Zimbra Collaboration Server Administrator`s Guide

Zimbra Collaboration Server Administrator`s Guide
Zimbra Collaboration Server
Administrator’s Guide
ZCS 8.0
Open Source Edition
August 2013
Legal Notices
Copyright ©2005-2013 Telligent Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. This product is protected by U.S. and
international copyright and intellectual property laws.
“Telligent” and “Zimbra” are registered trademarks or trademarks of Telligent Systems, Inc. in the United
States and other jurisdictions. All other marks and names mentioned herein may be trademarks of their
respective companies.
Telligent Systems, Inc. d/b/a Zimbra Software, LLC
www.zimbra.com
ZCS 8.0
November 2013
Rev 5 for 8.0.6
Table of Contents
1 Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
9
Audience . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9
Third-Party Components . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9
Support and Contact Information . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9
2 Product Overview . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
11
Core Email, Calendar and Collaboration Functionality . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11
Zimbra Components . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12
System Architecture . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12
Zimbra Application Packages . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14
Example of a Typical Multiserver Configuration . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15
Zimbra System Directory Tree . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17
Web Client Versions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18
3 Zimbra Mailbox Server . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
21
Incoming Mail Routing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 21
Mailbox Server . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 21
Message Store . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 21
Data Store. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 22
Index Store . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 22
Mailbox Server Logs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 23
4 Zimbra LDAP Service . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
25
LDAP Traffic Flow . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 25
LDAP Directory Hierarchy . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 26
ZCS LDAP Schema . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 27
ZCS Objects . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 28
Account Authentication . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 30
Internal Authentication Mechanism. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 30
External LDAP and External AD Authentication Mechanism . . . . . . . . . 30
Custom Authentication . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 31
Kerberos5 Authentication Mechanism . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 32
Global Address List . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 33
Flushing LDAP Cache . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 34
Flush the Cache for Themes and Locales . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 35
Flush Accounts, Groups, COS, Domains, and Servers . . . . . . . . . . . . . 35
5 Zimbra Mail Transfer Agent . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
37
Zimbra MTA Deployment . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 37
Postfix Configuration Files . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 38
SMTP Authentication . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 38
SMTP Restrictions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 39
Sending Non Local Mail to a Different Server. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 39
Anti-Virus and Anti-Spam Protection . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 39
Anti-Virus Protection . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 39
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Anti-Spam Protection . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 40
Receiving and Sending Mail . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 42
Message Queues . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 42
6 Zimbra Proxy Server . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
45
Proxy Components . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 45
Proxy Architecture and Flow . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 45
Change the Zimbra Proxy Configuration . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 46
Zimbra IMAP/POP Proxy . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 46
Zimbra Proxy Ports for POP and IMAP . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 47
Setting Up IMAP and POP Proxy After HTTP Proxy Installation . . . . . . 47
Configure ZCS HTTP Proxy . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 49
Setting Up HTTP Proxy . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 50
Set Proxy Trusted IP Addresses. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 52
Configure Zimbra Proxy for Kerberos Authentication . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 53
7 Using the Administration Console . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
55
Administrator Accounts . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 55
Change Administrator Passwords . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 55
Log in to the Administration Console . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 55
Managing Tasks . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 56
Message of the Day for Administrators . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 56
Create a Message of the Day . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 56
Remove a Message of the Day . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 56
Zimbra Search . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 57
8 Managing Configuration . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
59
Global Configuration . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 59
General Global Settings . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 60
Setting Up Email Attachment Rules . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 61
Blocking Email Attachments by File Type. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 61
Global MTA Settings. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 61
Global IMAP and POP Settings . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 63
Working With Domains . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 63
Domain General Information Settings. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 64
Global Address List (GAL) Mode . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 65
Using GAL sync accounts for faster access to GAL . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 66
Authentication Modes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 67
Virtual Hosts . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 68
Renaming a Domain . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 68
Adding a Domain Alias . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 69
Zimlets on the Domain . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 69
Managing Server Settings . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 69
General Server Settings . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 70
Change MTA Server Settings . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 71
Setting Up IP Address Binding . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 71
Managing SSL Certificates for ZCS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 72
Installing Certificates. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 72
Viewing Installed Certificates . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 73
Maintaining Valid Certificates . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 73
Install a SSL Certificate for a Domain . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 73
Using DKIM to Authenticate Email Message . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 74
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Configure ZCS for DKIM Signing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 75
Update DKIM Data for a Domain . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 76
Remove DKIM Signing from ZCS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 76
Retrieve DKIM Data for a Domain . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 77
Anti-spam Settings . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 77
Anti-virus Settings . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 81
Zimbra Free/Busy Calendar Scheduling . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 81
Storage Management . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 83
Email Retention Management . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 83
Configure Email Lifetime Rules . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 84
Configure Message Retention and Deletion Policies . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 84
Managing the Dumpster . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 85
Configure Legal Hold on an Account . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 86
Customized Admin Extensions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 86
Setting System-wide Signatures . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 87
Backing Up the System . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 87
9 Managing User Accounts . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
89
Change Status of Accounts . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 89
Delete an Account . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 90
View an Accounts Mailbox . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 90
Use an Email Alias . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 90
Work with Distribution Lists . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 90
Setting Subscription Policies for Distribution Lists . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 91
Management Options for Owners of Distribution Lists . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 91
Creating a Distribution List . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 92
Enable Viewing of Distribution List Members for AD Accounts . . . . . . . 93
Using Dynamic Distribution Lists . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 93
Create Dynamic Distribution Lists from the Administration Console . . . 94
Using CLI to Manage Dynamic Distribution Lists . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 96
10 Customizing Accounts . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
97
Messaging and Collaboration Applications . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 97
Email Messaging Features . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 97
Set Up Address Book Features . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 103
Set Up Calendar Features . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 103
Set Up Zimbra Tasks . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 106
Setting Zimbra Web Client UI Themes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 107
Other Configuration Settings for Accounts . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 107
Enable Sharing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 107
Configure SMS Notification. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 107
Display a Warning When Users Try to Navigate Away. . . . . . . . . . . . . 108
Enabling the Check Box for the Web Client . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 108
Preferences Import/Export . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 108
Add Words to Spell Dictionary . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 108
11 Zimlets . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
109
Manage Zimlets from the Administration Console . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 109
Deploy Custom Zimlets. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 110
Enable, Disable, or Make Zimlets Mandatory . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 110
Undeploy a Zimlet. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 110
Add Proxy-Allowed Domains to a Zimlet . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 111
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Upgrading a Zimlet . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 111
Managing Zimlets from the Command Line Interface . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 111
Deploying Zimlets . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 111
Add Proxy Allowed Domains to a Zimlet. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 112
Deploying a Zimlet and Granting Access to a COS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 112
Viewing Zimlet List . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 112
Changing Zimlet Configurations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 112
Upgrading a Zimlet . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 113
Zimbra Gallery . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 114
Customized Zimlets . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 114
12 Monitoring ZCS Servers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
115
Zimbra Logger . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 116
Enable Server Statistics . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 116
Review Server Status . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 116
Enable or Disable Server Services . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 117
Server Performance Statistics . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 117
Configure Logger Mail Reports. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 118
Configuring Disk Space Notifications . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 118
Monitoring Servers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 118
Configuring Denial of Service Filter Parameters . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 119
Identifying False Positives . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 119
Customizing DoSFilter Configuration . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 120
Tuning Considerations for ZCS 8.0.3 and later . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 121
Working with Mail Queues . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 121
View Mail Queues. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 123
Flush Message Queues . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 123
Monitoring Mailbox Quotas . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 123
View Quota . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 124
Increase or Decrease Quota. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 124
Viewing MobileSync Statistics . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 124
Monitoring Authentication Failures . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 124
Viewing Log Files . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 125
Syslog . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 126
Use log4j to Configure Logging . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 126
Logging Levels . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 126
Protocol Trace . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 128
Review mailbox.log Records . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 129
Reading a Message Header . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 132
Fixing Corrupted Mailbox Index . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 133
Check if an Index is Corrupt . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 133
Repair and Reindex a Corrupt Index . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 134
SNMP Monitoring and Configuration . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 134
SNMP Monitoring Tools . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 134
SNMP Configuration . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 134
Errors Generating SNMP Traps . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 134
Checking MySQL . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 134
Checking for ZCS Software Updates . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 135
Updating Zimbra Connector for Microsoft Outlook . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 135
Types of Notifications and Alerts Sent by ZCS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 136
Service status change notification . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 136
Disk usage notification . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 136
Duplicate mysqld processes running notification . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 136
vi
Open Source Edition 8.0
Zimbra Collaboration Server
SSL certificates expiration notification . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Daily report notification . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Database integrity check notification . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Backup completion notification . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
137
137
137
137
Appendix A Command-Line Utilities . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 139
General Tool Information . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 139
Zimbra CLI Commands . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 140
Using non-ASCII Characters in CLIs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 144
zmprov (Provisioning) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 144
Configure Auto-Grouped Backup from the CLI . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 156
Changing Conversations Thread Default . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 156
Detect Corrupted Indexes. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 157
zmaccts . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 158
zmcalchk . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 158
zmcontrol (Start/Stop/Restart Service) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 159
zmgsautil . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 160
zmldappasswd . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 161
zmlocalconfig . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 162
zmmailbox . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 163
zmtlsctl . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 166
zmmetadump . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 167
zmmypasswd . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 167
zmproxyconfgen . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 168
zmproxypurge . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 168
zmskindeploy . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 169
zmsoap . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 169
zmstat-chart . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 170
zmstat-chart-config . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 171
zmstatctl . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 172
zmthrdump . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 172
zmtrainsa . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 172
zmtzupdate . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 173
zmvolume . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 173
zmzimletctl . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 174
zmproxyconfig . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 175
zmsyncreverseproxy . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 177
Appendix B Configuring SPNEGO Single Sign-On . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 179
Configuration Process . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 179
Create the Kerberos Keytab File . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 180
Configure ZCS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 182
Configure Your Browser . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 185
Test your setup . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 185
Troubleshooting setup . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 186
Configure Kerberos Auth with SPNEGO Auth . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 187
Appendix C ZCS Crontab Jobs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 189
How to read the crontab . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 189
ZCS Cron Jobs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 189
Jobs for crontab.store . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 190
Zimbra Collaboration Server
Open Source Edition 8.0 vii
Administrator’s Guide
Jobs for crontab.logger . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 190
Jobs for crontab.mta . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 191
Single Server Crontab -l Example . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 192
Appendix D Glossary . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 195
Index . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 201
viii
Open Source Edition 8.0
Zimbra Collaboration Server
1
Introduction
Zimbra Collaboration Server (ZCS) is a full-featured messaging and
collaboration solution that includes email, address book, calendaring, tasks,
and Web document authoring.
Topics in this chapter include:
Audience
Third-Party Components
Support and Contact Information
Audience
This guide is intended for system administrators responsible for installing,
maintaining, and supporting the server deployment of ZCS.
Readers of this guide should have the following recommended knowledge and
skill sets:

Familiarity with the associated technologies and standards Linux operating
system, and open source concepts

Industry practices for mail system management
Third-Party Components
Where possible, Zimbra adheres to existing industry standards and open
source implementations for backup management, user authentications,
operating platform, and database management. However, Zimbra only
supports the specific implementations described in the ZCS architecture
overview in the Product Overview chapter as officially tested and certified for
the ZCS. This document might occasionally note when other tools are
available in the marketplace, but such mention does not constitute an
endorsement or certification.
Support and Contact Information
Visit www.zimbra.com to join the community and to be a part of building the
best open source messaging solution. We appreciate your feedback and
suggestions.

Contact sales@zimbra.com to purchase Zimbra Collaboration Server
Zimbra Collaboration Server
Open Source Edition 8.0 9
Administrator Guide

Explore the Zimbra Forums for answers to installation or configurations
problems

Join the Zimbra Forums, to participate and learn more about the Zimbra
Collaboration Server
Let us know what you like about the product and what you would like to see in
the product. Post your ideas to the Zimbra Forum.
If you encounter problems with this software, go to http://bugzilla.Zimbra.com
to submit a bug report. Make sure to provide enough detail so that the bug can
be easily duplicated.
10
Open Source Edition 8.0
2
Product Overview
The Zimbra Collaboration Server (ZCS) architecture is built with well-known
open source technologies and standards based protocols. The architecture
consists of client interfaces and server components that can be ran in a single
node configuration or deployed across multiple servers for high availability and
increased scalability.
Core Email, Calendar and Collaboration Functionality
Zimbra Components
System Architecture
Zimbra Application Packages
Example of a Typical Multiserver Configuration
Zimbra System Directory Tree
The architecture includes the following core advantages:

Open source integrations. Linux®, Jetty, Postfix, MySQL®, OpenLDAP®.

Uses industry standard open protocols. SMTP, LMTP, SOAP, XML,
IMAP, POP.

Modern technology design. HTML5, Javascript, XML, and Java.

Horizontal scalability. Each Zimbra mailbox server includes its own
mailbox accounts and associated message store and indexes. Zimbra has
the flexibility to scale both vertically by adding more system resources or
horizontally by adding more servers.

Browser based client interface. Zimbra Web Client gives users easy
access to all the ZCS features.

Browser based administration console.
Core Email, Calendar and Collaboration Functionality
ZCS is an innovative messaging and collaboration application that offers the
following state-of-the-art solutions that are accessed through a browser based
web client.

Intuitive message management, search, tagging, and sharing.

Personal, external, and shared calendar
Zimbra Collaboration Server
11
Administrator Guide

Personal and shared Address Books and Distribution Lists.

Personal and Shared Task lists.
Zimbra Components
Zimbra architecture includes open-source integrations using industry standard
protocols. The third-party software listed below is bundled with Zimbra
software and installed as part of the installation process. These components
have been tested and configured to work with the software.

Jetty, the web application server that Zimbra software runs in.

Postfix, an open source mail transfer agent (MTA) that routes mail
messages to the appropriate Zimbra server

OpenLDAP software, an open source implementation of the Lightweight
Directory Access Protocol (LDAP) that stores Zimbra system
configuration, the Zimbra Global Address List, and providers user
authentication. Zimbra can also work with GAL and authentication services
provided by external LDAP directories such as Active Directory

MySQL database software

Lucene, an open source full-featured text and search engine

Anti-virus and anti-spam open source components including:

•
ClamAV, an anti-virus scanner that protects against malicious files
•
SpamAssassin, a mail filter that attempts to identify spam
•
Amavisd-new interfaces between the MTA and one or more content
checkers
James/Sieve filtering, used to create filters for email
System Architecture
The ZCS architectural design is displayed in the ZCS Collaboration Server
Architecture figure. This shows the open-source software bundled with the
ZCS and other recommended third-party applications.
12
Product Overview
ZCS Collaboration Server Architecture
Meta-Data store
End user interface
3p
JavaScript
browser
application
SOAP/HTTP(S)
ZCS mailbox server
(ZCS Store)
Administrator console
JavaScript
browser
application
3p
SOAP/HTTP(S)
MySQL
Message store
File system
Mailboxd
ZCS application runs
inside of mailboxd
store
3p
ClamAV anti-virus (outbound)
Lucene
User account data
(LDAP)
3p
Microsoft
Exchange
3p
Option to import users
from pre-existing
Exchange server
OpenLDAP
3p
Option for Microsoft
Active Directory
Server (AD) for auth
and GAL
Backups
To disk
LMTP
Logging
Mail routing
(MTA)
*
SMTP
Edge MTA
3p
Syslog
“Redo” logs
Postfix
Anti-virus & Anti-spam plug-ins
Load balancing
Inbound spam filtering
3p
3p
Local
ClamAV antivirus (inbound)
Third-party (proprietary)
3p
3p
Monitoring
(ZCS SNMP)
Spamassassin antispam (inbound)
Third-party (open source)
*
*
Tools such as
swatch
Your choice of technologies
13
Administrator Guide
Zimbra Application Packages
ZCS includes the following application packages.
Zimbra Core
Includes the libraries, utilities, monitoring tools, and
basic configuration files.
zmconfigd is part of zimbra-core and is automatically
enabled and runs on all systems.
Zimbra LDAP
ZCS uses the OpenLDAP software, an open source LDAP
directory server. User authentication, the Zimbra Global
Address List, and configuration attributes are services
provided through OpenLDAP. Note that the Zimbra GAL
and authentication services can be provided by an
external LDAP Directory such as Active Directory.
Zimbra MTA
Postfix is the open source mail transfer agent (MTA) that
receives email via SMTP and routes each message to the
appropriate Zimbra mailbox server using Local Mail
Transfer Protocol (LMTP).
The Zimbra MTA also includes the anti-virus and antispam components.
Zimbra store
(mailbox server)
The Zimbra store package installs the components for the
mailbox server, including Jetty, which is the servlet
container the Zimbra software runs within. Within ZCS, this
servlet container is called mailboxd.
Each account is configured on one mailbox server, and
this account is associated with a mailbox that contains all
the mail messages, file attachments, contacts, calendar,
and collaboration files for that mail account.
Each Zimbra server has its own standalone data store,
message store, and index store for the mailboxes on that
server.
As each email arrives, the Zimbra server schedules a
thread to have the message indexed (Index store).
14
Zimbra-SNMP
Zimbra uses swatch to watch the syslog output to
generate SNMP traps.
Zimbra-Logger
The Zimbra logger installs tools for syslog aggregation,
reporting. If the Logger is not installed, the server statistics
section of the administration console is not displayed.
Zimbra-Spell
Aspell is the open source spell checker used on the
Zimbra Web Client. When zimbra-spell is installed, the
Zimbra-Apache package is also installed.
Product Overview
Zimbra-Proxy
Use of an IMAP/POP proxy server allows mail retrieval for
a domain to be split across multiple Zimbra servers on a
per user basis.
The Zimbra Proxy package can be installed with the
Zimbra LDAP, the Zimbra MTA, the Zimbra mailbox server,
or on its own server.
Zimbra-Memcached is a separate package from zimbraproxy and is automatically selected when the zimbra-proxy
package is installed. One server must run zimbramemcached when the proxy is in use. All installed zimbraproxies can use a single memcached server
Example of a Typical Multiserver Configuration
The exact configuration for each deployment is highly dependent on variables
including the number of mailboxes, mailbox quotas, performance
requirements, existing network infrastructure, IT policies, security
requirements, spam filtering requirements, and so forth.
The figure below shows a typical configuration with incoming traffic and user
connection.
15
Administrator Guide
Typical Configuration with Incoming Traffic and User Connections
firewalls
spam filtering
1
Edge MTA
Load balancer
Internet mail
Edge MTA
3
2
Load balancer
virus and spam
filtering
external
end user
Zimbra MTA
4
Zimbra MTA
5
Zimbra LDAP
Zimbra LDAP
master
replica
7
6
Zimbra mailbox
Server
Zimbra Mailbox
Server
internal
end users &
administrator users
8
Mounted
Backup disk
Internet mail (inbound)
External user connection
Internal user connection
Replication (optional)
Backup
LDAP directory traffic
16
1
Inbound Internet mail goes through a firewall and load balancing to the
edge MTA for spam filtering.
2
The filtered mail then goes through a second load balancer.
3
An external user connecting to the messaging server also goes through a
firewall to the second load balancer.
4
The inbound Internet mail goes to any of the Zimbra MTA servers and goes
through spam and virus filtering.
5
The designated Zimbra MTA server looks up the addressee’s directory
information from the Zimbra LDAP replica server.
Product Overview
6
After obtaining the user’s information from the Zimbra LDAP server, the
MTA server sends the mail to the appropriate Zimbra mailbox server.
7
Internal end-user connections are made directly to any Zimbra mailbox
server, which then obtains the user’s directory information from Zimbra
LDAP and redirects the user as needed.
8
Server backup can be processed to a mounted disk.
Zimbra System Directory Tree
The following table lists the main directories created by the Zimbra installation
packages.
The directory organization is the same for any server in the ZCS, installing
under /opt/zimbra.
Note: The directories not listed in this table are libraries used for building the
core Zimbra software or miscellaneous third-party tools.
Parent
Directory
Description
Created by all ZCS installation packages
/opt/
zimbra/
bin/
ZCS application files, including the utilities described
in Appendix A, Command -Line Utilities
cdpolicyd
Policy functions, throttling
clamav/
Clam AV application files for virus and spam controls
conf/
Configuration information
contrib/
Third-party scripts for conveyance
convertd/
Convert service
cyrus-sasl/
SASL AUTH daemon
data/
Includes data directories for LDAP, mailboxd, postfix,
amavisd, clamav
db/
Data Store
docs/
SOAP txt files and technical txt files
dspam/
DSPAM antivirus
extensionsextra/
Server extensions for different authentication types
extensionsnetworkextra/
Server extensions for different network version
authentication types
17
Administrator Guide
Parent
Directory
Description
httpd/
Contains the Apache Web server. Used for both aspell
and convertd as separate processes
index/
Index store
java/
Contains Java application files
jetty/
mailboxd application server instance. In this directory,
the webapps/zimbra/skins directory includes the
Zimbra UI theme files
lib/
Libraries
libexec/
Internally used executables
log/
Local logs for ZCS server application
logger/
RRD and SQLite data files for logger services
mysql/
MySQL database files
net-snmp/
Used for collecting statistics
openldap/
OpenLDAP server installation, pre-configured to work
with ZCS
postfix/
Postfix server installation, pre-configured to work with
ZCS
redolog/
Contains current transaction logs for the ZCS server
snmp/
SNMP monitoring files
ssl/
Certificates
store/
Message store
zimbramon/
Contains control scripts and Perl modules
zimlets/
Contains Zimlet zip files that are installed with Zimbra
zimletsdeployed/
Contains Zimlets that are available with the Zimbra
Web Client
zmstat/
mailboxd statistics are saved as .csv files
Web Client Versions
Zimbra offers a standard HTML, advanced Javascript, and mobile web clients
that users can log into that users can log into. The web clients include mail,
calendar, address book, and task functionality. Users can select the client to
use when they log in.
18
Product Overview

Advanced web client includes Ajax capability and offers a full set of web
collaboration features. This web client works best with newer browsers
and fast Internet connections.

Standard web client is a good option when Internet connections are slow
or users prefer HTML-based messaging for navigating within their mailbox.

Mobile web client provides an experience optimized for smaller screen
formats available on mobile devices.
When users sign in, they view the advanced Zimbra Web Client, unless they
use the menu on the login screen to change to the standard version. If ZWC
detects the screen resolution to be 800 x 600, users are automatically
redirected to the standard Zimbra Web Client. Users can still choose the
advanced ZWC but see a warning message suggesting the use of the
standard ZWC for better screen view. When connecting to Zimbra using a
mobile web browser, Zimbra will automatically detect and default to the mobile
web client.
19
Administrator Guide
20
3
Zimbra Mailbox Server
The Zimbra mailbox server is a dedicated server that manages all the mailbox
content, including messages, contacts, calendar, and attachments. In a ZCS
single-server environment, all services are on one server. In a ZCS multiserver environment, the LDAP and MTA services can be installed on separate
servers.
The Zimbra mailbox server receives the messages from the Zimbra MTA
server and passes them through any filters that have been created. Messages
are then indexed and deposited into the correct mailbox.
Each Zimbra mailbox server can see only its own storage volumes. Zimbra
mailbox servers cannot see, read, or write to another server.
Incoming Mail Routing
The MTA server receives mail via SMTP and routes each mail message to the
appropriate ZCS mailbox server using LMTP. As each mail message arrives,
it’s content is indexed so that all elements can be searched.
Mailbox Server
Each account is configured on one mailbox server and this account is
associated with a mailbox that contains email messages, attachments,
calendar, contacts and collaboration files for that account. Each Zimbra
mailbox server has its own standalone message store, data store, and index
store for the mailboxes on that server.
Message Store
All email messages are stored in MIME format in the Message Store, including
the message body and file attachments.
The message store is located on each mailbox server under /opt/zimbra/store.
Each mailbox has its own directory named after its internal ZCS mailbox ID.
Mailbox IDs are unique per server, not system-wide.
Messages with multiple recipients are stored as a single-copy on the message
store. On UNIX systems, the mailbox directory for each user contains a hard
link to the actual file.
When ZCS is installed, one index volume and one message volume are
configured on each mailbox server. Each mailbox is assigned to a permanent
Zimbra Collaboration Server
21
Administrator Guide
directory on the current index volume. When a new message is delivered or
created, the message is saved in the current message volume.
Data Store
The ZCS data store is a MySQL database where internal mailbox IDs are
linked with user accounts. All the message metadata including tags,
conversations, and pointers to where the messages are stored in the file
system. The MySQL database files are in opt/zimbra/db.
Each account (mailbox) resides only on one server. Each ZCS server has its
own standalone data store containing data for the mailboxes on that server.

The data store maps the ZCS mailbox IDs to the users’ OpenLDAP
accounts.The primary identifier within the ZCS database is the mailbox ID,
rather than a user name or account name. The mailbox ID is only unique
within a single mailbox server.

Metadata including user’s set of tag definitions, folders, contacts, calendar
appointments, tasks, Briefcase folders, and filter rules are in the data store
database.

Information about each mail message, including whether it is read or
unread, and which tags are associated is stored in the data store
database.
Index Store
The index and search technology is provided through Apache Lucene. Each
email message and attachment is automatically indexed when the message
arrives. An index file is associated with each account. Index files are in opt/
zimbra/index.
The tokenizing and indexing process is not configurable by administrators or
users.
22
Zimbra Mailbox Server
Message Tokenization
2
words
1
3
stanford.edu
stanford.edu
stanford
edu
4
Word List
word
documents
containing word
“Jo Brown” <jb@ZCS.com>
Jo
Brown
jb
jb@zimbra.com
@zimbra.com
zimbra
Lucene
The process is as follows:
1. The Zimbra MTA routes the incoming email to the ZCS mailbox server that
contains the account’s mailbox.
2. The mailbox server parses the message, including the header, the body,
and all readable file attachments such as PDF files or Microsoft Word
documents, in order to tokenize the words.
3. The mailbox server passes the tokenized information to Lucene to create
the index files.
Note: Tokenization is the method for indexing by each word. Certain
common patterns, such as phone numbers, email addresses, and
domain names are tokenized as shown in the Message
Tokenization figure.
Mailbox Server Logs
A ZCS deployment consists of various third-party components with one or
more mailbox servers. Each of the components may generate its own logging
output. Local logs are in /opt/zimbra/log.
Selected ZCS log messages generate SNMP traps, which you can capture
using any SNMP monitoring software. See Chapter 12, Monitoring ZCS
Servers.
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Administrator Guide
24
4
Zimbra LDAP Service
LDAP directory services provide a centralized repository for information about
users and devices that are authorized to use your Zimbra service. The central
repository used for Zimbra’s LDAP data is the OpenLDAP directory server.
Topics in this chapter include:
LDAP Traffic Flow
ZCS LDAP Schema
Account Authentication
ZCS Objects
Global Address List
Flushing LDAP Cache
The LDAP server is installed when ZCS is installed. Each server has its own
LDAP entry that includes attributes specifying operating parameters. In
addition, a global configuration object sets defaults for any server whose entry
does not specify every attribute.
A subset of these attributes can be modified through the Zimbra administration
console and others through the zmprov CLI utility.
LDAP Traffic Flow
The LDAP Directory Traffic figure shows traffic between the Zimbra-LDAP
directory server and the other servers in the ZCS system. The Zimbra MTA
and the ZCS mailbox server read from, or write to, the LDAP database on the
directory server.
The Zimbra clients connect through the Zimbra server, which connects to
LDAP.
Zimbra Collaboration Server
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Administrator Guide
LDAP Directory Traffic
edge MTA
DNS
Zimbra MTA
Zimbra LDAP
directory server
Zimbra mailbox
server
Zimbra
Clients
Zimbra Command
Line Tools
LDAP Directory Hierarchy
LDAP directories are arranged in an hierarchal tree-like structure with two
types of branches, the mail branches and the config branch. Mail branches are
organized by domain. Entries belong to a domain, such as accounts, groups,
aliases, are provisioned under the domain DN in the directory. The config
branch contains admin system entries that are not part of a domain. Config
branch entries include system admin accounts, global config, global grants,
COS, servers, mime types, and zimlets.
The Zimbra LDAP Hierarchy figure shows the Zimbra LDAP hierarchy. Each
type of entry (object) has certain associated object classes.
Zimbra LDAP Hierarchy
Domain Branch
Config Branch
dc=com
cn=zimbra
dc=zimbra
cn=admins
cn=confg
mime
ou=people
cn=groups
uid=jane
26
cn=serverteam
cn=global
grants
cn=cos
cn=servers
cn=zimlets
Zimbra LDAP Service
An LDAP directory entry consists of a collection of attributes and has a
globally unique distinguished name (dn). The attributes allowed for an entry
are determined by the object classes associated with that entry. The values of
the object class attributes determine the schema rules the entry must follow.
An entry’s object class that determines what kind of entry it is, is called a
structural object class and cannot be changed. Other object classes are called
auxiliary and may be added to or deleted from the entry.
Use of auxiliary object classes in LDAP allows for an object class to be
combined with an existing object class. For example, an entry with structural
object class inetOrgPerson, and auxiliary object class zimbraAccount, would
be an account. An entry with the structural object class zimbraServer would be
a server in the Zimbra system that has one or more Zimbra packages
installed.
ZCS LDAP Schema
At the core of every LDAP implementation is a database organized using a
schema.
The Zimbra LDAP schema extends the generic schema included with
OpenLDAP software. It is designed to coexist with existing directory
installations.
All attributes and object classes specifically created for ZCS are prefaced by
“zimbra.,” such as, zimbraAccount object class or zimbraAttachmentsBlocked
attribute.
The following schema files are included in the OpenLDAP implementation:

core.schema

cosine.schema

inetorgperson.schema

zimbra.schema

amavisd.schema

dyngroup.schema

nis.schema
Note: You cannot modify the Zimbra schema.
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Administrator Guide
ZCS Objects
Object
Description
Object class
Accounts
Represents an account on the Zimbra
mailbox server that can be logged into.
Account entries are either
administrators or user accounts. The
object class name is zimbraAccount.
This object class extends the
zimbraMailRecipient object class.
zimbraAccount
All accounts have the following
properties:
A name in the format of
user@example.domain
A unique ID that never changes and is
never reused
A set of attributes, some of which are
user-modifiable (preferences) and
others that are only configurable by
administrators
All user accounts are associated with a
domain, so a domain must be created
before creating any accounts.
28
Class of
Service
(COS)
Defines the default attributes an
account has and what features are
allowed or denied. The COS controls
features, default preference settings,
mailbox quotas, message lifetime,
password restrictions, attachment
blocking, and server pools for creation
of new accounts.
zimbraCOS
Domains
Represents an email domain such as
example.com or example.org. A
domain must exist before email
addressed to users in that domain can
be delivered.
zimbraDomain
Distribution
Lists
Also known as mailing lists, are used to
send mail to all members of a list by
sending a single email to the list
address.
zimbraDistributionList
Zimbra LDAP Service
Object
Description
Object class
Dynamic
Groups
Are like distribution lists. The difference
is members of a dynamic group are
dynamically computed by a LDAP
search. The LDAP search filter is
defined in an attribute on the dynamic
group entry.
zimbraGroup
Note: Both distribution lists and
dynamic groups can be used as
grantee or target in the delegated
administrator framework.
Servers
Represents a particular server in the
Zimbra system that has one or more of
the Zimbra software packages installed.
zimbraServer
Attributes describe server configuration
information, such as which services are
running on the server.
Global
Configurati
on
Specifies default values for the
following objects: server and domain. If
the attributes are not set for other
objects, the values are inherited from
the global settings.
zimbraGlobalConfig
Global configuration values are
required and are set during installation
as part of the Zimbra core package.
These become the default values for
the system.
Alias
Represents an alias of an account,
distribution list or a dynamic group. The
zimbraAliasTarget attribute points to
target entry of this alias entry.
zimbraAlias
Zimlet
Defines Zimlets that are installed and
configured in Zimbra.
zimbraZimletEntry
Calendar
Resource
Defines a calendar resource such as
conference rooms or equipment that
can be selected for a meeting. A
calendar resource is an account with
additional attributes on the
zimbraCalendarResource object
class.
zimbraCalendarResour
ce
Identity
Represents a persona of a user. A
persona contains the user’s identity
such as display name and a link to the
signature entry used for outgoing
emails. A user can create multiple
personas. Identity entries are created
under the user’s LDAP entry in the DIT.
zimbraIdentity
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Administrator Guide
Object
Description
Object class
Data
Source
Represents an external mail source of a
user. Two examples of data source are
POP3 and IMAP. A data source
contains the POP3/IMAP server name,
port, and password for the user’s
external email account. The data
source also contains persona
information, including the display name
and a link to the signature entry for
outgoing email messages sent on
behalf of the external account. Data
Source entries are created under the
user’s LDAP entry in the DIT.
zimbraDataSource
Signature
Represents a user’s signature. A user
can create multiple signatures.
Signature entries are created under the
user’s LDAP entry in the DIT.
zimbraSignature
Account Authentication
Supported authentication mechanisms are Internal, External LDAP, and
External Active Directory. The authentication method type is set on a perdomain basis. If zimbraAuthMech attribute is not set, the default is to use
internal authentication.
The internal authentication method uses the Zimbra schema running on the
OpenLDAP server.
The zimbraAuthFallbackToLocal attribute can be enabled so that the system
falls back to the local authentication if external authentication fails. The default
is FALSE.
Internal Authentication Mechanism
The internal authentication method uses the Zimbra schema running on the
OpenLDAP directory server. For accounts stored in the OpenLDAP server, the
userPassword attribute stores a salted-SHA1 (SSHA) digest of the user’s
password. The user’s provided password is computed into the SSHA digest
and then compared to the stored value.
External LDAP and External AD Authentication Mechanism
External LDAP and external Active Directory authentication can be used if the
email environment uses another LDAP server or Microsoft Active Directory for
authentication and Zimbra-LDAP for all other ZCS-related transactions. This
requires that users exist in both OpenLDAP and in the external LDAP server.
30
Zimbra LDAP Service
The external authentication methods attempt to bind to the specified LDAP
server using the supplied user name and password. If this bind succeeds, the
connection is closed and the password is considered valid.
The zimbraAuthLdapURL and zimbraAuthLdapBindDn attributes are required
for external authentication.

zimbraAuthLdapURL attribute ldap://ldapserver:port/ identifies the IP
address or host name of the external directory server, and port is the port
number. You can also use the fully qualified host name instead of the port
number.
For example:
ldap://server1:3268
ldap://exch1.acme.com
If it is an SSL connection, use ldaps: instead of ldap:. The SSL certificate
used by the server must be configured as a trusted certificate.

zimbraAuthLdapBindDn attribute is a format string used to determine
which DN to use when binding to the external directory server.
During the authentication process, the user name starts out in the format:
user@domain.com
The user name might need to be transformed into a valid LDAP bind DN
(distinguished name) in the external directory. In the case of Active
Directory, that bind dn might be in a different domain.
Custom Authentication
You can implement a custom authentication to integrate external
authentication to your proprietary identity database. When an authentication
request comes in, Zimbra checks the designated auth mechanism for the
domain. If the auth mechanism is set to custom authentication, Zimbra
invokes the registered custom auth handler to authenticate the user.
To set up custom authentication, prepare the domain for the custom auth and
register the custom authentication handler.
Preparing a domain for custom auth
To enable a domain for custom auth, set the domain attribute, zimbraAuthMet
to custom:{registered-custom-auth-handler-name}.
In the following example, “sample” is the name that custom authentication is
registered under.
zmprov modifydomain {domain|id} zimbraAuthMech custom:sample.
Register a custom authentication handler.
To register a custom authentication handler, invoke
ZimbraCustomAuth.register [handlerName, handler] in the init method of the
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Administrator Guide
extension.

Class: com.zimbra.cs.account.ldap.ZimbraCustomAuth

Method: public synchronized static void register [String handlerName,
ZimbraCustomAuth handler]
Definitions
•
handlerName is the name under which this custom auth handler is
registered to Zimbra’s authentication infrastructure. This name is set in
the domain’s zimbraAuthMech attribute of the domain.
•
handler is the object on which the authenticate method is invoked for
this custom auth handler. The object has to be an instance of
ZimbraCustomAuth (or subclasses of it).
Example
public class SampleExtensionCustomAuth implements ZimbraExtension {
public void init() throws ServiceException {
/*
* Register to Zimbra's authentication infrastructure
*
* custom:sample should be set for domain attribute zimbraAuthMech
*/
ZimbraCustomAuth.register("sample", new SampleCustomAuth());
}
...
}
How Custom Authentication Works
When an authentication request comes in, if the domain is specified to use
custom auth, the authenticating framework invokes the authenticate method
on the ZimbraCustomAuth instance passed as the handler parameter to
ZimbraCustomAuth.register ().
The account object for the principal to be authenticated and the clear-text
password entered by the user are passed to ZimbraCustomAuth.authenticate
(). All attributes of the account can be retrieved from the account object.
Kerberos5 Authentication Mechanism
Kerberos5 Authentication Mechanism authenticates users against an external
Kerberos server.
1. Set the domain attribute zimbraAuthMech to kerberos5.
2. Set the domain attribute zimbraAuthKerberos5Realm to the Kerberos5
realm in which users in this domain are created in the Kerberos database.
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Zimbra LDAP Service
When users log in with an email password and the domain,
zimbraAuthMech is set to kerberos5, the server constructs the Kerberos5
principal by {localpart-of-the-email}@{value-ofzimbraAuthKerberos5Realm} and uses that to authenticate to the
kerberos5 server.
To specify Kerberos5 for an individual account set the account’s
zimbraForeignPrincipal as kerberos5:{kerberos5-principal}. For example:
kerberos5:user1@MYREALM.COM.
Global Address List
The Global Address List (GAL) is a company directory of users, usually within
the organization itself, that is available to all users of the email system. ZCS
uses the company directory to look up user addresses from within the
company.
For each ZCS domain you can configure GAL to use:

External LDAP server

ZCS internal LDAP server

Both external LDAP server and OpenLDAP in GAL searches
The ZCS Web Client can search the GAL. When the user searches for a
name, that name is turned into an LDAP search filter similar to the following
example, where the string %s is the name the user is searching for.
(|(cn = %s*)(sn=%s*)(gn=%s*)(mail=%s*))
(zimbraMailDeliveryAddress = %s*)
(zimbraMailAlias=%s*)
(zimbraMailAddress = %s*)
GAL Attributes in ZCS
The Attributes Mapped to ZCS Contact table maps generic GAL search
attributes to their ZCS contact fields.
LDAP attributes are mapped to GAL entry fields. For example, the LDAP
attribute displayName and cn can be mapped to GAL entry field fullName. The
mapping is configured in the zimbraGalLdapAttrMap attribute.
Table 1: Attributes Mapped to ZCS Contact
Standard LDAP Attribute
ZCS Contact Field
co
workCountry
company
Company
givenName/gn
firstName
sn
lastName
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Administrator Guide
Table 1: Attributes Mapped to ZCS Contact
Standard LDAP Attribute
ZCS Contact Field
cn
fullName
initials
initials
l
workCity
street, streetaddress
workStreet
postalCode
workPostalCode
telephoneNumber
workPhone
mobile
mobile
pager
pager
facisimileTelephoneNumber
faxNumber
st
workState
title
jobTitle
mail
email
objectClass
Not currently mapped
ZCS GAL Search Parameters
GAL is configured on a per-domain basis. To configure the attributes, you can
run the GAL Configuration Wizard from the administration console.
Modifying Attributes
Additions, changes and deletions to the GAL attributes are made through the
Zimbra administration console or from the zmprov CLI utility.
Users can modify attributes for their account in the directory when users
change their options from the Zimbra Web Client, they also modify the
attributes when they change their preferences.
Flushing LDAP Cache
When you modify the following type of entries in the Zimbra LDAP server, you
might need to flush the LDAP cache to make the change available on the
server.
34

Themes

Locales

Account

Groups

COS
Zimbra LDAP Service

Domains

Global configuration

Server

Zimlet configuration
Flush the Cache for Themes and Locales
When you add or change theme (skin) property files and locale resource files
for ZCS on a server, you must flush the cache to make the new content
available.

To flush skins, type zmprov flushCache skin.

To flush locales, type zmprov flushCache locale.
Flush Accounts, Groups, COS, Domains, and Servers
When you modify the account, COS, groups, domain, and server attributes,
the change is effective immediately on the server to which the modification is
done. On the other servers, the LDAP entries are automatically updated after
a period of time if the attributes are cached.
The default ZCS setting to update the server is 15 minutes. The caching
period is configured on local config key.

To change the setting, type
zmlocalconfig ldap_cache_<object>_maxage.

To make changes available immediately, type
zmprov flushCache [account|cos|domain|group|server] [name|id].
If you do not specify a name or ID along with the type, all entries in cache
for that type are flushed and the cache is reloaded.
Note: Some server attributes require a server restart even after the cache is
flushed. For example, settings like bind port or number of processing
threads.
Flush Global Attributes
When you modify global config attributes, the changes are effective
immediately on the server to which the modification is done. On other mailbox
servers, you must flush the cache to make the changes available or restart the
server. LDAP entries for global config attributes do not expire.
Some global config attributes are computed into internal representations only
once per server restart. For efficiency reasons, changes to those attributes are
not effective until after a server restart, even after the cache is flushed. Also,
some global configuration settings and server settings that are inherited from
global config are only read once at server startup, for example port or number
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Administrator Guide
of processing threads. Modifying these types of attributes requires a server
restart.
To flush the cache for global config changes on all servers:
1. Modify the setting on the local server
zmprov mcf zimbraImapClearTextLoginEnabled TRUE
The change is only effective on the server
zimbra_zmprov_default_soap_server, port zimbra_admin-service_port.
2. Flush the global config cache on all other servers, zmprov flushCache
must be issued on all servers, one at a time. For example:
zmprov –s server-2 flushcache config
zmprov –s server-3 flushcache config
3. To determine if the action requires a restart
zmprov desc -a <attributename>.
The requiresRestart value is added to the output if a restart is required.
36
5
Zimbra Mail Transfer Agent
The Zimbra MTA (Mail Transfer Agent) receives mail via SMTP and routes
each message using Local Mail Transfer Protocol (LMTP) to the appropriate
Zimbra mailbox server.
Topics in this chapter include:
Zimbra MTA Deployment
SMTP Authentication
Anti-Virus and Anti-Spam Protection
Receiving and Sending Mail
The Zimbra MTA server includes the following programs:

Postfix MTA for mail routing, mail relay, and attachment blocking.

Clam AntiVirus for scanning email messages and attachments in email
messages for viruses.

SpamAssassin to identify unsolicited commercial email (spam).

Amavisd-New used as an interface between Postfix and ClamAV /
SpamAssassin.

Milter servers to filter email ReciptTo content for alias domains and to filter
restricted sender addresses for distribution lists.
In the ZCS configuration, mail transfer and delivery are distinct functions.
Postfix primarily acts as a MTA, and the Zimbra mail server acts as a Mail
Delivery Agent (MDA).
The MTA configuration is stored in LDAP. A configuration script polls the LDAP
directory every two minutes for modifications and updates the Postfix
configuration files with the changes.
Zimbra MTA Deployment
ZCS includes a precompiled version of Postfix to route and relay mail and
manage attachments. Postfix receives inbound messages via SMTP, performs
anti-virus and anti-spam filtering and hands off the mail messages to the ZCS
server via LMTP.
Zimbra Collaboration Server
37
Administrator Guide
Postfix also plays a role in transferring outbound messages. Messages
composed from the Zimbra Web Client are sent by the Zimbra server through
Postfix, including messages sent to other users on the same server.
Postfix in a Zimbra Environment
Edge MTA*
(optional)
Spam and Virus filtering
Message blocking (some types)
SMTP
Directory services
Alias/list information
Routing to Zimbra hosts
Zimbra MTA
(Postfix)
Mail routing
Mail relay
Alias/list expansion
Virus and Spam filtering
LMTP
Zimbra mail server
Storage format
*The Edge MTA can be any edge security solution for mail. You might already
deploy such solutions for functions such as filtering. Some filtering might be
duplicated between an edge MTA and the Zimbra MTA.
Postfix Configuration Files
Zimbra modified the following Postfix files specifically to work with ZCS:

main.cf. Modified to include the LDAP tables. The configuration script in
the Zimbra MTA pulls data from the Zimbra LDAP and modifies the Postfix
configuration files.

master.cf. Modified to use Amavisd-New.
Important: Do not modify the Postfix configuration files! Changes you make
will be overwritten.
SMTP Authentication
SMTP authentication allows authorized mail clients from external networks to
relay messages through the Zimbra MTA. The user ID and password is sent to
the MTA when the SMTP client sends mail so that the MTA can verify if the
user is allowed to relay mail.
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Zimbra Mail Transfer Agent
Note: User authentication is provided through the Zimbra LDAP directory
server, or if implemented, through the Microsoft Active Directory Sever.
SMTP Restrictions
You can enable restrictions so that messages are not accepted by Postfix
when non-standard or other disapproved behavior is exhibited by an incoming
SMTP client. These restrictions provide some protection against spam
senders. By default, clients that do not greet with a fully qualified domain
name are restricted. DNS based restrictions are also available.
Important: Understand the implications of these restrictions before you
implement them. You might have to compromise on these checks to
accommodate people outside of your system who have poorly implemented
mail systems.
Sending Non Local Mail to a Different Server
You can configure Postfix to send nonlocal mail to a different SMTP server,
commonly referred to as a relay or smart host.
A common use case for a relay host is when an ISP requires that all your
email be relayed through a designated host, or if you have filtering SMTP
proxy servers.
The relay host setting must not be confused with Web mail MTA setting. Relay
host is the MTA to which Postfix relays non-local email. Webmail MTA is used
by the Zimbra server for composed messages and must be the location of the
Postfix server in the Zimbra MTA package.
Configure Relay MTA for external delivery from the administration console,
Global Settings>MTA page.
Important: Use caution when setting the relay host to prevent mail loops.
Anti-Virus and Anti-Spam Protection
The Amavisd-New utility is the interface between the Zimbra MTA and Clam
AV and SpamAssassin scanners.
Anti-Virus Protection
Clam AntiVirus software is the virus protection engine enabled for each ZCS
server.
The anti-virus software is configured to put messages that have been
identified as having a virus to the virus quarantine mailbox. By default, the
Zimbra MTA checks every two hours for any new anti-virus updates from
ClamAV. You can change this from the administration console, Global
Settings>AS/AV page.
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Administrator Guide
Note: Updates are obtained via HTTP from the ClamAV website.
Anti-Spam Protection
Zimbra uses SpamAssassin to identify unsolicited commercial email (spam)
with learned data stored in either the Berkeley DB database or a MySQL
database.
SpamAssassin uses predefined rules as well as a Bayes database to score
messages with a numerical range. Zimbra uses a percentage value to
determine "spaminess" based on a SpamAssassin score of 20 as 100%. Any
message tagged between 33%-75% is considered spam and delivered to the
user’s junk folder. Messages tagged above 75% are always considered spam
and discarded.
By default, Zimbra uses the Berkeley DB database for spam training. You can
also use a MySQL database.

To use the MySQL method on the MTA servers, set
zmlocalconfig -e antispam_mysql_enabled=TRUE
When this is enabled, Berkeley DB database is not enabled.
Note: The DSPAM spam filter is also included with ZCS, but the default is to
not enable DSPAM. You can enable DSPAM by setting the localconfig
attribute amavis_dspam_enabled to TRUE on the MTA servers.
zmlocalconfig -e amavis_dspam_enabled=true
Training the Spam Filter
How well the anti-spam filter works depends on user input to recognize what is
considered spam or ham. The SpamAssassin filter learns from messages that
users specifically mark as spam by sending them to their junk folder or not
spam by removing them from their junk folder. A copy of these marked
messages is sent to the appropriate spam training mailbox.
At installation, a spam/ham cleanup filter is configured on only the first MTA.
The ZCS spam training tool, zmtrainsa, is configured to automatically retrieve
these messages and train the spam filter. The zmtrainsa script empties these
mailboxes each day.
Note: New installs of ZCS limit spam/ham training to the first MTA installed. If
you uninstall or move this MTA, you will need to enable spam/ham
training on another MTA, as one host should have this enabled to run
zmtrainsa --cleanup.
To set this on a new MTA server
zmlocalconfig -e zmtrainsa_cleanup_host=TRUE
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Zimbra Mail Transfer Agent
Initially, you might want to train the spam filter manually to quickly build a
database of spam and non-spam tokens, words, or short character sequences
that are commonly found in spam or ham. To do this, you can manually
forward messages as message/rfc822 attachments to the spam and nonspam mailboxes. When zmtrainsa runs, these messages are used to teach the
spam filter. Make sure you add a large enough sampling of messages to get
accurate scores. To determine whether to mark messages as spam at least
200 known spams and 200 known hams must be identified.
SpamAssassin’s sa-update tool is included with SpamAssassin. This tool
updates SpamAssassin rules from the SA organization. The tool is installed
into /opt/zimbra/zimbramon/bin.
Setting Up Trusted Networks
The ZCS configuration allows relaying only for the local network, but you can
configure trusted networks that are allowed to relay mail. You set the MTA
trusted networks as a global setting, but you can configure trusted networks as
a server setting. The server setting overrides the global setting.
This can be configured from the administration console.
To set up MTA trusted networks as a global setting, go to the Configure >
Global Settings > MTA page and in the MTA Trusted Networks field enter the
trusted network addresses.
To set up MTA trusted networks on a per server basis, make sure that MTA
trusted networks have been set up as global settings and then go the
Configure > Servers > MTA page and in the MTA Trusted Networks field enter
the trusted network addresses for the server.
Enter the network addresses separated by commas and/or a space. Continue
long lines by starting the next line with space.
Examples of how to type the addresses:

127.0.0.0/8, 168.100.189.0/24

No commas: 127.0.0.0/8 168.100.189.0/24 10.0.0.0/8 [::1]/128
[fe80::%eth0]/64
Enabling a Milter Server
Milter server can be enabled to run a Postfix SMTP Access Policy Daemon
that validates RCPT To: content specifically for alias domains to reduce the risk
of backscatter spam. This can be enabled globally or for specific servers from
the administration console.
To configure globally, enable the milter server from the Configure>Global
Settings>MTA page.
To enable milter server for a specific server, go to the Configure>Servers>
MTA page. You can set milter server bind addresses for individual servers.
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Administrator Guide
Receiving and Sending Mail
The Zimbra MTA delivers the incoming and the outgoing mail messages. For
outgoing mail, the Zimbra MTA determines the destination of the recipient
address. If the destination host is local, the message is passed to the Zimbra
server for delivery. If the destination host is a remote mail server, the Zimbra
MTA must establish a communication method to transfer the message to the
remote host. For incoming messages, the MTA must be able to accept
connection requests from remote mail servers and receive messages for the
local users.
To send and receive email, the MTA must be configured in DNS with both an A
record and an MX Record. For sending mail, the MTA uses DNS to resolve
hostnames and email-routing information. To receive mail, the MX record must
be configured correctly to route messages to the mail server.
You must configure a relay host if you do not enable DNS.
Message Queues
When the Zimbra MTA receives mail, it routes the mail through a series of
queues to manage delivery; incoming, active, deferred, hold, and corrupt.
MTA Queues
Internet
Mail
SMTP
Port 25
Active
Incoming
Deferred
SMTP
Port 25
Hold
Internal
Mail
Message
Store
Amavisd-N
Spamassassin
ClamAV
The incoming message queue holds the new mail that has been received.
Each message is identified with a unique file name. Messages are moved to
the active queue when there is room. If there are no problems, message move
through this queue very quickly.
The active message queue holds messages that are ready to be sent. The
MTA sets a limit to the number of messages that can be in the active queue at
any one time. From here, messages are moved to and from the anti-virus and
anti-spam filters before being delivered to another queue.
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Zimbra Mail Transfer Agent
Messages that cannot be delivered are placed in the deferred queue. The
reasons for the delivery failures are documented in a file in the deferred
queue. This queue is scanned frequently to resend the message. If the
message cannot be sent after the set number of delivery attempts, the
message fails and is bounced back to the original sender. You can choose to
send a notification to the sender that the message has been deferred.
The hold message queue keeps mail that could not be processed. Messages
stay in this queue until the administrator moves them. No periodic delivery
attempts are made for messages in the hold queue.
The corrupt queue stores damaged unreadable messages.
You can monitor the mail queues for delivery problems from the administration
console. See Chapter 12, Monitoring ZCS Servers.
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6
Zimbra Proxy Server
Zimbra Proxy is a high-performance proxy server that can be configured as a
POP and IMAP proxy server and for reverse proxy HTTP requests.
The Zimbra Proxy package is installed and configured during the ZCS
installation. You can install this package on a mailbox server, MTA server, or
on its own independent server. When the Zimbra Proxy package is installed,
the proxy feature is enabled. In most cases, no modification is necessary.
Topics in this chapter include:
Proxy Components
Proxy Architecture and Flow
Change the Zimbra Proxy Configuration
Zimbra IMAP/POP Proxy
Configure ZCS HTTP Proxy
Configure Zimbra Proxy for Kerberos Authentication
Proxy Components
Zimbra Proxy components include:

Zimbra Nginx. An IMAP/POP3 proxy server that handles all incoming POP/
IMAP requests.

Memached. A distributed memory object caching system. Route
information is cached for further use to increase performance.

Zimbra Proxy Route Lookup Handler. Servlet that handles queries for the
user account route information.
Proxy Architecture and Flow
The following sequence describes the architecture and flow of Zimbra Proxy.
1. End clients connect to Zimbra Proxy using a POP or IMAP or HTTP
requests to a backend server. Nginx handles the incoming POP and IMAP
requests.
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2. When Zimbra Proxy receives an incoming connection, Nginx sends an
HTTP request to the Route Lookup Handler, a servlet located on the
mailbox server. this servlet processes the server and port information of
the user account.
3. The Route Lookup Handler locates the route information for the account
and returns this information to Nginx.
4. The Memcached component stores the route information for a configured
period of time. By default, this time is one hour. Nginx uses this route
information until the time expires, instead of querying the Route Lookup
Handler.
5. Nginx uses the route information to connect to Zimbra Mailbox.
6. Zimbra Proxy connects to Zimbra Mailbox and initiates the mail proxy
session. The end client behaves as if it is connecting directly to Zimbra
Mailbox.
Change the Zimbra Proxy Configuration
When Zimbra proxy is configured, the Zimbra proxy config performs keyword
substitution as necessary with values from the ZCS LDAP configuration and
localconfig.
If changes are required after the Zimbra Proxy is set up, modify the Zimbra
LDAP attributes or localconfig values and run zmconfigd to generate the
updated Zimbra Proxy configuration. The Zimbra proxy configuration file is in /
opt/zimbra/conf/nginx.conf. The nginx.conf includes the main config,
memcache config, mail config, and web config files.
Common changes to Zimbra Proxy configuration are IMAP/POP configuration
changes from the original default setup

HTTP reverse proxy configuration changes from the original default setup

GSSAPI authentication for Kerberos. In this case you manually identify the
location of the Kerberos Keytab file, including Zimbra Proxy password
Zimbra IMAP/POP Proxy
Zimbra IMAP/POP Proxy allows end users to access their ZCS account using
end clients such as Microsoft Outlook, Mozilla Thunderbird, or other POP/
IMAP end-client software. End users can connect using POP3, IMAP, POP3S
(Secure POP3), or IMAPS (Secure IMAP).
For example, proxying allows users to enter imap.example.com as their IMAP
server. The proxy running on imap.example.com inspects their IMAP traffic,
does a lookup to determine which backend mailbox server a user’s mailbox
lives on and transparently proxies the connection from user’s IMAP client to
the correct mailbox server.
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Zimbra Proxy Server
Zimbra Proxy Ports for POP and IMAP
The following ports are used either by Zimbra Proxy or by Zimbra Mailbox. If
you have any other services running on these ports, turn them off.
End clients connect directly to Zimbra Proxy, using the Zimbra Proxy Ports.
Zimbra Proxy connects to the Route Lookup Handler or Zimbra Mailbox using
the Zimbra Mailbox Ports.
Zimbra Proxy Ports
Port
POP3
110
POP3S (Secure POP3)
995
IMAP
143
IMAPS (Secure IMAP)
993
Zimbra Mailbox Ports
Port
Route Lookup Handler
7072
POP3 Proxy
7110
POP3S Proxy
7995
IMAP Proxy
7143
IMAPS Proxy
7993
Setting Up IMAP and POP Proxy After HTTP Proxy Installation
Zimbra IMAP proxy is installed with ZCS and set up during installation from the
ZCS configuration menus. To set up the HTTP proxy, Zimbra proxy must be
installed on the identified proxy nodes in order to set up HTTP proxy. No other
configuration is usually required.
If you need to set up IMAP/POP proxy after you have already installed Zimbra
HTTP proxy, and set up the Zimbra mailbox server and the proxy node.
Note: You can run the command as zmproxyconfig -r, to run against a remote
host. This requires the server to be properly configured in the LDAP
master.
Set Up IMAP/POP Proxy with Separate Proxy Node
If your configuration includes a separate proxy server, you must do the
following.
1. On each Zimbra mailbox server that you want to proxy with, enable the
proxy for IMAP/POP proxy.
/opt/zimbra/libexec/zmproxyconfig -e -m -H mailbox.node.service.hostname
This configures the following:
•
zimbraImapBindPort to 7143
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•
zimbraImapProxyBindPort to 143
•
zimbraImapSSLBindPort to 7993
•
zimbraImapSSLProxyBindPort to 993
•
zimbraPop3BindPort to 7110
•
zimbraPop3ProxyBindPort to110
•
zimbraPop3SSLBindPort to 7995
•
zimbraPop3SSLProxyBindPort to 995
•
zimbralmapCleartextLoginEnabled to TRUE
•
zimbraReverseProxyLookupTarget to TRUE
•
zimbraPop3CleartextLoginEnabled to TRUE
2. Restart services on the proxy and mailbox servers.
zmcontrol restart
Set Up Proxy Node
1. On each proxy node that has the proxy service installed, enable the proxy
for the web.
/opt/zimbra/libexec/zmproxyconfig -e -m -H proxy.node.service.hostname
This configures the following:
•
zimbraImapBindPort to 7143
•
zimbraImapProxyBindPort to 143
•
zimbraImapSSLBindPort to 7993
•
zimbraImapSSLProxyBindPort to 993
•
zimbraPop3BindPort to 7110
•
zimbraPop3ProxyBindPort to110
•
zimbraPop3SSLBindPort to 7995
•
zimbraPop3SSLProxyBindPort to 995
•
zimbraReverseProxyMailEnabled to TRUE
Set Up a Single Node
If Zimbra proxy is installed with ZCS on the same server, do the following.
1. Enable the proxy for the web.
/opt/zimbra/libexec/zmproxyconfig -e -m -H mailbox.node.service.hostname
This configures the following:
•
48
zimbraImapBindPort to 7143
Zimbra Proxy Server
•
zimbraImapProxyBindPort to 143
•
zimbraImapSSLBindPort to 7993
•
zimbraImapSSLProxyBindPort to 993
•
zimbraPop3BindPort to 7110
•
zimbraPop3ProxyBindPort to110
•
zimbraPop3SSLBindPort to 7995
•
zimbraPop3SSLProxyBindPort to 995
•
zimbraImapCleartextLoginEnabled to TRUE
•
zimbraReverseProxyLookupTarget to TRUE
•
zimbraPop3CleartextLoginEnabled to TRUE
•
zimbraReverseProxyMailEnabled to TRUE
2. Restart services on the proxy and mailbox servers.
zmcontrol restart
Configure ZCS HTTP Proxy
Zimbra Proxy can reverse proxy HTTP requests to the right back-end server.
For example, users can use a web browser to connect to the proxy server at
http://mail.example.com. The connection from users whose mailboxes live on
mbs1. example.com is proxied to mbs1.example.com by the proxy running on
the mail.example.com server,. REST and CalDAV clients, Zimbra Connector
for Outlook, Zimbra Connector for BES, and Zimbra Mobile Sync devices are
also supported by the proxy.
Note: When ZCB is configured in ZCS, the proxy configuration must be
changed from the directions here. See the Zimbra wiki article
Installing Blackberry Enterprise Server in a Zimbra Proxy Environment
at http://wiki.zimbra.com/wiki/
Installing_Blackberry_Enterprise_Server_%28ZCB/
BES%29_in_a_Zimbra_Proxy_Environment.
HTTP reverse proxy routes requests as follows:

If the requesting URL can be examined to determine the user name, then
the request is routed to the backend mailbox server of the user in the URL.
REST, CalDAV, and Zimbra Mobile Sync are supported through this
mechanism.

If the request has an auth token cookie (ZM_AUTH_TOKEN), the request is
routed to the backend mailbox server of the authenticated user.
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
If the above methods do not work, the IP hash method is used to load
balance the requests across the backend mailbox servers which are able
to handle the request or do any necessary internal proxying.
Setting Up HTTP Proxy
To set up HTTP proxy, Zimbra Proxy must be installed on the identified nodes.
Note: You can run the command as zmproxyconfig -r, to run against a remote
host. Note that this requires the server to be properly configured in the
LDAP master.
Set Up HTTP Proxy as a Separate Proxy Node
When your configuration includes a separate proxy server follow these steps.
1. On each Zimbra mailbox server that you want to proxy with, enable the
proxy for the web.
/opt/zimbra/libexec/zmproxyconfig -e -w -H mailbox.node.service.hostname
This configures the following:
•
zimbraMailReferMode to reverse-proxied. See Note below.
•
zimbraMailPort to 8080, to avoid port conflicts.
•
zimbraMailSSLPort to 8443, to avoid port conflicts.
•
zimbraReverseProxyLookupTarget to TRUE
•
zimbraMailMode to http. This is the only supported mode.
2. Restart services on the proxy and mailbox servers.
zmcontrol restart
3. Configure each domain with the public service host name to be used for
REST URLs, email, and Briefcase folders.
zmprov modifyDomain <domain.com> zimbraPublicServiceHostname
<hostname.domain.com>
Set Up Proxy Node
1. On each proxy node that has the proxy service installed, enable the proxy
for the web.
/opt/zimbra/libexec/zmproxyconfig -e -w -H proxy.node.service.hostname
This configures the following:
50
•
zimbraMailReferMode to reverse-proxied. See Note below.
•
zimbraMailProxyPort to 80, to avoid port conflicts.
•
zimbraMailSSLProxyPort to 443, to avoid port conflicts.
Zimbra Proxy Server
•
zimbraReverseProxyHttpEnabled to TRUE to indicate that Web proxy is
enabled.
•
zimbraReverseProxyMailMode defaults to HTTP.
To set the proxy server mail mode, add the -x option to the command with the
specific mode: http, https, both, redirect, mixed.
Set Up a Single Node for HTTP Proxy
If Zimbra proxy is installed along with ZCS on the same server, follow this
step.
1. On each zimbra mailbox server that you want to proxy with, enable the
proxy for the web.
/opt/zimbra/libexec/zmproxyconfig -e -w -H mailbox.node.service.hostname
This configures the following:
•
zimbraMailReferMode to reverse-proxied. See Note below.
•
zimbraMailPort to 8080, to avoid port conflicts.
•
zimbraMailSSLPort to 8443, to avoid port conflicts.
•
zimbraReverseProxyLookupTarget to TRUE
•
zimbraMailMode to http. This is the only supported mode.
•
zimbraMailProxyPort to 80, to avoid port conflicts.
•
zimbraMailSSLProxyPort to 443, to avoid port conflicts.
•
zimbraReverseProxyHttpEnabled to TRUE to indicate that Web proxy is
enabled.
•
zimbraReverseProxyMailMode defaults to HTTP.
To set the proxy server mail mode, add the -x option to the command with
the specific mode: http, https, both, redirect, mixed.
2. Restart services on the proxy and mailbox servers.
zmcontrol restart
Configure each domain with the public service host name to be used for
REST URLs, email and Briefcase folders.
zmprov modifyDomain <domain.com> zimbraPublicServiceHostname
<hostname.domain.com>
REST URL Generation
For REST URL, you set the host name, service protocol, and services port
globally or for a specific domain from the following attributes.
•
zimbraPublicServiceHostname
•
zimbraPublicServiceProtocol
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•
zimbraPublicServicePort
When generating REST URL’s:
•
If domain.zimbraPublicServiceHostname is set, use
zimbraPublicServiceProtocol + zimbraPublicServiceHostname +
zimbraPublicServicePort
•
Otherwise it falls back to the server (account's home server) attributes:
- protocol is computed from server.zimbraMailMode
- hostname is server.zimbraServiceHostname
- port is computed from the protocol.
Note: Why use zimbraMailReferMode - In earlier versions, a local config
variable called zimbra_auth_always_send_refer determined which
action the back-end server took when a user’s mailbox did not reside
on the server that the user logged in to. The default value of FALSE
redirected the user if the user was logging in on the wrong backend
host.
On a multiserver ZCS, if a load balanced name was needed to create a
friendly landing page, a user would always have to be redirected. In that case,
zimbra_auth_always_send_refer was set to TRUE.
Now with a full-fledged reverse proxy, users do not need to be redirected. The
localconfig variable zimbraMailReferMode is used with nginx reverse proxy.
Set Proxy Trusted IP Addresses
When a proxy is configured with ZCS, each proxy server’s IP address must be
configured in LDAP attribute zimbraMailTrustedIP to identify the proxy
addresses as trusted when users log in through the proxy. The proxy IP
address is added to the X-Forwarded-For header information. The XForwarded-For header is automatically added to the localconfig
zimbra_http_originating_ip_header attribute. When a user logs in, this IP
address and the user’s address are verified in the Zimbra mailbox log.
Set each proxy IP address in the attribute. For example, if you have two proxy
servers:
zmprov mcf +zimbraMailTrustedIP {IP of nginx-1} +zimbraMailTrustedIP {IP of
nginx-2}
Note: To verify that X-Forwarded-For was correctly added to the localconfig,
type zmlocalconfig | grep -i http. You should see zimbra_http
originating_ip_header = X-Forwarded-For.
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Zimbra Proxy Server
Configure Zimbra Proxy for Kerberos Authentication
If you use the Kerberos5 authenticating mechanism, you can configure it for
the IMAP and POP proxy.
Note: Make sure that your Kerberos5 authentication mechanism is correctly
configured. See Chapter 4, Zimbra LDAP Service.
1. On each proxy node, set the zimbraReverseProxyDefaultRealm server
attribute to the realm name corresponding to the proxy server. For
example:
zmprov ms [DNS name.isp.net] zimbraReverseProxyDefaultRealm [ISP.NET]
2. Each proxy IP address where email clients connect must be configured for
GSSAPI authentication by the mail server. On each proxy node for each of
the proxy IP addresses:
zmprov mcf +zimbraReverseProxyAdminIPAddress [IP address]
3. On each proxy server:
zmprov ms [proxyexample.net] zimbraReverseProxyImapSaslGssapiEnabled
TRUE
zmprov ms proxyl.isp.net zimbraReverseProxyPop3SaslGssapiEnabled TRUE
4. Restart the proxy server
zmproxyctl restart
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7
Using the Administration Console
The Zimbra administration console is a browser-based user interface that
allows you to centrally manage Zimbra servers and user accounts.
Topics in this chapter include:
Administrator Accounts
Log in to the Administration Console
Message of the Day for Administrators
Zimbra Search
Administrator Accounts
When you installed ZCS, one global administrator account is created. Global
administrator can log into the administration console to manage accounts and
server configurations. Additional administrator accounts can be created. All
administrator accounts have equal privileges.
To give administrator privileges to an account, check the Global Administrator
box on the General Information page in the user’s account.
Change Administrator Passwords
The first global administrator password is created at installation. You can
change the password at any time.

From the admin console Accounts, select the admin account and change
the password.

From the CLI, type zmprov sp adminname@domain.com password
Log in to the Administration Console
1. To start the console in a typical installation, use the following URL pattern.
https://server.domain.com:7071/
Where server.domain.com is the current running Zimbra server name or IP
address and 7071 is the default HTTP listen port.
2. Enter the complete administrator address as admin@domain.com and the
password.The initial password is configured when ZCS is installed.
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Managing Tasks
You can manage most of the ZCS tasks from the administration console, This
includes creating accounts, setting up COSs, monitoring server status, adding
and removing domains, scheduling backup sessions, and more.
When you are working in the administration console to configure or edit an
item, you can click on the text labels on the configuration pages to see which
zimbra attribute is associated with the field you are configuring.
There are some configuration and maintenance tasks that you cannot perform
from the administration console, such as starting and stopping services and
managing the local server configuration. You perform these tasks with the CLI.
Message of the Day for Administrators
Global administrators can create messages of the day (MOTD) that
administrators view when logging into the administration console.
Every time the administrator logs in the message displays at the top left of the
administration console. The message can be closed, replaced, or removed.
Example of a Message of the Day
Create a Message of the Day

To create a message globally or for a specific domain (the quotes must be
used):
zmprov md domainexample.com zimbraAdminConsoleLoginMessage “message
to display”

To create more than one message to display, run the command again to
create additional messages, but add a plus sign (+) before the attribute:
zmprov md domainexample.com +zimbraAdminConsoleLoginMessage “second
message to display”
Remove a Message of the Day

To remove a specific message, type the attribute, adding a minus sign (-)
before the attribute and type the message:
zmprov md domainexample.com -zimbraAdminConsoleLoginMessage “message
to display”
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Using the Administration Console

To remove all messages, type the attribute and add a single quote at the
end:
zmprov md domainexample.com zimbraAdminConsoleLoginMessage ‘’
Zimbra Search
You can use the search field on the administration console header to search
for items by accounts, distribution lists, aliases, domains, or class of service or
you can search through all object types.
If you do not know the complete name, you can enter a partial name. Partial
names can result in a list that has the partial name string anywhere in the
information. You can also use the Zimbra mailbox ID number to search for an
account. To return a search from a mailbox ID, the complete ID string must be
entered in the search.
In the search options section of the Search>Navigation pane you can create a
more specific search The following search options open as individual search
panes to let you select the criteria for the search.
Option
Description
Basic Attributes
Search for a user by first name, last name,
display name or account ID number. You can
search for administrators or delegated
administrators only.
Status
Search for accounts by status: Active, closed
Locked, Lockout, Pending, Maintenance
Last Login Time
Search for accounts by the last login time. You
can specify a data range to search.
External Email Address
Search for an account with an external email
address.
COS
Search for objects by COS or for objects that are
not assigned a COS.
Server
Search for accounts on selected servers.
Domains
Search for accounts on selected domains.
You can also use the unified search from the Help link drop-down to find
answers to common questions. When you use this search, the Zimbra wiki,
forums and documents are searched. The results are displayed in a new
window with links to the information.
Saved Searches section by default includes predefined common search
queries. You can also create and save your own queries. After you enter the
query syntax, click Save Search and give the search a name. The search is
added to the Saved Searches section.
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8
Managing Configuration
The ZCS components are configured during the initial installation of the
software. After the installation, you can manage the following components
from either the administration console or using the CLI utility.
Topics in this chapter include:
Global Configuration
Working With Domains
Managing Server Settings
Managing SSL Certificates for ZCS
Using DKIM to Authenticate Email Message
Anti-spam Settings
Anti-virus Settings
Zimbra Free/Busy Calendar Scheduling
Storage Management
Email Retention Management
Customized Admin Extensions
Setting System-wide Signatures
Help is available from the administration console about how to perform tasks
from the administration console. If the task is only available from the CLI, see
Zimbra CLI Commands for a description of how to use the CLI utility.
Global Configuration
Global Settings apply to all accounts in the Zimbra servers. They are initially
set during installation. You can modify the settings from the administration
console.
Configurations set in Global Settings define inherited default values for the
following objects: server, account, COS, and domain. If these attributes are
set in the server, the server settings override the global settings.
To configure global settings, go to the administration console Configure >
Global Settings page.
Configured global settings include:
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
Default domain

Maximum number of results returned for GAL searches. The default is
100.

Setting how users view email attachments and what type of attachments
are not allowed

Configuring authentication process, setting the Relay MTA for external
delivery, enabling DNS lookup and protocol checks

Set the spam check controls and anti-virus options for messages received
that may have a virus

Set up free/busy scheduling across a mix of ZCS servers and third party
email servers

Customize themes color scheme and add your logo to the themes

Configure the company name that displays when external guests log on to
see a shared Briefcase folder
General Global Settings
The General Information page includes the following settings.
Option
Description
Most results returned by
GAL search
The maximum number of GAL results returned
from a user search. The default is 100.
Default domain
Domain that users’ logins are authenticated
against.
Number of scheduled tasks
that can run simultaneously
Number of threads used to fetch content from
remote data sources. The default is 20. If set too
low, users do not get their mail from external
sources pulled down often enough. If set too high,
the server may be consumed with downloading
this mail and not servicing “main” user requests.
Sleep time between subsequent mailbox purges
The duration of time that the server should “rest”
between purging mailboxes. By default, message
purge is scheduled to run every 1 minute.
Note: If the message purge schedule is
set to 0, messages are
not purged, even if the mail, trash
and spam message life
time is set.
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Option
Description
Maximum size of an
uploaded file for Briefcase
files (kb)
The maximum size of a file that can be uploaded
into Briefcase. Note: the maximum message size
for an email message and attachments that can
be sent is configured in the Global Settings MTA
page
Admin help URL and Delegated admin help URL
If you do not want to use the ZCS Help, you can
designate the URL that is linked from the
administration console Help
Setting Up Email Attachment Rules
Global email attachment settings allow you to specify global rules for handling
attachments to an email message. You can also set rules by COS and for
individual accounts. When attachment settings are configured in Global
Settings, the global rule takes precedence over COS and Account settings.
The following attachment setting options can be configured from the Global
Settings Advanced page. To set by COS or account, go to their Advanced
page, Attachment Settings section.
Option
Description
Attachments cannot be
viewed regardless of COS
Users cannot view any attachments. This global
setting can be set to prevent a virus outbreak
from attachments, as no mail attachments can be
opened.
Attachments are viewed
according to COS
This global setting states the COS sets the rules
for how email attachments are viewed
Blocking Email Attachments by File Type
You can also reject messages with certain types of files attached. You select
which file types are unauthorized from the Common extensions list. You can
also add other extension types to the list. Messages with those type of files
attached are rejected. By default the recipient and the sender are notified that
the message was blocked. If you do not want to send a notification to the
recipient when messages are blocked, you can disable this option from the
Global Settings>Attachments page.
Global MTA Settings
The Global Settings>MTA page is used to enable or disable authentication
and configure a relay hostname, the maximum message size, enable DNS
lookup, protocol checks, and DNS checks.
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Authentication

Authentication should be enabled, to support mobile
SMTP authentication users so that their email client
can talk to the Zimbra MTA.

TLS authentication only forces all SMTP auth to use
Transaction Level Security to avoid passing
passwords in the clear.
Network

Web mail MTA Host name and Web mail MTA Port. The
MTA that the web server connects to for sending
mail. The default port number is 25.
62

The Relay MTA for external delivery is the relay host
name. This is the Zimbra MTA to which Postfix relays
non-local email.

If your MX records point to a spam-relay or any other
external non-Zimbra server, enter the name of that
server in the Inbound SMTP host name field. This
check compares the domain MX setting against the
zimbraInboundSmtpHostname setting, if set. If this
attribute is not set, the domain MX setting is checked
against zimbraSmtpHostname.

MTA Trusted Networks. Configure trusted networks
that are allowed to relay mail. Specify a list of network
addresses, separated by commas and/or a space.

If Enable DNS lookups is checked, the Zimbra MTA
makes an explicit DNS query for the MX record of the
recipient domain. If this option is disabled, set a relay
host in the Relay MTA for external delivery.

If Allow domain administrators to check MX records
from Admin Console is checked, domain
administrators can check the MX records for their
domain.
Milter Server

If Enable Milter Server is checked, the milter enforces
the rules that are set up for who can send email to a
distribution list.
Archiving
Configuration

If you installed the Archiving feature, you can enable
it here.
Messages

Set the Maximum messages size for a message and
it’s attachments that can be sent. Note: To set the
maximum size of an uploaded file to Briefcase, go to
the General Information page.

You can enable the X-Originating-IP header to
messages checkbox. The X-Originating-IP header
information specifies the original sending IP of the
email message the server is forwarding.
Managing Configuration
Policy Service
Checks

Customize zimbraMtaRestriction (restrictions to reject
some suspect SMTP clients).
Protocol checks

To reject unsolicited commercial email (UCE), for
spam control.
DNS checks

To reject mail if the client’s IP address is unknown,
the hostname in the greeting is unknown, or if the
sender’s domain is unknown.

Add other email recipient restrictions to the List of
RBLs field.
Note: RBL (Real time black-hole lists) can be turned on
or off from the Zimbra CLI.
Global IMAP and POP Settings
IMAP and POP access can be enabled as a global setting on the Global
Settings>IMAP or POP pages or by editing a server’s IMAP or POP pages.
When you make changes to the IMAP or POP settings, you must restart ZCS
before the changes take effect.
IMAP and POP3 polling intervals can be set from the administration console
COS Advanced page. The default is to not set the polling interval.
Note: If IMAP/POP proxy is set up, making sure that the port
numbers are configured correctly.
With POP3, users can retrieve their mail stored on the Zimbra server and
download new mail to their computer. The user’s POP configuration in their
Preference>Mail page determines how their messages are downloaded and
saved.
Working With Domains
One domain is identified during the installation process. You can add domains
after installation. From the administration console you can manage the
following domain features.

Global Address List

Authentication

Virtual hosts for the domain to establish a default domain for a user login

Public service host name that is used for REST URLs, commonly used in
sharing.

Maximum number of accounts that can be created on the domain

Free/Busy Interop settings for use with Microsoft Exchange.
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Administrator Guide

Domain SSL certificates
A domain can be renamed and all account, distribution list, alias and resource
addresses are changed to the new domain name. The CLI utility is used to
changing the domain name. See Renaming a Domain.
Note: Domain settings override global settings.
Domain General Information Settings
The Domain>General Information page includes the following options:

The default time zone for the domain. If a time zone is configured in a COS
or for an account, the domain time zone setting is ignored.

Public service host name. Enter the host name of the REST URL. This is
commonly used for sharing. See Setting up a Public Service Host Name.

Inbound SMTP host name. If your MX records point to a spam-relay or any
other external non-Zimbra server, enter the name of the server here.

Default Class of Service (COS) for the domain. This COS is automatically
assigned to accounts created on the domain if another COS is not set.

Domain status. The domain status is active in the normal state. Users can
log in and mail is delivered. Changing the status can affect the status for
accounts on the domain also. The domain status is displayed on the
Domain>General page. Domain status can be set as follows:
•
Active. Active is the normal status for domains. Accounts can be
created and mail can be delivered. Note: If an account has a different
status setting than the domain setting, the account status overrides the
domain status.
•
Closed. When a domain status is marked as closed, Login for accounts
on the domain is disabled and messages are bounced. The closed
status overrides an individual account’s status setting.
•
Locked. When a domain status is marked as locked, users cannot log
in to check their email, but email is still delivered to the accounts. If an
account’s status setting is marked as maintenance or closed, the
account’s status overrides the domain status setting.
•
Maintenance. When the domain status is marked as maintenance,
users cannot log in and their email is queued at the MTA. If an account’
status setting is marked as closed, the account’s status overrides the
domain status setting.
•
Suspended. When the domain status is marked as suspended, users
cannot log in, their email is queued at the MTA, and accounts and
distribution lists cannot be created, deleted, or modified. If an
account’s status setting is marked as closed, the account’s status
overrides the domain status setting.
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Managing Configuration
Setting up a Public Service Host Name
You can configure each domain with the public service host name to be used
for REST URLs. This is the URL that is used when sharing email folders and
Briefcase folders, as well as sharing task lists, address books, and calendars.
When users share a ZCS folder, the default is to create the URL with the
Zimbra server hostname and the Zimbra service host name. This is displayed
as http://server.domain.com/service/home/username/sharedfolder. The
attributes are generated as follows:

Hostname is server.zimbraServiceHostname

Protocol is determined from server.zimbraMailMode

Port is computed from the protocol
When you configure a public service host name, this name is used instead of
the server/service name, as http://publicservicename.domain.com/home/
username/sharedfolder. The attributes to be used are:

zimbraPublicServiceHostname

zimbraPublicServiceProtocol

zimbraPublicServicePort
You can use another FQDN as long as the name has a proper DNS entry to
point at ‘server’ both internally and externally.
Global Address List (GAL) Mode
The Global Address List (GAL) is your company-wide listing of users that is
available to all users of the email system. GAL is configured on a per-domain
basis. The GAL mode setting for each domain determines where the GAL
lookup is performed.
The GAL Configuration Wizard in the administration console is used to
configure the GAL attributes. The three GAL modes that can be configured
include the following:

Internal. The Zimbra LDAP server is used for directory lookups.

External. External directory servers are used for GAL lookups. You can
configure multiple external LDAP hosts for GAL. All other directory
services use the Zimbra LDAP service (configuration, mail routing, etc.).
When you configure an external GAL, you can configure different search
settings and sync settings.You might want to configure different search
settings if your LDAP environment is set up to optimize LDAP searching by
setting up an LDAP cache server, but users also will need to be able to
sync to the GAL.

Both. Internal and external directory servers are used for GAL lookups.
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Using GAL sync accounts for faster access to GAL
A GAL sync account is created for the domain when an internal or external
GAL is created, and if you have more than one mailbox server, you can create
a GAL sync account for each mailbox server in the domain. Using the GAL
sync account gives users faster access to auto complete names from the
GAL.
When a GAL sync account is created on a server, GAL requests are directed
to the server’s GAL sync account instead of the domain’s GAL sync account.
The GalSyncResponse includes a token which encodes the GAL sync
account ID and current change number. The client stores this and then uses it
in the next GalSyncRequest. Users perform GAL sync with the GAL sync
account they initially sync with. If a GALsync account is not available for some
reason, the traditional LDAP-based search is run.
Note: The GAL sync accounts are system accounts and do not use a Zimbra
license.
When you configure the GAL sync account, you define the GAL datasource
and the contact data is syncd from the datasource to the GAL sync accounts’
address books. If the mode Both is selected, an address book is created in the
account for each LDAP data source.
The GAL polling interval for the GAL sync determines how often the GALsync
account syncs with the LDAP server. The sync intervals can be in x days,
hours, minutes, or seconds. The polling interval is set for each data source.
When the GAL sync account syncs to the LDAP directory, all GAL contacts
from the LDAP are added to the address book for that GAL. During the sync,
the address book is updated with new contact, modified contact and deleted
contact information. You should not modify the address book directly. When
the LDAP syncs the GAL to the address book, changes you made directly to
the address book are deleted.
You create GALsync accounts from the administration console. The CLI
associated with this feature is zmgsautil.
Creating Additional GALsync Accounts
When ZCS is configured with more than one server, you can add an additional
GAL sync account for each server.
1. In the administration console, select Configure>Domains.
2. Select the domain to add another GAL sync account.
3. In the gear box, select Configure GAL.
4. Click Add a GAL account.
5. In the GAL sync account name field, enter the name for this account. Do
not use the default name.
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Managing Configuration
6. Select the mailbox server that this account will apply to.
7. Enter the GAL datasource name, If the GAL mode is BOTH, enter the data
source name for both the internal GAL and the external GAL.
8. Set the GAL polling interval to how often the GAL sync account should
sync with the LDAP server to update.
9. Click Finish.
Changing GAL sync account name.
The default name for the GAL sync account is galsync. When you configure
the GAL mode, you can specify another name. After the GAL sync account is
created, you cannot rename the account because syncing the data fails.
To change the account name delete the existing GAL sync account and
configure a new GAL for the domain.
1. In the administration console, select Configure>Domains.
2. Select the domain where you want to change the GAL sync account name.
3. In the gear box, select Configure GAL to open the configuration wizard and
change the GAL mode to internal. Do not configure any other fields. Click
Finish.
4. In the domain’s account Content pane, delete the domain’s galsync
account.
5. Select the domain again and select Configure GAL to reconfigure the GAL.
In the GAL sync account name field, enter the name for the account.
Complete the GAL configuration and click Finish. The new account is
displayed in the Accounts Content pane.
Authentication Modes
Authentication is the process of identifying a user or a server to the directory
server and granting access to legitimate users based on user name and
password information provided when users log in. ZCS offers the following
three authentication mechanisms:

Internal. The Internal authentication uses the Zimbra directory server for
authentication on the domain. When you select Internal, no other
configuration is required.

External LDAP. The user name and password is the authentication
information supplied in the bind operation to the directory server. You must
configure the LDAP URL, LDAP filter, and to use DN password to bind to
the external server.

External Active Directory. The user name and password is the
authentication information supplied to the Active Directory server. You
identify the Active Directory domain name and URL.
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The authentication method type is set on a per-domain basis. On the
administration console, you use an authentication wizard to configure the
authentication settings on your domain.
To configure authentication modes, go to the administration console
Configure>Domains, and in the gear box select, Configure Authentication.
Virtual Hosts
Virtual hosting allows you to host more than one domain name on a server.
The general domain configuration does not change. When you create a virtual
host, this becomes the default domain for a user login. Zimbra Web Client
users can log in without having to specify the domain name as part of their
user name.
Virtual hosts are entered on the administration console for a domain on the
Domains>Virtual Hosts page. The virtual host requires a valid DNS
configuration with an A record.
To open the Zimbra Web Client log in page, users enter the virtual host name
as the URL address. For example, https://mail.company.com.
When the Zimbra login screen displays, users enter only their user name and
password. The authentication request searches for a domain with that virtual
host name. When the virtual host is found, the authentication is completed
against that domain.
Renaming a Domain
When you rename a domain you are actually creating a new domain, moving
all accounts to the new domain and deleting the old domain. All account, alias,
distribution list, and resource addresses are changed to the new domain
name. The LDAP is updated to reflect the changes.
Before you rename a domain

Make sure MX records in DNS are created for the new domain name

Make sure you have a functioning and current full backup of the domain
After the domain has been renamed

Update external references that you have set up for the old domain name
to the new domain name. This may include automatically generated
emails that were sent to the administrator’s mailbox such as backup
session notifications

Immediately run a full backup of the new domain
Rename the domain
zmprov -l rd [olddomain.com] [newdomain.com]
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Managing Configuration
Domain Rename Process
When you run this zmprov command, the domain renaming process goes
through the following steps:
1. The status of the old domain is changed to an internal status of shutdown,
and mail status of the domain is changed to suspended. Users cannot
login, their email is bounced by the MTA, and accounts, calendar
resources and distribution lists cannot be created, deleted or modified.
2. The new domain is created with the status of shutdown and the mail status
suspended.
3. Accounts, calendar resources, distribution lists, aliases, and resources are
all copied to the new domain.
4. The LDAP is updated to reflect the new domain address.
5. The old domain is deleted.
6. The status for the new domain is changed to active. The new domain can
start accepting email messages.
Adding a Domain Alias
A domain alias allows different domain names to direct to a single domain
address. For example, your domain is domain.com, but you want users to
have an address of example.com, you can create example.com as the alias
for the domain.com address. Sending mail to user@example.com is the same
as sending mail to user@domain.com.
Note: A domain alias is a domain name just like your primary domain name.
You must own the domain name and verify your ownership before you
can add it as an alias.
To add a domain alias, go to the administration console Configure>Domains,
and in the gear box select, Add a Domain Alias.
Zimlets on the Domain
All Zimlets that are deployed are displayed in the domain’s Zimlets page. If you
do not want all the deployed Zimlets made available for users on the domain,
select from the list the Zimlets that are available for the domain. This overrides
the Zimlet settings in the COS or for an account.
Managing Server Settings
A server is a machine that has one or more of the Zimbra service packages
installed. During the installation, the Zimbra server is automatically registered
on the LDAP server.
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In the administration console, you can view the current status of all the servers
that are configured with Zimbra software, and you can edit or delete existing
server records. You cannot add servers directly to LDAP. The ZCS Installation
program must be used to add new servers because the installer packages are
designed to register the new host at the time of installation.
The server settings that can be viewed from the admin console, Configure
Servers link for a specific server include:

General information about the service host name, and LMTP advertised
name and bind address, and the number of threads that can
simultaneously process data source imports.

A list of enabled services. You can disable and enable the services.

Authentication types enabled for the server, setting a Web mail MTA
hostname different from global. Setting relay MTA for external delivery,
and enabling DNS lookup if required. Enable the Milter Server and set the
bind address.

Enabling POP and IMAP and setting the port numbers for a server. If
IMAP/POP proxy is set up, making sure that the port numbers are
configured correctly.

Index and message volumes configuration.

IP Address Bindings. If the server has multiple IP addresses, IP Address
binding allows you to specify which interface to bind to.

Proxy settings if proxy is configured.

Backup and Restore configuration for the server. When backup and
restore is configured for the server, this overrides the global backup and
restore setting.
Servers inherit global settings if those values are not set in the server
configuration. Settings that can be inherited from the Global configuration
include MTA, SMTP, IMAP, POP, anti-virus, and anti-spam configurations.
General Server Settings
The General Information page includes the following configuration information:
70

Server display name and a description field

Server hostname

LMTP information including advertised name, bind address, and number
of threads that can simultaneously process data source imports. The
default is 20 threads.

Purge setting. The server manages the message purge schedule. You
configure the duration of time that the server should “rest” between
purging mailboxes from the administration console, Global settings or
Server settings, General Information page. By default, message purge is
scheduled to run every 1 minute.
Managing Configuration

When installing a reverse proxy the communication between the proxy
server and the backend mailbox server must be in plain text. Checking
This server is a reverse proxy lookup target automatically sets the
following:
•
zimbraImapCleartextLoginEnabled=TRUE
•
zimbraReverseProxyLookupTarget=TRUE
•
zimbraPop3CleartextLoginEnabled=TRUE
The Notes text box can be used to record details you want to save.
Change MTA Server Settings
The MTA page shows the following settings:

Authentication enabled. Enables SMTP client authentication, so users can
authenticate. Only authenticated users or users from trusted networks are
allowed to relay mail. TLS authentication when enabled, forces all SMTP
auth to use Transaction Level Security (similar to SSL) to avoid passing
passwords in the clear.

Network settings, including Web mail MTA hostname, Web mail MTA
timeout, the relay MTA for external delivery, MTA trusted networks ID, and
the ability to enable DNS lookup for the server.

Milter Server. If Enable Milter Server is checked, the milter enforces the
rules that are set up for who can send email to a distribution list on the
server.
Setting Up IP Address Binding
If the server has multiple IP addresses, you can use IP address binding to
specify which specific IP addresses you want a particular server to bind to.
You can configure the following from the administration console, Configure >
Servers, IP Address Binding page.
Option
Description
Web Client Server IP
Address
Interface address on which the HTTP server
listens
Web Client Server SSL IP
Address
Interface address on which the HTTPS server
listens
Web Client Server SSL Client Cert IP Address
Interface address on which HTTPS server
accepting the client certificates listen
Admin Console Server IP
Address
Administrator console Interface address on which
HTTPS server listens
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Administrator Guide
Managing SSL Certificates for ZCS
A certificate is the digital identity used for secure communication between
different hosts or clients and servers. Certificates are used to certify that a site
is owned by you.
Two types of certificates can be used - self-signed and commercial
certificates.

A self-signed certificate is an identity certificate that is signed by its own
creator.
You can use the Certificate Installation Wizard to generate a new selfsigned certificate. This is useful when you use a self-signed certificate and
want to change the expiration date. The default is 1825 days (5 years).
Self-signed certificates are normally used for testing.

A commercial certificate is issued by a certificate authority (CA) that
attests that the public key contained in the certificate belongs to the
organization (servers) noted in the certificate.
When Zimbra Collaboration Server is installed, the self-signed certificate is
automatically installed and can be used for testing Zimbra Collaboration
Server. You should generate install the commercial certificate when Zimbra
Collaboration Server is used in your production environment.
Installing Certificates
To generate the CSR, you complete a form with details about the domain,
company, and country, and then generate a CSR with the RSA private key.
You save this file to your computer and submit it to your commercial certificate
authorizer.
To obtain a commercially signed certificate, use the Zimbra Certificates Wizard
in the administration console to generate the RSA Private Key and Certificate
Signing Request (CSR). Go to Home > Certificates and in the gear icon select
Install Certificates. The Certificate Installation Wizard dialog box displays.
You enter the following information in the wizard:
Option
Description
Common Name (CN)
Exact domain name that should be used to
access your Web site securely.
Are you going to use a wildcard common name?
If you want to manage multiple sub domains on a
single domain on the server with a single
certificate, check this box. An asterisk (*) is added
to the Common Name field.
Country Name (C)
72
County name you want the certificate to display
as our company location
Managing Configuration
Option
Description
State/Province (ST)
State/province you want the certificate to display
as your company location.
City (L)
City you want the certificate to display as your
company location.
Organization Name (O)
Your company name
Organization Unit (OU)
Unit name (if applicable)
Subject Alternative Name
(SAN)
If you are going to use a SAN, the input must be a
valid domain name. When SAN is used, the
domain name is compared with the common
name and then to the SAN to find a match. You
can create multiple SANs. When the alternate
name is entered here, the client ignores the
common name and tries to match the server
name to one of the SAN names.
Download the CSR from the Zimbra server and submit it to a Certificate
Authority, such as VeriSign or GoDaddy. They issue a digitally signed
certificate.
When you receive the certificate, use the Certificates Wizard a second time to
install the certificate on the ZCS. When the certificate is installed, you must
restart the server to apply the certificate.
Viewing Installed Certificates
You can view the details of certificates currently deployed. Details include the
certificate subject, issuer, validation days and subject alternative name. To
view installed certificates, go to Home > Certificates and select a service host
name. Certificates display for different Zimbra services such as LDAP,
mailboxd, MTA and proxy.
Maintaining Valid Certificates
It is important to keep your SSL certificates valid to ensure clients and
environments work properly, as the ZCS system can become non-functional if
certificates are allowed to expire. You can view deployed SSL certificates from
the ZCS administrator console, including their validation days. It is suggested
that certificates are checked periodically, so you know when they expire and to
maintain their validity.
Install a SSL Certificate for a Domain
You can install an SSL certificate for each domain on a ZCS server. Zimbra
Proxy must be installed on ZCS and correctly configured to support multiple
domains. For each domain, a virtual host name and Virtual IP address are
configured with the virtual domain name and IP address.
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Each domain must be issued a signed commercial certificate that attests that
the public key contained in the certificate belongs to that domain.
1. Configure the Zimbra Proxy Virtual Host Name and IP Address.
zmprov md <domain> +zimbraVirtualHostName {domain.example.com}
+zimbraVirtualIPAddress {1.2.3.4}
Note: The virtual domain name requires a valid DNS configuration with an
A record.
2. Go to the administration console and edit the domain. Copy the domain’s
issued signed commercial certificate’s and private key files to the
Domain>Certificate page.
3. Copy the root certificate and the intermediate certificates in descending
order, starting with your domain certificate. This allows the full certificate
chain to be validated.
4. Remove any password authentication from the private key before the
certificate is saved.
See your commercial certificate provider for details about how to remove
the password.
5. Click Save.
The domain certificate is deployed to /opt/zimbra/conf/domaincerts
Using DKIM to Authenticate Email Message
Domain Keys Identified Mail (DKIM) defines a domain-level authentication
mechanism that lets your organization take responsibility for transmitting an
email message in a way that can be verified by a recipient. Your organization
can be the originating sending site or an intermediary. Your organization’s
reputation is the basis for evaluating whether to trust the message delivery.
You can add a DKIM digital signature to outgoing email messages, associating
the message with a domain name of your organization. You can enable DKIM
signing for any number of domains that are being hosted by ZCS. It is not
required for all domains to have DKIM signing enabled for the feature to work.
DKIM defines an authentication mechanism for email using

A domain name identifier

Public-key cryptography

DNS-based public key publishing service.
The DKIM signature is added to the email message header field. The header
information look like this example.
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Managing Configuration
DKIM-Signature a=rsa-sha1; q=dns;
d=example.com;
i=user@eng.example.com;
s=jun2005.eng; c=relaxed/simple;
t=1117574938; x=1118006938;
h=from:to:subject:date;
b=dzdVyOfAKCdLXdJOc9G2q8LoXSlEniSb
av+yuU4zGeeruD00lszZVoG4ZHRNiYzR
Receivers who successfully validate a DKIM signature can use information
about the signer as part of a program to limit spam, spoofing, phising, or other
undesirable behavior.
Configure ZCS for DKIM Signing
DKIM signing to outgoing mail is done at the domain level. To set up DKIM you
must run the CLI zmdkimkeyutil to generate the DKIM keys and selector. You
then update the DNS server with the selector which is the public key.
1. Log in to the ZCS server and as zimbra, type
/opt/zimbra/libexec/zmdkimkeyutil -a -d <example.com>
The public DNS record data that must be added for the domain to your
DNS server is displayed. The public key DNS record appears as a DNS
TXT-record that must be added for the domain to your DNS server.
Optional. To specify the number of bits for the new key, include -b in the
command line, -b <####>. If you do not add the -b, the default setting is
1024 bits.
DKIM Data added to LDAP for domain example.com with selector
B534F5FC-EAF5-11E1-A25D-54A9B1B23156
Public signature to enter into DNS:
B534F5FC-EAF5-11E1-A25D-54A9B1B23156._domainkey IN TXT "v=DKIM1;
k=rsa; p=MIGfMA0GCSqGSIb3DQEBAQUAA4GNADCBiQKBgQC+ycHjGL/
mJXEVlRZnxZL/VqaN/
Jk9VllvIOTkKgwLSFtVsKC69kVaUDDjb3zkpJ6qpswjjOCO+0eGJZFA4aB4BQjFBHbl
97vgNnpJq1sV3QzRfHrN8X/
gdhvfKSIwSDFFl3DHewKDWNcCzBkNf5wHt5ujeavz2XogL8HfeL0bTwIDAQAB" ; ---- DKIM B534F5FC-EAF5-11E1-A25D-54A9B1B23156 for example.com
The generated DKIM data is stored in the LDAP server as part of the
domain LDAP entry.
2. Work with your service provider to update your DNS for the domain with
the DKIM DNS text record.
3. Reload the DNS and verify that the DNS server is returning the DNS
record.
4. To verify that the public key matches the private key, type
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Administrator Guide
/opt/zimbra/opendkim/sbin/opendkim-testkey -d <example.com> -s <0E9F184A9577-11E1-AD0E-2A2FBBAC6BCB> -x /opt/zimbra/conf/opendkim.conf
•
-d is the domain name
•
-s is the selector name
•
-x is the configuration file
Update DKIM Data for a Domain
When the DKIM keys are updated, the DNS server must be reloaded with the
new TXT record.
Good practice is to leave the previous TXT record in DNS for a period of time
so that email messages that were signed with the previous key can still be
verified.
1. Log in to the ZCS server and as zimbra, type
/opt/zimbra/libexec/zmdkimkeyutil -u -d <example.com>
Optional. To specify the number of bits for the new key, include -b in the
command line, -b <####>. If you do not add the -b, the default setting is
1024 bits.
2. Work with your service provider to update your DNS for the domain with
the DKIM DNS text record.
3. Reload the DNS and verify that the DNS server is returning the DNS
record.
4. To verify that the public key matches the private key, type
/opt/zimbra/opendkim/sbin/opendkim-testkey -d <example.com> -s <0E9F184A9577-11E1-AD0E-2A2FBBAC6BCB> -x /opt/zimbra/conf/opendkim.conf
•
-d is the domain name
•
-s is the selector name
•
-x is the configuration file
Remove DKIM Signing from ZCS
Removing DKIM signing deletes the DKIM data from LDAP. New email
message no longer are signed for the domain. When you remove DKIM from
the domain, good practice is to leave the previous TXT record in DNS for a
period of time so that email messages that were signed with the previous key
can still be verified.
1. To remove, type
/opt/zimbra/libexec/zmdkimkeyutil -r -d example.com
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Managing Configuration
Retrieve DKIM Data for a Domain
1. To see the stored DKIM information for the domain, selector, private key,
public signature and identity, type
/opt/zimbra/libexec/zmdkimkeyutil -q -d example.com
Anti-spam Settings
ZCS uses SpamAssassin to control spam. SpamAssassin uses predefined
rules as well as a Bayes database to score messages. Zimbra evaulates
spaminess based on percentage. Messages tagged between 33%-75% are
considered spam and delivered to the user’s junk folder. Messages tagged
above 75% are not sent to the user and are discarded.
You can change the anti-spam settings from the administration console Global
Settings>AS/AV page.
When a message is tagged as spam, the message is delivered to the
recipient’s junk folder. Users can view the number of unread messages that
are in their junk folder and can open the junk folder to review the messages
marked as spam. If you have the anti-spam training filters enabled, when
users add or remove messages in the junk folder, their action helps train the
spam filter. See Anti-Spam Protection.
RBL (Real time black-hole lists) can be turned on or off in SpamAssassin from
the Zimbra CLI.
Anti-Spam Training Filters
The automated spam training filter is enabled by default and two feedback
system mailboxes are created to receive mail notification.

Spam Training User for mail that was not marked as spam but should be.

Non-spam (referred to as ham) training user for mail that was marked as
spam but should not have been.
The mailbox quota and attachment indexing is disabled for these training
accounts. Disabling quotas prevents bouncing messages when the mailbox is
full.
How well the anti-spam filter works depends on recognizing what is
considered spam. The SpamAssassin filter learns from messages that users
specifically mark as spam by sending them to their junk folder or not spam by
removing them from their junk folder. A copy of these marked messages is
sent to the appropriate spam training mailbox.
When ZCS is installed, the spam/ham cleanup filter is configured on only the
first MTA. The ZCS spam training tool, zmtrainsa, is configured to
automatically retrieve these messages and train the spam filter. The zmtrainsa
script is enabled through a crontab job to feed mail to the SpamAssassin
application, allowing SpamAssassin to ‘learn’ what signs are likely to mean
spam or ham. The zmtrainsa script empties these mailboxes each day.
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Note: New installs of ZCS limit spam/ham training to the first MTA installed. If
you uninstall or move this MTA, you will need to enable spam/ham
training on another MTA, as one host should have this enabled to run
zmtrainsa --cleanup.
To set this on a new MTA server
zmlocalconfig -e zmtrainsa_cleanup_host=TRUE
Disabling the Spam Training Mailboxes
The ZCS default is that all users can give feedback when they add or remove
items from their junk folder. If you do not want users to train the spam filter you
can disable this function.
1. Modify the global configuration attributes, ZimbraSpamIsSpamAccount and
ZimbraSpamIsNotSpamAccount
2. Remove the account addresses from the attributes.
zmprov mcf ZimbraSpamIsSpamAccount ‘’
zmprov mcf ZimbraSpamIsNotSpamAccount ‘’
When these attributes are modified, messages marked as spam or not spam
are not copied to the spam training mailboxes.
Manually Training Spam Filters
Initially, you might want to train the spam filter manually to quickly build a
database of spam and non-spam tokens, words, or short character sequences
that are commonly found in spam or ham. To do this, you can manually
forward messages as message/rfc822 attachments to the spam and nonspam mailboxes.
When zmtrainsa runs, these messages are used to teach the spam filter. Make
sure you add a large enough sampling of messages to get accurate scores. To
determine whether to mark messages as spam at least 200 known spams and
200 known hams must be identified.
Protect Alias Domains from Backscatter Spam
To reduce the risk of backscatter spam, you can run a milter that runs a Postfix
SMTP Access Policy Daemon that validates RCPT To: content specifically for
alias domains.
Note: For information about creating domain aliases, see the Zimbra wiki
article at http://wiki.zimbra.com/index.php?title=ManagingDomains.
1. Set the Postfix LC key.
zmlocalconfig -e postfix_enable_smtpd_policyd=yes
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2. Stop Postfix.
postfix stop
3. Type
zmprov mcf +zimbraMtaRestriction "check_policy_service unix:private/policy"
4. Restart Postfix.
postfix start
The postfix_policy_time_limit key is set because by default the Postfix spawn
(8) daemon kills its child process after 1000 seconds. This is too short for a
policy daemon that might run as long as an SMTP client is connected to an
SMTP process.
Disable Postfix Policy Daemon
1. Type zmlocalconfig -e postfix_enable_smtpd_policyd=no
2. Type zmprov mcf -zimbraMtaRestriction "check_policy_service unix:private/
policy"
3. Stop Postfix, type postfix stop.
4. Restart, type postfix start.
Set Email Recipient Restrictions
RBL (Realtime Blackhole Lists) can be turned on or off in the MTA from the
administration console Global Settings>MTA page.
For protocol checks, the following three RBLs can be enabled:

Hostname in greeting violates RFC - reject_invalid_hostname

Client must greet with a fully qualified hostname reject_non_fqdn_hostname

Sender address must be fully qualified - reject_non_fqdn_sender
The following RBLs can also be set.

reject_rbl_client cbl.abuseat.org

reject_rbl_client bl.spamcop.net

reject_rbl_client dnsbl.sorbs.net

reject_rbl_client sbl.spamhaus.org

reject_rbl_client relays.mail-abuse.org
As part of recipient restrictions, you can also use the reject_rbl_client <rbl
hostname> option.
To add RBLs from the administration console, go to the Global
Settings>MTA>DNS checks section, List of RBLs.
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For a list of current RBL’s, see the Comparison of DNS blacklists article at
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Comparison_of_DNS_blacklists.
Add RBLs Using the CLI
1. Log in to the server and go to the Zimbra directory. Type su -zimbra.
2. To view which RBLs are set, type
zmprov gacf | grep zimbraMtaRestriction
3. To add any new RBL types, you must list the existing RBLs and the new
RBLs all in one command.
zmprov mcf zimbraMtaRestriction [RBL type]
For example, to add all possible restrictions:
zmprov mcf zimbraMtaRestriction reject_invalid_hostname
zimbraMtaRestriction reject_non-fqdn_hostname zimbraMtaRestriction
reject_non_fqdn_sender zimbraMtaRestriction “reject_rbl_client cbl.abuseat.org”
zimbraMtaRestriction “reject_rbl_client bl.spamcop.net” zimbraMtaRestriction
“reject_rbl_client dnsbl.sorbs.net” zimbraMtaRestriction “reject_rbl_client
sbl.spamhaus.org” zimbraMtaRestriction “reject_rbl_client relays.mailabuse.org”
Note: Use quotes when typing RBL types that are two words.
Setting Global Rule for Messages Marked as Both Spam and Whitelist
When you use a third-party application to filter messages for spam before
messages are received by ZCS, the ZCS global rule is to send all messages
that are marked by the third-party as spam to the junk folder. This includes
messages that are identified as spam and also identified as whitelisted
If you do not want messages that are identified as whitelisted to be sent to the
junk folder, you can configure zimbraSpamWhitelistHeader and
zimbraSpamWhitelistHeaderValue to pass these messages to the user’s
mailbox. This global rule is not related to the Zimbra MTA spam filtering rules.
Messages are still passed through a user’s filter rules.
Procedure
1. To search the message for a whitelist header, type
zmprov mcf zimbraSpamWhitelistHeader <X-Whitelist-Flag>
2. To set the value, type
zmprov mcf zimbraSpamWhitelistHeaderValue <value_of_third-party_whitelists_messages>
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Anti-virus Settings
Anti-virus protection is enabled for each server when the Zimbra software is
installed. The anti-virus software is configured to send messages that have
been identified as having a virus to the virus quarantine mailbox.
An email notification is sent to recipients letting them know that a message
has been quarantined. The quarantine mailbox message lifetime is set to 7
days.
The global settings for the anti-virus protection is configured with these
options enabled:

Block encrypted archives, such as password protected zipped files.

Send notification to recipient to alert that a mail message had a virus
and was not delivered.
You can change the anti-spam settings from the administration console Global
Settings>AS/AV page.
During ZCS installation, the administrator notification address for anti-virus
alerts is configured. The default is to set up the admin account to receive the
notification. When a virus has been found, a notification is automatically sent
to that address.
By default, the Zimbra MTA checks every two hours for any new anti-virus
updates from ClamAV. The frequency can be set between 1 and 24 hours. You
can change this from the Global Settings>AS/AV page.
Note: Updates are obtained via HTTP from the ClamAV website.
Zimbra Free/Busy Calendar Scheduling
The Free/Busy feature allows users to view each other’s calendars for
efficiently scheduling meetings. You can set up free/busy scheduling across
ZCS and Microsoft Exchange servers.
ZCS can query the free/busy schedules of users on Microsoft Exchange 2003,
2007, or 2010 servers and also can propagate the free/busy schedules of ZCS
users to the Exchange servers.
To set free/busy interoperability, the Exchange systems must be set up as
described in the Exchange Setup Requirements section, and the ZCS Global
Config, Domain, COS and Account settings must be configured. The easiest
way to configure ZCS is from the administration console.
Exchange 2003/2007/2010 Setup Requirements.
The following is required to set up the free/busy feature:

Either a single Active Directory (AD) must be in the system or the global
catalog must be available.
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
The ZCS server must be able to access the HTTP(S) port of IIS on at least
one of the Exchange servers.

Web interface to Exchange public folders needs to be available via IIS.
(http://server/public/)

ZCS users must be provisioned as a contact on the AD using the same
administrative group for each mail domain. This is required only for ZCS to
Exchange free/busy replication.

For ZCS to Exchange free/busy replication, the Exchange user email
address must be provisioned in the account attribute
zimbraForeignPrincipal for all ZCS users.
Configuring Free/Busy on ZCS
To set Free/Busy Interoperability up from the administration console, the
global config, Domain, COS and Account settings must be configured as
described here.

Either globally or by domain configure the Exchange server settings.
•
Microsoft Exchange Server URL. This is the Web interface to the
Exchange.
•
Microsoft Exchange Authentication Scheme, either Basic or Form.
•
Basic is authentication to Exchange via HTTP basic authentication.
•
Form is authentication to Exchange as HTML form based
authentication.
•
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Microsoft Exchange Server Type, either WebDav or ews
•
Select WebDAV to support free/busy with Exchange 2003 or
Exchange 2007.
•
Select ews (Exchange Web Service) to support free/busy with
Exchange 2010, SP1.

Include the Microsoft Exchange user name and password. This is the
name of the account in Active Directory and password that has access to
the public folders. These are used to authenticate against the Exchange
server on REST and WebDAV interfaces.

Add the o and ou values that are configured in the legacyExchangeDN
attribute for Exchange on the Global Config Free/Busy Interop page, the
Domain Free/Busy Interop page or on the Class of Service (COS)
Advanced page. Set at the global level this applies to all accounts talking
to Exchange.

In the Account’s Free/Busy Interop page, configure the foreign principal
email address for the account. This sets up a mapping from the ZCS
account to the corresponding object in the AD.
Managing Configuration
Note: To find these settings on the Exchange server, you can run the
Exchange ADSI Edit tool and search the legacyExchangeDN attribute
for the o= , ou= , and cn= settings.
Storage Management
Managing Storage Volumes
In the Volume page you manage storage volumes on the Zimbra Mailbox
server. When ZCS is installed, one index volume and one message volume
are configured on each mailbox server. You can add new volumes, set the
volume type, and set the compression threshold.
Note: If Compress Blobs is enabled (YES), the disk space used is
decreased, but memory requirements for the server increases.
Index Volumes
Each Zimbra mailbox server is configured with one current index volume.
Each mailbox is assigned to a permanent directory on the current index
volume. You cannot change which volume the account is assigned.
As volumes become full, you can create a new current index volume for new
accounts. You can add new volumes, set the volume type, and set the
compression threshold
Index volumes not marked current are still actively in use for the accounts
assigned to them. Any index volume that is referenced by a mailbox as its
index volume cannot be deleted.
Message Volumes
When a new message is delivered or created, the message is saved in the
current message volume. Message volumes can be created, but only one is
configured as the current volume where new messages are stored. When the
volume is full, you can configure a new current message volume. The current
message volume receives all new messages. New messages are never
stored in the previous volume.
A current volume cannot be deleted, and message volumes that have
messages referencing the volume cannot be deleted.
Email Retention Management
You can configure retention policies for user account’s email, trash, and junk
folders. The basic email retention policy is to set the email, trash and spam
message lifetime in the COS or for individual accounts.
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You can set up specific retention policies that users can enable for the Inbox
and other email folders in their account. Users can also create their own
retention policies.
You can enable the dumpster feature to save messages that are deleted from
Trash. When an message lifetime has been reached based on email lifetime
rules or deletion policies, the message is moved to the dumpster if it is
enabled. Users can recover deleted items from the dumpster until the
threshold set in the Visibility lifetime in dumpster for end user setting. If
dumpster is not enabled, messages are purged from the server when the
email retention lifetime is reached.
You can also set up a legal hold on an account to prevent message from being
deleted.
Configure Email Lifetime Rules
You can configure when email messages should be deleted from an accounts
folders, and the trash and junk folders by COS or for individual accounts.
Feature Name
Description
Email message
lifetime
Number of days a message can remain in a folder
before it is purged. This includes data in RSS folders.
The default is 0; email messages are not deleted. The
minimum configuration for email message lifetime is
30 days.
Trashed message
lifetime
Number of days a message remains in the Trash
folder before it is purged. The default is 30 days.
Spam message
lifetime
Number of days a message can remain in the Junk
folder before it is purged. The default is 30 days.
By default, the server purges email messages that have exceeded their
lifetime every minute.You can change the duration of time that the server
should “rest” between purging mailboxes in the administration console, Global
settings or Server settings, General Information page.
For example, the purge interval is set to 1 minute, after mailbox1 is purged of
messages that meet the message lifetime setting, the server waits 1 minute
before beginning to purge mailbox2.
If the message purge schedule is set to 0, messages are not purged even if
the mail, trash and spam message lifetime is set.
Note: Because users cannot see these message lifetime settings, if you set a
purge limit, make the purge policy known to your users.
Configure Message Retention and Deletion Policies
Retention and deletion policies can be configured as a global setting or as a
COS setting. Users can select these policies to apply to their message folders
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in their account. They can also set up their own retention and deletion policies.
Users enable a policy you set up or create their own policies from their folders’
Edit Properties dialog box.
System wide retention and deletion policies can be managed from the
administration console.

To configure global retention or deletion policies, go to the
Configure>Global Settings>Retention Policy page.

To configure retention or deletion policies by COS, go to the
Configure>Class of Service><COS>, Retention Policy page. Make sure
Enable COS-level policies instead of inheriting from the policy defined in
Global Settings is enabled.
The retention policy is not automatically enforced on a folder. If users delete
an item in a folder that has not met the threshold of the retention policy, the
following message is displayed, You are deleting a message that is within its
folder’s retention period. Do you wish to delete the message?
When the threshold for the deletion policy is reached, items are deleted from
the account. They are not sent to the Trash folder. If the dumpster feature is
enabled, they are sent to the dumpster, if it is not enabled, they are purged
from the server.
How Lifetime and Retention/Deletion Policies Work Together
If the Email Message Lifetime is set to a value other than zero (0), this setting
applies in addition to the disposal or retention policy values applied to a folder.
For example:
Email Message Lifetime is set to 120 days

Folder A has a policy with a disposal threshold of 360 days. Messages in
Folder a are disposed of in 120 days.

Folder B has a policy with disposal threshold of 90 days. Messages in
Folder B are disposed of in 90 days.

Folder C has a policy with retention range of 150 days. Messages in
Folder C are disposed of in 120 days.
Managing the Dumpster
When a message, trash or spam lifetime has been reached, the message is
moved to the dumpster if the feature is enabled. When users right-click on
Trash, they can click Recover deleted items to retrieve items from their trash
that has been deleted in the last x days. This threshold is based on the
Visibility lifetime in dumpster for end user setting.
The Retention lifetime in dumpster before purging setting sets retention lifetime
for items in dumpster. Items in dumpster older than the threshold are purged
and cannot be retrieved.
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Administrators can access the individual dumpster’s content, including spam,
and they can delete data at any time before the message lifetime is reached.
To search for an item in the dumpster folder, type
zmmailbox --dumpster --types <message,contact,document> <search-field>
The search field can be a date range: 'before:mm/dd/yyyy and after:mm/dd/
yyyy' or emails from or to a particular person: 'from: Joe', etc.
To delete items in the dumpster folder, type
zmmailbox -z -m <user@example.com> -A dumpsterDeleteItem <item-ids>
The dumpster folder feature can be managed from the administration console.
1. To enable this feature, go to the Configure>Class of service>[COSname],
Features page, General Features section. Check Dumpster folder.
2. To set Visibility lifetime in dumpster for end user, go to the COS’s,
Advanced page, Timeout Policy section.
3. To set Retention lifetime in dumpster before purging, go to the COS’s
Advanced page, Email Retention Policy section.
Configure Legal Hold on an Account
If the dumpster folder feature is enabled, you can set up a legal hold to
preserve all items in user accounts.
When dumpster is enabled, Can purge dumpster folder is also enabled.
Disabling this feature turns off purging of items in the user’s dumpster. This
can be set by a COS or for individual accounts. When Can purge dumpster
folder is enabled, any deletion policies set up on the accounts’ folders are
ignored.

To configure legal hold on an account from the administration console by
COS, go to Configure>Class of Service>Features page and deselect Can
purge dumpster folder.

For individual accounts, go to Manage>Accounts and select the account.
Disable the feature on the Features page.
Customized Admin Extensions
You can create custom modules to add to the Zimbra administration console
user interface. The admin extension framework allows developers to add new
views to the administration console, manage new data objects in the
administration console, extend existing objects with new properties, and
customize existing views.
You upload and install your modules from the administration console
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Go to the Zimbra Wiki, Extending Admin UI at http://wiki.zimbra.com/
index.php?title=Extending_Admin_UI for documentation about how to create
an extended admin UI module.
Setting System-wide Signatures
You can create system-wide signatures that are added to every message sent
out. These types of signatures can be used to set up company signatures,
legal notices, and company disclaimers. The global signature is not visible
when an email is composed, but displays in the recipient’s email message.
The following attributes are used to enable this feature:

zimbraDomainMandatoryMailSignatureEnabled (TRUE/FALSE) TRUE
enables this feature.

zimbraDomainMandatoryMailSignatureText. This creates the plain text
version.

zimbraDomainMandatoryMailSignatureHTML. This creates the HTML
version.
1. Create a system-wide mandatory signature
zmprov mcf zimbraDomainMandatoryMailSignatureEnabled TRUE
zmprov mcf zimbraDomainMandatoryMailSignatureText <“some text”>
zmprov mcf zimbraDomainMandatoryMailSignatureHTML
"<html><body>some html text</body></html>”
2. Restart Amavis to apply the configuration and global signature files.
/opt/zimbra/bin/zmamavisdctl restart
Backing Up the System
Backing up the mailbox server on a regular basis can help you quickly restore
your email service if there is an unexpected crash. You should include backing
up the ZCS server in your system-wide backup process. Only full backups of
the ZCS data can be created.
Before backing up the ZCS data, all servers must be stopped. To stop the
servers, use the CLI command, zmcontrol stop. After the backup is complete,
to restart the servers, use zmcontrol start. See Appendix A, for more
information about these command.
To restore the ZCS data, you must delete the existing data and then restore
the backup files. The servers must be stopped before restoring the data.
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9
Managing User Accounts
Topics in this chapter include:
Change Status of Accounts
Delete an Account
View an Accounts Mailbox
Use an Email Alias
Work with Distribution Lists
Using Dynamic Distribution Lists
Change Status of Accounts
The status of an account determines whether a user can log in and receive
mail. The account status displays on the Accounts Content pane in the
administration console.
An account’s status can be one of the following:

Active. Active is the normal status for a mailbox account. Mail is delivered
and users can log into the client interface.

Maintenance. When a mailbox status is set to maintenance, login is
disabled, and mail addressed to the account is queued at the MTA.
Note: Maintenance status is automatically set on an account when a
backup is being run, or when importing/exporting or restoring an
account.

Pending. Pending is a status that can be assigned when a new account is
created and not yet ready to become active. The login is disabled and
messages are bounced.

Locked. When a mailbox status is locked, the user cannot log in, but mail
is still delivered to the account. The locked status can be set if you suspect
that a mail account has been hacked or is being used in an unauthorized
manner.

Closed. When a mailbox status is closed, the login is disabled, and
messages are bounced. This status is used to soft-delete an account
before deleting the account from the server. A closed account does not
change the account license.
Zimbra Collaboration Server
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
LockOut. This is set automatically when users who try to log in do not enter
their correct password and are then locked out of their account. You
cannot set this status manually. You set up a login policy with a specified
number of consecutive failed login attempts that are allowed before they
are locked out. How long the account is locked out is set by COS or
account configuration, but you can remove the locked out status at any
time.
Delete an Account
You can delete accounts from the administration console. This removes the
account from the server, deletes the messages in the message store, and
changes the number of accounts used against your license.
Before you delete an account, run a full backup of that account to save the
account information. See the Backup and Restore chapter.
View an Accounts Mailbox
You can view a selected account’s mailbox content, including all folders,
calendar entries, and tags from the administration console. Select an account
and from the gear icon drop down menu select View Mail. The user’s ZWC
account opens in a new browser window.
This feature can be used to assist users who are having trouble with their mail
account as you and the account user can be logged on to the account at the
same time.
Any View Mail action to access an account is logged to the audit.log file.
Use an Email Alias
An email alias is an email address that redirects all mail to a specified mail
account. An alias is not an email account. Each account can have unlimited
numbers of aliases.
When you select Aliases from the Manage Aliases navigation pane, all aliases
that are configured are displayed in the content pane. You can created an
alias, view the account information for a specific alias, move the alias from one
account to another, and delete the alias.
Work with Distribution Lists
A distribution list is a group of email addresses contained in a list with a
common email address. When users send to a distribution list, they are
sending the message to everyone whose address is included in the list. The
address line displays the distribution list address; the individual recipient
addresses cannot be viewed.
You can create distribution lists that require an administrator to manage the
member list and you can create dynamic distribution lists that automatically
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Managing User Accounts
manages adding and deleting members in the list. For more information about
dynamic distribution lists, see Using Dynamic Distribution Lists on page 93.
You can see which distribution lists a user is a member of from the user’s
account Member of page. When a Zimbra user’s email address is added to a
distribution list, the user’s account Member Of page is updated with the
distribution list name. When a distribution list is deleted, the distribution list
name is automatically removed from the account’s Member Of page.
Setting Subscription Policies for Distribution Lists
Subscription policies can be set up to manage a distribution list’s membership.
Owners of the list manage the subscription policy from the Properties page of
a distribution list.
Option
Description
New Subscription Requests
• Automatically accept. Membership is open
to anyone who subscribes.
• Require list owner approval. To subscribe,
users send an email to the owner of the
distribution list and the owner replies to this
email request.
• Automatically reject. No one can be added
to this distribution list.
Unsubscription Requests
• Automatically accept. Anyone can remove
their name from the list.
• Require list owner approval To be removed
from the distribution list, users send an email
to the owner. The owner must accept the
email request to remove the name.
• Automatically reject. Users cannot remove
themselves from the list.
Management Options for Owners of Distribution Lists
You can add owners to distribution lists and they manage the list from their
ZWC account’s Address Book, Distribution List folder. Owners of a list can
right click a distribution list and click the Edit Group link to edit a list.
Besides adding and deleting members, distribution list properties that owners
can configure include:

Marking the list as private so it is hidden in the Global Address List

Managing who can send messages to the list

Setting a member subscription policy

Adding additional owners
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Creating a Distribution List
1. In the administration console, go to Manage>Distribution Lists.
2. In the gear icon, click New.
3. On the Members page, add the distribution list name. Do not use spaces.
The other fields are optional.
4. Find members to add to the distribution list in the right column. Select the
members to add and click Add Selected. If you want to add all addresses
on the page, click Add This Page. If you want to add members that are not
in the company list, in the Or enter addresses below section, type a
complete mail address.
5. Click Next to configure the Properties page.
Option
Description
Can receive mail
Enabled by default. If this distribution list should
not receive mail select this box.
Hide in GAL
Enable to create distribution lists that do not
display in the Global Address List (GAL). You can
use this feature to limit the exposure of the
distribution list to only those that know the
address.
Mail Server
This is set to auto by default. To select a specific
mail server, uncheck auto and select a specific
server from the list.
Dynamic Group
If you check this box, the Member URL field
displays and you create a dynamic distribution
list.
See Create Dynamic Distribution Lists from the
Administration Console on page 94.
New Subscription Requests
Select from
• Automatically accept
• Require list owner approval
• Automatically reject
Unsubscription Requests
Select from
• Automatically accept
• Require list owner approval
• Automatically reject.
6. In the Members Of page, select distribution lists that should be direct or
indirect members of the list.
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7. If the distribution list should have alias, create it.
8. If this distribution list can be managed by other users, enter these email
addresses in the Owners page.
9. Set how messages received to the distribution list should be replied to.
10. Click Finish. The distribution list is enabled and the URL is created.
Enable Viewing of Distribution List Members for AD Accounts
To view Active Directory distribution list members in messages or in the
address book, the GAL group handler for Active Directory must be configured
in the ZCS GALsync account for each Active Directory.
To update the GALsync account for each Active Directory, you must know the
GALsync account name and all data sources on that GALsync account.
1. To find the GALsync account name:
zmprov gd {domain} zimbraGalAccountId
The above command displays the zimbra ID of the GALsync account. To
find the name:
zmprov ga {zimbraId-of-the-GAL-sync-account} | grep "# name"
2. To find the data sources for the GALsync account:
zmprov gds {gal-sync-account-name-for-the-domain}
3. To enable the group handler for the Active Directory:
zmprov mds {gal-sync-account-name-for-the-domain} {AD-data-source-name}
zimbraGalLdapGroupHandlerClass com.zimbra.cs.gal.ADGalGroupHandler
Using Dynamic Distribution Lists
Dynamic distribution lists automatically manage the membership. Users are
added and removed from the distribution list automatically. When you create a
dynamic distribution list, a member URL is specified. This member URL is
used to identify who should be members of the list. You can view this URL
from the administration console distribution list’s Properties page.
You can create dynamic distribution lists from the administration console or
from the CLI. In the URL, you specify specific object classes that identifies the
type of users to be added to the dynamic distribution list. For example, you
can configure a dynamic distribution list with the object class= zimbraAccount.
In this case, when accounts are provisioned or accounts are deleted, the
dynamic distribution list is updated.
You can create dynamic distribution lists for all mobile users or POP/IMAP
users.
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You can modify a distribution list to change the filter rules. When you modify a
distribution list, the members in the list are changed to reflect the new rule.
Create Dynamic Distribution Lists from the Administration
Console
1. In the administration console, go to Manage>Distribution Lists.
2. In the gear icon, click New.
3. On the Members page, add the dynamic distribution list name. Do not use
spaces. Do not add members to the list.
4. Click Next to configure the Properties page.
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Option
Description
Can receive mail
Enabled by default. If this distribution list should
not receive mail select this box.
Hide in GAL
Enable to create distribution lists that do not
display in the Global Address List (GAL). You can
use this feature to limit the exposure of the
distribution list to only those that know the
address.
Mail Server
This is set to auto by default. To select a specific
mail server, uncheck auto and select a specific
server from the list.
Dynamic Group
Check this box.
Can be used in right management
Uncheck this box.
Managing User Accounts
Option
Description
Member URL
The Member URL is the type of LDAP URL filter
that determine which type of users are added and
removed in the list.
Type the URL for this list. In the command, ldap:/
//??sub? is the URL. You can add any
combination of filters to this to create different
types of dynamic distribution lists.
Examples of type of URLs.
All users, GAL account names, and spam/ham
account list
ldap:///??sub?(objectClass=zimbraAccount)
Delegated administrators list
ldap:///
??sub?(&(objectClass=zimbraAccount)(zimbraIs
DelegatedAdminAccount=TRUE))
All active accounts
ldap:///
??sub?(&(objectClass=zimbraAccount)(ZimbraA
ccountStatus=active))
All users with the title manager. The title is
taken from the account’s Contact Information
Job Title field. In this example, this field would be
set to “Manager”.
ldap:///
??sub?(&(objectClass=zimbraAccount)(title=Ma
nager))
New Subscription Requests
Select Automatically reject.
Unsubscription Requests
Select Automatically reject.
5. If the dynamic distribution list should have an alias, create it.
6. If this dynamic distribution list can be managed by other users, enter these
email addresses in the Owners page.
7. If you want to set up a reply to address, enter it here. Any replies to this
distribution list are sent to this address.
8. Click Finish. The dynamic distribution list is created.
Users are added automatically to the list based on the filter you specified. If
you add or delete users, the list is updated.
Note: If you use the CLI to modify a dynamic distribution list originally
created on the administration console, you must set
zimbraIsACLGroup FALSE for that dynamic distribution list.
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Using CLI to Manage Dynamic Distribution Lists
Use the zmprov CLI command to manage dynamic distribution lists. In the
command, ldap:///??sub? is the URL. You can add any combination of filters to
this to create different types of dynamic distribution lists.
Create a dynamic distribution list of all new and existing accounts
All users, GAL account names, and spam/ham account names are included.
When user accounts are deleted, they are removed from the list.
zmprov cddl <all@domain.com> memberURL ‘ldap:///
??sub?(objectClass=zimbraAccount)’ zimbraIsACLGroup FALSE
Create a COS and Assign Users
If you create COSs and assign users to the COS based on specific criteria,
such as all managers, you can quickly modify a dynamic distribution list to be
used for a specific COS.
Examples of creating dynamic distribution lists for specific user types.

Create a dynamic distribution list that includes all users that have active
accounts in a specific COS.
zmprov cddl <allusers@domain.com> memberURL ‘ldap:///
??sub?(&(objectClass-zimbraAccount) (zimbraCOSId=513e02e-9abc-4acf-863a6dccf38252e3) (zimbraAccountStatus=active) )’ zimbraIsACLGroup FALSE

Create a dynamic distribution list that includes all users based on job titles.
To use this, the account’s Contact Information Job Title field must include
the title. In this example it would be set to “Manager”.
zmprov cddl <allmanagers@domain.com> memberURL ‘ldap:///
??sub?(&(objectClass-zimbraAccount) (zimbraCOSId=513e02e-9abc-4acf-863a6dccf38252e3) (title=Manager) )’ zimbraIsACLGroup FALSE

Create a dynamic distribution list for all delegated administrators.
zmprov cddl <alldelegatedadmins@domain.com> memberURL ‘ldap:///??sub?(&
(objectClass-zimbraAccount) (zimbraCOSId=513e02e-9abc-4acf-863a6dccf38252e3) (zimbraIsDelegatedADminAccount=TRUE) )’
zimbraIsACLGroup FALSE

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10
Customizing Accounts
This chapter describes the features and user preferences that can be
configured for an account either from the assigned COS or in an individual
account.
Topics in this chapter include:
Messaging and Collaboration Applications
Email Messaging Features
Set Up Address Book Features
Set Up Calendar Features
Setting Zimbra Web Client UI Themes
Other Configuration Settings for Accounts
Note: Mailbox features are enabled for Zimbra Web Client users. When
IMAP or POP clients are used, users might not have these features
available.
Messaging and Collaboration Applications
Configuring the COS and assigning a COS to accounts lets you configure the
default settings for account features and restrictions for groups of accounts.
Individual accounts can be configured differently and any changes you make
override the COS setting. When you update the COS, the changes are not
reflected in accounts that have COS overrides.
Email Messaging Features
You configure which email messaging features are enabled. Users can then
manage many of the enabled features as preferences.
The default is to let users manage their preferences, but you can choose not
to let users set account preferences. The following ZWC Features tables lists
the features.
Zimbra Collaboration Server
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Feature
Description
COS/
Account
Tabs
Mail
Enables the email application.
Enabled by default.
Features
Conversations
Messages can be grouped into
conversations by a common thread.
The default is to thread messages in a
conversation by the References
header. If there is no References
header, the Subject is used to
determine the conversation thread. To
change the default, update attribute
zimbraMailThreadingAlgorithm
from the COS or for individual
accounts. See zmprov (Provisioning).
Features
If this feature is enabled, conversation
view is the default. You can change
the default on the COS Preferences
page.
Users can also change the default.
HTML compose
Users can compose email messages
with an HTML editor. They can specify
default font settings as a preference.
Features
Draft auto save
interval
Frequency of saving draft
messages.The default is every 30
seconds. Users cannot change the
frequency, but they can turn off the
save draft feature.
Preferences
Mail send later
When enabled, users can choose
Send Later to send a message at a
later time. The user configures the
data and time for sending. Messages
are saved in the Draft folder.
Features
Message priority
When enabled, users can set the
priority of the message. The recipient
viewing from ZWC sees the priority
flag if it is high or low.
Features
Allow the user to
specify a forwarding
address
You can specify a default forwarding
address that the user can use. Users
can change the forwarding address
from their account Preferences tab.
Features
page in COS
You can also specify forwarding
addresses that are hidden from the
user. A copy of a message sent to the
account is immediately forwarded to
the designated forwarding address.
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Forwarding
page in
Accounts
Customizing Accounts
Out of office reply
New mail notification
Users can create an email message
that automatically replies to incoming
messages. By default a message is
sent to each recipient only once every
seven days, regardless of how many
messages that person sends to the
address. This setting can be changed
in the COS Preferences page, Out of
office cache lifetime field.
Features
Allows users the option to specify an
address to be notified of new mail.
They can turn this feature on or off
and designate an address from their
account Preferences tab.
Features
page in COS
Preferences
Preferences
page in
Accounts
Note: See zmprov (Provisioning) in
Appendix A CLI commands, for
information about how to change the
email template.
Persona
When enabled, users can create
additional account names to manage
different roles. Account aliases can be
selected for the From name of
messages sent from that persona
account and a specific signature can
be set for the persona account.
Features
The number of personas that can be
created is set to 20. You can change
this from the CLI zmprov mc
zimbraIdentityMaxNumEntries
Maximum length of
mail signature
The maximum number of characters
that can be in a signature. The default
is 1024 characters.
Preferences
The number of signatures users can
create is configured in
zimbraSignatureMaxNumEntries
Advanced Search
Allows users to build a complex
search by date, domain, status, tags,
size, attachment, Zimlets, and folders.
Features
Saved searches
Users can save a search that they
have previously executed or built.
Features
Initial search
preference
When enabled, the default search
mailbox can be changed.
Preferences
This is the folder that is searched
when the Get Mail link in ZWC is
clicked. The default is Inbox.
External POP access
When enabled, users can retrieve
their POP accounts’ email messages
directly from their ZWC account. They
add the external account address to
their account settings.
Features
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External IMAP
Access
When enabled, users can retrieve
their IMAP accounts’ email messages
directly from their ZWC account. They
can add the external account address
to their account settings.
Feature
Aliases for this
account
You can create an aliases for the
account. Users cannot change this.
Alias page in
Accounts
Mail filters
Users can define a set of rules and
corresponding actions to apply to
incoming and outgoing mail and
calendar appointments. When an
incoming email message matches the
conditions of a filter rule, the
corresponding actions associated
with that rule are applied.
Features
Note: Spam check on a received
message is completed before
users’ mail filters are run.
Messages identified as spam
are moved to the junk folder.
To avoid having mail
incorrectly marked as spam,
users can create a spam
whitelist from the Preferences
Mail folder to identify email
addresses that should not be
marked as spam.
Tagging and Flagging
Users can create tags and flags and
assign them to messages, contacts,
and files in Briefcase folders.
Feature
Enable keyboard
shortcuts
Users can use keyboard shortcuts
within their mailbox.
Preferences
The shortcut list can be printed from
the Preferences Shortcuts folder.
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Dumpster folder
When enabled, users can right-click
on their Trash folder and select
Recover Deleted Items to recover
items deleted up to 30 days before.
Feature
GAL access
Users can access the company
directory to find names for their email
messages.
Features
Autocomplete from
GAL
When enabled, users enter a few
letters in their compose header and
names listed in the GAL are displayed
ranked by usage. See Autocomplete
Ranks Names.
Features
Customizing Accounts
IMAP access
Users can use third party mail
applications to access their mailbox
using the IMAP protocol.
Features
You can set the polling interval from
the COS/Account Advanced page,
Data Source>IMAP polling interval
section. The polling interval is not set
by default.
POP3 access
Users can use third party mail
applications to access their mailbox
using the POP protocol. When they
retrieve their POP email messages,
the messages and attachments are
saved on the Zimbra server.
Features
Users can configure from their
Preferences>Mail page
• How messages are download
• Whether to include their junk
messages. Junk messages are
downloaded to their Inbox.
• How to delete messages from their
POP account.
You can set the polling interval from
the COS/Account Advanced page,
Data Source>POP3 polling interval
section. The polling interval is not set
by default.
Autocomplete Ranks Names
The autocomplete feature displays names ranked with the most frequently
recalled contact listed at the top. If the contact name that appears first should
not be listed at the top, the user can click Forget and the contact names are reranked.
Email Preferences Users Manage
The default behavior for many of these preferences can be set from either the
COS or the Accounts Preferences page. Users can modify the following mail
preferences from their account Preferences Mail page.

How often, in minutes, that the Web Client checks for new messages,
Check for new mail every...

Set or change email message alerts. Alerts can be set up to play a sound,
highlight the Mail tab when a message arrives, and flash the browser.

Set the display language for ZWC. If more than one language locale is
installed on ZCS, users can select the locale that is different from the
browser language settings.
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
Whether to save copies of outbound messages to the Sent folder

Whether to save a local copy of a message that is forwarded or to have it
deleted from their mailbox

Whether to compose messages in a separate window

Whether to view mail as HTML for messages that include HTML or to view
messages as plain text

Whether to send a read receipt when it is requested.

Adjust the default font size for printed messages. The default is 12 points.

Users can set up their own Spam mail options of whitelist and blacklist
email addresses that is used to filter incoming message from their
Preferences Mail folder. The default maximum number of whitelist and
blacklist addresses is 100 on each list. This value can be changed using
CLI zmprov for accounts and COS. The attributes are
zimbraMailWhitelistMaxNumEntries and
zimbraMailBlacklistMaxNumEntries.

Users can modify the following mail preferences from their Preferences
Signatures page.
•
Whether to automatically append a signature to outgoing messages.
•
Preferences for how messages that are replied to or forwarded are
composed.
Use Import and Export to Save User’s Data
The Preferences Import/Export page lets users export all of their account data,
including mail, contacts, calendar, and tasks. They can export specific items in
their account and save the data to their computer or other location. The
account data is saved as a tar-gzipped (tgz) archive file so that it can be
imported to restore their account. Individual contacts are saved as .csv files,
and individual calendar files are saved as .ics files. The data are copied, not
removed from the user’s account.
The exported account data file can be viewed with an archive program such
as WinRAR archiver. Any of these files can be imported into their account from
the same page.
You can turn the Import/Export feature off from the COS or Account Features
page, General Features section.
Set Up RSS Polling Intervals
Users can subscribe to Websites that provide RSS and podcast feeds and
receive updated information directly to their mailboxes. The maximum number
of feeds that can be returned is 50. RSS feeds count against users’ account
quota.
The default is to update the RSS data every 12 hours. Users can right-click on
an RSS feed folder to manually load new feed.
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Customizing Accounts
You can change the polling interval from the administration console the Class
of Server or Account Advanced page, Data Source>RSS polling interval
section.
Set Up Address Book Features
Zimbra Address Book allows users to create multiple contact lists and add
contact names automatically when mail is received or sent. Users can import
contacts into their Address Book.
Important: To allow users to share their mail folders, address books, and
calendars, enable Sharing on the Features page.
Feature
Description
COS/
Account
Tabs
Address Book
Users can create personal contacts
lists. By default, a Contacts list and
Emailed Contacts list are created.
Features
Address book size
limit
Maximum number of contacts a user
can have in all address books. 0
means unlimited.
Advanced
Users can modify the following Address Book preferences from their account
Preferences Address Book page. The default behavior can be set from the
COS or Accounts>Preferences page.

Enable auto adding of contacts to automatically add contacts to their
Emailed Contact list when they send an email to a new address.

Enable the ability to use the Global Access List when using the contact
picker to look up names.

Enable the options to include the GAL addresses and names in shared
address books when using autocomplete to address a message.
Set Up Calendar Features
Zimbra Calendar lets users schedule appointments and meetings, establish
recurring activities, create multiple calendars, share calendars with others,
and delegate manager access to their calendars. They can subscribe to
external calendars and view their calendar information from Zimbra Web
Client. They can also use search for appointments in their calendars.
Important: To allow users to share their calendars, address books, and
Briefcase files, enable Sharing in the Features page.
Feature
Description
COS/
Account
Tabs
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Calendar
Les users maintain their calendar,
schedule meetings, delegate access
to their calendar, create multiple
personal calendars, and more.
Features
Group Calendar
When Group Calendar is not
checked, users can create personal
appointments and accept invitations
to meetings only. The Find Attendees,
Schedule and Find Resources tabs
are not displayed.
Features
Nested Calendars
Calendars can be nested within ZCS
folders like Mail, Contact, and
Calendar folders. The administrator
creates a nested list of calendars
using CLI. A nested calendar
grouping can be imported through
migration as well.
The CLI command to define the
grouping is
zmmailbox -z -m user1 cf -V
appointment /<Calendar Name>/
<sub-calendar name>.
This creates a calendar nested under
the Calendar Name folder.
Time zone
Sets the time zone to use for
Calendar scheduling.
Preferences
Forward calendar
invitation to specific
addresses
You can specify email addresses to
forward a user’s calendar invitations.
Users can also specify forwarding
address from the Preferences
Calendar folder.
Accounts
Forwarding
The account the invitation is
forwarded to must have admin
privileges on the shared calendar to
reply to the invitation.
Troubleshooting Calendar Appointment Problems
The CLI zmcalchk command is used to check for discrepancy between
different users’ calendars for the same meeting and send an email notification
regarding the discrepancies.
You can also use this command to notify the organizer and/or all attendees
when an appointment is out of sync.
Change Remote Calendar Update Interval
Remote calendars are updated every 12 hours by default. You can change the
frequency of these updates in the administration console Class of Service or
Account Advanced page, Data Source>Calendar polling interval.
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Disable Attendee Edits to Appointments
Attendees can edit appointments in their calendars, but their changes do not
affect anyone else. If the appointment organizer makes changes, these
changes overwrite the attendees edits. You can modify the COS attribute
zimbraPrefCalendarApptAllowAtendeeEdit to prevent attendees from editing
appointments in their calendar.
zmprov mc <cosname> zimbraPrefCalendarApptAllowAtendeeEdit= FALSE
Other User Calendar Preferences
Users can modify the Calendar preferences listed in the Calendar Preference
table. You can set the default behavior in the COS or Accounts Preferences
page.
Time zone
Time zone displayed in the user’s Preferences. See Set
Default Time Zone. If the time zone is configured in the
COS, the time zone configured in the domain is ignored.
Number of minutes
before an
appointment to
show reminder
Sets the minutes before the meeting to send a reminder
notice.
Initial calendar view
Sets the default view. Options are Day, Work Week, 7-Day
Week, Month, List, or Schedule.
First day of the
week
Sets the default first day of a user’s work week.
Default
appointment
visibility
Options are Public or Private. Sets the default visibility
options on the new appointment page.
The default is Public, appointments details can be viewed
by others.
When the default is Private, all incoming calendar invites
are marked as private on the user’s calendar and details
are hidden.
Use iCal delegation
model for shared
calendars for
CalDAV interface.
Apple iCal can be configured to access users’ calendars
using the CalDAV protocol. When enabled, shared
calendars are displayed in users’ iCal account’s
Delegation tab and they can delegate access to their
calendars.
For automatic polling, the polling interval can be set up in
the COS/Account Advanced page, Data Source>CalDAV
polling interval field
Enable past due
reminders
Users log into the ZWC, the reminder notifications for the
last two weeks pop up for meeting reminders that were not
dismissed. When this is disabled, ZCS silently dismisses
the old reminders.
Enable toaster
notification for new
calendar events.
A popup displays in ZWC when new calendar events are
received
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Allow sending
cancellation email
to organizer.
When users receive an invitation they cannot attend at the
scheduled time, they have the option to click Propose
New Time and select another time. The meeting organizer
receives an email with the proposed time.
Automatically add
invites with
PUBLISH method.
A calendar invitation email should have
method=REQUEST in the calendar object but some thirdparty email clients incorrectly set method=PUBLISH.
These emails are not processed as invitations by default.
You can relax the rules by enabling this option.
Automatically add
forwarded invites to
calendar
Invites that have been forward to users are automatically
added to the forwarded recipient’s calendar.
Flash browser title
on appointment
reminder.
When appointment reminders pop up, the browser flashes
until the user closes the pop-up.
Enable audible
appointment
notification.
When an appointment reminder pops up, users can be
notified by a beep on their computer. Users must have
either QuickTime or Windows Media installed.
Auto-decline invites
from users who are
denied from inviting
this user.
Users can configure who can send them calendar invites.
When enabled, an auto-reply message is sent to those
users to let them know they do not have permission to
invite the user.
Automatically add
appointments when
invited.
When enabled, appointments are automatically added to
user’s default calendar and declined appointments display
on the ZWC calendar in a faded view.
Note: When viewing appointments from mobile devices
users do not see the deleted invite information in a faded
view and they might not know that the invite was deleted.
Notify of changes
made via delegated
access
Users that delegated their calendar are notified of changes
made to an appointment by a delegated access grantee.
Always show the
mini-calendar.
The mini-calendar automatically displays in the Calendar
view.
Use the QuickAdd
dialog when
creating new
appointments.
When is enabled, the QuickAdd dialog displays when
users double-click or drag on the calendar.
Show time zone list
in appointment
view.
When enabled, a time zones list displays in their
appointment dialog, giving them the opportunity to change
time zones while making appointments.
Set Up Zimbra Tasks
Zimbra Tasks lets users create to-do lists and manage tasks through to
completion.
Important: To allow users to share their Task lists, enable Sharing in the
Features page. Task lists can be shared with individuals, groups, and the
public.
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The Tasks feature is enabled from either the COS or the Accounts
Preferences page.
Setting Zimbra Web Client UI Themes
The appearance of the Zimbra Web Client user interface can be changed. A
number of Zimbra themes are included with ZCS, and you can create others.
You can select a theme to be the default and the themes that users can select
to customize their user experience. To develop themes, see Chapter 21,
Changing ZWC Theme Colors and Logo.
The following theme usage options can be configured either from COS or by
individual accounts.

Limit users to one theme. On the Features page, remove the check mark
from Change UI Themes. The ZWC theme is the theme listed in Current UI
theme field on the Themes page.

Let users access any of the installed Zimbra themes. If the Change UI
Themes is checked, users can access any of the themes that are listed in
the Available UI themes list.
Other Configuration Settings for Accounts
Enable Sharing
When the Sharing feature is enabled, users can share any of their folders,
including their mail folders, calendars, address books, task lists, and Briefcase
folders.
A users specifies the type of access permissions to give the grantee. A users
can share with internal users who can be given complete manager access,
external guests who must use a password to view the folder content, as well
as public access so that anyone who has the URL can view the folder’s
content.
When internal users share a mail folder, a copy of the shared folder is put in
the grantee’s folder list on the Overview pane. Users can manage their shared
folders from their ZWC Preferences Sharing page.
Configure SMS Notification
The ZWC Preferences>Notification page lets users configure an email
address or SMS alert to their mobile device to receive a reminder message for
a task or a meeting on their calendar. Notification by SMS is disabled by
default.
SMS notification can be configured by domain, COS or for individual accounts.
SMS notification set in a COS overrides SMS notifications set on a domain. In
the administration console, this is set on the domain, COS or account’s
Feature page.
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Users select a region and a carrier when setting up their SMS alert. The list of
SMS/email gateways is in ZmSMS.properties. You can customize this list to
add SMS/email gateways that are not listed.
Display a Warning When Users Try to Navigate Away.
It is easy for users to click the Back and Forward arrows in the browser or
close their browser without logging out of their account. If this preference is
checked, users are asked if confirm that they want to navigate away from
there account. If this preference is not checked, the question is not asked.
Enabling the Check Box for the Web Client
If Show selection checkbox for selecting email, contact, voicemail items in a list
view for batch operations is enabled, when users view email messages,
contacts, and tasks lists in the Content pane, a check box displays for each
item. Users can select items and then perform an action such as mark as
read/unread, move to a specific folder, drag and drop to a folder, delete, and
tag for all those selected items.
Preferences Import/Export
The Preferences Import/Export page lets users export all of their account data,
including mail, contacts, calendar, tasks, and Briefcase folders. They can
export specific items in their account and save the data to their computer or
other location. The account data is saved as a tar-gzipped (tgz) archive file so
that it can be easily imported to restore their account. Individual contacts are
saved as .csv files, and individual calendar files are saved as .ics files. The
data are not removed from their accounts. The exported account data file can
be viewed with an archive program such as WinRAR archiver. Any of these
files can be imported into their account from the same page.
If you do not want users to the Import/Export capability, you can disable the
feature from the COS or Admin Features page.
Add Words to Spell Dictionary
If ZWC users frequently uses words, abbreviations or acronyms that are
marked as spelled incorrectly with the ZWC spell check, you can update the
COS or domain attribute zimbraPrefSpellIgnoreWord with the words that
should be ignored when spell check is run.
To configure words to ignore for a domain, type
zmprov md domainexample.com +zimbraPrefSpellIgnoreWord <word>
+zimbraPrefSpellIgnoreWord <word2>
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11
Zimlets
Zimlets are a mechanism to integrate ZCS with different third-party
applications to enhance the user experience from the Zimbra Web Client. With
Zimlets, users can look at information and interact with the third-party
application from within their email messages. Zimlets can be made available
from the Zimbra Web Client Overview Pane to users by modifying the Class of
Service (COS).
Topics in this chapter include:
Manage Zimlets from the Administration Console
Managing Zimlets from the Command Line Interface
ZCS includes several predefined Zimlets. You can also create Zimlets or
download them from the Zimlet Gallery located on the Zimbra Web site.
Predefined Zimlets when enabled let users preview the following:

Mouse over a date or time and see what is in calendar.

Mouse over a name or email address and see details from the address
book for this name.

Right-click on a phone number to make a call with your soft-phone.

Right-click on a date to schedule a meeting.

Right-click on a name, address, or phone number to update address book
information.
For information about creating Zimlets, see the Zimlet Development section on
the Zimbra Wiki.
Manage Zimlets from the Administration Console
The following Zimlet management tasks are available from the Zimbra
administration console.

Deploy a Zimlet, which creates the Zimlet entry in the LDAP server, installs
the Zimlet files on the server, enables the Zimlet and makes it available to
the members of the default COS.

Make a Zimlet available or not available per COS or account.

Make a Zimlet mandatory.

Disable a Zimlet, which leaves it on the server, but the Zimlet is not used.
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
Undeploy a Zimlet, which removes it from the COS listings and the Zimlets
list but does not uninstall the Zimlet from the server.
You cannot uninstall the Zimlet from the administration console.
Deploy Custom Zimlets
You can download and deploy custom Zimlets from the Zimlet Gallery located
on the Zimbra Web site. When a Zimlet is deployed, it is available immediately
to everyone in the default COS. If a Zimlet is not deployed to another COS
directly, the COS displays the Zimlets but they are not enabled.
1. From Configure > Zimlets gear icon menu select Deploy.
2. Browse to the Zimlet you want to deploy, and click Deploy.
The Zimlet deploys to the server. A dialog displays indicating the server
name where the Zimlet is deployed and the status of the deployment.
3. Click Finish.
Verify the Zimlet is enabled by viewing the Zimlets page.
Enable, Disable, or Make Zimlets Mandatory
You can enable or disable Zimlets, or make them mandatory. You can also use
the toggle feature to enable or disable an installed Zimlet.
On a class of service Zimlets page select the default Zimlets you want to
enable, disable, or make mandatory to users in the COS.

Mandatory. Select mandatory if you want a Zimlet to always be enabled in
users’ accounts. Users do not see these Zimlets on their Zimlet page.

Disabled. Disable the Zimlet if you do not want a Zimlet immediately
available to users in this COS.

Enabled. All Zimlets that are deployed are enabled.
Note: Users can enable or disable Zimlets from their account’s Preferences
> Zimlets page, but only optional Zimlets. If you select a Zimlet as
mandatory, it cannot be disabled by the user.
Undeploy a Zimlet
When a Zimlet is undeployed, it is removed from all COSs and then removed
from the LDAP.
1. Go to Configure > Zimlets page and select the Zimlet to undeploy.
2. In the gear icon menu select Undeploy.
3. Click Yes to confirm.
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Add Proxy-Allowed Domains to a Zimlet
Proxy Allowed Domains lets you configure which external domains can be
accessed through a Zimlet. For the Zimlets that are included in ZCS, proxy
allowed domains are already configured. If you download and deploy other
Zimlets, you can add additional proxy domain names.
1. Go to Configure > Class of Service, select the COS to edit.
2. In the Advanced page, scroll down to the Proxy Allowed Domains section.
3. Click Add Domain to add domains.
4. Click Save.
Upgrading a Zimlet
Use the same steps as deploying a new Zimlet to upgrade a customized
Zimlet.
The new Zimlet zip file should have the same name as the existing Zimlet zip
file.
1. From Configure > Zimlets gear icon menu select Deploy.
2. Check Flush Zimlet cache so the upgraded zimlet will be used.
3. Browse to the Zimlet you want to upgrade, and click Deploy.
4. Click Finish.
Managing Zimlets from the Command Line Interface
Deploying Zimlets
When a Zimlet is deployed, it is available immediately to everyone in the
default COS. If a Zimlet is not deployed to another COS directly, the COS
displays the Zimlets but they are not enabled.
Deploy a Zimlet using the CLI, including modifying the COS before deploying.
1. Select a Zimlet and copy the Zimlet zip file to /tmp folder on your Zimbra
server.
2. Login as the zimbra user
su - zimbra
3. Deploy the Zimlet
zmzimletctl deploy /tmp/<zimlet>.zip
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Add Proxy Allowed Domains to a Zimlet
When deploying a Zimlet, the COS attributes, zimbraProxyAllowedDomains,
must be set for the domain address that the Zimlet might call to get
information.
1. To set this attribute, type:
zmprov mc <COSname> +zimbraProxyAllowedDomains <*.domain.com>
The * must be added before the domain.com.
This must be applied to all COSs that have your Zimlet enabled.
Deploying a Zimlet and Granting Access to a COS
To deploy a Zimlet to one or more COSs other than the default:
4. Login as zimbra user:
su – zimbra
5. Copy the Zimlet file from Gallery to /tmp folder.
6. Run zmzimletctl deploy <path-to-zimlet.zip>. For example:
zmzimletctl deploy /tmp/<zimlet>.zip
This installs the Zimlet just to the default COS.
7. To deploy the zimlet to additional COSs, run:
zmzimletctl acl <zimletname> <cosname1> grant
This will grant permission to cosname1. You can also grant access to more
than one COS on the same command line. Enter as:
zmzimletctl acl <zimletname> <cosname1> grant <cosname2> grant
8. To have this zimlet use the allowed proxy domains run the following on
each COS and add the allowed domains.
zmprov mc <COSname1> +zimbraProxyAllowedDomains <*. domain.com>
zmprov mc <COSname2> +zimbraProxyAllowedDomains <*. domain.com>
Viewing Zimlet List
At the CLI comment prompt, enter
zmzimletctl listZimlets all
This displays Zimlets installed on the server, installed in LDAP and available
by COS,
Changing Zimlet Configurations
Some Zimlets may require additional configuration after they are deployed.
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The Zimlet configuration template allows you to make changes on the
configuration template and then install the new configuration file on the Zimbra
server.
See the Zimlet Development section on the Zimbra Wiki at http://
wiki.zimbra.com/index.php?title=Main_Page, including the Zimlet Developers
Guide at http://wiki.zimbra.com/wiki/
ZCS_6.0:Zimlet_Developers_Guide:Introduction for details about developing
and deploying Zimlets.
To change a Zimlet configuration:
1. Extract the configuration template
zmzimletctl getConfigTemplate <zimlet.zip>
2. Make the required changes in the template. Be careful to change only the
required areas. Save the file.
Note: If you have more than one custom Zimlet, rename the
config_template.xml file before updating the configuration in LDAP
so that files are not overwritten.
3. Type the following command to update the configuration in the LDAP.
If you changed the name of the configuration template, replace
config_template.xml with the new name.
zmzimletctl configure config_template.xml
Upgrading a Zimlet
Upgrading a customized Zimlet is performed by using the same steps as
deploying a new Zimlet.
1. The new Zimlet zip file should have the same name as the existing Zimlet
zip file.
2. Copy the Zimlet zip file to the /opt/zimbra/zimlets-extra directory, replacing
the older version.
3. Deploy the Zimlet
zmzimletctl deploy <zimlet.zip file name>
The Zimlet is copied to the /opt/zimbra/zimlets-deployed directory. If your
Zimlet included a .jsp file, the .jsp file is coped to the /opt/zimbra/jetty/
webapps/zimlet/<zimletnamefolder>.
4. In order for the newer version to be available, flush the cache
zmprov flushCache zimlet.
You do not enter the Zimlet name.
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Zimbra Gallery
You can download and deploy Zimlets from the Zimlet Gallery located on the
Zimbra web site. Go to www.zimbra.com/downloads and scroll through the
Extensions from the Zimbra Gallery section or select View More to access the
Zimbra Gallery.
Customized Zimlets
To develop your own custom Zimlets, see the Zimlet Developers Guide on the
Zimbra Wiki at http://wiki.zimbra.com/index.php?title=Main_Page.
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12
Monitoring ZCS Servers
The Zimbra Collaboration Server (ZCS) includes the following to help you
monitor the Zimbra servers, usage, and mail flow:

Zimbra Logger package to capture and display server statistics and server
status, and to create nightly reports

Mailbox quota monitoring

MTA mail queue monitoring

Log files
Also, selected error messages generate SNMP traps, which can be monitored
using an SNMP tool.
Topics in this chapter include:
Zimbra Logger
Configuring Disk Space Notifications
Monitoring Servers
Working with Mail Queues
Monitoring Mailbox Quotas
Viewing MobileSync Statistics
Monitoring Authentication Failures
Viewing Log Files
Reading a Message Header
Fixing Corrupted Mailbox Index
SNMP Monitoring and Configuration
Checking MySQL
Checking for ZCS Software Updates
Types of Notifications and Alerts Sent by ZCS
Note: Checking the overall health of the system as a whole is beyond the
scope of this document.
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Zimbra Logger
The Logger includes tools for syslog aggregation and reporting. Installing the
Logger is optional, but if you do not install it, server statistics and server status
information are not captured.
In environments with more than one ZCS server, Logger is enabled on one
mailbox server only. This server is designated as the monitor host. The ZCS
monitor host is responsible for checking the status of all the other ZCS servers
and presenting this information on the Zimbra administration console. Realtime service status, MTA, spam, virus traffic and performance statistics can be
displayed. The Logger creates a daily report about mail activity, such as the
number of messages, average delivery delay, and errors generated.
Note: In a multi-server installation, you must set up the syslog configuration
files on each server to enable Logger to display the server statistics on
the administration console, and you must enable the Logger host. If
you did not configure this when you installed ZCS, do so now.
Enable Server Statistics
Enable server statistics to show both system-wide and server specific data
about the inbound message volume, inbound message count, anti-spam/
antivirus activity and disk usage for messages processed in the last 48 hours,
30 days, 60 days, and the last year.
1. On each server, as root, type /opt/zimbra/libexec/zmsyslogsetup. This
enables the server to display statistics.
2. On the logger monitor host, you must enable syslog to log statistics from
remote machines.
a. Edit the /etc/sysconfig/syslog file, add -r to the SYSLOGD_OPTIONS
setting, SYSLOGD_options=”-r -m 0”
b. Stop the syslog daemon. Type /etc/init.d/syslogd stop.
c. Start the syslog daemon. Type /etc/init.d/syslogd start.
Note: These steps are not necessary for a single-node installation.
Review Server Status
The Monitor>Server Status page lists all servers and services, their status, and
when the server status was last checked. The servers include the MTA, LDAP,
and mailbox server. The services include MTA, LDAP, Mailbox, SNMP, AntiSpam, Anti-Virus, Spell checker, and Logger.
To start a server if it is not running, use the zmcontrol CLI command. You can
stop and start services from the administration console,
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Enable or Disable Server Services
Server services are enabled or disabled from the Configure>Servers page.
Select Services in the Navigation pane and select to enable or disable
services.
Server Performance Statistics
If the Logger package is installed on a Zimbra mailbox server, Server Statistics
shows bar graphs of the message count, message volume, anti-spam, and
anti-virus activity. The information is displayed for the last 48 hours, and 30
days, 60 days, and 365 days.
When Server Statistics is selected in the Navigation pane, consolidated
statistics for all mailbox servers is displayed. Selecting a specific server in the
expanded view shows statistics for that server only. Server specific
information also includes disk usage, session information, and mailbox quota
details.
The following display system-wide information:

Message Count counts message transactions. A transaction is defined as
either the SMTP receipt of a message per person (by Postfix) or a LMTP
delivery of it (by mailboxd) per person. For example, if a message is sent
to three people, six transactions are displayed. Three for SMTP to Postfix
and three for LMTP to mailboxd. The message count is increased by six.

Message Volume displays the aggregate size in bytes of transactions sent
and received per hour and per day. Graphs show the total inbound data by
volume in bytes.

Anti-Spam/Anti-Virus Activity displays the number of messages that were
checked for spam or viruses and the number of messages that were
tagged as spam or deemed to contain a virus. The AS/AV count is
increased by one per message scanned. One message sent to three
people counts as only one message processed by AS/AV.
The Message Count and the Anti-spam/Anti-virus Activity graphs display a
different message count because:
•
Outbound messages may not go through the Amavisd filter, as the
system architecture might not require outbound messages to be
checked.
•
Messages are received and checked by Amavisd for spam and viruses
before being delivered to all recipients in the message. The message
count shows the number of recipients who received messages.
Server-specific statistics also include the following:

Disk for a selected server displays the disk used and the disk space
available. The information is displayed for the last hour, day, month, and
year.
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
Session displays information about the active Web client, administrator
and IMAP sessions. You can see how many active sessions are opened,
who is logged on, when the session was created and the last time the
session was accessed.

Mailbox Quota displays information about each account sorted by mailbox
size in descending order. See Monitoring Mailbox Quotas.
Configure Logger Mail Reports
The Logger generates a report about mail activity daily at 11:30 p.m. and
sends it to the administrator’s email address.
You can configure the number of accounts to include in the report. The default
is 25 sender and 25 recipient accounts.

Change the number of recipients to add to the report:
zmlocalconfig -e zimbra_mtareport_max_recipients=<number>

Change the number of senders to add to the report:
zmlocalconfig -e zimbra_mtareport_max_senders=<number>
Configuring Disk Space Notifications
You should regularly review your disk capacity and when disks are getting full,
take preventative measures to maintain service. A warning alert email
notification is sent to the administrator account when disk space is low. The
default is to send a warning alert when the threshold reaches 85% and a
critical alert when the threshold reaches 95%.
You can change these values. Use zmlocalconfig to configure the disk warning
thresholds.

Warning alerts: zmdisklog_warn_threshold

Critical alert: zmdisklog_critical_threshold
When starting services with zmcontrol, if the threshold is exceeded, a warning
is displayed before the services are started. You should clean up your disk to
free up space.
Monitoring Servers
The ZCS server collects many performance-related statistics that can help you
diagnose problems and load issues.
The Monitor>Advanced Statistics page includes advanced graphing options
that lets you generate various charts based on statistical information for the
CPU, IO, mailboxd, MTA queue, MySQL and other components.
To chart the graphics in Advanced Statistics, select one of these groups and
then select from the list of specific counters for the type of information to
display.
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The information covers a wide array of data:

cpu.csv: CPU utilization. This group contains counters to keep track of
CPU usage (iowait, idle, system, user, time etc.). CPU information can be
tracked both at the server level and the process level.

df.csv: Captures disk usage. Disk utilization is tracked for each disk
partition.

fd.csv: file descriptor count. Keeps track of system file descriptor usage
over time. This is primarily used to track down “out-of-file descriptor”
errors.

mailboxd.csv: ZCS server and JVM statistics. Mailboxd stores almost all of
its statistics here. Interesting numbers to keep track of are heap_used,
heap_free, imap_conn, soap_sessions, pop_conn, db_conn_count.

mtaqueue.csv: Postfix queue. This measures the mail queue size in
number of messages and the size in bytes.

proc.csv: Process statistics for Zimbra processes. For example mailboxd/
java, MySQL, OpenLDAP, etc.)

soap.csv: SOAP request processing time.

threads.csv: JVM thread counts. Counts the number of threads with a
common name prefix.

vm.csv: Linux VM statistics (from the vmstat command).

io-x.csv and io.csv store data from the iostat(1) command (io-x.csv with
iostat -x).
Configuring Denial of Service Filter Parameters
The denial-of-service filter (DoSFilter) limits exposure to requests flooding.
The DoSFilter throttles clients sending a large number of requests over a short
period of time.
The DoSFilter is enabled by default on ZCS and is applied to all requests. You
can modify the configuration to accommodate your specific environmental
needs. Disabling the DoSFilter is not recommended.
Identifying False Positives
Sometimes Zimbra Connector for Outlook (ZCO), mobile ActiveSync clients,
or running some zmprov commands trigger the DoSFilter. When this happens,
the Zimbra mailbox service is unavailable. You can review the following logs to
see if the DoSFilter was applied.

/opt/zimbra/log/sync.log.
Example of a log entry showing the DoSFilter
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2013-01-15 15:52:20,426 WARN [qtp1635701107-91:https://x.x.x.x/
Microsoft-ServerActiveSync?User=zsupport2&DeviceId=Appl5ddddd3NR&DeviceType=iPhone&
Cmd=FolderSync][name=zsupport2@domain.com;mid=64;ip=71.194.89.54;Cm
d=FolderSync;DeviceID=Appl5K0113UN3NR;Version=12.1;] sync - Service
exception com.zimbra.common.service.ServiceException: error while
proxying request to target server: HTTP/1.1 503 Service Unavailable
ExceptionId:qtp1635701107-91:https://10.10.0.54:443/MicrosoftServerActiveSync?User=zsupport2&DeviceId=Appl5K0113UN3NR&DeviceType=iPhon
e&Cmd=FolderSync:1358286740426:c5ca7f36bb0a038f
Code:service.PROXY_ERROR Arg:(url, STR,"http://mail.domain.com:80/
service/soap/SyncRequest"

/opt/zimbra/log/zmmailboxd.out
2013-01-15 15:57:32.537:WARN:oejs.DoSFilter:DOS
ALERT:ip=127.0.1.1,session=null,user=null
Customizing DoSFilter Configuration
The following attributes are used with zmprov to configure the DoSFilter.
These attributes can be configured as global settings and as server settings. If
these attributes are set in the server, the server settings override the global
settings.
You can modify these settings, but the default configuration is recommended.
Attribute
Description
DoSFilter Delay
The delay given to all requests over the rate
limit before they are considered. The default is
-1.
zimbraHttpDosFilterDelayMillis

-1 = Reject request

0 = No delay

Any other value = Delay is in ms
Enter as
zmprov mcf zimbraHttpDosFilterDelayMillis
[x]
DoSFilter Maximum Requests
Per Second
zimbraHttpDosFilterMaxRequests
PerSec
The maximum number of requests from a
connection per second. Requests in excess of
this are throttled. The default is 30 and the
minimum is 1.
Enter as
zmprov mcf
zimbraHttpDosFilterMaxRequestsPerSec [X]
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Attribute
Description
DoSFilter IP Addresses
Whitelist
IP addresses to ignore when applying the
DosFilter. This attribute does not have a
default value, however the following loopback
IPs are whitelisted by default.
zmprov mcf
zimbraHttpThrottleSafeIPs
[x.x.x.x,192.168.x.x]
• 127.0.0.1
• ::1
The IP addresses should be comma
separated.
Enter as
zmprov mcf zimbraHttpThrottleSafeIPs
[addresses]
A mailbox server restart is required after modifying these attributes. Type
zmmailboxdctl restart
Tuning Considerations for ZCS 8.0.3 and later

ZCS Member Servers: ZCS servers under the control of a single master
LDAP server are automatically whitelisted by IP address. These hosts are
discovered using a GetAllServersRequest . Type as zmprov gas.

External Provisioning Hosts/SOAP API: External provisioning hosts can be
added to the IP whitelist to ensure that the DoSFilter does not block some
requests. For example, a mailbox reindex might make several calls per
second that can trigger the DoSFilter.
Note: For ZCS servers at 8.0.0 to 8.0.2, see the Denial of Service
workaround located at http://www.zimbra.com/forums/announcements/
60397-zcs-dosfilter-workaround-zcs-8-0-1-8-0-2-a.html.
Working with Mail Queues
When the Zimbra MTA receives mail, it routes the mail through a series of
queues to manage delivery; incoming, active, deferred, held, and corrupt.
The incoming message queue holds the new mail that has been received.
Each message is identified with a unique file name. Messages are moved to
the active queue when there is room. If there are no problems, message move
through this queue very quickly.
The active message queue holds messages that are ready to be sent. The
MTA sets a limit to the number of messages that can be in the active queue at
any one time. From here, messages are moved to and from the anti-virus and
anti-spam filters before being delivered to another queue.
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Messages that cannot be delivered are placed in the deferred queue. The
reasons for the delivery failures are documented in a file in the deferred
queue. This queue is scanned frequently to resend the message. If the
message cannot be sent after the set number of delivery attempts, the
message fails. The message is bounced back to the original sender. The
default for the bounce queue lifetime is five days.
The held message queue keeps mail that could not be processed. Messages
stay in this queue until the administrator moves them. No periodic delivery
attempts are made for messages in the held queue.
The corrupt queue stores damaged unreadable messages.
Change the Bounce Queue Lifetime

The MTA server’s bounce queue lifetime is set for five days. To change the
default queue lifetime setting
zmlocalconfig -e bounce_queue_lifetime=[#]

To permanently have messages bounced back to the sender, instead of
being sent to the deferred queue first
zmlocalconfig -e zimbraLmtpPermanentFailureWhenOverQuota=TRUE
Notify Senders of Bounced Messages
Before the bounce queue lifetime sends the message back to the sender,
senders can be notified that the message they sent is in the deferred queue
and has not been delivered.
Configure the following attributes to send a warning message to the sender.

Configure the time after which the sender receives the message headers
of email that is still queued.
zmlocalconfig -c postfix_delay_warning_time=0h

Configure the recipient of postmaster notifications with the message
headers of mail that the MTA did not deliver.
zmlocalconfig -c postfix_bounce_notice_recipient=postmaster

Configure the list of error classes that are reported to the postmaster.
zmlocalconfig -c postfix_notify_classes=resource,software
Note: See Postfix documentation for details on the impact of changes to
these Postfix attributes.
You can monitor the mail queues for delivery problems from the administration
console.
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View Mail Queues
If you are having problems with mail delivery, you can view the mail queues
from the administration console Monitor>Mail Queues page to see if you can fix
the mail delivery problem. When you open mail queues, the content of the
deferred, incoming, active, hold, and corrupt queues at that point in time can
be viewed. You can view the number of messages and where they are coming
from and going to.
For each queue, the Summary pane shows a summary of messages by
receiver domain, origin IP, sender domain, receiver address, sender address,
and for the deferred queue, by error type. You can select any of the
summaries to see detailed envelope information by message in the Messages
pane.
The Messages pane displays individual message envelope information for
search filters selected from the Summary pane.
The following mailbox queue functions can be performed for all the messages
in a queue:

Hold to select a set of messages that you want to hold. Incoming, active,
deferred, and corrupt messages can be moved to the Held queue.
Messages stay in this queue until the administrator moves them.

Release to remove all message from the Held queue. Messages are
moved to the Deferred queue.

Requeue all messages in the queue being viewed. Requeuing messages
can be used to send messages that were deferred because of a
configuration problem that has been fixed. Messages are re-evaluated and
earlier penalties are forgotten.

Delete all messages in the queue being viewed.
The Zimbra MTA, Postfix queue file IDs are reused. If you requeue or delete a
message, note the message envelope information, not the queue ID. It is
possible that when you refresh the mail queues, the queue ID could be used
on a different message.
Flush Message Queues
You can flush the server of all messages. When you click Flush on the Mail
Queue toolbar, delivery is immediately attempted for all messages in the
Deferred, Incoming and Active queues.
Monitoring Mailbox Quotas
Mailbox quotas apply to email messages, attachments, calendar
appointments, and tasks in a user’s account. When an account quota is
reached, all mail messages are rejected. Users must delete mail from their
account to get below their quota limit - this includes emptying their Trash, or
you can increase their quota.
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View Quota
You can check mailbox quotas for individual accounts from Server Statistics
on the administration console. Mailbox Quota gives you an instant view of the
following information for each account:
1. On the administrator console, go to the Monitor>Server Statistics page.
2. Select the server for which you want to view statistics.
3. In the Navigation pane, select Mailbox Quota. The Mailbox Quota page
displays with the following information:
•
Quota column shows the mailbox quota allocated to the account.
Quotas are configured either in the COS or by account.
•
Mailbox Size column shows the disk space used.
•
Quota Used column shows what percentage of quota is used.
Increase or Decrease Quota
From a COS or Account, you can configure a quota threshold that, when
reached, sends a message alerting users that they are about to reach their
mailbox quota.
1. On the administrator console, go to the Configure>Class of
Service>Advanced page. Scroll down to the Quota section.
2. Modify the quota settings.
3. Click Save.
Viewing MobileSync Statistics
The MobileSync Statistics page in the Monitor section in the admin console
displays the number of currently connected ActiveSync devices that are on the
ZCS system.
Monitoring Authentication Failures
To protect against dictionary-based and distributed attacks, you can configure
the zmauditwatch. The script attempts to detect more advanced attacks by
looking at where the authentication failures are coming from and how
frequently they are happening for all accounts on a Zimbra mailbox server and
sends an email alert to the administrator’s mailbox.
The types of authentication failures checked include:

IP/Account hash check. The default is to send an email alert if 10
authenticating failures from an IP/account combination occur within a 60
second window.
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
Account check. The default is to send an email alert if 15 authentication
failures from any IP address occur within a 60 second window. This check
attempts to detect a distributed hijack based attack on a single account.

IP check. The default is to send an email alert if 20 authentication failures
to any account occur within a 60 second window. This check attempts to
detect a single host based attack across multiple accounts.

Total authentication failure check. The default is to send an email alert if
1000 auth failures from any IP address to any account occurs within 60
seconds. The default should be modified to be 1% of the active accounts
on the mailbox server.
The default values that trigger an email alert are changed in the following
zmlocalconfig parameters:

IP/Account value, change zimbra_swatch_ipacct_threshold

Account check, change zimbra_swatch_acct_threshold

IP check, change zimbra_swatch_ip_threshold

Total authentication failure check, change zimbra_swatch_total_threshold
Configure zimbra_swatch_notice_user with the email address that should
receive the alerts.
Viewing Log Files
ZCS logs its activities and errors to a combination of system logs through the
syslog daemon as well as Zimbra specific logs on the local file system. The
logs described below are the primary logs that are used for analysis and
troubleshooting.
Local logs containing Zimbra activity are in the /opt/zimbra/log directory.

audit.log. This log contains authentication activity of users and
administrators and login failures. In addition, it logs admin activity to be
able to track configuration changes.

clamd.log. This log contains activity from the antivirus application clamd.

freshclam.log. This log contains log information related to the updating of
the clamd virus definitions.

mailbox.log. This log is a mailboxd log4j server log containing the logs
from the mailbox server. This includes the mailbox store, LMTP server,
IMAP and POP servers, and Index server.

myslow.log. This slow query log consists of all SQL statements from the
mailbox server that took more then long_query_time seconds to execute.
Note: long_query_time is defined in /opt/zimbra/conf/my.cnf.

spamtrain.log. This log contains output from zmtrainsa during regularly
scheduled executions from the cron.

sync.log. This log contains information about ZCS mobile sync operations.
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Other logs include:

/opt/zimbra/jetty/logs/. This is where Jetty-specific activity is logged.

/opt/zimbra/db/data. <hostname>.err. This is the message store database
error log.

/opt/zimbra/logger/db/data. <hostname>.err. This is the Logger database
error log.
ZCS activity logged to System syslog

/var/log/zimbra.log. The Zimbra syslog details the activities of the Zimbra
MTA (Postfix, amavisd, antispam, antivirus), Logger, Authentication
(cyrus-sasl), and Directory (OpenLDAP). By default LDAP activity is
logged to Zimbra.log.
Syslog
Zimbra modifies the systems syslog daemon to capture data from the mail and
local syslog facility to /var/log/zimbra.log. This allows syslogd to capture data
from several ZCS components including Postfix, Amavis, ClamAV, mailboxd,
zmconfigd, and logger. The SNMP module uses the data from the log file to
generate traps for critical errors. The zmlogger daemon also collects a subset
of the data in this file to provide statistics on the utilization of ZCS via the
administration console.
By default, mailboxd is configured to log its output to /opt/zimbra/log/
mailbox.log. You can enable mailboxd to take advantage of a centralized
syslogd infrastructure by enabling the following either globally or by server
zmprov mcf zimbraLogToSysLog True
Use log4j to Configure Logging
The ZCS server uses log4j, a Java logging package as the log manager. By
default, the ZCS server has log4j configured to log to the local file system. You
can configure log4j to direct output to another location. Go to the Log4j
website for information about using log4j.
ZCS does not check the log4j changes. To remove all account loggers and
reloads in /opt/zimbra/conf/log4j.properties, use the zmprov resetAllLoggers
command.
Logging Levels
The default logging level is set to include logs that are generated for INFO,
WARNING, ERROR and FATAL. When problems start to occur, you can turn
on the DEBUG or TRACE log levels.
To change the logging levels, edit the log4j properties, log4j properties,
log4j.logger.zimbra.
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When enabling DEBUG, you can specify a specific category to debug. For
example, to see debug details for POP activity, you would type
logger.zimbra.pop=DEBUG.
The following categories are predefined in log4j:
zimbra.account
Account operations
zimbra.acl
ACL operations
zimbra.backup
Backup and restore
zimbra.cache
Inmemory cache operations
zimbra.calendar
Calendar operations
zimbra.dav
DAV operations
zimbra.dbconn
Database connection tracing
zimbra.extensions
Server extension loading
zimbra.filter
Mail filtering
zimbra.gal
GAL operations
zimbra.imap
IMAP protocol operations
zimbra.index
Index operations
zimbra.io
Filesystem operations
zimbra.ldap
LDAP operations
zimbra.lmtp
LMTP operations (incoming mail)
zimbra.mailbox
General mailbox operations
zimbra.misc
Miscellaneous
zimbra.op
Changes to mailbox state
zimbra.pop
POP protocol operations
zimbra.redolog
Redo log operations
zimbra.security
Security events
zimbra.session
User session tracking
zimbra.smtp
SMTP operations (outgoing mail)
zimbra.soap
SOAP protocol
zimbra.sqltrace
SQL tracing
zimbra.store
Mail store disk operations
zimbra.sync
Sync client operations
zimbra.system
Startup/shutdown and other system
messages
zimbra.wiki
Wiki operations
zimbra.zimlet
Zimlet operations
Changes to the log level take affect immediately.
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Logging Levels
Table 2:
Level
Local?
Syslog
SNMP
Trap
FATAL
Y
Y
Y
Designates very severe error events
that the application to abort or impact
a large number of users. For example,
being unable to contact the MySQL
database.
ERROR
Y
Y
N
Designates error events that might
still allow the application to continue
running or impact a single user. For
example, a single mailbox having a
corrupt index or being unable to
delete a message from a mailbox.
WARN
Y
N
N
Designates potentially harmful
situations but are usually recoverable
or can be ignored. For example, user
log in failed.
INFO*
Y
N
N*
Designates information messages
that highlight the progress of the
application, basic transaction-level
logging. For example, server startups, mailbox creation/deletion,
account creation.
DEBUG
Y
N
N
Events that would generally be useful
to help a customer debug problems.
When Used
* A few non-critical messages such, as service startup messages, will
generate traps.
Protocol Trace
Protocol trace is available in the following logging categories:
128

zimbra.smtp

zimbra.lmtp

zimbra.soap

zimbra.imap

zimbra.imap-client

zimbra.pop

zimbra.pop-client
Monitoring ZCS Servers
Review mailbox.log Records
The mailbox.log file contains every action taken on the mailbox server,
including authentication sessions, LMTP, POP3, and IMAP servers, and Index
server. Review the mailbox.log to find information about the health of your
server and to help identify problems.
Mailbox.log records valid and invalid login attempts, account activity such as
opening email, deleting items, creating items, indexing of new mail, server
activities including start and stop. The progress of an activity on the mail
server is logged as INFO. If the expected results of the activity fails and errors
occurs, an exception is written to the log.
You can set up logging options for a single account in order to trace account
activity for one user without filling up mailbox.log with log messages for
unrelated accounts. See Appendix A Command-Line Utilities, the zmprov
miscellaneous section.
Reading records in the log The example below is a record showing that on
June 25, 2007, the zimbra server with an IP address of 127.0.0.1 was in the
process of deleting backups that were created on Monday, June 18, 2007 at 8
seconds after midnight Pacific Daylight Time (PDT) or older than that date.
Note: Component thread number identifies which thread managed by
mailboxd is performing the action logged.
Handler Exceptions and Stack Traces
If an error occurs during the progress of an activity, a handler exception is
added to the end of the log record to notify you that an event occurred during
the execution of the process that disrupted the normal flow. This signals that
some type of error was detected.
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007-06-25 00:00:10,379 INFO [btpool0-1064] [name=nriers@example.com;
mid=228;ip=72.255.38.207;ua=zimbra Desktop/0.38;] SoapEngine - handler
exception
Sometimes a stack trace is displayed after the exceptions notification. A stack
trace reports the threads and monitors in the zimbra’s mailboxd service. This
information aids in debugging, because the trace shows where the error
occurred. The last few entries in the stack often indicate the origin of the
problem. When the caused by descriptor is included in the log line, this is the
root of the error. In the example below, the error was caused by 501, bad
address syntax.
com.example.cs.mailbox.MailServiceException: Invalid address: Jon R
at com.example.cs.mailbox.MailServiceException.internal_SEND_FAILURE
(MailServiceException.java:412)
at com.example.cs.mailbox.MailServiceException.SEND_ABORTED_ADDRESS_
FAILURE MailServiceException.java:416)
.
.
.
at org.mortbay.thread.BoundedThreadPool$PoolThread.run(BoundedThread
Pool.java:442)
Caused by: com.example.cs.mailbox.MailSender$SafeSendFailedException
:501 Bad address syntax
; chained exception is:
com.sun.mail.smtp.SMTPAddressFailedException: 501 Bad address syntax
at com.sun.mail.smtp.SMTPTransport.rcptTo(SMTPTransport.java:1196)
at
com.sun.mail.smtp.SMTPTransport.sendMessage(SMTPTransport.java:584)
at javax.mail.Transport.send0(Transport.java:169)
at javax.mail.Transport.send(Transport.java:98)
at
com.example.cs.mailbox.MailSender.sendMessage(MailSender.java:409)
at
com.example.cs.mailbox.MailSender.sendMimeMessage(MailSender.java:26
2)
... 30 more
Mailbox log files
The mailbox.log files rotate daily. The mailbox log files are saved in /opt/
zimbra/log. Previous mailbox.log file names include the date the file was
made. The log without a date is the current log file. You can back up and
remove these files.
Troubleshoot Mail Problems
To review the mailbox.log for errors, search for the email address or the
service that is experiencing the problem. Also, search for WARN or ERROR
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Monitoring ZCS Servers
log levels, read the text of the message. When you find the error, review the
records, tracing the events that happened before the problem was recorded.
System Crashing
When your system crashes, locate the startup message and then look for
errors before the startup message date. This example shows an out-ofmemory error on June 17, 2007.
2007-06-25 01:56:18,725 INFO
starting up
[main] [] soap - Servlet SoapServlet
Look for errors before the startup message.
2007-06-17 20:11:34,194 FATAL [btpool0-3335]
[name=samd@example.com;aname=abcadmin@example.com;mid=142;ip=66.92.2
5.194;ua=zimbraConnectorForBES/5.0.207;] system - handler exception
java.lang.OutOfMemoryError: PermGen space
Mail Delivery Problem
Locate the “LmtpServer” service. This example includes a stack trace report
with a caused by explanation that the recipient address was rejected as the
address must be a fully-qualified address.
2007-06-25 10:47:43,008 INFO [LmtpServer-250]
[name=bigen@example.com;mid=30;msgid=<1291804360.35481182793659172.J
avaMail.root@dogfood.example.com>;] lmtp - rejecting message
bigen@example.com: exception occurred
com.zimbra.cs.mailbox.MailServiceException: redirect to too failed
at com.zimbra.cs.mailbox.MailServiceException.internal_SEND_FAILURE
(MailServiceException.java:412)
at com.zimbra.cs.mailbox.MailServiceException.SEND_FAILURE(MailServi
ceException.java:424)
at com.zimbra.cs.filter.zimbraMailAdapter.executeActions(zimbraMailA
dapter.java:286)
at org.apache.jsieve.SieveFactory.evaluate(SieveFactory.java:151)
at com.zimbra.cs.filter.RuleManager.applyRules(RuleManager.java:177)
at com.zimbra.cs.lmtpserver.zimbraLmtpBackend.deliverMessageToLocal
Mailboxes(zimbraLmtpBackend.java:325)
at com.zimbra.cs.lmtpserver.zimbraLmtpBackend.deliver(zimbraLmtpBack
end.java:140)
at com.zimbra.cs.lmtpserver.LmtpHandler.doDATA(LmtpHandler.java:441)
at com.zimbra.cs.lmtpserver.LmtpHandler.processCommand(LmtpHandler.
java:205)
at com.zimbra.cs.tcpserver.ProtocolHandler.processConnection(Protoc
olHandler.java:231)
at com.zimbra.cs.tcpserver.ProtocolHandler.run(ProtocolHandler.java
:198)
at EDU.oswego.cs.dl.util.concurrent.PooledExecutor$Worker.run(Unkn
own Source)
at java.lang.Thread.run(Thread.java:619)
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Administrator Guide
Caused by: com.zimbra.cs.mailbox.MailSender$SafeSendFailedException:
504 <too>: Recipient address rejected: need fully-qualified address
; chained exception is:
com.sun.mail.smtp.SMTPAddressFailedException: 504 <too>: Recipient
address rejected: need fully-qualified address
at com.sun.mail.smtp.SMTPTransport.rcptTo(SMTPTransport.java:1196)
at
com.sun.mail.smtp.SMTPTransport.sendMessage(SMTPTransport.java:584)
at javax.mail.Transport.send0(Transport.java:169)
at javax.mail.Transport.send(Transport.java:120)
at
com.zimbra.cs.filter.zimbraMailAdapter.executeActions(zimbraMailAdap
ter.java:281)
... 10 more
Account Error- Log in error
Mailbox.log logs any successful or unsuccessful login attempts from IMAP,
POP3 or ZWC. When you are looking for a login error, start by looking for
“Auth.” This example shows that someone from IP address 10.10.131.10 was
trying to log in as admin on the Zimbra Web Client, using Firefox in a Windows
OS. Permission was denied because it was not an admin account.
2007-06-25 09:16:11,483 INFO [btpool0-251]
[ip=10.10.131.10;ua=zimbraWebClient - FFX.X (Win);] SoapEngine handler exception
com.zimbra.common.service.ServiceException: permission denied: not
an admin account
at com.zimbra.common.service.ServiceException.PERM_DENIED(ServiceExc
eption.java:205)
at com.zimbra.cs.service.admin.Auth.handle(Auth.java:103)
Account Errors - IMAP or POP related
When you are looking for a log because of an IMAP or POP issue, look for
“ImapServer/Pop3Server.” This example shows a fatal IMAP server error
occurred while trying to connect siress@example.com.
mailbox.log.2007-06-19:2007-06-19 15:33:56,832 FATAL [ImapServer2444] [name=sires@example.com;ip=127.0.0.1;] system - Fatal error
occurred while handling connection
Reading a Message Header
Each email message includes a header that shows the path of an email from
its origin to destination. This information is used to trace a message’s route
when there is a problem with the message. The Zimbra email message
header can be viewed from the Zimbra Web Client Message view. Right-click
on a message and select Show Original.
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Monitoring ZCS Servers
The following lines are in the message header:

Date - The date and time the message was sent. When you specify time,
you can specify range by adding start and stop time to search for
messages.

From - The name of the sender and the email address

To - The name of the recipient and the email address. Indicates primary
recipients.

Message-ID - Unique number used for tracing mail routing

In-Reply-To - Message ID of the message that is a reply to. Used to link
related messages together.

Received: from - The name and IP address the message was sent from.
The header displays Received: from information from the MTA to the
LMTP and from the local host.
Fixing Corrupted Mailbox Index
Mail messages and attachments are automatically indexed before messages
are deposited in a mailbox. Each mailbox has an index file associated with it.
This index file is required to retrieve search results from the mailbox.
If a mailbox's index file becomes corrupt or is accidentally deleted, you can reindex the messages in the mailbox from the administration console.
Text searches on an account might or might not fail with errors when the index
is corrupt. You cannot count on a user reporting a failed text search to identify
that the index is corrupt. You must monitor the index log for messages about
corrupt indexes. If the server detects a corrupt index, a message is logged to
the Zimbra mailbox.log at the WARN logging level. The message starts with
Possibly corrupt index. When this message is displayed, the administrator
must correct the problem. In many cases correcting the problem might mean
reindexing the mailbox.
Reindexing a mailbox's content can take some time, depending on the number
of messages in the mailbox. Users can still access their mailbox while
reindexing is running, but because searches cannot return results for
messages that are not indexed, searches may not find all results.
Check if an Index is Corrupt
Run a sanity check on a specific mailbox index using the command zmprov
verifyIndex.
To check if an index is corrupt, run
zmprov verifyIndex <user@example.com>
If problems are detected, a failure status is returned and a repair can be
performed on the index.
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Repair and Reindex a Corrupt Index
To repair and reindex an index, run
zmprov reIndexMailbox <user@example.com> start
This returns a status of "started".
SNMP Monitoring and Configuration
SNMP Monitoring Tools
You will probably want to implement server monitoring software in order to
monitor system logs, CPU and disk usage, and other runtime information.
ZCS uses swatch to watch the syslog output to generate SNMP traps.
SNMP Configuration
ZCS includes an installer package with SNMP monitoring. This package
should be run on every server (ZCS, OpenLDAP, and Postfix) that is part of
the ZCS configuration.
The only SNMP configuration is the destination host to which traps should be
sent.
Errors Generating SNMP Traps
The ZCS error message generates SNMP traps when a service is stopped or
is started. You can capture these messages using third-party SNMP
monitoring software and direct selected messages to a pager or other alert
system.
Checking MySQL
The MySQL database is automatically checked weekly to verify the health of
the database. This check takes about an hour. If any errors are found, a report
is sent to the administrator’s account. The report name that runs the MySQL
check is zmbintegrityreport, and the crontab is automatically configured to run
this report once a week.
Note: When the MySQL database is checked, running this report can
consume a significant amount of I/O. This should not present a
problem, but if you find that running this report does affect your
operation, you can change the frequency with which zmbintegrityreport
is run. See Appendix C ZCS Contrab Jobs.
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Checking for ZCS Software Updates
When ZCS is installed, the ZCS software update utility is automatically
configured to check for the latest ZCS version once a day and if there is an
update, to send notification to the address that is configured in the
administration console’s Server Updates.
The dates and times ZCS checked for updates is saved to the Updates tab and
an email notification is sent out until you update the ZCS version. If you do not
want to receive an email notification of updates, disable Send notification
email when updates are available.
You can configure the following:

Server that checks for updates. Available servers are listed and only one
server is configured. The selected server checks for updates and the result
of the update response from www.zimbra.com is stored in LDAP.

Check for updates every x. The default is to check once a day. You can
change the frequency interval to check every x hours, minutes, or
seconds. A cron job is configured to check for new updates. If the
frequency interval is less than 2 hours, the crontab file must be modified.

Updates URL. This address is the URL that the server connects to when
checking for updates. When a ZCS server checks for updates, it transmits
its version, platform, and build number to Zimbra. Normally, this URL is not
changed.

To be notified of updates, check the Send notification email when updates
are available and enter the send to and send from addresses. The default
address is the administrator’s address.

A generic email is created. The subject and content of the email can be
changed.

When a server polls the URL specified, the response is displayed
Updating Zimbra Connector for Microsoft Outlook
The Zimbra Connector for Microsoft Outlook (ZCO) msi file is available from
the Zimbra Utilities Downloads page on the administration console. When a
newer version of ZCO is released before a new version of ZCS, you can
upload the newer ZCO msi file to the ZCS server from the administration
console. The file is uploaded to the /opt/zimbra/jetty/webapps/zimbra/
downloads directory.
1. Download the new ZCO file to a computer that you can access from the
administration console.
2. Go to Tools and Migration > Client Upload.
3. Click Browse to locate the ZCO file to upload.
4. Restart ZCS. From the command line, type zmcontrol restart.
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Administrator Guide
The downloads/index.html file is updated with the latest ZCO client version.
This new file can be downloaded from the ZCO link on the administration
console Tools and Migration > Download page.
Note: If you do not restart the server, the ZCO download link on the Zimbra
Utilities Download page does not select the newer version to
download.
Types of Notifications and Alerts Sent by ZCS
The following is a list of notifications that are sent by ZCS.
Service status change notification
This notification is sent when service are stopped or restarted
Server Start Notification Message
Subject: Service <service_name> started on <zimbra_host>
Service status change: <zimbra_host> <service> changed from stopped to running
Server Stop Notification Message
Subject: Service <service_name> stopped on <zimbra_host>
Service status change: <zimbra_host> <service> changed from running to stopped
Disk usage notification
A warning alert email notification is sent to the admin account when disk
space is low. The default is to send a warning alert when the threshold
reaches 85% and a critical alert when the threshold reaches 95%
Subject: Disk <volume> at ##% on <zimbra_host>
Disk warning: <zimbra_host> <volume> on device <device_name> at ##%
Duplicate mysqld processes running notification
A script is executed to see if mysqld process is running to detect cases where
corruption is likely to be caused. An email is generated if it finds more than 1
mysqld process running.
Subject: ZCS: Duplicate mysqld processes detected!
PID:$pid PPID:$ppid PGRP:$pgrp
CMD: $cmdline
More then $maxcnt mysqld processes are running Parent processes include: $procs
This should be investigated immediately as it may lead to database corruption
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Monitoring ZCS Servers
SSL certificates expiration notification
A report runs on the first of each month and warns of certificates expiring with
the next 30 days.
Subject: ZCS: SSL Certificates approaching expiration!
The Administration Console and CLI Certificate Tools guide provides instructions on
how to replace you self-signed or commercial certificate.
http://wiki.zimbra.com/
index.php?title=Administration_Console_and_CLI_Certificate_Tools SSL Certificate
expiration checked with $0 on <zimbra_host>.
Daily report notification
When the logger package is installed, a daily mail report is automatically
scheduled in the crontab. The report is sent daily to the administrator's
mailbox.
Subject: Daily mail report for <day>
<daily report data>
Database integrity check notification
The MySQL database can be checked by running the zmdbintegrityreport
automatically scheduled in the crontab to run on a weekly basis. A report is
sent to the administrator’s mailbox.
Subject: Database Integrity check report for <zimbra_host>
Generating report can't run $cmd: $!
Database errors found.
$cmd --password=XXXXXXXX
<cmd output>
No errors found
command failed $!
Backup completion notification
When configuring the type of backups that should be run, you can set up to
receive notification about the results of a backup session.
Subject: ZCS BackupReport:SUCCESS
Server: <server>
Type: incremental
Status: completed
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Started: Fri, 2012/07/13 01:00:05.488 PDT
Ended: Fri, 2012/07/13 01:10:09.842 PDT
Redo log sequence range: 2 .. 2
Number of accounts: 500
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Appendix A Command-Line Utilities
Command Line Interface (CLI) can be used to create, modify and delete
certain features and functions of the ZCS. The administration console is the
main tool for maintaining the ZCS, but some functions can only be changed
from the CLI utility.
The CLI utility can be used for the following:

Provisioning accounts*

Backup and Restore

Starting and stopping a service

Move mailboxes

Cross-mailbox searches

Installing self-signed certificates

Local configuration
*In general, provisioning and managing accounts should be performed from
the administration console.
General Tool Information
The ZCS command-line utilities follow standard UNIX command-line
conventions.
Follow these guidelines when using the commands

CLI commands are run as the zimbra user, that is su - zimbra.

The actual CLI commands are case-sensitive. You must type them in
lower case.

Press ENTER after you type a command.

Typing the CLI command and then - h displays the usage options for the
command. Example: zmprov - h lists all the options available for the
zmprov utility.

Each operation is invoked through command-line options. Many have a
long name and a short name. For example, these two commands are
equivalent:
zmprov createAccount joe@domain.com test123
Zimbra Collaboration Server
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Administrator Guide
zmprov ca joe@domain.com test123
Syntax Conventions
When demonstrating the syntax of each tool, the following conventions
indicate required, optional, and alternate values:

{attribute} in curly brackets is required information.

[attribute] in square brackets are optional arguments or information.

{a|b|c} or [a|b|c] options separated by the pipe character | means “a” OR “b”
OR “c”

For attribute names that may contain spaces, surround the name with
double quotes.
Location of Command-Line Utilities
The command-line tools available for administrators are all located in the
/opt/zimbra/bin directory on the ZCS server.
Zimbra CLI Commands
The table below lists the CLI commands in /opt/zimbra/bin.
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CLI
Description
antispam-mysqladmin
Send admin commands to anti=spam MySQL server
antispam-mysql
Enters interactive command-line MySQL session with
the mailbox mysql
antispam-mysql.server
Start, stop the SQL instance for the mailbox package
ldap
Start, stop, or find the status of Zimbra LDAP
ldapsearch
Perform a search on an LDAP server
logmysqladmin
Send myslqadmin commands to the logger mysql
mysql
Enters interactive command-line MySQL session with
the mailbox mysql
mysql.server
Start, stop the SQL instance for the mailbox package
mysqladmin
Send admin commands to MySQL
postconf
Postfix command to view or modify the postfix
configuration
postfix
Start, stop, reload, flush, check, upgrade-configuration
of postfix
qshape
Examine postfix queue in relation to time and sender/
recipient domain
CLI
Description
zmaccts
Lists the accounts and gives the status of accounts on
the domain
zmamavisdctl
Start, stop, restart, or find the status of the Amavis-D
New
zmantispamctl
Start, stop, reload, status for anti-spam service
zmantivirusctl
Start, stop, reload, status for the anti-virus service
zmantispamdbpasswd
Changes anti-spam MySQL database password
zmapachectl
Start, stop, reload, or check status of Apache service
(for spell check)
zmauditswatchctl
Start, stop, restart, reload, status of the auditswatch
zmcalchk
Check consistency of appointments and attendees in
the Zimbra calendar
zmcbpolicydctl
Start, stop, and restart the cluebringer policyd service
if enabled
zmconfigdctl
Start, stop, kill, restart status of the MTA configuration
daemon.
zmcertmgr
Manage self-signed and commercial certificates
zmclamdctl
Start, stop, or find the status of Clam AV
zmcleaniplanetics
Clean iPlanet ICS calendar files
zmcontrol (Start/Stop/
Restart Service)
Start, stop, restart, status of the Zimbra servers. Also
can use to find the Zimbra version installed
zmconvertctl
Start, stop, the conversion server or find the status of
the converted attachments conversion/indexing
zmdevicesstats
Number of unique ActiveSync device IDs per server
zmgdcutil
(get devices count) gives the total devices system
wide without the need of specifying individual servers.
zmdumpenv
General information about the server environment is
displayed
zmgsautil
Global Address Book (GAL) synchronization
command line utility.
Create, delete the GAL sync account and initiate
manual syncs.
zmhostname
Find the hostname of the Zimbra server
zmitemdatafile
Extracts and packs tgz files that ZCS uses for REST
import/export
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Description
zmjava
Execute Java with Zimbra-specific environment
settings
zmjavaext
Execute Java and Zimbra-specific environment
settings including extension based jars.
zmldappasswd
Changes the LDAP password
zmlmtpinject
Testing tool
zmlocalconfig
Used to set or get the local configuration of a Zimbra
server
zmloggerctl
Start, stop, reload, or find the status of the Zimbra
logger service
zmloggerhostmap
Used to manually map a DNS hostname to a
zmhostname.
zmlogswatchctl
Start, stop, status of the swatch that is monitoring
logging
zmmailbox
Performs mailbox management tasks
zmmailboxdctl
Start, stop, reload, or find the status of the mailbox
components (zmmailboxd, MySQL, convert)
zmmemcachedctl
Start, stop, and restart
zmmetadump
Support tool that dumps an item’s metadata in a
human-readable form
zmmilterctl
Start, stop, and restart the zimbra milter server if
enabled
zmmtaconfigdctl
Beginning in ZCS 7.0, this command is not used. Use
zmconfigdctl.
zmmtactl
Start, stop, or find the status of the MTA
zmmypasswd
Change MySQL passwords
zmmysqlstatus
Status of mailbox SQL instance
zmnginxconf
Command line utility to output the reverse proxy
configuration
zmnginxctl
Start, stop, and restart the zimbra reverse proxy
zmprov (Provisioning)
Performs all provisioning tasks in Zimbra LDAP,
including creating accounts, domains, distribution lists
and aliases
zmproxyconfgen
Generates configuration for the nginx proxy
zmproxyctl
Start, stop, restart, and find the status of the IMAP
proxy service
CLI
Description
zmproxypurge
Purges POP/IMAP routing information from one or
more memcached servers
zmpython
Ability to write Python scripts that access Zimbra Java
libraries. It sets the ZCS class path and starts the
Jython interpreter.
zmsaslauthdctl
Start, stop, or find the status of saslauthd
(authentication)
zmshutil
Used for other zm scripts, do not use
zmskindeploy
Deploy skins for accounts from the command line
zmsoap
Print mail, account, and admin information in the
SOAP format
zmspellctl
Start, stop, or find the status of the spell check server
zmsshkeygen
Generate Zimbra’s SSH encryption keys
zmstat-chart
Generate charts from zmstat data collected in a
directory
zmstat-chart-config
Outputs an XML configuration that describes the
current state of the data gathered from zmstat-chart to
generate charts on the administration console.
zmstatctl
Start, stop, check status, or rotate logs of zmstat data
collectors
zmstorectl
Start, stop, or find the status of Zimbra store services
zmswatchctl
Start, stop, or find the status of the Swatch process,
which is used in monitoring
zmsyncreverseproxy
Decodes the sync request/responses and logs them
when verbose mode is turned on.
zmthrdump
Initiate a thread dump and save the data to a file with a
timestamp
zmtlsctl
Set the Web server mode to the communication
protocol options: HTTP, HTTPS or mixed
zmtrainsa
Used to train the anti-spam filter to recognize what is
spam or ham
zmtzupdate
Provides mechanism to process time zone changes
from the command line
zmupdateauthkeys
Used to fetch the ssh encryption keys created by
zmsshkeygen
zmvolume
Manage storage volumes on your Zimbra Mailbox
server
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CLI
Description
zmzimletctl
Deploy and configure Zimlets
Using non-ASCII Characters in CLIs
If you use non-ASCII characters in the CLI, in order for the characters to
display correctly, you must change this setting to the desired UTF-8 before
running the CLI command. To change this, type
export LC_All=<UTF_locale>
Important: The default locale on the zimbra user system account is
LANG=C. This setting is necessary for starting ZCS services. Changing the
default LANG=C setting may cause performance issues with amavisd-new.
zmprov (Provisioning)
The zmprov tool performs all provisioning tasks in Zimbra LDAP, including
creating accounts, aliases, domains, COS, distribution lists, and calendar
resources. Each operation is invoked through command-line options, each of
which has a long name and a short name.
The syntax is zmprov [cmd] [argument].
The syntax for modify can include the prefix “+” or “-” so that you can make
changes to the attributes affected and do not need to reenter attributes that
are not changing.

Use + to add a new instance of the specified attribute name without
changing any existing attributes.

Use - to remove a particular instance of an attribute.
The following example would add the attribute zimbraZimletUserProperties
with the value “blue” to user 1 and would not change the value of any other
instances of that attribute.
zmprov ma user1 +zimbraZimletUserProperties
"com_company_testing:favoriteColor:blue"
The attributes for the tasks zmprov can be used with are listed when you type
zmprov -h. The task area divided into the following sections:
144

Accounts

Calendar

Commands

Config

COS

Domain

Free/busy

Distribution list

Logging

Miscellaneous commands

Mailbox

Search

Server

Share
Short Name
Long Name
Syntax, Example, and Notes
-h
--help
display usage
-f
--file
use file as input stream
-s
--server
{host}[:{port}] server hostname and
optional port
-l
--ldap
provision via LDAP instead of SOAP
-L
--log property
file
log 4j property file, valid only with -l
-a
--account
{name}
account name to auth as
-p
--password
{pass}
password for account
-P
--passfile
{file}
read password from file
-z
--zadmin
use Zimbra admin name/password from
localconfig for admin/password
-y
--authtoken
(authtoken)
use auth token string (has to be in JSON
format) from command line
-Y
--authtoken
(authtoken
file)
use auth token string (has to be in JSON
format) from command line
-v
--verbose
verbose mode (dumps full exception stack
trace)
-d/
--debug
debug mode (dumps SOAP messages)
-m
--master
use LDAP master. This only valid with -l
-r
--replace
allow replacement of safe-guarded multivalue attribute configured in localconfig
key zmprov_saveguarded_attrs
The commands in the following table are divided into the tasks types.
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Long Name
Short
Name
Syntax, Example, and Notes
Account Provisioning Commands
addAccountAlias
aaa
{name@domain|id|adminName}
{alias@domain}
zmprov aaa joe@domain.com
joe.smith@engr.domain.com
checkPasswordStrength
cps
Syntax: {name@doman|id} {password}
Note: This command does not check the
password age or history.
zmprov cps joe@domain.com test123
createAccount
ca
Syntax:{name@domain} {password}
[attribute1 value1 etc]
Type on one line.
zmprov ca joe@domain.com test123
displayName JSmith
createDataSource
cds
{name@domain} {ds-type} {ds-name}
zimbraDataSourceEnabled {TRUE|FALSE}
zimbraDataSourceFolderId {folder-id} [attr1
value1 [attr2 value2...]]
createIdentity
cid
{name@domain} {identity-name} [attr1
value1 [attr2 value2...]]
createSignature
csig
{name@domain} {signature-name} [attr1
value1 [attr2 value2...]]
deleteAccount
da
Syntax:{name@domain|id|adminName}
zmprov da joe@domain.com
deleteDataSource
dds
{name@domain|id} {ds-name|ds-id}
deleteIdentity
did
{name@domain|id} {identity-name}
deleteSignature
dsig
{name@domain|id} {signature-name}
getAccount
ga
Syntax:{name@domain|id|adminName}
zmprov ga joe@domain.com
getAccountMembership
gam
{name@domain|id}
getAllAccounts
gaa
Must include -l/--ldap
Syntax: [-v] [{domain}]
zmprov -l gaa
zmprov -l gaa -v domain.com
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Long Name
Short
Name
Syntax, Example, and Notes
getAllAdminAccounts
gaaa
Syntax: gaaa
zmprov gaaa
getDataSources
gds
{name@domain | id} [arg 1 [arg 2...]]
getIdentities
gid
{name@domain | id} [arg 1 [arg 2...]]
getSignatures
gsig
{name@domain | id} [arg 1 [arg 2...]]
modifyAccount
ma
{name@domain|id|adminName} [attribute1
value1 etc]
zmprov ma joe@domain.com
zimbraAccountStatus maintenance
modifyDataSource
mds
{name@domain | id} {ds-name |ds-id} [attr 1
value 1 [attr2 value 2...]]
modifyIdentity
mid
{name@domain |id} {identity-name} [attr 1
value 1 [attr 2 value 2...]]
modifySignature
msig
{name@domain |id} {signature-name |
signature-id} [attr 1 value 1 [attr 2 value 2...]]
removeAccountAlias
raa
{name@domain|id|adminName}
{alias@domain}
zmprov raa joe@domain.com
joe.smith@engr.domain.com
renameAccount
ra
{name@domain|id} {newname@domain}
zmprov ra joe@domain.com
joe23@domain.com
setAccountCOS
sac
{name@domain|id|adminName} {cosname|cos-id}
zmprov sac joe@domain.com
FieldTechnician
setPassword
sp
{name@domain|id|adminName} {password}
Note: Passwords cannot included accented
characters in the string. Example of
accented characters that cannot be used: ã,
é, í, ú, ü, ñ.
zmprov sp joe@domain.com test321
Calendar Resource Provisioning Commands
createCalendarResource
ccr
{name@domain} [attr1 value1 [attr2
value2...]]
deleteCalendarResource
dcr
{name@domain|id}
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Long Name
Short
Name
Syntax, Example, and Notes
getAllCalendarResources
gacr
[-v] [{domain}]
getCalendarResource
gcr
{name@domain|id}
modifyCalendarResource
mcr
{name@domain|id} [attr1 value1 {attr2
value2...]]
purgeAccountCalendarCach
e
pacc
{name@domain\id} [...]
renameCalendarResource
rcr
{name@domain|id} {newName@domain}
getAllFbp
gafbp
[-v]
getFreebusyQueueInfo
gfbqi
[{provider-name}]
pushFreebusy
pfb
{domain | account-id} [account-id...]
pushFreebusyDomain
pfbd
{domain}
purgeFreebusyQueue
pfbg
[{provider-name}]
Free Busy Commands
Domain Provisioning Commands
countAccount
cta
{domain|id}
This lists each COS, the COS ID and the
number of accounts assigned to each COS
createAliasDomain
cad
{alias-domain-name} {local-domainname|id} [attr1 value1 [attr2 value2...]]
createDomain
cd
{domain} [attribute1 value1 etc]
zmprov cd mktng.domain.com
zimbraAuthMech zimbra
deleteDomain
dd
{domain|id}
zmprov dd mktng.domain.com
getDomain
gd
{domain|id}
zmprov gd mktng.domain.com
148
getDomainInfo
gdi
name|id|virtualHostname {value} [attr1
[attr2...]]
getAllDomains
gad
[-v]
Long Name
Short
Name
Syntax, Example, and Notes
modifyDomain
md
{domain|id} [attribute1 value1 etc]
zmprov md domain.com
zimbraGalMaxResults 500
Note: Do not modify
zimbraDomainRenameInfo
manually. This is automatically
updated when a domain is
renamed.
renameDomain
rd
{domain|id} {newDomain}
Note: renameDomain can only be
used with “zmprov -l/--ldap”
COS Provisioning Commands
copyCos
cpc
{src-cos-name|id} {dest-cos-name}
createCos
cc
{name} [attribute1 value1 etc]
zmprov cc Executive
zimbraAttachmentsBlocked FALSE
zimbraAuthTokenLifetime 60m
zimbraMailQuota 100M
zimbraMailMessageLifetime 0
deleteCos
dc
{name|id}
zmprov dc Executive
getCos
gc
{name|id}
zmprov gc Executive
getAllCos
gac
[-v]
zmprov gac -v
modifyCos
mc
{name|id} [attribute1 value1 etc]
zmprov mc Executive
zimbraAttachmentsBlocked TRUE
renameCos
rc
{name|id} {newName}
zmprov rc Executive Business
Server Provisioning Commands
createServer
cs
{name} [attribute1 value1 etc]
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Long Name
Short
Name
Syntax, Example, and Notes
deleteServer
ds
{name|id}
zmprov ds domain.com
getServer
gs
{name|id}
zmprov gs domain.com
getAllServers
gas
[-v]
zmprov gas
modifyServer
ms
{name|id} [attribute1 value1 etc]
zmprov ms domain.com
zimbraVirusDefinitionsUpdateFrequency
2h
getAllMtaAuthURLs
gamau
Used to publish into saslauthd.conf what
servers should be used for saslauthd.conf
MTA auth
getAllMemcachedServers
gamcs
Used to list memcached servers (for nginix
use).
Config Provisioning Commands
getAllConfig
gacf
[-v]
All LDAP settings are displayed
getConfig
gcf
{name}
modifyConfig
mcf
attr1 value1
Modifies the LDAP settings.
createXMPPComponent
cxc
{short-name} {domain} {server} {classname}
{category} {type} [attr value1 [attr2
value2...]]
deleteXMPPComponent
dxc
{xmpp-component-name}
getXMPPComponent
gxc
{name@domain} [attr1 [attr2 value2]]
modifyXMPPComponent
mxc
{name@domain} [attr1 [attr2 value2]]
Distribution List Provisioning Commands
createDistributionList
cdl
{list@domain}
zmprov cdl needlepoint-list@domain.com
addDistributionListMember
adlm
{list@domain|id} {member@domain}
zmprov adlm needlepoint-list@domain.com
singer23@mail.free.net
150
Short
Name
Syntax, Example, and Notes
removeDistributionListMe
mber
rdlm
{list@domain|id}
getAlldistributionLists
gadl
[-v]
get
DistributionListmembership
gdlm
{name@domain|id}
getDistributionList
gdl
Long Name
zmprov rdlm needlepoint-list@domain.com
singer23@mail.free.net
Note: gdlm can not be used for gynamic
groups, as dynamic groups cannot be
nested.
{list@domain|id}
zmprov gdl list@domain.com
modifyDistributionList
mdl
{list@domain|id} attr1 value1 {attr2
value2...}
zmprov md list@domain.com
deleteDistributionList
ddl
(list@domain|id}
addDistributionListAlias
adla
{list@domain|id} {alias@domain}
removeDistributionListAlias
rdla
{list@domain|id} {alias@domain}
renameDistributionList
rdl
{list@domain|id} {newName@domain}
getMailboxInfo---
gmi
{account}
getQuotaUsage---
gqu
{server}
reIndexMailbox
rim
{name@domain|id} {start|status|cancel}
[{reindex-by} {value1} [value2...]]
RecalculateMailboxCounts
rmc
{name@domain|id}
Mailbox Commands
When unread message count and quota
usage are out of sync with the data in the
mailbox, use this command to immediately
recalculate the mailbox quota usage and
unread messages count.
Important: Recalculating mailbox
quota usage and message count should
be schedule to run in off peak hours and
used on one mailbox at a time.
reIndexMailbox
rim
{start|status|cancel} [{types|ids} {type or id}
[,type or id...]]
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Long Name
Short
Name
Syntax, Example, and Notes
compactIndexMailbox
cim
{name@domain|id} {start|status}
verifyIndex
vi
{name@domain|id}
getIndexStats
gis
{name@domain|id}
selectMailbox
sm
{account-name} [{zmmailbox commands}]
aal
{name@domain|id} {logging-category}
{debug|info|warn|error}
Logs
addAccount Logger
Creates custom logging for a single account
getAccountLoggers
gal
[-s/--server hostname] {name@domain|id}
{logging-category} {debug|info|warn|error}
getAllAccountLoggers
gaal
[-s/--server hostname]
Shows all individual custom logger account
removeAccountLogger
ral
[-s/ --server hostname] {name@domain|id}
{logging-category}
When name@domain is specified, removes
the custom logger created for the account
otherwise removes all accounts all account
loggers from the system.
resetAllLoggers
rlog
This command removes all account loggers
and reloads /opt/zimbra/conf/
log4j.properties.
[-s/--server hostname]
See the zmprov Log Categories for a list of logging categories.
Search
searchGAL
sg
{domain} {name}
zmprov sg joe
autoCompleteGal
acg
{domain} {name}
searchAccounts
sa
[-v] {ldap-query} [limit] [offset] [sortBy
{attribute} [sortAscending 0|1] [domain
{domain}]
searchCalendarResources
scr
[-v] domain attr op value {attr op value...]
Share Provisioning Commands
getShareInfo
152
gsi
{owner-name|owner-id}
Long Name
Short
Name
Syntax, Example, and Notes
Miscellaneous Provisioning Commands
countObjects
cto
{type} [-d {domain|id}].
countObjects can only be used with zmprov
-l/--ldap
createBulkAccounts
cabulk
{domain} {namemask} {number of accounts
to create}
describe
desc
[[-v] [-ni] [{entry-type}]] | [-a {attribute-name}]
Prints all attribute names (account, domain,
COS, servers, etc.).
flushCache
fc
[-a]
{acl|locale|skin|uistrings|license|all|account|
config|globalgrant|
cos|domain|galgroup|group|mime|server|zi
mlet|<extension-cache-type>} [name1|id1
[name2|i d2...]]
Flush cached LDAP entries for a type. See
Chapter 4, Zimbra LDAP Service
generateDomainPreAuthKey
gdpak
{domain|id}
Generates a pre-authentication key to
enable a trusted third party to authenticate
to allow for single-sign on. Used in
conjunction with GenerateDomainPreAuth.
generateDomainPreAuth
gdpa
{domain|id} {name}
{name|id|foreignPrincipal} {timestamp|0}
{expires|0}
Generates preAuth values for comparison.
syncGal
syg
{domain} [{token}]
getAccountLogger
gal
[-s /--server hostname] {name@domain | id}
UnfiedCommunication Service Commands
createUCService
cucs
{name} [attr1 value1 [attr2 value2...]]
deleteUCService
ducs
{name|id}
getAllUCServices
gaucs
[-v]
getUCService
gucs
[-e] {name|id} [attr1 [attr2...]]
modifyUCService
mucs
{name|id} [attr1 value1 [attr2 value2...]]
renameUCService
rucs
{name|id} {newName}
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Long Name
Short
Name
Syntax, Example, and Notes
The following are zmprov commands that are specific to Zimbra IMAP/
POP proxy.
--getAllReverseProxyURLs
-garpu
Used to publish into nginx.conf the servers
that should be used for reverse proxy
lookup.
-getAllReverseProxyBacken
ds
-garpb
Returns the list of servers that have
zimbraReverseProxyLookupTarget=TRU
E. Basically if a mailbox server is available
for lookup requests from the proxy.
-getAllReverseProxyDomain
s
-garpd
Returns a list of all domains configured with
ZimbraSSLCertificate
zimbraVirtualHostname and
zimbraVirtualIPAddress configured. This
allows the proxy to configure a list of
domains to serve customized/domain
certificates for.
zmprov Examples

Create one account with a password that is assigned to the default COS.
zmprov ca name@domain.com password

Create one account with a password that is assigned to a specified COS.
You must know the COS ID number. To find a COS ID, type zmprov gc
<COSname>.
zmprov ca name@domain.com password zimbraCOS cosIDnumberstring

Create one account when the password is not authenticated internally.
zmprov ca name@domain.com ‘’
The empty single quote is required and indicates that there is no local
password.

Using a batch process to create accounts, see Chapter 11, Provisioning
User Accounts for the procedure.

Add an alias to an account.
zmprov aaa accountname@domain.com aliasname@domain.com

Create distribution list. The ID of the distribution list is returned.
zmprov cdl listname@domain.com

Add a member to a distribution list. Tip: You can add multiple members to
a list from the administration console.
zmprov adlm listname@domain.com member@domain.com
154

Change the administrator’s password. Use this command to change any
password. Enter the address of the password to be changed.
zmprov sp admin@domain.com password

Create a domain that authenticates against zimbra OpenLDAP.
zmprov cd marketing.domain.com zimbraAuthMech zimbra

Set the default domain.
zmprov mcf zimbraDefaultDomain domain1.com

To list all COSs and their attribute values.
zmprov gac -v

To list all user accounts in a domain (domain.com)
zmprov gaa domain.com

To list all user accounts and their configurations
zmprov gaa -v domain.com

To enable logger on a single server
zmprov ms server.com +zimbraServiceEnabled logger
Then type zmloggerctl start, to start the logger.

To query if a value is set for a multi-valued attribute.
zmprov gs server.com attribute=value
For example, zmprov gs example.com zimbraServiceEnabled=ldap to find
out if the ldap service is enabled.

To modify the purge interval, set zimbraMailPurgeSleepInterval to the
duration of time that the server should “sleep” between every two
mailboxes. Type:
zmprov ms server.com zimbraMailPurgeSleepInterval <Xm>
X is the duration of time between mailbox purges; m represents minutes.
You could also set <xh> for hours.

Modify zimbraNewMailNotification to customize the notification email
template. A default email is sent from Postmaster notifying users that they
have received mail in another mailbox. To change the template, you
modify the receiving mailbox account. The variables are
•
${SENDER_ADDRESS}
•
${RECIPIENT_ADDRESS}
•
${RECIPIENT_DOMAIN}
•
${NOTIFICATION_ADDRESSS}
•
${SUBJECT}
•
${NEWLINE}
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Administrator Guide
You can specify which of the above variables appear in the Subject, From,
or Body of the email. The following example is changing the appearance of
the message in the body of the notification email that is received at
name@domain.com. You can also change the template in a class of
service, use zmprov mc. The command is written on one line.
zmprov ma name@domain.com zimbraNewMailNotificationBody ‘Important
message from ${SENDER_ADDRESS}.${NEWLINE}Subject:${SUBJECT}’


Enable the SMS notification by COS, account or domain
•
zmprov mc <default>
zimbraFeatureCalendarReminderDeviceEmailEnabled TRUE
•
zmprov ma <user1>
zimbraFeatureCalendarReminderDeviceEmailEnabled TRUE
•
zmprov md <domain>
zimbraFeatureCalendarReminderDeviceEmailEnabled TRUE
Enable the Activity Stream feature for a COS or set of users
•
zmprov mc <default>
zimbraFeaturePriorityInboxEnabled TRUE
•
zmprov ma <user1>
zimbraFeaturePriorityInboxEnabled TRUE
Configure Auto-Grouped Backup from the CLI
Set the backup method in the global configuration, and you can override the
configuration on a per server basis if you do not want a server to use the autogrouped backup method.
To set up auto-grouped backup, you modify LDAP attributes using the zmprov
CLI. Type the command as
zmprov mcf <ldap_attribute> <arg>
You can also set the attributes at the server level using zmprov ms.
The following LDAP attributes are modified:

zimbraBackupMode. Set it to be Auto-Grouped. The default is Standard.

zimbraBackupAutoGroupedInterval. Set this to the interval in either days or
weeks that backup sessions should run for a group. The default is 1d.
Backup intervals can be 1 or more days, entered as xd (1d); or 1 or more
weeks, entered as xw (1w).

zimbraBackupAutoGroupedNumGroups. This the number of groups to
spread mailboxes over. The default is 7 groups.
Changing Conversations Thread Default
Messages can be grouped into conversations by a common thread. The
default is to thread messages in a conversation by the References header. If
there is no References header, the Subject is used to determine the
156
conversation thread. The default options can be changed from the COS or for
individual accounts.
zmprov mc [cosname] zimbraMailThreadingAlgorithm [type]
The types include:

none. no conversation threading is performed.

subject. the message will be threaded based solely on its normalized
subject.

strict. only the threading message headers (References, In-Reply-To,
Message-ID, and Resent-Message-ID) are used to correlate messages.
No checking of normalized subjects is performed.

references. the same logic as "strict" with the constraints slightly altered so
that the non-standard Thread-Index header is considered when threading
messages and that a reply message lacking References and In-Reply-To
headers will fall back to using subject-based threading.

subjrefs. the same logic as "references" with the further caveat that
changes in the normalized subject will break a thread in two.
Detect Corrupted Indexes
Run zmprov verifyIndex as a sanity check for the specified mailbox index.
Diagnostic information is written to stdout. If problems are detected, a failure
status is returned.
VerifyIndex locks the index while it's running, and checks every byte in the
index. Therefore, it's not recommended to run this on a regular basis such as
in a cron job. The zmprov verifyIndex command should be used only when
you need to make a diagnosis.
zmprov verifyIndex <user@example.com>
If VerifyIndex reports that the index is corrupted, you can repair the mailbox
index by running reIndexMailbox (rim).
zmprov rim <user@example.com> start
zmprov Log Categories
zimbra.account
Account operations
zimbra.acl
ACL operations
zimbra.backup
Backup and restore
zimbra.cache
Inmemory cache operations
zimbra.calendar
Calendar operations
zimbra.dav
DAV operations
zimbra.dbconn
Database connection tracing
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zimbra.extensions
Server extension loading
zimbra.filter
Mail filtering
zimbra.gal
GAL operations
zimbra.imap
IMAP protocol operations
zimbra.index
Index operations
zimbra.io
Filesystem operations
zimbra.ldap
LDAP operations
zimbra.lmtp
LMTP operations (incoming mail)
zimbra.mailbox
General mailbox operations
zimbra.misc
Miscellaneous
zimbra.op
Changes to mailbox state
zimbra.pop
POP protocol operations
zimbra.redolog
Redo log operations
zimbra.security
Security events
zimbra.session
User session tracking
zimbra.smtp
SMTP operations (outgoing mail)
zimbra.soap
SOAP protocol
zimbra.sqltrace
SQL tracing
zimbra.store
Mail store disk operations
zimbra.sync
Sync client operations
zimbra.system
Startup/shutdown and other system
messages
zimbra.wiki
Wiki operations
zimbra.zimlet
Zimlet operations
zmaccts
This command runs a report that lists all the accounts, their status, when they
were created and the last time anyone logged on. The domain summary
shows the total number of accounts and their status.
Syntax
zmaccts
zmcalchk
This command checks the consistency of appointments on the Zimbra
calendar and sends an email notification regarding inconsistencies. For
example, it checks if all attendees and organizers of an event on the calendar
agree on start/stop times and occurrences of a meeting.
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See the output of zmmailbox help appointment for details on time-specs.
Syntax
zmcalchk [-d] [-n <type>] <user> <start-time-spec> <end-time-spec>
Description
Short
Name
Description
-d
Debugs verbose details
-m
Allows the user to specify the maximum number of
attendees to check. The default value is 50.
-n
-n none |user |organizer |attendee |all
Send email notifications to selected users if they are
out of sync for an appointment
zmcontrol (Start/Stop/Restart Service)
This command is run to start, to stop, or to restart services. You can also find
which version of the ZCS is installed.
Syntax
zmcontrol [ -v -h ] command [args]
Description
Long Name
Short
Name
Description
-v
Displays ZCS software version.
-h
Displays the usage options for this
command.
-H
Host name (localhost).
Command in...
maintenance
Toggle maintenance mode.
restart
Restarts all services and manager on this
host.
shutdown
Shutdown all services and manager on
this host. When the manager is shutdown,
you cannot query that status.
start
Startup manager and all services on this
host.
startup
Startup manager and all services on this
host.
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Long Name
Short
Name
Description
status
Returns services information for the
named host.
stop
Stop all services but leaves the manager
running.
zmgsautil
The CLI command zmgsautil can be used to create or delete the GAL sync
account and to force syncing of the LDAP data to the GAL sync account.
A GAL sync account is created when the GAL is configured on a domain. This
account is created and the polling interval for performing a full sync is
managed from the administration console.
To see attributes and settings for a GAL sync account, run zmprov gds
against the account.
Long Name
Description
createAccount
Creates the GAL sync account. This should be
done from the administration console.
The parameter “server” is required.
-a {account-name} -n {datasource-name} -domain {domain-name} -t zimbra|ldap -s {server}
[-f {folder-name}] [-p {polling-interval}]
addDataSource
When configuring a datasource for a server,
specify a folder name other than /Contacts. The
datasource folder name must be unique.
-a {account-name} -n {datasource-name} --
domain {domain-name} -t zimbra|ldap [-f {foldername}] [-p {polling-interval}]
deleteAccount
Deletes the GAL sync account and the references
to the LDAP server. The account can also be
deleted from the administration console.
deleteAccount [-a {galsynceaccountname}|-i
{account-id}]
trickleSync
This syncs new and updated contact data only.
[-a {galsynceaccountname}|-i {account-id}] [-d
{datasource-id}] [-n {datsource-name}]
The datasource ID the LDAP datasource ID. The
datasource name is the name of the address book
(folder) in the GAL account created to sync LDAP
to.
A cron job can be set up to run trickleSync.
160
Long Name
Description
fullSync
This syncs all LDAP contact data. You can also set
this from the administration console.
[-a {galsynceaccountname}|-i {account-id}] [-d
{datasource-id}] [-n {datsource-name}]
forceSync
This should be used to reload the entire GAL if
there is change in the filter, attribute mapping or
LDAP server parameters.
[-a {galsynceaccountname}|-i {account-id}] [-d
{datasource-id}] [-n {datsource-name}]
zmldappasswd
The CLI command zmldappasswd changes the LDAP password on the local
server. In multi node environments, this command must be run on the LDAP
master server only.
This CLI command used with options changes other passwords.
For better security and audit trails the following passwords are generated in
ZCS:

LDAP Admin password. This is the master LDAP password.

LDAP Root password. This is used for internal LDAP operations.

LDAP Postfix password. This is the password used by the postfix user to
identify itself to the LDAP serve and must be configured on the MTA server
to be the same as the password on the LDAP master server.

LDAP Amavis password. This is the password used by the amavis user
to identify itself to the LDAP server and must be configured on the MTA
server to be the same as the password on the LDAP server.

LDAP Replication password. This is the password used by the LDAP
replication user to identify itself to the LDAP master and must be the same
as the password on the LDAP master server.
Syntax
opt/zimbra/bin/zmldappasswd [-h] [-r] [-p] [-l] new password
Description
Name
Syntax, Example, Notes
-h
Displays the help
-a
Changes ldap_amavis-password
-b
change ldap_bes_searcher_password
-l
Changes ldap_replication_password
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Name
Syntax, Example, Notes
-p
Changes ldap_postfix_password
-n
change ldap_nginx_password
-r
Changes ldap_root_passwd
-c
Updates the password in the config database on
replicas. Must be used with -1 and must be run on
a replica after changing the password on the
master
Only one of a, l, p, or r can be specified. If options are not included,
the zimbra_ldap_password is changed.
zmlocalconfig
This command is used to set or get the local configuration for a zimbra server.
Use zmlocalconfig -i to see a list of supported properties that can be configured
by an administrator.
Syntax
zmlocalconfig [options]
To see the local config type zmlocalconfig
Description
Long Name
Short
Name
Description
--config
-c
<arg> File in which the configuration is
stored
--default
-d
Show default values for keys listed in
[args]
--edit
-e
Edit the configuration file, change keys
and values specified. The [args] is in the
key=value form.
--force
-f
Edit the keys whose change is known to
be potentially dangerous
--help
-h
Shows the help for the usage options for
this tool
--info
-i
Shows the list of supported properties.
--format
-m
<arg> Shows the values in one of these
formats: plain (default), xml, shell, nokey.
162
--changed
-n
Shows the values for only those keys
listed in the [args] that have been
changed from their defaults
--path
-p
Shows which configuration file will be
used
Long Name
Short
Name
Description
--quiet
-q
Suppress logging
--random
-r
This option is used with the edit option.
Specified key is set to a random password
string.
--show
-s
Forces the display of the password strings
--unset
-u
Remove a configuration key. If this is a
key with compiled-in defaults, set its value
to the empty string.
--expand
-x
Expand values
zmmailbox
The zmmailbox tool is used for mailbox management. The command can help
administrators provision new mailboxes along with accounts, debug issues
with a mailbox, and help with migrations.
You can invoke the zmmailbox command from within the zmprov command.
You enter selectMailbox within zmprov to access the zmmailbox command
connected to that specified mailbox. You can then enter zmmailbox
commands until you type exit. Exit returns you to zmprov. This is useful when
you want to create accounts and also pre-create some folders, tags, or saved
searches at the same time.
Syntax
zmmailbox [args] [cmd] [cmd-args ...]
Description
Short
Name
Long Name
Syntax, Example, and Notes
-h
--help
display usage
-f
--file
use file as input stream
-u
--url
http[s]://{host}[:{port}] server hostname
and optional port. Must use admin port
with -z/-a
-a
--account {name}
account name to auth as
-z
--zadmin
use zimbra admin name/password from
localconfig for admin/password
-y
--authtoken
(authtoken)
use authtoken string (has to be in JSON
format) from command line
-Y
--authtoken
(authtoken file)
use authtoken string (has be in JSON
format) from command line
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Short
Name
Long Name
Syntax, Example, and Notes
-m
--mailbox {name}
mailbox to open. Can be used as both
authenticated and targeted unless other
options are specified.
--auth {name}
account name to authorize as. Defaults to
--mailbox unless --admin-priv is used
-A
--admin-priv
execute requests with admin privilege
-p
--password {pass}
password for admin account and or
mailbox
-P
--passfile {file}
read password from file
-t
--timeout
timeout (in seconds)
-v
--verbose
verbose mode (dumps full exception stack
trace)
-d
--debug
debug mode (dumps SOAP messages)
Specific CLI tools are available for the different components of a mailbox.
Usage is described in the CLI help for the following.
zmmailbox help admin
help on admin-related commands
zmmailbox help commands
help on all commands
zmmailbox help appointment
help on appointment-related commands
zmmailbox help commands
help on all zmmailbox commands
zmmailbox help contact
help on contact-related commands
(address book)
zmmailbox help conversation
help on conversation-related commands
zmmailbox help filter
help on filter-related commands
zmmailbox help folder
help on folder-related commands
zmmailbox help item
help on item-related commands
zmmailbox help message
help on message-related commands
zmmailbox help misc
help on miscellaneous commands
zmmailbox help right
help on right commands
zmmailbox help search
help on search-related commands
zmmailbox help tag
help on tag-related commands
Examples

164
When you create an account, you may want to pre-create some tags and
folders. You can invoke zmmailbox inside of zmprov by using
“selectMailbox(sm)”
domain.example.com$ /opt/zimbra/bin/zmprov
prov> ca user10@domain.example.com test123
9a993516-aa49-4fa5-bc0d-f740a474f7a8
prov> sm user10@domain.example.com
mailbox: user10@domain.example.com, size: 0 B, messages: 0,
unread: 0
mbox user10@domain.example.com> createFolder /Archive
257
mbox user10@domain.example.com> createTag TODO
64
mbox user10@domain.example.com> createSearchFolder /unread
"is:unread"
258
mbox user10@domain.example.com> exit
prov>

To find the mailbox size for an account
zmmailbox -z-m user@example.com gms

To send requests to a mailbox using the admin auth token. This is required
when using the command emptyDumpster. Use --admin-priv to skip
delegated auth as the target mailbox.
zmmailbox -z --admin-priv -m foo@example.com emptyDumpster

Use --admin-priv with select Mailbox command
zmmailbox -z mbox> sm --admin-priv foo@domain.com

To authenticate as a delegated admin user. This lets one user login to
another user's mailbox. The authenticating user must be a delegated
admin account and must have adminLoginAs right on the target mailbox.
This auth option uses a non-admin auth token. Use the --auth option to
specify the authenticating account. To login as user bar and open mailbox
foo:
$ zmmailbox --auth bar@example.com -p password -m foo@example.com

To find the mailbox size for an account
zmmailbox -z-m user@example.com gms

To find the mailbox size for an account
zmmailbox -z-m user@example.com gms

When you use zmmailbox to backup individual mailboxes, you can save
the file as either a zip file or a tgz file. The default settings for the
information that is saved in these formats is different.
File
TGZ
ZIP
Briefcase
X
X
Calendar
X
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Conversations
X
Contacts
X
X
Deleted Messages
X
X
Emailed Contacts
X
Inbox
X
X
Sent
X
X
Sent Messages
X
X
Tasks
X
To include all the mailbox content in a zip file, you must enable the meta
data. Type as
zmmailbox -z-m user@example.com gru "?fmt=zip&meta=1" > /
<filename.zip>
zmtlsctl
This command is used to set the Web server zimbraMailMode to the
communication protocol options: HTTP, HTTPS, Mixed, Both and Redirect.

HTTP. HTTP only, the user would browse to http://zimbra.domain.com.

HTTPS. HTTPS only, the user would browse to https:/zimbra.domain.com.
http:// is denied.

Mixed If the user goes to http:// it will switch to https:// for the login only,
then will revert to http:// for normal session traffic. If the user browses to
https://, then the user will stay https://

Both A user can go to http:// or https:// and will keep that mode for the
entire session.

Redirect Like mixed if the user goes to http:// it will switch to https:// but
they will stay https:// for their entire session.
All modes use SSL encryption for back-end administrative traffic.
Important: Only zimbraMailMode HTTPS can ensure that no listener will be
available on HTTP/port 80, that no client application will try to auth over HTTP,
and that all data exchanged with the client application will be encrypted.
Mailboxd has to be stopped and restarted for the change to take effect.
Note: If you switch to HTTPS, you use the self-signed certificate generated
during ZCS installation, in /opt/zimbra/ssl/zimbra/server/server.crt.
Syntax
zmtlsctl [mode]
166
mode = http, https, mixed, both, redirect
Steps to run
1. Type zmtlsctl [mode] and press ENTER.
2. Type zmmailboxdctl stop and press ENTER.
3. When mailboxd is stopped, type zmmailboxdctl start and press ENTER.
Limitations When Using Redirect

Many client applications send an auth request in the initial HTTP request
to the Server (“blind auth”). The implications of this are that this auth
request is sent in the clear/unencrypted prior to any possible opportunity to
redirect the client application to HTTPS.

Redirect mode allows for the possibility of a man-in-the-middle attack,
international/unintentional redirection to a non-valid server, or the
possibility that a user will mis type the server name and not have
certificate-based validity of the server.

In many client applications, it is impossible for users to tell if they have
been redirected (for example, ActiveSync), and therefore the users
continue to use HTTP even if the auth request is being sent unencrypted.
zmmetadump
This command is a support tool that dumps the contents of an item’s metadata
in a human readable form.
Syntax
zmmetadump -m <mailbox id/email> -i <item id>
or zmmetadump -f <file containing encoded metadata>
zmmypasswd
This command is used to change zimbra_mysql_password. If the --root option
is specified, the mysql_root_passwd is changed. In both cases, MySQL is
updated with the new passwords. Refer to the MySQL documentation to see
how you can start the MySQL server temporarily to skip grant tables, to
override the root password. This requires a restart for the change to take
effect.
Syntax
zmmypasswd [--root] <new_password>.
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zmproxyconfgen
This command generates the nginx proxy configuration files. It reads LDAP
settings to replace template variables and generates the final nginx
configuration.
Syntax
ProxyConfGen [options]
Description
Long Name
Short
Name
--config
-c
<arg> Overrides a config variable. The
<arg> format should be name=value. To
see a list of names, use -d or -D
--defaults
-d
Prints the default variable map
--definitions
-D
Prints the Definitions variable map after
loading LDAP configuration and
processing overrides
--help
-h
Displays help information
--include-dir
-i
<arg> Displays the directory path (relative
to $workdir/conf), where included
configuration files are written
--dry-run
-n
Specifies not to write configuration and
only display the files that would be written
--prefix
-p
<arg> Displays the config file prefix. The
default value is nginx.conf
--template-prefix
-P
<arg> Displays the template file prefix.
The default value is $prefix
--server
-s
<arg> Specifies a valid server object.
Configuration is generated based on the
specified server’s attributes. The default is
to generate configuration based on global
configuration values
--templatedir
-t
<arg>Specifies the proxy template
directory. The default value is $workdir/
conf/nginx/templates
--verbose
-v
Displays verbose data
--workdir
-w
<arg> Specifies the proxy working
directory. The default value is /opt/zimbra
Description
zmproxypurge
This command purges POP/IMAP proxy routing information from one or more
memcached servers. Available memcached servers are discovered by the
168
zmprov gamcs function. Others can be specified if necessary using the server
port.
Syntax
ProxyPurgeUtil [-v] [-i] -a account [-L accountlist] [cache1 [cache2...]]
Description
Long Name
Short
Name
--help
-h
Shows the help for the usage options for
this tool.
--verbose
-v
Displays verbose data
--info
-i
Displays account routing information
--account
-a
Displays account name
--list
-L
Displays file containing list of accounts,
one per line
--output
-o
Specifies the format to be used for printing
routing information with information. The
fields that display by default are
Description
• cache server
• account name
• route information
cacheN
(optional command) Specifies additional
memcache server in the form of
server:port
zmskindeploy
This command simplifies the process of deploying skins in ZWC. This tool
processes the skin deployment, enables the skin for all users of the ZWC
deployment, and restarts the web server so that it recognizes the new skin.
For more information about this tool, see http://wiki.zimbra.com/
index.php?title=About_Creating_ZCS_Themes
Syntax
zmskindeploy <path/to/skin/dir/or/zipfile>
zmsoap
Prints mail, account, and admin information in the SOAP format.
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Syntax
zmsoap [options] <path1 [<path2>...]
Description
Long Name
Short
Name
Description
--help
-h
Prints usage information
--mailbox
-m
<name> Displays mailbox account name.
Mail and account requests are sent to this
account.
This attribute is also used for
authentication if -a and -z are not
specified
--target
<name>Displays the target account name
to which the requests are sent. Used only
for non-admin sessions
--admin name
-a
<name>Displays the admin account name
to authenticate as
--zadmin
-z
Displays the Zimbra admin name and
password to authenticate as
--password
-p
<pass>Displays account password
--passfile
-P
<path> Reads password from a file
--element
-e
<path> Displays the root element path. If
specified, all path arguments that do not
start with a slash (/) are relative to this
element
--type
-t
<type> Displays the SOAP request type.
Can either be mail, account, or admin
--url
-u
<http[s]://...> Displays the server
hostname and optional port value
--verbose
-v
Prints the SOAP request and other status
information
path
<[path...]> Displays the element or
attribute path and value. Roughly follows
the XPath syntax as:
[/]element1[/element2][/@attr][=value]
zmstat-chart
This command is used to collect statistical information for the CPU, IO,
mailboxd, MTAqueue, MySQL, and other components and to run a script on
the csv files to display the usage details in various charts. These csv files are
saved to /opt/zimbra/zmstat/.
You must enable zmstat to collect the performance charts data.
170
To enable zmstat for charting on each server
1. Enter zmprov ms {hostname} zimbraServerEnable : stats.
2. Restart the server, enter
zmcontrol stop
zmcontrol start
Syntax
zmstat-chart -s <arg> -d <arg> [options]
Description
Long Name
Short
Name
Description
--aggregate-end-at
<arg> If this is specified, the aggregate
computation ends at this timestamp.
Usage is MM/dd/yyyy HH:mm:ss.
--aggregate-start-at
<arg> If this is specified, the aggregate
computation starts at this timestamp.
Usage is MM/dd/yyyy HH:mm:ss.
--end-at
<arg> If this is specified, all samples after
the specified timestamp are ignored.
Usage is MM/dd/yyyy HH:mm:ss.
--start-at
<arg> If this is specified, all samples
before this timestamp are ignored.
--title
<arg> This gives the chart a title that
displays. Defaults to the last directory
name of srcdir.
--no-summary
Summary data generation is not included.
--conf
-c
<arg> Chart the configuration xml files.
--destdir
-d
<arg> The directory where the generated
chart files are saved.
--srcdir
One or more directories where the csv
files are located. The csv files are moved
to directories listed by date under zmstat/.
zmstat-chart-config
This command generates an xml file /opt/zimbra/conf/zmstat-chart.xml from a
template, taking into account the server setup including the LDAP node and
the processes run, among other specifications.
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zmstatctl
This is a control script for checking zmstat data collectors. It starts or stops
monitoring processes, checks status or rotates logs.
Syntax
zmstatctl start|stop|status|rotate
zmthrdump
This command invokes a thread dump in the ZCS server process and prints
the output file. It also gives the option of saving the thread dump to a file and
inserts a timestamp on the logfile.
Syntax
zmthrdump [-h] [-i] [-t <timeout seconds>] [-p <pid file>] [-f <file>] [-o <out-file>]
Description
Short
Name
Description
-h
Displays help messages
-i
Appends the timestamp to the LOGFILE
before invoking SIGQUIT
-p
Returns the PID to send SIGQUIT. The
default value can be found in
zmmailboxd_java.pid
-f
Specifies the LOGFILE to save the thread
dump output in. The default value is
zmmailbox.out
-o
Specifies the output file of the thread
dump. The default value is stdout
-t
Specifies the timeout value (in seconds) to
exit if the process becomes unresponsive.
The default value is 30 seconds.
zmtrainsa
This command is used to train the anti-spam filter. This command is run
automatically every night to train the SpamAssasin filter from messages users
mark as “junk” “not junk” from their mailbox. See SpamAssassin’s sa-update
tool is included with SpamAssassin. This tool updates SpamAssassin rules
from the SA organization. The tool is installed into /opt/zimbra/zimbramon/bin.
The zmtrainsa command can be run manually to forward any folder from any
mailbox to the spam training mailboxes. If you do not enter a folder name
172
when you manually run zmtrainsa for an account, for spam, the default folder
is Junk. For ham, the default folder is Inbox.
Syntax
zmtrainsa <user> spam|ham [folder]
zmtzupdate
This command is used to update time zone changes in existing appointments
for specific users or all users. A .ics rule file should first be created to run with
this command. A rule file lists a series of rules to match a time zone and the
replacement time zone definitions. More information about this command can
be found at http://wiki.zimbra.com
index.php?title=Changing_ZCS_Time_Zones
Syntax
zmtzupdate --rulefile <rule file> -a <“all” or list of specific email addresses> [--sync]
[--after <date/time stamp>]
Description
Long Name
Short
Name
--account
-a
-h
--rulefile
--server
--sync
<arg> account email addresses separated
by a white space. Use “all” for all accounts
to be updated
<arg> Appointments occurring after the
specified date/time in this field are
updated. The default cut off time is
January 1st, 2008
--after
--help
Description
Displays help information
Specifies the .ics XML file that should be
used to update time zone definitions
-s
<arg> Specifies the mail server hostname.
The default value is localhost
If specified, this option causes the
zmtzupdate command to block till the
server processes all requested accounts.
The default value is no.
zmvolume
This command can be used to manage storage volumes from the CLI.
Volumes can be easily managed from the administration console, Server>
Volumes page.
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Syntax
zmvolume {-a|-d|-l|-e|-dc|-sc} [options]
Description
Long Name
Short
Name
Description
--add
-a
Adds a volume
--compress
-c
<arg> Compress BLOBs; “true” or “false”
-compressionThres
hold
-ct
Compression threshold; default 4KB
--delete
-d
Deletes a volume
--displayCurrent
-dc
Displays the current volume
--edit
-e
Edits a volume
--help
-h
Shows the help for the usage options for
this tool.
--id
-id
<arg> Volume ID
--list
-l
Lists volumes
--name
-n
<arg> Volume name
--path
-p
<arg> Root path
--server
-s
<arg> Mail server hostname. Default is
localhost.
--setCurrent
-sc
Sets the current volume
--type
-t
<arg> Volume type (primaryMessage,
secondaryMessage, or index)
--turnOffSecondary
-ts
Turns off the current secondary message
volume
zmzimletctl
This command is used to manage Zimlets and to list all zimlets on the server.
See Chapter 11, Zimlets. Most Zimlet deployment can be competed from the
zimbra administration console.
Syntax
zmzimletctl {-l} {command} <zimlet.zip|config.xml|zimlet>
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Description
Long Name
deploy
Short
Name
Description
<zimlet.zip> Creates the Zimlet entry in
the LDAP server, installs the zimlet files
on the Server, grants, access to the
members of the default COS, and turns on
the Zimlet
undeploy
<zimlet> Uninstall a zimlet from the
zimbra server
install
<zimlet.zip> Installs the Zimlet files on the
host
ldapDeploy
<zimlet> Adds the Zimlet entry to the
LDAP
enable
<zimlet> Enables the Zimlet
disable
<zimlet> Disables the Zimlet
acl
<zimlet> <cos1> {grant|deny} [<cos2>
{grant|deny}...] Sets the access control,
grant|deny, to a COS
listAcls
<zimlet> Lists the ACLs for the Zimlets
listZimlets
View details about all Zimlets on the
server
getConfigTemplat
e
<zimlet.zip> Extracts the configuration
template from the Zimlet.zip file
configure
<config.xml>Installs the configuration
listPriority
Shows the current Zimlet priorities (0 is
high, 9 is low)
setPriority
<zimlet> Sets the Zimlet priority
zmproxyconfig
This command is used to manage Zimbra proxy and should only be used
when you have to make changes to Zimbra proxy after it has been installed.
See Chapter 6, Zimbra Proxy Server.
Note: Previous to ZCS 6.0, this command was called zmproxyinit.
Syntax
./zmproxyconfig [-h] [-o] [-m] [-w] [-d [-r] [-s] [-a w1:w2:w3:w4] [-i p1:p2:p3:p4] [-p
p1:p2:p3:p4] [-x mailmode]] [-e [-a w1:w2:w3:w4] [-i p1:p2:p3:p4] [-p p1:p2:p3:p4]
[-x mailmode]] [-f] -H hostname
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Description
176
Short
Name
Description
-h
Displays help messages
-H
Hostname of the server on which enable/disable proxy
functionality
-a
Colon separated list of Web ports to use. Format: HTTPSTORE:HTTP-PROXY:HTTPS-STORE:HTTPS-PROXY
(Ex: 8080:80:8443:443)
-d
Disable proxy
-e
Enable proxy
-f
Full reset on memcached port and search queries and
POP/IMAP throttling
-i
Colon separated list of IMAP ports to use. Format: IMAPSTORE:IMAP-PROXY:IMAPS-STORE:IMAPS-PROXY
(Ex: 7143:143:7993:993)
-m
Toggle mail proxy portions
-o
Override enabled checks
-p
Colon separated list of POP ports to use. Format: POPSTORE:POP-PROXY:POPS-STORE:POPS-PROXY
(Ex: 7110:110:7995:995)
-r
Run against a remote host. Note that this requires the
server to be properly configured in the LDAP master
-s
Set Cleartext to FALSE (secure mode) on disable
-t
Disable reverse proxy lookup target for the store server.
Only valid with -d. Make sure that you intend for all proxy
functions for the server to be disabled.
-w
Toggle Web proxy portions
Short
Name
Description
-x
zimbraMailMode to use on disable (Default is HTTP)
hostname is the value of the zimbra_server_hostname LC key for
the server being modified.
Required options are -f by itself, or -f with -d or -e
Note that

-d or -e require one or both of -m and -w.

-i or -p require -m.

-a requires -w.

-x requires -w and -d for store.

-x requires -w for proxy.
The following are the defaults for -a, -i, -p, and -x if they are not
supplied as options.
-a default on enable: 8080:80:8443:443
-a default on disable: 80:0:443:0
-i default on enable: 7143:143:7993:993
-i default on disable: 143:7143:993:7993
-p default on enable: 7110:110:7995:995
-p default on disable: 110:7110:995:7995
-x default on store disable: http
-x default on proxy enable/disable: http
zmsyncreverseproxy
The CLI command zmsyncreverseproxy is used to reserve proxies mobile
sync HTTP traffic between the source and forwarding server and port.
Decodes the sync requests/responses and logs them when verbose mode is
turned on.
Syntax
zmsyncreverseproxy [-v] [-d] [-L log4j.properties] -p <port number> -fs <fwd server>
-fp <fwd port> [-sv syncversions]
Description
Long Name
Short
Name
Description
--help
-h
Displays help
--verbose
-v
Verbose mode, dumps full exception stack
trace.
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178
Long Name
Short
Name
--debug
-d
Debug mode, dumps decoded sync
messages
--port
-p
The port this service listens on
--forwardserver
-fs
The server host to forward requests to
--forwardport
-fp
The server port to forward requests to
--syncversions
-sv
Active sync versions supported
--logpropertyfile
-L
log4j property file, valid only with -l
Description
Appendix B Configuring SPNEGO Single Sign-On
The SPNEGO protocol mechanism can be configured on ZCS for single signon authentication to the Zimbra Web Client.
From ZWC, when users log on to their Intranet through Active Directory, they
can enter their ZWC mailbox without having to re-authenticate to Zimbra.
The ZCS server is configured to redirect users attempting to log on to ZWC to
a URL under SPNEGO protection. The server asks for authentication with
Kerberos through SPNEGO and users are redirected to their ZWC mailbox.
When users log out, they are redirected to a logout URL that displays a
Launch button. When users click Launch, they are directed to the ZWC entry
page.
Note: When users log on to their ZWC accounts from the Internet, the ZWC
log in page displays and they must enter their ZWC password to log
on.
Important: If SPNEGO SSO is enabled on a domain, the browsers must be
configured correctly. See Configure Your Browser. Improperly configured
browsers may pop up a user/pass dialog and if a user enters his correct AD
domain username/password, he can still log into the Zimbra mailbox, and
some browsers may display a “401 Unauthorized” error.
Configuration Process
1. Create the Kerberos keytab file.
•
Create an Active Directory service account. This account is used to
generate the Kerberos keytab file.
•
Add the service Principal Names (SPN) directory property for an Active
Directory service account.
•
Create the keytab file.
2. Enable and configure the SPNEGO protocol on the ZCS server.
3. Configure browsers
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Create the Kerberos Keytab File
An Active Directory service account is created in Domain for each ZCS
mailstore server.
1. Create an Active Directory service account. This is the account used to
generate the Kerberos keytab file that is added to the Zimbra server.
a. Go to the Active Directory Start> Programs>Administrative
Tools>Active Directory Users and Computers console.
b. To create the service account, click the AD Domain name and from the
expanded content right-click Users and select New >User. Complete
the New Object – User dialog.
•
Full name: Enter the user display name for the AC service account.
Recommend that the full name be the ZCS mailbox server name.
Example: mail1
•
User Logon Name: This name is the value that is set for the
zimbraSpnegoAuthTargetName server attribute in LDAP. Write it
down. Example: HTTP/mail1.example.com
•
User Logon Name (pre-Windows2000): This name is used for the –
mapUser parameter in the setspn and ktpass commands.
Example: mail1.
•
Click Next.
c. Enter and confirm the password. This password is used for the –pass
{AD-user-password} parameter in the ktpass command, configured
below.
d. Check Password never expires and User cannot change password, and
click Next.
e. Click Finish to create the user. The service account name displays in
the Users directory.
2. Use the setspn command to map the mailbox server name as the service
Principal Names (SPN) to the user account. The SPN is used in the
process of mutual authentication between the client and the server hosting
a particular service.
a. From the command prompt, type setspn –a {userlogonname}
{serviceaccountname}
Example
setspn –a HTTP/mail1.example.com mail1
b. To verify that the SPN is registered, type
C:\>setspn –l {accountname}
A list of registered SPNs is displayed.
3. Create the keytab file used when signing into the Kerberos domain. Use
the ktpass tool from the Windows Server toolkit to create the Kerberos
keytab.
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Note: A Kerberos keytab file contains a list of keys that are analogous to
user passwords. Restrict and monitor permissions on any keytab
files you create.
The command to type follows:
ktpass -out {keytab-file-to-produce} -princ {Service-Principal-Name}@{thekerberos-realm} -mapUser {AD-user} -mapOp set -pass {AD-user-password} crypto RC4-HMAC-NT -pType KRB5_NT_PRINCIPAL
Ktpass -out
The key is written to this output file.
Enter the directory location and keytab file name. The
keytab file name is jetty.keytab.
For example, C: \Temp\spnego\jetty.keytab
-princ
This is the principal name.
Enter the service Principal Name as used in Step 2 in
Setting up the Microsoft Windows Active Directory Domain
Controller section. For example, HTTP/
mail1.example.com@COMPANY.COM
-mapUser
This maps –princ value to this user account.
Enter the AD service account user name entered in the
User Logon Name (pre-Windows2000) set in Step 1.b in
Setting up the Microsoft Windows Active Directory Domain
Controller section.
-mapOp
This sets the mapping. The value for this parameter is
set
-pass
This is the password to use.
Enter the password entered in the User Logon Name (preWindows2000) set in Step 1.c in Setting up the Microsoft
Windows Active Directory Domain Controller section.
-crypto
This is the cryptosystem to use.
Enter RC4-HMAC-NT
-pType
Enter
KRB5_NT_PRINCIPAL
To avoid warning messages from the toolkit enter this
value.
Example:
ktpass -out C: \Temp\spnego\jetty.keytab -princ HTTP/
mail1.example.com@COMPANY.COM -mapUser mail1 -mapOp set -pass
password123 -crypto RC4-HMAC-NT -pType KRB5_NT_PRINCIPAL
The command is confirmed with something similar to the example below.
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Targeting domain controller: …
Using legacy password setting method
Successfully mapped HTTP/mail1.example.com to mail1.
Key created.
Output keytab to c:\Temp\spnego\jetty.keytab:
Keytab version: 0x502
keysize 71 HTTP HTTP/mail1.example.com@COMPANY.COM
ptype 1 (KRB5_NT_PRINCIPAL) vno3 etype 0x17 (RC4-HMAC)
keylength 16 (0xc383f6a25f1e195d5aef495c980c2bfe)
4. Transfer the keytab file (jetty.keytab) to the Zimbra server. Copy the file
created in step 3 to the following Zimbra server location: /opt/zimbra/data/
mailboxd/spnego/jetty.keytab.
Important: Do not rename the jetty.keytab file. This file name is referenced
from various configuration files.
Repeat steps 1 to 4 to create an create the keytab file (jetty.keytab) for each
Zimbra mailstore server.
Configure ZCS
SPNEGO attributes in Global Config and on each Zimbra server are
configured and pre-authentication is set up for the domain. Use the zmprov
CLI to modify the Zimbra server.
Note: Only one Kerberos REALM is supported per ZCS installation
1. Modify the following global config attributes, with the zmprov mcf
command.
zimbraSpnegoAuthEnabled
Set to TRUE.
zimbraSpnegoAuthErrorURL
This is the URL users are redirected to when
spnego auth fails. Setting it to /zimbra/
?ignoreLoginURL=1 will redirect user to the
regular Zimbra login page, where user will be
prompted for their zimbra user name and
password.
zimbraSpnegoAuthRealm
The Kerberos realm in the domain controller
This is the domain name in the Active Directory.
(COMPANY.COM)
To modify the global config attributes, type:
a. zmprov mcf zimbraSpnegoAuthEnabled TRUE
b. zmprov mcf zimbraSpnegoAuthErrorURL '/zimbra/?ignoreLoginURL=1’
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c. zmprov mcf zimbraSpnegoAuthRealm <COMPANY.COM>
2. On each Zimbra server, modify the following global config attributes with
the zmprov ms command.
zimbraSpnegoAuthTargetName
This is the user logon name from Step 1 B ,
User Logon Name.
zimbraSpnegoAuthPrincipal
Enter the user logon name set in
zimbraSpnegoAuthTargetName and the
address set in global config
zimbraSpnegoAuthRealm
Type as
zimbraSpnegoAuthTargetName@zimbraSpn
egoAuthRealm
For example,
HTTP/mail1.example.com@COMPANY.COM
To modify the server global config attributes, type:
a. zmprov ms mail1.example.com zimbraSpnegoAuthTargetName HTTP/
mail1.example.com
b. zmprov ms mail1.example.com zimbraSpnegoAuthPrincipal HTTP/
mail1.example.com@COMPANY.COM
3. The following is set up on the domain.
•
Kerberos Realm
•
Virtual host
•
Web client login URL and UAs
•
Web client logout URL and UAs
a. Set up Kerberos Realm for the domain. This is the same realm set in
the global config attribute zimbraSpnegoAuthRealm . Type zmprov md
{domain} zimbraAuthKerberos5Realm {kerberosrealm}
b. Set up the virtual hosts for the domain. Virtual-hostname-* are the
hostnames you can browse to for the Zimbra Web Client UI. Type
zmprov md {domain} +zimbraVirtualHostname {virtual-hostname-1}
+zimbraVirtualHostname {virtual-hostname-2} ...
c. Setup the web client log in URL and UAs allowed for the login URL on
the domain.
•
Set the login URL. The login URL is the URL to redirect users to
when the Zimbra auth token is expired. Zmprov md {domain}
zimbraWebClientLoginURL '../service/spnego’
•
Honor only supported platforms and browsers.
zimbraWebClientLoginURLAllowedUA is a multi-valued attribute,
values are regex. If this is not set, all UAs are allowed. If multiple
values are set, an UA is allowed as long as it matches any one of the
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values. zmprov md {domain}
+zimbraWebClientLoginURLAllowedUA {UA-regex-1}
+zimbraWebClientLoginURLAllowedUA {UA-regex-2} ...
For example, to honor zimbraWebClientLoginURL only for Firefox,
Internet Explorer, Chrome, and Safari on computers running Windows,
and Safari on Apple Mac computers, type the following commands.
•
zmprov md {domain} +zimbraWebClientLoginURLAllowedUA
'.*Windows.*Firefox/3.*'
•
zmprov md {domain} +zimbraWebClientLoginURLAllowedUA
'.*MSIE.*Windows.*'
•
zmprov md {domain} +zimbraWebClientLoginURLAllowedUA
'.*Windows.*Chrome.*'
•
zmprov md {domain} +zimbraWebClientLoginURLAllowedUA
'.*Windows.*Safari.*'
•
zmprov md {domain} +zimbraWebClientLoginURLAllowedUA
'.*Macintosh.*Safari.*'
d. Setup the web client logout URL and UAs allowed for the logout URL
on the domain.
•
Set the logout URL. The logout URL is the URL to redirect users to
when users click Logout. Zmprov md {domain}
zimbraWebClientLogoutURL '../?sso=1’
•
Honor only supported platforms and browsers.
zimbraWebClientLogoutURLAllowedUA is a multi-valued attribute,
values are regex. If this is not set, all UAs are allowed. If multiple
values are set, an UA is allowed as long as it matches any one of the
values. zmprov md {domain} +zimbraWebClientLogoutURLAllowedUA
{UA-regex-1} +zimbraWebClientLogoutURLAllowedUA {UA-regex-2}
...
For example, to honor zimbraWebClientLogoutURL only for Firefox,
Internet Explorer, Chrome, and Safari on computers running Windows,
and Safari on Apple Mac computers, type the following commands.
184
•
zmprov md {domain} +zimbraWebClientLogoutURLAllowedUA
'.*Windows.*Firefox/3.*'
•
zmprov md {domain} +zimbraWebClientLogoutURLAllowedUA
'.*MSIE.*Windows.*'
•
zmprov md {domain} +zimbraWebClientLogoutURLAllowedUA
'.*Windows.*Chrome.*'
•
zmprov md {domain} +zimbraWebClientLogoutURLAllowedUA
'.*Windows.*Safari.*'
Configure Your Browser
When the SPNEGO SSO feature is enabled on your domain, user’s browsers
must be configured properly. Improperly configured browsers will behave
differently depending on the browser.
The following browsers are supported:

For computers running Windows: Internet Explorer 6.0 or later, Firefox 3.0
or later, Chrome, Safari

Apple Mac computer: Safari
1. Firefox browser for computers running Windows
a. In Firefox browse to about:config. In the Firefox browser address field,
type about:config. The This might void your warrant warning displays.
b. Click I’ll be careful, I promise!
c. Search in Filters, type network.n. Enter a comma-delimited list of
trusted domains or URLs.
Double-click network.negotiate-auth.delegation-uris. Enter http://,https://
Double-click network.negotiate-auth.trusted-uris. Enter http://,https://
Or, to set specific URLs,
Double-click network.negotiate-auth.delegation-uris. Enter the domain
addresses. For example, http://mail1.example.com,https://
mail2.example.com
Double-click network.negotiate-auth.trusted-uris. Enter the domain
addresses. For example, http://mail1.example.com,https://
mail2.example.com
2. Internet Explorer, Chrome, and Safari for computers running Windows
a. In these browsers, go to Tools>Internet Options>Security > Local
Intranet>Sites. On the Sites dialog make sure all items are checked.
b. Select Advanced. Add the domain server (hostname) URL, both http://
and https://
c. Click OK to close the file.
d. Go to Tools > Options > Advanced > Security. Locate and check Enable
Integrated Windows Authentication.
e. Click OK and close the browser.
3. Safari for Apple Mac computers. No configuration is necessary.
Test your setup
1. On a Windows computer or an Apple Mac computer, log in to the computer
as a domain user.
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Your ticket as a domain user will be saved on the computer. The token will
be picked up by the spnego-aware browser and sent in the Authorization
header to the Zimbra server.
2. Browse to the Zimbra Web Client log on page. You should be redirected to
your ZWC inbox without being prompted for user name and password.
If spnego auth fails, the user is redirected to an error URL.
Troubleshooting setup
Make sure the following are true.

•
The browser is in the Intranet zone.
•
The user is accessing the server using a Hostname rather than IP
address.
•
Integrated Windows authentication in Internet Explorer is enabled, and
the host is trusted in Firefox.
•
The server is not local to the browser.
•
The client’s Kerberos system is authenticated to a domain controller.
If the browser display the "401 Unauthorized", it's most likely that the
browser either did not send another request with Authorization in
response to the 401, or had sent an Authorization which is not using the
GSS-API/SPNEGO scheme.
Check your browser settings, and make sure it is one of the supported
browsers/platforms

If you are redirected to the error URL specified in
zimbraSpnegoAuthErrorURL, that means The SPNEGO authentication
sequence does not work.
Take a network trace, make sure the browser sends Authorization header
in response to the 401. Make sure the Negotiate is using GSS-API/
SPNEGO, not NTLM (use a network packet decoder like Wireshark) .
After verifying that the browser is sending the correct Negotiate, if it still
does not work, turn on the following debug and check Zimbra logs:
•
ADD "-DDEBUG=true -Dsun.security.spnego.debug=all" (note, not
replace) to localconfig key spnego_java_options
•
Add log4j.logger.org.mortbay.log=DEBUG in log4j
Then restart the mailbox server.
Browse to the debug snoop page: http://{server}:{port}/spnego/snoop.jsp.
See if you can access the snoop.jsp
Check zmmailboxd.out and mailox.log for debug output.
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* One of the errors at this stage could be because of clock skew on the
jetty server. If this is the case, it should be shown in zmmailboxd.out. Fix
the clock skew and try again.
Configure Kerberos Auth with SPNEGO Auth
Kerberos auth and SPNEGO can co-exists on a domain. Use case is using
Kerberos as the mechanism for verifying user principal/password against a
KDC, instead of the native Zimbra LDAP, when user cannot get in by
SPNEGO.
When SPNEGO auth fails, users are redirected to the Zimbra sign in page if
the browser is configured properly. Users can enter their Zimbra username
and password on the sign in page to sign in manually. The Domain attribute
zimbraAuthMech controls the mechanism for verifying passwords. If
zimbraAuthMech is set to "kerberos5", The user name the user enters is used
to first identify a valid Zimbra user (users must be provisioned in the Zimbra
LDAP), then from Zimbra user is mapped to a Kerberos principal, the
Kerberos principal + password is then validated against a KDC. This KDC
could be different from, or the same as, the KDC that the Active Directory
domain controller (for SPNEGO auth) is running as.
Note: Every Microsoft Active Directory domain controller acts as Kerberos
KDC. For SPNEGO auth, KDC is not contacted from the mailbox
server. The Kerberos token sent from the Authorization http header
along with jetty's keytab file can identify/authenticate the user.
For kerberos auth (zimbraAuthMech="kerberos5"), the mailbox server needs
to contact KDC to validate principal+password. For the java kerberos client
(i.e. Zimbra mailbox server), the default realm and KDC for the realm is
specify in a Kerberos config file. The location of this config file can be
specified in JVM argument java.security.krb5.conf. If it is not specified, the
default is /etc/krb5.conf. When SPNEGO is enabled in Zimbra,
java.security.krb5.conf for the mailbox server is set to /opt/zimbra/jetty/etc/
krb5.ini. Therefore, that is the effective file for configuring kerberos auth.
/opt/zimbra/jetty/etc/krb5.ini is rewritten from /opt/zimbra/jetty/etc/krb5.ini.in
each time when the mailbox server restarts. To configure, you need to modify
the /opt/zimbra/jetty/etc/krb5.ini.in file, not /opt/zimbra/jetty/etc/krb5.ini.
Under [realms] section, kdc and admin_server are not set for SPNEGO auth,
but they are required for kerberos auth.
To configure:
1. Edit /opt/zimbra/jetty/etc/krb5.ini.in
2. Change:
[realms]
%%zimbraSpnegoAuthRealm%% = {
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default_domain = %%zimbraSpnegoAuthRealm%%
}
to:
%%zimbraSpnegoAuthRealm%% = {
kdc = YOUR-KDC
admin_server = YOUR-ADMIN-SERVER
default_domain = %%zimbraSpnegoAuthRealm%%
}
3. Replace YOUR-KDC and YOUR-ADMIN-SERVER to the hostname on
which the kdc/admin_server for kerberos auth is running.
4. Save the file and restart mailbox server.
The restriction is the realm for SPNEGO and Kerberos auth must be the
same. For SPNEGO auth, the Kerberos principal in the Authorization header
is mapped to a unique Zimbra account. For Kerberos auth, the Zimbra
account is mapped to a unique Kerberos principal. The mapping (by domain
attribute zimbraAuthKerberos5Realm) is the same for both.
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Appendix C ZCS Crontab Jobs
The crontab is used to schedule commands to be executed periodically on the
Zimbra servers.
How to read the crontab
Each entry in a crontab file consists of six fields, specified in the following
order
minute hour day month weekday command
The fields are separated by blank spaces or tabs.
Table 3:
Field
Description
• minute
0 through 59
• hour
0 through 23
• day of month
1 through 31
• month
1 through 12
• day of week
0 through 7 (0 or 7 is Sunday, 1 is Monday,
etc., or use names)
• command
This is the complete sequence of commands
to be executed for the job
When an asterisk (*) is displayed, it means all possible values for the field. For
example, an asterisk in the hour time field would be equivalent to “every hour”
ZCS Cron Jobs
You can view the ZCS crontab by logging on as zimbra and typing crontab -l.
The following cron jobs are scheduled to run for ZCS
Log pruning
The log pruning deletes logs from /opt/zimbra/log that are over eight days old.
The job runs at 2:30 a.m.
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Status logging
zmstatuslog calls zmcontrol status and outputs it data into syslog.
This is primarily so that logger can read the data and keep the administration
console status up-to-date.
Status logging job runs every 2 minutes.
Jobs for crontab.store
Log pruning
The log pruning deletes logs from /opt/zimbra/mailboxd/logs that are over eight
days old. The job runs at 2:30 a.m.
Clean up the quarantine dir
Mail identified with a virus or spam are not dropped immediately, but are put in
quarantine. Messages older than seven days are deleted at 1:00 a.m daily.
Table maintenance
The ANALYZE TABLE statement is run on all tables in the database to update the
statistics for all indexes. This is done to make sure that the MySQL query optimizer picks the correct es when executing SQL statements. This script is run 1:30
a.m.on Sunday.
Report on any database inconsistencies
zmdbintegrityreport is run weekly to check the MySQL database for corruption
and will notify the administrator if any corruption is found. When this is run, it may
consume a significant amount of I/O. If you find that it is an issue, you may want to
change the frequency with which zmdbintegrityreport is run by editing the ZCS
crontab entry. This report runs at 11:00 p.m. Sundays.
Large sites may opt to disable this by setting zmlocalconfig -e zmdbintegrityreport_disabled=TRUE.
If you choose to disable this, it is recommended that the integrity report be run by
hand during the normal maintenance windows and prior to running any ZCS
upgrades.
Monitor for multiple mysqld tp prevent corruption
A script is executed to see if mysqld process is running to detect cases where corruption is likely to be caused. An email is generated if it finds more than 1 mysqld
process running. The script runs every 5 minutes.
Jobs for crontab.logger
process logs
zmlogprocess runs every 10 minutes to parse logs and produce MTA metrics
(as/av, volume, count, etc).
Daily reports
When the logger package is installed, a daily mail report is automatically scheduled in the crontab. The report runs every morning at 11:30 and is sent to the
administrator’s email address.
190
Jobs for crontab.mta
Queue logging
The zmqueue report status via the syslog is reviewed. This is logger data. The
status is updated every 10 minutes.
Spam training
The zmtrainsa script is enabled to feed mail that has been classified as spam or a
non-spam to the SpamAssassin application. SpamAssassin learns what signs are
likely to mean spam or ham. This job should run only on one Zimbra MTA. The job
runs at 11:00 p.m.
Spam training cleanup
zmtrainsa empties the spam and ham mailboxes each day. The job runs at 11:45
p.m.
DSPAM cleanup
This job does not run at this time.
Spam Bayes auto-expiry
Spam bayes auto-expiry maintains the spam-assassin Bayes database.
This keeps the database to manageable size ensuring spam processing
remains as quick as possible. This runs every day at 11:20 p.m.
Clean up amavisd/tmp
This job is used to clean up the amavisd temp files. It runs at 5:15 a.m. and at 8:15
p.m.
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Administrator Guide
Single Server Crontab -l Example
[zimbra@example ~]$ crontab -l
# ZIMBRASTART -- DO NOT EDIT ANYTHING BETWEEN THIS LINE AND ZIMBRAEND
#
# Log pruning
#
30 2 * * * find /opt/zimbra/log/ -type f -name \*.log\* -mtime +8 -exec rm {} \;
> /dev/null 2>&1
35 2 * * * find /opt/zimbra/log/ -type f -name \*.out.???????????? -mtime +8 -ex
ec rm {} \; > /dev/null 2>&1
#
# Status logging
#
*/2 * * * * /opt/zimbra/libexec/zmstatuslog
#
# Backups
#
# BACKUP BEGIN
0 1 * * 6 /opt/zimbra/bin/zmbackup -f
-a all
0 1 * * 0-5 /opt/zimbra/bin/zmbackup -i
0 0 * * * /opt/zimbra/bin/zmbackup -del 1m
# BACKUP END
#
# crontab.ldap
#
#
#
# crontab.store
#
# Log pruning
#
30 2 * * * find /opt/zimbra/mailboxd/logs/ -type f -name \*log\* -mtime +8 -exec
rm {} \; > /dev/null 2>&1
30 2 * * * find /opt/zimbra/log/ -type f -name stacktrace.\* -mtime +8 -exec rm
{} \; > /dev/null 2>&1
#
# Table maintenance
#
30 1 * * 7 /opt/zimbra/libexec/zmmaintaintables >> /dev/null 2>&1
#
# # Report on any database inconsistencies
#
0 23 * * 7 /opt/zimbra/libexec/zmdbintegrityreport -m
#
# Monitor for multiple mysqld to prevent corruption
#
*/5 * * * * /opt/zimbra/libexec/zmcheckduplicatemysqld -e > /dev/null 2>&1
#
192
# crontab.logger
#
# process logs
#
00,10,20,30,40,50 * * * * /opt/zimbra/libexec/zmlogprocess > /tmp/logprocess.out
2>&1
#
# Graph generation
#
10 * * * * /opt/zimbra/libexec/zmgengraphs >> /tmp/gengraphs.out 2>&1
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Administrator Guide
#
# Daily reports
#
10 1 * * * /opt/zimbra/libexec/zmdailyreport -m
#
#
crontab.mta
#
#
# Queue logging
#
0,10,20,30,40,50 * * * * /opt/zimbra/libexec/zmqueuelog
#
# Spam training
#
0 23 * * * /opt/zimbra/bin/zmtrainsa >> /opt/zimbra/log/spamtrain.log 2>&1
#
# Spam training cleanup
#
45 23 * * * /opt/zimbra/bin/zmtrainsa --cleanup >> /opt/zimbra/log/spamtrain.log
2>&1
#
# Dspam cleanup
#
0 1 * * * [ -d /opt/zimbra/data/dspam/data/z/i/zimbra/zimbra.sig ] && find /opt/
zimbra/dspam/var/dspam/data/z/i/zimbra/zimbra.sig/ -type f -name \*sig -mtime +7
-exec rm {} \; > /dev/null 2>&1
8 4 * * * [ -f /opt/zimbra/data/dspam/system.log ] && /opt/zimbra/dspam/bin/dspa
m_logrotate -a 60 -l /opt/zimbra/data/dspam/system.log
8 8 * * * [ -f /opt/zimbra/data/dspam/data/z/i/zimbra/zimbra.log ] && /opt/zimbra
a/dspam/bin/dspam_logrotate -a 60 -l /opt/zimbra/data/dspam/data/z/i/zimbra/zimb
ra.log
#
# Spam Bayes auto-expiry
#
20 23 * * * /opt/zimbra/libexec/sa-learn -p /opt/zimbra/conf/salocal.cf --dbpath
/opt/zimbra/data/amavisd/.spamassassin --siteconfigpath /opt/zimbra/conf/spamas
sassin --force-expire --sync > /dev/null 2>&1
#
# Clean up amavisd/tmp
#
15 5,20 * * * find /opt/zimbra/data/amavisd/tmp -maxdepth 1 -type d -name 'amavi
s-*' -mtime +1 -exec rm -rf {} \; > /dev/null 2>&1
#
# Clean up the quarantine dir
#
0 1 * * * find /opt/zimbra/data/amavisd/quarantine -type f -mtime +7 -exec rm -f
{} \; > /dev/null 2>&1
# ZIMBRAEND -- DO NOT EDIT ANYTHING BETWEEN THIS LINE AND ZIMBRASTART
[zimbra@example ~]$
194
Appendix D Glossary
The Glossary lists terms and acronyms used in this document, and includes
both industry terms and application-specific terms. If a general industry
concept or practice has been implemented in a specific way within the
product, that is noted as well.
A record
A (Address) records map the hostname to the numeric IP address. For zimbra,
the A record is the IP address for the zimbra server.
Account Policy
Class of Service as exposed in Zimbra administration console.
AD
Microsoft Active Directory Server. Used in ZCS as an optional choice for authentication and GAL, along with OpenLDAP for all other ZCS functions.
Alias
An “also known as” email address, which should be routed to a user at a different
email address.
Attribute
Contains object-related data for directory server entries. Attributes store information such as a server host name or email forwarding address.
Authentication
Process by which user-supplied login information is used to validate that user’s
authority to enter a system.
Blacklist
Anti-spam term, indicates a known bad IP address. This could be one that has
been hijacked by spammers, or also one from a poorly maintained but legitimate
site that allows mail relaying from unauthorized parties.
BLOB
Binary Large Object.
Class of Service (COS)
Describes an object in the ZCS LDAP data schema, which contains settings for
things like user mail quotas. Each ZCS account includes a COS, and the account
inherits all the settings from the selected COS.
Zimbra Collaboration Server
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Administrator Guide
CLI
Command-Line Interface. Used to refer to the collective set of ZCS command-line
tools, such as zmprov.
Cluster
A type of network configuration for high availability, using clusters of servers
(nodes). If one server fails or drops off the network, a spare takes over.
Contacts
Within ZCS, Contacts are a user-interface feature listing that user’s personal collection of address and contact information.
Conversation
Within ZCS, Conversations are a user-interface feature that presents email
threads (emails sharing the same subject line) as a single Conversation listing.
Users can expand the Conversation to view all emails within it.
DHTML
Dynamic HTML. A technology employed in the Zimbra Web Client.
DNS
Domain Name System is an Internet directory service. DNS is how domain names
are translated into IP addresses and DNS also controls email delivery. Correctly
configured DNS is required for Postfix to route messages to remote destinations
Edge MTA
Generic term used to refer to any mail transfer agent that is the first line of
defense in handling incoming email traffic. Functions that may occur on the Edge
MTA include spam filtering.
Entry
An item in the directory server, such as an account or mail host.
Failover
Takeover process where a spare server machine detects that a main server is
unavailable, and the spare takes over processing for that server.
FQDN
Fully qualified domain name. The hostname and the path to the host. For example, www.Zimbra.com is a fully qualified domain name. www is the host, Zimbra is
the second-level domain, and .com is the top level domain.
GAL
Global Address List, the Outlook version of a company directory. Lists contact
information, including email addresses, for all employees within an organization.
Global Configuration
A ZCS object containing default settings for servers and Class of Service.
196
High Availability
Abbreviated as HA, high availability refers to the availability of resources in a computer system in the wake of component failures in the system.
HTTP
HyperText Transfer Protocol, used along with SOAP for UI integration.
IMAP
Internet Message Access Protocol is a method of accessing mail from a remote
message store as if the users were local.
Store
Within ZCS, a directory area that stores all the indexing information for mail messages on a particular mailbox server.
Indexing
The process of parsing incoming email messages for search words.
Java
Java is an industry standard object-oriented programming language. Used for the
core ZCS application server.
JavaScript
Scripting largely developed by Netscape that can interact with HTML source code.
Technology used in the Zimbra Web Client.
LDAP
Lightweight Directory Access Protocol, an industry standard protocol used for
authentication.
Zimbra administration console
The ZCS administrator interface.
Zimbra Web Client
The ZCS end-user interface.
LMTP
Local Mail Transfer Protocol, used for transferring messages from Postfix MTA to
the ZCS server for final delivery.
Mailbox Server
Alternative term for ZCS server.
MAPI
Messaging Application Programming Interface. A system built into Microsoft Windows to enable different email applications to work together.
Message Store
Within ZCS, a directory area that stores the mail messages on a particular mailbox server.
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Administrator Guide
MDA
Mail Delivery Agent, sometimes known as a mail host. The ZCS server functions
as an MDA.
Metadata
Data that describes other data, rather than actual content. Within ZCS, metadata
consists of user folders, threads, message titles and tags, and pointers.
MIME
Multipurpose Internet Mail Extensions, a specification for formatting non-ASCII
Internet message content such as image files. Format used to store messages in
Message Store.
MTA
Message Transfer Agent. MTA is a program that delivers mail and transports it
between machines. A ZCS deployment assumes both the Postfix MTA and an
edge MTA.
MX Record
Mail eXchange. An MX record is an entry in a domain name database that identifies the mail server that is responsible for handling emails for that domain name.
The email system relies on DNS MX records to transmit emails between domains.
When mail is processed, the MX record is checked before the A record for the
destination address.
OOTO
Common shorthand for “out of the office”, used when sending vacation messages.
Open Source
Refers to software created by groups of users for non-commercial distribution,
where source code is published rather than proprietary.
OS
Operating system, such as Linux, UNIX, or Microsoft Windows.
POP
Post Office Protocol is used to retrieve email from a remote server over TCP/IP
and save it to the local computer.
Provisioning
The process of creating accounts or other data, usually in batch or automated
fashion.
RBH
Real-time black hole. Usually refers to web sites that, as a public service, provide
lists of known bad IP addresses from which mail should be blocked, because the
servers are either known to be spammers, or are unsecured and exploited by
spammers.
Redo Logs
Detailed transaction log for the . server, used for replay and replication.
198
SAN
Storage Array Network. A high-availability data storage area.
Schema
Describes the data structures in use for by directory services at a particular organizational site.
SMTP
Simple Mail Transfer Protocol. Used in ZCS deployments between the Edge MTA
and the Postfix MTA.
SNMP
Simple Network Monitoring Protocol. Used by monitoring software to pick up critical errors from system logs.
SOAP
Simple Object Access Protocol, an XML-based messaging protocol used for
sending requests for Web services. The ZCS servers use SOAP for receiving and
processing requests, which can come from ZCS command-line tools or ZCS user
interfaces.
Spam
Unsolicited commercial email. Spammers refer to their output as “bulk business
email”.
SQL
Structured Query Language, used to look up messages in the Message Store.
SSL
Secure Sockets Layer.
Tags
A Zimbra Web Client feature. Users can define tags and apply them to mail messages for searching.
TCO
Total Cost of Ownership. ZCS reduces total cost of ownership (TCO) by reducing
requirements for server hardware, OS licensing fees, supporting application
license fees, disk storage requirements, and personnel (IT, help desk, consulting).
TLS
Transport Layer Security.
UCE
Unsolicited commercial email, also known as spam.
Virtual Alias
A type of mail alias recognized in the Postfix MTA.
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Administrator Guide
Whitelist
Anti-spam term for a known good mail or IP address. Mail coming from such an
address may be “automatically trusted”.
XML
eXtended Markup Language.
200
Index
A
automatic purge of messages, setting up
account
deleting 90
account authentication 30
account provisioning, zmprov 146
account quota and MTA 39
account status 89
account, provision with zmprov 154
accounts object 33
accounts, changing status 89
accounts, list all 155
Active Directory Accounts, using with distribution lists 93
active status 89
address book size limit, configuring 103
address book, features 103
addresses, search for 57
admin password, change 155
administrator message of the day 135
administrator password, change 55
alias 90
alias, add with zmprov CLI 154
anti-spam component 12
anti-spam protection 40
anti-spam settings 63
anti-spam statistics 117
anti-spam training filter 77
anti-virus component 12
anti-virus protection 39
anti-virus statistics 117
anti-virus updates 39, 81
application packages, Zimbra 14
appointment reminder 106
appointment reminder popup,
Yahoo!BrowserPlus 106
appointments, disabling editing of 105
audit log 125
authenticate email with DKIM 74
authenticate, DKIM 74
authentication 30
authentication modes 67
authentication, custom 31
autocomplete, name ranking 101
autoCompleteGal, zmprov 152
C
Zimbra Collaboration Server
84
calendar preferences 105
calendar resource provisioning, zmprov 147
calendar sync, zmcalchk 104
calendar, enabling personal appointments
only 104
calendar, nested 104
calender, features 103
certificate
commercial 72
self-signed 72
SSL 72
changing account status 89
Clam AntiVirus software 39
clamd.log 125
clean up amavisd/tmp cron job 191
clean up the quarantine dir cron job 190
CLI auto-grouped backup 156
CLI commands,provisioning 144
CLI commands,start/stop service 159
CLI utilities 139
closed status 89
company directory 33
component thread number 129
components, Zimbra 12
config provisioning, zmprov 150
configuration, typical example 15
contact 9
contact lists 103
corrupt index 133
corrupted mailbox index 133
COS provisioning, zmprov 149
COS, list all 155
COS, search 57
create distribution lists 92
crontab jobs 189
crontab store jobs 190
crontab, how to read 189
crontab.logger cron jobs 190
crontab.mta jobs 191
custom authentication 31
201
D
G
data store 22
about 22
file location 17
deleting accounts 90
dictionary, adding words to ignore in 108
directory structure 17
disk full alerts 118
distribution list
creating 92
enable viewing for Active Directory 93
managed by owners 91
overview 90
subscription policy 91
distribution list provisioning, zmprov 150
distribution list, create with zmprov CLI 154
DKIM 74
DKIM, configure 75
DKIM, configure signing 75
DKIM, remove signing 76
DKIM, removing 76
DKIM, retrieve data 77
DKIM, update data 76
DKIM, update domain 76
domain keys identified mail, using 74
domain provisioning, zmprov 148
domain rename process 69
domain renaming 68
domain status 64
domain, after domain is renamed 68
domain, create with zmprov CLI 155
domain, set default with zmprov CLI 155
domain, SSL certificates 73
domains
authentication modes 67
virtual hosts 68
domains, global address list mode 65
dynamic distribution list
create from admin console 94
create from CLI 96
member url 95
dynamic distribution lists overview 93
GAL 33
LDAP search filter used 33
search parameter settings 34
GAL access for COS 100
GAL attributes 33
GAL mode 65
GALsync accounts, create 66
generateDomainPreAuth, zmprov 153
global settings
anti-spam 63
MTA 61
POP and IMAP 63
group calendar, enabling 104
E
K
edge MTA 38
email alias 90
email messaging, features
Kerberos proxy set up 53
keyboard shortcuts, enable
97
F
forwarding address, hidden
free/busy, zmprov 148
202
98
H
ham mailbox 77
handler exceptions in mailbox log
hidden forwarding address 98
horizontal scalability 11
HTTP proxy 49
http proxy 49
http proxy, setting up 50
129
I
IMAP access 101
IMAP global settings 63
IMAP proxy, setting up 47
incoming mail routing 21
index 133
index messages 14
index store 22
file location 18
index volume 83
index, corrupted 133
index, repair 134
index/search
back-end technologies used 22
indexing 23
internal authentication mechanism 30
100
L
LDAP
directory traffic
hierarchy 26
26
Zimbra Collaboration Server
overview 25
LDAP schema 27
local configuration, CLI 162
localconfig list of properties 162
lockout status 90
log files 23
log files, description of 125
log pruning cron job 189
log, how to read mailbox.log records 129
log4j pre-defined zimbra categories 127
log4j, reload config 126
log4j, used to configure logging 126
logger 116
logger_myslow.log 125
loggers, remove 126
logging levels 126
Lucene 22
M
mail filters 100
mail filters, working with spam check 100
mail identities 99
mail notification 99
mail report, change 118
mailbox log records 129
mailbox log, how to read 129
mailbox quotas, monitoring 123
mailbox server
overview 21
mailbox, reindexing 133
mailbox, view from admin console 90
mailbox, zmprov 151
mailbox.log 125
main.cf file 38
maintenance status 89
mandatory signatures 87
master.cf file 38
message header information 132
message lifetime 84
message of the day for administrators 135
message store 21
file location 18
message volume 83, 117
messages, authenticae with DKIM 74
modes, set with zmtlsctl CLI 166
Monitor for multiple mysqld tp prevent corruption
cron job 190
monitoring quotas 123
monitoring server status 116
monitoring tool 116
MTA settings, how to configure 61
MySQL, database check 134
Zimbra Collaboration Server
N
nested calendars 104
Notification preference
107
O
open source components 12
out of office reply 99
over quota delivery options 122
P
password, admin change 155
password, changing admin 55
pending status 89
performance charts 170
performance statistics 117
persona 99
POP 63
POP proxy, setting up 47
POP3, external access 99
ports, proxy 47
Postfix configuration files 38
process logs cron job 190
product overview 11
protocol, set with CLI 166
provisioning, CLI commands 144
proxy architecture 45
proxy ports 47
proxy, http 49
proxy, Kerberos 53
proxy,http 49
public service host name 63
public service host name, setting up
purge messages 84
purge, setting up 84
65
Q
queue logging cron job 191
quota out of sync 151
quotas, delivery options 122
quotas, monitoring 123
R
recalculate mailbox count command 151
reindex 133
reindexing a mailbox 133
relay host settings 39
rename a domain 68
repair index 134
report on any database inconsistencies cron
job 190
203
report, database inconsistencies
reports, MySQL 134
REST URL 63
190
S
schema, LDAP 27
search 57
search for accounts by COS 57
searchGAL, zmprov 152
server
volume settings 83
server mode, changing 166
server provisioning, zmprov 149
server statistics 117
message count 117
message volume 117
server status 116
service,start/stop 159
signatures, maximum length 99
signatures, system-wide 87
single sign-on using SPNEGO 179
smart host 39
SMS, enable 107
SMTP authentication 38
SMTP restrictions 39
SNMP monitoring 134
SNMP traps, error 134
spam bayes auto-expiry cron job 191
spam mailbox 77
spam message lifetime 84
spam training cleanup cron job 191
spam training cron tab 191
spam training filter 77
spam training, CLI 172
spam white list, for mail filters 100
spam, turning on/off training attributes 78
spamtrain .log 125
spell, adding words to ignore 108
stack traces in mailbox log 129
start service 159
statistics
anti-spam 117
status
active 89
closed 89
locked 89
lockout 90
maintenance 89
pending 89
status logging cron job 190
status, domain 64
stop service 159
subscripton policies for distributio list 91
204
support 9
sync.log 125
syncGAL, zmprov 153
system architecture 12
system architecture graphic
system-wide signatures 87
13
T
Table maintenance cron job 190
tasks feature 106
tgz file, zmmailbox 165
third-party software bundled with
time zone, enabling for Calendar
training filter for spam 77
trashed message lifetime 84
12
104
U
unread message count out of sync 151
updating anti-virus software 39, 81
URL for dynamic distribution list 95
user warning message, navigation from ZCS
108
V
vacation message 99
view mailbox from admin console
virtual host 68
volume settings 83
volumes, managing with CLI 173
90
Z
Zimbra applications 97
zimbra cron jobs 189
Zimbra logger 116
Zimbra monitor host 116
Zimbra MTA 37
Zimbra objects
ldap 28
Zimbra Schema 27
zimbraMailReferMode, use with proxy
zimlet gallery 114
zimlets, listing all 175
zimlets, upgrading 111, 113
zip file, zmmailbox 165
zmconfigd 14
zmdbintegrityreport 190
zmdbintegrityreport disable 190
zmmailbox tgz 165
zmmailbox zip 165
zmprov CLI 144
zmstat-chart 170
52
Zimbra Collaboration Server
zmtrainsa CLI command for spam training
zmtrainsa spam training tool 40, 77
Zimbra Collaboration Server
77
205
Administrator’s Guide
206
Zimbra Collaboration Server
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