earth station verification and assistance

earth station verification and assistance
Volume I - ESOG Module 130 - Issue 2.0
EARTH STATION VERIFICATION AND ASSISTANCE
25 July 2000
SYSTEMS OPERATIONS GUIDE
Volume 1
ESOG Module 130
EARTH STATION VERIFICATION AND
ASSISTANCE (ESVA)
Issue 2.0
25-07-2000
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
10.
11.
INTRODUCTION . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1
ESVA REQUIREMENTS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3
TEST EQUIPMENT . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7
SPACE SEGMENT ACCESS TEST. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9
POLARIZATION ALIGNMENT . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13
EIRP (INCLUDING TRANSMIT GAIN). . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17
TRANSMIT POLARIZATION DISCRIMINATION. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 24
TRANSMIT SIDELOBES. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 31
G/T . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 39
RECEIVE POLARIZATION DISCRIMINATION . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 47
RECEIVE SIDELOBES (INCLUDING RECEIVE GAIN) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 53
Annex A.
Request for ESVA Format . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 57
Annex B.
Questionnaire . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 61
Annex C.
List of Abbreviations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 65
Annex D.
ESVA Contact Points . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 67
Annex E.
EUTELSAT Beacons . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 69
Annex F.
Frequency Plans . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 77
Annex G.
Measurement of Spurious Radiation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 119
Annex H.
Earth Station Alignment Verification . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 127
FOREWORD
The EUTELSAT Systems Operations Guide (ESOG) is published to provide all EUTELSAT space
segment users with information that is necessary for successful operation of earth stations within
the EUTELSAT satellite system.
The ESOG in its final form will consist of 2 Volumes. They contain, in modularised form, all the
necessary details which are considered important for the operations of earth stations.
Volume I concentrates on System Management and Policy aspects and is therefore primarily of
interest to personnel engaged in these matters.
Volume II is of direct concern to earth station staff who are directly involved in system operations,
i.e. the initial line-up of satellite links between earth stations and the commissioning of earth
stations for EUTELSAT services. The modules that are contained in this Volume relate to the
services provided via EUTELSAT satellites.
Regarding Issue 2.0 of Module 130:
In view to the previous issue 1.1 (and DRAFT issue 2), this version includes the following
enhancements:
1. Antennae without angular readout (para. 8.2.2)
2. More details of EUTELSAT beacons (Annex E)
3. Measurement guidelines for spurious radiation (Annex G)
Annex F has been updated and minor editorial changes were made to other chapters.
The ESOG can now be obtained, apart from the printed version, in Acrobat format from the
EUTELSAT Internet server:
http://www.eutelsat.com/Satellite information/Technical & operational docs/Uplinking & Satcom
Services/EUTELSAT Systems Operation Guide (ESOG).
Paris, 25-07-2000
OVERVIEW ESOG MODULES
VOLUME I
EUTELSAT S.A. SYSTEM MANAGEMENT AND POLICIES
Earth Station Standards. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Module 100
Earth Station Access and Approval Procedures . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Module 110
Earth Station Type Approval. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Module 120
Earth Station Verification Assistance (ESVA) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Module 130
Operational Management, Control, Monitoring & Coordination . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Module 140
Services and Space Segment Reservation. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Module 150
VOLUME II
EUTELSAT S.A. SYSTEMS OPERATIONS AND PROCEDURES
TV Handbook . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Module 210
SMS Handbook . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Module 220
VSAT Handbook. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Module 230
SKYPLEX Handbook . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Module 240
DVB Television Handbook. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Module 250
page 1
EARTH STATION VERIFICATION AND ASSISTANCE (ESVA)
1
1
0
1.
INTRODUCTION
EUTELSAT approval procedures require the submission of technical earth
station data to demonstrate compliance with the relevant specifications
(ESOG Vol. I, Module 100 and Module 110 refer).
In general, this can be achieved by the following means:
n EUTELSAT ESVA facilities.
n Non-EUTELSAT facilities such as:
• test range, boresight tower, radiostar etc.,
• other satellite systems.
n Some combination of these facilities.
The purpose of conducting verification tests is to prove that the earth station
and/or associated equipment will comply in all respects with the mandatory
performance characteristics as set forth in the relevant specifications.
Verification testing involving the use of a EUTELSAT satellite shall be
conducted in cooperation with the EUTELSAT ESVA facility and/or a
qualified corresponding earth station, under the direction of the EUTELSAT
CSC.
ESVA testing, which is an efficient and inexpensive alternative to most other
methods, may be required upon request from EUTELSAT or the earth station
owner. The ESVA testing may generally be required:
n for new earth stations prior to commencement of service,
n for existing earth stations after major modifications (especially of the RF
front end).
Typical parameters which can be measured using a EUTELSAT satellite and
are included in the standard program presented in this Module are:
n earth station EIRP,
n transmit gain,
n transmit sidelobes,
n transmit polarisation isolation,
n receive gain,
n G/T,
n receive polarisation isolation,
n receive sidelobe patterns.
ESOG
Volume 1
Module 130
Issue 2.0, 25-07-2000
page 2
EARTH STATION VERIFICATION AND ASSISTANCE (ESVA)
The above measurements are generally conducted between an EUTELSAT
reference station and a distant earth station under test via the EUTELSAT
space segment. This enables testing of a given station at it’s true, operational
configuration. For small earth stations (aperture <2 m), such as VSAT or SNG
terminals, which are furnished with manual antenna pointing, the pattern
measurements may be very time consuming and inaccurate if conducted from
a remote site. Such stations may therefore be tested at Rambouillet, where an
antenna slewing facility is available.
Presently, EUTELSAT Reference Stations (ERS) for ESVA are ETS1A and
ETS1B stations at Rambouillet (France), the TMS-1/4 station at Redu
(Belgium), UKI-GHY-008 at Goonhilly (UK) and AUT-AFL-005 at Aflenz
(Austria).
ESOG
Volume 1
Module 130
Issue 2.0, 25-07-2000
page 3
EARTH STATION VERIFICATION AND ASSISTANCE (ESVA)
2
2
2.
ESVA REQUIREMENTS
This section includes the conditions which ensure smooth implementation of
ESVA, namely:
n prevention of interference to existing traffic,
n consistency of measurement results,
n efficient coordination of testing.
The rules given hereafter apply to all ESVA activities including full scale
ESVA programmes or parts of it and repetitions.
2.1. Earth Station Preparation
The correct function of all relevant earth station equipment must be verified
by preliminary in-station testing. Thus avoiding delay of ESVA and
interference to existing traffic during the initial space segment access. As far
as possible, the in-station test shall prove compliance of the equipment with
the EUTELSAT specification. Additional parameters which are required for
ESVA such as:
n antenna slew speed for azimuth and elevation,
n power meter coupling factor and post coupler loss for each TX chain,
n receive coupling factor and receive feed loss if applicable
shall be measured during the preparational phase and results shall be
communicated to EUTELSAT.
Before the commencement of the ESVA, the SUT must be already configured
for the forthcoming measurements (Figure 4.1 refers). The station shall
acquire and track the satellite foreseen for testing and the equipment shall be
set to parameters defined in the EUTELSAT test plan.
To eliminate eventual problems at this stage, it is strongly recommended to
perform a G/T and a receive sidelobe pattern test, using the satellite beacon.
ESOG
Volume 1
Module 130
Issue 2.0, 25-07-2000
page 4
EARTH STATION VERIFICATION AND ASSISTANCE (ESVA)
2.2. Test Coordination
Planning of ESVA activities is based on the initial request for ESVA
forwarded by the relevant telecommunications entity (i.e. Signatory or
DATE). For new earth stations, this request is made by completion of
paragraph 6 of the "APPLICATION FOR APPROVAL TO ACCESS THE
EUTELSAT SPACE SEGMENT" (ESOG Module 110, Annex 1). The
format of Annex 1 to this Module may be used for already approved stations.
An advance notice of normally 4 weeks prior to the tentative ESVA date,
should be given to ensure smooth implementation. EUTELSAT issues a test
plan which includes the confirmation of the availability of the ESVA facility
(i.e. space segment and reference station). It must be born in mind that due to
operational needs, the test plan may be subject to changes at any time on short
notice. The test plan contains the time schedule, technical and geographical
parameters, contact points and notes required for preparation and execution of
the subject test.
Immediately after conclusion of testing, the EUTELSAT Reference Station
transmits a provisional test report to the test manager of the station under test.
This provisional report provides a summary of all test results. All data is
subject to confirmation by EUTELSAT who will issue the final test report
usually within 4 weeks following test conclusion.
This final report comprises results and parameters in detail and, will be
forwarded to the relevant telecommunications entity who initially requested
the subject ESVA.
2.3. Space Segment Access
Prior to commencement of any test programme, the Station Under Test (SUT)
must contact the EUTELSAT Reference Station (ERS). The reference station
will then coordinate with the EUTELSAT CSC the forthcoming test
activities. The reference station must obtain the approval of the CSC for space
segment access before the start of testing and report to the CSC when testing
is terminated or in case of significant interruptions.
ESOG
Volume 1
Module 130
Issue 2.0, 25-07-2000
page 5
EARTH STATION VERIFICATION AND ASSISTANCE (ESVA)
Furthermore, each space segment access by a station under test must be
endorsed by the EUTELSAT Reference Station. When transmitting, the
Station Under Test must maintain contact with the reference station during
ALL times. In particular, the SUT must ensure permanent presence of staff at
the phone to guarantee instant reaction on ERS directives. If the
communication link fails, the Station Under Test must immediately CEASE
transmissions and attempt to re-establish contact with the reference station. It
is therefore essential, that suitable telephone equipment be available and
accessible at all relevant sites (e.g.: antenna hub, control room etc.)
throughout testing. The appropriate phone(s) must be authorized for
international connections and shall preferably be equipped with a
loudspeaker. The detailed procedures compulsory to each space segment
access are prescribed in paragraph 4.1 of this document.
2.4. Weather Conditions
Atmospherical attenuation and wind may considerably degrade the accuracy
of measurements. It is therefore preferable to conduct ESVA testing during
clear sky conditions where light windspeeds are not exceeded. If, due to
operational needs, testing has to be performed during deteriorated weather
conditions, special consideration will be given to evaluation of results. In case
of discrepancies, partial or complete repetition of the test programme will be
agreed.
2.5. Antenna Alignment
All ESVA tests are based on the perfect initial alignment of the antenna under
test. Great care must be taken by the Station Under Test when optimizing the
antenna pointing i.e. peaking.
Peaking must be performed initially, i.e. prior to testing,
1. after each antenna movement (e.g. during G/T, antenna sidelobe
measurements etc...),
2. after interruption of the test programme,
3. before each measurement during transmissions via satellites in inclined
orbit.
The Station Under Test must ensure that optimized pointing is achieved
during all measurements. On request, the reference station will provide
assistance and guide the Station Under Test.
ESOG
Volume 1
Module 130
Issue 2.0, 25-07-2000
page 6
EARTH STATION VERIFICATION AND ASSISTANCE (ESVA)
2.6. Check List
Completion of the following check-list by the Station Under Test, before the
start of an ESVA activity will prevent delays.
Earth Station equipment functions compliant to specifications
Antenna, drive and tracking system
HPA
LNA (LNB, LNC)
Up and Down-Converters
Station control and waveguide switching
TX chains have been checked for spurious emissions
Test equipment is available, calibrated and warm-up period
respected
RF synthesizer (frequency drift measured)
RF power meter (auto-zero, calibration factor set)
Spectrum Analyser (calibration procedure completed)
Plotter (connected, calibrated)
TX power meter coupling factors and post coupler losses measured
for each TX-chain, results sent to EUTELSAT
Antenna slew speed measured for azimuth and elevation, results sent
to EUTELSAT
Satellite as per test plan acquired, antenna pointing optimized
(peaking)
Polarization alignment optimized
Appropriate means for communication during the test are available
–and optional:
G/T and antenna RX-pattern measured via satellite beacon
ESOG
Volume 1
Module 130
Issue 2.0, 25-07-2000
page 7
EARTH STATION VERIFICATION AND ASSISTANCE (ESVA)
3
3
3.
TEST EQUIPMENT
The measurement equipment which must be available at the Station Under
Test during ESVA, is summarized hereafter. Prior to the start of ESVA, the
station operator shall ensure that all test equipment:
n functions correctly,
n warm-up periods are respected,
n calibration procedures have been carried out correctly.
For completion of test records, the test equipment types shall be reported to
EUTELSAT.
3.1. RF Power Meter
The RF power meter is required for the measurement of the transmit power
and calibration of the station EIRP. At SUT equipped for pilot injection, the
power meter is furthermore required for measurement of the pilot level.
Generally, the dynamic range of the power sensor should be dimensioned to
include the full range of transmit power required during operations and
ESVA. Before measurements, the operator shall set the appropriate
calibration factor and execute an "Auto-Zero" cycle to ensure accurate results.
Examples1:
Hewlett Packard 435B; 436A; 437A; 438A
Hewlett Packard EPM 442A
Rhode & Schwarz NRVS
Gigatronix 8541, 8542
Marconi RF Power Meter 6960B
3.2. RF Spectrum Analyser
The spectrum analyser is required for execution of the space segment access
test, the measurement of the G/T ratio and the antenna receive sidelobe
pattern. Furthermore, it is used for monitoring of the receive frequency range
and the HPA output. To facilitate the G/T measurement, it is preferable to use
an analyser which permits a direct noise level readout (noise marker). The RF
and IF frequency bands of the station under test should be covered by the
analyser.
ESOG
Volume 1
Module 130
Issue 2.0, 25-07-2000
page 8
EARTH STATION VERIFICATION AND ASSISTANCE (ESVA)
Examples1:
Hewlett Packard 8566 A/B
Hewlett Packard 8562 A
Wandel & Goltermann SNA-23
Ronde & Schwarz FSEM or FSEK series
Ronde & Schwarz FSIQ 26 or FSP30
Aritsu MS 2802A
A suitable plotter/recorder is necessary for documentation of the antenna
pattern test results.
3.3. Signal Source
For the assessment of transmit parameters, a stable signal source is required
at the station under test. To prevent interference when testing is conducted via
transponders bearing traffic, to obtain a maximum dynamic range and
accuracy, the frequency drift, residual modulation and level variation must be
kept at a minimum.
The short term frequency drift measured at RF level (e.g. 14 GHz), should be
less than 10 Hz per 30 minutes (typical figure: 5 x 10-10/day ageing rate).
Therefore, a synthesized source is required for generation of the test signal.
Alternatives like the operational modulator require prior endorsement by
EUTELSAT and should be considered only in exceptional case:
Examples1:
Hewlett Packard 8672 A
Hewlett Packard 8673 A
Hewlett Packard 8341 B
Rhode & Schwarz SMP22
1. The test equipment list is not exhaustive. Alternative test sets e.g. of other manufacturers may be suitable to accomplish ESVA testing
ESOG
Volume 1
Module 130
Issue 2.0, 25-07-2000
page 9
EARTH STATION VERIFICATION AND ASSISTANCE (ESVA)
4
4
4.
SPACE SEGMENT ACCESS TEST
4.1. Test Objectives
1. To ensure the correct alignment with parameters prescribed in the
EUTELSAT test plan.
2. To prevent any interference to existing services.
3. To evaluate basic carrier parameters as frequency drift and EIRP
fluctuation in order to estimate possible impairments to test results and to
adapt instrument settings at ERS accordingly.
4.2. Principle
Initially, the ERS transmits a marker carrier which shall be identified by the
SUT to prove correct pointing. Upon authorization by the ERS, the SUT
transmits at low EIRP. The ERS will check value and fluctuation of carrier
level and frequency.
UP CONVERTER
MODULATOR
HPA
TX - COUPLER
Test
Equiqment
Test Equipm
ent
RF
E/
S Equipment
Equiqment
E/S
IF
Not Mandatory
Mandatory
TX - EIRP
MONITOR POINT
RF
RF
SYNTHESIZER
POWER METER
IF / RF
PLOTTER
SPECTRUM
In - Station
ANALYSER
Pilot Injection
*
TX - Tests
ANTENNA
RF
IF
DOWN DEMODULATOR
CONVERTER
LNA
RX - COUPLER
Figure 4.1 : SUT Configuration during ESVA
ESOG
Volume 1
Module 130
Issue 2.0, 25-07-2000
page 10
EARTH STATION VERIFICATION AND ASSISTANCE (ESVA)
4.3. Step-by-Step Procedure
A.
Step 1:
Upon successful completion of the independent in-station tests as described
under para. 2.1 above and PRIOR to the transmission of ANY signal, the
SUT shall identify, acquire and track the specified satellite.
Step 2:
SUT set the polarization angle according to the parameter provided in the
EUTELSAT test plan. For further optimization, SUT shall monitor the crosspolar component of the satellite beacon signal. The, SUT shall slowly rotate
the polarization plane until the level reaches a minimum.
Note:
Where this procedure is not applicable (e.g. for transmission on X polarization
from SUT equipped with a 2-port feed), another suitable signal on the satellite
may be used.
B.
Access Coordination
Step 3:
Immediately prior to the scheduled commencement of ESVA (i.e. ~ 5
minutes) the SUT shall establish and maintain phone contact with ERS. SUT
shall communicate sky and wind conditions and information on all details
which may impair testing.
Step 4:
ERS ensure that the allocated frequency range is free of traffic.
Step 5:
ERS shall contact the EUTELSAT CSC to obtain authorization for space
segment access. If required, CSC arrange for change of satellite configuration
on request of ERS.
Step 6:
In accordance with parameters of the EUTELSAT test plan, ERS transmit a
marker carrier.
Step 7:
On request of ERS, SUT monitor the allocated down-link frequency range.
SUT reconfirm presence of the marker carrier to ERS.
Step 8:
ERS double-checks identification of marker carrier by SUT. Proceed to Step
9 only if identification is affirmative.
C.
Step 9:
Note:
ESOG
Acquisition of Satellite
Transmission by SUT
Under direction of the ERS, SUT transmit a carrier at the assigned frequency
and EIRP. (The initial EIRP is in general in the order of 50 dBW and it must
never exceed 55 dBW).
The SUT must CEASE transmissions immediately if the communications
link to the ERS fails or if the presence of staff at the SUT phone is
interrupted. This rule applies to this and all following tests where the SUT
transmits.
Step 10:
SUT notify the ERS of the activation of its carrier.
Volume 1
Module 130
Issue 2.0, 25-07-2000
page 11
EARTH STATION VERIFICATION AND ASSISTANCE (ESVA)
Step 11:
If the ERS does not detect the carrier under test within the allocated frequency
range, the SUT shall CEASE transmissions. The SUT shall again verify its
set-up on:
n correct satellite acquisition,
n polarization plane alignment,
n transmit frequency and
n transmit EIRP
and return to Step 8.
ESOG
Step 12:
ERS check carrier frequency, EIRP and polarization and request corrections
if necessary.
Step 13:
SUT monitor the receive level of its own transmitted carrier. ERS request
SUT to slew SUT antenna first in azimuth and then in elevation to reconfirm
correct pointing.
Step 14:
SUT report TX power meter reading to ERS and maintain frequency setting
throughout following tests.
Step 15:
ERS monitor short term (~ 10 minutes) fluctuation of frequency and EIRP of
carrier under test.
Volume 1
Module 130
Issue 2.0, 25-07-2000
page 12
EARTH STATION VERIFICATION AND ASSISTANCE (ESVA)
4.4. Example for Spectrum Analyser Setting
Reference level
Attenuator
Scale
Centre frequency
Span
Resolution bandwidth
Video bandwidth
Video averaging
Sweep time
Marker noise
D-Marker
Trace
Display line
REF - 45.0 dBm
: As applicable
: As applicable
: 1 dB/Division
: SUT down-link frequency as per test plan
(11 or 12 GHz range)
: 200 Hz
: Auto
: Auto
: OFF
: Auto
: OFF
: OFF
: Clear write A
Max. Hold B
: OFF
ATTEN 10 dB
hp
1 dB/
CENTER 11.107 000 898 GHz
RES BW 10 Hz
VBW 30 Hz
SPAN 200 Hz
SWP 6.00 sec
Figure 4.2 : Spectrum Analyser Display at ERS during Space Segment Access
Test (Verification of frequency stability)
ESOG
Volume 1
Module 130
Issue 2.0, 25-07-2000
page 13
EARTH STATION VERIFICATION AND ASSISTANCE (ESVA)
5
5
5.
POLARIZATION ALIGNMENT
5.1. Test Objectives
To accomplish optimum alignment of the polarization plane of the SUT
antenna with the receive antenna of the satellite, in order to guaranty accurate
ESVA measurement results.
For SUT equipped with 4-port feed, to evaluate orthogonality of transmit
polarization planes (X and Y).
5.2. Principle
The SUT transmits a carrier via the co-polar channel while the ERS monitors
the residual carrier level in the cross-polar channel. Under control of the ERS,
the SUT slowly rotates its polarization plane. The ERS records the variation
of the cross-polar level and guides the SUT to the angular position where the
minimum level is detected (nulling).
The following configurations must be considered:
1. the down-link frequency bands of the co-polar and cross-polar channel are
different.
2. The down-link frequency bands are identical but the co-polar satellite
channel is switched OFF.
3. The down-link frequency bands are identical and the co-polar channel is
ON:
a) The co-polar channel is set to minimum gain and the cross-polar
channel is set to maximum gain.
b) Gain settings of one or both channels may not be changed.
To avoid influence caused by the down-link, the polarization alignment is
performed in configuration 1) or 2) above. The ERS will apply additional
precautions in the evaluation of recorded data in case of configurations 3).
For SUT equipped with a 4-port feed, and in order to verify the orthogonality,
the alignment procedure is executed via both polarizations (X and Y). The
angle indications for the optimum positions are read for X and Y polarization
and then compared.
ESOG
Volume 1
Module 130
Issue 2.0, 25-07-2000
page 14
EARTH STATION VERIFICATION AND ASSISTANCE (ESVA)
-20
Cross-polar Level [dB]
-30
-40
Theoretical
Actual
-50
-60
-70
-5
-3
-1
1
3
5
TX Polarization Angle Tilt Relative to Satellite RX Antenna [°]
Figure 5.1 : Cross-polar Signal Level as Function of Polarization Plane
Alignment
Co - polar XDR OFF or Down - link
frequency different to cross - polar XDR
CT
XSR
XT
XT XSR
XT+ XSR
Satellite
receive
antenna
CT
X - Polar XDR ON
Satellite
transmit
antenna
C T : Co - polar signal
X T : Station under Test - X - polar component
X SR : Satellite receive - X - polar component
XSR
XT
XT
CT
Station
under
Test (SUT)
EUTELSAT
Reference
Station (ERS)
XT + XSR
XSR
XT
Figure 5.2 : Schematic Representation of Polarization Alignment
ESOG
Volume 1
Module 130
Issue 2.0, 25-07-2000
page 15
EARTH STATION VERIFICATION AND ASSISTANCE (ESVA)
5.3. Step-by-Step Procedure
Step 1:
If required, CSC arrange for change of satellite configuration on request of
ERS.
Step 2:
SUT set antenna tracking system to manual mode.
Step 3:
Under direction of ERS, SUT transmit a carrier at the frequency as established
during the Satellite Access Test and set the EIRP as per test plan.
Step 4:
ERS record the level of the cross-polar component of the carrier under test.
Step 5:
In coordination with the ERS, SUT rotate slowly the polarization plane in the
following way:
1. Rotate towards the anti-clockwise limit. (e.g.: −5° relative to start
position).
2. Rotate via the optimum to the clockwise limit. (e.g.: +5° relative to start
position).
ESOG
Note:
Values of angles are positive if the rotation is clockwise as seen from the earth
station towards the satellite.
Step 6:
ERS guide SUT to acquire the optimum position (i.e. where polarization
plane of SUT and satellite receive antenna match and a minimum in crosspolar level is observed).
Step 7:
SUT secure feed position. ERS verify that the optimum is maintained.
Step 8:
SUT report the polarization angle indication to the ERS. If the SUT is not
equipped with indicators, the feed position shall be marked.
Volume 1
Module 130
Issue 2.0, 25-07-2000
page 16
EARTH STATION VERIFICATION AND ASSISTANCE (ESVA)
5.4. Example for Spectrum Analyser Setting
Reference level
Attenuator
Scale
Centre frequency
Span
Resolution bandwidth
Video bandwidth
Sweep time
Marker noise
∆-Marker
Trace
Display line
T
: As applicable
: As applicable
: 5 dB/Division
: SUT down-link frequency as per test plan
(11 or 12 GHz range)
: 0 Hz
: 100 Hz
: 3 Hz
: 100 s or as appropriate
: OFF
: Disabled
: Clear write A
: Set to minimum
AL -17.88 dBm
ATTEN 0 dB
5.00 dB / DIV
MENU
Freq
RES BW
AutoMan
Amptd
VID BW
AutoMan
SWPTIME
AutoMan
Marker
CONT
SWEEP
BW Swp
SINGLE
SWEEP
Traces
VID AVG
On Off
State
Misc
CENTER 11.479 005 150 GHz
RB 100 Hz
VB 3.00 Hz
SPAN 0 Hz
ST 40.00 sec
Figure 5.3 : Spectrum Analyser Display during Polarization Plane Alignment
ESOG
Volume 1
Module 130
Issue 2.0, 25-07-2000
page 17
EARTH STATION VERIFICATION AND ASSISTANCE (ESVA)
6
6
6.
EIRP (INCLUDING TRANSMIT GAIN)
6.1. Test Objectives
1. To reconfirm the SUT EIRP calibration prior to commencement of
operations.
2. To assess the linearity of the EIRP indication at the SUT.
3. To evaluate the transmit gain of the antenna at the SUT.
4. To measure the maximum EIRP capability of the SUT.
6.2. Principle
6.2.1.
Power Balance
The EIRP measurement is based on the up-link power balance technique
where the EIRP of the SUT is compared against an accurately calibrated EIRP
radiated from the ERS. Corrections for the satellite antenna receive gain (offaxis loss), path loss and atmospherical loss due to the distant location of both
stations are applied to obtain the value of the SUT EIRP. To minimize the
influence of amplitude-frequency response of the satellite transponder and
ERS, the difference of carrier frequencies of SUT and ERS is small (generally
< 100 kHz). Carrier levels of both SUT and ERS are equal or differ by no
more than 0.2 dB to avoid inaccuracies due to the non-linearity of the satellite
TWT.
The following formula applies:
EIRPSUT = EIRPERS
where: Loa
Lfs
Lat
∆
ESOG
Volume 1
Module 130
+ (Loa,SUT − Loa,ERS)
+ (Lat,SUT − Lat,ERS)
+ (lfs,SUT − Lfs,ERS) − ∆
(1)
: Off-axis Loss
[dB]
: Free space Loss
[dB]
: Atmospheric Loss
[dB]
: Small difference between EIRP of carriers [dB]
∆ is positive when: EIRPSUT < EIRPERS
∆ is small when: |∆|< 0.2 dB
Issue 2.0, 25-07-2000
page 18
EARTH STATION VERIFICATION AND ASSISTANCE (ESVA)
Lat is measured at the ERS by radiometer during the test. For SUT where no
radiometer is available, 0.3 dB shall be assumed for clear sky conditions.
The values of free-space loss (Lfs) and off-axis loss (Loa) will be indicated in
the relevant EUTELSAT test plan.
6.2.2.
EIRP Calibration
At power balance condition, the SUT reads the transmit power meter. This
value which corresponds to a (now) accurately known EIRP, shall be noted
and used as reference for future operations.
In cases where the power reading during operations will not be derived from
the same test point, it is essential to include the operational test point in the
calibration procedure.
6.2.3.
Linearity of EIRP Indication
EIRP calibration is repeated at several (e.g. 4) different EIRP levels. The
range shall include the future operational EIRP of the SUT. It shall thus
provide a reliable base for determination of any EIRP value required during
forthcoming SUT operations.
Title
Corresponding EIRP [dBW]
75
Measured EIRP [dBW]
70
Mean
65
60
Max. EIRP Capability of E/S
55
50
-25
-20
-15
-10
-5
0
Figure 6.1 : Linearity of TX Power Indication
ESOG
Volume 1
Module 130
Issue 2.0, 25-07-2000
page 19
6.2.4.
EARTH STATION VERIFICATION AND ASSISTANCE (ESVA)
Transmit Gain
At known station EIRP the antenna TX gain of the SUT may be calculated.
During ESVA preparation, TX power meter coupling factor and loss between
TX coupler and antenna flange (or interface where antenna gain is defined)
have to be obtained by in-station measurements.
Signal Source
HPA
(12.9)14.0
(12.9)14.0
- 14.5
= 14.5
GHz(18.4) GHz
TX - Coupler
C
Post Coupler
losses
L
TX
TX
G
TX
EIRPSUT
Pm
TX - Powermeter
Figure 6.2 : Schematic Diagram of SUT TX-Chain
Using the value of EIRPSUT from equation (1) above, the TX gain is given by:
GTX = EIRPSUT − Pm + 30 − CTX + LTX
where: Pm
CTX
LTX
30
: Tx power meter reading
: Tx coupling factor
: Post coupler Losses
: Conversion dBW ⇒ dBm
(2)
[dBm]
[dB]
[dB]
[dB]
To appreciate the measurement result, it is compared to the expected value
which may be computed as follows:
π⋅f
G = 10Log 10  η ⋅ a ⋅ b ⋅  --------- 
c
2
where: G
η
a, b
f
c
ESOG
Volume 1
Module 130
: Antenna gain
: Efficiency (assumed at 0.65)
: Major, minor axis of antenna
reflector aperture
: Frequency
: Speed of light (i.e 3 x 108)
(3)
[dBi]
[1]
[m]
[Hz]
[m/s]
Issue 2.0, 25-07-2000
page 20
6.2.5.
EARTH STATION VERIFICATION AND ASSISTANCE (ESVA)
Maximum EIRP Capability of SUT
Under close control of the ERS, the SUT increases its TX EIRP to the
maximum value defined as per test plan or until the saturation of the SUT
HPA, which ever is reached first. If applicable, 2 HPAs and phase combiner
shall be used during this test. The ERS conducts a power balance and logs the
maximum EIRP capability of the SUT as reference for EUTELSAT records.
ESOG
Volume 1
Module 130
Issue 2.0, 25-07-2000
page 21
EARTH STATION VERIFICATION AND ASSISTANCE (ESVA)
6.3. Step-by-Step Procedure
A.
Step 1:
Preparation
SUT forward the following information to EUTELSAT prior to
commencement of ESVA:
n Type of feed (2-port, 4-port).
n No of TX-chains.
n Coupling factor (CTX) for each TX chain.
n Post coupling Loss (LTX) for each TX chain.
Step 2:
B.
SUT set appropriate calibration factor of TX power meter and conduct an
"Auto ZERO" cycle.
Power Balance
Step 3:
If required, CSC arrange for change of transponder gain setting on request of
ERS. ERS transmits the reference carrier at the frequency and EIRP as
specified by the ESVA test plan.
Step 4:
SUT adjust the EIRP setting to obtain the value specified in the ESVA test
plan. Under the direction of the ERS, SUT commence transmission at the
frequency established during the Satellite Access Test.
Step 5:
If necessary, SUT adjust the EIRP under control of ERS to balance the
reference carrier. The difference in level of both carriers as monitored by the
ERS shall not exceed 0.2 dB.
Step 6:
ERS confirm balance condition.
Step 7:
SUT read the TX power meter and report the value to ERS.
C.
Linearity
Step 8:
If required by the test plan, ERS increase the EIRP of the reference carrier.
Under control of ERS, SUT increase the EIRP of the carrier under test.
Step 9:
Repeat Steps 5 through 7 for each EIRP level to be calibrated.
Note:
In general the EIRP calibration is performed for the following levels:
1. Start EIRP.
2. Start EIRP − 5 dB.
3. Start EIRP − 10 dB.
4. Start EIRP − 15 dB.
The start EIRP is specified in the ESVA test plan.
D.
ESOG
Maximum EIRP Capability
Step 10:
Carry out this step only if required by the ESVA test plan, otherwise proceed
to Step 12.
Volume 1
Module 130
Issue 2.0, 25-07-2000
ESOG
page 22
EARTH STATION VERIFICATION AND ASSISTANCE (ESVA)
Step 11:
Under close control of the ERS, SUT increase slowly the EIRP. The increase
shall in no case exceed the limits given in the ESVA test plan to avoid
interference to traffic or over saturation of the transponder. Below the
specified limits, the SUT EIRP may be increased until the SUT HPA or in
case of phase combiner, the two SUT HPAs are saturated. SUT report the TX
power reading to ERS. If the SUT Tx chain is equipped with several couplers,
the calibration is performed using the coupler which is the nearest to the
antenna feed. For cross-reference, at least 1 measurement shall be performed
for each Tx chain using another coupler(s) (e.g. HPA RF power meter).
Step 12:
If the SUT EIRP capability is superior to the limit stated as per test plan, the
ERS will request to commute the SUT TX-chain to dummy load and/or to depoint the SUT antenna far off the geostationary arc. Then, the SUT increases
its power to its maximum. The corresponding powermeter reading is
communicated to the ERS, which will compute the maximum SUT EIRP
capability. The SUT reduces its EIRP to the nominal level and ceases
transmissions. To proceed with testing, the SUT re-acquires the satellite as
previously defined.
Step 13:
From the results of the previous power balance, ERS evaluate the maximum
EIRP capability of the SUT and the SUT antenna TX gain, and if available,
other power indications (e.g. output-power display of HPA).
Volume 1
Module 130
Issue 2.0, 25-07-2000
page 23
EARTH STATION VERIFICATION AND ASSISTANCE (ESVA)
6.4. Example for Spectrum Analyser Settings
Reference level
Attenuator
Scale
Centre frequency
Span
Resolution bandwidth
Video bandwidth
Video average
Sweep time
Marker noise
Marker
∆-Marker
Trace
Display line
REF -15.0 dBm
: As applicable
: As applicable
: 1 dB/Division
: SUT down-link frequency as per test plan
(11 or 12 GHz range)
: 200 kHz
: 30 kHz
: Auto
: 20
: Auto
: OFF
: Peak search
: ∆-peak search
: Clear write A
: OFF
MKR -59.2 kHz
-0.13 dB
ATTEN 10 dB
1 dB /
SAMPLE
VID AVG
CENTER 12.708 261 GHz
RES BW 30 kHz
SPAN 20
VBW 100 Hz
SWP 500 msec
Figure 6.3 : Spectrum Analyser Display during Power Balance
ESOG
Volume 1
Module 130
Issue 2.0, 25-07-2000
page 24
EARTH STATION VERIFICATION AND ASSISTANCE (ESVA)
7
7
0
7.
TRANSMIT POLARIZATION
DISCRIMINATION
7.1. Objectives
To measure the transmit polarization isolation of the Station Under Test at
optimized TX polarization alignment. The measurement is carried out at
boresight and at 8 samples within the 1 dB contour of the co-polar antenna TX
pattern.
In case of non-orthogonal polarization planes, the operational XPD will be
lower than measured during ESVA.
7.2. Principle
To measure the EIRP of the SUT, a power balance is carried out via the copolar channel. Then, the ERS transmits a reference carrier (e.g. 20, 30 or 40
dB below the co-polar level) via the cross-polar transponder. From the
difference in level of the reference carrier and the cross-polar component of
the carrier under test, the transmit XPD of the SUT is computed. Then in order
to verify the performance within the co-polar -1 dB TX contour, the SUT
antenna is depointed in azimuth and elevation as described in the figure below
+ UP
- EAST
WEST +
c lock-w ise
c ounter-c lock-w ise
CW
CCW
- DOWN
Figure 7.1 : Antenna Depointing Sequence during XPD Measurements
ESOG
Volume 1
Module 130
Issue 2.0, 25-07-2000
page 25
EARTH STATION VERIFICATION AND ASSISTANCE (ESVA)
The angular increment for antennas with circular aperture may be estimated
by the following expression:
3.978
AI = ------------d⋅f
(1)
where: d:
Antenna diameter
[m]
f:
Frequency
[GHz]
(Ref.: CCIR Handbook on Satellite Communications).
0 .2
f
f
f
f
f
f
f
f
f
f
Angular Increment [°]
0.1 7 5
0 .1 5
0.1 2 5
=
=
=
=
=
=
=
=
=
=
1 2 .9 0
1 3 .7 5
1 4 .5 0
1 8 .0 0
3 0 .0 0
1 2 .9 0
1 3 .7 5
1 4 .5 0
1 8 .0 0
3 0 .0 0
G
G
G
G
G
G
G
G
G
G
H
H
H
H
H
H
H
H
H
H
z
z
z
z
z
z
z
z
z
z
0 .1
0.0 7 5
0 .0 5
0.0 2 5
0
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
A n t e n n a A p e r t u r e D ia m e t e r [ m ]
Figure 7.2 : Angular Increment (AI) for TX-XPD Measurements
While the SUT is depointing its antenna, the ERS monitors the variation of
the co-polar carrier level and guides the SUT through the defined
measurement pattern.
Nine measurements of the difference between the cross-polar component of
the carrier under test and the cross-polar reference carrier are taken. Then the
test configuration is reversed (i.e. the cross-polar channel becomes co-polar,
etc...) and the measuring sequence is repeated. A correction for differences in
the up-link off-axis loss between co-polar and cross-polar channel is applied
and the XPD of the SUT is computed.
XPD = CSUT - XSUT
(2)
XPD = (CERS − XERS) − LOA/ERS/C + LOA/ERS/X
+ LOA/SUT/C − LOA/SUT/X − DC + DX
ESOG
Volume 1
Module 130
(3)
Issue 2.0, 25-07-2000
page 26
EARTH STATION VERIFICATION AND ASSISTANCE (ESVA)
(CERS - XERS) :
DC :
DX :
LOA :
Difference in EIRP of co-polar and
cross-polar reference carrier
Difference between co-polar reference
carrier and co-polar carrier under test
Difference between cross-polar
reference carrier and cross-polar
component of carrier under test
Off axis-Loss
Index SUT:
Index ERS:
Index C:
Index X:
Note:
[dB]
[dB]
[dB]
[dB]
Station Under Test
EUTELSAT Reference Station
Co-polar
Cross-polar
DC, DX is positive if the level of the reference is greater than the level of the
signal under test.
In case of a perfect power balance via the co-polar channel (i.e. DC = 0 at
boresight), the values of DC are as follows:
Point Nr.
DC [dB]
1
0
2, 4, 6, 8
0.5
3, 5, 7, 9
1
Table 7.1: Variation of co-polar carrier level during depointing
sequence
To eliminate inaccuracies due to the non-perfect XPD performance of the
down-link (i.e. satellite transmit antennas, ERS antenna), measurements
require one of the following configurations:
a) the down-link frequency bands of co-polar and cross-polar channel are
different.
b) the frequency bands are identical but the co-polar channel is switched
OFF.
c) the down-link frequency bands are identical and the co-polar channel is
ON. The co-polar channel is set to minimum gain and the cross-polar
channel is set to maximum gain. In this case the ERS will apply
additional precautions in the evaluation of results.
ESOG
Volume 1
Module 130
Issue 2.0, 25-07-2000
page 27
EARTH STATION VERIFICATION AND ASSISTANCE (ESVA)
∆
∆
SUT: Cross-polar component
of Carrier under Test
ERS: Reference Carrier
Figure 7.3 : Carrier Configuration during XPD Measurements
ESOG
Volume 1
Module 130
Issue 2.0, 25-07-2000
page 28
EARTH STATION VERIFICATION AND ASSISTANCE (ESVA)
7.3. Step-by-Step Procedure
ESOG
Step 1:
CSC arrange for change of satellite configuration (gain settings, channelized
section ON/OFF) on request of ERS.
Step 2:
ERS transmit the reference carrier via the co-polar channel at the frequency
and EIRP as specified in the EUTELSAT test plan.
Step 3:
SUT adjust the EIRP setting to obtain the value specified in the EUTELSAT
test plan. Under direction of the ERS, SUT commence transmission at the
frequency established during the satellite access test.
Step 4:
If necessary, SUT adjust the EIRP under control of ERS to balance the
reference carrier.
Step 5:
ERS confirm balance condition.
Step 6:
ERS transmit the reference carrier via the cross-polar channel at EIRP
(generally 20 ... 40 dB below co-polar) and frequency as specified in the
EUTELSAT test plan.
Step 7:
ERS measure the difference in level between the reference carrier and the
cross-polar component of the carrier under test.
ERS compute the value of the TX-XPD of the SUT.
Step 8:
In coordination with the ERS, SUT move the antenna off-boresight according
to Figure 7.1. The angular increment (AI) is given in the EUTELSAT test
plan. ERS monitor the variation of the co-polar level of the carrier under test.
If necessary, guide the SUT to the required antenna positions.
Step 9:
Repeat Step 7.
Step 10:
Repeat Steps 8 and 9 for the remaining points.
Volume 1
Module 130
Issue 2.0, 25-07-2000
page 29
EARTH STATION VERIFICATION AND ASSISTANCE (ESVA)
7.4. Example for Spectrum Analyser Settings
Co-polar Signal:
Reference level
Attenuator
Scale
Centre frequency
: As applicable
: As applicable
: 1 dB/Division
: SUT down-link frequency as per test plan
(11 or 12 GHz range)
: 200 kHz
: 10 kHz
: 3 kHz
: ON (10 samples)
: Auto
: OFF
: ON (Marker peak search at boresight)
: Clear write A
: ON (Set to level at boresight)
Span
Resolution bandwidth
Video bandwidth
Video average
Sweep time
Marker noise
∆-Marker
Trace
Display line
REF - 27.0 dBm ATTEN 10 dB
1 dB /
SAMPLE
DL
CENTER 11.479 042 GHz
RES BW 10 KHz
VBW 3 kHz
SPAN 200 kHz
SWP 30.0 msec
Figure 7.4 : Spectrum Analyser Display during TX-XPD Measurement
(Co-polar Signal)
ESOG
Volume 1
Module 130
Issue 2.0, 25-07-2000
page 30
EARTH STATION VERIFICATION AND ASSISTANCE (ESVA)
Cross-polar Signal:
Reference level
Attenuator
Scale
Centre frequency
Span
Resolution bandwidth
Video bandwidth
Video average
Sweep time
Marker noise
∆-Marker
Trace
Display line
: As applicable
: As applicable
: 5 dB/Division
: Centre between down-link frequencies of
SUT and ERS (11 or 12 GHz range)
: As applicable
: As applicable
: As applicable
: ON (10 samples)
: Auto
: OFF
: ON (Marker set to ERS carrier, ∆-Marker
to SUT cross-polar signal)
: Clear write A
: OFF
RL -36.06 dBm
*ATTEN 0 dB
5.00 dB / DIV
T
MKR 1 FRQ -11.51 kHz
-5.96 dB
NKR NRM
On Off
Freq
DELTA
MARKER
-11.51 kHz
-5.96 dB
Amptd
Marker
MENU
HIGHEST
PEAK
1
10
NEXT
PEAK
BW Swp
CF
Traces
SIG TAK
On Off
State
Misc
CENTER 11.479 010 70 GHz
*RB 300 Hz
*VB 100 Hz
SPAN 20.00 kHz
ST 2.000 sec
Figure 7.5 : Spectrum Analyser Display during TX-XPD Measurement
(Cross-polar Signal)
ESOG
Volume 1
Module 130
Issue 2.0, 25-07-2000
page 31
EARTH STATION VERIFICATION AND ASSISTANCE (ESVA)
8
8
0
8.
TRANSMIT SIDELOBES
8.1. Test Objectives
To record the co- and cross-polar radiation diagrams of the antenna of the
station under test, the result shall enable EUTELSAT to determine the
maximum permissible EIRP limits of the SUT.
8.2. Principle
8.2.1.
General
While transmitting a carrier the SUT slews its antenna in azimuth or elevation
and communicates continuously the antenna position readout to the ERS. The
ERS records the level of the co- and cross-polar component of the received
carrier. Prior to the antenna measurement the ERS performs a calibration to
compensate inaccuracies which may be caused by non-linearity of the satellite
transponder or the ERS RX chain. The ERS processes angular information,
calibration data and the recorded level to produce the antenna pattern. For
azimuth cuts, the following correction is applied to compute the true angle
from the azimuth readout.
sin (Az’/2) = sin (Az/2) . cos(El)
Where:
Az’
Az
El
(1)
: Real angle from boresight.
: Azimuth as read from encoders.
: Elevation under which the test is performed.
To facilitate the evaluation the following envelope is given in Figure 8.2.
G = (29 − 25 Log10 (Θ)) dBi
G = +8 dBi
G = (32 − 25 Log10 (Θ)) dBi
G = −10 dBi
1° <
7° <
9.2° <
48° <
Θ
Θ
Θ
Θ
< 7°
< 9.2°
< 48°
Cross-polar: G = (19 − 25 Log10 (Θ)) dBi
G = -2 dBi
1° <
7° <
Θ
Θ
< 7°
< 20°
Co-polar:
ESOG
Volume 1
Module 130
Issue 2.0, 25-07-2000
page 32
EARTH STATION VERIFICATION AND ASSISTANCE (ESVA)
20
True Angle Az' [°]
i.e. angle from boresight
18
16
Elevation [°]
14
15
12
25
10
30
8
35
6
40
4
45
2
0
0
2
4
6
8
10
12
14
16
18
20
Azimuth Az [°] as indicated by angular encoder
Figure 8.1 : True Angle (Az’) as Function of Azimuth (Az)
30
1°
25
{ 29-25log(Theta) }dBi
20
Gain [dBi]
15
10
9.2°
+8dBi
7°
5
0
-2dBi
-5
7°
{ 32-25log(Theta) } dBi
{ 19-25log(Theta) }dBi
-10
48°
-10 dBi
-15
-50
-45
-40
-35
-30
-25
-20
-15
-10
-5
0
5
10
15
20
25
30
35
40
45
50
Theta [°]
Figure 8.2 : Envelope for Co-polar TX Sidelobe Pattern
ESOG
Volume 1
Module 130
Issue 2.0, 25-07-2000
page 33
8.2.2.
EARTH STATION VERIFICATION AND ASSISTANCE (ESVA)
Antennae without Angular Readout
Sidelobe measurements for antennae that are not equipped with a pointing
angle display are carried out following the same procedures as apply for
standard configurations. However, the earth station operator must establish
angular graduations for the azimuth and elevation axis. For elevation, this is
normally achieved by placing a precise inclinometer on a convenient spot of
the antenna structure. Figure 8.3 shows a simple implementation of an
azimuth scale. Both azimuth and elevation scales need not be calibrated in
absolute readings but they must provide sufficient resolution to allow the SUT
operator to clearly indicate “marks” at each degree of antenna movement.
Figure 8.3 : Schematic presentation of Earth Station Set-up for Azimuth Readout
ESOG
Volume 1
Module 130
Issue 2.0, 25-07-2000
page 34
EARTH STATION VERIFICATION AND ASSISTANCE (ESVA)
8.3. Step-by-Step Procedure
This procedure is applicable to earth stations equipped with motorized
antenna drives.
A.
Step 1:
Preparation
During ESVA preparation, prior to commencement of testing, SUT
investigate the slew speed for azimuth and elevation antenna movement and
forward the values to EUTELSAT. An antenna slew speed suitable for pattern
measurements is in the order of 0.1° per second. If various settings are
available (e.g. SLOW and FAST), all speeds should be communicated to
EUTELSAT. If these parameters are not provided by the station
manufacturer, the slew speed should be measured by the method described
hereafter (Steps 1.1 through 1.9).
No signals shall be transmitted during this part of the test.
No signals shall be transmitted during this part of the test.
Step 1.1:
Acquire the beacon of the satellite specified in the test plan. Optimize the
antenna pointing for maximum receive signal level.
Step 1.2:
Move the antenna in azimuth 5° counter-clockwise.
Step 1.3:
Measure the time of the azimuth movement from −5° via beamcentre to +5°
(i.e. clockwise antenna motion from East to West). Calculate the azimuth slew
speed in degrees per second.
Step 1.4:
For motorized antennas which are not equipped with angular encoders, Steps
1.1 through 1.3 shall be repeated at least 3 times and results shall be averaged.
Step 1.5:
Repeat Step 1.1.
Step 1.6:
Move the antenna in elevation 5° down.
Step 1.7:
Measure the time of the elevation movement from −5° via beamcentre to +5°
(i.e. ascending antenna motion). Calculate the elevation slew speed in degrees
per second.
Step 1.8:
If applicable, repeat Step 1.4.
Step 1.9:
Report results prior to commencement of ESVA to the EUTELSAT System
Verification Test Section.
B.
ESOG
Power Balance
Step 2:
If required, CSC arrange for change of transponder gain setting on request of
ERS. ERS transmit the reference carrier at the frequency and EIRP as
specified in the EUTELSAT test plan.
Step 3:
ERS perform a calibration of the satellite loop by recording the ERS carrier
for an EIRP range of 60 dB below the initial value in 10 dB steps. Proceed
with step 6 if co-polar patterns only are recorded.
Volume 1
Module 130
Issue 2.0, 25-07-2000
page 35
EARTH STATION VERIFICATION AND ASSISTANCE (ESVA)
Step 4:
ERS transmit the reference carrier via the cross-polar channel at EIRP
(generally 20.40 dB below co-polar) and frequency as specified in the
EUTELSAT test plan.
Step 5:
ERS measure the difference in level between the reference carrier and the
cross-polar component of the carrier under test. ERS compute the cross-polar
antenna gain of the SUT.
Step 6:
SUT adjust the EIRP setting to obtain the value specified in the EUTELSAT
test plan. Under direction of the ERS, SUT commence transmission at the
frequency established during the satellite access test.
Step 7:
If necessary, SUT adjust the EIRP under control of ERS to balance the
reference carrier.
Step 8:
ERS confirm balance condition.
Step 9:
ERS cease transmission of the reference carrier.
C.
Step 10:
Considering the outcome of the Satellite Access Test, ERS optimize spectrum
analyser settings for reception of the SUT carrier.
Step 11:
Upon request by the ERS, SUT interrupt transmission for a short interval.
ERS proceed with optimization of analyse settings. SUT activate carrier on
request of ERS.
Step 12:
Under direction of the ERS, SUT move the antenna starting from boresight to
+1° clockwise (i.e. to the West). ERS verify the antenna slew speed.
Step 13:
In close coordination with the ERS (Figure 8.4 refers), SUT move the antenna
to the "counter clockwise" limit (i.e.: from the start position via boresight to
the East). The value of the East limit (e.g. −25° off beamcentre) is stated in
the test plan. ERS record the pattern.
Step 14:
SUT switch off the carrier and return to boresight. Under the direction of the
ERS, SUT recommence transmission and optimise antenna pointing for
maximum receive level. SUT cease transmission if no further antenna
measurements follows.
Step 15:
Repeat Steps 10 through 12 for the "clockwise" antenna movement, i.e. from
−1° via boresight to the West limit (e.g. +25° off beamcentre).
D.
ESOG
Azimuth Pattern
Elevation Pattern
Step 16:
Under direction of the ERS, SUT move the antenna starting from boresight to
+1° up in elevation. ERS verify the antenna slew speed.
Step 17:
In close coordination with the ERS (Figure 8.4 refers), SUT move the antenna
to the "lower" limit (i.e. from start position via boresight down). The value of
the lower limit is stated in the test plan (e.g. −15° off beamcentre). ERS record
the pattern.
Volume 1
Module 130
Issue 2.0, 25-07-2000
page 36
EARTH STATION VERIFICATION AND ASSISTANCE (ESVA)
Step 18:
SUT switch off the carrier and return to boresight. Under direction of the ERS,
SUT recommence transmission and optimize antenna pointing for maximum
receive level. SUT cease transmission if no further antenna measurements
follow.
Step 19:
Repeat Steps 14 through 16 for the ascending antenna movement, i.e. from
−1° via boresight to the "upper" limit (e.g. +15° off beamcentre).
Step 20:
ERS process measurement data and produce plots of co-polar azimuth and
elevation antenna TX diagrams including the appropriate masks.
Figure 8.4 : Coordination Scheme during Antenna Pattern Measurements
Figure 8.5 : Terminology for Azimuth Antenna Movement
ESOG
Volume 1
Module 130
Issue 2.0, 25-07-2000
page 37
EARTH STATION VERIFICATION AND ASSISTANCE (ESVA)
Cut
Nr.
Azimuth/Elevation
Antenna Movement
Direction
1
Az
+1° to CCW limit
Towards East
2
Az
-1° to CW limit
Towards West
3
El
+1° to lower limit
Down
4
El
-1° to upper limit
Up
CW: Clockwise
CCW: Counter-clockwise
Table 8.1: Summary of Antenna Pattern Measurement
ESOG
Note:
Relative azimuth angles are not corrected for non-orthogonality. They are
therefore equivalent to angular encoder readout at the earth station.
Note:
The SUT shall drive its antenna to a start position which is offset by 0.5° to
1.0° (depending on slew speed) to the actual commencement of the recorded
diagram.
Volume 1
Module 130
Issue 2.0, 25-07-2000
page 38
EARTH STATION VERIFICATION AND ASSISTANCE (ESVA)
8.4. Example for Spectrum Analyser Settings
Reference level
Attenuator
Scale
Centre frequency
Span
Resolution bandwidth
Video bandwidth
Sweep time
Marker noise
D-Marker
Trace
Display line
REF - 27.4 dBm
: As applicable
: 0 dB
: 10 dB/Division
: SUT down-link frequency as per test plan
(11 or 12 GHz range)
: 0 Hz
: 30 Hz (or 10 Hz)
: 1 Hz
: According to antenna slew speed e.g. 500 sec.
: OFF
: OFF
: Clear write
: Position to noise floor
ATTEN 0 dB
10 dB/
DL
CENTER 11.479 001 504 GHz
RES BW 30 Hz
VBW 1 Hz
SPAN 0 Hz
SWP 1000 sec
Figure 8.6 : Spectrum Analyser Display during Antenna Pattern Measurement
ESOG
Volume 1
Module 130
Issue 2.0, 25-07-2000
page 39
EARTH STATION VERIFICATION AND ASSISTANCE (ESVA)
9
9
0
9.
G/T
9.1. Test Objectives
To measure the gain-to-equivalent noise temperature ratio (G/T) of the earth
station receive section.
Verification of correct function of the receive chain(s) by confirmation of the
expected G/T value at IF interface.
9.2. Principle
In contrast to separate evaluation of antenna gain and system noise
temperature, the following procedure implies the direct measurement of the
G/T. Therefore, it is required to measure the receive level (PC) of a reference
carrier at the station under test. Then, the antenna under test is pointed to the
cold sky and the noise level (PN) is measured in a defined bandwidth. From
these two values, the G/T is computed.
if:
G/TSUT = Lfs,SUT + Lat,SUT + B + K − EIRPSAT/SUT + R
(1)
R = 10 Log10 (10 (PC-PN)/10 − 1)
(2)
PC − PN > 20,
(3)
the expression (2) may be simplified to
R = PC − PN
(4)
G/TSUT
: Gain to equivalent noise temperature ratio of SUT
[dB/K]
Lfs,SUT
: Free space loss towards SUT= 20*log(4.B.d.f / c)
[dB]
f = frequency (Hz)
d = distance (m)
c = 299792458 (m/s)
ESOG
Volume 1
Module 130
Issue 2.0, 25-07-2000
page 40
EARTH STATION VERIFICATION AND ASSISTANCE (ESVA)
Lat
: Athmospheric attenuation at SUT
B
: Equivalent noise bandwidth
K
: Boltzmann’s constant:
[dB]
[dBHz]
(1.38051.10-23 Ws/K ≅ − 228.60 dBWs/K)
[dBWs/K]
EIRPSAT/SUT : Satellite EIRP towards SUT
[dBW]
PC
: Carrier level (C + N)
[dBm]
PN
: Noise level (N)
[dBm]
R
C+N
: Power ratio  --------------
N
[dB]
Note:
For the atmospheric attenuation, the following values are assumed under clear
sky conditions:
11 GHz range:
0.20 dB
12 GHz range:
0.25 dB
Note:
For spectrum analyser measurements, (3) must be valid at resolution
bandwidth even if readout is normalized to 1 Hz.
The satellite EIRP towards the SUT is computed from the measured value of
satellite EIRP towards the ERS.
EIRPSAT/SUT = EIRPSAT/ERS + LOA/ERS − LOA/SUT
(5)
where:
EIRPSAT/ERS : Satellite EIRP towards ERS
LOA/ERS
: Off-axis loss towards ERS
LOA/SUT
: Off-axis loss towards SUT
[dBW]
[dB]
[dB]
As the measurement is generally carried out by a spectrum analyser,
corrections of the displayed noise level for bandwidth and detection must be
applied. In modern analysers this correction is achieved by an internal routine
which provides a direct readout of the normalized noise level (noise marker).
Where this facility is unavailable, the operator must refer to the relevant
instrument application notes (e.g. HP 8-series) to obtain the applicable values.
The following figures for correction of the displayed noise level are typical:
1. Translation from resolution bandwidth
to noise bandwidth: ..............................................................−0.8 dB
2. Combined correction for detector characteristics
and logarithmic shaping: ......................................................+2.5 dB
The total typical correction is therefore: ..............................+1.7 dB.
ESOG
Volume 1
Module 130
Issue 2.0, 25-07-2000
page 41
EARTH STATION VERIFICATION AND ASSISTANCE (ESVA)
In this case, the actual noise level is 1.7 dB higher than the displayed figure.
Therefore the "displayed" C/N is 1.7 dB better than the actual value of C/N.
Care must be taken to avoid inaccuracy of the noise level measurement due to
the contribution of the spectrum analyser. To confirm correct function of the
whole receive chain, it is recommended to carry out the measurement at RF
and IF level.
ESOG
Volume 1
Module 130
Issue 2.0, 25-07-2000
page 42
EARTH STATION VERIFICATION AND ASSISTANCE (ESVA)
9.3. Step-by-Step Procedure
A.
Step 1:
If required, CSC arrange for change of transponder gain setting on request of
ERS. ERS transmit the reference carrier at the frequency and EIRP as
specified in the EUTELSAT test plan.
Note:
Disregard Step 1 if the G/T measurement is performed by the satellite beacon.
B.
Measurement of Carrier Level
Step 2:
ERS measure the satellite EIRP of the reference carrier and compute the
corresponding EIRP towards the SUT.
Step 3:
With the antenna at boresight, SUT measure the reference carrier level at RF
and IF interfaces. For beacon measurements, the applicable resolution
bandwidth shall be agreed between ERS and SUT. (Figure 9.1 through 9.2).
SUT report the value to the ERS.
C.
Measurement of Noise Level
Step 4:
At a small frequency offset (e.g. 100 kHz), SUT measure the noise level.
Step 5:
SUT move the antenna off to the satellite, preferably in azimuth by at least 5°.
While slewing the antenna, SUT monitor the noise level. The antenna
movement may be stopped when the noise level does no longer decrease.
Step 6:
SUT terminate the spectrum analyser input and read the noise level.
Report the value to the ERS.
Step 7:
SUT connect the spectrum analyser to the RF interface. With identical
settings of Steps 5, 6 above, SUT measure the noise level (Figure 9.3). SUT
reports the value to the ERS.
Step 8:
Repeat Step 7 with the analyser connected to the IF interface.
D.
ESOG
Transmission of Reference Carrier
Evaluation
Step 9:
If applicable, SUT report the relevant correction factors and the bandwidth to
ERS. SUT return the antenna to boresight.
Step 10:
ERS communicate value of the satellite EIRP to SUT and calculate the value
of the G/T.
Volume 1
Module 130
Issue 2.0, 25-07-2000
page 43
EARTH STATION VERIFICATION AND ASSISTANCE (ESVA)
9.4. Example for Spectrum Analyser Settings
Measurement of Carrier Level (Note: ERS may advice to apply different
settings)
Reference level
Attenuator
Scale
Centre frequency
Span
Resolution bandwidth
Video bandwidth
Video average
Sweep time
Marker noise
∆-Marker
Trace
Display line
REF - 12.4 dBm
: Equal to level of reference carrier
: 0 dB
: 10 dB/Division
: ERS down-link frequency as per test plan
(11 or 12 GHz or IF range)
: 500 kHz
: 10 kHz
: 100 Hz
: ON (10 samples)
: Auto (1.5s)
: OFF
: OFF, Marker peak search
: Clear write A
: OFF
MKR 12.541 667 0 GHz
- 15.30 dBm
ATTEN 0 dB
10 dB/
SAMPLE
ID AVG
CENTER 12.541 667 000 GHz
RES BW 10 kHz
VBW 100 Hz
SPAN 500 kHz
SWP 1.50 sec
Figure 9.1 : Spectrum Analyser Display during G/T Measurement
(Carrier Level)
ESOG
Volume 1
Module 130
Issue 2.0, 25-07-2000
page 44
EARTH STATION VERIFICATION AND ASSISTANCE (ESVA)
Measurement of Beacon Level (Note: ERS may advice to apply different
settings)
Reference level
Attenuator
Scale
Centre frequency
Span
Resolution bandwidth
Video bandwidth
Video average
Sweep time
Marker noise
∆-Marker
Trace
Display line
REF - 38.3 dBm
: Equal to beacon level
: 0 dB (or different value as appropriate for given
test point)
: 5 dB/Division
: Beacon frequency as per test plan
(11 or 12 GHz or IF range)
: 500 kHz
: 10 kHz
: 100 Hz
: ON (10 samples)
: Auto (1.5s)
: OFF
: OFF, Marker peak search
: Clear write A
: OFF
MKR 11.451 095 GHz
- 40.70 dBm
ATTEN 0 dB
5 dB/
SAMPLE
ID AVG
CENTER 11.451 09 GHz
RES BW 10 kHz
VBW 100 Hz
SPAN 500 kHz
SWP 1.5 sec
Figure 9.2 : Spectrum Analyser Display during G/T Measurement
(Beacon Level)
ESOG
Volume 1
Module 130
Issue 2.0, 25-07-2000
page 45
EARTH STATION VERIFICATION AND ASSISTANCE (ESVA)
Measurement of Noise Level (Note: ERS may advice to apply different
settings)
Reference level
Attenuator
Scale
Centre frequency
Span
Resolution bandwidth
Video bandwidth
Video average
Sweep time
Marker noise
∆-Marker
Trace
Display line
REF - 69.9 dBm
: 0.... 5 dB above noise floor
: 0 dB (or different value as appropriate for given
test point)
: 10 dB/Division
: 200 kHz below carrier/beacon frequency
(11 or 12 GHz or IF range)
: 500 kHz
: 10 kHz
: 100 Hz
: ON (10 samples)
: Auto (1.5s)
: ON
: OFF
: Clear write A
: OFF
MKR 112.708 108 GHz
- 104.10 dBm (1 Hz)
ATTEN 0 dB
10 dB/
SAMPLE
ID AVG
CENTER 12.708 109 GHz
RES BW 10 kHz
VBW 100 Hz
SPAN 500 kHz
SWP 1.50 sec
Figure 9.3 : Spectrum Analyser Display during G/T Measurement
(Noise Level)
ESOG
Volume 1
Module 130
Issue 2.0, 25-07-2000
ESOG
page 46
EARTH STATION VERIFICATION AND ASSISTANCE (ESVA)
Note:
The above (para. 9.4) are generally applicable if the spectrum analyser is
connected to an LNA output. The attenuator setting to 0 dB may be
inappropriate in case of connection to the output of a down-convertor, lineamplifier, etc. In any case, the carrier level indicated must be independent of
the attenuation setting, i.e.:when changing the attenuator no change of carrier
level should be observed.
Volume 1
Module 130
Issue 2.0, 25-07-2000
page 47
EARTH STATION VERIFICATION AND ASSISTANCE (ESVA)
10
10
10.
RECEIVE POLARIZATION
DISCRIMINATION
10.1. Objectives
To measure the receive polarization isolation of the station under test at
optimized TX polarization alignment. The measurement is carried out at
boresight and at 8 samples within the 1 dB contour of the co-polar antenna RX
pattern.
Although, the measurement is not mandatory, it is recommended and it will
provide additional aspects for the evaluation of the overall antenna
performance.
10.2. Principle
The ERS transmits a carrier via an EUTELSAT satellite and maintains a
constant flux. Then at optimum TX polarization alignment (paragraph 5
refers), the Station Under Test measures the co-polar and the cross-polar
component of the reference carrier by comparison to an injected signal. From
the difference in level, the RX-XPD of the SUT is computed. To eliminate
inaccuracies due to the up-link (i.e. ERS, TX-XPD, satellite RX-XPD), the
cross-polar satellite channel must be switched OFF or configured to a
different down-link frequency band (e.g.: measurement at 11 GHz, crosspolar channel down-link at 12 GHz).
ESOG
Volume 1
Module 130
Issue 2.0, 25-07-2000
page 48
EARTH STATION VERIFICATION AND ASSISTANCE (ESVA)
0.20
Angular Increment [°]
0.15
f = 10.7 GHz
f = 11.7 GHz
0.10
f = 12.75 GHz
0.05
0.00
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
Antenna Aperture Diameter [m]
Figure 10.1 : Angular Increment (AI) for RX-XPD Measurements
To verify the performance of the SUT antenna within the co-polar -1 dB RX
contour, the SUT antenna is depointed in azimuth and elevation as described
in Figure 7.1 and the measurement is conducted at each point (boresight and
8 samples). The angular increment (AI) may be estimated by formula (1) of
paragraph 7.2.
To ensure accurate positioning of the antenna, a SUT equipped with a 4-port
feed monitors the variation of the co-polar RX level of the reference carrier.
For SUT equipped with a 2-port feed, the reference carrier shall be transmitted
via X polarization (i.e. received via Y polarization). Hence, the SUT measures
the cross-polar component of the reference carrier and monitors the variation
of the satellite beacon level via the same (X) polarization.
ESOG
Volume 1
Module 130
Issue 2.0, 25-07-2000
page 49
EARTH STATION VERIFICATION AND ASSISTANCE (ESVA)
Co - polar XDR ON
C
T
X - Polar XDR OFF
XT + XSR
Satellite
transmit
antenna
Satellite
receive
antenna
C
T
CX
CT
CX
XT
X ST
: Co - polar signal
: X - polar signal
: Station under Test - X - polar component
: Satellite Transmit - X - polar component
CT
XT + XST
X ST
EUTELSAT
Reference
Station ERS
XT
Station
under
test SUT
Figure 10.2 : Schematic Representation of the RX-XPD Measurement
10.3. Step-by-Step Procedure
Note:
Optimum TX-polarization alignment must be assured prior to this test. For
SUT equipped with a 4-port feed the alignment of para. 4.2 remains
unchanged and commutation from X to Y polarization is done by switching.
Note:
For SUT equipped with a 2-port feed, the optimum polarization alignment
must be established for the Y-plane. If this has not been accomplished, test 4.2
must be repeated prior to the following measurements.
Step 1:
During ESVA preparation and prior to commencement of ESVA testing, SUT
check the linearity of the RX-chain(s) as follows:
A test signal at stable amplitude and frequency (i.e. the in-station pilot) is
injected at the input of the LNA. By means of a microwave attenuator, the
pilot level is reduced in 10 dB steps and the corresponding power levels
displayed on the spectrum analyser are recorded. This establishes a reference
scale and a check of the linearity of the RX-chain(s) including the analyser
display.
ESOG
Volume 1
Module 130
Issue 2.0, 25-07-2000
page 50
ESOG
EARTH STATION VERIFICATION AND ASSISTANCE (ESVA)
Step 2:
SUT equipped with 2-port feed proceed with Step 5.
Step 3:
SUT inject the pilot into one of the RX chains and measure its level.
Step 4:
Under consideration of differences in the RX coupling factors, inject the same
pilot level into the second RX chain and measure the difference relative to the
value obtained in Step 3 above. The result is the correction factor (i.e. the RX
gain difference) for the following RX-XPD measurements.
Step 5:
If required, CSC arranges for change of satellite configuration on request of
ERS.
Step 6:
ERS transmit the reference carrier at frequency and EIRP as specified in the
EUTELSAT test plan.
Note:
If the SUT is equipped with a 2-port feed, the test plan shall provide a channel
with X polarization in up-link and Y polarization in down-link.
Step 7:
SUT receive the co-polar component of the reference carrier. Set the pilot
frequency close to the RX-frequency of the reference carrier (e.g. fPILOT =
fREF — 200 Hz).
Step 8:
ERS transmit the reference carrier via the co-polar channel at the frequency
and EIRP as specified in the EUTELSAT test plan.
SUT equipped with 4-port feed proceed with Step 10.
Step 9:
SUT rotate the antenna feed by 90° and ensure that this position corresponds
to the optimum TX polarization alignment established during test 4.2
(compare angular readout and/or marks on feed).
SUT equipped with 2-port feed proceed with Step 11.
Step 10:
SUT switch to orthogonal channel.
Step 11:
SUT lock to the cross-polar component of the reference carrier and measure
the difference in level between the pilot and the cross-polar component of the
reference carrier. If necessary, apply a correction (Step 3 above) and
determine the XPD.
Step 12:
SUT lock to the co-polar component of the reference carrier (the satellite
beacon for SUT equipped with 2-port feed). Move the antenna off boresight
according to Figure 7.1. While moving the antenna, SUT monitor the
variation of the RX level and control the movement accordingly, (Table 7.1
refers).
Step 13:
Repeat Steps 11 and 12 for each point of the sequence described in Figure 7.1.
Step 14:
SUT report results to EUTELSAT.
Volume 1
Module 130
Issue 2.0, 25-07-2000
page 51
EARTH STATION VERIFICATION AND ASSISTANCE (ESVA)
10.4. Example for Spectrum Analyser Settings
Co-polar Reception
Reference level
Attenuator
Scale
Centre frequency
Span
Resolution bandwidth
Video bandwidth
Video average
Sweep time
Marker noise
∆-Marker
Trace
Display line
REF -10.0 dBm
: As applicable
: 0 dB
: 5 dB or 10 dB/Division
: ERS down-link frequency as per test plan
(11 or 12 GHz range)
: 2 kHz
: 30 Hz
: 30 Hz
: OFF
: Auto
: OFF
: activated
: Max. Hold A
: OFF
MKR -492 Hz
-1.60 dB
ATTEN 0 dB
10 dB /
CENTER 11. 451 086 55 GHz
RES BW 30 Hz
VBW 30 Hz
SPAN 2 kHz
SWP 6.67 sec
Figure 10.3 : Spectrum Analyser Display during RX-XPD Measurement
Co-polar Reception
ESOG
Volume 1
Module 130
Issue 2.0, 25-07-2000
page 52
EARTH STATION VERIFICATION AND ASSISTANCE (ESVA)
Cross Polar Reception
Reference level
Attenuator
Scale
Centre frequency
Span
Resolution bandwidth
Video bandwidth
Video average
Sweep time
Marker noise
∆-Marker
Trace
Display line
REF -10.0 dBm
: As applicable
: 0 dB
: 5 dB or 10 dB/Division
: ERS down-link frequency as per test plan
(11 or 12 GHz range)
: 2 kHz
: 30 Hz
: 30 Hz
: OFF
: Auto
: OFF
: activated
: Max. Hold A
: OFF
MKR -478 Hz
-40.40 dB
ATTEN 0 dB
10 dB /
CENTER 11. 451 086 55 GHz
RES BW 30 Hz
VBW 30 Hz
SPAN 2 kHz
SWP 6.67 sec
Figure 10.4 : Spectrum Analyser Display during RX-XPD Measurement
X-pol Reception
ESOG
Volume 1
Module 130
Issue 2.0, 25-07-2000
page 53
EARTH STATION VERIFICATION AND ASSISTANCE (ESVA)
11
11
0
11.
RECEIVE SIDELOBES (INCLUDING
RECEIVE GAIN)
11.1. Test Objectives
To record the receive antenna diagram of the station under test. Although the
measurement is not mandatory, it is recommended and it will provide
additional aspects for the evaluation of the overall antenna performance.
11.2. Principle
11.2.1.
Antenna Pattern
The ERS transmits a carrier via an EUTELSAT satellite and maintains a
constant flux. Alternatively, the station under test may lock to a satellite
beacon signal. Then, the station under test records the receive level as
function of the slewing angle in azimuth and elevation. Due to the nonorthogonality of the rotational axes, the azimuth angle is corrected according
to formula 1 of paragraph 8.2. For evaluation of the antenna performance, the
envelope of Figure 8.1 is applied.
11.2.2.
Receive Gain
If the station under test is equipped with a receive coupler, the antenna receive
gain may be calculated at known satellite EIRP. During ESVA preparation,
the values of the RX coupling factor and the loss between the RX coupler and
the antenna flange (or interface where the antenna gain is defined) have to be
obtained by in-station measurement.
ESOG
Volume 1
Module 130
Issue 2.0, 25-07-2000
page 54
EARTH STATION VERIFICATION AND ASSISTANCE (ESVA)
RX - Feed Loss
L RX
GRX
RX - Coupler
LNA
RF-SPECTRUM
RF-SPECTRUM
ANALYSER
ANALYSER
CRX
PPT
10.95 - 12.75 GHz
In-Station Pilot Injection
Figure 11.1 : Block Diagram of SUT RX-Chain
At known satellite EIRP, the RX gain is given by:
GRX = PPt + LRX − CRX − (EIRPSAT/SUT − Lfs/SUT − Lat/SUT + 30)
(1)
where:
GRX
LRX
PPt
CRX
EIRPSAT/SUT
Lfs/SUT
Lat/SUT
30
: Antenna receive gain of SUT
: RX feed Loss
: Level of in-station pilot at injection point
: RX coupling factor
: Satellite EIRP towards SUT
: Free space loss towards SUT
: Athmospheric loss for reception at SUT
: Conversion dBW ⇒ dBm
[dBi]
[dB]
[dBm]
[dB]
[dBm]
[dB]
[dB]
[dB]
The satellite EIRP towards the SUT is computed from the measured value of
satellite EIRP towards the ERS.
EIRPSAT/SUT = EIRPSAT/ERS + LOA/ERS − LOA/SUT
(2)
where:
EIRPSAT/ERS : Satellite EIRP towards ERS
LOA/ERS
: Off-axis loss towards ERS
LOA/SUT
: Off-axis loss towards SUT
[dBW]
[dB]
[dB]
To appreciate the measurement results, the theoretical expected value of the
receive gain may be calculated according to (3) of para. 6.2.4.
ESOG
Volume 1
Module 130
Issue 2.0, 25-07-2000
page 55
EARTH STATION VERIFICATION AND ASSISTANCE (ESVA)
11.3. Step-by-Step Procedure
A.
Step 1:
If required, CSC arrange for change of transponder gain setting on request of
ERS. ERS transmit the reference carrier at the frequency and EIRP as
specified in the EUTELSAT test plan.
Note:
Disregard Step 1 if the antenna measurement is performed by the satellite
beacon.
B.
Calibration of Receive Chain
Step 2:
With the SUT antenna at boresight, SUT adjust the spectrum analyser and
confirm linearity of receive and test equipment.
If the SUT is not equipped with a receive coupler go to Step 6.
Step 3:
Verification of linearity may be achieved by injection of a in-station pilot via
a coupler prior to the LNA input. The pilot level shall be equal to the received
carrier at frequency which is approximately 10 kHz apart.
Step 4:
SUT communicate receive coupling factor and receive feed loss to ERS. ERS
evaluate satellite EIRP towards SUT and calculate antenna receive gain.
Step 5:
SUT report the in-station pilot level at the LNA output and reduce the pilot in
10 dB steps from relative 0 dB to −50 dB.
C.
Azimuth Pattern
Step 6:
SUT remove the in-station pilot and lock to the reference carrier. Except for
the centre frequency, all analyser settings must remain unchanged from
Step 5.
Step 7:
SUT move the antenna counter clockwise (i.e. to the East) in azimuth until the
receive level is in the order of the noise floor (e.g. to −20°).
Step 8:
While recording the receive level, SUT slew the antenna in azimuth via
boresight to the corresponding clockwise (i.e. West) position (e.g. +20°).
Step 9:
SUT slew the antenna to beam centre and optimize pointing for maximum
receive level.
D.
ESOG
Transmission of Reference Carrier
Elevation Pattern
Step 10:
SUT descend the antenna in elevation until the receive level is in order of the
noise floor (e.g. −15°).
Step 11:
While recording the receive level, SUT rise the antenna in elevation via
boresight to the corresponding upper position (e.g. +15°).
Step 12:
SUT slew the antenna to beamcentre and optimize pointing for maximum
receive level.
Step 13:
SUT process measurement data and produce plots of the co-polar azimuth and
elevation antenna receive diagrams including the appropriate envelopes.
Step 14:
SUT inform ERS of measurement conclusion and forward results to
EUTELSAT.
Volume 1
Module 130
Issue 2.0, 25-07-2000
page 56
EARTH STATION VERIFICATION AND ASSISTANCE (ESVA)
11.4. Example for Spectrum Analyser Settings
Reference level
Attenuator
Scale
Centre frequency
: As applicable
: 0 dB
: 10 dB/Division
: SUT down-link frequency as per test plan
(11 or 12 GHz range)
: 0 Hz
: 30 Hz (or 10 Hz)
: 1 Hz
: According to antenna slew speed e.g. 500
sec.
: OFF
: OFF
: Clear write
: Position to noise floor
Span
Resolution bandwidth
Video bandwidth
Sweep time
Marker noise
∆-Marker
Trace
Display line
REF - 27.4 dBm
ATTEN 0 dB
10 dB/
DL
CENTER 11.479 001 504 GHz
RES BW 30 Hz
VBW 1 Hz
SPAN 0 Hz
SWP 1000 sec
Figure 11.2 : Spectrum Analyser Display during Antenna Pattern Measurement
ESOG
Volume 1
Module 130
Issue 2.0, 25-07-2000
page 57
EARTH STATION VERIFICATION AND ASSISTANCE (ESVA)
Annex A. Request for ESVA Format
The form on the next page should be used to require ESVA for an existing
earth station. After completion, it should be sent to the address indicated in
Annex D of this Module.
ESOG
Volume 1
Module 130
Issue 2.0, 25-07-2000
page 58
EARTH STATION VERIFICATION AND ASSISTANCE (ESVA)
Page
intentionally
blank
ESOG
Volume 1
Module 130
Issue 2.0, 25-07-2000
From: ____________________________________
FACSIMILE / E-MAIL
_________________________________________
TRANSMISSION
_________________________________________
To : EUTELSAT
N°. of pages
System Verification Test Section
Fax : + 33 1 5398 3741
including this one :
1
E-mail: fschurig@eutelsat.fr
kbadalov@eutelsat.fr
ESVA Request for a EUTELSAT Approved Earth Station
1.
EARTH STATION UNDER TEST
EUTELSAT Earth Station Verification Assistance (ESVA) is hereby requested for
the following station:
1.1. Earth Station Name: ...........................................................................................
1.2. EUTELSAT Code: ................................................................................................
2.
ESVA TEST PROGRAMME
2.1. Tests to be conducted ã :
2.2. Requested period :
a) Earth Station EIRP

a) Earliest start:___ / ___ / ___
b) Transmit Frequency

b) Finished before:___ / ___ / ___
c) Polarization Alignment

d) Transmit Polarization Isolation

e) Earth Station G / T

f) TX Sidelobe Pattern

g) RX Sidelobe Pattern

h) Other (describe on separate page)

3.
REMARKS
...............................................................................................................................
...............................................................................................................................
...............................................................................................................................
SIGNATURE : ................................. DATE : ........................................................
ã indicate as appropriate
page 61
EARTH STATION VERIFICATION AND ASSISTANCE (ESVA)
Annex B. Questionnaire
The form on the next page is used to provide EUTELSAT with specific data
relevant to any forthcoming ESVA or Earth Station Test activity. This
information is required to ensure smooth implementation of measurements
and is normally not part of the EUTELSAT Earth Station database. With
submission of the completed form, the station operator re-confirms and
guarantees his adequate preparation and readiness for test activities.
ESOG
Volume 1
Module 130
Issue 2.0, 25-07-2000
page 62
EARTH STATION VERIFICATION AND ASSISTANCE (ESVA)
Page
intentionally
blank
ESOG
Volume 1
Module 130
Issue 2.0, 25-07-2000
FROM :
TO:
____________________________________________
____________________________________________
____________________________________________
EUTELSAT - Division 10
System Verification Test Section
FACSIMILE
TRANSMISSION
Total N°. of Pages:
Fax: + 33 (1) 53 98 37 41
Preparation of Forthcoming ESVA
1)
GUARANTEE
This is to re-confirm that _________________________________ earth station, appropriate test equipment and staff
will be ready for the ESVA test planned for ______________________________.
ESOG Vol.I, Module 130 is available at the station under test.
2)
E/S PARAMETERS
Signal Source
12.9 - 13.25 GHz (I)
13.75 - 14.0 GHz (II)
14.0 - 14.5 GHz (III)
17.3 - 18.1 GHz (IY)
29.5 - 30.0 GHz (V)
TX
Coupler
HPA
Post Coupler
losses
LTX
CTX
EIRP Monitor Point
Antenna
GTX
EIRP SUT
Pm
TX - Powermeter
Are there other EIRP monitor points which may be used during following line-up and / or operations ?
Yes
TX Chain Designation
TX Coupling Factor
Post Coupler Loss
3)
CTX
LTX
If "
YES", please state details on a separate sheet.
[dB]
[dB]
E/S CONFIGURATION
Feed Type
2-port
Phase Combiner
4-port
Yes
Antenna Positioning
No
Electrical
Manual
Number of LNA/B/C(s) :______________________
LNANoise Temperature :_____________________°K
Number of HPA(s): ___________
Test Equipment Type
Antenna Slew Speed
Signal Source
Power Meter
Analyzer
4)
No
_______________________________
_______________________________
_______________________________
Freq. Stab.
Az.
El.
__________ Hz/min.
__________ °/s
__________ °/s
OPERATIONS
Test Manager
Contact during ESVA
Name
Phone
Fax
5)
Yes
Earth station block diagram is attached
No
REMARKS
_________________________________________________________________________________
_________________________________________________________________________________
_________________________________________________________________________________
SIGNATURE : ____________________
Date : ________________
page 65
EARTH STATION VERIFICATION AND ASSISTANCE (ESVA)
Annex C. List of Abbreviations
AI
C/N
CCIR
CCW
CSC
CW
CW
DATE
E/S
EIRP
ERS
ESA
ESOG
ESVA
ETS 1A
ETS 1B
EUTELSAT
G/T
HPA
IF
IPFD
LNA
LNB
LNC
RF
RX
SUT
TMS
TX
UTC
XDR
XPD
ESOG
Volume 1
Angular Increment
Carrier to Noise Ratio
International Radio Consultative Committee
(Comité Consultatif International de Radiocommunications)
Counter-Clockwise
EUTELSAT Communications System Control Centre
Clockwise
Continuous Wave (clean carrier)
Duly Authorized Telecommunications Entity
Earth Station
Equivalent Isotropic Radiated Power
EUTELSAT Reference Station
European Space Agency
EUTELSAT System Operations Guide
Earth Station Verification Assistance
EUTELSAT Test Station (ERS at Rambouillet)
EUTELSAT Test Station (ERS at Rambouillet)
European Telecommunications Satellite Organization
Gain to Equivalent Noise Temperature Ratio
High Power Amplifier
Intermediate Frequency
Input Flux Density
Low Noise Amplifier
Low Noise Block Converter
Low Noise Converter
Radio Frequency
Receive
Station Under Test
Test and Monitoring Station (ERS at Redu/Belgium)
Transmit
Universal Time Coordinate
(previously GMT i.e. Greenwich Mean Time)
Transponder
Cross-Polarization Discrimination
Module 130
Issue 2.0, 25-07-2000
page 66
EARTH STATION VERIFICATION AND ASSISTANCE (ESVA)
Page
intentionally
blank
ESOG
Volume 1
Module 130
Issue 2.0, 25-07-2000
page 67
EARTH STATION VERIFICATION AND ASSISTANCE (ESVA)
Annex D. ESVA Contact Points
Planning and
Coordination
Phone
+33.1.53.98.48.25
+33.1.53.98.49.76
EUTELSAT
System Verification Test Section
70, rue Balard
75502 PARIS Cedex
Fax
+33.1.53.98.37.41
ESVA Reference Station
ETS 1A and 1B,
Rambouillet, FRANCE
Phone
Fax
+33.1.34.85.97.17
+33.1.53.98.44.09
+33.1.34.84.20.34
ESVA Reference Station
Phone
+32.6122.9553
+32.6122.9511
ESVA Reference Station
Phone
+43.3863.2181.0
+43.3863.2181.235
ESVA Reference Station
TMS1/4,
Redu, BELGIUM
Fax
+32.6122.9544
AUT-AFL-005
Aflenz, AUSTRIA
Fax
+43.3863.2630
E-mail
znk.efa.wien@telekom.at
UKI-GHY-008
Goonhilly, UK
Phone
+ 44.1872.325452/7
+ 44.1872.325447 (day only)
Fax
+44.1872.325509
Space Segment Access
EUTELSAT - CSC, Paris, FRANCE
Phone
+33.1.53983411
+33.1.53983443
Fax
+33.1.53 98 33 33
E-mail
csc@eutelsat.fr
ESOG
Volume 1
Module 130
Issue 2.0, 25-07-2000
page 68
EARTH STATION VERIFICATION AND ASSISTANCE (ESVA)
Page
intentionally
blank
ESOG
Volume 1
Module 130
Issue 2.0, 25-07-2000
page 69
EARTH STATION VERIFICATION AND ASSISTANCE (ESVA)
Annex E. EUTELSAT Beacons
1. Beacon Data Sheet
2. Examples for Beacon Coverage areas
2.1) W2, 12 GHz Beacon
2.2) W2, Global Beacon
2.3) EUTELSAT II-F4, 11 GHz Beacon
2.4) EUTELSAT II-F4, 12 GHz Beacon
ESOG
Volume 1
Module 130
Issue 2.0, 25-07-2000
page 70
EARTH STATION VERIFICATION AND ASSISTANCE (ESVA)
Page
intentionally
blank
ESOG
Volume 1
Module 130
Issue 2.0, 25-07-2000
Status: 07/00
1) Beacon Data Sheet
Satellite
Orbital
Position
Beacon Frequency [MHz]
X ( Horizontal ) Polarization
12 GHz
11 GHz
operational
operational
spare
global
steerable
I-F4
I-F5
II-F1
II-F2
II-F3
II-F4
Hot BirdTM 1
Hot BirdTM 2
Hot BirdTM 3
Hot BirdTM 4
Hot BirdTM 5
Hot BirdTM 6
W1
W2
W3
W4
25.5° E
14.8° W
48.0° E
12.5° W
35.9° E
10.0° E
13.0° E
13.0° E
13.0° E
13.0° E
13.0° E
13.0° E
10.0° E
16.0° E
7.0 E
36.0°E
11 449.650
11 448.950
11 451.091
11 451.091
11 451.830
11 451.091
11 449.610
11 702.200
11 702.800
11 704.600
11 701.000
11 700.400
11 450.500
11 698.000
11 698.600
11 706.850
11 451.830
11 450.350
11 452.570
11 452.570
11 450.350
11 703.400
11 704.000
11 705.800
11 699.800
11 701.600
11 451.000
11 699.200
11 699.800
-
11 199.000
11 199.500
-
-
12 541.667
12 541.667
12 541.667
12 541.667
12 500.000
12 500.250
12 501.000
12 501.000
-
-
EUROBIRDTM
28.5° E
11 452.570
11 451.091
-
11 200.000
12 501.000
-
ATLANTIC BIRDTM
12.5° W
11 703.400
11 704.600
-
-
SESAT
36.0°E
11 450.350
11 451.091
-
TELECOM 2A
TELECOM 2D
8.0° W
8.0° W
11 450.500
-
TELSTAR 12
14.8° W
11 450.500
DFS-2 KOPERNIKUS
28.5° E
EXPRESS 3A
11.0° W
Y Polarization
spare
KA-Band
operational
Operational Beacon EIRP towards Beam Centre
[dBW]
11 GHz
12 GHz
KA-Band
operational
spare
global
X-Pol
Y-Pol
X-Pol
15.50
15.50
15.70
16.60
15.40
13.40
13.00
14.20
14.00
-
-
14.15
12.95
15.17
15.03
-
-
15.57
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
12 749.750
-
19 701.000
-
17.18
17.08
15.55
12.35
14.47
14.53
13.17
13.37
11.67
12.67
12.47
-
-
-
17.07
-
17.10
-
16.15
15.85
-
18.87
18.49
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
12 500.150 12 749.850
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
11 199.500
12 501.000
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
12 502.500
-
-
12 501.500
-
-
12 500.500
11 452.500
-
-
-
25.32
-
16.57
-
-
11 451.000
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
19 701.750
11 452.700
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
11 400.000
-
-
-
-
-
-
2.1) W2 at 16°E, 12 GHz Beacon Coverage
2.2) W2 at 16°E, Global Beacon Coverage
2.3) EUTELSAT II-F4 at 10°E, 11 GHz Beacon
Remark: Values refer to the central spectral component (∃∅) of beacon signal
2.4) EUTELSAT II-F4 at 10°E, 12GHz Beacon Coverage
page 77
EARTH STATION VERIFICATION AND ASSISTANCE (ESVA)
Annex F. Frequency Plans
The next pages show the transponder configurations and frequency plans for
the following satellites:
• EUTELSAT-I
• EUTELSAT-II
• HOT BIRDTM 1....6
• EUTELSAT W1....W4
• SESAT
• EUROBIRDTM
• ATLANTIC BIRDTM
• TELECOM 2A and 2D
• DFS 2 - KOPERNIKUS
• TELSTAR 12
• EXPRESS 3A
ESOG
Volume 1
Module 130
Issue 2.0, 25-07-2000
page 78
EARTH STATION VERIFICATION AND ASSISTANCE (ESVA)
Page
intentionally
blank
ESOG
Volume 1
Module 130
Issue 2.0, 25-07-2000
14 375.000
14 458.333
F1* : 16.06.83
F2 : 04.08.84
F3 : 16.09.87
F5 : 21.07.88
14 291.667
14 208.333
14 041.667
10/14
11
12
7
8
9
Transponder N°
10/14
11
12
7
8
9
Pol. X
Transponder N°
4/13
5
6
1X
2X
3X
Pol. Y
4/13
5
6
1
2
3
* No transponder 13 / 14
14.00 GHz
14.50 GHz
Ft=3300
Transponder N°
1X
EB/SW
2X
EB/SW
Transponder N°
SE
3X
EB/SW
SE
11 658.333
3
BW : 72
11 575.000
2
11.45 GHz
EUT I-F5 11 448.950
11 450.000
11 158.333
1
11.20 GHz
EUT I-F4 11 449.650
Ft=1500
Ft=2550
Beacon
11 075.000
10.95 GHz
10 991.667
DOWN-LINK
Beacon Frequencies
4
5
6
4X
EB/SW
SW
5X
SW
SE/SA
6X
SA
11.7 GHz 12.5 GHz
12 541.667
UP-LINK
14 125.000
EUTELSAT I LAUNCH
13
SW
1S
SMS
SMS
SW
1Y
2Y
3Y
4Y
5Y
6Y
2S
7
8
9
10
11
12
14
EUTELSAT I Transponder Frequency Plan
(Frequency in MHz)
12.58 GHz
Pol. X
Pol. Y
F1 : 31.08.90
14 458.333
14.25
14 375.000
14 291.667
14 208.160
14 166.660
14.00
14 125.160
14 042.160
UP - LINK
14 083.660
EUTELSAT II LAUNCH
F2 : 15.01.91
F3 : 07.12.91
14.50
F4* : 09.07.92
TRANSPONDER NUMBER
45
46
1
2
CHANNEL ID
10
40
41
39/49
3
4
5
e/t
e/t
e/t
11
12
13
e/t
e/t
e/t
32/42
33/43
32/42
34/44
25
26
27
6
7
8
14
15
16
20
21
22
* Modified coverage of West TX antenna
POLARIZATION X
E
East antenna
W
West antenna
POLARIZATION Y
II-F1 : 11451.091 / 11451.830
II-F2 : 11451.830 / 11450.350
14 208. 333
14 145. 910
14 104. 410
BW : 72
38/48
Beacon Frequencies
14 021. 410
TRANSPONDER NUMBER
9
14 062. 910
CHANNEL ID
37/47
II-F3 : 11452.570 / 11451.830
II-F4 : 11451.091 / 11452.570
ft = 1500
CHANNEL ID
6
7
8
25
26
27
11 158.333
10.95
E
W
37
11.20
W
12e
3e
W
11 075.000
TRANSPONDER
NUMBER
W
10 991.667
W
W
11e
13e
4e
E
38
E
1
12 562.910
12 604.410
12 645.910
12 708. 333
44
E
45
W
11t
2
E
39
43
10
W
11.45
42
W
9
5e
41
3t
W
46
E
12t
13t
4t
E
47
W
48
POLARIZATION X
POLARIZATION Y
5t
E
49
11.70 12.50
12.75
12 708. 160
16
40
12 666. 660
15
34
12 625. 160
W
14
33
12 583. 660
W
CHANNEL ID
32
12 GHz
Beacon
12 542. 160
W
22
11 658.160
21
11 616.660
20
11 575.160
TRANSPONDER
NUMBER
ft = 2550
12 521.410
11 GHz
Beacon
11 658. 333
ft = 3300
DOWN - LINK
11 595.910
BW : 36
11 554.410
12 GHz F1-F4 : 12541.667
EUTELSAT II Frequency Plan
(Frequency in MHz)
SHU/98/012
2
6
10
12
14
16
11 533. 660
8
11 492. 160
7
11.20 GHz
9
11
13 208.500
13 167.000
11
( 11 450.350)
9
12
11 512. 910
DOWN- LINK
Beacon 11 449. 610
10
11 471. 410
13 123.840
7
11 428. 250
8
11 449. 000
5
13 082.340
5
11 386. 750
6
11 407. 500
3
13 040.840
3
11 345. 250
4
11 366. 000
4
11 324. 500
1
12 999.340
12 957.840
12 916.340
1
11 303. 750
11 262. 250
11 220. 750
2
11 283. 000
11 241. 500
13
13
13 229. 250
13 187. 750
13 144. 590
13 103. 090
13 061. 590
13 020. 090
12 978. 590
12 937. 090
HOT BIRD 1 launch :
29.03.95
UP- LINK
12.90 GHz
13.25 GHz
14
16
15
Pol. X
Pol. Y
11.70 GHz
15
Receive
(up-link)
Antenna on
Earth Panel
Superwide
(dn-link)
Antenna on
Earth Panel
Ft = 1695.59
BW : 36
Pol. X
Pol. Y
Hot BirdTM 1 Frequency Plan
(Frequency in MHz)
SHU/98/011
C1 Launch :
21.11.1996
UP - LINK
17672. 72
66
68
Channel ID
D2
D4
D6
E1
E3
E5
E7
E9
E11
E13
E15
E17
E19
Polarisation X
Channel ID
D1
D3
D5
E2
E4
E6
E8
E10
E12
E14
E16
E18
E20
Transponder N°
32
33
34
51
53
55
57
59
61
63
65
67
69
17691. 90
17634. 36
64
17653. 54
17596. 00
62
17615. 18
17557. 64
60
17576. 82
17519. 28
58
17538. 46
17480. 92
56
17500. 10
17442. 56
54
17461. 74
17404. 20
52
17423. 38
17365. 84
50
17385. 02
39
17346. 66
38
13958. 33
37
13895. 91
Transponder N°
13854. 41
17327. 48
18.10 GHz
13958. 16
17.30 GHz
13916. 66
14.00 GHz
13875. 16
13.75 GHz
fT=2300
Polarisation Y
BW : 36
fT=5600
BW : 33
BW : 72
DOWN - LINK
12.50 GHz
11976. 82
12015. 18
12053. 54
12091. 90
57
59
61
63
65
67
69
E20
D6
E19
38
39
50
52
54
56
58
60
62
64
66
68
Hot BirdTM 2 Frequency Plan
(Frequency in MHz)
SHU/96/006
E18
E17
12072.72
E16
E15
12034.36
E14
E13
11996.00
E12
E11
11957.64
E10
E9
11919.28
E8
E7
11880.92
E6
E5
11842.56
E4
E3
11804.20
E2
E1
11765.84
36
55
11727.48
Transponder N°
53
11658.16
D4
51
11616.66
D2
11938. 46
D5
11900. 10
D3
11861. 74
D1
Channel ID
11823. 38
Channel ID
11785. 02
34
11746. 66
33
(11 703.400)
32
Beacon
11 702.200
11658.33
Transponder N°
11575.16
11595.91
11.70 GHz
11554.41
11.45 GHz
Polarisation X
Polarisation Y
Receive
(up-link)
Transmit
(dn-link)
Wide
Super
Antenna on
Earth Panel
Antenna
West
East
Y
X
C2 Launch :
29/07/1996 :
UP - LINK
17749. 44
17787. 80
17826. 16
17864. 52
17902. 88
17941. 24
17979. 60
18017. 96
18065. 91
70
72
74
76
78
80
82
84
86
88
E23
E25
E37
E39
E22
E24
E26
E28
E30
E32
E34
E36
E38
E40
40
42
44
20
21
22
71
73
75
77
79
81
83
85
87
89
18075. 50
E35
B5
18037. 14
E33
B6
B3
17998. 78
E31
B4
B1
17960. 42
E29
B2
F5
17922. 06
E27
F6
F3
17883. 70
E21
F4
17845. 34
F2
F1
17806. 98
27
17768. 62
14458. 33
17711. 08
14375. 00
26
17730. 26
14291. 67
25
14458. 33
14208. 33
49
14375. 00
14125. 00
47
14291. 67
Transponder N°
45
14208. 33
Channel ID
18.10 GHz
14125. 00
Channel ID
17.30 GHz
14041. 67
Transponder N°
14.50 GHz
14048. 61
14.00 GHz
Polarisation X
Polarisation Y
Receive
(up-link)
fT=5600
Transmit
(dn-link)
fT=3300
fT = 1
89
Channel ID
B1
B3
B5
E22
E24
E26
E28
E30
E32
E34
E36
E38
E40
Channel ID
B2
B4
B6
E21
E23
E25
E27
E29
E31
E33
E35
E37
E39
25
26
27
70
72
74
76
78
80
82
84
86
88
12111. 08
Transponder N°
12708. 33
87
12625. 00
85
12541. 67
12475. 50
83
Steerable
Spot
Antenna on
Earth Panel
Antenna
West
East
Wide
Y
X
Super
X
Y
12.75 GHz
40
42
44
F1
F3
F5
Pol. X
F2
F4
F6
Pol. Y
45
47
49
12548. 61
12437. 14
81
12465. 91
12398. 78
79
12417. 96
12360. 42
77
12379. 60
12322. 06
75
12341. 24
12283. 70
73
12302. 88
12245. 34
71
12264. 52
12206. 98
22
12226. 16
12168. 62
21
12187. 80
12130. 26
20
12149. 44
11158. 33
Transponder N°
12 500.000
12.50 GHz
11075. 00
11.70 GHz
10991. 67
11 GHz Beacon
11 702.800
(11 704.000)
11.20 GHz
10.95 GHz
500
12 GHz Beacon
DOWN - LINK
Antenna on
Earth Panel
BW : 33
BW : 49.5
BW : 60
BW : 72
Switchable to Steerable Coverage (channel-by-channel)
Hot BirdTM 3 Frequency Plan
(Frequency in MHz)
SHU/98/009
C3 Launch :
UP -LINK
17826. 16
17864. 52
17902. 88
17941. 24
18119. 18
18157. 54
18195. 90
18234. 26
18272. 62
18310. 98
18349. 34
98
100
76
78
80
82
110
112
114
116
118
120
122
A8
A10
A12
Transponder N°
95
97
99
101
79
81
83
85
111
113
115
117
119
121
18291. 80
18330. 16
A13
A6
18253. 44
A11
A4
18215. 08
A9
A2
18175. 08
A7
E36
18127. 13
A5
E34
17998. 78
A3
E32
17960. 42
A1
E30
17922. 06
E33
F12
17883. 70
E31
F10
13980. 82
E29
F8
13942. 46
E27
F6
13904. 10
F11
Channel ID
13865. 74
F9
fT = 1 2
Polarisation X
Polarisation Y
Receive
(up-link)
fT = 7 4
Transmit
(dn-link)
12.50 GHz
12615. 74
12654. 10
12692. 46
12730. 82
97
99
101
Channel ID
A2
A4
A6
A8
A10
A12
E30
E32
E34
E36
F6
F8
F10
F12
A5
A7
A9
Transponder N°
110
112
114
116
118
A11
A13
120 122
10949. 34
A3
10910. 98
A1
E27
E29
E31
E33
F7
F9
F11
76
78
80
82
96
98
100
12713. 28
12398. 78
95
12673. 28
12360. 42
85
12634. 92
12322. 06
83
12341. 24
12283. 70
81
12302. 88
10930. 16
79
12264. 52
10891. 80
121
12226. 16
10853. 44
119
10872. 62
10815. 08
117
10834. 26
115
10795. 90
113
10757. 54
111
10719. 18
Transponder N°
Channel ID
Steerable
Spot
Antenna on
Earth Panel
Antenna
West
East
Wide
Y
Y
Super
X
X
12.75 GHz
10775. 08
(11 705.800)
11.70 GHz
Beacon
11 704.600
10.95 GHz
00
10727. 13
10.70 GHz
Antenna on
Earth Panel
50
fT=5600
DOWN - LINK
27.02.1998
18.40 GHz
96
F7
Channel ID
18.10 GHz
13963. 28
Transponder N°
17.30 GHz
13923. 28
14.00 GHz
13884. 92
13.75 GHz
Polarisation X
BW : 36
Polarisation Y
BW : 33
BW : 72
Switchable to Steerable (channel-by-channel)
SKYPLEX or Transparent Operation
Hot BirdTM 4 Frequency Plan
(Frequency in MHz)
SHU/98/008
C4 Launch :
UP - LINK
14.00 GHz
14 230.16
92
94
D2
D4
D6
F1
Channel ID
F3
14 458.33
14 191.80
90
14 395.91
14 153.44
158
14 354.41
14 115.08
156
14 312.91
14 076.72
154
14 271.41
14 038.36
Transponder N°
124
126
128
130
132
B4
B6
B8
F5
B2
B10
B7
B9
Transponder N°
153
155
157
159
91
93
123
125
127
129
131
fT
=32
25
79.
14 250.66
24
fT =
53
Polarisation X
BW :33 (or 36 MHz for D channels)
Polarisation Y
BW :72 MHz
14 437.58
B5
14 375.16
B3
14 333.66
B1
14 292.16
F4
14 210.98
F2
14 172.62
D7
14 134.26
D5
14 095.90
D3
14 057.54
D1
14 019.18
Channel ID
fT =
10.11.1998
14.50 GHz
14.25 GHz
163
.4 4
3 .6
0
DOWN - LINK
D1
D3
93
F4
B8
B10
D2
D4
D6
F1
F3
F5
Transponder N°
124
126
128
130
132
154
156
158
90
92
94
12 519.84
12 558.20
12 596.56
11 033.66
B6
10 992.16
B4
11 661.64
Polarisation X
B2
11 623.28
F2
Channel ID
11 584.92
D7
91
11 179.08
D5
12 577.38
B9
B7
159
12 539.02
155 157
11 116.66
B5
153
12.75 GHz
11 075.16
B3
131
12.50 GHz
Beacon
11 701.000
(11 699.800)
B1
11 680.82
Channel ID
129
11 642.46
127
11 604.10
125
11 565.74
123
11.70 GHz
11 158.33
11 054.41
Transponder N°
11.45 GHz
11 095.91
11 012.91
11.20 GHz
10 971.41
10.95 GHz
Polarisation Y
SKYPLEX or Transparent Operation
Hot BirdTM 5 Frequency Plan
(Frequency in MHz)
SHU/98/007
14 333.66
14 375.16
14 416.66
19 844.26*
19 842.00
19 729.18*
19 748.00
19701
KA Beacon
29 642.00
14 292.16
12 539.02
12 577.38
11 642.46
11 680.82
(11 701.6)
11 700.4
11 604.10
11 565.74
11 095.91
11 137.41
19 825.08*
12 519.84
12 558.20
12 596.56
19 748.36*
94
29 644.26*
14 250.66
11 054.41
11 178.91
11 012.91
10 971.41
92
158
29 625.08*
14 210.98
Pol. Y
90
11 661.64
11 623.28
11 584.92
11 075.16
11 116.66
11 158.16
11 033.66
11 199.66
10 992.16
10 872 . 62
10 834 . 26
HOT BIRDTM 6 FREQUENCY PLAN
(Frequency in MHz)
Pol. X
K158
10 853 . 44
10 815 . 08
BW : 36 (33)
K159
Pol. X
159
29 548.00
29 529.18*
14 172.62
14 458.16
14 134.26
14 057.54
14 019.18
13 827.38
13 789.02
3279.25
20.2 GHz
19.7 GHz
12.75 GHz
9800
1933.6
1933.6
2973.94
K154
154 156
29 548.36*
14 395.91
131
14 478.91
14 354.41
14 437.41
14 312.91
14 271.41
14 153.44
129
93
157
131
14 230.16
14 115.08
127
14 095.90
125
91
153 155
129
14 191.80
14 076.72
14 038.36
13 846.56
13 808.20
123
K153
130
116 118
93
Pol. Y
128
134
126
132
124
133
127
123
125
115 117
K159
91
12.50 GHz
11.70 GHz
11.45 GHz
11.20 GHz
10.95 GHz
10.70 GHz
K158
K153
BW : 72
* Skyplex unit center frequency
Possible use of Skyplex units
Pol. Y
K154
Pol. Y
Pol. X
Pol. X
130
90
133
159
134
128
132
126
124
94
158
92
154 156
116 118
157
153 155
115 117
30.0 GHz
29.5 GHz
14.50 GHz
14.25 GHz
14.00 GHz
13.75 GHz
11 GHz Beacon
HOT BIRDTM 6 Launch
UPLINK
DOWNLINK
2453.44
13.75 GHz
14.00 GHz
14.25 GHz
13 773.060
13 839.770
13 906.630
13 968.880
14 041.670
14 125.000
14 208.330/
14 199.330
14 291.670
14 375.000
14 458.330
D2
D4
D6
D8
F2
F4
F6
B2
B4
B6
X
D1
D3
D5
D7
F1
F3
F5
B1
B3
B5
Y
D5S
D7S
3.3 GHz
14 458.330
D3S
14 375.000
D1S
14 291.670
13 968.880
D8S
14 208.330
13 906.630
D6S
14 125.000
13 839.770
D4S
14 041.670
13 773.060
D2S
2.3 GHz
10.95 GHz
11.20 GHz
W1 Launch
14.50 GHz
B, F
BW : 72
D3(S) D4(S)
BW : 62
D5(S) D8(S)
BW : 54
D1(S) D2(S)
BW : 40
1.5 GHz
11.45 GHz
11.70 GHz
12.50 GHz
12.75 GHz
11 473.060
11 539.770
11 606.630
11 668.880
12 541.670
12 625.000
12 708.330
B5
D1
D3
D5
D7
F1
F3
F5
X
B2
B4
B6
D2
D4
D6
D8
F2
F4
F6
Y
11 158.330
12 541.670
12 625.000
12 708.330
12 749.750
11 158.330
B3
11 075.000
12 500.250
11 075.000
11 450.500
11 451.000
10 991.670
B1
B1
11 539.770
11 606.630
11 668.880
Steerable Coverage
11 473.060
10 991.670
Fixed Coverage
B2a
D1S
D3S
D5S
D7S
D2S
D4S
D6S
D8S
B2b
Fixed or Steerable Coverage (uplink only)
Fixed and/or Steerable Coverage (uplink only)
W1 FREQUENCY PLAN(Former RESSAT)
(Frequency in MHz)
11 366.00
C2
C4
C6
C8
C10 C12
12 708.33
D6
D8
D10
13 833.66
13 875.16
13 916.66
13 958.16
13 771.41
13 812.91
13 854.41
13 895.91
13 958.33
14 041.67
14 125.00
14 208.33
14 291.67
14 375.00
14 458.33
14.00 GHz
11.45 GHz
11.70 GHz
D4
D10
F1
F3
F5
Polarisation X
D5
D7
D9
F2
F4
F6
Polarisation Y
D6
Switchable to Steerable Beam
EUTELSAT W2 Frequency Plan
(Frequency in MHz)
12 GHz Beacon
12 501.000
D4
(11 699.200)
11 698.000
11GHz Beacon
D2
13 792.16
13 208.50
13.75 GHz
11 575.16
12 625.00
C11
12 541.67
C9
11 658.16
C7
D8
D3
11 658.33
C5
11 616.66
D2
11 595.91
0
11 533.66
11 492.16
11.20 GHz
11 449.00
30
fT = 3
11 554.41
C3
11 471.41
11 324.50
DOWN - LINK
11 407.50
11 283.00
.2 5
11 512.91
C1
11 428.25
B6
D1
11 386.75
B5
11 345.25
B3
11 303.75
B1
11 241.50
0
10.95 GHz
11 262.25
C10 C12
30
B4
80
11 220.75
13 167.00
13.25 GHz
=2
B2
17
St. spot Beacon
11 199.000
fT =
13 229.25
13 125.50
13.00 GHz
fT
11 158.33
C8
13 187.75
C6
13 146.25
13 001.00
13 084.00
Transponder N°
13 042.50
C1
11 075.00
C4
13 104.75
Transponder N°
C2
13 063.25
Channel ID
10 991.67
Channel ID
13 021.75
W2 Launch :
05/10/1998
UP - LINK
14.25 GHz
fT
=1
50
14.50 GHz
C3
C5
C7
C9
C11
D1
D3
D5
D7
D9
F2
F4
F6
B2
B4
B6
Polarisation X
F1
F3
F5
B1
B3
B5
Polarisation Y
0
12.50 GHz
12.75 GHz
BW : 72
BW : 36
SHU/98/005
10.95 GHz
11.20 GHz
C4
C6
C8
C10
C11
C12
D1
D3
D5
11 658.33
D7
D8
D10
D9
11.45 GHz
Widebeam fixed coverage
EUTELSAT W3 Frequency Plan
(Frequency in MHz)
11.70 GHz
12 708.33
D6
12 625.00
D4
12 501.000
fT = 3300
12 GHz Beacon
14 208.33
14 291.67
14 375.00
14 458.33
14.00 GHz
12 541.67
D2
(11 699.800)
11 698.600
14 125.00
D8
11 GHz Beacon
D6
14 041.67
D4
11 595.91
13 916.66
13.75 GHz
11 554.41
13 875.16
D2
13 958.16
D7
13 958.33
D5
13 895.91
13 833.66
C12
11 512.91
D3
13 854.41
13 792.16
C10
11 658.16
C9
11 471.41
D1
13 812.91
13 229.25
C8
11 616.66
C7
11 428.25
C11
13 771.41
13 187.75
C6
11 575.16
C5
11 386.75
C9
13 208.50
13 146.25
C4
11 533.66
C3
11 345.25
C7
13 167.00
13 104.75
C2
11 492.16
C1
11 303.75
11 262.25
11 220.75
C5
13 125.50
13 063.25
13.25 GHz
11 449.00
C2
11 407.50
B6
11 366.00
B5
B4
11 324.50
B3
B2
11 283.00
11 158.33
B1
11 241.50
11 075.00
C3
13 084.00
13 021.75
13.00 GHz
St. spot Beacon
11 199.500
10 991.67
C1
13 042.50
13 001.00
W3 Launch
UP - LINK
12/04/1999
14.25 GHz
BW :
14.50 GHz
D10
F2
F4
F6
B2
B4
B6
Pol. X
D9
F1
F3
F5
B1
B3
B5
Pol. Y
fT = 1780.250
fT = 2300
fT = 1500
DOWN - LINK
F1
F3
F5
Pol. X
F2
F4
F6
Pol. Y
12.50 GHz
12.75 GHz
Widebeam fixed or steerable coverage (channel-by-channel)
36
72
SHU/98/003
W4 Launch : 24.06.2000
UPLINK
UP-LINK
17 979.60
18 017.96
18 056.32
37
39
10
20
22
24
26
28
30
32
34
36
38
RHCP
40
LHCP or Y
18 075.50
17 346.66
2
17 922.06
Vertical Polarization or LHCP
18 037.14
17 941.24
35
17 998.78
17 902.88
33
17 960.42
17 864.52
31
17 883.70
17 826.16
29
17 845.34
17 787.80
27
17 806.98
25
17 768.62
17 711.08
21
17 730.26
19
17 691.90
1
17 500.10
17 672.72
18.1 GHz
17 327.48
17.3 GHz
F ix e d A fr ic a n C o v e r a g e o r St e e r a b le C o v e r a g e ( b lo c k s w it c h e d )
Ft = 5600
11.7 GHz
12 437.14
12 475.50
34
36
38
40
1
19
21
25
27
29
31
33
35
37
39
12 456.32
12 398.78
32
12 417.96
12 360.42
30
12 379.60
12 322.06
28
12 341.24
12 283.70
26
12 302.88
12 245.34
24
12 264.52
12 206.98
22
12 226.16
12 168.62
20
12 187.80
12 130.26
10
12 111.08
2
12 072.72
12 091.90
12.5 GHz
11 900.10
F ix e d A fr ic a n Co v e r a ge
11 727.48
Horizontal Polarization or RHCP
S te e r a b l e Co v e r a g e
11 746.66
11 706.850
DOWNLINK
DOWN-LINK
"Russian" Coverage (circular polarisation)
African/Steerable Coverages (Linear polarisation)
BW : 33
"Russian" and African or Steerable Coverage
EUTELSAT
W4 Frequency
EUTELSAT
W4 Frequency
Plan Plan
(Frequency
in MHz)
(Frequency
in MHz)
RHCP or X
LHCP
Launch :
UP - LINK
17.04.2000
14 291.67
14 375.00
14 458.33
H2 / D2
H4 / D4
H6 / D6
F2 / G2
F4 / G4
F6 / G6
B2
B4
B6
Channel ID
H1 / D1
H3 / D3
H5 / D5
F1 / G1
F3 / G3
F5 / G5
B1
B3
B5
14 125.00
Channel ID
14 041.67
14 208.33
14.50 GHz
13 958.33
14.25 GHz
13 875.00
14.00 GHz
13 791.67
13.75 GHz
Transponder N°
Polarisation X
Polarisation Y
Transponder N°
fT = 1
fT = 1 2
12 541.67
12 625.00
12 708.33
12 GHz Beacon
12 501.000
11 658.33
Channel ID
B1
B3
B5
G1 / D1
G3 / D3
G5 / D5
H1 / F 1
H3 / F 3
H5 / F5
Channel ID
B2
B4
B6
G2 / D2
G4 / D4
G6 / D6
H2 / F2
H4 / F4
H6 / F6
Transponder N°
11 450.350
11 575.00
12.75 GHz
11 491.67
(11451.091)
11 GHz Beacon
12.50 GHz
11 158.33
11.70 GHz
11 075.00
St. Spot Beacon
11.45 GHz
10 991.67
11 199.500
11.20 GHz
300
0
10.95 GHz
0
55
fT = 3
230
=2
DOWN - LINK
fT
fT =
500
50
Polarisation X
Polarisation Y
Transponder N°
Switchable to Steerable Coverage
SESAT Frequency Plan
(Frequency in MHz)
SHU/98/002
13 875.00
13 958.33
14 041.67
14 125.00
14 208.33
14 291.67
14 375.00
14 458.33
B2
B4
B6
F2
F4
F6
D2
D4
D6
Pol. X
C5
B1
B3
B5
F1
F3
F5
D1
D3
D5
Pol. Y
13 208.33
13 791.67
13 875.00
13 958.33
14 291.67
14 208.33
14 125.00
14 041.67
14 480.77
14 442.31
14 403.85
14 365.38
14 461.54
14 384.62
14 423.08
14 346.15
14 307.69
14 269.23
14 208.33
11 408.33
11 491.67
11 575.00
11 658.33
12 541.67
C3
C5
D1
D3
D5
F1
F3
F5
Pol. X
C2
C4
C6
D2
D4
D6
F2
F4
F6
Pol. Y
11 158.33
11 241.67
11 325.00
11 408.33
12 708.33
11 325.00
C1
B6
11 075.00
12 708.33
11 241.67
B5
B4
11 491.67
11 575.00
11 658.33
12 541.67
12 625.00
11 158.33
B3
B2
12 625.00
11 075.00
B1
10 991.67
12 625.00
Pol. Y
12 541.67
12 625.00
12 708.33
12 708.33
12 541.67
Pol. X
F6S
14 623.08
14 546.15
14 584.62
14 507.69
14 538.46
14 326.92
14 615.38
14 653.85
14 692.31
14 730.77
F5S
F4S
14 661.54
F3S
14 469.23
EUROBIRDTM FREQUENCY PLAN(Former W1RM)
14 326.92
14 288.46
14 125.00
14 208.33
14 125.00
14 041.67
14 041.67
12 GHz Beacon
12 501.000
13 791.67
C6
C3
13 125.00
10 991.67
F1S
F2S
D5S
2.80 GHz
11 GHz Beacon
11 452.570
(11 451.091)
13 208.33
C4
C1
13 041.67
(Frequency in MHz)
D9S D11S
D8S D10S D12S
D6S
D2S D4S
D7S
D3S
D1S
Steerable 1
12.75 GHz
12.50 GHz
11.70 GHz
11.45 GHz
11.20 GHz
10.95 GHz
Steerable 2
Pol. X
D6S D8S D10S D12S
F5S
14 458.33
13 125.00
C2
14 375.00
13 041.67
DOWNLINK
Pol. Y
D7S
D9S D11S
D5S
F6S
F3S
D2S D4S
F4S
D1S D3S
F2S
F1S
2.80 GHz
1.80 GHz
14.50 GHz
14.25 GHz
14.00 GHz
13.75 GHz
13.25 GHz
13.00 GHz
1.50 GHz
Steerable - Beacon
11 200.00
EUROBIRD Launch
UPLINK
UP-LINK
13.75 GHz
14.00 GHz
14.25 GHz
14.50 GHz
13874.50
13916.00
13957.50
14031.25
14093.75
14156.25
14218.75
14291.67
14375.00
14458.33
C6
E
C8
E
C10
E
C9 C11
E
E
F2
E
F1
E
F4
E
F3
E
F6
E
F5
E
F8
E
F7
E
B2
E/A
B1
E/A
B4
E/A
B3
E/A
B6
E/A
B5
E/A
C7
E
13978.25
13936.75
13895.25
D6
A
D5
A
D8
A
D7
A
Pol. X
Pol. Y
3.30 GHz
1.50 GHz
2.55 GHz
2.55 GHz
11.45 GHz
12593.75
12656.25
12718.75
D7
A
D8
A
12.75 GHz
F1
E
F2
E
F3
E
F4
E
F5
E
F6
E
F7
E
F8
E
11407.50
11366.00
E : European Coverage
A : American Coverage
11324.50
: Europe and/or America Coverage (uplink selectivity)
D5
A
D6
A
12.50 GHz
12531.25
C6
E
C9
C11
E
E
C8 C10
E
E
11668.75
11345.25
C7
E
11606.25
11158.33
B5
E
B6
E/A
11428.25
11075.00
B3
E
B4
E/A
11386.75
10991.67
B1
E
B2
E
11.70 GHz
4 Networking Couples: D5 - F5, D6 - F6
D7 - F7, D8 - F8
(*Beacon may be commuted
to Y-polarisation)
ATLANTIC BIRD TM 1 – FREQUENCY PLAN
ATLANTIC BIRDTM 1 - FREQUENCY PLAN
(Frequency in MHz)
12 GHz Beacon 2
12 749.85
11.20 GHz
12 500.15
10.95 GHz
11 GHz Beacon 1
11 703.4
(11 704.6) 12 GHz Beacon 1
DOWN-LINK
Pol. X
Pol. Y
TELECOM 2 Launch
UPLINK
14.00 GHz
14 022.00
14 064.00
14 106.00
14 148.00
14 190.00
14 232.00
K1
K2
K3
K4
K5
K6
K9
14 043.00
14 085.00
14 127.00
Pol. Y
K10 K11
14 211.00
K8
14 169.00
K7
Pol. X
1.5 GHz
DOWNLINK
12.75 GHz
12 627.00
K8
K9
12 711.00
12 585.00
K7
12 669.00
12 543.00
Beacon X
12 502.5
12.50 GHz
K10 K11
Pol. X
K1
K2
K3
K4
K5
K6
12 522.00
12 564.00
12 606.00
12 648.00
12 690.00
12 732.00
Beacon Y
12 500.5
2A : 16/12/1991
2B : 15/04/1992
2C : 06/12/1995
14.25 GHz
Pol. Y
TELECOM 2 FREQUENCY PLAN (Ku-band channels)
(Frequency in MHz)
BW : 36
K2
K3
K4
K5
K6
11 493.00
11 535.00
11 577.00
11 619.00
11 661.00
11 514.00
11 556.00
11 598.00
11 640.00
11 682.00
DOWN-LINK
11 472.00
Beacon X
11 450.500
K1
K2
K3
K4
K5
K6
14 272.00
14 314.00
14 356.00
14 398.00
14 440.00
14 482.00
UP-LINK
Beacon Y
11 452.500
14 293.00
14 335.00
14 377.00
14 419.00
14 461.00
TELECOM 2 Launch
14.250 GHz
14.500 GHz
2D : 08/08/1996
K7
K8
K9
K10
K11
Pol. X
11.25 GHz
Pol. Y
2.8 GHz
11.70 GHz
K1
K2
K3
K4
K5
K6
Pol. X
Pol. Y
TELECOM 2D FREQUENCY PLAN (Ku-band channels)
(Frequency in MHz)
BW : 36
14 375.000
14 225. 500
14 158. 500
14 091. 500
14 024. 500
14 000
14 250
DSF - LAUNCH
F1 : 05.06.89
14 500
29 500
29 660
(eol : 11/95)
F2 : 24.07.90
F3 : 12.10.92
TRANSPONDER NUMBER
1
CHANNEL ID
CHANNEL ID
3
5
2
7
4
B
POLARIZATION X
A
6
C
POLARIZATION Y
I
Usable BW
90
29 580.000
14 450.000
14 300.000
14 192.000
14 125.000
14 058.000
TRANSPONDER NUMBER
44
ft = 9800
4
6
12 750
19 700
19. 780. 000
2
KA Beacon
19 701.750
C
12 500
12 692. 000
11 650. 000
A
11 700
12 625. 000
11 500. 000
11 450
12 558. 000
ft = 1500
ft = 2800
19 860
TRANSPONDER NUMBER
1
3
5
7
12 658. 500
12 725. 500
B
12 591. 500
CHANNEL ID
I
12 524. 500
CHANNEL ID
POLARIZATION X
POLARIZATION Y
11 575. 000
KU Beacon
11 452.700
TRANSPONDER NUMBER
DFS 2 Kopernikus Frequency Plan
(Frequency in MHz)
SHU/98/012
Telstar Launch
P = Pan American Uplink Only
E = Europe Uplink Only
S = Switchable Uplink
C = Combinable Uplink
13.75 GHz
20
UPLINK
17
14.00 GHz
E
21
18
E
E
22
19
E
14.25 GHz
C
E
E
: Europe and/or Pan-America Coverage in uplink
C
E
1 &/or 23 2 &/or 24
3
9 &/or 31 10 &/or 32
11
C
C
C
C
33
1 &/or 23 2 &/or 24
25
C
E
12
E
9 &/or 3110 &/or 32
C
4
P
27
34
P
E
13
P
S
6 or 28
P
5
26
P
E
35
E
14.50 GHz
7
E
8
14 or 36 15 or 37
S
S
S
S
14 or 36 15 or 37
6 or 28
P
29
S
E X
Y
16
13/12/99
Europe Uplink
Europe + South Africa Uplink
E
38
P
30
P
P
X
Pan-America Uplink
Y
2800
BW : 54
DOWNLINK
Europe + South Africa
10.95 GHz
11.20 GHz
1500
2300
Europe + South Africa
11.45 GHz
Pan-America
Europe + South Africa
12.20 GHz 12.50 GHz
11.70 GHz
12.75 GHz
17
18
19
13
14
15
16
23
24
25
26
27
28
29
30
9
10
11
12
X
20
21
22
5
6
7
8
31
32
33
34
35
36
37
38
1
2
3
4
Y
Europe
Europe
Pan-America
Europe
Telstar 12 Frequency Plan
(Frequency in MHz)
pdftelstar.dsf
EXPESS 3A Launch
24.06.2000
14.250 GHz
14 275.00
14 325.00
14 375.00
14 425.00
14 475.00
14.500 GHz
22
12
24
20
26
UP-LINK
Pol. X
Pol. Y
2.8 GHz
11.40 GHz
11.70 GHz
Pol. X
22
12
24
20
26
11 475.00
11 525.00
11 575.00
11 625.00
11 675.00
Beacon
11 400.000
DOWN-LINK
Pol. Y
EXPRESS 3A FREQUENCY PLAN (Ku-band channels)
(Frequency in MHz)
BW : 36
page 119
EARTH STATION VERIFICATION AND ASSISTANCE (ESVA)
Annex G. Measurement of Spurious Radiation
G.1. Test Objectives
n To confirm compliance with spurious radiation specifications.
n To prevent any interference to existing services.
G.2. Principle
The SUT transmits at nominal power to dummy load or clear sky (i.e. far off
the geostationary arc) at operational configuration. Using a calibrated
measurement point of the station transmit (TX) chain, the output signal is
examined within a suitable frequency range for the presence of spurious and
intermodulation products.
The following procedure is intended to provide sufficient indication of
presence of spurious emissions. Further investigation (e.g.: zooming into the
frequency band where a suspect spurious signal occurs) will be required if
spurious signals are detected during this measurement.
G.3. Summary of Requirements
Although the specifications vary following E/S standard, a reasonably simple
way to check compliance is to take spectrum analyser dumps of the frequency
range of interest. It is however required that SUT provides at least a way to
keep a copy of the trace (plotter, screen snapshot, computer file), copy which
shall be forwarded (fax or e-mail) to ERS/EUTELSAT for evaluation.
Furthermore, the SUT shall record the relevant levels observed using the
spectrum analyser marker functions.
ESOG
Volume 1
Module 130
Issue 2.0, 25-07-2000
page 120
EARTH STATION VERIFICATION AND ASSISTANCE (ESVA)
EUTELSAT
E/S
Specification standard
Spurious excluding
Intermodulation
outside alloc. BW
level
(dBW)
meas
BW
(kHz)
Intermodulation
Products
Spectral
Sidelobes
inside alloc. BW
level
(dBW)
meas
BW
(kHz)
level
(dBW)
meas
BW
(kHz)
level
(dBW)
meas
BW
(kHz)
EESS 200
T-2
4
4
n.a.
n.a.
12
4
EESS 203
I
4
4
TX
carrier
-50 dB
4
12
4
EESS 400
L
4
4
7
4
12
4
12
4
42
12500
42
12500
EESS 500
S
4
4
TX
carrier
-50 dB
EESS 502
M
4
4
TX
carrier
-50 dB
12
TX
carrier
-50 dB
G.4. Test conditions:
n HPA to dummy load or antenna pointed to clear sky.
n Signal generated by the operational modulator, routed through the
operational up-converter. (SUT in operational configuration).
n SUT HPAs to operate at standardized input back off.
n Test Equipment (S.A.) connected to a test point which has been calibrated
during ESVA.
n HPA power set using a powermeter at the calibrated test point. (Use of the
S.A. would be inaccurate since it is usually connected through an
uncalibrated cable).
ESOG
Volume 1
Module 130
Issue 2.0, 25-07-2000
page 121
EARTH STATION VERIFICATION AND ASSISTANCE (ESVA)
G.5. Potential Pitfalls:
Linearity of S.A. log amplifier, as a wide dynamic range is used.
Noise floor of S.A.: with the typical levels observed in most stations, this will
not usually cause trouble.
Noise response of S.A log amplifier/detector: see point 1.9 below.
Long sweep time (15s) for 4kHz measurements: some brief events may be lost
possible remedy: let at least 10 sweeps accumulate data in max. hold mode.
Limited 1000 or 400 points frequency resolution (4kHz measurements).
Position of the measurement point in the up-link chain (if an up-link bandpass
filter is present).
SUT signal modulation may be incompatible with the above S.A. settings.
The actions to take here depend obviously upon the modulation spectral
characteristics and are to be solved on a case by case basis.
ESOG
Volume 1
Module 130
Issue 2.0, 25-07-2000
page 122
EARTH STATION VERIFICATION AND ASSISTANCE (ESVA)
G.6. Step-by-Step Procedure
ESOG
Step 1:
SUT switches to dummy load or depoints the antenna to cold sky (SUT to
consider potential danger when commuting switches at high EIRP settings).
Step 2:
SUT configures the signal path as for operational transmission, i.e.: The
signal is generated by the operational modulator and routed through the
operational upconverter. No modulation is applied (see test conditions
below).
Step 3:
SUT adjusts the EIRP to obtain the nominal transmit EIRP value, using the
calibrated test point (see EIRP test). SUT records the EIRP and level readings.
Step 4:
Keeping the HPA power constant, SUT substitutes the spectrum analyser
cable to the power sensor and sets the spectrum analyser (refer to
recommended settings below).
Step 5:
SUT records the peak signal level on the analyser and deduces the cable loss
(which should typically not exceed 5 dB).
Step 6:
SUT sets the spectrum analyser following the guidelines of table 1.7.1 below
then activates the max. hold mode. After at least 10 sweeps, SUT freezes
(‘view’) and records the trace (plotter / printer).
Note:
Assuming a 1000-point plot, each point represents a 500 kHz slice of the
spectrum, which is 50 times larger than the resolution bandwidth. It is
therefore recommended to zoom on visible spurious using a 10 MHz span,
keeping same reference level, RBW and VBW.
Step 7:
Maintaining the above analyser settings, the SUT disconnects the spectrum
analyser and records the level of the noise floor.
Step 8:
As step 6 but SUT uses the settings defined by table 1.7.2 below (The required
data accumulation time will exceed 2 minutes).
Step 9:
SUT ceases transmission and forwards the results (copy of spectrum plots
including corresponding EIRP levels of spurious signals and noise floor) to
EUTELSAT and ERS.
Volume 1
Module 130
Issue 2.0, 25-07-2000
page 123
EARTH STATION VERIFICATION AND ASSISTANCE (ESVA)
G.7. Spectrum Analyser Settings:
Measurements for Detection of Spurious within 4 kHz Bandwidth:
Frequency
: 14.25 GHz
(Centre of the transmit band of interest or
SUT carrier frequency)
Span
: 500 MHz
Resolution
Bandwidth
: 10 kHz
(For HP S.A. equivalent Noise Bandwidth
equals 10 x 1.2 = 12 kHz). See note*
Video
Bandwidth
: 10 kHz
See note*
Sweep Time
: 15 sec
Automatic (coupled)
RF Attenuator : 10 dB
(Depends on level at nominal power. To
optimize the dynamic range, it is
recommended to set the attenuator to 0dB at
test points with low level)
Max. Ref level : 0 dBm
(Depends on RF attenuation)
Max. hold
: On
Max. hld noise : -73 dBm
REF - 13.3 dBm
(With HP8566A/B and 10dB RF input
attenuation. At 0dB input attenuation: -83)
∆MKR -48 MHz
ATTEN 0 dB
- 68.9 dB
10 dB/
max hold
"up-converter humb"
CENTER 14 250 000 GHz
RES BW 10 kHz
VBW 10 kHz
SPAN 500 MHz
SWP 15.0 sec
* Since the RBW is larger than the specified 4 kHz, noise-like spurious will have
to be corrected, as they appear too high by about 4.77 dB (ratio of 12 kHz/4
kHz). Assuming 60 dBW nominal EIRP, the required dynamic range to read
4 dBW levels with a 10 dB noise margin is >66 dB. In the typical frequent case
of a 0 dBm level at measurement point for 60 dBW, this requirement is satisfied (noise is at -73 dBm).
ESOG
Volume 1
Module 130
Issue 2.0, 25-07-2000
page 124
EARTH STATION VERIFICATION AND ASSISTANCE (ESVA)
Measurements for Detection of Spurious within 4 kHz Bandwidth:
Frequency
: 14.25 GHz
(Centre of the transmit band of interest or
SUT carrier frequency)
Span
: 500 MHz
Resolution
Bandwidth
: 3 MHz
(For HP S.A. equivalent Noise Bandwidth
equals 3x 1.2 = 3.6 MHz). See note*
Video
Bandwidth
: 3 MHz
See note*
Sweep Time
: 20 ms
Automatic (coupled)
RF Attenuator : 10 dB
(Depends on level at nominal power. To
optimize the dynamic range, it is
recommended to set the attenuator to 0dB at
test points with low level)
Max. Ref level : 0 dBm
(Depends on RF attenuation)
Max. hold
: On
Max. hld noise : -48 dBm
REF 0.0 dBm
(With HP8566A/B and 10dB RF input
attenuation. At 0dB input attenuation: -58)
∆ M KR 59 MHz
ATTEN 10 dB
- 48.4 dB
10 dB/
m ax hold
CENTER 14 250 000 G Hz
RES BW 3 M Hz
VBW 3 MHz
SPAN 500 M Hz
SW P 20.0 m sec
* Since the RBW is narrower than the specified 12.5 MHz, spurious which behave like noise will have to be corrected, as they appear too low by about 5.4
dB (ratio of 12.5 MHz/3.6 MHz). Assuming 60 dBW nominal EIRP, the required dynamic range to read 40 dBW levels with a 10 dB noise margin is >30
dB. In the typical frequent case of a 0 dBm level at measurement point for 60
dBW, this requirement is satisfied (noise level at -48 dBm).
ESOG
Volume 1
Module 130
Issue 2.0, 25-07-2000
page 125
EARTH STATION VERIFICATION AND ASSISTANCE (ESVA)
G.8. SUT Test Report:
n Level at the calibration point when HPA power has been set.
n Level at the powermeter probe and corresponding EIRP.
n Corresponding S.A level in the configuration used for measurement (with
cable inserted) or S.A. connecting cable losses value in the frequency
range.
n Spectrum analyser plots in max. hold mode with the above recommended
settings.
n (Including values of RBW,VBW,Freq.,Span,Sweep time...).
n Level/frequency of the highest peaks observed (especially if the plot is a
snapshot).
n Level at analyser noise floor.
ESOG
Volume 1
Module 130
Issue 2.0, 25-07-2000
page 126
EARTH STATION VERIFICATION AND ASSISTANCE (ESVA)
Page
intentionally
blank
ESOG
Volume 1
Module 130
Issue 2.0, 25-07-2000
page 127
EARTH STATION VERIFICATION AND ASSISTANCE (ESVA)
Annex H. Earth Station Alignment Verification
H.1. Objectives
a): To re-confirm:
• correct earth station alignment in azimuth elevation and polarization,
• correct setting of operational station EIRP and frequency.
b): To prevent any interference to existing traffic.
H.2. Principles
Initially, the earth Station Under Test (SUT) proceeds with transmission of its
modulated operational carrier whereas the EUTELSAT Reference Station
(ERS) transmits a clean reference carrier. Upon authorization by the ERS, the
SUT disables carrier modulation. The ERS verifies the SUT antenna pointing
(azimuth, elevation, polarization) and, if necessary, guides the antenna under
test to the optimized position.
The ERS verifies the SUT transmit frequency.
ERS and SUT carry out a power balance to establish the operational transmit
EIRP as defined by the relevant EUTELSAT transmission plan.
Operational
Modulator
set to
CW mode
Up - Converter
HPA
RF
IF
HPA
RF Output Power Monitor Point
Antenna
RF Power
Meter
Figure H.1 : SUT TX Chain Configuration during Earth Station Alignment
Verification (EAV)
ESOG
Volume 1
Module 130
Issue 2.0, 25-07-2000
page 128
EARTH STATION VERIFICATION AND ASSISTANCE (ESVA)
H.3. Step-by-step procedure
H.3.1.
Step 1:
Immediately prior to the scheduled commencement of EAV (i.e. ~ 5
minutes) the SUT shall establish and maintain phone contact with ERS. SUT
shall communicate sky and wind conditions and information on all details
which may impair testing.
Step 2:
ERS ensure that the allocated frequency range (for the reference carrier) is
free of traffic.
Step 3:
ERS shall contact the EUTELSAT CSC to obtain authorization for space
segment access and reconfirmation of actual gain setting.
Step 4:
In accordance with parameters of the EUTELSAT test plan, ERS transmit the
reference carrier.
H.3.2.
ESOG
Access Coordination
Transmission by SUT
Step 5:
Under direction of the ERS, SUT disable the modulation of the operational
carrier at the assigned frequency and EIRP. The SUT CW - carrier shall be
generated by the operational TX-chain with the modulator set to CW mode.
SUT equipped with an automatic tracking system, shall disable auto-track
mode.
Note:
The SUT must CEASE transmissions immediately if the communications link
to the ERS fails or if the presence of staff at the SUT phone is interrupted. This
rule applies to this and all following tests where the SUT transmits.
Step 6:
SUT report TX power meter reading to ERS. If available, SUT also report the
applicable TX coupling factor and post coupler loss to the ERS.
Step 7:
ERS take a plot of the spectrum and check carrier frequency, EIRP and
polarization and request corrections if necessary.
Step 8:
Under the direction of the ERS, SUT depoint its antenna first in azimuth and
then in elevation. ERS record the corresponding variation of RX levels and
guide the SUT to boresight. If applicable, SUT report azimuth and elevation
readouts otherwise, SUT secure the antenna and mark appropriately the
antenna position.
Step 9:
Under the direction of the ERS, SUT rotate slowly the antenna feed. ERS
advise on the sense of rotation.
Step 10:
ERS guide the SUT to acquire the optimum position (i.e. where polarization
plane of the SUT and satellite receive antenna match and a minimum in crosspolar level is observed).
Step 11:
SUT secure feed position. ERS verify that the optimized position is
maintained.
Volume 1
Module 130
Issue 2.0, 25-07-2000
ESOG
page 129
EARTH STATION VERIFICATION AND ASSISTANCE (ESVA)
Step 12:
SUT report the polarization angle indication of the ERS. If the SUT is not
equipped with indicators, the feed position shall be marked.
Step 13:
ERS monitor short term (~ 5 minutes) fluctuation of frequency and EIRP of
carrier under test.
Step 14:
Under the direction of the ERS, SUT adjust its EIRP to balance the reference
carrier.
Step 15:
ERS confirm balance condition.
Step 16:
SUT read the TX power meter and report the value to the ERS. SUT record
the reading of the transmit power meter and the corresponding station EIRP
and maintain this EIRP at all times during operational transmissions, and
carefully note this value for future transmissions as the nominal EIRP.
Step 17:
SUT equipped with an automatic tracking system, shall enable auto-track
mode.
Step 18:
SUT enable carrier modulation.
Step 19:
ERS take a plot of the spectrum.
Step 20:
ERS cease transmissions.
Step 21:
ERS advise the EUTELSAT CSC of test completion and request instructions
for further proceedings.
Step 22:
ERS forward CSC directions to the SUT (e.g. cessation of transmissions, start
of IFLU, immediate commencement of traffic).
Step 23:
ERS forward the completion report to EUTELSAT.
Volume 1
Module 130
Issue 2.0, 25-07-2000
EUTELSAT S.A. OPERATIONS CONTACT POINTS
(
EUTELSAT S.A. CSC
Voice:
Fax:
+33-1-45.57.06.66
+33-1-45.75.07.07
Systems Operations Division
Voice:
Fax:
+33-1-53.98.48.12
+33-1-53.98.37.41
Earth Station Approval and
Line-up Office
Voice:
+33-1-53.98.39.25
+33-1-53.98.46.13
Voice:
+33-1-53.98.48.25
+33-1-53.98.49.76
Voice:
Fax:
+33-1-53.98.48.28
+33-1-53.98.30.00
Voice:
+33-1-53.98.47.48
+33-1-53.98.47.78
+33-1-53.98.47.45
+33-1-53.98.39.48
+33-1-53.98.37.37
e-mail: csc@eutelsat.fr
e-mail: esapproval@eutelsat.fr
ESVA
Operational Planning Division
e-mail (SMS Section):
dsvplan@eutelsat.fr
e-mail (LT Section):
ltplan@eutelsat.fr
EUTELSAT S.A. Booking Office
e-mail: booking@eutelsat.fr
Fax:
MAILING ADDRESS
EUTELSAT S.A.
70, rue Balard
F-75502 PARIS Cedex 15
FRANCE
EUTELSAT S.A. WEB
on operational issues
"http://services.eutelsat.com" or
"http://www.eutelsat.com/
Satellite information/Technical &
operational docs/Uplinking &
Satcom Services"
02-07-2001
Was this manual useful for you? yes no
Thank you for your participation!

* Your assessment is very important for improving the work of artificial intelligence, which forms the content of this project

Download PDF

advertising