instruction manual for fmt-30 fm broadcast transmitter

instruction manual for fmt-30 fm broadcast transmitter
INSTRUCTION MANUAL
FOR
FMT-30
FM BROADCAST TRANSMITTER
JT COMMUNICATIONS
579 N.E. 44TH AVE.
OCALA, FLA. 34470
352-236-0744
)$;
HPDLOVXSSRUW#MWFRPPVFRP
TABLE OF CONTENTS:
1) INTRODUCTION
2) INSTALLATION
3) OPERATION
4) TROUBLESHOOTING
5) SCHEMATIC
6) PC BOARD LAYOUT
7) PARTS LIST
8) SWITCH PROGRAMMING CHART
1)
INTRODUCTION
NOTE- PLEASE READ THE ENTIRE CONTENTS OF THIS INSTRUCTION MANUAL BEFORE INSTALLING THIS UNIT.
IF YOU HAVE ANY QUESTIONS CONCERNING THE OPERATION OR INSTALLATION OF THIS UNIT, PLEASE
CONTACT THE FACTORY.
The FMT-30 FM Broadcast Transmitter will replace older broadcast transmitters that are either unreliable or
unrepairable. Many tube and early-model transmitters are operating beyond modern state-of-the-art standards.
The FMT-30 can replace the older equipment, and will remain acceptable to F.C.C. broadcast standards.
The FMT-30 will operate in the 88-108 mHz range, which is DIP switch programmable. All critical voltages &
currents are monitored by a front-panel LCD display and selector switch. The output can be adjusted/switched
with front panel controls, with a range from 0-30+ watts, into a 50 ohm load. The output is protected against
excessive VSWR with automatic power control. The output is filtered with a 6 pole low-pass filter. Standard
audio input is an unbalanced 600 ohm composite with a factory option 600 ohm 75 uS pre-emphasized input.
The PLFM-100 PC board, is enclosed in a shielded metal boxes, for maximized protection against RF fields.
The FMT-30 is designed to mount in a standard 2-rack unit (3.5”) area.
THEORY OF OPERATION
POWER SUPPLY
A.C. power is applied to J1, a filtered AC line connector. The combination of bridge and input filter capacitors
provide the unregulated DC input for the PA power circuit. PS2 provides the +/- 12V and 5V for the display. A
portion of the unregulated PA power connects to U3 voltage regulator.The components affiliated with Q2
control the lock-up signal which derives from the PLFM-100. Upon loss of lock, or initial power-up, Q1 shorts,
disabling output of U3. U3 drives Q3, which provides regulated voltage to the PA stage. Q3 is mounted on the
PA heatsink. The maximum current flow to the PA stage is also regulated by U3. U1C and D sample the RF
signal from the output VSWR bridge, and the output of the Reflected power sample U1C is routed to U3. The
increase in reflected VSWR will increase the output of U1C; this increase in voltage will reduce the PA voltage
to a safe level. Q1A SCR provides over-voltage protection against power supply over-voltage. When activated,
it will short-circuit, blowing fuse F1. SW1 selects the various metering functions.
OVER TEMPERATURE CONTROL- In the event the internal fans fail to provide sufficient cooling as in a
failure or excessive room temperatire, the FMT-30 contains a thermal sensor which will shut-down the B+ to
the PA control board, disabling any additional heat build-up, until the condition corrects itself. The thermal cutoff is self-resetting and the shut-down temperature is 140 degrees F, and is mounted on the internal heat-sink.
PLFM-100 EXCITER
The PLFM-100 is a phase locked Direct FM Modulated oscillator. Referring to the schematic, Q1 is a low-noise
RF oscillator, tuned by the combination of L1 and varactor CR2. The capacitance of CR2 is biased at 2V for
linearity by the AFC voltage from U2. The modulation and AFC voltage component is connected to CR2. The
RF signal is further buffered and amplified by Q2 & Q3. Q4 is a 3W power transistor operating at minimal
range.
A portion of the RF signal is sampled at the output of Q3, and routed into U1, a divide-by-40 prescaler. The
output of the prescaler is connected into U2, a parallel load PLL. Y1, a 2.56 mHz crystal is internally divided in
the PLL to a low frequency reference. The output (AFC Voltage) is a 2500 Hz pulse, whose duration is
dependent upon the phase difference between the reference and the incoming signal from the prescaler. As Q1
varies slightly in frequency due to temperature and time, the correction voltage also varies directly to the
frequency. The AFC voltage is further filtered and routed to CR2. The characteristics of the loop filter are such
that the modulating audio frequencies have minimal effect on the PLL loop stress. Selection of the DIP switches
changes the binary number of the PLL; this in turn changes the AFC voltage, and the operating frequency. Large
changes in frequency requires L1 to be changed. L1 contains an aluminum slug. The aluminum has a better
characteristic at RF and a lower distortion than ferrite materials. Also the aluminum slug INCREASES in
frequency when the slug is inserted into the coil stock.
POWER AMPLIFIER/ LPF/BRIDGEThe FMT-30 contains a broadband RF amplifier for no-tune operation. The SWR bridge meters output
parameters and high VSWR conditions, and the LPF filters harmonics to an acceptable FCC limit.
2)
INSTALLATION
AC POWER
The FMT-30 is designed to connect to a conventional 120/240 VAC, 50/60 Hz power source. Internal jumpers
on the power supply allow selection between 120 & 240V operation. For 240V operation, remove Blue and Red
jumpers, and move them so that they are next to each other . Be sure to replace AC line fuse with 0.5 amp rating
during 240 VAC operation.
AUDIO CONNECTIONSThe FMT-30 uses an unbalanced composite (flat) and an optional 75 uS pre-emphasis inputs. An operating level
of 0 dB re.0.7Vrms should be sufficient for full deviation. The composite input has an impedance of 500 ohms
resistive and should be connected from a low-impedance composite source. The pre-emphasized input is about
7.5 K resistive, and should also be driven from a low-impedance source. This input is frequency sensitive and
the caution must be observed when using this input. The input connections are located on the terminal block,
pins 7 (low) and 8 (hi).
RF CONNECTION
The FMT-30 is a 50 ohm nominal output impedance. The output circuitry provides protection against high
VSWR by reducing the output to a safe level whenever the impedance deviates from 50 ohms. There is a builtin DC choke for antenna surges(lightning). For absolute protection against excessive antenna surges such as
lightning, etc., It is recommended that a BNC-T connection be attached to the output, and a shorted stub at the
operating frequency be attached at this point. This will provide a DC short. Remember to recalculate the shorted
stub length when changing operating frequency.
REAR PANELAC POWER CONNECTIONA standard IEC filtered power connector provides the connection to the AC line.
A factory-supplied AC power cord is supplied for conventional AC power connection.
REMOTE CONNECTIONS
The FMT-30 contains several connections for remote accessability. All access points are located on REAR
PANEL .
TERMINAL BLOCK TB1
numbered from left to right
1- Ground- Low reference for remote power control wiper low and remote RF control.
2- Voltage Reference- An internal voltage reference for external power control. Connect this lead to the high
side of an external power control potentiometer,
3- Pwr. Control in- Varying this voltage from the reference and ground will control output power remotely
from front panel (NOTE- remove jumper from TB1-2 & 3 to access this feature.
4- Front panel control wiper- This is the wiper voltage from the front panel power control. Factory set to
operate locally, a jumper from pin 2-3 enables this front panel control. Leave this jumper in place for local
control.
5- Front panel control RF activate- This is the signal from the front panel RF-On, which becomes grounded
when activated (on).
6- Remote RF ON- grounding this pin will remotely activate RF carrier. (NOTE-jumper from pin 4-5 allows
local control. Remove jumper to remotely control RF.
7- Audio input low.
8- Audio input high.
DIN JACK REMOTE METERING CONTROL- (IF INSTALLED)
Pin5- Remote PA voltage- scale is 1V/V
Pin4- Remote PA current – scale is 1V/amp
Pin3- Remote Power output- Scale is 10V=30W- 7V=15W- 5V=7.5W ( reading^2 X 0.3)
Pin1- Remote Power shutdown- This signal is derived from an external RF power amp. Its purpose is to reduce
exciter output power when this signal increases above 3V. An example would be high-power VSWR protection
foldback.
NOTE- use TB1- pin6 for ground reference of this jack.
3)
OPERATION
FRONT PANEL CONTROLS
METER SELECT SWITCH
FUNCTION
DESCRIPTION
SCALE
+V
power supply +12V
direct
-V
power supply -12V
direct
AFC
PLL AFC voltage
nominally 2.0
PA V PA voltage
reading *10 (2.13V= 21.3V)
PA I
PA current
direct
Ref F
Relative forward output power
reading^2 * 0.3 10.0 =30W
Ref R
Relative reflected output power
reading is typically under 4.5 for 1.3 VSWR.
RF ON - This supplies B+ to Amplifier board. This control is a logic low to activate.
POWER- adjusts output power. Clockwise increases power from 0 to full output.
A) FREQUENCY SET- COARSE
The FMT-30 has been factory set to your specified frequency. Changing operating frequency requires a nonferrous screwdriver. Remove top cover from the PLFM-100. Locate the enclosed DIP switch setting chart.
You will notice that the binary number for the desired frequency is also the operating frequency (100.0
mHz=1000). First connect output to dummy load, then set the modulated oscillator dip switches to the
corresponding frequency. Set the front panel meter to the “AFC” position. While observing the meter, rotate
L1. If the desired frequency is less than the factory set, rotate the coil counter-clockwise. If the desired
frequency is more than the factory set frequency, rotate the coil clockwise. Continue turning slowly until the
meter reads 2.0. The PLL is now “locked” to the desired frequency. The out of lock LED on the PLFM-100
should also be out. Turn the FMT-30 off, then on,and observe the LED. It will come on, then go out after
approx. 1 second. This verifies that the FMT-30 is phase-locked to the desired frequency. To change the
frequency again, repeat the above procedure. The greater you deviate from the present frequency, the further
you will need to rotate L1. Remember to set the coil so that you obtain 2.0 on the meter. This will keep the
FMT-30 at highest linearity and guarantee optimum lock performance.
PLEASE NOTE- IT WILL BE NECESSARY TO RETUNE THE RF TRIMMER CAPS IF A LARGE
CHANGE FROM THE FACTORY SET FREQUENCY IS REQUIRED. IT IS RECOMMENDED THAT
THIS BE PERFORMED WITH AN EXTERNAL DUMMY ANTENNA/WATTMETER FOR ACCURATE
RESULTS. A SPECTRUM ANALYZER MAY BE UTILIZED FOR
MINIMIZED HARMONIC
ADJUSTMENT. It is recommended that these adjustments be performed by a qualified engineer.
FREQUENCY SET- FINE
This adjustment is located on the PLFM-100 pc board. If it becomes necessary to change the fine (within 5
kHz) frequency, connect a frequency counter (attenuated) to the RF output, and with power control turned
to minimum, rotate the trimmer capacitor located near the reference crystal Y1 until the desired frequency is
obtained. Be sure the counter has been calibrated to a primary frequency standard prior to adjusting.
4)
TROUBLESHOOTING
IF A PROBLEM EXISTS IN THIS UNIT, PLEASE REFER TO THIS CHART.
PROBLEM
SOLUTION(S)
No output / low output
1,9
Unit will not lock (led will not extinguish)
2,3,6,8
Audio distortion
4 ,5
Unit locks randomly
5,6,8
Tuning voltage not at 2.0 V on DVM
2,3,5,6
Tuning voltage jumps from below 2V to above 2V 7
Unit will not lock on desired frequency
2
Unit has low output after changing frequency
9
SOLUTIONS
1)
2)
3)
4)
5)
6)
7)
8)
9)
Check power supply.
Dip switches not properly set, see instructions.
L1 coil out of lock range.
Excessive audio input.
L1 on PLFM-100 assy. at end of lock range.
L1 on PLFM-100 assy. improperly adjusted, see instructions.
Turning L1 on PLFM-100 assy. too rapidly.
Excessive RF, see instructions, or reinstall shields.
PLFM-100 Interstage capacitors not set properly
--NOTICE—
IF YOU CAN NOT FIND SOLUTION TO PROBLEM, CONTACT FACTORY FOR TECHNICAL
ASSISTANCE. WE WILL BE HAPPY TO ASSIST YOU AT NO ADDITIONAL CHARGE (IN or OUT of
warranty).
8) SWITCH PROGRAMMING CHART
WHEN CHANGING FREQUENCY, THE FOLLOWING ITEMS ARE AFFECTED AND MAY REQUIRE AND READJUSTMENT
OF THE FOLLOWING CONTROLS WILL BE NECESSARY WHEN CHANGING FREQUENCY:
plfm-100 assy- trimcaps , TC1, TC2
Use a spectrum analyzer or 200mHz oscilloscope to assure tuning accuracy.
n=not used
PLEASE REFER TO SWITCH LEGEND.
^
NOTE THAT A LOGIC “0” IS CLOSED (ON) ^
AND A LOGIC “1” IS OPEN (OFF)
Pcb edge
11
0 1
0 1
0 1
0 1
0 1
0 1
0 1
0 1
0 1
0 1
0 1
9
1
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8
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7
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6
1
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1
----5
1
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0
dip switch layout
^ nnnnn123
4567891011
^
LSB-----------MSB
^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^
I
<---switch location on diagram above----I
88.0
88.1
0 1 1 0 1 1 1 1 0 1 1
88.2
0 1 1 0 1 1 1 1 1 0 0
88.3
0 1 1 0 1 1 1 1 1 0 1
88.4
0 1 1 0 1 1 1 1 1 1 0
88.5
0 1 1 0 1 1 1 1 1 1 1
88.6
0 1 1 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
88.7
0 1 1 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 1
88.8
0 1 1 1 0 0 0 0 0 1 0
88.9
0 1 1 1 0 0 0 0 0 1 1
89.0
0 1 1 1 0 0 0 0 1 0 0
89.1
89.2
89.3
89.4
89.5
89.6
89.7
89.8
89.9
90.0
0
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90.1
90.2
90.3
90.4
90.5
90.6
90.7
90.8
90.9
91.0
91.1
91.2
91.3
91.4
91.5
91.6
91.7
91.8
91.9
92.0
92.1
92.2
92.3
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92.5
92.6
92.7
92.8
92.9
93.0
93.1
93.2
93.3
93.4
93.5
93.6
93.7
93.8
93.9
94.0
94.1
94.2
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94.4
94.5
94.6
94.7
94.8
94.9
95.0
95.1
95.2
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95.4
95.5
95.6
95.7
95.8
95.9
96.0
96.1
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0
0
0
0
1
1
1
1
0
0
0
0
1
1
1
1
0
0
0
0
1
1
1
1
1
0
0
1
1
0
0
1
1
0
0
1
1
0
0
1
1
0
0
1
1
0
0
1
1
0
0
1
1
0
0
1
1
0
0
1
1
0
0
1
1
0
0
1
1
0
0
1
1
0
0
1
1
0
0
1
1
0
0
1
0
1
0
1
0
1
0
1
0
1
0
1
0
1
0
1
0
1
0
1
0
1
0
1
0
1
0
1
0
1
0
1
0
1
0
1
0
1
0
1
0
1
0
1
0
1
0
1
0
1
0
1
0
1
0
1
0
1
0
1
0
96.2
96.3
96.4
96.5
96.6
96.7
96.8
96.9
97.0
97.1
97.2
97.3
97.4
97.5
97.6
97.7
97.8
97.9
98.0
98.1
98.2
98.3
98.4
98.5
98.6
98.7
98.8
98.9
99.0
99.1
99.2
99.3
99.4
99.5
99.6
99.7
99.8
99.9
100.0
100.1
100.2
100.3
100.4
100.5
100.6
100.7
100.8
100.9
101.0
101.1
101.2
101.3
101.4
101.5
101.6
101.7
101.8
101.9
102.0
102.1
102.2
0
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
1
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
1
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
1
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
1
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
1
1
0
0
0
0
1
1
1
1
0
0
0
0
1
1
1
1
0
0
0
0
1
1
1
1
0
0
0
0
1
1
1
1
0
0
0
0
1
1
1
1
0
0
0
0
1
1
1
1
0
0
0
0
1
1
1
1
0
1
0
0
1
1
0
0
1
1
0
0
1
1
0
0
1
1
0
0
1
1
0
0
1
1
0
0
1
1
0
0
1
1
0
0
1
1
0
0
1
1
0
0
1
1
0
0
1
1
0
0
1
1
0
0
1
1
0
1
0
1
0
1
0
1
0
1
0
1
0
1
0
1
0
1
0
1
0
1
0
1
0
1
0
1
0
1
0
1
0
1
0
1
0
1
0
1
0
1
0
1
0
1
0
1
0
1
0
1
0
1
0
1
0
1
0
102.3
102.4
102.5
102.6
102.7
102.8
102.9
103.0
103.1
103.2
103.3
103.4
103.5
103.6
103.7
103.8
103.9
104.0
104.1
104.2
104.3
104.4
104.5
104.6
104.7
104.8
104.9
105.0
105.1
105.2
105.3
105.4
105.5
105.6
105.7
105.8
105.9
106.0
106.1
106.2
106.3
106.4
106.5
106.6
106.7
106.8
106.9
107.0
107.1
107.2
107.3
107.4
107.5
107.6
107.7
107.8
107.9
108.0
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