# Three Phase AC Generator

```Three Phase AC Generator
A Practical Exercise
Updated: 17 AUG 2016
Name:________________
Section: ____________
I. Purpose.
1. Introduce AC generator operations.
2. Introduce 3-Phase Wye-to-Delta AC circuits.
II. Equipment.
Keysight 34450A Digital Multimeter (DMM)
Oscilloscope
Hampden DC Machine
Hampden Synchronous Machine
Digital contact tachometer
III. Pre-lab Calculations: None.
IV. Preparation.
This practical exercise will utilize deadly combinations of voltage potential
and currents. Review your safety brief.
V. Lab Procedure. Time Required: 40 minutes. Check off each step as you complete it.
Step One: Prime Mover
Before we build the circuit we must first ground the Hampden DC Machine and the Hampden
Synchronous Machine.
□
Connect both grounding points on the Hampden DC Machine and the Hampden Synchronous
Machine to a ground point on the Hampden control panel. The ground points are the green
terminals located on one side of both input panels of the Hampden DC Machine and the
Hampden Synchronous Machine.
In this practical exercise we will use the Hampden DC Machine (DC motor) as the prime mover to
rotate the Hampden Synchronous Machine (AC generator).
□
Ensure that the DC motor and the AC generator are attached to each other and secured to
their mounts.
Recall that the Hampden DC machine uses an electromagnet not permanent magnet in its stator to
create a magnetic field across its rotor. We will create a “permanent” magnet field by applying DC
voltage from the laboratory bench excitation supply (Figure 1) across the stator’s field windings
(Figure 1).
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Three Phase AC Generator
DC Machine
“Field Windings”
Excitation Supply
Field Rheostat
1
T
1
T
T
2
T
2
Shunt Field
1
Armature
1
T
10
0 - 150 V. DC-1A max
2
T
+
T
T
Series Field
1
2
T
T
Figure 1
□
Connect the Field Rheostat and the Shunt Field in series (Figure 2).
□
Connect the excitation supply to the “Field Windings” (Figure 2).
□
Rotate the Excitation Supply knob (Figure 2) to the full counter-clockwise position (off).
DC Machine
Excitation Supply
Field Rheostat
1
T
1
T
T
2
T
2
Shunt Field
1
Armature
1
T
10
0 - 150 V. DC-1A max
T
2
+
T
T
Series Field
1
□
T
T
2
Figure 2
Turn the field rheostat knob that is located on top of the DC Machine input panel to the full
counter-clockwise position, then rotate the knob approximately ¼ turn clockwise.
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Three Phase AC Generator
DC motors require DC current to be applied across the DC motor’s armature loops (rotor) via the
commutator.
□
Connect the DC machine’s armature (Figure 3) to the Variable DC Supply on the lab bench.
DC Machine
Excitation Supply
Field Rheostat
1
T
T
2
10
1
0 - 150 V. DC-1A max
Shunt Field
1
T
T
2
T
2
T
2
+
-
T
T
Armature
1
T
1
T
Series Field
1
10
0 - 125 V. DC-5A max
+
-
T
T
Figure 3
□
Rotate the Variable DC Supply knob to the full counter-clockwise position (off).
Step Two: AC Generator
Similar to the Hampden DC machine, the Hampden Synchronous Machine (AC generator) uses an
electromagnet (not a permanent magnet) in its rotor to create a magnetic field across its stator. In
this practical exercise we will create a “permanent” magnet field by applying DC voltage from the
laboratory bench excitation supply (Figure 4) across the rotor’s field windings (Figure 4).
SYNCHRONOUS MACHINE
THREE-PHASE AC
+
IND.
START
SYN
RUN
T
T
“Field Windings”
Excitation Supply
_
DAMPER
WINDINGS
1
T
T
T
1
10
0 - 150 V. DC-1A max
+
T
4
T
T
5
T
T
6
T
T
T
ON
___
DC Motor
Field Windings
OFF
L1
T
T
T
L3
L2
□
□
Figure 4
Connect Excitation Supply (Figure 4) to synchronous machine “field windings”.
Ensure that the toggle switch on the field windings is toggled to “SYN RUN”.
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Three Phase AC Generator
These Hampden Synchronous Machines have three separate armature windings that are 120 degrees
apart and are “Y” connected. Terminal 1 is the common connection for all three armature windings
(neutral), and terminals 4 or L1, 5 or L2, and 6 or L3 are the AC generator output terminals. See
Figure 5.
SYNCHRONOUS MACHINE
THREE-PHASE AC
+
A
_
SYN
RUN
IND.
START
T
T
T
DAMPER
WINDINGS
1
T
T
T
Common
connection
“neutral”
N
T
4
5
T
6
T
T
T
T
T
ON
___
OFF
T
T
C
L1
T
T
B
L3
T
L2
AC generator
output terminals
Figure 5
Step Three: Construct a 3 Phase Delta connected load (Figure 6).
1
2
3
4
5
6
a
TT
A
B
C
T
T
T
T
T
T
Iab
T
c
T
b
□
Figure 6
Construct a Delta-connected load by connecting the neutral points of the resistor loads “A”,
“B”, and “C” to the appropriate resistor load RED / BLUE / BLACK connections (Figure 6).
□
through 6. This will create two 2000 ohm resistors in parallel on each branch.
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Three Phase AC Generator
Step Four: Construct a three phase Wye to Delta AC circuit (Figure 7).
A
T
a
TT
N
T
C
c
T
b
T
T
T
B
Figure 7
□
Construct a three phase Wye-to-Delta AC circuit by connecting the AC generator outputs to
their respective resistor load leads (RED / BLUE / BLACK – see Figure 8). Connect phase
A output via the DMM (set to AAC) to phase a on the resistor load panel, so that it measures
the line current, I A .
SYNCHRONOUS MACHINE
THREE-PHASE AC
+
IND.
START
SYN
RUN
T
T
_
1
2
3
4
5
6
DAMPER
WINDINGS
1
4
T
T
T
T
T
5
T
T
6
A
B
C
T
T
T
T
T
T
T
T
Circuit
Breaker
ON
___
OFF
L1
T
T
T
L3
L2
DMM
□
Figure 8
Ensure that the circuit breaker on the AC generator panel is “ON” (Figure 8).
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Three Phase AC Generator
□
Using the probes, connect your oscilloscope so that it will measure the voltage across E NA
and E BA (Figure 9).
□
□
□
CH 1’s probe must be connected to the neutral point (position 1 on the Hampden
synchronous machine) and CH 1’s alligator clip must be connected to the terminal
end of phase “A” (position 4 on the Hampden synchronous machine).
CH 2’s probe must be connected to the terminal end of phase “B” (position 5 on the
Hampden synchronous machine) and CH 2’s alligator clip must be connected to the
terminal end of phase “A” (position 4 on the Hampden synchronous machine).
Verify that the oscilloscope is set to the “10X” setting: Press and release the CH 1 button
on the oscilloscope. Use the appropriate soft button to set the “Probe” setting for CH 1 to
“10X” if it is not already so. Repeat this process for CH 2.
SYNCHRONOUS MACHINE
THREE-PHASE AC
+
IND.
START
SYN
RUN
T
T
_
Probes
DAMPER
WINDINGS
1
T
T
O-scope
T
CH 1
4
T
T
5
T
6
CH 2
T
T
T
ON
___
OFF
Alligator
clips
L1
T
T
T
L3
L2
Figure 9
Step Five: Verify circuit and generate AC power.
□
Have an instructor verify your circuit, and then unlock the power supply.
□
Turn on the MAIN AC power supply switch.
□
Turn on the EXCITATION SUPPLY power switch.
□
Set the DC voltage to the field windings by rotating the Excitation Supply knob to the
number “2” position.
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Three Phase AC Generator
□
□
□
□
Turn on the VARIABLE OUTPUT power switch.
Slowly rotate the VOLTAGE ADJUST knob clockwise until it indicates just above the 2
position.
While observing the frequency output on your oscilloscope, slowly adjust the VOLTAGE
ADJUST knob until your oscilloscope indicates 30 Hz (T = 33.33 ms). You may rotate the
field rheostat knob on top of the DC Machine input panel to fine tune your oscilloscope to 30
Hz (T = 33.33 ms).
Use a Digital Contact Tachometer to measure the RPM of your AC generator.
AC Generator RPM ___________
How many poles do these Hampden AC Synchronous Machines have?
# of Poles ___________
Step Six: Measurements
□
Use your oscilloscope to determine the phasors, E AN and E AB . Use E AN as the reference phasor.
0°
E AN = _______∠______
E AB = _______∠______
Does E AB lead E AN by 30 degrees?
Exact__________
Is E AB
Very Different_________
Very close__________
Very Different_________
3 times larger than E AN ?
Exact__________
□
Very close__________
Use your DMM to determine the magnitude of the line current I A .
I A = ______________
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Three Phase AC Generator
□
□
Use Ohm’s Law to determine the phase current I ab . Express your answer in polar form.
I ab = _______∠______
Convert your determined phase current I ab to the line current I A. Express your answer in polar
form.
I A = _______∠______
How does the magnitude of this calculated I A compare to your measured I A ?
Exact__________
Very close__________
Very Different_________
To avoid runaways, ensure that you power down the DC motor in the following sequence.
□
Rotate the VOLTAGE ADJUST knob to the full counter-clockwise position (off).
□
Turn off the VARIABLE OUTPUT power switch.
□
Rotate the EXCITATION SUPPLY knob to the full counter-clockwise position (off).
□
Turn off the EXCITATION SUPPLY power switch.
□
Turn off the MAIN AC power switch.
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