OX16PCI954 Integrated Quad UART and PCI interface

OX16PCI954 Integrated Quad UART and PCI interface
OX16PCI954
Integrated Quad UART
and PCI interface
FEATURES
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
Four 16C950 High performance UART channels
8/32-bit Pass-through Local Bus
IEEE1284 EPP parallel port
Multi-function target PCI controller, fully PCI 2.2 and
PCI Power Management 1.0 compliant
UARTs fully software compatible with 16C550-type
devices.
Baud rates up to 15Mbps in asynchronous mode and
60Mbps in external 1x clock mode
128-byte deep FIFO per transmitter and receiver
Flexible clock prescaler from 1 to 31.875
Automated in-band flow control using programmable
Xon/Xoff in both directions
Automated out-of-band flow control using CTS#/RTS#
and/or DSR#/DTR#
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
Arbitrary trigger levels for receiver and transmitter
FIFO interrupts and automatic in-band and out-ofband flow control
Infra-red (IrDA) receiver and transmitter operation
9-bit data framing as well as 5,6,7 and 8
12 multi-purpose IO pins which can be configured as
interrupt input pins
Can be reconfigured using optional non-volatile
configuration memory (EEPROM)
Global Interrupt Status and readable FIFO levels to
facilitate implementation of efficient device drivers
Operation via IO or memory mapping.
Detection of bad data in the receiver FIFO
5.0V operation
160 TQFP package
DESCRIPTION
The OX16PCI954 is a single chip solution for PCI-based
serial and parallel expansion add-in cards. It is a dual
function PCI device, where function 0 offers four ultra-high
performance OX16C950 UARTs, and function 1 is
configurable to offer either an 8 bit Local Bus or a bidirectional parallel port. Serial port cards with up to 8 ports
(or with 4 serial ports and a parallel port) can be designed
without redefining any device or timing parameters.
Each channel in the OX16PCI954, the fastest available
PC-compatible UART, offers data rates up to 15Mbps and
128-deep transmitter and receiver FIFOs. Deep FIFOs
reduce CPU overhead and allow utilisation of higher data
rates. Each channel is software compatible with the widely
used industry-standard 16C550 devices and compatibles
as well as the OX16C95x family of high performance
UARTs. In addition to increased performance and FIFO
size, the UARTs also provide the full set of OX16C95x
enhanced features including automated in-band flow
control, readable FIFO levels etc.
The efficient 32-bit, 33MHz target-only PCI interface is
compliant with version 2.2 of the PCI Bus Specification and
version 1.0 of PCI Power Management Specification. For
applications that do not require the internal parallel port or
the local Bus, card designers can assign a Subsystem
Vendor ID and a Subsystem ID using 32 input pins. If the
UARTs are not required, the Local Bus can be extended
from 8-bit operation to a full 32-bit pass-through interface.
Oxford Semiconductor Ltd.
69 Milton Park, Abingdon, Oxon, OX14 4RX, UK
Tel: +44 (0)1235 824900
Fax: +44(0)1235 821141
For full flexibility, all the default register values can be
overwritten using an optional MicrowireTM serial EEPROM.
To enhance device driver efficiency and reduce interrupt
latency, internal UARTs have multi-port features such as
shadowed FIFO fill levels, a global interrupt source register
and Good-Data Status, readable in four adjacent DWORD
registers visible to logical functions in IO space and
memory space.
Expansion of serial cards beyond four channels is possible
using the 8-bit pass-through Local Bus function. The
addressable space can be increased up to 256 bytes, and
divided into four chip-select regions. In 32-bit mode the bus
can map up to 16kb of Memory address space. This
flexible expansion scheme caters for cards with up to 20
serial ports using external 16C950, 16C952, 16C954 or
compatible devices, for composite applications such as
combined serial and parallel port expansion cards.
The OX16PCI954 also provides an IEEE1284 EPP parallel
port which fully supports the existing Centronics interface.
The parallel port can be enabled in place of the Local Bus.
 Oxford Semiconductor 1999
OX16PCI954 Data Sheet Revision 1.3 – Feb. 1999
Part No. OX16PCI954-TQC60-A
OXFORD SEMICONDUCTOR LTD.
OX16PCI954
CONTENTS
FEATURES ..........................................................................................................................................................1
DESCRIPTION.....................................................................................................................................................1
CONTENTS..........................................................................................................................................................2
1
PERFORMANCE COMPARISON...............................................................................................................5
2
BLOCK DIAGRAM ......................................................................................................................................6
3
PIN INFORMATION .....................................................................................................................................7
4
PIN DESCRIPTIONS ...................................................................................................................................8
5
CONFIGURATION & OPERATION ..........................................................................................................13
6
PCI TARGET CONTROLLER ...................................................................................................................14
7
INTERNAL OX16C950 UARTS ................................................................................................................29
6.1
6.2
6.2.1
6.3
6.3.1
6.3.2
6.3.3
6.3.4
6.4
6.4.1
6.4.2
6.4.3
6.4.4
6.4.5
6.4.6
6.4.7
6.4.8
6.5
6.6
6.6.1
6.6.2
7.1
7.1.1
7.1.2
7.1.3
7.1.4
7.1.5
7.1.6
7.2
7.3
7.3.1
7.3.2
7.4
7.4.1
7.5
7.5.1
OPERATION ............................................................................................................................................................. 14
CONFIGURATION SPACE........................................................................................................................................ 14
PCI CONFIGURATION SPACE REGISTER MAP................................................................................................... 15
ACCESSING LOGICAL FUNCTIONS ........................................................................................................................ 16
PCI ACCESS TO INTERNAL UARTS..................................................................................................................... 16
PCI ACCESS TO 8-BIT LOCAL BUS...................................................................................................................... 16
PCI ACCESS TO PARALLEL PORT ...................................................................................................................... 17
PCI ACCESS TO 32-BIT LOCAL BUS.................................................................................................................... 17
ACCESSING LOCAL CONFIGURATION REGISTERS .............................................................................................. 18
LOCAL CONFIGURATION AND CONTROL REGISTER ‘LCC’ (OFFSET 0X00) ..................................................... 18
MULTI-PURPOSE I/O CONFIGURATION REGISTER ‘MIC’ (OFFSET 0X04) ......................................................... 19
LOCAL BUS TIMING PARAMETER REGISTER 1 ‘LT1’ (OFFSET 0X08):............................................................... 20
LOCAL BUS TIMING PARAMETER REGISTER 2 ‘LT2’ (OFFSET 0X0C): .............................................................. 22
UART RECEIVER FIFO LEVELS ‘URL’ (OFFSET 0X10) ........................................................................................ 23
UART TRANSMITTER FIFO LEVELS ‘UTL’ (OFFSET 0X14).................................................................................. 23
UART INTERRUPT SOURCE REGISTER ‘UIS’ (OFFSET 0X18)........................................................................... 24
GLOBAL INTERRUPT STATUS AND CONTROL REGISTER ‘GIS’ (OFFSET 0X1C) ............................................. 25
PCI INTERRUPTS ..................................................................................................................................................... 26
POWER MANAGEMENT........................................................................................................................................... 27
POWER MANAGEMENT OF FUNCTION 0............................................................................................................ 27
POWER MANAGEMENT OF FUNCTION 1............................................................................................................ 28
OPERATION – MODE SELECTION........................................................................................................................... 29
450 MODE ............................................................................................................................................................ 29
550 MODE ............................................................................................................................................................ 29
EXTENDED 550 MODE......................................................................................................................................... 29
750 MODE ............................................................................................................................................................ 29
650 MODE ............................................................................................................................................................ 29
950 MODE ............................................................................................................................................................ 30
REGISTER DESCRIPTION TABLES ......................................................................................................................... 31
RESET CONFIGURATION ........................................................................................................................................ 34
HARDWARE RESET ............................................................................................................................................. 34
SOFTWARE RESET.............................................................................................................................................. 34
TRANSMITTER AND RECEIVER FIFOS ................................................................................................................... 35
FIFO CONTROL REGISTER ‘FCR’ ........................................................................................................................ 35
LINE CONTROL & STATUS...................................................................................................................................... 36
FALSE START BIT DETECTION ........................................................................................................................... 36
Data Sheet Revision 1.3
Page 2
OXFORD SEMICONDUCTOR LTD.
OX16PCI954
7.5.2
LINE CONTROL REGISTER ‘LCR’ ........................................................................................................................ 36
7.5.3
LINE STATUS REGISTER ‘LSR’............................................................................................................................ 37
7.6
INTERRUPTS & SLEEP MODE................................................................................................................................. 38
7.6.1
INTERRUPT ENABLE REGISTER ‘IER’................................................................................................................. 38
7.6.2
INTERRUPT STATUS REGISTER ‘ISR’................................................................................................................. 39
7.6.3
INTERRUPT DESCRIPTION.................................................................................................................................. 39
7.6.4
SLEEP MODE ....................................................................................................................................................... 40
7.7
MODEM INTERFACE................................................................................................................................................ 40
7.7.1
MODEM CONTROL REGISTER ‘MCR’.................................................................................................................. 40
7.7.2
MODEM STATUS REGISTER ‘MSR’ ..................................................................................................................... 41
7.8
OTHER STANDARD REGISTERS............................................................................................................................. 41
7.8.1
DIVISOR LATCH REGISTERS ‘DLL & DLM’ .......................................................................................................... 41
7.8.2
SCRATCH PAD REGISTER ‘SPR’......................................................................................................................... 41
7.9
AUTOMATIC FLOW CONTROL ................................................................................................................................ 42
7.9.1
ENHANCED FEATURES REGISTER ‘EFR’ ........................................................................................................... 42
7.9.2
SPECIAL CHARACTER DETECTION .................................................................................................................... 43
7.9.3
AUTOMATIC IN-BAND FLOW CONTROL.............................................................................................................. 43
7.9.4
AUTOMATIC OUT-OF-BAND FLOW CONTROL .................................................................................................... 43
7.10 BAUD RATE GENERATION...................................................................................................................................... 44
7.10.1
GENERAL OPERATION........................................................................................................................................ 44
7.10.2
CLOCK PRESCALER REGISTER ‘CPR’................................................................................................................ 44
7.10.3
TIMES CLOCK REGISTER ‘TCR’ .......................................................................................................................... 44
7.10.4
EXTERNAL 1X CLOCK MODE .............................................................................................................................. 46
7.10.5
CRYSTAL OSCILLATOR CIRCUIT ........................................................................................................................ 46
7.11 ADDITIONAL FEATURES ......................................................................................................................................... 46
7.11.1
ADDITIONAL STATUS REGISTER ‘ASR’............................................................................................................... 46
7.11.2
FIFO FILL LEVELS ‘TFL & RFL’............................................................................................................................. 47
7.11.3
ADDITIONAL CONTROL REGISTER ‘ACR’ ........................................................................................................... 47
7.11.4
TRANSMITTER TRIGGER LEVEL ‘TTL’ ................................................................................................................ 48
7.11.5
RECEIVER INTERRUPT. TRIGGER LEVEL ‘RTL’ ................................................................................................. 48
7.11.6
FLOW CONTROL LEVELS ‘FCL’ & ‘FCH’ .............................................................................................................. 48
7.11.7
DEVICE IDENTIFICATION REGISTERS................................................................................................................ 48
7.11.8
CLOCK SELECT REGISTER ‘CKS’ ....................................................................................................................... 49
7.11.9
NINE-BIT MODE REGISTER ‘NMR’....................................................................................................................... 49
7.11.10 MODEM DISABLE MASK ‘MDM’............................................................................................................................ 50
7.11.11 READABLE FCR ‘RFC’.......................................................................................................................................... 50
7.11.12 GOOD-DATA STATUS REGISTER ‘GDS’.............................................................................................................. 50
8
LOCAL BUS...............................................................................................................................................51
9
BIDIRECTIONAL PARALLEL PORT .......................................................................................................53
8.1
8.2
8.3
9.1
9.1.1
9.1.2
9.1.3
9.1.4
9.2
9.3
9.3.1
9.3.2
9.3.3
9.3.4
9.3.5
9.3.6
OVERVIEW ............................................................................................................................................................... 51
OPERATION ............................................................................................................................................................. 51
CONFIGURATION & PROGRAMMING...................................................................................................................... 52
OPERATION AND MODE SELECTION ..................................................................................................................... 53
SPP MODE ........................................................................................................................................................... 53
PS2 MODE............................................................................................................................................................ 53
EPP MODE ........................................................................................................................................................... 53
ECP MODE (NOT SUPPORTED) .......................................................................................................................... 53
PARALLEL PORT INTERRUPT ................................................................................................................................ 53
REGISTER DESCRIPTION........................................................................................................................................ 54
PARALLEL PORT DATA REGISTER ‘PDR’ ........................................................................................................... 54
DEVICE STATUS REGISTER ‘DSR’ ...................................................................................................................... 54
DEVICE CONTROL REGISTER ‘DCR’................................................................................................................... 55
EPP ADDRESS REGISTER ‘EPPA’ ....................................................................................................................... 55
EPP DATA REGISTERS ‘EPPD1-4’ ....................................................................................................................... 55
EXTENDED CONTROL REGISTER ‘ECR’ ............................................................................................................. 55
Data Sheet Revision 1.3
Page 3
OXFORD SEMICONDUCTOR LTD.
OX16PCI954
10
SERIAL EEPROM..................................................................................................................................56
11
OPERATING CONDITIONS ..................................................................................................................59
12
DC ELECTRICAL CHARACTERISTICS ..............................................................................................59
13
AC ELECTRICAL CHARACTERISTICS ..............................................................................................61
14
TIMING WAVEFORMS ..........................................................................................................................63
15
PACKAGE INFORMATION...................................................................................................................70
16
ORDERING INFORMATION .................................................................................................................70
10.1 SPECIFICATION ....................................................................................................................................................... 56
10.2 EEPROM DATA ORGANISATION............................................................................................................................. 56
10.2.1
ZONE0: HEADER.................................................................................................................................................. 56
10.2.2
ZONE1: LOCAL CONFIGURATION REGISTERS................................................................................................... 57
10.2.3
ZONE2: IDENTIFICATION REGISTERS ................................................................................................................ 58
10.2.4
ZONE3: PCI CONFIGURATION REGISTERS ........................................................................................................ 58
12.1
12.2
13.1
13.2
13.3
NON-PCI I/O BUFFERS............................................................................................................................................. 59
PCI I/O BUFFERS ..................................................................................................................................................... 60
PCI BUS.................................................................................................................................................................... 61
LOCAL BUS.............................................................................................................................................................. 61
SERIAL PORTS ........................................................................................................................................................ 62
NOTES ...............................................................................................................................................................71
CONTACT DETAILS.........................................................................................................................................72
DISCLAIMER.....................................................................................................................................................72
Data Sheet Revision 1.3
Page 4
OX16PCI954
OXFORD SEMICONDUCTOR LTD.
1
PERFORMANCE COMPARISON
Feature
OX16PCI954
Internal serial channels
Integral 1284 EPP parallel port
Multi-function PCI device
Support for PCI Power Management
Zero wait-state read/write operation
No. of available Local Bus interrupt pins
DWORD access to UART Interrupt Source
Registers & FIFO Levels
Good-Data status
Full Plug and Play with external EEPROM
Subsystem Vendor ID & Subsystem ID with
no external EEPROM
External 1x baud rate clock
Max baud rate in normal mode
Max baud rate in 1x clock mode
FIFO depth
Sleep mode
Auto Xon/Xoff flow
Auto CTS#/RTS# flow
Auto DSR#/DTR# flow
No. of Rx interrupt thresholds
No. of Tx interrupt thresholds
No. of flow control thresholds
Transmitter empty interrupt
Readable status of flow control
Readable FIFO levels
Clock prescaler options
Rx/Tx disable
Software reset
Device ID
9-bit data frames
RS485 buffer enable
Infra-red (IrDA)
4
yes
yes
yes
yes1
12
yes
16C554 +
PLX9050
0
no
no
no
no
2
no
16C654 +
PLX9050
0
no
no
no
no
2
no
yes
yes
yes
no
yes
no
no
yes
no
yes
15 Mbps
60 Mbps
128
yes
yes
yes
yes
128
128
128
yes
yes
yes
248
yes
yes
yes
yes
yes
yes
no
115 Kbps
n/a
16
no
no
no
no
4
1
n/a
no
no
no
n/a
no
no
no
no
no
no
no
1.5 Mbps
n/a
64
yes
yes
yes
no
4
4
4
no
no
no
2
no
no
no
no
no
yes
Table 1: OX16PCI950 performance compared with PLX + generic UART combinations
Note 1:
Zero wait-state applies only to internal UARTs
Improvements of the OX16PCI954 over discrete solutions:
Higher degree of integration:
OX16PCI954 offers four internal 16C950 high-performance
UARTs and one bi-directional parallel port.
Improved access timing:
Access to internal UARTs require zero or one PCI wait
states. A PCI read transaction from an internal UART can
complete within five PCI clock cycles and a write
Data Sheet Revision 1.3
transaction to an internal UART can complete within four
PCI clock cycles.
Reduces interrupt latency:
OX16PCI954 offers shadowed FIFO levels and Interrupt
status registers of internal UARTs, and Interrupt Status of
internal UARTs and MIO pins to reduce the device driver
interrupt latency.
Page 5
OX16PCI954
OXFORD SEMICONDUCTOR LTD.
Power management:
OX16PCI954 complies with PCI Power Management
Specification 1.0 and PC98/99 Power Management
specifications. Both functions offer the extended
capabilities for Power Management. This achieves
significant power saving by enabling device drivers to
power down the PCI function and the channel clock (in
power state D3). Wake-up is requested via PME# from RI
in power-state D3 or any modem line and SIN in powerstate D2.
Optional EEPROM:
OX16PCI954 can be reconfigured from an external
EEPROM. However, this is not required in many
applications as default values are provided for typical
applications up to 8 serial ports, and in some cases the
2
Subsystem ID and Subsystem Vendor ID can be set via
input pins.
Multi-function device:
OX16PCI954 is a multi-function device to enable users to
load individual device drivers for internal serial ports, the
internal parallel port and peripheral devices connected to
the Local Bus.
Quad Internal OX16C950 UARTs
OX16PCI954 contains four ultra-high performance UARTs,
which can increase driver efficiency using features such as
128-byte deep transmitter & receiver FIFOs, data rates up
to 60Mbps, flexible clock options, automatic flow control,
programmable interrupt and flow control trigger levels and
readable FIFO levels.
BLOCK DIAGRAM
MODE[1:0]
FIFOSEL
SOUT[3:0]
SIN[3:0]
Config.
interface
RTS[3:0]#
Function
0
Quad
UARTs
DTR[3:0]#
CTS[3:0]#
AD[31:0]
DSR[3:0]#
C/BE[3:0]#
DCD[3:0]#
RI[3:0]#
CLK
FRAME#
DEVSEL#
IRDY#
Interrupt
logic
STOP#
PCI
interface
PAR
SERR#
PERR#
IDSEL
RST#
INTA#
INTB#
Internal Data / control bus
TRDY#
MIO pins
MIO[11:0]
PD[7:0]
ACK#
PE
BUSY
Parallel
port
PME#
SLCT
ERR#
SLIN#
INIT#
XTALI
UART_Ck_Out
AFD#
Function
1
XTALO
STB#
Clock &
Baud rate
generator
LBA[7:0]
LBCLK
LBD[7:0]
EE_DO
EE_DI
EE_CK
Local
Bus
EEPROM
interface
EE_CS
LBCS[3:0]
LBWR#
LBRD#
LBRST
Figure 1: OX16PCI954 Block Diagram
Data Sheet Revision 1.3
Page 6
OX16PCI954
OXFORD SEMICONDUCTOR LTD.
3
PIN INFORMATION
Mode ‘01’: Quad UARTs + parallel port
LBA0
LBRST
LBRST#
MIO7
MIO6
MIO5
MIO4
MIO3
MIO2
MIO1
MIO0
INTA#
INTB#
RST#
GND
CLK
VDD
PME#
AD31
AD30
AD29
GND
AD28
AD27
AD26
GND
VDD
AD25
AD24
C/BE3#
IDSEL
AD23
GND
AD22
AD21
AD20
VDD
GND
AD19
AD18
121
122
123
124
125
126
127
128
129
130
131
132
133
134
135
136
137
138
139
140
141
142
143
144
145
146
147
148
149
150
151
152
153
154
155
156
157
158
159
160
121
122
123
124
125
126
127
128
129
130
131
132
133
134
135
136
137
138
139
140
141
142
143
144
145
146
147
148
149
150
151
152
153
154
155
156
157
158
159
160
SOUT3
SOUT2
RTS2#
DTR2#
CTS2#
DSR2#
DCD2#
RI2#
VDD
NC
GND
SIN2
SIN1
RI1#
DCD1#
VDD
XTLO
XTLI
GND
DSR1#
CTS1#
DTR1#
RTS1#
VDD
GND
SOUT1
SOUT0
RTS0#
DTR0#
CTS0#
DSR0#
DCD0#
RI0#
SIN0
FIFOSEL
Mode0
Mode1
TEST
EE_DI
EE_CK
80
79
78
77
76
75
74
73
72
71
70
69
68
67
66
65
64
63
62
61
60
59
58
57
56
55
54
53
52
51
50
49
48
47
46
45
44
43
42
41
LBD15
LBA8
LBA9
LBA10
LBA11
NC
NC
NC
VDD
NC
GND
NC
LBD16
LBD17
LBD18
VDD
NC
GND
GND
LBD19
LBD20
LBD21
LBD22
VDD
GND
LBD23
LBD24
LBD25
LBD26
LBD27
LBD28
LBD29
LBD30
LBD31
FIFOSEL
Mode0
Mode1
TEST
EE_DI
EE_CK
LBA1
LBA2
LBA3
LBCS0#
LBCS1#
LBCS2#
LBCS3#
LBRD#
LBWR#
VDD
GND
LBCLK
LBA4
LBA5
LBA6
LBA7
VDD
GND
LBDOUT
LBD0
LBD1
LBD2
LBD3
VDD
GND
LBD4
LBD5
LBD6
LBD7
MIO8
MIO9
MIO10
MIO11
LBD8
LBD9
LBD10
LBD11
LBD12
LBD13
LBD14
120
119
118
117
116
115
114
113
112
111
110
109
108
107
106
105
104
103
102
101
100
99
98
97
96
95
94
93
92
91
90
89
88
87
86
85
84
83
82
81
120
119
118
117
116
115
114
113
112
111
110
109
108
107
106
105
104
103
102
101
100
99
98
97
96
95
94
93
92
91
90
89
88
87
86
85
84
83
82
81
121
122
123
124
125
126
127
128
129
130
131
132
133
134
135
136
137
138
139
140
141
142
143
144
145
146
147
148
149
150
151
152
153
154
155
156
157
158
159
160
OX16PCI954-TQC60-A
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
17
18
19
20
21
22
23
24
25
26
27
28
29
30
31
32
33
34
35
36
37
38
39
40
LBA0
LBRST
LBRST#
MIO7
MIO6
MIO5
MIO4
MIO3
MIO2
MIO1
MIO0
INTA#
INTB#
RST#
GND
CLK
VDD
PME#
AD31
AD30
AD29
GND
AD28
AD27
AD26
GND
VDD
AD25
AD24
C/BE3#
IDSEL
AD23
GND
AD22
AD21
AD20
VDD
GND
AD19
AD18
AD17
AD16
C/BE2#
FRAME#
IRDY#
TRDY#
DEVSEL#
GND
STOP#
PERR#
SERR#
PAR
C/BE1#
AD15
AD14
AD13
GND
VDD
AD12
AD11
GND
VDD
AD10
AD9
GND
AD8
C/BE0#
AD7
AD6
GND
VDD
AD5
AD4
AD3
GND
AD2
AD1
AD0
EE_CS
EE_DO
SOUT3
SOUT2
RTS2#
DTR2#
CTS2#
DSR2#
DCD2#
RI2#
VDD
NC
GND
SIN2
SIN1
RI1#
DCD1#
VDD
XTLO
XTLI
GND
DSR1#
CTS1#
DTR1#
RTS1#
VDD
GND
SOUT1
SOUT0
RTS0#
DTR0#
CTS0#
DSR0#
DCD0#
RI0#
SIN0
FIFOSEL
Mode0
Mode1
TEST
EE_DI
EE_CK
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
17
18
19
20
21
22
23
24
25
26
27
28
29
30
31
32
33
34
35
36
37
38
39
40
OX16PCI954-TQC60-A
80
79
78
77
76
75
74
73
72
71
70
69
68
67
66
65
64
63
62
61
60
59
58
57
56
55
54
53
52
51
50
49
48
47
46
45
44
43
42
41
AD17
AD16
C/BE2#
FRAME#
IRDY#
TRDY#
DEVSEL#
GND
STOP#
PERR#
SERR#
PAR
C/BE1#
AD15
AD14
AD13
GND
VDD
AD12
AD11
GND
VDD
AD10
AD9
GND
AD8
C/BE0#
AD7
AD6
GND
VDD
AD5
AD4
AD3
GND
AD2
AD1
AD0
EE_CS
EE_DO
121
122
123
124
125
126
127
128
129
130
131
132
133
134
135
136
137
138
139
140
141
142
143
144
145
146
147
148
149
150
151
152
153
154
155
156
157
158
159
160
80
79
78
77
76
75
74
73
72
71
70
69
68
67
66
65
64
63
62
61
60
59
58
57
56
55
54
53
52
51
50
49
48
47
46
45
44
43
42
41
Mode ‘11’: 32-bit bridge
Sub_V_ID1
Sub_V_ID2
Sub_V_ID3
Sub_ID12
Sub_ID13
Sub_ID14
Sub_ID15
NC
NC
VDD
GND
NC
Sub_V_ID4
Sub_V_ID5
Sub_V_ID6
Sub_V_ID7
VDD
GND
NC
Sub_V_ID8
Sub_V_ID9
Sub_V_ID10
Sub_V_ID11
VDD
GND
Sub_V_ID12
Sub_V_ID13
Sub_V_ID154
Sub_V_ID15
Sub_ID8
Sub_ID9
Sub_ID10
Sub_ID11
SIN3
RI3#
DCD3#
DSR3#
CTS3#
DTR3#
RTS3#
Mode ’10’: Quad UARTs + pin-assignable
Subsystem ID & Subsystem Vendor ID
Sub_V_ID0
NC
NC
Sub_ID7
Sub_ID6
Sub_ID5
Sub_ID4
Sub_ID3
Sub_ID2
Sub_ID1
Sub_ID0
INTA#
INTB#
RST#
GND
CLK
VDD
PME#
AD31
AD30
AD29
GND
AD28
AD27
AD26
GND
VDD
AD25
AD24
C/BE3#
IDSEL
AD23
GND
AD22
AD21
AD20
VDD
GND
AD19
AD18
OX16PCI954-TQC60-A
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
17
18
19
20
21
22
23
24
25
26
27
28
29
30
31
32
33
34
35
36
37
38
39
40
PE
ACK#
NC
MIO7
MIO6
MIO5
MIO4
MIO3
MIO2
MIO1
NC
INTA#
INTB#
RST#
GND
CLK
VDD
PME#
AD31
AD30
AD29
GND
AD28
AD27
AD26
GND
VDD
AD25
AD24
C/BE3#
IDSEL
AD23
GND
AD22
AD21
AD20
VDD
GND
AD19
AD18
AD17
AD16
C/BE2#
FRAME#
IRDY#
TRDY#
DEVSEL#
GND
STOP#
PERR#
SERR#
PAR
C/BE1#
AD15
AD14
AD13
GND
VDD
AD12
AD11
GND
VDD
AD10
AD9
GND
AD8
C/BE0#
AD7
AD6
GND
VDD
AD5
AD4
AD3
GND
AD2
AD1
AD0
EE_CS
EE_DO
SOUT3
SOUT2
RTS2#
DTR2#
CTS2#
DSR2#
DCD2#
RI2#
VDD
UART_Ck_Out
GND
SIN2
SIN1
RI1#
DCD1#
VDD
XTLO
XTLI
GND
DSR1#
CTS1#
DTR1#
RTS1#
VDD
GND
SOUT1
SOUT0
RTS0#
DTR0#
CTS0#
DSR0#
DCD0#
RI0#
SIN0
FIFOSEL
Mode0
Mode1
TEST
EE_DI
EE_CK
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
17
18
19
20
21
22
23
24
25
26
27
28
29
30
31
32
33
34
35
36
37
38
39
40
80
79
78
77
76
75
74
73
72
71
70
69
68
67
66
65
64
63
62
61
60
59
58
57
56
55
54
53
52
51
50
49
48
47
46
45
44
43
42
41
AD17
AD16
C/BE2#
FRAME#
IRDY#
TRDY#
DEVSEL#
GND
STOP#
PERR#
SERR#
PAR
C/BE1#
AD15
AD14
AD13
GND
VDD
AD12
AD11
GND
VDD
AD10
AD9
GND
AD8
C/BE0#
AD7
AD6
GND
VDD
AD5
AD4
AD3
GND
AD2
AD1
AD0
EE_CS
EE_DO
OX16PCI954-TQC60-A
120
119
118
117
116
115
114
113
112
111
110
109
108
107
106
105
104
103
102
101
100
99
98
97
96
95
94
93
92
91
90
89
88
87
86
85
84
83
82
81
120
119
118
117
116
115
114
113
112
111
110
109
108
107
106
105
104
103
102
101
100
99
98
97
96
95
94
93
92
91
90
89
88
87
86
85
84
83
82
81
BUSY
SLCT
ERR#
NC
NC
NC
NC
NC
NC
VDD
GND
NC
SLIN#
INIT#
AFD#
STB#
VDD
GND
NC
PD0
PD1
PD2
PD3
VDD
GND
PD4
PD5
PD6
PD7
MIO8
MIO9
MIO10
MIO11
SIN3
RI3#
DCD3#
DSR3#
CTS3#
DTR3#
RTS3#
LBA1
LBA2
LBA3
LBCS0#
LBCS1#
LBCS2#
LBCS3#
LBRD#
LBWR#
VDD
GND
LBCLK
LBA4
LBA5
LBA6
LBA7
VDD
GND
LBDOUT
LBD0
LBD1
LBD2
LBD3
VDD
GND
LBD4
LBD5
LBD6
LBD7
MIO8
MIO9
MIO10
MIO11
SIN3
RI3#
DCD3#
DSR3#
CTS3#
DTR3#
RTS3#
Mode ‘00’: Quad UARTs + 8-bit local bus
Figure 2: Pinout in all configurable modes (package = 160 TQFP)
Data Sheet Revision 1.3
Page 7
OX16PCI954
OXFORD SEMICONDUCTOR LTD.
4
PIN DESCRIPTIONS
Mode
00
01
10
11
PCI interface
139, 140, 141, 143, 144, 145, 148,
149, 152, 154, 155, 156, 159, 160,
1, 2, 14, 15, 16, 19, 20, 23, 24, 26,
28, 29, 32, 33, 34, 36, 37, 38
150, 3, 13, 27
136
4
7
5
6
9
12
11
10
151
134
132,133
138
Serial port pins
46
N/A
80, 79, 55, 54
N/A
Dir1
Name
Description
P_I/O
AD[31:0]
Multiplexed PCI Address/Data bus
P_I
P_I
P_I
P_O
P_I
P_O
P_O
P_I/O
P_O
P_I/O
P_I
P_I
P_OD
P_OD
C/BE[3:0]#
CLK
FRAME#
DEVSEL#
IRDY#
TRDY#
STOP#
PAR
SERR#
PERR#
IDSEL
RST#
INTA#, INTB#
PME#
PCI Command/Byte enable
PCI system clock
Cycle Frame
Device Select
Initiator ready
Target ready
Target Stop request
Parity
System error
Parity error
Initialization device select
PCI system reset
PCI interrupts
Power management event
I
FIFOSEL
O
SOUT[3:0]
FIFO select. For backward compatibility with 16C550,
16C650 and 16C750 devices the UARTs’ FIFO depth is 16
when FIFOSEL is low. The FIFO size is increased to 128
when FIFOSEL is high. The unlatched state of this pin is
readable by software. The FIFO size may also be set to 128
by setting FCR[5] when LCR[7] is set, or by putting the
device into enhanced mode.
UART serial data outputs
IrDA_Out[3:0]
87, 69, 68, 47
85, 74, 66, 49
82, 77, 59, 52
Data Sheet Revision 1.3
N/A
N/A
N/A
UART IrDA data output when MCR[6] of the corresponding
channel is set in enhanced mode
UART serial data inputs
I
SIN[3:0]
I
IrDA_In[3:0]
I
O
DCD[3:0]#
DTR[3:0]#
O
485_En[3:0]
In RS485 half-duplex mode, the DTR# pin may be
programmed to reflect the state of the the transmitter empty
bit to automatically control the direction of the RS485
transceiver buffer (see register ACR[4:3])
O
Tx_Clk_Out[3:0]
Transmitter 1x clock (baud rate generator output). For
isochronous applications, the 1x (or Nx) transmitter clock
may be asserted on the DTR# pins (see register CKS[5:4])
UART IrDA data input when IrDA mode is enabled (see
above)
Active-low modem data-carrier-detect input
Active-low modem data-terminal-ready output. If automated
DTR# flow control is enabled, the DTR# pin is asserted and
deasserted if the receiver FIFO reaches or falls below the
programmed thresholds, respectively.
Page 8
OX16PCI954
OXFORD SEMICONDUCTOR LTD.
Mode
00
01
10
Serial port pins
81, 78, 58, 53
Dir1
Name
Description
Active-low modem request-to-send output. If automated
RTS# flow control is enabled, the RTS# pin is deasserted
and reasserted whenever the receiver FIFO reaches or falls
below the programmed thresholds, respectively.
Active-low modem clear-to-send input. If automated CTS#
flow control is enabled, upon deassertion of the CTS# pin,
the transmitter will complete the current character and enter
the idle mode until the CTS# pin is reasserted. Note: flow
control characters are transmitted regardless of the state of
the CTS# pin.
Active-low modem data-set-ready input. If automated DSR#
flow control is enabled, upon deassertion of the DSR# pin,
the transmitter will complete the current character and enter
the idle mode until the DSR# pin is reasserted. Note: flow
control characters are transmitted regardless of the state of
the DSR# pin
11
N/A
O
RTS[3:0]#
83, 76, 60, 51
N/A
I
CTS[3:0]#
84, 75, 61, 50
N/A
I
DSR[3:0]#
I
Rx_Clk_In[3:0]
I
RI[3:0]#
I
Tx_Clk_In[3:0]
O
I
XTLO
XTLI
O
UART_Clk_Out
O
O
O
LBRST
LBRST#
LBDOUT
O
O
LBCLK
LBCS[3:0]#
Buffered crystal output. This clock can drive external UARTs
connected to the local bus. Can be enabled / disabled by
software.
Local bus active-high reset
Local bus active-low reset
Local bus data out enable. This pin can be used by external
transceivers; it is high when LBD[7:0] are in output mode and
low when they are in input mode.
Buffered PCI clock. Can be enabled / disabled by software
Local bus active-low Chip-Select (Intel mode)
86, 73, 67, 48
N/A
64
63
N/A
N/A
8-bit local bus
71
N/A
122
123
N/A
N/A
102
N/A
See
32-bit
Local
bus
External receiver clock for isochronous applications. The
Rx_Clk_In is selected when CKS[1:0] = ‘01’.
Active-low modem Ring-Indicator input
External transmitter clock. This clock can be used by the
transmitter (and indirectly by the receiver) when CKS[6]=’1’.
Crystal oscillator output
Crystal oscillator input or external clock pin. Maximum
frequency 60MHz
109
114-7
N/A
N/A
112
N/A
O
O
LBDS[3:0]#
LBWR#
Local bus active-low Data-Strobe (Motorola mode)
Local Bus active-low write-strobe (Intel mode)
113
N/A
O
O
LBRDWR#
LBRD#
Local Bus Read-not-Write control (Motorola mode)
Local Bus active-low read-strobe (Intel mode)
105-8
118-21
92-5
98-101
N/A
Z
O
Hi-Z
LBA[7:0]
Permanent high impedance (Motorola mode)
Local bus address signals
N/A
I/O
LBD[7:0]
Local bus data signals
Data Sheet Revision 1.3
Page 9
OX16PCI954
OXFORD SEMICONDUCTOR LTD.
Mode
00
01
Parallel port
N/A
122
N/A
N/A
N/A
Dir1
Name
Description
N/A
I
ACK#
Acknowledge (SPP mode). ACK# is asserted (low) by the
peripheral to indicate that a successful data transfer has
taken place.
N/A
N/A
I
I
I
INTR#
PE
BUSY
Identical function to ACK# (EPP mode).
Paper Empty. Activated by printer when it runs out of paper.
Busy (SPP mode). BUSY is asserted (high) by the peripheral
when it is not ready to accept data
I
WAIT#
OD
SLIN#
Wait (EPP mode). Handshake signal for interlocked IEEE
1284 compliant EPP cycles.
Select (SPP mode). Asserted by host to select the peripheral
10
11
121
120
108
N/A
O
N/A
N/A
N/A
119
118
107
N/A
N/A
N/A
I
I
OD
SLCT
ERR#
INIT#
Address strobe (EPP mode) provides address read and write
strobe
Peripheral selected. Asserted by peripheral when selected.
Error. Held low by the peripheral during an error condition.
Initialize (SPP mode). Commands the peripheral to initialize.
N/A
106
N/A
O
OD
INIT#
AFD#
Initialize (EPP mode). Identical function to SPP mode.
Auto Feed (SPP mode, open-drain)
N/A
105
N/A
O
OD
DATASTB#
STB#
Data strobe (EPP mode) provides data read and write strobe
Strobe (SPP mode). Used by peripheral to latch data
currently available on PD[7:0]
O
WRITE#
N/A
I/O
PD[7:0]
Write (EPP mode). Indicates a write cycle when low and a
read cycle when high
Parallel data bus
122
123
102
O
O
O
LBRST
LBRST#
LBDOUT
N/A
N/A
109
114-7
O
O
LBCLK
LBCS[3:0]#
Local bus active-high reset
Local bus active-low reset
Local bus data out enable. This pin can be used by external
transceivers; it is high when LBD[7:0] are in output mode and
low when they are in input mode.
Buffered PCI clock. Can be enabled / disabled by software
Local bus active-low Chip-Select (Intel mode)
N/A
112
O
O
LBDS[3:0]#
LBWR#
Local bus active-low Data-Strobe (Motorola mode)
Local Bus active-low write-strobe (Intel mode)
N/A
113
O
O
LBRDWR#
LBRD#
Local Bus Read-not-Write control (Motorola mode)
Local Bus active-low read-strobe (Intel mode)
N/A
76-9, 105-8, 118121
47-55, 58-61, 66-68,
80-87, 92-95,98-101
Z
O
Hi-Z
LBA[12:0]
Permanent high impedance (Motorola mode)
Local bus address signals
I/O
LBD[31:0]
Local bus data signals
N/A
Bus
32-bit Local bus
N/A
N/A
N/A
See
8-bit
local
bus
N/A
Data Sheet Revision 1.3
ADDRSTB#
Page 10
OX16PCI954
OXFORD SEMICONDUCTOR LTD.
Mode
Dir1
Name
00
01
10
11
Subsystem ID & Subsystem Vendor ID pins
N/A
N/A
I
Sub_ID[15:0]
N/A
N/A
I
Sub_V_ID[15:0]
Description
Subsystem ID. After reset the subsystem ID of Function 0
will default to the value assigned to these pins
Subsystem Vendor ID. After reset the subsystem vendor ID
of Function 0 will default to the value assigned to these pins.
Multi-purpose & External interrupt pins
I/O
131
N/A
N/A
131
MIO0
Multi-purpose I/O 0. Can drive high or low, or assert a PCI
interrupt
N/A
130
131
130
N/A
N/A
N/A
130
Z
I/O
Hi-Z
MIO1
Permanent high impedance
Multi-purpose I/O 1. Can drive high or low, or assert a PCI
interrupt
129
129
N/A
129
Z
I/O
Hi-Z
MIO2
Permanent high-impedance when LCC[6:5] ≠ ‘00’
Multi-purpose I/O 2. When LCC[7] = 0, this pin can drive high
or low, or assert a PCI interrupt.
PME_In
Input power management event. When LCC[7] is set this
input pin can assert a function 1 PME#
Multi-purpose I/O pins. Can drive high or low, or assert a PCI
interrupt
I
124-128
88-91
EEPROM pins
N/A
124-8,
88-91
41
39
42
40
Miscellaneous pins
43
44,45
I/O
MIO[3:11]
O
O
IU
EE_CK
EE_CS
EE_DI
O
EE_DO
IU
I
TEST
Mode[1:0]
EEPROM clock
EEPROM active-high Chip Select
EEPROM data in. When the serial EEPROM is connected,
this pin should be pulled up using 1-10k resistor. When the
EEPROM is not used the internal pullup is sufficient.
EEPROM data out.
Must be connected to GND
Mode selector:
00: Function 0 is Quad UART, Function 1 is 8-bit local bus
01: Function 0 is Quad UART, Function 1 is parallel port
10: Function 0 is Quad UART, Function 1 is unusable as the
local bus pins are used to assign Subsystem ID and
Subsystem Vendor ID to function 0
11: Function 0 is unusable, Function 1 is 32-bit local bus
Power and ground2
18, 31, 57, 72, 97, 111, 147, 157
22, 65, 104, 137
8, 17, 25, 30, 35, 56, 70, 96, 110,
142, 146, 153, 158
21, 62, 103, 135
V
V
AC VDD
DC VDD
G
AC GND
G
DC GND
Supplies power to output buffers in switching (AC) state
Power supply. Supplies power to core logic, input buffers
and output buffers in steady state
Supplies GND to output buffers in switching (AC) state
Ground (0 volts). Supplies GND to core logic, input buffers
and output buffers in steady state
Table 2: Pin Descriptions
Data Sheet Revision 1.3
Page 11
OX16PCI954
OXFORD SEMICONDUCTOR LTD.
Note 1: Direction key:
I
IU
O
I/O
OD
NC
Z
Input
Input with internal pull-up
Output
Bi-directional
Open drain
No connect
High impedance
P_I
P_O
P_I/O
P_OD
PCI input
PCI output
PCI bi-directional
PCI open drain
G
V
Ground
5.0V power
Note 2: Power & Ground
There are two GND and two VDD rails internally. One set of rails supply power and ground to output buffers while in switching
state (called AC power) and another rail supply the core logic, input buffers and output buffers in steady-state (called DC rail).
The rails are not connected internally. This precaution reduces the effects of simultaneous switching outputs and undesirable RF
radiation from the chip. Further precaution is taken by segmenting the GND and VDD AC rails to isolate the PCI, Local Bus and
UART pins.
Data Sheet Revision 1.3
Page 12
OX16PCI954
OXFORD SEMICONDUCTOR LTD.
5
CONFIGURATION & OPERATION
The OX16PCI954 is a multi-function, target-only PCI
device, compliant with the PCI Local Bus Specification,
Revision 2.2 and PCI Power Management Specification,
Revision 1.0.
The OX16PCI954 affords maximum configuration flexibility
by treating the internal UARTs, Local bus and the parallel
port as separate logical functions. Each function has its
own configuration space and is therefore recognised and
configured by the PCI BIOS seperately. The functions
used are configured by the Mode[1:0] pins as shown in
Table 3.
The OX16PCI954 is configured by system start-up
software during the bootstrap process that follows bus
reset. The system scans the bus and reads the vendor and
device identification codes from any devices it finds. It then
loads device-driver software according to this information
and configures the I/O, memory and interrupt resources.
Mode [1:0]
00
01
10
11
Device drivers can then access the functions at the
assigned addresses in the usual fashion, with the improved
data throughput provided by PCI.
Each function operates as though it was a separate device;
however there are a set of Local configuration registers
that can be used to enable signals and interrupts, configure
timings, and improve the efficiency of multi-port drivers.
This architecture enables separate drivers to be installed
for each function. Generic port drivers can be hooked to
use the functions individually, or more efficient multi-port
drivers can hook both functions, accessing the Local
Configuration Registers from either.
All registers default after reset to suitable values for typical
applications such a 4/8 port serial, or combo 4-port serial/1port parallel add-in cards. However, all identification,
control and timing registers can be redefined using an
optional serial EEPROM.
Configuration
Function 0 is Quad UART, Function 1 is 8-bit local bus
Function 0 is Quad UART, Function 1 is parallel port
Function 0 is Quad UART, Function 1 is unusable as the local bus pins are used to assign Subsystem
ID and Subsystem Vendor ID to function 0
Function 0 is unusable, Function 1 is 32-bit local bus
Table 3: Mode configuration
Data Sheet Revision 1.3
Page 13
OX16PCI954
OXFORD SEMICONDUCTOR LTD.
6
6.1
PCI TARGET CONTROLLER
Operation
The OX16PCI954 responds to the following PCI
transactions:•
Configuration access: The OX16PCI954 responds to
type 0 configuration reads and writes if the IDSEL
signal is asserted and the bus address is selecting the
configuration registers for function 0 or 1. The device
will respond to the configuration transaction by
asserting DEVSEL#. Data transfer then follows. Any
other configuration transaction will be ignored by the
OX16PCI954.
•
IO reads/writes: The address is compared with the
addresses reserved in the I/O Base Address Registers
(BARs). If the address falls within one of the assigned
ranges, the device will respond to the IO transaction
by asserting DEVSEL#. Data transfer follows this
address phase. For the UARTs and 8-bit Local Bus
controller, only byte accesses are possible. For IO
accesses to these regions, the controller compares
AD[1:0] with the byte-enable signals as defined in the
PCI specification. The access is always completed;
however if the correct BE signal is not present the
transaction will have no effect
•
•
Memory reads/writes: These are treated in the same
way as I/O transactions, except that the memory
ranges are used. Memory access to single-byte
regions is always expanded to DWORDs in the
OX16PCI954. In other words, OX16PCI954 reserves
a DWORD per byte in single-byte regions. The device
allows the user to define the active byte lane using
LCC[4:3] so that in Big-Endian systems the hardware
can swap the byte lane automatically. For Memory
mapped access in single-byte regions, the
OX16PCI954 compares the asserted byte-enable with
the selected byte-lane in LCC[4:3] and completes the
operation if a match occurs, otherwise the access will
complete normally on the PCI bus, but it will have no
effect on either the internal UARTs or the local bus
controller.
All other cycles (64-bit, special cycles, reserved
encoding etc.) are ignored.
The OX16PCI954 will complete all transactions as
disconnect-with-data, ie the device will assert the STOP#
signal alongside TRDY#, to ensure that the Bus Master
does not continue with a burst access. The exception to
this is Retry, which will be signalled in response to any
Data Sheet Revision 1.3
access while the OX16PCI954 is reading from the serial
EEPROM.
The OX16PCI954 performs medium-speed address
decoding as defined by the PCI specification. It asserts the
DEVSEL# bus signal two clocks after FRAME# is first
sampled low on all bus transaction frames which address
the chip. The internal UARTs are accessed with zero wait
states inserted. Fast back-to-back transactions are
supported by the OX16PCI954 as a target, so a bus master
can perform faster sequences of write transactions to the
UARTs or local bus when an inter-frame turn-around cycle
is not required.
The device supports any combination of byte-enables to
the PCI Configuration Registers, the Local Configuration
registers (see Base Address 2 and 3) and the Local Bus
controller in 32-bit mode. If a byte-enable is not asserted,
that byte is unaffected by a write operation and undefined
data is returned upon a read.
The OX16PCI954 performs parity generation and checking
on all PCI bus transactions as defined by the standard.
Note this is entirely unrelated to serial data parity which is
handled within the UART functional modules themselves. If
a parity error occurs during the PCI bus address phase, the
device will report the error in the standard way by asserting
the SERR# bus signal. However if that address/command
combination is decoded as a valid access, it will still
complete the transaction as though the parity check was
correct.
The OX16PCI954 does not support any kind of caching or
data buffering in addition to that already provided within the
UARTs by the transmit and receive data FIFOs. In general,
registers in the UARTs and on the local bus can not be prefetched because there may be side-effects on read.
6.2
Configuration space
The OX16PCI954 is a dual-function device, where each
logical function has its own configuration space. All
required fields in the standard header are implemented,
plus the Power Management Extended Capability register
set. The format of the configuration space is shown in
Table 4 overleaf.
In general, writes to any registers that are not implemented
are ignored, and all reads from unimplemented registers
return 0.
Page 14
OX16PCI954
OXFORD SEMICONDUCTOR LTD.
6.2.1
PCI Configuration Space Register map
Configuration Register Description
31
16
15
Device ID
Status
0
Vendor ID
Command
Class Code
Revision ID
Header Type
Reserved
Reserved
Base Address Register 0 (BAR0)
Base Address Register 1 (BAR 1)
Base Address Register 2 (BAR 2) – Local Configuration Registers in IO space
Base Address Register 3 (BAR3) – Local Configuration Registers in Memory space
Reserved
Reserved
Reserved
Subsystem ID
Subsystem Vendor ID
Reserved
Reserved
Cap_Ptr
Reserved
Reserved
Reserved
Interrupt Pin
Interrupt Line
Power Management Capabilities (PMC)
Next Ptr
Cap_ID
Reserved
Reserved
PMC Control/Status Register (PMCSR)
BIST1
Offset
Address
00h
04h
08h
0Ch
10h
14h
18h
1Ch
20h
24h
28h
2Ch
30h
34h
38h
3Ch
40h
44h
Table 4: PCI Configuration space
Register name
Reset value
Function 0
UARTs
Disabled
Vendor ID
Device ID
Command
Status
Revision ID
Class code
Header type
BAR 0
BAR 1
BAR 2
BAR 3
Subsystem VID
Subsystem ID
Cap ptr.
Interrupt line
Interrupt pin
Cap ID
Next ptr.
PM capabilities
PMC control/
status register
0x1415
0x9501
0x9500
0x0000
0x0290
0x00
0x070006
0x80
0x00000001
0x00000000
0x00000001
0x00000000
0x1415
0x0000
0x40
0x00
0x01
0x01
0x00
0x6C01
0x0000
Function 1
8-bit bus
32-bit
parallel
bus
port
0x1415
0x9511
0x9512
0x9513
0x0000
0x0290
0x00
0x068000 0x068000 0x070101
0x80
0x00000001
0x00000000
00000001
0x00000001
0x00000000
0x1415
0x0000
0x40
0x00
0x02
0x01
0x00
0x6C01
0x0000
Program read/write
EEPROM
PCI
Disabled
0x9510
0x068000
00000000
W
W
W (bit 4)
W
W
W
W
W
-
R
R
R/W
R/W
R
R
R
R/W
R/W
R/W
R/W
R
R
R
R/W
R
R
R
R
R/W
Table 5: PCI configuration space default values
Data Sheet Revision 1.3
Page 15
OX16PCI954
OXFORD SEMICONDUCTOR LTD.
6.3
Accessing logical functions
Access to the UARTs, local bus and parallel port is achieved via standard I/O and memory mapping, at addresses defined by the
Base Address Registers (BARs) in configuration space. The BARs are configured by the system to allocate blocks of I/O and
memory space to the logical functions, according to the size required by the function. The addresses allocated can then be used
to access the functions. The mapping of these BARs is shown inTable 6.
BAR
0
1
2
3
4
5
Function 0
Function 1
Local bus
Parallel port
Internal UARTs (I/O mapped)
Local bus (I/O mapped)
Parallel port base registers
Internal UARTs (memory mapped) Local bus (memory mapped)
Parallel port extended registers
Local configuration registers (I/O mapped)
Local configuration registers (memory mapped)
Unused
Unused
Table 6: Base Address Register definition
6.3.1 PCI access to internal UARTs
IO and memory space
BAR 0 and BAR 1 of function 0 are used to access the
internal UARTs. The function reserves a 32-byte block of
I/O space and a 4K byte block of memory space. Once the
I/O access enable and Memory access enable bits in the
Command register (configuration space) are set, the
UARTs can be accessed following the mapping shown in
Table 7.
UART
Address
(hex)
000
001
002
003
004
005
006
007
UART
Address
000
001
002
003
004
005
006
007
PCI Offset from Base Address 0 for
Function0 in IO space (hex)
UART0 UART1 UART2 UART3
00
08
10
18
01
09
11
19
02
0A
12
1A
03
0B
13
1B
04
0C
14
1C
05
0D
15
1D
06
0E
16
1E
07
0F
17
1F
PCI Offset from Base Address 1 for
Function0 in Memory space (hex)
00
20
40
60
04
24
44
64
08
28
48
68
0C
2C
4C
6C
10
30
50
70
14
34
54
74
18
38
58
78
1C
3C
5C
7C
Table 7: PCI address map for internal UARTs
(I/O and memory)
Note 1:
Since 4K of memory space is reserved and the full bus
address is not used for decoding, there are a number of
aliases of the UARTs in the allocated memory region
Data Sheet Revision 1.3
6.3.2
PCI access to 8-bit local bus
When the local bus is enabled (Mode 00), access to the
bus works in similar fashion to the internal UARTs. The
function reserves a block of I/O space and a block of
memory space. The I/O block size is user definable in the
range of 4 to 256 bytes; the memory range is fixed at 4K
bytes.
I/O space
In order to minimise the usage of IO space, the block size
for BAR0 of Function1 is user definable in the range of 4 to
256 bytes. Having assigned the address range, the user
can define two adjacent address bits to decode up to four
chip selects internally. This facility allows glueless
implementation of the local bus connecting to four external
peripheral chips. The address range and the lower address
bit for chip-select decoding (Lower-Address-CS-Decode)
are defined in the Local Bus Configuration register (see
LT2[26:20] in section 6.4).
The 8-bit Local Bus has eight address lines (LBA[7:0])
which correspond to the maximum IO address space. If the
maximum allowable block size is allocated to the IO space
(i.e. 256 bytes), then as access in IO space is byte aligned,
LBA[7:0] equal PCI AD[7:0] respectively. When the user
selects an address range which is less than 256 bytes, the
corresponding upper address lines will be set to logic zero.
The region can be divided into four chip-select regions
when the user selects the second uppermost non-zero
address bit for chip-select decoding. For example if 32bytes of IO space are reserved, the local bus address lines
A[4:0] are active and the remaining address lines are set to
zero. To generate four chip-selects the user should select
A3 as the Lower-Address-CS-Decode. In this case A[4:3]
will be used internally to decode chip-selects, asserting
LBCS0# when the address offset is 00-07h, LBCS1# when
Page 16
OX16PCI954
OXFORD SEMICONDUCTOR LTD.
offset is 08-0Fh, LBCS2# when offset is 10-17h, and
LBCS3# when offset is 18- 1Fh.
The region can be divided into two chip-select regions by
selecting the uppermost address bit to decode chip selects.
In the above example, the user can select A4 as the
Lower-Address-CS-Decode, thus using A[5:4] internally to
decode chip selects. As in this example LBA5 is always
zero, only chip-select lines LBCS0# and LBCS1# will be
decoded into, asserting LBCS0# when address offset is 000Fh and LBCS1# when offset is 10-1Fh.
The region can be allocated to a single chip-select region
by assigning an address bit beyond the selected range to
Lower-Address-CS-Decode (but not above A8). In the
above example, if the user selects A5 as the LowerAddress-CS-Decode, A[6:5] will be used to internally
decode chip-selects. As in this example LBA[7:5] are
always zero, only the chip select line LBCS0# may be
selected. In this case address offset 00-1Fh asserts
LBCS0# and the other chip-select lines remain inactive
permanently.
With default values, the address map for local bus IO
address accesses is the same as for internal UARTs.
redefined to data strobe pins. In this mode the Local Bus
offers up to 8 address lines and four data-strobe pins.
6.3.3
PCI access to parallel port
When the parallel port is enabled (Mode 01), access to the
port works via BAR definitions as usual, except that there
are two I/O BARs corresponding to the two sets of registers
defined to operate an IEEE1284 EPP and bi-directional
Parallel Port.
The user can change the I/O space block size of BAR0 by
over-writing the default values in LT2[25:20] using the
serial EEPROM (see section 6.4). For example the user
can reduce the allocated space for BAR0 to 4-bytes by
setting LT2[22:20] to ‘001’. The I/O block size allocated to
BAR1 is fixed at 8-Bytes.
Legacy parallel ports expect the upper register set to be
mapped 0x400 above the base block, therefore if the BARs
are fixed with this relationship, generic parallel port drivers
can be used to operate the device in all modes.
Example: BAR0 = 0x00000379 (8 bytes at address 0x378)
BAR1 = 0x00000779 (8 bytes at address 0x778)
If this relationship is not used, custom drivers will be
needed.
Memory Space:
The memory base address registers have an allocated
fixed size of 4K bytes in the address space. Since the
Local Bus has 8 address lines and the OX16PCI954 only
implements DWORD aligned accesses in memory space,
the 256 bytes of addressable space per chip select is
expanded to 1K. Unlike an I/O access, for a memory
access the upper address lines are always active and the
internal chip-select decoding logic ignores the user setting
for Lower-Address-CS-Decode (LT2[26:23]) and uses PCI
AD[11:10] to decode into 4 chip-select regions. When the
Local Bus is accessed in memory space, A[9:2] are
asserted on LBA[7:0]. The chip-select regions are defined
below.
Local Bus
Chip-Select
(Data-Strobe)
LBCS0# (LBDS0#)
LBCS1# (LBDS1#)
LBCS2# (LBDS2#)
LBCS3# (LBDS3#)
PCI Offset from BAR 1 in
Function1 (Memory space)
Lower Address Upper Limit
000h
3FCh
400h
7FCh
800h
BFCh
C00h
FFCh
Table 8: PCI address map for local bus (memory)
Note: The description given for I/O and memory accesses
is for an Intel-type configuration for the Local Bus. For
Motorola-type configuration, the chip select pins are
Data Sheet Revision 1.3
6.3.4
PCI access to 32-bit local bus
Access to the Local Bus in 32-bit mode is similar to 8-bit
mode (see section 6.3.2) with the following exceptions:
• The local Bus offers a 32-bit bi-directional data bus
and 12 bit address bus
• The PCI address signals ‘AD[13:2]’ are asserted on
LBA[11:0]
• Block size in memory space is programmable by
LT2[28:27] (see section 6.4)
• The Lower-Address-CS-Decode (LT2[26:23])
parameter is used to decode up to 4 chip selects
The block size allocation for chip-select regions is defined
in Table 9.
Number
of Chip
selects
1
2
4
1
2
4
Memory
block size
(Kbytes)
16
16
16
4
4
4
LT2[28:27]
LT2[26:23]
‘01’
‘01’
‘01’
‘00’
‘00’
‘00’
‘1010’
‘1001’
‘1000’
‘1000’
‘0111’
‘0110’
Table 9: PCI access to 32-bit local bus (memory)
Page 17
OX16PCI954
OXFORD SEMICONDUCTOR LTD.
6.4
Accessing Local configuration registers
The local configuration registers are a set of device specific registers which can be accessed from either function. They are
mapped to the I/O and memory addresses set up in BAR2 and BAR3 of each function, with the offsets defined for each register.
Access is limited to byte only for I/O accesses; memory accesses can also be word or dword accessed, however on little-endian
systems such as Intel 80x86 the byte order will be reversed.
6.4.1
Local Configuration and Control register ‘LCC’ (Offset 0x00)
This register defines control of ancillary functions such as Power Management, external clock reference signals and the serial
EEPROM. The individual bits are described below.
Bits
Description
Read/Write
EEPROM
1:0
2
4:3
6:5
7
23:8
24
25
26
27
28
29
30
31
Mode. These bits return the state of the Mode[1:0] pins.
Enable UART clock output. When this bit is set, the buffered UART clock
output pin (UART_CLK_Out) is active. When low UART_CLK_Out is
permanently low.
Endian Byte-Lane Select for memory access to 8-bit peripherals.
00 = Select Data[7:0]
10 = Select Data[23:16]
01 = Select Data[15:8]
11 = Select Data[31:24]
Memory access to OX16PCI954 is always DWORD aligned. When
accessing 8-bit regions like the internal UARTs, the 8-bit Local Bus and
the parallel port, this option selects the active byte lane. As both PCI and
PC architectures are little endian, the default value will be used by
systems, however, some non-PC architectures may need to select the
byte lane. These bits are ignored in 32-bit Local Bus.
Power-down filter time. These bits define a value of an internal filter time
for power-down interrupt request in power management circuitry in
Function0. Once Function0 is ready to go into power down mode,
OX16PCI954 will wait for the specified filter time and if Function0 is still
in power-down request mode, it can assert a PCI interrupt (see section
6.6).
00 = power-down request disabled
10 = 129 seconds
01 = 4 seconds
11 = 518 seconds
Function1 MIO2_PME Enable. A value of ‘1’ enables MIO2 pin to set the
PME_Status in PMCSR register, and hence assert the PME# pin if
enabled. A value of ‘0’ disables MIO2 from setting the PME_Status bit
(see section 6.6).
Reserved. These bits are used for test purposes. The device driver must
write zeros to these bits.
EEPROM Clock. For PCI read or write to the EEPROM , toggle this bit to
generate an EEPROM clock (EE_CK pin).
EEPROM Chip Select. When 1 the EEPROM chip-select pin EE_CS is
activated (high). When 0 EE_CS is de-active (low).
EEPROM Data Out. For writes to the EEPROM, this output bit is the
input-data of the EEPROM. This bit is output on EE_DO and clocked into
the EEPROM by EE_CK.
EEPROM Data In. For reads from the EEPROM, this input bit is the
output-data of the EEPROM connected to EE_DI pin.
EEPROM Valid. A 1 indicates that a valid EEPROM program is present
Reload configuration from EEPROM. Writing a 1 to this bit re-loads the
configuration from EEPROM. This bit is self-clearing after EEPROM read
Reserved
Reserved
Data Sheet Revision 1.3
Reset
W
PCI
R
RW
XX
0
W
RW
00
W
RW
00
W
RW
0
-
R
0000h
-
W
0
-
W
0
-
W
0
-
R
X
-
R
W
X
0
-
R
0
0
Page 18
OX16PCI954
OXFORD SEMICONDUCTOR LTD.
6.4.2
Multi-purpose I/O Configuration register ‘MIC’ (Offset 0x04)
This register configures the operation of the multi-purpose I/O pins ‘MIO[11:0] as follows.
Bits
Description
Read/Write
PCI
W
RW
Reset
EEPROM
1:0
3:2
5:4
7:6
9:8
11:10
13:12
15:14
MIO0 Configuration Register (Mode[1:0]≠‘01’).
00 -> MIO0 is a non-inverting input pin
01 -> MIO0 is an inverting input pin
10 -> MIO0 is an output pin driving ‘0’
11 -> MIO0 is an output pin driving ‘1’
Unused (Mode[1:0]=‘01’). When Parallel Port is enabled, MIO[0] pin is
unused and will remain in forcing output mode.
MIO1 Configuration Register (LCC[6:5]=‘00’).
00 -> MIO1 is a non-inverting input pin
01 -> MIO1 is an inverting input pin
10 -> MIO1 is an output pin driving ‘0’
11 -> MIO1 is an output pin driving ‘1’
Unused (LCC[6:5] ≠‘00’). When power-down mode in Function0 is
enabled, MIO1 pin is unused and will remain in forcing output mode.
MIO2 Configuration Register (LCC[7]=’0’).
00 -> MIO2 is a non-inverting input pin
01 -> MIO2 is an inverting input pin
10 -> MIO2 is output pin driving ‘0’
11 -> MIO2 is output pin driving ‘1’
PME_Input (LCC[7]=’1’). When LCC[7] is set, MIO2 pin is re-defined to
PME_Input. It’s polarity will be controlled by MIC[4]. It sets the sticky
PME_Status bit in Function1.
MIO3 Configuration Register.
00 -> MIO3 is a non-inverting input pin
01 -> MIO3 is an inverting input pin
10 -> MIO3 is an output pin driving ‘0’
11 -> MIO3 is an output pin driving ‘1’
MIO4 Configuration Register.
00 -> MIO4 is a non-inverting input pin
01 -> MIO4 is an inverting input pin
10 -> MIO4 is an output pin driving ‘0’
11 -> MIO4 is an output pin driving ‘1’
MIO5 Configuration Register.
00 -> MIO5 is a non-inverting input pin
01 -> MIO5 is an inverting input pin
10 -> MIO5 is an output pin driving ‘0’
11 -> MIO5 is an output pin driving ‘1’
MIO6 Configuration Register.
00 -> MIO6 is a non-inverting input pin
01 -> MIO6 is an inverting input pin
10 -> MIO6 is an output pin driving ‘0’
11 -> MIO6 is an output pin driving ‘1’
MIO7 Configuration Register.
00 -> MIO7 is a non-inverting input pin
01 -> MIO7 is an inverting input pin
10 -> MIO7 is an output pin driving ‘0’
11 -> MIO7 is an output pin driving ‘1’
Data Sheet Revision 1.3
00
W
RW
00
W
RW
00
W
RW
00
W
RW
00
W
RW
00
W
RW
00
W
RW
00
Page 19
OX16PCI954
OXFORD SEMICONDUCTOR LTD.
Bits
Description
Read/Write
PCI
W
RW
Reset
EEPROM
17:16
19:18
21:20
23:22
31:24
6.4.3
MIO8 Configuration Register.
00 -> MIO8 is a non-inverting input pin
01 -> MIO8 is an inverting input pin
10 -> MIO8 is an output pin driving ‘0’
11 -> MIO8 is an output pin driving ‘1’
MIO9 Configuration Register.
00 -> MIO9 is a non-inverting input pin
01 -> MIO9 is an inverting input pin
10 -> MIO9 is an output pin driving ‘0’
11 -> MIO9 is an output pin driving ‘1’
MIO10 Configuration Register.
00 -> MIO10 is a non-inverting input pin
01 -> MIO10 is an inverting input pin
10 -> MIO10 is an output pin driving ‘0’
11 -> MIO10 is an output pin driving ‘1’
MIO11 Configuration Register.
00 -> MIO11 is a non-inverting input pin
01 -> MIO11 is an inverting input pin
10 -> MIO11 is an output pin driving ‘0’
11 -> MIO11 is an output pin driving ‘1’
Reserved
00
W
RW
00
W
RW
00
W
RW
00
-
R
00h
Local Bus Timing Parameter register 1 ‘LT1’ (Offset 0x08):
The Local Bus Timing Parameter registers (LT1 and LT2) define the operation and timing parameters used by the Local Bus.
The timing parameters are programmed in 4-bit registers to define the assertion/de-assertion of the Local Bus control signals.
The value programmed in these registers defines the number of PCI clock cycles after a Reference Cycle when the events
occur, where the reference Cycle is defined as two clock cycles after the master asserts the IRDY# signal. The following
arrangement provides a flexible approach for users to define the desired bus timing of their peripheral devices. The timings refer
to I/O or Memory mapped access to BAR0 and BAR1 of Function1.
Bits
Description
Read/Write
EEPROM
3:0
7:4
11:8
Read Chip-select Assertion (Intel-type interface). Defines the number of
clock cycles after the Reference Cycle when the LBCS[3:0]# pins are
asserted (low) during a read operation from the Local Bus.1
These bits are unused in Motorola-type interface.
Read Chip-select De-assertion (Intel-type interface). Defines the number
of clock cycles after the Reference Cycle when the LBCS[3:0]# pins are
de-asserted (high) during a read from the Local Bus. 1
These bits are unused in Motorola-type interface.
Write Chip-select Assertion (Intel-type interface). Defines the number of
clock cycles after the Reference Cycle when the LBCS[3:0]# pins are
asserted (low) during a write operation to the Local Bus. 1
Reset
W
PCI
RW
W
RW
3h
(2h for
parallel port)
W
RW
0h
0h
These bits are unused in Motorola-type interface.
Data Sheet Revision 1.3
Page 20
OX16PCI954
OXFORD SEMICONDUCTOR LTD.
Bits
Description
Read/Write
EEPROM
15:12
19:16
23:20
27:24
31:28
Write Chip-select De-assertion (Intel-type interface). Defines the number
of clock cycles after the reference cycle when the LBCS[3:0]# pins are
de-asserted (high) during a write operation to the Local Bus. 1
Read-not-Write De-assertion during write cycles (Motorola-type
interface). Defines the number of clock cycles after the reference cycle
when the LBRDWR# pin is de-asserted (high) during a write to the Local
Bus. 1
Read Control Assertion (Intel-type interface). Defines the number of
clock cycles after the Reference Cycle when the LBRD# pin is asserted
(low) during a read from the Local Bus. 1
Read Data-strobe Assertion (Motorola-type interface). Defines the
number of clock cycles after the Reference Cycle when the LBDS[3:0]#
pins are asserted (low) during a read from the Local Bus. 1
Read Control De-assertion (Intel-type interface). Defines the number of
clock cycles after the Reference Cycle when the LBRD# pin is deasserted (high) during a read from the Local Bus. 1
Read Data-strobe De-assertion (Motorola-type interface). Defines the
number of clock cycles after the Reference Cycle when the LBDS[3:0]#
pins are de-asserted (high) during a read from the Local Bus. 1
Write Control Assertion (Intel-type interface). Defines the number of
clock cycles after the Reference Cycle when the LBWR# pin is asserted
(low) during a write to the Local Bus. 1
Write Data-strobe Assertion (Motorola-type interface). Defines the
number of clock cycles after the Reference Cycle when the LBDS[3:0]#
pins are asserted (low) during a write to the Local Bus. 1
Write Control De-assertion (Intel-type interface). Defines the number of
clock cycles after the Reference Cycle when the LBWR# pin is deasserted (high) during a write to the Local Bus. 1
Reset
W
PCI
RW
W
RW
0h
(1h for
parallel port)
W
RW
3h
(2h for
parallel port)
W
RW
0h
(1h for
parallel port)
W
RW
2h
2h
Write Data-strobe De-assertion (Motorola-type interface). Defines the
number of clock cycles after the Reference Cycle when the LBDS[3:0]#
pins are de-asserted (high) during a write cycle to the Local Bus. 1
Note 1:
Only values in the range of 0h to Ah (0-10 decimal) are valid. Other values are reserved. These parameters apply to both 8-bit and 32-bit Local Bus
configurations. See notes in the following page.
Data Sheet Revision 1.3
Page 21
OX16PCI954
OXFORD SEMICONDUCTOR LTD.
6.4.4
Bits
Local Bus Timing Parameter register 2 ‘LT2’ (Offset 0x0C):
Description
Read/Write
EEPROM
3:0
7:4
11:8
15:12
19:16
22:20
26:23
28:27
Write Data Bus Assertion. This register defines the number of clock
cycles after the Reference Cycle when the LBD pins actively drive the
data bus during a write operation to the Local Bus. 1
Write Data Bus De-assertion. This register defines the number of clock
cycles after the Reference Cycle when the LBD pins go high-impedance
during a write operation to the Local Bus. 1,2
Read Data Bus Assertion. This register defines the number of clock
cycles after the Reference Cycle when the LBD pins actively drive the
data bus at the end of a read operation from the Local Bus. 1
Read Data Bus De-assertion. This register defines the number of clock
cycles after the Reference Cycle when the LBD pins go high-impedance
during at the beginning of a read cycle from the Local Bus. 1
Reserved.
IO Space Block Size of BAR0 in Function1.
100 = 32 Bytes
000 = Reserved
101 = 64 Bytes
001 = 4 Bytes
110 = 128 Bytes
010 = 8 Bytes
111 = 256 Bytes
011 = 16 Bytes
Local Bus Chip–select Parameter ‘Lower-Address-CS-Decode’. 2
IO space in 8-bit Local Bus
Memory space and IO space in
32-bit Local Bus
1000 = A12
0000 = A4
1000 = Res
0000 = A2
1001 = A13
0001 = A5
1001 = Res
0001 = A3
1010 = A14
0010 = A6
1010 = Res
0010 = A4
1011 = Res
0011 = A7
1011 = Res
0011 = A5
1100 = Res
0100 = A8
1100 = Res
0100 = A6
1101 = Res
0101 = A9
1101 = Res
0101 = A7
1110 = Res
0110 = A10
1110 = Res
0110 = A8
1111 = Res
0111 = A11
1111 = Res
0111 = A9
Memory Space Block Size of BAR1 in Function1 (Mode[1:0]=‘11’, i.e. 32bit Local Bus).
00 = 4 Kbytes
01 = 16 Kbytes
29
30
31
Reset
W
PCI
RW
0h
W
RW
Fh
W
RW
W
RW
4h
(2h for
parallel port)
0h
W
R
R
0h
‘100’
(=‘010’
for parallel
port)
W
RW
‘0001’
(=‘0010’
for parallel
port)
W
R
00
-
RW
0
W
RW
0
W
RW
0
10 = Reserved
11 = Reserved
When 8-bit Local Bus or Parallel Port is selected (Mode[1:0]=‘00’ or ‘01’),
the Memory Block size is fixed at 4K and these bits are ignored.
Local Bus Software Reset. When this bit is a 1 the Local Bus reset pin is
activated. When this bit is a 0 the Local Bus reset pin is de-activated. 3
Local Bus Clock Enable. When this bit is a 1 the Local Bus clock (LBCK)
pin is enabled. When this bit is a 0 LBCK pin is permanently low. The
Local Bus Clock is a buffered PCI clock.
Bus Interface Type. When low (=0) the Local Bus is configured to Inteltype operation, otherwise it is configured to Motorola-type operation.
Note that when Mode[1:0] is ‘01’, this bit is hard wired to 0.
Note 1:
Only values in the range of 0 to Ah (0-10 decimal) are valid. Other values are reserved as writing higher values causes the PCI interface to retry all
accesses to the Local Bus as it is unable to complete the transaction in 16 PCI clock cycles.
Note 2:
The Lower-Address-CS-Decode parameter is described in sections 6.3.2 & 6.3.4. These bits are unused for Memory access to the 8-bit Local Bus
which uses a fixed decoding to allocate 1K regions to 4 chip selects. For further information on the Local bus, see section 8.
Note 3:
Local Bus, UARTs and the Parallel Port are all reset with PCI reset. In Addition, the user can issue the Software Reset Command.
Data Sheet Revision 1.3
Page 22
OX16PCI954
OXFORD SEMICONDUCTOR LTD.
LT2[15:0] enable the card designer to control the data bus during the idle periods. The default values will configure the Local Bus
data pins to remain forcing (LT2[7:4] = Fh). LT[15:8] is programmed to place the bus in high-impedance at the beginning of a
read cycle and set it back to forcing at the end of the read cycle. For systems that require the data bus to stay in highimpedance, the card designer should write an appropriate value in the range of 0h to Ah to LT2[7:4]. This will place the data bus
in high impedance at the end of the write cycle. Whenever the value programmed in LT2[7:4] does not equal Fh, the Local Bus
controller will ignore the setting of LT2[15:8] as the data bus will be high-impedance outside write cycles. In this case the card
designer should place external pull-ups on the data bus pins LBD[7:0] (or LBD[32:0] in 32-bit mode).
While the configuration data is read from the external EEPROM, the LBD pins remain in the high-impedance state.
The timing registers define the Local Bus timing parameters based on signal changes relative to a reference cycle which is
defined as two PCI clock cycles after IRDY# is asserted for the first time in a frame. The following parameters are fixed relative to
the reference cycle.
The Local Bus address pins (LBA[7:0] in 8-bit Local Bus, LBA[15:0] in 32-bit Local Bus) are asserted during the reference cycle.
In a write operation, the Local Bus data is available during the reference cycle, however I/O buffers change direction as
programmed in LT2[3:0].
In a Motorola type bus write operation, the Read-not-Write pin (LBRDWR#) is asserted (low) during the reference cycle. In a read
cycle this pin remains high throughout the duration of the operation.
The default settings in LT1 & LT2 registers provide one PCI clock cycle for address and chip-select to control signal set-up time,
one clock cycle for address and chip-select from control signal hold time, two clock cycles of pulse duration for read and write
control signals and one clock cycle for data bus hold time. These parameters are acceptable for using external OX16C950,
OX16C952 and OX16C954 devices connected to the Local Bus, in Intel mode. Some redefinition will be required if the bus is to
be operated in Motorola mode.
The user should take great care when programming the Local Bus timing parameters. For example defining a value for chipselect assertion which is larger that the value defined for chip-select de-assertion or defining a chip-select assertion value which
is greater than control signal assertion will result in obvious invalid local Bus cycles.
6.4.5
UART Receiver FIFO Levels ‘URL’ (Offset 0x10)
The receiver FIFO level of all internal UARTs are shadowed in Local configuration registers as follows:
Bits
Description
Read/Write
EEPROM
7:0
15:8
23:16
31:24
6.4.6
UART0 Receiver FIFO Level (RFL[7:0])
UART1 Receiver FIFO Level (RFL[7:0])
UART2 Receiver FIFO Level (RFL[7:0])
UART3 Receiver FIFO Level (RFL[7:0])
-
Reset
PCI
R
R
R
R
0x00h
0x00h
0x00h
0x00h
UART Transmitter FIFO Levels ‘UTL’ (Offset 0x14)
The transmitter FIFO level of all internal UARTs are shadowed in Local configuration registers as follows:
Bits
Description
Read/Write
EEPROM
7:0
15:8
23:16
31:24
UART0 Transmitter FIFO Level (TFL[7:0])
UART1 Transmitter FIFO Level (TFL[7:0])
UART2 Transmitter FIFO Level (TFL[7:0])
UART3 Transmitter FIFO Level (TFL[7:0])
Data Sheet Revision 1.3
-
Reset
PCI
R
R
R
R
0x00h
0x00h
0x00h
0x00h
Page 23
OX16PCI954
OXFORD SEMICONDUCTOR LTD.
6.4.7
UART Interrupt Source Register ‘UIS’ (Offset 0x18)
The UART Interrupt Source register is described below:
Bits
Description
Read/Write
EEPROM
5:0
11:6
17:12
23:18
26:24
27
28
29
30
31
UART0 Interrupt Source Register (ISR[5:0])
UART1 Interrupt Source Register (ISR[5:0])
UART2 Interrupt Source Register (ISR[5:0])
UART3 Interrupt Source Register (ISR[5:0])
Reserved
UART0 Good-Data Status
UART1 Good-Data Status
UART2 Good-Data Status
UART3 Good-Data Status
Global Good-Data Status. This bit is the logical AND of bits 27 to 30, i.e.
it is set if Good-Data Status of all internal UARTs is set.
-
Reset
PCI
R
R
R
R
R
R
R
R
R
R
01h
01h
01h
01h
00h
1
1
1
1
1
Good-Data status for a given internal UART is set when all of the following conditions are met:
•
•
•
ISR reads a level0 (no-interrupt pending), a level 2a (receiver data available, a level 2b (receiver time-out) or a level 3
(transmitter THR empty) interrupt
LSR[7] is clear so there is no parity error, framing error or break in the FIFO
LSR[1] is clear so no over-run error has occurred
If the device driver software reads the receiver FIFO levels (URL) followed by this register, then if Good-Data status for a given
channel is set, the driver can remove the number of bytes indicated by the FIFO level without the need to read the line status
register for that channel. This feature enhances the driver efficiency.
For a given channel, if the Good-Data status bit is not set, then the software driver should examine the corresponding ISR bits.
For example if bit 29 is low, then the driver should examine bits 17 down to 12 to obtain the ISR[5:0] for UART2. If the ISR
indicates a level 4 or higher interrupt, the interrupt is due to a change in the state of modem lines or detection of flow control
characters. The device driver-software should then take appropriate measures as would in any other 550/950 driver. When ISR
indicates a level 1 (receiver status) interrupt then the driver can examine the Line Status Register (LSR) of the relevant channel.
Since reading the LSR clears LSR[7], the device driver-software should either flush or empty the contents of the receiver FIFO,
otherwise the Good-Data status will no longer be valid.
The UART Receiver FIFO Level (URL), UART Transmitter FIFO Level (UTL), UART Interrupt Source register (UIS) and Global
Interrupt Status register (GIS) are allocated adjacent address offsets (10h to 1Ch) in the Base Address Register. The device
driver-software can read all of the above registers in single burst read operation. The location offset of the registers are such that
the FIFO levels are usually read before the status registers so that the status of the N characters indicated in the receiver FIFO
levels are valid.
Data Sheet Revision 1.3
Page 24
OX16PCI954
OXFORD SEMICONDUCTOR LTD.
6.4.8
Bits
Global Interrupt Status and Control Register ‘GIS’ (Offset 0x1C)
Description
Read/Write
EEPROM
3:0
4
5
15:6
19:16
20
21
31:22
These bits reflect the state of UART3 to UART0 internal interrupt lines,
respectively.1
MIO0 (Mode[1:0]≠‘01’). This bit reflects the state of the internal MIO[0]. The
internal MIO[0] reflects the non-inverted or inverted state of MIO0 pin.2
Parallel Port Interrupt (Mode[1:0]=‘01’). This bit reflects the state of the Parallel
Port internal interrupt line.
MIO1 (LCC[6:5]=‘00’). This bit reflects the state of the internal MIO[1]. The
internal MIO[1] reflects the non-inverted or inverted state of MIO1 pin.2
Function0 Power-down Interrupt (LCC[6:5] ≠‘00’). In this mode this is a sticky
bit. When set, it indicates a power-down request issued by Function0 and
would normally have asserted a PCI interrupt if bit 21 was set (see section
7.9). Reading this bit clears it.
These bits reflect the state of the internal MIO[11:2]. The internal MIO[11:2]
reflect the non-inverted or inverted state of MIO[11:2] pins respectively.2
UART Interrupt Mask. When set (=1) these bit enable each internal UART to
assert a PCI interrupt respectively. When cleared (=0) they prevent the
respective channel from asserting a PCI interrupt.3
MIO[0] Interrupt Mask (Mode[1:0]≠‘01’). When set (=1) this bit enables MIO0
pin to assert a PCI interrupt. When cleared (=0) it prevents MIO0 pin from
asserting a PCI interrupt.2
Parallel Port Interrupt Mask (Mode[1:0]=‘01’). When set (=1) this bit enables
the Parallel Port to assert a PCI interrupt. When cleared (=0) it prevents the
Parallel Port from asserting a PCI interrupt.
MIO[1] Interrupt Mask (LCC[6:5]=‘00’). When set (=1) this bit enables MIO1 pin
to assert a PCI interrupt. When cleared (=0) it prevents MIO1 pin from
asserting a PCI interrupt.2
Function0 Power-down Interrupt Mask (LCC[6:5] ≠‘00’). When set (=1) this bit
enables the power-down logic in Function0 to assert a PCI interrupt. When
cleared (=0) it prevents the power-down logic in Function0 from asserting a
PCI interrupt.
MIO Interrupt Mask. When set (=1) these bits enable each MIO[11:2] pin to
assert a PCI interrupt respectively. When cleared (=0) they prevent the
respective pins from asserting a PCI interrupt.2
Reset
-
PCI
R
-
R
X
-
R
R
0
X
0x0h
0
-
R
XXXh
W
RW
Fh
W
RW
1
W
RW
1
W
RW
1
W
RW
0
W
RW
3FFh
Note 1:
GIS[3:0] are the inverse of UIS[24], UIS[18], UIS[6] and UIS[0] respectively. Systems that do not require the Local Bus or parallel port need not read
this register to identify the source of the interrupt as long as they read the UIS (offset 18h) register.
Note 2:
The returned value is either the direct state of the corresponding MIO pin or its inverse as configured by the Multi-purpose I/O Configuration register
‘MIC’ (offset 0x04). As the internal MIO can assert a PCI interrupt, the inversion feature can define each external interrupt to be defined as active-low
or active-high, as controlled by the MIC register.
Note 3:
The UART Interrupt Mask register bits are all set after a hardware reset to enable the interrupt from all internal UARTs. This will cater for generic
device-driver software that does not access the Local Configuration Registers. The default setting for UART Interrupt Mask bits can be changed
using the serial EEPROM. Note that even though by default the UART interrupts are enabled in this register, since after a reset the IER registers of
individual UARTs disables all interrupts, a PCI interrupt will not be asserted after a hardware reset.
Note 4:
When Mode[1:0]=‘10’, the MIO pins are used to define a Subsystem ID value, therefore all interrupts due to MIO pins are disabled regardless of the
state of the GIS register. The MIO Interrupts Mask register bits are all set after a hardware reset to enable the interrupt from all MIO pins from boot
up. The default setting for MIO Interrupt Mask bits can be changed using the serial EEPROM.
Data Sheet Revision 1.3
Page 25
OXFORD SEMICONDUCTOR LTD.
6.5
OX16PCI954
PCI Interrupts
Interrupts in PCI systems are level-sensitive and can be
shared. There are sixteen sources of interrupt in the
OX16PCI954, one in each UART channel and twelve from
Multi-Purpose IO pins (MIO11 to MIO0). The Parallel Port
and MIO0 share the same interrupt status bit (GIS[4]). The
PCI Power Management power-down interrupt for internal
UARTs (Function0) and MIO1 share the status bit GIS[5].
The Local Bus uses the MIO pins to pass interrupts to the
PCI controller.
During the system initialisation process and PCI device
configuration, system-specific software reads the interrupt
pin field to determine which (if any) interrupt pin is used by
each function. It programmes the system interrupt router to
logically connect this PCI interrupt pin to a system-specific
interrupt vector (IRQ). It then writes this routing information
to the Interrupt Line field in the function’s PCI configuration
space. Device driver software must then hook the interrupt
using the information in the Interrupt Line field.
All interrupts are routed to the PCI interrupt pins, INTA# or
INTB#. The default routing asserts Function0 interrupts on
INTA# and Function1 interrupts on INTB#. These default
routings may be modified by writing to the Interrupt Pin field
in the configuration registers using the serial EEPROM
facility. The Interrupt Pin field is normally considered a
hard-wired read-only value in PCI. It indicates to system
software which PCI interrupt pin (if any) is used by a
function. The interrupt pin may only be modified using the
serial EEPROM facility, and card developers must not
invoke any combination which violates the PCI
specification. Note that OX16PCI954 only has two PCI
interrupt pins, INTA# and INTB#. If in doubt, the default
routings should be used. Table 10 relates the Interrupt Pin
field to the device pin used.
Interrupt status for all sixteen sources of interrupt is
available using the GIS register in the Local Configuration
Register set, which can be accessed using I/O or Memory
accessed from both logical functions. This facility enables
each function to snoop on interrupts asserted from the
other function regardless of the interrupt routing.
Interrupt Pin
0
1
2
3 to 255
Device Pin used
None
INTA#
INTB#
Reserved
Table 10: ‘Interrupt pin’ definition
Data Sheet Revision 1.3
The interrupt from each UART channel is enabled using
the IER register and the MCR register for that UART. If the
interrupt is enabled and active, then the device will drive
the PCI interrupt pin low. Generic device driver software
will use the IER register to enable interrupts. The
OX16PCI954 offers additional interrupt masking ability
using GIS[19:16] (see section 6.4.8). An internal UART
channel may assert a PCI interrupt if the interrupt is
enabled by IER and GIS[19:16].
All interrupts can be enabled / disabled individually using
the GIS register set in the Local configuration registers.
When an MIO pin is enabled, an external device can assert
a PCI interrupt by driving that pin. The sense of the MIO
external interrupt pins (active-high or active-low) is defined
in the MIC register. The parallel port can also assert an
interrupt (Note: this effectively disables the MIO[0]
interrupt).
Page 26
OXFORD SEMICONDUCTOR LTD.
6.6
Power Management
The OX16PCI954 is compliant with PCI Power
Management Specification Revision 1.0. Each logical
function implements its own set of Power Management
registers and supports the power states D0, D2 and D3.
Power management is accomplished by power-down and
power-up requests, asserted via interrupts and the PME#
pin respectively. Each function can assert the PME# pin
independently. The PME# pin is de-asserted when the
sticky PME_Status bit is cleared in both functions.
Power-down request is not defined by Power Management
1.0. It is a device-specific feature and requires a bespoke
device driver implementation. The device driver can either
implement the power-down itself or in the case of Function
0, use a special interrupt and power-down features offered
by the device to determine when the UARTs are ready for
power-down.
The PME# pin can, in certain cases, activate the PME#
signal when power is removed from the device, which will
cause the PC to wake up from Low-power state D3(cold).
To ensure full cross-compatibility with systemboard
implementations, use of an isolator FET is recommended.
If Power Management capabilities are not required, the
PME# pin can be treated as no-connect.
6.6.1
Power Management of Function 0
Function 0 can be configured to monitor the activity of the
serial channels, and issue a power-down interrupt when all
four ports are inactive (no interrupts pending and both
transmitter and receiver are idle). It can also issue a wakeup request on the PME# line from power states D2 and D3.
The conditions for inactive mode are the same as the ones
for sleep-mode (see section 7.6.4); however power
management operation and 16C950 sleep mode are
separate and independent operations, affording maximum
flexibility in power usage.
Whenever the device driver places Function0 in powerstate D3, the clock to all internal UARTs is shut off
immediately and will only be turned on when the device
driver places function0 in power-state D0. In this case, only
activity on the RI line (the trailing edge of a pulse) will
assert a wake-up request. Wake-up from power sate D2 is
configurable, and can be triggered by activity on any
combination of modem lines or the serial data input (SIN)
line. See section 7.11.10 to mask wakeup events. In case
of a wake up request from SIN when function0 is in powerstate D2, the clock for that channel is turned on so serial
data framing can be maintained.
When all channels are ready for power-down (i.e. inactive),
the power management circuitry waits for a period of time
Data Sheet Revision 1.3
OX16PCI954
programmed in Power-down Filter Time (LCC[6:5], see
section 6.4.1) and if all channels are still inactive, the
OX16PCI954 can issue a PCI interrupt if it is enabled. The
filter stops the UARTs from issuing too many interrupts
whenever the UART activity is intermittent. Upon a power
down interrupt, the device driver can change the powerstate of Function0 as required. Note that the power-state of
the device is only changed by the device driver and at no
point will the OX16PCI954 change its own power state.
The interrupt merely informs the device driver that this PCI
logical function can is ready for power down.
When enabled, the power-down interrupt status is reflected
in GIS[5] which is normally used to return the value of
MIO1. It also uses the corresponding interrupt mask bit,
GIS[21]. The interrupt masking operation is shown in Table
11.
The device driver can enable the power-down request by
first writing a power-down filter time to LCC[6:5] which is
not ‘00’. Then it can either operate in polling mode by
reading GIS[5] or use a PCI interrupt. When LCC[6:5] is not
‘00’, GIS[5] will be a ‘sticky-bit’ which is set whenever there
is power-down request from Function 0. This bit is cleared
when the device driver reads the GIS[5] register. GIS[5] will
assert a PCI interrupt if GIS[21] is set.
Function0 implements the PCI Power Management powerstates D0, D2 and D3. Whenever the device driver
changes the power-state to state D2 or D3, Function0
takes the following actions:
• The internal clock to internal UARTs is shut down.
• PCI interrupt for Function0 is disabled regardless of
the value of GIS[19:16].
• Access to I/O or Memory BARs of Function0 is
disabled.
However, access to the configuration space is still enabled.
Function0 can issue a wake up request by asserting PME#
if it is enabled by PMCSR[8] of Function0. The PME#
assertion is immediate and does not use the power-down
filter timer. It operates even if LCC[6:5] is set to ‘00’. The
wake up condition for Function0 is as follows:When Function0 is in power-state D3, a trailing edge on the
modem line ‘RI’ asserts PME# as long PMCSR[8] is set.
When Function0 is in power-state D3, a change in the state
of any modem line which is enabled by a 16C950-specific
mask bit, or a change in the state of the serial input line if
enabled by a 16C950-specific mask bit can issue a wake
up request by asserting the PME# signal (see section
8.4.11). After a hardware reset all of these mask bits are
cleared to enable wake up PME# assertion from all modem
lines and the SIN line. As the wake up operation requires at
least one mask bit to be enabled, the device driver can for
example disable the masks from three UART channels so
that only one channel can issue a wake up request, or
Page 27
OX16PCI954
OXFORD SEMICONDUCTOR LTD.
disable all masks with the exception of the Ring Indicator,
so only a modem ring can wake up the computer.
When Function0 issues a wake up request, the
PME_Status (PMCSR[15]) will be set. This is a sticky bit
which will be cleared by writing a ‘1’ to it. While PME_En
(PMCSR[8]) in Function0 is set, PME_Status will assert the
PME# pin to inform the device driver that a power
management wake up event has occurred. After a wake up
event is signalled, the device driver is expected to return
the function to the D0 power-state.
6.6.2
Power Management of function 1
The power-down request for the Local Bus (Function1) is
application-dependent. The device driver can use any of
the multi-purpose I/O lines, MIO[12:3] to issue a powerdown request.
Function1 implements the PCI Power Management powerstates D0, D2 and D3. Whenever the device driver
changes the power-state to state D2 or D3, Function1
takes the following actions:•
The external UART_Clk_Out pin is disabled
regardless of the programmed value in LCC[2].
LCC[6:5]
GIS[21]
00
X
Power-down
Filter Time
N/A
01
10
11
01
10
11
0
0
0
1
1
1
4s
129 s
518 s
4s
129 s
515 s
•
The Local Bus clock pin, LBCK, is disabled regardless
of the programmed value in LT2[30].
• The PCI interrupt for Function1 is disabled.
• Access to I/O or Memory BARs of Function1 is
disabled.
However, access to the configuration space is still enabled.
The device driver can optionally assert/de-assert any of its
selected (design dependant) MIO pins to switch off VCC,
disable other external clocks, or activate shut-down modes
to any external devices on the Local Bus.
Function1 can issue a wake up request by using the MIO2
pin. When LCC[7] is set, rising or falling edge of MIO2 will
cause Function1 to issue a wake up request by setting
PME_Status = (PMCSR[15]), if it is enabled by PMCSR[8]
of Function1. When LCC[7] is set, the MIO2 pin will remain
in input mode regardless of the value programmed in
MIC[5], However MIC[4] still controls the input sense.
PME_Status is a sticky bit which will be cleared by writing a
‘1’ to it. While PME_En (PMCSR[8]) bit in Function1 is set,
PME_Status will assert the PME# pin to inform the device
driver that a power management wake up event has
occurred. After a wake up event is signalled, the device
driver is expected to return the function to the D0 powerstate. Settings for wake up events are shown in Table 12.
Operation
Function0 power-down interrupt is disabled. MIO1 can assert as
interrupt is GIS[21] is set.
Function0 power-down interrupt is disabled. GIS[5]
reflects the state of the internal power-down mode for
Polling operation. MIO1 interrupt is disabled.
Function0 power-down is enabled. GIS[5] reflects the state
of the internal power-down mode. MIO1 interrupt is
disabled.
Table 11: Function 0 (UARTs) Power down interrupt settings
LCC[7]
0
1
1
1
1
MIC[4]
X
0
0
1
1
MIO2 Rising
X
yes
no
X
X
MIO2 Falling
X
X
X
Yes
No
Function1 PME_Status
Remains unchanged
Gets set
Remains unchanged
Gets set
Remains unchanged
Table 12: Function 1 (Local Bus) Wake-up configuration
Data Sheet Revision 1.3
Page 28
OX16PCI954
OXFORD SEMICONDUCTOR LTD.
7
INTERNAL OX16C950 UARTS
Each of the four UART channels in the OX16PCI954 operates individually as an OX16C950 high-peformance serial port. Each
channel has its own full set of registers, but all share a common clock and FIFOSEL pin. After a device reset, a common
configuration state is loaded into all four channels, but after this time each can be operated individually through its own 8-byte
block of addressable space.
7.1
Operation – mode selection
Each channel is backward compatible with the 16C450, 16C550, 16C654 and 16C750 UARTs. The operation of the ports
depends on a number of mode settings, which are referred to throughout this section. The modes, conditions and corresponding
FIFO depth are tabulated below:
UART Mode
450
550
Extended 550
650
750
9501
FIFO
size
1
16
128
128
128
128
FCR[0]
0
1
1
1
1
1
Enhanced mode
(EFR[4]=1)
X
0
0
1
0
1
FCR[5]
(guarded with LCR[7] = 1)
X
0
X
X
1
X
FIFOSEL
pin
X
0
1
X
0
X
Table 13: UART Mode Configuration
Note 1: 950 mode configuration is identical to 650 configuration
7.1.1
450 Mode
After a hardware reset, bit 0 of the FIFO Control Register
(‘FCR’) is cleared, hence the UARTs are compatible with
the 16C450. The transmitter and receiver FIFOs (referred
to as the ‘Transmit Holding Register’ and ‘Receiver Holding
Register’ respectively) have a depth of one. This is referred
to as ‘Byte mode’. When FCR[0] is cleared, all other mode
selection parameters are ignored.
7.1.2
550 Mode
Connect FIFOSEL to GND. After a hardware reset, writing
a 1 to FCR[0] will increase the FIFO size to 16, providing
compatibility with 16C550 devices.
increased to 128 by writing a 1 to FCR[5]. Note that access
to FCR[5] is protected by LCR[7]. i.e., to set FCR[5],
software should first set LCR[7] to temporarily remove the
guard. Once FCR[5] is set, the software should clear
LCR[7] for normal operation.
The 16C750 additional features are available as long as
the UART is not put into Enhanced mode; i.e. ensure
EFR[4] = ‘0’. These features are:
•
•
•
Deeper FIFOs
Automatic RTS/CTS out-of-band flow control
Sleep mode
7.1.5
7.1.3
Extended 550 Mode
Connect FIFOSEL to VDD. Writing a 1 to FCR[0] will now
increase the FIFO size to 128, thus providing a 550 device
with 128 deep FIFOs.
7.1.4
750 Mode
For compatibility with 16C750, connect FIFOSEL to GND.
Writing a 1 to FCR[0] will increase the FIFO size to 16. In a
similar fashion to 16C750, the FIFO size can be further
Data Sheet Revision 1.3
650 Mode
The OX16C950 is compatible with the 16C650 when
EFR[4] is set, i.e. the device is in Enhanced mode. As 650
software drivers usually put the device in Enhanced mode,
running 650 drivers on the one of the UART channels will
result in 650 compatibility with 128 deep FIFOs, as long as
FCR[0] is set. This is regardless of the state of the
FIFOSEL pin. Note that the 650 emulation mode of the
OX16PCI954 provides 128-deep FIFOs rather than the 32
provided by a legacy 16C654.
Page 29
OXFORD SEMICONDUCTOR LTD.
In enhanced (650) mode the device has the following
features available over those provided by a generic 550.
(Note: some of these are similar to those provided in 750
mode, but enabled using different registers).
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
Deeper FIFOs
Sleep mode
Automatic in-band flow control
Special character detection
Infra-red “IrDA-format” transmit and receive mode
Transmit trigger levels
Optional clock prescaler
7.1.6
950 Mode
The additional features offered in 950 mode generally only
apply when the UART is in Enhanced mode (EFR[4]=’1’).
Provided FCR[0] is set, in Enhanced mode the FIFO size is
128 regardless of the state of FIFOSEL.
Note that 950 mode configuration is identical to that of 650
mode, however additional 950 specific features are
enabled using the Additional Control Register ‘ACR’ (see
section 7.11.3). In addition to larger FIFOs and higher baud
rates, the enhancements of the 950 mode over 650
emulation mode are:
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
Selectable arbitrary trigger levels for the receiver and
transmitter FIFO interrupts
Improved automatic flow control using selectable
arbitrary thresholds
DSR#/DTR# automatic flow control
Transmitter and receiver can be optionally disabled
Software reset of device
Readable FIFO fill levels
Optional generation of an RS-485 buffer enable signal
Four-byte device identification (0x16C95001)
Readable status for automatic in-band and out-ofband flow control
External 1x clock modes (see section 7.10.4)
Flexible “M+N/8” clock prescaler (see section 7.10.2)
Programmable sample clock to allow data rates up to
15 Mbps (see section 7.10.3).
9-bit data mode
Readable FCR register
Data Sheet Revision 1.3
OX16PCI954
The 950 trigger levels are enabled when ACR[5] is set
where bits 4 to 7 of FCR are ignored. Then arbitrary trigger
levels can be defined in RTL, TTL, FCL and FCH registers
(see section 7.11). The Additional Status Register (‘ASR’)
offers flow control status for the local and remote
transmitters. FIFO levels are readable using RFL and TFL
registers.
The UART has a flexible prescaler capable of dividing the
system clock by any value between 1 and 31.875 in steps
of 0.125. It divides the system clock by an arbitrary value in
“M+N/8” format, where M and N are 5- and 3-bit binary
numbers programmed in CPR[7:3] and CPR[2:0]
respectively. This arrangement offers a great deal of
flexibility when choosing an input clock frequency to
synthesise arbitrary baud rates. The default division value
is 4 to provide backward compatibility with 16C650
devices.
The user may apply an external 1x (or Nx) clock for the
transmitter and receiver to the RI# and DSR# pin
respectively. The transmitter clock may instead be asserted
on the DTR# pin. The external clock options are selected
through the CKS register (offset 0x02 of ICR).
It is also possible to define the over-sampling rate used by
the transmitter and receiver clocks. The 16C450/16C550
and compatible devices employ 16 times over-sampling,
where there are 16 clock cycles per bit. However the 95x
UART channels can employ any over-sampling rate from 4
to 16 by programming the TCR register. This allows the
data rates to be increased to 460.8 Kbps using a
1.8432MHz clock, or 15 Mbps using a 60 MHz clock. The
default value after a reset for this register is 0x00, which
corresponds to a 16 cycle sampling clock. Writing 0x01,
0x02 or 0x03 will also result in a 16 cycle sampling clock.
To program the value to any value from 4 to 15 it is
necessary to write this value into the TCR i.e. to set the
device to a 13 cycle sampling clock it would be necessary
to write 0x0D to TCR. For further information see section
7.10.3
The UARTs also offer 9-bit data frames for multi-drop
industrial applications.
Page 30
OX16PCI954
OXFORD SEMICONDUCTOR LTD.
7.2
Register description tables
Each UART is accessed through an 8-byte block of I/O space (or through memory space). Since there are more than 8 registers,
the mapping is also dependent on the state of the Line Control Register ‘LCR’ and Additional Control Register ‘ACR’:
1.
2.
3.
4.
LCR[7]=1 enables the divider latch registers DLL and DLM.
LCR specifies the data format used for both transmitter and receiver. Writing 0xBF (an unused format) to LCR enables
access to the 650 compatible register set. Writing this value will set LCR[7] but leaves LCR[6:0] unchanged. Therefore, the
data format of the transmitter and receiver data is not affected. Write the desired LCR value to exit from this selection.
ACR[7]=1 enables access to the 950 specific registers.
ACR[6]=1 enables access to the Indexed Control Register set (ICR) registers as described on page 33.
Register
Name
Address
R/W
THR 1
000
W
Data to be transmitted
RHR 1
000
R
Data received
IER 1,2
650/950
Mode
001
R/W
010
W
ISR 3
010
R
LCR 4
011
R/W
550/750
Mode
FCR 3
650 mode
750 mode
950 mode
MCR 3,4
550/750
Mode
Bit 7
CTS
interrupt
mask
Bit 6
Special
Char.
Detect
Sleep
mode
Alternate
Unused
sleep
mode
RHR Trigger
THR Trigger
Level
Level
RHR Trigger
FIFO
Unused
Level
Size
Unused
FIFOs
enabled
Divisor
latch
access
Tx
break
Force
parity
CTS &
RTS
Flow
Control
650/950
Mode
Baud
prescale
IrDA
mode
XON-Any
LSR 3,5
Normal
Data
Error
Tx Empty
THR
Empty
DCD
RI
9-bit data
mode
MSR 3
R
110
R
Bit 3
Bit 2
Bit 1
Bit 0
Modem
interrupt
mask
Rx Stat
interrupt
mask
THRE
interrupt
mask
RxRDY
interrupt
mask
Tx
Trigger
Enable
Flush
THR
Flush
RHR
Enable
FIFO
Interrupt priority
(Enhanced mode)
R/W
101
Bit 4
RTS
interrupt
mask
Unused
100
Bit 5
Odd /
even
parity
Interrupt priority
(All modes)
Parity
enable
Enable
Internal
Loop
Back
Rx
Break
Number
of stop
bits
Unused
Framing
Error
Parity
Error
9th Rx
data bit
Delta
Trailing
DSR
CTS
DCD
RI edge
Temporary data storage register and
Indexed control register offset value bits
Interrupt
pending
Data length
RTS
DTR
Overrun
Error
RxRDY
Delta
DSR
Delta
CTS
SPR 3
Normal
111
R/W
9-bit data
9th Tx
Unused
mode
data bit
Additional Standard Registers – These registers require divisor latch access bit (LCR[7]) to be set to 1.
DLL
000
R/W
Divisor latch bits [7:0] (Least significant byte)
DLM
001
R/W
Divisor latch bits [15:8] (Most significant byte)
Table 14: Standard 550 Compatible Registers
Data Sheet Revision 1.3
Page 31
OX16PCI954
OXFORD SEMICONDUCTOR LTD.
Register
Name
Address
R/W
EFR
010
R/W
XON1
100
R/W
9-bit mode
XON2
101
R/W
9-bit mode
XOFF1
110
R/W
9-bit mode
XOFF2
111
R/W
Bit 7
Bit 6
Bit 5
Bit 4
Bit 3
Bit 2
Bit 1
Bit 0
To access these registers LCR must be set to 0xBF
CTS
RTS
Special
Enhance
In-band flow control mode
flow
Flow
char
mode
control
control
detect
XON Character 1
Special character 1
XON Character 2
Special Character 2
XOFF Character 1
Special character 3
XOFF Character 2
9-bit mode
Special character 4
Table 15: 650 Compatible Registers
Register
Name
ASR 1,6,7
Address
R/W
Bit 7
Bit 6
Bit 5
Bit 4
Bit 3
Bit 2
Bit 1
Bit 0
001
R/W 7
Tx
Idle
FIFO
size
FIFOSEL
RFL 6
011
R
Special
DTR
RTS
Char
Detect
Number of characters in the receiver FIFO
Remote
Tx
Disabled
Tx
Disabled
TFL 3,6
100
R
Number of characters in the transmitter FIFO
ICR 3,8,9
101
R/W
Data read/written depends on the value written to the SPR prior to
the access of this register (see Table 17)
Table 16: 950 Specific Registers
Register access notes:
Note 1: Requires LCR[7] = 0
Note 2: Requires ACR[7] = 0
Note 3: Requires that last value written to LCR was not 0xBF
Note 4: To read this register ACR[7] must be = 0
Note 5: To read this register ACR[6] must be = 0
Note 6: Requires ACR[7] = 1
Note 7: Only bits 0 and 1 of this register can be written
Note 8: To read this register ACR[6] must be = 1
Note 9: This register acts as a window through which to read and write registers in the Indexed Control Register set
Data Sheet Revision 1.3
Page 32
OX16PCI954
OXFORD SEMICONDUCTOR LTD.
Register
Name
SPR
Offset 10
R/W
Bit 7
Bit 6
ACR
0x00
R/W
Additional
Status
Enable
CPR
0x01
R/W
TCR
0x02
R/W
CKS
0x03
R/W
TTL
0x04
RTL
Bit 5
Bit 4
Bit 3
Bit 2
Bit 1
Bit 0
Indexed Control Register Set
ICR
950
DTR definition and
Read
Trigger
control
Enable
Level
Enable
R/W
Tx 1x
Mode
Unused
Auto
Tx
Rx
DSR
Disable
Disable
Flow
Control
Enable
5 Bit “integer” part of
3 Bit “fractional” part of
clock prescaler
clock prescaler
Unused
4 Bit N-times clock
selection bits [3:0]
Tx CLK
BDOUT
DTR 1x
Rx 1x
0
Receiver
Select
on DTR
Tx CLK
Mode
Clock Sel[1:0]
Transmitter Interrupt Trigger Level (0-127)
0x05
R/W
Unused
Receiver Interrupt Trigger Level (1-127)
FCL
0x06
R/W
Unused
Automatic Flow Control Lower Trigger Level (0-127)
FCH
0x07
R/W
Unused
Automatic Flow Control Higher Trigger level (1-127)
ID1
0x08
R
Hardwired ID byte 1 (0x16)
ID2
0x09
R
Hardwired ID byte 1 (0xC9)
ID3
0x0A
R
Hardwired ID byte 1 (0x50)
REV
0x0B
R
Hardwired revision byte (0x01)
CSR
0x0C
W
NMR
0x0D
R/W
MDM
0x0E
R/W
0
0
RFC
GDS
0X0F
0X10
R
R
FCR[7]
0
FCR[6]
0
Writing 0x00 to this register will
reset the UART (Except the CKS register)
9th Bit
9th Bit
9th Bit
9th Bit
SChar 4
SChar 3
SChar 2
SChar 1
Trailing
SIN
Modem
∆ DCD
RI edge
wakeup
Wakeup
Wakeup
disable
disable
Disable
disable
FCR[5]
FCR[4]
FCR[3]
FCR[2]
0
0
0
0
Unused
9th-bit Int.
En.
∆ DSR
Wakeup
disable
FCR[1]
0
9 Bit
Enable
∆ CTS
Wakeup
disable
FCR[0]
Good
data
status
Table 17: Indexed Control Register Set
Note 10:
The SPR offset column indicates the value that must be written into SPR prior to reading / writing any of the Indexed Control Registers via ICR.
Offset values not listed in the table are reserved for future use and must not be used.
To read or write to any of the Indexed Controlled Registers use the following procedure:
Writing to ICR registers:
Ensure that the last value written to LCR was not 0xBF (reserved for 650 compatible register access value).
Write the desired offset to SPR (address 111b).
Write the desired value to ICR (address 101b).
Reading from ICR registers:
Ensure that the last value written to LCR was not 0xBF (see above).
Write 0x00 offset to SPR to select ACR.
Set bit 6 of ACR (ICR read enable) by writing x1xxxxxxb to address 101b. Ensure that other bits in ACR are not changed.
(Software drivers should keep a copy of the contents of the ACR elsewhere since reading ICR involves overwriting ACR!)
Write the desired offset to SPR (address 111b).
Read the desired value from ICR (address 101b).
Write 0x00 offset to SPR to select ACR.
Clear bit 6 of ACR bye writing x0xxxxxxb to ICR, thus enabling access to standard registers again.
Data Sheet Revision 1.3
Page 33
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OXFORD SEMICONDUCTOR LTD.
7.3
Reset Configuration
7.3.1
Hardware Reset
7.3.2
After a hardware reset, all writable registers are reset to
0x00, with the following exceptions:
DLL, which is reset to 0x01.
CPR, which is reset to 0x20.
The state of read-only registers following a hardware reset
is as follows:
RHR[7:0]:
RFL[6:0]:
TFL[6:0]:
LSR[7:0]:
MSR[3:0]:
MSR[7:4]:
ISR[7:0]:
ASR[7:0]:
Software Reset
An additional feature available in the OX16C950 UART is
software resetting of the serial channel. This command has
the same effect on a single channel as a hardware reset
except it does not reset the clock source selections (i.e.
CKS register). To reset the UART write 0x00 to the
Channel Software Reset register ‘CSR’.
Indeterminate
00000002
00000002
0x60 signifying that both the transmitter and the
transmitter FIFO are empty
00002
Dependent on modem input lines DCD, RI,
DSR and CTS respectively
0x01, i.e. no interrupts are pending
1xx000002
The reset state of output signals are tabulated below:
Signal
SOUT
RTS#
DTR#
Reset state
Inactive High
Inactive High
Inactive High
Table 18: Output Signal Reset State
Data Sheet Revision 1.3
Page 34
OX16PCI954
OXFORD SEMICONDUCTOR LTD.
7.4
Transmitter and receiver FIFOs
Both the transmitter and receiver have associated holding
registers (FIFOs), referred to as the transmitter holding
register (THR) and receiver holding register (RHR)
respectively.
In normal operation, when the transmitter finishes
transmitting a byte it will remove the next data from the top
of the THR and proceed to transmit it. If the THR is empty,
it will wait until data is written into it. If THR is empty and
the last character being transmitted has been completed
(i.e. the transmitter shift register is empty) the transmitter is
said to be idle. Similarly, when the receiver finishes
receiving a byte, it will transfer it to the bottom of the RHR.
If the RHR is full, an overrun condition will occur (see
section 7.5.3).
Data is written into the bottom of the THR queue and read
from the top of the RHR queue completely asynchronously
to the operation of the transmitter and receiver.
The size of the FIFOs is dependent on the setting of the
FCR register. When in Byte mode, these FIFOs only
accept one byte at a time before indicating that they are
full; this is compatible with the 16C450. When in a FIFO
mode, the size of the FIFOs is either 16 (compatible with
the 16C550) or 128.
Data written to the THR when it is full is lost. Data read
from the RHR when it is empty is invalid. The empty or full
status of the FIFOs are indicated in the Line Status
Register ‘LSR’ (see section 7.5.3). Interrupts are generated
when the UART is ready for data transfer to/from the
FIFOs. The number of items in each FIFO may also be
read back from the transmitter FIFO level (TFL) and
receiver FIFO level (RFL) registers (see section 7.11.2).
7.4.1 FIFO Control Register ‘FCR’
FIFO setup:
FCR[0]: Enable FIFO mode
logic 0 ⇒Byte mode.
logic 1 ⇒FIFO mode.
This bit should be enabled before setting the FIFO trigger
levels.
FCR[1]: Flush RHR
logic 0 ⇒No change.
logic 1 ⇒Flushes the contents of the RHR
This is only operative when already in a FIFO mode. The
RHR is automatically flushed whenever changing between
Data Sheet Revision 1.3
Byte mode and a FIFO mode. This bit will return to zero
after clearing the FIFOs.
FCR[2]: Flush THR
logic 0 ⇒ No change.
logic 1 ⇒Flushes the contents of the THR, in the same
manner as FCR[1] does for the RHR.
THR Trigger levels:
FCR[3]: Tx trigger level enable
logic 0 ⇒Transmit trigger levels enabled
logic 1 ⇒Transmit trigger levels disabled
When FCR[3]=0, the transmitter trigger level is always set
to 1, thus ignoring FCR[5:4]. Alternatively, 950-mode
trigger levels can be set using ACR[5].
FCR[5:4]: Compatible trigger levels
450, 550 and extended 550 modes:
The transmitter interrupt trigger levels are set to 1 and
FCR[5:4] are ignored.
650 mode:
In 650 mode the transmitter interrupt trigger levels can be
set to the following values:
FCR[5:4]
00
01
10
11
Transmit Interrupt Trigger level
16
32
64
112
Table 19: Transmit Interrupt Trigger Levels
These levels only apply when in Enhanced mode and when
FCR[3] is set, otherwise the trigger level is set to 1. A
transmitter empty interrupt will be generated (if enabled) if
the TFL falls below the trigger level.
750 Mode:
In 750 compatible mode, transmitter trigger level is set to 1,
FCR[4] is unused and FCR[5] defines the FIFO depth as
follows:
FCR[5]=0: FIFO size is 16 bytes.
FCR[5]=1: FIFO size is 128 bytes.
In non-Enhanced mode and when FIFOSEL pin is low,
FCR[5] is writable only when LCR[7] is set. Note that in
Enhanced mode, the FIFO size is increased to 128 bytes
when FCR[0] is set.
Page 35
OX16PCI954
OXFORD SEMICONDUCTOR LTD.
950 mode:
Setting ACR[5]=1 enables 950-mode trigger levels set
using the TTL register (see section 7.11.4), FCR[5:4] are
ignored.
RHR trigger levels
FCR[7:6]: Compatible Trigger levels
450, 550, extended 550, 650 and 750 modes:
The receiver FIFO trigger levels are defined using
FCR[7:6]. The interrupt trigger level and upper flow control
trigger level where appropriate are defined by L1 in the
table below. L2 defines the lower flow control trigger level.
Separate upper and lower flow control trigger levels
introduce a hysteresis element in in-band and out-of-band
flow control (see section 7.9). In Byte mode (450 mode) the
trigger levels are all set to 1.
7.5
7.5.1
FCR
[7:6]
550
FIFO Size 16
00
01
10
11
L1
1
4
8
14
L2
n/a
n/a
n/a
n/a
Mode
Ext. 550 / 750
FIFO Size 128
L1
1
32
64
112
L2
1
1
1
1
650
FIFO Size 128
L1
16
32
112
120
L2
1
16
32
112
Table 20: Compatible Receiver Trigger Levels
A receiver data interrupt will be generated (if enabled) if the
Receiver FIFO Level (‘RFL’) reaches the upper trigger
level.
Line Control & Status
False Start Bit Detection
On the falling edge of a start bit, the receiver will wait for
1/2 bit and re-synchronise the receiver’s sampling clock
onto the centre of the start bit. The start bit is valid if the
SIN line is still low at this mid-bit sample and the receiver
will proceed to read in a data character. Verifying the start
bit prevents noise generating spurious character
generation. Once the first stop bit has been sampled, the
received data is transferred to the RHR and the receiver
will then wait for a low transition on SIN (signifying the next
start bit).
The receiver will continue receiving data even if the RHR is
full or the receiver has been disabled (see section 7.11.3)
in order to maintain framing synchronisation. The only
difference is that the received data does not get transferred
to the RHR.
7.5.2
950 mode:
In similar fashion to for transmitter trigger levels, setting
ACR[5]=1 enables 950-mode receiver trigger levels.
FCR[7:6] are ignored.
Line Control Register ‘LCR’
The LCR specifies the data format that is common to both
transmitter and receiver. Writing 0xBF to LCR enables
access to the EFR, XON1, XOFF1, XON2 and XOFF2,
DLL and DLM registers. This value (0xBF) corresponds to
an unused data format. Writing the value 0xBF to LCR will
set LCR[7] but leaves LCR[6:0] unchanged. Therefore, the
data format of the transmitter and receiver data is not
Data Sheet Revision 1.3
affected. Write the desired LCR value to exit from this
selection.
LCR[1:0]: Data length
LCR[1:0] Determines the data length of serial characters.
Note however, that these values are ignored in 9-bit data
framing mode, i.e. when NMR[0] is set.
LCR[1:0]
00
01
10
11
Data length
5 bits
6 bits
7 bits
8 bits
Table 21: LCR Data Length Configuration
LCR[2]: Number of stop bits
LCR[2] defines the number of stop bits per serial character.
LCR[2]
Data length
0
1
1
5,6,7,8
5
6,7,8
No. stop
bits
1
1.5
2
Table 22: LCR Stop Bit Number Configuration
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OXFORD SEMICONDUCTOR LTD.
LCR[5:3]: Parity type
The selected parity type will be generated during
transmission and checked by the receiver, which may
produce a parity error as a result. In 9-bit mode parity is
disabled and LCR[5:3] is ignored.
LCR[5:3]
xx0
001
011
101
111
Parity type
No parity bit
Odd parity bit
Even parity bit
Parity bit forced to 1
Parity bit forced to 0
Table 23: LCR Parity Configuration
LCR[6]: Transmission break
logic 0 ⇒Break transmission disabled.
logic 1 ⇒Forces the transmitter data output SOUT low to
alert the communication terminal, or send zeros in IrDA
mode.
It is the responsibility of the software driver to ensure that
the break duration is longer than the character period for it
to be recognised remotely as a break rather than data.
LCR[7]: Divisor latch enable
logic 0 ⇒Access to DLL and DLM registers disabled.
logic 1 ⇒Access to DLL and DLM registers enabled.
7.5.3
Line Status Register ‘LSR’
This register provides the status of data transfer to CPU.
LSR[0]: RHR data available
logic 0 ⇒ RHR is empty: no data available
logic 1 ⇒ RHR is not empty: data is available to be read.
LSR[1]: RHR overrun error
logic 0 ⇒ No overrun error.
logic 1 ⇒ Data was received when the RHR was full. An
overrun error has occurred. The error is flagged
when the data would normally have been
transferred to the RHR.
LSR[2]: Received data parity error
logic 0 ⇒ No parity error in normal mode or 9th bit of
received data is ‘0’ in 9-bit mode.
logic 1 ⇒ Data has been received that did not have
correct parity in normal mode or 9th bit of
received data is ‘1’ in 9-bit mode.
Data Sheet Revision 1.3
The Parity error flag will be set when the data item in error
is at the top of the RHR and cleared following a read of the
LSR. In 9-bit mode LSR[2] is no longer a flag and
corresponds to the 9th bit of the received data in RHR.
LSR[3]: Received data framing error
logic 0 ⇒ No framing error.
logic 1 ⇒ Data has been received with an invalid stop bit.
This status bit is set and cleared in the same manner as
LSR[2]. When a framing error occurs, the UART will try to
re-synchronise by assuming that the error was due to
sampling the start bit of the next data item.
LSR[4]: Received break error
logic 0 ⇒ No receiver break error.
logic 1 ⇒ The receiver received a break.
A break condition occurs when the SIN line goes low
(normally signifying a start bit) and stays low throughout
the start, data, parity and first stop bit. (Note that the SIN
line is sampled at the bit rate). One zero character with
associated break flag set will be transferred to the RHR
and the receiver will then wait until the SIN line returns
high. The LSR[4] break flag will be set when this data item
gets to the top of the RHR and it is cleared following a read
of the LSR.
LSR[5]: THR empty
logic 0 ⇒ Transmitter FIFO (THR) is not empty.
logic 1 ⇒ Transmitter FIFO (THR) is empty.
LSR[6]: Transmitter and THR empty
logic 0 ⇒ The transmitter is not idle
logic 1 ⇒ THR is empty and the transmitter has
completed the character in shift register and is
in idle mode. (I.e. set whenever the transmitter
shift register and the THR are both empty.)
LSR[7]: Receiver data error
logic 0 ⇒ Either there are no receiver data errors in the
FIFO or it was cleared by a read of LSR.
logic 1 ⇒ At least one parity error, framing error or break
indication in the FIFO.
In 450 mode LSR[7] is permanently cleared, otherwise this
bit will be set when an erroneous character is transferred
from the receiver to the RHR. It is cleared when the LSR is
read. Note that in 16C550 this bit is only cleared when
all of the erroneous data are removed from the FIFO. In
9-bit data framing mode parity is permanently disabled, so
this bit is not affected by LSR[2].
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OXFORD SEMICONDUCTOR LTD.
7.6
Interrupts & Sleep Mode
The serial channel interrupts are asserted on the PCI
INTA# pin. The interrupts can be enabled or disabled using
the GIS register interrupt mask (see section 6.4.8) and the
IER register. Unlike generic 16C550 devices, the interrupt
can not be disabled using the implementation-specific
MCR[3].
7.6.1
Interrupt Enable Register ‘IER’
Serial channel interrupts are enabled using the Interrupt
Enable Register (‘IER’).
IER[0]: Receiver data available interrupt mask
logic 0 ⇒ Disable the receiver ready interrupt.
logic 1 ⇒ Enable the receiver ready interrupt.
IER[1]: Transmitter empty interrupt mask
logic 0 ⇒ Disable the transmitter empty interrupt.
logic 1 ⇒ Enable the transmitter empty interrupt.
In 9-bit data mode, The receiver can detect up to four
special characters programmed in the Special Character
Registers (see map on page 32). When IER[5] is set, a
level 5 interrupt is asserted when the receiver character
matches one of the values programmed.
650/950 modes (non-9-bit data framing):
logic 0 ⇒ Disable the special character receive interrupt.
logic 1 ⇒ Enable the special character receive interrupt.
In 16C650 compatible mode when the device is in
Enhanced mode (EFR[4]=1), this bit enables the detection
of special characters. It enables both the detection of
XOFF characters (when in-band flow control is enabled via
EFR[3:0]) and the detection of the XOFF2 special
character (when enabled via EFR[5]).
750 mode (non-9-bit data framing):
logic 0 ⇒ Disable alternate sleep mode.
logic 1 ⇒ Enable alternate sleep mode whereby the
internal clock of the channel is switched off.
IER[2]: Receiver status interrupt
Normal mode:
logic 0 ⇒ Disable the receiver status interrupt.
logic 1 ⇒ Enable the receiver status interrupt.
9-bit data mode:
logic 0 ⇒ Disable receiver status and address bit
interrupt.
logic 1 ⇒ Enable receiver status and address bit
interrupt.
IER[6]: RTS interrupt mask
logic 0 ⇒ Disable the RTS interrupt.
logic 1 ⇒ Enable the RTS interrupt.
In 9-bit mode (i.e. when NMR[0] is set), reception of a
character with the address-bit (i.e. 9th bit) set can generate
a level 1 interrupt if IER[2] is set.
This enable is only operative in Enhanced mode
(EFR[4]=1). In non-Enhanced mode, RTS interrupt is
permanently enabled
IER[3]: Modem status interrupt mask
logic 0 ⇒ Disable the modem status interrupt.
logic 1 ⇒ Enable the modem status interrupt.
IER[7]: CTS interrupt mask
logic 0 ⇒ Disable the CTS interrupt.
logic 1 ⇒ Enable the CTS interrupt.
IER[4]: Sleep mode
logic 0 ⇒ Disable sleep mode.
logic 1 ⇒ Enable sleep mode whereby the internal clock
of the channel is switched off.
This enable is only operative in Enhanced mode
(EFR[4]=1). In non-Enhanced mode, CTS interrupt is
permanently enabled.
In 16C750 compatible mode (i.e. non-Enhanced mode),
this bit is used an alternate sleep mode and has the same
effect as IER[4].
Sleep mode is described in section 7.6.4.
IER[5]: Special character interrupt mask or alternate
sleep mode
9-bit data framing mode:
logic 0 ⇒ Disable the received special character interrupt.
logic 1 ⇒ Enable the received special character interrupt.
Data Sheet Revision 1.3
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OXFORD SEMICONDUCTOR LTD.
7.6.2
Level 2a:
Interrupt Status Register ‘ISR’
The source of the highest priority interrupt pending is
indicated by the contents of the Interrupt Status Register
‘ISR’. There are nine sources of interrupt at six levels of
priority (1 is the highest) as shown in Table 24.
Level
Interrupt source
ISR[5:0]
see note 3
1
No interrupt pending 1
Receiver status error or
Address-bit detected in 9-bit mode
Receiver data available
Receiver time-out
Transmitter THR empty
Modem status change
In-band flow control XOFF or
Special character (XOFF2) or
Special character 1, 2, 3 or 4 or
bit 9 set in 9-bit mode
CTS or RTS change of state
2a
2b
3
4
52
62
000001
000110
000100
001100
000010
000000
010000
100000
Table 24: Interrupt Status Identification Codes
Note1:
Note2:
Note3:
7.6.3
ISR[0] indicates whether any interrupts are pending.
Interrupts of priority levels 5 and 6 cannot occur unless the
UART is in Enhanced mode.
ISR[5] is only used in 650 & 950 modes. In 750 mode, it is ‘0’
when FIFO size is 16 and ‘1’ when FIFO size is 128. In all
other modes it is permanently set to 0
Interrupt Description
Level 1:
Receiver status error interrupt (ISR[5:0]=’000110’):
Normal (non-9-bit) mode:
This interrupt is active whenever any of LSR[1], LSR[2],
LSR[3] or LSR[4] are set. These flags are cleared following
a read of the LSR. This interrupt is masked with IER[2].
9-bit mode:
This interrupt is active whenever any of LSR[1], LSR[2],
LSR[3] or LSR[4] are set. The receiver error interrupt due
to LSR[1], LSR[3] and LSR[4] is masked with IER[3]. The
‘address-bit’ received interrupt is masked with NMR[1]. The
software driver can differentiate between receiver status
error and received address-bit (9th data bit) interrupt by
examining LSR[1] and LSR[7]. In 9-bit mode LSR[7] is only
set when LSR[3] or LSR[4] is set and it is not affected by
LSR[2] (i.e. 9th data bit).
Receiver data available interrupt (ISR[5:0]=’000100’):
This interrupt is active whenever the receiver FIFO level is
above the interrupt trigger level.
Level 2b:
Receiver time-out interrupt (ISR[5:0]=’001100’):
A receiver time-out event, which may cause an interrupt,
will occur when all of the following conditions are true:
• The UART is in a FIFO mode
• There is data in the RHR.
• There has been no read of the RHR for a period of
time greater than the time-out period.
• There has been no new data written into the RHR for
a period of time greater than the time-out period. The
time-out period is four times the character period
(including start and stop bits) measured from the
centre of the first stop bit of the last data item
received.
Reading the first data item in RHR clears this interrupt.
Level 3:
Transmitter empty interrupt (ISR[5:0]=’000010’):
This interrupt is set when the transmit FIFO level falls
below the trigger level. It is cleared on an ISR read of a
level 3 interrupt or by writing more data to the THR so that
the trigger level is exceeded. Note that when 16C950 mode
trigger levels are enabled (ACR[5]=1) and the transmitter
trigger level of zero is selected (TTL=0x00), a transmitter
empty interrupt will only be asserted when both the
transmitter FIFO and transmitter shift register are empty
and the SOUT line has returned to idle marking state.
Level 4:
Modem change interrupt (ISR[5:0]=’000000’):
This interrupt is set by a modem change flag (MSR[0],
MSR[1], MSR[2] or MSR[3]) becoming active due to
changes in the input modem lines. This interrupt is cleared
following a read of the MSR.
Level 5:
Receiver in-band flow control (XOFF) detect interrupt,
Receiver special character (XOFF2) detect interrupt,
Receiver special character 1, 2, 3 or 4 interrupt or
9th Bit set interrupt in 9-bit mode (ISR[5:0]=’010000’):
A level 5 interrupt can only occur in Enhanced-mode when
any of the following conditions are met:
• A valid XOFF character is received while in-band flow
control is enabled.
• A received character matches XOFF2 while special
character detection is enabled, i.e. EFR[5]=1.
• A received character matches special character 1, 2, 3
or 4 in 9-bit mode (see section 7.11.9).
It is cleared on an ISR read of a level 5 interrupt.
Data Sheet Revision 1.3
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Level 6:
CTS or RTS changed interrupt (ISR[5:0]=’100000’):
This interrupt is set whenever any of the CTS# or RTS#
pins changes state from low to high. It is cleared on an ISR
read of a level 6 interrupt.
7.6.4
Sleep Mode
For a channel to go into sleep mode, all of the following
conditions must be met:
•
•
•
•
•
Sleep mode enabled (IER[4]=1 in 650/950 modes, or
IER[5]=1 in 750 mode):
The transmitter is idle, i.e. the transmitter shift register
and FIFO are both empty.
SIN is high.
The receiver is idle.
The receiver FIFO is empty (LSR[0]=0).
7.7
7.7.1
•
•
•
The UART is not in loopback mode (MCR[4]=0).
Changes on modem input lines have been
acknowledged (i.e. MSR[3:0]=0000).
No interrupts are pending.
A read of IER[4] (or IER[5] if a 1 was written to that bit
instead) shows whether the power-down request was
successful. The UART will retain its programmed state
whilst in power-down mode.
The channel will automatically exit power-down mode when
any of the conditions 1 to 7 becomes false. It may be
woken manually by clearing IER[4] (or IER[5] if the
alternate sleep mode is enabled).
Sleep mode operation is not available in IrDA mode.
Modem Interface
Modem Control Register ‘MCR’
MCR[0]: DTR
logic 0 ⇒ Force DTR# output to inactive (high).
logic 1 ⇒ Force DTR# output to active (low).
Note that DTR# can be used for automatic out-of-band flow
control when enabled using ACR[4:3] (see section 7.11.3).
MCR[1]: RTS
logic 0 ⇒ Force RTS# output to inactive (high).
logic 1 ⇒ Force RTS# output to active (low).
Note that RTS# can be used for automatic out-of-band flow
control when enabled using EFR[6] (see section 7.9.4).
MCR[2]: OUT1
logic 0 ⇒ Force OUT1# output low when loopback mode
is disabled.
logic 1 ⇒ Force OUT1# output high.
MCR[3]: OUT2/External interrupt enable
logic 0 ⇒ Force OUT2# output low when loopback mode
is disabled. If INT_SEL# is low the external
interrupt is in high-impedance state when
MCR[3] is cleared. If INT_SEL# is high MCR[3]
does not affect the interrupt.
logic 1 ⇒ Force OUT2# output high. If INT_SEL# is low
the external interrupt is enabled and operating
in normal active (forcing) mode when MCR[3] is
high. If INT_SEL# is high MCR[3] does not
affect the interrupt.
Data Sheet Revision 1.3
MCR[4]: Loopback mode
logic 0 ⇒ Normal operating mode.
logic 1 ⇒ Enable local loop-back mode (diagnostics).
In local loop-back mode, the transmitter output (SOUT) and
the four modem outputs (DTR#, RTS#, OUT1# and
OUT2#) are set in-active (high), and the receiver inputs
SIN, CTS#, DSR#, DCD#, and RI# are all disabled.
Internally the transmitter output is connected to the receiver
input and DTR#, RTS#, OUT1# and OUT2# are connected
to modem status inputs DSR#, CTS#, RI# and DCD#
respectively.
In this mode, the receiver and transmitter interrupts are
fully operational. The modem control interrupts are also
operational, but the interrupt sources are now the lower
four bits of the Modem Control Register instead of the four
modem status inputs. The interrupts are still controlled by
the IER.
MCR[5]: Enable XON-Any in Enhanced mode or enable
out-of-band flow control in non-Enhanced mode
650/950 (enhanced) modes:
logic 0 ⇒ XON-Any is disabled.
logic 1 ⇒ XON-Any is enabled.
In enhanced mode (EFR[4]=1), this bit enables the XonAny operation. When Xon-Any is enabled, any received
data will be accepted as a valid XON (see in-band flow
control, section 7.9.3).
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750 (normal) mode:
logic 0 ⇒ CTS/RTS flow control disabled.
logic 1 ⇒ CTS/RTS flow control enabled.
In non-enhanced mode, this bit enables the CTS/RTS outof-band flow control.
MCR[6]: IrDA mode
logic 0 ⇒ Standard serial receiver and transmitter data
format.
logic 1 ⇒ Data will be transmitted and received in IrDA
format.
This function is only available in Enhanced mode. It
requires a 16x clock to function correctly.
MCR[7]: Baud rate prescaler select
logic 0 ⇒ Normal (divide by 1) baud rate generator
prescaler selected.
logic 1 ⇒ Divide-by-“M+N/8” baud rate generator
prescaler selected.
where M & N are programmed in CPR (ICR offset 0x01).
After a hardware reset, CPR defaults to 0x20 (divide-by-4)
and MCR[7] is reset. User writes to this flag will only take
effect in Enhanced mode. See section 7.9.1.
7.7.2
Modem Status Register ‘MSR’
MSR[0]: Delta CTS#
Indicates that the CTS# input has changed since the last
time the MSR was read.
MSR[1]: Delta DSR#
Indicates that the DSR# input has changed since the last
time the MSR was read.
MSR[2]: Trailing edge RI#
Indicates that the RI# input has changed from low to high
since the last time the MSR was read.
MSR[3]: Delta DCD#
Indicates that the DCD# input has changed since the last
time the MSR was read.
MSR[4]: CTS
This bit is the complement of the CTS# input. It is
equivalent to RTS (MCR[1]) in internal loop-back mode.
MSR[5]: DSR
This bit is the complement of the DSR# input. It is
equivalent to DTR (MCR[0]) in internal loop-back mode.
MSR[6]: RI
This bit is the complement of the RI# input. In internal loopback mode it is equivalent to the internal OUT1.
MSR[7]: DCD
This bit is the complement of the DCD# input. In internal
loop-back mode it is equivalent to the internal OUT2.
7.8
7.8.1
Other Standard Registers
Divisor Latch Registers ‘DLL & DLM’
The divisor latch registers are used to program the baud
rate divisor. This is a value between 1 and 65535 by which
the input clock is divided by in order to generate serial
baud rates. After a hardware reset, the baud rate used by
the transmitter and receiver is given by:
Baudrate =
InputClock
16 * Divisor
7.8.2
Scratch Pad Register ‘SPR’
The scratch pad register does not affect operation of the
rest of the UART in any way and can be used for
temporary data storage. The register may also be used to
define an offset value to access the registers in the
Indexed Control Register set. For more information on
Indexed Control registers see sections 7.2 and 7.11.
Where divisor is given by DLL + ( 256 x DLM ). More
flexible baud rate generation options are also available.
See section 7.10 for full details.
Data Sheet Revision 1.3
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7.9
Automatic Flow Control
Automatic in-band flow control, automatic out-of-band flow
control and special character detection features can be
used when in Enhanced mode (flow control is software
compatible with the 16C654). Alternatively, 750-compatible
automatic out-of-band flow control can be enabled when in
non-Enhanced mode. In 950 mode, in-band and out-ofband flow controls are compatible with 16C654 with the
addition of fully programmable flow control thresholds.
7.9.1
OX16PCI954
Enhanced Features Register ‘EFR’
Writing 0xBF to LCR enables access to the EFR and other
Enhanced mode registers. This value corresponds to an
unused data format. Writing 0xBF to LCR will set LCR[7]
but leaves LCR[6:0] unchanged. Therefore, the data format
of the transmitter and receiver data is not affected. Write
the desired LCR value to exit from this selection.
Note: In-band transmit and receive flow control is disabled
in 9-bit mode.
EFR[1:0]: In-band receive flow control mode
When in-band receive flow control is enabled, the UART
compares the received data with the programmed XOFF
character(s). When this occurs, the UART will disable
transmission as soon as any current character
transmission is complete. The UART then compares the
received data with the programmed XON character(s).
When a match occurs, the UART will re-enable
transmission (see section 7.11.6).
For automatic in-band flow control, bit 4 of EFR must be
set. The combinations of software receive flow control can
be selected by programming EFR[1:0] as follows:
logic [00] ⇒ In-band receive flow control is disabled.
logic [01] ⇒ Single character in-band receive flow control
enabled, recognising XON2 as the XON
character and XOFF2 as the XOFF
character.
logic [10] ⇒ Single character in-band receive flow control
enabled, recognising XON1 as the XON
character and XOFF1 and the XOFF
character.
logic [11] ⇒ The behaviour of the receive flow control is
dependent on the configuration of EFR[3:2].
Single character in-band receive flow control
is enabled, accepting XON1 or XON2 as valid
XON characters and XOFF1 or XOFF2 as
valid XOFF characters when EFR[3:2] = “01”
or “10”. EFR[1:0] should not be set to “11”
when EFR[3:2] is ‘00’.
Data Sheet Revision 1.3
EFR[3:2]: In-band transmit flow control mode
When in-band transmit flow control is enabled, XON/XOFF
character(s) are inserted into the data stream whenever the
RFL passes the upper trigger level and falls below the
lower trigger level respectively.
For automatic in-band flow control, bit 4 of EFR must be
set. The combinations of software transmit flow control can
then be selected by programming EFR[3:2] as follows:
logic [00] ⇒ In-band transmit flow control is disabled.
logic [01] ⇒ Single character in-band transmit flow control
enabled, using XON2 as the XON character
and XOFF2 as the XOFF character.
logic [10] ⇒ Single character in-band transmit flow control
enabled, using XON1 as the XON character
and XOFF1 as the XOFF character.
logic[11] ⇒ The value EFR[3:2] = “11” is reserved for
future use and should not be used
EFR[4]: Enhanced mode
logic 0 ⇒ Non-Enhanced mode. Disables IER bits 4-7,
ISR bits 4-5, FCR bits 4-5, MCR bits 5-7 and inband flow control. Whenever this bit is cleared,
the setting of other bits of EFR are ignored.
logic 1 ⇒ Enhanced mode. Enables the Enhanced Mode
functions. These functions include enabling
IER bits 4-7, FCR bits 4-5, MCR bits 5-7. For
in-band flow control the software driver must
set this bit first. If this bit is set, out-of-band flow
control is configured with EFR bits 6-7,
otherwise out-of-band flow control is compatible
with 16C750.
EFR[5]: Enable special character detection
logic 0 ⇒ Special character detection is disabled.
logic 1 ⇒ While in Enhanced mode (EFR[4]=1), the
UART compares the incoming receiver data
with the XOFF2 value. Upon a correct match,
the received data will be transferred to the RHR
and a level 5 interrupt (XOFF or special
character) will be asserted if level 5 interrupts
are enabled (IER[5] set to 1).
EFR[6]: Enable automatic RTS flow control.
logic 0 ⇒ RTS flow control is disabled (default).
logic 1 ⇒ RTS flow control is enabled in Enhanced mode
(i.e. EFR[4] = 1), where the RTS# pin will be
forced inactive high if the RFL reaches the
upper flow control threshold. This will be
released when the RFL drops below the lower
threshold. 650 and 950-mode drivers should
use this bit to enable RTS flow control.
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EFR[7]: Enable automatic CTS flow control.
logic 0 ⇒ CTS flow control is disabled (default).
logic 1 ⇒ CTS flow control is enabled in Enhanced mode
(i.e. EFR[4] = 1), where the data transmission is
prevented whenever the CTS# pin is held
inactive high. 650 and 950-mode drivers should
use this bit to enable CTS flow control.
A 750-mode driver should set MCR[5] to enable RTS/CTS
flow control.
7.9.2
Special Character Detection
In Enhanced mode (EFR[4]=1), when special character
detection is enabled (EFR[5]=1) and the receiver matches
received data with XOFF2, the 'received special character'
flag ASR[4] will be set and a level 5 interrupt is asserted, if
enabled by IER[5]. This flag will be cleared following a read
of ASR. The received status (i.e. parity and framing) of
special characters does not have to be valid for these
characters to be accepted as valid matches.
7.9.3
Automatic In-band Flow Control
When in-band receive flow control is enabled, the UART
will compare the received data with XOFF1 or XOFF2
characters to detect an XOFF condition. When this occurs,
the UART will disable transmission as soon as any current
character transmission is complete. Status bits ISR[4] and
ASR[0] will be set. A level 5 interrupt will occur (if enabled
by IER[5]). The UART will then compare all received data
with XON1 or XON2 characters to detect an XON
condition. When this occurs, the UART will re-enable
transmission and status bits ISR[4] and ASR[0] will be
cleared.
Any valid XON/XOFF characters will not be written into the
RHR. An exception to this rule occurs if special character
detection is enabled and an XOFF2 character is received
that is a valid XOFF. In this instance, the character will be
written into the RHR.
The received status (i.e. parity and framing) of XON/XOFF
characters does not have to be valid for these characters to
be accepted as valid matches.
When the 'XON Any' flag (MCR[5]) is set, any received
character is accepted as a valid XON condition and the
Data Sheet Revision 1.3
transmitter will be re-enabled. The received data will be
transferred to the RHR.
When in-band transmit flow control is enabled, the RFL will
be sampled whenever the transmitter is idle (briefly,
between characters, or when the THR is empty) and an
XON/XOFF character will be inserted into the data stream
if needed. Initially, remote transmissions are enabled and
hence ASR[1] is clear. If ASR[1] is clear and the RFL has
passed the upper trigger level (i.e. is above the trigger
level), XOFF will be sent and ASR[1] will be set. If ASR[1]
is set and the RFL falls below the lower trigger level, XON
will be sent and ASR[1] will be cleared.
If transmit flow control is disabled after an XOFF has been
sent, an XON will be sent automatically.
7.9.4
Automatic Out-of-band Flow Control
Automatic RTS/CTS flow control is selected by different
means, depending on whether the UART is in Enhanced or
non-Enhanced mode. When in non-Enhanced mode,
MCR[5] enables both RTS and CTS flow control. When in
Enhanced mode, EFR[6] enables automatic RTS flow
control and EFR[7] enables automatic CTS flow control.
This allows software compatibility with both 16C650 and
16C750 drivers.
When automatic CTS flow control is enabled and the CTS#
input becomes active, the UART will disable transmission
as soon as any current character transmission is complete.
Transmission is resumed whenever the CTS# input
becomes inactive.
When automatic RTS flow control is enabled, the RTS# pin
will be forced inactive when the RFL reaches the upper
trigger level and will return to active when the RFL falls
below the lower trigger level. The automatic RTS# flow
control is ANDed with MCR[1] and hence is only
operational when MCR[1]=1. This allows the software
driver to override the automatic flow control and disable the
remote transmitter regardless by setting MCR[1]=0 at any
time.
Automatic DTR/DSR flow control behaves in the same
manner as RTS/CTS flow control but is enabled by
ACR[3:2], regardless of whether or not the UART is in
Enhanced mode.
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7.10 Baud Rate Generation
7.10.1 General Operation
7.10.2 Clock Prescaler Register ‘CPR’
The UART contains a programmable baud rate generator
that is capable of taking any clock input from 1.8432MHz to
60MHz and dividing it by any 16-bit divisor number from 1
to 65535 written into the DLM (MSB) and DLL (LSB)
registers. In addition to this, a clock prescaler register is
provided which can further divide the clock by values in the
range 1.0 to 31.875 in steps of 0.125. Also, a further
feature is the Times Clock Register ‘TCR’ which allows the
sampling clock to be set to any value between 4 and 16.
The CPR register is located at offset 0x01 of the ICR
These clock options allow for highly flexible baud rate
generation capabilities from almost any input clock
frequency (up to 60MHz). The actual transmitter and
receiver baud rate is calculated as follows:
Note that since access to MCR[7] is restricted to Enhanced
mode only, EFR[4] should first be set and then MCR[7] set
or cleared as required.
InputClock
BaudRate =
SC * Divisor * prescaler
Where:
SC
= Sample clock values defined in TCR[3:0]
Divisor = DLL + ( 256 x DLM )
Prescaler = 1 when MCR[7] = ‘0’ else:
= M + ( N / 8 ) where:
M
= CPR[7:3] (Integer part – 1 to 31)
N
= CPR[2:0] (Fractional part – 0.000 to 0.875 )
After a hardware reset, the precaler is bypassed (set to 1)
and TCR is set to 0x00 (i.e. SC = 16). Assuming this
default configuration, the following table gives the divisors
required to be programmed into the DLL and DLM registers
in order to obtain various standard baud rates:
DLM:DLL
Divisor Word
0x0900
0x0300
0x0180
0x00C0
0x0060
0x0030
0x0018
0x000C
0x0006
0x0004
0x0003
0x0002
0x0001
Baud Rate
(bits per second)
50
110
300
600
1,200
2,400
4,800
9,600
19,200
28,800
38,400
57,600
115,200
Table 25: Standard PC COM Port Baud Rate Divisors
(assuming a 1.8432MHz crystal)
Data Sheet Revision 1.3
The prescaler divides the system clock by any value in the
range of 1 to “31 7/8” in steps of 1/8. The divisor takes the
form “M+N/8”, where M is the 5 bit value defined in
CPR[7:3] and N is the 3 bit value defined in CPR[2:0].
The prescaler is by-passed and a prescaler value of ‘1’ is
selected by default when MCR[7] = 0.
For higher baud rates use a higher frequency clock, e.g.
14.7456MHz, 18.432MHz, 32MHz, 40MHz or 60.0MHz.
The flexible prescaler allows system designers to use
clocks that are not integer multiples of popular baud rates;
when using a non-standard clock frequency, compatibility
with existing 16C550 software drivers may be maintained
with a minor software patch to program the on-board
prescaler to divide the high frequency clock down to
1.8432MHz.
Table 27 on the following page gives the prescaler values
required to operate the UARTs at compatible baud rates
with various different crystal frequencies. Also given is the
maximum available baud rates in TCR = 16 and TCR = 4
modes with CPR = 1.
7.10.3 Times Clock Register ‘TCR’
The TCR register is located at offset 0x02 of the ICR
The 16C550 and other compatible devices such as 16C650
and 16C750 use a 16 times (16x) over-sampling channel
clock. The 16x over-sampling clock means that the channel
clock runs at 16 times the selected serial bit rate. It limits
the highest baud rate to 1/16 of the system clock when
using a divisor latch value of unity. However, the 16C950
UART is designed in a manner to enable it to accept other
multiplications of the bit rate clock. It can use values from
4x to 16x clock as programmed in the TCR as long as the
clock (oscillator) frequency error, stability and jitter are
within reasonable parameters. Upon hardware reset the
TCR is reset to 0x00 which means that a 16x clock will be
used, for compatibility with the 16C550 and compatibles.
The maximum baud-rates available for various system
clock frequencies at all of the allowable values of TCR are
indicated in Table 28 on the following page. These are the
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OX16PCI954
OXFORD SEMICONDUCTOR LTD.
values in bits-per-second (bps) that are obtained if the
divisor latch = 0x01 and the Prescaler is set to 1.
The OX16PCI954 has the facility to operate at baud-rates
up to 15 Mbps in normal mode.
Table 26 indicates how the value in the register
corresponds to the number of clock cycles per bit. TCR[3:0]
is used to program the clock. TCR[7:4] are unused and will
return “0000” if read.
TCR[3:0]
Clock cycles per bit
0000 to 0011
0100 to 1111
16
4-15
Use of the TCR does not require the device to be in 650 or
950 mode although only drivers that have been written to
take advantage of the 950 mode features will be able to
access this register. Writing 0x01 to the TCR will not switch
the device into 1x isochronous mode, this is explained in
the following section. (TCR has no effect in isochronous
mode). If 0x01, 0x10 or 0x11 is written to TCR the device
will operate in 16x mode.
Reading TCR will always return the last value that was
written to it irrespective of mode of operation.
Table 26: TCR Sample Clock Configuration
Clock
Frequency
(MHz)
1.8432
7.3728
14.7456
18.432
32.000
33.000
40.000
50.000
60.000
CPR value
0x08 (1)
0x20 (4)
0x40 (8)
0x50 (10)
0x8B (17.375)
0x8F (17.875)
0xAE (21.75)
0xD9 (27.125)
0xFF (31.875)
Effective
crystal
frequency
1.8432
1.8432
1.8432
1.8432
1.8417
1.8462
1.8391
1.8433
1.8824
Error from
1.8432MHz
(%)
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.08
0.16
0.22
0.01
2.13
Max. Baud rate
with CPR = 1,
TCR = 16
115,200
460,800
921,600
1,152,000
2,000,000
2,062,500
2,500,000
3,125,000
3,750,000
Max. Baud rate
with CPR = 1,
TCR = 4
460,800
1,843,200
3,686,400
4,608,000
8,000,000
8,250,000
10,000,000
12,500,000
15,000,000
Table 27: Example clock options and their associated maximum baud rates
Sampling TCR
Clock Value
16
15
14
13
12
11
10
9
8
7
6
5
4
0x00
0x0F
0x0E
0x0D
0x0C
0x0B
0x0A
0x09
0x08
0x07
0x06
0x05
0x04
System Clock (MHz)
1.8432
7.372
14.7456
18.432
32
40
50
60
115,200
122,880
131,657
141,785
153,600
167,564
184,320
204,800
230,400
263,314
307,200
368,640
460,800
460,750
491,467
526,571
567,077
614,333
670,182
737,200
819,111
921,500
1,053,143
1,228,667
1,474,400
1,843,000
921,600
983,040
1,053,257
1,134,277
1,228,800
1,340,509
1,474,560
1,638,400
1,843,200
2,106,514
2,457,600
2,949,120
3,686,400
1.152M
1,228,800
1,316,571
1,417,846
1,536,000
1,675,636
1,843,200
2,048,000
2,304,000
2,633,143
3,072,000
3,686,400
4,608,000
2.00M
2,133,333
2,285,714
2,461,538
2,666,667
2,909,091
3.20M
3,555,556
4.00M
4,571,429
5,333,333
6.40M
8.00M
2.50M
2,666,667
2,857,143
3,076,923
3,333,333
3,636,364
4.00M
4,444,444
5.00M
5,714,286
6,666,667
8.00M
10.00M
3.125M
3,333,333
3,571,429
3,846,154
4,166,667
4,545,455
5.00M
5,555,556
6.25M
7,142,857
8,333,333
10.00M
12.50M
3.75M
4.00M
4,285,714
4,615,384
5.00M
5,454545
6.00M
6,666,667
7.50M
8,571428
10.00M
12.00M
15.00M
Table 28: Maximum Baud Rates Available at all ‘TCR’ Sampling Clock Values
Data Sheet Revision 1.3
Page 45
OX16PCI954
OXFORD SEMICONDUCTOR LTD.
7.10.4 External 1x Clock Mode
The transmitter and receiver can accept an external clock
applied to the RI# and DSR# pins respectively. The clock
options are selected using the CKS register (see section
7.11.8). The transmitter and receiver may be configured to
operate in 1x (i.e. Isochronous mode) by setting CKS[7]
and CKS[3], respectively. In Isochronous mode, transmitter
or receiver will use the 1x clock (usually, but not
necessarily, an external source) where asynchronous
framing is maintained using start-, parity- and stop-bits.
However serial transmission and reception is synchronised
to the 1x clock. In this mode asynchronous data may be
transmitted at baud rates up to 60Mbps. The local 1x clock
source can be asserted on the DTR# pin.
Note that line drivers need to be capable of transmission at
data rates twice the system clock used (as one cycle of the
system clock corresponds to 1 bit of serial data). Also note
that enabling modem interrupts is illegal in isochronous
mode, as the clock signal will cause a continuous change
to the modem status (unless masked in MDM register, see
section 7.11.10).
7.10.5 Crystal Oscillator Circuit
The UARTs reference reference clock may be provided by
its own crystal oscillator or directly from a clock source
connected to the XTLI pin. The circuit required to use the
internal oscillator is shown in Figure 3.
XTLO
R2
C1
R1
XTLI
C2
Figure 3: Crystal Oscillator Circuit
Frequency
Range
(MHz)
1.8432 - 8
8-60
C1
(pF)
C2 (pF)
R1 (Ω
Ω)
R2 (Ω
Ω)
68
33-68
22
33 – 68
220k
220k-2M2
470R
470R
Table 29: Component values
Note: For better stability use a smaller value of R1.
Increase R1 to reduce power consumption.
The total capacitive load (C1 in series with C2) should be
that specified by the crystal manufacturer (nominally 16pF).
7.11 Additional Features
7.11.1 Additional Status Register ‘ASR’
ASR[0]: Transmitter disabled
logic 0 ⇒ The transmitter is not disabled by in-band flow
control.
logic 1 ⇒ The receiver has detected an XOFF, and has
disabled the transmitter.
This bit is cleared after a hardware reset or channel
software reset. The software driver may write a 0 to this bit
to re-enable the transmitter if it was disabled by in-band
flow control. Writing a 1 to this bit has no effect.
ASR[1]: Remote transmitter disabled
logic 0 ⇒ The remote transmitter is not disabled by inband flow control.
logic 1 ⇒ The transmitter has sent an XOFF character, to
disable the remote transmitter (cleared when
subsequent XON is sent).
This bit is cleared after a hardware reset or channel
software reset. The software driver may write a 0 to this bit
to re-enable the remote transmitter (an XON is
transmitted). Note: writing a 1 to this bit has no effect.
Data Sheet Revision 1.3
ASR[2]: RTS
This is the complement of the actual state of the RTS# pin
when the device is not in loopback mode. The driver
software can determine if the remote transmitter is disabled
by RTS# out-of-band flow control by reading this bit. In
loopback mode this bit reflects the flow control status rather
than the pin’s actual state.
ASR[3]: DTR
This is the complement of the actual state of the DTR# pin
when the device is not in loopback mode. The driver
software can determine if the remote transmitter is disabled
by DTR# out-of-band flow control by reading this bit. In
loopback mode this bit reflects the flow control status rather
than the pin’s actual state.
ASR[4]: Special character detected
logic 0 ⇒ No special character has been detected.
logic 1 ⇒ A special character has been received and is
stored in the RHR.
This can be used to determine whether a level 5 interrupt
was caused by receiving a special character rather than an
XOFF. The flag is cleared following the read of the ASR.
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OXFORD SEMICONDUCTOR LTD.
OX16PCI954
ASR[5]: FIFOSEL
This bit reflects the unlatched state of the FIFOSEL pin.
logic 1 ⇒ Data transmission is prevented whenever the
DSR# pin is held inactive high.
ASR[6]: FIFO size
logic 0 ⇒FIFOs are 16 deep if FCR[0] = 1.
logic 1 ⇒FIFOs are 128 deep if FCR[0] = 1.
This bit provides another automatic out-of-band flow control
facility using the DSR# line.
ASR[7]: Transmitter Idle
logic 0 ⇒Transmitter is transmitting.
logic 1 ⇒Transmitter is idle.
This bit reflects the state of the internal transmitter. It is set
when both the transmitter FIFO and shift register are
empty.
7.11.2 FIFO Fill levels ‘TFL & RFL’
The number of characters stored in the THR and RHR can
be determined by reading the TFL and RFL registers
respectively. When data transfer is in constant operation,
the values should be interpreted as follows:
1. The number of characters in the THR is no greater
than the value read back from TFL.
2. The number of characters in the RHR is no less than
the value read back from RFL.
7.11.3 Additional Control Register ‘ACR’
The ACR register is located at offset 0x00 of the ICR
ACR[0]: Receiver disable
logic 0 ⇒ The receiver is enabled, receiving data and
storing it in the RHR.
logic 1 ⇒ The receiver is disabled. The receiver
continues to operate as normal to maintain the
framing synchronisation with the receive data
stream but received data is not stored into the
RHR. In-band flow control characters continue
to be detected and acted upon. Special
characters will not be detected.
Changes to this bit will only be recognised following the
completion of any data reception pending.
ACR[1]: Transmitter disable
logic 0 ⇒ The transmitter is enabled, transmitting any
data in the THR.
logic 1 ⇒ The transmitter is disabled. Any data in the
THR is not transmitted but is held. However, inband flow control characters may still be
transmitted.
Changes to this bit will only be recognised following the
completion of any data transmission pending.
ACR[2]: Enable automatic DSR flow control
logic 0 ⇒ Normal. The state of the DSR# line does not
affect the flow control.
Data Sheet Revision 1.3
ACR[4:3]: DTR# line configuration
When bits 4 or 5 of CKS (offset 0x03 of ICR) are set, the
transmitter 1x clock or the output of the baud rate
generator (Nx clock) are asserted on the DTR# pin,
otherwise the DTR# pin is defined as follows:
logic [00] ⇒ DTR# is compatible with 16C450, 16C550,
16C650 and 16C750 (i.e. normal).
logic [01] ⇒ DTR# pin is used for out-of-band flow control.
It will be forced inactive high if the Receiver
FIFO Level (‘RFL’) reaches the upper flow
control threshold. DTR# line will be reactivated (=0) when the RFL drops below the
lower threshold (see FCL & FCH).
logic [10] ⇒ DTR# pin is configured to drive the active-low
enable pin of an external RS485 buffer. In
this configuration the DTR# pin will be forced
low whenever the transmitter is not empty
(LSR[6]=0), otherwise DTR# pin is high.
logic [11] ⇒ DTR# pin is configured to drive the activehigh enable pin of an external RS485 buffer.
In this configuration, the DTR# pin will be
forced high whenever the transmitter is not
empty (LSR[6]=0), otherwise DTR# pin is low.
If the user sets ACR[4], then the DTR# line is controlled by
the status of the transmitter empty bit of LCR. When
ACR[4] is set, ACR[3] is used to select active high or active
low enable signals. In half-duplex systems using RS485
protocol, this facility enables the DTR# line to directly
control the enable signal of external 3-state line driver
buffers. When the transmitter is empty the DTR# would go
inactive once the SOUT line returns to it’s idle marking
state.
ACR[5]: 950 mode trigger levels enable
logic 0 ⇒ Interrupts and flow control trigger levels are as
described in FCR register and are compatible
with 16C650/16C750 modes.
logic 1 ⇒ 16C950 specific enhanced interrupt and flow
control trigger levels defined by RTL, TTL, FCL
and FCH are enabled.
ACR[6]: ICR read enable
logic 0 ⇒ The Line Status Register is readable.
logic 1 ⇒ The Indexed Control Registers are readable.
Setting this bit will map the ICR set to the LSR location for
reads. During normal operation this bit should be cleared.
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OXFORD SEMICONDUCTOR LTD.
ACR[7]: Additional status enable
logic 0 ⇒ Access to the ASR, TFL and RFL registers is
disabled.
logic 1 ⇒ Access to the ASR, TFL and RFL registers is
enabled.
When ACR[7] is set, the MCR, LCR and IER registers are
no longer readable but remain writable, and the registers
ASR, TFL and RFL replace them in the register map for
read operations. The software driver may leave this bit set
during normal operation, since MCR, LCR and IER do not
generally need to be read.
7.11.4 Transmitter Trigger Level ‘TTL’
The TTL register is located at offset 0x04 of the ICR
Whenever 950 trigger levels are enabled (ACR[5]=1), bits 4
and 5 of FCR are ignored and an alternative arbitrary
transmitter interrupt trigger level can be defined in the TTL
register. This 7-bit value provides a fully programmable
transmitter interrupt trigger facility. In 950 mode, a priority
level 3 interrupt occurs indicating that the transmitter buffer
requires more characters when the interrupt is not masked
(IER[1]=1) and the transmitter FIFO level falls below the
value stored in the TTL register. The value 0 (0x00) has a
special meaning. In 950 mode when the user writes 0x00
to the TTL register, a level 3 interrupt only occurs when the
FIFO and the transmitter shift register are both empty and
the SOUT line is in the idle marking state. This feature is
particularly useful to report back the empty state of the
transmitter after its FIFO has been flushed away.
7.11.5 Receiver Interrupt. Trigger Level ‘RTL’
The RTL register is located at offset 0x05 of the ICR
Whenever 950 trigger levels are enabled (ACR[5]=1), bits 6
and 7 of FCR are ignored and an alternative arbitrary
receiver interrupt trigger level can be defined in the RTL
register. This 7-bit value provides a fully programmable
receiver interrupt trigger facility as opposed to the limited
trigger levels available in 16C650 and 16C750 devices. It
enables the system designer to optimise the interrupt
performance hence minimising the interrupt overhead.
In 950 mode, a priority level 2 interrupt occurs indicating
that the receiver data is available when the interrupt is not
masked (IER[0]=1) and the receiver FIFO level reaches
the value stored in this register.
7.11.6 Flow Control Levels ‘FCL’ & ‘FCH’
The FCL and FCH registers are located at offsets 0x06 and
0x07 of the ICR respectively
Data Sheet Revision 1.3
OX16PCI954
Enhanced software flow control using XON/XOFF and
hardware flow control using RTS#/CTS# and DTR#/DSR#
are available when 950 mode trigger levels are enabled
(ACR[5]=1). Improved flow control threshold levels are
offered using Flow Control Lower trigger level (‘FCL’) and
Flow Control Higher trigger level (‘FCH’) registers to
provide a greater degree of flexibility when optimising the
flow control performance. Generally, these facilities are
only available in Enhanced mode.
In 650 mode, in-band flow control is enabled using the EFR
register. An XOFF character may be transmitted when the
receiver FIFO exceeds the upper trigger level defined by
FCR[7:6] as described in section 7.4.1. An XON is then
sent when the FIFO is read down the lower fill level. The
flow control is enabled and the appropriate mode is
selected using EFR[3:0].
In 950 mode, the flow control thresholds defined by
FCR[7:6] are ignored. In this mode, threshold levels are
programmed using FCL and FCH. When flow control is
enabled by EFR[3:0] and the receiver FIFO level (‘RFL’)
reaches the value programmed in the FCH register, an
XOFF will be transmitted to stop the flow of serial data as
defined by EFR[3:0]. When the receiver FIFO level falls
below the value programmed in FCL the flow is resumed
by sending an XON character (as defined in EFR[3:0]). The
FCL value of 0x00 is illegal.
CTS/RTS and DSR/DTR out-of-band flow control use the
same trigger levels as in-band flow control. When out-ofband flow control is enabled, RTS# (or DTR#) line is deasserted when the receiver FIFO level reaches the upper
limit defined in the FCH and is re-asserted when the
receiver FIFO is drained below a lower limit defined in FCL.
When 950 trigger levels are enabled (ACR[5]=1), the CTS#
flow control functions as in 650 mode and is configured by
EFR[7]. However, RTS# is automatically de-asserted and
re-asserted when EFR[6] is set and RFL reaches FCH and
drops below FCL. DSR# flow control is configured with
ACR[2]. DTR# flow control is configured with ACR[4:3].
7.11.7 Device Identification Registers
The identification registers is located at offsets 0x08 to
0x0B of the ICR
The UARTs offer four bytes of device identification. The
device ID registers may be read using offset values 0x08 to
0x0B of the Indexed Control Register. Registers ID1, ID2
and ID3 identify the device as an OX16C950 and return
0x16, 0xC9 and 0x50 respectively. The REV register
resides at offset 0x0B of ICR and identifies the revision of
OX16C950. This register returns 0x01 for revision A of the
OX16PCI954.
Page 48
OX16PCI954
OXFORD SEMICONDUCTOR LTD.
7.11.8 Clock Select Register ‘CKS’
The CKS register is located at offset 0x03 of the ICR
This register is cleared to 0x00 after a hardware reset to
maintain compatibility with 16C550, but is unaffected by
software reset. This allows the user to select a clock
source and then reset the channel to work-around any
timing glitches.
CKS[1:0]: Receiver Clock Source Selector
logic [x0] ⇒ The output of baud rate generator (internal
BDOUT#) is selected for the receiver clock.
logic [01] ⇒ The DSR# pin is selected for the receiver
clock.
logic [11] ⇒ The transmitter clock is selected for the
receiver. This allows RI# to be used for both
transmitter and receiver.
CKS[2]: Reserved
CKS[3]: Receiver 1x clock mode selector
logic 0 ⇒ The receiver is in Nx clock mode as defined in
the TCR register. After a hardware reset the
receiver operates in 16x clock mode, i.e.
16C550 compatibility.
logic 1 ⇒ The receiver is in isochronous 1x clock mode.
CKS[5:4]: Transmitter 1x clock or baud rate generator
output (BDOUT) on DTR# pin
logic [00] ⇒ The function of the DTR# pin is defined by
the setting of ACR[4:3].
logic [01] ⇒ The transmitter 1x clock (bit rate clock) is
asserted on the DTR# pin and the setting of
ACR[4:3] is ignored.
logic [10] ⇒ The output of baud rate generator (Nx clock)
is asserted on the DTR# pin and the setting
of ACR[4:3] is ignored.
logic [11] ⇒ Reserved.
CKS[6]: Transmitter clock source selector
logic 0 ⇒ The transmitter clock source is the output of the
baud rate generator (550 compatibility).
logic 1 ⇒ The transmitter uses an external clock applied
to the RI# pin.
CKS[7]: Transmitter 1x clock mode selector
logic 0 ⇒ The transmitter is in Nx clock mode as defined
in the TCR register. After a hardware reset the
transmitter operates in 16x clock mode, i.e.
16C550 compatibility.
logic 1 ⇒ The transmitter is in isochronous 1x clock
mode.
7.11.9 Nine-bit Mode Register ‘NMR’
The NMR register is located at offset 0x0D of the ICR
The UART offers 9-bit data framing for industrial multi-drop
applications. The 9-bit mode is enabled by setting bit 0 of
the Nine-bit Mode Register (NMR). In 9-bit mode the data
length setting in LCR[1:0] is ignored. Furthermore as parity
is permanently disabled, the setting of LCR[5:3] is also
ignored.
The receiver stores the 9th bit of the received data in
LSR[2] (where parity error is stored in normal mode). Note
that the UART provides a 128-deep FIFO for LSR[3:0].
The transmitter FIFO is 9 bits wide and 128 deep. The user
should write the 9th (MSB) data bit in SPR[0] first and then
write the other 8 bits to THR.
As parity mode is disabled, LSR[7] is set whenever there is
an overrun, framing error or received break condition. It is
unaffected by the contents of LSR[2] (Now the received 9th
data bit).
In 9-bit mode, in-band flow control is disabled regardless of
the setting of EFR[3:0] and the XON1/XON2/XOFF1 and
XOFF2 registers are used for special character detection.
Interrupts in 9-Bit Mode:
While IER[2] is set, upon receiving a character with status
error, a level 1 interrupt is asserted when the character and
the associated status are transferred to the FIFO.
The UART can assert an optional interrupt if a received
character has its 9th bit set. As multi-drop systems often
use the 9th bit as an address bit, the receiver is able to
generate an interrupt upon receiving an address character.
This feature is enabled by setting NMR[2]. This will result
in a level 1 interrupt being asserted when the address
character is transferred to the receiver FIFO.
In this case, as long as there are no errors pending, i.e.
LSR[1], LSR[3], and LSR[4] are clear, '0' can be read back
from LSR[7] and LSR[1], thus differentiating between an
‘address’ interrupt and receiver error or overrun interrupt in
9-bit mode. Note however that should an overrun or error
interrupt actually occur, an address character may also
reside in the FIFO. In this case, the software driver should
examine the contents of the receiver FIFO as well as
process the error.
Data Sheet Revision 1.3
Page 49
OX16PCI954
OXFORD SEMICONDUCTOR LTD.
The above facility produces an interrupt for recognizing any
‘address’ characters. Alternatively, the user can configure
the UART to compare the receiver data stream with up to
four programmable 9-bit characters and assert a level 5
interrupt after detecting a match. The interrupt occurs when
the character is transferred to the FIFO (See below).
NMR[0]: 9-bit mode enable
logic 0 ⇒ 9-bit mode is disabled.
logic 1 ⇒ 9-bit mode is enabled.
NMR[1]: Enable interrupt when 9th bit is set
logic 0 ⇒ Receiver interrupt for detection of an ‘address’
character (i.e. 9th bit set) is disabled.
logic 1 ⇒ Receiver interrupt for detection of an ‘address’
character (i.e. 9th bit set) is enabled and a level
1 interrupt is asserted.
Special Character Detection
While the UART is in both 9-bit mode and Enhanced mode,
setting IER[5] will enable detection of up to four ‘address’
characters. The least significant eight bits of these four
programmable characters are stored in special characters
1 to 4 (XON1, XON2, XOFF1 and XOFF2 in 650 mode)
registers and the 9th bit of these characters are
programmed in NMR[5] to NMR[2] respectively.
NMR[2]:
NMR[3]:
NMR[4]:
NMR[5]:
Bit 9 of Special Character 1
Bit 9 of Special Character 2
Bit 9 of Special Character 3
Bit 9 of Special Character 4
NMR[7:6]: Reserved
Bits 6 and 7 of NMR are always cleared and reserved for
future use.
7.11.10 Modem Disable Mask ‘MDM’
The MDM register is located at offset 0x0E of the ICR
This register is cleared after a hardware reset to maintain
compatibility with 16C550. It allows the user to mask
interrupts, sleep operation and power management events
due to individual modem lines or the serial input line.
MDM[0]: Disable delta CTS
logic 0 ⇒ Delta CTS is enabled. It can generate a level 4
interrupt when enabled by IER[3]. In powerstate D2, delta CTS can assert the PME# line.
Delta CTS can wake up the UART when it is
asleep under auto-sleep operation.
logic 1 ⇒ Delta CTS is disabled. In can not generate an
interrupt, assert a PME# or wake up the UART.
MDM[1]: Disable delta DSR
logic 0 ⇒ Delta DSR is enabled. It can generate a level 4
interrupt when enabled by IER[3]. In powerstate D2, delta DSR can assert the PME# line.
Data Sheet Revision 1.3
Delta DSR can wake up the UART when it is
asleep under auto-sleep operation.
logic 1 ⇒ Delta DSR is disabled. In can not generate an
interrupt, assert a PME# or wake up the UART.
MDM[2]: Disable Trailing edge RI
logic 0 ⇒ Trailing edge RI is enabled. It can generate a
level 4 interrupt when enabled by IER[3]. In
power-state D2, trailing edge RI can assert the
PME# line. Trailing edge RI can wake up the
UART when it is asleep under auto-sleep
operation.
logic 1 ⇒ Trailing edge RI is disabled. In can not
generate an interrupt, assert a PME# or wake
up the UART.
MDM[3]: Disable delta DCD
logic 0 ⇒ Delta DCD is enabled. It can generate a level 4
interrupt when enabled by IER[3]. In powerstate D2, delta DCD can assert the PME# line.
Delta DCD can wake up the UART when it is
asleep under auto-sleep operation.
logic 1 ⇒ Delta DCD is disabled. In can not generate an
interrupt, assert a PME# or wake up the UART.
MDM[4]: Reserved
This bit must be set to ‘0’
MDM[5]: Disable SIN wake up
logic 0 ⇒ When the device is in power-down state D2, a
change in the state of the serial input line (i.e.
start bit) can assert the PME# line
logic 1 ⇒ When the device is in power-down state D2, a
change in the state of the serial input line
cannot assert the PME# line.
MDM[7:6]: Reserved
7.11.11 Readable FCR ‘RFC’
The RFC register is located at offset 0x0F of the ICR
This read-only register returns the current state of the FCR
register (Note that FCR is write-only). This register is
included for diagnostic purposes.
7.11.12 Good-data status register ‘GDS’
The GDS register is located at offset 0x10 of the ICR
For the definition of Good-data status refer to section 6.4.7.
GDS[0]: Good Data Status
GDS[7:1]: Reserved
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OXFORD SEMICONDUCTOR LTD.
8
8.1
LOCAL BUS
Overview
The OX16PCI954 incorporates a bridge from PCI to the
Local Bus. It allows card developers to expand the
capabilities of their products by adding peripherals to this
bus.
When Mode[1:0] is ‘00’, the Local Bus is comprised of a bidirectional 8-bit data bus, an 8-bit address bus, up to four
chip selects, and a number of control signals that allow for
easy interfacing to standard peripherals. It also provides
twelve active-high or active-low interrupt inputs.
When Mode[1:0] is ‘11’, the Local Bus is comprised of a bidirectional 32-bit data bus, a 12-bit address bus, up to four
chip selects, and the same control signals and interrupts as
in 8-bit mode. In this mode the Internal UARTs are unused
and the UART pins are used to extend the 8-bit Local Bus
to 32-bit mode.
The local bus is configured by LT1 and LT2 (see sections
6.4.3 & 6.4.4) in the Local Configuration Register space. By
programming these registers the card developer can alter
the characteristics of the local bus to suit the
characteristics of the peripheral devices being used.
8.2
OX16PCI954
Operation
The local bus can be accessed via I/O and memory space,
in similar fashion to the internal UARTs. The mapping to
the devices will vary with the application, but the bus is fully
configurable to facilitate simple development.
The operation of the local bus is synchronised to the PCI
bus clock. The clock signal is output on pin LBCLK if it has
been enabled by setting LT2[30].
The eight bit bi-directional pins LBD[7:0] (LBD[31:0] in 32bit mode) drive the output data onto the bus during local
bus write cycles. For reads, the device latches the data
read from these pins at the end of the cycle.
The local bus address is placed on pins LBA[7:0]
(LBA[11:0] in 32-bit mode) at the start of each local bus
cycle and will remain latched until the start of the
subsequent cycle. If the maximum allowable block size
(256 bytes) is allocated to the local bus in I/O space, then
as access in I/O space is byte aligned, AD[7:0] are
asserted on LBA[7:0]. If a smaller address range is
selected, the corresponding upper address lines will be set
to logic zero.
Data Sheet Revision 1.3
The control bus is comprised of up to four chip-select
signals LBCS[3:0]#, a read strobe LBRD# and a write
strobe LBWR#, in Intel-type interfaces. For Motorola-type
interfaces, LBWR# is re-defined to perform read/write
control signal (LBRDWR#) and the chip-select signals
(LBCS[3:0]#) are re-defined to data-strobe (LBDS[3:0]#).
A reference cycle is defined, as two PCI clock cycles after
the master asserts the IRDY# signal for the first time within
a frame. In general, all the local bus control signals change
state in the first cycle after the reference cycle, with offsets
to provide suitable setup and hold times for common
peripheral devices. However, all the timings can be
increased / decreased independently in multiples of PCI
clock cycles. This feature enables the card designer to
override the length of read or write operations, the address
and chip-select set-up and hold timing, and the data bus
hold timing so that add-in cards can be configured to suit
different speed peripheral devices connected to the Local
Bus. The designer can also program the data bus to
remain in the high impedance state or actively drive the
bus during idle periods.
The local bus will always return to an idle state, where no
chip-select (data-strobe in Motorola mode) signal is active,
between adjacent accesses. During read cycles the local
bus interface latches data from the bus on the rising edge
of the clock where LBRD# (LBDS[3:0]# in Motorola mode)
goes high. Card designers should ensure that their
peripherals provide the OX16PCI954 with the specified
data set-up and hold times with respect to this clock edge.
The local bus cannot accept burst transfers from the PCI
bus. If a burst transfer is attempted the PCI interface will
signal 'disconnect with data' on the first data phase. The
local bus does accept 'fast back-to-back' transactions from
PCI.
A PCI target must complete the transaction within 16 PCI
clock cycles from assertion of the FRAME# signal,
otherwise it should signal a retry. During a read operation
from the Local Bus, OX16PCI954 waits for master-ready
signal (IRDY#) and computes the number of remaining
cycles to the de-assertion of the read control signal. If the
total number of PCI clock cycles for that frame is greater
than 16 clock cycles, OX16PCI954 will post a retry. The
master would normally return immediately and complete
the operation in the following frame.
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8.3
Configuration & Programming
The configuration registers for the local bus controller are
described in sections 6.4.3 & 6.4.4. The values of these
registers after reset allow the host system to identify the
function and configure its base address registers.
Alternatively many of the default values can be reprogrammed during device initialisation through use of the
optional serial EEPROM (see section 10).
The I/O space block can be varied in size from 4 bytes to
256 bytes (32 bytes is the default) by setting LT2[22:20]
accordingly. Varying the block size means that I/O space
can be allocated efficiently by the system, whatever the
application.
The I/O block can then be divided into one, two or four
chip-select regions, depending on the setting in LT2[26:23].
To divide the area into four chip-select region, the user
should select the second uppermost non-zero address bit
as the Lower-Address-CS-decode. To divide into two
regions, the user should select the uppermost address bit.
If an address bit beyond the selected range is selected, the
entire I/O space is allocated to CS0#. For example, if 32
bytes of I/O space are reserved, the active address lines
are A[4:0]. To divide this into four regions, the Lower
Address CS parameter should be set to A3, by
Data Sheet Revision 1.3
OX16PCI954
programming the value ‘0001’ into LT2[26:23]. To select
two regions, choose A4, and to maintain one region, select
any value greater than A4.
In 8-bit mode, the memory space block is always 4K bytes,
and always divided into four chip-select regions of 1K byte
each.
In 32-bit mode, again the I/O space can be varied in size
from 4 bytes to 256 bytes. It is also possible to increase the
memory space block size from 4K bytes to 16K bytes. Also
in 32-bit mode, the Lower-Address-CS-Decode parameter
afftects division of the I/O space AND memory space into
chip-select regions.
A soft reset facility is provided so software can
independently reset the peripherals on the local bus. The
local bus reset signals, LBRST and LBRST#, are always
active during a PCI bus reset and also when the
configuration register bit LT2[29] is set to 1.
The clock enable bit, when set, enables a copy of the PCI
bus clock output on the local bus pin LBCLK. A buffered
UART clock can also be asserted on the UART_Clk_Out
pin; this means that a single oscillator can be used to drive
serial ports on the local bus as well as the internal UARTs.
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9
9.1
BIDIRECTIONAL PARALLEL PORT
Operation and Mode selection
The OX16PCI954 offers a compact, low power, IEEE-1284
(EPP-only) compliant host-interface parallel port, designed
to interface to many peripherals such as printers, scanners
and external drives. It supports compatibility modes, SPP,
NIBBLE and PS2, as well as EPP mode. The register set is
compatible with the Microsoft register definition. To
enable the parallel port function, the Mode[1:0] pins should
be set to ‘01’. The system can access the parallel port via
two 8-byte blocks of I/O space; BAR0 contains the address
of the basic parallel port registers, BAR1 contains the
address of the upper registers. These are referred to as the
‘lower block’ and ‘upper block’ in this section. If the upper
block is located at an address 0x400 above the lower
block, generic PC device drivers can be used to configure
the port, as the addressable registers of legacy parallel
ports always have this relationship. If not, a custom driver
will be needed.
9.1.1
SPP mode
SPP (output-only) is the standard implementation of a
simple parallel port. In this mode, the PD lines always drive
the value in the PDR register. All transfers are done under
software control. Input must be performed in nibble mode.
Generic device driver-software may use the address in I/O
space encoded in BAR0 of function 1 to access the parallel
port. The default configuration allocates 8 bytes to BAR0 in
I/O space.
9.1.2
An EPP port access begins with the host reading or writing
to one of the EPP port rgisters. The device automatically
buffers the data between the I/O registers and the parallel
port depending on whether it is a read or a write cycle.
When the peripheral is ready to complete the transfer it
takes the WAIT# status line high. This allows the host to
complete the EPP cycle.
If a faulty or disconnected peripheral failed to respond to an
EPP cycle the host would never see a rising edge on
WAIT#, and subsequently lock up. A built-in time-out facility
is provided in order to prevent this from happening. It uses
an internal timer which aborts the EPP cycle and sets a
flag in the PSR register to indicate the condition. When the
parallel port is not in EPP mode the timer is switched off to
reduce current consumption. The host time-out period is
10µs as specified with the IEEE-1284 specification.
The register set is compatible with the Microsoft register
definition. Assuming that the upper block is located 400h
above the lower block, the registers are found at offset
000-007h and 400-402h.
9.1.4
ECP mode (not supported)
The Extended Capabilities Port ‘ECP’ mode is not
supported.
PS2 mode
This mode is also referred to as bi-directional or compatible
parallel port. In this mode, directional control of the PD
lines is possible by setting & clearing DCR[5]. Otherwise
operation is similar to SPP mode.
9.1.3
change from open-drain outputs to active push-pull (totem
pole) drivers (as required by IEEE 1284) and the pins
ACK#, AFD#, BUSY, SLIN# and STB# are redefined as
INTR#, DATASTB#, WAIT#, ADDRSTB# and WRITE#
respectively.
EPP mode
To use the Enhanced Parallel Port ‘EPP’ the mode bits
(ECR[7:5]) must be set to ‘100’. The EPP address and data
port registers are compatible with the IEEE 1284 definition.
A write or read to one of the EPP port registers is passed
through the parallel port to access the external peripheral.
In EPP mode, the STB#, INIT#, AFD# AND SLIN# pins
Data Sheet Revision 1.3
9.2
Parallel port interrupt
The parallel port interrupt is asserted on INTB# (or INTA# if
specified with the serial EEPROM). It is enabled by setting
DCR[4]. When DCR[4] is set, an interrupt is asserted on
the rising edge of the ACK# (INTR#) pin and held until the
status register is read, which resets the INT# status bit
(DSR[2]).
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9.3
Register Description
The parallel port registers are described below. (NB it is assumed that the upper block is placed 400h above the lower block).
Register
Name
Address
Offset
R/W
PDR
DSR
000h
001h
R/W
R
(Other modes)
001h
002h
003h
004h
005h
006h
007h
400h
401h
402h
403h
R
R/W
R/W
R/W
R/W
R/W
R/W
R/W
-
(EPP mode)
DCR
EPPA 1
EPPD1 1
EPPD2 1
EPPD3 1
EPPD4 1
ECR
-
Bit 7
Bit 6
Bit 5
Bit 4
Bit 3
Bit 2
SPP (Compatibility Mode) Registers
Parallel Port Data Register
nBUSY
ACK#
PE
SLCT
ERR#
INT#
nBUSY
0
ACK#
0
Mode[2:0]
PE
DIR
SLCT
ERR#
INT#
INT_EN nSLIN#
INIT#
EPP Address Register
EPP Data 1 Register
EPP Data 2 Register
EPP Data 3 Register
EPP Data 4 Register
Reserved
Reserved
Reserved – Must write ‘00001’
Reserved
Bit 1
Bit 0
1
Timeout
1
nAFD#
1
nSTB#
Table 30: Parallel port register set
Note 1 : These registers are only available in EPP mode.
Note 2 : Prefix ‘n’ denotes that a signal is inverted at the connector. Suffix ‘#’ denotes active-low signalling
The reset state of PDR, EPPA and EPPD1-4 is not determinable (i.e. 0xXX). The reset value of DSR is ‘XXXXX111’. DCR and
ECR are reset to ‘0000XXXX’ and ‘00000001’ respectively.
9.3.1
Parallel port data register ‘PDR’
PDR is located at offset 000h in the lower block. It is the
standard parallel port data register. Writing to this register
in mode 000 will drive data onto the parallel port data lines.
In all other modes the drivers may be tri-stated by setting
the direction bit in the DCR. Reads from this register return
the value on the data lines.
9.3.2
Device status register ‘DSR’
DSR is located at offset 001h in the lower block. It is a read
only register showing the current state of control signals
from the peripheral. Additionally in EPP mode, bit 0 is set
to ‘1’ when an operation times out (see section 9.1.3)
DSR[0]:
EPP mode: Timeout
logic 0 ⇒Timeout has not occurred.
logic 1 ⇒Timeout has occurred (Reading this bit clears it).
Other modes: Unused
This bit is permanently set to 1.
DSR[1]: Unused
This bit is permanently set to 1.
Data Sheet Revision 1.3
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DSR[2]: INT#
logic 0 ⇒ A parallel port interrupt is pending.
logic 1 ⇒ No parallel port interrupt is pending.
DCR[3]: nSLIN#
logic 0 ⇒ Set SLIN# output to high (inactive).
logic 1 ⇒ Set SLIN# output to low (active).
This bit is activated (set low) on a rising edge of the ACK#
pin. It is de-activated (set high) after reading the DSR.
During an EPP address or data cycle the ADDRSTB# pin is
driven by the EPP controller, otherwise it is inactive.
DSR[3]: ERR#
logic 0 ⇒ The ERR# input is low.
logic 1 ⇒ The ERR# input is high.
DCR[4]: ACK Interrupt Enable
logic 0 ⇒ ACK interrupt is disabled.
logic 1 ⇒ ACK interrupt is enabled.
DSR[4]: SLCT
logic 0 ⇒ The SLCT input is low.
logic 1 ⇒ The SLCT input is high.
DCR[5]: DIR
logic 0 ⇒ PD port is output.
logic 1 ⇒ PD port is input.
DSR[5]: PE
logic 0 ⇒The PE input is low.
logic 1 ⇒The PE input is high.
This bit is overridden during an EPP address or data cycle,
when the direction of the port is controlled by the bus
access (read/write)
DSR[6]: ACK#
logic 0 ⇒ The ACK# input is low.
logic 1 ⇒ The ACK# input is high.
DCR[7:6]: Reserved
These bits are reserved and always set to “00”.
DSR[7]: nBUSY
logic 0 ⇒ The BUSY input is high.
logic 1 ⇒ The BUSY input is low.
9.3.3
Device control register ‘DCR’
DCR is located at offset 002h in the lower block. It is a
read-write register which controls the state of the peripheral
inputs and enables the peripheral interrupt. When reading
this register, bits 0 to 3 reflect the actual state of STB#,
AFD#, INIT# and SLIN# pins respectively. When in EPP
mode, the WRITE#, DATASTB# AND ADDRSTB# pins are
driven by the EPP controller, although writes to this register
will override the state of the respective lines.
9.3.4
EPP address register ‘EPPA’
EPPA is located at offset 003h in lower block, and is only
used in EPP mode. A byte written to this register will be
transferred to the peripheral as an EPP address by the
hardware. A read from this register will transfer an address
from the peripheral under hardware control.
9.3.5
EPP data registers ‘EPPD1-4’
The EPPD registers are located at offset 004h-007h of the
lower block, and are only used in EPP mode. Data written
or read from these registers is transferred to/from the
peripheral under hardware control.
9.3.6
Extended control register ‘ECR’
DCR[0]: nSTB#
logic 0 ⇒ Set STB# output to high (inactive).
logic 1 ⇒ Set STB# output to low (active).
The Extended control register is located at offset 002h in
upper block. It is used to configure the operation of the
parallel port.
During an EPP address or data cycle the WRITE# pin is
driven by the EPP controller, otherwise it is inactive.
ECR[4:0]: Reserved
These bits are reserved and must always be set to
“00001”.
DCR[1]: nAFD#
logic 0 ⇒ Set AFD# output to high (inactive).
logic 1 ⇒ Set AFD# output to low (active).
During an EPP address or data cycle the DATASTB# pin is
driven by the EPP controller, otherwise it is inactive.
DCR[2]: INIT#
logic 0 ⇒ Set INIT# output to low (active).
logic 1 ⇒ Set INIT# output to high (inactive).
Data Sheet Revision 1.3
ECR[7:5]: Mode
These bits define the operational mode of the parallel port.
logic ‘000’
SPP
logic ‘001’
PS2
logic ‘010’
Reserved
logic ‘011’
Reserved
logic ‘100’
EPP
logic ‘101’
Reserved
logic ‘110’
Reserved
logic ‘111’
Reserved
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10 SERIAL EEPROM
10.1 Specification
10.2 EEPROM Data Organisation
The OX16PCI954 can be configured using an optional
serial electrically-erasable programmable read only
memory (EEPROM). If the EEPROM is not present, the
device will remain in its default configuration after reset.
Although this may be adequate for some applications,
many will benefit from the degree of programmability
afforded by this feature.
The serial EEPROM data is divided in four zones. The size
of each zone is an exact multiple of 16-bit WORDs. Zone0
is allocated to the header. A valid EEPROM program must
contain a header. The EEPROM can be programmed from
the PCI bus. Once the programming is complete, the
device driver should either reset the PCI bus or set
LCC[29] to reload the OX16PCI954 registers from the
serial EEPROM. The general EEPROM data structure is
shown in Table 31.
The EEPROM interface is based on the 93C46/56 serial
EEPROM devices which have a proprietary serial interface
known as MicrowireTM. The interface has four pins which
supply the memory device with a clock, a chip-select, and
serial data input and output lines. In order to read from
such a device, a controller has to output serially a read
command and address, then input serially the data. The
93C46/56 and compatible devices have a 16-bit data word
format but differ in memory size (and number of address
bits).
The OX16PCI954 incorporates a controller module which
reads data from the serial EEPROM and writes data into
the configuration register space. It performs this operation
in a sequence which starts immediately after a PCI bus
reset and ends either when the controller finds no
EEPROM is present or when it reaches the end of its data.
The operation of this controller is described below.
Following device configuration, driver software can access
the serial EEPROM through four bits in the device-specific
Local Configuration Register LCC[27:24]. Software can use
this register to manipulate the device pins in order to read
and modify the EEPROM contents.
The OX16PCI954 requires a total of 82 bytes of EEPROM
data to program all the EEPROM writable registers. Note
that 93C46 and 93C56 EEPROM devices offer 128 and
256 bytes of programmable data respectively.
A Windows based utility to program the EEPROM is
available. For further details please contact Oxford
Semiconductor (see back cover).
MicrowireTM is a trade mark of National Semiconductor. For
a description of MicroWire, please refer to National
Semiconductor data manuals.
Data Sheet Revision 1.3
DATA
Zone
0
1
2
3
Size (Words)
Description
One
One or more
One to four
Two or more
Header
Local Configuration Registers
Identification Registers
PCI Configuration Registers
Table 31: EEPROM data format
10.2.1 Zone0: Header
The header identifies the EEPROM program as valid.
Bits
15:4
3
2
1
0
Description
These bits should return 0x950 to identify a valid
program. Once the OX16PCI954 reads 0x950
from these bits, it sets LCC[28] to indicate that a
valid EEPROM program is present.
Reserved. Write ‘0’ to this bit.
1 = Zone1 (Local Configuration) exists
0 = Zone1 does not exist
1 = Zone2 (Identification) exists
0 = Zone2 does not exist
1 = Zone3 (PCI Configuration) exists
0 = Zone3 does not exist
The programming data for each zone follows the
proceeding zone if it exists. For example a Header value of
0x9507 indicates that all zones exist and they follow one
another in sequence, while 0x9505 indicates that only
Zones 1 and 3 exist where the header data is followed by
Zone1 WORDs, and since Zone2 is missing Zone1
WORDs are followed by Zone3 WORDs.
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10.2.2 Zone1: Local Configuration Registers
The Zone1 region of EEPROM contains the program value
of the vendor-specific Local Configuration Registers using
one or more configuration WORDs. Registers are selected
using a 7-bit byte-offset field. This offset value is the offset
from Base Address Registers in I/O or memory space (see
section 6.4).
Bits
15
Note: Not all of the registers in the Local Configuration Register set are
writable by EEPROM. If bit2 of the header is set, Zone1
configuration WORDs follow the header declaration. The
format of configuration WORDs for the Local Configuration
Registers in Zone1 are described in Table 32.
14:8
7:0
Description
‘0’ = There are no more Configuration WORDs
to follow in Zone1. Move to the next available
zone or end EEPROM program if no more zones
are enabled in the Header.
‘1’ = There is another Configuration WORD to
follow for the Local Configuration Registers.
These seven bits define the byte-offset of the
Local configuration register to be programmed.
For example the byte-offset for LT2[23:16] is
0x0E.
8-bit value of the register to be programmed
Table 32: Zone 1 data format
Table 33 shows which Local Configuration registers are writable from the EEPROM. Note that an attempt by the EEPROM to
write to any other offset locations can result in unpredictable behaviour.
Offset
0x00
0x00
0x00
0x00
0x00
0x04
0x05
0x06
0x08
0x09
0x0A
0x0B
0x0C
0x0D
0x0E
0x0E
0x0E
0x0F
0x0F
0x0F
0x0F
0x0F
0x1E
0x1E
0x1E
0x1F
Bits
1:0
2
4:3
6:5
7
7:0
7:0
7:0
7:0
7:0
7:0
7:0
7:0
7:0
3:0
6:4
7
2:0
4:3
5
6
7
3:0
4
7:5
7:0
Description
Must be ‘00’.
Enable UART clock-out.
Endian byte-lane select.
Power-down filter.
MIO2_PME enable.
Multi-purpose IO configuration.
Multi-purpose IO configuration.
Multi-purpose IO configuration.
Local Bus timing parameters
Local Bus timing parameters
Local Bus timing parameters
Local Bus timing parameters
Local Bus timing parameters
Local Bus timing parameters
Must be ‘0000’.
IO Space Block size.
Lower-Address-CS-Decode.
Lower-Address-CS-Decode.
Memory space block size in 32-bit Local Bus.
Must be ‘0’.
Local Bus clock enable.
Bus interface type.
UART Interrupt Mask
MIO0/Parallel Port interrupt mask
Multi-purpose IO interrupt mask.
Multi-purpose IO interrupt mask.
Reference
LCC[2]
LCC[4:3]
LCC[6:5]
LCC[7]
MIC[7:0]
MIC[15:8]
MIC[23:16]
LT1[7:0]
LT1[15:8]
LT1[23:16]
LT1[31:24]
LT2[7:0]
LT2[15:8]
LT2[22:20]
LT2[23]
LT2[26:24]
LT2[28:27]
LT2[30]
LT2[31]
GIS[19:16]
GIS[20]
GIS[23:21]
GIS[31:24]
Table 33: EEPROM-writable Local Configuration Registers
Data Sheet Revision 1.3
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10.2.3 Zone2: Identification Registers
The Zone2 region of EEPROM contains the program value
for Vendor ID and Subsystem Vendor ID. The format of
Device Identification configuration WORDs are described in
Table 34.
Bits
15
14:8
7:0
Description
‘0’ = There are no more Zone2 (Identification)
bytes to program. Move to the next available
zone or end EEPROM program if no more zones
are enabled in the Header.
‘1’ = There is another Zone2 (Identification) byte
to follow.
0x00 = Vendor ID bits [7:0].
0x01 = Vendor ID bits [15:8].
0x02 = Subsystem Vendor ID [7:0].
0x03 = Subsystem Vendor ID [15:8].
0x03 to 0x7F = Reserved.
8-bit value of the register to be programmed
Table 34: Zone 2 data format
10.2.4 Zone3: PCI Configuration Registers
The Zone3 region of EEPROM contains any changes
required to the PCI Configuration registers (with the
exception of Vendor ID and Subsystem Vendor ID which
are programmed in Zone2). This zone is divided into two
groups, each of which consists of a function header
WORD, and one or more configuration WORDs for that
function. The function header is described in Table 35.
Bits
15
14:3
2:0
Description
‘0’ = End of Zone 3.
‘1’ = Define this function header.
Reserved. Write zeros.
Function number for the following configuration
WORD(s).
‘000’ = Function0 (Internal UARTs)
‘001’ = Function1 (Local Bus / Parallel Port)
Other values = Reserved.
The subsequent WORDs for each function contain the
address offset and a byte of programming data for the PCI
Configuration Space belonging to the function number
selected by the proceeding Function-Header. The format of
configuration WORDs for the PCI Configuration Registers
are described below.
Bits
15
14:8
7:0
Description
‘0’ = This is the last configuration WORD in for
the selected function in the Function-Header.
‘1’ = There is another WORD to follow for this
function.
These seven bits define the byte-offset of the PCI
configuration register to be programmed. For
example the byte-offset of the Interrupt Pin
register is 0x3D. Offset values are tabulated in
section 6.2.
8-bit value of the register to be programmed
Table 36: Zone 3 data format (data)
Table 37 shows which PCI Configuration registers are
writable from the EEPROM for each function.
Offset
0x02
0x03
0x06
0x06
0x06
0x09
0x0A
0x0B
0x2E
0x2F
0x3D
0x42
Bits
7:0
7:0
3:0
4
7:5
7:0
7:0
7:0
7:0
7:0
7:0
7:0
0x43
7:0
Description
Device ID bits 7 to 0.
Device ID bits 15 to 8.
Must be ‘0000’.
Extended Capabilities.
Must be ‘000’.
Class Code bits 7 to 0.
Class Code bits 15 to 8.
Class Code bits 23 to 16.
Subsystem ID bits 7 to 0.
Subsystem ID bits 15 to 8.
Interrupt pin.
Power Management Capabilities
bits 7 to 0.
Power Management Capabilities
bits 15 to 8.
Table 37: EEPROM-writable PCI configuration registers
Table 35: Zone 3 data format (Function Header)
Data Sheet Revision 1.3
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11 OPERATING CONDITIONS
Symbol
VDD
VIN
IIN
TSTG
Parameter
DC supply voltage
DC input voltage
DC input current
Storage temperature
Min
-0.3
-0.3
-40
Max
7.0
VDD + 0.3
+/- 10
125
Units
V
V
mA
°C
Min
4.5
0
Max
5.5
70
Units
V
°C
Table 38: Absolute maximum ratings
Symbol
VDD
TC
Parameter
DC supply voltage
Temperature
Table 39: Recommended operating conditions
12 DC ELECTRICAL CHARACTERISTICS
12.1 Non-PCI I/O Buffers
Symbol
VDD
VIH
Parameter
Supply voltage
Input high voltage
VIL
Input low voltage
CIL
COL
IIH
IIL
VOH
VOH
VOL
VOL
IOZ
Cap of input buffers
Cap of output buffers
Input high leakage current
Input low leakage current
Output high voltage
Output high voltage
Output low voltage
Output low voltage
3-state output leakage current
Symbol
ICC
Condition
Commercial
TTL Interface 1
TTL Schmitt trig
TTL Interface 1
TTL Schmitt trig
Parameter
Operating supply current in
normal mode
Operating supply current in
Power-down mode
Vin = VDD
Vin = VSS
IOH = 1 µA
IOH = 4 mA 2
IOL = 1 µA
IOL = 4 mA 2
Condition
XTAL = 2 MHz
XTAL = 15 MHz
XTAL = 60 MHz
XTAL = 2 MHz
XTAL = 15 MHz
XTAL = 60 MHz
Min
4.75
2.0
2.0
-10
-10
Max
5.25
Units
V
V
0.8
0.8
5.0
10.0
10
10
V
VDD – 0.05
2.4
-10
0.05
0.4
10
Typical
35
40
55
2
2
2
Max
48.1
68.7
116.6
34.4
39.0
49.6
pF
pF
µA
µA
V
V
V
V
µA
Units
mA
Table 40: Characteristics of non-PCI I/O buffers
Note 1:
Note 2:
All input buffers are TTL with the exception of PCI buffers
IOH and IOL are 12 mA for PD/LBDB[7:0] and other Parallel Port Outputs. They are 4 mA for all other non-PCI outputs
Data Sheet Revision 1.3
Page 59
OX16PCI954
OXFORD SEMICONDUCTOR LTD.
12.2 PCI I/O Buffers
Symbol
Parameter
DC Specifications
VCC
Supply voltage
VIL
Input low voltage
VIH
Input high voltage
IIL
Input low leakage current
IIH
Input high leakage current
VOL
Output low voltage
VOH
Output low voltage
CIN
Input pin capacitance
CCLK
CLK pin capacitance
CIDSEL
IDSEL pin capacitance
LPIN
Pin inductance
AC Specifications
Switching current
IOH(AC)
high
(Test point)
Switching current
IOL(AC)
low
ICL
(Test point)
Low clamp current
IHL
High clamp current
SlewR
SlewF
Output rise slew rate
Output fall slew rate
Condition
VIN = 0.5V
VIN = 2.7V
IOUT = -2 mA
IOUT = 3 mA, 6mA
Min
Max
Unit
4.75
-0.5
2.0
5.25
0.8
VCC + 0.5
-70
70
0.55
V
V
V
µA
µA
V
V
pF
pF
pF
nH
2.4
5
0 < VOUT
-44
1.4
1.4 < VOUT
2.4
3.1 < VOUT
VOUT = 3.1
VCC
-44 (VOUT - 1.4)/0.024
mA
Eq. A
-142
95
VOUT 2.2
2.2 > VOUT > 0.55
0.71 > VOUT > 0
VOUT = 0.71
-5 < VIN < -1
VCC+4 < VIN
VCC+1
0.4V to 2.4V
2.4V to 0.4V
10
12
8
10
VOUT / 0.023
mA
Eq. B
206
<
-25 + (VIN +1)/
0.015
25+ (VIN -VCC -1)/
0.015
1
1
mA
mA
5
5
V/nS
V/nS
Table 41: Characteristics of PCI I/O buffers
Eq. A :
Eq. B :
IOH = 11.9 * (VOUT - 5.25) * (VOUT + 2.45)
IOL = 78.5 * VOUT * (4.4 - VOUT )
Data Sheet Revision 1.3
for 3.1 < VOUT VCC
for 0.71 > VOUT > 0
Page 60
OX16PCI954
OXFORD SEMICONDUCTOR LTD.
13 AC ELECTRICAL CHARACTERISTICS
13.1 PCI Bus
The timings for PCI pins comply with PCI Specification for the 5.0 Volt signalling environment.
13.2 Local Bus
By default, the Local bus control signals change state in the cycle immediately following the reference cycle, with offsets to
provide setup and hold times for common peripherals in Intel mode. The tables below show these default values; however each
of these can be increased or decreased by an number of PCI clock cycles by adjusting the parameters in registers LT1 and LT2.
Symbol
tref
tza
tard
tzrcs1
tzrcs2
tcsrd
trdcs
tzrd1
tzrd2
tdrd
tzd1
tzd2
tsd
thd
Parameter
IRDY# falling to reference LBCLK
Reference LBCLK to Address Valid
Address Valid to LBRD# falling
Reference LBCLK to LBCS# falling
Reference LBCLK to LBCS# rising
LBCS# falling to LBRD# falling
LBRD# rising to LBCS# rising
Reference LBCLK to LBRD# falling
Reference LBCLK to LBRD# rising
Data bus floating to LBRD# falling
Reference LBCLK to data bus floating at the start of the read
transaction
Reference LBCLK to data bus driven by OX16PCI954 at the end of the
read transaction
Data bus valid to LBRD# rising
Data bus valid after LBRD# rising
Min
Max
Units
Nominally 2 PCI clock cycles
TBD
TBD
ns
TBD
TBD
ns
TBD
TBD
ns
TBD
TBD
ns
TBD
TBD
ns
TBD
TBD
ns
TBD
TBD
ns
TBD
TBD
ns
TBD
TBD
ns
TBD
TBD
ns
TBD
TBD
ns
TBD
TBD
TBD
TBD
ns
ns
Table 42: Read operation from Intel-type Local Bus
Symbol
tref
tza
tawr
tzwcs1
tzwcs2
tcswr
twrcs
tzwr1
tzwr2
tzdv
tzdf
twrdi
Parameter
IRDY# falling to reference LBCLK
Reference LBCLK to Address Valid
Address Valid to LBWR# falling
Reference LBCLK to LBCS# falling
Reference LBCLK to LBCS# rising
LBCS# falling to LBWR# falling
LBWR# rising to LBCS# rising
Reference LBCLK to LBWR# falling
Reference LBCLK to LBWR# rising
Reference LBCLK to data bus valid
Reference LBCLK to data bus high-impedance
LBWR# rising to data bus invalid
Min
Max
Units
Nominally 2 PCI clock cycles
TBD
TBD
ns
TBD
TBD
ns
TBD
TBD
ns
TBD
TBD
ns
TBD
TBD
ns
TBD
TBD
ns
TBD
TBD
ns
TBD
TBD
ns
TBD
TBD
ns
TBD
TBD
ns
TBD
TBD
ns
Table 43: Write operation to Intel-type Local Bus
Data Sheet Revision 1.3
Page 61
OX16PCI954
OXFORD SEMICONDUCTOR LTD.
Symbol
tref
tza
tads
tzrds1
tzrds2
vtdrd
tzd1
tzd2
tsd
thd
Parameter
IRDY# falling to reference LBCLK
Reference LBCLK to Address Valid
Address Valid to LBDS# falling
Reference LBCLK to LBDS# falling
Reference LBCLK to LBDS# rising
Data bus floating to LBDS# falling
Reference LBCLK to data bus floating at the start of the read
transaction
Reference LBCLK to data bus driven by OX16PCI954 at the end of the
read transaction
Data bus valid to LBDS# rising
Data bus valid after LBDS# rising
Min
Max
Units
Nominally 2 PCI clock cycles
TBD
TBD
ns
TBD
TBD
ns
TBD
TBD
ns
TBD
TBD
ns
TBD
TBD
ns
TBD
TBD
ns
TBD
TBD
ns
TBD
TBD
TBD
TBD
ns
ns
Table 44: Read operation from Motorola-type Local Bus
Symbol
tref
tza
tads
tzw1
tzw2
twds
tdsw
tzwds1
tzwds2
tzdv
tzdf
tdsdi
Parameter
IRDY# falling to reference LBCLK
Reference LBCLK to Address Valid
Address Valid to LBDS# falling
Reference LBCLK to LBRDWR# falling
Reference LBCLK to LBRDWR# rising
LBRDWR# falling to LBDS# falling
LBDS# rising to LBRDWR# rising
Reference LBCLK to LBDS# falling
Reference LBCLK to LBDS# rising
Reference LBCLK to data bus valid
Reference LBCLK to data bus high-impedance
LBDS# rising to data bus invalid
Min
Max
Units
Nominally 2 PCI clock cycles
TBD
TBD
ns
TBD
TBD
ns
TBD
TBD
ns
TBD
TBD
ns
TBD
TBD
ns
TBD
TBD
ns
TBD
TBD
ns
TBD
TBD
ns
TBD
TBD
ns
TBD
TBD
ns
TBD
TBD
ns
Table 45: Write operation to Motorola-type Local Bus
13.3 Serial ports
Isochronous (x1 Clock) Timing:
Symbol
tirs
tirh
tits
Parameter
SIN set-up time to Isochronous input clock ‘Rx_Clk_In rising 1
SIN hold time after Isochronous input clock ‘Rx_Clk_In’ rising 1
SOUT valid after Isochronous output clock ‘Tx_Clk_Out’ falling 1
Min
TBD
TBD
TBD
Max
TBD
TBD
TBD
Units
ns
ns
ns
Table 46: Isochronous mode timing
Note 1:
In Isochronous mode, transmitter data is available after the falling edge of the x1 clock and the receiver data is sampled using the rising edge of the
x1 clock. The system designer is should ensure that mark-to-space ratio of the x1 clock is such that the required set-up and hold timing constraint
are met. One way of achieving this is to choose a crystal frequency which is twice the required data rate and then divide the clock by two using the
on-board prescaler. In this case the mark-to-space ratio is 50/50 for the purpose of set-up and hold calculations.
Data Sheet Revision 1.3
Page 62
OX16PCI954
OXFORD SEMICONDUCTOR LTD.
14 TIMING WAVEFORMS
CLK
1
2
3
4
5
FRAME#
AD[31:0]
Address
C/BE[3:0]#
Bus CMD
Data
Byte enable#
Wait
Data transfer
IRDY#
TRDY#
DEVSEL#
STOP#
Figure 4: PCI Read Transaction from internal UARTs
CLK
1
2
3
4
FRAME#
Address
C/BE[3:0]#
Bus CMD
IRDY#
TRDY#
Data
Byte enable#
Data transfer
AD[31:0]
DEVSEL#
STOP#
Figure 5: PCI Write Transaction to internal UARTs
Data Sheet Revision 1.3
Page 63
OX16PCI954
OXFORD SEMICONDUCTOR LTD.
TIMING WAVEFORMS
CLK
1
2
3
4
FRAME#
AD[31:0]
Address
C/BE[3:0]#
Bus CMD
Data
Byte enable#
Data transfer
IRDY#
TRDY#
DEVSEL#
STOP#
Figure 6: PCI Read transaction from Local Configuration registers
CLK
1
2
3
4
FRAME#
Address
C/BE[3:0]#
Bus CMD
IRDY#
TRDY#
Data
Byte enable#
Data transfer
AD[31:0]
DEVSEL#
STOP#
Figure 7: PCI Write transaction to Local Configuration Registers
Data Sheet Revision 1.3
Page 64
OX16PCI954
OXFORD SEMICONDUCTOR LTD.
TIMING WAVEFORMS
CLK
1
2
3
4
5
n+5
n+6
Where: n = 0, 1, .., 9
n+7
FRAME#
AD[31:0]
Address
C/BE[3:0]#
Bus CMD
Data
Data
Byte enable#
Wait
Wait
Data transfer
TRDY#
Wait
Wait
IRDY#
t ref
DEVSEL#
STOP#
LBCLK
t za
t ard
LBA
LBCS#
LBRD#
LBD
1
LBD
2
t zrcs2
t zrcs1
t csrd
tzrd1
t
t zd1 drd
trdcs
Data sampled
Local Bus Reference Cycle
Valid Local Bus Address
tzrd2
Valid Data
t sd
t zd2
t hd
Valid Data
Figure 8: PCI Read Transaction from Intel-type Local Bus
Data Sheet Revision 1.3
Page 65
OX16PCI954
OXFORD SEMICONDUCTOR LTD.
TIMING WAVEFORMS
CLK
1
2
3
4
5
n+5
n+6
n+7
Where: n = 0, 1, .., 9
FRAME#
AD[31:0]
Address
C/BE[3:0]#
Bus CMD
Data
Byte enable#
Wait
Wait
Data transfer
TRDY#
Wait
Wait
IRDY#
t ref
DEVSEL#
STOP#
LBCLK
t za
t awr
Local Bus Reference Cycle
LBA
LBCS#
LBWR#
tzwcs1
tcswr
Valid Local Bus Address
tzwcs2
twrcs
tzwr2
tzwr1
1
LBD
Valid Local Bus Data
t zdv
LBD
2
Valid Local Bus Data
twrdi
t zdf
Figure 9: PCI Write Transaction to Intel-type Local Bus
Data Sheet Revision 1.3
Page 66
OX16PCI954
OXFORD SEMICONDUCTOR LTD.
TIMING WAVEFORMS
CLK
1
2
3
4
5
n+5
n+6
Where: n = 0, 1, .., 9
n+7
FRAME#
AD[31:0]
Address
C/BE[3:0]#
Bus CMD
Data
Data
Byte enable#
Wait
Wait
Data transfer
TRDY#
Wait
Wait
IRDY#
t ref
DEVSEL#
STOP#
LBCLK
t za
t ads
LBA
LBRDWR#
LBDS#
LBD
LBD
1
2
tzrds1
t zd1
tdrd
t zrds2
Data sampled
Local Bus Reference Cycle
Valid Local Bus Address
Valid Data
t sd
t zd2
t hd
Valid Data
Figure 10: PCI Read Transaction from Motorola-type Local Bus
Data Sheet Revision 1.3
Page 67
OX16PCI954
OXFORD SEMICONDUCTOR LTD.
TIMING WAVEFORMS
CLK
1
2
3
4
5
n+5
n+6
Where: n = 0, 1, .., 9
n+7
FRAME#
AD[31:0]
Address
C/BE[3:0]#
Bus CMD
Data
Byte enable#
Wait
Wait
Data transfer
TRDY#
Wait
Wait
IRDY#
t ref
DEVSEL#
STOP#
LBCLK
t za
t ads
Valid Local Bus Address
Local Bus Reference Cycle
LBA
LBRDWR#
LBDS#
LBD
t
t zw2
zw1
t wds
1
Valid Local Bus Data
t zdv
LBD
2
t dsw
t zwds2
t zwds1
Valid Local Bus Data
tdsdi
t zdf
Figure 11: PCI Write Transaction to Motorola-type Local Bus
Data Sheet Revision 1.3
Page 68
OX16PCI954
OXFORD SEMICONDUCTOR LTD.
TIMING WAVEFORMS
SIN
tirs
irht
Rx_Clk_In
SOUT
t its
Tx_Clk_Out
Figure 12: Isochronous (x1 clock) timing waveform
Data Sheet Revision 1.3
Page 69
OXFORD SEMICONDUCTOR LTD.
OX16PCI954
15 PACKAGE INFORMATION
Figure 13: 160 pin Thin Quad Flat Pack (TQFP) package
16 ORDERING INFORMATION
OX16PCI954-TQC60-A
Revision
Package Type – 160 TQFP
Data Sheet Revision 1.3
Page 70
OX16PCI954
OXFORD SEMICONDUCTOR LTD.
NOTES
This page has been intentionally left blank
Data Sheet Revision 1.3
Page 71
OXFORD SEMICONDUCTOR LTD.
OX16PCI954
CONTACT DETAILS
Oxford Semiconductor Ltd.
69 Milton Park
Abingdon
Oxfordshire
OX14 4RX
United Kingdom
Telephone:
Fax:
Sales e-mail:
Tech support e-mail:
Web site:
+44 (0)1235 824900
+44 (0)1235 821141
sales@oxsemi.com
support@oxsemi.com
http://www.oxsemi.com
DISCLAIMER
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change without notice. No responsibility is assumed by Oxford Semiconductor for its use, nor for infringement of patents or other
rights of third parties. No part of this publication may be reproduced, or transmitted in any form or by any means without the prior
consent of Oxford Semiconductor Ltd. Oxford Semiconductor’s terms and conditions of sale apply at all times.
Data Sheet Revision 1.3
Page 72
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