StruxureWare™ Power Monitoring 7.0 System Design Guide 7EN02-0315-00 05/2012 Contents Safety information 5 Safety precautions 7 System Design Guide introduction 9 Supported operating system and SQL Server editions 11 StruxureWare Power Monitoring recommended server specifications Communication networks 12 13 Ethernet network design LAN topologies Other LAN considerations Physical planning and layout Serial network design RS-232 communications RS-485 communications General bus wiring considerations Other network considerations Additional considerations for high-performance systems StruxureWare Power Monitoring architecture 14 14 17 17 18 18 19 20 21 21 23 Server types Primary Server Database Server Secondary Server Client types Engineering Clients Web Clients Architecture types Standalone Server architectures Distributed Server architectures System components 24 24 24 25 26 26 26 27 27 27 29 StruxureWare Power Monitoring services ION site server ION Log Inserter service Virtual ION Processor ION Real Time Data Service Translators StruxureWare Power Monitoring Diagnostics Viewer Starting Diagnostics Viewer Service Diagnostics Communications Diagnostics Additional Commands Using StruxureWare Power Monitoring as an OPC Server/Client Advanced configuration parameters 30 32 34 34 35 36 37 37 37 38 40 40 42 Registry settings Appendix A: Tested Reference Systems 43 45 Appendix B: Determining when a Secondary server is required 47 StruxureWare Power Monitoring 7.0 System Design Guide Page 4 of 58 Examples Appendix C: Serial Comms test results 47 48 Appendix D: Data Redundancy 49 SQL Server clustering FAQs 49 50 Glossary 52 © 2012 Schneider Electric. All rights reserved. Safety information Important information Read these instructions carefully and look at the equipment to become familiar with the device before trying to install, operate, service or maintain it. The following special messages may appear throughout this bulletin or on the equipment to warn of potential hazards or to call attention to information that clarifies or simplifies a procedure. The addition of either symbol to a "Danger" or "Warning" safety label indicates that an electrical hazard exists which will result in personal injury if the instructions are not followed. This is the safety alert symbol. It is used to alert you to potential personal injury hazards. Obey all safety messages that follow this symbol to avoid possible injury or death. DANGER DANGER indicates an imminently hazardous situation which, if not avoided, will result in death or serious injury. WARNING WARNING indicates a potentially hazardous situation which, if not avoided, can result in death or serious injury. CAUTION CAUTION indicates a potentially hazardous situation which, if not avoided, can result in minor or moderate injury. NOTICE NOTICE is used to address practices not related to physical injury. The safety alert symbol shall not be used with this signal word. Please note Electrical equipment should be installed, operated, serviced and maintained only by qualified personnel. No responsibility is assumed by Schneider Electric for any consequences arising out of the use of this material. A qualified person is one who has skills and knowledge related to the construction, installation, and operation of electrical equipment and has received safety training to recognize and avoid the hazards involved. © 2012 Schneider Electric. All rights reserved. Page 5 of 58 Page 6 of 58 © 2012 Schneider Electric. All rights reserved. StruxureWare Power Monitoring 7.0 System Design Guide Safety precautions Installation, wiring, testing and service must be performed in accordance with all local and national electrical codes. DANGER HAZARD OF ELECTRICAL SHOCK, EXPLOSION, OR ARC FLASH • Apply appropriate personal protective equipment (PPE) and follow safe electrical work practices. See NFPA 70E in the USA or applicable local standards. • Any equipment or device associated with this product must only be installed and serviced by qualified electrical personnel. • Turn off any power supplying any device associated with this product and the equipment in which it is installed before working on the device or equipment. • Always use a properly rated voltage sensing device to confirm that all power is off. • Connect protective ground (earth) before turning on any power supplying any device associated with this product. Failure to follow these instructions will result in death or serious injury. WARNING UNINTENDED EQUIPMENT OPERATION Do not use StruxureWare Power Monitoring for critical control or protection applications where human or equipment safety relies on the operation of the control action. Failure to follow these instructions can result in death or serious injury. Note Do not base your maintenance or service actions solely on messages and information displayed by the software. © 2012 Schneider Electric. All rights reserved. Page 7 of 58 Safety precautions Page 8 of 58 StruxureWare Power Monitoring 7.0 System Design Guide © 2012 Schneider Electric. All rights reserved. StruxureWare Power Monitoring 7.0 System Design Guide System Design Guide introduction The System Design Guide provides an overview of the elements involved in StruxureWare Power Monitoring system design. © 2012 Schneider Electric. All rights reserved. Page 9 of 58 System Design Guide introduction Page 10 of 58 StruxureWare Power Monitoring 7.0 System Design Guide © 2012 Schneider Electric. All rights reserved. StruxureWare Power Monitoring 7.0 System Design Guide Supported operating system and SQL Server editions The following table summarizes the supported 32-bit and 64-bit versions of Microsoft Windows operating systems and SQL Server editions. 32-bit Windows Operating Systems Windows 7 Professional/Enterprise Editions, SP1 Windows Server 2008 Standard/Enterprise Editions, SP2 Windows Server 2008 Standard/Enterprise Editions, SP2 64-bit Windows Operating Systems Windows 7 Professional/Enterprise Editions, SP1 Windows Server 2008 Standard/Enterprise Editions, SP2 Windows Server 2008 Standard/Enterprise Editions, SP2 Windows Server 2008 R2 Standard/Enterprise Editions, SP1 Windows Server 2008 R2 Standard/Enterprise Editions, SP1 © 2012 Schneider Electric. All rights reserved. 32-bit Microsoft SQL Server Editions SQL Server 2008 R2 Standard Edition, SP1 SQL Server 2008 Standard/Enterprise Editions, SP2 SQL Server 2008 R2 Standard/Enterprise Editions, SP1 64-bit Microsoft SQL Server Editions SQL Server 2008 R2 Standard Edition, SP1 SQL Server 2008 Standard/Enterprise Editions, SP2 SQL Server 2008 R2 Standard/Enterprise Editions, SP1 SQL Server 2008 Standard/Enterprise Editions, SP2 SQL Server 2008 R2 Standard/Enterprise Editions, SP1 Standalone Server Distributed Database Server ü - ü ü ü ü Standalone Server Distributed Database Server ü - ü ü ü ü ü ü ü ü Page 11 of 58 StruxureWare Power Monitoring 7.0 System Design Guide StruxureWare Power Monitoring recommended server specifications StruxureWare Power Monitoring recommended server specifications The following table provides the recommended server specifications for a StruxureWare Power Monitoring system based on the number of devices in the system and number of concurrent Web Client users. See "Appendix A: Tested Reference Systems" on page 45 for example tested references systems based on these specifications. No. of Devices 1-99 1-99 100-250 250-600 600-1000 1000-2500 No. of Users Power Monitoring software version Windows Operating System Database Engine SQL 2008 R2 Standard Edition < 15 StruxureWare Power Monitoring v7.0 Windows 7 (64-bit) Professional Ultimate Enterprise < 20 StruxureWare Power Monitoring v7.0 SQL 2008 Server 2008 R2 R2 Standard Standard Enterprise Edition < 20 StruxureWare Power Monitoring v7.0 SQL 2008 Server 2008 R2 R2 Standard Standard Enterprise Edition < 35 StruxureWare Power Monitoring v7.0 SQL 2008 Server 2008 R2 R2 Standard Standard Enterprise Edition < 50 StruxureWare Power Monitoring v7.0 SQL 2008 Server 2008 R2 R2 Standard Standard Enterprise Edition StruxureWare Power Monitoring v7.0 SQL 2008 Server 2008 R2 R2 Standard Standard Enterprise Edition < 50 Server 2008 SECONDARY SERVER R2 Standard n/a Enterprise © 2012 Schneider Electric. All rights reserved. Primary Server details CPU: Quad Core, 8M Cache, 2.8GHz, 4.8 GT/s RAM: 12GB, 1333MHz, DDR3 SDRAM, ECC (3 DIMMS) HD: x2 500GB SATA 3.0Gb/s CPU: 6 Core, 2M Cache, 3.2GHz, 4.8 GT/s RAM: 24GB, 1333MHz, DDR3 SDRAM, ECC (6 DIMMS) HD: x1 500GB SATA 3.0Gb/s; x2 1TB SATA 3.0Gb/s CPU: Quad Core, 12M Cache, 2.4Ghz, 5.86 GT/s RAM: 24GB, 1333MHz UDIMMS (3 DIMMS) HD: x6 300GB 15K RPM SA SCSI 6Gb/s 3.5in Hotplug Hard Drives CPU: x2 Quad Core, 12M Cache, 2.4Ghz, 5.86 GT/s RAM: 24GB, 1333MHz UDIMMS, (6 DIMMS) HD: x6 300GB 15K RPM SA SCSI 6Gb/s 3.5in Hotplug Hard Drives CPU: x2 6 Core, Cache 12M, 2.66Ghz, 6.4 GT/s RAM: 24GB 1333MHz Dual Ranked LV RDIMMs (6 DIMMS) HD: x6 300GB 15K RPM SA SCSI 6Gb/s 3.5in Hotplug Hard Drives CPU: x2 6 Core, 12M Cache, 2.66Ghz, 6.4 GT/s RAM: 24GB 1333MHz Dual Ranked LV RDIMMs (6 DIMMS) HD: x6 300GB 15K RPM SA SCSI 6Gb/s 3.5in Hotplug Hard Drives CPU: x2 Quad Core, 12M Cache, 2.4Ghz, 5.86 GT/s RAM: 24GB, 1333MHz UDIMMS, (6 DIMMS) HD: x6 300GB 15K RPM SA SCSI 6Gb/s 3.5in Hotplug Hard Drives Page 12 of 58 StruxureWare Power Monitoring 7.0 System Design Guide Communication networks A well designed network is one of the keys to the performance of StruxureWare Power Monitoring. The ability to move data from networked devices to a database or primary server has an impact on system performance. For this reason, choosing the appropriate network type and setup are important steps to an efficient energy management system. In this section: Ethernet network design 14 LAN topologies 14 Other LAN considerations 17 Physical planning and layout 17 Serial network design 18 RS-232 communications 18 RS-485 communications 19 General bus wiring considerations 20 Other network considerations 21 Additional considerations for high-performance systems 21 © 2012 Schneider Electric. All rights reserved. Page 13 of 58 Communication networks StruxureWare Power Monitoring 7.0 System Design Guide Ethernet network design LAN topologies Understanding basic network structure The physical layout or topology of a network consists of cables, components, and devices. These can be structured in any of the following topologies: • Star topology • Ring topology • Dual ring topology • Mesh topology Each topology has its advantages and disadvantages, which are summarized in the following topology descriptions. In addition to choosing the ideal topology, there are other LAN considerations to take into account when planning a robust application network. Star topology In a star topology, all the devices are connected though a central device. A star topology is a common network layout for office environments and also for newer metering environments. In a star topology, devices can use dedicated sections of the network for various services. In an Ethernet star, the intermediate device may be a hub or a switch. For industrial Ethernet applications, the use of a full duplex switch as the central device, rather than a hub, is strongly recommended. Advantages Network throughput is much higher than on a shared-media bus topology. Disadvantages Star topologies are more costly because a dedicated cable must be run to each device. To offset this disadvantage, network infrastructure components (switches, hubs, etc.) are used in cabinets on the factory floor so that a group of local devices can be connected together. A single long cable can be run back to a central point to support the group, rather than using separate cables for each device. Network reconfiguration is much easier. Centralizing network components makes administration easier; centralized management and monitoring of network traffic enhances network performance. Diagnostics are simple; if a network segment becomes inoperable, it affects only the devices directly connected to that segment. Infrastructure components use monitoring software and device-based Page 14 of 58 © 2012 Schneider Electric. All rights reserved. StruxureWare Power Monitoring 7.0 System Design Guide Ethernet network design Advantages LEDs to help indicate failures; most single points of failures can be diagnosed and repaired quickly. Disadvantages Resilience; a cable failure should only take that device out of service. You can have more devices on a single network than on a bus topology. Ring topology In a ring topology, all devices or network infrastructure components are connected in a loop with no beginning or end. Packets travel in a single direction on the ring as they are passed from one device to the next. Each device checks a packet for its destination and passes it on to the next device until it reaches its destination. Ring topologies provide redundancy. The loss of a single link is handled by routing traffic in the opposite direction. A ring may be based on token rotation or random/shared access. Alternatively, it may be a switched network where all the devices access the network at the same time at different speeds. Advantages Redundancy; the loss of a single link or infrastructure component does not affect the entire network. A ring topology uses software to monitor the network links. Disadvantages High cost; more cabling is needed to complete the ring. Network infrastructure components need intelligence to respond to device failures; they are more costly than simple bus or star components. Ethernet rings usually form the backbone for high-availability applications. Two paths are available to reach the same device. If ring topology is required, switches that support either a proprietary ring topology or spanning tree protocol (either spanning tree or rapid spanning tree) need to be used. Spanning tree protocol (STP; IEEE 802.1D) or rapid spanning tree protocol (RSTP; IEEE 802.1w) are protocols that avoid communication loops and find a new communication path when the initial path is no longer available. The recovery time (time to find a new path) is approximately 30 s with STP. With RSTP and proper network design, recovery time could be as low as 100 ms. © 2012 Schneider Electric. All rights reserved. Page 15 of 58 Communication networks StruxureWare Power Monitoring 7.0 System Design Guide Dual ring topology When used in critical applications, dual ring topology may be deployed to avoid network outages. A dual ring has all the features of a single ring with more fault tolerance. It is comprised of infrastructure components connected together with multiple rings. Each device is connected to two infrastructure components. Each infrastructure component is connected to a separate ring. When a single link or infrastructure device fails, all other devices can still communicate. Dual ring topologies have additional features not always found in typical data communications environments. For example, hot standby links are used between rings. When a link fails, the standby becomes active and prevents any interruption in network communications. Watchdog packets are sent out to inactive connections and create logs if the connection remains inactive. The watchdog packets create log entries that are monitored by the network administrator. Advantages Redundancy; the failure of multiple devices or cables should not cause the network to fail. Separate power supplies can be used for each ring. Disadvantages Cost, compared to a single ring, since the amount of equipment is doubled The need to regularly monitor unused links so that they are known to be healthy in the event that they are needed. Multiple interfaces within a device can connect the device to different rings so that the flooding of one ring with collisions or broadcast traffic should not cause the system to fail. Ethernet rings usually form the backbone for high-availability applications. Two paths are available to reach the same device. If ring topology is required, switches that support either a proprietary ring topology or spanning tree protocol (either spanning tree or rapid spanning tree) must be used. Spanning tree protocol (STP; IEEE 802.1D) or rapid spanning tree protocol (RSTP; IEEE 802.1w) are protocols that avoid communication loops and find a new communication path when the initial path is no longer available. The recovery time (time to find a new path) is approximately 30 s with STP. With RSTP and proper network design, recovery time could be as low as 100 ms. Mesh topology A mesh topology is used in very large networks or network backbones where every end device or infrastructure device has a connection to one or more components of the network. Ideally, each device is directly connected to every other device in the mesh. Page 16 of 58 © 2012 Schneider Electric. All rights reserved. StruxureWare Power Monitoring 7.0 System Design Guide Ethernet network design Another mesh implementation is as a network backbone that connects separate star structures. This combined topology provides fault tolerance to the backbone without the high cost of a mesh topology throughout the entire network. Mesh topologies are used less frequently because of cost and complexity. Advantages Fault tolerance; if a break occurs anywhere in the network cable segment, traffic can be rerouted. Disadvantages Complexity; difficult to manage and administer. High cost; more cabling and interfaces are needed to support the redundant connections. An Ethernet mesh network offers more redundancy than an Ethernet ring architecture. In a ring, two paths are typically available to the same device. In a mesh network, more than two paths are typically available. To develop an Ethernet mesh topology, switches that support spanning tree or rapid spanning tree protocol are required. Other LAN considerations Switch and hub configurations work in conjunction with network architecture to help ensure performance. Recommendations for network layout are described below. Full-Duplex vs. Half-Duplex Schneider Electric recommends the use of full-duplex switches wherever possible. Full-duplex switches: • give greater bandwidth (100 MB in both directions on certain networks). • allow a device to send responses while receiving additional requests or other traffic. • result in fewer delays and errors with a device. Switches Switches should always be used in the design of your network. They offer more intelligence than hubs at an equal or lesser cost. The industrial switches available today work reliably under extreme conditions such as electromagnetic interference, high operating temperatures, and heavy mechanical loads. Protect industrial switches by using field-attachable connectors up to IP67 and redundant ring cabling. Physical planning and layout Factors that affect system performance Each of these items can affect system performance: • inherent limitations of each communications protocol • robustness of the network (for example, number of retries, timeouts, lost packets) • response times of the devices in the system © 2012 Schneider Electric. All rights reserved. Page 17 of 58 Communication networks StruxureWare Power Monitoring 7.0 System Design Guide • type of connection for each device (serially or direct to Ethernet) • number of masters requesting information (PowerLogic SCADA, StruxureWare Power Monitoring, PLCs, third party) • routing path for each packet (for example, hubs, switches, and gateways) Recommended devices for Ethernet Generally, use switches as much as possible to minimize collisions, increase performance, and simplify network design. Avoid using hubs whenever possible. Installation measure to reduce EMI in Ethernet networks Protecting the Ethernet network from electromagnetic interference (EMI) is an issue that involves the entire installation. Although it is important to be concerned about EMI immunity throughout your entire system, this section describes only methods that apply to your Ethernet network. By equipotentially bonding, grounding (earthing), proper wiring, and shielding your site and equipment, you can significantly reduce a large percentage of EMI issues. The following list describes key measures you need to consider in your installation in order to reduce EMI in an industrial Ethernet network: • grounding (earthing) and equipotential bonding • EMC-compatible wiring and cable runs • balancing circuits • cable selection • shielding • filtering • placement of devices • placement of wires • electrical isolation Serial network design Devices such as power meters may provide serial communications ports which allow data to be extracted by a computer for remote display or analysis. The method used to extract this information is called a communications protocol. While communications protocols vary from device to device, the basic process is similar for all devices. RS-232 communications RS-232 is one of the simplest communications network, allowing you to connect to one device using a maximum cable length of 15 m (50 ft). To connect to more than one device, you need to convert this standard to RS-485. Page 18 of 58 © 2012 Schneider Electric. All rights reserved. StruxureWare Power Monitoring 7.0 System Design Guide Serial network design RS-485 communications A typical installation consists of a computer workstation (PC) and a number of devices (also referred to as intelligent electronic devices or IEDs) on an RS-485 communications bus. Shielded twisted-pair cable is used to link the communication ports of all the devices. Since the same pair of wires is shared by all devices, only one device can transmit at a time. If two or more devices attempt to transmit simultaneously, collisions occur and messages are corrupted. Some method must be used to control access to the bus and prevent collisions. Schneider Electric devices use a master-slave process to control access to the RS-485 bus. Each RS-485 communications bus has one bus master device which can be hardware or software. This device initiates all communications transactions. All other devices are slaves, which only respond to a request from the master. A slave never transmits a message without first receiving one from the master. In an StruxureWare Power Monitoring energy management system, usually the PC is the master and the networked devices are slaves. In some cases (for example, a Modbus network), one device can act as master to other devices in the loop. Each device has a unique unit ID: a numeric address that identifies each device on the bus. This allows the master to specify which slave responds to the request. The Unit ID for most meters is a four-digit number. For a PC, the unit ID is generally greater than 10,000, making it nearly impossible for the PC unit ID to be the same as a meter unit ID. The PC (master) must transmit a request to a device (slave) in order to initiate communications. The device then responds by transmitting a response to the master. The following sequence of events must occur in order for communications to be successful: 1. The PC (master) must create and output a valid request packet addressed to a specific meter (slave) existing on that communications channel. 2. The packet must arrive at the intended device intact. 3. The device must respond to the message by building and sending a valid response packet. This packet must be addressed to the master to ensure that another slave does not attempt to interpret the message. 4. The response packet must arrive at the master intact. No communication can occur unless initiated by the master. After sending a request as in Step 1, the master waits a limited time for the slave to respond. If a valid response is not received within this timeout period (for example, the slave has timed out), the master either retransmits the request or moves on to the next slave. From the master's perspective, most communication errors are caused by timeouts. Performance measurement There are a number of parameters that can be measured to indicate the health of the communications system. These include: • Error rates: ratio of good packets to bad packets. • Throughput: rate of useful data transferred in a given amount of time. • Response time: how quickly a slave responds to a request. © 2012 Schneider Electric. All rights reserved. Page 19 of 58 Communication networks StruxureWare Power Monitoring 7.0 System Design Guide Straight-Line topology The straight-line wiring method is illustrated below. Note that connections are shown for one RS-485 port only. Each end point of the straight-line bus must be terminated with a ¼ watt resistor (RT). These termination resistors reduce signal reflections that may corrupt data on the bus. Termination resistors are connected between the (+) and (-) terminals of the device at each end of the bus. The value of the resistor should match the line impedance of the cable. For an AWG 22 shielded twisted pair cable, values between 150 and 300 ohms are typical. Consult the cable manufacturer’s documentation for the exact impedance of your cable. General bus wiring considerations DANGER HAZARD OF ELECTRICAL SHOCK, EXPLOSION, OR ARC FLASH • Apply appropriate personal protective equipment (PPE) and follow safe electrical work practices. See NFPA 70E in the USA or applicable local standards. • Any equipment or device associated with this product must only be installed and serviced by qualified electrical personnel. • Turn off all power supplying all devices associated with this product and the equipment in which it is installed before working on the device or equipment. • Always use a properly rated voltage sensing device to confirm that all power is off. • Connect protective ground (earth) before turning on any power supplying this device. • Replace all devices, doors and covers before turning on power to this equipment. Failure to follow these instructions will result in death or serious injury. Devices connected on the bus, including meters, converters and other instrumentation, must be wired as follows: • Connect the shield of each segment of the cable to ground at one end only. • Isolate cables as much as possible from sources of electrical noise. Page 20 of 58 © 2012 Schneider Electric. All rights reserved. StruxureWare Power Monitoring 7.0 System Design Guide Serial network design • Use an intermediate terminal strip to connect each device to the bus. This allows for easy removal of a device for servicing if necessary. • Install a ¼ Watt termination resistor (RT) between the (+) and (-) terminals of the device at each end point of a straight-line bus. The resistor should match the nominal impedance of the RS-485 cable (typically 120 ohms – consult the manufacturer’s documentation for the cable’s impedance value). For additional information regarding the wiring of Schneider Electric devices, refer to the appropriate installation document for each device. Other network considerations The network bandwidth necessary for the communication to the devices is dynamic. There are three types of transactions to the devices that consumes network bandwidth: • Periodic polling and uploading of new data log records as well as waveform captures (if available on the device) • Real-time data request through StruxureWare Power Monitoring tools (for example, OPC-DA Server, Vista, Designer etc.) • Power quality events if available During steady-state operation, StruxureWare Power Monitoring requires a certain amount of bandwidth. This is due to the periodic polling by the Log Inserter to check if there are any new records to upload and then uploading data records. In addition, use of StruxureWare Power Monitoring tools contributes to network consumption. For example, every time a Vista diagram is updated, or Designer connects to a device, there is more network traffic on top of steady-state operation as relevant services interact with the requested devices. This need is linearly related to number of objects being polled on the screen or OPC tags being broadcast. Furthermore, use of VIP and software based logging generates more network traffic. It is important to note that high end power quality meters generate waveforms. These waveforms can be much larger in size compared to the regular data logs. Because the frequency of events and associated waveforms is high, there is a considerable amount of extra communication compared to steady-state operation. It is important to consider this need when using high end power quality devices where power quality events are expected or frequent. Additional considerations for high-performance systems There are a number of items to pay attention to when maintaing a high performance system: • Keep serial loops as short as possible. • Have a minimum baud rate of 19.2k. • Keep the number of devices in a serial loop under ten when using ION protocol, and six when using Modbus. • Disable devices that are not presently commissioned or functional (for example defective or physically not connected devices etc.). © 2012 Schneider Electric. All rights reserved. Page 21 of 58 Communication networks StruxureWare Power Monitoring 7.0 System Design Guide • Device logging is preferable to software-based logging. If on-board logging is not available, use of a data logger (for example, EGX 300), especially on a serial loop can increase the system performance. • If possible, connect high-end PQ meters which can generate events and waveforms directly to the Ethernet. If this is not possible, try to isolate them to a smaller serial loop (one or two devices, for example). • Do not log measurements that are not needed. • When using StruxureWare Power Monitoring as an OPC server, disable tags that are not needed. • For devices/sites that are not used for real-time data, use Connection Schedules. • If you require high-speed performance from your devices, connect them directly to Ethernet. • For custom built 3rd party Modbus devices, adjust Maximum number of registers for a single request as well as Requested update period available in Modbus Device Importer accordingly for optimum performance. See "Chapter 7: Modbus Device Importer" of the StruxureWare Power Monitoring User Guide for additional information. • Investigate the network and work on getting communications as error-free as possible. Page 22 of 58 © 2012 Schneider Electric. All rights reserved. StruxureWare Power Monitoring 7.0 System Design Guide StruxureWare Power Monitoring architecture This section discusses the different server, client, and architecture types that can be used when setting up StruxureWare Power Monitoring on your network. In this section: Server types 24 Primary Server 24 Database Server 24 Secondary Server 25 Client types 26 Engineering Clients 26 Web Clients 26 Architecture types 27 Standalone Server architectures 27 Distributed Server architectures 27 © 2012 Schneider Electric. All rights reserved. Page 23 of 58 StruxureWare Power Monitoring architecture StruxureWare Power Monitoring 7.0 System Design Guide Server types A StruxureWare Power Monitoring system may include multiple machines, each playing different roles. There are various types of hardware configurations which include Distributed Systems and Primary Standalone Systems. The roles of computers in a StruxureWare Power Monitoring system include: • Primary Server • Database Server • Secondary Server • Engineering Clients • Web Clients Primary Server The Primary Server hosts a collection of services and configurations vital for the functioning of the system. Every StruxureWare Power Monitoring system, no matter how simple or complex, has only one Primary Server. The Primary Server uses Microsoft Internet Information Services (IIS) to make information available to StruxureWare Power Monitoring Web Clients and IIS components (optional components of Windows operating systems). The Web Reporter component is based on Microsoft SQL Server Reporting Services (optional components of SQL Server) and can be installed either on the Primary Server or the Database Server (but not both). The Primary Server can also host the Microsoft SQL Server database engine with the StruxureWare Power Monitoring and Reporting Services databases. When the SQL Server database engine is installed on the Primary Server, it is called a Standalone server. However, an independent server can be used to host SQL engine which is called a Database Server. This type of installation is used in conjunction with the Primary Server and is referred to as a Distributed Database Server installation. Database Server StruxureWare Power Monitoring relies on Microsoft SQL Server as a data repository and reporting is handled through SQL Server Reporting Services. The Primary Server can host the Database Server, however, it is possible to use the Distributed Database Server architecture for larger systems as SQL Server is very memory and disk intensive software. Based on the frequency of the SQL transactions, consumed computer resources can be very drastic. Separating the Database Server would mean off-loading this system load from the Primary Server, providing more system resources for core StruxureWare Power Monitoring applications. It is recommended that a 64-bit SQL Server along with a 64-bit operating system be used as it greatly improves SQL Server performance. Page 24 of 58 © 2012 Schneider Electric. All rights reserved. StruxureWare Power Monitoring 7.0 System Design Guide Server types Beyond performance, there may be additonal considerations where a distributed database server may be necessary. • Reporting Services can only be pointed to a single database, so it is important to be able to hold a large active ION_Data database if generating reports for a long time span is important. • If there is a dedicated database server that is required by the IT department, policy may dictate server separation. • If redundancy is a requirement, it can be met by using third party tools. • Determine if there are specific IT rules that are mandatory for databases (for example, SQL jobs, back-ups, security). Database size considerations Database growth size is dependent on what is stored in the database. As the number of records and measurements that users want to log vary, so can the database size. Additionally, recording PQ events and waveform captures (where available) are event driven, so it is impossible to predict the frequency of these records. Each log holds 75 bytes of hard drive space (This number is only valid for interval data, not for waveforms). From these values it is possible to calculate database daily growth based on number of records logged at every interval. Furthermore, there is a stored procedure called “sp_spaceused” which returns number of rows and their total size. This stored procedure can also be used for tracking the database growth. With this information, we can determine the database daily growth rates when the factory default framework is used with no PQ events: Device Type ION 86xx ION 76xx ION 73xx PM 8xx CM 3000 CM 4000 Daily Growth Rate 600KB per day per meter 600KB per day per meter 410KB per day per meter 400KB per day per meter 763KB per day per meter 800KB per day per meter Note These numbers may change with the framework enhancements and should only be used as an estimated baseline. For optimum performance, have 30% free disk space for regular SQL operations. Secondary Server StruxureWare Power Monitoring system architecture supports the ability to distribute additional communication servers when needed. These servers are known as Secondary Servers. Secondary Servers are used to reduce the ION SiteServer load on the Primary Server (The table in "Appendix B: Determining when a Secondary server is required" on page 47 can assist in determining if a Secondary Server is required). Secondary Servers can also be added when multiple instances of VIPs are used. Note that there is only ever one ION RealTime Data service which runs on the Primary Server. © 2012 Schneider Electric. All rights reserved. Page 25 of 58 StruxureWare Power Monitoring architecture StruxureWare Power Monitoring 7.0 System Design Guide StruxureWare Power Monitoring’s VIP function may be heavily utilized. As explained in the VIP section (see "Virtual ION Processor" on page 34), there are some guidelines around how to use VIP and when to create multiple instances of it. It is possible to use a Secondary Server when no system resources are left for more VIP instances. A Database Server B Primary Server C Secondary Server D Devices Client types Engineering Clients Client installations are workstation access points for power users who need the graphical user interfaces (Management Console, Vista and Designer) to do a variety of tasks including running other utilities, adding new devices to the system, configuring devices, viewing and acknowledging system alarms, building power monitoring HMI screens in Vista and more. These client access points require a Client License and they can only be installed after the Primary Server is installed. Web Clients StruxureWare Power Monitoring Web Clients provide convenient access to the Web Applications via a web browser. Any computer running a supported web browser that has network connectivity to the StruxureWare Power Monitoring Primary Server may function as a Web Client. IIS components and SQL Server Reporting Services components must be installed and properly configured at the StruxureWare Power Monitoring server for full Web Client functionality. Microsoft SilverLight must also be installed on the client machines to be able to use Web Applications. StruxureWare Power Monitoring will prompt you to install Silverlight if it is not present on your system. Page 26 of 58 © 2012 Schneider Electric. All rights reserved. StruxureWare Power Monitoring 7.0 System Design Guide Architecture types Architecture types Standalone Server architectures A Standalone Server has all the StruxureWare Power Monitoring software installed on one computer. There is an option to use Engineering and Web Client computers with Primary Standalone systems. In some situations, it is possible and even advantageous to distribute these components to a separate system. Distributed Server architectures A Distributed system is one that has components of StruxureWare Power Monitoring installed on multiple machines. Here are three examples of distributed system configurations: Primary Server, Database Server, Engineeering Clients (optional) and/or Web Clients (optional). A Database Server B Primary Server © 2012 Schneider Electric. All rights reserved. C Engineering Client (Optional) D Web Client (Optional) E Devices Page 27 of 58 StruxureWare Power Monitoring architecture StruxureWare Power Monitoring 7.0 System Design Guide Primary Server, Database Server, Secondary Server, Engineering Clients (optional) and/or Web Clients (optional). A Database Server B Primary Server C Secondary Server D Engineering Client (Optional) E Web Client (Optional) F Devices Primary and Database on same server, Secondary Server, Engineering Clients (optional) and/or Web Clients (optional) A Page 28 of 58 Database/Primary Server B Secondary Server C Engineering Client (Optional) D Web Client (Optional) E Devices © 2012 Schneider Electric. All rights reserved. StruxureWare Power Monitoring 7.0 System Design Guide System components This section describes the different parts of the StruxureWare Power Monitoring system, including Services and Web Applications. In this section: StruxureWare Power Monitoring services 30 ION site server 32 ION Log Inserter service 34 Virtual ION Processor 34 ION Real Time Data Service 35 Translators 36 StruxureWare Power Monitoring Diagnostics Viewer 37 Starting Diagnostics Viewer 37 Service Diagnostics 37 Communications Diagnostics 38 Additional Commands 40 Using StruxureWare Power Monitoring as an OPC Server/Client © 2012 Schneider Electric. All rights reserved. 40 Page 29 of 58 System components StruxureWare Power Monitoring 7.0 System Design Guide StruxureWare Power Monitoring services Many of StruxureWare Power Monitoring’s core components run as Windows Services. This allows StruxureWare Power Monitoring to continue monitoring your power management system when no users are logged on. As these components play a critical role in the operation of StruxureWare Power Monitoring, it is important to understand what they do. The table below outlines the StruxureWare Power Monitoring Services: Note ION Network Router Service has many dependent StruxureWare Power Monitoring services. For example, the Virtual Processor, ION Log Inserter Service, and ION Site Service cannot start and operate without ION Network Router Service running. Service Name ION Alert Monitor ION Component Identifier Service ION Connection Management Service ION Event Watcher Service ION Log Inserter Service ION Network Router Service ION OPC Data Access Server ION Power Quality Aggregation Service ION PQDIF Exporter Service ION Query Service ION Real Time Data Service ION Report Subscription Service ION Site Service ION Virtual Processor Service ION XML Subscription Service Page 30 of 58 Description Checks the computer’s communications ports continuously for high priority events occurring at remote modem sites. When this happens, Alert Monitor initiates a communications connection to the remote modem site. Locates local and remote StruxureWare Power Monitoring components. Determines the connection status of sites and devices in the system, and handles allocation of resources such as modems. This service manages the state of site and device connectivity for the system. In order to establish the most appropriate state for the system, each connection and disconnection request is evaluated against the overall state of the system and availability of communications channels. Monitors system events for conditions specified in Event Watcher Manager. Provides historical data collection and storage for your power-monitoring system. Routes all information between components, such as client workstations and the Log Inserter. The service dynamically detects changes to the network configuration, including the addition of new servers; it can also recognize new software nodes, such as Vista, that are added to an existing server. Manages and is responsible for supplying OPC data to client applications. Periodically processes and aggregates new Power Quality event data. Translates data from databases to PQDIF file format and manages scheduled PQDIF exports. Provides historical data retrieval for your power-monitoring system. Manages and provides access to real time data from the power management system. This service manages Web Reporter report subscriptions. Manages communication links to and from StruxureWare Power Monitoring. ION Site Service is responsible for handling packet communications to system devices and controlling direct device communications. The service reacts to changes in network configuration: for example, often changes to certain channels, gates, ports, or device parameters can interrupt a connection. Provides coordinated data collection, data processing, and control functions for groups of meters. Manages subscriptions to XML data for Vista user diagrams. This service is used only by Diagrams. When you open a Vista user diagram in a web browser, the ION XML Subscription Service creates a subscription and delivers the real-time data in XML format. © 2012 Schneider Electric. All rights reserved. StruxureWare Power Monitoring 7.0 System Design Guide Service Name ION XML Subscription Store Service Schneider Electric Service Host (CoreServicesHost) Schneider Electric Service Host (DataServicesHost) Schneider Electric Service Host (ProviderEngineHost) StruxureWare Power Monitoring services Description Stores XML data subscriptions for the power monitoring devices on the network. This service is used only by Diagrams. Hosts the Windows Communication Foundation web services for the Web Application Framework core. The core web services include configuration, web service inventory, diagnostic, and metadata services. Hosts the Windows Communication Foundation web services for the Application Framework Data Source Driver. This web service interacts with the underlying data contained in the ION_Network and ION_Data databases on behalf of the Web Application Framework. Hosts the Windows Communication Foundation web services for the Application Framework Provider Engine, and runs the work ticketing service that controls requests for data aggregation, device lists, and other data requests from the Web Application Framework UI. ION Network Router, LogInserter, RealTime Data and SiteServer services particularly play an important role in data flow and system performance. The following diagram shows how these services interact with each other and the metering devices: Figure 1 ION Services © 2012 Schneider Electric. All rights reserved. Page 31 of 58 System components StruxureWare Power Monitoring 7.0 System Design Guide ION site server ION LogInserter service, ION RealTime Data service, Vista and VIP all communicate with the ION SiteServer service via the ION Network Router Service. The ION Network Router Services passes messages (ION programs) back and forth. Vista and VIP directly communicate only with ION SiteServer service for non-real-time values, such as setup register changes. Therefore, not many requests come directly to the ION SiteServer service from Vista and VIPs. ION LogInserter service sends requests to the ION SiteServer service asking it to retrieve data from the devices. ION SiteServer requests position counts, which let ION LogInserter know if there are new logs on a device that need to be collected. It also sends a request for the aggregate setup count which tells it if setup changes have occurred. Finally ION SiteServer sends requests for data records. Polling and aggregate counter requests are sent in the same packets, so there is minimal additional overhead. ION RealTime Data service sends requests for real-time data that its clients (Vista, VIP, OCP Client) have requested of it. The ION SiteServer service has a pool of threads that it manages. It uses these threads to service requests. ION SiteServer also has a queue of requests for each site. ION SiteServer allocates a thread to a site and sends a request from that site’s queue to the translator. It waits for a response, failure or timeout. It sends responses to the appropriate requestor via the ION Network Router Page 32 of 58 © 2012 Schneider Electric. All rights reserved. StruxureWare Power Monitoring 7.0 System Design Guide StruxureWare Power Monitoring services service. ION SiteServer waits the amount of time specified by the configurable parameter “Receive Timeout” (Under Advanced properties for the device or site in Management Console) for a response from a device before tracking the attempt and then moving on to a new request for that site. The thread is deallocated and put back in the thread pool. The thread then gets reallocated to a new site and a new request from the site’s ION SiteServer queue. ION SiteServer retries sending requests to a device that does not respond the number of times specified by the configurable parameter “Attempt Increment” (Under Advanced properties for the device or site in Management Console) before it reports a communication failure. The communication failure is logged in the System Log. ION SiteServer also tracks the number of times there is a communication failure with a device. After the number of communication failures specified by the configurable parameter called “Maximum Attempt Multiple” (Under Advanced properties for the device in Management Console) have occurred ION SiteServer considers the device Offline. For example, the “Attempt Increment” parameter is set to three and the “Maximum Attempt Multiple” parameter is set to two. After three attempts to send a request to a device without receiving a response before the specified time out, the ION SiteServer service logs a communications failure. After doing this a second time and getting another communications failure, the device is marked offline. No new attempts to connect to a device in the Offline state are made until the time specified by the configurable parameter “Offline Timeout Period” (Under Advanced properties for the device in Management Console) has elapsed. The number of threads available for use by ION SiteServer is a configurable parameter called “ConnectedThreadPoolSize”. See "Advanced configuration parameters" on page 42 for additional information regarding this registry setting. The queues managed by ION SiteServer for each site configured in Management Console use the following priorities: Control – sources of these requests are: • VIP Distributed Control Module • Control functions executed through Vista One Shots – sources of these requests are: • ION LogInserter data requests • Designer updates, for ION meters only • Rebuild of trees on restart of StruxureWare Power Monitoring Polling Programs – sources of these requests are: • ION RealTime Data service requests • ION LogInserter log position counter requests • ION LogInserter aggregate setup counter requests The ION RealTime Data Service and ION LogInserter both use hybrid programs for polling requests, so they are not true one shot requests. Essentially these hybrid programs are one shots that are processed in the High, Medium, or Low Polling Program queues so they run at lower priority than true one shots. By default, all Polling Program clients are set to a low frequency. © 2012 Schneider Electric. All rights reserved. Page 33 of 58 System components StruxureWare Power Monitoring 7.0 System Design Guide ION Log Inserter service The Log Inserter is responsible for data storage. Log Inserter interacts with the other ION services as indicated above to upload and store historical events and data captured by power meter devices and VIPs. Log Inserter continuously polls the devices where logging is enabled to check if there is a new record to retrieve. At communication bottle-necks, such as serial loops or slow communicating meters/sites, if the services cannot interact with the devices in a timely manner, system performance can be affected. This is why a well designed network is important in StruxureWare Power Monitoring systems and network design suggestions should be taken into consideration. See "Additional considerations for high-performance systems" on page 21 for more information. In addition, Log Inserter has a System Log Controller that could be used to partially control what is being retrieved and stored in the database. The Cutoff setup register available in the System Log Controller module filters out events that are below a certain priority. This parameter can be tuned based on what events are considered as low priority and should not be logged. Virtual ION Processor The Virtual Processor (VIP) is a service that operates on the StruxureWare Power Monitoring server, providing coordinated data collection, data processing, and control functions for groups of devices. The Virtual Processor is like a virtual device, capable of collecting and processing data from several power monitoring devices, analyzing the information and performing control functions. The VIP runs in the PC, not as a remote device and contains a wide selection of ION modules, which it uses to process information. A VIP acts as both a client and a server. As a client, it collects data from meters via the ION RealTime Data service. This data can be monitored or used in calculations to produce new data that can, in turn, be logged. As a server, a VIP interacts with other parts of the software in a similar manner to a device. Real-time data can be viewed in Vista or requested via OPC and historical data can be uploaded and stored by the IONLogInserter service. Typically, a VIP requests data from the ION RealTime Data service. In this case, the VIP is the client. There can be multiple instances of VIP service running on a server. It is recommended to split up VIPs as opposed to having one very loaded VIP instance for performance considerations. The limiting factor is based on the size of the VIP files (for example, vip.cfg and vip.bak files) rather than hard number limits on modules. The vip.cfg and .bak files should be at a maximum of approximately 2 MBs in size (This is approximately 350 fully loaded Arithmetic Modules). Page 34 of 58 © 2012 Schneider Electric. All rights reserved. StruxureWare Power Monitoring 7.0 System Design Guide StruxureWare Power Monitoring services There is no set number of VIP instances that can be run on a single server. However, CPU consumption on the VIP server is a limiting factor. VIP uses system resources and a more powerful server can accommodate more VIP instances. Since it is not possible to know how much room each server can have, it is a manual process to assess how many VIP instances can be run without impacting performance. During this process, be prepared for unforeseen situations and leave some buffer in terms of system resources available. ION Real Time Data Service The ION RealTime Data service acts as a request aggregator, caching and proxy layer for all realtime clients in the StruxureWare Power Monitoring system. It receives requests for real-time registers, aggregates other requests for the same device together, and periodically requests an update from the device via the host ION SiteServer instance. It also periodically responds to the requesting clients with the current values from its cache. Clients of this service are Vista, Diagrams, any OPC clients, and any VIP instances. The ION RealTime Data service cache contains the value of all the real-time data registers that the clients actively need. The clients use a subscription mechanism to read real-time data from the ION RealTime Data service. The rate at which a Vista diagrams or Diagrams requests updates is set in each Vista diagram. When a diagram is open, it requests updates to the real-time values at the rate set in the diagram. By default, this rate is five seconds. The VIP setup contains a parameter called Client polling period. This is the rate at which VIPs request updates for each real-time value in the VIP. By default this rate is five seconds. The ION RealTime Data service responds to each client request with whatever value is in its cache. The ION RealTime Data service sends one shot programs which contain a request to update multiple real-time values for the ION SiteServer service, so that it can update its cache. It generates these requests as frequently as the client with the lowest polling period for the real-time registers requests. © 2012 Schneider Electric. All rights reserved. Page 35 of 58 System components StruxureWare Power Monitoring 7.0 System Design Guide The ION SiteServer service attempts to service these requests as quickly as they are received, but there is no guarantee that it will. It is possible for the cache to be updated less frequently than the client requests. Note that the technology used for communication between ION RealTime Data service and its clients is .NET Remoting. Translators StruxureWare Power Monitoring constructs communication packages based on ION architecture, which ultimately extends to ION modules and their operation. However, with the help of device drivers, any device which supports Modbus protocol can be integrated into StruxureWare Power Monitoring. Each device type used in StruxureWare Power Monitoring has a translator, regardless of whether it is an ION or a non-ION product. The ION SiteServer service passes requests for devices to the translator. The translator breaks the request up into one or more requests for packets from the device. If any of the packets fail, the translator informs ION SiteServer that the request failed. The clients are informed by ION SiteServer, via the ION Network Router Service. The clients must resubmit the request. Interaction with devices regardless of type or communication protocol, follows the same process. However, when using ION devices, translators do very minimal work compared to non-ION devices. The reason behind this is that the non-ION devices do not have ION modules and architecture. Hence, when a request is made to translator for a non-ION device, StruxureWare Power Monitoring software builds a map on the computer memory which converts this device to ION modularity and architecture. As a result, there is a constant memory allocation for non-ION devices and this allocation linearly grows with the number of the devices in the network. Furthermore, every time a communication request is initiated, translators break the packages and reconstruct based on Modbus protocol which is a CPU intensive process. When a response is received, the same process repeats itself in reverse. In addition, StruxureWare Power Monitoring provides software-based logging for the devices that do not have onboard logging. Communication to these devices still follows the process above with the addition of some data recorders created on the hard drive. Page 36 of 58 © 2012 Schneider Electric. All rights reserved. StruxureWare Power Monitoring 7.0 System Design Guide StruxureWare Power Monitoring Diagnostics Viewer Translators play a crucial role in the integration of a diverse network. However, it is very important to understand their operation as the need for system resources is higher when an excessive amount of translated devices are used. Consider this when determining the server requirements. StruxureWare Power Monitoring Diagnostics Viewer Diagnostics Viewer is the StruxureWare Power Monitoring tool for troubleshooting network communications problems and related network errors. It can also be used for measuring system performance and health. Starting Diagnostics Viewer 1. Start Management Console and log in. 2. Click Tools > System > Diagnostics Viewer. Tip For instructions on using filtering, sorting, column selection and pin/unpin to customize the Diagnostics Viewer display, see the "Customizing and Navigating Interface Displays" section of the StruxureWare Power Monitoring User Guide. Navigation Pane Diagnostics information is grouped as follows: • Service Diagnostics: Contains diagnostics information for certain StruxureWare Power Monitoring services (ION Network Router Service, ION Site Service and ION Log Inserter Service). • Communication Diagnostics: Contains diagnostics information for the StruxureWare Power Monitoring sites, hardware devices and software nodes. Select an item in the navigation pane to display its diagnostics information. If you add a new device in Management Console while Diagnostics Viewer is open, you can refresh the tree view to display the new device by collapsing then expanding the root node of the tree. Diagnostics Information Pane The diagnostics information pane displays detailed data about the state of your power monitoring system and devices. Service Diagnostics Service Diagnostics records communication problems and similar events occurring with StruxureWare Power Monitoring software components. Communication Server Diagnostics Information about the communications server is arranged in these tabs: © 2012 Schneider Electric. All rights reserved. Page 37 of 58 System components StruxureWare Power Monitoring 7.0 System Design Guide • Console Messages lists all ION Network Router Service and ION Site Service console messages for the current session. Tip The blank area below the Description column header is a dynamic filter field. Type the wildcard character (*) in front of the text you want to search (for example, *warning). The diagnostics information pane automatically displays only those records that match the text you typed in the box. • Connection Status displays the current status of StruxureWare Power Monitoring software components connected to Network Router. • Tree States displays the ION tree status of all nodes (hardware devices and software nodes). Log Inserter Diagnostics The Log Inserter diagnostics information pane is split into two sections. The top section (Select Nodes pane) contains the available nodes, while the bottom section contains the node details. Select Nodes to Display In the Select Nodes pane, select the check box beside a node to display its diagnostics information. Clear the check box to hide that node’s diagnostics information. Tip If there are many nodes and you want to display only a few of them, right-click the Select Nodes area then select Clear All. Select only the nodes you want to display. To display all the nodes again, right-click the Select Nodes area and select Select All. Node Details The node details are organized in these tabs: • Node Information displays Log Inserter statistics for the selected node(s). • Node Performance displays aggregate log performance statistics for the selected node(s). • Log Performance displays log performance statistics for each log in the selectednode(s). Communications Diagnostics Communications Diagnostics provides diagnostics information for sites and devices connected to the workstation. Site Overview Diagnostics information for the sites are contained in these tabs: • Site Summary displays communications statistics for each site. • NetUser Status displays the number of ION programs currently in the ION Network Router Service queue (awaiting processing) and the total number of ION programs already processed. Page 38 of 58 © 2012 Schneider Electric. All rights reserved. StruxureWare Power Monitoring 7.0 System Design Guide StruxureWare Power Monitoring Diagnostics Viewer Note Requests and responses transmitted between the ION StruxureWare Power Monitoring components are referred to as “ION programs”. Site/Device Diagnostics Diagnostics information for sites and devices are summarized in these tabs: • Communication Status displays communication error rates and connection statistics for the selected site or device. The following information is available from the Communications Status tab: Column Node Requests Responses Total Errors Total Error Rate Sliding Error Rate Average Response Time Last Response Time Timeouts Bad Checksums Broken Connection Errors Incomplete Frames Bad Frames Hardware Errors Misc Errors Description The device (or software node) name. The number of communications requests transmitted to the meter. The number of successful responses received. The total number of communication errors. The ratio of Total Errors to Requests. The error rate in the last 64 requests. This can indicate a trend in communications performance. Average time in seconds for the meter to respond. The last response time, in seconds. The number of timeouts. A timeout occurs when no data is received in response to a request. The number of bad packets received, i.e., those that did not pass the error detection checksum. Number of times the connection was lost to the meters on a site. The number of incomplete packets received, i.e., those that did not have all the expected bytes. The number of received packets that had an internal error. Number of errors reported by the computer’s communication hardware. Number of other errors that do not fit any of the above descriptions. • Site Status displays site statistics such as connection status and totals. • Polling Status displays the number of programs currently in the ION Site Service queue (awaiting processing) and the total number of programs already processed. Communication Status vs. Site Status This section explains the difference between the statistics provided on the Communication Status tab and those on the Site Status tab. “Total Errors” in the Communication Status tab is an ION Site Service derived statistic, while “Bad Responses” in the Site Status tab is a client derived statistic. To explain this difference, consider a situation where a direct site is experiencing timeouts. Communications with the device is attempted according to two parameters: Connect Attempts (an advanced site property in the Management Console) and Maximum Attempts Multiple (an advanced device property in the Management Console). Multiplying the values of these two properties determines the number of attempts made to re-establish communications with the device. © 2012 Schneider Electric. All rights reserved. Page 39 of 58 System components StruxureWare Power Monitoring 7.0 System Design Guide For instance, if Connect Attempts is set to 1 and Maximum Attempts Multiple is set to 3, the device will go offline after 3 attempts (i.e., 1 x 3). The “Total Errors” statistic increases by one every time ION Site Service detects a timeout. However, the “Bad Responses” statistic only reports a problem if the device goes offline (for example., when Connect Attempts and Maximum Attempts Multiple are exceeded). Using the previous example, consider the case where four timeouts occurred and the device went offline. In this case, “Total Errors” increases by four, while “Bad Responses” only increases by one. If only two timeouts occurred, “Total Errors” would increase by two, while “Bad Responses” would not change. Additional Commands The following sections describe additional display options and shortcut menus available in Diagnostics Viewer. Diagnostic Details In the tabs on the diagnostics information pane, double-click a row to display its Diagnostic Details screen. This displays the diagnostic information for the selected item only. Use the Previous and Next buttons to view the details of other rows in that tab of the diagnostics information pane. To copy information to the clipboard, select the rows you want to copy, then press CTRL+C. Diagnostics Information Pane Shortcut Menu Options Right-click in the diagnostics information pane to display a shortcut menu. The following table lists all the commands available (though not all displays provide all the commands listed): Right-click Option Update Reset Copy Auto Scroll Options Description Refreshes the information in the diagnostic table. Resets the information in the diagnostic table (not available in the Communications Server Diagnostics display). Copies all selected information to the clipboard. Enabled by default, this option is only available in the Console Messages tab of the Communications Server Diagnostics display. This option automatically scrolls and selects the latest console message. Clear this option to disable scrolling (i.e., select and view an older console message without jumping to the latest one when Diagnostics Viewer refreshes). Displays the Options dialog box where you can change the diagnostics refresh rate. Note that changing the refresh rate frequency can affect StruxureWare Power Monitoring performance. Using StruxureWare Power Monitoring as an OPC Server/Client OPC is a set of open standards for connectivity and interoperability between industrial automation and the enterprise system. OPC is not a native protocol for Schneider Electric devices; however, StruxureWare Power Monitoring can act as a translator and host metering data as an OPC server as Page 40 of 58 © 2012 Schneider Electric. All rights reserved. StruxureWare Power Monitoring 7.0 System Design Guide Using StruxureWare Power Monitoring as an OPC Server/Client well as an OPC client. When acting as an OPC server/client, StruxureWare Power Monitoring translates ION data into OPC data, for exporting and viewing in other third-party OPC client systems. The OPC server/client, on the other hand, takes OPC standardized measurements from third-party systems and translates them into a data format that StruxureWare Power Monitoring can use. This process follows the same steps show in "Translators" on page 36. Because this process can consume a large amount of CPU resources, it is recommended to use a powerful CPU in the Primary Server. When StruxureWare Power Monitoring is used as an OPC server, Designer can be used to configure which measurements are going to be broadcast as OPC tags. It is very important to enable only necessary measurements for OPC to optimize the performance. This prevents StruxureWare Power Monitoring requesting unnecessary measurements and translating them into OPC format and in return can save a considerable amount of system resources. For additional information regarding the configuration and operation of the OPC server component of StruxureWare Power Monitoring, please see StruxureWare Power Monitoring OPC Server Assistant. © 2012 Schneider Electric. All rights reserved. Page 41 of 58 Advanced configuration parameters StruxureWare Power Monitoring 7.0 System Design Guide Advanced configuration parameters StruxureWare Power Monitoring is installed with a number of factory default settings that should be acceptable for most installations. However, the needs of individual systems can be different from one another and there are several parameters that can be used to fine tune StruxureWare Power Monitoring. These parameters are registry entries that are used to overwrite the default configuration. This procedure requires an in-depth analysis of the system and should be only be done under supervision of an factory trained engineer. These parameters should be applied once all other methods have been tried. It is recommended to stop ION services during this procedure. If it is not possible, create the variable with a temporary name (for example, tempConnectionFailureCount) and correct the name once the variable is assigned to a desired value. Registry settings Page 42 of 58 43 © 2012 Schneider Electric. All rights reserved. StruxureWare Power Monitoring 7.0 System Design Guide Using StruxureWare Power Monitoring as an OPC Server/Client Registry settings Below are the registry keys that can be used to make adjustments to StruxureWare Power Monitoring’s performance. These keys should be located under HKEY_LOCAL_ MACHINE\SOFTWARE\Schneider Electric\StruxureWare Power Monitor in the registry. If the impact of the change is not well understood, then consider an alternate fix or consult Technical Support for guidance. NOTICE IRREVERSIBLE OPERATING SYSTEM DAMAGE OR DATA CORRUPTION • These procedures must only be performed by qualified personnel with a full understanding of the system and the results of any modifications. • Backup your system registry in a network folder or other remote location before making any changes. • Monitor your system for at least one week after making changes to help ensure detection of adverse effects. • Obtain assistance from knowledgeable and qualified personnel. Failure to follow these instructions can result in irreparable damage to your computer's operating system and all existing data. ConnectionFailureCount (Default=60) – The number of times ION SiteServer service tries to connect to a device in the pool in the Connection Schedule before it gives up. If there are many modems in the connection pool, this should be set to 20. ConnectedThreadPoolSize (Default=32) – The number of sites ION SiteServer service sends requests to simultaneously. This value optimally equals the number of sites for most systems, as long as the server CPU can handle the load. For large systems (more than 100 sites) it may decrease performance or make the system unstable if this number is too large. It depends on the hardware (CPUs, memory, speed of subsystems, etc.). Experimentation may be required for more than 100 sites, but precautions should be taken for any number over 200. LI_PollingPeriod_s (Default=10 seconds) – The ION LogInserter polls a device every 5 seconds by default, but the default value can be modified using this registry setting, if the following conditions are met: • there are no pending record upload requests for the device • there is no pending tree request for the device • there are fewer than 2 pending tree requests for that site This is controlled by LI_MaxTreeRequestsPerSite and impacts how much of ION LogInserter's resources are used for configuration changes or building of trees on startup. • there are fewer than 6 pending tree requests in total This is controlled by LI_MaxTreeRequest and impacts how much of ION LogInserter's resources are used for configuration changes or building of trees on startup. © 2012 Schneider Electric. All rights reserved. Page 43 of 58 Advanced configuration parameters StruxureWare Power Monitoring 7.0 System Design Guide If a device does not contain data recorders, the Log Inserter polls every 5 minutes (this is not configurable). The Log Inserter polls devices without on-board logs to keep track of device information in case the VIP is configured to log data from the device. StaleDataInterval (Default=300 seconds) – If no new data is received for the time specified in StaleDataInterval seconds, Diagrams displays N/A. This is similar to how Vista uses a yellow outline when the time between updates exceeds a user-defined threshold. If updates are infrequent, this value can be increased to prevent N/A from being displayed. Page 44 of 58 © 2012 Schneider Electric. All rights reserved. StruxureWare Power Monitoring 7.0 System Design Guide Using StruxureWare Power Monitoring as an OPC Server/Client Appendix A: Tested Reference Systems This section describes a generic series of systems tested based on the recommended server specifications (see "Supported operating system and SQL Server editions" on page 11). The intent is to provide points of reference to system designers in order to choose the appropriate server size for a given system specification. SERVER MODEL 1 Dell T3500 WINDOWS OS Windows 7 SQL 2008 R2 Std Single Processor Intel Xeon W3530 Quad Core 8M Cache, 2.8GHz 4.8 GT/s 12GB 1333MHz DDR3 SDRAM ECC (3 DIMMS) SQL SERVER SERVER DETAILS CPU RAM 2 Dell T3500 Single Processor Single Processor Dual Processor Dual Processor Intel Xeon W3670 6 Core 12M Cache, 3.2GHz 4.8 GT/s Intel Xeon E5620 Quad Core 12M Cache, 2.4Ghz5.86 GT/s x2 Intel Xeon E5620 Quad Core 12M Cache, 2.4Ghz 5.86 GT/s x2 Intel Xeon X5650 6 Core 12M Cache, 2.66Ghz 6.4 GT/s 24GB - 1333MHz DDR3 SDRAM ECC (6 DIMMS) 24GB - 1333MHz UDIMMS (3 DIMMS) 24GB 1333MHz UDIMMS (3 DIMMS) 24GB 1333MHz Dual Ranked LV RDIMMs (6 DIMMS) x6 300GB 15K RPM SA SCSI 6Gbps 3.5in Hotplug Hard Drive 3 x RAID 1 Volumes x6 300GB 15K RPM SA SCSI 6Gbps 3.5in Hotplug Hard Drive 3 x RAID 1 Volumes x6 300GB 10K RPM SA SCSI 6Gbps 3.5in Hotplug Hard Drive 3 x RAID 1 Volumes OS , TempDB OS TempDB OS , TempDB MDF OS1, TempDB OS1, TempDB OS1, TempDB MDF 3 MDF 3 LDF 4 LDF 4 200 40 40 120 2000 400 20 150 MDF 3 MDF 3 LDF 4 LDF 4 400 80 160 160 25600 800 35 150 MDF 3 MDF 3 LDF 4 LDF 4 800 160 160 480 36800 1600 50 250 No RAID No RAID 1 4 LDF Total Number of Devices Number of CM4s Number of PM8s Number of PM9Cs Total Number of OPC Tags Total Number of Alarms 5 Total N of Web Users ConnectedThreadPoolSize 6 75 15 15 45 375 150 15 32 Windows Server 2008 R2 SQL 2008 R2 Std SQL 2008 R2 Std Hard Drive Configuration Drive 3 Drive 4 Drive 5 Drive 6 Windows Server 2008 R2 SQL 2008 R2 Std SQL 2008 R2 Std Hard Drives Drive 2 5 Dell T610 Windows Server 2008 R2 x1 500GB SATA 3.0Gb/s x2 1TB SATA 3.0Gb/s OS , 1 TempDB 2 MDF 3 LDF 4 Dell R410 Windows Server 2008 R2 x2 500GB SATA 3.0Gb/s Drive 1 3 Dell R410 75 15 15 45 375 150 15 32 2 3 4 1 2 2 1 2 2 OS , TempDB 1 2 2 1. Includes the Operating System, Pagefile, SPM Application and any other applications © 2012 Schneider Electric. All rights reserved. Page 45 of 58 Appendix A: Tested Reference Systems StruxureWare Power Monitoring 7.0 System Design Guide 2. SQL Server temporary system database 3. SQL Server database 4. SQL Server transaction log file 5. As the recommended vip.cfg size limit is < 2MB, the alarms were distributed across multiple VIPs as follows: a. Systems 1 & 2 = 1 VIP b. Systems 2 & 3 = 2 VIP c. System 4 = 4 VIP d. System 5 = 8 VIP 6. The registry key, ConnectedThreadPoolSize, was increased beyond the default in the larger systems. See "Registry settings" on page 43 for information on changing this setting. Page 46 of 58 © 2012 Schneider Electric. All rights reserved. StruxureWare Power Monitoring 7.0 System Design Guide Using StruxureWare Power Monitoring as an OPC Server/Client Appendix B: Determining when a Secondary server is required As devices are added to a StruxureWare Power Monitoring system, the ION SiteServer process will approach the maximum virtual memory limitation of a 32-bit Windows application. When this occurs, a Secondary server is required to support additional devices. Note, this is not related to server size or load. This is a software limitation. It can be determined when a Secondary server is required by multiplying the device type weights provided in the table below with the number of devices present in the system. Device Type ION 7650/8650 (with a moderate amount of PQ events) ION 73xx CM3/4 (with a moderate amount of PQ events) BCPM 500 PM800 1500 BCM42, PM9C, etc. (L2 Modbus device types with PC-based logging through device driver) ION 6200 PM200, PM700, etc. (L2 Modbus device types with no PC-based logging through device driver) PM5350 Device Type Weight 0.001 0.0007 0.0017 0.002 0.0007 0.0004 0.0004 0.0002 0.001 Examples Example 1 - Total Weight < 1, therefore no Secondary server required Device Type Quantity Weight ION 7650 PM 8XX PM 7XX Total 1 6 24 31 0.001 0.004 0.005 0.010 Example 2 - Total Weight > 1, therefore Secondary server required Device Type Quantity Weight ION 7650 PM 8XX PM 7XX Total 110 660 2640 3410 © 2012 Schneider Electric. All rights reserved. 0.110 0.440 0.528 1.078 Page 47 of 58 Appendix C: Serial Comms test results StruxureWare Power Monitoring 7.0 System Design Guide Appendix C: Serial Comms test results Device No. Devices in Serial Loop Baud Rate Tx Delay Polling Profile 1 Micrologic A Micrologic A Micrologic H Micrologic H 1 1 1 1 19.2k 19.2k 19.2k 19.2k 50 ms 50 ms 50 ms 50 ms Micrologic 11 19.2k 50 ms Micrologic 11 19.2k 50 ms Micrologic 11 19.2k 50 ms Micrologic 11 19.2k 0 Micrologic H 1 19.2k 50 ms PM 710 30 19.2k 50 ms PM 710 30 19.2k 50 ms PM 710 30 19.2k 0 PM 710 1 19.2k 50 ms PM 710 1 19.2k 50 ms 1 19.2k 50 ms Default Vista Diagram 1 19.2k 50 ms 1 1 19.2k 19.2k 50 ms 50 ms Micrologic H with 6k ft 4 wire PM710 with 6k ft 2 wire PM 5350 PM 5350 Default Vista Diagram Duration (s) No. Responses Avg Response time (s) %Utilization 2 1716 195 1716 613 1716 195 1716 613 0.157 0.0619 0.184 0.19 15% 1% 18% 6% 8457 8457 0.199 99% 5565 5564 0.162 51% 12982 12982 0.202 100% 8788 8788 0.195 99% 1004 1003 0.135 8% 1500 1500 0.141 11% 10073 10073 0.176 100% 10398 10398 0.173 99% 872 872 0.0325 1% 768 768 0.0968 4% 2056 1919 1918 0.187 17% Default Vista Diagram 2056 423 423 0.115 2% Default Vista Diagram 9360 16769 1866 13265 1866 13264 0.118 0.106 2% 8% Default Vista Diagram 1825 1771 1791 1919 No. Requests Default Vista Diagram of 1707 1st, 6th and 11th devices 1764 All Default Vista 2635 Diagram All Default Vista 1723 Diagram 2 registers Polling CL1 Univ Time (ModAddr: 1738 400679) Reset Count (ModAddr:400555) Default Vista Diagrams of 1st, 15th and 30th 1871 devices All Default Vista 1780 Diagrams All Default Vista 1809 Diagrams 1 register Vln a 4247 (ModAddr:404033) 2 registers kW tot (ModAddr: 404006) DI1 1755 Status (ModAddr:404115) 1 Log Inserter is running and polling all devices. Polling rate for Vista is set to 5s for all configurations. Default Vista Diagrams are opened from generated network diagrams 2 Utilization is defined as the ratio of throughput to capacity. As the utilization of a serial loop approaches 100%, requests will begin to queue resulting in a slower perceived system performance. See "FAQs" on page 50 for help on determining the utilization of an existing serial loop. Page 48 of 58 © 2012 Schneider Electric. All rights reserved. StruxureWare Power Monitoring 7.0 System Design Guide SQL Server clustering Appendix D: Data Redundancy The following table provides recommended Primary Server configuration options for data redundancy. The first option is sufficient for most applications. Options Full data redundancy and drive contention not considered 1 Drive 1 Drive 2 OS 2 tempDB 3 MDF 4 LDF X X Mirror Mirror OS 2 tempDB 3 MDF 4 LDF X OS 2 tempDB 3 MDF 4 LDF X Drive 3 Drive 4 X Mirror Drive 5 Drive 6 X Mirror 5 Reduced drive contention with data redundancy on OS and MDF Drive 8 X Mirror Mirror X X Mirror X 5 Full data redundancy and minimized drive contention Drive 7 Mirror X Mirror 5 X Mirror 1 This configuration was used in Tested Reference Systems 3, 4 and 5. 2 Includes the Operating System, Pagefile, SPM Application and any other applications. 3 SQL Server temporary system database 4 SQL Server database 5 SQL Server transaction log file SQL Server clustering Clustering allows one physical server to automatically take over the tasks and responsibilities of another physical server that is no longer in operation. More specifically, clustering refers to a group of two or more servers (generally called nodes) that work together and represent themselves as a single virtual server to a network. When a client connects to clustered SQL Servers, it appears there is only a single SQL Server. Using clustering helps ensure that applications running have little or no downtime when a failure occurs. StruxureWare Power Monitoring software can function in a clustered environment. Note that it is only the Database Server component that is deployed in the clustered environment. The Primary Server must reside in a non-clustered environment. See RESL 207774 "Installing StruxureWare Power Montioring 7.0 on a SQL 2008 R2 Cluster" for additional information. © 2012 Schneider Electric. All rights reserved. Page 49 of 58 FAQs StruxureWare Power Monitoring 7.0 System Design Guide FAQs Should I use 32-bit or 64-bit OS? Windows 7 or Server 2008? For large systems, we recommend using Microsoft Windows Server 2008 64-bit. There are three important reasons for this: • Windows Server 2008 - 64 bit has the ability to utilize server-class hardware, which means being able to run more CPUs and add more RAM as needed. The number of physical processors is limited to two in Windows 7. • For web hosting, Windows Server offers better performance which plays an important role in StruxureWare Power Monitoring’s web applications such as Reports and Diagrams. • A 64 bit operating system allows the use of SQL Server 64-bit, which can perform much faster compared to the 32-bit version. Please note that StruxureWare Power Monitoring is a 32-bit software package. However, 64-bit systems support 32-bit software. The gain in using 64-bit comes from the better performance for what complements StruxureWare Power Monitoring. Which is more important: CPU or RAM? They are both important for different reasons. The CPU plays a critical role for executing StruxureWare Power Monitoring operations. It is especially important when using a large amount of translated devices. On the other hand, RAM is very important for SQL Server. SQL Server is a memory intensive program and will need more RAM for running reports, logging large number of measurements, and other database intensive operations. How can I improve performance if it is necessary to have more than ten devices on a serial loop? Due to network architectural limitations, it may not be possible to reduce the number of the devices on a serial loop. In cases like these, there are things that could help improve performance: • Replace software logging with a data logger (such as an EGX300) to reduce communications traffic on the serial loop. • If Vista is used to access some of the real time data on this loop, consider using custom diagrams that consolidate the required tags into one diagram instead of using the default diagrams. For example, displaying only Energy and Demand registers from all of the devices on one Vista diagram instead of opening all default diagrams at the same time. • In Vista, the Update Period (Properties > Updates) can be increased to throttle the communication. The default Update Period in StruxureWare Power Monitoring is five seconds which can be increased to an amount better suited for the operation. • The ConnectedThreadPoolSize and LI_PollingPeriod_s registers can be added and set accordingly to improve the connection performance. See "Advanced configuration parameters" on page 42 for additional information. Page 50 of 58 © 2012 Schneider Electric. All rights reserved. StruxureWare Power Monitoring 7.0 System Design Guide SQL Server clustering StruxureWare Power Monitoring as an OPC Server hosting data from translated (non-ION) devices It is important to keep in mind that there are two cycles of translation when hosting data from translated devices in OPC format. First, StruxureWare Power Monitoring retrieves data from translated devices (see "System components" on page 29 for additional information). Then this data gets translated again into OPC format for broadcasting. Therefore, an already heavy translating process gets used twice to make data available. In a healthy operating network, this is not a concern. However, if there are too many translated devices that are broadcasted in OPC format, it is important to enable only the measurements that are needed. This saves StruxureWare Power Monitoring a considerable amount of system resources and unnecessary network traffic. How can I measure the bandwidth saturation/utilization of a serial loop? a. In Management Console, ensure all devices on the loop to be tested are enabled. b. Apply the desired test load to the devices on the serial loop (for example VIP, Vista, OPC, Diagrams, Tables, or Log Inserter). c. In the Diagnostics Viewer, drill down into the Communications Diagnostics and select the site of the associated loop. d. Select the Communication Status tab. e. Make note of the time, right-click in the Communication Status panel, and select Reset. f. Let the system gather metrics. For real-time data loads, a few minutes is usually enough. For logging, it is better to leave it for an hour, depending on logging intervals. g. Make note of the time again, and from the Diagnostics Viewer, obtain the number of Requests, Responses, and Average Response Time. h. Multiply the Requests by the Average Response Time, and divide that by the difference of the two times noted. © 2012 Schneider Electric. All rights reserved. Page 51 of 58 Glossary StruxureWare Power Monitoring 7.0 System Design Guide Glossary A Aggregation Combining data from multiple sites to determine total energy usage, demand, and load profiles. B Bandwidth The amount of occupied frequency space, determined by the difference between the high and low frequencies of a transmission band. Bandwidth is used to measure network capacity, and is expressed in Hz. Bridge A device that passes data packets between two network segments. Bridges can support a full Ethernet segment port, so each port gets 10 Mbps of bandwidth, allowing a LAN to grow significantly larger. Bridges also filter network traffic to only those packets needed on each segment, increasing data throughput. D Dual ring topology A network topology in which two rings connect each node on a network instead of one network ring that is used in a ring topology. Typically, the secondary ring in a dual-ring topology is used as a backup in case the primary ring fails. In these configurations, data moves in opposite directions around the rings. Each ring is independent of the other until the primary ring fails and the two rings are connected to continue the flow of data traffic. E EMI EMI (Electromagnetic Interference) is interference by electromagnetic signals on transmission lines. EMI causes data errors. Equipotential bonding Equipotential bonding involves joining together metalwork that is or may be grounded so that it is at the same potential ( voltage) everywhere. Ethernet A LAN (Local Area Network) specification. The Ethernet specification describes the implementation of the physical and data link layers of the OSI Reference Model. An extension to Ethernet is Fast Ethernet operating at 100 Mbps. Physical variations of Ethernet include 10BaseF and 10BaseT. Page 52 of 58 © 2012 Schneider Electric. All rights reserved. StruxureWare Power Monitoring 7.0 System Design Guide SQL Server clustering F Filter An electronic device that attenuates certain frequencies while allowing others to pass through. A high-pass filter lets all signals above a given frequency pass. A low-pass filter lets only frequencies below a given frequency pass. A bandpass filter lets a given band of frequencies pass while attenuating all others. Full-duplex Simultaneous data transmission between a sending station and a receiving station. For example, in voice transmissions between two people, they can talk at the same time and still be heard. H Half-duplex Data transmission in only one direction at a time between a sending station and a receiving station. For example, in voice transmissions between two people, only one person can talk at a time and be heard. Hub A common connection point for network segments required for star topologies. A hub takes an incoming data packet and copies it to the other ports so that all segments of the LAN can see the packets. Hubs allow LANs to extend beyond normal distance limitations, but all ports have to share a single network bandwidth. A passive hub simply passes data going from one network segment to another. A switching hub reads the destination address of each packet and then forwards the packet to the correct port. I IED IED (Intelligent Electronic Device), an instrument that can perform local data processing and storage functions. ION meters are often referred to as IEDs. IEEE IEEE (Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers), an international organization that produces standards and guidelines covering most aspects of electricity use. IIS IIS (Internet Information Services) is a web server application created by Microsoft Corporation and used with Microsoft Windows operating systems. Impedance The opposition to the flow of AC current at a given frequency. Impedance consists of resistance, inductive reactance, and capacitive reactance. It is measured in ohms. © 2012 Schneider Electric. All rights reserved. Page 53 of 58 Glossary StruxureWare Power Monitoring 7.0 System Design Guide IP code IP (Ingress Protection) Rating used to specify the environment protection of enclosures around electrical equipment. M Mesh topology A network topology in which each component in the network is connected to every other component in the network. This topology has the advantange of continued operation even if a node fails, but can be expensive and difficult to implement. MTBF MTBF (Mean Time Between Failure), a statistical estimate of the time a component, subassembly, or operating unit operates before failure occurs. N Noise Unwanted electrical signals that distort power signals. Noise consists of high frequency signals (lower than 200 kHz) that are superimposed on voltage or current waveforms and are present on a more or less continuous basis. Noise can be triggered by electronic devices, control circuits, arcing equipment, loads with solid-state rectifiers, and switching power supplies. Noise causes undesirable effects in electronic equipment including PCs and programmable controllers. The problems can be mitigated with filters, improved grounding, isolation transformers, and line conditioners. P Packet A unit of information sent over a network. It can contain a header and footer (for synchronization and control) as well as user data. PLC PLC (Programmable Logic Controller) is a computerized controller that stores instructions for device operation and sequencing. R Rapid spanning tree protocol A variation of the spanning tree protocol that provides significantly faster response to a topology change. Standard IEEE 8021.D-2004 now incorporates RSTP and obsoletes the original STP standard. Ring topology A network topology in which all devices in a network are connected in a loop. Packets travel in a single direction on the ring as they are passed from one device to the next. Each device checks a packet for its destination and passes it on to the next device. Page 54 of 58 © 2012 Schneider Electric. All rights reserved. StruxureWare Power Monitoring 7.0 System Design Guide SQL Server clustering S Sag A short duration decrease in RMS voltage or current of between 10% and 90% of the nominal. The duration ranges from ½ a cycle to 1 minute. Sags are triggered by fault clearing, startup of heavy loads, or lightning. Sags deprive computers of power, causing unexpected system crashes that lead to lost or corrupted data. Sags can also damage or shut down equipment, particularly motors, and reduce their efficiency or life spans. SCADA SCADA (Supervisory Control and Data Aquisition) System, a traditional SCADA system consists of a master station, transducers, and RTUs (Remote Terminal Units). The master station provides the primary operator interface and manages overall system functions, collecting and analyzing data from RTUs as well as initiating control actions. Transducers measure general equipment parameters such as temperatures and pressures. The RTU detects, timestamps and logs setpoint and digital I/O events. Shielded twisted pair A two-pair wire medium used in a variety of networks. Shielded twisted pair cabling has a layer of shielded insulation to reduce EMI (electromagnetic interference) causing data errors. Shielding A metal barrier, enclosure, or wrapping (around instrumentation and power cables) designed to protect sensitive circuitry and cabling from noise sources (equipment that may generate electrostatic or electromagnetic fields). Shielding reduces coupling between conductors. Spanning tree protocol A network protocol that ensures a loop-free topology for any bridged Ethernet local area network. Spanning tree allows a network design to include redundant links to provide backup paths if an active link fails. Star topology A network topology in which each device in the network is connected to a central device, such as a switch or hub. All packets sent through the network must pass through the central device to get to its destination. The star topology is one of the most common network topologies Striping The technique of dividing logically sequential data into blocks and distributing those blocks to different physical storage devices. Used in RAID configurations. Swell A short duration increase in RMS voltage or current of 10% to 80% above the nominal. The duration ranges from ½ a cycle to 1 minute. Swells are not as common as sags. They are usually associated with system faults, but are also caused by switching off large loads and energizing large capacitor banks. One way that a swell can occur is from the temporary voltage rise on the unfaulted phases during a single line-to-ground (SLG) fault. © 2012 Schneider Electric. All rights reserved. Page 55 of 58 Glossary StruxureWare Power Monitoring 7.0 System Design Guide Switch (in computer networks) An extension of a bridge, linking four or more full networks. There are two types of switches: cut-through and store-and-forward. A cut-through switch examines the packet destination address before forwarding it to its destination. A store-and-forward switch examines the entire packet to catch packet errors. Both types of switches separate an Ethernet network into segments, with each segment having 10 Mbps of bandwidth shared by fewer users, resulting in higher performance. Switch (in electrical circuits) A device that controls if an electrical circuit is open or closed. A general-use switch, intended for general distribution and branch circuits, is rated in amperes and is capable of interrupting its rated voltage. A transfer switch moves one or more load conductor connections from one power source to another. An isolating switch cuts off an electrical circuit from the source of power. It is intended to operate only after the circuit is opened by some other means. T Throttling A measure employed in communication networks to manage the amount of network traffic. A typical example of this is by limiting the rate at which a server will accept or transmit data. By limiting the rate at which a server accepts and transmits data, the risk of network congestion or server crash is reduced. U Unshielded Twisted Pair A four-pair wire medium used in a variety of networks. Unshielded twisted pair does not require the fixed spacing between connections that is necessary with coaxial-type connections. Page 56 of 58 © 2012 Schneider Electric. All rights reserved. StruxureWare Power Monitoring 7.0 System Design Guide Schneider Electric ION, Modbus, PowerLogic, StruxureWare, and Schneider Electric are either trademarks or 2195 Keating Cross Road registered trademarks of Schneider Electric in France, the USA and other countries. Other Saanichton, BC V8M 2A5 trademarks used are the property of their respective owners. For technical support: Electrical equipment should be installed, operated, serviced and maintained only by qualified Global-PMC-Techemail@example.com personnel. No responsibility is assumed by Schneider Electric for any consequences arising out of (00) + 1 250 544 3010 the use of this material. Contact your local Schneider Electric sales representative for 7EN02-0315-00 05/2012 assistance or go to www.schneider-electric.com © 2012 Schneider Electric. All Rights Reserved.
* Your assessment is very important for improving the work of artificial intelligence, which forms the content of this project