ONTAP 9 Data Protection Tape Backup and

ONTAP 9 Data Protection Tape Backup and
ONTAP® 9
Data Protection Tape Backup and
Recovery Guide
January 2017 | 215-11155_C0
doccomments@netapp.com
Updated for ONTAP 9.1
Table of Contents | 3
Contents
Tape backup of FlexVol volumes ................................................................. 8
Performing tape backup and restore of FlexVol volumes ........................................... 8
Use cases for choosing a tape backup engine ............................................................. 9
Where to find information about Infinite Volume tape backup and restore ................ 9
Managing tape drives ................................................................................. 10
Commands for managing tape drives, media changers, and tape drive operations ... 10
Using a nonqualified tape drive ................................................................................. 11
Assigning tape aliases ............................................................................................... 12
Removing tape aliases ............................................................................................... 12
Enabling or disabling tape reservations ..................................................................... 13
Commands for verifying tape library connections .................................................... 13
Understanding tape drives ......................................................................... 15
What qualified tape drives are ................................................................................... 15
Format of the tape configuration file ......................................................................... 15
How the storage system qualifies a new tape drive dynamically .............................. 17
What tape devices are ................................................................................................ 17
Tape device name format ............................................................................... 18
Supported number of simultaneous tape devices .......................................... 19
What tape aliasing is ................................................................................................. 19
What physical path names are ....................................................................... 20
What serial numbers are ................................................................................ 20
Considerations when configuring multipath tape access .......................................... 21
How you add tape drives and libraries to storage systems ........................................ 21
What tape reservations are ........................................................................................ 21
Transferring data using ndmpcopy .......................................................... 23
Options for the ndmpcopy command ........................................................................ 24
Understanding NDMP for FlexVol volumes ............................................. 27
About NDMP modes of operation ............................................................................ 27
What node-scoped NDMP mode is ............................................................... 28
What SVM-scoped NDMP mode is .............................................................. 28
Considerations when using NDMP ........................................................................... 28
What environment variables do ................................................................................. 29
Environment variables supported by Data ONTAP ....................................... 29
Common NDMP tape backup topologies .................................................................. 41
Supported NDMP authentication methods ................................................................ 41
NDMP extensions supported by clustered Data ONTAP .......................................... 42
NDMP restartable backup extension for a dump supported by ONTAP ................... 42
What enhanced DAR functionality is ........................................................................ 42
Scalability limits for NDMP sessions ....................................................................... 42
Managing node-scoped NDMP mode for FlexVol volumes .................... 44
Commands for managing node-scoped NDMP mode ............................................... 44
4 | Data Protection Tape Backup and Recovery Guide
User authentication in a node-scoped NDMP mode ................................................. 45
Managing SVM-scoped NDMP mode for FlexVol volumes .................... 46
Commands for managing SVM-scoped NDMP mode .............................................. 46
What Cluster Aware Backup extension does ............................................................. 47
Availability of volumes and tape devices for backup and restore on different LIF
types ..................................................................................................................... 47
What affinity information is ...................................................................................... 48
NDMP server supports secure control connections in SVM-scoped mode .............. 49
NDMP data connection types .................................................................................... 49
User authentication in the SVM-scoped NDMP mode ............................................. 50
Generating an NDMP-specific password for NDMP users ....................................... 51
How tape backup and restore operations are affected during disaster recovery in
MetroCluster configuration ................................................................................. 51
Understanding dump engine for FlexVol volumes .................................. 52
How a dump backup works ....................................................................................... 52
Types of data that the dump engine backs up ............................................................ 53
What increment chains are ........................................................................................ 54
What the blocking factor is ....................................................................................... 55
When to restart a dump backup ................................................................................. 55
How a dump restore works ........................................................................................ 56
Types of data that the dump engine restores ............................................................. 56
Considerations before restoring data ......................................................................... 57
Scalability limits for dump backup and restore sessions ........................................... 58
Tape backup and restore support between Data ONTAP operating in 7-Mode
and clustered Data ONTAP ................................................................................. 58
Deleting restartable contexts ..................................................................................... 59
How dump works on a SnapVault secondary volume ............................................... 60
How dump works with storage failover and ARL operations ................................... 60
How dump works with volume move ........................................................................ 60
How dump works when a FlexVol volume is full ..................................................... 61
How dump works when volume access type changes ............................................... 61
How dump works with SnapMirror single file or LUN restore ................................ 62
How dump backup and restore operations are affected in MetroCluster
configurations ...................................................................................................... 62
Understanding SMTape engine for FlexVol volumes .............................. 63
Using Snapshot copies during SMTape backup ........................................................ 63
SMTape capabilities .................................................................................................. 64
Features not supported in SMTape ............................................................................ 64
Scalability limits for SMTape backup and restore sessions ...................................... 64
What tape seeding is .................................................................................................. 65
How SMTape works with storage failover and ARL operations ............................... 65
How SMTape works with volume move ................................................................... 66
How SMTape works with volume rehost .................................................................. 66
How NDMP backup policy are affected during ADB ............................................... 66
Table of Contents | 5
How SMTape backup and restore operations are affected in MetroCluster
configurations ...................................................................................................... 67
Monitoring tape backup and restore operations for FlexVol volumes
.................................................................................................................. 68
Accessing the event log files ..................................................................................... 68
What the dump and restore event log message format is .......................................... 68
What logging events are ................................................................................ 69
What dump events are ................................................................................... 69
What restore events are ................................................................................. 70
Enabling or disabling event logging .......................................................................... 70
Error messages for tape backup and restore of FlexVol volumes .......... 71
Backup and restore error messages ........................................................................... 71
Resource limitation: no available thread ....................................................... 71
Tape reservation preempted ........................................................................... 71
Could not initialize media ............................................................................. 71
Maximum number of allowed dumps or restores (maximum session
limit) in progress ...................................................................................... 72
Media error on tape write .............................................................................. 72
Tape write failed ............................................................................................ 72
Tape write failed - new tape encountered media error .................................. 72
Tape write failed - new tape is broken or write protected ............................. 72
Tape write failed - new tape is already at the end of media .......................... 73
Tape write error ............................................................................................. 73
Media error on tape read ............................................................................... 73
Tape read error ............................................................................................... 73
Already at the end of tape ............................................................................. 73
Tape record size is too small. Try a larger size. ............................................ 74
Tape record size should be block_size1 and not block_size2 ....................... 74
Tape record size must be in the range between 4KB and 256KB ................. 74
NDMP error messages .............................................................................................. 74
Network communication error ...................................................................... 74
Message from Read Socket: error_string ...................................................... 75
Message from Write Dirnet: error_string ...................................................... 75
Read Socket received EOF ............................................................................ 75
ndmpd invalid version number: version_number .......................................... 75
ndmpd session session_ID not active ............................................................ 75
Could not obtain vol ref for Volume volume_name ...................................... 76
Data connection type
["NDMP4_ADDR_TCP"|"NDMP4_ADDR_TCP_IPv6"] not
supported for ["IPv6"|"IPv4"] control connections ................................. 76
DATA LISTEN: CAB data connection prepare precondition error .............. 76
DATA CONNECT: CAB data connection prepare precondition error .......... 76
Error:show failed: Cannot get password for user '<username>' .................... 76
Dump error messages ................................................................................................ 77
Destination volume is read-only .................................................................... 77
6 | Data Protection Tape Backup and Recovery Guide
Destination qtree is read-only ....................................................................... 77
Dumps temporarily disabled on volume, try again ....................................... 77
No files were created ..................................................................................... 77
Restore of the file <file name> failed ............................................................ 78
Truncation failed for src inode <inode number>... ........................................ 78
Unable to lock a snapshot needed by dump .................................................. 78
Unable to locate bitmap files ......................................................................... 78
Volume is temporarily in a transitional state ................................................. 78
SMTape error messages ............................................................................................. 79
Chunks out of order ....................................................................................... 79
Chunk format not supported .......................................................................... 79
Failed to allocate memory ............................................................................. 79
Failed to get data buffer ................................................................................. 79
Failed to find snapshot .................................................................................. 79
Failed to create snapshot ............................................................................... 80
Failed to lock snapshot .................................................................................. 80
Failed to delete snapshot ............................................................................... 80
Failed to get latest snapshot .......................................................................... 80
Failed to load new tape .................................................................................. 80
Failed to initialize tape .................................................................................. 81
Failed to initialize restore stream .................................................................. 81
Failed to read backup image .......................................................................... 82
Image header missing or corrupted ............................................................... 82
Internal assertion ........................................................................................... 82
Invalid backup image magic number ............................................................ 82
Invalid backup image checksum ................................................................... 82
Invalid input tape ........................................................................................... 83
Invalid volume path ....................................................................................... 83
Mismatch in backup set ID ............................................................................ 83
Mismatch in backup time stamp .................................................................... 83
Job aborted due to shutdown ......................................................................... 83
Job aborted due to Snapshot autodelete ........................................................ 84
Tape is currently in use by other operations .................................................. 84
Tapes out of order .......................................................................................... 84
Transfer failed (Aborted due to MetroCluster operation) ............................. 84
Transfer failed (ARL initiated abort) ............................................................ 84
Transfer failed (CFO initiated abort) ............................................................. 85
Transfer failed (SFO initiated abort) ............................................................. 85
Underlying aggregate under migration .......................................................... 85
Volume is currently under migration ............................................................. 85
Volume offline ............................................................................................... 85
Volume not restricted .................................................................................... 86
Copyright information ............................................................................... 87
Trademark information ............................................................................. 88
Table of Contents | 7
How to send comments about documentation and receive update
notifications ............................................................................................ 89
Index ............................................................................................................. 90
8
Tape backup of FlexVol volumes
Data ONTAP supports tape backup and restore through Network Data Management Protocol
(NDMP). NDMP allows you to back up data in storage systems directly to tape, resulting in efficient
use of network bandwidth. Clustered Data ONTAP supports both dump and SMTape engines for tape
backup.
You can perform a dump or SMTape backup or restore by using NDMP-compliant backup
applications. Starting with Data ONTAP 8.2, only NDMP version 4 is supported.
Tape backup using dump
Dump is a Snapshot copy based backup in which your file system data is backed up to tape. The Data
ONTAP dump engine backs up files, directories, and the applicable access control list (ACL)
information to tape. You can back up an entire volume, an entire qtree, or a subtree that is not an
entire volume or an entire qtree. Dump supports baseline, differential, and incremental backups.
Tape backup using SMTape
SMTape is a Snapshot copy based disaster recovery solution from Data ONTAP that backs up blocks
of data to tape. You can use SMTape to perform volume backups to tapes. However, you cannot
perform a backup at the qtree or subtree level. SMTape supports baseline, differential, and
incremental backups.
Performing tape backup and restore of FlexVol volumes
You can perform tape backup and restore operations by using an NDMP-enabled backup application.
About this task
The tape backup and restore workflow provides an overview of the tasks that are involved in
performing tape backup and restore operations. For detailed information about performing a backup
and restore operation, see the backup application documentation.
Steps
1. Set up a tape library configuration by choosing an NDMP-supported tape topology.
2. Enable NDMP services on your storage system.
You can enable the NDMP services either at the node level or at the Storage Virtual Machine
(SVM) level. This depends on the NDMP mode in which you choose to perform the tape backup
and restore operation.
3. Use NDMP options to manage NDMP on your storage system.
You can use NDMP options either at the node level or at the SVM level. This depends on the
NDMP mode in which you choose to perform the tape backup and restore operation.
You can modify the NDMP options at the node level by using the system services ndmp
modify command and at the SVM level by using the vserver services ndmp modify
command. For more information about these commands, see the man pages.
4. Perform a tape backup or restore operation by using an NDMP-enabled backup application.
Clustered Data ONTAP supports both dump and SMTape engines for tape backup and restore.
Tape backup of FlexVol volumes | 9
For more information about using the backup application (also called Data Management
Applications or DMAs) to perform backup or restore operations, see your backup application
documentation.
Related concepts
Understanding dump engine for FlexVol volumes on page 52
Related references
Common NDMP tape backup topologies on page 41
Use cases for choosing a tape backup engine
Data ONTAP supports two backup engines: SMTape and dump. You should be aware of the use cases
for the SMTape and dump backup engines to help you choose the backup engine to perform tape
backup and restore operations.
Dump can be used in the following cases:
•
Direct Access Recovery (DAR) of files and directories
•
Backup of a subset of subdirectories or files in a specific path
•
Excluding specific files and directories during backups
•
Preserving backup for long durations
SMTape can be used in the following cases:
•
Disaster recovery solution
•
Preserving deduplication savings and deduplication settings on the backed up data during a
restore operation
•
Backup of large volumes
Where to find information about Infinite Volume tape backup
and restore
Information about tape backup and restore of Infinite Volumes is available in the Clustered Data
ONTAP Infinite Volumes Management Guide.
10
Managing tape drives
You can verify tape library connections and view tape drive information before performing a tape
backup or restore operation. You can use a nonqualified tape drive by emulating this to a qualified
tape drive. You can also assign and remove tape aliases in addition to viewing existing aliases.
When you back up data to tape, the data is stored in tape files. File marks separate the tape files, and
the files have no names. You specify a tape file by its position on the tape. You write a tape file by
using a tape device. When you read the tape file, you must specify a device that has the same
compression type that you used to write that tape file.
Commands for managing tape drives, media changers, and
tape drive operations
There are commands for viewing information about tape drives and media changers in a cluster,
bringing a tape drive online and taking it offline, modifying the tape drive cartridge position, setting
and clearing tape drive alias name, and resetting a tape drive. You can also view and reset tape drive
statistics.
You have to access the nodeshell to use some of the commands listed in the following table. You can
access the nodeshell by using the system node run command.
If you want to...
Use this command...
Bring a tape drive online
storage tape online
Clear an alias name for tape drive or media
changer
storage tape alias clear
Enable or disable a tape trace operation for a
tape drive
storage tape trace
Modify the tape drive cartridge position
storage tape position
Reset a tape drive
storage tape reset
Note: This command is available only at the
advanced privilege level.
Set an alias name for tape drive or media
changer
storage tape alias set
Take a tape drive offline
storage tape offline
View information about all tape drives and
media changers
storage tape show
View information about tape drives attached to
the cluster
•
storage tape show-tape-drive
•
system node hardware tape drive
show
View information about media changers
attached to the cluster
storage tape show-media-changer
View error information about tape drives
attached to the cluster
storage tape show-errors
Managing tape drives | 11
If you want to...
Use this command...
View all Data ONTAP qualified and supported
tape drives attached to each node in the cluster
storage tape show-supported-status
View aliases of all tape drives and media
changers attached to each node in the cluster
storage tape alias show
Reset the statistics reading of a tape drive to
zero
storage stats tape zero tape_name
View tape drives supported by Data ONTAP
storage show tape supported [-v]
You must use this command at the nodeshell.
You must use this command at the nodeshell.
You can use the -v option to view more details
about each tape drive.
View tape device statistics to understand tape
performance and check usage pattern
storage stats tape tape_name
You must use this command at the nodeshell.
For more information about these commands, see the man pages.
Using a nonqualified tape drive
You can use a nonqualified tape drive on a storage system if it can emulate a qualified tape drive. It is
then treated like a qualified tape drive. To use a nonqualified tape drive, you must first determine
whether it emulates any of the qualified tape drives.
About this task
A nonqualified tape drive is one that is attached to the storage system, but not supported or
recognized by Data ONTAP.
Steps
1. View the nonqualified tape drives attached to a storage system by using the storage tape
show-supported-status command.
Example
The following command displays tape drives attached to the storage system and the support and
qualification status of each tape drive. The nonqualified tape drives are also listed.
“tape_drive_vendor_name” is a nonqualified tape drive attached to the storage system, but
not supported by Data ONTAP.
cluster1::> storage tape show-supported-status -node Node1
Node: Node1
Tape Drive
-------------------"tape_drive_vendor_name"
Hewlett-Packard C1533A
Hewlett-Packard C1553A
Hewlett-Packard Ultrium 1
Sony SDX-300C
Sony SDX-500C
StorageTek T9840C
StorageTek T9840D
Tandberg LTO-2 HH
2. Emulate the qualified tape drive.
Is
Supported
--------false
true
true
true
true
true
true
true
true
Support Status
-------------Nonqualified tape drive
Qualified
Qualified
Qualified
Qualified
Qualified
Dynamically Qualified
Dynamically Qualified
Dynamically Qualified
12 | Data Protection Tape Backup and Recovery Guide
NetApp Downloads: Tape Device Configuration Files
Related concepts
What qualified tape drives are on page 15
Assigning tape aliases
For easy device identification, you can assign tape aliases to a tape drive or medium changer. Aliases
provide a correspondence between the logical names of backup devices and a name permanently
assigned to the tape drive or medium changer.
Step
1. Assign an alias to a tape drive or medium changer by using the storage tape alias set
command.
For more information about this command, see the man pages.
You can view the serial number (SN) information about the tape drives by using the system
node hardware tape drive show command and about tape libraries by using the system
node hardware tape library show commands.
Example
The following command sets an alias name to a tape drive with serial number SN[123456]L4
attached to the node, cluster1-01:
cluster-01::> storage tape alias set
mapping SN[123456]L4
-node cluster-01 -name st3 -
Example
The following command sets an alias name to a media changer with serial number SN[65432]
attached to the node, cluster1-01:
cluster-01::> storage tape alias set
mapping SN[65432]
-node cluster-01 -name mc1 -
Related concepts
What tape aliasing is on page 19
Related tasks
Removing tape aliases on page 12
Removing tape aliases
You can remove aliases by using the storage tape alias clear command when persistent
aliases are no longer required for a tape drive or medium changer.
Step
1. Remove an alias from a tape drive or medium changer by using the storage tape alias
clear command.
For more information about this command, see the man pages.
Managing tape drives | 13
Example
The following command removes the aliases of all tape drives by specifying the scope of the alias
clear operation to tape:
cluster-01::>storage tape alias clear -node cluster-01 -clear-scope
tape
After you finish
If you are performing a tape backup or restore operation using NDMP, then after you remove an alias
from a tape drive or medium changer, you must assign a new alias name to the tape drive or medium
changer to continue access to the tape device.
Related concepts
What tape aliasing is on page 19
Related tasks
Assigning tape aliases on page 12
Enabling or disabling tape reservations
You can control how Data ONTAP manages tape device reservations by using the
tape.reservations option. By default, tape reservation is turned off.
About this task
Enabling the tape reservations option can cause problems if tape drives, medium changers, bridges,
or libraries do not work properly. If tape commands report that the device is reserved when no other
storage systems are using the device, this option should be disabled.
Step
1. To use either the SCSI Reserve/Release mechanism or SCSI Persistent Reservations or to disable
tape reservations, enter the following command at the clustershell:
options -option-name tape.reservations -option-value {scsi | persistent
| off}
scsi selects the SCSI Reserve/Release mechanism.
persistent selects SCSI Persistent Reservations.
off disables tape reservations.
Related concepts
What tape reservations are on page 21
Commands for verifying tape library connections
You can view information about the connection path between a storage system and a tape library
configuration attached to the storage system. You can use this information to verify the connection
path to the tape library configuration or for troubleshooting issues related to the connection paths.
You can view the following tape library details to verify the tape library connections after adding or
creating a new tape library, or after restoring a failed path in a single-path or multipath access to a
14 | Data Protection Tape Backup and Recovery Guide
tape library. You can also use this information while troubleshooting path-related errors or if access
to a tape library fails.
•
Node to which the tape library is attached
•
Device ID
•
NDMP path
•
Tape library name
•
Target port and initiator port IDs
•
Single-path or multipath access to a tape library for every target or FC initiator port
•
Path-related data integrity details, such as “Path Errors” and “Path Qual”
•
LUN groups and LUN counts
If you want to...
Use this command...
View information about a tape library in a
cluster
system node hardware tape library show
View path information for a tape library
storage tape library path show
View path information for a tape library for
every initiator port
storage tape library path show-byinitiator
View connectivity information between a
storage tape library and cluster
storage tape library config show
For more information about these commands, see the man pages.
15
Understanding tape drives
You must use a qualified tape drive that has been tested and found to work properly on a storage
system. You can follow tape aliasing and also enable tape reservations to ensure that only one storage
system accesses a tape drive at any particular time.
What qualified tape drives are
A qualified tape drive is a tape drive that has been tested and found to work properly on storage
systems. You can qualify tape drives for existing Data ONTAP releases by using the tape
configuration file.
Related tasks
Using a nonqualified tape drive on page 11
Related references
Commands for managing tape drives, media changers, and tape drive operations on page 10
Commands for verifying tape library connections on page 13
Related information
NetApp: Data Protection - Supported Devices
NetApp Downloads: Tape Device Configuration Files
Format of the tape configuration file
The tape configuration file format consists of fields such as vendor ID, product ID, and details of
compression types for a tape drive. This file also consists of optional fields for enabling the autoload
feature of a tape drive and changing the command timeout values of a tape drive.
The following table displays the format of the tape configuration file:
Item
Size
Description
vendor_id (string)
up to 8
bytes
The vendor ID as reported by the SCSI Inquiry
command.
product_id (string)
up to 16
bytes
The product ID as reported by the SCSI Inquiry
command.
The number of bytes of the product ID to be used for
matching to detect the tape drive to be identified,
beginning with the first character of the product ID in the
Inquiry data.
id_match_size
(number)
vendor_pretty
(string)
up to 16
bytes
If this parameter is present, it is specified by the string
displayed by the command, storage tape show device-names; otherwise, INQ_VENDOR_ID is
displayed.
16 | Data Protection Tape Backup and Recovery Guide
Item
Size
Description
product_pretty
up to 16
bytes
If this parameter is present, it is specified by the string
displayed by the command, storage tape show device-names; otherwise, INQ_PRODUCT_ID is
displayed.
(string)
Note: The vendor_pretty and product_pretty fields are optional, but if one of these fields
has a value, the other must also have a value.
The following table explains the description, density code, and compression algorithm for the various
compression types, such as l, m, h, and a:
Item
Size
Description
{l | m | h |
a}_description=(string)
up to 16 The string to print for the nodeshell
bytes
command, sysconfig -t, that describes
characteristics of the particular density
setting.
{l | m | h | a}_density=(hex
codes)
The density code to be set in the SCSI
mode page block descriptor corresponding
to the desired density code for l, m, h, or a.
{l | m | h | a}_algorithm=(hex
codes)
The compression algorithm to be set in the
SCSI Compression Mode Page
corresponding to the density code and the
desired density characteristic.
The following table describes the optional fields available in the tape configuration file:
Field
Description
autoload=(Boolean
yes/no)
This field is set to yes if the tape drive has an automatic loading
feature; that is, after tape cartridge is inserted, the tape drive becomes
ready without the need to execute a SCSI load (start/stop unit)
command. The default for this field is no.
cmd_timeout_0x
Individual timeout value.
You must use this field only if you want to specify a different timeout
value from the one being used as a default by the tape driver. The
sample file lists the default SCSI command timeout values used by the
tape drive. The timeout value can be expressed in minutes (m),
seconds (s), or milliseconds (ms).
Note: You should change this field only with guidance from
technical support.
You can download and view the tape configuration file from the NetApp Support Site.
Example of a tape configuration file format
The tape configuration file format for the HP LTO5 ULTRIUM tape drive is as follows:
vendor_id="HP"
product_id="Ultrium 5-SCSI"
id_match_size=9
vendor_pretty="Hewlett-Packard"
Understanding tape drives | 17
product_pretty="LTO-5"
l_description="LTO-3(ro)/4 4/800GB"
l_density=0x00
l_algorithm=0x00
m_description="LTO-3(ro)/4 8/1600GB cmp"
m_density=0x00
m_algorithm=0x01
h_description="LTO-5 1600GB"
h_density=0x58
h_algorithm=0x00
a_description="LTO-5 3200GB cmp"
a_density=0x58
a_algorithm=0x01
autoload="yes"
Related information
NetApp Downloads: Tape Device Configuration Files
How the storage system qualifies a new tape drive
dynamically
The storage system qualifies a tape drive dynamically by matching its vendor ID and product ID with
the information contained in the tape qualification table.
When you connect a tape drive to the storage system, it looks for a vendor ID and product ID match
between the information obtained during tape discovery and the information in the internal tape
qualification table. If the storage system discovers a match, it marks the tape drive as qualified and
can access the tape drive. If the storage system cannot find a match, the tape drive remains in the
unqualified state and is not accessed.
What tape devices are
A tape device is a representation of a tape drive. It is a specific combination of rewind type and
compression capability of a tape drive.
A tape device is created for each combination of rewind type and compression capability. Therefore,
a tape drive or tape library can have several tape devices associated with it. You must specify a tape
device to move, write, or read tapes.
When you install a tape drive or tape library on a storage system, Data ONTAP creates tape devices
associated with the tape drive or tape library.
Data ONTAP detects tape drives and tape libraries and assigns logical numbers and tape devices to
them. Data ONTAP detects the Fibre Channel, SAS, and parallel SCSI tape drives and libraries when
they are connected to the interface ports. Data ONTAP detects these drives when their interfaces are
enabled.
18 | Data Protection Tape Backup and Recovery Guide
Tape device name format
Each tape device has an associated name that appears in a defined format. The format includes
information about the type of device, rewind type, alias, and compression type.
The format of a tape device name is as follows:
rewind_type st alias_number compression_type
rewind_type is the rewind type.
The following list describes the various rewind type values:
r
Data ONTAP rewinds the tape after it finishes writing the tape file.
nr
Data ONTAP does not rewind the tape after it finishes writing the tape file. You must use
this rewind type when you want to write multiple tape files on the same tape.
ur
This is the unload/reload rewind type. When you use this rewind type, the tape library
unloads the tape when it reaches the end of a tape file, and then loads the next tape, if
there is one.
You must use this rewind type only under the following circumstances:
•
•
•
The tape drive associated with this device is in a tape library or is in a medium changer
that is in the library mode.
The tape drive associated with this device is attached to a storage system.
Sufficient tapes for the operation that you are performing are available in the library
tape sequence defined for this tape drive.
Note: If you record a tape using a no-rewind device, you must rewind the tape before you read it.
st is the standard designation for a tape drive.
alias_number is the alias that Data ONTAP assigns to the tape drive. When Data ONTAP detects a
new tape drive, Data ONTAP assigns an alias to the tape drive.
compression_type is a drive-specific code for the density of data on the tape and the type of
compression.
The following list describes the various values for compression_type:
a
Highest compression
h
High compression
m
Medium compression
l
Low compression
Examples
nrst0a specifies a no-rewind device on tape drive 0 using the highest compression.
Understanding tape drives | 19
Example of a listing of tape devices
The following example shows the tape devices associated with HP Ultrium 2-SCSI:
Tape drive (fc202_6:2.126L1) HP
rst0l - rewind device,
nrst0l - no rewind device,
urst0l - unload/reload device,
rst0m - rewind device,
nrst0m - no rewind device,
urst0m - unload/reload device,
rst0h - rewind device,
nrst0h - no rewind device,
urst0h - unload/reload device,
rst0a - rewind device,
nrst0a - no rewind device,
urst0a - unload/reload device,
Ultrium
format is:
format is:
format is:
format is:
format is:
format is:
format is:
format is:
format is:
format is:
format is:
format is:
2-SCSI
HP (200GB)
HP (200GB)
HP (200GB)
HP (200GB)
HP (200GB)
HP (200GB)
HP (200GB)
HP (200GB)
HP (200GB)
HP (400GB w/comp)
HP (400GB w/comp)
HP (400GB w/comp)
The following list describes the abbreviations in the preceding example:
•
•
GB—Gigabytes; this is the capacity of the tape.
w/comp—With compression; this shows the tape capacity with compression.
Supported number of simultaneous tape devices
Data ONTAP supports a maximum of 64 simultaneous tape drive connections, 16 medium changers,
and 16 bridge or router devices for each storage system (per node) in any mix of Fibre Channel,
SCSI, or SAS attachments.
Tape drives or medium changers can be devices in physical or virtual tape libraries or stand-alone
devices.
Note: Although a storage system can detect 64 tape drive connections, the maximum number of
backup and restore sessions that can be performed simultaneously depends upon the scalability
limits of the backup engine.
Related concepts
Scalability limits for dump backup and restore sessions on page 58
What tape aliasing is
Aliasing simplifies the process of device identification. Aliasing binds a physical path name (PPN) or
a serial number (SN) of a tape or a medium changer to a persistent, but modifiable alias name.
The following table describes how tape aliasing enables you to ensure that a tape drive (or tape
library or medium changer) is always associated with a single alias name:
Scenario
Reassigning of the alias
When the system reboots
The tape drive is automatically reassigned its previous
alias.
When a tape device moves to another
port
The alias can be adjusted to point to the new address.
When more than one system uses a
particular tape device
The user can set the alias to be the same for all the
systems.
20 | Data Protection Tape Backup and Recovery Guide
Note: When you upgrade from Data ONTAP 8.1.x to Data ONTAP 8.2.x, the tape alias feature of
Data ONTAP 8.2.x modifies the existing tape alias names. In such a case you might have to update
the tape alias names in the backup application.
Assigning tape aliases provides a correspondence between the logical names of backup devices (for
example, st0 or mc1) and a name permanently assigned to a port, a tape drive, or a medium changer.
Note: st0 and st00 are different logical names.
Note: Logical names and serial numbers are used only to access a device. After the device is
accessed, it returns all error messages by using the physical path name.
There are two types of names available for aliasing: physical path name and serial number.
What physical path names are
Physical path names (PPNs) are the numerical address sequences that Data ONTAP assigns to tape
drives and tape libraries based on the SCSI-2/3 adapter or switch (specific location) they are
connected to the storage system. PPNs are also known as electrical names.
PPNs of direct-attached devices use the following format: host_adapter. device_id_lun
Note: The LUN value is displayed only for tape and medium changer devices whose LUN values
are not zero; that is, if the LUN value is zero the lun part of the PPN is not displayed.
For example, the PPN 8.6 indicates that the host adapter number is 8, the device ID is 6, and the
logical unit number (LUN) is 0.
SAS tape devices are also direct-attached devices. For example, the PPN 5c.4 indicates that in a
storage system, the SAS HBA is connected in slot 5, SAS tape is connected to port C of the SAS
HBA, and the device ID is 4.
PPNs of Fibre Channel switch-attached devices use the following format: switch:port_id.
device_id_lun
For example, the PPN MY_SWITCH:5.3L2 indicates that the tape drive connected to port 5 of a
switch called MY_SWITCH is set with device ID 3 and has the LUN 2.
The LUN (logical unit number) is determined by the drive. Fibre Channel, SCSI tape drives and
libraries, and disks have PPNs.
PPNs of tape drives and libraries do not change unless the name of the switch changes, the tape drive
or library moves, or the tape drive or library is reconfigured. PPNs remain unchanged after reboot.
For example, if a tape drive named MY_SWITCH:5.3L2 is removed and a new tape drive with the
same device ID and LUN is connected to port 5 of the switch MY_SWITCH, the new tape drive
would be accessible by using MY_SWITCH:5.3L2.
What serial numbers are
A serial number (SN) is a unique identifier for a tape drive or a medium changer. Starting with Data
ONTAP 8.2, Data ONTAP generates aliases based on SN instead of the WWN.
Since the SN is a unique identifier for a tape drive or a medium changer, the alias remains the same
regardless of the multiple connection paths to the tape drive or medium changer. This helps storage
systems to track the same tape drive or medium changer in a tape library configuration.
The SN of a tape drive or a medium changer does not change even if you rename the Fibre Channel
switch to which the tape drive or medium changer is connected. However, in a tape library if you
replace an existing tape drive with a new one, then Data ONTAP generates new aliases because the
SN of the tape drive changes. Also, if you move an existing tape drive to a new slot in a tape library
or remap the tape drive’s LUN, Data ONTAP generates a new alias for that tape drive.
Attention: You must update the backup applications with the newly generated aliases.
Understanding tape drives | 21
The SN of a tape device uses the following format: SN[xxxxxxxxxx]L[X]
x is an alphanumeric character and LX is the LUN of the tape device. If the LUN is 0, the LX part of
the string is not displayed.
Each SN consists of up to 32 characters; the format for the SN is not case-sensitive.
Considerations when configuring multipath tape access
You can configure two paths from the storage system to access the tape drives in a tape library. If one
path fails, the storage system can use the other paths to access the tape drives without having to
immediately repair the failed path. This ensures that tape operations can be restarted.
You must consider the following when configuring multipath tape access from your storage system:
•
In tape libraries that support LUN mapping, for multipath access to a LUN group, LUN mapping
must be symmetrical on each path.
Tape drives and media changers are assigned to LUN groups (set of LUNs that share the same
initiator path set) in a tape library. All tape drives of a LUN group must be available for backup
and restore operations on all multiple paths.
•
A maximum of two paths can be configured from the storage system to access the tape drives in a
tape library.
•
Multipath tape access supports load balancing. Load balancing is disabled by default.
In the following example, the storage system accesses LUN group 0 through two initiator paths: 0b
and 0d. In both these paths, the LUN group has the same LUN number, 0, and LUN count, 5. The
storage system accesses LUN group 1 through only one initiator path, 3d.
STSW-3070-2_cluster::> storage tape library config show
Node
LUN Group
LUN Count Library Name Library Target Port Initiator
----------------------- ----------- ---------- ------------- -------------------- ----STSW-3070-2_cluster-01
0
5
IBM 3573-TL_1 510a09800000412d
0b
0d
1
2
IBM 3573-TL_2 50050763124b4d6f
3d
3 entries were displayed
For more information, see the man pages.
How you add tape drives and libraries to storage systems
You can add tape drives and libraries to storage system dynamically (without taking the storage
system offline).
When you add a new medium changer, the storage system detects its presence and adds it to the
configuration. If the medium changer is already referenced in the alias information, no new logical
names are created. If the library is not referenced, the storage system creates a new alias for the
medium changer.
In a tape library configuration, you must configure a tape drive or medium changer on LUN 0 of a
target port for Data ONTAP to discover all medium changers and tape drives on that target port.
What tape reservations are
Multiple storage systems can share access to tape drives, medium changers, bridges, or tape libraries.
Tape reservations ensure that only one storage system accesses a device at any particular time by
22 | Data Protection Tape Backup and Recovery Guide
enabling either the SCSI Reserve/Release mechanism or SCSI Persistent Reservations for all tape
drives, medium changers, bridges, and tape libraries.
Note: All the systems that share devices in a library, whether switches are involved or not, must
use the same reservation method.
The SCSI Reserve/Release mechanism for reserving devices works well under normal conditions.
However, during interface error recovery procedures, reservations can be lost. If this occurs, initiators
other than the reserved owner can access the device.
Reservations made with SCSI Persistent Reservations are not affected by error recovery mechanisms,
such as loop reset or target reset; however, not all devices implement SCSI Persistent Reservations
correctly.
23
Transferring data using ndmpcopy
The ndmpcopy command transfers data between storage systems that support NDMP v4. You can
perform both full and incremental data transfers. Incremental transfers are limited to a maximum of
two levels (one full and up to two incremental backups). You can transfer full or partial volumes,
qtrees, directories, or individual files.
About this task
You can run ndmpcopy at the command line of the source and destination storage systems, or a
storage system that is neither the source nor the destination of the data transfer. You can also run
ndmpcopy on a single storage system that is both the source and the destination of the data transfer.
You can use IPv4 or IPv6 addresses of the source and destination storage systems in the ndmpcopy
command. The path format is /vserver_name/volume_name [path].
Steps
1. Enable NDMP service on the source and destination storage systems:
If you are performing data
transfer at the source or
destination in...
Use the following command...
SVM-scoped NDMP mode
vserver services ndmp on
Note: For NDMP authentication in the admin SVM, the user account
is admin and the user role is admin or backup. In the data SVM,
the user account is vsadmin and the user role is vsadmin or
vsadmin-backup role.
Node-scoped NDMP mode
system services ndmp on
2. Transfer data within a storage system or between storage systems using ndmpcopy command at
the nodeshell:
ndmpcopy [options]source_IP:source_path destination_IP:destination_path
[-mcs {inet|inet6}][-mcd {inet|inet6}][-md {inet|inet6}]
Note: DNS names are not supported in ndmpcopy. You must provide the IP address of the
source and the destination. The loopback address (127.0.0.1) is not supported for the source IP
address or the destination IP address.
•
The ndmpcopy command determines the address mode for control connections as follows:
◦
The address mode for control connection corresponds to the IP address provided.
◦
You can override these rules by using the -mcs and -mcd options.
•
If the source or the destination is the clustered Data ONTAP system, then depending on the
NDMP mode (node-scoped or SVM-scoped), use an IP address that allows access to the target
volume.
•
source_path and destination_path are the absolute path names till the granular level of
volume, qtree, directory or file.
•
-mcs specifies the preferred addressing mode for the control connection to the source storage
system.
inet indicates an IPv4 address mode and inet6 indicates an IPv6 address mode.
24 | Data Protection Tape Backup and Recovery Guide
•
-mcd specifies the preferred addressing mode for the control connection to the destination
storage system.
inet indicates an IPv4 address mode and inet6 indicates an IPv6 address mode.
•
-md specifies the preferred addressing mode for data transfers between the source and the
destination storage systems.
inet indicates an IPv4 address mode and inet6 indicates an IPv6 address mode.
If you do not use the -md option in the ndmpcopy command, the addressing mode for the data
connection is determined as follows:
◦
If either of the addresses specified for the control connections is an IPv6 address, the
address mode for the data connection is IPv6.
◦
If both the addresses specified for the control connections are IPv4 addresses, the
ndmpcopy command first attempts an IPv6 address mode for the data connection.
If that fails, the command uses an IPv4 address mode.
Note: An IPv6 address, if specified, must be enclosed within square brackets.
Example
This sample command migrates data from a source path (source_path) to a destination path
(destination_path).
>ndmpcopy -sa admin:<ndmp_password> -da admin:<ndmp_password>
-st md5 -dt md5 192.0.2.129:/<src_svm>/<src_vol> 192.0.2.131:/
<dst_svm>/<dst_vol>
Example
This sample command explicitly sets the control connections and the data connection to use IPv6
address mode:
>ndmpcopy -sa admin:<ndmp_password> -da admin:<ndmp_password> -st md5
-dt md5 -mcs inet6 -mcd inet6 -md
inet6 [2001:0db8:1:1:209:6bff:feae:6d67]:/<src_svm>/<src_vol>
[2001:0ec9:1:1:200:7cgg:gfdf:7e78]:/<dst_svm>/<dst_vol>
Options for the ndmpcopy command
You should understand the options available for the ndmpcopy command to successfully transfer
data.
The following table lists the available options. For more information, see the ndmpcopy man pages
available through the nodeshell.
Transferring data using ndmpcopy | 25
Option
Description
-sa username:[password]
This option sets the source authentication user
name and password for connecting to the source
storage system.
This is a mandatory option.
For a user without admin privilege, you must
specify the user's system-generated NDMPspecific password. The system-generated
password is mandatory for both admin and nonadmin users.
-da username:[password]
This option sets the destination authentication
user name and password for connecting to the
destination storage system.
This is a mandatory option.
-st {md5|text}
This option sets the source authentication type
to be used when connecting to the source
storage system.
This is a mandatory option and therefore the
user should provide either the text or md5
option.
-dt {md5|text}
This option sets the destination authentication
type to be used when connecting to the
destination storage system.
-l
This option sets the dump level used for the
transfer to the specified value of level.
Valid values are 0, 1, to 9, where 0 indicates a
full transfer and 1 to 9 specifies an incremental
transfer. The default is 0.
-i
This option enables the incremental transfer
forever.
It is mandatory to run a base-level ndmpcopy
using the -l option with the 0 value before
doing the first incremental transfer using the -i
option.
-d
This option enables generation of ndmpcopy
debug log messages.
The ndmpcopy debug log files are located in
the /mroot/etc/log root volume. The
ndmpcopy debug log file names are in the
ndmpcopy.yyyymmdd format.
-f
This option enables the forced mode.
This mode enables system files to be
overwritten in the /etc directory on the root of
the 7-Mode volume.
-h
This option prints the help message.
26 | Data Protection Tape Backup and Recovery Guide
Option
Description
-p
This option prompts you to enter the password
for source and destination authorization.
This password overrides the password specified
for -sa and -da options.
Note: You can use this option only when the
command is running in an interactive
console.
-exclude
This option excludes specified files or
directories from the path specified for data
transfer.
The value can be a comma-separated list of
directory or file names such as *.pst or
*.txt.
27
Understanding NDMP for FlexVol volumes
The Network Data Management Protocol (NDMP) is a standardized protocol for controlling backup,
recovery, and other types of data transfer between primary and secondary storage devices, such as
storage systems and tape libraries.
By enabling NDMP support on a storage system, you enable that storage system to communicate
with NDMP-enabled network-attached backup applications (also called Data Management
Applications or DMAs), data servers, and tape servers participating in backup or recovery operations.
All network communications occur over TCPIP or TCP/IPv6 network. NDMP also provides lowlevel control of tape drives and medium changers.
Starting with Data ONTAP 8.2, you can perform tape backup and restore operations in either nodescoped NDMP mode or Storage Virtual Machine (SVM) scoped NDMP mode.
You must be aware of the considerations that you have to take into account while using NDMP, list of
environment variables, and supported NDMP tape backup topologies. You can also enable or disable
the enhanced DAR functionality. The two authentication methods supported by Data ONTAP for
authenticating NDMP access to a storage system are: plaintext and challenge.
NDMP does not support backup and restore of Infinite Volumes.
Related concepts
Environment variables supported by Data ONTAP on page 29
About NDMP modes of operation
Starting with Data ONTAP 8.2, you can choose to perform tape backup and restore operations either
at the node level as you have been doing until now or at the Storage Virtual Machine (SVM) level. To
perform these operations successfully at the SVM level, NDMP service must be enabled on the
SVM.
If you upgrade from Data ONTAP 8.2 to Data ONTAP 8.3, the NDMP mode of operation used in 8.2
will continue to be retained post the upgrade from 8.2 to 8.3.
If you install a new cluster with Data ONTAP 8.2 or later, NDMP is in the SVM-scoped NDMP
mode by default. To perform tape backup and restore operations in the node-scoped NDMP mode,
you must explicitly enable the node-scoped NDMP mode.
Related concepts
Managing node-scoped NDMP mode for FlexVol volumes on page 44
Managing SVM-scoped NDMP mode for FlexVol volumes on page 46
Related references
Commands for managing node-scoped NDMP mode on page 44
28 | Data Protection Tape Backup and Recovery Guide
What node-scoped NDMP mode is
In the node-scoped NDMP mode, you can perform tape backup and restore operations at the node
level. The NDMP mode of operation used in Data ONTAP 8.2 will continue to be retained post the
upgrade from 8.2 to 8.3.
In the node-scoped NDMP mode, you can perform tape backup and restore operations on a node that
owns the volume. To perform these operations, you must establish NDMP control connections on a
LIF hosted on the node that owns the volume or tape devices.
Note: This mode is deprecated and will be removed in a future major release.
Related concepts
Managing node-scoped NDMP mode for FlexVol volumes on page 44
What SVM-scoped NDMP mode is
Starting with Data ONTAP 8.2, you can perform tape backup and restore operations at the Storage
Virtual Machine (SVM) level successfully if the NDMP service is enabled on the SVM. You can
back up and restore all volumes hosted across different nodes in the SVM of a cluster if the backup
application supports the CAB extension.
An NDMP control connection can be established on different LIF types. In the SVM-scoped NDMP
mode, these LIFs belong to either the data SVM or admin SVM. The connection can be established
on a LIF only if the NDMP service is enabled on the SVM that owns this LIF.
A data LIF belongs to the data SVM and the intercluster LIF, node-management LIF, and clustermanagement LIF belong to the admin SVM.
In the SVM-scoped NDMP mode, the availability of volumes and tape devices for backup and restore
operations depends on the LIF type on which the NDMP control connection is established and the
status of the CAB extension. If your backup application supports the CAB extension and a volume
and the tape device share the same affinity, then the backup application can perform a local backup or
restore operation, instead of a three-way backup or restore operation.
Related concepts
Managing SVM-scoped NDMP mode for FlexVol volumes on page 46
Considerations when using NDMP
You must take into account a number of considerations when starting the NDMP service on your
storage system.
•
•
Each node supports a maximum of 16 concurrent backups, restores, or combination of the two
using connected tape drives.
NDMP services can generate file history data at the request of NDMP backup applications.
File history is used by backup applications to enable optimized recovery of selected subsets of
data from a backup image. File history generation and processing might be time-consuming and
CPU-intensive for both the storage system and the backup application.
Note: SMTape does not support file history.
•
If your data protection is configured for disaster recovery—where the entire backup image will be
recovered—you can disable file history generation to reduce backup time. See your backup
application documentation to determine whether it is possible to disable NDMP file history
generation.
Firewall policy for NDMP is enabled by default on all LIF types.
Understanding NDMP for FlexVol volumes | 29
•
•
•
•
•
•
In node-scoped NDMP mode, backing up a FlexVol volume requires that you use the backup
application to initiate a backup on a node that owns the volume.
However, you cannot back up a node root volume.
You can perform NDMP backup from any LIF as permitted by the firewall policies.
If you use a data LIF, you must select a LIF that is not configured for failover. If a data LIF fails
over during an NDMP operation, the NDMP operation fails and must be run again.
In node-scoped NDMP mode and Storage Virtual Machine (SVM) scoped NDMP mode with no
CAB extension support, the NDMP data connection uses the same LIF as the NDMP control
connection.
During LIF migration, ongoing backup and restore operations are disrupted.
You must initiate the backup and restore operations after the LIF migration.
The NDMP backup path is of the format /vserver_name/volume_name/path_name.
path_name is optional, and specifies the path of the directory, file, or Snapshot copy.
When a SnapMirror destination is backed up to tape by using the dump engine, only the data in
the volume is backed up.
However, if a SnapMirror destination is backed up to tape using SMTape, then the metadata is
also backed up. The SnapMirror relationships and the associated metadata are not backed up to
tape. Therefore, during restore, only the data on that volume is restored, but the associated
SnapMirror relationships are not restored.
Related concepts
What Cluster Aware Backup extension does on page 47
Related information
ONTAP concepts
System administration
What environment variables do
Environment variables are used to communicate information about a backup or restore operation
between an NDMP-enabled backup application and a storage system.
For example, if a user specifies that a backup application should back up /vserver1/vol1/dir1,
the backup application sets the FILESYSTEM environment variable to /vserver1/vol1/dir1.
Similarly, if a user specifies that a backup should be a level 1 backup, the backup application sets the
LEVEL environment variable to 1 (one).
Note: The setting and examining of environment variables are typically transparent to backup
administrators; that is, the backup application sets them automatically.
A backup administrator rarely specifies environment variables; however, you might want to change
the value of an environment variable from that set by the backup application to characterize or work
around a functional or performance problem. For example, an administrator might want to
temporarily disable file history generation to determine if the backup application's processing of file
history information is contributing to performance issues or functional problems.
Many backup applications provide a means to override or modify environment variables or to specify
additional environment variables. For information, see your backup application documentation.
Environment variables supported by Data ONTAP
Environment variables are used to communicate information about a backup or restore operation
between an NDMP-enabled backup application and a storage system. Data ONTAP supports
30 | Data Protection Tape Backup and Recovery Guide
environment variables, which have an associated default value. However, you can manually modify
these default values.
If you manually modify the values set by the backup application, the application might behave
unpredictably. This is because the backup or restore operations might not be doing what the backup
application expected them to do. But in some cases, judicious modification might help in identifying
or working around problems.
The following tables list the environment variables whose behavior is common to dump and SMTape
and those variables that are supported only for dump and SMTape. These tables also contain
descriptions of how the environment variables that are supported by Data ONTAP work if they are
used:
Note: In most cases, variables that have the value, Y also accept T and N also accept F.
Environment variables supported for dump and SMTape
Environment variable
Valid values
Default Description
DEBUG
Y or N
N
Specifies that debugging information
is printed.
FILESYSTEM
string
none
Specifies the path name of the root of
the data that is being backed up.
NDMP_VERSION
return_only
none
You should not modify the
NDMP_VERSION variable. Created
by the backup operation, the
NDMP_VERSION variable returns
the NDMP version.
Data ONTAP sets the
NDMP_VERSION variable during a
backup for internal use and to pass to
a backup application for informational
purposes. The NDMP version of an
NDMP session is not set with this
variable.
PATHNAME_SEPARATOR return_value
none
Specifies the path name separator
character.
This character depends on the file
system being backed up. For Data
ONTAP, the character “/” is assigned
to this variable. The NDMP server sets
this variable before starting a tape
backup operation.
TYPE
dump or smtape
dump
Specifies the type of backup supported
to perform tape backup and restore
operations.
VERBOSE
Y or N
N
Increases the log messages while
performing a tape backup or restore
operation.
Understanding NDMP for FlexVol volumes | 31
Environment variables supported for dump
Environment variable
Valid values
Default Description
ACL_START
return_only
none
Created by the backup operation,
the ACL_START variable is an
offset value used by a direct access
restore or restartable NDMP backup
operation.
The offset value is the byte offset in
the dump file where the ACL data
(Pass V) begins and is returned at
the end of a backup. For a direct
access restore operation to correctly
restore backed-up data, the
ACL_START value must be passed
to the restore operation when it
begins. An NDMP restartable
backup operation uses the
ACL_START value to communicate
to the backup application where the
nonrestartable portion of the backup
stream begins.
BASE_DATE
0, -1, or
DUMP_DATE value
-1
Specifies the start date for
incremental backups.
When set to -1, the BASE_DATE
incremental specifier is disabled.
When set to 0 on a level 0 backup,
incremental backups are enabled.
After the initial backup, the value of
the DUMP_DATE variable from the
previous incremental backup is
assigned to the BASE_DATE
variable.
These variables are an alternative to
the LEVEL/UPDATE based
incremental backups.
DIRECT
Y or N
N
Specifies that a restore should fastforward directly to the location on
the tape where the file data resides
instead of scanning the entire tape.
For direct access recovery to work,
the backup application must provide
positioning information. If this
variable is set to Y, the backup
application specifies the file or
directory names and the positioning
information.
32 | Data Protection Tape Backup and Recovery Guide
Environment variable
Valid values
Default Description
DMP_NAME
string
none
Specifies the name for a multiple
subtree backup.
This variable is mandatory for
multiple subtree backups.
DUMP_DATE
return_value
none
You do not change this variable
directly. It is created by the backup
if the BASE_DATE variable is set
to a value other than -1.
The DUMP_DATE variable is
derived by prepending the 32-bit
level value to a 32-bit time value
computed by the dump software.
The level is incremented from the
last level value passed into the
BASE_DATE variable. The
resulting value is used as the
BASE_DATE value on a subsequent
incremental backup.
ENHANCED_DAR_ENABLED Y or N
N
Specifies whether enhanced DAR
functionality is enabled.
Enhanced DAR functionality
supports directory DAR and DAR
of files with NT Streams. It
provides performance
improvements.
Enhanced DAR during restore is
possible only if the following
conditions are met:
•
•
•
Data ONTAP 8.0 or later
supports enhanced DAR.
File history is enabled
(HIST=Y) during the backup.
The
ndmpd.offset_map.enable
option is set to on.
•
ENHANCED_DAR_ENABLED
variable is set to Y during
restore.
Understanding NDMP for FlexVol volumes | 33
Environment variable
Valid values
Default Description
EXCLUDE
pattern_string
none
Specifies files or directories that are
excluded when backing up data.
The exclude list is a commaseparated list of file or directory
names. If the name of a file or
directory matches one of the names
in the list, it is excluded from the
backup.
The following rules apply while
specifying names in the exclude list:
•
•
•
•
The exact name of the file or
directory must be used.
The asterisk (*), a wildcard
character, must be either the first
or the last character of the string.
Each string can have up to two
asterisks.
A comma in a file or directory
name must be preceded with a
backslash.
The exclude list can contain up
to 32 names.
Note: Files or directories
specified to be excluded for
backup are not excluded if you
set NON_QUOTA_TREE to Y
simultaneously.
EXTRACT
Y, N, or E
N
Specifies that subtrees of a backedup data set are to be restored.
The backup application specifies the
names of the subtrees to be
extracted. If a file specified matches
a directory whose contents were
backed up, the directory is
recursively extracted.
To rename a file, directory, or qtree
during restore without using DAR,
you must set the EXTRACT
environment variable to E.
EXTRACT_ACL
Y or N
Y
Specifies that ACLs from the
backed up file are restored on a
restore operation.
The default is to restore ACLs when
restoring data, except for DARs
(DIRECT=Y).
34 | Data Protection Tape Backup and Recovery Guide
Environment variable
Valid values
Default Description
FORCE
Y or N
N
Determines if the restore operation
must check for volume space and
inode availability on the destination
volume.
Setting this variable to Y causes the
restore operation to skip checks for
volume space and inode availability
on the destination path.
If enough volume space or inodes
are not available on the destination
volume, the restore operation
recovers as much data allowed by
the destination volume space and
inode availability. The restore
operation stops when volume space
or inodes are not available.
HIST
Y or N
N
Specifies that file history
information is sent to the backup
application.
Most commercial backup
applications set the HIST variable to
Y. If you want to increase the speed
of a backup operation, or you want
to troubleshoot a problem with the
file history collection, you can set
this variable to N.
Note: You should not set the
HIST variable to Y if the backup
application does not support file
history.
Understanding NDMP for FlexVol volumes | 35
Environment variable
Valid values
Default Description
IGNORE_CTIME
Y or N
N
Specifies that a file is not
incrementally backed up if only its
ctime value has changed since the
previous incremental backup.
Some applications, such as virus
scanning software, change the ctime
value of a file within the inode, even
though the file or its attributes have
not changed. As a result, an
incremental backup might back up
files that have not changed. The
IGNORE_CTIME variable should be
specified only if incremental
backups are taking an unacceptable
amount of time or space because the
ctime value was modified.
Note: The NDMP dump command
sets IGNORE_CTIME to false by
default. Setting it to true can
result in the following data loss:
1. If IGNORE_CTIME is set to
true with a volume level
incremental ndmpcopy, it
results in the deleting of files,
which are moved across
qtrees on source.
2. If IGNORE_CTIME is set
totrue during a volume level
incremental dump, it results in
the deleting of files, which are
moved across qtrees on source
during incremental restore.
To avoid this problem,
IGNORE_CTIME must be set to
false during volume level NDMP
dumps or ndmpcopy.
IGNORE_QTREES
Y or N
N
Specifies that the restore operation
does not restore qtree information
from backed-up qtrees.
36 | Data Protection Tape Backup and Recovery Guide
Environment variable
Valid values
Default Description
LEVEL
0-31
0
Specifies the backup level.
Level 0 copies the entire data set.
Incremental backup levels, specified
by values above 0, copy all files
(new or modified) since the last
incremental backup. For example, a
level 1 backs up new or modified
files since the level 0 backup, a
level 2 backs up new or modified
files since the level 1 backup, and so
on.
LIST
Y or N
N
Lists the backed-up file names and
inode numbers without actually
restoring the data.
LIST_QTREES
Y or N
N
Lists the backed-up qtrees without
actually restoring the data.
MULTI_SUBTREE_ NAMES
string
none
Specifies that the backup is a
multiple subtree backup.
Multiple subtrees are specified in
the string, which is a newlineseparated, null-terminated list of
subtree names. Subtrees are
specified by path names relative to
their common root directory, which
must be specified as the last element
of the list.
If you use this variable, you must
also use the DMP_NAME variable.
NDMP_UNICODE_ FH
Y or N
N
Specifies that a Unicode name is
included in addition to the NFS
name of the file in the file history
information.
This option is not used by most
backup applications and should not
be set unless the backup application
is designed to receive these
additional file names. The HIST
variable must also be set.
NO_ACLS
Y or N
N
Specifies that ACLs must not be
copied when backing up data.
Understanding NDMP for FlexVol volumes | 37
Environment variable
Valid values
Default Description
NON_QUOTA_TREE
Y or N
N
Specifies that files and directories in
qtrees must be ignored when
backing up data.
When set to Y, items in qtrees in the
data set specified by the
FILESYSTEM variable are not
backed up. This variable has an
effect only if the FILESYSTEM
variable specifies an entire volume.
The NON_QUOTA_TREE variable
only works on a level 0 backup and
does not work if the
MULTI_SUBTREE_NAMES
variable is specified.
Note: Files or directories
specified to be excluded for
backup are not excluded if you
set NON_QUOTA_TREE to Y
simultaneously.
NOWRITE
Y or N
N
Specifies that the restore operation
must not write data to the disk.
This variable is used for debugging.
38 | Data Protection Tape Backup and Recovery Guide
Environment variable
Valid values
Default Description
RECURSIVE
Y or N
Y
Specifies that directory entries
during a DAR restore be expanded.
The DIRECT and
ENHANCED_DAR_ENABLED
environment variables must be
enabled (set to Y) as well. If the
RECURSIVE variable is disabled
(set to N), only the permissions and
ACLs for all the directories in the
original source path are restored
from tape, not the contents of the
directories. If the RECURSIVE
variable is set to N or the
RECOVER_FULL_PATHS variable
is set to Y, the recovery path must
end with the original path.
Note: If the RECURSIVE
variable is disabled and if there is
more than one recovery path, all
of the recovery paths must be
contained within the longest of
the recovery paths. Otherwise, an
error message is displayed.
For example, the following are valid
recovery paths because all of the
recovery paths are within foo/
dir1/deepdir/myfile:
•
•
•
•
/foo
/foo/dir
/foo/dir1/deepdir
/foo/dir1/deepdir/myfile
The following are invalid recovery
paths:
•
•
•
•
•
/foo
/foo/dir
/foo/dir1/myfile
/foo/dir2
/foo/dir2/myfile
Understanding NDMP for FlexVol volumes | 39
Environment variable
Valid values
Default Description
RECOVER_FULL_PATHS
Y or N
N
Specifies that the full recovery path
will have their permissions and
ACLs restored after the DAR.
DIRECT and
ENHANCED_DAR_ENABLED
must be enabled (set to Y) as well. If
RECOVER_FULL_PATHS is set to
Y, the recovery path must end with
the original path. If directories
already exist on the destination
volume, their permissions and
ACLs will not be restored from
tape.
UPDATE
Y or N
Y
Updates the metadata information to
enable LEVEL based incremental
backup.
Environment variables supported for SMTape
Environment variable
Valid values
Default
Description
BASE_DATE
DUMP_DATE
-1
Specifies the start date for
incremental backups.
BASE_DATE is a string
representation of the reference
Snapshot identifiers. Using the
BASE_DATE string, SMTape
locates the reference Snapshot
copy.
BASE_DATE is not required for
baseline backups. For an
incremental backup, the value of
the DUMP_DATE variable from the
previous baseline or incremental
backup is assigned to the
BASE_DATE variable.
The backup application assigns
the DUMP_DATE value from a
previous SMTape baseline or
incremental backup.
40 | Data Protection Tape Backup and Recovery Guide
Environment variable
Valid values
Default
Description
DUMP_DATE
return_value
none
At the end of an SMTape backup,
DUMP_DATE contains a string
identifier that identifies the
Snapshot copy used for that
backup. This Snapshot copy
could be used as the reference
Snapshot copy for a subsequent
incremental backup.
The resulting value of
DUMP_DATE is used as the
BASE_DATE value for
subsequent incremental backups.
SMTAPE_BACKUP_SET_ID
string
none
Identifies the sequence of
incremental backups associated
with the baseline backup.
Backup set ID is a 128-bit unique
ID that is generated during a
baseline backup. The backup
application assigns this ID as the
input to the
SMTAPE_BACKUP_SET_ID
variable during an incremental
backup.
SMTAPE_SNAPSHOT_NAME
Any valid
Snapshot copy
that is available
in the volume
Invalid
When the
SMTAPE_SNAPSHOT_NAME
variable is set to a Snapshot copy,
that Snapshot copy and its older
Snapshot copies are backed up to
tape.
For incremental backup, this
variable specifies incremental
Snapshot copy. The BASE_DATE
variable provides the baseline
Snapshot copy.
SMTAPE_DELETE_SNAPSHOT Y or N
N
For a Snapshot copy created
automatically by SMTape, when
the
SMTAPE_DELETE_SNAPSHOT
variable is set to Y, then after the
backup operation is complete,
SMTape deletes this Snapshot
copy. However, a Snapshot copy
created by the backup application
will not be deleted.
Understanding NDMP for FlexVol volumes | 41
Environment variable
Valid values
Default
Description
SMTAPE_BREAK_MIRROR
Y or N
N
When the
SMTAPE_BREAK_MIRROR
variable is set to Y, the volume of
type DP is changed to a RW
volume after a successful restore.
Common NDMP tape backup topologies
NDMP supports a number of topologies and configurations between backup applications and storage
systems or other NDMP servers providing data (file systems) and tape services.
Storage system-to-local-tape
In the simplest configuration, a backup application backs up data from a storage system to a tape
subsystem attached to the storage system. The NDMP control connection exists across the network
boundary. The NDMP data connection that exists within the storage system between the data and
tape services is called an NDMP local configuration.
Storage system-to-tape attached to another storage system
A backup application can also back up data from a storage system to a tape library (a medium
changer with one or more tape drives) attached to another storage system. In this case, the NDMP
data connection between the data and tape services is provided by a TCP or TCP/IPv6 network
connection. This is called an NDMP three-way storage system-to-storage system configuration.
Storage system-to-network-attached tape library
NDMP-enabled tape libraries provide a variation of the three-way configuration. In this case, the tape
library attaches directly to the TCP/IP network and communicates with the backup application and
the storage system through an internal NDMP server.
Storage system-to-data server-to-tape or data server-to-storage system-to-tape
NDMP also supports storage system-to-data-server and data-server-to-storage system three-way
configurations, although these variants are less widely deployed. Storage system-to-server allows
storage system data to be backed up to a tape library attached to the backup application host or to
another data server system. The server-to-storage system configuration allows server data to be
backed up to a storage system-attached tape library.
Supported NDMP authentication methods
You can specify an authentication method to allow NDMP connection requests. Data ONTAP
supports two methods for authenticating NDMP access to a storage system: plaintext and challenge.
In node-scoped NDMP mode, both challenge and plaintext are enabled by default. However, you
cannot disable challenge. You can enable and disable plaintext. In the plaintext authentication
method, the login password is transmitted as clear text.
In the Storage Virtual Machine (SVM)-scoped NDMP mode, by default the authentication method is
challenge. Unlike the node-scoped NDMP mode, in this mode you can enable and disable both
plaintext and challenge authentication methods.
42 | Data Protection Tape Backup and Recovery Guide
Related concepts
User authentication in a node-scoped NDMP mode on page 45
User authentication in the SVM-scoped NDMP mode on page 50
NDMP extensions supported by clustered Data ONTAP
NDMP v4 provides a mechanism for creating NDMP v4 protocol extensions without requiring
modifications to the core NDMP v4 protocol.
The following NDMP v4 extensions are supported by clustered Data ONTAP:
•
Cluster Aware Backup (CAB)
Note: This extension is supported only in the Storage Virtual Machine (SVM)-scoped NDMP
mode.
•
Connection Address Extension (CAE) for IPv6 support
•
Extension class 0x2050
This extension supports restartable backup and Snapshot Management Extensions.
Note: NDMP_SNAP_RECOVER message, which is a part of the Snapshot Management
Extensions, is used to initiate a recovery operation and transfer the recovery data from a local
Snapshot copy to a local file system location. In clustered Data ONTAP, it allows the recovery
of volumes and regular files only.
NDMP restartable backup extension for a dump supported
by ONTAP
You can use the NDMP restartable backup extension (RBE) functionality to restart a backup from a
known checkpoint in the data stream before the failure.
What enhanced DAR functionality is
You can use the enhanced direct access recovery (DAR) functionality for directory DAR and DAR of
files and NT streams. By default, enhanced DAR functionality is enabled.
Enabling enhanced DAR functionality might impact the backup performance because an offset map
has to be created and written onto tape. You can enable or disable enhanced DAR in both the nodescoped and Storage Virtual Machine (SVM)-scoped NDMP modes.
Scalability limits for NDMP sessions
You must be aware of the maximum number of NDMP sessions that can be established
simultaneously on storage systems of different system memory capacities. This maximum number
depends on the system memory of a storage system.
The limits mentioned in the following table are for the NDMP server. The limits mentioned in the
section “Scalability limits for dump backup and restore sessions” are for the dump and restore
session.
Scalability limits for dump backup and restore sessions on page 58
Understanding NDMP for FlexVol volumes | 43
System memory of a storage system
Maximum number of NDMP sessions
Less than 16 GB
8
Greater than or equal to 16 GB but less than 24
GB
20
Greater than or equal to 24 GB
36
You can obtain the system memory of your storage system by using the sysconfig -a command
(available through the nodeshell). For more information about using this command, see the man
pages.
44
Managing node-scoped NDMP mode for FlexVol
volumes
You can manage NDMP at the node level by using NDMP options and commands. You can modify
the NDMP options by using the options command. You must use NDMP-specific credentials to
access a storage system to perform tape backup and restore operations.
For more information about the options command, see the man pages.
Related concepts
What node-scoped NDMP mode is on page 28
Related references
Commands for managing node-scoped NDMP mode on page 44
Commands for managing node-scoped NDMP mode
You can use the system services ndmp commands to manage NDMP at a node level. Some of
these commands are deprecated and will be removed in a future major release.
You can use the following NDMP commands only at the advanced privilege level:
•
system services ndmp service terminate
•
system services ndmp service start
•
system services ndmp service stop
•
system services ndmp log start
•
system services ndmp log stop
If you want to...
Use this command...
Enable NDMP service
system services ndmp on*
Disable NDMP service
system services ndmp off*
Display NDMP configuration
system services ndmp show*
Modify NDMP configuration
system services ndmp modify*
Display the default NDMP version
system services ndmp version*
Display NDMP service configuration
system services ndmp service show
Modify NDMP service configuration
system services ndmp service modify
Display all NDMP sessions
system services ndmp status
Display detailed information about all
NDMP sessions
system services ndmp probe
Terminate the specified NDMP session
system services ndmp kill
Terminate all NDMP sessions
system services ndmp kill-all
Change the NDMP password
system services ndmp password*
Managing node-scoped NDMP mode for FlexVol volumes | 45
If you want to...
Use this command...
Enable node-scoped NDMP mode
system services ndmp node-scope-mode
on*
Disable node-scoped NDMP mode
system services ndmp node-scope-mode
off*
Display the node-scoped NDMP mode
status
system services ndmp node-scope-mode
status*
Forcefully terminate all NDMP sessions
system services ndmp service terminate
Start the NDMP service daemon
system services ndmp service start
Stop the NDMP service daemon
system services ndmp service stop
Start logging for the specified NDMP
session
system services ndmp log start*
Stop logging for the specified NDMP
session
system services ndmp log stop*
* These commands are deprecated and will be removed in a future major release.
For more information about these commands, see the man pages for the system services ndmp
commands.
User authentication in a node-scoped NDMP mode
In the node-scoped NDMP mode, you must use NDMP specific credentials to access a storage
system in order to perform tape backup and restore operations.
The default user ID is “root”. Before using NDMP on a node, you must ensure that you change the
default NDMP password associated with the NDMP user. You can also change the default NDMP
user ID.
Related references
Commands for managing node-scoped NDMP mode on page 44
46
Managing SVM-scoped NDMP mode for FlexVol
volumes
You can manage NDMP on a per SVM basis by using the NDMP options and commands. You can
modify the NDMP options by using the vserver services ndmp modify command. In the
SVM-scoped NDMP mode, user authentication is integrated with the role-based access control
mechanism.
You can add NDMP in the allowed or disallowed protocols list by using the vserver modify
command. By default, NDMP is in the allowed protocols list. If NDMP is added to the disallowed
protocols list, NDMP sessions cannot be established.
You can control the LIF type on which an NDMP data connection is established by using the preferred-interface-role option. During an NDMP data connection establishment, NDMP
chooses an IP address that belongs to the LIF type as specified by this option. If the IP addresses do
not belong to any of these LIF types, then the NDMP data connection cannot be established. For
more information about the -preferred-interface-role option, see the man pages.
For more information about the vserver services ndmp modify command, see the man pages.
Related concepts
What Cluster Aware Backup extension does on page 47
What SVM-scoped NDMP mode is on page 28
Related references
Commands for managing SVM-scoped NDMP mode on page 46
Related information
ONTAP concepts
System administration
Commands for managing SVM-scoped NDMP mode
You can use the vserver services ndmp commands to manage NDMP on each Storage Virtual
Machine (SVM, formerly known as Vserver).
If you want to...
Use this command...
Enable NDMP service
vserver services ndmp on
Note: NDMP service must always be enabled on
all nodes in a cluster. You can enable NDMP
service on a node by using the system
services ndmp on command. By default,
NDMP service is always enabled on a node.
Disable NDMP service
vserver services ndmp off
Display NDMP configuration
vserver services ndmp show
Modify NDMP configuration
vserver services ndmp modify
Display default NDMP version
vserver services ndmp version
Managing SVM-scoped NDMP mode for FlexVol volumes | 47
If you want to...
Use this command...
Display all NDMP sessions
vserver services ndmp status
Display detailed information about all
NDMP sessions
vserver services ndmp probe
Terminate a specified NDMP session
vserver services ndmp kill
Terminate all NDMP sessions
vserver services ndmp kill-all
Generate the NDMP password
vserver services ndmp generate-password
Display NDMP extension status
vserver services ndmp extensions show
This command is available at the advanced privilege
level.
Modify (enable or disable) NDMP
extension status
vserver services ndmp extensions modify
Start logging for the specified NDMP
session
vserver services ndmp log start
Stop logging for the specified NDMP
session
vserver services ndmp log stop
This command is available at the advanced privilege
level.
This command is available at the advanced privilege
level.
This command is available at the advanced privilege
level.
For more information about these commands, see the man pages for the vserver services ndmp
commands.
What Cluster Aware Backup extension does
CAB (Cluster Aware Backup) is an NDMP v4 protocol extension. This extension enables the NDMP
server to establish a data connection on a node that owns a volume. This also enables the backup
application to determine if volumes and tape devices are located on the same node in a cluster.
To enable the NDMP server to identify the node that owns a volume and to establish a data
connection on such a node, the backup application must support the CAB extension. CAB extension
requires the backup application to inform the NDMP server about the volume to be backed up or
restored prior to establishing the data connection. This allows the NDMP server to determine the
node that hosts the volume and appropriately establish the data connection.
With the CAB extension supported by the backup application, the NDMP server provides affinity
information about volumes and tape devices. Using this affinity information, the backup application
can perform a local backup instead of a three-way backup if a volume and tape device are located on
the same node in a cluster.
Availability of volumes and tape devices for backup and
restore on different LIF types
You can configure a backup application to establish an NDMP control connection on any of the LIF
types in a cluster. In the Storage Virtual Machine (SVM)-scoped NDMP mode, you can determine
48 | Data Protection Tape Backup and Recovery Guide
the availability of volumes and tape devices for backup and restore operations depending upon these
LIF types and the status of the CAB extension.
The following tables show the availability of volumes and tape devices for NDMP control connection
LIF types and the status of the CAB extension:
Availability of volumes and tape devices when CAB extension is not supported by the
backup application
NDMP control connection
LIF type
Volumes available for backup Tape devices available for
or restore
backup or restore
Node-management LIF
All volumes hosted by a node
Tape devices connected to the
node hosting the nodemanagement LIF
Data LIF
Only volumes that belong to
the SVM hosted by a node that
hosts the data LIF
None
Cluster-management LIF
All volumes hosted by a node
that hosts the clustermanagement LIF
None
Intercluster LIF
All volumes hosted by a node
that hosts the intercluster LIF
Tape devices connected to the
node hosting the intercluster
LIF
Availability of volumes and tape devices when CAB extension is supported by the
backup application
NDMP control connection
LIF type
Volumes available for backup Tape devices available for
or restore
backup or restore
Node-management LIF
All volumes hosted by a node
Tape devices connected to the
node hosting the nodemanagement LIF
Data LIF
All volumes that belong to the
SVM that hosts the data LIF
None
Cluster-management LIF
All volumes in the cluster
All tape devices in the cluster
Intercluster LIF
All volumes in the cluster
All tape devices in the cluster
What affinity information is
With the backup application being CAB aware, the NDMP server provides unique location
information about volumes and tape devices. Using this affinity information, the backup application
can perform a local backup instead of a three-way backup if a volume and a tape device share the
same affinity.
If the NDMP control connection is established on a node management LIF, cluster management LIF,
or an intercluster LIF, the backup application can use the affinity information to determine if a
volume and tape device are located on the same node and then perform either a local or a three-way
backup or restore operation. If the NDMP control connection is established on a data LIF, then the
backup application always performs a three-way backup.
Managing SVM-scoped NDMP mode for FlexVol volumes | 49
Local NDMP backup and Three-way NDMP backup
Local backup
Three-way backup
DMA
DMA
Control Connection
Control
Connection
Tape and data service
Data
service
Cluster
Cluster
Cluster Network
Cluster Network
Node 2
Node 1
Control Connection
Tape
service
Node 2
Node 1
Data Connection
NDMP control connection LIF
NDMP control connection LIF
NDMP data connection LIF
Using the affinity information about volumes and tape devices, the DMA (backup application)
performs a local NDMP backup on the volume and tape device located on Node 1 in the cluster. If
the volume moves from Node 1 to Node 2, affinity information about the volume and tape device
changes. Hence, for a subsequent backup the DMA performs a three-way NDMP backup operation.
This ensures continuity of the backup policy for the volume irrespective of the node to which the
volume is moved to.
Related concepts
What Cluster Aware Backup extension does on page 47
NDMP server supports secure control connections in SVMscoped mode
A secure control connection can be established between the Data Management Application (DMA)
and NDMP server by using secure sockets (SSL/TLS) as the communication mechanism. This SSL
communication is based on the server certificates. The NDMP server listens on port 30000 (assigned
by IANA for “ndmps” service).
After establishing the connection from the client on this port, the standard SSL handshake ensues
where the server presents the certificate to the client. When the client accepts the certificate, the SSL
handshake is complete. After this process is complete, all of the communication between the client
and the server is encrypted. The NDMP protocol workflow remains exactly as before. The secure
NDMP connection requires server- side certificate authentication only. A DMA can choose to
establish a connection either by connecting to the secure NDMP service or the standard NDMP
service.
By default, secure NDMP service is disabled for a Storage Virtual Machine (SVM). You can enable
or disable the secure NDMP service on a given SVM by using the vserver services ndmp
modify -vserver vserver -is-secure-control-connection-enabled [true|false]
command.
NDMP data connection types
In the Storage Virtual Machine (SVM)-scoped NDMP mode, the supported NDMP data connection
types depend on the NDMP control connection LIF type and the status of the CAB extension. This
NDMP data connection type indicates whether you can perform a local or a three-way NDMP
backup or restore operation.
You can perform a three-way NDMP backup or restore operation over a TCP or TCP/IPv6 network.
The following tables show the NDMP data connection types based on the NDMP control connection
LIF type and the status of the CAB extension.
50 | Data Protection Tape Backup and Recovery Guide
NDMP data connection type when CAB extension is supported by the backup
application
NDMP control connection LIF type
NDMP data connection type
Node-management LIF
LOCAL, TCP, TCP/IPv6
Data LIF
TCP, TCP/IPv6
Cluster-management LIF
LOCAL, TCP, TCP/IPv6
Intercluster LIF
LOCAL, TCP, TCP/IPv6
NDMP data connection type when CAB extension is not supported by the backup
application
NDMP control connection LIF type
NDMP data connection type
Node-management LIF
LOCAL, TCP, TCP/IPv6
Data LIF
TCP, TCP/IPv6
Cluster-management LIF
TCP, TCP/IPv6
Intercluster LIF
LOCAL, TCP, TCP/IPv6
Related concepts
What Cluster Aware Backup extension does on page 47
Related information
Network and LIF management
User authentication in the SVM-scoped NDMP mode
In the Storage Virtual Machine (SVM)-scoped NDMP mode, NDMP user authentication is integrated
with role-based access control. In the SVM context, the NDMP user must have either the “vsadmin”
or “vsadmin-backup” role. In a cluster context, the NDMP user must have either the “admin” or
“backup” role.
Apart from these pre-defined roles, a user account associated with a custom role can also be used for
NDMP authentication provided that the custom role has the “vserver services ndmp” folder in its
command directory and the access level of the folder is not “none”. In this mode, you must generate
an NDMP password for a given user account, which is created through role-based access control.
Cluster users in an admin or backup role can access a node-management LIF, a cluster-management
LIF, or an intercluster LIF. Users in a vsadmin-backup or vsadmin role can access only the data LIF
for that SVM. Therefore, depending on the role of a user, the availability of volumes and tape devices
for backup and restore operations vary.
This mode also supports user authentication for NIS and LDAP users. Therefore, NIS and LDAP
users can access multiple SVMs with a common user ID and password. However, NDMP
authentication does not support Active Directory users.
In this mode, a user account must be associated with the SSH application and the “User password”
authentication method.
Related references
Commands for managing SVM-scoped NDMP mode on page 46
Managing SVM-scoped NDMP mode for FlexVol volumes | 51
Related information
System administration
ONTAP concepts
Generating an NDMP-specific password for NDMP users
In the Storage Virtual Machine (SVM)-scoped NDMP mode, you must generate a password for a
specific user ID. The generated password is based on the actual login password for the NDMP user.
If the actual login password changes, you must generate the NDMP-specific password again.
Steps
1. Use the vserver services ndmp generate-password command to generate an NDMPspecific password.
You can use this password in any current or future NDMP operation that requires password input.
Note: From the Storage Virtual Machine (SVM, formerly known as Vserver) context, you can
generate NDMP passwords for users belonging only to that SVM.
Example
The following example shows how to generate an NDMP-specific password for a user ID user1:
cluster1::vserver services ndmp> generate-password -vserver vs1 -user
user1
Vserver: vs1
User: user1
Password: jWZiNt57huPOoD8d
2. If you change the password to your regular storage system account, repeat this procedure to
obtain your new NDMP-specific password.
How tape backup and restore operations are affected during
disaster recovery in MetroCluster configuration
You can perform tape backup and restore operations simultaneously during disaster recovery in a
MetroCluster configuration. You must understand how these operations are affected during disaster
recovery.
If tape backup and restore operations are performed on a volume of an SVM in a disaster recovery
relationship, then you can continue performing incremental tape backup and restore operations after a
switchover and switchback.
52
Understanding dump engine for FlexVol volumes
Dump is a Snapshot copy based backup and recovery solution from Data ONTAP that helps you to
back up files and directories from a Snapshot copy to a tape device and restore the backed up data to
a storage system.
You can back up your file system data, such as directories, files, and their associated security settings,
to a tape device by using the dump backup. You can back up an entire volume, an entire qtree, or a
subtree that is neither an entire volume nor an entire qtree.
Dump does not support backup and restore of Infinite Volumes.
You can perform a dump backup or restore by using NDMP-compliant backup applications.
When you perform a dump backup, you can specify the Snapshot copy to be used for a backup. If
you do not specify a Snapshot copy for the backup, the dump engine creates a Snapshot copy for the
backup. After the backup operation is completed, the dump engine deletes this Snapshot copy.
You can perform level-0, incremental, or differential backups to tape by using the dump engine.
Note: After reverting to a release earlier than Data ONTAP 8.3, you must perform a baseline
backup operation before performing an incremental backup operation.
Related information
Upgrade, revert, or downgrade
How a dump backup works
A dump backup writes file system data from disk to tape using a predefined process. You can back up
a volume, a qtree, or a subtree that is neither an entire volume nor an entire qtree.
The following table describes the process that Data ONTAP uses to back up the object indicated by
the dump path:
Stage Action
1
For less than full volume or full qtree backups, Data ONTAP traverses directories to
identify the files to be backed up.
If you are backing up an entire volume or qtree, Data ONTAP combines this stage with
Stage 2.
2
For a full volume or full qtree backup, Data ONTAP identifies the directories in the
volumes or qtrees to be backed up.
3
Data ONTAP writes the directories to tape.
4
Data ONTAP writes the files to tape.
5
Data ONTAP writes the ACL information (if applicable) to tape.
The dump backup uses a Snapshot copy of your data for the backup. Therefore, you do not have to
take the volume offline before initiating the backup.
The dump backup names each Snapshot copy it creates as snapshot_for_backup.n, where n is an
integer starting at 0. Each time the dump backup creates a Snapshot copy, it increments the integer by
1. The integer is reset to 0 after the storage system is rebooted. After the backup operation is
completed, the dump engine deletes this Snapshot copy.
Understanding dump engine for FlexVol volumes | 53
When Data ONTAP performs multiple dump backups simultaneously, the dump engine creates
multiple Snapshot copies. For example, if Data ONTAP is running two dump backups
simultaneously, you find the following Snapshot copies in the volumes from which data is being
backed up: snapshot_for_backup.0 and snapshot_for_backup.1.
Note: When you are backing up from a Snapshot copy, the dump engine does not create an
additional Snapshot copy.
Types of data that the dump engine backs up
The dump engine enables you to back up data to tape to guard against disasters or controller
disruptions. In addition to backing up data objects such as a files, directories, qtrees, or entire
volumes, the dump engine can back up many types of information about each file. Knowing the types
of data that the dump engine can back up and the restrictions to take into consideration can help you
plan your approach to disaster recovery.
In addition to backing up data in files, the dump engine can back up the following information about
each file, as applicable:
•
UNIX GID, owner UID, and file permissions
•
UNIX access, creation, and modification time
•
File type
•
File size
•
DOS name, DOS attributes, and creation time
•
Access control lists (ACLs) with 1,024 access control entries (ACEs)
Note: If you restore ACLs backed up from storage systems running Data ONTAP 8.2 to storage
systems running Data ONTAP 8.1.x and earlier that have an ACE limit lower than 1,024, the
default ACL is restored.
•
Qtree information
•
Junction paths
Junction paths are backed up as symbolic links.
•
LUN and LUN clones
You can back up an entire LUN object; however, you cannot back up a single file within the LUN
object. Similarly, you can restore an entire LUN object but not a single file within the LUN.
Note: The dump engine backs up LUN clones as independent LUNs.
•
VM-aligned files
Backup of VM-aligned files is not supported in releases earlier than Data ONTAP 8.1.2.
Note: When a snapshot-backed LUN clone is transitioned from Data ONTAP operating in 7-Mode
to clustered Data ONTAP, it becomes an inconsistent LUN. The dump engine does not back up
inconsistent LUNs.
When you restore data to a volume, client I/O is restricted on the LUNs being restored. The LUN
restriction is removed only when the dump restore operation is complete. Similarly, during a
SnapMirror single file or LUN restore operation, client I/O is restricted on both files and LUNs being
restored. This restriction is removed only when the single file or LUN restore operation is complete.
If a dump backup is performed on a volume on which a dump restore or SnapMirror single file or
LUN restore operation is being performed, then the files or LUNs that have client I/O restriction are
54 | Data Protection Tape Backup and Recovery Guide
not included in the backup. These files or LUNs are included in a subsequent backup operation if the
client I/O restriction is removed.
Note: A LUN running on Data ONTAP 8.3 that is backed up to tape can be restored only to 8.3
and later releases and not to an earlier release. If the LUN is restored to an earlier release, then the
LUN is restored as a file.
When you back up a SnapVault secondary volume or a volume SnapMirror destination to tape, only
the data on the volume is backed up. The associated metadata is not backed up. Therefore, when you
try to restore the volume, only the data on that volume is restored. Information about the volume
SnapMirror relationships is not available in the backup and therefore is not restored.
If you dump a file that has only Windows NT permissions and restore it to a UNIX-style qtree or
volume, the file gets the default UNIX permissions for that qtree or volume.
If you dump a file that has only UNIX permissions and restore it to an NTFS-style qtree or volume,
the file gets the default Windows permissions for that qtree or volume.
Other dumps and restores preserve permissions.
Starting with Data ONTAP 8.1.2, you can back up VM-aligned files and the vm-align-sector
option. For more information about VM-aligned files, see the ONTAP® 9 Logical Storage
Management Guide.
What increment chains are
An increment chain is a series of incremental backups of the same path. Because you can specify any
level of backup at any time, you must understand increment chains to be able to perform backups and
restores effectively. You can perform 32 levels of incremental backup operations.
There are two types of increment chains:
•
A consecutive increment chain, which is a sequence of incremental backups that starts with level
0 and is raised by 1 at each subsequent backup.
•
A nonconsecutive increment chain, where incremental backups skip levels or have levels that are
out of sequence, such as 0, 2, 3, 1, 4, or more commonly 0, 1, 1, 1 or 0, 1, 2, 1, 2.
Incremental backups are based on the most recent lower-level backup. For example, the sequence of
backup levels 0, 2, 3, 1, 4 provides two increment chains: 0, 2, 3 and 0, 1, 4. The following table
explains the bases of the incremental backups:
Backup
order
Increment
level
Increment
chain
Base
Files backed up
1
0
Both
Files on the storage
system
All files in the backup
path
2
2
0, 2, 3
Level-0 backup
Files in the backup path
created since the level-0
backup
3
3
0, 2, 3
Level-2 backup
Files in the backup path
created since the level-2
backup
4
1
0, 1, 4
Level-0 backup,
because this is the
most recent level that
is lower than the
level-1 backup
Files in the backup path
created since the level-0
backup, including files
that are in the level-2 and
level-3 backups
Understanding dump engine for FlexVol volumes | 55
Backup
order
Increment
level
Increment
chain
Base
Files backed up
5
4
0, 1, 4
The level-1 backup,
because it is a lower
level and is more
recent than the
level-0, level-2, or
level-3 backups
Files created since the
level-1 backup
What the blocking factor is
A tape block is 1,024 bytes of data. During a tape backup or restore, you can specify the number of
tape blocks that are transferred in each read/write operation. This number is called the blocking
factor.
You can use a blocking factor from 4 to 256. If you plan to restore a backup to a system other than
the system that did the backup, the restore system must support the blocking factor that you used for
the backup. For example, if you use a blocking factor of 128, the system on which you restore that
backup must support a blocking factor of 128.
During an NDMP backup, the MOVER_RECORD_SIZE determines the blocking factor. Data
ONTAP allows a maximum value of 256 KB for MOVER_RECORD_SIZE.
When to restart a dump backup
A dump backup sometimes does not finish because of internal or external errors, such as tape write
errors, power outages, accidental user interruptions, or internal inconsistency on the storage system.
If your backup fails for one of these reasons, you can restart it.
You can choose to interrupt and restart a backup to avoid periods of heavy traffic on the storage
system or to avoid competition for other limited resources on the storage system, such as a tape drive.
You can interrupt a long backup and restart it later if a more urgent restore (or backup) requires the
same tape drive. Restartable backups persist across reboots. You can restart an aborted backup to tape
only if the following conditions are true:
•
The aborted backup is in phase IV.
•
All of the associated Snapshot copies that were locked by the dump command are available.
•
The file history must be enabled.
When such a dump operation is aborted and left in a restartable state, the associated Snapshot copies
are locked. These Snapshot copies are released after the backup context is deleted. You can view the
list of backup contexts by using the vserver services ndmp restartable backup show
command.
cluster::> vserver services ndmpd restartable-backup show
Vserver
Context Identifier
Is Cleanup Pending?
----------- ------------------------------------ ------------------vserver1 330e6739-0179-11e6-a299-005056bb4bc9 false
vserver1 481025c1-0179-11e6-a299-005056bb4bc9 false
vserver2 5cf10132-0179-11e6-a299-005056bb4bc9 false
3 entries were displayed.
cluster::> vserver services ndmpd restartable-backup show -vserver vserver1 context-id 330e6739-0179-11e6-a299-005056bb4bc9
Vserver: vserver1
Context Identifier: 330e6739-0179-11e6-a299-005056bb4bc9
56 | Data Protection Tape Backup and Recovery Guide
Volume Name:
Is Cleanup Pending?:
Backup Engine Type:
Is Snapshot Copy Auto-created?:
Dump Path:
Incremental Backup Level ID:
Dump Name:
Context Last Updated Time:
Has Offset Map?:
Offset Verify:
Is Context Restartable?:
Is Context Busy?:
Restart Pass:
Status of Backup:
Snapshot Copy Name:
State of the Context:
/vserver1/vol1
false
dump
true
/vol/vol1
0
/vserver1/vol1
1460624875
true
true
true
false
4
2
snapshot_for_backup.1
7
cluster::>"
How a dump restore works
A dump restore writes file system data from tape to disk using a predefined process.
The process in the following table shows how the dump restore works:
Stage Action
1
Data ONTAP catalogs the files that need to be extracted from the tape.
2
Data ONTAP creates directories and empty files.
3
Data ONTAP reads a file from tape, writes it to disk, and sets the permissions (including
ACLs) on it.
4
Data ONTAP repeats stages 2 and 3 until all the specified files are copied from the tape.
Types of data that the dump engine restores
When a disaster or controller disruption occurs, the dump engine provides multiple methods for you
to recover all of the data that you backed up, from single files, to file attributes, to entire directories.
Knowing the types of data that dump engine can restore and when to use which method of recovery
can help minimize downtime.
Starting with Data ONTAP 8.2, you can restore data to an online mapped LUN. However, host
applications cannot access this LUN until the restore operation is complete. After the restore
operation is complete, the host cache of the LUN data should be flushed to provide coherency with
the restored data.
The dump engine can recover the following data:
•
•
•
Contents of files and directories
UNIX file permissions
ACLs
If you restore a file that has only UNIX file permissions to an NTFS qtree or volume, the file has
no Windows NT ACLs. The storage system uses only the UNIX file permissions on this file until
you create a Windows NT ACL on it.
Note: If you restore ACLs backed up from storage systems running Data ONTAP 8.2 to storage
systems running Data ONTAP 8.1.x and earlier that have an ACE limit lower than 1,024, a
default ACL is restored.
•
Qtree information
Understanding dump engine for FlexVol volumes | 57
•
•
•
Qtree information is used only if a qtree is restored to the root of a volume. Qtree information is
not used if a qtree is restored to a lower directory, such as /vs1/vol1/subdir/lowerdir, and
it ceases to be a qtree.
All other file and directory attributes
Windows NT streams
LUNs
◦
•
•
A LUN must be restored to a volume level or a qtree level for it to remain as a LUN.
If it is restored to a directory, it is restored as a file because it does not contain any valid
metadata.
◦ A 7-Mode LUN is restored as a LUN on a clustered Data ONTAP volume.
A 7-Mode volume can be restored to a clustered Data ONTAP volume.
VM-aligned files restored to a destination volume inherit the VM-align properties of the
destination volume.
Note: Restore of VM-aligned files to destination volumes in releases earlier than Data ONTAP
8.1.2 is not supported.
•
The destination volume for a restore operation might have files with mandatory or advisory locks.
While performing restore operation to such a destination volume, the dump engine ignores these
locks.
Considerations before restoring data
You can restore backed-up data to its original path or to a different destination. If you are restoring
backed-up data to a different destination, you must prepare the destination for the restore operation.
Before restoring data either to its original path or to a different destination, you must have the
following information and meet the following requirements:
•
•
•
•
•
The level of the restore.
The path to which you are restoring the data.
The blocking factor used during the backup.
If you are doing an incremental restore, all tapes must be in the backup chain.
A tape drive that is available and compatible with the tape to be restored from.
Before restoring data to a different destination, you must perform the following operations:
•
If you are restoring a volume, you must create a new volume.
•
If you are restoring a qtree or a directory, you must rename or move files that are likely to have
the same names as files you are restoring.
Note: In ONTAP 9.0, qtree names support the Unicode format. The earlier releases of Data
ONTAP do not support this format. If a qtree with Unicode names in ONTAP 9.0 is copied to an
earlier release of Data ONTAP using the ndmpcopy command or through restoration from a
backup image in a tape, the qtree is restored as a regular directory and not as a qtree with Unicode
format.
Attention: If a restored file has the same name as an existing file, the existing file is overwritten by
the restored file. However, the directories are not overwritten.
To rename a file, directory, or qtree during restore without using DAR, you must set the EXTRACT
environment variable to E.
58 | Data Protection Tape Backup and Recovery Guide
Required space on the destination storage system
You require about 100 MB more space on the destination storage system than the amount of data to
be restored.
Attention: The restore operation checks for volume space and inode availability on the destination
volume when the restore operation starts. Setting the FORCE environment variable to Y causes the
restore operation to skip the checks for volume space and inode availability on the destination
path. If there is not enough volume space or inodes available on the destination volume, the restore
operation recovers as much data allowed by the destination volume space and inode availability.
The restore operation stops when there is no more volume space or inodes left.
Scalability limits for dump backup and restore sessions
You must be aware of the maximum number of dump backup and restore sessions that can be
performed simultaneously on storage systems of different system memory capacities. This maximum
number depends on the system memory of a storage system.
The limits mentioned in the following table are for the dump or restore engine. The limits mentioned
in the scalability limits for NDMP sessions are for the NDMP server, which are higher than the
engine limits.
System memory of a storage system
Total number of dump backup and restore
sessions
Less than 16 GB
4
Greater than or equal to 16 GB but less than 24
GB
16
Greater than or equal to 24 GB
32
Note: If you use ndmpcopy command to copy data within storage systems, two NDMP sessions
are established, one for dump backup and the other for dump restore.
You can obtain the system memory of your storage system by using the sysconfig -a command
(available through the nodeshell). For more information about using this command, see the man
pages.
Related references
Scalability limits for NDMP sessions on page 42
Tape backup and restore support between Data ONTAP
operating in 7-Mode and clustered Data ONTAP
You can restore data backed up from a storage system operating in 7-Mode or running clustered Data
ONTAP to a storage system either operating in 7-Mode or running clustered Data ONTAP.
The following tape backup and restore operations are supported between Data ONTAP operating in
7-Mode and clustered Data ONTAP:
•
Backing up a 7-Mode volume to a tape drive connected to a storage system running clustered
Data ONTAP
•
Backing up a clustered Data ONTAP volume to a tape drive connected to a 7-Mode system
•
Restoring backed-up data of a 7-Mode volume from a tape drive connected to a storage system
running clustered Data ONTAP
Understanding dump engine for FlexVol volumes | 59
•
Restoring backed-up data of a clustered Data ONTAP volume from a tape drive connected to a 7Mode system
•
Restoring a 7-Mode volume to a clustered Data ONTAP volume
Notes:
•
◦
A 7-Mode LUN is restored as a LUN on a clustered Data ONTAP volume.
◦
You should retain the clustered Data ONTAP LUN identifiers when restoring a 7-Mode
LUN to an existing clustered Data ONTAP LUN.
Restoring a clustered Data ONTAP volume to a 7-Mode volume
Note: A clustered Data ONTAP LUN is restored as a regular file on a 7-Mode volume.
Deleting restartable contexts
If you want to start a backup instead of restarting a context, you can delete the context.
About this task
You can delete a restartable context using the vserver services ndmp restartable-backup
delete command by providing the SVM name and the context ID.
Step
1. Delete a restartable context:
vserver services ndmp restartable-backup delete -vserver vserver-name context-id context identifier
.
Example
cluster::> vserver services ndmpd restartable-backup show
Vserver
Context Identifier
Is Cleanup Pending?
----------- ------------------------------------ ------------------vserver1
330e6739-0179-11e6-a299-005056bb4bc9 false
vserver1
481025c1-0179-11e6-a299-005056bb4bc9 false
vserver2
5cf10132-0179-11e6-a299-005056bb4bc9 false
3 entries were displayed.
cluster::>
cluster::> vserver services ndmp restartable-backup delete -vserver vserver1 context-id 481025c1-0179-11e6-a299-005056bb4bc9
cluster::> vserver services ndmpd restartable-backup show
Vserver
Context Identifier
Is Cleanup Pending?
----------- ------------------------------------ ------------------vserver1
330e6739-0179-11e6-a299-005056bb4bc9 false
vserver2
5cf10132-0179-11e6-a299-005056bb4bc9 false
3 entries were displayed.
cluster::>"
60 | Data Protection Tape Backup and Recovery Guide
How dump works on a SnapVault secondary volume
You can perform tape backup operations on data that is mirrored on the SnapVault secondary volume.
You can back up only the data that is mirrored on the SnapVault secondary volume to tape, and not
the SnapVault relationship metadata.
When you break the data protection mirror relationship (snapmirror break) or when a
SnapMirror resynchronization occurs, you must always perform a baseline backup.
Related information
Data protection using SnapMirror and SnapVault technology
How dump works with storage failover and ARL operations
Before you perform dump backup or restore operations, you should understand how these operations
work with storage failover (takeover and giveback) or aggregate relocation (ARL) operations. The override-vetoes option determines the behavior of dump engine during a storage failover or ARL
operation.
When a dump backup or restore operation is running and the -override-vetoes option is set to
false, a user-initiated storage failover or ARL operation is stopped. However, if the –overridevetoes option is set to true, then the storage failover or ARL operation is continued and the dump
backup or restore operation is aborted. When a storage failover or ARL operation is automatically
initiated by the storage system, an active dump backup or restore operation is always aborted. You
cannot restart dump backup and restore operations even after storage failover or ARL operations
complete.
Dump operations when CAB extension is supported
If the backup application supports CAB extension, you can continue performing incremental dump
backup and restore operations without reconfiguring backup policies after a storage failover or ARL
operation.
Dump operations when CAB extension is not supported
If the backup application does not support CAB extension, you can continue performing incremental
dump backup and restore operations if you migrate the LIF configured in the backup policy to the
node that hosts the destination aggregate. Otherwise, after the storage failover and ARL operation,
you must perform a baseline backup prior to performing the incremental backup operation.
Note: For storage failover operations, the LIF configured in the backup policy must be migrated to
the partner node.
Related information
ONTAP concepts
High-availability configuration
How dump works with volume move
Starting with Data ONTAP 8.2, tape backup and restore operations and volume move can run in
parallel until the final cutover phase is attempted by the storage system. After this phase, new tape
Understanding dump engine for FlexVol volumes | 61
backup and restore operations are not allowed on the volume that is being moved. However, the
current operations continue to run until completion.
The following table describes the behavior of tape backup and restore operations after the volume
move operation:
If you are performing tape backup and
restore operations in the...
Then...
Storage Virtual Machine (SVM) scoped NDMP
mode when CAB extension is supported by the
backup application
You can continue performing incremental tape
backup and restore operations on read/write and
read-only volumes without reconfiguring
backup policies.
SVM-scoped NDMP mode when CAB
extension is not supported by the backup
application
You can continue performing incremental tape
backup and restore operations on read/write and
read-only volumes if you migrate the LIF
configured in the backup policy to the node that
hosts the destination aggregate. Otherwise, after
the volume move, you must perform a baseline
backup before performing the incremental
backup operation.
Node-scoped NDMP mode
Note: When a volume move occurs, if the volume belonging to a different SVM on the destination
node has the same name as that of the moved volume, then you cannot perform incremental
backup operations of the moved volume.
Related information
ONTAP concepts
Data protection using SnapMirror and SnapVault technology
How dump works when a FlexVol volume is full
Before performing an incremental dump backup operation, you must ensure that there is sufficient
free space in the FlexVol volume.
If the operation fails, you must increase the free space in the Flex Vol volume either by increasing its
size or deleting the Snapshot copies and then perform the incremental backup operation again.
How dump works when volume access type changes
When a SnapMirror destination volume or a SnapVault secondary volume changes state from read/
write to read-only or from read-only to read/write, you must perform a baseline tape backup or
restore operation.
SnapMirror destination and SnapVault secondary volumes are read-only volumes. If you perform
tape backup and restore operations on such volumes, you must perform a baseline backup or restore
operation whenever the volume changes state from read-only to read/write or from read/write to readonly.
Related information
ONTAP concepts
62 | Data Protection Tape Backup and Recovery Guide
How dump works with SnapMirror single file or LUN restore
Before you perform dump backup or restore operations on a volume to which a single file or LUN is
restored by using SnapMirror technology, you must understand how dump operations work with a
single file or LUN restore operation.
During a SnapMirror single file or LUN restore operation, client I/O is restricted on the file or LUN
being restored. When the single file or LUN restore operation finishes, the I/O restriction on the file
or LUN is removed. If a dump backup is performed on a volume to which a single file or LUN is
restored, then the file or LUN that has client I/O restriction is not included in the dump backup. In a
subsequent backup operation, this file or LUN is backed up to tape after the I/O restriction is
removed.
You cannot perform a dump restore and a SnapMirror single file or LUN restore operation
simultaneously on the same volume.
How dump backup and restore operations are affected in
MetroCluster configurations
Before you perform dump backup and restore operations in a MetroCluster configuration, you must
understand how dump operations are affected when a switchover or switchback operation occurs.
Dump backup or restore operation followed by switchover
Consider two clusters: cluster 1 and cluster 2. During a dump backup or restore operation on cluster
1, if a switchover is initiated from cluster 1 to cluster 2, then the following occurs:
•
If the value of the override-vetoes option is false, then the switchover is aborted and the
backup or restore operation continues.
•
If the value of the option is true, then the dump backup or restore operation is aborted and the
switchover continues.
Dump backup or restore operation followed by switchback
A switchover is performed from cluster 1 to cluster 2 and a dump backup or restore operation is
initiated on cluster 2. The dump operation backs up or restores a volume that is located on cluster 2.
At this point, if a switchback is initiated from cluster 2 to cluster 1, then the following occurs:
•
If the value of the override-vetoes option is false, then the switchback is cancelled and the
backup or restore operation continues.
•
If the value of the option is true, then the backup or restore operation is aborted and the
switchback continues.
Dump backup or restore operation initiated during a switchover or switchback
During a switchover from cluster 1 to cluster 2, if a dump backup or restore operation is initiated on
cluster 1, then the backup or restore operation fails and the switchover continues.
During a switchback from cluster 2 to cluster 1, if a dump backup or restore operation is initiated
from cluster 2, then the backup or restore operation fails and the switchback continues.
63
Understanding SMTape engine for FlexVol
volumes
SMTape is a disaster recovery solution from Data ONTAP that backs up blocks of data to tape. You
can use SMTape to perform volume backups to tapes. However, you cannot perform a backup at the
qtree or subtree level. SMTape supports baseline, differential, and incremental backups. SMTape
does not require a license.
Starting with Data ONTAP 8.3, you can perform an SMTape backup and restore operation by using
an NDMP-compliant backup application. SMTape can be used as the backup engine only when all
the nodes in the cluster are upgraded to Data ONTAP 8.3. Data backed up from Data ONTAP
operating in 7-Mode cannot be restored to clustered Data ONTAP. You can choose SMTape to
perform backup and restore operations only in the Storage Virtual Machine (SVM) scoped NDMP
mode.
Note: Reversion process is not supported when an SMTape backup or restore session is in
progress. You must wait until the session finishes or you must abort the NDMP session.
Using SMTape, you can back up 255 Snapshot copies. For subsequent baseline, incremental, or
differential backups, you must delete older backed-up Snapshot copies.
Before performing a baseline restore, the volume to which data is being restored to must be of type
DP and this volume must be in the restricted state. After a successful restore, this volume
automatically becomes online. You can perform subsequent incremental or differential restores on
this volume in the order in which the backups were performed.
Using Snapshot copies during SMTape backup
You should understand how Snapshot copies are used during an SMTape baseline backup and an
incremental backup. There are also considerations to keep in mind while performing a backup using
SMTape.
Baseline backup
While performing a baseline backup, you can specify the name of the Snapshot copy to be backed up
to tape. If no Snapshot copy is specified, then depending on the access type of the volume (read/write
or read-only), either a Snapshot copy is created automatically or existing Snapshot copies are used.
When you specify a Snapshot copy for the backup, all the Snapshot copies older than the specified
Snapshot copy are also backed up to tape.
If you do not specify a Snapshot copy for the backup, the following occurs:
•
For a read/write volume, a Snapshot copy is created automatically.
The newly created Snapshot copy and all the older Snapshot copies are backed up to tape.
•
For a read-only volume, all the Snapshot copies, including the latest Snapshot copy, are backed up
to tape.
Any new Snapshot copies created after the backup is started are not backed up.
Incremental backup
For SMTape incremental or differential backup operations, the NDMP-compliant backup applications
create and manage the Snapshot copies.
You must always specify a Snapshot copy while performing an incremental backup operation. For a
successful incremental backup operation, the Snapshot copy backed up during the previous backup
64 | Data Protection Tape Backup and Recovery Guide
operation (baseline or incremental) must be on the volume from which the backup is performed. To
ensure that you use this backed-up Snapshot copy, you must consider the Snapshot policy assigned
on this volume while configuring the backup policy.
Considerations on SMTape backups on SnapMirror destinations
•
A data protection mirror relationship creates temporary Snapshot copies on the destination
volume for replication.
You should not use these Snapshot copies for SMTape backup.
•
If a SnapMirror update occurs on a destination volume in a data protection mirror relationship
during an SMTape backup operation on the same volume, then the Snapshot copy that is backed
up by SMTape must not be deleted on the source volume.
During the backup operation, SMTape locks the Snapshot copy on the destination volume and if
the corresponding Snapshot copy is deleted on the source volume, then the subsequent
SnapMirror update operation fails.
•
You should not use these Snapshot copies during incremental backup.
SMTape capabilities
SMTape capabilities such as backup of Snapshot copies, incremental and differential backups,
preservation of deduplication and compression features on restored volumes, and tape seeding help
you optimize your tape backup and restore operations.
SMTape provides the following capabilities:
•
Provides a disaster recovery solution
•
Enables incremental and differential backups
•
Backs up Snapshot copies
•
Enables backup and restore of deduplicated volumes and preserves deduplication on the restored
volumes
•
Backs up compressed volumes and preserves compression on the restored volumes
•
Enables tape seeding
SMTape supports the blocking factor in multiples of 4 KB, in the range of 4 KB through 256 KB.
Note: You can restore data to volumes created across up to two major consecutive Data ONTAP
releases only.
Features not supported in SMTape
SMTape does not support restartable backups and verification of backed-up files.
Scalability limits for SMTape backup and restore sessions
While performing SMTape backup and restore operations through NDMP or CLI (tape seeding), you
must be aware of the maximum number of SMTape backup and restore sessions that can be
Understanding SMTape engine for FlexVol volumes | 65
performed simultaneously on storage systems with different system memory capacities. This
maximum number depends on the system memory of a storage system.
Note: SMTape backup and restore sessions scalability limits are different from NDMP session
limits and dump session limits.
System memory of the storage system
Total number of SMTape backup and restore
sessions
Less than 16 GB
6
Greater than or equal to 16 GB but less than 24
GB
16
Greater than or equal to 24 GB
32
You can obtain the system memory of your storage system by using the sysconfig -a command
(available through the nodeshell). For more information about using this command, see the man
pages.
Related concepts
Scalability limits for dump backup and restore sessions on page 58
Related references
Scalability limits for NDMP sessions on page 42
What tape seeding is
Tape seeding is an SMTape functionality that helps you initialize a destination FlexVol volume in a
data protection mirror relationship.
Tape seeding enables you to establish a data protection mirror relationship between a source system
and a destination system over a low-bandwidth connection.
Incremental mirroring of Snapshot copies from the source to the destination is feasible over a low
bandwidth connection. However, an initial mirroring of the base Snapshot copy takes a long time
over a low-bandwidth connection. In such cases, you can perform an SMTape backup of the source
volume to a tape and use the tape to transfer the initial base Snapshot copy to the destination. You can
then set up incremental SnapMirror updates to the destination system using the low-bandwidth
connection.
Related information
ONTAP concepts
How SMTape works with storage failover and ARL
operations
Before you perform SMTape backup or restore operations, you should understand how these
operations work with storage failover (takeover and giveback) or aggregate relocation (ARL)
operation. The -override-vetoes option determines the behavior of SMTape engine during a
storage failover or ARL operation.
When an SMTape backup or restore operation is running and the -override-vetoes option is set
to false, a user-initiated storage failover or ARL operation is stopped and the backup or restore
operation complete. If the backup application supports CAB extension, then you can continue
66 | Data Protection Tape Backup and Recovery Guide
performing incremental SMTape backup and restore operations without reconfiguring backup
policies. However, if the –override-vetoes option is set to true, then the storage failover or ARL
operation is continued and the SMTape backup or restore operation is aborted.
Related information
Network and LIF management
High-availability configuration
How SMTape works with volume move
Starting with Data ONTAP 8.3, SMTape backup operations and volume move operations can run in
parallel until the final cutover phase is attempted by the storage system. After this phase, new
SMTape backup operations are not allowed on the volume that is being moved. However, the current
operations continue to run until completion.
Before the cutover phase for a volume is started, the volume move operation checks for active
SMTape backup operations on the same volume. If there are active SMTape backup operations, then
the volume move operation goes into a cutover deferred state and allows the SMTape backup
operations to complete. After these backup operations are completed, you must manually restart the
volume move operation. If the backup application supports CAB extension, you can continue
performing incremental tape backup and restore operations on read/write and read-only volumes
without reconfiguring backup policies.
Baseline restore and volume move operations cannot be performed simultaneously; however,
incremental restore can run in parallel with volume move and the behavior is similar to SMTape
backup operations during volume move.
Related information
ONTAP concepts
Data protection using SnapMirror and SnapVault technology
How SMTape works with volume rehost
Starting with ONTAP 9.0, SMTape operations cannot commence when a volume rehost operation is
in progress on a volume. When a volume is involved in a volume rehost operation, SMTape sessions
should not be started on that volume.
If any volume rehost operation is in progress, then SMTape backup or restore fails. If an SMTape
backup or restore is in progress, then volume rehost operations fail with an appropriate error
message. This condition is applicable for both NDMP-based and CLI-based backup or restore.
How NDMP backup policy are affected during ADB
When the automatic data balancer (ADB) is enabled, the balancer analyzes the usage statistics of
aggregates to identify the aggregate that has exceeded the configured high-threshold usage
percentage.
After identifying the aggregate that has exceeded the threshold, the balancer identifies a volume that
can be moved to aggregates residing in another node in the cluster and attempts to move that volume.
This situation affects the backup policy configured for this volume because if the data management
application (DMA) is not CAB aware, then the user has to reconfigure the backup policy and run the
baseline backup operation.
Understanding SMTape engine for FlexVol volumes | 67
Note: If the DMA is CAB aware and the backup policy has been configured using specific
interface, then the ADB is not affected.
How SMTape backup and restore operations are affected in
MetroCluster configurations
Before you perform SMTape backup and restore operations in a MetroCluster configuration, you
must understand how SMTape operations are affected when a switchover or switchback operation
occurs.
SMTape backup or restore operation followed by switchover
Consider two clusters: cluster 1 and cluster 2. During an SMTape backup or restore operation on
cluster 1, if a switchover is initiated from cluster 1 to cluster 2, then the following occurs:
•
If the value of the –override-vetoes option is false, then the switchover process is aborted
and the backup or restore operation continues.
•
If the value of the option is true, then the SMTape backup or restore operation is aborted and the
switchover process continues.
SMTape backup or restore operation followed by switchback
A switchover is performed from cluster 1 to cluster 2 and an SMTape backup or restore operation is
initiated on cluster 2. The SMTape operation backs up or restores a volume that is located on cluster
2. At this point, if a switchback is initiated from cluster 2 to cluster 1, then the following occurs:
•
If the value of the –override-vetoes option is false, then the switchback process is aborted
and the backup or restore operation continues.
•
If the value of the option is true, then the backup or restore operation is aborted and the
switchback process continues.
SMTape backup or restore operation initiated during a switchover or switchback
During a switchover process from cluster 1 to cluster 2, if an SMTape backup or restore operation is
initiated on cluster 1, then the backup or restore operation fails and the switchover continues.
During a switchback process from cluster 2 to cluster 1, if an SMTape backup or restore operation is
initiated from cluster 2, then the backup or restore operation fails and the switchback continues.
68
Monitoring tape backup and restore operations for
FlexVol volumes
You can view the event log files to monitor the tape backup and restore operations. Data ONTAP
automatically logs significant backup and restore events and the time at which they occur in a log file
named backup in the controller's /etc/log/ directory. By default, event logging is set to on.
You might want to view event log files for the following reasons:
•
•
•
Checking whether a nightly backup was successful
Gathering statistics on backup operations
For using the information in past event log files to help diagnose problems with backup and
restore operations
Once every week, the event log files are rotated. The /etc/log/backup file is renamed
to /etc/log/backup.0, the /etc/log/backup.0 file is renamed to /etc/log/backup.1, and
so on. The system saves the log files for up to six weeks; therefore, you can have up to seven message
files (/etc/log/backup.[0-5] and the current /etc/log/backup file).
Accessing the event log files
You can access the event log files for tape backup and restore operations in the /etc/log/ directory
by using the rdfile command at the nodeshell. You can view these event log files to monitor tape
backup and restore operations.
About this task
With additional configurations, such as an access-control role with access to the spi web service or a
user account set up with the http access method, you can also use a web browser to access these log
files.
Steps
1. To access the nodeshell, enter the following command:
node run -node node_name
node_name is the name of the node.
2. To access the event log files for tape backup and restore operations, enter the following command:
rdfile /etc/log/backup
Related information
System administration
ONTAP concepts
What the dump and restore event log message format is
For each dump and restore event, a message is written to the backup log file.
The format of the dump and restore event log message is as follows:
type timestamp identifier event (event_info)
Monitoring tape backup and restore operations for FlexVol volumes | 69
The following list describes the fields in the event log message format:
•
•
•
Each log message begins with one of the type indicators described in the following table:
Type
Description
log
Logging event
dmp
Dump event
rst
Restore event
timestamp shows the date and time of the event.
The identifier field for a dump event includes the dump path and the unique ID for the dump.
The identifier field for a restore event uses only the restore destination path name as a unique
identifier. Logging-related event messages do not include an identifier field.
What logging events are
The event field of a message that begins with a log specifies the beginning of a logging or the end of
a logging.
It contains one of the events shown in the following table:
Event
Description
Start_Logging Indicates the beginning of logging or that logging has been turned back on after
being disabled.
Stop_Logging
Indicates that logging has been turned off.
What dump events are
The event field for a dump event contains an event type followed by event-specific information
within parentheses.
The following table describes the events, their descriptions, and the related event information that
might be recorded for a dump operation:
Event
Description
Event information
Start
NDMP dump is started
Dump level and the type of dump
End
Dumps completed successfully
Amount of data processed
Abort
The operation is cancelled
Amount of data processed
Options
Specified options are listed
All options and their associated values,
including NDMP options
Tape_open
The tape is open for read/write
The new tape device name
Tape_close
The tape is closed for read/write
The tape device name
Phase-change A dump is entering a new processing
phase
The new phase name
Error
A dump has encountered an unexpected
event
Error message
Snapshot
A Snapshot copy is created or located
The name and time of the Snapshot
copy
Base_dump
A base dump entry in the internal
metafile has been located
The level and time of the base dump
(for incremental dumps only)
70 | Data Protection Tape Backup and Recovery Guide
What restore events are
The event field for a restore event contains an event type followed by event-specific information in
parentheses.
The following table provides information about the events, their descriptions, and the related event
information that can be recorded for a restore operation:
Event
Description
Event information
Start
NDMP restore is started
Restore level and the type of restore
End
Restores completed successfully
Number of files and amount of data
processed
Abort
The operation is cancelled
Number of files and amount of data
processed
Options
Specified options are listed
All options and their associated values,
including NDMP options
Tape_open
The tape is open for read/write
The new tape device name
Tape_close
The tape is closed for read/write
The tape device name
Phase-change Restore is entering a new processing
phase
The new phase name
Error
Error message
Restore encounters an unexpected
event
Enabling or disabling event logging
You can turn the event logging on or off.
Step
1. To enable or disable event logging, enter the following command at the clustershell:
options -option-name backup.log.enable -option-value {on | off}
on turns event logging on.
off turns event logging off.
Note: Event logging is turned on by default.
71
Error messages for tape backup and restore of
FlexVol volumes
You might encounter an error message when performing a dump backup or restore operation due to
various reasons.
Backup and restore error messages
You might encounter an error message while performing a tape backup or restore.
Resource limitation: no available thread
Message
Resource limitation: no available thread
Cause
The maximum number of active local tape I/O threads is currently in use. You can have a
maximum of 16 active local tape drives.
Corrective action
Wait for some tape jobs to finish before starting a new backup or restore job.
Tape reservation preempted
Message
Tape reservation preempted
Cause
The tape drive is in use by another operation or the tape has been closed prematurely.
Corrective action
Ensure that the tape drive is not in use by another operation and that the DMA application
has not aborted the job and then retry.
Could not initialize media
Message
Could not initialize media
Cause
You might get this error for one of the following reasons:
•
The tape drive used for the backup is corrupt or damaged.
•
The tape does not contain the complete backup or is corrupt.
•
The maximum number of active local tape I/O threads is currently in use.
You can have a maximum of 16 active local tape drives.
Corrective action
•
If the tape drive is corrupt or damaged, retry the operation with a valid tape drive.
•
If the tape does not contain the complete backup or is corrupt, you cannot perform the
restore operation.
72 | Data Protection Tape Backup and Recovery Guide
•
If tape resources are not available, wait for some of the backup or restore jobs to finish
and then retry the operation.
Maximum number of allowed dumps or restores (maximum session limit) in
progress
Message
Maximum number of allowed dumps or restores (maximum session limit)
in progress
Cause
The maximum number of backup or restore jobs is already running.
Corrective action
Retry the operation after some of the currently running jobs have finished.
Media error on tape write
Message
Media error on tape write
Cause
The tape used for the backup is corrupted.
Corrective action
Replace the tape and retry the backup job.
Tape write failed
Message
Tape write failed
Cause
The tape used for the backup is corrupted.
Corrective action
Replace the tape and retry the backup job.
Tape write failed - new tape encountered media error
Message
Tape write failed - new tape encountered media error
Cause
The tape used for the backup is corrupted.
Corrective action
Replace the tape and retry the backup.
Tape write failed - new tape is broken or write protected
Message
Tape write failed - new tape is broken or write protected
Cause
The tape used for the backup is corrupted or write-protected.
Corrective action
Replace the tape and retry the backup.
Error messages for tape backup and restore of FlexVol volumes | 73
Tape write failed - new tape is already at the end of media
Message
Tape write failed - new tape is already at the end of media
Cause
There is not enough space on the tape to complete the backup.
Corrective action
Replace the tape and retry the backup.
Tape write error
Message
Tape write error - The previous tape had less than the required
minimum capacity, size MB, for this tape operation, The operation
should be restarted from the beginning
Cause
The tape capacity is insufficient to contain the backup data.
Corrective action
Use tapes with larger capacity and retry the backup job.
Media error on tape read
Message
Media error on tape read
Cause
The tape from which data is being restored is corrupted and might not contain the
complete backup data.
Corrective action
If you are sure that the tape has the complete backup, retry the restore operation. If the
tape does not contain the complete backup, you cannot perform the restore operation.
Tape read error
Message
Tape read error
Cause
The tape drive is damaged or the tape does not contain the complete backup.
Corrective action
If the tape drive is damaged, use another tape drive. If the tape does not contain the
complete backup, you cannot restore the data.
Already at the end of tape
Message
Already at the end of tape
Cause
The tape does not contain any data or must be rewound.
74 | Data Protection Tape Backup and Recovery Guide
Corrective action
If the tape does not contain data, use the tape that contains the backup and retry the restore
job. Otherwise, rewind the tape and retry the restore job.
Tape record size is too small. Try a larger size.
Message
Tape record size is too small. Try a larger size.
Cause
The blocking factor specified for the restore operation is smaller than the blocking factor
that was used during the backup.
Corrective action
Use the same blocking factor that was specified during the backup.
Tape record size should be block_size1 and not block_size2
Message
Tape record size should be block_size1 and not block_size2
Cause
The blocking factor specified for the local restore is incorrect.
Corrective action
Retry the restore job with block_size1 as the blocking factor.
Tape record size must be in the range between 4KB and 256KB
Message
Tape record size must be in the range between 4KB and 256KB
Cause
The blocking factor specified for the backup or restore operation is not within the
permitted range.
Corrective action
Specify a blocking factor in the range of 4 KB to 256 KB.
NDMP error messages
You might encounter an error message while performing a tape backup or restore using NDMPenabled commercial backup applications.
Network communication error
Message
Network communication error
Cause
Communication to a remote tape in an NDMP three-way connection has failed.
Corrective action
Check the network connection to the remote mover.
Error messages for tape backup and restore of FlexVol volumes | 75
Message from Read Socket: error_string
Message
Message from Read Socket: error_string
Cause
Restore communication from the remote tape in NDMP 3-way connection has errors.
Corrective action
Check the network connection to the remote mover.
Message from Write Dirnet: error_string
Message
Message from Write Dirnet: error_string
Cause
Backup communication to a remote tape in an NDMP three-way connection has an error.
Corrective action
Check the network connection to the remote mover.
Read Socket received EOF
Message
Read Socket received EOF
Cause
Attempt to communicate with a remote tape in an NDMP three-way connection has
reached the End Of File mark. You might be attempting a three-way restore from a backup
image with a larger block size.
Corrective action
Specify the correct block size and retry the restore operation.
ndmpd invalid version number: version_number
Message
ndmpd invalid version number: version_number
Cause
The NDMP version specified is not supported by the storage system.
Corrective action
Specify NDMP version 4.
ndmpd session session_ID not active
Message
ndmpd session session_ID not active
Cause
The NDMP session might not exist.
Corrective action
Use the ndmpd status command to view the active NDMP sessions.
76 | Data Protection Tape Backup and Recovery Guide
Could not obtain vol ref for Volume volume_name
Message
Could not obtain vol ref for Volume vol_name
Cause
The volume reference could not be obtained because the volume might be in use by other
operations.
Corrective action
Retry the operation later.
Data connection type ["NDMP4_ADDR_TCP"|"NDMP4_ADDR_TCP_IPv6"]
not supported for ["IPv6"|"IPv4"] control connections
Message
Data connection type ["NDMP4_ADDR_TCP"|"NDMP4_ADDR_TCP_IPv6"] not
supported for ["IPv6"|"IPv4"] control connections
Cause
In node-scoped NDMP mode, the NDMP data connection established must be of the same
network address type (IPv4 or IPv6) as the NDMP control connection.
Corrective action
Contact your backup application vendor.
DATA LISTEN: CAB data connection prepare precondition error
Message
DATA LISTEN: CAB data connection prepare precondition error
Cause
NDMP data listen fails when the backup application has negotiated the CAB extension
with the NDMP server and there is a mismatch in the specified NDMP data connection
address type between the NDMP_CAB_DATA_CONN_PREPARE and the
NDMP_DATA_LISTEN messages.
Corrective action
Contact your backup application vendor.
DATA CONNECT: CAB data connection prepare precondition error
Message
DATA CONNECT: CAB data connection prepare precondition error
Cause
NDMP data connect fails when the backup application has negotiated the CAB extension
with the NDMP server and there is a mismatch in the specified NDMP data connection
address type between the NDMP_CAB_DATA_CONN_PREPARE and the
NDMP_DATA_CONNECT messages.
Corrective action
Contact your backup application vendor.
Error:show failed: Cannot get password for user '<username>'
Message
Error: show failed: Cannot get password for user '<username>'
Error messages for tape backup and restore of FlexVol volumes | 77
Cause
Incomplete user account configuration for NDMP
Corrective action
Ensure that the user account is associated with the SSH access method and the
authentication method is user password.
Dump error messages
You might encounter an error message while performing a tape backup or restore using the dump
engine.
Destination volume is read-only
Message
Destination volume is read-only
Cause
The path to which the restore operation is attempted to is read-only.
Corrective action
Try restoring the data to a different location.
Destination qtree is read-only
Message
Destination qtree is read-only
Cause
The qtree to which the restore is attempted to is read-only.
Corrective action
Try restoring the data to a different location.
Dumps temporarily disabled on volume, try again
Message
Dumps temporarily disabled on volume, try again
Cause
NDMP dump backup is attempted on a SnapMirror destination volume that is part of
either a snapmirror break or a snapmirror resync operation.
Corrective action
Wait for the snapmirror break or snapmirror resync operation to finish and then
perform the dump operation.
Note: Whenever the state of a SnapMirror destination volume changes from read/write
to read-only or from read-only to read/write, you must perform a baseline backup.
No files were created
Message
No files were created
Cause
A directory DAR was attempted without enabling the enhanced DAR functionality.
78 | Data Protection Tape Backup and Recovery Guide
Corrective action
Enable the enhanced DAR functionality and retry the DAR.
Restore of the file <file name> failed
Message
Restore of the file file name failed
Cause
When a DAR (Direct Access Recovery) of a file whose file name is the same as that of a
LUN on the destination volume is performed, then the DAR fails.
Corrective action
Retry DAR of the file.
Truncation failed for src inode <inode number>...
Message
Truncation failed for src inode <inode number>. Error <error
number>. Skipping inode.
Cause
Inode of a file is deleted when the file is being restored.
Corrective action
Wait for the restore operation on a volume to complete before using that volume.
Unable to lock a snapshot needed by dump
Message
Unable to lock a snapshot needed by dump
Cause
The Snapshot copy specified for the backup is not available.
Corrective action
Retry the backup with a different Snapshot copy.
Use the snap list command to see the list of available Snapshot copies.
Unable to locate bitmap files
Message
Unable to locate bitmap files
Cause
The bitmap files required for the backup operation might have been deleted. In this case,
the backup cannot be restarted.
Corrective action
Perform the backup again.
Volume is temporarily in a transitional state
Message
Volume is temporarily in a transitional state
Cause
The volume being backed up is temporarily in an unmounted state.
Error messages for tape backup and restore of FlexVol volumes | 79
Corrective action
Wait for some time and perform the backup again.
SMTape error messages
You might encounter an error message while performing a tape backup or restore using SMTape.
Chunks out of order
Message
Chunks out of order
Cause
The backup tapes are not being restored in the correct sequence.
Corrective action
Retry the restore operation and load the tapes in the correct sequence.
Chunk format not supported
Message
Chunk format not supported
Cause
The backup image is not of SMTape.
Corrective action
If the backup image is not of SMTape, retry the operation with a tape that has the SMTape
backup.
Failed to allocate memory
Message
Failed to allocate memory
Cause
The system has run out of memory.
Corrective action
Retry the job later when the system is not too busy.
Failed to get data buffer
Message
Failed to get data buffer
Cause
The storage system ran out of buffers.
Corrective action
Wait for some storage system operations to finish and then retry the job.
Failed to find snapshot
Message
Failed to find snapshot
80 | Data Protection Tape Backup and Recovery Guide
Cause
The Snapshot copy specified for the backup is unavailable.
Corrective action
Check if the specified Snapshot copy is available. If not, retry with the correct Snapshot
copy.
Failed to create snapshot
Message
Failed to create snapshot
Cause
The volume already contains the maximum number of Snapshot copies.
Corrective action
Delete some Snapshot copies and then retry the backup operation.
Failed to lock snapshot
Message
Failed to lock snapshot
Cause
The Snapshot copy is either in use or has been deleted.
Corrective action
If the Snapshot copy is in use by another operation, wait for that operation to finish and
then retry the backup. If the Snapshot copy has been deleted, you cannot perform the
backup.
Failed to delete snapshot
Message
Failed to delete snapshot
Cause
The auto Snapshot copy could not be deleted because it is in use by other operations.
Corrective action
Use the snap command to determine the status of the Snapshot copy. If the Snapshot copy
is not required, delete it manually.
Failed to get latest snapshot
Message
Failed to get latest snapshot
Cause
The latest Snapshot copy might not exist because the volume is being initialized by
SnapMirror.
Corrective action
Retry after initialization is complete.
Failed to load new tape
Message
Failed to load new tape
Error messages for tape backup and restore of FlexVol volumes | 81
Cause
Error in tape drive or media.
Corrective action
Replace the tape and retry the operation.
Failed to initialize tape
Message
Failed to initialize tape
Cause
You might get this error message for one of the following reasons:
•
The backup image is not of SMTape.
•
The tape blocking factor specified is incorrect.
•
The tape is corrupt or damaged.
•
The wrong tape is loaded for restore.
Corrective action
•
If the backup image is not of SMTape, retry the operation with a tape that has SMTape
backup.
•
If the blocking factor is incorrect, specify the correct blocking factor and retry the
operation.
•
If the tape is corrupt, you cannot perform the restore operation.
•
If the wrong tape is loaded, retry the operation with the correct tape.
Failed to initialize restore stream
Message
Failed to initialize restore stream
Cause
You might get this error message for one of the following reasons:
•
The backup image is not of SMTape.
•
The tape blocking factor specified is incorrect.
•
The tape is corrupt or damaged.
•
The wrong tape is loaded for restore.
Corrective action
•
If the backup image is not of SMTape, retry the operation with a tape that has the
SMTape backup.
•
If the blocking factor is incorrect, specify the correct blocking factor and retry the
operation.
•
If the tape is corrupt, you cannot perform the restore operation.
•
If the wrong tape is loaded, retry the operation with the correct tape.
82 | Data Protection Tape Backup and Recovery Guide
Failed to read backup image
Message
Failed to read backup image
Cause
The tape is corrupt.
Corrective action
If the tape is corrupt, you cannot perform the restore operation.
Image header missing or corrupted
Message
Image header missing or corrupted
Cause
The tape does not contain a valid SMTape backup.
Corrective action
Retry with a tape containing a valid backup.
Internal assertion
Message
Internal assertion
Cause
There is an internal SMTape error.
Corrective action
Report the error and send the etc/log/backup file to technical support.
Invalid backup image magic number
Message
Invalid backup image magic number
Cause
The backup image is not of SMTape.
Corrective action
If the backup image is not of SMTape, retry the operation with a tape that has the SMTape
backup.
Invalid backup image checksum
Message
Invalid backup image checksum
Cause
The tape is corrupt.
Corrective action
If the tape is corrupt, you cannot perform the restore operation.
Error messages for tape backup and restore of FlexVol volumes | 83
Invalid input tape
Message
Invalid input tape
Cause
The signature of the backup image is not valid in the tape header. The tape has corrupted
data or does not contain a valid backup image.
Corrective action
Retry the restore job with a valid backup image.
Invalid volume path
Message
Invalid volume path
Cause
The specified volume for the backup or restore operation is not found.
Corrective action
Retry the job with a valid volume path and volume name.
Mismatch in backup set ID
Message
Mismatch in backup set ID
Cause
The tape loaded during a tape change is not a part of the backup set.
Corrective action
Load the correct tape and retry the job.
Mismatch in backup time stamp
Message
Mismatch in backup time stamp
Cause
The tape loaded during a tape change is not a part of the backup set.
Corrective action
Use the smtape restore -h command to verify the header information of a tape.
Job aborted due to shutdown
Message
Job aborted due to shutdown
Cause
The storage system is being rebooted.
Corrective action
Retry the job after the storage system reboots.
84 | Data Protection Tape Backup and Recovery Guide
Job aborted due to Snapshot autodelete
Message
Job aborted due to Snapshot autodelete
Cause
The volume does not have enough space and has triggered the automatic deletion of
Snapshot copies.
Corrective action
Free up space in the volume and retry the job.
Tape is currently in use by other operations
Message
Tape is currently in use by other operations
Cause
The tape drive is in use by another job.
Corrective action
Retry the backup after the currently active job is finished.
Tapes out of order
Message
Tapes out of order
Cause
The first tape of the tape sequence for the restore operation does not have the image
header.
Corrective action
Load the tape with the image header and retry the job.
Transfer failed (Aborted due to MetroCluster operation)
Message
Transfer failed (Aborted due to MetroCluster operation)
Cause
The SMTape operation is aborted because of a switchover or switchback operation.
Corrective action
Perform the SMTape operation after the switchover or switchback operation finishes.
Transfer failed (ARL initiated abort)
Message
Transfer failed (ARL initiated abort)
Cause
While an SMTape operation is in progress if an aggregate relocation is initiated, then the
SMTape operation is aborted.
Corrective action
Perform the SMTape operation after the aggregate relocation operation finishes.
Error messages for tape backup and restore of FlexVol volumes | 85
Transfer failed (CFO initiated abort)
Message
Transfer failed (CFO initiated abort)
Cause
The SMTape operation is aborted because of a storage failover (takeover and giveback)
operation of a CFO aggregate.
Corrective action
Perform the SMTape operation after the storage failover of the CFO aggregate finishes.
Transfer failed (SFO initiated abort)
Message
Transfer failed (SFO initiated abort)
Cause
The SMTape operation is aborted because of a storage failover (takeover and giveback)
operation.
Corrective action
Perform the SMTape operation after the storage failover (takeover and giveback) operation
finishes.
Underlying aggregate under migration
Message
Underlying aggregate under migration
Cause
If an SMTape operation is initiated on an aggregate that is under migration (storage
failover or aggregate relocation), then the SMTape operation fails.
Corrective action
Perform the SMTape operation after the aggregate migration finishes.
Volume is currently under migration
Message
Volume is currently under migration
Cause
Volume migration and SMTape backup cannot run simultaneously.
Corrective action
Retry the backup job after the volume migration is complete.
Volume offline
Message
Volume offline
Cause
The volume being backed up is offline.
Corrective action
Bring the volume online and retry the backup.
86 | Data Protection Tape Backup and Recovery Guide
Volume not restricted
Message
Volume not restricted
Cause
The destination volume to which data is being restored is not restricted.
Corrective action
Restrict the volume and retry the restore operation.
87
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88
Trademark information
Active IQ, AltaVault, Arch Design, ASUP, AutoSupport, Campaign Express, Clustered Data ONTAP,
Customer Fitness, Data ONTAP, DataMotion, Fitness, Flash Accel, Flash Cache, Flash Pool,
FlexArray, FlexCache, FlexClone, FlexGroup, FlexPod, FlexScale, FlexShare, FlexVol, FPolicy,
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90 | Data Protection Tape Backup and Recovery Guide
Index
A
ADB
how the NDMP backup policy is affected during 66
affinity information
about 48
ARL
how it works with dump backup and restore
operations 60
how it works with SMTape backup and restore
operations 65
assigning
tape aliases 12
automatic data balancers
how the NDMP backup policy is affected during 66
B
backup
(incremental), what increment chain is 54
backup and restore sessions, SMTape
scalability limits for 64
backup engines
choosing 9
dump and SMTape 8
backup operation
clustered Data ONTAP 58
Data ONTAP operating in 7-Mode 58
backup or restore sessions
simultaneous, supported number of 19
backup policies, NDMP
how they are affected during ADB 66
backups
types of data that the dump engine backs up 53
VM-aligned files backed up by the dump engine 53
backups, dump
how they work 52
when to restart 55
baseline backup
SMTape, how Snapshot copies are used 63
between Data ONTAP operating in 7-Mode and clustered
Data ONTAP 58
blocking factor
described 55
bridges
maximum number supported for tape backup and
restore 19
C
CAB
about 47
NDMP v4 protocol extension 47
CAB extension
how SMTape works with volume move 66
how storage failover and ARL works with dump 60
how storage failover and ARL works with SMTape
65
capabilities
provided by SMTape 64
cause and corrective action 84
challenge
supported NDMP authentication method 41
Cluster Aware Backup extension
See CAB
collocation of volumes and tapes
detecting 48
commands
for managing node-scoped NDMP mode 44
for managing, tape drives, media changers, and tape
drive operations 10
for verifying tape library connections 13
options for ndmpcopy 24
comments
how to send feedback about documentation 89
considerations
before restoring data 57
for using NDMP 28
contexts, restartable
deleting 59
D
data
types of data that the dump engine backs up 53
DATA CONNECT: CAB data connection prepare
precondition error
cause and corrective action 76
DATA LISTEN: CAB data connection prepare
precondition error
cause and corrective action 76
data restore
considerations before performing 57
data restores
types of data that the dump engine restores 56
data transfer
using ndmpcopy 23
data, file system
how dump backups write from disk to tape 52
deleting
restartable contexts 59
tape aliases 12
different LIF types
volumes and tape devices available on 47
disaster recovery solution
using SMTape 63
disk to tape
how dump backups write file system data from 52
documentation
how to receive automatic notification of changes to
89
how to send feedback about 89
dump
about 52
backing up directories using 52
backing up files using 52
use cases for 9
Index | 91
dump and restore events
viewing log messages for 69
dump and volume move operations
interoperability of 60
dump backup
introduction to 8
dump backup and restore sessions
scalability limits for 58
dump backup from SnapVault secondary volume
about 60
dump backups
how they work 52
when to restart 55
dump engine
how it works with SnapMirror single file or LUN
restore 62
how it works with storage failover and ARL 60
what it restores 56
See also dump
dump error messages
destination qtree is read-only 77
destination volume is read-only 77
no files were created 77
restore of the file <file name> failed 78
truncation failed for src inode <inode number>... 78
unable to locate bitmap files 78
unable to lock a snapshot needed by dump 78
volume is temporarily in a transitional state 78
dump events
about 69
dump operations
how switchover and switchback operations affect 62
dump restores
about 56
dumps temporarily disabled on volume
cause and corrective action for the error message 77
E
enabling
tape reservations 13
enhanced DAR functionality
about 42
environment variables
descriptions of 29
uses 29
error messages
DATA CONNECT: CAB data connection prepare
precondition error 76
DATA LISTEN: CAB data connection prepare
precondition error 76
dumps temporarily disabled on volume, try again 77
maximum number of allowed dumps or restores in
progress 72
transfer failed (aborted due to MetroCluster
operation) 84
transfer failed (ARL initiated abort) 84
transfer failed (CFO initiated abort) 85
transfer failed (SFO initiated abort) 85
underlying aggregate under migration 85
event log files
accessing to monitor tape backup and restore
operations 68
event logging
enabling or disabling 70
extensions, NDMP
supported by clustered Data ONTAP 42
F
feedback
how to send comments about documentation 89
file system data
how dump backups write from disk to tape 52
files
types of data that the dump engine backs up 53
FlexVol volumes
how dump works with a full volume 61
tape backup and restore workflow for 8
tape backup of 8
format of dump and restore event log messages
about 68
I
increment chains
described 54
incremental backup
SMTape, how Snapshot copies are used 63
what increment chain is 54
incremental backup levels
understanding 54
incremental dump backups
when a FlexVol volume is full 61
Infinite Volumes
where to find information about restore 9
where to find information about tape backup 9
information
how to send feedback about improving
documentation 89
interoperability
between dump and SnapMirror single file or LUN
restore 62
between dump and storage failover or ARL 60
between SMTape and storage failover or ARL 65
between SMTape and volume move 66
dump with switchover and switchback operations 62
SMTape with switchover and switchback operations
67
L
limits, scalability
for dump backup and restore sessions 58
NDMP session 42
SMTape backup and restore session 64
M
managing tape backup and restore operations
using environment variables for 29
maximum number of allowed dumps or restores in
progress
cause and corrective action for the message 72
media changers
92 | Data Protection Tape Backup and Recovery Guide
commands for managing 10
medium changers
simultaneously supported for tape backup and
restore 19
MetroCluster configuration
how switchback or switchover affects SMTape
operations 67
how tape operations are affected during disaster
recovery using 51
MetroCluster configurations
how switchover and switchback affect dump
operations 62
mode, node-scoped NDMP
commands for managing 44
monitoring
tape backup and restore operations 68
multipath tape access
considerations when configuring 21
N
NDMP
about 27
common tape backup topologies 41
data connection types 49
transferring data using ndmpcopy 23
NDMP authentication methods
specifying 41
NDMP backup policies
how they are affected during ADB 66
NDMP control connections
about 47
NDMP error messages
could not obtain vol ref for Volume volume_name
76
DATA CONNECT: CAB data connection prepare
precondition error 76
data connection type not supported 76
DATA LISTEN: CAB data connection prepare
precondition error 76
Error:show failed: Cannot get password for user
'<username>' 76
message from Read Socket: error_string 75
message from Write Dirnet: error_string 75
ndmpd invalid version number: version_number
75
ndmpd session session_ID not active. 75
network communication error 74
read Socket received EOF 75
NDMP extensions
supported by clustered Data ONTAP 42
supported by ONTAP 42
NDMP mode
managing node-scoped 44
NDMP mode, node-scoped
commands for managing 44
NDMP modes
SVM scoped, understanding 28
NDMP modes of operation
understanding 27
NDMP restartable backup extension
supported by ONTAP 42
NDMP server
support secure control connections in SVM-scoped
mode 49
NDMP sessions
scalability limits for 42
NDMP user in node-scoped mode
authenticating 45
NDMP-specific password
generating 51
ndmpcopy
transferring data using 23
ndmpcopy command
options for 24
node-scoped NDMP mode
about 27
commands for managing 44
managing 44
performing tape backup and restore operations 28
understanding 28
nonqualified tape drives
using 11
O
operations, volume rehost
SMTape operations cannot commence 66
options
backup.log.enable (turns event logging on or off) 70
for the ndmpcopy command 24
P
physical path names
described 20
plaintext
supported NDMP authentication method 41
policies, NDMP backup
how they are affected during ADB 66
PPNs
See physical path names
protocol extensions, NDMP
supported by clustered Data ONTAP 42
protocols list
adding NDMP 46
Q
qualified tape drives
description of 15
R
rehost operations, volume
SMTape operations cannot commence 66
removing
tape aliases 12
requirements
before restoring data 57
restartable contexts
deleting 59
restarting dump backups
when to perform 55
Index | 93
restoration 58
restore events
about 70
restore operation
7-Mode volume to clustered Data ONTAP volume
58
clustered Data ONTAP 58
Data ONTAP operating in 7-Mode 58
restores, data
types of data that the dump engine restores 56
role-based
user authentication in 50
role-based authentication
SVM-scoped NDMP mode 50
routers
simultaneously supported for tape backup and
restore 19
S
scalability limits
for dump backup and restore sessions 58
NDMP session 42
SMTape backup and restore session 64
secondary volumes
SnapVault, what you can back up 60
secure control connection
establish between Data Management Application
(DMA) and NDMP server 49
establish using secure sockets (SSL/TLS) 49
serial numbers
about 20
sessions, dump backup and restore
scalability limits for 58
sessions, NDMP
scalability limits for 42
sessions, SMTape backup and restore
scalability limits for 64
single file restore
through SnapMirror, how it works with dump 62
SMTape
capabilities provided by 64
described 63
features not supported 64
how it works with volume move 66
use cases for 9
what tape seeding is 65
SMTape backup
considerations for performing an 63
introduction to 8
using Snapshot copies during 63
SMTape backup and restore sessions
scalability limits for 64
SMTape engine
how it works with storage failover and ARL 65
SMTape error messages
chunk format not supported 79
chunks out of order 79
failed to allocate memory 79
failed to create snapshot 80
failed to delete snapshot 80
failed to find snapshot 79
failed to get data buffer 79
failed to get latest snapshot 80
failed to initialize restore stream 81
failed to initialize tape 81
failed to load new tape 80
failed to lock snapshot 80
failed to read backup image 82
image header missing or corrupted 82
internal assertion 82
invalid backup image checksum 82
invalid backup image magic number 82
invalid input tape 83
invalid volume path 83
job aborted due to shutdown 83
job aborted due to Snapshot autodelete 84
mismatch in backup set ID 83
mismatch in backup time stamp 83
tape is currently in use by other operations 84
tapes out of order 84
transfer failed (aborted due to MetroCluster
operation) 84
transfer failed (ARL initiated abort) 84
transfer failed (CFO initiated abort) 85
transfer failed (SFO initiated abort) 85
underlying aggregate under migration 85
volume is currently under migration 85
volume not restricted 86
volume offline 85
SMTape operation
cannot commence with volume rehost 66
SMTape operations
how switchover and switchback operations affect 67
SnapMirror single file restore
how it works with dump backup and restore
operations 62
SnapMirror single LUN restore
how it works with dump backup and restore
operations 62
Snapshot copies
considerations while using 63
SMTape backup using 63
SnapVault secondary volumes
what you can back up from 60
SSL communication mechanism
to create secured control connection 49
storage failover
how it works with dump backup and restore
operations 60
how it works with SMTape backup and restore
operations 65
storage systems
adding Fiber Channel-attached drives dynamically to
21
considerations when using NDMP 28
dynamically adding tape drives and libraries to 21
suggestions
how to send feedback about documentation 89
SVM disaster recovery
how tape backup and restore operations are affected
during
SVM level
performing backup and restore operations at 46
SVM-scoped NDMP mode
about 27
94 | Data Protection Tape Backup and Recovery Guide
commands for managing 46
generating passwords 51
managing 46
understanding 28
user authentication in 50
SVMs
understanding NDMP mode for 28
switchback
how it affects dump backup and restore operations
62
how it affects SMTape backup and restore operations
67
switchover
how it affects dump backup and restore operations
62
how it affects SMTape backup and restore operations
67
system data, file
how dump backups write from disk to tape 52
T
tape access
considerations when configuring multipath 21
tape aliases
assigning 12
definition 19
removing 12
using serial numbers for 20
tape backup
blocking factor described 55
common NDMP topologies 41
using NDMP 27
tape backup and recovery
NDMP support for 8
of FlexVol volumes 8
using NDMP 27
using the dump engine 52
tape backup and restore
how these operations are affected during SVM
disaster recovery
Infinite Volumes, where to find information about 9
performing on FlexVol volumes 8
tape backup and restore error messages
already at the end of tape 73
could not initialize media 71
maximum number of allowed dumps or restores in
progress 72
media error on tape read 73
media error on tape write 72
resource limitation: no available thread 71
tape read error 73
tape record size is too small 74
tape record size must be in the range between 4KB
and 256KB 74
tape record size should be block_size1 and not
block_size2 74
tape reservation preempted 71
tape write error 73
tape write failed 72
tape write failed - new tape encountered media error
72
tape write failed - new tape is already at the end of
media 73
tape write failed - new tape is broken or write
protected 72
tape backup and restore operations
accessing event log files to monitor 68
how dump works with volume access changes 61
monitoring 68
performing per SVM basis 46
tape backup engines
choosing 9
types of 8
tape configuration files
accessing 15
format of 15
tape device name
format described 18
tape devices
described 17
tape drive connections
supported number of 19
tape drive qualification
using tape configuration file 15
tape drives
dynamically adding to storage systems 21
how they are qualified dynamically 17
managing 10
physical path names described 20
qualifying 15
understanding 15
using nonqualified 11
tape drives and tape drive operations
commands for managing 10
tape libraries
commands for verifying connections 13
dynamically adding to storage systems 21
tape reservations
described 21
disabling 13
enabling 13
tape restore
blocking factor described 55
tape seeding
described 65
transfer failed (Aborted due to MetroCluster operation)
cause and corrective action 84
transfer failed (ARL initiated abort) 84
transfer failed (CFO initiated abort)
cause and corrective action 85
transfer failed (SFO initiated abort)
cause and corrective action 85
Twitter
how to receive automatic notification of
documentation changes 89
U
underlying aggregate under migration
cause and corrective action 85
unsupported features
in SMTape 64
user authentication
in SVM-scoped mode 50
Index | 95
V
VM-aligned files
types of data that the dump engine backs up 53
volume access type change
how dump works with 61
volume move
how it works with dump 60
how SMTape works with 66
volume rehost operation
SMTape operations cannot commence 66
volumes and tape devices for backup and restore
operations
determining availability of 47
Vservers
See SVMs
W
workflows
tape backup and restore of FlexVol volumes 8
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