WeOS Upgrade

WeOS Upgrade
TECH NOTE 002
WeOS Upgrade
The comprehensive guide
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Table of Contents
Aim
………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………...
3
Introduction……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 3
The WeOS Firmware
………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………...
4
The .pkg File……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………..4
All WeOS Feature Releases so far in Chronological Order…………...…….. 4
1. Determining Firmware Versions
2. Choose Upgrade Procedure
…………………………………………………………………………………………..
5
………………………………………………………………………………………………………..
6
WEB Upgrade Using CGI…………………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 7
WEB Upgrade Using FTP/TFTP……………………………………………………………………………………………….. 8
Notes on Upgrading from CLI…………………………………………………………………………………………………….9
CLI Upgrade Using FTP/TFTP…………………………………………………………………………………………………….10
CLI Upgrade Using USB…………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….11
3. Multiple Version Upgrade Procedures
……………………………………………………………………....
12
Multiple Version Upgrade with Factory Default Configuration….……. 12
Multiple Version Upgrade Keeping the Configuration…………..…………………… 13
Upgrading Early RedFox Units Using WeOS 4.0.0
…………………………………………
14
……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………..
15
……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….
16
Boot Loader Upgrade
Downgrade
Insufficient RAM-memory for Upgrade
Appendix
…………………………………………………………………………..…
17
……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………..
18
Setting up a TFTP Server………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 18
Configuration Saving…………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 19
Save the Configuration from the CLI……………………………………………………………………………..19
Save the Configuration from the WEB Interface………………………………………………….19
Configuration Backup…………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 20
Backup the Configuration from the WEB Interface………………………………………….. 20
Backup the Configuration from the CLI………………………………………………………………………20
Configuration Restore………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 21
Restore the Configuration from the WEB Interface…………………………………………. 21
Restore the Configuration from the CLI…………………………………………………………………….. 21
Factory Reset……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….………………… 22
Factory Reset from the CLI…………………………………………………………………………………………………… 22
Factory Reset from the WEB Interface…………………...…………………………………………………... 22
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Aim
This document will handle all types of upgrade procedures supported by WeOS and how to
correctly execute an upgrade based on different scenarios.
Introduction
The Westermo Operating System (WeOS) was first released in 2009 with version 4.0.0.
Fifteen feature releases later and with a whole lot of new functionality added since then, it
becomes more important to know how to correctly upgrade WeOS units to ensure proper
configuration functionality between the releases.
WeOS are able to support configuration syntax changes from one feature release to the
next. This is so that the old syntax from the previous release can be parsed correctly into
the new release. In this way a WeOS unit can be upgraded one step without having to be
reconfigured after the upgrade.
For example when upgrading from 4.12.1 to 4.13.4 no reconfiguration of the unit is needed
for configuration compatibility between the firmware versions.
A feature release is defined by the figure in the middle of the version number e.g. 4.6.x,
4.12.x, 4.13.x etc. See the full list of all WeOS feature releases on the next page.
No special considerations concerning the configuration compability needs to be taken
when upgrading within a feature release e.g. 4.13.1 to 4.13.4.
Taking into account the above information precautions are needed if an upgrade has to be
made in more than one step and at the same time keep the configuration intact e.g.
upgrading from 4.8.2 to 4.13.4. This procedure is described in detail in the Multiple Version
Upgrade chapter.
Boot loader upgrades are an exception to this as it can be upgraded more than one step at
the time, read more about this in the Boot Loader Upgrade chapter.
Downgrading the firmware is generally not recommended but sometimes it might be
necessary and how to do this is described in the Downgrade chapter.
In the Appendix section the procedures associated with upgrade process are described.
The first part of the document will describe how to make proper preparations for the
upgrade and the different ways an upgrade can be executed in WeOS.
Please Note! Always look through the Release Notes, it will describe the new
features, fixed issues and known issues of a firmware release. Any problem
reporting should be based on the latest official WeOS release.
All examples and screen dumps in this document are made with WeOS version 4.13.4.
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The WeOS Firmware
The latest firmware release is available from the Westermo homepage at
www.westermo.com
Also all previously released versions are available here in the history files.
The .pkg File
Before WeOS version 4.13.x all firmware files were distributed as separate .img and .bin
files.
The .img is the WeOS firmware file and the .bin file is the boot loader firmware.
All WeOS product groups had its own set of these files named after its group.
RedFox:
rwXXXX.img xscale-redboot-YYY.bin
Lynx and Viper: lwXXXX.img imx27-redboot-ZZZ.bin
Wolverine:
wwXXXX.img imx27-redboot-ZZZ.bin
Falcon:
fwXXXX.img imx27-redboot-ZZZ.bin
From WeOS 4.13.x this was changed to a unified file containing all the WeOS product’s
firmware and boot loader images. It does not matter if there is a boot loader upgrade or a
firmware upgrade that needs to be done, only one file is needed, the .pkg file.
When upgrading from a firmware version previous to 4.13.x to versions above 4.13.x there
always have to be an intermediate step to 4.13.x to turn the upgrade procedure to the .pkg
type of upgrade. See the Multiple Version Upgrade section for more details.
The upgrade procedure is the same no matter if it is done with .img, .bin or a .pkg file.
Always upgrade to the latest patch release available also when upgrading multiple firmware
steps, see the list below.
All WeOS Feature Releases so far in Chronological Order
00) 4.0.0 .img
01) customer specific release
02) 4.2.1 .img
03) 4.3.0 .img
04) 4.4.0 .img
05) 4.5.1 .img
06) 4.6.2 .img
07) customer specific release
08) 4.8.2 .img
09) 4.9.2 .img
10) customer specific release
11) 4.11.2 .img
12) 4.12.1 .img
13) 4.13.4 .img and .pkg
14) 4.14.2 .pkg
15) 4.15.3 .pkg
16) 4.16.0 .pkg
17) 4.17.1 .pkg
18) 4.18.1 .pkg
19) 4.19.2 .pkg
20) 4.20.0 .pkg
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1. Determining Firmware Versions
WeOS have a primary and a backup firmware and also a boot loader firmware, which is
handled later in the Boot Loader Upgrade chapter.
The primary firmware contains the main system software which is used by the switch at
normal startup.
The backup firmware is loaded in case an error (such as a check-sum error) occurs while
loading the primary firmware.
Please Note! It is strongly recommended to use the same version on both the
primary and backup firmware. This is to ensure the same interpretation of the
configuration file if a failover to the backup firmware is needed.
The firmware versions used by the switch can be seen in the WEB interface by going to
Status -> System -> Details:
and in the CLI using the show system-information command:
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2. Choose Upgrade Procedure
WeOS can be upgraded from the CLI and from the WEB interface using FTP or TFTP.
WEB interface upgrade also allows for CGI upload from the WEB browser directly so no
external FTP or TFTP servers are needed.
A USB upgrade is also supported from the CLI.
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WEB Upgrade Using CGI
Upgrading from the WEB interface using CGI does not require any additional measures as
long as the WEB interface can be reached for configuration.
To upgrade using WEB and CGI upload use these steps:
1) Make a backup copy of the configuration, see appendix for instructions.
2) Do this procedure first for the Backup firmware, then for the Primary firmware.
3) Go to Maintenance -> F/W Upgrade -> and click Enable File Upload.
4) Choose the firmware file to upgrade to.
5) State if it is the Backup or Primary firmware that should be upgraded.
6) Start the upgrade by clicking the Upgrade button.
7) After the upgrade has completed it is possible to verify that the correct firmware version
is active by going to Status -> System -> Details, see the chapter Determining
Firmware Versions
8) Complete the process by saving the configuration, see appendix for instructions.
3.
4.
5.
6.
This status output is
from the pre 4.13.x
releases.
After the upgrade has
finished successfully
the WeOS unit will
reboot.
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WEB Upgrade Using FTP/TFTP
When upgrading from a FTP/TFTP server the WeOS unit will download its firmware file
from the server, so any firewalls or routers in the path must allow this traffic to pass.
To FTP/TFTP upgrade from the WEB follow these steps:
1) Make a backup copy of the configuration, see appendix for instructions.
2) Do this procedure first for the Backup firmware, then for the Primary firmware.
3) Go to Maintenance -> F/W Upgrade -> FTP/TFTP Upgrade.
4) Add the firmware file to be downloaded for the upgrade.
5) State the IP-address of the FTP or TFTP server used.
6) Choose if it is the Backup or Primary firmware that shall be upgraded.
7) Click the Upgrade button to start upgrading.
8) After the upgrade has completed it is possible to verify that the correct firmware version
is active by going to Status -> System -> Details, see the chapter Determining
Firmware Versions
9) Complete the process by saving the configuration, see appendix for instructions.
3.
4.
5.
6.
Please note that when using TFTP upgrade
with .pkg files the TFTP server must support
large files as defined in RFC2347.
7.
The WeOS unit will
first try FTP and then
TFTP if no FTP server
is available.
This status output is
from the 4.13 release.
After the upgrade has
finished successfully
the WeOS unit will
reboot.
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Notes on Upgrading from the CLI
There are three possible ways to upgrade the firmware from the CLI, by using FTP, TFTP
or USB and they all use the upgrade command:
upgrade <pri|sec|boot> <[URI://][ADDRESS[:PORT]/]FILE | ADDRESS FILE]>
For more detailed information about this command use help upgrade from the CLI prompt.
When upgrading from the CLI several upgrades can be made before a reboot is forced.
This is different from the WEB upgrade where a reboot is forced after each upgrade
performed.
When upgrading in the sequential order described below the unit will not reboot until the
Primary firmware is upgraded.
Please Note! That the utput from show system-information will not show any
changes until a reboot is made.
Please Note! In the CLI the Backup firmware is named Secondary firmware.
1) Upgrade the Boot loader firmware if neccessary, see the Boot Loader Upgrade chapter
first!
2) Upgrade the Backup (secondary) firmware.
3) Upgrade the Primary firmware and a reboot will follow this command.
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CLI Upgrade Using FTP/TFTP
When upgrading from a FTP or TFTP server the WeOS unit will download its firmware file
from the server, so any firewalls or routers in the path must allow this traffic to pass.
Execute the FTP/TFTP upgrade using these steps:
1) Make a backup copy of the configuration, see appendix for instructions.
2) Make sure the FTP/TFTP server is ready, see appendix for tftp instructions.
3) Excecute the upgrade command for the Backup (secondary) firmware, e.g.
upgrade secondary tftp://192.168.2.70/WeOS-4.13.4.pkg
4) Excecute the upgrade command for the Primary firmware, e.g.
upgrade primary tftp://192.168.2.70/WeOS-4.13.4.pkg
5) After the upgrade has completed it is possible to verify with the show system-information
command that the correct firmware version is active, see the chapter Determining
Firmware Versions
6) Complete the process by saving the configuration, see appendix for instructions.
Examples:
upgrade secondary ftp://192.168.2.70/lw4134.img
upgrade primary tftp://192.168.2.70/WeOS-4.13.4.pkg
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CLI Upgrade Using USB
When upgrading using USB the USB-stick must be prepared according to the following:
- Be partitioned
- Be formatted as VFAT or FAT32 on the first partition
Otherwise WeOS might not be able to read the firmware file from the USB-stick.
To execute the USB upgrade use these steps:
1) Make a backup copy of the configuration, see appendix for instructions.
2) Make sure the USB-stick is prepared, loaded with the firmware file and inserted into the
unit.
3) Excecute the upgrade command for the Backup (secondary) firmware, e.g.
upgrade secondary usb://WeOS-Firmware/WeOS-4.13.4.pkg.
4) Excecute the upgrade command for the Primary firmware, e.g.
upgrade primary usb://WeOS-Firmware/WeOS-4.13.4.pkg.
5) After the upgrade has completed it is possible to verify with the show system-information
command that the correct firmware version is active, see the chapter Determining
Firmware Versions
6) Complete the process by saving the configuration, see appendix for instructions.
Example:
upgrade primary usb://WeOS-Firmware/WeOS-4.13.4.pkg
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3. Multiple Version Upgrade Procedures
WeOS supports configuration compatibility when upgrading to the next feature release, see
the Introduction section for the feature release definition.
When a WeOS unit must be upgraded several feature releases and keeping the
configuration intact, steps must be taken inorder to ensure that the configuration is
compatible with the new firmware version.
Always upgrade to the latest patch release available, see list under section the WeOS
Firmware.
Example: upgrading from 4.17.0 includes these steps 4.17.0 -> 4.17.1 -> 4.18.1 -> 4.19.2 ->
4.20.0.
There are two ways to upgrade multiple firmware versions, either with a cleared
configuration i.e. factory defaulting the unit after upgrade or upgrade keeping the
configuration compatible between the firmware versions by upgrading step by step.
Multiple Version Upgrade with Factory Default Configuration
The quickest upgrade procedure when upgrading several WeOS releases is to do a Factory
Reset after the upgrade has finished. In this way the upgrade can be done in one step
going directly to the desired firmware version. Although it also means that all configuration
settings on the unit will be erased so a new configuration must be made on the new
firmware version.
Please Note! When upgrading multiple versions, upgrade first the Primary firmware
and then the Backup firmware, as the Backup firmware do not have to consider the
configuration aspects of the upgrade
Please Note! From 4.14.x only the .pkg file upgrade is supported. So when upgrading
from any release previous 4.13.x all upgrades must first be to 4.13.4 in order to get
the .pkg upgrade support.
To upgrade in this way follow these steps:
1) For releases previous to 4.13.x upgrade the Primary firmware directly to 4.13.4 using
one of the methods described in the Choose Upgrade Procedure chapter,
e.g. 4.6.2 -> 4.13.4 with the .img file.
2) Then upgrade the Primary firmware directly to the firmware version above 4.13.x that is
wanted using one of the methods described in the Choose Upgrade Procedure chapter,
e.g. 4.13.4 -> 4.14.2 with the .pkg file.
3) Upgrade the Backup firmware directly to the new firmware version, e.g. 4.6.2 -> 4.14.2.
4) When the upgrade has finished perform a Factory Reset so all configuration settings are
reset and the new factory default settings are activated.
5) Redo the configuration on the new firmware version.
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Multiple Version Upgrade Keeping the Configuration
To keep the configuration from an old firmware compatible with a new firmware when
upgrading WeOS over multiple versions, the upgrade must be done in a step by step
manner. Going from feature release to feature release will ensure configuration
compatibility.
At each step of a feature release upgrade, previously the configuration had to be saved in
the new firmware format. However from WeOS feature release 4.15.0 the configuration is
saved automatically so no extra step is needed for this.
See the Introduction section for the definition of a feature release.
Please Note! When upgrading multiple versions, upgrade first the Primary firmware
and then the Backup firmware, as the Backup firmware do not have to consider the
configuration aspects of the upgrade.
In order to keep the configuration intact, upgrade using these steps:
1) Upgrade the Primary firmware to the latest patch release available, if needed.
2) Then upgrade the Primary firmware to the latest patch release of the next feature
release in the list using one of the methods described in the Choose Upgrade Procedure
chapter.
3) When the upgrade has finished save the configuration via CLI or WEB (only needed for
WeOS versions older than 4.15.0), see appendix.
4) Repeat the procedure until the version needed is reached.
5) Then upgrade the Backup firmware directly to the new firmware version.
Example:
1) Upgrade Primary firmware 4.9.0 -> 4.9.2 using the .img file.
2) Upgrade Primary firmware 4.9.2 -> 4.11.2 using the .img file.
3) Save the configuration.
4) Upgrade Primary firmware 4.11.2 -> 4.12.1. using the .img file.
5) Save the configuration.
6) Upgrade Primary firmware 4.12.1 -> 4.13.4. using the .img file.
7) Save the configuration.
8) Upgrade Primary firmware 4.13.4 -> 4.14.2. using the .pkg file.
9) Save the configuration.
10) Upgrade Primary firmware 4.14.2 -> 4.15.3. using the .pkg file.
11) Save the configuration.
12) Upgrade Primary firmware 4.15.3 -> 4.16.0. using the .pkg file (no need to save).
13) Upgrade Primary firmware 4.16.0 -> 4.17.1. using the .pkg file (no need to save).
14) Upgrade Backup firmware 4.9.2 -> 4.17.1 using the .pkg file, in this case the unit
understands .pkg files as it’s Primary firmware is already upgraded to 4.17.1
Through this procedure the configuration of the unit is now kept compatible all the way from
4.9.0 to latest patch release of the latest feature release.
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Upgrading Early RedFox Units Using WeOS 4.0.0
Early RedFox units (Industrial and Rail) delivered with WeOS 4.0.0, comes with
a flash memory partition unsuitable for the larger firmware image size of WeOS
4.3.x and later.
If the RedFox unit have an article number and a serial number that fits the table below a
partition table upgrade is needed, otherwise this section can be ignored:
To find out the units model, article number and the serial number go to Status -> System ->
Details in the WEB interface or issue the command show system-information in the CLI.
Please Note!
Updating the flash partition table will corrupt your system!
Configuration files, certificates and backup image will be destroyed.
Please Note!
Although this update facility has been tested extensively by Westermo there
are no guarantees it will work flawlessly for all use cases.
Therefore, we do not recommend this action on active running units in the
field. Instead, replace the unit with a spare one first.
Update the flash table using these steps:
1) Backup your .cfg files, startup-config and any certificate files to a USB-stick or remote
(T)FTP/SCP server.
2) If you are running WeOS version 4.2.1 or later proceed directly to the next step. If you
are running WeOS 4.0.0, you must first upgrade your primary firmware to a later release,
e.g., 4.2.1 or 4.3.0, see the other sections of this document on how to upgrade correctly.
3) Access the CLI via the console port, run the flash-table-update command, and wait for
it to finish. The unit reboots when it has completed the update.
4) Restore configuration files, any necessary certificates and the system backup image.
The flash-table-update command is only available on WeOS 4.2.0 and later, and is only
visible if you have a RedFox with the old partition table.
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Boot Loader Upgrade
Please Note! Unless the release notes explicitly recommend it, there is no need to
upgrade the boot loader.
The boot loader firmware can only be upgraded from the CLI using the upgrade command:
upgrade <pri|sec|boot> <[URI://][ADDRESS[:PORT]/]FILE | ADDRESS FILE]>
The current version (updated at boot) is visible in the output from the
show system-information command, see the chapter Determining Firmware Versions
The boot loader firmware does not follow the WeOS firmware version numbers, it has its
own version numbering scheme and it is CPU platform specific, see the section The WeOS
Firmware.
To execute the boot loader upgrade use these steps:
1) Make a backup copy of the configuration, see appendix for instructions.
2) Chose upgrade procedure FTP, TFTP or USB and make sure everything is set.
3) Excecute the upgrade command.
4) Reboot the unit.
5) After the reboot has completed it is possible to verify with the show system-information
command that the correct boot loader version is active, see the chapter Determining
Firmware Versions
Example:
upgrade bootloader tftp://192.168.2.70/imx27-redboot-4.11.bin
upgrade bootloader usb://WeOS-Firmware/WeOS-4.13.4.pkg
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Downgrading
Although downgrading is discuraged it might sometimes be neccessary.
The downgrade process is much more complex than upgrading as the new firmware
version will contain several new features that the old firmware is not aware of.
Therefore it is not possible to downgrade with the configuration completely compatible.
This is why it is so important to backup the configuration before upgrading so a downgrade
can be made without having to reconfigure the unit. See the upgrade sections for details on
how to upgrade.
Downgrading is perfomed using these steps:
1) Make sure there is a backed up configuration for the firmware version the unit is to be
downgraded to or be prepared to do a Factory Reset of the unit after downgrade.
2) Execute the downgrade in the same way as the upgrade is performed (but with an older
firmware), see the upgrade sections for details. Example 4.14.2 -> 4.12.1 and please
note, as it is not possible to keep the configuration intact, downgrading in steps is of
no use in this case.
3) When the downgrade is finished perform a Factory Reset of the unit to make sure it has
the factory default settings of the firmware downgraded to, see appendix for details.
4) If desired restore a configuration file saved in the firmware version downgraded to e.g.
4.12.1, see appendix for details.
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Insufficient RAM-memory for Upgrade
When a WeOS unit is to be upgraded a RAM-disk will be created in RAM memory where
the firmware image is stored. In some rare cases there might not be enough memory left in
RAM for the RAM-disk to be created. This could happen if a firmware version is used where
there is a memory leakage, see relese notes for information.
In such a case the unit will first try to disable some functions that is not needed for the
upgrade and then it will try to create the RAM-disk again and if that is successful the
upgrade can continue.
But if there is still not enough memory available the upgrade will fail. See picture below.
In this case first try to reboot the unit to clear RAM of unneccessary allocations and then try
the upgrade again.
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Appendix
Setting up a TFTP Server
The TFTPD server software can be downloaded from http://tftpd32.jounin.net.
This particular server does not have to be installed on the computer it will be run from.
Use the Browse
button to add the
folder where the
firmware files are
stored.
Choose the correct
interface on the PC so the
WeOS unit can acces the
firmware file.
Please Note! Do not forget to adapt the firewall for the PC that shall run the TFTP
server so the WeOS unit can download it’s firmware file from it.
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Configuration Saving
A WeOS unit’s configuration can be saved from either the CLI or the WEB interface.
Save the Configuration from the CLI
The copy command is used for saving the configuration from the CLI.
copy [force] [URI://]<from> [URI://]<to>
Use help copy from the prompt for more information about the copy command.
To save the configuration just execute:
copy running-config startup-config.
Save the Configuration from the WEB Interface
In the WEB interface all configuration changes are saved automatically, however in this
case no configuration changes have been made, only the save is needed.
To do this from the WEB an Apply button needs to be clicked and this will trigger a save of
the running-config to the startup-config.
Any Apply button may be clicked, the example below shows the Configuration -> System ->
Date & Time Apply button.
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Configuration Backup
A WeOS unit’s configuration can be backed up from either the CLI or the WEB interface.
Backup the Configuration from the WEB Interface
The configuration can be backed up by going to:
Maintenance -> Backup & Restore and clicking the Backup button in the WEB interface.
Backup the Configuration from the CLI
The copy command is used for configuration backup from the CLI.
copy [force] [URI://]<from> [URI://]<to>
Use help copy from the prompt for more information about the copy command.
The configuration can be saved to the following storage places FTP, TFTP, SCP or USB.
Examples:
copy running-config tftp://192.168.2.70/backup-Wolverine.cfg
copy running-config usb://backup-Wolverine.cfg
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Configuration Restore
A WeOS unit’s configuration can be restored from either the CLI or the WEB interface.
Restore the Configuration from the WEB Interface
The configuration can be restored in the WEB interface by going to:
Maintenance -> Backup & Restore, click the Browse button and choose the configuration
file to be restored. Execute by clicking the Restore button.
Verify the configuration by browsing the WEB interface.
Restore the Configuration from the CLI
The copy command is used for configuration restore from the CLI.
copy [force] [URI://]<from> [URI://]<to>
Use help copy from the prompt for more information about the copy command.
The configuration can be restored from the following storage places FTP, TFTP, SCP or
USB. Copy the configuration file to the running-config first to make sure the copy procedure
went well and all settings are correct, then copy it to the startup-config.
Restore a configuration using these steps:
1) Use the copy command e.g.
copy tftp://192.168.2.70/backup_lynx_20140413_1229.cfg running-config
2) Verify the configuration by executing show running-config
3) Save the restored configuration with copy running-config startup-config
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Factory Reset
A WeOS unit can be set to factory default from either the CLI or the WEB interface.
Factory Reset from the CLI
Perform a Factory Reset from the CLI using the copy command.
copy [force] [URI://]<from> [URI://]<to>
Use help copy from the prompt for more information about the copy command.
Issue a Factory Reset using these commands:
1) copy factory-config startup-config
2) reboot
Factory Reset from the WEB Interface
To execute a Factory Reset from the WEB interface go to Maintenance -> Factory reset and
click the Reset button.
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Revision history for version 1.0
Revision
Rev by
Revision note
Date
00
ML
First Release
20140425
01
ML
Updated information regarding multiple version upgrade
20170119
02
03
04
05
06
07
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