Motion Studio User Manual - Integrated Design Tools Inc.

Motion Studio User Manual - Integrated Design Tools Inc.
MOTION STUDIO
Motion Studio
Users Manual
User Manual
1
(For Windows™)
Motion Studio
Software Release
2.12.20
Document Revision
May 2017
Products Information
http://www.idtvision.com
North America
1202 E Park Ave
TALLAHASSE FL 32301
United States of America
P: (+1) (850) 222-5939
F: (+1) (850) 222-4591
[email protected]
Europe
via Pennella, 94
I-38057 - Pergine Valsugana (TN)
Italy
P: (+39) 0461- 532112
F: (+39) 0461- 532104
[email protected]
Eekhoornstraat, 22
B-3920 - Lommel
Belgium
P: (+32) 11- 551065
F: (+32) 11- 554766
[email protected]
Copyright © Integrated Design Tools, Inc.
The information in this manual is for information purposes only and is subject to change
without notice. Integrated Design Tools, Inc. makes no warranty of any kind with regards to
the information contained in this manual, including but not limited to implied warranties of
merchantability and fitness for a particular purpose. Integrated Design Tools, Inc. shall not be
liable for errors contained herein nor for incidental or consequential damages from the
furnishing of this information. No part of this manual may be copied, reproduced, recorded,
transmitted or translated without the express written permission of Integrated Design Tools,
Inc.
2
Users Manual
Table of Contents
1. TERMS AND CONDITIONS..........................................................................7
2. SYSTEM OVERVIEW....................................................................................8
2.1. Software package.............................................................................................8
2.2. Minimum computer requirements......................................................................9
3. INSTALLING THE SYSTEM.......................................................................10
3.1. IDT Cameras Installation................................................................................10
3.1.1. Software Installation............................................................................................... 10
3.1.2. Hardware installation (USB 2.0).............................................................................11
3.2. MotionScope M camera installation................................................................12
3.2.1. Installing the Dalsa-Coreco X64 Xcelera-CL PX4 frame grabber...........................12
3.2.2. Installing the National Instruments PCIe-1429 frame grabber................................14
3.2.3. Configuring the NI-1429 frame grabber for 64-bit Operating Systems...................15
3.2.4. Installing and configuring the EPIX PIXCI™ E4 Frame Grabber............................16
3.2.4.1. How to set the M3 or M5 camera as default....................................................................17
3.2.4.2. How to increase the amount of memory allocated for the acquisitions...........................18
3.2.5. Installing and configuring the Bitflow Karbon-CL Frame Grabber..........................19
3.2.5.1. How to attach the correct camera file to the frame grabber............................................20
3.2.6. Connecting the M camera......................................................................................21
3.3. Disabling the User Account Control on Windows 7 (UAC)..............................22
4. CONFIGURATION OF GIGA-ETHERNET CAMERAS..............................23
4.1. Motion Studio Network Configuration Utility....................................................23
4.2. Configuring the Y camera IP address.............................................................24
4.3. Configuring the N/NR/NX/Os/CC camera IP address.....................................25
4.4. Forbidden IP addresses..................................................................................26
4.5. Large datagram size (Jumbo packets)............................................................27
4.6. Configuring the Windows Firewall...................................................................29
4.6.1. How to add Motion Studio to the list of allowed programs......................................29
4.6.2. How to allow incoming echo requests (HG cameras).............................................31
4.6.3. How to disable the Windows Firewall.....................................................................33
4.7. Configuring the X camera IP address.............................................................35
5. MOTION STUDIO™....................................................................................36
5.1. Open camera Wizard......................................................................................36
5.2. Motion Studio Menu structure.........................................................................41
5.3. FILE Menu......................................................................................................42
5.3.1. Initialize a camera window.....................................................................................42
5.3.2. Open File Images................................................................................................... 42
5.4. Open non-IDT file images...............................................................................43
5.5. Save images...................................................................................................44
5.5.1. AVI, MPEG, MOV Codec/JPEG quality selection...................................................45
5.6. Add time stamp to images..............................................................................46
5.7. Open RAW files..............................................................................................48
5.8. Database viewer.............................................................................................49
5.8.1. The viewer Toolbar................................................................................................ 50
5.9. EDIT menu......................................................................................................51
5.10. IMAGE menu................................................................................................52
5.11. OpenFX plugins............................................................................................53
5.12. Lookup Table................................................................................................54
5.13. Orientation....................................................................................................55
5.14. Color Map Adjustment for monochrome images...........................................56
5.15. Sharpen, gamma, brightness, contrast, hue, saturation................................57
5.16. Remove background (X4 camera only).........................................................58
5.17. FILTER menu...............................................................................................59
5.18. Create a User-defined filter...........................................................................60
5.19. CAMERA Menu............................................................................................61
5.20. Camera Control - Live...................................................................................62
5.21. Camera Configuration...................................................................................63
5.21.1. Auto-exposure...................................................................................................... 64
5.21.2. Motion Trigger...................................................................................................... 65
5.21.3. Region of Interest (ROI).......................................................................................66
5.21.4. ROI for 7 and 8 series cameras (Dynamic Magnification)....................................67
5.21.5. Motorized lens control.......................................................................................... 68
5.22. Save and Load camera configuration............................................................69
5.23. Record Configuration....................................................................................70
5.23.1. Record Tab.......................................................................................................... 70
5.23.2. SSD Options........................................................................................................ 72
5.23.3. SSD mission mode............................................................................................... 73
5.23.4. Advanced Sync/Trigger Configuration .................................................................75
5.23.5. Y-camera timing configuration.............................................................................77
5.23.6. Acquisitions Configuration and selection..............................................................78
5.23.7. Direct write to disk option (M2D)..........................................................................80
5.23.8. Automatic Backup mode......................................................................................81
5.24. Save acquired images and data (single camera)..........................................82
5.25. Save acquired images and data (multiple cameras).....................................84
5.26. Operating Os cameras with a backup battery...............................................85
5.27. Download Options.........................................................................................86
5.28. Download Manager.......................................................................................88
5.29. Raw Download and Raw Converter..............................................................89
5.29.1. Raw converter batch files.....................................................................................91
5.30. Images Recovery..........................................................................................92
5.31. Image Configuration......................................................................................93
5.31.1. Gamma................................................................................................................ 94
5.31.2. Automatic White Balance.....................................................................................95
5.32. Data Acquisition module...............................................................................96
5.32.1. Data acquisition cables and back panel...............................................................97
5.32.1.1. Simple connection.........................................................................................................98
5.32.1.2. Connection with “Trigger In” signal................................................................................99
5.32.2. Analog Input Configuration.................................................................................100
5.32.3. Analog Input Data Pane.....................................................................................101
5.32.4. Data Graph Configuration..................................................................................102
5.32.5. Data Processing Menu.......................................................................................103
5.32.6. FFT and Power Spectrum..................................................................................103
5.32.7. Data Information................................................................................................. 104
5.32.8. Note about the “Overrun” error...........................................................................104
5.33. Advanced Camera Configuration in Camera menu.....................................105
5.33.1. Copy Calibration file from CD.............................................................................105
5.33.2. Download Calibration file from flash memory.....................................................105
5.33.3. Camera Calibration............................................................................................ 106
5.33.4. Flash Memory Diagnostics.................................................................................108
5.33.5. Color Balance Adjustment..................................................................................109
5.33.6. IRIG Calibration (X cameras).............................................................................110
5.33.7. HG Logs............................................................................................................. 110
5.33.8. Advanced Image parameters.............................................................................111
5.33.9. SSD Erase......................................................................................................... 112
5.33.10. SSD Dump....................................................................................................... 112
5.34. Multiple cameras support............................................................................113
5.34.1. Activate camera list............................................................................................ 114
5.34.2. Tools menu........................................................................................................ 115
5.34.3. Options............................................................................................................... 116
5.34.4. Master/Slave operation modes...........................................................................117
5.35. Playback Controls.......................................................................................119
5.35.1. Frame by frame review......................................................................................119
5.35.2. Playback Speed and Playback Settings.............................................................120
5.36. PLAYBACK Menu.......................................................................................121
5.37. Annotations.................................................................................................122
5.38. TRACKING menu.......................................................................................123
5.39. Tracking control..........................................................................................124
5.40. Tracking procedure.....................................................................................126
5.40.1. Add a new track-point and compute...................................................................126
5.40.2. Edit the tracking configuration............................................................................127
5.40.3. Show the tracking data and the vectors.............................................................128
5.40.4. Save the tracking data.......................................................................................130
5.40.5. Calibration.......................................................................................................... 131
5.40.6. Basic calibration model......................................................................................132
5.40.7. Simplified calibration model...............................................................................133
5.40.8. Generic calibration model..................................................................................134
5.41. DATA menu................................................................................................135
5.42. VIEW menu.................................................................................................136
5.42.1. Zoom Tools........................................................................................................ 137
5.42.2. View Thumbnails................................................................................................ 138
5.43. TOOLS menu..............................................................................................139
5.43.1. Administrator setup............................................................................................ 140
5.43.2. Time Stamp........................................................................................................ 141
5.43.3. Download Options.............................................................................................. 143
5.43.4. Camera Options................................................................................................. 144
5.43.5. Miscellaneous Options.......................................................................................146
5.43.6. Reticle / Grid...................................................................................................... 148
5.43.7. Histogram........................................................................................................... 149
5.43.8. Focus Line / Image Profile.................................................................................150
5.43.9. Timing Hub Control............................................................................................ 151
5.43.9.1. Channels selection and controls..................................................................................151
5.43.9.2. Signal Display and lock...............................................................................................153
5.43.9.3. Internal Mode...............................................................................................................154
5.43.9.4. External Mode.............................................................................................................155
5.43.9.5. Start/Stop Mode...........................................................................................................156
5.43.9.6. Rate Switch Mode.......................................................................................................157
5.43.9.7. “Burst Single” Mode.....................................................................................................158
5.43.9.8. “Burst retriggered” mode.............................................................................................159
5.43.9.9. Signal generation (Camera synchronization)..............................................................160
5.43.10. Analog Data Output.......................................................................................... 161
5.43.11. Image Tile Utility............................................................................................... 163
5.43.12. Ethernet cameras monitor................................................................................165
5.43.13. Language Selection......................................................................................... 166
5.43.14. Vidi Motion....................................................................................................... 167
5.44. WINDOW menu..........................................................................................168
5.45. HELP menu................................................................................................168
5.45.1. Camera Information........................................................................................... 169
6. VIDI MOTION (LENS CALCULATOR).....................................................170
6.1. Overview.......................................................................................................170
6.2. Camera information......................................................................................171
6.3. Find resolution from max rate.......................................................................172
6.4. Resolution versus rate table..........................................................................173
6.5. Lens Calculations..........................................................................................174
6.6. Speed calculations........................................................................................175
7. FRAME SYNCHRONIZATION AND EVENT TRIGGERING....................176
7.1. Overview.......................................................................................................176
7.2. Record Modes and Trigger Configuration.....................................................177
7.3. Change the Sync and the Trigger.................................................................178
7.4. Triggering the camera and synchronizing with strobe light............................179
7.4.1. Synchronizing via the leading edge of a pulse event (Single exposure)..............179
7.4.2. Synchronizing via the trailing edge of a pulse event (Single exposure)...............180
7.4.3. Synchronizing and controlling the exposure with an input pulse..........................181
7.4.4. Synchronizing in double exposure mode.............................................................182
8. APPENDIX A - IMAGE FORMATS...........................................................183
8.1. Formats Overview.........................................................................................183
8.1.1. TIFF Format......................................................................................................... 183
8.1.2. Bitmap Format..................................................................................................... 184
8.1.3. JPEG Format....................................................................................................... 184
8.1.4. PNG Format......................................................................................................... 184
8.1.5. TP2 format........................................................................................................... 184
8.1.6. FBA format........................................................................................................... 184
8.1.7. DPX format.......................................................................................................... 185
8.1.8. DNG Format......................................................................................................... 185
8.1.9. AVI Format........................................................................................................... 185
8.1.10. MOV Format...................................................................................................... 185
8.1.11. BLD Format........................................................................................................ 185
8.1.12. MPEG Format.................................................................................................... 185
8.1.13. MPEG H.264 (Advanced Video Coding)............................................................186
8.1.14. Multi-page Bayer Format (MRF).........................................................................186
8.1.14.1. File header...................................................................................................................186
8.1.14.2. Image header..............................................................................................................187
8.1.14.3. Data arrays..................................................................................................................187
8.1.15. Multi-page Compressed Format (MCF)..............................................................188
8.1.16. Note on 16 bit gray-scale formats......................................................................188
9. APPENDIX B – ERROR CODES..............................................................189
10. APPENDIX C - SPATIAL FILTERING....................................................195
10.1. Linear filters (Convolution filters).................................................................195
10.2. Linear sharpening filters..............................................................................196
10.3. Linear Smoothing filters..............................................................................198
10.4. Nonlinear filters...........................................................................................199
11. APPENDIX D - COLOR FILTER ARRAYS (CFA)..................................200
12. APPENDIX F – GLOSSARY...................................................................201
1. Terms and Conditions
For more detailed information, see the “Terms and Conditions” as stated in the camera
manual and the IDT web site.
2. System Overview
2.1. Software package
Upon the installation of the Motion Studio software package several options are available
to the user. These options are easily accessed via the Program menu under the Windows
Start button. The programs and associated files are organized under the IDT/MotionProX
folder (IDT/MStudio64 for the 64 bit version). The folder includes the programs and the
associated documentation. Other software components included in the package are
copied into “Public Documents/IDT. The path of “Public Documents” folder depends on
the operating system.
Windows XP: “C:/Documents and Settings/All Users/Documents/IDT”
Windows Vista, 7, 8, 8.1 and 10: “C:/Users/Public/Documents/IDT”
2.2. Minimum computer requirements
MotionPro X/Y – MotionXtra N/NR/NX/Os/CC
PC (Win32 and x64)
Operating System
Windows XP, Vista, 7, 8 and 8.1
Processor
Pentium III or equivalent with 500 MHz processor.
RAM
4 GB
USB 2.0 Port
USB 2.0 port that is NOT shared with other devices (X and Y)
Network adapter
Giga-Ethernet (recommended) or 10/100 Mbps.
Hard Drive
300 GB or greater hard drive (recommended).
NOTE: Use an USB 2.0 port on the computer or a Giga-Ethernet port. USB 1.1 DOES
NOT support camera operation.
MotionScope M™
PC Win32
PC x64
Operating System
Windows XP, Vista, 7, 8 and 8.1
Windows XP, Vista, 7 and 8
Processor
Intel CORE 2 at 2 GHz
Intel CORE 2 at 2 GHz.
RAM
4 GB
4 GB
Frame Grabber
Coreco X64 Xcelera-CL PX4
NI PCIe-1429
EPIX PIXCI E4
Bitflow Karbon
Coreco X64 Xcelera-CL PX4
NI PCIe-1429
EPIX PIXCI E4
Bitflow Karbon
Computer Slots
One available x8 or larger PCI
Express slot
One available x8 or larger PCI Express
slot
Hard Drive
300 GB or greater hard drive
300GB or greater hard drive
3. Installing the System
This section specifies the minimum recommended computer requirements and gives the
procedures needed to install the Camera Head, Camera Cable, Power Supply, I/O Cable,
and software.
3.1. IDT Cameras Installation
3.1.1. Software Installation
Windows XP/Vista/7/8
Before installing the software make sure that the computer has Windows XP, Vista or 7
installed as operating system.
1. Log into Windows with a username and password that has ADMINISTRATIVE
PRIVILEGES.
2. Insert the Motion Studio USB Key in a USB slot. If the computer is configured to
AUTORUN, the installer will run automatically. If not, click on the Windows Start
button. Select Run from the menu. Use the Browse button to locate the SETUP.EXE
file and click the OK button.
3. Select the “Install” option and follow the on-screen instructions.
4. EXIT when the installation is complete and restart your computer.
3.1.2. Hardware installation (USB 2.0)
A 24 VDC, 1 Amp supplies the camera with the necessary power. This power supply unit
is included with the camera system package. All communication and data transfer with
the host computer is done via the USB 2.0 or the Giga-Ethernet interface. The USB 2.0
interface requires a single cable, which is also supplied with the camera package.
External triggering and synchronization are done via the two connectors (BNC type).
Triggering is expected to be done with a TTL pulse. The synchronization signal is also
TTL level.
NOTE: Connect the camera to the computer before connecting the camera to the power
source.
Windows XP/Vista/7/8/10
1. Connect the USB 2.0 cable to an available USB 2.0 port on your computer.
2. Connect the other end of the USB 2.0 cable to the back of the camera.
3. Connect the camera to the power source.
4. Turn the camera ON/OFF switch to the ON position and wait a few seconds for the
camera to initialize it self.
5. Follow the on-screen instructions. Click on the YES or Continue Anyway button
when prompted by the operating system to proceed with the installation.
NOTE: Use an USB 2.0 port on your computer. USB 1.0 does NOT support camera
operation.
3.2. MotionScope M camera installation
3.2.1. Installing the Dalsa-Coreco X64 Xcelera-CL PX4 frame grabber
Install the frame grabber in a PCIe x8 or x16 slot and power up your computer.
Install the “X64 Xcelera-CL PX4 driver for Sapera LT Image Library” and follow the
procedure below to update the firmware.
1. From the “All Programs -> DALSA -> X64 Xcelera-CL PX4 Driver” menu, select the
“CorDeviceManager” item.
2. Select the Firmware Update Tab.
3. From the Configuration combo, select the “10 Taps Format 2” option.
4. Click the Start Update button.
5. Restart the computer.
Install the “Sapera LT Image Library” version 8.02 or later. Then follow the procedure
below to edit the camera serial port. The configuration is necessary to correctly operate
the camera.
1. From the DALSA -> Sapera LT menu, select the Sapera Configuration item.
2. From the “COM Port Mapping” combo-box in the “Serial Port Configuration”
group, select “COM4”.
3. Exit the program and restart the computer.
NOTE: if more than 1 frame grabber is installed, you have to select a different COM port
for each frame grabber (COM4 for FG1, COM5 for FG2, ...).
3.2.2. Installing the National Instruments PCIe-1429 frame grabber
Install the software by following the instructions below.

Install the “NI VISION Acquisition software” version 8 or later, which includes the
NI-IMAQ driver software.

Install the Motion Studio software suite (see the following topics).

Install the frame grabber in a PCIe x8 or x16 slot and power up your computer.

Connect the camera (see the following topics).

Run the NI “Measurement and Automation” utility and follow the instructions
below.

From the left pane, expand the “Devices and Interfaces” branch of the
configuration tree

Expand the “NI-IMAQ Devices” branch.

Expand the “NI PCI2-1429” branch.

Right click “Channel 0” and select “Camera”.

From the menu, locate IDT, then “MotionScope M3” or “MotionScope M5” and
select it.

Exit the measurement and Automation utility.
3.2.3. Configuring the NI-1429 frame grabber for 64-bit Operating
Systems
A firmware update is available for the NI-1429 device to allow non-LabVIEW applications
to run on 64-bit systems with more than 3 GB of physical memory. To update the device
firmware, launch the Measurements and Automation Explorer (MAX) and select Tools, NI
Vision, Update NI-IMAQ Device Firmware.
From the “Available Bitstreams” window, select the 32-bit/64-bit option, then press “Apply
Update”.
If the warning below appears, select OK.
3.2.4. Installing and configuring the EPIX PIXCI™ E4 Frame Grabber
Install the software by following the instructions below:
1. Install the “XCAP Imaging Application for Windows 95/98/ME/NT/2000/XP/Vista”
software.
2. Install the Motion Studio software suite (see the following topics).
Then power off the computer, install the frame grabber in a PCI Express x8 or x16
available slot and power up the computer.
Install the drivers for the frame grabber form the location where XCAP has installed them.
The default is C:\Program Files\EPIX\XCAP\Drivers\WinXP.
Run “XCAP for Windows”. Enter the activation code and restart the application.
3.2.4.1. How to set the M3 or M5 camera as default
To set M3 or M5 as default, the board sub-model must be changed.
1. From the PIXCI menu item, select “PIXCI Open/Close”.
2. If the Close button is grayed out, click Open. A window with a pre-configured camera
model will be open.
3. From the PIXCI Open/Close window, click “Board Info”. The dialog box below will
appear.
4. Click “Submodel Setup”. The PIXCI Maintenance dialog box will appear, like in the
picture below.
5. From the Set new submodel list” select IDT M-3 or M-5.
6. Click OK.
3.2.4.2. How to increase the amount of memory allocated for the acquisitions
The PIXCI E4 drivers do not allow increasing the number of buffers to acquire via the
XCLIB library. It may be done only via the XCAP Imaging application.
The PIXCI driver allocates the memory when Windows starts up, then each change is
followed by a computer reboot.
1. From the PIXCI menu item, select “PIXCI Open/Close”.
2. If the Close button is active, click Close.
3. Click the “Driver Assistant” button and select the “Set Frame Buffer Memory Size”
item.
4. Change the memory size in the “Memory requested for Frame Buffers” control.
3.2.5. Installing and configuring the Bitflow Karbon-CL Frame Grabber
First install the software by following the instructions below.
1. Install the Bitflow SDK version 5.60. When the setup asks for serial number, enter the
value “0”. It will install all the binary modules necessary to operate the camera.
2. Install the Motion Studio software suite (see the following topics).
Then power off the computer, install the frame grabber in a PCI Express x8 or x16
available slot and power up the computer.
Follow the instructions on video when Windows detects the frame grabber. When
Windows asks to verify the driver, click “Install anyways”.
Run the “SysReg” application from the desktop link. When the utility starts, it will show
the frame grabber information.
3.2.5.1. How to attach the correct camera file to the frame grabber
From “SysReg” utility, click on the “Configure…” button next to “Board operation”.
From the “Board Details” window that appears, click the “Add…” button.
In the “Choose camera file” dialog box that opens, locate the “Make: IDT, Inc.” tree item.
Expand the tree to the bottom and select M3 or M5 camera file.
Select OK.
3.2.6. Connecting the M camera
A 12 VDC, 1 Amp supplies the camera with the necessary power. This power supply unit
is included with the camera system package. All communication and data transfer with
the host computer is done via the Camera Link interface. The Camera Link interface
requires two cables. External triggering and synchronization are done via the three SMA
connectors. Triggering is expected to be done with a TTL pulse. The synchronization
signal is also TTL level.
NOTE: Connect the camera to the computer before connecting the camera to the power
source.
1. Connect the camera to the Camera Link cable on the side with a single jack and.
2. One the other side, the cables are labeled A and B. Connect the A cable to the frame
grabber connector that is labeled “Camera Link 1” or “Camera Link Base” or that is far
from the PCI-e edge connector. Connect the B cable to the frame grabber connector
that is labeled “Camera Link 2” or “Camera Link Med/full” or that is closest to the PCIe edge connector.
3. Connect the camera to the power source.
Cable A
Cable B
PCIe Slot
3.3. Disabling the User Account Control on Windows 7 (UAC)
To disable the User Account Control on Windows 7, follow the instructions below.

Open the “Control panel” and select the “User Accounts” option.

Enter the page that manages you account.

Click the “Change User Account Control” option.

Move the slider to the bottom (like in the picture below) to the “never notify” position.

Click OK and restart Windows.
4. Configuration of Giga-Ethernet cameras
4.1. Motion Studio Network Configuration Utility
The network configuration utility is an external application that allows the user to configure
the IP addresses of the cameras.
From Windows “Start” menu, select All Programs, then IDT, then Motion Studio, then
Tools and then “Network Configuration”
Some of the parameters that can be configured are the same for all the camera models.
Network adapter: the default value is broadcast, i.e. the driver searches for cameras
through each enabled network adapter. If a specific adapter is selected, the driver
searches for cameras only through it.
Network performance: it’s a delay added to the data exchange between the cameras
and the computer. If there is traffic on your local network, then move the slider to “More
reliable” to avoid loss of data during the communication.
Network Connections: click this button to open the “Network Connections” control panel
applet and configure the network adapter’s IP address.
Ethernet Datagram size: see one of the topics below.
Restore IP address: if the IP address of a camera has been configured with a wrong
address and the communication is not possible, click this button. Enter the camera MAC
address, select the correct IP address and click OK.
4.2. Configuring the Y camera IP address
Y cameras are delivered with a specific IP address. If the address is not compatible with
your network parameters, the camera is not able to establish a communication with the
computer through the network. To set the IP address for the first time, please follow the
instructions below.

Connect the Y camera to the computer through the USB 2.0 cable.

From the Motion Studio program group, select Tools and run the “Network
Configuration”.

The Y camera will be listed as “Camera Name – MotionPro Y (USB)”. Select it, and
click the “Edit IP Address…” button.

Enter the IP address and the subnet mask. Then click OK and exit the configuration
utility.

Turn off the camera and turn it on. The new IP address is stored and will be used by
the camera in Giga Ethernet communication.
NOTE #1: the computer network adapter may not have a specific IP address because it’s
assigned by the DHCP. If there is any problem for the software to detect the camera, it’s
better to assign a specific IP address also to the computer adapter. To do that, open the
“Network Connections” window and select the Properties of the network adapter. Select
the “Internet Protocol (TCP/IP)” and click the “Properties…” button. Select the “Use the
following IP address” option and set the IP address and subnet mask values.
NOTE #2: if the camera IP address is not compatible with the adapter’s IP address, the
camera will be listed with a yellow exclamation mark. If you try to open a session the
software will not be able to grab images from the camera and an error message will
appear.
4.3. Configuring the N/NR/NX/Os/CC camera IP address
N cameras are delivered with a specific IP address. If the address is not compatible with
your network parameters, the camera is not able to establish a full communication with
the computer through the network. To set the IP address for the first time, please follow
the instructions below.

Connect the camera to the computer via the Ethernet cable.

From the Motion Studio program group, select Tools and run the “Network
Configuration”.

The N camera will be listed as “Camera Name – MotionXtra N”. Select it, and click
the “Edit IP Address…” button.

Enter the IP address and the subnet mask. Then click OK and exit the configuration
utility.

Turn off the camera and turn it on. The new IP address is stored and will be used by
the camera in Giga Ethernet communication.
NOTE: if the camera IP address is not compatible with the adapter’s IP address, the
camera will be listed with a yellow exclamation mark. If you try to open a session in this
condition the software will not be able to grab images from the camera and an error
message will appear.
4.4. Forbidden IP addresses
The following IP addresses are not allowed to be configured on the camera.

Loopback addresses: from 127.0.0.0 to 127.255.255.255.

Multicast addresses: from 224.0.0.0 to 239.255.255.255.
The following combinations of IP address and subnet mask are not allowed as well:

Broadcast addresses: (IP_subnet_mask | IP_address) = 255.255.255.255.

Sub-network addresses: (~IP_subnet_mask & IP_address) = 0.0.0.0
The IP address 0.0.0.0 is allowed. In that case the camera is supposed to connect to a
DHCP server and receive a valid IP address.
4.5. Large datagram size (Jumbo packets)
Some Giga-Ethernet network adapters are able to send and receive large data packets.
The usual datagram size is 1500 bytes. Large datagram packets, called Jumbo packets,
are up to 9000 bytes.
If both the camera and the adapter can use jumbo packets, the transfer speed is
increased. To activate jumbo packets, do the following.
Configuring Jumbo packets on the Network adapter
1.
From Windows “Start” menu, open the “Network Connections” window and select the
network adapter.
2.
Right click and select the Properties menu item.
3.
From the Properties dialog box, click the “Configure…” button.
4.
From the network adapter configuration dialog, select the “Advanced” tab.
5.
From the property list, locate the “Jumbo Packet” item (or anything similar to that) and
change the value from 1500 to the maximum.
Configuring Jumbo packets on the camera
1. From the Motion Studio program group, select Tools and run the “Network
Configuration”.
2. Make sure that the camera is listed and the “Jumbo” item in the camera list is set to
“Yes”.
3. From the “Ethernet Datagram Size” list. select any size that is “smaller” than the value
selected in the network adapter configuration.
NOTE: in some network environments the maximum datagram size might be not
supported and the cameras may time out and/or behave in a strange way. To avoid that,
reduce the datagram size on both the adapter and the camera.
4.6. Configuring the Windows Firewall
All the cameras that support gigabit Ethernet communication may have issues if the
Windows Firewall is installed. They communicate through the UDP network protocol and
need to open listening ports to receive the images.
In most of the cases, the windows firewall shouldn’t be disabled, Motion Studio should be
added to the list of the allowed programs and some other parameters should be
configured in the firewall (especially with HG cameras).
4.6.1. How to add Motion Studio to the list of allowed programs.
When an Ethernet camera is operated for the first time, the Windows firewall detects the
attempt to communicate through the network and tries to block it. The message below
appears
The software will be allowed to communicate through the network if both the private and
public options are selected. Then click the “Allow access” button.
If the User Account Control (UAC) is disabled or you don’t check both the options, you
may still allow the communication through the firewall.

From the control panel, start the Windows Firewall and select “Allow a program or
feature through Windows Firewall”.

Scroll the list and make sure that “Motion Studio” is in and all the check boxes are
selected (see below).
4.6.2. How to allow incoming echo requests (HG cameras)
HG cameras support the ICMP (Internet Control message Protocol). The cameras send a
“ping” to the connected computer to check if the communication is still available. If the
firewall blocks such packets the communication between the camera and the computer
fails. For this reason, adding Motion Studio to the list of allowed programs is not enough.
In addition, ICMP echo requests should be allowed.
Windows XP
To detect if ICMP echo requests are allowed, open the Windows firewall and select the
“Advanced Tab”.
Click the ICMP settings and make sure that the “Allow incoming echo requests” option is
selected.
Windows Vista / 7 / 8 / 10

From the control panel, open the Windows Firewall and select the “Advanced
settings” option (left pane). On Windows 8, the control panel can be open from the
Metro start screen.

Select the “Inbound rules” item on the left pane and find the following rules in the list:

1.
Windows Vista: “Networking – Echo Request (ICMPv4-In)”.
2.
Windows 7 and 8: “File and Printer sharing (Echo request – ICMPv4-In)”.
If they are disabled (gray), select them and click the Enable rule button on the right
pane or right click on the rule and select the “Enable rule” menu item (see below).
Note: the rules should be enabled for every Profile used in the computer (Private, Public
and Domain).
4.6.3. How to disable the Windows Firewall
To disable the Windows firewall the user needs Administrative privileges. The firewall
separately manages three profiles and it should be disabled on all of them:

Domain profile.

Private Profile.

Public Profile.
To disable the firewall, follow the instructions below:
From the Control Panel, open the Windows Firewall dialog box.
From the options list on the left, select “Advanced Settings” and open the “Windows
Firewall and advanced security” window.
Click the “Windows Firewall Properties” button and open the “Properties” dialog box.
Select the “Domain Profile” tab and set the “Firewall State” to off, then select the “Private
Profile” and set the “Firewall State” to off, and then select the “Public Profile” and set the
“Firewall State” to off.
4.7. Configuring the X camera IP address
When a MotionPro X camera is powered up, it does not have an IP address. Without a
valid IP address the camera can be enumerated, but some parameters, such as camera
model, serial number, etc. cannot be read. The Configuration utility enumerates all the
IDT GE cameras and shows each camera’s IP address or “none”. A camera without a
valid IP address is listed with a red spot on the icon.
For each camera the user may click the “Edit IP Address…” button. If the camera has an
IP address, it may be edited, and otherwise the application “suggests” a value. The user
may edit and test the camera IP address and subnet mask. By pressing the “Test IP
address” button the user sends a PING command to the specified address and checks if it
is available.
5. Motion Studio™
This application allows the user to acquire, save/play-back image records, and control the
camera in Single or Double Exposure modes. It also allows the user to retrieve file
images from previous acquisitions for display and further manipulation. Upon execution
the user can select to use the application to open a file images or to open a camera
window.
5.1. Open camera Wizard
A discussion of the program interface as it applies to the live camera window is provided
first. Once the camera option is selected from the first menu the Camera Wizard is
displayed. This wizard allows the user to select which camera to control and access if
more than one camera is attached to the computer system. For each camera, the
attribute ‘monochrome’ or ‘color’ is displayed.
Sort
The cameras can be sorted by clicking the header of the corresponding column.
Refresh List
Click this button to restart the cameras enumeration procedure.
Enumeration filter
The user can select which camera type is enumerated and listed in the camera wizard
window.
1. Click the “Enum Filter…” button.
2. Select or deselect the camera models.
3. Click OK.
Select/Deselect All
Click “Select All” to select all the cameras of the list, click “Deselect All” to deselect them.
Camera Info
Click this button to display the camera information.
Camera name
Each camera has a name. If the camera has flash memory, the name is stored into it.
Cameras without flash memory have the name stored in a configuration file in the hard
disk. To change camera name, click the “Edit name…” button.
IP Address
Click the “Edit IP address” button and manually assign an IP address to the camera.
The user may edit and test the camera IP address and sub-net mask (disabled for X
cameras). By pressing the “Test IP address” button the user sends a PING command to
the specified address and checks if it is available
Activation Key
Some cameras have time limited license. If the license has expired and you have a 16
digit activation key, click the button and enter the key.
Camera interface
Before opening camera windows the user may select the interface.

Standard: a limited set of controls are displayed in a vertical bar on the right side of
the camera window.

Digital Cinema: a limited set of controls for recording and a full set of controls for
image processing.

Automotive: the controls used in a typical automotive environment.

Expert: all the camera controls are displayed.
Activate Camera List
If more than one camera is going to be used, the camera list interface may be activated.
For a more detailed description of camera list mode, see the “Multiple Camera Support”
topic.
Plus Mode
The plus option can be activated on each camera independently. Just click on the Plus
cell in the camera list and select Yes or No. The option is disabled if the camera does not
support it. In Plus™ mode, the camera is capable of acquiring images at double speed
and with double memory space. See below.
Reset camera configuration
If this option is selected, the configuration stored in the camera is reset and the camera is
opened with default settings.
Delete images on camera SSD
If this option is selected, the images stored in the camera SSD are erased.
Once the Wizard competes the initialization procedure for the camera the application
window for the active camera is open as shown below (expert interface).
Along with the usual top bar menu structure the application also includes a docked dialog
bar on the right side and a pan tool. In this menu the main operational controls of the
camera are grouped by function: Camera Control (Live and Playback), Acquisition
Settings (Camera, record and Color). The function of these controls is in great part also
accessible from the top menu bar.
5.2. Motion Studio Menu structure
The main menu bar contains the following options:
File
Edit
Image
Filter
Camera
Playback
Tracking
View
Tools
Window
Help
The application also includes a docked dialog bar on the right side. The Docked Dialog
Bar has the main operational controls of the camera and they are grouped by function:
Camera Configuration, Image Recording Configuration, Color Configuration (for color
cameras only) and Playback controls for acquired images.
5.3. FILE Menu
The file menu contains the following options:

Open previously acquired and filed images.

Open the camera window.

Open the RAW files.

Open the database viewer window.

Save images on the hard disk and close windows

Select from a list of the five most recently displayed images.
5.3.1. Initialize a camera window
From the main menu select File > Open > Camera.
5.3.2. Open File Images
From the main menu select File > Open > Images.
5.4. Open non-IDT file images
From the main menu select File > Open > Images.
Select a RAW file and click Open.
Enter the size of the image in pixels, the image type (mono, color Bayer or color RGB),
the pixel depth and the header size (the image may have a header).
Click OK.
5.5. Save images
Each acquired sequence may be opened and saved in a different format.
From the File menu select File >> Save
1.
Click “Browse” to change the folder where the images are saved.
2.
Enter the image prefix and the number of digits.
3.
Select the file type and the rate. If the file supports compression, select the codec.
4.
Select start index and the stop index.
5.
Select the step.
6.
Select the "Reset frames numbering" option to change the start frame index to 0.
7.
A region of interest of the image may also be selected.
8.
If tracking is enabled, you may select to save the tracking points in the images.
9.
Select the Data Acquisition File Type, if present.
5.5.1. AVI, MPEG, MOV Codec/JPEG quality selection
The default codec used in Motion Studio to save AVI files is “Uncompressed AVI”. If
other codecs are installed, the default codec may be changed each time a new sequence
of images is saved in AVI format.

Select the codec from the list.

Select the compression quality with the slider (0 to 100).
If the quality slider is disabled, the video compressor does not support it. In this case,
click the “Configure...” button and activate the configuration dialog box of the video
compressor. The dialog below shows the configuration dialog box of the “xvid MPEG-4”
codec.
JPEG and MOV compression quality may be selected in the same dialog box. The default
is 100.
5.6. Add time stamp to images
Sequences of images acquired from other cameras may be imported in Motion Studio
and time stamped.

Open a sequence of images.

Right click on the image and select "Time stamp" from the drop-down menu.

Open the time stamp dialog box and select the time stamp items (see above topics).

To set pre and post trigger frames, move the slider to the frame zero position and
click the "zero" button".

To edit the sequence parameters, click the image info button on the side bar (see the
pictures below).
Zero button
Info button

To save images, click the disk button on the main toolbar and configure the
parameters as in the above topics.
5.7. Open RAW files
The images saved with fast download in the RAW format may be open and reviewed.

From the File menu, select Open, then “RAW Files”.

Click “Browse…” to select a different Images folder.

Select the sequence from the list and click Open.
The sequence is open as a virtual camera with a single acquisition. The user may
playback the images and save them in any format.
More than one RAW sequence may be open in Camera List mode. Then the virtual
cameras images may be selected and converted like in a multiple camera environment.
5.8. Database viewer
The database viewer window browses the current Images folder and enumerates the
acquisition folders. It shows also the cameras and devices connected to the computer
(Timing Hub/Data Acquisition).
The window has three panes.
Left Pane: the left pane is a tree view and displays the tree structure of the images
database. It shows images, raw files and data acquisition files.
Right Upper Pane: it’s a list view and it shows the main parameters of the selected item.
If the item is a device it shows the device ID, serial number, etc. If the item is an
acquisition it shows all the acquisition parameters.
Right Lower Pane: the pane is used to preview the first frame of a sequence or the data
acquired with the data acquisition module.
5.8.1. The viewer Toolbar
New Database
The selection of this item opens the 'Create New database' dialog box. The user may browse
the existing directories in the hard disk or create a new directory. If the OK button is pressed
the root database files are copied in the new directory and the user can start saving new
sequences in the new folder.
Open Database
Browse the directories in the hard disk and locate a database folder. The program recognizes
as valid database locations the directories where the file xvdb.mdb is found. Changes to the
currently selected database are reflected on the settings.
Refresh
Click this button to refresh the viewer contents.
Open Item
Click this button to open the currently selected item. The button is enabled if the selected item
is a sequence or a camera.
Edit Item
Click this button to edit the currently selected item. The button is enabled if the selected item
is an acquisition folder. The user may change the folder name, date, time and acquisition
comment.
Delete Item
Click this button to delete the currently selected item. The button is enabled if the selected
item is an acquisition folder.
iPod Synchronization
If your iPod is connected to the computer, Motion Studio can detect it and allow you to
transfer your acquired sequences. You may transfer the sequences from iPod to the current
database and the other way around.
5.9. EDIT menu
The Edit menu contains UNDO and REDO for image operations. It also has a “Go To…”
function for jumping to a particular frame in a sequence.
5.10. IMAGE menu
The Image menu contains the LUT operations. It also allows flipping and rotating of the
image. If the Camera window is open and the Thumbnails bar is in use, the “Thumbnails
Cfg...” option displays for Thumbnail view configuration options. For more information,
refer to “View Thumbnails”.
If an image sequence is open, the Image menu has an Image Info option for displaying
and editing the acquisition settings. The Adjust sub menu has controls for the following:

Color Map for colorizing monochrome images

Inverting.

Background removing for monochrome images (old MotionPro X4 only).
5.11. OpenFX plugins
Motion Studio acts as a host of the OpenFX interface. Any plugin that supports the same
interface can be imported into Motion Studio and applied to process the images.

Select the plug in from the list of available plug-ins.

Modify the parameters that appear in the bottom part of the dialog box.

Click “Apply plugin” to apply the plug-in processing.

Click discard to discard the plug-in and enable the list.
5.12. Lookup Table
The lookup table (LUT) transformations are basic image-processing functions that you
can use to improve the contrast and the brightness of an image by modifying the dynamic
intensity of region with poor contrast. LUT transformations can highlight details in areas
containing significant information, at the expense of other areas.
A LUT transformation converts input gray-level or color values (8, 10 or 12 bit) into other
gray-level or color values. The transfer function has an intended effect on the brightness
and contrast of the image. Each input value is transformed into a new value by a transfer
function
Output value = F (input value)
Where F is a linear or nonlinear, continuous or discontinuous transfer function defined
over the interval [0, max]. In case of an 8-bit image, a LUT is a table of 256 elements.
Each element of the array represents an input value. Its content indicates the output
value.
1. Select one of the pre-defined Lookup Tables (A, B, C, D or E) or.
2. Select the “User” option.
3. Drag and drop the red handles in the curve window.
4. Move the sliders to change the Y position of the handles.
5. Click Reset to reset the lookup table to the original diagonal value.
5.13. Orientation
The image may be rotated and/or flipped.
1.
Select Image from the main toolbar.
2.
Select “Orientation” from the drop-down menu.
3.
Edit the parameters.
4.
Click OK.
5.14. Color Map Adjustment for monochrome images
The Color Map has controls for displaying black and white images in color using a preloaded, user-defined color scheme.
1.
Select Image from the main toolbar.
2.
Select Adjust from the Image drop-down list.
3.
Select Color Map.
4.
Select Base Color Map from the drop-down list.
5.
Change the RGB values and Point Index.
6.
Click OK to change the image.
5.15. Sharpen, gamma, brightness, contrast, hue, saturation
Some image adjustment controls have been added to the image vertical bar. The
parameters improve the image quality.
Show image: Bayer images may be displayed
in three different ways. RGB, Bayer (mono) or
Bayer (Color).
CFA filter: if the file is TP2, FBA or MRF, the
control configures the interpolation algorithm.
Anti-Alias: it reduces alias on edges with a
Gaussian filter. The range is from 0 to 1.0. the
default value is 0.0.
Sharpen/Sharpen Threshold: it sharpens the
image edges. The range is from 0.0 to 1.0.
The default value is 0.0.
Brightness: it increases or decreases the
image brightness. The range is from -0.25 to
0.25. The default value is 0.0.
Contrast: it increases or decreases the image
contrast. The range is from 0.5 to 1.5. The
default value is 1.0.
Hue (color images only): it modifies the image
hue. The range is from -180 to 180. The
default value is 0.
Saturation (color images only): it modifies the
color saturation. The range is from 0.0 to 2.0.
The default value is 1.0.
Gamma: introduces a gamma correction to
the image. The range is from 0.1 to 4.0. The
default value is 1.0.
LUT: it toggles the Look-Up Table dialog box.
Default: sets the default image values.
5.16. Remove background (X4 camera only)
This tool is very useful to remove temporal noise background from images taken with the
X4 camera. It requires a very dark and uniform background.
1.
Select Image from the main toolbar.
2.
Select Adjust from the Image drop-down list.
3.
Select one of the options.
4.

Subtract minimum value: on each row the minimum value will be subtracted.

Subtract value on column: on each row the value on a specific column will be
subtracted.
Use the Zoom drop-down list to inspect the image details.
5.17. FILTER menu
The filter menu has several preset filters as well as user defined filters. The filter menu for
Windows differs from the Mac filter menu. The Windows version offers two additional
Effect filters Uniform Noise and Gaussian Noise. A preview window with an image
thumbnail is available and includes the filter kernel display box.
From the main toolbar select Filter > the desired filter sub-menu from the following:

Sharpening filters: Laplace, Prewitt and Sobel.

Smoothing filters: Average, Gaussian, Smooth, and Median.

Effect filters: Minimum, Maximum, Uniform Noise, Gaussian Noise, Erode, Dilate,
Open, Close.
5.18. Create a User-defined filter
The User filter utility has the flexibility to apply a custom filter and save the kernel for
future use. The filter kernel size, anchor point and image divisor are custom configurable.
Once a custom filter has been created and saved, the user-defined filter is added to the
Filter drop-down list.
1.
Select Filter from the main toolbar.
2.
Select User from the drop-down list.
5.19. CAMERA Menu
The Camera Menu on the main toolbar offers an alternative to using the buttons and
dialog box provided by the Docked Dialog menu including the following functions:
1.
Record
2.
Stop
3.
Play
4.
Playback
5.
Select previous and next acquisition settings.
6.
Start and Stop the remote connection server (see chapter 7).
7.
Edit Region of Interest (ROI).
8.
Erase and restore images.
5.20. Camera Control - Live
The Camera Control Tab at the top of the Docked Dialog menu has camera control
functions including the following:

Record.

Live play of images (continuous).

Trigger.

Attach.

Stop.
Live/Playback resolution
The user may select to display the image in full resolution or decimated (1080p, 720p,
480p). This selection does not affect the resolution of downloaded images.
Video Output
This option enables or disables video output in X, Y, Os, CC and MotionXtra Legacy
cameras.
Y/Os/CC cameras: the video output modes are listed below.

PC: images are sent to the computer via GE or USB, no HDMI/SDI output is
produced.

PC+HDMI/SDI: any time an image is sent to the computer (playback or live) the same
image is sent also to the video output. The live/playback speed is reduced because a
double output is done.

HDMI/SDI: the images are sent to the video output only. The computer image isnot
updated.
Video Format
X and MotionXtra legacy: NTSC or PAL.
Y cameras: 720p 60Hz, 1080p 60 Hz, 1080p 25 Hz, 1080p 24 Hz, or 1080p 30 Hz.
Os/CC cameras: 1080p 60Hz, 1080p 50Hz, 1080p 30Hz, 1080p 25Hz, 1080p 24Hz,
720p 60Hz, 720p 50Hz, 720p 30Hz, 720p 25Hz, 720p 24Hz.
Overlay
Select if the camera parameters are displayed on the video output
5.21. Camera Configuration
Expert Interface
Use the Camera Tab on the Docked Dialog
menu at the right of the image to configure the
camera. The configuration options are as
follows:
Sensor Gain
Use the sensor gain drop-down list to select a
Gain value from “1.00” to “2.82”.
Reset
Click the Reset button if a Device IO Control
error message appears. The Reset button
restores the camera from the error condition.
Rate
Use the Rate drop-down list to select a new
Frame Rate value. If the current exposure
is too large for the selected rate, the
program automatically adjusts it to an
acceptable value.
Low Light mode
Click the button to set the rate to 25 Hz and
the exposure to four times the current value. If
the button is clicked twice or an acquisition is
started the original values of exposure and rate
are restored. The option is useful for preview in
low light conditions.
Exposure
Use the f-stop buttons to select a new exposure value. The value is in microseconds.
Exposure Mode
Use the drop-down list to select either Single, Double, EDR or XDR exposure mode (for
XDR see the appendix).
Lens Control
Some camera models are equipped with support for motorized lenses. Click this button to
open the control of focus and aperture.
Auto-Exposure
Select this option to activate the automatic exposure adjustment.
Motion Trigger
Select this option to activate the motion trigger.
Binning
Use the Binning drop-down list to select a new value from 1x1 to 4x4. Pixels may be
grouped to form a larger pixel, which results in added SNR and sensitivity. When this
parameter is changed, the Region of Interest (ROI) is reset. The control is disabled when
the camera is in live mode.
Pixel Depth
Use the drop-down list to select the pixel depth: 8, 9 or 10-bit for monochrome
cameras, 24, 27 or 30-bit (RGB) for color cameras.
ROI
Click on the ROI button to open the ROI dialog, and change the current settings. For
more information, see “Set a Region of Interest (ROI)”.
5.21.1.
Auto-exposure
When this option is selected, the camera automatically adjusts the exposure to match a
the average value in a specified region of interest. The camera reacts to any change of
external light intensity by changing the current exposure value.
1. Click the “Edit AE…” button. The AE ROI frame will appear as well as the parameters
dialog box (see below).
2. Put the camera in Live mode, select the “Arm auto-exposure” option in the camera
bar and configure the parameters.
3. Move the target slider to increase or decrease the reference intensity.
4. Move the Feedback slider to configure the reaction speed.
5. Edit the minimum and maximum exposure values to limit the exposure dynamic
range.
5.21.2.
Motion Trigger
The motion trigger option activates the trigger when a change in the image is detected.
1. Click the “Edit MT…” button to open the configuration dialog. The MT region of
interest frame and the configuration dialog will appear.
2. Change the trigger condition and move the level slider from left (more sensitive) to
right (less sensitive).
3. Put the camera in Live mode and test the MT condition by changing the image
intensity. The Signal strength bar will change color from green to red when the
condition is true.
4. Click Reset to restore the reference conditions.
5.21.3.
Region of Interest (ROI)
The IDT cameras have a Partial Windowing capability that can be selected and set via
the software interface. A region of interest for the image that is less than the total
available area of the sensor may be selected. This region can be interactively adjusted
and can occupy any area of the sensor’s active pixels.
1. Click on the ROI button on the Camera Configuration Tab.
2. From the Edit Region of Interest dialog box, select the ROI by setting the numerical
values for its origin and dimensions or by dragging the handles of the red box that
highlights the ROI within the sensor area.
Once the ROI is configured only the active portion of the image is acquired and displayed.
It is important to note that the maximum framing rate of the camera is inversely
proportional to the number of rows in the ROI. The options are below:
Resolution: select a resolution from the buttons on the left side or edit the values in the X
Origin, Y Origin, Width and Height text boxes.
Center ROI: click the button to center the current ROI.
Reset ROI: click the button to reset to the maximum value.
Max fps, frames, time: displays the maximum acquisition rate, the max number of
frames and the corresponding recording time for each ROI. If the camera has on-board
SSD, it shows also the streaming fps that is the frame rate that allows continuous
streaming on the disk without overrun.
5.21.4.
ROI for 7 and 8 series cameras (Dynamic Magnification)
Some camera models allow dynamic magnification. The zoom factor range is from 1X (no
zoom) to 16X (16 times zoom). The zoomed portion may be dragged in the full resolution
window, as in the picture below.
The zoom may be applied to three different maximum resolutions.
If the Dynamic Magnification is disabled the camera supports regular region of interest.
5.21.5.
Motorized lens control
O cameras are equipped for motorized lenses. The focus and the aperture may be
controlled within Motion Studio.
The external ring controls the aperture. Click inside the area between “Open” and “Close”
and move it clockwise to open and counter clockwise to close. Release it to actually set
the new aperture.
The internal knob controls the focus. Click and move the knob clockwise to move to “Far”.
Hold it and release it when you are done. Move the knob counter clockwise to move the
focus to “Near”.
5.22. Save and Load camera configuration
To Save the current camera configuration, select “Save camera Cfg…” from File menu,
then select one of the available configurations or type a new name and comment. Then
click OK. Configuration files may be also deleted.
To load a camera configuration, select “Load Camera Cfg…” from File menu, then select
one of the available configurations and click OK.
5.23. Record Configuration
5.23.1.
Record Tab
Use the Record tab on the Docked Dialog
box at the right of the image to set the
record options.
Record mode
Use the drop-down list and select one of the
following options:
Normal: the camera acquires and stops
when the memory segment is filled.
Circular: the camera acquires and restarts
when the memory segment is filled. The
camera waits for an event trigger to
complete the acquisition.
BROC (Burst Record on Command): the
memory segment is divided into subsegments; the camera acquires in circular
mode in a sub segment. When the event
trigger is issued, the camera completes the
acquisition and start acquiring in the
following sub-segment until the memory
segment is filled.
Frames
In the text box edit the number of frames to
be recorded to the camera memory in a
single acquisition. The values can be set
from 1 up to a maximum number depending on the amount of free memory and the
number of rows on each frame. Select the number of rows on each frame with the ROI
setting.
BROC Length
If BROC mode is selected, use the text box to type the number of frames of each subsegment. If the number of frames is 1000 and the BROC length is 100, the camera will
acquire 10 sub-segments.
Frame Sync / Sync Configuration
Sync Configuration and Event Trigger configuration are separated. Synchronize the
camera with a pulse train and simultaneously issue an event trigger from the “Trigger In”
BNC connector. Use the drop-down list to select Internal or External synchronization
source. If the “Frame Sync” is external, use the “Sync Cfg” drop-down list to select one of
the following options: edge-high, edge-low, pulse-high, and pulse-low. Cameras with
more recent firmware support two new sync modes:
◦
Phase Lock Loop (PLL): the sync is locked to an external signal whose frequency
can be divided to generate a multiple; if the external sync is interrupted, the camera
keeps recording at the configured frame rate.
◦
Dynamic pulse: the camera works in pulse mode and it “follows” the external pulse
width if it changes.
Trigger Configuration
In Circular or BROC mode, select from the following event triggers options:

Edge High

Edge Low

Switch Closure
Trigger Adjust
When the record mode is set to Circular or BROC, the Trigger Adjust controls are active.
In this mode the camera acquires the set number of frames before the trigger event (pretrigger) and the remaining after (post-trigger) the trigger event. Use the slider to adjust the
number of pre- and post-trigger frames or edit the pre-trigger box.
Advanced Sync/Trigger Configuration
Use the Advanced… button to open the Trigger, Sync In and Sync Out configuration
dialog.
Acquisitions Configuration
Use the Wheel Icon button to open the Advanced Acquisitions Configuration dialog.
Select Acquisition
Use the arrow buttons to select the previous or next acquisition.
Memory Indicator Bar
The colored bar depicts the available memory.
5.23.2.
SSD Options
Os cameras are equipped with 8 GB RAM (DDR) and onboard solid state disk (256 or
512 GB). The images may be recorded into RAM and/or SSD in the modes listed below.
OFF: the SSD is not used and the camera acquires images in the DDR like any other IDT
camera without SSD.
Backup: the DDR is used as a temporary buffer. The images are acquired in the DDR
and, when recording is done, the images are transferred to the SSD asynchronously. The
camera can record at any frame rate but the maximum number of frames that can be
recorded in each acquisition is limited by the DDR size.
Streaming: In SSD streaming mode, the DDR is used as a temporary buffer. The images
are acquired in the DDR and synchronously transferred to the SSD. Since the write to
disk speed (in frames per second) is fixed and the write to DDR speed is configurable, the
maximum number of frames that can be recorded depends on the difference between
those two numbers. The “Streaming fps” is the frame rate that corresponds to the write to
disk speed.
If the frame rate is lower than streaming fps, the max number of frames that can be
acquired is limited by the SSD size.
If the frame rate is larger than the streaming fps, the max number of frames is variable
and it’s calculated assuming that the record mode is normal. If the record mode is circular
and you wait too long before triggering, you may receive a disk overrun error message.
Mission: in mission mode, the DDR is used as a temporary buffer. For more information,
see the topic below.
5.23.3.
SSD mission mode
The mission mode has been designed to acquire images when the camera is
disconnected from the computer. The SSD may be divided into segments, called steps;
each step may have different parameters such as exposure, frame rate, region of interest.
Each step is recorded in normal mode and the recording start may be automatic or
generated by the trigger.
The picture below shows the interface.
Steps in flash memory
Steps acquired in SSD
To configure the camera in mission mode:

Click “Reset Steps” to clear the upper list.

Click “Add step” as many times as the required number of steps.

Edit the parameters by clicking on the corresponding field in the list. If a step need to
be automatically executed after the previous one, select “Auto advance” in the “Action
at end” column of the previous step, otherwise, select “Stop”.

Select the “Execute at next camera power cycle” to enable the execution of the
mission when the camera is powered up.

Click “Write to camera”

Exit the program. The next time the camera will be power cycled the steps will be
automatically executed and the image stored in the SSD. Once the mission is
executed once, the camera may be power cycled more times, but the images will not
be overwritten.
To display images acquired during the mission:

Run Motion Studio and select the SSD mission mode.

If the steps have been recorded and stored in the SSD, they will be listed in the lower
list of the mission dialog.

Highlight one of the steps of the list and click “Load step to camera memory”. If the
step size is larger than the camera memory, a drop down menu will appear, showing
a list of segments. Select one of them to load the images.
To save images acquired during the mission:

Check or un-check the boxes on the left side of each step and click Download. The
images will be downloaded in RAW format.
The steps may be saved on the hard disk (Write to file...) and loaded (Read from file...).
Each step has the following parameters:
Trigger polarity: the user may select among “edge-high” or “edge-low”
Duration: it controls the duration of the step in seconds.
Fps: the frequency of the steps in frames per second.
Action at end: it controls whether the camera stops when the step is acquired or
automatically starts the next step. If the action is set to “auto-advance” the “Trigger” item
in the next step will show “No”.
Exposure: the integration time in microseconds
Gain: the camera sensor gain.
Resolution: the camera region of interest.
Auto-exposure: the user may activate the auto-exposure capability, select the
corresponding ROI and set the average luminance used as reference.
5.23.4.
Advanced Sync/Trigger Configuration
Trigger In
Y and N cameras can enforce a minimum time that the trigger input must remain
continuously at its active level before it recognizes a valid trigger. This parameter is called
“Debounce” and can be used to reject noise pulses on the trigger input, or to de-bounce
mechanical contacts used as trigger sources.
After it recognizes a valid trigger pulse, the camera can wait for a few microseconds
before issuing the trigger. This parameter is called “Delay”.
Sync In
The “Debounce” and “Delay” parameters can be applied to the sync in source as well
(see above). If an external sync source is connected to the camera, the software is able
to detect the rate and the pulse width of the signal. The PLL mode and IRIG jitter
parameters can be configured.
Sync Out
The sync out mode can be configured:

Default: the sync out signal follows the sync in (internal or external). The signal width
is the exposure time.

Inverted Default: the signal follows the sync in as in the default, but it’s inverted.

Configurable Width: the user can define the width of the sync out signal.

Inverted Configurable Width: like in the option above, but inverted.

Disabled: the sync out signal is disabled.
A “Delay” can also be added to the Sync Out signal.
Alignment: when the auto-exposure option is selected the exposure is done at the end of
the acquisition period. Then the period and exposure are not aligned. The alignment
option is used to decide whether the sync out will be aligned to the period or to the
exposure.
Marker
If this option is enabled, the user can send to the camera a pulse that gets recorded in
one frame. The recorded pulse is a marker in the frame and lets the user know that
something happened at that time. The marker is shown in the frame if the “Marker” Time
stamp option is selected.
The pulse can be sent through the “Sync In” connector or the “Trigger In” connector.
5.23.5.
Y-camera timing configuration
PIV-ready camera may generate timing signals from the 4-pins LEMO connector located
at the back of the camera. To do that, a special cable is required.
Click the timing button near the "Advanced..." button in the Record tab.
For each output signal, the pulse width and a delay may be configured. The frequency of
the signals is the frame rate of the camera.
The signals are generated when the camera is recording.
5.23.6.
Acquisitions Configuration and selection
The acquisitions configuration dialog is activated by clicking the gear icon on the
“Camera” or the “Record” tab. A list of the current acquisition may be activated by clicking
the “List” button on the right side (see below).
The general download parameters are stored in the first page of the “General Options”
dialog and may be activated by selecting “Download options”. For a detailed description
of the download options, see the topics below.
The images are stored in a set of sub-folders organized as below:
“Images Folder”/”Test Session Folder”/”Acquisition Folder”
The Images folder is set in the “Download options” dialog and should not be changed
frequently.
Test Session Name: this parameter is the name of the test session folder and it is
created before saving the images. It will contain all the acquisition folders.
Assign the same name to the acquisition: if this option is selected, the acquisition
folder name is the same of the session folder. If more than one acquisition is saved, a
number is added to the folder name in order to avoid overwriting the images.
Acquisition name: this parameter is the name of the prefix of the acquisition folder. Each
folder name is created by adding a number to this parameter (for example, if the name is
“Acq” the folders will be “Acq_000”, “Acq_001”…).
Image Prefix: type the image prefix into the text box. If the “Camera Name” option is
selected the name of the camera is added to the image prefix. If the “Session Name”
option is selected, the session name is added to the image prefix.
Comment: type a comment to the acquisition. The comment will be saved in a
configuration file with the images and may be also shown in the time stamp.
Frames: use this dialog box to set the number of frames to record.
Set To Max: click this button to set the number of frame to the maximum.
Time: it displays the acquisition record time.
File Type and Codec: use the drop-down list to set the image type format for archiving
files to the hard drive of the computer. Some image formats support codec’s.
The camera memory may be organized with multiple acquisitions.
New: create new acquisitions in camera memory or SSD.
Delete and Delete All: delete the current acquisition or all the acquisitions.
Apply to all: copy the settings of current acquisition into the others. Settings include
name, comment and file type.
5.23.7.
Direct write to disk option (M2D)
If the camera is an M-series and the “M2D” option is active (a license file is required), the
configuration dialog shows a write to disk section.
Delete Files: click this button to delete the files stored in the acquisition folder.
Edit: click this button to change the write to disk settings.
Memory Buffer Size: it indicates the amount of computer memory allocated for the
acquisition. The camera acquires images in this memory buffer and the data is
automatically saved to the hard disk in real time.
Disks: select the disk drives used for the acquisition.
Folder: type the name of the folder where the images will be stored.
5.23.8.
Automatic Backup mode
Auto-backup mode is supported by the following camera models.

Os cameras in SSD Backup mode. The images are saved in the SSD.

NX cameras with latest firmware. The images are stored in camera DDR.
Execute auto-backup when MS is closed: if this option is selected and Motion Studio is
closed, the camera is automatically armed and it waits for trigger. When the trigger is
received the images are recorded, saved to the SSD (if the camera is Os) and the camera
is armed again. The number of times that the camera will be armed is set in the segments
field.
Execute auto-backup at next camera power cycle: at next camera power cycle the
camera is armed. When the trigger is received the images are acquired and saved in the
SSD (if the camera is Os). Then the camera is armed again. The number of times that
the camera will be armed is set in the segments field.
At each power cycle, restart from...: this option is supported only from firmware version
200. If it's selected, the user can record a few segments and reboot the camera, then the
firmware starts recording from the first undone segment, and so on until all the segments
are recorded. If this option is off, when the camera is rebooted and not all the segments
have been recorded, the firmware starts from the beginning.
5.24. Save acquired images and data (single camera)
The acquired images stored in different areas of the camera memory can be saved to the
computer’s hard drive. Click the Save button on the main toolbar or select File from the
main toolbar > Save Acquisitions…
Some of the parameters are described in the “Acquisitions Configuration” topic above.
Disable automatic generation of folder names: if this option is selected, the suffix is
not added to the acquisition name to generate the folder name. The images may be
overwritten.
Output Pixel Depth: the output file pixel depth may be different from the original image's
pixel depth. Use the drop-down list to select the pixel depth.
Rate [fps]: if the sequence is saved in AVI or MOV format, the playback rate may be
configured.
Images/AVI: type or select the desired start frame index and stop frame Index or move
the double slider. If the "Save and create AVI" option is selected the user may select the
images that will be saved in AVI format independently from regular images. The second
double slider has been added for that purpose.
Reset frames numbering: if the images have been acquired in circular mode the indexes
of the images may be negative. When a sequence is saved the file names are generated
using the prefix and the image index, then the resulting file names may be "ImgA000001.tif". If the "Reset" option is selected, the indexes are reset and the image names
are generated starting from index 0 (example: Img000000.tif, Img000001.tif...).
If data acquisition is connected and some data have been acquired with the images, the
user may select the file format. Available formats are: ASCII, Tecplot, LabVIEW, Excel
XML spreadsheet and Excel XLS workbook.
Tile Images: the data graph is printed and tiled to the bottom of the image.
Minimum width: the minimum width of the image when the data is tiles with the image.
Show colored graph: if the camera is monochrome, the images are converted into color
and a colored data graph is tiled.
Print graph label: a label with a description of each channel is added to the data graph.
5.25. Save acquired images and data (multiple cameras)
In multiple cameras environment, the interface is a little different but most of the
parameters are the same.
Camera list: the user may check and un-check the cameras. the images will be
downloaded only from checked cameras.
Save all with the settings of first camera: if this option is selected, the settings of image
index, frame index, file type and comment are taken from the first camera of the list and
applied to the other cameras. Otherwise, each camera saves the images with its own
independent configuration of image index, AVI index, file type and comment.
Images/AVI: if the "Create and save AVI" option is selected, the user may select the
images that will be saved in AVI format independently from regular images. Two double
sliders have been added for that purpose.
5.26. Operating Os cameras with a backup battery
The purpose of the battery is to provide a backup to the camera when the power goes off.
It should provide enough power to let the camera finish recording and save the current
images to the SSD.
For this reason the battery is turned on when the camera is “attached” by the software or
when an auto-backup or mission session is started. When the camera is detached by
software the battery is turned off, but only if it's not recording or saving images to the
SSD.
5.27. Download Options
The download options may be enabled from the “Acquisition Configuration” dialog box,
from the “Save Acquisitions” dialog box or from the “General Options” dialog box.
Images Download folder
The images folder is where the session folders, the acquisition folders and the images are
stored (in raw or any other format). Click “Browse...” to change the folder name. This
folder should not be frequently changed.
Download and create AVI
If this option is selected, the software downloads an AVI file after the download of regular
images. The folder where the AVI is stored may be different from the regular images
folder.
AVI codec
Click this button to edit the AVI codec
AVI download folder
The folder where the AVI files are stored may be different from the folder where regular
images are stored (raw files included). Click “Browse…” to edit the name of the AVI
folder.
Enable RAW Download and Convert
If this option is enabled, the camera downloads the images in raw meta-data format.
Once the raw download is activated and the raw data is saved, the data may be
converted into a standard image format. The conversion process may be started
automatically (“Convert after download” option) or postponed (“Convert later” option). If
the “Delete after conversion” option is enabled, the raw file is deleted after the conversion.
If the “Suspend raw conversion...” option is selected, the separate process that converts
the images is suspended when the cameras are downloading the images and resumed
immediately after the download. For more information about this topic, refer to the RAW
converter topic below.
Jpeg download
Some camera models (HG and Y-series) support direct jpeg download. The images are
converted into jpeg by the camera firmware and sent to the computer. The software reads
the images and stores them to the hard disk without any conversion.
Save acquisition data
The program saves acquisition data to the images file. The data may include IRIG time,
temperature, image index, exposure, rate and other information.
Save ISO files.
If this option is selected, the MME/MII files are generated in the acquisition folder. Click
Edit to modify some of the MME/MII strings.
Download images after acquisition and stop
If this option is selected, Motion Studio stores the data to the hard disk immediately after
each acquisition.
Download images after acquisition and restart “N” times
If this option is selected, Motion Studio stores the data to the hard disk immediately after
each acquisition. After saving the images, the camera is armed. The process is repeated
N times.
Override start and stop indexes
If automatic download is enabled, the user may select the start/stop indexes that will be
used to download the images and/or the AVI files. If this option is active, the sequence is
trimmed and saved with the overridden indexes.
Arm the camera and switch to next segment
If the camera memory is segmented and this option is selected, the software
automatically switches to the next segment when the previous acquisition is complete.
5.28. Download Manager
The download progress is reported in a window called Download manager. Downloads
are queued and executed in the correct order. The status of each download is
continuously updated (see below).
The download of the current acquisition process may be aborted at any time by clicking
the “Abort” button.
All the acquisition in the list may be aborted by clicking the “Abort all...” button.
Click the “Close the window…” button to hide the manager window when downloads are
complete.
5.29. Raw Download and Raw Converter
Once the raw download is activated and the raw data is saved, the data may be
converted into a standard image format. The conversion process may be started
automatically (“Convert after download” option) or postponed (“Convert later” option).
1.
Convert after download: the file is automatically converted after the download. The
raw converter runs in background and converts the file. An icon is displayed in the
tray notification area of Windows. A red icon means that the conversion process is in
progress, a green icon means that the conversion has been completed. The raw
converter window may be displayed at any time by clicking on the tray area icon.
Raw Converter icon
2. Convert later: the file is converted manually by the user. From the Start menu select
“All Programs”, then “IDT”, then “Motion Studio”, then “Tools” and then run the “Raw
Converter”. Locate the args.ini file in the acquisition directory and click OK.
Then select the conversion options. The file format may be changed and the raw file
can be kept and converted more than once.
Some of the conversion options can be modified before the conversion (file type,
codec, and pixel depth and playback rate).
When the OK button is clicked, the raw converter is started and the sequence queued
in the conversion manager (see below). The conversion process may be aborted at
any time, by clicking the “Abort” button.
5.29.1.
Raw converter batch files
If the amount of raw sequences to convert is large, the user may generate a batch file and
run the conversion once. From Tools menu, select “Raw batch editor…”
New batch file: click this button, to reset the current batch and generate a new file.
Open batch file: opens a previously generated batch file.
Save batch file: save the changes in the current batch file or in a new file.
Add: adds a sequence to the current batch file (ARGS.INI file)
Remove: removes a sequence from the current batch file.
Remove all: removes all the sequences from the list.
Convert to: the files may be converted in a folder that is different from the source images
folder. Click Browse to select an existing folder or create a new one.
Override images settings: click this option if you want to convert all the raw files in a
single file format, set a single playback rate, reset frames numbering in all the selected
sequences. The settings of each sequence will be overridden by the selected options.
Once the batch file is generated and saved, you may launch the converter right away or
save the batch file and convert it later. To do that, launch the raw converter and open the
batch file. All the sequences included in the batch file will be converted.
5.30. Images Recovery
After each acquisition a local configuration file is saved in the database directory
(_nnn_recover.xsv, where “nnn” is the serial number of the camera). The file contains the
information about the latest acquisition. If any error has occurred after an acquisition and
the program has been restarted before the images have been saved, the acquisition may
be recovered.

From the main toolbar select the File menu.

From the drop-down menu select the “Images Recovery” item.

Select one of the options.
5.31. Image Configuration
The image tab includes controls for color reconstruction and white balance and controls
for image improvement. Sharpening, gamma, brightness and contrast are active for
monochrome cameras also.
White Balance / Advanced color
See below
Default Colors
Click this button to select the optimal color
balance values for the camera.
JPEG
If the camera supports JPEG, the slider
controls the Jpeg quality. When the JPEG
encoding is enabled, the compression ratio is
shown.
Sharpen
Sharpen the image edges. The range is from
0.0 to 1.0. The default value is 0.0.
Brightness
Increase or decrease the image brightness.
The range is from -0.25 to 0.25. The default
value is 0.0.
Contrast
It increases or decreases the image contrast.
The range is from 0.5 to 1.5. The default value
is 1.0.
Hue (color only)
It modifies the image hue. The range is from -180 to 180. The default value is 0.
Saturation (color only)
It modifies the color saturation. The range is from 0.0 to 2.0. The default value is 1.0.
Gamma
See next topic.
Default
Click on the Default button to reset to the original values.
5.31.1.
Gamma
The simple gamma slider has been replaced by a dialog box.
If we assume that the camera dynamic range is from 0 (black) to 1023 (white), that range
is divided into three zones:
1.
Zone 1 (from 0 to level 1): in this zone the gamma 1 value is applied.
2.
Zone 2 from level 1 to level 2: in this zone the gamma is a linear combination of
gamma 1 and gamma 2.
3.
Zone 3 (from level 2 to 1023): in this zone the gamma 2 value is applied.
5.31.2.
Automatic White Balance
Edit color gains manually or use the automatic balance procedure:

Select the Color tab from the Docked Dialog Bar.

Press the White Balance button. A target will appear on the image.

Click on the image to move the target. Move the target over a gray, non-saturated
area.

The white balance will be automatically calculated.
5.32. Data Acquisition module
The MotionPro Data Acquisition System is integrated in Motion Studio. When a Data
Acquisition module is detected the camera window is split in two panes and an “Analog
In” tab is added to the “Acquisition Settings” Tab. See the picture below.
5.32.1.
Data acquisition cables and back panel
The picture below shows the data acquisition module back panel
Power Connector
USB 2.0 Connector
Analog Inputs Group
The BNC connectors are grouped in two groups:
Analog Inputs

AIN1 to AIN15: the analog input channels

Sync In: the analog input external synchronization input

Trig In: the analog input external event trigger input

Sync Out: the analog input output signal.
Analog Outputs

AOUT1 to AOUT4: the analog output signals

Sync In: the analog output external synchronization input

Trig In: the analog output external event trigger input
Analog Outputs Group
For the connection of the DAS to the camera there are 2 possible scenarios.
5.32.1.1. Simple connection
The “Sync Out” connector of the “Analog Input section” of the Data Acquisition back panel
is connected to the “Sync In” connector of the camera. The Data Acquisition module
generates the camera acquisition rate, the camera acquires in External Sync In
configuration.
NOTE: The trigger signal must be connected to the camera “Trigger In” connector
only, not to the Data Acquisition module
5.32.1.2. Connection with “Trigger In” signal
In some specific conditions it is convenient to connect the Trigger In signal to the Channel
1 of the data acquisition. The “Sync Out” connector of the “Analog Input” section of the
DAS back panel is connected to the “Sync In” connector of the camera. The trigger signal
is connected to the “Trigger In” connector of the camera and to the “AIN 1” connector of
the DAS. In the software, the option “Trigger on Chn 1” must be selected.
5.32.2.
Analog Input Configuration
On/Off
The acquisition module
disabled. If enabled, the
grayed out and the
automatically computed
below.
may be enabled and
camera rate control is
acquisition rate is
and configured. See
Trigger In on Chn 1
Select this option and connect the trigger
signal to the channel 1 input. The sampling of
the trigger signal will help synchronizing the
images with the data.
Sampling Rate
Select the number of samples per second. The
max sampling rate is 500 KHz.
Samples per frame
Select the number of data samples per camera
frame. The value is used a divider of the
acquisition rate to compute the camera
acquisition rate. The number is a multiple of
the active channels number.
Camera recording rate
The camera rate is automatically computed with the formula below:
Cam Rate = (DAS Sampling Rate) / (Samples per Frame)
Channels selection
Each channel may be independently enabled and configured.
Channel On/Off
Enables and disables the channel
Label, Units, Conversion factor
Enter the channel label, the units and the conversion factor.
5.32.3.
Analog Input Data Pane
Navigation
Configuration
Process
FFT/Power Spectrum
Information
The acquired data is shown in a pane below the image window.
Navigation buttons: first sample, previous sample, next sample, last sample.
Data graph configuration: see below.
FFT and Power Spectrum: see below.
Data Processing Menu: see below.
Data Information: see below.
Horizontal resolution: select the graph horizontal resolution in milliseconds per division.
Vertical resolution: select the graph vertical resolution in Volts per division.
Show Data Points: if this option is checked, the data points are highlighted (squares).
Channel: select if you want to be displayed all the channels or one single channel.
Average and Standard Deviation: for each channel the average and the standard
deviation are shown.
Data Index, Time and value: the index, time and value of the currently selected data
item.
Operations list: see the Data Processing topic below.
5.32.4.
Data Graph Configuration
From the data pane, click the data graph configuration button.
Background color: the data graph background color.
Grid color: the data graph grid color.
Cursor Color: the data graph cursor color (vertical line).
Units Display: the graph may be displayed in Volts or in converted units.
All channels conversion factor: If all the channels are shown in the graph window,
select which conversion factor to use for the visualization.
Channel color: select the channel and set the graph color.
5.32.5.
Data Processing Menu
The acquired data may be processed in the current window. To activate the filters or the
mathematical operations, click the Data Processing button.
Select the Filter submenu or the Math submenu.
Filter operations: low pass filter, high pass filter, Band Pass filter, Band Stop filter or
Remove average.
Mathematical operations: Negative, Invert, Square and Square Root.
If the filters or the mathematical operations are activated the operations list is filled with
those operations. The user may:

Select the items in the list and activate the single operation.

Reset the list and delete the operations.
5.32.6.
FFT and Power Spectrum
The FFT dialog box appears if the FFT button is clicked. The user may select the channel
to display, the FFT and the power spectrum.
5.32.7.
Data Information
From the data pane, click the data Info button. General information about the data
acquisition is displayed.
5.32.8.
Note about the “Overrun” error
The “Overrun” error appears when the buffers allocated for the data acquisition are not
enough and the acquisition is too fast. The error appears more easily when large
sampling rates are configured (100 KHz, 250 KHz or 500 KHz). To avoid the error,
increase the number of frames to acquire.
5.33. Advanced Camera Configuration in Camera menu
From the main toolbar select Camera > Advanced to access operations for the noise
calibration file management and the Advanced Color Balance.
5.33.1.
Copy Calibration file from CD
Each camera is shipped with a calibration file. For versions of Motion Studio below
2.07.04, the file is stored in the WINDOWS\System32 directory (WINNT\System32 for
Windows 2000). For versions of Motion Studio above 2.07.04, the file is stored in
“C:\Common Files\IDT\CameraFiles”.
If the file is not stored in the local directory, it may be copied from the camera CD.
5.33.2.
Download Calibration file from flash memory
Giga-Ethernet cameras have on-board flash memory. The calibration file is stored in the
flash memory and may be downloaded and copied to the hard disk.
5.33.3.
Camera Calibration
To reduce the noise associated with CMOS sensors and improve the performance of the
default calibration file, Motion Studio offers a Calibration dialog box.
1.
Select Camera from the main toolbar.
2.
Select Advanced > Camera Calibration.
To reduce the noise associated to the CMOS sensor and improve the performance of the
default calibration file, select the following options:
Enable background removal (factory calibration): it removes the background from any
acquired images and reduces the noise.
Enable pixel sensitivity correction (factory calibration): it enables the compensation
of differences in pixels sensitivity.
Enable noise reduction with dark columns: the option enables or disables the use of
masked (dark) columns to reduce the time-dependent noise. In some camera models the
option is enabled and cannot be disabled.
Acquire the background images in the optimal conditions: the camera lens cap must
be on. The driver acquires the background images in the optimal conditions for all the
parameters (exposure, rate, sensor gain and pixel gain). The background images are not
saved into the calibration file. This option is disabled on “new design” cameras.
Reload factory calibration file: the driver loads the default camera calibration file. This
option is useful if the user wants to reload the default background images
To reduce the background noise in current conditions, select the following options.
Enable current condition background removal: if this option is selected the driver uses
the background images that have been acquired in current conditions and corrects the
images. The background calibration data is saved in a file and reloaded when the
program is launched. This option is disabled on “new design” cameras.
Enable current condition pixel sensitivity correction: if this option is selected the
driver uses the coefficients that have been computed in current conditions and corrects
the acquisitions. The coefficients are saved in a file and reloaded when the program is
launched. This option is disabled on “new design” cameras.
Acquire the background images in current conditions: the camera lens cap must be
on. The driver computes the background images for the current operating conditions. If
the sensor gain or the region of interest change after the calibration, the correction may
be wrong. This option is disabled on “new design” cameras.
Acquire the PSC images in current conditions: the lens must be removed and a
constant light should illuminate the sensor. The driver computes the pixel sensitivity
correction coefficients for the current operating conditions. If sensor gain and region of
interest change after the calibration, the correction may be wrong. This option is disabled
on “new design” cameras.
Reset current conditions file: if this option is selected, the current conditions calibration
file is deleted and the current images and coefficients are reset.
5.33.4.
Flash Memory Diagnostics
It’s a tool to test the camera flash memory.
1. Select Camera from the main toolbar.
2. Select Advanced > Flash Memory Diagnostics.
3. Click Test Flash Memory to perform a test.
5.33.5.
Color Balance Adjustment
Build user-defined color tables with the Color Balance procedure.
1. Select the Image Tab from the camera docked bar.
2. Click the “Advanced Colors” button.
3. Use the Color Balance Pad, to create a new color scheme.
4. Click Reset to reset the table to diagonal values.
5. Click Default to load the default color table.
Color balance procedure
1.
Drag the colored circles to the corresponding color area.
2.
Click the “Color Balance” button.
Motion Studio supports 4 preset values of the color balance tables.
To record a preset table, keep the corresponding button pressed for more than 2
seconds, enter the preset table name and click OK.
To load a preset table, click the corresponding button.
5.33.6.
IRIG Calibration (X cameras)
This option is enabled only on X/HS cameras when the IRIG B-120 item is selected in the
Time stamp tab of the general options. The calibration is a automatically started after
each acquisition if the “Run IRIG calibration after each acquisition” option is enabled.
The IRIG precision is 1 s. The calibration procedure checks the images IRIG flags in
order to find a “one second” transition. Once the transition is found, the time precision is
increased according to the acquisition rate.
5.33.7.
HG Logs
HG cameras store error and update log files in the on-board flash memory. The HG log
menu items allow to:

Download and show the error log files stored in the HG camera flash memory.

Download and show the update log file stored in the HG camera flash memory.

Delete the log error files from the HG camera flash memory.
5.33.8.
Advanced Image parameters
Some advanced parameters may be changed.
CFA Filter. The slider control how the Bayer data is converted into the RGB space. If the
slider is moved to the right side, it uses a bi linear algorithm.
TNK (Temporal Noise Killer): the slider controls the time-dependent noise reduction
filter. Each pixel value is compared with the same pixel value in images acquired before
and after and the result is used to eliminate the component of noise that is not a fixed
pattern.
DNR (Dynamic Noise Reduction): reduce the effect of noise in the image (not all the
camera models support it).
Anti-Alias (Gaussian): the slider controls the strength of the smoothing effect on the
image. The effect is a reduction of image noise and a reduction of details due to the
blurring.
Sharpen Threshold: the threshold value used in sharpening filter. If the value is large the
sharpening has less effect on the image.
IDT recommends that those parameters are not changed. The values should be
always set to default (optimized image quality).
5.33.9.
SSD Erase
If this option is selected, the SSD is physically erased. All the images stored in the disk
are overwritten by black images.
5.33.10. SSD Dump
The user may display the SSD portion that stores the acquisition information. The data is
in binary format and may be saved to a file. The user may select the number of items and
then click “Dump” to read the data (see below).
5.34. Multiple cameras support
Motion Studio supports multiple cameras systems.
The way the camera views are shown depends on the selected options.
If the “Activate camera list” option is not selected, the program opens a separate window
for each camera. The windows are tiled and each camera can operate independently
from each other. Each camera may have different parameters from other cameras. The
cameras may be also configured as master/slave.
5.34.1.
Activate camera list
If this option is selected, the program opens a vertical “camera list” bar. From this bar the
user may:

Select a camera: do a single click on the camera thumbnail to activate it. Do a
double click to activate the camera and start Live.

Select a subset of the cameras: check the check boxes at the left side of the
camera thumbnail and operate the camera control bar. Click “Select All” to select all
the cameras, click “Deselect All” to deselect all the cameras.

Rename a camera: right click on the camera icon and select the “Rename” option.

Activate the “Tools” menu: see below

Configure the “Options”: see below.

See the status of the cameras: below the camera name, model and serial number,
the camera status is displayed (Ready, Live, Recording…).

Exit the session: Click the Exit button to exit the session.
5.34.2.
Tools menu
Click on the Tools button, a popup menu will appear:

Select items: the user may select or deselect all the cameras, or select cameras of
the same family (Y, N or HG). When more than one camera is selected, Motion
Studio detects any conflict in the parameters and shows a red warning icon.

Erase camera memory: the camera memory is erased and the images deleted.
Actually the images are not physically erased from memory and may be restored
later.

Restore cameras memory: Motion Studio tries to restore deleted images. This
option is not available on HG cameras.

Synchronize parameters: the parameters of the camera that is currently in
foreground are copied to any other camera that is selected (check box on the camera
list). The parameters that are not supported by other cameras are not configured and
the corresponding item in the camera list is marked in red.

Store parameters to flash memory: the current configuration is stored in the camera
flash memory. If the camera looses power after this operation, the configuration is
loaded and applied the next time the camera is powered up.

Sort cameras: sort the cameras.

Detect master camera: if the cameras are connected in Master/Slave mode, the
software is able to detect which camera is the Master.
5.34.3.
Options
Enable automatic detection of cameras: if this option is selected, Motion Studio
activates a timer that looks for connected cameras. If a new camera is detected it willl be
automatically added to the list.
Allow different exposure values on each camera: if this option is selected, the user
may set different values of exposure in selected cameras, otherwise the exposure is set
to the same value in each selected camera.
Allow different trigger values on each camera: if this option is selected, the user may
set different values of trigger configuration (edge-high, edge-low, switch closure) in
selected cameras, otherwise the trigger configuration is set to the same value in each
selected camera.
Allow different frame rate values on each camera: if this option is selected, the user
may set different values of frame rate in selected cameras, otherwise the frame rate is set
to the same value in each selected camera.
5.34.4.
Master/Slave operation modes
In this operation mode, one of the cameras acts as the master and the others as slaves.
The master camera controls itself and some of the configuration parameters of the slaves,
such as record mode, acquisition rate, etc. To set one camera as master, check the
“Master Camera” check box on the “Camera Control” group in the camera control bar.
The check box is hidden when only one camera is connected.
The master camera drives the slaves’ acquisitions via the sync out signal. The picture
below shows how to configure a two cameras master/slave layout.
Master Camera
Slave Camera
Trigger
Master camera’s “Sync Out” signal must be connected to slave camera’s “Sync In”
connector. To provide simultaneous trigger to cameras (circular and BROC mode),
master camera and slave camera should receive the same trigger signal.
Two Master synchronization modes are available:
1. Sync Master/Slave: the master camera produces a synchronization signal whose
frequency is the same as the master cameras frame rate. The slave cameras are
automatically configured to operate with external frame sync and all the cameras
run at the same frame rate.
2. 1PPS Master/Slave: The master camera generates “1PPS” sync out signal (1 Hz)
and operates with the internal sync clock. The slave cameras are automatically
configured to operate with external 1PPS sync and they align their internal sync
signal to the external 1PPS reference. In this fashion, the slave cameras may
operate at any frequency that is a multiple of the master’s operating frequency.
The master sync signal is similar to a GPS reference signal that is used to align the
acquisition frame rates.
This mode is not supported by all the camera models.
5.35. Playback Controls
The Playback controls work like other familiar media player controls. The controls include
the following:

Directional play

Forward or reverse

Step forward and reverse

Skip to first or last frame

Stop play
5.35.1.
Frame by frame review
The frame number and corresponding time from the initial frame (or from the event trigger
frame, if the mode is Circular or BROC) are displayed in seconds. Use the slider bar to
browse through the frames. In Circular or BROC acquisition mode when the pre-trigger
and post-trigger have been selected, a red marker shows the position of Frame 0 (the
trigger frame). Indexes of frames before the trigger frame display Negative and indexes of
frames after the trigger display Positive.
5.35.2.
Playback Speed and Playback Settings
Playback slider
Move the slider to select a frame. The red
triangle indicates the position of frame 0
(circular mode only).
Loop playback button
Click on the button to continuously loop the
acquisition.
Zero button
Click this button to set the frame 0 position
(trigger).
Set (start/stop frame)
To set the start/stop frame, move the slider
to the desired image and click the "Set"
button.
Reset Start/Stop frames
Click the reset button (<->) to reset the start
and stop frames to the default values
(minimum and maximum).
Skip frames
Use to skip frames during playback.
Goto Button
It opens a dialog box. Enter the image index
to be displayed.
Playback rate Slider
Use to adjust the speed of the playback. The actual playback rate depends on the
processor speed and it is shown in box above the slider. If the actual rate is slower than
the desired one, use the skip frames control to increase it.
Synchronize
If two or more cameras have separate windows, the user may synchronize the playback
between some of them. Select the “Synchronize” option on each camera window and
click the playback buttons. The “Synchronize” check box is not visible when the cameras
are listed in a “Camera List”.
5.36. PLAYBACK Menu
The Playback menu displays when file images are open. When the program is in Camera
mode, access the Playback menu through the Camera Option on the main toolbar.
Standard operations include the following:

Play Forward or Backward

Jump to First or Last frame

Loop Through

Playback Speed

Playback’s Start and End frames for loop through.
The items share their functionality with the docked button bar on the right side of the
application window.
5.37. Annotations
The Annotation button on the playback tab shows the annotation dialog box.
General annotation
Add a general comment to the acquired sequence.
Images annotation
A note may be added to the current image. Use the playback button to locate an image
and add the note.
Data annotation
Add a note about data (for future use).
The horizontal bar shows the positions of the notes (black vertical lines) and the position
of the currently displayed image (gray handle). Buttons operations include the following.

Use the arrow controls to locate the annotations.

Reset all the annotations.

Delete an annotation.

Undo the latest edit of an annotation.
5.38. TRACKING menu
The Tracking Menu on the main toolbar offers an alternative to using the buttons and
dialog box provided by the Docked Dialog menu including the following functions:

Enable and disable tracking.

Open the tracking configuration dialog.

Add, remove or reset the track-points.

Compute tracking.

Show or hide the vectors, the table/graph dialog box and the correlation windows.
5.39. Tracking control
The tracking control tab appears on the main dialog bar if the “Tracking” option is enabled
in the General Options (“Enable Motion tracking” in the Miscellaneous Tab).
Use the tracking tab to enable and configure the tracking points. The options are as
follows:
Show tracking: enables or disables the
display of the tracking point and trajectory. If
this option is unchecked no tracking can be
computed.
Manual Track: select this option to disable any
automatic calculation and manually track the
points.
Track computation buttons: click the track
buttons to compute tracking one step forward
or backward, to the start frame or to the stop
frame.
Table/Graph: shows or hides the table graph
window.
Vectors: shows or hides the trajectory vectors.
Point: select the track point to configure
Color: the track point color
Size: the correlation area size in pixels. The
area is a square.
New: click the button to add a new track-point.
Reset: click the button to reset all the computed positions.
Delete: click this button to delete the current track point.
Tracking Configuration: click this button to open the configuration dialog box.
Save: click this button to save the tracking results in ASCII, LabVIEW, Tecplot or Excel
format.
Calibration: opens and closes the tracking calibration dialog box.
Measure: this tool let's the user calculate the distance between two points of the image.
The units are pixels or mm depending on the calibration.
5.40. Tracking procedure
5.40.1.
Add a new track-point and compute
To add a new track-point, follow the steps below:
1.
Click the New button on the tracking tab. The cursor will change into an arrow with a
plus symbol.
2.
Move the cursor to the image and click on the position where the track-point needs to
be added. The cursor will change to the standard arrow.
3.
The track-point position may be changed by dragging the central cross (see below).
4.
Then the point trajectory may be computed by clicking the green arrow buttons on the
tracking bar.
5.40.2.
Edit the tracking configuration
Click the “Trk Config” button on the tracking bar or select the “Configuration” item from the
tracking menu. The options are as follows.
Set Image intensity: when a new track-point is added the program computes the
intensity range on the current image. The current image will be considered as a reference
image for the computations. If the option is disabled, no intensity is computed.
Filter image: before each computation a set of sharpening filters is applied to the images.
The filters reduce the effect of the background on the computation. If the option is
disabled no filter is applied before the computations.
Validate position: after the regular calculation of a track point a least squares algorithm
is applied. The algorithm is performed with the point and other four points (two before and
two after). The result is used to correct (validate) the point position.
Mode: the tracking algorithm can be adapted to different tracking conditions (deformable
translation, rigid translation and rigid translation with rotation).
Displacement range: the displacement from one point to the next may have a limited
range. Enter the values to avoid errors.
Display vectors: the track-point trajectory may be displayed as a sequence of arrows, a
continuous line or a dotted line. The trajectory is shown is the “Vectors” button in the
tracking bar is selected.
5.40.3.
Show the tracking data and the vectors
From the tracking bar, click the Table/Graph button. The same dialog box shows the table
with the computed values and the graphs.
The first column lists the frame number, the second lists the time. Then for each point
there are listed the position (in pixels or mm if the calibration is on), the speed and the
acceleration.
Calculate V and A: click this button to calculate speed and accelerations of the tacking
points.
Each component of the data can be separately displayed in a graph. The “Point” combobox lists the configured points, and the “Show” combo-box lists the components (X, Y, Vx,
Vy, Ax, and Ay).
5.40.4.
Save the tracking data
The tracking results are always saved in a default binary file and reloaded when the
image sequence is open again. The user may save the data in a different format:
1.
From the tracking bar, click the “Save…” button.
2.
Enter the folder name, the file name and a comment (optional).
3.
Select the file format:
4.

Binary file (BIN).

ASCII text file (ASC).

Tecplot Text file (PLT).

LabVIEW Measurement file (LVM).

Excel XML Spreadsheet file (XML).

Excel XLS Workbook file (XLS).
Click the OK button.
5.40.5.
Calibration
The tracking displacements are computed in pixels and can be converted into mm
through a calibration. Click the calibration button on the tracking tab to open the
calibration window.
Before activating or computing a calibration, a calibration folder must be created or
selected.
New: Click this button to create a new calibration folder with undefined parameters.
Browse: click this button to select an existing calibration folder and load the current
calibration settings.
Once a calibration folder has been created or selected, select the model and click
“Calibrate…” (see below).
If the calibration is loaded you may click On/Off to activate or deactivate it, or click
“Discard” to discard it.
5.40.6.
Basic calibration model
The basic model is the simplest. The user is asked to drag a line on the calibration target
and enter a distance in mm.
The calibration grid has two handles. The handles may be dragged over two reference
points on the calibration image.
5.40.7.
Simplified calibration model
This method requires that the calibration target is vertically aligned with the camera, i.e.
vertical lines in the target correspond to vertical lines on the target image. The rectangular
grid has four handles that may be dragged over four reference points of the calibration
image.
To achieve more precision the zoom factor may be set to 300 or 400 and the handles
may be positioned upon the calibration target marks. With the simplified calibration two
options are available:
1.
The camera plane is parallel to the target plane and there is no perspective: the
calibration is just a way to find a constant value that will be multiplied by the pixel
displacements to find the space displacements. Both horizontal and vertical lines of
the calibration target are perfectly parallel to the rectangle sides. In the Calibration
dialog box, the “Use Perspective” option is OFF, and the rectangle sides are parallel.
2.
The camera plane is not parallel to the target plane and there is a perspective effect.
The effect is computed only on horizontal lines while vertical line must be parallel to
the rectangle vertical sides. In the Calibration dialog box, the “Use Perspective” option
is ON.
X/Y Dimensions: the user enters the dimensions in mm of the rectangle. The distance
between the points of the calibration target is known. The values are in mm.
Focal Length: the camera focal length in mm.
Diagonal: when the “Use perspective” option is off, the user may check the “Use
diagonal” check box and enter the rectangle diagonal length instead of Width and height.
Grid Color: the color of the calibration grid may be changed.
Pixel size: the user may edit the pixel size. Click “Find size…” to select the camera model
and find the correct size.
5.40.8.
Generic calibration model
The generic calibration considers different kind of distortion due to optical and/or
perspective issues. The calibration grid is more complex than a rectangle, is a multi-point
grid (see below). The points of the grid will be positioned over the marks of the calibration
target. Then the program computes the parameters of a third grade polynomial which
maps the points of the image (pixels) into the points of the real space (mm).
The grid may be moved and resized. The way the grid is resized is controlled by the “Grid
Mode” in the calibration dialog:

Zoom: in this mode the handles are positioned over the four external corners of the
grid. The grid may be zoomed or moved.

Constrained: in this mode the handles are positioned over the four external corners
of the grid. The grid can be distorted.

Free: in this mode each point of the grid has its own handle and can be moved
independently.
Grid Size (X/Y): the user enters the dimensions in mm of the grid (distance between the
grid corners). The distance between the points of the calibration target is known. The
values are in mm (1 inch = 25.4 mm).
Grid Nodes (X/Y): the user enters the number of nodes in the grid. The minimum is 4,
while the maximum is 20. The number of nodes depends on the calibration target.
5.41. DATA menu
When acquired data pane is visible and some data is displayed the DATA menu is active.
Use the Data menu to apply filters and mathematical operators, to show or hide the
FFT/Power Spectrum window and to open the data graph configuration dialog box.
5.42. VIEW menu
Use the View menu to magnify the image, restore the original size (100% zoom) or
compute a zoom factor that fits in the window.
Use the View menu to select the toolbar options.
5.42.1.
Zoom Tools
The Zoom In and Zoom Out tools let you change the image magnification.
The Dynamic Zoom tool lets you zoom in or our by dragging the mouse or mouse wheel
up or down.
To Increase or decrease magnification, do one of the following:

Select a magnification percentage from the toolbar Zoom menu.

From the View menu, select the Zoom In or the Zoom Out tool, and then click the
image. To zoom in on a specific area, use the Zoom In tool and draw a rectangle.

From the View menu, select the Dynamic Zoom tool and then drag up to zoom in to
the area where you begin dragging, or drag down to zoom out from that location.
To deselect one of the Zoom tools, press the ESC key on the keyboard.
5.42.2.
View Thumbnails
1.
Select View menu > Thumbnails Toolbar. Once an image sequence is opened or
acquired, the Thumbnail Toolbar is populated with images.
2.
Use the arrow buttons on the Playback Control tab to scroll through the images.
3.
Click on a Thumbnail in the sequence to select a frame for display. The selected
image is highlighted in the sequence.
5.43. TOOLS menu
The Tools menu has the General Options for the program and the Timing Hub control
dialog. If a Camera window is open, the Tools menu contains the following options:

Administrator setup.

Download Manager.

Advanced Acquisition Configuration dialog box (see Acquisitions Configuration on the
Record tab).

Histogram window.

Reticule and grid display.

Focus Line tool for help focusing the image.

Timing Control for the generation of timing signals with the MotionPro Timing Hub.

Analog output for the generation of analog waveforms with the MotionPro Data
Acquisition System (DAS).

Ethernet cameras network configuration.

Raw Image converter and Batch editor.

Image tile utility.

Vidi Motion (Lens Calculator).

Giga-Ethernet cameras monitor.

Options dialog box.

Language selection.
5.43.1.
Administrator setup
Some of the camera controls may be disabled in Administrator Setup.

Before opening any camera, from Tools menu, select "Administrator setup"
.

Enter the password "IdtMStudio123" to enable the check-box list. The password is
case sensitive.

Check/uncheck the controls that you wish to enable/disable. The controls are listed in
four tabs corresponding to the camera bar tabs (Camera, Record and Image) and to
the active camera list controls.

Click Default to enable all the controls.

Click OK and open cameras.
5.43.2.
Time Stamp
The time stamp interface has been improved and removed from the Options dialog box.
To enable the time stamp configuration, click the icon on the main toolbar (see below).
Each time stamp item can be independently configured (see below).
Select the item from the list on the left size, check it and configure the parameters. Some
parameters are item specific, others are available for each item.

Position: select the position of the time stamp item (left, center, right, top and
bottom).

Show in images: the item can be displayed in each image, in the first image, in the
last image or in the trigger image.
Some of the items have specific parameters.

Logo: the logo supports alpha channel in PNG files. Also, the opacity and the zoom
factor may be configured.

Time from trigger: the "precision" may be configured. The user may also select if the
time is calculated from the trigger pulse or from the leading edge of the "zero" frame.

Rate: the user may select the units that are displayed in time stamp ("fps" or "Hz").

Exposure: the user may select the units (milliseconds, microseconds or
nanoseconds).

Temperature: the user may select the units (Celsius or Fahrenheit).

IRIG/GPS: the IRIG/GPS time is always calculated in UTC units, then the user may
add and an offset to adapt the time to his own time zone

Acquired DAS value: the user may select the precision in digits.
The common settings have been improved.

Font: select the font for the time stamp.

Size: select the font size.

Color: select the time stamp color. If the image is monochrome, the color is
converted into grayscale.

Background color: the time stamp strings may have colored or transparent
background.

Add header/footer offset to the images: an offset may be added to the top or to the
bottom of the image. If one of those options is selected the time stamp is not printed
on the image, but on a horizontal black stripe set above or below the image. The
stripes are saved on the images when the frames are saved
The items that can be added to the time stamp are listed below.

Logo: a bitmap can be displayed on the acquired frames and saved to the image
files. Click the browse button to locate a TIFF, BMP or PNG file.

Frame Number: the frame index.

Comment: the acquisition comment.

File Name: the name of the file where the image is stored.

Camera name: the name of the camera.

Serial number: the camera serial number

IP address: the camera IP address.

Date: the acquisition date.

Time: the acquisition time (or current time during live).

Time from trigger: the elapsed time from the trigger frame. The number of digits is
configurable. You may either display in seconds with up to 6 decimal digits or in
milliseconds with up to 3 decimal digits.

Time from acquisition start: it shows on each frame the time elapsed from the start
of the acquisition.

Rate and Exposure: the values of rate and exposure during the acquisition.

Temperature and units: the camera board temperature and the units (degrees
Celsius or Fahrenheit).

IRIG/GPS: the IRIG or GPS date and time.

Acquired DAS value: the data acquired from the DAS.

Marker: the frame marker.

Resolution: the width and the height of the image.

Test session name.
5.43.3.
Download Options
The download options are described in the topic 5.26 (see above).
5.43.4.
Camera Options
Live While Record: during a recording session the preview can be enabled on all
cameras, fully disabled or activated only on the camera window that has the focus.
Trigger Hot Key: the software trigger can be sent to the cameras by clicking the Trigger
button on the camera toolbar or by pressing a keyboard key. The user can configure that
key.
Exposure format: the exposure may be displayed in microseconds, in shutter angle units
(degrees) or in fractions of seconds.
Snapshot format: select the file format used to save snapshots.
PCIe memory buffer size: select the size in GB of the buffer used X-Stream PCI
cameras.
Maximize exposure: if this option is selected, the exposure is automatically set to the
maximum every time the frame rate changes.
Disable 1024x1024…: new Y4 and NR4 cameras have 1024x1024 maximum resolution,
while older ones have only 1016x1016. In a mixed environment the user may want to
operate all the cameras with 1016x1016 maximum resolution. This option disables the
10124x10124 resolution in new cameras.
Disable hardware BROC…: Y cameras with firmware 151.137 (and newer) and
N/NR/NX cameras with firmware 159.134 (and newer) support hardware BROC. With this
feature BROC is executed in camera firmware and the maximum number of BROC
segments is limited to 256. Software BROC supports 1024 segments, so the may disable
hardware BROC and allow the camera to acquire up to 1024 segments in software.
Automatically arm the camera when MS opens it: if this option is selected, Motion
Studio puts the camera in record mode immediately after opening it.
Disable fast live in O/Os cameras: if this option is enabled the live is executed in O/Os
cameras as in any other model.
Get raw gray data from color cameras: grayscale images coming from the sensor are
not converted into RGB format. The frames are acquired and displayed as black and
white images.
Enable temperature warning threshold: if a camera supports temperature read, a
warning threshold can be set. A warning message pops up the the camera temperature
goes above the threshold.
Convert color data to grayscale: converts color RGB images into 8-bit gray-scale
images.
Network performance: the network performance is a delay added to the data exchange
between the cameras and the computer. If there is traffic on your local network, then
move the slider to “More reliable” to avoid loss of data during the communication.
5.43.5.
Miscellaneous Options
Show Main Menu dialog at start-up: it displays the main menu dialog box when Motion
Studio is initialized.
Prompt before closing camera windows: the program will prompt the user before
closing any camera window.
Show cameras enumeration filter at start-up: if the option is checked the camera
enumeration filter dialog is displayed when the camera wizard is started.
Check Calibration file at start up: if this option is selected the program checks the
calibration file when the camera is open. If the camera does not have a calibration file, the
option may be unchecked.
Allow multiple instances of Motion Studio: if this option is selected, more than one
instance of MS may run at the same time, otherwise only one instance may run.
Detect LED controllers and Rack-Hubs: if this option is selected, any LED controller or
Rack-Hub is detected when MS is started.
Enable motion tracking: this option enables and disables the motion tracking.
Save Tracking data with IRIG time: if this option is selected, the tracking data is saved
with the IRIG time information.
Enable Camera Local Trace: it logs each camera operation in a text file in the program
directory for diagnostic purposes.
Enable Camera Remote Trace: it logs the communication between the cameras and the
client Palm when the remote connection server is active.
Delete Trace: all the trace files stored in the local hard disk are deleted.
Show trace: opens the folder where the trace files are stored.
Enable Remote Connection server: if this option is selected the remote connection
server may be started and the camera may be remotely controlled by a Pocket PC via the
wireless LAN. For more info, see the “Motion Studio Remote Control” paragraph.
Enable smooth image zoom: if this option is selected, the images are zoomed with an
advanced resize algorithm, if not the default Windows zoom is applied.
Reticle Color: select the color of the reticle and the grid.
Grid rows/columns: select the number of rows and columns of the grid.
Save the reticle or the grid in the images: if the reticle or the grid are is visible and this
option is selected, they are burned in the saved images and AVI files.
5.43.6.
Reticle / Grid
The reticle is a pair of crossed lines drawn over the image. It may be used to vertically or
horizontally align the camera. The color of the cross may be edited in the general options.
To cross position can be changed by clicking on the image.
The grid is a grid of rectangles drawn on the image. The number of rows and columns
may be configured but the position cannot be changed (see below).
5.43.7.
Histogram
The image intensity histogram is used to set the camera exposure parameters and with
the camera focusing to optimize the dynamic range. Color cameras have three color
components (red, green and blue) and intensity. For monochrome cameras the histogram
is computed on the gray-scale pixel values.
The wave-forms graph is also shown.
5.43.8.
Focus Line / Image Profile
The Focus Line Intensity dialog box displays the values of image intensity (levels of gray
in monochrome images and levels of red, green, blue or luminance on color images)
along the points of the focus line. If the image is well focused, you will see the intensity
changing when the line crosses an edge of the image.
1.
From the main toolbar select Tools > Focus Line/Image Profile.
2.
Use the “Type” drop-down list to select Focus Line or Image Profile.
3.
Use the “Color” drop-down list to select the Focus Line color.
4.
To position the focus line, drag the line handles and position them across the image
edges.
A measure tool has been added to the image profile.
1. Move the image profile line to the target.
2. Enter the conversion factor from pixels to the desired units. The distance is
automatically calculated.
5.43.9.
Timing Hub Control
Motion Studio provides the controls for the MotionPro Timing Hub. If a Timing Hub is
detected, the Timing Control menu item is displayed in the Tools menu.
From the main toolbar select Tools > Timing Control.
5.43.9.1. Channels selection and controls
Current channel: select the channel you want to configure.
Signal generation: see the “Signal generation” topic below.
Label: The user may change the label of the output channel.
Mode: The operating mode may be selected. For a more detailed description of the
modes, refer to the topics below.
External In: when the selected mode is “external”, the user may select the external input
channel (0 or 1).
Gate: each channel may be gated. The gate channel may be one of the two external
inputs (0 or 1) or one of the other output channels. The gate selection is disabled if the
mode is “Start/Stop” or “Rate Switch”.
Invert: the output signal, the input signal (external mode only) and the gate signal may be
inverted.
Frequency/Period: the user may select the frequency in Hz or the period in us of the
selected channel.
Duty cycle: the user may select the channel duty cycle in percentage (1 to 999) or
duration of the high value of the channel in us.
Pulses: if the mode is burst the user may select the number of pulses generated by the
trigger.
Delay: the output delay may be adjusted. The range is from 0 to 9 s (steps of 100 ns). If
the mode is external the delay steps are in external signal clocks.
Reset: the delay may be reset to the default value (0).
External Frequencies: the external input channels frequency may be displayed by
selecting the check box.
Signals buttons: each channel may be turned on and off by clicking the corresponding
button.
5.43.9.2. Signal Display and lock
The output channels signals are shown in the black window. The user may select the
Time base period. If auto is selected, the application shows four periods.
Lock: two or more output channels may be locked by checking the “lock” check boxes. If
two or more channels are locked, they are simultaneously turned on and off when one of
the locked buttons is clicked.
5.43.9.3. Internal Mode
Output waveforms are generated by the internal clock. The user may adjust the internal
frequency or period and the duty cycle. The channel may be inverted and gated by
another signal. The gate can be selected among the external inputs (0 or 1) or among
one of the other output channels.
The diagram below shows an example with the following configuration:

Output channel 0: F = 100 Hz, duty cycle 50%, no gate.

Output channel 1: F = 50 Hz, duty cycle 50%, no gate.

Output channel 2: F = 100 Hz, duty cycle 50%, gate = output channel 0.
The output channel 0 frequency is 100 Hz. The output channel 1 frequency is 50 Hz. The
output channel 2 frequency is 100 Hz but the channel is gated by the output 0, so the
result is a signal which has 100 Hz frequency and a duty cycle of 25%.
Output Channel 0 (100 Hz – DC = 50%)
Output Channel 1 (50 Hz – DC = 50%)
Output Channel 2 (100 Hz – gate=chn 0)
5.43.9.4. External Mode
Output wave-forms are generated by an external signal. The user may adjust the output
channel divider and duty cycle. The output channel may be inverted and gated by another
signal. The gate can be selected among the external inputs (0 or 1) or among one of the
other output channels.
Let’s assume that the external frequency is 200 Hz. The diagram below shows an
example with the following configuration:

Output channel 0: F = 100 Hz, duty cycle 50%, external input 0, no gate.

Output channel 1: F = 50 Hz, duty cycle 50%, external input 0, no gate.

Output channel 2: F = 100 Hz, duty cycle 50%, external input 0, gate = output
channel 0.
The output channel 0 frequency is half the external frequency. The output channel 1
frequency is one fourth the external frequency. The output channel 2 frequency is equal
to the external frequency but the channel is gated by the output 0, so the result is a signal
which has half the external frequency and a duty cycle of 25%.
External Input 0 clock signal (200 Hz)
Output Channel 0 (100 Hz – DC = 50%)
Output Channel 1 (50 Hz – DC = 50%)
Output Channel 2 (200 Hz – gate=chn 0)
5.43.9.5. Start/Stop Mode
The two external signals drive the output signals generation. The input 0 starts the output,
while input 1 stops it. The frequency and delay of the output are configured as in “internal”
mode. No gate is allowed. When the stop signal level is high, the output signal is
truncated.
The diagram below shows an example with the following configuration:

Output channel 0: mode = Start/Stop, F = 100 Hz, duty cycle = 50%.
External Input 0
External Input 1
Output Channel 0 (F = 100 Hz – DC = 50%)
5.43.9.6. Rate Switch Mode
The two external signals drive the output signals generation at two different frequencies.
Input 0 starts the outputs at the frequency 1, while input 1 switches the frequency to the
Frequency 2 value.
The diagram below shows an example with the following configuration:

Output channel 0: mode = Rate Switch, F1 = 100 Hz, duty cycle1 = 50%, F2 = 50
Hz, duty cycle1 = 50%. When the input 0 level goes high, the output signal starts at
100 Hz. When the input 1 level goes high, the output 0 frequency switches to 50 Hz.
External Input 0
External Input 1
Output Channel 0 (F1=100 Hz, F2 = 50 Hz)
5.43.9.7. “Burst Single” Mode
In burst (single) mode, one of the external inputs or one of the output channels is used as
trigger to generate one or more pulses. The frequency and the Duty cycle controls are
used to determine the duration of the pulse. The generation of the pulses may be also
delayed. Both the output signal and the trigger may be also inverted.
The diagram below shows an example with the following configuration:

Output channel 0: mode = Burst (single), Trigger = External Input 0, F = 100 Hz,
duty cycle = 50%, pulses = 3. The external Input 0 serves as a trigger. When the
trigger goes high, three pulses are generated by the output channel 0. The duration of
the pulses is about 5 ms (50 % of 100 Hz). The pulses are generated once.
Trigger (External input 0)
Output Channel 0 (F = 100 Hz, DC = 50%)
5.43.9.8. “Burst retriggered” mode
The Burst retriggered mode is equivalent to the burst single mode. The pulses are
generated any time the trigger signal goes high and not only once.
The diagram below shows an example with the following configuration:
Output channel 0: mode = Burst (retriggered), Trigger = External Input 0, F = 100 Hz,
duty cycle = 50%, pulses = 2. The external Input 0 serves as a trigger. When the trigger
goes high, three pulses are generated by the output channel 0. The duration of the pulses
is about 5 ms (50 % of 100 Hz). The pulses are generated each time the trigger goes
high.
Trigger (External input 0)
Output Channel 0 (F = 100 Hz, DC = 50%)
5.43.9.9. Signal generation (Camera synchronization)
The Timing Hub may be used to synchronize a camera or other devices. The Signal
Generation options are:

User: the output signal synchronizes an external device. No internal control is done
by the program.

Camera (simple): the label edit box will be converted into a list of open cameras. In
the camera dialog bar the “Rate” control will be disabled, the “Rate Sync” control will
be set to “External” and the camera operation frequency will be configured directly
from the timing panel. If the “Sync Cfg” value is set to “Pulse High” or to “Pulse Low”,
the camera exposure is controlled by the duty cycle of the external square wave. In
this condition the exposure edit box is grayed out and the value is automatically
computed.
1.
If the “Sync Cfg” value is set to Pulse High, the exposure is equal to the inverse of
the output channel frequency multiplied by the duty cycle.
2.
If the “Sync Cfg” value is set to Pulse Low, the exposure is equal to the inverse of
the output channel frequency multiplied by (100 - duty cycle).
5.43.10. Analog Data Output
Motion Studio provides the controls for the generation of analog output with the MotionPro
Data Acquisition System (DAS). The available analog output channels in the module are
four.
From the main toolbar select Tools > Analog Out. The dialog box has two sections.
Period and Rate: select the period of the generated waveform. The corresponding rate in
Hertz is displayed.
Sampling Source: the sampling source may be the internal module clock or an external
digital signal.
Sampling Rate: select the sampling rate in Hz. If the sampling source is external, enter
the external signal frequency.
Trigger Source: the event trigger starts the waveform output. It may be software,
external edge high, or external edge low.
Current channel: select the channel you want to configure.
Waveform: select the channel waveform: square, sine, triangle, saw tooth, or waveform
file.
Amplitude, Offset and Phase: if a waveform is selected, edit the amplitude, the offset and
the phase.
Browse: if the “File” option is selected, click the “Browse” button to open a data file. The
file will be played back.
Signals buttons: each channel may be turned on and off by clicking the corresponding
button.
The output channels signals are shown in the black window. The user may select the
Time Base period in µs. If auto is selected, the application shows four periods.
Lock: two or more output channels may be locked by checking the “Lock” options. If two
or more channels are locked, they are synchronously turned on and off when one of the
channel buttons is pressed.
5.43.11. Image Tile Utility
The Image Tile Utility is an external application that may be invoked by Motion Studio. It
allows the user to horizontally or vertically tile image sequences.
Image A and Image B
Click the Browse button to select the sequences that will be tiled.
Image A+B
Click the browse button to select the name of the output image sequence.
File Type
Select the output image sequence type.
Codec
If the file format supports the codec, it may be selected.
Rate
Edit the output rate (AVI and MOV only).
Tile mode
The images may be horizontally tile, vertically tiled or combined in sequence.
Start
Click this button to start the tile process.
The image tile utility can be used with command line parameters. The syntax is below.
To display the help message:
XImgTile /H
To tile images:
XImgTile /A ImgA /B ImgB /O ImgAB /T OutType /V TileV /R Rate
where:

ImgA: full path of Image A (ex: C:\Program Files\IDT\MotionProX\Imgs\ImgA.tif).

ImgB: full path of Image B (ex: C:\Program Files\IDT\MotionProX\Imgs\ImgB.tif).

ImgAB: full path of output (ex: C:\Program Files\IDT\MotionProX\Imgs\ImgAB.tif).

OutType: output file type (1:TIF, 2:BMP, 3:JPG, 4:PNG, 11:MPT, 12:MRF, 13:AVI,
16:MPG).

TileV: 0 for horizontal tile, 1 for vertical tile, 2 for sequence.

Rate: output file rate, only for file image formats that support the parameter (ex: AVI).
5.43.12. Ethernet cameras monitor
The tool detects the Ethernet cameras connected to the network and updates their status
in real time. Some of the detection parameters may be changed.
Network adapter: select the computer network adapter that is connected to the camera
network.
Refresh Camera list: click this button to reset the list and restart camera detection
process.
The options that may be edited are shown below:
Search for new cameras: it configures the frequency of enumerating and detecting new
cameras.
Poll for camera status: it configures the frequency of polling cameras for status.
Camera series: select which camera model should be detected and listed.
5.43.13. Language Selection
1. From the Tools menu, select “Language…”
2. Select the language from the list and click OK.
Currently the supported languages are English, German, Italian, Japanese and Chinese.
5.43.14. Vidi Motion
For a detailed description of the Vidi Motion tool, please refer to the Vidi Motion topic.
5.44. WINDOW menu
If more than a window is open in the Motion Studio program, use the window menu to
cascade, tile horizontally, tile vertically or select one of the windows.
5.45. HELP menu
This menu contains support options and information including: e-mail tech support and
software and manual updates.
5.45.1.
Camera Information
Cameras Info displays a dialog box with the information about the cameras, such as
model, type (color or black and white), ID and serial number. The information may be
saved in a text file by clicking the “Save…” button.
From the main toolbar, select Help > Cameras Info.
6. Vidi Motion (Lens calculator)
6.1. Overview
Vidi Motion contains the most important specifications of the IDT cameras and a lens
calculator. With Vidi Motion you may:

Show the main specifications of each camera model.

Find the resolution that fits a specific frame rate.

Print a table of “resolution versus frame rate” or “frame rate versus resolution”.

Calculate amount of motion blur, correct exposure time, depth of field, hyper focal
distance etc.

Calculate the speed at impact, of a free falling object. It is assumed that the object
falls in vacuum, thus no compensation for air resistance is included.

Calculate the circumference speed of a spinning object.
6.2. Camera information

Select the camera Family.

Select the camera model.

Set the resolution, memory size, frame rate and exposure.
The right pane will show some camera specifications and:

The maximum frame rate for the selected resolution (in normal and in plus mode, if
supported)

The maximum recording length in frames. If the camera has onboard SSD, the
value is calculated for the disk.

The maximum recording time for the selected frame rate.

The streaming fps: if the camera has onboard SSD, the streaming fps is the
maximum frame rate that allows streaming to the disk without overrun.
6.3. Find resolution from max rate

Click the “Find resolution from max rate” button.

Type a frame rate and select “Plus mode” if required.

Click OK.
The utility will calculate the resolution that fits the required frame rate. If the camera
cannot support the frame rate, an error message will appear.
6.4. Resolution versus rate table

Click the “Resolution vs rate table…” button.

Select the table type.

Enter the minimum height (or rate), the maximum height (or rate) and the step.

Select the source(DDR or SSD, if available).

Click Refresh.

Click “Export table” to save the table o a text file.
6.5. Lens Calculations
Select the calculation of Focal length, Field of View or Object Distance.
Select the lens aperture and the measurement units for length, speed and resolution.
The result will be displayed in the pane at the right side, including: Field Height and
Width, Resolution, Angle of View, Image Diagonal, Magnification factor and the
compatible lenses types. If the lens specifications shown are not compatible with your
lens, you need to lower the Horizontal and Vertical Resolution to avoid “vignetting”.
For fast moving object calculations enter the object speed in the selected units. The
Object movement per frame, the object motion blur and the object pixel blur will be
calculated.
If the object movement is too big: increase the recording speed. If the motion blur is too
high: decrease the exposure time.
6.6. Speed calculations
Speed calculations include circumference speed and falling objects speed.
The object circumference speed can be calculated by entering the speed of the spinning
object in rpm and the diameter of the object in the configured units.
The theoretical impact speed of a falling object may be calculated. The starting speed of
the object is assumed to be equal to 0. Input the distance from the object to the impact
point in the correct units and the speed will be calculated.
7. Frame Synchronization and Event Triggering
7.1. Overview
The camera and software enable external sync and triggering capabilities. The camera is
synchronized externally via a trigger source in the form of a TTL pulse. The
synchronization INPUT signals as well as a synchronization OUTPUT signal are handled
through BNC connectors. The synchronization signal is output for every frame that is
acquired and can supply the time reference for other pieces of hardware, for example a
strobe for illumination.
Two options are available:
1.
Cameras with 2 BNC connectors: 1 input connector is used for synchronization and
event triggering. The output connector is used for sync out.
2.
Cameras with 3 BNC connectors: a “Trig In” connector is used for event triggering,
a “Sync in” connector is used for external synchronization. The output connector is
used for sync out.
7.2. Record Modes and Trigger Configuration
On the Record tab, the default Frame Sync source of the camera is set to Internal. If in
External, the camera must have an external Sync signal.
TRIG IN: use the Trigger in connector at the back of the camera for event triggering.
SYNC IN: use the Sync In for external synchronization.
SYNC OUT: use the Sync Out for sync out.
Record Mode
Sync In Configuration
Trigger In Configuration
Normal
Internal or external (the BNC is
used to provide a sync signal)
Ignored (the camera does not
require event trigger)
Circular/BROC
Internal or external (the BNC is
used to provide a sync signal)
All values (the camera
requires an event trigger)
7.3. Change the Sync and the Trigger

Select the Record tab.

Use the Frame Sync drop-down list to select from the following options:

Select Internal to acquire frames continuously at a rate that is dependent on the
frame read-out time and the exposure

Select External to wait for an external trigger input to acquire frames. An external
signal must be provided.

In external mode, the camera waits for an external sync input to acquire a frame. Use
the Sync Cfg drop-down list to select from the following options.

Select Edge-High to trigger on the positive going slope of the signal.

Select Edge-Low to trigger on the negative slope of the signal.

Select Pulse High mode to set the duration of the exposure to equal the trigger signal
duration (High state).

Select Pulse Low mode to set the duration of the exposure to equal the trigger signal
duration (Low state).
The time delay between the trigger signal and the acquisition of the image is less than 20
ns.
If the record mode is set to “Circular” or “BROC” each acquisition requires an event
trigger. To set a trigger, click on the Trigger button on the Camera Control tab for a
software trigger, or use an external trigger source.
1. Select the Record tab.
2. Use the Record Mode drop-down list to select BROC or Circular.
3. Use the Trig Cfg drop-down to select from the following options: Edge High, Edge
Low, and Switch Closure.
7.4. Triggering the camera and synchronizing with strobe light
The camera cab is used together with a strobe for illumination. In this case it is necessary
to synchronize the illumination pulse event with the camera exposure. Examples of
methods that can be employed are presented in the following. The schematics of various
timing diagrams are included. This diagram assumes the use of an externally pulse(s)
(TTL) to synchronize both the camera and the strobe.
7.4.1. Synchronizing via the leading edge of a pulse event (Single
exposure)
The figure shows the timing signals in a single exposure configuration. In the Record Tab
the frame sync is set to “External Edge-High” and the exposure mode is set to “single”.
The camera exposure is started by the leading edge of the pulse signal and the exposure
duration is set in the “Exposure” control of the camera software panel.
Definitions:

Input sync pulse is TTL level.

Illumination pulse duration: typical 7-10 ns for flash lamp and 100-150 ns for diode
pumped lasers respectively).

Camera exposure > Illumination latency + Illumination pulse duration.
7.4.2. Synchronizing via the trailing edge of a pulse event (Single
exposure)
The figure shows the timing signals in a single exposure configuration. In the Record Tab
the frame sync is set to “External Edge-Low” and the exposure mode is set to “single”.
The camera exposure is started by the trailing edge of the pulse signal and the exposure
duration is set in the “Exposure” control of the camera software panel.
Definitions:

Input sync pulse is TTL level.

Illumination pulse duration: typical 7-10 ns for flash lamp and 100-150 ns for diode
pumped lasers respectively).

Camera exposure > Illumination latency + Illumination pulse duration.
7.4.3. Synchronizing and controlling the exposure with an input pulse
The figure shows the timing signals in a single exposure configuration. In the camera
panel the frame sync is set to “External Pulse-High” and the exposure mode is set to
“single”. The camera exposure is integrated over the high part of the input pulse and the
camera ignores the exposure value set in the “Exposure” control of the camera software
panel.
Definitions:

Input sync pulse is TTL level.

Illumination pulse duration: typical 7-10 ns for flash lamp and 100-150 ns for diode
pumped lasers respectively).

Camera exposure > Illumination latency + Illumination pulse duration.
7.4.4. Synchronizing in double exposure mode
The figure below shows the timing signal in a typical double exposure PIV configuration.
In the camera panel the sync mode is set to “External Edge-High” and the exposure mode
is set to “double”. The time between the two laser pulses must be larger than the sum of
the first laser pulse duration and the camera frame transfer time. The second exposure
duration cannot be set and depends from the camera frame readout, so the second laser
pulse duration must be configured to the desired exposure time.
8. Appendix A - Image Formats
Motion Studio supports the image formats listed in the table below:
Format
Ext
Pixel Depth
Notes
Tagged Image File Format - TIFF™
TIF
8/16/24/48
Gray/Color
Windows™ Bitmap
BMP
8/24
Gray/Color
JPEG File
JPG
8/24
Gray/Color
Portable network Graphics – PNG
PNG
8/16/24/48
Gray/Color
Type 2 Bayer
TP2
8
Gray/Bayer
Falcon eXtra RAW
FBA
8/24
Gray/Color
Digital Picture Exchange
DPX
8/16/24/48
Gray/Color
Digital Negative
DNG
8/16/24/48
Gray/Color
Multi-Page TIFF
MPT
8/16/24/48
Gray/Color
Multi-page Raw
MPR
8/16/24/48
Gray/Color (IDT proprietary)
Multi-page Compressed
MCF
8/16/24/48
Gray/Color (IDT proprietary)
Audio Video Interleaved (AVI)
AVI
8/24
Gray/Color
Apple Quick Time (MOV)
MOV
8/24
Gray/Color
Weinberger Sequence (BLD)
BLD
8/24
Gray/Color
Moving Picture Experts Group (MPEG)
MPG
8/24
Gray/Color (MPEG-1)
MPEG H.264 (Advanced Video Coding)
MP4
8/24
Gray/Color (MPEG-4)
8.1. Formats Overview
8.1.1. TIFF Format
TIFF pictures store a single raster image at any color depth. TIFF is arguably the most
widely supported graphic file format in the printing industry. It supports optional
compression, and is not suitable for viewing in Web browsers.
The TIFF format is an extensible format, which means that a programmer can modify the
original specification to add functionality or meet specific needs. This can lead to
incompatibilities between different types of TIFF pictures.
8.1.2. Bitmap Format
Windows bitmap files are stored in a device-independent bitmap (DIB) format that allows
Windows to display the bitmap on any type of display device. The term "device
independent" means that the bitmap specifies pixel color in a form independent of the
method used by a display to represent color. The default filename extension of a
Windows DIB file is .BMP.
For further information, refer to the Microsoft™ documentation.
8.1.3. JPEG Format
The name "JPEG" stands for Joint Photographic Experts Group, the name of the
committee that created the standard. The JPEG standard specifies both the codec, which
defines how an image is compressed into a stream of bytes and decompressed back into
an image, and the file format used to contain that stream. The compression method is
usually lossy, meaning that some visual quality is lost in the process and cannot be
restored. However there are variations on the standard baseline JPEG that are lossless.
8.1.4. PNG Format
PNG is an extensible file format for the lossless, portable, well-compressed storage of
raster images. PNG provides a patent-free replacement for GIF and can also replace
many common uses of TIFF. Indexed-color, grayscale, and true-color images are
supported, plus an optional alpha channel. Sample depths range from 1 to 16 bits.
PNG is designed to work well in online viewing applications, such as the World Wide
Web, so it is fully stream-able with a progressive display option. PNG is robust, providing
both full file integrity checking and simple detection of common transmission errors. Also,
PNG can store gamma and chromaticity data for improved color matching on
heterogeneous platforms.
PNG is a platform-independent format that supports a high level of lossless compression,
alpha channel transparency, gamma correction, and interlacing. It is supported by more
recent Web browsers.
8.1.5. TP2 format
Type-2 format is the Redlake raw data format. It’s the format used to save raw image
data.
8.1.6. FBA format
The FBA format is the Falcon eXtra raw data format. It’s the format used by Falcon eXtra
software to save raw image data. For further information, please refer to falcon
documentation.
8.1.7. DPX format
Digital Picture Exchange is a common file format for digital intermediate and visual effects
work. It provides storage of digital motion picture data in a bitmap file format. DPX is a
modification of the Kodak Cineon format. The Society of Motion Picture and Television
Engineers (SMPTE) added header information to DPX not present in the original Kodak
Cineon format.
8.1.8. DNG Format
Digital Negative (DNG) is a patented, open, non-free lossless raw image format written
by Adobe(TM). It is based on TIFF/EP standard format, and mandates significant use of
meta-data. CinemaDNG is the the result of an Adobe-led initiative to define an industrywide open file format for digital cinema files. CinemaDNG caters for sets of movie clips,
each of which is a sequence of raw video images, accompanied by audio and meta-data.
8.1.9. AVI Format
The Microsoft AVI file format is a Resource Interchange File Format (RIFF) file
specification used with applications that capture, edit, and play back audio-video
sequences. In general, AVI files contain multiple streams of different types of data. Most
AVI sequences use both audio and video streams. A simple variation for an AVI
sequence uses video data and does not require an audio stream. The program supports
uncompressed (raw) and compressed AVI. The INDEO 5.11 codec is installed on 32-bit
Windows.
8.1.10.
MOV Format
The Apple Quick Time MOV file format is used with applications that capture, edit, and
play back audio-video sequences. In general, MOV files contain multiple streams of
different types of data. The codec supported in Motion Studio are RAW, TIF and H264.
Apple QuickTime™ is required.
8.1.11.
BLD Format
The BLD format corresponds to the file format RAW, which is known from several
applications. Each BLD file needs a corresponding descriptor file in the DSC format. In a
BLD file all single frames of an image sequence are stored successively uncompressed in
the block format. The data is in binary raw data format (e.g. for grayscale pictures 1 Byte
per Pixel). The descriptor file (DSC) belonging to the BLD file is a line-orientated ASCII
file, in which values like e.g. resolution, frames or date are stored. The DSC file can be
created with any text editor.
8.1.12.
MPEG Format
MPEG, which stands for “Moving Picture Experts Group”, is a name of family standards
used for coding audio-visual in a digital compressed format. MPEG is a generic means of
compactly representing digital video and audio signals for consumer distribution. The
basic idea is to transform a stream of discrete samples into a bit-stream of tokens which
takes less space, but is just as filling to the eye. The graphic library implements the
MPEG-1 format, the standard on which such products as video CD and MP3 are based.
The compression/decompression technique implemented in MPEG is “lossy”, e.g. some
amount of data information is lost.
8.1.13.
MPEG H.264 (Advanced Video Coding)
It is also known as MPEG-4 Part 10 or MPEG-4 AVC (Advanced Video Coding). The
intent of the H.264 project was to create a standard capable of providing good video
quality at substantially lower bit rates than previous standards without increasing the
complexity of design so much that it would be impractical or excessively expensive to
implement. An additional goal was to provide enough flexibility to allow the standard to be
applied to a wide variety of applications on a wide variety of networks and systems,
including low and high bit rates, low and high resolution video and broadcast. The MPEG
H.264 format is supported only on a 32 bit Windows OS with installed QuickTime™.
8.1.14.
Multi-page Bayer Format (MRF)
Multi-page Bayer Format (MRF) is an uncompressed IDT proprietary file format. Multiple
raster images are stored in a single file. The format is described below.
Each MRF file contains a file header, an image header and an array of bytes that defines
the image data bits. The image raster data is not compressed and stored in the file “as it
is”. Mono images pixel depth may be 8, 9 or 10; color images are stored in Bayer format
(8, 9, 10 bit) or in BGR format (24, 27, 30 bit). The file structures are the following:
8.1.14.1. File header
A MRF file begins with a file header structure containing the IDT signature.
typedef struct _MRFFILE_HEADER
{
char szSign[8];
// IDT signature
unsigned int nReserved;
// reserved
} MRFFILE_HEADER, *PMRFFILE_HEADER;
Members
szSign[8]: a 8 char buffer which contains the signature “IDT-MRF”. It indicates that the
file contains a valid Multiple Raw File.
nReserved: this field is reserved for future use.
8.1.14.2. Image header
The file header is followed by the image header which contains general information about
the images.
typedef struct _MRFIMG_HEADER
{
unsigned int nSize;
// size of this header
unsigned int nPages;
// number of pages/frames
unsigned int nWidth;
// image width
unsigned int nHeight;
// image height
unsigned int nBPP;
// bits per pixel
unsigned int nReserved1;
// reserved
unsigned int nReserved2;
// reserved
unsigned int nReserved3;
// reserved
unsigned short nBayer;
// the image is Bayer
unsigned short nCFAPattern; // Bayer pattern
unsigned int userData[59]; // user data array
unsigned int nRecSpeed;
// recording speed
} MRFIMG_HEADER, *PMRFIMG_HEADER;
Members
nSize: size of the structure in bytes.
nPages: number of images contained in the file
nWidth: width of each image in pixels.
nHeight: height of each image in pixels.
nBPP: number of bits per pixels
reserved1,2,3: reserved values.
nBayer: the image is Bayer.
nCFAPattern: color filter array pattern used to de-bayer the image (0:GRBG, 1:BGGR,
2:RGGB, 3:GBRG).
nRecSpeed: the recording speed.
userData: an array of 59 unsigned integer values.
nRecSpeed: the recording speed multiplied by 1000.
8.1.14.3. Data arrays
The image header is followed by the images data. Images are stored contiguously in
uncompressed format.
8.1.15.
Multi-page Compressed Format (MCF)
Multi-page Compressed Format (MCF) is a compressed IDT proprietary file format.
Multiple raster images are stored in a single file.
8.1.16.
Note on 16 bit gray-scale formats
10-bit images acquired from the camera may be saved in different 16 bit formats. These
formats include TIF, PNG, MPT, MRF and MCF. Since 16 bit grayscale format is not a
standard, not all the applications for image processing may correctly display the saved
images.
9. Appendix B – Error codes
A list of Motion Studio error codes with a brief description is below.
ERR001: Internal error. The program has generated a severe internal error and must be
restarted.
ERR005: Invalid database path. The program is trying to open a database from a wrong
directory.
ERR011: Error opening file. The program failed opening an image file because it is
damaged or the format is not supported.
ERR012: Error opening image sequence. The program failed opening an image
sequence because it is damaged or the format is not supported.
ERR023: Camera generic error. Unspecified camera error.
ERR027: Camera play time out. The camera cannot snap images and a time out
occurred. Check if the camera sync configuration is set to external and the external sync
signal is available.
ERR028: Camera acquisition time out. The camera cannot acquire images and a time out
occurs.
ERR033: Unable to open camera. The program cannot start the communication with the
camera. Check the hardware and the cables.
ERR034: Unable to create a folder. The program cannot create a new folder in the
database for the storage of the acquired images. Check your administrator privileges.
ERR035: not enough camera memory to add a new acquisition. All the camera memory is
filled with acquisitions. A new acquisition cannot be added.
ERR036: Unable to delete the current acquisition. The program cannot delete the current
acquisition from the camera memory configuration.
ERR037: Camera hardware generic error. An error occurred in the communication
through the USB or the Ethernet cable.
ERR038: The buffer is too small. The buffer allocated for the image snap is too small.
ERR039: Camera device I/O error. An error occurred in the communication through the
USB cable. Check the cables and the USB board.
ERR040: Camera I/O read error. An error occurred while the program was reading an
image from the camera. Check the cables and the USB board.
ERR041: Cannot complete the operation because the camera is busy. The camera is
busy and cannot perform the requested operation. Wait and try again.
ERR042: An error occurred during the calibration procedure. The error can occur during
the camera background calibration or during the tracking calibration. Restart the program
and try again.
ERR045: Invalid range value. The error occurs when the user tries to configure a
parameter which is out of the allowed range. Correct the value and try again.
ERR048: An error occurred during the color balance and/or white balance procedure
because one of the circular targets is outside the image. Move the targets and try again.
ERR049: An error occurred during the color balance and/or white balance procedure.
Move the targets and try again.
ERR055: Unable to create a new database. The error occurs when the program tries to
create a new database. Check your administrator privileges and try again on a different
folder.
ERR056: Unable to delete folder. The error occurs when the program tries to delete a
folder (acquisition, calibration or tracking) from the current database. Check your
administrator privileges.
ERR059: Unable to create calibration folder. The error occurs when the program tries to
create a new calibration folder and save the calibration image.
ERR061: Unable to copy file. The error occurs when the program tries to copy the camera
calibration file from the distribution CD. Check your administrator privileges and the CD
integrity.
ERR065: Invalid camera calibration file. The error occurs when the program tries to copy
a camera calibration file that is not valid. Check if the file is damaged.
ERR067: Camera I/O write error. An error occurred while the program was trying to write
a parameter to the camera. Check the cables and the USB board.
ERR068: Unable to open camera driver. The program cannot start the communication
with the camera. Check the hardware and the cables.
ERR070: Invalid iTunes version. The error occurs because the program is trying to
communicate with the iPod through iTunes and the version is not valid. Install a newer
version of iTunes.
ERR071: iTunes Type library is not compatible. The error occurs because the program is
trying to communicate with the iPod through iTunes and the version is not valid. Install a
newer version of iTunes.
ERR072: Unable to connect to iPod through iTunes. There is a communication error
between the program and the iPod. Try again.
ERR073: More than one iPod found. The computer is connected to more than one iPod.
Disconnect one of them and try again.
ERR074: Unable to connect to iTunes. There is a communication error between the
program and iTunes.
ERR075: Not enough space on the destination database. The error occurs because the
program tries to synchronize with the iPod, but the iPod disk has not enough space to
store the database.
ERR076: Unable to delete the iPod acquisition list. The error occurs because the program
is trying to synchronize with the iPod but it’s not able to delete the previous acquisition
list.
ERR077: Unable to delete the acquisition folder. The error occurs because the program is
trying to synchronize with the iPod but it’s not able to delete one of the acquisition folders.
ERR078: Unable to create the acquisition folder. The error occurs because the program is
trying to synchronize with the iPod but it’s not able to create a new acquisition folder.
ERR079: Unable to copy the database system files. The error occurs because the
program is trying to synchronize with the iPod but it’s not able to copy the database
system files.
ERR080: Unable to find images. The error occurs because the program is trying to
synchronize with the iPod but it cannot find images in the source database.
ERR081: Unable to add files to the iPod acquisition list. The error occurs because the
program is trying to synchronize with the iPod but it cannot add a sequence to the iPod
list.
ERR082: Unable to add files to the iPod acquisition list. The error occurs because the
program is trying to synchronize with the iPod but it cannot add a sequence to the iPod
folders.
ERR083: Unable to convert the acquisition to the iPod format. The error occurs because
the program is trying to add a sequence to the iPod list but it cannot convert it to the
proper iPod format.
ERR084: Multiple camera snap time out. The error occurs because the program is trying
to snap an image from a multiple camera setup. One or more cameras failed, check the
cables. If the system is in Master/Slave configuration check that the sync in connector of
the slave camera is connected to the sync out connector of the master.
ERR086: Unable to save calibration image. The error occurs because the program tries to
save a tracking calibration image. Check your administrator privileges and try again.
ERR087: Unable to download the camera calibration file from flash memory. Check the
cables and try again.
ERR088: The command line passed to the raw converter to convert a file is not correct.
ERR089: Unable to find acquisition directory. This error occurs when the Raw Converter
tries to open an INI files but is not able to find it. Check the command line path and try
again.
ERR090: Invalid configuration file. This error occurs when the Raw Converter tries to
convert a sequence but the configuration file is not valid.
ERR091: Unable to read the RAW file. This error occurs when the Raw Converter tries to
convert a sequence but the raw file is not valid or damaged.
ERR092: the raw file and the converter have different versions. This error occurs when
the Raw Converter tries to convert a sequence generated by an older version of the
software.
ERR093: Unable to set the IP address. This error occurs when the program tries to
change the camera IP address and it fails. Check that the selected IP address is
compatible with the network adapter subnet mask and disconnect the USB cable if it’s
connected.
ERR094: Unable to assign a specific IP address to the camera. The automatic
assignment of the IP addresses has failed. Try with the manual configuration.
ERR095: Data acquisition module over-run. A data acquisition module internal error has
occurred.
ERR096: Data acquisition module under-run. A data acquisition module internal error has
occurred.
ERR097: Unable to download the camera calibration file from flash memory because the
camera calibration file is not stored in the flash. Contact the technical support.
ERR098: The calibration file download has been aborted. The user has clicked the Abort
button during the download.
ERR099: Unable to set the IP address. An error occurred in the procedure of setting the
IP address starting from the camera MAC address. Make sure that the MAC address is
correct and the camera is connected to the network.
ERR100: Unable to save tracking data. The error occurs because the program tries to
save the tracking results to a file and it fails.
ERR101: Invalid file format. The error occurs when a waveform file is not valid. The file
may be damaged or have invalid data.
ERR102: Unable to save to a file. The error occurs when the program cannot save an
image to the specified file format.
ERR103: Unable to save to a file. The error occurs because the file is too large and the
file format does not support that size.
ERR104: Unable to allocate enough computer memory for the acquisition. This error
occurs when M cameras try to acquire a large number of images in computer memory.
ERR105: The camera cable has been disconnected.
ERR106: The program is unable to attach to the camera. The program instance has been
detached from the camera because the control has been taken by someone else.
ERR107: Unable to configure the camera for first use. The procedure of setting up the
camera for the first time failed.
ERR108: Aborted operation. The error message occurs when the user aborts the raw
conversion procedure.
ERR109: The selected region of interest is not supported by this file format.
ERR110: the application is not able to open a device in the Galileo network.
ERR111: the HG100K camera memory cannot be erased.
ERR112: a Galileo wireless device cannot be configured.
ERR113: a frame cannot be read from the camera during a procedure of sequence save.
ERR114: the compressed AVI codec is not valid and the sequence cannot be saved.
ERR115: memory allocation error. The program cannot allocate enough memory to open
and display a sequence of images.
ERR116: write to disk overrun. When the program acquires in direct write to disk mode
with M camera, the memory allocated for buffering is not enough and it is overwritten.
ERR117: SD card download error. The camera cannot download the images to the SD
card.
ERR118: the time limited license has expired. Contact IDT for a new activation code.
ERR119: The activation key cannot be sent to the camera. Reboot the camera, restart
Motion Studio and try again.
ERR120: Read EEPROM error. The camera cannot be initialized because the EEPROM
data cannot be read.
ERR121: The HDMI output cannot be initialized.
ERR122: SD card download error. Some cameras were not able to save the images to
their SD card devices.
ERR123: Unable to save images (communication error). The HG camera is not able to
switch to 1 Gbps speed and the images cannot be downloaded.
ERR124: the message appears when the cameras are configured a Master/Slave and a
time out occurs.
ERR125: When the user selects the Master/Slave mode, the software tries to understand
if the cameras are properly connected. If the detection procedure fails an error message
is generated.
ERR126: the message appears when the user tries to open a raw file generated by old N
cameras. That file cannot be displayed by the RAW viewer but it can be converted by the
RAW converter.
ERR127: some IP addresses such as loopback addresses or multicast addresses, cannot
be used to configure the camera.
ERR128: the log files cannot be downloaded from the HG camera flash memory.
ERR129: the log files cannot be deleted from the hard disk. Make sure they are not used
by some other application.
ERR130: the message appears when the user tries to close Motion Studio when one or
more cameras are still downloading images to the hard disk. The user should wait before
the download is complete.
ERR131: the message appears when the information stored in the camera EEPROM
cannot be retrieved. If the software cannot read the proper information from the camera,
the camera should not be opened because the results are unpredictable. Such error may
appear when there is a communication problem between the camera and the computer
through the Ethernet network.
ERR132: this message appears when the software is not able to send to the camera the
command that stores the configuration in the flash memory. It is a camera internal
firmware error.
ERR133: in SSD mission mode, the configuration cannot be stored into the camera flash
memory.
ERR134: in SSD mission mode, the SSD cannot be erased.
ERR135: in SSD mission mode, a segment of the mission cannot be loaded from the
SSD to the camera memory
ERR136: in SSD mission mode, the configuration cannot be stored into the camera flash
memory and executed right away.
ERR137: in SSD mission mode, the images cannot be read from the SSD to the camera
memory.
ERR138: the specified file cannot be erased.
ERR139: a RAW file cannot be converted because the data cannot be read.
ERR140: unable to read mission data from an XML file.
ERR141: unable to save mission data to an XML file.
ERR142: one or more cameras cannot be armed. The recording is aborted. Check the
cameras cable and power.
ERR143: the values of exposure and frame rate are not the ones that should be
configured in the camera. The recording is aborted and the user should check the
cameras configuration.
ERR144: the data cannot be read from the RAW file and it cannot be converted into an
image.
ERR145: this warning is shown when the camera temperature goes above the threshold
level configured in the general options.
ERR146: this warning is shown when the user configures the steps in mission mode and
the number of steps that he is trying to add exceeds the actual SSD capacity.
10. Appendix C - Spatial filtering
Spatial filters alter pixel values with respect to variations in light intensity in their
neighborhood. The neighborhood of a pixel is defined by the size of a matrix, or mask,
centered in the pixel itself. These filters can be sensitive to the presence or the absence
of light intensity variations. Spatial filters can serve a variety of purposes, such as
detecting edges along a specific direction, contouring patterns, reducing noise and detail
outlining and smoothing.
Spatial filters fall in two categories:
High-pass filters emphasize significant variations of the light intensity usually found at
the boundary of object. They are also called sharpening filters.
Low-pass filters attenuate variations of the light intensity. They have the tendency to
smooth images by eliminating details and blurring edges. They are also called
smoothing filters.
In the case of a 3x3 matrix, the value of the central pixel derives from the values of its
eight surrounding neighbors. A 5x5 matrix specifies 24 neighbors; a 7x7 matrix specifies
48 neighbors and so forth.
If P(i,j) specifies the intensity of the pixel P with the coordinates (i,j), the pixels surrounding
P(i,j) can be indexed as follows (in the case of a 3x3 matrix):
P(i-1,j-1)
P(i,j-1)
P(i+1,j-1)
P(i-1,j)
P(i,j)
P(i+1,j)
P(i-1,j+1)
P(i,j+1)
P(i+1,j+1)
A linear filter assigns to P(i,j) a value which is a linear combination of its surrounding
values. For example:
P(i,j) = P(i-1,j-1) + P(i,j-1) + P(i+1, j-1) - P(i-1,j+1) - P(i,j+1) - P(i+1,j+1)
A nonlinear filter assigns to P(i,j) a value that is not a linear combination of the
surrounding values. For example:
P(i,j) = max( P(i-1,j-1), P(i+1, j-1), P(i-1,j+1), P(i+1,j+1) )
10.1. Linear filters (Convolution filters)
A convolution is a mathematical function that replaces each pixel by a weighted sum of its
neighbors. The matrix defining the neighborhood of the pixel also specifies the weight
assigned to each neighbor. This matrix is called the convolution kernel.
For each pixel P(i,j) in an image, the convolution kernel is centered on P(i,j). Each pixel
masked by the kernel is multiplied by the coefficient placed on top of it. P(i,j) becomes the
sum of these products.
In the case of 3x3 neighborhood, the coefficients of the kernel matrix can be indexed as
follows.
K(i-1,j-1)
K(i,j-1)
K(i+1,j-1)
K(i-1,j)
K(i,j)
K(i+1,j)
K(i-1,j+1)
K(i,j+1)
K(i+1,j+1)
The grater the absolute value of a coefficient K(a,b), the more the pixel P(a,b) contributes to
the new value of P(i,j). If a coefficient K(a,b) is 0, the neighbor P(a,b) does not contribute to
the new value of P(i,j).
0
1
0
1
0
1
0
1
0
then
P(i,j) = P(i,j-1) + P(i-1,j) + P(i+1, j) + P(i,j+1)
If the kernel contains both negative and positive coefficients, the transfer function is
equivalent to a weighted differentiation and produces a sharpening or high-pass filter (like
Laplacian, Prewitt and Sobel filters).
If all coefficients in the kernel are positive, the transfer function is equivalent to a weighted
summation and produces a smoothing o low-pass filer (like Average and Gaussian
filters).
10.2. Linear sharpening filters
Typical smoothing filters are:
Gradient filters
A gradient filter highlights the variation of light intensity along a specific direction, which
has the effect of outlining edges and revealing texture.
A gradient convolution filter is a first-order derivative. Its kernel uses the following matrix:
a
-b
c
b
x
-d
c
d
-a
Where a, b, c and d are integer coefficients and x=0 or x=1.
This kernel has an axis of symmetry that runs between the positive and negative
coefficients of the kernel and through the central element. This axis of symmetry gives the
orientation of the edges to outline.
There are two sets of pre-defined gradient filters used in Motion Studio. They are listed
below.
The Prewitt filters have the following kernels. The notations N (north) NE(north-east) E
(east) SE (south-east) S (south) SW (south-west) W (west) NW (north-west) indicate
which edges of bright regions they outline.
The Sobel filters are very similar to the Prewitt filters except that they highlight light
intensity variations along a particular axis that is assigned a stronger weight. They have
the following kernels.
Laplacian filters
A Laplacian filter highlights the variation of the light intensity surrounding a pixel. The filter
extracts the contour of objects and outline details. Unlike the gradient filter, it is omni
directional.
The Laplacian filter is a second-order derivative. Its kernel uses the following matrix:
a
d
c
b
x
b
c
d
A
where a, b, c and d are integers.
The Laplacian filter has two different effects, depending on whether the central coefficient
x is equal or greater than the sum of the absolute values of the outer coefficients.
If x is equal to that sum, the filter extracts the pixels where significant variations of light
intensity are found. The presence of sharp edges, boundaries between objects,
modification in the texture of a background, noise, and other effects can cause these
variations. The transformed image contains white contours on a black background.
If x is greater than that sum, the filter detects the same variations as mentioned above,
but superimposes them over the source image. The transformed image looks like the
source image, with all significant variations of the light intensity highlighted.
10.3. Linear Smoothing filters
A smoothing filter attenuates the variations of light intensity in the neighborhood of a
pixel. It smooths the overall shape of objects, blurs edges, and removes details.
It is an averaging filters and its kernel uses the following matrix:
a
d
c
b
x
b
c
d
a
where a, b, c and d are positive integers, and x=0 or x=1.
Because all the coefficients are positive, each central pixel becomes a weighted average
of its neighbors. The stronger the weight of a neighbor is. The more influence it has on
the new value of the central pixel.
A list of average smoothing kernels is shown below
A Gaussian filter attenuates the variations of light intensity in the neighborhood of a
pixel. It smooths the overall shape of objects and attenuates details. It is similar to a
smoothing filter, but its blurring effect is more subdued.
Its kernel uses the following matrix.
a
d
c
b
x
b
c
d
a
where a, b, c and d are positive integers, and x=0 or x=1.
Because all the coefficients are positive, each central pixel becomes a weighted average
of its neighbors. The stronger the weight of a neighbor is. The more influence it has on
the new value of the central pixel.
Unlike a smoothing kernel, the central coefficient of a Gaussian filter is greater than 1.
Therefore the original value of a pixel is multiplied by a value greater than the weight of
any of its neighbors. As a result, a greater central coefficient corresponds to a more
subtle smoothing effect. A larger kernel size corresponds to a stronger smoothing effect.
10.4. Nonlinear filters
A nonlinear filter replaces each pixel with a nonlinear function of its surrounding pixels.
Like the convolution filters the nonlinear filters operate on a neighborhood.
A Median filter is a nonlinear low pass filter that assigns to each pixel the median value
of its neighborhood, effectively reducing isolated pixels and reducing details. However,
the median filter does not blur the contour of objects.
A Maximum Filter is a nonlinear filter that assigns to each pixel the maximum value of
pixels in its neighborhood. This has the effect to increase the contrast of the image.
A Dilation of an image is a particular case of max filter. The output pixel is set to the
maximum of the corresponding input pixel and its 8 neighbors. The effect of dilation is to
fill up holes and to thicken boundaries of objects on a dark background (that is, objects
whose pixel values are greater than those of the background).
A Minimum Filter is a nonlinear filter that assigns to each pixel the minimum value of
pixels in its neighborhood. This has the effect to decrease the contrast of the image.
An Erosion of an image is a particular case of min filter. The output pixel is set to the
minimum of the corresponding input pixel and its 8 neighbors. The effect of erosion is to
remove spurious pixels (such as noise) and to thin boundaries of objects on a dark
background (that is, objects whose pixel values are greater than those of the
background).
Opening an image is a sequence of erosion followed by dilation. The process of opening
has the effect of eliminating small and thin objects, breaking objects at thin points, and
generally smoothing the boundaries of larger objects without significantly changing their
area.
Closing an image is a sequence of dilation followed by erosion. The process of closing
has the effect of filling small and thin holes in objects, connecting nearby objects, and
generally smoothing the boundaries of objects without significantly changing their area.
11. Appendix D - Color Filter Arrays (CFA)
The Color camera uses a single image sensor. Color imaging with a single sensor
requires the use of a Color Filter Array (CFA) which covers the sensor array. In this
fashion each pixel in the detector samples the intensity of just one of the three color
components (red, green or blue). The recovery of full-color images from a CFA-based
sensor requires a method of calculating values of the other color separations at each
pixel. These methods are commonly referred as color interpolation or color “demosaicing” algorithms.
In a single-sensor camera, varying intensities of light are measured at a rectangular grid
of image sensors. To construct a color image, a CFA must be placed between the lens
and the sensors. A CFA typically has one color filter element for each sensor. Obviously,
the color interpolation algorithms depend on the CFA configuration. Many different CFA
configurations have been proposed. The one used in IDT cameras is the Bayer pattern.
A Bayer pattern consists of pixels on your sensor tinted green, red or blue and set in a
mosaic pattern. Consider the figure below: moving from left to right and then down, you
see that you have a GR-BG pattern. This is your Bayer pattern, and is then placed all
over the sensor to form the Bayer Mosaic Pattern. This means that you have half of your
pixels tinted with a Green sensitive element, a quarter tinted with a Red sensitive
element, and a quarter tinted with a Blue sensitive element.
IDT cameras have different Bayer patterns. See the table below.
Model
Pattern
X3, M3, Y3-C, Y3-HD, NX3-S1, NX3-S2
BGGR
X4, X5, M5, Y5, NX5, Os5
GRBG
Y4, Y3-S1, Y3-S2, Y6, Y7, Y8
GBRG
NX3-S3, NX3-S4, NX4, NX7, NX8, CC1060
GBRG
OS7, CC1520, CC1540
GBRG
OS10, CC4010
RGGB
HG100K, HGLE, HGTH
GBRG
12. Appendix F – Glossary
A
Ambient Light
It’s the available natural light completely surrounding a subject. It’s tight already existing
in an indoor or outdoor setting that is not caused by any illumination supplied by artificial
light source.
Aperture
It’s the lens opening. The hole or opening formed by the metal leaf diaphragm inside the
lens or the opening in a camera lens through which light passes to expose the sensor.
The size of aperture is either fixed or adjustable. Aperture size is usually calibrated in fnumbers-the larger the number, the smaller the lens opening. Aperture affects depth of
field, the smaller the aperture, the greater is the zone of sharpness, the bigger the
aperture, the zone of sharpness is reduced. The size of the aperture is indicated by its fnumber.
ASCII
American Standard Code for Information Interchange, an encoding system for converting
keyboard characters and instructions into the binary number code that the computer
understands.
Aspect ratio
It’s the ratio between the width and height of an image or image sensor.
Auto focus
It’s a system that automatically focuses the camera lens.
AVI (Audio Video Interleaved)
It’s a file format used to store video and audio. For further information, refer to the
Microsoft™ documentation.
B
Bandwidth
It’s the capacity of a networked connection and determines how much data can be sent
along the networked wires. The bandwidth is particularly important for Internet
connections, since greater bandwidth also means faster downloads.
Bayer pattern
A Bayer pattern consists of pixels on the sensor tinted green, red or blue and set in a
mosaic pattern. Moving from left to right and then down, the pattern may be GR-BG. This
is the sensor’s Bayer pattern, and is then placed all over the sensor to form the Bayer
Mosaic Pattern. This means that half of the pixels are tinted with a Green sensitive
element, a quarter tinted with a Red sensitive element, and a quarter tinted with a Blue
sensitive element.
Binning
Binning is a method of increasing camera speed and sensitivity to boost low signals.
Binning causes the acquired image to be brighter and smaller, but the resolution will be
lower as a result. Because the image is smaller, the image transfer time is reduced
significantly. When you select a binning setting in your imaging software, the camera
combines data from several pixels in the camera’s CCD into a single super pixel. For
example, a 2x2 bin means that 2 pixels in the horizontal direction and 2 pixels in the
vertical direction are combined to form one super pixel.
Bit Depth
It’s the color or gray scale of an individual pixel. A pixel with 8 bits per color gives a 24 bit
image. (8 Bits x 3 colors are 24 bits.) 24 bit color resolution is 16.7 million colors.
BMP (Bitmap)
It’s a file format used to store images. For further information, refer to the Microsoft™
documentation.
BNC
BNC is the acronym for Bayonet Neill-Concelman (for the inventors Paul Neill and Carl
Concelman). It’s a twist-and-lock connector for coaxial cables, used for electronic
equipment and for wiring LANs.
Brightness
It’s the value of a pixel in an electronic image, representing its lightness value from black
to white. It’s usually defined as brightness levels ranging in value from 0 (black) to 255
(white).
BROC (Burst Record on Command)
It’s one of the operating modes of a camera with on board memory. The memory is
divided into segments; the camera acquires in circular mode in a segment. When the
event trigger is issued, the camera completes the acquisition and start acquiring in the
following segment until the memory is filled.
C
C-Mount
A standard threaded lens mount used to attach a camera to a microscope, or a separate
lens to a camera.
CCD (Charge Coupled Device)
It’s the light sensitive silicon chip near the optical interface of the camera that converts
light intensities into electrical signals. Every pixel's charge is transferred through a very
limited number of output nodes (often just one) to be converted to voltage, buffered, and
sent off-chip as an analog signal. All of the pixel can be devoted to light capture, and the
output's uniformity (a key factor in image quality) is high.
Circular Mode
It’s one of the operating modes of a camera with on board memory. The camera acquires
and restarts when the memory is filled. The camera waits for an event trigger to complete
the acquisition.
CFA (Color Filter Array)
The filter dyes placed directly over each pixel on the chip surface.
CMOS (Complementary Metal-Oxide Semiconductor)
It’s the light sensitive silicon chip near the optical interface of the camera that converts
light intensities into electrical signals. Each pixel has its own charge-to-voltage
conversion, and the sensor often also includes amplifiers, noise-correction, and
digitization circuits, so that the chip outputs digital bits. These other functions increase the
design complexity and reduce the area available for light capture. With each pixel doing
its own conversion, uniformity is lower. But the chip can be built to require less off-chip
circuitry for basic operation.
Contrast
It’s a measure of rate of change of brightness in an image.
D
Dark Current
The charge accumulated by pixels while not exposed to light. Normally, this charge is
reduced or eliminated prior to capturing a picture.
Depth of Field
The distance between the nearest and farthest points that appears in acceptably sharp
focus in a photograph. Depth of field varies with lens aperture, focal length, and camerato-subject distance.
Diaphragm
An adjustable device inside the lens which is similar to the iris in the human eye, it’s
comprised of six or seven overlapping metal blades; continuously adjustable from "wide
open" to "stopped down"; controls the amount of light allowed to pass through the lens
and expose the sensor when a picture is taken. It also controls the amount of depth of
field the photograph will have. Openings are usually calibrated in f-numbers. The more
blades used will have a more natural and rounded spots.
Digitization
It’s the process of converting analog information into digital format.
Digital Camera
It’s an electronic device used to capture and store photographs electronically instead of
using photographic film like conventional cameras. Modern compact digital cameras are
typically multifunctional, with some devices capable of recording sound and/or video as
well as photographs.
Double Exposure
It’s a capability of CCD and CMOS cameras to acquire two images within a 100 ns
interval. The first camera exposure may be controlled while the second exposure doesn’t.
DLL (Dynamic Linking Library)
A dynamic link library (DLL) is a collection of small programs, any of which can be called
when needed by a larger program that is running in the computer. The small program that
lets the larger program communicate with a specific device such as a printer or scanner is
often packaged as a DLL program (usually referred to as a DLL file). The advantage of
DLL files is that, because they don't get loaded into RAM together with the main program,
space is saved in RAM.
Dynamic Range
It’s the ratio of the saturation level of the CCD to the readout noise of the CCD camera
system. Dynamic range is a measure of the ability of the camera to capture both bright
and dark features in a single image. In general, the higher the camera’s dynamic range,
the more information per pixel it can capture. It’s usually expressed in dB.
E
Ethernet (10Base-T)
It’s a local area network (LAN) architecture developed by Xerox Corporation in
cooperation with DEC and Intel in 1976. Ethernet uses a bus or star topology and
supports data transfer rates of 10 Mbps.
Exposure
The amount of time that light reaches the image sensor.
F
F-Number
The ratio of the diameter of the opening to the focal length of the lens; a large aperture is
indicated by a small numerical f-number. The f-number series is a geometric progression
based on changes in the size of the lens aperture, as it is opened and closed. As the
scale rises, each number is multiplied by a factor of 1.4. The standard numbers for
Calibration are 1.0, 1.4, 2, 2.8, 4, 5.6, 8, 11, 16, 22, 32, etc., and each change results in a
doubling or halving of the amount of light transmitted by the lens to the film plane.
Fast Ethernet (100Base-T)
A newer version of Ethernet, called also 100Base-T, which supports data transfer rates of
100 Mbps.
Field of View
It’s the area visible through the camera’s optics.
Fill Factor
The fill factor indicates the size of the light sensitive photodiode relative to the surface of
the pixel. Because of the extra electronics required around each pixel the "fill factor" tends
to be quite small, especially for Active Pixel Sensors which have more per pixel circuitry.
To overcome this limitation, often an array of micro-lenses is placed on top of the sensor.
FireWire (IEEE 1394)
High bandwidth (40 megabytes/second - 1394a; 80 megabytes/second - 1394b) interface
for connecting digital imaging, storage, and other devices to host computers.
Focal Length
The distance from the optical center of the lens to the image sensor when the lens is
focused on infinity, usually expressed in millimeters.
Focus
It’s the process of bringing one plane of the scene into sharp focus on the image sensor.
Fps (Frames per second)
It’s used to describe how many frames a camera can acquire per second.
Frame
One of the still pictures that make up a video.
Frame Grabber
It’s a device that lets you capture individual frames out of a video camera or off a video
tape.
Frame Rate
It’s the number of frames that are shown or sent each second. Live action relates to a
frame rate of 30 frames per second.
G
Gigabit Ethernet
A version of Ethernet, which supports data transfer rates of 1 Gigabit (1,000 megabits)
per second. The first Gigabit Ethernet standard (802.3z) was ratified by the IEEE 802.3
Committee in 1998.
Gray Level
It’s the brightness of a pixel.
Gray Scale
It’s an image containing shades of gray as well as black and white.
GUI (Graphical User Interface)
A system that simplifies selecting computer commands by enabling the user to point to
symbols or illustrations (called icons) on the computer screen with a mouse.
H
High-G
It refers to the Vehicle Impact Test or similar environment that includes up to 100-G shock
and 5-G vibration stress. Generally indicates ability to withstand extreme shock and
vibration forces.
I
Image Intensifier
It’s an electro-optical vacuum tube which intensifies or amplifies on low light level images.
Integration
It’s the active collection of photons as done by an image sensor.
Interpolation
Method used to increase the resolution of an image map by adding pixels to an image
based on the value of surrounding pixels. This method can cause artifacts.
IP Address
The Internet Protocol Address is a unique set of numbers used to locate another
computer on a network. The format of an IP address is a 32-bit string of four numbers
separated by periods. Each number can be from 0 to 255 (i.e., 1.154.10.266). Within a
closed network IP addresses may be assigned at random, however, IP addresses of web
servers must be registered to avoid duplicates.
IRIG (Inter-Range Instrumentation Group)
Time code signals of various formats defined by the IRIG 200-98 standard/time derived
from GPS satellites. Both require an optional receiver/decoder/generator module.
Iris
It’s a diaphragm in the lens that opens or closes to set the aperture (the amount of light
that passes through the lens to the CCD).
J
K
L
Laser
Laser is an acronym for Light Amplification by Stimulated Emission of Radiation. A laser
is a cavity, with mirrors at the ends, filled with material such as crystal, glass, liquid, gas
or dye. It’s a device which produces an intense beam of light with the unique properties of
coherence, collimation and mono-chromaticity.
LED (Light Emitting Diode)
Light producing transistor used to display dots, numeric and text, slowly replacing by LCD
display.
Lens
One or more pieces of optical glass or similar material designed to collect and focus rays
of light to form a sharp image on the sensor.
Lossless
It’s an image format which stores the image in a non-compressed format, or in a
compressed format that don’t loose information.
Lossy
It’s an image format that sacrifices a certain amount of image information in order to
create a smaller compressed file.
Low-G
It refers to a general industrial environment with less than 10-G shock and 2.5-G vibration
stresses.
M
MAC Address
The Media Access Control address is a hardware address that uniquely identifies each
node of a network. A MAC address is 48 bits long and is commonly written as a sequence
of 12 hexadecimal digits (for instance, 48-3F-0A-91-00-BC). MAC addresses are uniquely
set by the network adapter manufacturer and are sometimes called "physical addresses"
for this reason.
MCF (Multi-page Compressed Format)
Multi-page Compressed Format (MRF) is a compressed IDT proprietary file format.
Multiple raster images are stored in a single file.
Micro-lens
To overcome the limitations of a low fill factor, on certain sensors an array of micro-lenses
is placed on top of the pixel array in order to funnel the photons of a larger area into the
smaller area of the light sensitive photodiode.
Megapixel
It means having a resolution of one million pixels.
MOV
It’s a file format used to store images. The Apple Quick Time MOV file format is used with
applications that capture, edit, and play back audio-video sequences.
MPEG (Moving Picture Experts Group)
It’s a file format used to store videos. MPEG is a name of family standards used for
coding audio-visual in a digital compressed format. MPEG is a generic means of
compactly representing digital video and audio signals for consumer distribution.
MRF (Multi-page Raw Format)
Multi-page Raw Format (MRF) is an uncompressed IDT proprietary file format. Multiple
raster images are stored in a single file.
N
NTSC (National Television Standards Committee)
It’s a standard for video broadcasting and recording in the US and Japan.
O
Offset
It’s the offset value adjusts the CCD black level relative to the analog-to-digital converter
zero. It is factory-optimized for the camera’s maximum dynamic range.
Optical Zoom
It indicates that the camera has a real multi-focal length lens, as opposed to a digital
zoom, which magnifies the center portion of the picture.
P
PAL (Phase Alternation Line)
It’s a standard for video broadcasting and recording in Europe.
Palette
It’s a thumbnail of all available colors to a computer or devices. The palette allows the
user to choose which colors are available for the computer to display. The greater the
number of colors, the larger the data file becomes and more processing time is required
to display your images. If the system uses 24-bit color, then over 16.7 million colors are
included in the palette.
Peltier Cooler
Thermoelectric cooling uses the Peltier effect to create a heat flux between the junctions
of two different types of materials. This effect is commonly used in electronic components
and small instruments. There are no moving parts and such a device is maintenance free.
Pixel
It’s an individual element of either a sensor or a digital image.
PIV (Particle Image Velocimetry)
Particle Image Velocimetry is an optical method used to measure velocities and related
properties in fluids. The fluid is seeded with particles, which, for the purposes of PIV, are
generally assumed to faithfully follow the flow dynamics. It is the motion of these seeding
particles that is used to calculate velocity information.
Plug-in
A file containing data used to alter, enhance, or extend the operation of a parent
application program. Plug-ins, both commercially and independently authored, can
usually be downloaded for free and are stored locally. Plug-ins come in different versions
specific to particular operating systems.
PNG (Portable Network Graphics)
It’s a file format used to store images. PNG is an extensible file format for the lossless,
portable, well-compressed storage of raster images. PNG provides a patent-free
replacement for GIF and can also replace many common uses of TIFF. Indexed-color,
grayscale, and true-color images are supported, plus an optional alpha channel. Sample
depths range from 1 to 16 bits.
Pulse
It’s a signal whose amplitude deviates from zero for a short period of time. A pulse may
be periodic (pulse train) and not periodic (single pulse). The Pulse Width is the time
between the rising edge and the falling edge of a pulse. If the pulse is periodic it has a
period and a duty cycle.
Q
Quantum Efficiency
It’s a quantity defined for a photosensitive device such as photographic film or a sensor
(CCD or CMOS) as the percentage of photons hitting the photo reactive surface that will
produce an electron-hole pair. It is an accurate measurement of the device's sensitivity. It
is often measured over a range of different wavelengths to characterize a device's
efficiency at different energies.
R
Resolution
Resolution is expressed as either the number of pixels counted horizontally by the
number of pixels counted vertically or by the number of mega pixels. It can be expressed
as one of the following formats: QVGA (320 x 240), VGA (640 x 480), SVGA (800 x 600),
XGA (1024 x 768) UXGA (1600 x 1200).
RGB (Red, Green and Blue)
The color system used in most digital cameras in which the image is separated by
capturing the red, green, and blue light separately and then are re-combined to create a
full color image.
S
Sensor
It’s an electronic device that converts the light allowed in by the shutter to an electrical
signal.
Sensor Gain
It’s the amount of analog signal amplification. The gain is factory-optimized for the
camera’s maximum dynamic range.
Sharpness
The clarity of detail in a photo
Shutter
It’s the device in the camera that opens and closes to let light from the scene strike the
image sensor and expose the image. The three primary types used in digital photography
are digital shutters, iris shutters and focal plane shutter.
SDK (Software Development Kit)
It’s a programming package that enables a programmer to develop applications for a
specific platform. An SDK typically includes one or more APIs programming tools and
documentation.
Spike
It’s a short pulse of voltage or current, usually undesirable.
Square wave
It’s a periodic signal which changes instantaneously between two fixed levels. The values
are usually 0 and 5 V (TTL) or 0 to 3.3 V (CMOS).
Switch Closure
It’s a type of external event trigger. The trigger is detected when the poles of the trigger
connector are shorted by a switch.
Synchronous
Synchronous events occur at the same time or at the same rate or with a regular or
predictable time relationship or sequence.
T
TIFF (Tagged Image File Format)
It’s a file format used to store images. TIFF pictures store a single raster image at any
color depth. TIFF is arguably the most widely supported graphic file format in the printing
industry. It supports optional compression, and is not suitable for viewing in Web
browsers.
Thumbnail
It’s a small, low-resolution version of a larger image file that is used for quick
identification.
Trigger
A trigger is something that causes a data acquisition system to start collecting data or a
camera to start acquiring images. It may be as simple as pressing a software button or a
set of conditions which when met trigger data capture (internal triggers), or an externally
generated, hardware signal (an external trigger).
Tripod
A tripod is a three-legged supporting stand used to hold the camera steady, especially
useful when using slow shutter speeds. Another is the monopod, single leg tripod.
TTL (Transistor-Transistor Logic)
A common semiconductor technology for building discrete digital logic integrated circuits.
For digital circuits, logic 1 is obtained for inputs of 2.0 to 5.5 V and logic 0 for inputs of 0
to 0.8 V.
TWAIN
It’s a protocol for exchanging information between applications and devices such as
scanners and digital cameras. TWAIN makes it possible for digital cameras and software
to "talk" with one another on PCs.
U
Underexposure
A picture that appears too dark because not enough light got to the imaging system.
USB (Universal Serial Bus)
It’s a serial bus standard for connecting devices. It was designed for computers such as
PCs and the Apple Macintosh, but its popularity has prompted it to also become
commonplace on video game consoles, PDA, cell phones. It has a slow version (USB 1.1
– 12 Mbps) and a high speed version (USB 2.0 – 480 Mbps).
USB 2.0
Finalized in 2001, Universal Serial Bus (USB) 2.0 is a complete overhaul of the Universal
Serial Bus input/output bus protocol which allows much higher speeds than the older USB
1.1 standard did. The goal of the new serial bus is to broaden the range of external
peripherals that can be used on a computer. A hard drive can easily hit the USB 1.1
bottleneck whereas it now becomes more 'usable' under USB 2.0 conditions. USB 2.0
maximum speed is 480 Mbps.
V
W
White balance
It’s a function to compensate for different colors of light being emitted by different light
sources.
X
XDR (Extended Dynamic Range)
It’s an IDT-proprietary implementation that uses the double exposure capability of the
MotionPro series cameras.
Y
Z
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