TS 102 744-1-2
ETSI TS 102 744-1-2 V1.1.1 (2015-10)
TECHNICAL SPECIFICATION
Satellite Earth Stations and Systems (SES);
Family SL Satellite Radio Interface (Release 1);
Part 1: General Specifications;
Sub-part 2: System Operation Overview
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ETSI TS 102 744-1-2 V1.1.1 (2015-10)
Reference
DTS/SES-00299-1-2
Keywords
3GPP, GPRS, GSM, GSO, interface, MSS, radio,
satellite, TDM, TDMA, UMTS
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ETSI TS 102 744-1-2 V1.1.1 (2015-10)
Contents
Intellectual Property Rights ................................................................................................................................6
Foreword.............................................................................................................................................................6
Modal verbs terminology....................................................................................................................................6
Introduction ........................................................................................................................................................6
1
Scope ........................................................................................................................................................7
2
References ................................................................................................................................................7
2.1
2.2
Normative references ......................................................................................................................................... 7
Informative references ........................................................................................................................................ 7
3
Abbreviations ...........................................................................................................................................8
4
Stratum introduction .................................................................................................................................9
5
Mobility Management (MM) ...................................................................................................................9
5.1
5.2
5.3
5.4
5.4.0
5.4.1
5.4.1.0
5.4.1.1
5.4.1.2
5.4.1.3
5.4.1.4
5.4.1.5
5.4.1.6
5.4.2
5.4.2.0
5.4.2.1
5.4.2.2
5.4.2.3
5.5
5.6
6
6.0
6.1
6.1.0
6.1.1
6.1.2
6.1.3
6.1.4
6.1.5
6.1.6
6.1.7
6.1.8
6.1.9
6.1.10
6.1.11
6.1.12
6.2
6.2.1
6.2.1.0
6.2.1.1
6.2.1.2
General principles............................................................................................................................................... 9
RRC States (Idle and Connected Mode)........................................................................................................... 10
UE and Network Operation Modes .................................................................................................................. 11
Mobility Management Service States ............................................................................................................... 12
General........................................................................................................................................................ 12
PS Domain Service State Machine ............................................................................................................. 12
General .................................................................................................................................................. 12
PMM-DETACHED State...................................................................................................................... 12
PMM-IDLE State .................................................................................................................................. 12
PMM-CONNECTED State ................................................................................................................... 13
State Transitions and Functions ............................................................................................................ 13
Periodic Routing Area Update Timer .................................................................................................... 14
Mobile Reachable Timer ....................................................................................................................... 14
CS Domain Service State Machine ............................................................................................................. 14
General .................................................................................................................................................. 14
CMM-DETACHED State ..................................................................................................................... 14
CMM-IDLE State ................................................................................................................................. 15
CMM-CONNECTED State .................................................................................................................. 15
Connection Maintenance .................................................................................................................................. 15
Mobility Management Procedures ................................................................................................................... 16
Numbering, Addressing and Identification ............................................................................................16
General ............................................................................................................................................................. 16
Non-Access Stratum ......................................................................................................................................... 16
General........................................................................................................................................................ 16
PLMN Identifier (PLMN ID)...................................................................................................................... 16
International Mobile Subscriber Identity (IMSI) ........................................................................................ 16
Temporary Mobile Subscriber Identity (TMSI) and Packet Temporary Mobile Subscriber Identity
(P-TMSI) .................................................................................................................................................... 16
International Mobile Station Equipment Identity/Software Version (IMEI/IMEISV) ............................... 16
Location Area Identification (LAI) ............................................................................................................. 17
Routing Area Identification (RAI) .............................................................................................................. 17
Mobile Station International PSTN/ISDN Number (MSISDN) ................................................................. 18
Mobile Station Roaming Number (MSRN) ................................................................................................ 18
Mobile Station International Data Number ................................................................................................. 18
IPv4 Address ............................................................................................................................................... 18
IPv6 Address ............................................................................................................................................... 18
Access Point Name ..................................................................................................................................... 18
Access Stratum (Usl Stratum) .......................................................................................................................... 18
UE Identification ........................................................................................................................................ 18
General .................................................................................................................................................. 18
RRC-IDLE Mode .................................................................................................................................. 18
RRC-CONNECTED Mode ................................................................................................................... 18
ETSI
4
6.2.2
6.2.3
6.2.4
6.2.4.1
6.3
6.3.0
6.3.1
6.3.2
6.3.3
6.3.4
6.3.5
6.3.6
6.3.7
6.3.8
6.3.9
6.3.10
6.3.11
7
Radio Resource to Network Layer UE Identity Association ...................................................................... 19
Logical Radio Interface Connection Identifiers .......................................................................................... 19
Other Identifiers .......................................................................................................................................... 19
Spot Beam ID ........................................................................................................................................ 19
Access Stratum (Iu Stratum) ............................................................................................................................ 19
General........................................................................................................................................................ 19
PLMN Identifier (PLMN ID)...................................................................................................................... 19
CN Domain Identifier ................................................................................................................................. 19
CN Domain Indicator.................................................................................................................................. 19
RNC Identifier ............................................................................................................................................ 20
RNC Addresses ........................................................................................................................................... 20
Service Area Identifier (SAI) ...................................................................................................................... 20
Permanent NAS UE Identity....................................................................................................................... 21
Temporary NAS UE Identity ...................................................................................................................... 21
Radio Access Bearer Identity (RAB ID)..................................................................................................... 21
Iu Signalling Connection Identifier ............................................................................................................ 22
Paging Area Identity ................................................................................................................................... 22
System Information ................................................................................................................................22
7.1
7.2
7.3
7.3.0
7.3.1
7.3.1.0
7.3.1.1
7.3.1.2
7.3.1.3
7.3.1.4
7.3.1.5
7.3.1.6
7.3.2
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ETSI TS 102 744-1-2 V1.1.1 (2015-10)
General Principles ............................................................................................................................................ 22
System Information in Idle and Connected Modes .......................................................................................... 22
System Information Elements .......................................................................................................................... 23
General........................................................................................................................................................ 23
Access Stratum System Information ........................................................................................................... 23
General .................................................................................................................................................. 23
Primary Bearer ...................................................................................................................................... 23
PLMN ID .............................................................................................................................................. 24
Access Control ...................................................................................................................................... 24
Spot Beam Map ..................................................................................................................................... 24
Common Signalling Retry..................................................................................................................... 24
GPS Policy Info .................................................................................................................................... 24
Non-Access Stratum System Information................................................................................................... 24
UE Idle Mode Behaviour .......................................................................................................................25
8.1
NAS/AS Functional Divisions ......................................................................................................................... 25
8.2
Idle Mode Procedures ....................................................................................................................................... 25
8.2.1
Non-Access Stratum ................................................................................................................................... 25
8.2.2
Access Stratum (Usl Stratum) ..................................................................................................................... 25
8.2.2.0
General .................................................................................................................................................. 25
8.2.2.1
PLMN Discovery .................................................................................................................................. 26
8.2.2.2
PSAB Discovery ................................................................................................................................... 26
8.2.2.2.1
Method............................................................................................................................................. 26
8.2.2.2.2
Spot Beam Selection Methods ......................................................................................................... 26
9
Sleep Mode .............................................................................................................................................26
Annex A (informative):
A.1
Introduction ............................................................................................................................................28
A.1.1
A.1.2
A.2
System operation ............................................................................................28
Network Architecture ....................................................................................................................................... 28
Adaptation Layer .............................................................................................................................................. 28
Example Call Flows ...............................................................................................................................28
A.2.1
A.2.2
A.2.2.0
A.2.2.1
A.2.2.2
A.2.2.3
A.2.3
A.2.4
A.2.5
A.2.5.0
A.2.5.1
User Equipment Start up Sequence .................................................................................................................. 28
Selection of Primary Shared Access Bearer ..................................................................................................... 29
General........................................................................................................................................................ 29
Spot Beam Hierarchy .................................................................................................................................. 29
Regional Beam Selection ............................................................................................................................ 30
Narrow Beam Access.................................................................................................................................. 30
PSAB Selection Process ................................................................................................................................... 30
Registration on the Satellite Network ............................................................................................................... 31
Attach Procedure and Combined Procedures ................................................................................................... 32
General........................................................................................................................................................ 32
IMSI Attach Procedure ............................................................................................................................... 33
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ETSI TS 102 744-1-2 V1.1.1 (2015-10)
A.2.5.2
GPRS Attach Procedure.............................................................................................................................. 35
A.2.6
Mobile Originated Circuit Switched Call Set Up ............................................................................................. 36
A.2.7
Emergency Calls .............................................................................................................................................. 37
A.2.8
Mobile Terminated Circuit Switched Call Set Up ............................................................................................ 40
A.2.9
Circuit Switched Call Clearing ......................................................................................................................... 42
A.2.10
Activation of Packet Switched Session, "PDP Context" .................................................................................. 43
A.2.11
Deactivation of Packet Switched Session ......................................................................................................... 45
A.2.12
Preservation of PDP context during release of RAB/PS signalling connection ............................................... 46
A.2.12.0
General........................................................................................................................................................ 46
A.2.12.1
Temporary Release of a Packet Switched Radio Access Bearer due to Inactivity...................................... 46
A.2.12.1.0
General .................................................................................................................................................. 46
A.2.12.1.1
Uplink PDU causing restoration of packet switched RAB following Earlier release ........................... 46
A.2.12.1.2
Downlink PDU causing restoration of Packet Switched RAB following earlier RAB release ............. 47
A.2.12.2
Temporary Release of a Packet Switched Signalling Connection due to Inactivity ................................... 48
A.2.12.2.0
General .................................................................................................................................................. 48
A.2.12.2.1
Uplink PDU arrival causing restoration of PS Signalling connection and RABs following Earlier
release ................................................................................................................................................... 48
A.2.12.2.2
Downlink PDU arrival causing restoration of Iu PS Signalling connection and RABs following
Earlier release ........................................................................................................................................ 50
A.2.13
PS and CS detach ............................................................................................................................................. 52
A.2.13.1
CS Detach, Mobile Originated .................................................................................................................... 52
A.2.13.2
Mobile Initiated Detach via the PS Domain (GPRS Detach, IMSI Detach or combined GPRS/IMSI
Detach)........................................................................................................................................................ 52
A.2.14
Handover .......................................................................................................................................................... 54
A.2.14.0
General........................................................................................................................................................ 54
A.2.14.1
Radio Access Bearer Set-up and Release ................................................................................................... 54
A.2.14.2
Change in UE Location............................................................................................................................... 55
A.2.15
Deregistration ................................................................................................................................................... 55
A.2.16
MBMS Context Activation .............................................................................................................................. 56
A.2.17
MBMS Context Deactivation ........................................................................................................................... 56
History ..............................................................................................................................................................57
ETSI
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ETSI TS 102 744-1-2 V1.1.1 (2015-10)
Intellectual Property Rights
IPRs essential or potentially essential to the present document may have been declared to ETSI. The information
pertaining to these essential IPRs, if any, is publicly available for ETSI members and non-members, and can be found
in ETSI SR 000 314: "Intellectual Property Rights (IPRs); Essential, or potentially Essential, IPRs notified to ETSI in
respect of ETSI standards", which is available from the ETSI Secretariat. Latest updates are available on the ETSI Web
server (http://ipr.etsi.org).
Pursuant to the ETSI IPR Policy, no investigation, including IPR searches, has been carried out by ETSI. No guarantee
can be given as to the existence of other IPRs not referenced in ETSI SR 000 314 (or the updates on the ETSI Web
server) which are, or may be, or may become, essential to the present document.
Foreword
This Technical Specification (TS) has been produced by ETSI Technical Committee Satellite Earth Stations and
Systems (SES).
The present document is part 1, sub-part 2 of a multi-part deliverable. Full details of the entire series can be found in
ETSI TS 102 744-1-1 [i.11].
Modal verbs terminology
In the present document "shall", "shall not", "should", "should not", "may", "need not", "will", "will not", "can" and
"cannot" are to be interpreted as described in clause 3.2 of the ETSI Drafting Rules (Verbal forms for the expression of
provisions).
"must" and "must not" are NOT allowed in ETSI deliverables except when used in direct citation.
Introduction
This multi-part deliverable (Release 1) defines a satellite radio interface that provides UMTS services to users of mobile
terminals via geostationary (GEO) satellites in the frequency range 1 518,000 MHz to 1 559,000 MHz (downlink) and
1 626,500 MHz to 1 660,500 MHz and 1 668,000 MHz to 1 675,000 MHz (uplink).
ETSI
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ETSI TS 102 744-1-2 V1.1.1 (2015-10)
Scope
The present document provides an overview of the Family SL system operation, and describes fundamental UMTS
elements such as mobility management, numbering and addressing, and idle mode behaviour as they apply to the
Family SL satellite network. In general, these elements are the same for both terrestrial UMTS and the satellite network.
Where appropriate, references to 3GPP documents are given, otherwise the text highlights the areas where the terrestrial
UMTS and Family SL elements differ.
2
References
2.1
Normative references
References are either specific (identified by date of publication and/or edition number or version number) or
non-specific. For specific references, only the cited version applies. For non-specific references, the latest version of the
reference document (including any amendments) applies.
Referenced documents which are not found to be publicly available in the expected location might be found at
http://docbox.etsi.org/Reference.
NOTE:
While any hyperlinks included in this clause were valid at the time of publication, ETSI cannot guarantee
their long term validity.
The following referenced documents are necessary for the application of the present document.
[1]
ETSI TS 123 003: "Digital cellular telecommunications system (Phase 2+); Universal Mobile
Telecommunications System (UMTS); Numbering, addressing and identification
(3GPP TS 23.003 Release 4)".
[2]
ETSI TS 123 060: "Digital cellular telecommunications system (Phase 2+); Universal Mobile
Telecommunications System (UMTS); General Packet Radio Service (GPRS); Service
description; Stage 2 (3GPP TS 23.060 Release 4)".
[3]
ETSI TS 123 122: "Universal Mobile Telecommunications System (UMTS); Non-Access-Stratum
functions related to Mobile Station (MS) in idle mode (3GPP TS 23.122 Release 4)".
[4]
ETSI TS 125 413: "Universal Mobile Telecommunications System (UMTS); UTRAN Iu interface
Radio Access Network Application Part (RANAP) signalling (3GPP TS 25.413 Release 4)".
[5]
ETSI TS 102 744-1-4: "Satellite Earth Stations and Systems (SES); Family SL Satellite Radio
Interface (Release 1); Part 1: General Specifications; Sub-part 4: Applicable External
Specifications, Symbols and Abbreviations".
[6]
Recommendation ITU-T E.164: "The international public telecommunication numbering plan".
2.2
Informative references
References are either specific (identified by date of publication and/or edition number or version number) or
non-specific. For specific references, only the cited version applies. For non-specific references, the latest version of the
reference document (including any amendments) applies.
NOTE:
While any hyperlinks included in this clause were valid at the time of publication, ETSI cannot guarantee
their long term validity.
The following referenced documents are not necessary for the application of the present document but they assist the
user with regard to a particular subject area.
[i.1]
ETSI TS 122 101: "Universal Mobile Telecommunications System (UMTS); Service aspects;
Service principles (3GPP TS 22.101 Release 4)".
[i.2]
ETSI TS 123 221: "Digital cellular telecommunications system (Phase 2+); Universal Mobile
Telecommunications System (UMTS); Architectural requirements (3GPP TS 23.221 Release 4)".
ETSI
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3
ETSI TS 102 744-1-2 V1.1.1 (2015-10)
[i.3]
ETSI TS 124 007: "Digital cellular telecommunications system (Phase 2+); Universal Mobile
Telecommunications System (UMTS); Mobile radio interface signalling layer 3; General Aspects
(3GPP TS 24.007 Release 4)".
[i.4]
ETSI TS 124 008: "Digital cellular telecommunications system (Phase 2+); Universal Mobile
Telecommunications System (UMTS); Mobile radio interface Layer 3 specification; Core network
protocols; Stage 3 (3GPP TS 24.008 Release 4)".
[i.5]
ETSI TS 125 331: "Universal Mobile Telecommunications System (UMTS); Radio Resource
Control (RRC) protocol specification (3GPP TS 25.331 Release 4)".
[i.6]
ETSI TS 133 102: "Universal Mobile Telecommunications System (UMTS); 3G security; Security
architecture (3GPP TS 33.102 Release 4)".
[i.7]
Recommendation ITU-T E.212: "The international identification plan for public networks and
subscriptions".
[i.8]
ETSI TS 122 060: "Digital cellular telecommunications system (Phase 2+); Universal Mobile
Telecommunications System (UMTS); General Packet Radio Service (GPRS); Service
description; Stage 1 (3GPP TS 22.060 Release 4)".
[i.9]
ETSI TS 122 011: "Digital cellular telecommunications system (Phase 2+); Universal Mobile
Telecommunications System (UMTS); Service accessibility (3GPP TS 22.011 Release 4)".
[i.10]
ETSI TS 125 304: "Universal Mobile Telecommunications System (UMTS); User Equipment
(UE) procedures in idle mode and procedures for cell reselection in connected mode
(3GPP TS 25.304 Release 4)".
[i.11]
ETSI TS 102 744-1-1: "Satellite Earth Stations and Systems (SES); Family SL Satellite Radio
Interface (Release 1); Part 1: General Specifications; Sub-part 1: Services and Architectures".
[i.12]
ETSI TS 102 744-3-1: "Satellite Earth Stations and Systems (SES); Family SL Satellite Radio
Interface (Release 1); Part 3: Control Plane and User Plane Specifications; Sub-part 1: Bearer
Control Layer Interface".
[i.13]
ETSI TS 102 744-3-2: "Satellite Earth Stations and Systems (SES); Family SL Satellite Radio
Interface (Release 1); Part 3: Control Plane and User Plane Specifications; Sub-part 2: Bearer
Control Layer Operation".
[i.14]
ETSI TS 102 744-3-5: "Satellite Earth Stations and Systems (SES); Family SL Satellite Radio
Interface (Release 1); Part 3: Control Plane and User Plane Specifications; Sub-part 5: Adaptation
Layer Interface".
[i.15]
ETSI TS 102 744-3-6: "Satellite Earth Stations and Systems (SES); Family SL Satellite Radio
Interface (Release 1); Part 3: Control Plane and User Plane Specifications; Sub-part 6: Adaptation
Layer Operation".
[i.16]
ETSI TS 102 744-3-7: "Satellite Earth Stations and Systems (SES); Family SL Satellite Radio
Interface (Release 1); Part 3: Control Plane and User Plane Specifications; Sub-part 7: NAS Layer
Interface Extensions for MBMS Services".
[i.17]
ETSI TS 102 744-3-8: "Satellite Earth Stations and Systems (SES); Family SL Satellite Radio
Interface (Release 1); Part 3: Control Plane and User Plane Specifications; Sub-part 8: NAS Layer
and User Plane Operation for MBMS Services".
[i.18]
Recommendation ITU-T E.213: "Telephone and ISDN numbering plan for land mobile stations in
public land mobile networks (PLMN)".
Abbreviations
For the purposes of the present document, the abbreviations given in ETSI TS 102 744-1-4 [5], clause 3 apply.
ETSI
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ETSI TS 102 744-1-2 V1.1.1 (2015-10)
Stratum introduction
For reference purposes, the functional aspects of the Family SL satellite network are shown in Figure 4.1. The
Non-Access Stratum (NAS) groups together all protocols between the UE and the CN. The Access Stratum is divided
into an Usl Stratum, which groups all protocols between the UE and RNS and an Iu Stratum, which groups all protocols
between the RNS and CN. By definition the Usl and Iu Strata cross the Usl and Iu interfaces respectively.
USL
IU
CM
CM
MM
MM
Non-Access Stratum
RELAY
AL
BCn
BCt
L1
AL
BCn
BCt
L1
RANAP
RANAP
SCCP
over
ATM
SCCP
over
ATM
USL Stratum
IU Stratum
Access Stratum
RNS
UE
CN
Figure 4.1: Stratum Divisions
5
Mobility Management (MM)
5.1
General principles
UMTS Layer 3 in the Control Plane contains two primary sublayers: Mobility Management (MM) and Connection
Management (CM); see ETSI TS 124 007 [i.3], Figure 5.6. The CM sublayer controls access to circuit switched, packet
switched, messaging, and other supplementary services. The MM sublayer is primarily responsible for tracking the
location of the mobile subscribers within the satellite network and authorizing access to the network. MM provides
services to entities in the CM sublayer (i.e. CM messages are transported by MM).
The MM sublayer contains two protocol entities: GPRS Mobility Management (GMM) for the PS domain and Mobility
Management (MM) for the CS domain. There is one instance of GMM and one instance of MM in both the UE and the
network (SGSN and MSC respectively).
As shown in Figure 5.1, the MM sublayer is entirely contained within the Non-Access Stratum. GMM and MM
procedures and the contents of messages (PDUs) are fully transparent to the Access Stratum. Since the CM sublayer
uses services from the MM sublayer, Call Control (CC), Session Management (SM), GPRS Short Message Service
(GSMS) and Supplementary Service (SS) messages and procedures are also transparent to the Access Stratum.
ETSI
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ETSI TS 102 744-1-2 V1.1.1 (2015-10)
USL
IU
SM CC SS SMS
SM CC SS SMS
UMTS LAYER 3 – CONNECTION MANAGEMENT SUBLAYER (CM)
GMM
MM
GMM
MM
UMTS LAYER 3 – MOBILITY MANAGEMENT SUBLAYER (MM)
Non-Access Stratum
USL Stratum
IU Stratum
Access Stratum
UE
RNS
CN
Figure 5.1: UMTS Layer 3 in Non-Access Stratum
5.2
RRC States (Idle and Connected Mode)
In terrestrial UMTS, the terms "idle mode" and "connected mode" refers to states of the Radio Resource Control (RRC)
protocol layer (see ETSI TS 125 331 [i.5]). The RRC protocol [i.5] is not directly implemented in the satellite network;
however, the Adaptation Layer (specifically the REGM entity, see ETSI TS 102 744-3-5 [i.14]) is responsible for
maintaining the equivalent RRC state machine.
In the satellite network context, the RRC state (or mode) refers to the presence or absence of a UE-Specific Signalling
connection between the UE and the RNC. This connection is established at the (successful) conclusion of the
Registration procedure and released at the conclusion of the Deregistration procedure.
There are two main RRC states illustrated in Figure 5.2 and defined as follows:
•
RRC-IDLE: no UE-Specific Signalling connection is established between UE and RNC.
•
RRC-CONNECTED: a UE-Specific Signalling connection is established between the UE and the RNC which
is serving the UE (the "Serving RNC" or SRNC).
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ETSI TS 102 744-1-2 V1.1.1 (2015-10)
RRC-IDLE
(REGM-IDLE)
UE-Specific
Signalling Connection
Release
(Deregistration)
UE-Specific
Signalling Connection
Establish
(Registration)
RRC-CONNECTED
(REGM-REGISTERED)
Figure 5.2: Equivalent RRC States in the satellite network
5.3
UE and Network Operation Modes
A UE can operate in one of three modes:
•
PS/CS Mode: The UE is attached to both the PS domain and CS domain, and the UE is capable of
simultaneously operating PS services and CS services. This mode of operation is equivalent to the GSM GPRS
Class-A mode of operation.
•
PS mode: The UE is attached to the PS domain only and may only operate services of the PS domain.
However, this does not prevent CS-like services to be offered over the PS domain. This mode of operation is
equivalent to the GSM GPRS Class-C mode of operation.
•
CS mode: The UE is attached to the CS domain only and may only operate services of the CS domain.
However, this does not prevent PS-like service to be offered over the CS domain.
The satellite network may operate either in Mode I or Mode II, i.e. the Gs interface between the MSC/VLR and SGSN
may or may not exist for the purpose of coordinating GMM and MM functions (i.e. Attach, Location/Routing Area
Update, Paging, etc.). The network mode of operation (NMO) is indicated to the UE as part of the broadcast system
information.
Based on the mode of operation indicated by the network, the UE can then choose whether it can attach to CS domain
services, to PS domain services, or to both, according to its mode of operation [i.8]. Furthermore, based on the mode of
operation, the UE can choose whether it can initiate combined update procedures or separate update procedures,
according to its capabilities. The combined GMM/MM functions avoid the need to send both MM and GMM messages
when the PS domain can pass the necessary information to the CS domain privately within the CN.
A UE operating in CS/PS mode may have two signalling connections to the CN: a CS signalling connection to the
MSC/VLR and a PS signalling connection to the SGSN. Signalling connections have two components: an Iu connection
(RNC to CN) and an UE-Specific Signalling Connection (UE to RNC). Even though two separate Iu connections are
required for the CS and PS domains (i.e. Iu-CS and Iu-PS), a single UE-Specific Signalling Connection is used for both
the PS and CS domain (see Figure 5.3). The Adaptation Layer is responsible for the routing of signalling to and from
the correct domain.
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ETSI TS 102 744-1-2 V1.1.1 (2015-10)
CS Service
Domain
PS Service
Domain
CS State
PS State
MSC/VLR
SGSN
2x
Iu Signalling
Connections/
RANAP
Instances
RAN
1x
UE=Specific
Signalling
Connecton
UE
CS State
PS State
Figure 5.3: Relationship Between Service States and Signalling Connections
5.4
Mobility Management Service States
5.4.0
General
Each domain has its own service state machine (see Figure 5.3). An UE, that is supporting both CS services and PS
services, has a CS service state machine and a PS service state machine. For every UE, there is a corresponding PS state
machine and CS state machine in the SGSN and MSC respectively. The two peers of the service state machine are
working independently to each other, although associated to the same UE. The UE-CN signalling aims to keep the peer
entities synchronized.
5.4.1
5.4.1.0
PS Domain Service State Machine
General
The PS service state machine is called Packet Mobility Management (or PMM).
5.4.1.1
PMM-DETACHED State
In the PMM-DETACHED state there is no communication between the UE and the SGSN. The UE and SGSN PMM
contexts hold no valid location or routing information for the UE. The UE MM state machine does not react on system
information related to the SGSN. The UE is not reachable by a SGSN, as the UE location is not known.
In order to establish PMM contexts in the UE and the SGSN, the UE shall perform the (GMM) GPRS Attach procedure.
When the PS signalling connection is established between the UE and the SGSN for performing the (GMM) GPRS
Attach procedure, the state changes to PMM-CONNECTED in the SGSN and in the UE. A complete PS signalling
connection is made up of two parts: an Iu connection (RNC to SGSN) and an UE-Specific Signalling Connection (UE
to RNC).
5.4.1.2
PMM-IDLE State
In the PMM-IDLE state, a complete PS signalling connection is not established between the UE and SGSN, but the UE
and SGSN have (previously) established PMM contexts. The UE location is known in the SGSN with an accuracy of a
routing area. Paging is needed in order to reach the UE, e.g. for signalling. The UE shall perform the (GMM) Routing
Area Update (RAU) procedure if the RA changes. Signalling towards the HLR is needed if the SGSN does not have a
PMM context for this UE.
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ETSI TS 102 744-1-2 V1.1.1 (2015-10)
The UE and SGSN shall enter the PMM-CONNECTED state whenever the complete PS signalling connection is
re-established between the UE and SGSN (required to initiate any GMM procedure).
While in the PMM-IDLE state, the SGSN or the UE may perform an implicit detach (i.e. without signalling), after
which the local PMM state only changes to PMM-DETACHED. The SGSN may perform an implicit GPRS Detach any
time after the UE Mobile Reachable Timer expires. The UE's PMM context in the SGSN is deleted, preferably after a
certain (implementation dependent) time. The HLR may be informed about the deletion. The UE may perform an
implicit GPRS Detach when, for example, the battery or USIM are removed, or the UE is switched off.
5.4.1.3
PMM-CONNECTED State
The UE location is known in the SGSN with an accuracy of a serving RNC. In the PMM-CONNECTED state, the
location of the UE is tracked by the serving RNC. The UE performs the (GMM) Routing Area Update procedure if the
RA changes (or if the RAI in the System Information broadcast changes).
When an UE and a SGSN are in the PMM-CONNECTED state, a complete PS signalling connection is established
between the UE and the SGSN and GMM procedures can be initiated. In the SGSN, PS signalling connection release or
changes the state to PMM-IDLE.
The UE shall enter the PMM-IDLE state when its PS signalling connection to the SGSN has been released or broken
(i.e. the Iu-PS connection and/or the UE-Specific Signalling connection is released or broken). The signalling
connection release is explicitly indicated by the RNC to the UE or detected by the UE.
After a signalling procedure (e.g. Routing Area Update), the SGSN may decide to release the PS signalling connection,
after which the state is changed to PMM-IDLE. Completion of the (GMM) GPRS Detach procedure (either initiated by
the UE or the SGSN) changes the state to PMM-DETACHED.
5.4.1.4
State Transitions and Functions
Figure 5.4 shows the PMM state machine in both the UE and SGSN. Note that the PMM-IDLE and PMMCONNECTED states are independent of the Session Management state. The activation or deactivation of PDP Contexts
by the SM entity does not affect the PMM state.
START
PMM-DETACHED
GMM: GPRS Attach
Implicit
Detach
GMM: GPRS Detach
PS Signalling
Connection Release
PMM-IDLE
PMM-CONNECTED
(SM-ACTIVE or
SM-INACTIVE)
(SM-ACTIVE or
SM-INACTIVE)
PS Signalling
Connection Establish
Note: This
transition in SGSN
State Machine Only
Serving RNC
Relocation
Figure 5.4: PS Domain Service State Machine in UE and SGSN
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5.4.1.5
ETSI TS 102 744-1-2 V1.1.1 (2015-10)
Periodic Routing Area Update Timer
Periodic Routing Area Updating (RAU) is used to periodically notify the availability of the UE to the network. The
procedure is controlled in the UE by the Periodic RAU Timer, T3312. The value of timer T3312 is sent by the CN to the
UE in the messages (GMM) Attach Accept and (GMM) Routing Area Update Accept. The value of the periodic RAU
timer is unique within an RA. Upon expiry of the periodic RAU timer, the UE shall initiate the RAU procedure.
5.4.1.6
Mobile Reachable Timer
The Mobile Reachable Timer (MRT) function monitors the periodic RAU procedure in the SGSN. The MRT shall be
slightly longer than the periodic RAU timer used by the UE. The MRT is stopped when the PMM-CONNECTED state
is entered. The MRT is reset and started when the PMM-IDLE state is entered (i.e. the MRT is relevant to the
PMM-IDLE state only).
If the Mobile Reachable Timer expires, the SGSN shall set the Paging Proceed Flag (PPF) to FALSE which inhibits the
transmission of CS or PS paging messages by the SGSN to the UE. The PPF is set to TRUE when any activity from the
UE is detected or when the UE first registers in an SGSN.
5.4.2
5.4.2.0
CS Domain Service State Machine
General
The CS service state machine has the same states as the PS service state machine (PMM) but the state transitions are
different (see Figure 5.5). In the present document, the CS service state names follow the convention from ETSI
TS 123 221 [i.2] and have the prefix "CMM".
START
CMM-DETACHED
MM: IMSI Attach
Implicit
Detach
MM: IMSI Detach
CMM-IDLE
CS Signalling
Connection Establish
(MM or CM Procedure
Initiated)
CMM-CONNECTED
CS Signalling
Connection Release
(MM or CM Procedure
Completed)
Figure 5.5: CS Domain Service State Machine in UE and MSC
5.4.2.1
CMM-DETACHED State
In the CMM-DETACHED state there is no communication between the UE and the MSC. The UE and MSC MM
contexts hold no valid location information for the UE. The UE is not reachable by a MSC, as the UE location is not
known.
In order to establish MM contexts in the UE and the MSC, the UE shall perform the IMSI Attach procedure. When the
CS signalling connection is established between the UE and the MSC for performing the Attach procedure, the state
changes to CMM-CONNECTED in the MSC and in the UE. A complete CS signalling connection is made up of two
parts: an Iu connection (RNC to MSC) and an UE-Specific Signalling Connection (UE to RNC).
ETSI
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5.4.2.2
ETSI TS 102 744-1-2 V1.1.1 (2015-10)
CMM-IDLE State
In the CMM-IDLE state, a complete CS signalling connection is not established between the UE and MSC, but the UE
and MSC have established MM contexts. The UE location is known in the MSC with an accuracy of a location area.
Paging is needed in order to reach the UE. The UE shall perform the Location Area Update procedure if the LA
changes. Signalling towards the HLR is needed if the MSC does not have an MM context for this UE.
The UE and MSC shall enter the CMM-CONNECTED whenever the complete CS signalling connection is established
between the UE and MSC for the purpose of initiating any MM procedure or CM procedure (e.g. initiating a call).
In the CMM-IDLE state, the UE may initiate an implicit Detach (i.e. without signalling) if the "ATT" flag broadcast in
the Non-Access Stratum System Information indicates that the IMSI Detach procedure is not required. After performing
an implicit Detach, the local CMM state changes to CMM-DETACHED.
5.4.2.3
CMM-CONNECTED State
In the CMM-CONNECTED state, a complete CS signalling connection is established between the UE and MSC, and
the UE location is known in the MSC with an accuracy of a serving RNC. In the CMM-CONNECTED state, the
location of the UE is tracked by the serving RNC. The UE does not perform the Location Area Update procedure, even
if the LA changes as defined in ETSI TS 123 221 [i.2].
The UE shall enter the CMM-IDLE state whenever its CS signalling connection to the MSC is not required as the result
of a MM procedure completing or a CM procedure completing (e.g. call finished). On transition from CMMCONNECTED to CMM-IDLE, the CS signalling connection shall be released. The signalling connection release is
explicitly indicated by the RNC to the UE or detected by the UE.
Completion of the IMSI Detach procedure (initiated either by the UE or by the MSC) causes the state to change to
CMM-DETACHED.
5.5
Connection Maintenance
In UMTS, whenever an Iu connection (RNC to CN) is released (using the RANAP Iu Release elementary procedure),
the corresponding radio interface connection (UE to RNC) is also released as defined in ETSI TS 125 413 [4]. Release
of the Iu signalling connection for a particular CN domain (PS/CS) changes the service state for that domain from
CONNECTED to IDLE in the CN. Similarly, release of the signalling connection over the radio interface changes the
service state for that domain from CONNECTED to IDLE in the UE. In this way the service states in the CN and UE
are always synchronized.
The mechanisms to establish and release the signalling connection over the satellite radio interface (the UE-Specific
Signalling connection) are the Registration and Deregistration procedures. From the standpoint of efficiency in use of
the satellite radio interface, it is undesirable to require the UE to register and deregister every time it is necessary to
transition to and from the IDLE and CONNECTED service states. Therefore in the satellite network, the release of an Iu
signalling connection does not necessarily imply the release of the UE-Specific Signalling connection.
Whenever an Iu signalling connection for a particular UE and CN domain is released, the RNC may consider releasing
the UE-Specific Signalling connection to that UE only if it is no longer associated with an Iu signalling connection in
any other CN domain. A configurable UE inactivity timer in the RNC determines the UE-Specific Signalling
connection release policy once the RNC determines that the connection is no longer associated with any Iu signalling
connections. The scope of the timer is a Location Area (i.e. different values may apply to different Location Areas).
If the UE inactivity timer is set to '0', then the RNC shall immediately initiate the Deregistration procedure. If the timer
is set to any other value, then the RNC shall start the timer and initiate the Deregistration procedure on the expiry of the
timer. The RNC shall reset the timer whenever it detects activity from the UE on either the Common Signalling
connection (random access) or the UE-Specific Signalling connection.
In order to keep the service state machines in the CN and UE synchronized, whenever an Iu signalling connection is
released but the UE-Specific Signalling connection is not released (due to the conditions above), the RNC shall send a
SignallingConnectionRelease message to the UE over the UE-Specific Signalling connection. On receipt of the
SignallingConnectionRelease message by the UE, the Adaptation Layer shall notify the appropriate Mobility
Management entity (GMM or MM) and as a result the service state for the indicated CN domain shall change from
CONNECTED to IDLE; the RRC state shall not change.
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ETSI TS 102 744-1-2 V1.1.1 (2015-10)
The RNC may also initiate the release of the UE-Specific Signalling connection to any UE which is idle (i.e. the UE
inactivity timer is running) in order to free up signalling connection identifiers. UEs are selected as candidates for
Deregistration on the basis of idle time duration (longest idle times selected first).
5.6
Mobility Management Procedures
The GMM protocol operates between the UE and SGSN and is supported by a UE which operates either in the PS/CS
mode or the PS (only) mode. Similarly, the MM protocol operates between the UE and the MSC/VLR and is supported
by a UE which operates either in the PS/CS mode or the CS (only) mode.
GMM and MM procedures for the satellite network are identical to those performed in UMTS; GMM and MM
messages (PDUs) are transported through the Access Stratum between the UE and CN without modification. Refer to
ETSI TS 123 060 [2], ETSI TS 124 007 [i.3], and ETSI TS 124 008 [i.4] for further information.
Although GMM and MM procedures are transparent to the Usl Stratum, the Adaptation Layer, like the RRC layer in
UMTS, is responsible for notifying GMM and MM of particular events in order to keep the service state machines in
the UE and CN synchronized, for example connection establishment (UE-Specific Signalling), resource assignment,
start of security functions, paging, and connection failure. In addition, GMM and MM procedures may in turn cause the
CN to invoke RANAP elementary procedures over the Iu interface which in turn invokes Adaptation Layer procedures
over the Usl interface.
6
Numbering, Addressing and Identification
6.0
General
The Compact Syntax Notation (CSN.1) is used in this clause to describe the structure of information elements in
protocol messages. See Annex B of ETSI TS 123 003 [1]. CSN.1 descriptions are typeset in Courier.
6.1
Non-Access Stratum
6.1.0
General
Numbering, addressing, and identification schemes in the Non-Access Stratum are the same as in the UMTS
Non-Access Stratum, and, in general, ETSI TS 123 003 [1] applies in its entirety except where noted otherwise in this
clause.
6.1.1
PLMN Identifier (PLMN ID)
ETSI TS 123 003 [1], clause 12.1 applies. The ITU assigns the shared MCC 901 for Global Mobile Satellite Systems
(GMSS) - see Recommendation ITU-T E.212 [i.7]. A particular GMSS network is identified by its Mobile Network
Code (MNC). Note that for GMSS, the MCC and MNC for GMSS do not relate to the country of domicile of the mobile
subscriber.
<PLMN ID> ::= <MCC><MNC>
6.1.2
International Mobile Subscriber Identity (IMSI)
ETSI TS 123 003 [1], clause 2.2 applies.
6.1.3
Temporary Mobile Subscriber Identity (TMSI) and Packet Temporary
Mobile Subscriber Identity (P-TMSI)
ETSI TS 123 003 [1], clauses 2.1, 2.4, and 2.7 refer.
6.1.4
International Mobile Station Equipment Identity/Software Version
(IMEI/IMEISV)
ETSI TS 123 003 [1], clause 6.2 applies.
ETSI
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6.1.5
ETSI TS 102 744-1-2 V1.1.1 (2015-10)
Location Area Identification (LAI)
ETSI TS 123 003 [1], clause 4.1 applies. The Location Area Identifier (LAI) is composed from the following
information elements:
•
Mobile Country Code (MCC): see definition for IMSI.
•
Mobile Network Code (MNC): see definition for IMSI.
•
Location Area Code (LAC): The LAC identifies a location area within a PLMN.
<LAC> ::= <OCTETSTRING(2)>
<LAI> ::= <MCC><MNC><LAC>
A satellite beam in a satellite UMTS network is the analogue of a "cell" in a terrestrial UMTS network, in the sense that
cells and satellite beams are the smallest unit to which common radio resources are assigned. In addition, cells and
satellite beams are the smallest possible areas in which a particular UE can be paged by the CN. For this reason in the
satellite network a Location Area is equivalent to a satellite beam.
The LAC is arbitrarily divided into two components as follows:
<RNC AREA ID> ::= <BITSTRING(6)>
<SAT BEAM ID> ::= <BITSTRING(10)>
<LAC> ::= <RNC AREA ID><SAT BEAM ID>
The first component (<RNC AREA ID>) is a reference to a particular "RNC Area", which is defined as the set of
satellite beams served by a single RNC. The second component (<SAT BEAM ID>) identifies a particular satellite
beam within a RNC area. Every satellite beam (global, regional spot, and narrow spot) within a RNC Area is assigned a
different value for the satellite beam ID.
The LAC is therefore a reference to the location of a UE (to the resolution of any satellite beam on any satellite) as well
as a reference to the serving RNC. Note however that from the perspective of the UE and CN, the LAC is simply a
16-bit number; any arbitrary encoding schemes are not interpreted in the NAS. For example, the <RNC AREA ID>
component of the LAC is not used by the CN for routing purposes.
This composition scheme does however ensure that there is no ambiguity in the LAI if more than one RNC serves a
particular satellite beam and provides a degree of administrative convenience by allowing the spot beam and serving
RNC to be determined directly from the LAC by inspection.
6.1.6
Routing Area Identification (RAI)
ETSI TS 123 003 [1], clause 4.2 applies. The RAI is composed from the following information elements:
•
Location Area Identity (LAI): as defined in clause 6.1.5.
•
Routing Area Code (RAC): The RAC identifies a routing area within a location area.
<RAC> ::= <OCTETSTRING(1)>
<RAI> ::= <LAI><RAC> = <MCC><MNC><LAC><RAC>
In terrestrial GPRS or UMTS, Location Areas are divided into Routing Areas in order to use the radio interface more
efficiently when paging a particular UE (assuming that not all cells within a Location Area are served by the same
SGSN). For circuit switched services, paging is done on the basis of LA, while paging for packet switched services are
performed on the basis of RA.
A RA can either be the same as a LA, or the subset of one and only one LA (in other words, a RA does not span more
than one LA). Given that a LA is equivalent to a spot beam (see clause 6.1.5) and since a spot beam cannot be
subdivided any further, only the first definition of RA applies for the satellite network. Location Areas and Routing
Areas in the satellite network are identical.
Since a RA is served by one and only one SGSN, a default value of 1 is used for the RAC in all Location Areas.
<RAI> ::= <LAI><RAC:1>
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6.1.7
ETSI TS 102 744-1-2 V1.1.1 (2015-10)
Mobile Station International PSTN/ISDN Number (MSISDN)
ETSI TS 123 003 [1], clause 3.3 applies. The MS International ISDN (MSISDN) numbers are allocated from the
Recommendation ITU-T E.164 numbering plan [6], see also Recommendation ITU-T E.213 [i.18]. The MS
international ISDN number is composed from the Country Code (CC), the National Destination Code (NDC),and the
Subscriber Number (SN). The MSISDN is permanent subscriber data and is stored in the HLR, VLR and SGSN.
The composition of the MSISDN should be such that it can be used as a Global Title address in the Signalling
Connection Control Part (SCCP) for routing messages to the HLR of the UE. The CC and NDC will normally provide
such routing information, but if further routing information is required then it should be contained in the first few digits
of the SN.
<MSISDN> ::= <CC><NDC><SN>
6.1.8
Mobile Station Roaming Number (MSRN)
ETSI TS 123 003 [1], clause 3.4 applies.
6.1.9
Mobile Station International Data Number
ETSI TS 123 003 [1], clause 3.5 applies.
6.1.10
IPv4 Address
ETSI TS 123 003 [1], clause 3.7 applies.
6.1.11
IPv6 Address
ETSI TS 123 003 [1], clause 3.8 applies.
6.1.12
Access Point Name
ETSI TS 123 003 [1], clause 9 applies.
6.2
Access Stratum (Usl Stratum)
6.2.1
UE Identification
6.2.1.0
General
The UE identification method used in the Usl Stratum depends on the RRC state.
6.2.1.1
RRC-IDLE Mode
In the RRC-IDLE Mode, no UE-Specific Signalling Connection is established between the UE and the RNC.
A Non-Access Stratum UE identifier is used in Registration messages to identify a particular UE.
The NAS UE identifier is provided to the Usl Stratum in the request from GMM or MM to establish the UE-Specific
Signalling Connection. The NAS UE Identifier can be the TMSI, P-TMSI, or IMSI according to the precedence rules in
ETSI TS 133 102 [i.6]. IMEI may also be used for initial identification for emergency calls when a USIM is not present
in the UE.
6.2.1.2
RRC-CONNECTED Mode
In the RRC-CONNECTED mode, the Registration procedure has been successfully completed and a UE-Specific
Signalling Connection has been established between the UE and the RNC. During the Registration procedure, the RNC
assigns a unique Bearer Connection ID (BCnID) to the UE-Specific Signalling connection. The BCnID identifies the
logical connection over the radio interface and the UE associated with the connection; it is a temporary identity which
serves a similar function as the Radio Network Temporary Identity (RNTI) in a UMTS system.
ETSI
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6.2.2
ETSI TS 102 744-1-2 V1.1.1 (2015-10)
Radio Resource to Network Layer UE Identity Association
For the purpose of paging coordination, the RNC shall maintain an internal routing table that associates the identity of a
particular UE with the corresponding BCnID for the UE-Specific Signalling Connection to that UE.
The IMSI is transferred from the CN to the RNC using the RANAP Common ID elementary procedure. When an Iu
connection is established, the CN performs the RANAP Common ID procedure towards the RNC as soon as the UE is
identified.
If the UE identifies itself by a temporary ID (TMSI or P-TMSI) during the Registration procedure, then the routing
table shall associate the temporary ID, and the corresponding BCnID for the UE-Specific Signalling Connection to that
UE. The TMSI or P-TMSI in the routing table shall be associated with the IMSI as soon as it becomes available during
the RANAP Common ID procedure.
The routing table entry for a particular UE is maintained only for the duration of the UE- Specific Signalling
Connection (i.e. whilst the UE is in RRC-CONNECTED mode). When the mode for the UE changes from
RRC-CONNECTED to RRC-IDLE (i.e. the UE-Specific Signalling Connection is released at the conclusion of the
Deregistration procedure), the routing table entry for that UE shall be purged.
6.2.3
Logical Radio Interface Connection Identifiers
The UE-Specific Signalling Connection (Control Plane) and Data Connections (User Plane) are assigned Bearer
Connection Identifiers (BCnID) by the RNC Adaptation Layer. The BCnID is then associated with a translated Bearer
Connection Identifier (tBCnID) when the connection is attached to a specific Shared Access Bearer.
All communications which take place over the UE-Specific Signalling Connection or Data Connections use the tBCnID
for addressing purposes.
6.2.4
Other Identifiers
6.2.4.1
Spot Beam ID
Spot Beam ID is an 8-bit identifier used primarily in the System Information (Bulletin Board, see clause 7). Every
satellite beam (global, regional spot, and narrow spot) is assigned a different Spot Beam ID value. The scope of Spot
Beam ID is a satellite and is therefore not unique throughout the satellite network (unlike the LAI).
For administrative convenience, Spot Beam ID may be identical or related to the <SAT BEAM ID> component of the
Location Area Code (LAC, see clause 6.1.5), but it is not strictly necessary.
6.3
Access Stratum (Iu Stratum)
6.3.0
General
As with the Non-Access Stratum, the numbering, addressing, and identification schemes in the Iu Stratum are the same
as for UMTS. ETSI TS 123 003 [1] and ETSI TS 125 413 [4] apply in their entirety. This clause highlights the areas
where the UMTS and Family SL concepts differ.
6.3.1
PLMN Identifier (PLMN ID)
ETSI TS 123 003 [1], clause 12.1 applies.
6.3.2
CN Domain Identifier
ETSI TS 123 003 [1], clause 12.2 applies.
6.3.3
CN Domain Indicator
ETSI TS 125 413 [4], clause 9.2.1.5 applies.
ETSI
20
6.3.4
ETSI TS 102 744-1-2 V1.1.1 (2015-10)
RNC Identifier
ETSI TS 123 003 [1], clause 12.3 applies. A RNC node is uniquely identified by its RNC Identifier (RNC ID). The
Global RNC Identifier is composed from the PLMN ID and the RNC ID.
<RNC ID> ::= <BITSTRING(12)>
<GLOBAL RNC ID> ::= <PLMN ID><RNC ID> = <MCC><MNC><RNC ID>
The RNC Identifier <RNC ID> refers to the same network entity as the <RNC AREA ID> component of the LAC (see
clause 6.1.5). Only the former is used for CN to RNC routing purposes. The latter is an arbitrary construct and for
administrative convenience the two identifiers could be identical or related, but it is not strictly necessary.
6.3.5
RNC Addresses
ETSI TS 123 060 [2], clause 14.12 applies.
6.3.6
Service Area Identifier (SAI)
ETSI TS 123 003 [1], clause 12.4 applies. In UMTS, the Service Area Identifier (SAI) is used to indicate the location of
a UE to the CN. It is defined as an area covered by one or more cells belonging to the same Location Area. The Service
Area Identifier (SAI) is composed from the Service Area Code (SAC) together with the PLMN ID and the LAC.
<SAC> ::= <OCTETSTRING(2)>
<SAI> ::= <PLMN ID><LAC><SAC>
In the satellite network, subdivisions of a LA (spot beam) are not possible in terms of the radio interface, but the SA
concept is still employed to provide additional location information to the CN. A Location Area can be divided into
arbitrary Service Areas provided that a SA is entirely contained within a LA.
The SAC is used to indicate the UE location within a particular geographical region. Up to 216 non-overlapping
geographical regions can be defined worldwide; each region is assigned a unique value of SAC. The definitions of these
regions are arbitrary, at the discretion of the satellite network operator, and do not necessarily need to correspond with
any geographical or political boundary. The SAC will be used primarily for emergency call routing, location based
services, and billing applications, so it is likely that most defined geographical regions will correspond to countries or
regions within countries. When used as a component of SAI, the special SAC value "0" denotes the entire geographical
area covered by the associated LA (spot beam).
As a consequence of the composition method for the SAI, a Service Area in the satellite network (identified by its SAI)
is the intersection of a spot beam coverage area (the LAC component) with a defined geographical area (the SAC
component). The composition of Service Areas is shown in Figure 6.1.
ETSI
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ETSI TS 102 744-1-2 V1.1.1 (2015-10)
SAI = <PLMN ID> <1> <100>
Spot beam 1
LAC=<1>
Geographical
Region 100
SAC=<100>
Spot beam 2
LAC=<2>
Spot beam 3
LAC=<3>
SAI = <PLMN ID> <2> <100>
SAI = <PLMN ID> <3> <100>
Figure 6.1: Composition of Service Areas
The RNC shall be capable of determining the correct SAC based on geographical position reports from the UE and
providing this to the CN when commanded to do so as part of the RANAP Location Reporting Control elementary
procedure. Note that the RNC can also report UE geographical position (latitude and longitude) to the CN for cases
where country-region resolution is insufficient for a particular application.
The RNC and all CN applications shall consider the SAC a 16-bit index for use in look-up functions and shall not make
any attempt to interpret any arbitrary meaning given to it.
6.3.7
Permanent NAS UE Identity
ETSI TS 125 413 [4], clause 9.2.3.1 and ETSI TS 123 221 [i.2], clause 6.16 refer. "Permanent NAS UE Identity" refers
to either IMSI or IMEI. The IMSI is transferred from the CN to the RNC using the RANAP Common ID elementary
RANAP procedure. When an Iu connection is established, the CN performs the RANAP Common ID procedure toward
RNC as soon as the UE is identified (IMSI). The IMSI is stored in the RNC only for the duration of UE-Specific
Signalling Connection (i.e. whilst the UE is in RRC-CONNECTED mode).
6.3.8
Temporary NAS UE Identity
ETSI TS 125 413 [4], clause 9.2.3.2 applies. "Temporary NAS UE Identity" refers to either TMSI or P-TMSI.
6.3.9
Radio Access Bearer Identity (RAB ID)
ETSI TS 125 413 [4], clause 9.2.1.2 applies. The Radio Access Bearer Identity (RAB ID) uniquely identifies the radio
access bearer for a specific CN domain for a particular UE. The RAB ID is unique over one Iu connection.
The purpose of the RAB ID is to provide an association between a NAS data stream (UE to CN) and the Radio Bearer
in the Access Stratum which carries the NAS data stream over the radio interface. The NAS data stream is identified by
either the Stream Identifier (SI) for the CS Domain or the Network Service Access Point Identifier (NSAPI) related to a
PDP Context for the PS Domain.
<SI> ::= <BITSTRING(8)>
<NSAPI> ::= <BITSTRING(4)>
<RAB ID> ::= { <SI> | 0000<NSAPI> }
The RNC shall maintain an internal routing table which relates the Permanent NAS UE ID to the corresponding
BCnIDs of any active Data Connections and also the corresponding RAB IDs.
ETSI
22
6.3.10
ETSI TS 102 744-1-2 V1.1.1 (2015-10)
Iu Signalling Connection Identifier
ETSI TS 125 413 [4], clause 9.2.1.38 applies. The Iu Signalling Connection Identifier is a reference to an Iu signalling
connection. It is assigned by the RNC during the RANAP Initial UE Message elementary procedure and the CN is
required to store and remember it for the duration of the Iu connection. The Iu Signalling Connection Identifier can also
be assigned by the CN during SRNS Relocation, in which case the RNC shall remember it for the duration of the Iu
connection.
<IU SIG CONNECTION ID> ::= <BITSTRING(24)>
The RNC shall maintain an internal routing table which relates the Permanent NAS UE ID (IMSI) to the corresponding
BCnID of the UE-Specific Signalling Connection and also the corresponding Iu Signalling Connection Identifiers.
6.3.11
Paging Area Identity
ETSI TS 125 413 [4], clause 9.2.1.21 applies. "Paging Area Identity" refers either to LAI or RAI. In either case, LAI (or
RAI) in the satellite context uniquely addresses a satellite beam.
7
System Information
7.1
General Principles
The broadcast of System Information (SI) by the RNC and the corresponding reception of SI by the UE is a function of
the Bearer Control Layer. The RNC broadcasts System Information on the Global Beam Common Channels as well as
on all Primary Shared Access Bearers.
The System Information contains information elements related to the Access Stratum and the Non-Access Stratum:
•
AS System Information: Access Stratum information which is required by the UE to identify and access the
satellite network and determine the correct spot beam and PSAB on which to "camp on" and perform the
Registration procedure with the RNC.
•
NAS System Information: Non-Access Stratum (UMTS Mobility Management) information which is
required by the UE to perform PLMN selection, determine its location (LA/RA), and to perform the (GMM or
MM) Attach procedure with the CN.
In the UE, the Bearer Control Layer is responsible for forwarding the AS and NAS System Information to the
Adaptation Layer whenever a new spot beam is selected as part of the PSAB Discovery procedure (see clause 8.2.2) or
a change in the System Information for the current spot beam is detected. Similarly, the Adaptation Layer is responsible
for forwarding the NAS System Information to the Non-Access Stratum at the conclusion of the PLMN Selection
procedure (see clause 8.2.2).
7.2
System Information in Idle and Connected Modes
In the RRC-IDLE mode, when the UE camps on a Primary Shared Access Bearer (PSAB) in a particular spot beam, it
receives all valid System Information (SI) for that spot beam on the PSAB common channel. The received SI is the
"current system information" (see Figure 7.1).
When the UE-Specific Signalling Connection is established and the UE enters RRC-CONNECTED mode, the UE
considers the broadcasted SI for the spot beam in which the establishment is made as the "current system information".
In RRC-CONNECTED mode, the Serving RNC (SRNC) shall control the current System Information for the UE. If the
UE location (i.e. Location Area or Routing Area) changes as the result of spot beam handover or as the result of SRNS
relocation, the SRNC shall send any applicable SI to the UE over the established UE-Specific Signalling Connection.
The UE shall consider any new SI received from the SRNC on the established signalling connection as the "current
system information".
When the UE-Specific Signalling Connection is released and the UE leaves the RRC-CONNECTED mode and enters
RRC-IDLE mode, the spot beam selection process is performed again and the UE considers the broadcasted SI of the
selected spot beam as the "current system information".
ETSI
23
ETSI TS 102 744-1-2 V1.1.1 (2015-10)
Non-Access Stratum
NAS SYSTEM
INFORMATION
AL
AS+NAS SYSTEM INFORMATION
(RRC-CONNECTED MODE ONLY)
BCn
BCt
AL
BCn
AS+NAS SYSTEM
INFORMATION
(RRC-IDLE
MODE ONLY)
BCt
L1
L1
SYSTEM INFORMATION BROADCAST
(BULLETIN BOARD)
UE
RNC
USL
Figure 7.1: System Information Transport
7.3
System Information Elements
7.3.0
General
Information elements of the Bulletin Board (including System Information) are defined as part of the Bearer Control
layer interface definition in ETSI TS 102 744-3-1 [i.12]. The information elements can be divided into three categories,
based on their scope (i.e. the layer of the protocol stack in which they are relevant):
•
Bulletin Board Information (Bearer Control Layer)
•
Access Stratum System Information (Adaptation Layer)
•
Non-Access Stratum System Information (UMTS Layer 3)
This clause briefly describes the latter two categories, as they are relevant to the UE Idle Mode behaviour described in
clause 8.
7.3.1
7.3.1.0
Access Stratum System Information
General
Elements of the Access Stratum System Information control or affect Adaptation Layer behaviour, specifically the
Registration Manager (REGM, see ETSI TS 102 744-3-6 [i.15]). The Access Stratum System Information set is divided
into five subsets:
NOTE:
7.3.1.1
Details of the following Information Elements and Attribute Value Pairs can be found in the Bearer
Control layer interface specification: see ETSI TS 102 744-3-1 [i.12].
Primary Bearer
The Primary Bearer information element identifies the primary shared access bearer for a particular spot beam. Zero or
more instances of this element may be present in the AS system information. If one or more instances are present, then
this indicates that the current beam (i.e. the beam in which this system information is being received) is not suitable for
performing the Registration procedure with the RNC and the UE shall select and tune to one of the identified PSABs. If
there are no instances present, then the UE shall use the current beam to perform the Registration procedure with the
RNC. More than one instance of the Primary Bearer element may be associated with a particular spot beam if it is
necessary to direct the UE to different bearer frequencies depending on the UE class or a specific network (PLMN ID).
ETSI
24
7.3.1.2
ETSI TS 102 744-1-2 V1.1.1 (2015-10)
PLMN ID
The PLMN ID information element indicates the availability of a particular Public Land Mobile Network using the
satellite radio access network. One or more instances of this element may be present in the AS system information.
If the current beam (i.e. the beam in which this system information is being received) is suitable for performing the
Registration procedure with the RNC, then the system information shall contain one and only one instance of this
element. The element identifies the PLMN ID of the "primary network", i.e. the network associated with the RNC that
is transmitting the current PSAB in the current beam.
If the current beam is not suitable for performing the Registration procedure, then the system information shall contain
one or more instances of this element. The first instance identifies the primary network. The second and subsequent
instances (if any) identify networks which are equivalent to the primary network or secondary networks which can be
accessed using the satellite radio access network but via a different RNC. In the latter case, there shall be a
corresponding Primary Bearer system information element which also specifies the PLMN ID of the secondary
network.
7.3.1.3
Access Control
The Access Control information element controls the initial access to the RNC. One instance of this element shall be
present in the AS system information only if the current beam is suitable for performing the Registration procedure and
access restrictions in the current beam are to be enforced. When present, only those UEs which are a member of at least
one of the Access Classes which are permitted in the network according to the Access Control AVP shall attempt to
access the RNC. A flag indicates whether or not the restrictions apply to UEs attempting an emergency call setup.
The Access (Control) Class is stored on the USIM in the UE. See ETSI TS 122 011 [i.9].
7.3.1.4
Spot Beam Map
The Spot Beam Map information element is a data structure which identifies one or more spot beams and provides their
geographical boundaries. Zero or one instance of this element shall be present in the AS system information. If this
element is present then the UE shall use the position-assisted spot beam selection method and the carrier scanning spot
beam selection method otherwise (see clause 8.2.2.2.2).
7.3.1.5
Common Signalling Retry
The Common Signalling Retry information element defines the number of times that the UE may repeat the
Registration procedure and the timeout between attempts. One instance of this element shall be present in the AS
system information only if the current spot beam is suitable for performing the Registration procedure.
7.3.1.6
GPS Policy Info
The GPS Policy Info AVP informs the UE of the settings of GPS position-related security policies in the RNC. Zero or
more instances of this element shall be present in the AS system information only if the current spot beam is suitable for
performing the Registration procedure. If present, the UE may (optionally) use the policy information to determine
whether or not the current GPS fix is suitable for gaining access to the RNC. RNC Policies are defined in ETSI
TS 102 744-3-6 [i.15].
7.3.2
Non-Access Stratum System Information
Elements of the Non-Access Stratum System Information control or affect MM and GMM behaviour. The information
set, called "Core Network System Information" in ETSI TS 124 008 [i.4], clause 10.5.1.12 is divided into three subsets:
•
Common NAS System Information: Location Area Code (LAC)
•
CS Domain Specific System Information: T3212 (Periodic Updating Timer), ATT flag (Attach/Detach
Allowed)
•
PS Domain Specific System Information: Routing Area Code (RAC), NMO flag (Network Mode of Operation,
see clause 5.3)
ETSI
25
8
UE Idle Mode Behaviour
8.1
NAS/AS Functional Divisions
ETSI TS 102 744-1-2 V1.1.1 (2015-10)
The functional divisions between the UE Non-Access Stratum (NAS) and UE Access Stratum (AS) in RRC-IDLE mode
are shown in Table 8.1. The NAS/AS divisions for the satellite network are the same as for UMTS with the exception
that "spot beam selection and reselection" replaces the concept of "cell selection and reselection" in a terrestrial UMTS
network.
Table 8.1: NAS/AS Idle Mode Functional Divisions
Idle Mode Process
UE Non-Access Stratum
(UMTS Domain)
PLMN Selection and Maintain the list of allowed PLMN types.
Reselection
Maintain a list of PLMNs in priority order
according to ETSI TS 123 122 [3] select a
PLMN using automatic or manual mode as
specified in ETSI TS 123 122 [3] and
request AS to select a spot beam
belonging to this PLMN.
Evaluate reports of available PLMNs from
AS for PLMN selection.
Maintain a list of equivalent PLMN
identities.
Spot Beam Selection Indicate to the AS which PLMN is to be
and Reselection
used initially in the search of a spot beam.
Maintain lists of forbidden registration
areas.
Perform Location Area/Routing Area
Update procedure as appropriate when
system information indicates that the
LA/RA has changed.
UE Access Stratum
(Satellite Domain)
Search for available PLMNs.
Synchronize to a PSAB common channel to
identify found PLMNs.
Report available PLMNs with associated to
NAS on request from NAS or autonomously.
Detect and synchronize to a PSAB common
channel. Receive and handle AS system
information. Forward NAS system information to
NAS.
Search for a suitable spot beam belonging to
the PLMN requested by NAS. Respond to NAS
whether a spot beam that belongs to the
requested PLMN and is suitable for registration
is found or not. If a spot beam is found, it is
selected to "camp on".
[Maritime and Aeronautical UEs only:
Periodically compare UE position information
from GPS subsystem with spot beam
information (broadcast as SI) to determine if
spot beam reselection is required. Receive and
handle AS system information for new spot
beam. Forward NAS system information related
to new spot beam to NAS.]
8.2
Idle Mode Procedures
8.2.1
Non-Access Stratum
The Non-Access Stratum Idle Mode procedures described in ETSI TS 123 122 [3] apply for the satellite network with
appropriate changes in terminology ("spot beam" replaces "cell" wherever used).
8.2.2
8.2.2.0
Access Stratum (Usl Stratum)
General
ETSI TS 125 304 [i.10] describes the Access Stratum Idle Mode procedures. The general principles in ETSI
TS 125 304 [i.10] apply to the satellite network. However the specific properties of the satellite link compared to the
terrestrial link used in UMTS requires different methods for the satellite network.
There are two main UE Idle Mode procedures in the Non-Access Stratum, PLMN Discovery and PSAB Discovery.
These procedures are described in general terms in this clause. For more information, see ETSI TS 102 744-3-6 [i.15].
ETSI
26
8.2.2.1
ETSI TS 102 744-1-2 V1.1.1 (2015-10)
PLMN Discovery
PLMN Discovery involves interaction between the Non-Access Stratum and the Adaptation Layer to determine if a
particular UMTS network is available. When the UE is initialized, the NAS selects a PLMN according to the priority
scheme defined in ETSI TS 123 122 [3]. The NAS then requests the Adaptation Layer to determine if a spot beam
which belongs to the specified PLMN and is suitable for performing the Registration procedure with the RNC exists at
the current location of the UE. Figure 6 and Figures 8 through 13 in ETSI TS 125 304 [i.10] specify a set of service
primitives between RRC and the NAS for the purpose of PLMN selection control and NAS system information
transport; these primitives are used in the satellite network as well, with the Adaptation Layer assuming the role of
RRC.
When the PLMN Discovery procedure is initiated by the Non-Access Stratum, the Adaptation Layer in turn initiates the
PSAB Discovery procedure, described in the next clause.
8.2.2.2
8.2.2.2.1
PSAB Discovery
Method
PSAB Discovery involves interaction between the Adaptation Layer and the Bearer Control layer to locate a Primary
Shared Access Bearer (PSAB) which can be used for registration with the RNC. PSAB Discovery is also known as spot
beam selection. The Adaptation Layer provides the Bearer Control Layer with a list of one or more PSAB frequencies.
In response, the Bearer Control Layer tunes to each identified PSAB frequency and locks on to the PSAB with the
highest signal quality and starts receiving the common control channel on this PSAB. The Bearer Control Layer then
indicates which PSAB frequency (if any) was selected and also forwards the relevant Access Stratum and Non-Access
Stratum System Information (see clause 7) to the Adaptation Layer.
The AS System Information informs the Adaptation Layer whether or not the "discovered" PSAB is suitable for
registration with the RNC, or if it is necessary to select another PSAB and repeat the PSAB Discovery procedure again.
In the satellite network, a hierarchy of spot beams exists, with narrow spot beams overlaid on regional beams which are
themselves overlaid on the global beam. The directive in the System Information may cause the UE to select a PSAB
frequency which corresponds with a spot beam in the next tier of the hierarchy, depending on the operational
configuration. Note however that the PSAB Discovery procedure is generic and makes no distinction between satellite
beams of different types.
8.2.2.2.2
Spot Beam Selection Methods
The PSAB Discovery procedure supports spot beam selection by two methods: carrier scan and position-assisted. In the
carrier scanning method, described earlier, the Bearer Control layer tunes in turn to all of the candidate PSAB
frequencies identified by the Adaptation Layer and locks on to the PSAB with the highest signal quality. In the positionassisted method, the Adaptation Layer uses information about the geographical location of spot beam boundaries and
the UE GPS position to select the most appropriate spot beam. The Adaptation Layer then specifies the identifying
PSAB frequency of the selected beam to the Bearer Control layer. The position-assisted method shall be used whenever
possible (i.e. when the Spot Beam Map information element is present in the System Information and the UE GPS
position is available).
9
Sleep Mode
Sleep Mode is the satellite replacement for the terrestrial UMTS Discontinuous Reception (DRX) mode. In Sleep Mode
the UE reduces power consumption by receiving and processing the forward channel only for small fractions of a
regular interval of time. During the period the UE is "awake", the UE may receive Paging messages from the RNC.
There are two main differences between Sleep Mode and the Discontinuous Reception (DRX) mode defined for
terrestrial UMTS. In terrestrial UMTS, DRX applies only while the UE is in the RRC-IDLE state and there may be
different DRX parameters for the CS and PS service domains. In the satellite context, Sleep Mode applies to both the
RRC-IDLE and RRC-CONNECTED states (REGM "IDLE" and "REGISTERED" states, respectively) and one set of
parameters applies to both service domains.
NOTE:
The AVP to configure sleep mode and the applicable parameters are defined in ETSI
TS 102 744-3-1 [i.12] and ETSI TS 102 744-3-2 [i.13] respectively and are specified to the UE by the
RNC either during or after the Registration procedure.
ETSI
27
ETSI TS 102 744-1-2 V1.1.1 (2015-10)
When and how often the UE can be in sleep mode depends largely on the PS and CS service state machines (see
clause 5.4). In the PMM-CONNECTED (PS domain) and CMM-CONNECTED (CS domain) service states, a networkinitiated signalling procedure or downlink data transfer occurs immediately without paging. In the PMM-IDLE and
CMM-IDLE states, completion of the Paging procedure is required before any network-initiated signalling procedure or
downlink data transfer can begin. Therefore, the UE may only enter Sleep Mode (or be in Sleep Mode) while in both the
PMM-IDLE and CMM-IDLE states simultaneously.
Sleep Mode in the UE is controlled by the Bearer Control layer (see ETSI TS 102 744-3-2 [i.13]). Explicit
communication between the UMTS Mobility Management sublayer (which maintains the PMM and CMM service state
machines) and the Bearer Control layer for the purpose of coordinating Sleep Mode is not required. The transitions to
and from Sleep Mode in the Bearer Control layer and the transitions between the CONNECTED and IDLE service
states are related to UE activity (the transmission of any signalling or data by the UE). A consequence of the protocol
stack model is that activity in the Bearer Control layer directly implies activity in higher layers. However, the inactivity
timer in the Bearer Control layer which controls the transition to Sleep Mode shall be set longer than the inactivity
timers in the MM sublayer (SGSN and MSC) which control the transition from the CONNECTED to the IDLE service
state.
A UE in Sleep Mode is typically awake for one frame in 64 and is assigned by the RNC to one of 64 paging groups
such that the distribution of UEs across all paging groups is uniform. There is typically one paging opportunity
approximately every 5,12 seconds (64 frames of 80 ms each).
ETSI
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ETSI TS 102 744-1-2 V1.1.1 (2015-10)
Annex A (informative):
System operation
A.1
Introduction
A.1.1
Network Architecture
The satellite network provides UMTS circuit switched and packet switched communication services to mobile users at a
variety of data rates. A UMTS network is partitioned into three main areas, the Core Network (CN), Radio Network
Subsystem (RNS) and User Equipment (UE).
The RNS and more precisely the node within the RNS called the RNC (Radio Network Controller) controls the radio
link to the UE. The CN provides the services, switching, and routing of traffic to and from the UE via the RNS. The UE
contains the user's radio modem and services.
NOTE:
In a terrestrial UMTS network the radio interface to the mobile users uses WCDMA. The satellite
network provides the same UMTS services using the satellite radio interface which uses a
TDM-TDMA/FDM physical layer.
Further details of the satellite network architecture and interfaces are provided in ETSI TS 102 744-1-1 [i.11].
The satellite radio interface does not use RRC (Radio Resource Control) protocol [i.5]. Instead, the Adaptation Layer
provides the Non Access Stratum layer 3 Control Plane with equivalent services to those offered by the RRC.
A.1.2
Adaptation Layer
The Adaptation Layer that interfaces the satellite radio interface protocol stack with the UMTS protocols is presented in
ETSI TS 102 744-3-5 [i.14] and ETSI TS 102 744-3-6 [i.15].
The following Adaptation Layer Entities are referred to in this clause:
•
REGM: Registration Manager, responsible for establishing, maintaining and releasing UE specific signalling
connections, reception and interpretation of System Information, idle mode procedures, paging notification
(type 1) and GPS reporting/encryption.
•
GMMH: GMM Service Access Point Handler, provides RRC-like services to the GMM agent in the Non
Access Stratum.
•
MMH: MM Service Access Point Handler, provides RRC-like services to the MM agent in the Non Access
Stratum.
•
RBC: Radio Bearer Control, handles all signalling related to the establishment, modification and release of
radio bearers.
A.2
Example Call Flows
A.2.1
User Equipment Start up Sequence
The UE performs four procedures in sequence to gain access to UMTS services:
•
the Public Land Mobile Network (PLMN) Discovery procedure;
•
Primary Shared Access Bearer (PSAB) Discovery procedure;
•
the Registration procedure with the Radio Network Controller (RNC); and
•
the UMTS Attach procedure with the Core Network.
ETSI
29
ETSI TS 102 744-1-2 V1.1.1 (2015-10)
The PLMN Discovery procedure is used by the UE to select a suitable Network. This procedure is described in more
detail in clause 8.2.2.1 and is followed by the PSAB Discovery procedure which allows the UE to select a Primary
Shared Access Bearer, in a Regional or Narrow spot beam, which is suitable for performing the Registration procedure
with the RNC.
The Registration procedure allows the UE to identify itself to a Radio Network Controller (RNC), report its
geographical location and be allocated a dedicated radio-signalling connection to the RNC, known as a UE-Specific
Signalling Connection. A single UE-Specific Signalling Connection to an RNC is permitted per UE. The UE-Specific
Signalling Connection is equivalent to an RRC Connection in UTRAN terminology.
In the subsequent UMTS Attach procedure, the UE extends the UE-Specific Signalling Connection beyond the RNC
towards one or both UMTS Core Network (CN) domains. This is achieved by setting up Iu Signalling Connections for
this UE. The joining of a UE-Specific Signalling Connection (UE to RNC) with an Iu Signalling Connection (RNC to
CN) allows the UE to exchange Non-Access Stratum (NAS) signalling with the CN. This logical connection between
the UE and CN is known as a PS or CS Signalling Connection, depending on whether it addresses the Packet or Circuit
Switched CN domain.
Via the PS or CS Signalling Connection, the UE may perform Mobility Management (MM) Connection Management
(CM), Session Management (SM), Supplementary Services (SS) and Short Messaging Service (SMS) procedures,
identify itself to the network, initiate calls and receive paging messages, etc.
For further information describing the relationship between RRC Connection and Iu Signalling Connection refer to
ETSI TS 123 221 [i.2], clause 6.
The following clauses describe the selection of a suitable Primary Shared Access Bearer, Registration and UMTS
Attach procedures.
A.2.2
Selection of Primary Shared Access Bearer
A.2.2.0 General
The following clauses introduce the spot beam concept of the satellite network and describe the selection of a suitable
Primary Shared Access Bearer by the UE.
A.2.2.1 Spot Beam Hierarchy
Within the satellite network each satellite typically provides:
•
one global beam, which covers all points on the earth surface with elevation towards the satellite above
10 degrees;
•
a few 10's of wide spot beams (referred to as Regional Beams) covering the whole satellite field of view; and
•
a few 100's of narrow spot beams (referred to as Narrow Beams), typically positioned over the land masses.
For the satellite network these different types of beams typically serve the following purposes:
•
The Global Beam on each satellite is used in the forward direction (downlink to UE) to provide all UEs with
various elements of system information via a Common Channel, most notably the frequencies used in the
Regional Beams. The Global Beam is not used in the return direction.
•
The Regional Beams are used in the forward direction to transmit a Primary Shared Access Bearer (at least one
in each beam) from which the UEs receive additional system information regarding the initial access to the
satellite network. At least one Bearer is allocated to a Regional Beam in the return direction if it is to be used
for initial access.
•
The Regional Beams may also be used to carry user traffic, either if the demand for traffic capacity is low and
hence it is not economical to illuminate a Narrow Beam; or if the UE is located in an area that is not covered
by a Narrow Beam at all. Traffic may initially be carried on the PSABs mentioned above but additional
forward and return bearers may be allocated to carry traffic if required.
•
The Narrow Beams primarily carry traffic and are activated as required. This limits the suitability of the
Narrow Beams for initial access purposes.
ETSI
30
ETSI TS 102 744-1-2 V1.1.1 (2015-10)
A.2.2.2 Regional Beam Selection
The UE normally selects a Regional Beam based on GPS positioning information and spot beam boundary information
("spot beam maps") being transmitted on the Global Beam common channel. However, a carrier scanning selection
method, based on received signal strength or signal quality, is also implemented in the UE as a fallback if spot beam
maps are not transmitted on the Global Beam or GPS positioning information is not available. In the latter case the UE
would need to scan all Primary Shared Access Bearers advertised on the Global Beam Common Channel.
A.2.2.3 Narrow Beam Access
Any of the Narrow Beams may or may not be illuminated at any one time, which imposes further constraints on the way
the RNC manages the access to these beams. Generally, UEs signal their request for a service connection in the
Regional Beam and the RNC would then initiate the Handover procedure to move the UE to the most suitable Narrow
Beam for its current position (based on the most recent position report from the UE).
Under certain circumstances, e.g. if an area is not covered by a Regional Beam but is illuminated by a Narrow Beam
(isolated Narrow Beam), or if the capacity of the Regional Beam is insufficient due to an extremely high number of user
in a particular area, then the system information broadcast in the Regional Beam may direct the UE to select and use a
Narrow Beam for initial access.
A.2.3
PSAB Selection Process
The UE typically selects a suitable Primary Shared Access Bearer as follows:
1)
The UE tunes to the Global Beam Common Channel and reads the list of available Primary Shared Access
Bearers together with the spot beam boundary information (both for Regional as well as isolated Narrow
Beams, if applicable).
2)
Based on GPS position information the UE uses the spot beam boundary information (spot beam maps) and
knowledge of its own position to select a Regional Beam (or Narrow Beam if no Regional Beam is available to
cover the location of the UE) from the above list and to tune to the frequency of the Primary Shared Access
Bearer.
3)
In overlap areas served by more than one beam, the UE performs a scan of all suitable beams and selects the
one providing the highest signal/noise ratio or makes a selection based on preference control information in the
spot beam boundary information.
4)
In the event that no GPS position information or spot beam maps are available, the UE performs a scan of the
Primary Shared Access Bearer frequencies of all the beams listed on the Global Beam Common Channel and
select the one providing the highest signal/noise ratio.
5)
After successfully acquiring a Primary Shared Access Bearer the UE reads the System Information transmitted
on this bearer.
6)
If this Shared Access Bearer does not contain a list of Primary Shared Access Bearers in Narrow Beams, then
the UE remains on the currently selected bearer and carries out the random access procedure described in
clause A.2.4.
7)
If this Shared Access Bearer does contain a list of Primary Shared Access Bearers in Narrow Beams, then the
UE determines from this list if there is a suitable Narrow Beam covering the location of the UE and tunes to
the frequency of the Primary Shared Access Bearer.
8)
In overlap areas served by more than one beam, the UE selects a suitable beam based on signal quality or
preference control information in the spot beam boundary information.
9)
In the event that no GPS position information is available, the UE performs a scan of all beams signalled in the
list obtained during step 7 select the one providing the highest signal/noise ratio.
10) The UE now remains on the currently selected bearer and carries out the Registration procedure as described
in clause A.2.4.
The above procedure is illustrated in Figure A.1.
ETSI
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ETSI TS 102 744-1-2 V1.1.1 (2015-10)
Figure A.1: Beam Selection Process at UE
A.2.4
Registration on the Satellite Network
The procedure illustrated in Figure A.2 presents the exchange of messages required for the User Equipment (UE) to
initiate communication with a Radio Network Controller (RNC) and to be allocated a UE-Specific Signalling
Connection. The registration procedure needs to be performed before the UE can send signalling messages to the CN.
ETSI
32
ETSI TS 102 744-1-2 V1.1.1 (2015-10)
Figure A.2: Registration
When the UE is finally camped on a PSAB it monitors the return schedule transmissions to identify a suitable
opportunity to transmit a random access burst containing a Register Protocol Data Unit (PDU) to the RNC. The Register
PDU identifies the UE to the RNC (when not inhibited by Access Class or SIM card control mechanisms) by including
its NAS ID (IMSI, TMSI, P-TMSI or IMEI in the case of Emergency Call without SIM/USIM).
If the RNC successfully accepts this Register PDU it responds with a RegisterAck PDU that allocates a UE-Specific
Signalling Connection for subsequent signalling messages. The UE indicates that it has received the RegisterAck
message by sending the RegisterComplete message on the newly established UE Specific Signalling Connection.
The RNC may, depending on RNC policy, then request the UE to send its GPS position to the RNC. This position
report is protected from interception using a public key encryption algorithm (the public key either being sent to the UE
in the position request message from the RNC or drawn from a predefined array of keys stored in the UE). The
encrypted position report returned from the UE in the response allows the RNC to determine if the UE is permitted to
use the satellite network services in the service area corresponding to its geographical position. If this is the case then
the RNC accepts the UE and allow it to proceed with the UMTS Attach by responding with a RegModeUpdate
message.
A.2.5
Attach Procedure and Combined Procedures
A.2.5.0 General
As a result of Registration, a signalling connection is established allowing the UE and RNC to exchange signalling, but
at this stage the Core Network (CN) is not yet aware of the presence of the subscriber in the network. In order to receive
paging messages and to establish mobile originated and terminated connections for user traffic, the UE needs to Attach
to the Core Network.
The UMTS Release 4 Core Network consists of two independent network domains with separate equipment, namely the
packet switched (PS) and circuit switched (CS) domains. Users wishing to establish circuit switched calls or packet
switched sessions need to Attach to the appropriate Core Network domain.
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ETSI TS 102 744-1-2 V1.1.1 (2015-10)
Although the two network domains are functionally separate, the network may optionally be configured to permit
combined CS and PS procedures. Combined procedures permit the reduction of signalling load on the satellite radio
interface, for example by allowing the users to carry out a combined Attach to both the CS and PS domains using one
signalling sequence directed to the PS domain. The availability or otherwise of combined procedures is advertised to
users in the broadcast system information using the information element "Network Mode of Operation(NMO)". When
the network is in NMO-I, combined procedures can occur. In NMO-II, combined procedures are not permitted.
For further explanation of the use of combined procedures and Network Mode of Operation, please refer to ETSI
TS 124 008 [i.4], clause 4.1.1.2 and ETSI TS 123 060 [2], clause 6.3.
A.2.5.1 IMSI Attach Procedure
The IMSI Attach procedure (also refer to ETSI TS 124 008 [i.4], clause 4.4.3) is initiated by the UE in order to gain
access to UMTS circuit switched services, as illustrated in Figure A.3. If the UE is in CS/PS mode of operation and the
network is in NMO-I, the UE may instead use the GPRS Attach procedure to execute a combined Attach to both the CS
and PS domains, thus reducing the signalling load.
To gain access to UMTS Circuit Switched services using IMSI Attach, the UE needs to indicate to the serving
MSC/VLR that it is active. The UE identifies itself using the subscriber's globally unique subscriber identity number,
the IMSI (recorded in the user's subscriber identity module, USIM) or alternatively it identifies itself using the
subscriber's temporary identity number the TMSI and the previous LAI (Location Area Identity) where it was located (if
available from a previous session). Where possible, a TMSI is allocated to a user in place of the IMSI for signalling
over the satellite radio interface for reasons of subscriber confidentiality. The TMSI is changed regularly, i.e. at each
Location Area Update procedure.
An InitialDirectTransfer message is sent by the UE via the previously established UE-Specific Signalling Connection
with the RNC (see clause A.2.4). The InitialDirectTransfer has the dual function of establishing a signalling connection
from the UE to the serving MSC/VLR via the RNC and transferring the first mobility management (MM) message of
this transaction to the MSC/VLR (in this case the MM message to the CN is LocationUpdatingRequest (type="IMSI
Attach").
NOTE:
The requirement for UEs to undertake IMSI Attach and Detach procedures is advertised in the broadcast
system information.
This message identifies the subscriber to the CS Core Network using their IMSI or (TMSI where available). The
MSC/VLR response is to authenticate the subscriber using the Authentication procedure. The conditions for
undertaking Authentication are operator configurable but typically Authentication would be triggered each time (or
once in a configurable number of times, also known as "Selective Authentication") a signalling connection between the
CN and UE is established. In the example presented, the Authentication procedure is triggered.
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ETSI TS 102 744-1-2 V1.1.1 (2015-10)
Figure A.3: IMSI Attach
The Authentication procedure has three functions, firstly to identify the IMSI and establish that its user is genuine,
secondly to allow the UE to establish that the network is genuine (Mutual Authentication) and thirdly to provide
ciphering and integrity keys to the UE for subsequent security procedures.
A successful Authentication procedure consists of an AuthenticationRequest from the MSC/VLR passed to the UE that
in turn responds with an AuthenticationResponse. The MSC/VLR checks whether the response from the UE is as
expected and if successful it proceeds.
A further aspect of security follows, whereby the MSC/VLR commands the UE to switch on Ciphering and Integrity
Protection over the satellite radio interface. A successful exchange of SecurityModeCommand and
SecurityModeComplete ensures that subsequent exchanges between the UE and RNC across the radio interface are
ciphered to prevent eavesdropping. In addition, signalling messages may be subject to Integrity Protection by which
each signalling message is appended with a 32 bit digital signature that is checked by its recipient to determine whether
the message is genuine, i.e. has not been tampered or substituted by an intermediary. Integrity Protection is mandatory
for all signalling except in a small number of cases (such as Emergency Calls without a SIM) so in general
Authentication would be performed to produce the required keys. However it is up to the network to decide how long a
particular key set can be used so depending upon operator policy it may be that Authentication is not performed after
the initial UE message.
To co-ordinate paging in the two CN domains (CS and PS) the CN informs the RNC of the permanent NAS UE Identity
(the IMSI) once an Iu signalling connection is established using the CommonID message. The RNC associates the IMSI
to the UE Specific Signalling Connection of that user and saves it for the duration of the UE Specific Signalling
Connection. A typical (but not the only) stage where the CN may generate this message is following
SecurityModeComplete, as shown.
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ETSI TS 102 744-1-2 V1.1.1 (2015-10)
Following this exchange, the MSC/VLR completes the IMSI Attach transaction by sending a LocationUpdateAccept to
the UE containing a new NAS Temporary ID (TMSI). The UE acknowledges this with TMSIReallocationComplete.
From now on the UE is camped on the network. Both the UE and CN maintain a mobility management context. This
means that the UE responds to incoming paging messages from the CN and carry out Periodic Location Area Updates
and be able to exchange SMS via the CS domain and receive CBC messages. The VLR continues to maintain a record
of the Location Area of the Attached UE in order to page the UE for incoming traffic.
At the close of this transaction, the CN would typically withdraw the signalling connection using the
IuReleaseCommand/IuReleaseComplete exchange, but both the UE and CN continue to maintain a mobility
management context and re-establish the signalling connection as needed.
A.2.5.2 GPRS Attach Procedure
The GPRS Attach procedure (also refer to ETSI TS 124 008 [i.4], clause 4.7.3.1 and ETSI TS 123 060 [2], clause 6.5.2)
is initiated by the UE to gain access to UMTS packet switched services. This procedure is also used to execute a
combined IMSI/GPRS Attach for UEs supporting PS/CS operation if the network operates in Network Mode of
Operation I, thus removing the need to carry out a separate GPRS Attach and IMSI Attach.
The Attach sequence for the PS domain, shown in Figure A.4, is similar to that described for the CS domain. The Initial
Direct Transfer message contains instead a (GMM) AttachRequest message. The Attach Type information element
within this message indicates to the SGSN whether a GPRS Attach or combined IMSI/GPRS Attach is required.
The authentication and security mode procedures take place as before.
Figure A.4: GPRS Attach or Combined GPRS/IMSI Attach
ETSI
36
A.2.6
ETSI TS 102 744-1-2 V1.1.1 (2015-10)
Mobile Originated Circuit Switched Call Set Up
A mobile originated circuit switched call may be established when a user keys in the recipient's directory number and
presses a "send" button on their handset. An Iu Signalling Connection to the CS domain of the Core Network is
established to pass a Call Setup message to the MSC.
The message sequence exchanged across the satellite radio interface for a mobile initiated circuit switched call is
presented in Figure A.5.
In this sequence it is assumed that the UE is already Attached to the CS CN domain (using the exchanges described
previously) and that there is a UE-Specific Signalling Connection to the RNC but the signalling connection does not
extend to the serving MSC/VLR. In order to pass a Call Setup message, the CS Signalling Connection to the MSC/VLR
needs to be re-established.
The UE begins the procedure by sending a CMServiceRequest message indicating that a mobile originated (MO) call is
to be established.
Figure A.5: Mobile Originated Circuit Switched Call
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ETSI TS 102 744-1-2 V1.1.1 (2015-10)
The MSC/VLR may respond by re-authenticating the UE and re-establishing security procedures, depending on
operator configuration. The MSC/VLR undertakes the RANAP CommonID procedure once the Iu Signalling
Connection is established to allow paging co-ordination between CN domains - for example the CommonID can be
passed to the RNC after SecurityModeComplete.
The UE then sends the (CC) Setup message to the MSC/VLR. This message contains the destination directory number
of the call and the type of service required (e.g. speech or circuit switched data) that was requested by the user.
The MSC/VLR responds to the Setup message with a CallProceeding message that indicates to the originating UE that
the network has received the call information necessary to begin establishing the call.
At this stage the CN establish a bi-directional user plane traffic channel between the UE and CN using the RAB
Assignment procedure.
The MSC/VLR passes an Alert message to the UE to indicate to the UE that user alerting has been initiated at the called
address (i.e. the destination is alerted to the incoming call and the originator is made aware that the call has arrived but
not been answered).
When the destination answers the incoming call, a Connect message is passed to the originating UE. The UE stops the
alerting indication, passes back a ConnectAck message and connects the user and destination via the user plane
connection. The call is now established and both parties can converse until one or other party clears the call.
A.2.7
Emergency Calls
The satellite network is required to support UMTS emergency speech calls (also refer to ETSI TS 122 101 [i.1],
clause 9). An emergency call consists of a mobile originated CS call that is routed to the emergency services in
accordance with national regulations of the country where the subscriber is located.
A typical scenario of the establishment of an emergency call is as a result of a user pressing a dedicated "emergency
call" number on their handset or entering a well known emergency directory number (e.g. 911, 999, 112 etc.) that is
recognized by the UE as an emergency number. The requirements describing emergency numbers to be supported by
the UE are established in ETSI TS 122 101 [i.1], clause 9.1.
The satellite network uses the reported UE Service Area to route the call to the emergency call centre appropriate to the
national regulations of the country in which the UE is located. The UE's Service Area Identifier is determined by the
RNC on the basis of the UE's reported GPS co-ordinates.
An example message sequence for Emergency Call is shown in Figure A.6. The messages exchanged are similar to a
conventional mobile originated CS call. The CMServiceRequest message indicates service type as "Emergency Call
Establishment".
As a result of this service request, Selective Authentication and Security Mode procedures take place, as was the case
for conventional MO CS calling. The network operator may optionally permit users to make emergency calls without a
SIM/USIM, as illustrated in Figure A.7. In the absence of the SIM, Security Mode, Authentication and CommonID are
not undertaken (because of the absence of IMSI/TMSI). The MSC/VLR instead responds with a CMServiceAccept
message to indicate to the UE that the CS Signalling Connection is established.
The permission to make an emergency call without a SIM/USIM is a configuration setting in the Core Network. If the
capability is not enabled the CN MSC responds with a CMServiceReject.
An additional mechanism is available for the network operator to prohibit/allow Emergency Calls without SIM/USIM.
A broadcast Access Control System Information AVP is defined to flag to UEs whether Registration using IMEI is
permitted and thus inhibit/allow emergency calls without SIM prior to the Registration stage. Following the
establishment of the CS signalling connection, the UE generates the Call Control message EmergencySetup to the
MSC/VLR. This message contains no calling or called party directory number, unlike the conventional (CC) Setup
message. Instead the MSC/VLR takes charge of routing the emergency call to the appropriate national Public Service
Access Point (PSAP).
At the operator's discretion, emergency call numbers other than those recognized by the UE may be recognized as
requiring routing to national PSAPs. Such calls would be handled as conventional MO CS calls by the UE and CN.
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ETSI TS 102 744-1-2 V1.1.1 (2015-10)
Figure A.6: Emergency Call - case 1
(UE is Registered prior to this procedure and has SIM/USIM)
ETSI
39
Figure A.7: Emergency Call - case 2
(UE without SIM/USIM)
ETSI
ETSI TS 102 744-1-2 V1.1.1 (2015-10)
40
A.2.8
ETSI TS 102 744-1-2 V1.1.1 (2015-10)
Mobile Terminated Circuit Switched Call Set Up
In the case of a mobile terminated circuit switched call, the visited MSC/VLR receives the indication of an incoming
call from an external network and alerts the UE to the incoming call.
In order for the incoming call to reach the UE, the Core Network needs to know the whereabouts (have a mobility
management context) for the UE at least to the resolution of its Location Area. The CS Core Network therefore needs a
record of the UE's location, i.e. the UE needs to be Attached to the CS domain prior to the incoming call signal.
A typical call flow for this scenario is shown in Figure A.8 and Figure A.10. Prior to this transaction, the UE has
Attached but retains no CS Signalling Connection to the CS domain of the Core Network. In the absence of a CS
signalling connection, the MSC/VLR needs first to page the UE to request that the UE sets up a signalling connection
and only then can it pass the (CC) Setup message back to the UE.
Figure A.8: Mobile Terminated CS Call Paging Type 2
Figure A.9: Mobile Terminated CS Call Paging Type 1
ETSI
41
Authentication
MSC/
VLR
RNC
UE
Security Mode
ETSI TS 102 744-1-2 V1.1.1 (2015-10)
RANAP: Direct Transfer(MM:
Authentication Request)
MMH: Downlink Direct Transfer(MM:
Authentication Request)
MMH: Uplink Direct Transfer(MM:
Authentication Response)
RANAP: Direct Transfer(MM:
Authentication Response)
RANAP: Security Mode Command
MMH: Security Mode Command
MMH: Security Mode Complete
RANAP: Security Mode Complete
RANAP:Common ID
RANAP:Direct Transfer (CC:Setup)
MMH: Downlink Direct Transfer
(CC:Setup)
RAB
Assignment
MMH: Uplink Direct Transfer (CC:Call
Confirm)
RANAP:Direct T ransfer (CC: Call
Confirm )
RANAP:RAB Assignment Request
RBC: Establish
RBC: Establish Ack
RANAP:RAB Assignment Response
MMH: Uplink Direct Transfer
(CC:Alerting)
RANAP:Direct Transfer (CC:Alerting)
MMH: Uplink Direct Transfer
(CC:Connect)
RANAP:Direct Transfer (CC:Connect)
RANAP:Direct Transfer (CC:Connect
Ack)
MMH: Downlink Direct Transfer
(CC:Connect Ack)
Figure A.10: Continuation of Mobile Terminated CS Call
The MSC/VLR sends a Paging message to the RNC or RNCs which control the Location Area (LA) that the UE is
reported to be in according to its MM context. The RNC checks whether a UE Specific Signalling Connection is active
for the IMSI/TMSI concerned and if so the RNC uses the UE Specific Signalling Connection to page the UE (Paging
Type 2, illustrated in Figure A.8). The UE then returns a Paging Response.
In the case where a UE is both IMSI- and GPRS-Attached and the network is in NMO-I, the MSC/VLR executes paging
for CS services via the SGSN. The procedure is otherwise the same: in both Paging and Paging Response messages, the
CN Domain Indicator is set to "CS" as described in ETSI TS 123 060 [2], clause 6.3.4.
In the case that there is no UE Specific Signalling Connection for this IMSI/TMSI, the RNC needs to broadcast a
paging message (Paging Type 1). To respond to the page, The UE needs to first establish a UE Specific Signalling
Connection to the RNC before it can provide a Paging Response to the MSC/VLR, as illustrated in Figure A.9.
Note that the Paging Response message from the UE uses the "RR" Protocol discriminator for reasons of backwards
compatibility as described in ETSI TS 124 008 [i.4], clause 4.5.1.3.3.
The Paging Response message is forwarded to the MSC/VLR using an Initial Direct Transfer message that establishes a
dedicated signalling connection between the UE and the MSC/VLR.
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ETSI TS 102 744-1-2 V1.1.1 (2015-10)
The call flow following the Paging Response (illustrated in Figure A.10) is common to both Paging Type 1 and Paging
Type 2 scenarios. The MSC/VLR may optionally carry out authentication and or security procedures at this point.
Following this, the CN may pass a CommonID message to the RNC (CommonID provides the RNC with the UE's IMSI
so that it may direct paging messages to the appropriate UE-Specific Signalling Connection when a NAS signalling
connection exists for one domain but not the other).
The MSC/VLR then passes a (CC) Setup message to the UE, indicating to the UE that an incoming call exists. The UE
check whether it can accept the call and if so, responds with a CallConfirm message.
The MSC/VLR then establishes a bi-directional user plane traffic channel between the UE and CN using the RAB
Assignment procedure. The UE indicates to the MSC/VLR with the Alerting message that the user is being notified
about the incoming call. The Connect message is sent by the destination UE when the user answers the call. The
MSC/VLR responds with a ConnectAck when the originator completes the call and the user plane connection is
established.
The circuit switched call now proceeds.
A.2.9
Circuit Switched Call Clearing
An established circuit switched call is cleared either by the UE or the MSC/VLR. The two sequences of messages are
shown in Figure A.11 and Figure A.12.
In the case of a call cleared by the UE, the UE transmits an uplink (CC) Disconnect message towards the CN, which
passes a message to the remote party. The response, Release, is passed back to the UE, which acknowledges this with a
ReleaseComplete message. The MSC/VLR then instructs the RNC to withdraw the radio access bearer associated with
the call and, in the absence of further transactions requiring a CS Signalling Connection, executes the CS Signalling
Connection Release procedure.
MSC/
VLR
RNC
UE
MMH: Uplink Direct Transfer
(CC:Disconnect)
RANAP:Direct Transfer (CC:Disconnect)
RANAP:Direct Transfer (CC:Release)
RBC: Downlink Direct Transfer
(CC:Release)
RBC: Uplink Direct T ransf er
(CC : Release Complete )
RANAP:Direct Transfer (CC:Release
Complete)
RAB
Release
RANAP:RAB Assignment Request
RBC: Release
RBC: Release Ack
CS
Signalling
Connection
Release
RANAP:RAB Assignment Response
RANAP: Iu Release Command
Signalling Connection Release (CN
Domain=CS)
RANAP: Iu Release Complete
Figure A.11: Circuit Switched Call Clearing (Mobile Originated)
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ETSI TS 102 744-1-2 V1.1.1 (2015-10)
MSC/
VLR
RNC
UE
RANAP:Direct Transfer (CC:Disconnect)
MMH: Downlink Direct Transfer
(CC:Disconnect)
MMH: Uplink Direct Transfer
(CC:Release)
RANAP:Direct Transfer (CC:Release)
RANAP:Direct Transfer (CC:Release
Complete)
RAB
Release
MMH: Downlink Direct Transfer
(CC:Release Complete)
RANAP:RAB Assignment Request
RBC: Release
RBC: Release Ack
CS
Signalling
Connection
Release
RANAP:RAB Assignment Response
RANAP: Iu Release Command
REGM: Signalling Connection Release
(CN Domain=CS)
RANAP: Iu Release Complete
Figure A.12: Circuit Switched Call Clearing (Mobile Terminated)
In the case of a call cleared by the remote party, the MSC/VLR would forward a Disconnect Call Control message
towards the UE. The UE would pass back a Release message in response, which would be acknowledged using a
ReleaseComplete message. The MSC/VLR then instructs the RNC to withdraw the associated radio access bearer
associated with the call.
At the completion of the call clearing transaction, the CN would typically release the signalling connection to the UE
using the Iu Release procedure, i.e. the MSC/VLR may choose not to use a separate RAB release procedure but simply
release the Iu connection once the call has ended.
A.2.10 Activation of Packet Switched Session, "PDP Context"
The PDP Context Activation procedure is used to assign a PDP address (i.e. an IP address) to a UE and to specify user
plane capacity and Quality of Service for transferring PDUs associated with this address. The PDP Context Activation
procedure also establishes a gateway (APN) via which the PDUs are routed. Packet switched session activation is
assumed to be initiated by the UE. In response to the request from the UE, the PS CN establishes routing and
encapsulation procedures to transfer uplink and downlink packets associated with this PDP context. It is possible for
one or more simultaneous PDP contexts to be active to an individual UE depending on the UE capability (up to a
maximum of 11).
ETSI
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ETSI TS 102 744-1-2 V1.1.1 (2015-10)
SGSN
RNC
UE
Security Mode
Authentication
GMMH: Initial Direct Transfer(GMM:
Service Request(Signalling))
RANAP: Initial UE Message(GMM:
Service Request(Signalling))
RANAP: Direct Transfer(GMM:
Authentication Request)
GMMH: Downlink Direct Transfer(GMM:
Authentication Request)
GMMH: Uplink Direct Transfer(GMM:
Authentication Response)
RANAP: Direct Transfer(GMM:
Authentication Response)
RANAP: Security Mode Command
GMMH: Security Mode Command
GMMH: Security Mode Complete
RANAP: Security Mode Complete
RANAP: Common ID (IMSI)
RAB
Assignment
GMMH: Uplink Direct
Transfer(SM:Activate PDP Context
Request)
RANAP: Direct Transfer(SM: Activate
PDP Context Request)
RANAP: RAB Assignment Request
RBC: Establish
RBC: Establish Ack
RANAP: RAB Assignment Response
GMMH: Downlink Direct Transfer(SM:
Activate PDP Context Accept)
RANAP: Direct Transfer(SM: Activate
PDP Context Accept)
Figure A.13: Mobile Originated PDP Context Activation
The option of PDP context activation initiated by the CN is currently not supported in the satellite network. Only PDP
context activation initiated by the UE is considered in the present document, as illustrated in Figure A.13.
Prior to requesting activation of a PDP context, the UE needs to have an established UE Specific Signalling connection
to the RNC and then establish a PS signalling connection to the Serving GPRS Support Node (SGSN) for carrying
subsequent Mobility Management and Session Management signalling to the CN PS domain. An Initial Direct Transfer
message containing a ServiceRequest initiates the PS signalling connection. Note that if the UE already has a PS
Signalling Connection (i.e. "PMM Connected" mode) then the UE initiates the PDP context directly with an
UplinkDirectTransfer containing the SM:ActivatePDPContextRequest message.
On establishing a signalling connection to a UE, the SGSN may optionally initiate the authentication (depending on
selective authentication settings) and undertakes security mode procedures. Note that there is no response to the
GMM:Service Request message (see ETSI TS 124 008 [i.4], clause 4.7.13.3). Having established an Iu signalling
connection the CN sends a CommonID message to the RNC containing the UE's IMSI to the RNC for the purposes of
paging co-ordination between the CN domains.
On establishing the PS Signalling Connection the UE forwards the request to activate a PDP context over the
established signalling connection to the SGSN. If accepted, the SGSN commands the RNC to establish the appropriate
user plane radio interface capacity to support the PDP context using the RAB Assignment Request procedure.
Successful establishment of user plane capacity is confirmed to the UE with the ActivatePDPContextAccept message
from the SGSN to the UE. Exchange of packet data may now take place.
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ETSI TS 102 744-1-2 V1.1.1 (2015-10)
A.2.11 Deactivation of Packet Switched Session
PDP context deactivation is executed to remove the record of the PDP session from both the UE and the SGSN.
Following this procedure no further packet traffic associated with this PDP context may be exchanged.
Figure A.14: PDP Context Deactivation (Mobile Initiated)
A previously established PDP context may be deactivated at the request of either the SGSN or the UE. An example of
PDP Context Deactivation at the request of the UE is presented in Figure A.14. An example of a PDP Context
Deactivation at the request of the CN is presented in Figure A.15.
SGSN
RNC
UE
GMMH: Downlink Direct
Transfer(SM:Deactivate PDP Context
Request)
GMMH: Uplink Direct
Transfer(SM:Deactivate PDP Context
Accept)
RANAP: Direct Transfer(SM: Deactivate
PDP Context Request)
RANAP: Direct Transfer(SM: Deactivate
PDP Context Accept)
RAB
Release
RANAP:RAB Assignment Request
RBC: Release
RBC: Release Ack
RANAP:RAB Assignment Response
Figure A.15: PDP Context Deactivation (SGSN Initiated)
In the mobile initiated deactivation case, the UE passes the (SM) DeactivatePDPContextRequest message to the SGSN
on the established PS signalling connection between the UE and SGSN. The SGSN accepts this message and responds
with DeactivatePDPContextAccept to the UE. The SGSN then commands the RNC to withdraw the user plane capacity
associated with this PDP context using the RABAssignmentRequest message.
In the SGSN initiated deactivation case, the SGSN originates the DeactivatePDPContextRequest message and this is
responded to using DeactivatePDPContextAccept at the UE. Again, the SGSN commands the RNC to withdraw the
user plane capacity.
Following successful execution of this transaction, uplink or downlink user plane PDUs associated with this PDP
context is discarded.
In the absence of further transactions requiring a PS Signalling Connection to the UE, the SGSN releases the PS
Signalling connection with a PS signalling connection release exchange with the RNC.
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ETSI TS 102 744-1-2 V1.1.1 (2015-10)
A.2.12 Preservation of PDP context during release of RAB/PS
signalling connection
A.2.12.0 General
For further details also refer to ETSI TS 124 008 [i.4], clause 4.7.3 and ETSI TS 123 060 [2], clauses 9.2.5 and 6.12.1.
A.2.12.1 Temporary Release of a Packet Switched Radio Access Bearer due
to Inactivity
A.2.12.1.0
General
The RNC may ask the SGSN to release the radio access bearer associated with a background or interactive class PDP
context (e.g. as a result of inactivity on the RAB). This PDP context remains active (preserved) in the CN and UE for
subsequent packet transfer but the user plane bearer has temporarily been withdrawn. RABs for other PDP contexts may
remain and the PS signalling connection remains active. The sequence of messages exchanged is shown in Figure A.16.
Note that a configurable inactivity timer governs RNC request for temporary release of PS RABs. The inactivity timer
is configured by the network operator.
SGSN
RNC
UE
RANAP: RAB Release Request
RAB
Release
RANAP:RAB Assignment Request
RBC: Release
RBC: Release Ack
RANAP:RAB Assignment Response
Figure A.16: Temporary RAB release due to inactivity
A.2.12.1.1
Uplink PDU causing restoration of packet switched RAB following Earlier
release
A new RAB is assigned for this PDP context in the event of subsequent user plane activity, e.g. the arrival of uplink
PDUs at the UE.
The sequence of messages resulting from the arrival of a PDU at the UE for transmission in the uplink/return direction
is illustrated in Figure A.17. The UE indicates to the SGSN that a RAB needs to be assigned due to data waiting to be
transmitted with the (GMM) ServiceRequest(Data) message.
ETSI
47
SGSN
RNC
UE
Uplink
PDU
ETSI TS 102 744-1-2 V1.1.1 (2015-10)
GMMH: Uplink Direct Transfer(GMM:
Service Request(Data))
RANAP: Direct Transfer(GMM: Service
Accept)
RANAP: Direct Transfer(GMM: Service
Request(Data))
RANAP: Direct Transfer(GMM: Service
Accept)
RANAP: RAB Assignment Request
RBC: Establish
RBC: Establish Ack
RANAP: RAB Assignment Response
Uplink PDU
Figure A.17: Resource reservation for active PDP context in PMM-connected mode where RABs were
previously released (e.g. due to inactivity) and user plane capacity is required due to uplink PDU
The SGSN indicates to the UE that it is resuming the pending user plane service with the ServiceAccept response. The
SGSN then re-establishes RABs for all active PDP contexts that are without user plane bearers for this UE.
A.2.12.1.2
Downlink PDU causing restoration of Packet Switched RAB following earlier
RAB release
The sequence of messages resulting from the arrival of a PDU at the SGSN for transmission in the downlink direction is
illustrated in Figure A.18. At the arrival of the PDU, the SGSN recognizes the absence of a RAB for the associated PDP
context and initiates a RANAP RAB Assignment procedure towards the RNC via the PS domain Iu Signalling
Connection associated with this UE. Note that the SGSN re-establishes RABs for all active PDP contexts for this UE
that are without user plane bearers.
SGSN
RNC
UE
RAB
Assignment
Downlink
PDU
RANAP: RAB Assignment Request
RBC: Establish
RBC: Establish Ack
RANAP: RAB Assignment Response
Downlink PDU
Figure A.18: Resource reservation for active PDP context in PMM-connected mode where RABs were
previously released (e.g. due to inactivity) and user plane capacity is required due to downlink PDU
ETSI
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ETSI TS 102 744-1-2 V1.1.1 (2015-10)
A.2.12.2 Temporary Release of a Packet Switched Signalling Connection due
to Inactivity
A.2.12.2.0
General
The RNC may request the release of the UE's PS Signalling Connection to the SGSN while PDP contexts are active (for
example due to user inactivity), as shown in Figure A.19. In releasing the PS Signalling Connection, all PS RABs for
that UE are released.
UE
SGSN
RNC
RANAP: Iu Release Request
Iu
Release
RANAP: Iu Release Command
REGM: Signalling Connection Release
(PS Domain)
RANAP:Iu Release Complete
Figure A.19: Release of PS Signalling Connection and associated RABs
triggered by RNC due to Inactivity
The PDP contexts can remain active even without either user plane bearers or PS Signalling Connection. The
subsequent arrival of a PDU at either the UE or SGSN triggers the re-establishment of both a PS Signalling Connection
and user plane bearers.
A.2.12.2.1
Uplink PDU arrival causing restoration of PS Signalling connection and RABs
following Earlier release
The subsequent arrival of a PDU at the UE for transmission in the uplink direction is illustrated in Figure A.20. If no
UE Specific Signalling Connection is outstanding between the UE and RNC then this needs to be established using the
Register procedure. With a UE Specific Signalling Connection the UE initiates a PS Signalling Connection to the SGSN
using the InitialDirectTransfer message to pass a ServiceRequest(Data) message to the SGSN.
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ETSI TS 102 744-1-2 V1.1.1 (2015-10)
SGSN
RNC
UE
Registration
Uplink
PDU
[Common Signalling]:
REGM:Register (Priority, UE NAS ID,
Establishment Cause)
[Common Signalling]: REGM:
RegisterAck (UE NAS ID, tBCnID)
Registration is only
required if there is no
UE Specific Signalling
Connection outstanding
between the UE and
RNC.
REGM:RegisterComplete
REGM:UEPositionReq (RAN Public Key)
REGM:UEPositionResp (Encrypted UE
Position)
REGM:RegModeUpdate
Security Mode
Authentication
GMMH: Initial Direct Transfer(GMM:
Service Request (Data) )
RANAP: Initial UE Message(GMM:
Service Request (Data))
RANAP: Direct Transfer(GMM:
Authentication Request )
GMMH: Downlink Direct Transfer(GMM:
Authentication Request )
GMMH: Uplink Direct Transfer(GMM:
Authentication Response )
RANAP: Direct Transfer(GMM:
Authentication Response )
RANAP: Security Mode Command
GMMH: Security Mode Command
GMMH: Security Mode Complete
RANAP:Security Mode Complete
RAB
Assignment
RANAP: Common ID (IMSI)
RANAP: RAB Assignment Request
RBC: Establish
RBC: Establish Ack
RANAP: RAB Assignment Response
Uplink PDU
Figure A.20: Resource reservation due to arrival of uplink PDU for active PDP context in PMM-idle
mode where RABs and PS signalling connection were previously released (e.g. due to inactivity)
Initiation of a PS Signalling Connection to the SGSN may trigger the Authentication procedure (depending on Selective
Authentication settings) and the Security Mode procedure, as shown. No ServiceAccept message is generated because
the Security Mode Procedure implicitly acknowledges the ServiceRequest from the UE. The service type of "Data" in
the ServiceRequest message indicates to the SGSN to initiate RAB assignments for all active PDP contexts for the UE,
thus allowing the PDU transmission to proceed.
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A.2.12.2.2
ETSI TS 102 744-1-2 V1.1.1 (2015-10)
Downlink PDU arrival causing restoration of Iu PS Signalling connection and
RABs following Earlier release
PDUs may arrive at the SGSN destined for a UE that no longer has a PS Signalling Connection but has active PDP
context(s) (the PS signalling having been withdrawn, as described in clause A.2.12.1). To restore the transmission of
PDUs, the UE needs to be paged by the SGSN to trigger the UE to request a PS Signalling Connection and allow the
SGSN to establish RABs. This case is illustrated in Figure A.21.
SGSN
RNC
UE
Authentication
Paging Type 2 (UE
Specific Signalling
Connection
Registered)
Downlink
PDU
RANAP:Paging(CN domain,IMSI,TMSI,
paging area,paging cause)
GMMH: Paging Type 2 (CN Domain,
Paging Cause)
GMMH: Initial Direct Transfer(GMM:
Service Request(Paging Response))
RANAP: Initial UE Message(GMM:
Service Request(Paging Response))
RANAP: Direct Transfer(GMM:
Authentication Request)
GMMH: Downlink Direct Transfer(GMM:
Authentication Request)
GMMH: Uplink Direct Transfer(GMM:
Authentication Response)
RANAP: Direct Transfer(GMM:
Authentication Response)
Security Mode
RANAP: Security Mode Command
GMMH: Security Mode Command
GMMH: Security Mode Complete
RANAP:Security Mode Complete
RANAP: Common ID (IMSI)
RAB
Assignment
RANAP: RAB Assignment Request
RABM: Establish
RABM: Establish Ack
RANAP: RAB Assignment Response
Downlink PDU
Figure A.21: Resource reservation due to arrival of downlink PDU for active PDP context in PMM-idle
mode where RABs and PS signalling connection were previously released (e.g. due to inactivity) and
UE Specific Signalling Connection is Active
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ETSI TS 102 744-1-2 V1.1.1 (2015-10)
SGSN
RNC
UE
RANAP: Paging (CN domain,IMSI,PTMSI, paging area,paging cause)
Downlink
PDU
Registration
[Common Signalling Broadcast]:
REGM:PagingType1 (CN Domain, IMSI,
P-TMSI, Paging Cause)
[Common Signalling]:
REGM:Register (Priority, UE NAS ID,
Establishment Cause)
[Common Signalling]: REGM:
RegisterAck (UE NAS ID, tBCnID)
REGM:RegisterComplete
REGM:UEPositionReq (RAN Public Key)
REGM:UEPositionResp (Encrypted UE
Position)
REGM:RegModeUpdate
Security Mode
Authentication
GMMH: Initial Direct Transfer(GMM:
Service Request (Paging Response) )
GMMH: Downlink Direct Transfer(GMM:
Authentication Request )
GMMH: Uplink Direct Transfer(GMM:
Authentication Response )
RANAP: Initial UE Message(GMM:
Service Request (Paging Response))
RANAP: Direct Transfer(GMM:
Authentication Request )
RANAP: Direct Transfer(GMM:
Authentication Response )
RANAP: Security Mode Command
GMMH: Security Mode Command
GMMH: Security Mode Complete
RANAP:Security Mode Complete
RANAP: Common ID (IMSI)
RAB
Assignment
RANAP: RAB Assignment Request
RABM: Establish
RABM: Establish Ack
RANAP: RAB Assignment Response
Downlink PDU
Figure A.22: Resource reservation due to arrival of downlink PDU for active PDP context in PMM-idle
mode where RABs and PS signalling connection were previously released (e.g. due to inactivity) and
no UE Specific Signalling Connection is Active
The arrival of the downlink PDU at the SGSN triggers the SGSN to generate a (RANAP) Paging message towards all
RNCs associated with the Routing Area that the UE last reported.
The RNC may have a UE-Specific Signalling Connection to the UE and forward the Paging request to the UE on this
connection (paging type 2, as illustrated in Figure A.21). Were the UE to have no UE-Specific Signalling Connection
then the RNC would broadcast a Paging message for the UE (Paging Type 1) to force a re-establishment of the
UE-Specific Signalling Connection as shown in Figure A.22.
The UE responds to the Paging message by generating an InitialDirectTransfer message to set up a PS signalling
connection to the SGSN and pass a (GMM) ServiceRequest(Paging) message.
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ETSI TS 102 744-1-2 V1.1.1 (2015-10)
Selective Authentication takes place followed by Security Mode procedures as shown. The execution of Security Mode
procedures acknowledges the ServiceRequest to the UE and triggers the SGSN to assign RABs for all active PDP
contexts associated with the UE. PDU transmission may then follow.
A.2.13 PS and CS detach
A.2.13.1 CS Detach, Mobile Originated
IMSI Detach (also refer to ETSI TS 124 008 [i.4], clause 4.3.4) deletes the circuit switched Mobility Management
context for the UE/IMSI. Following IMSI Detach, external callers cannot reach the UE for CS calls. IMSI Detach puts
the UE and MSC/VLR into MM-detached mode, in which the CS Core Network is no longer aware of the UE and the
UE no longer sends any signalling messages to the MSC/VLR. IMSI Detach does not affect the PS domain.
An example of IMSI detach is initiated by the UE is illustrated in Figure A.23.
UE
MMH: Initial Direct Transfer(MM:IMSI
Detach Indication)
Iu Release
MSC/VLR
Server
RNC
RANAP: Initial UE Message(MM: IMSI
Detach Indication)
RANAP: Iu Release Command
REGM: SignallingConnectionRelease
(CS Domain)
RANAP: Iu Release Complete
Figure A.23: IMSI Detach
The IMSI Detach procedure may be invoked if the UE is deactivated or the SIM is detached from the UE. The necessity
or otherwise of UE carrying out the IMSI Detach procedure is broadcast in the network system information (if IMSI
Detach is not required, the CN may implicitly detach the UE following timer expiry).
The UE announces that it is to be detached by sending an (MM) IMSIDetachIndication message to the MSC/VLR. The
message is not acknowledged. After reception of the IMSIDetachIndication message, the MSC/VLR releases locally
any ongoing Circuit Switched Mobility Management connection for this UE by issuing an IuReleaseCommand to the
RNC.
There is no equivalent IMSI detach initiated by the CN, the CN instead releases the UE's MM context locally if required
to detach the UE in the CS domain.
A.2.13.2 Mobile Initiated Detach via the PS Domain (GPRS Detach, IMSI
Detach or combined GPRS/IMSI Detach)
In this procedure the UE informs the PS domain of the CN that it no longer wants access to UMTS packet switched
services (also refer to ETSI TS 124 008 [i.4], clause 4.7.3.1 and ETSI TS 123 060 [2], clause 6.5.2). If the UE is GPRS
Attached and the network supports combined procedures then the same procedure towards the SGSN can also execute
the CS domain (IMSI) Detach or combined GPRS/IMSI Detach, depending on the "Detach Type" indicated by the UE.
The GPRS Detach procedure puts the UE and SGSN into PMM-Detached state, in which the PS network is no longer
aware of the UE and the UE no longer sends any periodic messages to the SGSN. The IMSI Detach procedure puts the
UE and MSC/VLR into CMM-Detached state, by which the CS network is no longer aware of the UE and the UE no
longer sends any periodic messages to the MSC/VLR.
The procedure is initiated by the UE passing a (GMM) DetachRequest message to the SGSN. The "Detach Type"
indicated in this message selects whether a GPRS Detach, IMSI Detach or combined GPRS/IMSI Detach are required.
The message also flags whether this message was initiated by the UE as a result of powering down the UE, i.e. "Power
Switched Off" or a "Normal Detach".
If accepted, the user plane connections and NAS-signalling connection are deleted for the detached domain.
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ETSI TS 102 744-1-2 V1.1.1 (2015-10)
If "Normal Detach" was requested then a DetachAccept response is returned by the SGSN to the UE to complete the
procedure as illustrated in the example Figure A.24. If "Power Switched Off" was indicated then no DetachAccept
response is returned, as illustrated in Figure A.25.
SGSN
RNC
UE
GMMH: Initial Direct Transfer(GMM:
RANAP Initial UE Message(GMM:
Detach Request (GPRS Detach, normal
Detach Request (GPRS Detach, normal
detach))
detach))
RANAP Direct Transfer(GMM: Detach
Accept)
Iu Release
GMMH: Downlink Direct Transfer (GMM:
Detach Accept)
RANAP: Iu Release Command
REGM: Signalling Connection Release
(PS Domain)
RANAP: Iu Release Complete
Figure A.24: UE Initiated GPRS Detach (Normal Detach Case)
GMMH: Initial Direct Transfer(GMM:
Detach Request (GPRS Detach, power
switched off))
Iu Release
SGSN
RNC
UE
RANAP: Initial UE Message(GMM:
Detach Request (GPRS Detach, power
switched off))
RANAP: Iu Release Command
REGM: Signalling Connection Release
(PS Domain)
RANAP: Iu Release Complete
Figure A.25: UE Initiated GPRS detach (Power Switched off Case)
An example of combined GPRS/IMSI Detach is illustrated in Figure A.26.
UE
SGSN
RNC
GMMH: Initial Direct Transfer(GMM:
RANAP: Initial UE Message(GMM:
Detach Request (Combined GPRS/IMSI
Detach Request(Combined GPRS/IMSI
detach, power switched off))
detach, power switched off)))
RANAP: Iu Release Command
REGM: Signalling Connection Release
(PS Domain)
RANAP: Iu Release Complete
RANAP: Iu Release Command
REGM: Signalling Connection Release
(CS Domain)
RANAP: Iu Release Complete
Figure A.26: UE Initiated combined GPRS/IMSI Detach
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ETSI TS 102 744-1-2 V1.1.1 (2015-10)
A.2.14 Handover
A.2.14.0 General
The above examples mainly consider the Non Access Stratum procedures related to the provision of various services. In
the Access Stratum, radio bearers need to be managed efficiently and a Radio Access Bearer Setup or Release may lead
to the UE being moved from one beam to another. Furthermore future versions of UEs (i.e. maritime and in particular
aeronautical versions) may require being moved from one beam to another due to a change in their location.
A.2.14.1 Radio Access Bearer Set-up and Release
Once a Radio Access Bearer set-up is initiated by the Core Network through the RANAP protocol, the RNC Radio
Resource Management (RRM) determines whether the requested QoS can be provided on the Primary Shared Access
Bearer, another Shared Access Bearer in the Regional Beam or a Shared Access Bearer in a Narrow Beam. It needs to
take into account any RABs already in existence between the UE and the CN.
If required, the RNC may move the UE-Specific Signalling Connection together with all existing RABs for a UE to the
new Shared Access Bearer. The new Shared Access Bearer may be transmitted in the same or a different beam which
can serve the UE. A handover procedure within the RNC would only be invoked if the UE is being moved from one
Bearer Control process to another (which is always the case if the UE is moved from one beam to another). A handover
within the same RNC would not involve the Core Network, other than that a Location Area (or Routing Area) Update
would occur at the conclusion of the procedure.
The Handover procedure is described in detail in ETSI TS 102 744-3-6 [i.15] and ETSI TS 102 744-3-2 [i.13]. In
summary, the handover process is triggered by a RRM event in the Bearer Control Layer, such as the decision of the
RNC host to move Radio Access Bearers from a regional beam (the "source") to a narrow spot beam (the "target"). The
Bearer Control Layer then configures the target Bearer Control process but leaves connections to the source Bearer
Control process intact. The Bearer Control Layer next informs the Adaptation Layer (via the Bearer Connection Layer)
of the handover. In response, the Adaptation layer sends a Handover message over the existing UE-Specific Signalling
Connection (via the source Bearer Control process).
The Adaptation Layer in the UE receives the Handover message and notifies the Bearer Control Layer. The Bearer
Control Layer then reconfigures the Bearer Control process to communicate with the target Bearer Control process at
the RNC. Next, the Bearer Control Layer informs the Adaptation Layer that the reattachment to the new Bearer Control
process is complete. In response the Adaptation Layer sends a HandoverAck message to the RNC over the new
UE-Specific Signalling connection (to the target Bearer Control process). The RNC Adaptation Layer then notifies the
Bearer Control Layer that the HandoverAck message has been received. The Bearer Control Layer then causes the
source Bearer Control process to detach from the old connections. The exchange of messages between UE and RNC is
illustrated in Figure A.27.
In the meantime the UE has been tuned to the new frequency and has received the System Info provided to the UE by
the RNC on the UE Specific Signalling Connection. The Non-Access Stratum functions in the UE detects a change in
System Information (in particular a change in Location Area (and Routing Area) and performs the LA/RA Update
procedure with the Core Network.
On release of a RAB the RNC may decide either to retain the UE on the same Shared Access Bearer (e.g. if another
RAB is still in existence between the UE and the CN or if the Shared Access Bearer needs to be retained for RABs in
use by other UEs) or to move the UE to a different Shared Access Bearer (e.g. back to the Regional Beam) and possibly
discontinue the illumination of a particular Narrow Beam. Again, this is a decision for the Radio Resource Management
process and the involvement of the Core Network is as above.
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RNC Initiated Handover
UE
ETSI TS 102 744-1-2 V1.1.1 (2015-10)
RNC
REGM: Handover (BCt EPDU) via
Source UE Specific Signalling Connection
REGM:HandoverAck via Target UE
Specific Signalling Connection
Figure A.27: RNC Initiated Handover of a UE between Bearer Control Processes
A.2.14.2 Change in UE Location
In addition to handovers that result from RRM decisions at the RNC, a handover may also be required because the UE
is moving outside the coverage of one beam and into the coverage of another. Three different scenarios need to be
considered:
1)
The UE moves from one beam to another beam both on the same satellite and controlled by the same RNC
("intra-RNC")
2)
The UE moves from one beam to another beam both on the same satellite but controlled by different RNCs
("inter-RNC")
3)
The UE moves from one beam on one satellite to another beam on another satellite where these beams are
controlled by different RNCs
UE Initiated Handover
UE
RNC
REGM :HandoverRequest (UE Position
or Next Spot Beam) via Source UE
Specific Signalling Connection
REGM: Handover(BCt EPDU) via
Source UE Specific Signalling
Connection
REGM:HandoverAck via Target UE
Specific Signalling Connection
Figure A.28: UE Initiated Handover between Bearer Control Processes
A.2.15 Deregistration
The Deregistration procedure may take place if all Iu signalling connections (see ETSI TS 102 744-3-7 [i.16], clause 5)
for a specific UE have been released. The Deregistration occurs just after the release of the last Iu signalling connection,
or after a timer (UE Inactivity Timer) has expired; this is dependent on the RAN configuration. The deregistration
procedure is described in clause 5.1.2 of ETSI TS 102 744-3-8 [i.17].
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ETSI TS 102 744-1-2 V1.1.1 (2015-10)
A.2.16 MBMS Context Activation
Multimedia Broadcast Multicast Services (MBMS), defined in the Authorization entity and referenced by a TMGI, are
delivered to UEs using Multicast Radio Access Bearers established during an MBMS Context activation procedure.
Whenever it is necessary to deliver an MBMS Service to a UE, the MBMS Context Activation procedure will be
initiated at the UE, either by an external trigger or by a Request from the BMSN. In the former case, it is required that
the external control entity has a-priori knowledge of the MBMS Service identifier (TMGI) as it has to be present in the
request (AT Command). The MBMS Context Activation procedure is described in clause 5.1.5 of ETSI
TS 102 744-3-8 [i.17].
A.2.17 MBMS Context Deactivation
The MBMS Context Deactivation is a normal procedure when a UE no longer requests access to a specific MBMS
Service. The MBMS Context deactivation is either initiated by the UE (for example after reception of an external AT
command) or the Core Network (following reception of an IP Multicast Internet Group Management Protocol (IGMP)
or PIM-SM "leave" message from the UE via the PDP Context). The MBMS Context Deactivation procedure is
described in clause 5.1.6 of ETSI TS 102 744-3-8 [i.17].
Following the MBMS Context Deactivation procedure, the Core Network may release the MBMS Context if the UE
was the last one associated to it (see clause 5.2.6 in ETSI TS 102 744-3-8 [i.17]).
ETSI
57
History
Document history
V1.1.1
October 2015
Publication
ETSI
ETSI TS 102 744-1-2 V1.1.1 (2015-10)
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