11th edn, Harcourt
College Publishers, Fort Worth, 2001.
Hocking, J., Gough Whitlam: a moment in history: the biography, vol. 1, Melbourne University
Publishing, 2008.
Galeano, E., Open veins of Latin America: five centuries of the pillage of a continent, tr. C.
Belfrage, Monthly Review Press, New York, 1973.
Deakin guide to referencing: Oxford
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e-book
In addition to details provided for a print book:
•
•
•
•
You may provide information about the medium after the title, if relevant, e.g. [online facsimile].
To avoid very long URLs, it is acceptable to cite the homepage URL.
Do not provide a URL if accessed via an electronic database. Provide the database name and
medium [online database].
If the e-book is not paginated, provide another reference such as a paragraph number, section
heading or chapter title.
Footnote
A. Author, Title of book, Publisher, Place, year, Database/<URL>, page/paragraph reference,
accessed day month year.
17.
E. Rutten, J. Fedor & V. Zvereva, Memory, conflict and social media, Taylor & Francis,
2013, p. 31, Ebook Library [online database], accessed 15 Dec. 2013.
18.
J. Maritain, An Introduction to Philosophy [online facsimile], tr. E.I. Watkin, Sheed & Ward,
New York, 1937, digitised by the Internet Archive 2010, p. 170, <https://archive.org/>,
accessed 20 June 2014.
Bibliography
Author, A., Title of book, Publisher, Place, year, Database/<URL>, page/paragraph reference,
accessed day month year.
Rutten, E., Fedor, J. & Zvereva, V., Memory, conflict and social media, Taylor & Francis, 2013,
Ebook Library [online database], accessed 15 Dec. 2013.
Maritain, J., An Introduction to Philosophy [online facsimile], tr. E.I. Watkin, Sheed & Ward,
New York, 1937, digitised by the Internet Archive 2010, <https://archive.org/>,
accessed 20 June 2014.
Chapter in an edited book
Footnote
A. Author, 'Title of chapter', in A. Editor ed., Title of book, Publisher, Place, year, page.
9.
E.H. Gombrich, 'The Early Medicis as patrons of art', in E.F. Jacob ed., Italian Renaissance
Studies, Faber and Faber, London, 1960, p. 280.
Bibliography
In the bibliography, include the page range of the chapter.
Author, A., 'Title of Chapter', in A. Editor ed., Title of book, Publisher, Place, year, page range.
Gombrich, E.H., 'The Early Medicis as patrons of art', in E.F. Jacob ed., Italian Renaissance
Studies, Faber and Faber, London, 1960, pp. 279–311.
Dictionary or encyclopedia
In general, citing Wikipedia entries is not recommended.
Note that in some units, citing dictionaries is not acceptable. Consult your unit guide for details.
Deakin guide to referencing: Oxford
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If you have permission, cite the dictionary or encyclopedia according to the source type, e.g. book, ebook, website.
Footnote
11.
H.E. Roberts, ed., Encyclopedia of comparative iconography: themes depicted in works of
art, Routledge, London, 2013, p. 138.
Bibliography
Roberts, H.E., ed., Encyclopedia of comparative iconography: themes depicted in works of art,
Routledge, London, 2013.
Periodicals
Journal article – print
Footnote
A. Author, 'Title of article', Title of Journal, volume, issue, year, page.
13.
R.A. Goldthwaite, 'The Florentine palace as domestic architecture', American Historical
Review, vol. 77, no. 4, 1972, p. 999.
Bibliography
•
Provide the page range of the article.
A. Author, 'Title of article', Title of Journal, volume, issue, year, page range.
Goldthwaite, R.A., 'The Florentine palace as domestic architecture', American Historical
Review, vol. 77, no. 4, 1972, pp. 977-1012.
Journal article – online, electronic database
Via the web
•
•
•
For electronic journals that have no volume or issue number, cite the date.
Provide the medium as [online journal] for articles on the web.
To avoid very long URLs, it is acceptable to cite the homepage URL of the journal.
Footnote
•
Provide paragraph references for unpaginated articles.
A. Author, 'Title of article', Title of Journal [online journal], volume, issue, year, page/paragraph
reference, <URL> accessed day month year.
16.
S.K. Martin, ‘Tracking reading in nineteenth-century Melbourne diaries’, Australian
Humanities Review [online journal], no. 56, May 2014, para. 6,
<http://www.australianhumanitiesreview.org>, accessed 20 June 2014.
Bibliography
Deakin guide to referencing: Oxford
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•
Provide the page range of the article, if available.
Author, A., 'Title of article', Title of Journal [online journal], volume, issue, year, page range,
<URL> accessed day month year.
Martin, S.K., ‘Tracking reading in nineteenth-century Melbourne diaries’, Australian Humanities
Review [online journal], no. 56, May 2014,
<http://www.australianhumanitiesreview.org>, accessed 20 June 2014.
Via electronic database
•
•
Place [online database] after database name.
It is not necessary to include a URL for a well-known database.
Footnote
•
Provide paragraph references for unpaginated articles.
A. Author, 'Title of article', Title of Journal, volume, issue, year, page/paragraph reference,
Database [online database], accessed day month year.
15.
J. Lobo, 'Latin American construction at a glance', Construction Review, vol. 41, no. 1, 1995,
p. vi, Expanded Academic ASAP [online database], accessed 5 Nov. 2004.
Bibliography
Author, A., 'Title of article', Title of Journal, volume, issue, year, page range, Database [online
database], accessed day month year.
Lobo, J., 'Latin American construction at a glance', Construction Review, vol. 41, no. 1, pp. ivvi, Expanded Academic ASAP [online database], accessed 5 Nov. 2004.
Newspaper article – print
•
•
For newspapers and magazines, provide the full date.
Provide newspaper section names (not in italics) following the title of the newspaper.
Footnote
A. Author, 'Title of article', Title of Newspaper, Title of Section, day month year, page.
4.
S. Crafti, 'Winning design moored in Spain', The Age, Business Day, 25 Aug. 2010, p. 16.
Bibliography
Author, A., 'Title of article', Title of Newspaper, Title of Section, day month year, page range.
Crafti, S., 'Winning design moored in Spain', The Age, Business Day, 25 Aug. 2010, p. 16.
Newspaper article – online, electronic database
Via the web
•
•
For newspapers and magazines, provide the full date.
Provide relevant newspaper section names (not in italics) following the title of the newspaper.
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Footnote
•
Provide paragraph references for unpaginated articles.
A. Author, ‘Title of article’, Title of Newspaper, Title of Section, day month year, paragraph
reference, <URL> accessed day month year.
5.
J. Jones, ‘British folk art review – welcome to the old weird Britain’, The Guardian UK, Art &
Design, 9 June 2014, para. 3, <http://www.theguardian.com/artanddesign/2014/jun/09/britishfolk-art-review-tate-britain>, accessed 16 June 2014.
Bibliography
Author, A., ‘Title of article’, Title of Newspaper, Title of Section, day month year, <URL> accessed
day month year.
Jones, J., ‘British folk art review – welcome to the old weird Britain’, The Guardian UK, Art &
Design, 9 June 2014, <http://www.theguardian.com/artanddesign/2014/jun/09/britishfolk-art-review-tate-britain>, accessed 16 June 2014.
Via electronic database
•
•
Place [online database] after database name.
It is not necessary to include a URL for a well-known database.
Footnote
A. Author, ‘Title of article’, Title of Newspaper, day month year, page, Database [online database],
accessed day month year.
3.
‘The unfairness of the advocates of the plebiscite’, The Argus, 10 Jan. 1880, p. 9, Trove
[online database], accessed 23 June 2014.
Bibliography
Author, A., ‘Title of article’, Title of Newspaper, day month year, page range, Database [online
database], accessed day month year.
‘The unfairness of the advocates of the plebiscite’, The Argus, 10 Jan. 1880, p. 9, Trove [online
database], accessed 23 June 2014.
Review in a periodical
The following example of a review is from an online newspaper.
Footnote
Author of review, ‘Title of review’, review of Book Author, Title of reviewed book, in Title of
Newspaper, Title of Newspaper Section, day month year, page/paragraph reference, <URL>,
accessed day month year.
G. Moorhouse, ‘Royal romp’, review of David Starkey, Six wives: the queens of Henry VIII, in
The Guardian, Books, 26 Apr. 2003, para. 2,
<http://www.theguardian.com/books/2003/apr/26/featuresreviews.guardianreview4>, accessed
18 June 2014.
Bibliography
Deakin guide to referencing: Oxford
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Author of review, ‘Title of review’, review of Book Author, Title of reviewed book, in Title of
Newspaper, Title of Newspaper Section, day month year, <URL>, accessed day month
year.
G. Moorhouse, ‘Royal romp’, review of David Starkey, Six wives: the queens of Henry VIII, in
The Guardian, Books, 26 Apr. 2003,
<http://www.theguardian.com/books/2003/apr/26/featuresreviews.guardianreview4>,
accessed 18 June 2014.
Web, audiovisual
Sources not available to the general public, such as private Facebook pages, private wikis or email, should
be treated as personal communications.
Website, webpage, web document
•
•
•
Provide the full date of publication, if known.
To avoid very long URLs, it is acceptable to cite the homepage URL of the website.
If not paginated, provide information about the paragraph or section heading after the URL (to
help readers access the source).
Footnote
A. Author, ‘Title of web section/article/document’, Title of website [medium], day month year,
page/paragraph/section name, <URL>, accessed day month year.
8.
Australian Human Rights Commission, ‘Annexure A: Special measures and application of
discrimination law to NTER legislation’, Australian Human Rights Commission [website], 2013,
Social security and other legislation amendment, <https://www.humanrights.gov.au>, accessed
9 June 2014.
9.
S. Black, ‘Kevin Andrews prods the Sudanese in the woodpile’, Crikey [website], 9 June
2007, para. 4, <http://www.crikey.com.au>, accessed 3 May 2014.
10.
M. Specter, ‘The dangerous philosopher’, The graduate forum NYU [website], 2 Apr. 2001,
para. 8, <http://www.cns.nyu.edu/~pillow/gradforum/materials/DangerousPhilosopher.pdf>,
accessed 3 Feb. 2014.
Bibliography
Author, A, ‘Title of web section/article/document’, Title of Website [medium], day month year,
<URL>, accessed day month year.
Australian Human Rights Commission, ‘Annexure A: Special measures and application of
discrimination law to NTER legislation’, Australian Human Rights Commission
[website], 2013, <https://www.humanrights.gov.au>, accessed 9 June 2014.
Black, S., ‘Kevin Andrews prods the Sudanese in the woodpile’, Crikey [website], 9 June 2007,
<http://www.crikey.com.au>, accessed 3 May 2014.
Specter, M., ‘The dangerous philosopher’, The graduate forum NYU [website], 2 Apr. 2001,
Deakin guide to referencing: Oxford
14
<http://www.cns.nyu.edu/~pillow/gradforum/materials/DangerousPhilosopher.pdf>,
accessed 3 Feb. 2014.
Social media
In all cases, you need to consider whether social media sources are appropriate and acceptable for
inclusion in your assignment. If you are uncertain, check your unit guide or with your unit chair or
lecturer.
Social networking accounts can either be open to the public or restricted to nominated readers or
participants. Posts from private social media accounts are treated as personal communications.
The following examples deal with public social media posts only.
•
•
•
•
The author cited may be a username.
Do not format the title of a social media website in italics.
Provide the full date of the post.
To avoid very long URLs, it is acceptable to cite the homepage URL of the website.
Footnote
A. Author/username/handle, ‘First few words of update/comment/post/tweet…’, Title of website,
day month year posted, <URL>, accessed day month year.
13.
A. de Botton, ‘To be human nowadays means we almost certainly have an envy problem’,
Facebook, 13 Apr. 2014, <https://www.facebook.com/alaindebotton>, accessed 10 June 2014.
14.
@RichardDawkins, ‘Fairy tales, as well as charming, can be good training in critical
thinking’, Twitter, 4 June 2014, <https://twitter.com/RichardDawkins>, accessed 9 June 2014.
Bibliography
Author, A./username/handle, ‘First few words of update/comment/post/tweet…’, Title of website,
day month year posted, <URL>, accessed day month year.
de Botton, A., ‘To be human nowadays means we almost certainly have an envy problem’,
Facebook, 13 Apr. 2014, <https://www.facebook.com/alaindebotton>, accessed 10
June 2014.
@RichardDawkins, ‘Fairy tales, as well as charming, can be good training in critical thinking’,
Twitter, 4 June 2014, <https://twitter.com/RichardDawkins>, accessed 9 June 2014.
Blog
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•
•
•
Note that the author of a blog post may be different to the author/editor of the blog.
Include the medium as [blog post], if this is not obvious from the title of the post or the blog.
To avoid very long URLs, it is acceptable to cite the homepage URL of the website.
If not paginated, provide information about the paragraph or section heading.
Footnote
Author of post, ‘Title of post’, Title of blog [blog post], day month year, page/paragraph/section
name, <URL>, accessed day month year.
P. Rutledge, ‘The healthy use of social media: think goal’, The media psychology blog, 21 Oct.
2013, para. 2, <http://mprcenter.org/blog/2013/10/the-healthy-use-of-social-media-thinkgoals/>, accessed 14 June 2014.
Deakin guide to referencing: Oxford
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Bibliography
Author of post, ‘Title of Post’, Title of Blog [blog post], day month year, <URL>, accessed day
month year.
Rutledge, P., ‘The healthy use of social media: think goal’, The media psychology blog, 21 Oct.
2013, <http://mprcenter.org/blog/2013/10/the-healthy-use-of-social-media-thinkgoals/>, accessed 14 June 2014.
Online audio, podcast
•
•
•
•
•
The details of the footnote and bibliography entry are identical.
Begin the citation with the title.
For podcasts, include the titles of the episode and the series.
If relevant, provide further details (such as the name of the director, interviewer or interviewee)
after the title.
To avoid very long URLs, it is acceptable to cite the homepage URL of the website.
‘Title of podcast episode’, Title of Series [podcast], Publisher, day month year, <URL>, accessed
day month year.
‘The hipster philosopher’, The philosophers’ zone [podcast], interview with Mark Kingwell, ABC
Radio National, 5 Jan. 2014, <www.abc.net.au/radionational>, accessed 9 June 2014.
Title of audio [online audio], Publisher, day month year, <URL>, accessed day month year.
The Wire salon: an audience with Robert Wyatt [online audio], The Wire, Apr. 2012,
<http://www.thewire.co.uk/audio/in-conversation/the-wire-salon_an-audience-with-robertwyatt>, accessed 3 June 2014.
Online video, vodcast
•
•
•
•
•
•
The details of the footnote and bibliography entry are identical.
Begin the citation with the title.
For vodcasts, include the titles of the episode and the series.
If relevant, provide further details (such as the name of the director, interviewer or interviewee)
after the title.
To avoid very long URLs, it is acceptable to cite the homepage URL of the website.
If citing YouTube (or similar platforms), include the username of the person who uploaded the
video in the publisher details.
Title of video [video], Publisher, day month year, <URL>, accessed day month year.
The past isn't the past – Tom Keneally and Richard Flanagan, Adelaide Writers' Week, 3/3/14
[video], The Monthly, 4 June 2014, <http://www.themonthly.com.au/>, accessed 23 June 2014.
Gary Foley at NT Intervention 2nd anniversary protest – 20 June 2009 [video], YouTube
‘chllptr’, 23 Aug. 2010, <http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=HgD1rYeDaag>, accessed 21 May
2014.
Deakin guide to referencing: Oxford
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‘Title of vodcast episode’, Title of series [vodcast], Publisher, day month year, <URL>, accessed
day month year.
‘The invasion of Lampedusa’, Four corners [vodcast], ABC1 TV, 11 June 2011,
<http://www.abc.net.au/4corners/>, accessed 3 May 2014.
Film, DVD, video
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•
•
Details of the footnote and bibliography entry are identical.
Begin the citation with the title.
Cite the medium that you have accessed, e.g. [film], [DVD]. This is especially relevant if a DVD
release is significantly different to the original cinematic release.
Title of video/film [medium], dir. Director, Publisher, year.
Art in our time: toward a new MoMA [DVD], dir. M. Blackwood, Michael Blackwood
Productions, 2002.
Television, radio
•
•
•
•
Cite television and radio programs using the following format only if accessed during a live
broadcast. If accessed online, see Online audio, podcast or Online video, vodcast.
The details of the footnote and bibliography entry are identical.
Begin the citation with the title.
If applicable, you may include season and series numbers after the title.
‘Title of episode’, Title of series [TV/radio program], series number episode number, Broadcast
network, day month year.
‘The third man’, Janet King [TV program], Series 1 Episode 4, ABC1, 20 Mar. 2014.
‘Cemetery landscapers discuss the challenge of caring for the dead’, Off track, ABC Radio
National, 22 June 2014.
Other Sources
ABS statistics
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•
The details of the footnote and bibliography entry are identical for ABS statistics sourced online.
To avoid very long URLs, it is acceptable to cite the homepage URL of the website.
Australian Bureau of Statistics, Title, catalogue number, day month year, <URL>, accessed day
month year.
Australian Bureau of Statistics, Industrial disputes, Australia, June 2013, cat. no.
6321.0.55.001, 5 Sep. 2013, <http://www.abs.gov.au>, accessed 8 Oct. 2013.
Deakin guide to referencing: Oxford
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Conference paper
Published conference paper
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•
Published conference papers are cited according to the format in which they are published, e.g.
book chapter, journal article.
Conference papers that are not formally published, but available on a university repository or
conference website, should be cited as unpublished conference papers – see below.
Unpublished conference paper
•
Conference papers that are not formally published, but which may be available on a university
repository or conference website, may be cited as in the example below.
Footnote
A. Author, 'Title of paper presented', paper presented to Name of Conference, Location, date of
conference, page/paragraph reference, Database or <URL>, accessed day month year.
22.
A. Fenton, 'Using a strengths approach in collaborative education', paper presented to the
2012 Australian Collaborative Education Network (ACEN) National Conference, Deakin
University, Geelong, 29 Oct. — 2 Nov. 2012, pp. 75–6,
<http://acen.edu.au/2012conference/wp-content/uploads/2012/11/ACEN-2012-NationalConference-Proceedings.pdf>, accessed 23 Dec. 2013.
Bibliography
Author, A. 'Title of paper presented', paper presented to Name of Conference, Location, date of
conference, page range, Database or <URL>, accessed day month year.
Fenton, A., 'Using a strengths approach in collaborative education', paper presented to the
2012 Australian Collaborative Education Network (ACEN) National Conference,
Deakin University, Geelong, 29 Oct. — 2 Nov. 2012, pp. 71–6,
<http://acen.edu.au/2012conference/wp-content/uploads/2012/11/ACEN-2012National-Conference-Proceedings.pdf>, accessed 23 Dec. 2013.
Course material
You should always check with unit staff to determine if citing lectures or course materials is
appropriate and acceptable in your unit. Many units advise that it is not acceptable. Cite only if you
have been given permission to do so.
Note that material that cannot be made available to the general public should be cited as personal
communications in a footnote. In this case, do not provide an entry in the bibliography.
If you have been given permission, cite as follows.
A. Lecturer, ‘Descriptive title including course code and/or title, University’ [lecture notes], day
month year.
5.
L. Doolan, ‘Week 2 Phenomenology, PHP367, Deakin University’ [lecture notes online], 13
Apr. 2014.
Deakin guide to referencing: Oxford
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Government publication
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•
Cite according to the source type, e.g. book (or print resource), webpage, web document.
Include the jurisdiction (Commonwealth or State) if this is not clear from other bibliographic
details.
Footnote
Government Department or other Author, Title, Publisher, Place of publication, year, page.
6.
Commission of Enquiry into Poverty, Poverty in Australia, first main report, Australian
Government Publishing Service, Canberra, 1975, p. 13.
Government Department or other Author, Title, day month year, page/paragraph reference,
<URL>, access date.
25.
Australian Customs and Border Protection Service, Fact sheet: Operational update 20 June
2014 [website], 20 June 2014, <http://newsroom.customs.gov.au/>, accessed 4 July 2014.
Bibliography
Government Department or other Author, Title, Publisher, Place of publication, year.
Commission of Enquiry into Poverty, Poverty in Australia, first main report, Australian
Government Publishing Service, Canberra, 1975.
Government Department or other Author, Title [website], day month year, <URL>, access date.
Australian Customs and Border Protection Service, Fact sheet: Operational update 20 June
2014 [website], 20 June 2014, <http://newsroom.customs.gov.au/>, accessed 4 July
2014.
If citing parliamentary debate (Hansard) or Australian law resources, refer to the Deakin guide to AGLC
(Australian Guide to Legal Citation).
Media release
•
For government media releases, include the jurisdiction (Commonwealth or State) before the
author if this is not clear from other bibliographic details.
Footnote
Author, Title [media release], day month year, page/paragraph reference, <URL>, accessed day
month year.
33.
Australian Government, Department of Education, National school chaplaincy and student
welfare program High Court judgment [media release], 19 June 2014, para. 3,
<http://education.gov.au/news/national-school-chaplaincy-and-student-welfare-program-highcourt-judgment>, accessed 20 June 2014.
Bibliography
Author, Title [media release], day month year, <URL>, accessed day month year.
Australian Government, Department of Education, National School Chaplaincy and Student
Welfare Program High Court Judgment [media release], 19 June 2014,
<http://education.gov.au/news/national-school-chaplaincy-and-student-welfareprogram-high-court-judgment>, accessed 20 June 2014.
Deakin guide to referencing: Oxford
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Personal communication
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•
•
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Personal communications can include letters, emails, personal interviews, telephone
conversations, private Facebook messages, university lectures or other materials not available to
the general public.
Details about personal communications are included in footnotes, but are not included in the
bibliography.
It is important to get the permission of the person referred to in your assignment.
If you are required to include a copy of any personal communication in an appendix, include a
reference to the appendix and a page/paragraph reference in the footnote.
Footnote
A. Family name, descriptive title of communication/subject, day month year, reference to
appendix/page/paragraph (if applicable).
2.
J. Robinson, email interview with author, 11 May 2013.
11.
V. Grossi, video conference interview with author, 3 April 2014. See Appendix B.
Thesis
Footnote
A. Author, ‘Title’, Degree, Institution, Place, year, page, <URL>, accessed day month year.
38.
R. Lee, 'Mary De Garis: progressivism, early feminism and medical reform', PhD thesis,
Deakin University, Geelong, 2010, pp. 93–4, <http://dro.deakin.edu.au/>, accessed 10 July
2014.
Bibliography
Author, A., ‘Title’, Degree, Institution, Place, year, <URL>, accessed day month year.
Lee, R., 'Mary De Garis: progressivism, early feminism and medical reform', PhD thesis,
Deakin University, Geelong, 2010, <http://dro.deakin.edu.au/>, accessed 10 July
2014.
Deakin guide to referencing: Oxford
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