log2timeline cheat sheet
DIGITAL EVIDENCE COLLECTION
ADMINISTRATIVE
1. ADMINISTRATIVE STUFF
CASE SETUP
IMAGE INTEGRITY
5. BEFORE YOU GET STARTED..
Chain of Custody form
Digital Evidence Collection Form
Identify & compare logical partition
size(s) to physical drive size to
identify any deleted partitions or
unused disk space
Consent form (if needed)
Evidence Tracked and Stored
Review Policies and Laws (if needed)
Gain understanding of:
-Background
-If applicable, previous work
- Requirements/Goal of analysis
- Deliverable
Create Analysis Work Plan
Create Investigative Plan
Mount - Malware/Virus Scan (Don’t forget
about MBR)
Conduct file signature analysis, review
renamed files.
Mount - Stego Scan
Identify encrypted files (entropy)
Virtually Emulate – conduct behavior and
live analysis
KEYWORD SEARCHING
Create keyword list & QC syntax
formatting/code page usage (may be
iterative process)
Generate metadata (and extended) listings/
reports
Perform targeted or full disk search
including unallocated and slack areas.
RP / VSC
GATHER SYSTEM INFORMATION
Create hit report/stats
Identify if services turned on/used
Determine OS, service pack, OS install
date, application list, owner, machine
name, and other basic information.
FILTERING
Extract or make available accordingly
for analysis
Filter data based on meta data and
exteneded meta data such as Date and
Time values, File Extension, and etc.
Retrieve user profile information
(names, SIDs, create and last logon
dates)
3. SETUP CASE FOLDER (example)
INTERPRETATION- REVIEW
MOUNTING / VIRTUAL EMULATE
Index Case (DT Search, WDS, Encase, AD..)
Rename hard disk volumes as
necessary to “Recovery”, “C”, etc.
ANALYSIS
Conduct hash analysis, indentify “known”
and/or “notable” files.
Mount ALL compound files (VHD, VMDK,
ZIP,RAR, Email containers, Reg Files, etc
Retrieve time zone settings for each
disk and apply correct time zone, if
applicable
2. WORK PLAN (docs)
ANALYSIS PREP
PRE-PROCESSING ANALYTICS
Check physical size of drive and
compare to physical label accounting
for all drive space (Check for DCA/
HPA).
Review Policies and Laws
REPORTING
EXPORT
Export files from case for independent
analysis with specialty tools. For example:
Memory
Memorize
Redline
Volatility (SIFT)
Passwords
AD PRTK
Passware
Ophcrack
Shellbags
Shellbags.py (SIFT)
Internet History
WebHistorian
LNK Files
Tzworks
Lslnk (SIFT)
Event Logs (.evt &
.evtx)
Tzworks
GrokEVT
MFT
AnalyzeMFT
Ntfswalk (SIFT)
index/$I30
INDXParse.py (SIFT)
SIFT Workstation is a
great resource for
tons of tools!
Email
NUIX
Clearwell
Recover My Email
Bulk extractor (SIFT)
Image Mounting
FTK Imager
ImDisk
Live View
OSFMount
Virtual Box
Stego
Outguess
Hashing
Md5deep (SIFT)
Sha256deep (SIFT)
Hashdeep (SIFT)
Registry
Reg Ripper (SIFT)
Registry Decoder
AD Registry Viewer
Reglookup (SIFT)
YARU (SIFT)
Windows Journal
Parser
Tzworks
6. EQUATION FOR SUCCESSFUL ANALYSIS: (TIMELINES + MANUAL ANALYSIS) x (PASSION + TIME + RESEARCH + RESOURCES) = “WINNING”
Analysis
Folders
EV1 (Evidence Files)
WC (Working Copy of Files)
Case # - Project Name
Custodian Name
Media Type – EV #
Case File
Index
Reg Files
Internet Hist
Case Processor
Logs
Media Type – EV #
Media Type – EV #
WORK PLAN
GENERAL AREAS
REGISTRY ANALYSIS (Win only)
SYSTEM ARTIFACTS
MEMORY RESIDUE
Analyze general folder locations for
artifacts or data of interest. For
example:
>Desktop
>User folders
>Documents
>Desktop
>Network Shortcuts
>Recently Opened File folders
>System Temp folders
>Browser Temp Folders
>System Folders (malware)
>Autorun
The System registry hives (NTUSER.DAT,
SYSTEM, SOFTWARE, SECURITY, SAM..)
contain a vast of amount of information
that can be imperative to your analysis.
For Example:
-OS Version (SOFTWARE)
-Last logged on user (SAM)
-Last Failed Logon (SAM)
-Username & SID (SAM)
-Shutdown (SYSTEM)
-TimeZone (SYSTEM)
-Drives Mounted by User (NTUSER.DAT)
-File Ext Associations (NTUSER.DAT)
-Installed application list (SOFTWARE)
-Search History (SOFTWARE)
-Removable Storage Devices (SYSTEM)
Using Registry analysis tools, such as Reg
Ripper, can aid your analysis..
There are many system related artificacts
that may contain potentially relevant
information including:
-Backups (RP, VSC, others)
-Event Logs (.evt, evtx)
-Shell bags (Registry)
-Jump Lists
-Misc. Logs (firewall, AV, Apps, etc)
-Removable Media Connections
-LNK files
-Prefetch
-PageFile
If applicable, perform memory analysis to
gather volatile information including:
-Handles; files, directories, processes, registry
keys, Semaphores, events and sections
-Open network ports
-Hooks: Driver IRP, SSDT and IDT driver tree
*Organize output neatly!
4. CONFIRM IMAGE INTEGRITY
5
TIE IT ALL TOGETHER USING
TIMELINE ANALYSIS –
FLIP SIDE!
Compare Acquisition and Verification
Hash values (MD5, SHA)
E-MAIL/IM/SOCIAL ARTIFACTS
Identify email clients or web access on system
and perform analysis on associated data
stores or application residue/settings:
Client based (file examples):
Windows - .OST, .PST, .MSG, Temp folder for
Outlook attachments, Lotus Notes - .NSF, Mac .EML, .EMLX, .MBOX
Web based (OWA, Facebook, Twitter, etc.):
-Logs -Internet History reconstruction -Cache
SOFTWARE RESIDUE
Identify software (i.e Wiping tools, P2P,
Sticky Notes, hacker tools, etc) and perform
analysis on associated files (binary-malware
analysis), logs, settings, registry and etc.
QUESTIONS/FEEDBACK–CONTACT US!
Open/Run
MRU
Open/Save
MRU
File
Download
THE PURPOSE OF THIS REFERENCE GUIDE IS TO
PROVIDE AN OVERVIEW AND OUTLINE OF
COMMON PROCESSES, SOFTWARE, AND BEST
PRACTICES FOLLOWED BY PROFESSIONALS
CONDUCTING COMPUTER FORENSIC ANALYSIS
BY DAVID NIDES (12/16/2011)
TWITTER: @DAVNADS
BLOG: DAVNADS.BLOGSPOT.COM
EMAIL: DNIDES@KPMG.COM
CREDITS TO: ED GOINGS, ROB LEE & SANS
Identify installed browsers and perform
analysis on artifact such as:
-Parse Internet history files (index.dat,
sqlite, etc)
-Check temp folders
-Parse cookies
-Cached pages
-Form History/Auto complete files
-Favorites/bookmarks
-Toolbars
-WebSlices
-Browser plug ins
-Registry analysis
-Carve unallocated for deleted history
artifacts
...BUCKETING ANALYSIS “TO
DO” ITEMS LIKE THIS CAN HELP.
7. INTERPRETATION/REVIEW OF ARTIFACTS (examples) ..
Save Verification Reports
GENERAL FORENSIC ANALYSIS
CHECKLIST V.1.1
INTERNET
File Opening/
Creation
USB
Usage
MRU by ext
MACB
XP Search
ACMRU
File
Knowledge
First & Last
Insert Times
User Assist
LastVisited
MRU
Time Zone
Wireless
SSID
Physical
Location
Account
Usage
Browser
Usage
Last Password
Change
History
Skype
History
Index.dat /
places.sqlite
MS Office MRU
Win7 Search
WordWheelQuery
Identification
Program
Execution
Email
LNK Files
Search Box
Terms
Volume
Name
Run MRU
(Start->Run)
Cache
Drive Letter
MUI Cache
Success/Fail
Logons
Session
Restore
Cookies
Logon
Types
Search
Terms
LNK Files
Prefetch
8.REPORTNG
Last visited
MRU
Event Logs
Mount
Point
Document findings comprehensively
Have more?
Let me know!
Event Logs
Jump Lists
RDP Usage
Flash & Super
Cookies
Shellbags
Browser
Artifacts
IP
8
P2P Logs
JumpLists
Recycle Bin
Prefetch
Vista/W7 Network
History
Group
Membership
Index.dat file://
WIn7
Thumbnails
Thumbs.db
User
Identification
downloads.sqlite
Remember who the audience is
Image
exif
Account Logon/
Authentication
Suggested
Sites
Fact based Interpretation
Remember requirements/expectations
SID
Attributes
Memory Fragments of
Private Browsing
AJAX
Transactions
Typed URLS
SIFT REFERENCE GUIDE (V.1.1) – CREATING TIMELINES WITH THE SIFT WORKSTATION
2. BOOT SIFT VM
1. VISIT: http://computer-forensics11.sans.org/community/downloads
Download: SIFT Workstation VM Appliance
1
Download: SIFT Workstation Installation
List plugins # log2timeline -f list
...HELP EXPAND THIS LIST. BUILD
PLUGINS!!!
BY DAVID NIDES (12/16/2011)
TWITTER: @DAVNADS
BLOG: DAVNADS.BLOGSPOT.COM
EMAIL: DNIDES@KPMG.COM
CREDITS TO: ED GOINGS, ROB LEE
KRISTINN GUDJONSSON, KPMG & SANS!!
QUESTIONS/FEEDBACK–CONTACT US!
KEY
Red text – image/source
Blue text – mount point
Purple text – output file
Green text – log2timeline plugins
Brown text - TimeZone
4
3
Login:
sansforensics
Password: forensics
4. CONNECT IMAGE TO
SIFT
Plug hard drive to physical
host and attach to SIFT VM
3. ELEVATE PRIVS
THE PURPOSE OF THIS REFERENCE
GUIDE IS TO WALK THROUGH THE
PROCESS OF BOOTING THE SIFT
WORKSTATION, CREATING A TIMELINE
(“SUPER” OR “MICRO”) AND
REVIEWING IT.
5
5. HARD DRIVE MOUNTING (if you are using log2timeline-sift and Single DD you can skip to 7-A)
EWF/E01
log2timeline PARSING PLUGINS
SINGLE OR SPLIT IMAGE (2 options):
# mount_ewf.py image.E01 /mnt/ewf
or
# ewfmount image.E01 /mnt/ewf/
Not
Needed
For 7-A
HOW TO CALCULATE THE OFFSET
FOR MOUNTING
# mount -t ntfs -o ro,loop,show_sys_files,streams_interface=windows,
offset=#### /mnt/ewf/<image> /mnt/windows_mount/
1. Run mmls to query partition layout
# mmls image.E01
2. Identify partition and byte offset
3. (Partition byte offset) x (bytes per
sector) = offset #### to use!
Example: 63 X 512 = 32256
6
MOUNT TO MOUNT POINT
SINGLE IMAGE
Note: If needed, repeat for each
partition. Make new mount point:
# mkdir /mnt/windows_mount2/
# mount -t ntfs -o ro,loop,show_sys_files,streams_interface=windows,offset=#### image.dd /mnt/windows_mount/
DD
apache2_error - Apache2 error log
file
chrome - Chrome history file
encase_dirlisting - CSV file that is
exported from encase
evt - Windows 2k/XP/2k3 Event Log
evtx - Windows Event Log File (EVTX)
exif - Metadata information from files
using ExifTool
ff_bookmark - Firefox bookmark file
firefox2 - Firefox 2 browser history
firefox3 - Firefox 3 history file
ftk_dirlisting - CSV file that is
exported from FTK Imager (dirlisting)
generic_linux - Generic Linux logs that
start with MMM DD HH:MM:SS
iehistory - index.dat file containg IE
history
iis - IIS W3C log file
isatxt - ISA text export log file
jp_ntfs_change - CSV output file from
JP (NTFS Change log)
mactime - Body file in the mactime
format
mcafee - Log file
mft - NTFS MFT file
mssql_errlog - ERRORLOG file
produced by MS SQL server
ntuser - NTUSER.DAT registry file
opera - Opera's global history file
oxml - OpenXML document pcap
pcap - PCAP file
pdf - Available PDF document
metadata
prefetch - Prefetch directory
recycler - Recycle bin directory
restore 0.9 - Restore point directory
safari - Safari History.plist file
sam - SAM registry file
security - SECURITY registry file
setupapi - SetupAPI log file in
Windows XP
skype_sql - Skype database
software - SOFTWARE registry file
sol - .sol (LSO) or a Flash cookie file
squid - Squid access log
(http_emulate off)
syslog - Linux Syslog log file
system - SYSTEM registry file
tln - Body file in the TLN format
volatility - Volatility output files
(psscan2, sockscan2, ...)
win_link - Windows shortcut file (or
a link file)
wmiprov - wmiprov log file
xpfirewall - XP Firewall log
$ sudo su
2
SPLIT IMAGE (2 step process)
# affuse image.001 /mnt/aff
# mount –t ntfs-3g –o loop,ro,show_sys_files /mnt/aff/<image> /mnt/windows_mount/
8
7-A: AUTOMATED SUPER TIMELINE CREATION
log2timeline -help
Log2timeline-sift -help
L2t_process -help
FILE SYSTEM METADATA (using log2timeline or fls)
XP # log2timeline-sift –z EST5EDT -i image
Parse file system data w/log2timeline from mounted file system:
# log2timeline -f mft -o mactime –r -z EST5EDT -w
mft.body /mnt/volume/
OR Extract MFT from image using Sleuthkit:
# fls -m "" -o offset –r image.dd > fls.body
Convert body file format to CSV format w/ mactime:
# mactime –b fls.body –d > fls.csv
WIN7 # log2timeline-sift -win7 -z EST5EDT -i image
FOR PARTITION (mount and run using all applicable plugins):
XP # log2timeline-sift –z EST5EDT -p 0 -i partition
WIN7 # log2timeline-sift -win7 -z EST5EDT -p 0 -i partition
OTHER log2timeline
OUTPUT FORMATS
Note: CSV is Default Output
ARTIFACTS (run l2l on mounted file system with plugins recursively)
OTHER USAGE EXAMPLES:
-date: Date of the event, in the format of MM/DD/YYYY
-time: Time of day, expressed in a 24h format, HH:MM:SS
-timezone: the timezone that was used to call the tool with.
-MACB: MACB meaning of the fields, comp w/ mactime format.
-source: Source short name (i.e. registry entries are REG)
-sourcetype: Desc of the source (“Internet Explorer” instead of WEBHIST)
-type: Timestamp type (i.e. “Last Accessed”, “Last Written”)
-user: Username associated with the entry, if one is available.
-host: Hostname associated with the entry, if one is available.
-short: Contains less text than the full description field.
-desc: where majority info is stored, the actual parsed desc of the entry.
-version: Version number of the timestamp object.
-filename: Filename with the full path that contained the entry
-Inode: inode number of the file being parsed.
-notes: Some input modules insert additional information in the form of a
note, which comes here. Or it can be used during the review.
-format: Input module name used to parse the file.
-extra: Additional information parsed is joined together and put here.
HELP? OPTIONS? USAGE?
log2timeline [OPTIONS] [-f FORMAT] [-z TIMEZONE] [-o OUTPUT MODULE] [-w
BODYFILE] LOG_FILE/LOG_DIR [--] [FORMAT FILE OPTIONS]
DISK IMAGE (prompt for partition, mount, and run):
8. CSV FILE OUTPUT (/cases/timeline-output-folder)
7-A & 7-B
7-B: MANUAL “MICRO” TIMELINE CREATION
log2timeline-sift -o –z [TIMEZONE] -p [PARTITION #] -i [IMAGE FILE]
Display list of available plugins:
# log2timeline -f list
Run log2timeline use -o flag to use only specific plugins:
# log2timeline-sift -o evtx,preftch –z EST5EDT -i image.dd
Help (man page):
# log2timeline-sift -h
6. log2timeline default timezone is set to examiner local host. To change
use -z [TIMEZONE] option. To list all available timezones:
# log2timeline -z list
Extract artifacts w/ log2timeline and run on mounted file system:
# log2timeline -f firefox3,chrome -o mactime –r -z EST5EDT -w
web.body /mnt/volume/
Convert body file format to CSV format w/ mactime:
# mactime –b log2timeline.body –d > log2timeline.csv
10
-BeeDocs - Mac OS X visualization tool
-CEF - Common Event Format - ArcSight
-CFTL - XML file- CyberForensics TimeLab
visualization tool
-CSV - comma separated value file
-Mactime - Both older and newer version of
the format supported for use by TSK's
mactime
-SIMILE - XML file - SIMILE timeline
visualization widget
-SQLite - SQLite database
-TLN - Tab Delimited File
-TLN - Format used by some of H Carvey
tools, expressed as a ASCII output
-TLNX - Format used by some of H Carvey
tools, expressed as a XML document
9
9. FILTER TIMELINE
Filter timeline with date range to include only:
l2t_process -b timeline.csv MM-DD-YYYY..MM-DD-YYYY > filtered.csv
Filter timeline with keyword list (one term per line in keywords.txt):
l2t_process -b timeline.csv -k keywords.txt > filtered.csv
What sources are in your timeline?
awk–F , ‘{print $6;}’ timeline.csv| grep–v sourcetype|sort | uniq
Find all LNK files that reference E Drive
grep“Shortcut LNK” timeline.csv| grep“E:”
FiindMountPoints2 entries that reference E Drive
grep“MountPoints2 key” timeline.csv} | grep“E drive”
grepUSB timeline.csv| grep“SetupAPILog”
File System
Ext2/3
FAT
NTFS
UFS
M _____________ A ________ C______
Modified
Accessed Changed
Written
Accessed N/A
File Modified
Accessed MFT Modified
Modified
Accessed Changed
B_____
N/A
Created
Created
N/A
10. CONNECT TO SIFT
1. VM -> SETTINGS -> OPTIONS -> Shared
Folders -> Always Enabled (Check)
2. SIFT Desktop > VMware-Shared-Drive
Access from a Win Machine
\\SIFTWORKSTATION
11
11. REVIEW TIMELINE
Review timelines using:
- Open, Soft, Filter with Excel
- Import into SPLUNK
- SIMILE
- Tapestry
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