TV Test Transmitter ¸SFL

TV Test Transmitter ¸SFL
Data sheet
ATSC
Version
04.00
TV Test Transmitter ¸SFL
Digital signals for use in production
◆ Standard-conforming DVB and DTV
signals
◆ Wide output frequency range from
5 MHz to 1.1 GHz or 3.3 GHz
◆ Wide output level range for transmission, receiver and components
measurements
◆ Operating parameters variable in a
wide range
◆ Internal test signals
◆ Special signals and error signals for
limit testing and troubleshooting
◆ For use in production environments
– Wear-free electronic attenuator
– Fast setting times
◆ Flexible input interfaces
SPI, ASI, SMPTE310
◆ Input for I/Q signals
◆ Noise source for accurate C/N
measurement (option ¸SFL-N)
◆ Internal bit error ratio measurement
facility (option ¸SFL-K17)
◆ Sweep mode for frequency and level
◆ User-defined correction tables
Various optimized models:
◆ ¸SFL-T: antenna DVB-T/H
– 2k, 4k and 8k COFDM
– 5 MHz, 6 MHz, 7 MHz and
8 MHz bandwidth
– Hierarchical coding
◆ ¸SFL-V: antenna ATSC
– 8VSB
◆ ¸SFL-I: antenna ISDB-T
– Mode 1/2/3 (2k, 4k, 8k)
– Max. three layers (A, B, C)
– 13 segments (settable for each
layer)
◆ ¸SFL-C: cable DVB-C
– Selectable (16QAM/32QAM/
64QAM/128QAM /256QAM)
– Data interleaver level 1 and
level 2
◆ ¸SFL-J: cable J.83/B
– Selectable (64QAM/256QAM)
◆ ¸SFL-S: satellite DVB-S/-DSNG
– QPSK, 8PSK, 16QAM
July
2005
A suitable model for each digital standard
¸SFL-V
¸SFL-I
◆ For digital standard DVB-T:
Terrestrial broadcasting via antenna
in line with EN300744
◆ For digital standard DVB-H:
Terrestrial mobile broadcasting via
antenna in line with EN302304
◆ For digital standard 8VSB:
Terrestrial broadcasting via antenna
in line with ATSC Doc. A/53 (8VSB)
◆ For digital standard ISDB-T:
Terrestrial broadcasting via antenna
in line with ARIB STD-B31, V1.0
¸SFL-C
¸SFL-J
¸SFL-S
◆ For digital standard J.83/B:
Broadcasting via cable in line with
ITU-T J.83/B
◆ For digital standards DVB-S and
DVB-DSNG:
Broadcasting via satellite in line
with EN300421/EN301210
¸SFL-T
◆ For digital standard DVB-C:
Broadcasting via cable in line with
ITU-T J.83/A, C and EN300429
2
TV Test Transmitter ¸SFL
Key features
General
◆ Wide frequency range 5 MHz to 1.1 GHz or
3.3 GHz
◆ Large level range –140 dBm to 0 dBm
◆ Wear-free electronic attenuator
◆ Fast setting times
◆ Simple, user-friendly hardkey and softkey
control
◆ Clearly arranged display with main parameters in headline
◆ Storage of instrument settings
◆ List function for automatic command
sequence, e.g. measurement of frequency
and amplitude response
◆ Online help
◆ IEC 625/IEEE 488 bus, RS-232-C
◆ Software update via RS-232-C
The TV Test Transmitter Family ¸SFL is a complete solution for testing
digital TV receivers and integrated receiver modules, as well as for testing
digital TV links for broadcasting via terrestrial antennas and cable. It covers
all main standards currently used worldwide as well as those to be introduced soon.
The standard-conforming test signals exhibit a high level of precision. To
determine the full functionality and the performance of your products at
their limits, the test signal parameters can be varied within a wide range and
provided with predefined errors. Realistic transmission/reception conditions
can be reproducibly simulated with the aid of the noise generator option.
Applications
The high signal quality and the versatile parameter variation capabilities
make the ¸SFL family ideally suited as a standard signal generator for use
in production environments. The wide output frequency range allows testing
beyond the limits defined by the relevant standard. The benefit of the large
level range is that, on the one hand, the functional limits of LSI (large-scale
integration) circuits can be quickly determined and recorded during production; on the other hand, it is easy to simulate a receive link for a TV receiver.
The operating parameters (e.g. roll-off, puncturing, QPSK mode, QAM mode,
pilot level, interleaver level) can easily be varied even beyond the limits
defined by the relevant standard. A number of special signals or signals
with predefined errors are provided in order to determine the true functional
limits or to quickly detect malfunctions; it is also possible to switch off signal
characteristics defined in the standard or partial signal functions (e.g. modulation, individual carriers and groups of carriers, pilot).
Irrespective of the model, a sweep mode is available for the total frequency
range, as well as an external I/Q input for signals with external coding.
TV
TV Test
Test Transmitter
Transmitter ¸SFL
¸SFL
33
DVB-T/H
ATSC/
8VSB
ISDB-T
DVB-C
ITU-T/
J.83/B
DVB-S
10 MHz
Synthesizer
processor
TS
PARALLEL
SPI
RS-232-C
IEC625
I/Q coder
TS
data rate
processor
only one
coder
I/Q
modulator
ASI
SMPTE
Electronic
attenuator
5 MHz to
1.1 GHz
(3.3 GHz)
I/Q
ext.
Option
¸SFL-N
Block diagram of the TV Test Transmitter ¸SFL
¸SFL-T/SFL-S/SFL-C
DVB: coding and mapping for antenna,
satellite and cable
The DVB models of the TV Test Transmitter
¸SFL encode the applied transport
stream for terrestrial transmission via
antenna or for satellite or cable transmis-
Instead of the external transport data
stream (DATA) being used, an internal
data source can generate null transport
stream packets (NULL TS PACKET, as
defined in the DVB Measurement Guidelines), or an unpacketed random sequence
(PRBS). The PRBS sequence is also available in packeted form in the null transport
sion in line with standards and condition it
so that I and Q (inphase and quadrature)
signals are obtained. The ¸SFL
accepts MPEG-2 transport streams with a
packet length of 188 or 204 bytes.
The input interfaces are synchronous parallel (TS parallel, SPI) and asynchronous
serial (ASI). The input data rate and the
symbol rate for the ¸SFL-C and
¸SFL-S are selectable. With the
¸SFL-T, the channel bandwidths of
5 MHz, 6 MHz, 7 MHz and 8 MHz can be
selected; the default settings can be
varied.
4
TV Test Transmitter ¸SFL
DVB-T
stream packets (NULL PRBS PACKET).
The ¸SFL warns the user if the input
signal fails, the set data rate does not
match the incoming one or the USEFUL
DATA RATE is too high.
With DVB-T, hierarchical coding is also
available. For this purpose, one of the two
priorities is modulated with the external
MPEG-2 transport stream, the other with
the internal MPEG-2 signal NULL PRBS
PACKET. Thus, only one external MPEG-2
transport stream is required and the two
transport streams need not be synchronized. Since switching between the two
priorities is easy, all simulations and measurements can be performed very quickly
on both priorities, with the highly critical
PRBS signal always assigned to the priority that is not currently being processed.
The input data stream is linked to a random sequence, ensuring that the signal
energy is evenly distributed (energy
dispersal). Energy dispersal can be
switched off. The same applies to SYNC
BYTE inversion. Following energy dispersal, a Reed-Solomon coder (204,188)
is provided as an outer encoder for
forward error correction (FEC).
mission path are split up by the deinterleaver into single errors that can be corrected by the Reed-Solomon decoder. The
interleaver, too, can be disabled.
out next, i.e. certain bits are left out in the
transmission in accordance with a defined
algorithm, so that the data rate is reduced
again.
Up to and including the convolutional
interleaver, coding is identical for antenna
(COFDM), satellite (QPSK, 8PSK, 16QAM)
and cable (QAM) transmission. No further
FEC coding is provided for cable transmission, as in this case interference due to
noise, nonlinearities and interruptions is
less likely than on satellite links or with
antenna transmission. With cable transmission, mapping to the I and Q paths is
performed next.
With DVB-S satellite transmission, mapping to the I and Q paths is performed at
this point. Instead of the convolutional
encoder (DVB-S), pragmatic trellis coding is
used for DVB-DSNG satellite transmission.
For terrestrial transmission via antenna
and for satellite transmission, additional
inner FEC coding is performed after the
convolutional interleaver. The procedure,
which is known as convolutional encoding,
doubles the data rate. Puncturing is carried
For terrestrial transmission, the signal is
made to pass through further FEC stages
because of the inherently unfavorable
propagation conditions: an inner bit interleaver (at the antenna end) and a symbol
interleaver. Next, mapping is performed in
accordance with the selected QPSK,
16QAM or 64QAM constellation. After
insertion of the pilot and TPS (transmission
parameter signaling) carriers in the frame
adapter, conversion of the frequency
domain to the time domain is effected
by inverse fast Fourier transform, to a
1705 (2k), 3409 (4k) or 6817 (8k) carrier
Sixteen parity bytes are added to the unchanged 188 data bytes of each transport
stream packet. These 16 parity bytes form
the redundancy that allows eight errored
bytes of a frame to be corrected by the
receiver.
A convolutional interleaver distributes the
data so that consecutive bits are separated. Burst errors occurring on the transDVB-S
depending on the selected mode. As a last
step, the guard interval is inserted.
DVB-C
Prior to modulation, the spectrum has to be
limited by filtering. The roll-off factor (root
cosine) can be varied for the ¸SFL-C
and ¸SFL-S.
TV Test Transmitter ¸SFL
5
¸SFL-V
ATSC/8VSB: coding and mapping for
antenna
The TV Test Transmitter ¸SFL for 8VSB
encodes the applied transport stream for
terrestrial transmission via antenna in line
with standards and processes it so that
I and Q (inphase and quadrature) signals
are obtained.
With 8VSB, the ¸SFL accepts MPEG-2
transport streams with a packet length of
188 bytes. The input interfaces are synchronous parallel (TS parallel, SPI) and
asynchronous serial (ASI and SMPTE310).
When using the TS parallel input, an
input data rate of 19.3926 Mbit/s ±10%
can be attained.
The ¸SFL warns the user if the input
signal fails or if the USEFUL DATA RATE is
too high. Instead of the external transport
stream (DATA) being applied, an internal
data source can generate null transport
stream packets (NULL TS PACKET, NULL
PRBS PACKET). A SYNC PRBS is implemented for bit error evaluation in receivers. An unpacketed random sequence
may also be selected. The PRBS
sequence can be selected before (PRBS
BEFORE TRELLIS) or after the trellis coder
(PRBS AFTER TRELLIS). The PRBS
sequence is also available in packeted
form in the null transport stream packets
(NULL PRBS PACKET).
Generation of the standard frame is followed by a randomizer which ensures
that energy is evenly distributed in the
channel (energy dispersal). The randomizer can be disabled. Following energy
dispersal, a Reed-Solomon coder
(208,188) is provided for forward error
correction (FEC).
Twenty parity bytes are added to the
unchanged 188 data bytes. Up to ten
errors per segment can thus be corrected.
A convolutional interleaver changes the
position of the individual bytes so that
consecutive bytes are separated. Burst
errors occurring on the transmission path
are split up by the receiver into single
errors that can be corrected by the ReedSolomon decoder. The interleaver can be
disabled.
8VSB
6
TV Test Transmitter ¸SFL
A trellis coder follows for further FEC.
After the interleaver or trellis coder, the
segment sync and the field sync pulses
are inserted. The mapper assigns the relevant amplitude steps to the symbols.
The pilot used by the receiver for synchronization is also added in the mapper. The
pilot amplitude can be modified and
switched off. Prior to modulation, the spectrum must be limited by appropriate filtering. The roll-off is permanently set to 0.115
(root cosine).
¸SFL-I
ISDB-T: coding und mapping for
antenna
The ISDB-T (terrestrial integrated services
digital broadcasting) coder of the
¸SFL encodes an MPEG-2 data stream
in line with standards for transmission in
the RF channel.
The transport stream first passes through
the outer coder where each transport
stream packet undergoes Reed-Solomon
encoding. The receiver is thus able to
correct up to eight erroneous bytes in one
transport stream packet. The errorprotected data stream then passes
through a splitter which divides the
transport stream packets between as
many as three hierarchical layers. Next,
the energy dispersal module adds a
pseudo random binary sequence (PRBS)
to the data stream to ensure a sufficient
number of binary changes.
Depending on the two transmission
parameters "modulation" and "code
rate", the data stream delay in each of the
three paths will be different as a result of
bytewise interleaving in the transmitter
and deinterleaving in the receiver. To
minimize the effort required at the
receiver end, delay adjustment is performed in the coder. The three data
streams are delayed in such a manner
that subsequent delay differences can be
compensated in advance. Bytewise interleaving separates initially adjacent bytes,
making the signal resistant to burst
errors.
The convolutional coder with integrated
puncturer adds further redundancy to the
data stream to permit error correction in
the receiver (Viterbi decoder). The code
rate can be selected in line with the
required transmission characteristics of
the system.
Modulation is then performed. It includes
bitwise interleaving with delay adjustment and mapping to the modulation
constellation diagram. Possible constellations with ISDB-T are DQPSK, QPSK,
16QAM and 64QAM. The constellation
can be selected in line with the required
transmission characteristics of the system. Appropriate bitwise interleaving and
delay adjustment are automatically
selected.
The hierarchical data stream is then synthesized. For this purpose, the complex
mapped data from each of the as many as
three paths is added to form a serial data
stream.
Symbol-by-symbol time interleaving follows synthesis. This is an intra-segment
time interleaver whose depth can be set
separately for each layer.
segment. Finally, the data passes through
an intra-segment randomizer that shifts
the data within a segment to quasirandom positions. OFDM framing is performed next. Frames are formed from
204 OFDM symbols by adding pilot carriers. Depending on the mode and the
selected modulation, pilot carriers are
inserted in the data stream at different
positions. Moreover, TMCC (transmission
and multiplexing configuration control)
carriers and auxiliary channel (AC) carriers are added. The data that has been
generated now undergoes inverse fast
Fourier transform (IFFT) to transfer it from
the frequency domain to the time domain
as is usual with OFDM modulation. The
length of IFFT depends on the selected
ISDB-T mode and can be 2k, 4k or 8k.
IFFT is followed by the insertion of the
guard interval. This guard interval
extends the OFDM symbols by a specific
factor (1/4, 1/8, 1/16 or 1/32). This measure has a positive effect on the receiving
characteristics of multipath propagation
and mobile reception.
Delay adjustment is also performed in the
time interleaver, again to compensate for
different delays in the paths.
Frequency interleaving then scrambles
the data within an OFDM symbol, i.e. in
the frequency domain. First, an intersegment interleaver is used between the
OFDM segments that have the same
modulation, followed by an intra-segment
interleaver that rotates the data within a
TV Test Transmitter ¸SFL
7
¸SFL-J
ITU-T J.83/B: coding and mapping for
cable
The symbol rate of the coder and thus the
output signal bandwidth can be varied in a
wide range of ±10% of the standard symbol rate.
Internal test sequences (NULL TS
PACKETS, NULL PRBS PACKETS, SYNC
PRBS) can be substituted for the applied
data signal and are helpful for bit error
measurements.
Processing stages of the coder: The
coder receives an MPEG-2-coded
standard-conforming input data stream
with a packet length of 188 bytes.
J.83/B specifies additional error control
at the transport stream level. The sync
byte is replaced by the sliding checksum
calculated from the content of the transport stream packets. In addition to packet
synchronization, the receiver can thus
detect any errors that occur.
The subsequent FEC layer processes the
data without synchronization to the
transport structure.
J.83/B
8
TV Test Transmitter ¸SFL
In line with J.83/B, FEC consists of four
processing layers that allow reliable data
transport via the cable transmission
channel. These layers are:
◆ Reed-Solomon coding (128, 122) for
outer error correction, allowing up to
three symbols in one Reed-Solomon
block to be corrected
◆ A subsequent convolutional interleaver that uniformly disperses consecutive symbols across the data stream
and so protects the data stream
against burst-type impairments
◆ A randomizer that ensures uniform
power density in the channel
◆ Trellis coding for inner error correction, involving convolutional encoding
of data and inserting of defined redundant information into the symbols
Randomizer, interleaver and ReedSolomon coder can be disabled, which is
very helpful in the development of receivers.
All the interleaver modes defined in the
J.83/B specification are implemented
(level 1 and level 2) and allow flexible
adaptation of the system to different
transmission conditions.
FEC frame generation: With 64QAM,
a frame sync trailer is inserted after
60 Reed-Solomon packets to form a FEC
frame (with 256QAM after 88 ReedSolomon packets).
The frame sync trailer is used for FEC synchronization in the receiver and transmits
coded information about the current
interleaver configuration. The trailer is
inserted immediately ahead of the trellis
coder.
The trellis coder for 64QAM performs
differential and convolutional encoding
with subsequent puncturing (CR = 14/15).
The output symbol width of the trellis
coder is 6 bits which reflects the modulation order of 64QAM.
The differential coder/convolutional
encoder in the trellis block for 256QAM is
of identical design, but generates an
overall code rate of 19/20. The output
symbol width is 8 bits, corresponding to
256 constellation points.
After the mapper and before modulation,
the output spectrum is pulse-shaped and
band-limited by a digital √cos roll-off
filter. The roll-off is 0.18 with 64QAM and
0.12 with 256QAM in line with the standard.
Data inputs
The ¸SFL has a suitable data input for
every application. Via the TS PARALLEL
(with LVDS format) and SMPTE310
inputs, the input signal is passed on to
the coder without modification. The symbol rate directly depends on the input
data rate. The SPI and ASI inputs adapt
the signal prior to coding to the desired
symbol rate with the aid of the stuffing
function.
These inputs allow setting of the symbol
rate independently of the input data rate,
so that the input data rate is independent
of the DVB-T/H and 8VSB channel bandwidth. To this effect, all null packets are
removed. The data rate required for a
specific symbol rate or bandwidth is obtained by stuffing, i.e. by inserting new
null packets. The PCR (program clock reference) values are adapted. A built-in
synthesizer ensures an accurate data
clock at all inputs. For synchronization to
a receiver, an external clock can be
applied to the ASI and SPI inputs instead
of the internal clock.
I/Q modulation
In the I/Q modulator, the orthogonal I and
Q components of the RF signal are controlled in amplitude and phase by the
analog I and Q signals from the coder.
The two RF components are added to
form an output signal that can be amplitude- and phase-modulated as required.
Assignment of I and Q components can
be interchanged in the ¸SFL so that
an inverted RF signal is obtained. High
demands are placed on the I/Q modulator, particularly regarding high-order
quadrature amplitude modulation.
The internal calibration of the ¸SFL
ensures that the I and Q paths have identical gain, the phase is exactly 90° and
carrier suppression is at least 50 dB. Nonideal behavior of an I/Q modulator can be
simulated by detuning amplitude, I/Q
imbalance, phase error and carrier leakage in the ¸SFL. As a result, bit errors
are produced that allow quality assessment of receivers and demodulators.
Rear view of the ¸SFL
TV Test Transmitter ¸SFL
9
Noise generator
(option ¸SFL-N)
A TV test transmitter is normally used to
generate signals that are as ideal as possible. With receiver tests, however, it is
necessary to simulate transmit and
receive conditions. For this purpose, the
option ¸SFL-N was developed.
The ¸SFL-N option is screw-connected to the base unit and electrically connected on the rear panel.
By using a noise generator which provides additive white Gaussian noise
(AWGN), the ¸SFL output signal can
be superimposed. The carrier-to-noise
(C/N) ratio can be varied over a wide
range while maintaining high resolution/
accuracy. Precise sensitivity measurements of receiver circuits with a defined
C/N ratio are thus feasible, for example.
Digital signal processing (I and Q signals)
in the baseband is used to generate the
AWGN signal.
High accuracy and excellent reproducibility of the measurements are thus
ensured:
◆ Superimposed noise signal (AWGN)
◆ Variable C/N ratio over a very wide
range
◆ Wide noise bandwidth (16 MHz)
DVB-C spectrum without and with noise (24 dB C/N), associated I/Q constellations
10
TV Test Transmitter ¸SFL
Applications
◆ Simulation of a noisy receive channel
◆ Noise simulation of a receiver input
stage
◆ Sensitivity measurement of digital
receivers to determine the BER at a
defined C/N ratio
Front and rear view of base unit and option ¸SFL-N
BER measurement
(option ¸SFL-K17)
The BER measurement facility permits
BER measurements on receivers without
any external equipment. The demodulated data streams are re-applied to the
¸SFL.
The user can choose between the serial
inputs for DATA, CLOCK (BNC connectors,
TTL level, high impedance ) and the parallel input for MPEG-2 signals (D-Sub connector, LVDS level). The BER measurement function does not depend on other
settings; it can be used for all models of
the ¸SFL. The display of the current
BER is always visible.
A PRBS of 223–1 or 215–1 in accordance
with ITU-T Rec. O.151 can be selected
and evaluated. It ensures receiver synchronization and allows measurements
over a very wide BER range.
A serial BER measurement can be performed after the demapper, for example.
For parallel measurements on MPEG-2
transmission systems, an MPEG-2 signal
is required whose null packet features a
PRBS as the payload. For this purpose,
the ¸SFL offers NULL PRBS PACKET
as an MPEG-2 transport stream. It also
uses this packet for stuffing. The BER
measurement can thus be carried out
before the Reed-Solomon decoder, for
example, provided that the receiver
decoder has been switched off. The BER
of set-top boxes can be determined by
using an adapter board for the Common
Interface ¸SFQ-Z17.
TV Test Transmitter ¸SFL
11
Specifications
Specifications apply under the following conditions: 30 minutes warm-up time,
specified environmental conditions met, calibration cycle adhered to and all
internal adjustments performed.
Frequency
Carrier leakage at 0 V input voltage,
referred to nominal value
<–50 dBc (after I/Q calibration in
CALIB menu)
Carrier suppression (residual carrier)
Setting range
Resolution
0% to +50%
0.1%
<1 × 10–6
I/Q amplitude (imbalance)
Setting range
Resolution
–25% to +25%
0.1%
Internal reference frequency output
Output voltage (Vrms, sinewave)
Output impedance
10 MHz
>0.5 V into 50 Ω
50 Ω
Quadrature offset (phase error)
Setting range
Resolution
–10° to +10°
0.1°
External reference frequency input
Permissible frequency drift
Input voltage (Vrms, sinewave)
Input impedance
10 MHz
5 × 10–6
0.5 V to 2 V into 50 Ω
50 Ω
External I/Q input
Range
5 MHz to 1.1 GHz
¸SFL-S: 5 MHz to 3.3 GHz
Resolution
0.1 Hz
Error limits
<1 × 10–6
Aging (after 30 days of operation)
<1 × 10–6/year
Temperature effect (0°C to +55°C)
Modulation inputs for I and Q signals
front panel
Input impedance
50 Ω
Spectral purity
VSWR (DC to 30 MHz)
<1.1
Spurious signals
Harmonics
Subharmonics
Nonharmonics
(offset from carrier >10 kHz)
f ≤ 250 MHz
f > 250 MHz to 1.1 GHz
f > 1.1 GHz to 2.2 GHz
f > 2.2 GHz to 3.3 GHz
Input voltage for full-scale level
(I2 + Q2)1/2 = 0.5 V (1 V EMF, 50 Ω)
Connectors
BNC female
<–30 dBc for levels ≤0 dBm
<–50 dBc
Data input
TS PARALLEL input
<–60 dBc
<–70 dBc
<–64 dBc
<–58 dBc
SSB phase noise
(f=500 MHz, carrier offset 20 kHz,
1 Hz bandwidth)
< –115 dBc
Spurious AM
<0.05% (0.03 kHz to 20 kHz)
Characteristics
Input impedance
Input level
Connector
SPI input
Characteristics
Input impedance
Input level (Vpp)
Connector
synchronous parallel, with stuffing
(LVDS)
meet EN 50083-9
100 Ω
100 mV to 2 V
25-pin female, shielded
ASI input
Characteristics
Input impedance
Input level (Vpp)
Connector
Input signal
Stuffing bytes
asynchronous serial with stuffing
meet EN 50083-9
75 Ω
200 mV to 880 mV
BNC female
270 Mbit
single byte and block mode
SMPTE310 input
asynchronous serial (only with
¸SFL-V)
meet SMPTE310M
75 Ω
400 mV to 880 mV
BNC female
19.393 Mbit/s
Level
Range
CW
¸SFL-C/¸SFL-T/¸SFL-I
¸SFL-S/¸SFL-V/¸SFL-J
–140 dBm to +7 dBm
–140 dBm to 0 dBm
–140 dBm to –3 dBm
Resolution
0.1 dB
Total error for level >–127 dBm
(operating period >1 h,
temperature variation <5°C)
<±0.8 dB1)
Characteristic impedance
50 Ω
VSWR
f < 1.5 GHz
f > 1.5 GHz
<1.6
<2.3
Non-interrupting level setting2)
0 dB to –20 dB of current level
Overvoltage protection
protects the instrument against externally fed RF power and DC voltage
(50 Ω source)
Maximum permissible RF power
f ≤ 2.2 GHz
f > 2.2 GHz
50 W
25 W
Maximum permissible DC voltage
35 V
Characteristics
Input impedance
Input level (Vpp)
Connector
Data rate
Symbol rate
TS PARALLEL, SMPTE310
ASI, SPI
<±1 × 10–5
External clock
switchable to external bit/byte
synchronization
squarewave
TTL
high
BNC female
12
TV Test Transmitter ¸SFL
Signal
Level
Input impedance
Connector
<±0.2 dB
<±0.4 dB
<±0.8 dB
<±2 dB
directly dependent on applied MPEG-2
signal
selectable independently of MPEG-2
signal (stuffing)
Internal data clock accuracy
I/Q modulator
Modulation frequency response
5 MHz to 1100 MHz
DC to 3.5 MHz
¸SFL-S: 425 MHz to 3000 MHz
DC to 5 MHz
DC to 25 MHz
DC to 50 MHz
synchronous parallel, without stuffing
(LVDS)
meet EN 50083-9
100 Ω
100 mV to 2 V
25-pin female, shielded
1)
2)
ALC Off mode =sample&hold.
Effect on spectral purity.
¸SFL-T
DVB-T/H coder
Characteristics
Mode
DATA
NULL TS PACKET
NULL PRBS PACKET
PRBS before convolutional encoder
PRBS after convolutional encoder
PRBS before mapper
Hierarchical coding
MPEG-2 transport stream
Priority assignment
Special functions
meet EN300744/EN 302304
MPEG-2 input signal synchronized to
input data rate
null transport stream packets as
defined by DVB Measurement
Guidelines
null transport stream packets with PRBS
(PRBS: 223–1/215–1 to ITU-T Rec. O.151)
223–1/215–1 to ITU-T Rec. O.151
223–1/215–1 to ITU-T Rec. O.151
223–1/215–1 to ITU-T Rec. O.151
Modulation frequency response
±0.25 dB
Shoulder attenuation
53 dB
MER
41 dB
¸SFL-I
ISDB-T coder
Characteristics
meet ARIB STD-B31, V1.0
Mode
DATA
NULL TS PACKET
PRBS TS PACKET
PRBS before convolutional encoder
PRBS after convolutional encoder
PRBS: 223−1/215−1 to ITU-T Rec. O.151
PRBS: 223−1/215−1 to ITU-T Rec. O.151
PRBS: 223−1/215−1 to ITU-T Rec. O.151
PRBS: 223−1/215−1 to ITU-T Rec. O.151
PRBS: 223−1/215−1 to ITU-T Rec. O.151
external MPEG-2 transport stream and
internal NULL PRBS PACKET
selectable
Special functions
scrambler, Reed-Solomon, byte interleaver, frequency interleaver, Alert
Broadcasting Flag can be switched off
scrambler, sync byte inversion,
Reed- Solomon encoder, convolutional
interleaver, bit interleaver, symbol
interleaver; can be disabled
Bandwidth
6 MHz
Carriers
data, SP, CP, TMCC and AC carriers as
well as modulation of these carriers
can be switched off
Segments
all carriers of one segment can be
switched off
Symbol interleaver
native/indepth
Time slicing
on/off
MPE-FEC
on/off
ISDB-T mode
mode 1 (2k), mode 2 (4k), mode 3 (8k)
Bandwidth
5 MHz, 6 MHz, 7 MHz, 8 MHz; selectable for variable bandwidth 4.75 MHz
to 7.962 MHz
Number of layers
max. 3 (A, B, C)
Number of segments
13
QPSK, 16QAM, 64QAM
Constellation
DQPSK, QPSK, 16QAM, 64QAM
Code rate
1/2, 2/3, 3/4, 5/6, 7/8
Code rate
1/2, 2/3, 3/4, 5/6, 7/8
Guard interval
1/4, 1/8, 1/16, 1/32, OFF
Guard interval
1/4, 1/8, 1/16, 1/32, OFF
FFT mode
2k, 4k and 8k OFDM
Time interleaving
Carrier modification
carriers or groups of carriers can be
switched off;
modulation for groups of carriers can
be switched off
0, 1, 2, 4, 8, 16 (settable depth depending on ISDB-T mode)
AC information
PRBS, all “1“
Spectrum mask
meets ISDB-T specifications
Constellation
Modulation frequency response
±0.2 dB
Shoulder attenuation
48 dB
¸SFL-V
¸SFL-C
DVB-C coder
Characteristics
meet EN300429, ITU-T J.83/A, C
Type of modulation
16QAM, 32QAM, 64QAM, 128QAM,
256QAM
Symbol rates
0.1 Msps to 8 Msps (selectable)
Pulse filtering
root cosine roll-off, alpha=0.15
variable roll-off (0.1 to 0.2)
Energy dispersal
can be disabled
Reed-Solomon coder (204,188, t=8)
can be disabled
Convolutional interleaver
can be disabled
ATSC/8VSB coder
Characteristics
Mode
DATA
NULL TS PACKET
NULL PRBS PACKET
SYNC PRBS
PRBS before trellis
PRBS after trellis
meet ATSC Doc. A/53 (8VSB)
MPEG-2 input signal with synchronization to input data rate
null transport stream packets as defined by DVB Measurement Guidelines
null transport stream packets with PRBS
(PRBS: 223–1/215–1 to ITU-T Rec. O.151)
sync byte with 187 byte PRBS payload
223–1/215–1 to ITU-T Rec. O.151
223–1/215–1 to ITU-T Rec. O.151
Mode
DATA
MPEG-2 input signal (without input
signal automatic switchover to PRBS
with TS PARALLEL, stuffing with ASI,
SPI)
null packets (PID=1FFF, payload=0)
null packets (PID=1FFF, payload=
PRBS,
215–1/223–1 to ITU-T Rec. O.151)
215–1/223–1 to ITU-T Rec. O.151
Symbol rate
Range
10.762 Msps
±10%
Bandwidth
Range
6 MHz
±10%
Pilot addition
Nominal
Range
can be switched off
1.25 for 8VSB
0 to 5, in steps of 0.125 for 8VSB
Modulation frequency response
±0.25 dB
Pulse filtering (root cosine)
0.115 roll-off
Shoulder attenuation (6.9 Msps)
48 dB
Special functions
Reed-Solomon, randomizer,
interleaver; can be disabled
MER
41 dB
NULL TS PACKET
NULL PRBS PACKET
PRBS before mapper
TV Test Transmitter ¸SFL
13
Options
¸SFL-J
J.83/B coder
Characteristics
Mode
DATA
meet ITU-T J.83/B
Noise generator
Option ¸SFL-N
NULL TS PACKET
NULL PRBS PACKET
SYNC PRBS
PRBS before trellis
PRBS after trellis
Symbol rate
Range
MPEG-2 input signal with synchronization to input data rate
null transport stream packets as defined by DVB Measurement Guidelines
null transport stream packets with PRBS
(PRBS: 223 –1/215–1 to ITU-T Rec. O.151)
sync byte with 187 byte PRBS payload
(PRBS: 223–1/215–1 to ITU-T Rec. O.151)
223–1/215–1 to ITU-T Rec. O.151
223–1/215–1 to ITU-T Rec. O.151
Noise characteristics
Bandwidth
Selectable receiver bandwidth
RF noise bandwidth (–1 dB)
5.0569 Msps (64QAM),
5.360 Msps (256QAM)
±10%
Bandwidth
Range
6 MHz
±10%
Pulse filtering (root cosine)
0.18 (64QAM),
0.12 (256QAM)
Data interleaver
level 1 and level 2; can be disabled
Special functions
Reed-Solomon, randomizer,
interleaver; can be disabled
Modulation frequency response
±0.25 dB
Shoulder attenuation
53 dB
MER
42 dB
Type of modulation
QPSK, 8PSK, 16QAM
Code rate
QPSK: 1/2, 2/3, 3/4, 5/6, 7/8
8PSK: 2/3, 5/6, 8/9
16QAM: 3/4, 7/8
Symbol rates
0.1 Msps to 80 Msps (selectable)
Pulse filtering
root cosine roll-off,
α=0.35
variable roll-off (0.25 to 0.45)
Energy dispersal
can be disabled
Reed-Solomon coder (204,188, t =8)
can be disabled
Convolutional interleaver
can be disabled
Convolutional encoder
can be disabled
Modulation frequency response
±0.25 dB
Shoulder attenuation
48 dB
14
TV Test Transmitter ¸SFL
C/N error
Absolute error
<0.3 dB (after calibration), typ. 0.2 dB
RF characteristics
Additional frequency response
(max. 5 MHz carrier offset)
<0.4 dB
Limitation of maximum RF output
level
>0 dB to 18 dB (in steps of 6 dB)
Residual carrier
typ. –50 dBc
Option ¸SFL-K17
Input data rate
max. 63 Mbit/s serial, 80 Mbit/s
parallel
PRBS sequences
215 –1/223 –1 to ITU-T Rec. O.151
Input
Mode
DATA
MPEG-2 input signal (without input signal automatic switchover to PRBS with
TS PARALLEL, stuffing with ASI, SPI)
null packets (PID=1FFF, payload=0)
NULL TS PACKET
null packets (PID=1FFF, payload=
NULL PRBS PACKET
PRBS, 215–1/223–1 to ITU-T Rec. O.151)
15
–1/223–1 to ITU-T Rec. O.151
2
PRBS before convolutional encoder
60 dB
0 dB (carrier bandwidth ≥6 MHz)
0.1 dB
BER measurement
DVB-S/-DSNG coder
meet EN300421/EN301210
C/N settings
Variation range
Minimum selectable C/N
Resolution
Minimum RF frequency with Noise On >15 MHz
¸SFL-S
Characteristics
0.1 MHz to 10 MHz
max. 10 Msps for satellite
16 MHz
1)
2)
Serial
Input impedance
Input level
Connector
Clock, data
BER Mode
PRBS
BER DATA/BER CLOCK
high impedance
TTL
BNC connector
normal, inverted
215 –1/223 –1 to ITU-T Rec. O.151
Parallel
Characteristics
Input impedance
Input level
Connector
BER mode
PRBS, PRBS INVERTED
NULL PRBS PACKET
PID FILTER FOR PRBS PACKET
TS PARALLEL
meet EN50083-9
100 Ω
100 mV to 2 V, LVDS
25-pin female, shielded
MPEG-2 transport stream payload
payload evaluation as PRBS1)
payload evaluation with PID 1FFFhex
as PRBS2)
Standard transport stream evaluation. The four header bytes are removed and the 184 bytes of
payload evaluated as PRBS. This corresponds to the NULL PRBS PACKET mode in the ¸SFL.
Standard transport stream evaluation. The PID filter selects null packets with PID = 1FFFhex.
Only the payload of these packets is evaluated as PRBS. This corresponds to the ASI or SPI mode
in the ¸SFL, where NULL PRBS PACKETS are used for stuffing.
General data
Memory for instrument settings
50
Immunity to RFI
10 V/m
Remote control
IEC 60625 (IEEE 488)
RS-232-C
Electrical safety
EN 61010-1, IEC 61010,
UL3111-1, CSA-C22.2 No.1010.1
Command set
SCPI 1995.0
Base unit
Operating temperature range
+5°C to +45°C
Power supply
Permissible temperature range
0°C to +50°C
Storage temperature range
–40°C to +70°C
100 V to 120 V (AC), 50 Hz to 60 Hz
200 V to 240 V (AC), 50 Hz to 60 Hz
max. 250 VA
Dimensions (W × H × D)
427 mm × 88 mm × 450 mm (2 HU)
Weight
11 kg
Mechanical resistance
Vibration, sinusoidal
5 Hz to 150 Hz, max. 2 g at 55 Hz,
55 Hz to 150 Hz, 0.5 g const.,
meets IEC 60068-2-6, IEC 61010
Vibration, random
10 Hz to 300 Hz,
acceleration 1.2 g (rms)
Shock
40 g shock spectrum,
meets MIL-STD-810D
Climatic resistance
Damp heat
Electromagnetic compatibility
95% rel. humidity,
cyclic test at +25°C/+40°C,
meets IEC 60068
Option ¸SFL-N
Power supply
100 V to 240 V (AC), 50 Hz to 60 Hz
max. 60 VA
Dimensions (W × H × D)
Option ¸SFL-N
Base unit with option ¸SFL-N
427 mm × 55 mm × 450 mm (1 HU)
427 mm × 154 mm × 450 mm (3 HU)
Weight
Option ¸SFL-N
Base unit with option ¸SFL-N
5 kg
16 kg
EMC Directive of EU
Ordering information
Order Designation
Type
Order No.
TV Test Transmitter DVB-T/H
¸SFL-T
2084.4005.20
TV Test Transmitter ATSC/8VSB
¸SFL-V
2084.4005.30
TV Test Transmitter ISDB-T
¸SFL-I
2084.4005.50
TV Test Transmitter DVB-C
¸SFL-C
2084.4005.15
TV Test Transmitter J.83/B
¸SFL-J
2084.4005.40
TV Test Transmitter DVB-S/DVB-DSNG
¸SFL-S
2084.4005.10
Noise Generator
¸SFL-N
2084.4040.02
BER Measurement
¸SFL-K17
2084.5682.02
Option
Recommended extras
Service Kit
2084.4340.02
Service Manual
2084.4128.22
19" Adapter for rackmounting (base unit)
¸ZZA-211
1096.3260.00
19" Adapter for rackmounting (¸SFL-N)
¸ZZA-111
1096.3254.00
Matching Pads 50 Ω/75 Ω
Matched at both ends, attenuation 5.7 dB, no DC isolation
Matched at one end, attenuation 1.7 dB
¸RAM
¸RAZ
0358.5414.02
0358.5714.02
Bag (2 HU)
¸ZZT-214
1109.5119.00
TV Test Transmitter ¸SFL
15
Certified Environmental System
ISO 9001
ISO 14001
DQS REG. NO 1954 QM
DQS REG. NO 1954 UM
More information at
www.rohde-schwarz.com
(search term: SFL)
www.rohde-schwarz.com
R&S® is a registered trademarkEurope:
of Rohde&Schwarz
Tel. +49 1805GmbH&Co.
12 4242, e-mail:
KG · Trade
customersupport@rohde-schwarz.com
names are trademarks of the owners · Printed in Germany (Bi bb)
North America: Tel. PD
8880758.1429.32
837 87 72, option
· TV Test
2 (from
Transmitter
within the
¸SFL
USA and· Version
Canada),04.00
+1410-910-7800,
· July 2005 · Data
option
without
2 (fromtolerance
other countries),
limits is not
e-mail:
binding
customer.support@rsa.rohde-schwarz.com
· Subject to change
Asia: Tel. +65 68463710, e-mail: customersupport.asia@rohde-schwarz.com
R&S® is a registered trademark of Rohde&Schwarz GmbH&Co. KG · Trade names are trademarks of the owners · Printed in Germany (Bi bb)
PD 0758.1429.32 · ¸SFL · Version 04.00 · July 2005 · Data without tolerance limits is not binding · Subject to change
Certified Quality System
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