User manual

User manual
Mach
W h e r e v e r we go it is normal f o r us to constantly hear mes s a g e s . These
m e s s a g e s are infinitely diverse from pleasant music to a t e m p t i n g offer in a
shopping centre.
It is b e c o m i n g more and more usual for us t o h a v e a centralized sound
s y s t e m in o u r h o m e s to create a musical environment to increase o u r comfort as
much as we can i n the little free time that we have available.
All this would n o t be possible w i t h o u t certain necessary elements. These
e l e m e n t s are w h a t we are going to deal with in t h i s manual: Public Address
System Loudspeakers.
Mach S p e a k e r s a/s, in a n effort t o m e e t a l l possible customer needs, has
added t o its wide product range a line of
O u r obj ective h e r e is simply to explain this field i n a clear way and to
facilitate installation.
We can separate the elements we need for a b a s i c installation into two
groups: a c t i v e elements and p a s s i v e elements. T he f o r m e r group
amplifiers, signal frequency amplifiers, mixing decks, effects, etc.
Passive
elements
attenuators etc.
encompass
speakers,
cables,
dynamic
contains
microphones,
As w e k n o w the standard impedance of t h e s p e a k e r s , we need to incorporate
Adapting the primary to the line a n d t h e s e c o n d a r y to
the s p e a k e r allows t h e multiple connection of elements.
It is usual i n public address s y s t e m installations to find t h a t t h e signal h a s to
travel o v e r considerable distances. Logically, this is d u e to the fact t h a t the speakers
a r e s e p a r a t e d f r o m the source a n d a l s o d u e to the large number o f speakers that
Installing them is v e r y s i m p l e . T h e y a r e parallel connected and so each
sound output c a n b e independently regulated and in c a s e o f an individual fault
a r e s o m e t i m e s used. There are some matters that w e should bear in mind i f we
want to guarantee a successful installation.
the whole s y s t e m will not be affected.
W h e n t h e d i s t a n c e s a r e considerable, the
cable's o w n ohmic
resistance will
absorb part of t h e line energy. W e c o u l d s a y t h a t the power in the charge (speaker)
w i l l be altered by the least energy p r o v i d e d by the amplifier a s t h e r e is a greater
impedance in the output terminals.
A possible s o l u t i o n c o u l d be to i n c r e a s e t h e section o f the conductor, but this
would not b e viable i f the distances are considerable or multiple connections are
used, a s c o s t s would b e high.
T h e solution is to increase the impedance in t h e speaker terminals with the
consequent increase in the nominal line voltage in order to m a i n t a i n t h e required
values.
Public
address
system
amplifiers
adapt
their
output
through
transformers.
N o m i n a l v o l t a g e is generally 100 volts, although sometimes it m a y be 50 or 70 volts.
T h i s voltage is not maintained per manently i n the line. It o n l y reaches this level
when w o r k i n g at maximum power, s o we c a n s a y t h a t this is occasional a n d as the
audio signal changes t h r o u g h modulation there a r e m o m e n t s w h e n there w i l l be zero
voltage when there is no signal i n the line. There is, however, a constant v o l t a g e in
t h e whole s y s t e m when t h e r e is a message in a l l the speakers because there is no
loss.
O n c e w e k n o w the voltage in our line, we h a v e to adapt t h e s p e a k e r s to i t . If,
f o r example, we have an 8 watt speaker, which is enough power for an installation,
w e will need an impedance of 1 2 5 0 o h m s to be able t o connect it to a 1 0 0 volt line.
Primary
selected.
table and the power r a t i o f o r the 8 watt speaker w e have
We can determine t h e number o f speakers
ensure optimal coverage.
We
will determine t h e quality
Levels
that we need to
o f the
s y s t e m that
we
install to
will
use
It i s useful t o k n o w when the amplifier is giving op t i m a l performance,
through impedance, if w e k n o w the power that the amplifier w i l l be able t o
provide w h e n it is c o n n e c t e d to the line output.
depending o n t h e demands of the installation.
P=
V=
Z=
distribution o f s o u n d l e v e l for frequencies higher t h a n 5 K H z a n d a dispersion of
90º.
maximum amplifier p o w e r
output line voltage..
optimal line value.
output.
I n this example we w i l l use Level III, which is t h e l e v e l used in systems
f o r a high l e v e l o f s o u n d quality. T h e s e systems must guarantee a uniform
We will consider a place with a N o i s y Level, like an office, a s h o p or any
o t h e r public establishment with a n oise range o f 65 to 8 0 dB.
A s value P, we will t a k e a reference listening height of 1.70m. The speakers
w e will use are our C S 6 range. They have a g o o d bandpass, two channels with
9 0 º d ispersion all the requirements w e need to ensure success.
As w e k n o w the advantages inherent in 'constant voltage' installations for
connections with multiple speakers, we must not ignore t h e section of our
conductor. We h a v e already mentioned that large sections are unnecessary, but we
must adhere t o s o m e basic rules. In the following table, the minimum conductor
sections that we must u s e f o r determined power values a n d distances are shown.
T=
100
volts.
Our fictitious place is 100m².
T h e Ceiling line o f speakers has b e e n designed for ceiling installation and
a s s u c h must be h a n d l e d by qualified installers.
Mach S p e a k e r s a/s. will n o t b e responsible for m i s u s e caused by using
areas t h a t are n o t stable enough o r lack sufficient strength to support t h e units.
Where:
H
L
S
P
SL
height in metres o f the place.
distance between t h e speakers in m e t r e s ( s e e table).
area covered b y s p e a k e r (see table).
average reception measurement o f 1 . 7 0 metres.
S L in square m e t r e s , area in which sound is to b e
Always k e e p t h e power unit disconnected when handling t h e speaker lines.
W h e n y o u a r e doing a connection with voltage lines, y o u must t a k e into
account the c h o i c e o f t h e power o f the amplifier to adjust t h e t o t a l wattage that
produced.
o u r s t a g e will provide.
ABS units m u s t n o t be cleaned w i t h any solvent-based products a s they
could be damaged. A s o f t damp clo t h s h o u l d b e used.
D o no e x p o s e to direct heat o r a n e x c e s s o f humidity.
A l l material handled
manufacturer's guarantee.
by
non-authorized
personnel
will
invalidate
the
Below, the different w a y s of c o n n e c t i n g t h e units are clearly shown.
Depending o n the mounting y o u m a y h a v e to adjust the amplifier so t h a t the
output is the correct one. T h e sum of t h e p o w e r o f the speakers must be t h e same
as o r less than the t o t a l p o w e r o f the amplifier.
An example of a v o l t a g e line installation:
The CS series consists of t h r e e models t h a t v a r y in s i z e a n d p o w e r. E a c h unit
has a power regulator located in the base.
For 1 2 speakers c o n n e c t e d on the 1 5 w a t t setting we will n e e d a 180 W RMS
This regulator switch has a setting t h a t allows u s to us w o r k w i t h low
impedance. T h i s is the option we should select when we are w o r k i n g with
conventional amplifiers. T h e number of speakers p e r channel m ust b e t a k e n into
account to a v o i d working with an impedance level t h a t t h e amplifier cannot
support a s this could damage the amplifier.
The IN W A L L series is composed o f one model. It h a s a r e g u l a t o r switch with
amplifier ( 1 2 × 15 = 180).
The s a m e amplifier will be s t i l l be optimal with the following installation:
2
4
6
2
s p e a k e r s c o n n e c t e d at
....................................
........................... .........
....................................
30
15
8
6
w
w
w
w
the same characteristics as the p r e v i o u s s e r i e s and also has a switch that allows
us to c h o o s e different line voltages. This remains inactive w h e n we are working
w i t h low impedance.
The
connectors
red and black
with
a
large
input
60
60
48
12
180
watt
Parallel installation is recommended for charges o f 8 ohms in the speaker and
4
are push terminals in
-
ohms
in
the
amplifier
terminals.
Series-parallel
installations
for
the
same
impedances and connection f o r 1 0 0 volt lines.
diameter to a l l o w for sufficient c o n d u c t o r sections.
To remove the protective g r i l l use the “hook” that comes with each unit to
p u l l it towards you, taking care not to p u s h the tool in too far a s you could
damage t h e speaker membrane. Once r e m o v e d you will find t h e four screws that
Speaker
system
c o n n e c t e d i n p a r a l l e l . T h e i m p e d a n c e p e r u n i t is 8 o h m s . In the
a m p l i f i e r t e r m i n a l s we w i l l t h e n h a v e 4 o h m s p e r c h a n n e l . .
secure t h e fasteners.
It is important to m a k e s u r e that we choose the right place t o install the
speakers. There s h o u l d be no previous installation present s u c h as water pipes,
electric cables etc., a s t h e s e c o u l d be d a m a g e d and cause serious problems.
Once we have installed the wire we can mount the speakers. In t h e following
table w e will find the fretwork measurements for the different models.
M u l t i p l e s p e a k e r c o n n e c t i o n m a i n t a i n i n g 4 o h m s in t h e a m p l i f i e r t e r m i n a l s . S p e a k e r s
w i t h a n i m p e d a n c e o f 8 o h m s p e r u n i t a n d c o n n e c t e d in s e r i e s - p a r a l l e l . T h i s a l l o w s the
installation
of a considerable number of speakers using a low impedance output
amplifier,8/4ohm.
W h e n e v e r w e h a v e 4 o h m s i n t h e p h a s e t e r m i n a l s , we s h o u l d c o n s u l t t h e p h a s e
m a n u a l in o r d e r t o be s u r e o f t h e c h a r g e p o s s i b i l i t y a t t h i s i m p e d a n c e .
V o l t a g e l i n e c o n n e c t i o n . T h i s t y p e a l l o w s t h e m u l t i p l e i n s t a l l a t i o n o f s p e a k e r s and
there canbe considerable distances between the speakers and the source.
I f t h e r e is a f a u l t i n o n e o f t h e s p e a k e r s t h e r e s t o f t h e s y s t e m w i l l n o t be a f f e c t e d .
W e h a v e to t a k e i n t o a c c o u n t t h e q u a n t i t y o f t h e s p e a k e r s a n d t h e p o w e r o u t p u t o f the
amplifier.
PARALLEL CONFIGURATION
4 ohm
Series - Parallel
Configuration
Line - 70 - 100 v
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