MANAGEMENT GUIDE
MANAGEMENT GUIDE
ta
SMC8926EM
SMC8950EM
TigerStack II 10/100/1000
24/48-Port Stackable Layer 3 Gigabit
Switch
TigerStack II 10/100/1000
Management Guide
From SMC's Tiger line of feature-rich workgroup LAN solutions
20 Mason
Irvine, CA 92618
Phone: (949) 679-8000
August 2009
Pub. # 149100000035A
E082009-MW-R01
Information furnished by SMC Networks, Inc. (SMC) is believed to be accurate and
reliable. However, no responsibility is assumed by SMC for its use, nor for any
infringements of patents or other rights of third parties which may result from its use. No
license is granted by implication or otherwise under any patent or patent rights of SMC.
SMC reserves the right to change specifications at any time without notice.
Copyright © 2009 by
SMC Networks, Inc.
20 Mason
Irvine, CA 92618
All rights reserved. Printed in China
Trademarks:
SMC is a registered trademark; and EZ Switch, TigerStack and TigerSwitch are
trademarks of SMC Networks, Inc. Other product and company names are trademarks or
registered trademarks of their respective holders.
Warranty and Product Registration
To register SMC products and to review the detailed warranty statement, please refer to
the Support Section of the SMC Website at http://www.smc.com.
About This Guide
Purpose
This guide gives specific information on how to operate and use the management
functions of the switch.
Audience
The guide is intended for use by network administrators who are responsible for operating
and maintaining network equipment; consequently, it assumes a basic working
knowledge of general switch functions, the Internet Protocol (IP), and Simple Network
Management Protocol (SNMP).
Conventions
The following conventions are used throughout this guide to show information:
Note: Emphasizes important information or calls your attention to related features or
instructions.
Caution: Alerts you to a potential hazard that could cause loss of data, or damage the
system or equipment.
Warning: Alerts you to a potential hazard that could cause personal injury.
Related Publications
The following publication details the hardware features of the switch, including the
physical and performance-related characteristics, and how to install the switch:
The Installation Guide
Also, as part of the switch’s software, there is an online web-based help that describes all
management related features.
Revision History
This section summarizes the changes in each revision of this guide.
August 2009 Revision
This is the first release of this guide.
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Contents
Section I: Getting Started
Chapter 1: Introduction
Key Features
Description of Software Features
System Defaults
Chapter 2: Initial Configuration
Connecting to the Switch
Configuration Options
Required Connections
Remote Connections
Stack Operations
Selecting the Stack Master
Selecting the Backup Unit
Recovering from Stack Failure or Topology Change
Broken Link for Line and Wrap-around Topologies
Resilient IP Interface for Management Access
Resilient Configuration
Renumbering the Stack
Ensuring Consistent Code is Used Across the Stack
Basic Configuration
Console Connection
Setting Passwords
Setting an IP Address
Manual Configuration
Dynamic Configuration
Enabling SNMP Management Access
Community Strings (for SNMP version 1 and 2c clients)
Trap Receivers
Configuring Access for SNMP Version 3 Clients
Managing System Files
Saving Configuration Settings
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Section II: Switch Management
Chapter 3: Configuring the Switch
Using the Web Interface
Navigating the Web Browser Interface
Home Page
Configuration Options
Panel Display
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Main Menu
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Chapter 4: Basic Management Tasks
Displaying System Information
Displaying Switch Hardware/Software Versions
Displaying Bridge Extension Capabilities
Setting the Switch’s IP Address (IP Version 4)
Manual Configuration
Using DHCP/BOOTP
Setting the Switch’s IP Address (IP Version 6)
Configuring an IPv6 Address
Configuring an IPv6 General Network Prefix
Configuring Neighbor Detection Protocol and Static Entries
Configuring Support for Jumbo Frames
Managing Firmware
Downloading System Software from a Server
Saving or Restoring Configuration Settings
Downloading Configuration Settings from a Server
Console Port Settings
Telnet Settings
Configuring Event Logging
System Log Configuration
Remote Log Configuration
Displaying Log Messages
Sending Simple Mail Transfer Protocol Alerts
Renumbering the Stack
Resetting the System
Setting the System Clock
Setting the Current Time
Configuring SNTP
Setting the Time Zone
Configuring Summer Time
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Chapter 5: Simple Network Management Protocol
Enabling the SNMP Agent
Setting Community Access Strings
Specifying Trap Managers and Trap Types
Configuring SNMPv3 Management Access
Setting a Local Engine ID
Specifying a Remote Engine ID
Configuring SNMPv3 Users
Configuring Remote SNMPv3 Users
Configuring SNMPv3 Groups
Setting SNMPv3 Views
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Chapter 6: User Authentication
Configuring User Accounts
Configuring Local/Remote Logon Authentication
Configuring HTTPS
Replacing the Default Secure-site Certificate
Configuring the Secure Shell
Generating the Host Key Pair
Importing User Public Keys
Configuring the SSH Server
Configuring Port Security
Configuring 802.1X Port Authentication
Displaying 802.1X Global Settings
Configuring 802.1X Global Settings
Configuring Port Settings for 802.1X
Displaying 802.1X Statistics
Filtering IP Addresses for Management Access
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Chapter 7: Access Control Lists
Configuring Access Control Lists
Setting the ACL Name and Type
Configuring a Standard IPv4 ACL
Configuring an Extended IPv4 ACL
Configuring a MAC ACL
Configuring a Standard IPv6 ACL
Configuring an Extended IPv6 ACL
Binding a Port to an Access Control List
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Chapter 8: Port Configuration
Displaying Connection Status
Configuring Interface Connections
Creating Trunk Groups
Statically Configuring a Trunk
Enabling LACP on Selected Ports
Configuring LACP Parameters
Displaying LACP Port Counters
Displaying LACP Settings and Status for the Local Side
Displaying LACP Settings and Status for the Remote Side
Setting Broadcast Storm Thresholds
Configuring Port Mirroring
Configuring Rate Limits
Showing Port Statistics
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Chapter 9: Address Table Settings
Setting Static Addresses
Displaying the Address Table
Changing the Aging Time
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Chapter 10: Spanning Tree Algorithm
Displaying Global Settings
Configuring Global Settings
Displaying Interface Settings
Configuring Interface Settings
Configuring Multiple Spanning Trees
Displaying Interface Settings for MSTP
Configuring Interface Settings for MSTP
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Chapter 11: VLAN Configuration
IEEE 802.1Q VLANs
Enabling or Disabling GVRP (Global Setting)
Displaying Basic VLAN Information
Displaying Current VLANs
Creating VLANs
Adding Static Members to VLANs (VLAN Index)
Adding Static Members to VLANs (Port Index)
Configuring VLAN Behavior for Interfaces
Configuring IEEE 802.1Q Tunneling
Enabling QinQ Tunneling on the Switch
Adding an Interface to a QinQ Tunnel
Configuring Private VLANs
Enabling Private VLANs
Configuring Uplink and Downlink Ports
Configuring Protocol-Based VLANs
Configuring Protocol Groups
Mapping Protocols to VLANs
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Chapter 12: Link Layer Discovery Protocol
Setting Basic LLDP Timing Attributes
Configuring LLDP Interface Attributes
Displaying LLDP Local Device Information
Displaying LLDP Remote Port Information
Displaying LLDP Remote Information Details
Displaying Device Statistics
Displaying Detailed Device Statistics
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Chapter 13: Class of Service
Layer 2 Queue Settings
Setting the Default Priority for Interfaces
Mapping CoS Values to Egress Queues
Selecting the Queue Mode
Setting the Service Weight for Traffic Classes
Layer 3/4 Priority Settings
Mapping Layer 3/4 Priorities to CoS Values
Selecting IP Precedence/DSCP Priority
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Mapping IP Precedence
Mapping DSCP Priority
Mapping IP Port Priority
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Chapter 14: Quality of Service
Configuring Quality of Service Parameters
Configuring a Class Map
Creating QoS Policies
Attaching a Policy Map to Ingress Queues
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Chapter 15: Multicast Filtering
Layer 2 IGMP (Snooping and Query)
Configuring IGMP Snooping and Query Parameters
Enabling IGMP Immediate Leave
Displaying Interfaces Attached to a Multicast Router
Specifying Static Interfaces for a Multicast Router
Displaying Port Members of Multicast Services
Assigning Ports to Multicast Services
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Chapter 16: Domain Name Service
Configuring General DNS Service Parameters
Configuring Static DNS Host to Address Entries
Displaying the DNS Cache
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Chapter 17: Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol
Configuring DHCP Relay Service
Configuring the DHCP Server
Enabling the Server, Setting Excluded Addresses
Configuring Address Pools
Displaying Address Bindings
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Chapter 18: Configuring Router Redundancy
Virtual Router Redundancy Protocol
Configuring VRRP Groups
Displaying VRRP Global Statistics
Displaying VRRP Group Statistics
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Chapter 19: IP Routing
Overview
Initial Configuration
IP Switching
Routing Path Management
Routing Protocols
Basic IP Interface Configuration
Configuring IP Routing Interfaces
Address Resolution Protocol
Basic ARP Configuration
Configuring Static ARP Addresses
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Displaying Dynamically Learned ARP Entries
Displaying Local ARP Entries
Displaying ARP Statistics
Displaying Statistics for IP Protocols
IP Statistics
ICMP Statistics
UDP Statistics
TCP Statistics
Configuring Static Routes
Displaying the Routing Table
Chapter 20: Unicast Routing
Configuring the Routing Information Protocol
Configuring General Protocol Settings
Specifying Network Interfaces for RIP
Configuring Network Interfaces for RIP
Redistributing Routing Information from Other Domains
Displaying RIP Information and Statistics
Configuring the Open Shortest Path First Protocol
Configuring General Protocol Settings
Configuring OSPF Areas
Configuring Area Ranges (Route Summarization for ABRs)
Configuring OSPF Interfaces
Configuring Virtual Links
Configuring Network Area Addresses
Configuring Summary Addresses (for External AS Routes)
Redistributing External Routes
Configuring NSSA Settings
Displaying Link State Database Information
Displaying Information on Border Routers
Displaying Information on Neighbor Routers
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Section III: Command Line Interface
Chapter 21: Overview of the Command Line Interface
Using the Command Line Interface
Accessing the CLI
Console Connection
Telnet Connection
Entering Commands
Keywords and Arguments
Minimum Abbreviation
Command Completion
Getting Help on Commands
Showing Commands
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Partial Keyword Lookup
Negating the Effect of Commands
Using Command History
Understanding Command Modes
Exec Commands
Configuration Commands
Command Line Processing
Command Groups
Chapter 22: General Commands
enable
disable
configure
show history
reload
prompt
end
exit
quit
Chapter 23: System Management Commands
Device Designation Commands
hostname
switch renumber
System Status Commands
show startup-config
show running-config
show system
show users
show version
Frame Size Commands
jumbo frame
File Management Commands
copy
delete
dir
whichboot
boot system
Line Commands
line
login
password
timeout login response
exec-timeout
password-thresh
silent-time
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databits
parity
speed
stopbits
disconnect
show line
Event Logging Commands
logging on
logging history
logging host
logging facility
logging trap
clear log
show logging
show log
SMTP Alert Commands
logging sendmail host
logging sendmail level
logging sendmail source-email
logging sendmail destination-email
logging sendmail
show logging sendmail
Time Commands
sntp client
sntp server
sntp poll
sntp update-time
show sntp
clock timezone
clock timezone-predefined
clock summer-time (date)
clock summer-time (predefined)
clock summer-time (recurring)
show clock
calendar set
show calendar
Chapter 24: SNMP Commands
snmp-server
show snmp
snmp-server community
snmp-server contact
snmp-server location
snmp-server host
snmp-server enable traps
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snmp-server engine-id
show snmp engine-id
snmp-server view
show snmp view
snmp-server group
show snmp group
snmp-server user
show snmp user
Chapter 25: User Authentication Commands
User Account Commands
username
enable password
Authentication Sequence
authentication login
authentication enable
RADIUS Client
radius-server host
radius-server port
radius-server key
radius-server retransmit
radius-server timeout
show radius-server
TACACS+ Client
tacacs-server host
tacacs-server port
tacacs-server key
show tacacs-server
Web Server Commands
ip http port
ip http server
ip http secure-server
ip http secure-port
Telnet Server Commands
ip telnet server
Secure Shell Commands
ip ssh server
ip ssh timeout
ip ssh authentication-retries
ip ssh server-key size
delete public-key
ip ssh crypto host-key generate
ip ssh crypto zeroize
ip ssh save host-key
show ip ssh
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show ssh
show public-key
Port Security Commands
port security
802.1X Port Authentication
dot1x system-auth-control
dot1x default
dot1x max-req
dot1x port-control
dot1x operation-mode
dot1x re-authenticate
dot1x re-authentication
dot1x timeout quiet-period
dot1x timeout re-authperiod
dot1x timeout tx-period
show dot1x
Management IP Filter Commands
management
show management
Chapter 26: Access Control List Commands
IPv4 ACLs
access-list ip
permit, deny (Standard IPv4 ACL)
permit, deny (Extended IPv4 ACL)
show ip access-list
ip access-group
show ip access-group
IPv6 ACLs
access-list ipv6
permit, deny (Standard IPv6 ACL)
permit, deny (Extended IPv6 ACL)
show ipv6 access-list
ipv6 access-group
show ipv6 access-group
MAC ACLs
access-list mac
permit, deny (MAC ACL)
show mac access-list
mac access-group
show mac access-group
ACL Information
show access-list
show access-group
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Contents
Chapter 27: Interface Commands
interface
description
speed-duplex
negotiation
capabilities
flowcontrol
media-type
shutdown
switchport broadcast packet-rate
clear counters
show interfaces status
show interfaces counters
show interfaces switchport
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Chapter 28: Link Aggregation Commands
channel-group
lacp
lacp system-priority
lacp admin-key (Ethernet Interface)
lacp admin-key (Port Channel)
lacp port-priority
show lacp
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Chapter 29: Mirror Port Commands
port monitor
show port monitor
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Chapter 30: Rate Limit Commands
rate-limit
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Chapter 31: Address Table Commands
mac-address-table static
clear mac-address-table dynamic
show mac-address-table
mac-address-table aging-time
show mac-address-table aging-time
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Chapter 32: LLDP Commands
lldp
lldp holdtime-multiplier
lldp notification-interval
lldp refresh-interval
lldp reinit-delay
lldp tx-delay
lldp admin-status
lldp notification
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lldp basic-tlv management-ip-address
lldp basic-tlv port-description
lldp basic-tlv system-capabilities
lldp basic-tlv system-description
lldp basic-tlv system-name
lldp dot1-tlv proto-ident
lldp dot1-tlv proto-vid
lldp dot1-tlv pvid
lldp dot1-tlv vlan-name
lldp dot3-tlv link-agg
lldp dot3-tlv mac-phy
lldp dot3-tlv max-frame
lldp dot3-tlv poe
show lldp config
show lldp info local-device
show lldp info remote-device
show lldp info statistics
Chapter 33: Spanning Tree Commands
spanning-tree
spanning-tree mode
spanning-tree forward-time
spanning-tree hello-time
spanning-tree max-age
spanning-tree priority
spanning-tree pathcost method
spanning-tree transmission-limit
spanning-tree mst-configuration
mst vlan
mst priority
name
revision
max-hops
spanning-tree spanning-disabled
spanning-tree cost
spanning-tree port-priority
spanning-tree edge-port
spanning-tree portfast
spanning-tree link-type
spanning-tree mst cost
spanning-tree mst port-priority
spanning-tree protocol-migration
show spanning-tree
show spanning-tree mst configuration
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Chapter 34: VLAN Commands
GVRP and Bridge Extension Commands
bridge-ext gvrp
show bridge-ext
switchport gvrp
show gvrp configuration
garp timer
show garp timer
Editing VLAN Groups
vlan database
vlan
Configuring VLAN Interfaces
interface vlan
switchport mode
switchport acceptable-frame-types
switchport ingress-filtering
switchport native vlan
switchport allowed vlan
switchport forbidden vlan
Displaying VLAN Information
show vlan
Configuring IEEE 802.1Q Tunneling
dot1q-tunnel system-tunnel-control
switchport dot1q-tunnel mode
switchport dot1q-tunnel tpid
show dot1q-tunnel
Configuring Private VLANs
pvlan
show pvlan
Configuring Protocol-based VLANs
protocol-vlan protocol-group (Configuring Groups)
protocol-vlan protocol-group (Configuring Interfaces)
show protocol-vlan protocol-group
show interfaces protocol-vlan protocol-group
Chapter 35: Class of Service Commands
Priority Commands (Layer 2)
queue mode
switchport priority default
queue bandwidth
queue cos-map
show queue mode
show queue bandwidth
show queue cos-map
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Priority Commands (Layer 3 and 4)
map ip port (Global Configuration)
map ip port (Interface Configuration)
map ip precedence (Global Configuration)
map ip precedence (Interface Configuration)
map ip dscp (Global Configuration)
map ip dscp (Interface Configuration)
show map ip port
show map ip precedence
show map ip dscp
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Chapter 36: Quality of Service Commands
class-map
match
rename
description
policy-map
class
set
police
service-policy
show class-map
show policy-map
show policy-map interface
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Chapter 37: Multicast Filtering Commands
IGMP Snooping Commands
ip igmp snooping
ip igmp snooping vlan static
ip igmp snooping version
ip igmp snooping immediate-leave
show ip igmp snooping
show mac-address-table multicast
IGMP Query Commands
ip igmp snooping querier
ip igmp snooping query-count
ip igmp snooping query-interval
ip igmp snooping query-max-response-time
ip igmp snooping router-port-expire-time
Static Multicast Routing Commands
ip igmp snooping vlan mrouter
show ip igmp snooping mrouter
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37-10
Chapter 38: Domain Name Service Commands
ip host
clear host
38-1
38-1
38-2
xvi
Contents
ip domain-name
ip domain-list
ip name-server
ip domain-lookup
show hosts
show dns
show dns cache
clear dns cache
Chapter 39: DHCP Commands
DHCP Client
ip dhcp client-identifier
ip dhcp restart client
DHCP Relay
ip dhcp restart relay
ip dhcp relay server
DHCP Server
service dhcp
ip dhcp excluded-address
ip dhcp pool
network
default-router
domain-name
dns-server
next-server
bootfile
netbios-name-server
netbios-node-type
lease
host
client-identifier
hardware-address
clear ip dhcp binding
show ip dhcp binding
Chapter 40: Router Redundancy Commands
Virtual Router Redundancy Protocol Commands
vrrp ip
vrrp authentication
vrrp priority
vrrp timers advertise
vrrp preempt
show vrrp
show vrrp interface
show vrrp router counters
show vrrp interface counters
38-3
38-3
38-4
38-5
38-6
38-7
38-7
38-8
39-1
39-1
39-1
39-2
39-3
39-3
39-4
39-5
39-5
39-6
39-6
39-7
39-8
39-8
39-9
39-9
39-10
39-10
39-11
39-11
39-12
39-13
39-14
39-14
39-15
40-1
40-1
40-2
40-3
40-3
40-4
40-5
40-6
40-8
40-9
40-9
xvii
Contents
clear vrrp router counters
clear vrrp interface counters
40-10
40-10
Chapter 41: IP Interface Commands
Basic IP Configuration
ip address
ip default-gateway
show ip interface
show ip redirects
ping
ipv6 enable
ipv6 general-prefix
show ipv6 general-prefix
ipv6 address
ipv6 address autoconfig
ipv6 address eui-64
ipv6 address link-local
show ipv6 interface
ipv6 default-gateway
show ipv6 default-gateway
ipv6 mtu
show ipv6 mtu
show ipv6 traffic
clear ipv6 traffic
ping ipv6
ipv6 neighbor
ipv6 nd dad attempts
ipv6 nd ns interval
show ipv6 neighbors
clear ipv6 neighbors
Address Resolution Protocol (ARP)
arp
arp timeout
clear arp-cache
show arp
ip proxy-arp
41-1
41-1
41-3
41-4
41-5
41-5
41-6
41-7
41-8
41-9
41-9
41-10
41-12
41-13
41-14
41-17
41-17
41-18
41-19
41-19
41-25
41-25
41-26
41-27
41-29
41-30
41-32
41-32
41-32
41-33
41-34
41-34
41-35
Chapter 42: IP Routing Commands
Global Routing Configuration
ip routing
ip route
clear ip route
show ip route
show ip host-route
show ip traffic
42-1
42-1
42-1
42-2
42-3
42-3
42-4
42-5
xviii
Contents
Routing Information Protocol (RIP)
router rip
default-metric
timers basic
network
neighbor
version
redistribute
ip rip receive version
ip rip send version
ip split-horizon
ip rip authentication key
ip rip authentication mode
show rip globals
show ip rip
Open Shortest Path First (OSPF)
router ospf
router-id
compatible rfc1583
default-information originate
timers spf
area range
area default-cost
summary-address
redistribute
network area
area stub
area nssa
area virtual-link
ip ospf authentication
ip ospf authentication-key
ip ospf message-digest-key
ip ospf cost
ip ospf dead-interval
ip ospf hello-interval
ip ospf priority
ip ospf retransmit-interval
ip ospf transmit-delay
show ip ospf
show ip ospf border-routers
show ip ospf database
show ip ospf interface
show ip ospf neighbor
show ip ospf summary-address
show ip ospf virtual-links
42-5
42-6
42-7
42-8
42-9
42-9
42-10
42-11
42-12
42-13
42-14
42-14
42-15
42-16
42-16
42-18
42-19
42-20
42-20
42-21
42-22
42-23
42-24
42-24
42-25
42-26
42-27
42-28
42-30
42-32
42-33
42-34
42-35
42-36
42-36
42-37
42-38
42-38
42-39
42-40
42-41
42-49
42-50
42-51
42-51
xix
Contents
Section IV: Appendices
Appendix A: Software Specifications
Software Features
Management Features
Standards
Management Information Bases
A-1
A-1
A-2
A-2
A-3
Appendix B: Troubleshooting
Problems Accessing the Management Interface
Using System Logs
B-1
B-1
B-2
Glossary
Index
xx
Tables
Table 1-1
Table 1-2
Table 3-1
Table 3-2
Table 4-1
Table 5-1
Table 5-2
Table 6-1
Table 6-2
Table 8-1
Table 8-2
Table 8-3
Table 8-4
Table 10-4
Table 10-5
Table 10-9
Table 10-10
Table 13-1
Table 13-2
Table 13-3
Table 13-4
Table 19-1
Table 19-2
Table 19-3
Table 19-4
Table 19-5
Table 19-6
Table 20-1
Table 21-1
Table 21-2
Table 21-3
Table 21-4
Table 22-1
Table 23-1
Table 23-2
Table 23-3
Table 23-4
Table 23-5
Table 23-6
Table 23-7
Table 23-8
Table 23-9
Key Features
System Defaults
Web Page Configuration Buttons
Switch Main Menu
Logging Levels
SNMPv3 Security Models and Levels
Supported Notification Messages
HTTPS System Support
802.1X Statistics
LACP Port Counters
LACP Internal Configuration Information
LACP Neighbor Configuration Information
Port Statistics
Recommended STA Path Cost Range
Default STA Path Costs
Recommended STA Path Cost Range
Default STA Path Costs
Mapping CoS Values to Egress Queues
CoS Priority Levels
Mapping IP Precedence
Mapping DSCP Priority
Address Resolution Protocol
ARP Statistics
IP Statistics
ICMP Statistics
USP Statistics
TCP Statistics
RIP Information and Statistics
General Command Modes
Configuration Command Modes
Keystroke Commands
Command Group Index
General Commands
System Management Commands
Device Designation Commands
System Status Commands
Frame Size Commands
Flash/File Commands
File Directory Information
Line Commands
Event Logging Commands
Logging Levels
1-1
1-7
3-3
3-4
4-30
5-2
5-14
6-6
6-24
8-13
8-14
8-16
8-22
10-14
10-14
10-21
10-21
13-3
13-3
13-8
13-10
19-8
19-14
19-16
19-17
19-19
19-20
20-11
21-6
21-8
21-9
21-10
22-1
23-1
23-1
23-3
23-9
23-10
23-15
23-17
23-26
23-27
xxi
Tables
Table 23-10
Table 23-11
Table 23-12
Table 23-13
Table 24-1
Table 24-2
Table 24-3
Table 24-4
Table 24-5
Table 25-1
Table 25-2
Table 25-3
Table 25-4
Table 25-5
Table 25-6
Table 25-7
Table 25-8
Table 25-9
Table 25-10
Table 25-11
Table 25-12
Table 25-13
Table 25-14
Table 26-1
Table 26-2
Table 26-3
Table 26-4
Table 26-5
Table 27-1
Table 27-2
Table 28-1
Table 28-2
Table 28-3
Table 28-4
Table 28-5
Table 29-1
Table 30-1
Table 31-1
Table 33-1
Table 33-2
Table 33-3
Table 34-1
Table 34-2
Table 34-3
Table 34-4
xxii
show logging flash/ram - display description
show logging trap - display description
SMTP Alert Commands
Time Commands
SNMP Commands
show snmp engine-id - display description
show snmp view - display description
show snmp group - display description
show snmp user - display description
Authentication Commands
User Access Commands
Default Login Settings
Authentication Sequence Commands
RADIUS Client Commands
TACACS+ Client Commands
Web Server Commands
HTTPS System Support
Telnet Server Commands
Secure Shell Commands
show ssh - display description
Port Security Commands
802.1X Port Authentication Commands
IP Filter Commands
Access Control List Commands
IPv4 ACL Commands
IPv6 ACL Commands
MAC ACL Commands
ACL Information Commands
Interface Commands
show interfaces switchport - display description
Link Aggregation Commands
show lacp counters - display description
show lacp internal - display description
show lacp neighbors - display description
show lacp sysid - display description
Mirror Port Commands
Rate Limit Commands
Address Table Commands
Spanning Tree Commands
Recommended STA Path Cost Range
Default STA Path Costs
VLAN Commands
GVRP and Bridge Extension Commands
Commands for Editing VLAN Groups
Commands for Configuring VLAN Interfaces
23-30
23-31
23-32
23-35
24-1
24-9
24-11
24-13
24-15
25-1
25-1
25-2
25-4
25-6
25-9
25-11
25-13
25-14
25-15
25-22
25-24
25-26
25-35
26-1
26-1
26-7
26-12
26-16
27-1
27-11
28-1
28-8
28-8
28-9
28-10
29-1
30-1
31-1
33-1
33-12
33-12
34-1
34-1
34-5
34-7
Tables
Table 34-5
Table 34-7
Table 34-8
Table 35-1
Table 35-2
Table 35-3
Table 35-4
Table 35-5
Table 35-6
Table 36-1
Table 37-1
Table 37-2
Table 37-3
Table 37-4
Table 38-1
Table 38-2
Table 39-1
Table 39-2
Table 39-3
Table 39-4
Table 40-1
Table 40-2
Table 40-3
Table 40-4
Table 41-1
Table 41-2
Table 41-3
Table 41-4
Table 41-5
Table 41-6
Table 41-7
Table 42-1
Table 42-2
Table 42-3
Table 42-4
Table 42-5
Table 42-6
Table 42-7
Table 42-8
Table 42-9
Table 42-10
Table 42-11
Table 42-12
Table 42-13
Table 42-14
Commands for Displaying VLAN Information
Private VLAN Commands
Protocol-based VLAN Commands
Priority Commands
Priority Commands (Layer 2)
Default CoS Priority Levels
Priority Commands (Layer 3 and 4)
Mapping IP Precedence to CoS Values
Mapping IP DSCP to CoS Values
Quality of Service Commands
Multicast Filtering Commands
IGMP Snooping Commands
IGMP Query Commands
Static Multicast Routing Commands
DNS Commands
show dns cache - display description
DHCP Commands
DHCP Client Commands
DHCP Relay Commands
DHCP Server Commands
Router Redundancy Commands
VRRP Commands
show vrrp - display description
show vrrp brief - display description
IP Interface Commands
Basic IP Configuration Commands
show ipv6 interface - display description
show ipv6 mtu - display description
show ipv6 traffic - display description
show ipv6 neighbors - display description
Address Resolution Protocol Commands
IP Routing Commands
Global Routing Configuration Commands
show ip route - display description
show ip host-route - display description
Routing Information Protocol Commands
show rip globals - display description
show ip rip - display description
Open Shortest Path First Commands
show ip ospf - display description
show ip ospf border-routers - display description
show ip ospf database - display description
show ip ospf asbr-summary - display description
show ip ospf database-summary - display description
show ip ospf external - display description
34-12
34-18
34-20
35-1
35-1
35-5
35-7
35-9
35-11
36-1
37-1
37-1
37-5
37-9
38-1
38-7
39-1
39-1
39-3
39-5
40-1
40-1
40-7
40-8
41-1
41-1
41-15
41-19
41-21
41-31
41-32
42-1
42-1
42-4
42-4
42-5
42-16
42-17
42-18
42-39
42-40
42-42
42-43
42-44
42-45
xxiii
Tables
Table 42-15
Table 42-16
Table 42-17
Table 42-18
Table 42-19
Table 42-20
Table B-1
xxiv
show ip ospf network - display description
show ip ospf router - display description
show ip ospf summary - display description
show ip ospf interface - display description
show ip ospf neighbor - display description
show ip ospf virtual-links - display description
Troubleshooting Chart
42-46
42-47
42-48
42-49
42-50
42-51
B-1
Figures
Figure 3-1
Figure 3-2
Figure 4-1
Figure 4-2
Figure 4-3
Figure 4-4
Figure 4-5
Figure 4-6
Figure 4-7
Figure 4-8
Figure 4-9
Figure 4-10
Figure 4-11
Figure 4-12
Figure 4-13
Figure 4-14
Figure 4-15
Figure 4-16
Figure 4-17
Figure 4-18
Figure 4-19
Figure 4-20
Figure 4-21
Figure 4-22
Figure 4-23
Figure 4-24
Figure 4-25
Figure 4-26
Figure 4-27
Figure 5-1
Figure 5-2
Figure 5-3
Figure 5-4
Figure 5-5
Figure 5-6
Figure 5-7
Figure 5-8
Figure 5-9
Figure 6-1
Figure 6-2
Figure 6-3
Figure 6-4
Home Page
Front Panel Indicators
System Information
Switch Information
Displaying Bridge Extension Configuration
IPv4 Interface Configuration - Manual
Default Gateway
IPv4 Interface Configuration - DHCP
IPv6 Interface Configuration
IPv6 General Prefix Configuration
IPv6 Neighbor Detection and Neighbor Cache
Configuring Support for Jumbo Frames
Copy Firmware
Setting the Startup Code
Deleting Files
Downloading Configuration Settings for Start-Up
Setting the Startup Configuration Settings
Configuring the Console Port
Configuring the Telnet Interface
System Logs
Remote Logs
Displaying Logs
Enabling and Configuring SMTP Alerts
Renumbering the Stack
Resetting the System
Current Time
SNTP Configuration
Clock Time Zone
Summer Time
Enabling the SNMP Agent
Configuring SNMP Community Strings
Configuring SNMP Trap Managers
Setting the SNMPv3 Engine ID
Setting an Engine ID
Configuring SNMPv3 Users
Configuring Remote SNMPv3 Users
Configuring SNMPv3 Groups
Configuring SNMPv3 Views
User Accounts
Authentication Server Settings
HTTPS Settings
HTTPS Settings
3-2
3-3
4-2
4-3
4-5
4-7
4-7
4-8
4-14
4-16
4-19
4-21
4-22
4-23
4-23
4-25
4-25
4-27
4-29
4-31
4-32
4-33
4-34
4-36
4-36
4-37
4-38
4-39
4-41
5-2
5-3
5-6
5-7
5-8
5-10
5-12
5-16
5-17
6-2
6-4
6-6
6-7
xxv
Figures
Figure 6-5
Figure 6-6
Figure 6-7
Figure 6-8
Figure 6-9
Figure 6-10
Figure 6-11
Figure 6-12
Figure 6-13
Figure 7-1
Figure 7-2
Figure 7-3
Figure 7-4
Figure 7-5
Figure 7-6
Figure 7-7
Figure 8-1
Figure 8-2
Figure 8-3
Figure 8-4
Figure 8-5
Figure 8-6
Figure 8-7
Figure 8-8
Figure 8-9
Figure 8-10
Figure 8-11
Figure 8-12
Figure 9-1
Figure 9-2
Figure 9-3
Figure 10-1
Figure 10-2
Figure 10-3
Figure 10-6
Figure 10-7
Figure 10-8
Figure 10-11
Figure 11-1
Figure 11-2
Figure 11-3
Figure 11-4
Figure 11-5
Figure 11-6
Figure 11-7
xxvi
SSH Host-Key Settings
SSH User Public-Key Settings
SSH Server Settings
Port Security
802.1X Global Information
802.1X Global Configuration
802.1X Port Configuration
802.1X Port Statistics
IP Filter
Selecting ACL Type
ACL Configuration - Standard IPv4
ACL Configuration - Extended IPv4
ACL Configuration - MAC
ACL Configuration - Standard IPv6
ACL Configuration - Extended IPv6
ACL Port Binding
Port - Port Information
Port - Port Configuration
Static Trunk Configuration
LACP Trunk Configuration
LACP - Aggregation Port
LACP - Port Counters Information
LACP - Port Internal Information
LACP - Port Neighbors Information
Port Broadcast Control
Mirror Port Configuration
Rate Limit Configuration
Port Statistics
Static Addresses
Dynamic Addresses
Address Aging
STA Information
STA Global Configuration
STA Port Information
STA Port Configuration
MSTP VLAN Configuration
MSTP Port Information
MSTP Port Configuration
Globally Enabling GVRP
VLAN Basic Information
VLAN Current Table
VLAN Static List - Creating VLANs
VLAN Static Table - Adding Static Members
VLAN Static Membership by Port
VLAN Port Configuration
6-11
6-13
6-15
6-17
6-19
6-20
6-22
6-25
6-27
7-2
7-3
7-5
7-7
7-8
7-10
7-11
8-1
8-5
8-7
8-9
8-11
8-13
8-15
8-16
8-18
8-19
8-21
8-25
9-2
9-3
9-4
10-4
10-9
10-12
10-15
10-17
10-19
10-21
11-4
11-4
11-5
11-7
11-8
11-9
11-11
Figures
Figure 11-1
Figure 11-2
Figure 11-8
Figure 11-9
Figure 11-10
Figure 11-11
Figure 12-4
Figure 12-5
Figure 12-6
Figure 12-7
Figure 12-8
Figure 12-9
Figure 12-10
Figure 13-1
Figure 13-2
Figure 13-3
Figure 13-4
Figure 13-5
Figure 13-6
Figure 13-7
Figure 13-8
Figure 13-9
Figure 14-1
Figure 14-2
Figure 14-3
Figure 15-1
Figure 15-1
Figure 15-2
Figure 15-3
Figure 15-4
Figure 15-5
Figure 16-1
Figure 16-2
Figure 16-3
Figure 17-1
Figure 17-2
Figure 17-3
Figure 17-4
Figure 17-5
Figure 17-6
Figure 18-1
Figure 18-2
Figure 18-3
Figure 18-4
Figure 19-1
802.1Q Tunnel Status and Ethernet Type
Tunnel Port Configuration
Private VLAN Status
Private VLAN Link Status
Protocol VLAN Configuration
Protocol VLAN Port Configuration
LLDP Configuration
LLDP Port Configuration
LLDP Local Device Information
LLDP Remote Port Information
LLDP Remote Information Details
LLDP Device Statistics
LLDP Device Statistics Details
Default Port Priority
Traffic Classes
Queue Mode
Queue Scheduling
IP Precedence/DSCP Priority Status
IP Precedence Priority
IP DSCP Priority
IP Port Priority Status
IP Port Priority
Configuring Class Maps
Configuring Policy Maps
Service Policy Settings
IGMP Configuration
IGMP Immediate Leave
Multicast Router Port Information
Static Multicast Router Port Configuration
IP Multicast Registration Table
IGMP Member Port Table
DNS General Configuration
DNS Static Host Table
DNS Cache
DHCP Relay Configuration
DHCP Server General Configuration
DHCP Server Pool Configuration
DHCP Server Pool - Network Configuration
DHCP Server Pool - Host Configuration
DHCP Server - IP Binding
VRRP Group Configuration
VRRP Group Configuration Detail
VRRP Global Statistics
VRRP Group Statistics
IP Global Settings
11-16
11-18
11-19
11-19
11-21
11-22
12-2
12-4
12-7
12-8
12-10
12-12
12-13
13-2
13-4
13-5
13-6
13-8
13-9
13-10
13-11
13-12
14-3
14-6
14-7
15-4
15-5
15-6
15-7
15-8
15-9
16-2
16-4
16-5
17-2
17-3
17-6
17-7
17-8
17-9
18-5
18-6
18-7
18-9
19-5
xxvii
Figures
Figure 19-2
Figure 19-3
Figure 19-4
Figure 19-5
Figure 19-6
Figure 19-7
Figure 19-8
Figure 19-9
Figure 19-10
Figure 19-11
Figure 19-12
Figure 19-13
Figure 20-1
Figure 20-2
Figure 20-3
Figure 20-4
Figure 20-5
Figure 20-6
Figure 20-7
Figure 20-8
Figure 20-9
Figure 20-10
Figure 20-11
Figure 20-12
Figure 20-13
Figure 20-14
Figure 20-15
Figure 20-16
Figure 20-17
Figure 20-18
xxviii
IP Routing Interface
ARP General
ARP Static Addresses
ARP Dynamic Addresses
ARP Other Addresses
ARP Statistics
IP Statistics
ICMP Statistics
UDP Statistics
TCP Statistics
IP Static Routes
IP Routing Table
RIP General Settings
RIP Network Addresses
RIP Interface Settings
RIP Redistribution Configuration
RIP Statistics
OSPF General Configuration
OSPF Area Configuration
OSPF Range Configuration
OSPF Interface Configuration
OSPF Interface Configuration - Detailed
OSPF Virtual Link Configuration
OSPF Network Area Address Configuration
OSPF Summary Address Configuration
OSPF Redistribute Configuration
OSPF NSSA Settings
OSPF Link State Database Information
OSPF Border Router Information
OSPF Neighbor Information
19-7
19-10
19-11
19-13
19-14
19-15
19-17
19-18
19-19
19-20
19-22
19-23
20-4
20-5
20-8
20-10
20-12
20-18
20-22
20-24
20-28
20-28
20-30
20-32
20-34
20-36
20-37
20-39
20-40
20-41
Section I: Getting Started
This section provides an overview of the switch, and introduces some basic
concepts about network switches. It also describes the basic settings required to
access the management interface.
Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1-1
Initial Configuration . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-1
Getting Started
Chapter 1: Introduction
This switch provides a broad range of features for Layer 2 switching and Layer 3
routing. It includes a management agent that allows you to configure the features
listed in this manual. The default configuration can be used for most of the features
provided by this switch. However, there are many options that you should configure
to maximize the switch’s performance for your particular network environment.
Key Features
Table 1-1 Key Features
Feature
Description
Configuration Backup
and Restore
Backup to TFTP server
Authentication
Console, Telnet, web – User name / password, RADIUS, TACACS+
Web – HTTPS
Telnet – SSH
SNMP v1/2c - Community strings
SNMP version 3 – MD5 or SHA password
Port – IEEE 802.1X, MAC address filtering
Access Control Lists
Supports up to 256 ACLs, 96 MAC rules, 96 IP rules, and 96 IPv6 rules
DHCP Client, Relay
and Server
Supported
DNS
Client and Proxy service
Port Configuration
Speed and duplex mode and flow control
Rate Limiting
Input and output rate limiting per port
Port Mirroring
One or more ports mirrored to single analysis port
Port Trunking
Supports up to 32 trunks using either static or dynamic trunking (LACP)
Broadcast Storm
Control
Supported
Address Table
Up to 16K MAC addresses in the forwarding table, 1024 static MAC addresses;
Up to 2K IPv4 and 1K IPv6 entries in the host table, 4K entries in the ARP cache;
256 IPv4 and 256 IPv6 entries in the IP routing table, 64 static IP routes;
32 IP interfaces
IP Version 4 and 6
Supports IPv4 and IPv6 addressing, management, and QoS
IEEE 802.1D Bridge
Supports dynamic data switching and addresses learning
Store-and-Forward
Switching
Supported to ensure wire-speed switching while eliminating bad frames
1-1
1
Introduction
Table 1-1 Key Features (Continued)
Feature
Description
Spanning Tree
Algorithm
Supports standard STP, Rapid Spanning Tree Protocol (RSTP), and Multiple
Spanning Trees (MSTP)
Virtual LANs
Up to 256 using IEEE 802.1Q, port-based, protocol-based, or private VLANs
Traffic Prioritization
Default port priority, traffic class map, queue scheduling, IP Precedence, or
Differentiated Services Code Point (DSCP), and TCP/UDP Port
Qualify of Service
Supports Differentiated Services (DiffServ)
Router Redundancy
Router backup is provided with the Virtual Router Redundancy Protocol (VRRP)
IP Routing
Routing Information Protocol (RIP), Open Shortest Path First (OSPF), static routes
ARP
Static and dynamic address configuration, proxy ARP
Multicast Filtering
Supports IGMP snooping and query
Description of Software Features
The switch provides a wide range of advanced performance enhancing features.
Flow control eliminates the loss of packets due to bottlenecks caused by port
saturation. Broadcast storm suppression prevents broadcast traffic storms from
engulfing the network. Untagged (port-based), tagged, and protocol-based VLANs,
plus support for automatic GVRP VLAN registration provide traffic security and
efficient use of network bandwidth. CoS priority queueing ensures the minimum
delay for moving real-time multimedia data across the network. While multicast
filtering provides support for real-time network applications. Some of the
management features are briefly described below.
Configuration Backup and Restore – You can save the current configuration
settings to a file on a TFTP server, and later download this file to restore the switch
configuration settings.
Authentication – This switch authenticates management access via the console
port, Telnet or web browser. User names and passwords can be configured locally or
can be verified via a remote authentication server (i.e., RADIUS or TACACS+).
Port-based authentication is also supported via the IEEE 802.1X protocol. This
protocol uses Extensible Authentication Protocol over LANs (EAPOL) to request
user credentials from the 802.1X client, and then uses the EAP between the switch
and the authentication server to verify the client’s right to access the network via an
authentication server (i.e., RADIUS server).
Other authentication options include HTTPS for secure management access via the
web, SSH for secure management access over a Telnet-equivalent connection,
SNMP Version 3, IP address filtering for SNMP/web/Telnet management access,
and MAC address filtering for port access.
1-2
Description of Software Features
1
Access Control Lists – ACLs provide packet filtering for IP frames (based on
address, protocol, TCP/UDP port number or TCP control code) or any frames
(based on MAC address or Ethernet type). ACLs can by used to improve
performance by blocking unnecessary network traffic or to implement security
controls by restricting access to specific network resources or protocols.
DHCP Server and DHCP Relay – A DHCP server is provided to assign IP
addresses to host devices. Since DHCP uses a broadcast mechanism, a DHCP
server and its client must physically reside on the same subnet. Since it is not
practical to have a DHCP server on every subnet, DHCP Relay is also supported to
allow dynamic configuration of local clients from a DHCP server located in a different
network.
Port Configuration – You can manually configure the speed and duplex mode, and
flow control used on specific ports, or use auto-negotiation to detect the connection
settings used by the attached device. Use the full-duplex mode on ports whenever
possible to double the throughput of switch connections. Flow control should also be
enabled to control network traffic during periods of congestion and prevent the loss
of packets when port buffer thresholds are exceeded. The switch supports flow
control based on the IEEE 802.3x standard.
Rate Limiting – This feature controls the maximum rate for traffic transmitted or
received on an interface. Rate limiting is configured on interfaces at the edge of a
network to limit traffic into or out of the network. Traffic that falls within the rate limit is
transmitted, while packets that exceed the acceptable amount of traffic are dropped.
Port Mirroring – The switch can unobtrusively mirror traffic from any port to a
monitor port. You can then attach a protocol analyzer or RMON probe to this port to
perform traffic analysis and verify connection integrity.
Port Trunking – Ports can be combined into an aggregate connection. Trunks can
be manually set up or dynamically configured using IEEE 802.3-2005 (formerly
IEEE 802.3ad) Link Aggregation Control Protocol (LACP). The additional ports
dramatically increase the throughput across any connection, and provide
redundancy by taking over the load if a port in the trunk should fail. The switch
supports up to 32 trunks.
Broadcast Storm Control – Broadcast suppression prevents broadcast traffic from
overwhelming the network. When enabled on a port, the level of broadcast traffic
passing through the port is restricted. If broadcast traffic rises above a pre-defined
threshold, it will be throttled until the level falls back beneath the threshold.
Static Addresses – A static address can be assigned to a specific interface on this
switch. Static addresses are bound to the assigned interface and will not be moved.
When a static address is seen on another interface, the address will be ignored and
will not be written to the address table. Static addresses can be used to provide
network security by restricting access for a known host to a specific port.
1-3
1
Introduction
IEEE 802.1D Bridge – The switch supports IEEE 802.1D transparent bridging. The
address table facilitates data switching by learning addresses, and then filtering or
forwarding traffic based on this information. The address table supports up to 16K
addresses.
Store-and-Forward Switching – The switch copies each frame into its memory
before forwarding them to another port. This ensures that all frames are a standard
Ethernet size and have been verified for accuracy with the cyclic redundancy check
(CRC). This prevents bad frames from entering the network and wasting bandwidth.
To avoid dropping frames on congested ports, the switch provides 2 MB for frame
buffering. This buffer can queue packets awaiting transmission on congested
networks.
Spanning Tree Algorithm – The switch supports these spanning tree protocols:
Spanning Tree Protocol (STP, IEEE 802.1D) – This protocol provides loop detection.
When there are multiple physical paths between segments, this protocol will choose
a single path and disable all others to ensure that only one route exists between any
two stations on the network. This prevents the creation of network loops. However, if
the chosen path should fail for any reason, an alternate path will be activated to
maintain the connection.
Rapid Spanning Tree Protocol (RSTP, IEEE 802.1w) – This protocol reduces the
convergence time for network topology changes to about 3 to 5 seconds, compared
to 30 seconds or more for the older IEEE 802.1D STP standard. It is intended as a
complete replacement for STP, but can still interoperate with switches running the
older standard by automatically reconfiguring ports to STP-compliant mode if they
detect STP protocol messages from attached devices.
Multiple Spanning Tree Protocol (MSTP, IEEE 802.1s) – This protocol is a direct
extension of RSTP. It can provide an independent spanning tree for different VLANs.
It simplifies network management, provides for even faster convergence than RSTP
by limiting the size of each region, and prevents VLAN members from being
segmented from the rest of the group (as sometimes occurs with IEEE 802.1D STP).
Virtual LANs – The switch supports up to 255 VLANs. A Virtual LAN is a collection
of network nodes that share the same collision domain regardless of their physical
location or connection point in the network. The switch supports tagged VLANs
based on the IEEE 802.1Q standard. Members of VLAN groups can be dynamically
learned via GVRP, or ports can be manually assigned to a specific set of VLANs.
This allows the switch to restrict traffic to the VLAN groups to which a user has been
assigned. By segmenting your network into VLANs, you can:
• Eliminate broadcast storms which severely degrade performance in a flat network.
• Simplify network management for node changes/moves by remotely configuring
VLAN membership for any port, rather than having to manually change the network
connection.
• Provide data security by restricting all traffic to the originating VLAN, except where
a connection is explicitly defined via the switch’s routing service.
1-4
Description of Software Features
1
• Use private VLANs to restrict traffic to pass only between data ports and the uplink
ports, thereby isolating adjacent ports within the same VLAN, and allowing you to
limit the total number of VLANs that need to be configured.
• Use protocol VLANs to restrict traffic to specified interfaces based on protocol type.
Traffic Prioritization – This switch prioritizes each packet based on the required
level of service, using eight priority queues with strict or Weighted Round Robin
Queuing. It uses IEEE 802.1p and 802.1Q tags to prioritize incoming traffic based on
input from the end-station application. These functions can be used to provide
independent priorities for delay-sensitive data and best-effort data.
This switch also supports several common methods of prioritizing layer 3/4 traffic to
meet application requirements. Traffic can be prioritized based on the priority bits in
the IP frame’s Type of Service (ToS) octet or the number of the TCP/UDP port.
When these services are enabled, the priorities are mapped to a Class of Service
value by the switch, and the traffic then sent to the corresponding output queue.
IP Routing – The switch provides Layer 3 IP routing. To maintain a high rate of
throughput, the switch forwards all traffic passing within the same segment, and
routes only traffic that passes between different subnetworks. The wire-speed
routing provided by this switch lets you easily link network segments or VLANs
together without having to deal with the bottlenecks or configuration hassles
normally associated with conventional routers.
Routing for unicast traffic is supported with the Routing Information Protocol (RIP)
and the Open Shortest Path First (OSPF) protocol.
RIP – This protocol uses a distance-vector approach to routing. Routes are
determined on the basis of minimizing the distance vector, or hop count, which
serves as a rough estimate of transmission cost.
OSPF – This approach uses a link state routing protocol to generate a shortest-path
tree, then builds up its routing table based on this tree. OSPF produces a more
stable network because the participating routers act on network changes predictably
and simultaneously, converging on the best route more quickly than RIP.
Router Redundancy – The Virtual Router Redundancy Protocol (VRRP) uses a
virtual IP address to support a primary router and multiple backup routers. The
backups can be configured to take over the workload if the master fails or to load
share the traffic. The primary goal of this protocol is to allow a host device which has
been configured with a fixed gateway to maintain network connectivity in case the
primary gateway goes down.
Address Resolution Protocol – The switch uses ARP and Proxy ARP to convert
between IP addresses and MAC (i.e., hardware) addresses. This switch supports
conventional ARP, which locates the MAC address corresponding to a given IP
address. This allows the switch to use IP addresses for routing decisions and the
corresponding MAC addresses to forward packets from one hop to the next. You can
configure either static or dynamic entries in the ARP cache.
Proxy ARP allows hosts that do not support routing to determine the MAC address
of a device on another network or subnet. When a host sends an ARP request for a
1-5
1
Introduction
remote network, the switch checks to see if it has the best route. If it does, it sends
its own MAC address to the host. The host then sends traffic for the remote
destination via the switch, which uses its own routing table to reach the destination
on the other network.
Quality of Service – Differentiated Services (DiffServ) provides policy-based
management mechanisms used for prioritizing network resources to meet the
requirements of specific traffic types on a per-hop basis. Each packet is classified
upon entry into the network based on access lists, IP Precedence or DSCP values,
or VLAN lists. Using access lists allows you select traffic based on Layer 2, Layer 3,
or Layer 4 information contained in each packet. Based on network policies, different
kinds of traffic can be marked for different kinds of forwarding.
Multicast Filtering – Specific multicast traffic can be assigned to its own VLAN to
ensure that it does not interfere with normal network traffic and to guarantee
real-time delivery by setting the required priority level for the designated VLAN. The
switch uses IGMP Snooping and Query to manage multicast group registration.
1-6
System Defaults
1
System Defaults
The switch’s system defaults are provided in the configuration file
“Factory_Default_Config.cfg.” To reset the switch defaults, this file should be set as
the startup configuration file (page 4-24).
The following table lists some of the basic system defaults.
Table 1-2 System Defaults
Function
Parameter
Default
Console Port
Connection
Baud Rate
auto
Data bits
8
Stop bits
1
Parity
none
Local Console Timeout
0 (disabled)
Privileged Exec Level
Username “admin”
Password “admin”
Normal Exec Level
Username “guest”
Password “guest”
Enable Privileged Exec
from Normal Exec Level
Password “super”
RADIUS Authentication
Disabled
TACACS Authentication
Disabled
802.1X Port Authentication
Disabled
HTTPS
Enabled
SSH
Disabled
Port Security
Disabled
Authentication
Web Management
IP Filtering
Disabled
HTTP Server
Enabled
HTTP Port Number
80
HTTP Secure Server
Enabled
HTTP Secure Port Number
443
1-7
1
Introduction
Table 1-2 System Defaults (Continued)
Function
Parameter
Default
SNMP
SNMP Agent
Enabled
Community Strings
“public” (read only)
“private” (read/write)
Traps
Authentication traps: enabled
Link-up-down events: enabled
SNMP V3
View: defaultview
Group: public (read only); private (read/write)
Admin Status
Enabled
Auto-negotiation
Enabled
Port Configuration
Flow Control
Disabled
Rate Limiting
Input and output limits
Disabled
Port Trunking
Static Trunks
None
LACP (all ports)
Disabled
Broadcast Storm
Protection
Status
Enabled (all ports)
Broadcast Limit Rate
500 packets per second
Spanning Tree
Algorithm
Status
Enabled, RSTP
(Defaults: All values based on IEEE 802.1w)
Fast Forwarding (Edge Port)
Disabled
Address Table
Aging Time
300 seconds
Virtual LANs
Default VLAN
1
1-8
PVID
1
Acceptable Frame Type
All
Ingress Filtering
Disabled
Switchport Mode (Egress Mode)
Hybrid: tagged/untagged frames
GVRP (global)
Disabled
GVRP (port interface)
Disabled
System Defaults
1
Table 1-2 System Defaults (Continued)
Function
Parameter
Default
Traffic Prioritization
Ingress Port Priority
0
Queue Mode
WRR
Weighted Round Robin
Queue: 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7
Weight: 1 2 4 6 8 10 12 14
IP Precedence Priority
Disabled
IP DSCP Priority
Disabled
IP Port Priority
Disabled
IP Settings
Management. VLAN
Any VLAN configured with an IP address
IP Address
0.0.0.0
Subnet Mask
255.0.0.0
Default Gateway
0.0.0.0
DHCP
Client: Enabled
Relay: Disabled
Server: Disabled
DNS
Client/Proxy service: Disabled
BOOTP
Disabled
ARP
Enabled
Cache Timeout: 20 minutes
Proxy: Disabled
RIP
Disabled
OSPF
Disabled
Router Redundancy
VRRP
Disabled
Multicast Filtering
IGMP Snooping
Snooping: Enabled
Querier: Disabled
System Log
Status
Enabled
Messages Logged
Levels 0-7 (all)
Unicast Routing
Messages Logged to Flash
Levels 0-3
SMTP Email Alerts
Event Handler
Enabled (but no server defined)
SNTP
Clock Synchronization
Disabled
1-9
1
1-10
Introduction
Chapter 2: Initial Configuration
Connecting to the Switch
Configuration Options
The switch includes a built-in network management agent. The agent offers a variety
of management options, including SNMP, RMON (Groups 1, 2, 3, 9) and a
web-based interface. A PC may also be connected directly to the switch for
configuration and monitoring via a command line interface (CLI).
Note: An IPv4 address for this switch is obtained via DHCP by default. To change this
address, see "Setting an IP Address" on page 2-7.
The switch’s HTTP web agent allows you to configure switch parameters, monitor
port connections, and display statistics using a standard web browser such as
Internet Explorer 5.x or above, Netscape 6.2 or above, and Mozilla Firefox 2.0.0.0
or above. The switch’s web management interface can be accessed from any
computer attached to the network.
The CLI program can be accessed by a direct connection to the RS-232 serial
console port on the switch, or remotely by a Telnet connection over the network.
The switch’s management agent also supports SNMP (Simple Network
Management Protocol). This SNMP agent permits the switch to be managed from
any system in the network using network management software such as SMC’s
EliteView.
The switch’s web interface, CLI configuration program, and SNMP agent allow you
to perform the following management functions:
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
Set user names and passwords
Set an IP interface for any VLAN
Configure SNMP parameters
Enable/disable any port
Set the speed/duplex mode for any port
Configure the bandwidth of any port by limiting input or output rates
Control port access through IEEE 802.1X security or static address filtering
Filter packets using Access Control Lists (ACLs)
Configure up to 255 IEEE 802.1Q VLANs
Enable GVRP automatic VLAN registration
Configure IP routing for unicast traffic
Configure router redundancy
Configure IGMP multicast filtering
Upload and download system firmware via TFTP
Upload and download switch configuration files via TFTP
2-1
2
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
Initial Configuration
Configure Spanning Tree parameters
Configure Class of Service (CoS) priority queuing
Configure up to 6 static or LACP trunks per switch, up to 32 per stack
Enable port mirroring
Set broadcast storm control on any port
Display system information and statistics
Configure any stack unit through the same IP address
Required Connections
The switch provides an RS-232 serial port that enables a connection to a PC or
terminal for monitoring and configuring the switch. A null-modem console cable is
provided with the switch.
Note: When configuring a stack, connect to the console port on the Master unit.
Attach a VT100-compatible terminal, or a PC running a terminal emulation program
to the switch. You can use the console cable provided with this package, or use a
null-modem cable that complies with the wiring assignments shown in the
Installation Guide.
To connect a terminal to the console port, complete the following steps:
1.
Connect the console cable to the serial port on a terminal, or a PC running
terminal emulation software, and tighten the captive retaining screws on the
DB-9 connector.
2.
Connect the other end of the cable to the RS-232 serial port on the switch.
3.
Make sure the terminal emulation software is set as follows:
• Select the appropriate serial port (COM port 1 or COM port 2).
• Set to any of the following baud rates: 9600, 19200, 38400, 57600, 115200
(Note: Set to 9600 baud if want to view all the system initialization messages.).
• Set the data format to 8 data bits, 1 stop bit, and no parity.
• Set flow control to none.
• Set the emulation mode to VT100.
• When using HyperTerminal, select Terminal keys, not Windows keys.
Notes: 1. Refer to "Line Commands" on page 23-17 for a complete description of
console configuration options.
2. Once you have set up the terminal correctly, the console login screen will be
displayed.
For a description of how to use the CLI, see "Using the Command Line Interface" on
page 21-1. For a list of all the CLI commands and detailed information on using the
CLI, refer to "Command Groups" on page 21-10.
2-2
Stack Operations
2
Remote Connections
Prior to accessing the switch’s onboard agent via a network connection, you must
first configure it with a valid IP address, subnet mask, and default gateway using a
console connection, DHCP or BOOTP protocol.
An IPv4 address for this switch is obtained via DHCP by default. To manually
configure this address or enable dynamic address assignment via DHCP or BOOTP,
see "Setting an IP Address" on page 2-7.
Notes: 1. This switch supports four concurrent Telnet/SSH sessions.
2. Each VLAN group can be assigned its own IP interface address (page 2-7).
You can manage the stack via any IP interface in the stack. In other words,
the Master unit does not have to include an active port member of a VLAN
interface used for management access.
3. Any VLAN group can be assigned an IP interface address (page 2-7) for
managing the stack. Also, note that the Master unit does not have to include
an active port member in the VLAN interface used for management access.
After configuring the switch’s IP parameters, you can access the onboard
configuration program from anywhere within the attached network. The onboard
configuration program can be accessed using Telnet from any computer attached to
the network. The switch can also be managed by any computer using a web
browser (Internet Explorer 5.0 or above, Netscape 6.2 or above, or Mozilla Firefox
2.0.0.0 or above), or from a network computer using SNMP network management
software.
Note: The onboard program only provides access to basic configuration functions. To
access the full range of SNMP management functions, you must use
SNMP-based network management software.
Stack Operations
Up to eight 24-port or 48-port Gigabit switches can be stacked together as described
in the Installation Guide. One unit in the stack acts as the Master for configuration
tasks and firmware upgrade. All of the other units function in Slave mode, but can
automatically take over management of the stack if the Master unit fails.
To configure any unit in the stack, first verify the unit number from the front panel of
the switch, and then select the appropriate unit number from the web or console
management interface.
Selecting the Stack Master
Note the following points about unit numbering:
• When the stack is initially powered on, the Master unit is selected based on the
following rules:
- If the Master/Slave push button is depressed on only one unit in the stack, that
unit will serve as the stack Master.
2-3
2
•
•
•
•
•
Initial Configuration
- If Master/Slave push button is depressed on more than one unit, the system will
select the unit with the lowest MAC address from those with the push button
depressed as the stack Master.
- If Master/Slave push button is not depressed on any unit, the system will select
the unit with the lowest MAC address as the stack Master.
When the stack is initially powered on, the Master unit is designated as unit 1 for a
ring topology. For a line topology, the stack is simply numbered from top to bottom,
with the first unit in the stack designated at unit 1. This unit identification number
appears on the Stack Unit ID LED on the front panel of the switch. It can also be
selected on the front panel graphic of the web interface, or from the CLI.
If the Master unit fails and another unit takes over control of the stack, the unit
numbering will not change.
If a unit in the stack fails or is removed from the stack, the unit numbers will not
change. This means that when you replace a unit in the stack, the original
configuration for the failed unit will be restored to the replacement unit.
If a unit is removed from the stack and later reattached to the stack, it will retain the
original unit number obtained during stacking.
If a unit is removed from the stack, and powered up as a stand-alone unit, it will
also retain the original unit number obtained during stacking.
Selecting the Backup Unit
Once the Master unit finishes booting up, it continues to synchronize configuration
information to all of the Slave units in the stack. If the Master unit fails or is powered
off, a new master unit will be selected based on the election rules described in the
preceding section. The backup unit elected to serve as the new stack Master will
take control of the stack without any loss of configuration settings. To ensure a
logical fail over to next unit down in the stack, place the Slave unit with the lowest
MAC address directly beneath the Master unit in the stack.
Recovering from Stack Failure or Topology Change
When a link or unit in the stack fails, a trap message is sent and a failure event is
logged. The stack will be rebooted after any system failure or topology change. It
takes two to three minutes to for the stack to reboot. If the Master unit fails, the
backup unit will take over operations as the new Master unit, reboot the stack, and
then select another backup unit after the stack finishes rebooting. Also note that
powering down a unit or inserting a new unit in the stack will cause the stack to
reboot. If a unit is removed from the stack (due to a power down or failure) or a new
unit added to the stack, the original unit IDs are not affected after rebooting, and a
new unit is assigned the lowest available unit ID.
Broken Link for Line and Wrap-around Topologies
All units in the stack must be connected via stacking cable. You can connect the
units in a simple cascade configuration from the top to the bottom unit. Using this
kind of line topology, if any link or unit in the stack fails, the stack will be broken in
2-4
Stack Operations
2
two. The Stack Link LED on the unit that is no longer receiving traffic from the next
unit up or down in the stack will begin flashing to indicate that the stack link is broken.
When the stack fails, a Master unit is selected from the two stack segments, either
the unit with the Master button depressed, or the unit with the lowest MAC address if
the Master button is not depressed on any unit. The stack reboots and resumes
operations. However, note that the IP address will be the same for any common
VLANs (with active port connections) that appear in both of the new stack segments.
To resolve the conflicting IP addresses, you should manually replace the failed link
or unit as soon as possible. If you are using a wrap-around stack topology, a single
point of failure in the stack will not cause the stack to fail. It would take two or more
points of failure to break the stack apart.
Note: If a stack breaks apart, the IP address will be the same for any common VLANs
(with active port connections) that appear in both stack segments.
Resilient IP Interface for Management Access
The stack functions as one integral system for management and configuration
purposes. You can therefore manage the stack through any IP interface configured
on the stack. The Master unit does not even have to include an active port member
in the VLAN interface used for management access. However, if the unit to which
you normally connect for management access fails, and there are no active port
members on the other units within this VLAN interface, then this IP address will no
longer be available. To retain a constant IP address for management access across
fail over events, you should include port members on several units within the primary
VLAN used for stack management.
Resilient Configuration
If a unit in the stack fails, the unit numbers will not change. This means that when
you replace a unit in the stack, the original configuration for the failed unit will be
restored to the replacement unit. This applies to both the Master and Slave units.
Renumbering the Stack
The startup configuration file maps configuration settings to each switch in the stack
based on the unit identification number. If the units are no longer numbered
sequentially after several topology changes or failures, you can reset the unit
numbers using the “Renumbering” command in the web interface or CLI. Just
remember to save the new configuration settings to a startup configuration file prior
to powering off the stack Master.
Ensuring Consistent Code is Used Across the Stack
Consistent Runtime Code in Each Switch – The main board runtime firmware
version for each unit in the stack must be the same as the Master unit’s runtime
firmware. After Auto-ID assignment is completed, the Master unit checks the image
versions for consistency. If the firmware versions (i.e., runtime code) configured for
bootup on any slave units are not the same as those on the Master Unit, the stack
2-5
2
Initial Configuration
will operate in Special Stacking Mode in which all backup units are disabled as
described below:
•
•
•
•
The master unit starts normal operation mode in standalone mode.
The master unit can see all units in the stack and maintain stack topology.
None of the other units can function (all ports will be disabled).
All user-initiated commands to configure the non-functioning units are dropped.
The master unit, however, will be able to communicate the following information to
the non-functioning units:
- Image downloads
- Stack topology information
- System configuration information already stored on the master.
In Special Stacking mode, the master unit displays warning messages whenever you
log into the system through the CLI that inform you that an image download is
required.
You can use the CLI, web or SNMP to download the runtime image from a TFTP
server to the master unit. The master unit stores the image as its “Next boot image”
and downloads the image to those backup units that are running a different image
version. For information on downloading firmware, see "Managing Firmware" on
page 4-21 or "File Management Commands" on page 23-10.
Basic Configuration
Console Connection
The CLI program provides two different command levels — normal access level
(Normal Exec) and privileged access level (Privileged Exec). The commands
available at the Normal Exec level are a limited subset of those available at the
Privileged Exec level and allow you to only display information and use basic
utilities. To fully configure the switch parameters, you must access the CLI at the
Privileged Exec level.
Note: You can only access the console interface through the Master unit in the stack.
Access to both CLI levels are controlled by user names and passwords. The switch
has a default user name and password for each level. To log into the CLI at the
Privileged Exec level using the default user name and password, perform these
steps:
1.
To initiate your console connection, press <Enter>. The “User Access
Verification” procedure starts.
2.
At the Username prompt, enter “admin.”
3.
At the Password prompt, also enter “admin.” (The password characters are not
displayed on the console screen.)
2-6
Basic Configuration
4.
2
The session is opened and the CLI displays the “Console#” prompt indicating
you have access at the Privileged Exec level.
Setting Passwords
Note: If this is your first time to log into the CLI program, you should define new
passwords for both default user names using the “username” command, record
them and put them in a safe place.
Passwords can consist of up to 8 alphanumeric characters and are case sensitive.
To prevent unauthorized access to the switch, set the passwords as follows:
1.
Open the console interface with the default user name and password “admin” to
access the Privileged Exec level.
2.
Type “configure” and press <Enter>.
3.
Type “username guest password 0 password,” for the Normal Exec level, where
password is your new password. Press <Enter>.
4.
Type “username admin password 0 password,” for the Privileged Exec level,
where password is your new password. Press <Enter>.
Note: ‘0’ specifies a password in plain text, ‘7’ specifies a password in encrypted form.
Username: admin
Password:
CLI session with the SMC TigerStack II 10/100/1000 SMC8926EM/
SMC8950EM is opened.
To end the CLI session, enter [Exit].
Console#configure
Console(config)#username guest password 0 [password]
Console(config)#username admin password 0 [password]
Console(config)#
22-2
25-2
Setting an IP Address
You must establish IP address information for the stack to obtain management
access through the network. This can be done in either of the following ways:
Manual — You have to input the information, including IP address and subnet mask.
If your management station is not in the same IP subnet as the stack’s master unit,
you will also need to specify the default gateway router.
Dynamic — The switch sends IP configuration requests to BOOTP or DHCP
address allocation servers on the network.
2-7
2
Initial Configuration
Manual Configuration
You can manually assign an IP address to the switch. You may also need to specify
a default gateway that resides between this device and management stations that
exist on another network segment (if routing is not enabled on this switch). Valid IP
addresses consist of four decimal numbers, 0 to 255, separated by periods.
Anything outside this format will not be accepted by the CLI program.
Note: An IPv4 address for this switch is obtained via DHCP by default.
Assigning an IPv4 Address
Before you can assign an IP address to the switch, you must obtain the following
information from your network administrator:
• IP address for the switch
• Network mask for this network
• Default gateway for the network
To assign an IPv4 address to the switch, complete the following steps:
1.
From the Global Configuration mode prompt, type “interface vlan 1” to access
the interface-configuration mode. Press <Enter>.
2.
Type “ip address ip-address netmask,” where “ip-address” is the switch IP
address and “netmask” is the network mask for the network. Press <Enter>.
3.
Type “exit” to return to the global configuration mode prompt. Press <Enter>.
4.
To set the IP address of the default gateway for the network to which the switch
belongs, type “ip default-gateway gateway,” where “gateway” is the IP address
of the default gateway. Press <Enter>.
Console(config)#interface vlan 1
Console(config-if)#ip address 192.168.1.5 255.255.255.0
Console(config-if)#exit
Console(config)#ip default-gateway 192.168.1.254
Console(config)#
27-1
41-3
41-4
Assigning an IPv6 Address
There are several ways to manually configure IPv6 addresses. This section
describes how to configure a “link local” address for connectivity within the local
subnet only, and another option that allows you to specify a “global unicast” address
by first configuring a network prefix for use on a multi-segment network, and then
configuring the host address portion of the address.
An IPv6 prefix or address must be formatted according to RFC 2373 “IPv6
Addressing Architecture,” using 8 colon-separated 16-bit hexadecimal values. One
double colon may be used to indicate the appropriate number of zeros required to fill
2-8
2
Basic Configuration
the undefined fields. For detailed information on the other ways to assign IPv6
addresses, see "Setting the Switch’s IP Address (IP Version 6)" on page 4-9.
Link Local Address — All link-local addresses must be configured with a prefix of
FE80. Remember that this address type makes the switch accessible over IPv6 for
all devices attached to the same local subnet only. Also, if the switch detects that the
address you configured conflicts with that in use by another device on the subnet, it
will stop using the address in question, and automatically generate a link local
address that does not conflict with any other devices on the local subnet.
To configure an IPv6 link local address for the switch, complete the following steps:
1.
From the Global Configuration mode prompt, type “interface vlan 1” to access
the interface-configuration mode. Press <Enter>.
2.
Type “ipv6 address” followed by up to 8 colon-separated 16-bit hexadecimal
values for the ipv6-address similar to that shown in the example, followed by
the “link-local” command parameter. Then press <Enter>.
Console(config)#interface vlan 1
Console(config-if)#ipv6 address FE80::260:3EFF:FE11:6700
link-local
Console(config-if)#end
Console#show ipv6 interface
Vlan 1 is up
IPv6 is enable.
Link-local address:
FE80::260:3EFF:FE11:6700/64
Global unicast address(es):
Joined group address(es):
FF01::1/16
FF02::1/16
FF02::1:FF11:6700/104
MTU is 1500 bytes.
ND DAD is enabled, number of DAD attempts: 1.
ND retransmit interval is 1000 milliseconds
Console#
27-1
41-9
41-14
Address for Multi-segment Network — Before you can assign an IPv6 address to the
switch that will be used to connect to a multi-segment network, you must obtain the
following information from your network administrator:
• Prefix for this network
• IP address for the switch
• Default gateway for the network
For most networks that encompass several different subnets, it’s easier to first
define a network prefix, and then configure the host address for the switch. An IPv6
network prefix is composed of an IPv6-address and prefix length. The prefix length
is the number of bits (from the left) of the prefix that form the network address, and is
expressed as a decimal number. For example, all IPv6 address that start with the
first byte of 73 (hexadecimal) could be expressed as 73:0:0:0:0:0:0:0/8 or 73::/8.
2-9
2
Initial Configuration
To generate an IPv6 global unicast address for the switch using a general network
prefix, complete the following steps:
1.
From the Global Configuration mode prompt, type “ipv6 general prefix
prefix-name ipv6-prefix/prefix-length,” where the “prefix-name” is a label
identifying the network segment, “ipv6-prefix” specifies the high-order bits of the
network address, and “prefix length” indicates the actual number of bits used in
the network prefix. Press <Enter>.
2.
From the global configuration mode prompt, type “interface vlan 1” to access
the interface-configuration mode. Press <Enter>.
3.
From the interface prompt, type “ipv6 address prefix-name ipv6-address/
prefix-length,” where “prefix-length” indicates the address bits used to form the
network portion of the address. (The network address starts from the left of the
general prefix and should encompass some of the ipv6-address bits.) The
remaining bits are assigned to the host interface. Press <Enter>.
4.
Type “exit” to return to the global configuration mode prompt. Press <Enter>.
5.
To set the IP address of the IPv6 default gateway for the network to which the
switch belongs, type “ipv6 default-gateway gateway,” where “gateway” is the
IPv6 address of the default gateway. Press <Enter>.
Console(config)#ipv6 general-prefix rd 2001:DB8:2222::/48
Console(config)#interface vlan 1
Console(config-if)#ipv6 address rd 0:0:0:7272::72/64
Console(config-if)#exit
Console(config)ipv6 default-gateway 2001:DB8:2222:7272::254
Console(config)end
Console#show ipv6 interface
Vlan 1 is up
IPv6 is enable.
Link-local address:
FE80::200:E8FF:FE90:0/64
Global unicast address(es):
2001:DB8:2222:7272::72, subnet is 2001:DB8:2222:7272::/64
Joined group address(es):
FF01::1/16
FF02::1/16
FF02::1:FF72:64/104
FF02::1:FF90:0/104
MTU is 1500 bytes.
ND DAD is enabled, number of DAD attempts: 1.
ND retransmit interval is 1000 milliseconds
Console#show ipv6 default-gateway
ipv6 default gateway: 2001:DB8:2222:7272::254
2-10
41-8
27-1
41-9
41-17
41-14
41-17
Basic Configuration
2
Dynamic Configuration
Obtaining an IPv4 Address
If you select the “bootp” or “dhcp” option, IP will be enabled but will not function until
a BOOTP or DHCP reply has been received. Requests will be sent periodically in an
effort to obtain IP configuration information. BOOTP and DHCP values can include
the IP address, subnet mask, and default gateway. If the DHCP/BOOTP server is
slow to respond, you may need to use the “ip dhcp restart client” command to
re-start broadcasting service requests.
If the “bootp” or “dhcp” option is saved to the startup-config file (step 6), then the
switch will start broadcasting service requests as soon as it is powered on.
To automatically configure the switch by communicating with BOOTP or DHCP
address allocation servers on the network, complete the following steps:
1.
2.
From the Global Configuration mode prompt, type “interface vlan 1” to access
the interface-configuration mode. Press <Enter>.
At the interface-configuration mode prompt, use one of the following commands:
• To obtain IP settings via DHCP, type “ip address dhcp” and press <Enter>.
• To obtain IP settings via BOOTP, type “ip address bootp” and press <Enter>.
3.
Type “end” to return to the Privileged Exec mode. Press <Enter>.
4.
Type “ip dhcp restart client” to begin broadcasting service requests.
Press <Enter>.
5.
Wait a few minutes, and then check the IP configuration settings by typing the
“show ip interface” command. Press <Enter>.
6.
Then save your configuration changes by typing “copy running-config
startup-config.” Enter the startup file name and press <Enter>.
Console(config)#interface vlan 1
27-1
Console(config-if)#ip address dhcp
41-3
Console(config-if)#end
Console#ip dhcp restart client
39-2
Console#show ip interface
41-5
IP address and netmask: 192.168.1.54 255.255.255.0 on VLAN 1,
and address mode: DHCP
Console#copy running-config startup-config
23-11
Startup configuration file name []: startup
\Write to FLASH Programming.
\Write to FLASH finish.
Success.
2-11
2
Initial Configuration
Obtaining an IPv6 Address
Link Local Address — There are several ways to dynamically configure IPv6
addresses. The simplest method is to automatically generate a “link local” address
(identified by an address prefix of FE80). This address type makes the switch
accessible over IPv6 for all devices attached to the same local subnet.
To generate an IPv6 link local address for the switch, complete the following steps:
1.
From the Global Configuration mode prompt, type “interface vlan 1” to access
the interface-configuration mode. Press <Enter>.
2.
Type “ipv6 enable” and press <Enter>.
Console(config)#interface vlan 1
Console(config-if)#ipv6 enable
Console(config-if)#end
Console#show ipv6 interface
Vlan 1 is up
IPv6 is enable.
Link-local address:
FE80::200:E8FF:FE90:0/64
Global unicast address(es):
Joined group address(es):
FF01::1/16
FF02::1/16
FF02::1:FF90:0/104
MTU is 1500 bytes.
ND DAD is enabled, number of DAD attempts: 1.
ND retransmit interval is 1000 milliseconds
Console#
27-1
41-7
41-5
Address for Multi-segment Network — To generate an IPv6 address that can be
used in a network containing more than one subnet, the switch can be configured to
automatically generate a unique host address based on the local subnet address
prefix received in router advertisement messages. (DHCP for IPv6 will also be
supported in future software releases.)
To dynamically generate an IPv6 host address for the switch, complete the following
steps:
1.
2-12
From the Global Configuration mode prompt, type “interface vlan 1” to access
the interface-configuration mode. Press <Enter>.
Basic Configuration
2.
2
From the interface prompt, type “ipv6 address autoconfig” and press <Enter>.
Console(config)#interface vlan 1
Console(config-if)#ipv6 address autoconfig
Console(config-if)#end
Console#show ipv6 interface
Vlan 1 is up
IPv6 is enable.
Link-local address:
FE80::212:CFFF:FE0B:4600/64
Global unicast address(es):
2005::212:CFFF:FE0B:4600, subnet is 2005:0:0:0::/64
3FFE:501:FFFF:100:212:CFFF:FE0B:4600, subnet is
3FFE:501:FFFF:100::/64
Joined group address(es):
FF01::1/16
FF02::1/16
FF02::1:FF0B:4600/104
MTU is 1500 bytes.
ND DAD is enabled, number of DAD attempts: 1.
ND retransmit interval is 1000 milliseconds
Console#
27-1
41-10
41-14
Enabling SNMP Management Access
The switch can be configured to accept management commands from Simple
Network Management Protocol (SNMP) applications such as SMC’s EliteView. You
can configure the switch to (1) respond to SNMP requests or (2) generate SNMP
traps.
When SNMP management stations send requests to the switch (either to return
information or to set a parameter), the switch provides the requested data or sets the
specified parameter. The switch can also be configured to send information to
SNMP managers (without being requested by the managers) through trap
messages, which inform the manager that certain events have occurred.
The switch includes an SNMP agent that supports SNMP version 1, 2c, and 3
clients. To provide management access for version 1 or 2c clients, you must specify
a community string. The switch provides a default MIB View (i.e., an SNMPv3
construct) for the default “public” community string that provides read access to the
entire MIB tree, and a default view for the “private” community string that provides
read/write access to the entire MIB tree. However, you may assign new views to
version 1 or 2c community strings that suit your specific security requirements (see
page 5-17).
Community Strings (for SNMP version 1 and 2c clients)
Community strings are used to control management access to SNMP version 1 and
2c stations, as well as to authorize SNMP stations to receive trap messages from
the switch. You therefore need to assign community strings to specified users, and
set the access level.
2-13
2
Initial Configuration
The default strings are:
• public - with read-only access. Authorized management stations are only able to
retrieve MIB objects.
• private - with read-write access. Authorized management stations are able to both
retrieve and modify MIB objects.
To prevent unauthorized access to the switch from SNMP version 1 or 2c clients, it is
recommended that you change the default community strings.
To configure a community string, complete the following steps:
1.
From the Privileged Exec level global configuration mode prompt, type
“snmp-server community string mode,” where “string” is the community access
string and “mode” is rw (read/write) or ro (read only). Press <Enter>. (Note that
the default mode is read only.)
2.
To remove an existing string, simply type “no snmp-server community string,”
where “string” is the community access string to remove. Press <Enter>.
Console(config)#snmp-server community admin rw
Console(config)#snmp-server community private
Console(config)#
24-3
Note: If you do not intend to support access to SNMP version 1 and 2c clients, we
recommend that you delete both of the default community strings. If there are no
community strings, then SNMP management access from SNMP v1 and v2c
clients is disabled.
Trap Receivers
You can also specify SNMP stations that are to receive traps from the switch. To
configure a trap receiver, use the “snmp-server host” command. From the Privileged
Exec level global configuration mode prompt, type:
“snmp-server host host-address community-string
[version {1 | 2c | 3 {auth | noauth | priv}}]”
where “host-address” is the IP address for the trap receiver, “community-string”
specifies access rights for a version 1/2c host, or is the user name of a version 3
host, “version” indicates the SNMP client version, and “auth | noauth | priv” means
that authentication, no authentication, or authentication and privacy is used for v3
clients. Then press <Enter>. For a more detailed description of these parameters,
see "snmp-server host" on page 24-5. The following example creates a trap host for
each type of SNMP client.
Console(config)#snmp-server host 10.1.19.23 batman
Console(config)#snmp-server host 10.1.19.98 robin version 2c
Console(config)#snmp-server host 10.1.19.34 barbie version 3 auth
Console(config)#
2-14
24-5
Managing System Files
2
Configuring Access for SNMP Version 3 Clients
To configure management access for SNMPv3 clients, you need to first create a
view that defines the portions of MIB that the client can read or write, assign the view
to a group, and then assign the user to a group. The following example creates one
view called “mib-2” that includes the entire MIB-2 tree branch, and then another view
that includes the IEEE 802.1d bridge MIB. It assigns these respective read and read/
write views to a group call “r&d” and specifies group authentication via MD5 or SHA.
In the last step, it assigns a v3 user to this group, indicating that MD5 will be used for
authentication, provides the password “greenpeace” for authentication, and the
password “einstien” for encryption.
Console(config)#snmp-server view mib-2 1.3.6.1.2.1 included
Console(config)#snmp-server view 802.1d 1.3.6.1.2.1.17 included
Console(config)#snmp-server group r&d v3 auth mib-2 802.1d
Console(config)#snmp-server user steve group r&d v3 auth md5
greenpeace priv des56 einstien
Console(config)#
24-10
24-11
24-14
For a more detailed explanation on how to configure the switch for access from
SNMP v3 clients, refer to "Simple Network Management Protocol" on page 5-1, or
refer to the specific CLI commands for SNMP starting on page 24-1.
Managing System Files
The switch’s flash memory supports three types of system files that can be managed
by the CLI program, web interface, or SNMP. The switch’s file system allows files to
be uploaded and downloaded, copied, deleted, and set as a start-up file.
The three types of files are:
• Configuration — This file type stores system configuration information and is
created when configuration settings are saved. Saved configuration files can be
selected as a system start-up file or can be uploaded via TFTP to a server for
backup. The file named “Factory_Default_Config.cfg” contains all the system
default settings and cannot be deleted from the system. If the system is booted with
the factory default settings, the master unit will also create a file named
“startup1.cfg” that contains system settings for stack initialization, including
information about the unit identifier, MAC address, and installed module type for
each unit the stack. The configuration settings from the factory defaults
configuration file are copied to this file, which is then used to boot the stack. See
"Saving or Restoring Configuration Settings" on page 4-24 for more information.
• Operation Code — System software that is executed after boot-up, also known as
run-time code. This code runs the switch operations and provides the CLI and web
management interfaces. See "Managing Firmware" on page 4-21 for more
information.
2-15
2
Initial Configuration
• Diagnostic Code — Software that is run during system boot-up, also known as
POST (Power On Self-Test).
Due to the size limit of the flash memory, the switch supports only two operation
code files. However, you can have as many diagnostic code files and configuration
files as available flash memory space allows. The switch has a total of 32 Mbytes of
flash memory for system files.
In the system flash memory, one file of each type must be set as the start-up file.
During a system boot, the diagnostic and operation code files set as the start-up file
are run, and then the start-up configuration file is loaded.
Note that configuration files should be downloaded using a file name that reflects the
contents or usage of the file settings. If you download directly to the running-config,
the system will reboot, and the settings will have to be copied from the
running-config to a permanent file.
Saving Configuration Settings
Configuration commands only modify the running configuration file and are not
saved when the switch is rebooted. To save all your configuration changes in
nonvolatile storage, you must copy the running configuration file to the start-up
configuration file using the “copy” command.
New startup configuration files must have a name specified. File names on the
switch are case-sensitive, can be from 1 to 31 characters, must not contain slashes
(\ or /), and the leading letter of the file name must not be a period (.). (Valid
characters: A-Z, a-z, 0-9, “.”, “-”, “_”)
There can be more than one user-defined configuration file saved in the switch’s
flash memory, but only one is designated as the “startup” file that is loaded when the
switch boots. The copy running-config startup-config command always sets the
new file as the startup file. To select a previously saved configuration file, use the
boot system config:<filename> command.
The maximum number of saved configuration files depends on available flash
memory, with each configuration file normally requiring less than 20 kbytes. The
amount of available flash memory can be checked by using the dir command.
2-16
Managing System Files
2
To save the current configuration settings, enter the following command:
1.
From the Privileged Exec mode prompt, type “copy running-config
startup-config” and press <Enter>.
2.
Enter the name of the start-up file. Press <Enter>.
Console#copy running-config startup-config
Startup configuration file name []: startup
\Write to FLASH Programming.
23-11
\Write to FLASH finish.
Success.
Console#
2-17
2
2-18
Initial Configuration
Section II: Switch Management
This section describes the basic switch features, along with a detailed description of
how to configure each feature via a web browser, and a brief example for the
Command Line Interface.
Configuring the Switch . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-1
Basic Management Tasks . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4-1
Simple Network Management Protocol . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5-1
User Authentication . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6-1
Access Control Lists . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7-1
Port Configuration . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8-1
Address Table Settings . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9-1
Spanning Tree Algorithm . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10-1
VLAN Configuration . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11-1
Link Layer Discovery Protocol . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12-1
Class of Service . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13-1
Quality of Service . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14-1
Multicast Filtering . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15-1
Domain Name Service . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16-1
Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17-1
Configuring Router Redundancy . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18-1
IP Routing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 19-1
Unicast Routing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 20-1
Switch Management
Chapter 3: Configuring the Switch
Using the Web Interface
This switch provides an embedded HTTP web agent. Using a web browser you can
configure the switch and view statistics to monitor network activity. The web agent
can be accessed by any computer on the network using a standard web browser
(Internet Explorer 5.0, Netscape 6.2, Mozilla Firefox 2.0.0.0, or more recent versions).
Note: You can also use the Command Line Interface (CLI) to manage the switch over a
serial connection to the console port or via Telnet. For more information on using
the CLI, refer to Chapter 21: "Overview of the Command Line Interface".”
Prior to accessing the switch from a web browser, be sure you have first performed
the following tasks:
1. Configure the switch with a valid IP address, subnet mask, and default gateway
using an out-of-band serial connection, BOOTP or DHCP protocol. (See "Setting
an IP Address" on page 2-7.)
2. Set user names and passwords using an out-of-band serial connection. Access
to the web agent is controlled by the same user names and passwords as the
onboard configuration program. (See "Setting Passwords" on page 2-7.)
3. After you enter a user name and password, you will have access to the system
configuration program.
Notes: 1. You are allowed three attempts to enter the correct password; on the third
failed attempt the current connection is terminated.
2. If you log into the web interface as guest (Normal Exec level), you can view
the configuration settings or change the guest password. If you log in as
“admin” (Privileged Exec level), you can change the settings on any page.
3. If the path between your management station and this switch does not pass
through any device that uses the Spanning Tree Algorithm, then you can set
the switch port attached to your management station to fast forwarding (i.e.,
enable Admin Edge Port) to improve the switch’s response time to
management commands issued through the web interface. See "Configuring
Interface Settings" on page 10-13.
3-1
3
Configuring the Switch
Navigating the Web Browser Interface
To access the web-browser interface you must first enter a user name and
password. The administrator has Read/Write access to all configuration parameters
and statistics. The default user name and password “admin” is used for the
administrator.
Home Page
When your web browser connects with the switch’s web agent, the home page is
displayed as shown below. The home page displays the Main Menu on the left side
of the screen and System Information on the right side. The Main Menu links are
used to navigate to other menus, and display configuration parameters and
statistics.
Figure 3-1 Home Page
Note: The examples in this chapter are based on the SMC8950EM. Other than the
number of fixed ports, there are no other differences between the SMC8926EM
and SMC8950EM.
3-2
Navigating the Web Browser Interface
3
Configuration Options
Configurable parameters have a dialog box or a drop-down list. Once a configuration
change has been made on a page, be sure to click on the Apply button to confirm
the new setting. The following table summarizes the web page configuration
buttons.
Table 3-1 Web Page Configuration Buttons
Button
Action
Apply
Sets specified values to the system.
Revert
Cancels specified values and restores current values prior to pressing Apply.
Help
Links directly to web help.
Notes: 1. To ensure proper screen refresh, be sure that Internet Explorer is configured
so that the setting “Check for newer versions of stored pages” reads “Every
visit to the page”.
Internet Explorer 6.x and earlier: This option is available under the menu
“Tools / Internet Options / General / Temporary Internet Files / Settings”.
Internet Explorer 7.x: This option is available under “Tools / Internet Options /
General / Browsing History / Settings / Temporary Internet Files”.
2. You may have to manually refresh the screen after making configuration
changes by pressing the browser’s refresh button.
Panel Display
The web agent displays an image of the switch’s ports. The Mode can be set to
display different information for the ports, including Active (i.e., up or down), Duplex
(i.e., half or full duplex), or Flow Control (i.e., with or without flow control). Clicking on
the image of a port opens the Port Configuration page as described on page 8-3.
SMC8950EM
Figure 3-2 Front Panel Indicators
3-3
3
Configuring the Switch
Main Menu
Using the onboard web agent, you can define system parameters, manage and
control the switch, and all its ports, or monitor network conditions. The following
table briefly describes the selections available from this program.
Table 3-2 Switch Main Menu
Menu
Description
System
Page
4-1
System Information
Provides basic system description, including contact information
4-1
Switch Information
Shows the number of ports, hardware/firmware version
numbers, and power status
4-3
Bridge Extension
Shows the bridge extension parameters
4-4
IP Configuration
Sets the IPv4 address for management access
4-5
IPv6 Configuration
Configures IPv6 interface addresses and static neighbors
4-9
IPv6 Configuration
Configures IPv6 interface address and protocol settings
4-9
IPv6 General Prefix
Configures IPv6 general prefix for network portion of addresses
4-15
IPv6 ND Neighbor
Configures IPv6 neighbor discover protocol and static neighbors
4-17
Enables support for jumbo frames
4-21
Jumbo Frames
File Management
4-21
Copy Operation
Allows the transfer and copying files
Delete
Allows deletion of files from the flash memory
4-22
Set Startup
Sets the startup file
4-22
Line
4-22
4-26
Console
Sets console port connection parameters
4-26
Telnet
Sets Telnet connection parameters
4-28
Log
4-30
Logs
Sends error messages to a logging process
4-33
System Logs
Stores and displays error messages
4-30
Remote Logs
Configures the logging of messages to a remote logging process
4-31
SMTP
Sends an SMTP client message to a participating server
4-33
Renumbering
Renumbers the units in the stack
4-35
Reset
Restarts the switch
4-36
3-4
Navigating the Web Browser Interface
3
Table 3-2 Switch Main Menu (Continued)
Menu
Description
SNTP
Simple Network Time Protocol
4-36
Sets the time for the system clock
4-36
Current Time
Page
Configuration
Configures SNTP client settings, including a list of servers
4-37
Time Zone
Sets the local time zone for the system clock
4-39
Summer Time
Configures summer-time settings
4-40
SNMP
Simple Network Management Protocol
5-1
Configuration
Configures community strings and related trap functions
5-3
Agent Status
Enables or disables SNMP
SNMPv3
5-2
5-7
Engine ID
Sets the SNMP v3 engine ID
5-7
Remote Engine ID
Sets the SNMP v3 engine ID on a remote device
5-8
Users
Configures SNMP v3 users
Remote Users
Configures SNMP v3 users on a remote device
5-11
Groups
Configures SNMP v3 groups
5-13
Views
Configures SNMP v3 views
5-17
Security
5-9
6-1
User Accounts
Configures user names, passwords, and access levels
6-1
Authentication Settings
Configures authentication sequence, RADIUS and TACACS
6-2
HTTPS Settings
Configures secure HTTP settings
6-5
SSH
Secure Shell
6-8
Settings
Configures Secure Shell server settings
6-14
Host-Key Settings
Generates the host key pair (public and private)
6-10
Imports and manages user RSA and DSA public keys
6-12
Port Security
User Public-Key Settings
Configures per port security, including status, response for
security breach, and maximum allowed MAC addresses
6-16
802.1X
Port authentication
6-18
Information
Displays global configuration settings
6-19
Configuration
Configures global configuration parameters
6-20
Port Configuration
Sets the authentication mode for individual ports
6-20
Statistics
Displays protocol statistics for the selected port
6-24
ACL
Access Control Lists
7-1
Configuration
Configures packet filtering based on IP or MAC addresses
7-1
Port Binding
Binds a port to the specified ACL
7-11
3-5
3
Configuring the Switch
Table 3-2 Switch Main Menu (Continued)
Menu
IP Filter
Description
Configures IP addresses that are allowed management access
Port
Page
6-26
8-1
Port Information
Displays port connection status
8-1
Trunk Information
Displays trunk connection status
8-1
Port Configuration
Configures port connection settings
8-3
Trunk Configuration
Configures trunk connection settings
8-3
Trunk Membership
Specifies ports to group into static trunks
8-7
LACP
Link Aggregation Control Protocol
8-8
Configuration
Allows ports to dynamically join trunks
8-8
Aggregation Port
Configures parameters for link aggregation group members
8-10
Port Counters Information
Displays statistics for LACP protocol messages
8-13
Port Internal Information
Displays settings and operational state for the local side
Port Neighbors Information Displays settings and operational state for the remote side
8-14
8-16
Port Broadcast Control
Sets the broadcast storm threshold for each port
8-17
Trunk Broadcast Control
Sets the broadcast storm threshold for each trunk
8-17
Mirror Port Configuration
Sets the source and target ports for mirroring
8-19
Input Port Configuration
Sets the input rate limit for each port
8-20
Input Trunk Configuration
Sets the input rate limit for each trunk
8-20
Output Port Configuration
Sets the output rate limit for each port
8-20
Rate Limit
8-20
Output Trunk Configuration Sets the output rate limit for each trunk
Port Statistics
Lists Ethernet and RMON port statistics
Address Table
8-20
8-22
9-1
Static Addresses
Displays entries for interface, address or VLAN
9-1
Dynamic Addresses
Displays or edits static entries in the Address Table
9-2
Address Aging
Sets timeout for dynamically learned entries
Spanning Tree
STA
Information
3-6
9-4
10-1
Spanning Tree Algorithm
Displays STA values used for the bridge
10-3
Configuration
Configures global bridge settings for STP, RSTP and MSTP
Port Information
Displays individual port settings for STA
10-10
10-6
Trunk Information
Displays individual trunk settings for STA
10-10
Navigating the Web Browser Interface
3
Table 3-2 Switch Main Menu (Continued)
Menu
Description
Page
Port Configuration
Configures individual port settings for STA
10-13
Trunk Configuration
Configures individual trunk settings for STA
10-13
MSTP
Multiple Spanning Tree Algorithm
VLAN Configuration
Configures priority and VLANs for a spanning tree instance
10-16
Port Information
Displays port settings for a specified MST instance
10-19
Trunk Information
Displays trunk settings for a specified MST instance
10-19
Port Configuration
Configures port settings for a specified MST instance
10-20
Trunk Configuration
Configures trunk settings for a specified MST instance
10-20
VLAN
11-1
802.1Q VLAN
GVRP Status
11-1
Enables GVRP VLAN registration protocol
11-4
Basic Information
Displays information on the VLAN type supported by this switch
11-4
Current Table
Shows the current port members of each VLAN and whether or
not the port is tagged or untagged
11-5
Static List
Used to create or remove VLAN groups
11-6
Static Table
Modifies the settings for an existing VLAN
11-8
Static Membership by Port Configures membership type for interfaces, including tagged,
untagged or forbidden
11-9
Port Configuration
Specifies default PVID and VLAN attributes
11-10
Trunk Configuration
Specifies default trunk VID and VLAN attributes
11-10
802.1Q Tunnel
Configuration
Enables 802.1Q (QinQ) Tunneling
11-16
Tunnel Port Configuration
Sets the tunnel mode for an interface
11-17
Tunnel Trunk Configuration Sets the tunnel mode for an interface
Private VLAN
11-17
11-18
Status
Enables or disables the private VLAN
11-19
Link Status
Configures the private VLAN
11-19
Protocol VLAN
11-20
Configuration
Creates a protocol group, specifying the supported protocols
11-20
Port Configuration
Maps a protocol group to a VLAN
11-21
3-7
3
Configuring the Switch
Table 3-2 Switch Main Menu (Continued)
Menu
Description
LLDP
Page
Link Layer Discovery Protocol
12-1
Configuration
Configures global LLDP timing parameters
12-1
Port Configuration
Configures parameters for individual ports
12-3
Trunk Configuration
Configures parameters for trunks
12-3
Local Information
Displays LLDP information about the local device
12-5
Remote Port Information
Displays LLDP information about a remote device connected to
a port on this switch
12-8
Remote Trunk Information
Displays LLDP information about a remote device connected to
a trunk on this switch
12-8
Remote Information Details
Displays detailed LLDP information about a remote device
connected to this switch
12-9
Device Statistics
Displays LLDP statistics for all connected remote devices
12-11
Device Statistics Details
Displays LLDP statistics for remote devices on a selected port or
trunk
12-13
Priority
13-1
Default Port Priority
Sets the default priority for each port
13-1
Default Trunk Priority
Sets the default priority for each trunk
13-1
Traffic Classes
Maps IEEE 802.1p priority tags to output queues
13-3
Traffic Classes Status
Enables/disables traffic class priorities (not implemented)
Queue Mode
Sets queue mode to strict priority or Weighted Round-Robin
NA
13-5
Queue Scheduling
Configures Weighted Round Robin queueing
13-6
IP Precedence/
DSCP Priority Status
Globally selects IP Precedence or DSCP Priority, or disables
both.
13-7
IP Precedence Priority
Sets IP Type of Service priority, mapping the precedence tag to
a class-of-service value
13-8
IP DSCP Priority
Sets IP Differentiated Services Code Point priority, mapping a
DSCP tag to a class-of-service value
13-10
IP Port Priority Status
Globally enables or disables IP Port Priority
13-11
IP Port Priority
Sets TCP/UDP port priority, defining the socket number and
associated class-of-service value
QoS
Quality of Service
14-1
Configure QoS classification criteria and service policies
14-1
Class Map
Creates a class map for a type of traffic
14-2
Policy Map
Creates a policy map for multiple interfaces
14-4
Service Policy
Applies a policy map defined to an ingress port
14-7
DiffServ
3-8
13-8
Navigating the Web Browser Interface
3
Table 3-2 Switch Main Menu (Continued)
Menu
IGMP Snooping
Description
Page
Internet Group Management Protocol – Snooping
15-2
IGMP Configuration
Enables multicast filtering; configures parameters for multicast
query
15-3
IGMP Immediate Leave
Configures immediate leave for multicast services no longer
required
15-5
Multicast Router
Port Information
Displays the ports that are attached to a neighboring multicast
router for each VLAN ID
15-6
Static Multicast Router
Port Configuration
Assigns ports that are attached to a neighboring multicast router
15-7
IP Multicast Registration
Table
Displays all multicast groups active on this switch, including
multicast IP addresses and VLAN ID
15-8
IGMP Member Port Table
Indicates multicast addresses associated with the selected
VLAN
15-8
DNS
Domain Name Service
16-1
Enables DNS; configures domain name and domain list; and
specifies IP address of name servers for dynamic lookup
16-1
Static Host Table
Configures static entries for domain name to address mapping
16-3
Cache
Displays cache entries discovered by designated name servers
16-5
General Configuration
DHCP
Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol
17-1
Relay Configuration
Specifies DHCP relay servers; enables or disables relay service
17-1
Server
Configures DHCP server parameters
17-2
General
Enables DHCP server; configures excluded address range
17-3
Pool Configuration
Configures address pools for network groups or a specific host
17-4
IP Binding
Displays addresses currently bound to DHCP clients
17-9
Virtual Router Redundancy Protocol
18-2
Group Configuration
Configures VRRP groups, including virtual interface address,
advertisement interval, preemption, priority, and authentication
18-2
Global Statistics
Displays global statistics for VRRP protocol packet errors
18-7
Group Statistics
Displays statistics for VRRP protocol events and errors on the
specified VRRP group and interface
18-8
Internet Protocol
19-1
VRRP
IP
General
19-4
Global Settings
Enables or disables routing, specifies the default gateway
19-4
Routing Interface
Configures the IP interface for the specified VLAN
19-5
3-9
3
Configuring the Switch
Table 3-2 Switch Main Menu (Continued)
Menu
ARP
Description
Address Resolution Protocol
19-8
General
Sets the protocol timeout, and enables or disables proxy ARP for
the specified VLAN
19-9
Static Addresses
Statically maps a physical address to an IP address
19-11
Dynamic Addresses
Shows dynamically learned entries in the IP routing table
19-12
Other Addresses
Shows internal addresses used by the switch
19-13
Statistics
Shows statistics on ARP requests sent and received
Statistics
19-14
19-16
IP
Shows statistics for IP traffic, including the amount of traffic,
address errors, routing, fragmentation and reassembly
19-16
ICMP
Shows statistics for ICMP traffic, including the amount of traffic,
protocol errors, and the number of echoes, timestamps, and
address masks
19-17
UDP
Shows statistics for UDP, including the amount of traffic and
errors
19-19
TCP
Shows statistics for TCP, including the amount of traffic and TCP
connection activity
19-20
Routing
19-21
Static Routes
Configures and display static routing entries
19-21
Routing Table
Shows all routing entries, including local, static and dynamic
routes
19-22
Routing Protocol
RIP
3-10
Page
20-1
Routing Information Protocol
20-2
General Settings
Enables or disables RIP, sets the global RIP version and timer
values
20-3
Network Addresses
Configures the network interfaces that will use RIP
20-5
Interface Settings
Configures RIP parameters for each interface, including send
and receive versions, message loopback prevention, and
authentication
20-6
Redistribute Configuration
Imports external routing information from other routing domains
into the autonomous system
20-9
Statistics
Displays general information on update time, route changes and
number of queries, as well as a list of statistics for known
interfaces and neighbors
20-11
Navigating the Web Browser Interface
3
Table 3-2 Switch Main Menu (Continued)
Menu
OSPF
Description
Page
Open Shortest Path First
20-14
General Configuration
Enables or disables OSPF; also configures the Router ID and
various other global settings
20-15
Area Configuration
Specifies rules for importing routes into each area
20-19
Area Range Configuration
Configures route summaries to advertise at an area boundary
20-23
Interface Configuration
Shows area ID and designated router; also configures OSPF
protocol settings and authentication for each interface
20-25
Virtual Link Configuration
Configures a virtual link through a transit area to the backbone
20-29
Network Area Address
Configuration
Defines OSPF areas and associated interfaces
20-31
Summary Address
Configuration
Aggregates routes learned from other protocols for advertising
into other autonomous systems
20-33
Redistribute Configuration
Redistributes routes from one routing domain to another
20-35
NSSA Settings
Configures settings for importing routes into or exporting routes
out of not-so-stubby areas
20-36
Link State Database
Information
Shows information about different OSPF Link State
Advertisements (LSAs) stored in this router’s database
20-38
Border Router Information
Displays routing table entries for area border routers and
autonomous system boundary routers
20-40
Neighbor Information
Displays information about neighboring routers on each
interface within an OSPF area
20-41
3-11
3
3-12
Configuring the Switch
Chapter 4: Basic Management Tasks
This chapter describes the basic functions required to set up management access to
the switch, display or upgrade operating software, or reset the system.
Displaying System Information
You can easily identify the system by displaying the device name, location and
contact information.
Field Attributes
•
•
•
•
•
System Name – Name assigned to the switch system.
Object ID – MIB II object ID for switch’s network management subsystem.
Location – Specifies the system location.
Contact – Administrator responsible for the system.
System Up Time – Length of time the management agent has been up.
These additional parameters are displayed for the CLI.
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
System Description – Brief description of device type.
MAC Address – The physical layer address for this switch.
Web Server – Shows if management access via HTTP is enabled.
Web Server Port – Shows the TCP port number used by the web interface.
Web Secure Server – Shows if management access via HTTPS is enabled.
Web Secure Server Port – Shows the TCP port used by the HTTPS interface.
Telnet Server – Shows if management access via Telnet is enabled.
Telnet Server Port – Shows the TCP port used by the Telnet interface.
Authentication Login – Shows the user login authentication sequence.
Jumbo Frame – Shows if jumbo frames are enabled.
Jumbo Frame Size – Configured size of jumbo frame.
POST Result – Shows results of the power-on self-test
4-1
4
Basic Management Tasks
Web – Click System, System Information. Specify the system name, location, and
contact information for the system administrator, then click Apply. (This page also
includes a Telnet button that allows access to the Command Line Interface via Telnet.)
Figure 4-1 System Information
CLI – Specify the hostname, location and contact information.
Console(config)#hostname R&D 5
23-1
Console(config)#snmp-server location WC 9
24-4
Console(config)#snmp-server contact Ted
24-4
Console(config)#exit
Console#show system
23-7
System Description: SMC TigerStack II 10/100/1000 SMC8926EM/SMC8950EM
System OID String: 1.3.6.1.4.1.202.20.76
System Information
System Up Time:
0 days, 1 hours, 28 minutes, and 0.51 seconds
System Name:
R&D 5
System Location:
WC 9
System Contact:
Ted
MAC Address (Unit1):
00-00-E3-11-10-10
Web Server:
Enabled
Web Server Port:
80
Web Secure Server:
Enabled
Web Secure Server Port: 443
Telnet Server:
Enable
Telnet Server Port:
23
Authentication Login:
Local RADIUS None
Jumbo Frame:
Disabled
Jumbo Frame Size:
1522
POST Result:
DUMMY Test 1 ................. PASS
DRAM Test .................... PASS
Timer Test ................... PASS
PCI Device 1 Test ............ PASS
I2C Bus Initialization ....... PASS
Fan Speed Test ............... PASS
Done All Pass.
Console#
4-2
Displaying Switch Hardware/Software Versions
4
Displaying Switch Hardware/Software Versions
Use the Switch Information page to display hardware/firmware version numbers for
the main board and management software, as well as the power status of the
system.
Field Attributes
Main Board
•
•
•
•
Serial Number – The serial number of the switch.
Number of Ports – Number of built-in ports.
Hardware Version – Hardware version of the main board.
Internal Power Status – Displays the status of the internal power supply.
Management Software
•
•
•
•
•
EPLD Version – Version number of EEPROM Programmable Logic Device.
Loader Version – Version number of loader code.
Boot-ROM Version – Version of Power-On Self-Test (POST) and boot code.
Operation Code Version – Version number of runtime code.
Role – Shows that this switch is operating as Master or Slave.
These additional parameters are displayed for the CLI.
• Unit ID – Unit number in stack.
• Redundant Power Status – Displays the status of the redundant power supply.
Web – Click System, Switch Information.
Figure 4-2 Switch Information
4-3
4
Basic Management Tasks
CLI – Use the following command to display version information.
23-8
Console#show version
Unit 1
Serial Number:
Hardware Version:
EPLD Version:
Number of Ports:
Main Power Status:
Redundant Power Status:
1.06
50
Up
Not present
Agent (Master)
Unit ID:
Loader Version:
Boot ROM Version:
Operation Code Version:
1
1.1.0.2
1.1.0.3
1.1.4.0
Console#
Displaying Bridge Extension Capabilities
The Bridge MIB includes extensions for managed devices that support Multicast
Filtering, Traffic Classes, and Virtual LANs. You can access these extensions to
display default settings for the key variables.
Field Attributes
• Extended Multicast Filtering Services – This switch does not support the filtering
of individual multicast addresses based on GMRP (GARP Multicast Registration
Protocol).
• Traffic Classes – This switch provides mapping of user priorities to multiple traffic
classes. (Refer to "Class of Service" on page 13-1.)
• Static Entry Individual Port – This switch allows static filtering for unicast and
multicast addresses. (Refer to "Setting Static Addresses" on page 9-1.)
• VLAN Learning – This switch uses Independent VLAN Learning (IVL), where each
port maintains its own filtering database.
• Configurable PVID Tagging – This switch allows you to override the default Port
VLAN ID (PVID used in frame tags) and egress status (VLAN-Tagged or
Untagged) on each port. (Refer to "VLAN Configuration" on page 11-1.)
• Local VLAN Capable – This switch does not support multiple local bridges outside
of the scope of 802.1Q defined VLANs.
• GMRP – GARP Multicast Registration Protocol (GMRP) allows network devices to
register endstations with multicast groups. This switch does not support GMRP; it
uses the Internet Group Management Protocol (IGMP) to provide automatic
multicast filtering.
4-4
Setting the Switch’s IP Address (IP Version 4)
4
Web – Click System, Bridge Extension.
Figure 4-3 Displaying Bridge Extension Configuration
CLI – Enter the following command.
Console#show bridge-ext
Max support VLAN numbers:
Max support VLAN ID:
Extended multicast filtering services:
Static entry individual port:
VLAN learning:
Configurable PVID tagging:
Local VLAN capable:
Traffic classes:
Global GVRP status:
GMRP:
Console#
34-2
4096
4093
No
Yes
IVL
Yes
No
Enabled
Disabled
Disabled
Setting the Switch’s IP Address (IP Version 4)
This section describes how to configure an initial IPv4 interface for management
access over the network. This switch supports both IPv4 and IPv6, and can be
managed through either of these address types. For information on configuring the
switch with an IPv6 address, see "Setting the Switch’s IP Address (IP Version 6)" on
page 4-9.
The IPv4 address for this stack is obtained via DHCP by default. To manually
configure an address, you need to change the stack’s default settings to values that
are compatible with your network. You may also need to a establish a default
gateway between the stack and management stations that exist on another network
segment (if routing is not enabled on this stack).
You can manually configure a specific IP address, or direct the device to obtain an
address from a BOOTP or DHCP server. Valid IP addresses consist of four decimal
4-5
4
Basic Management Tasks
numbers, 0 to 255, separated by periods. Anything outside this format will not be
accepted by the CLI program.
Command Usage
• This section describes how to configure a single local interface for initial access to
the stack. To configure multiple IP interfaces on this stack, you must set up an IP
interface for each VLAN (page 19-4).
• To enable routing between the different interfaces on this stack, you must enable
IP routing (page 19-4).
• To enable routing between the interfaces defined on this stack and external
network interfaces, you must configure static routes (page 19-21) or use dynamic
routing; i.e., either RIP or OSPF (page 20-2 and page 20-14, respectively).
• The precedence for configuring IP interfaces is the IP / General / Routing Interface
menu (page 19-5), static routes (page 19-21), and then dynamic routing.
Command Attributes
• VLAN – ID of the configured VLAN (1-4093). By default, all ports on the stack are
members of VLAN 1. However, the management station can be attached to a port
belonging to any VLAN, as long as that VLAN has been assigned an IP address.
• IP Address Mode – Specifies whether IP functionality is enabled via manual
configuration (Static), Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol (DHCP), or Boot
Protocol (BOOTP). If DHCP/BOOTP is enabled, IP will not function until a reply has
been received from the server. Requests will be broadcast periodically by the
switch for an IP address. (DHCP/BOOTP values can include the IP address,
subnet mask, and default gateway.)
• IP Address – Address of the VLAN to which the management station is attached.
(Note that you can manage the stack through any configured IP interface.) Valid IP
addresses consist of four numbers, 0 to 255, separated by periods.
(Default: 0.0.0.0)
• Subnet Mask – This mask identifies the host address bits used for routing to
specific subnets. (Default: 255.0.0.0)
• Gateway IP Address – IP address of the gateway router between the stack and
management stations that exist on other network segments. (Default: 0.0.0.0)
• MAC Address – The physical layer address for this switch.
4-6
Setting the Switch’s IP Address (IP Version 4)
4
Manual Configuration
Web – Click IP, General, Routing Interface. Select the VLAN through which the
management station is attached, set the IP Address Mode to “Static,” and specify a
“Primary” interface. Enter the IP address, and subnet mask, then click Apply.
Figure 4-4 IPv4 Interface Configuration - Manual
Click IP, Global Setting. If this stack and management stations exist on other
network segments, then specify the default gateway, and click Apply.
Figure 4-5 Default Gateway
CLI – Specify the management interface, IP address and default gateway.
Console#config
Console(config)#interface vlan 1
Console(config-if)#ip address 10.1.0.253 255.255.255.0
Console(config-if)#exit
Console(config)#ip default-gateway 10.1.0.254
Console(config)#
27-1
41-3
41-4
4-7
4
Basic Management Tasks
Using DHCP/BOOTP
If your network provides DHCP/BOOTP services, you can configure the stack to be
dynamically configured by these services.
Web – Click IP, General, Routing Interface. Specify the VLAN to which the
management station is attached, set the IP Address Mode to DHCP or BOOTP. Click
Apply to save your changes. Then click Restart DHCP to immediately request a new
address. Note that the stack will also broadcast a request for IP configuration
settings on each power reset.
Figure 4-6 IPv4 Interface Configuration - DHCP
Note: If you lose your management connection, make a console connection to the
Master unit and enter “show ip interface” to determine the new stack address.
CLI – Specify the management interface, and set the IP address mode to DHCP or
BOOTP, and then enter the “ip dhcp restart client” command.
Console#config
Console(config)#interface vlan 1
Console(config-if)#ip address dhcp
Console(config-if)#end
Console#ip dhcp restart client
Console#show ip interface
Vlan 1 is up, addressing mode is DHCP
Interface address is 192.168.1.253, mask is 255.255.255.0, Primary
MTU is 1500 bytes
Proxy ARP is disabled
Split horizon is enabled
Console#
4-8
27-1
41-3
39-2
41-5
Setting the Switch’s IP Address (IP Version 6)
4
Renewing DCHP – DHCP may lease addresses to clients indefinitely or for a
specific period of time. If the address expires or the stack is moved to another
network segment, you will lose management access to the stack. In this case, you
can reboot the stack or submit a client request to restart DHCP service via the CLI.
Web – If the address assigned by DHCP is no longer functioning, you will not be
able to renew the IP settings via the web interface. You can only restart DHCP
service via the web interface if the current address is still available.
CLI – Enter the following command to restart DHCP service.
Console#ip dhcp restart client
Console#
39-2
Setting the Switch’s IP Address (IP Version 6)
This section describes how to configure an initial IPv6 interface for management
access over the network. This switch supports both IPv4 and IPv6, and can be
managed through either of these address types. For information on configuring the
switch with an IPv4 address, see "Setting the Switch’s IP Address (IP Version 4)" on
page 4-5.
Configuring an IPv6 Address
IPv6 includes two distinct address types – link-local unicast and global unicast. A
link-local address makes the switch accessible over IPv6 for all devices attached to
the same local subnet. Management traffic using this kind of address cannot be
passed by any router outside of the subnet. A link-local address is easy to set up,
and may be useful for simple networks or basic troubleshooting tasks. However, to
connect to a larger network with multiple segments, the switch must be configured
with a global unicast address. Both link-local and global unicast address types can
either be manually configured or dynamically assigned.
Command Usage
• This section describes how to configure a single local interface for initial access to
the stack. To configure multiple IP interfaces on this stack, you must set up an IP
interface for each VLAN (page 19-4).
• To enable routing between the different interfaces on this stack, you must enable
IP routing (page 19-4).
• To enable routing between the interfaces defined on this stack and external
network interfaces, you must configure static routes (page 19-21) or use dynamic
routing; i.e., either RIP or OSPF (page 20-2 and 20-14, respectively).
• The precedence for configuring IP interfaces is the IP / General / Routing Interface
menu (page 19-5), static routes (page 19-21), and then dynamic routing.
• All IPv6 addresses must be formatted according to RFC 2373 “IPv6 Addressing
Architecture,” using 8 colon-separated 16-bit hexadecimal values. One double
colon may be used in the address to indicate the appropriate number of zeros
required to fill the undefined fields.
4-9
4
Basic Management Tasks
• The switch must always be configured with a link-local address. Therefore any
configuration process that enables IPv6 functionality, or assigns a global unicast
address to the switch, will also automatically generate a link-local unicast address.
The prefix length for a link-local address is fixed at 64 bits, and the host portion of
the default address is based on the modified EUI-64 (Extended Universal Identifier)
form of the interface identifier (i.e., the physical MAC address). Alternatively, you
can manually configure the link-local address by entering the full address with the
network prefix FE80.
• To connect to a larger network with multiple subnets, you must configure a global
unicast address. There are several alternatives to configuring this address type:
- The global unicast address can be automatically configured by taking the
network prefix from router advertisements observed on the local interface, and
using the modified EUI-64 form of the interface identifier to automatically create
the host portion of the address.
- It can be manually configured by specifying the entire network prefix and prefix
length, and using the EUI-64 form of the interface identifier to automatically
create the low-order 64 bits in the host portion of the address.
- You can also manually configure the global unicast address by entering the full
address and prefix length.
- Or you can include a general prefix for the network portion of the address (as
described under "Configuring an IPv6 General Network Prefix" on page 4-15).
When using this method, remember that the prefix length specified on the IPv6
Configuration page must include both the length of the general prefix and any
contiguous bits (from the left of the specified address) that are added to the
general prefix to form the extended network portion of the address.
• You can configure multiple IPv6 global unicast addresses per interface, but only
one link-local address per interface.
• If a duplicate link-local address is detected on the local segment, this interface is
disabled and a warning message displayed on the console. If a duplicate global
unicast address is detected on the network, the address is disabled on this
interface and a warning message displayed on the console.
Command Attributes
• VLAN – ID of the configured VLAN (1-4093). By default, all ports on the stack are
members of VLAN 1. However, the management station can be attached to a port
belonging to any VLAN, as long as that VLAN has been assigned an IP address.
• IPv6 Address Processing – Enables IPv6 on an interface. Note that when an
explicit address is assigned to an interface, IPv6 is automatically enabled, and
cannot be disabled until all assigned addresses have been removed.
• IPv6 Interface Status – Shows if IPv6 interface address configuration state is
stable (Enabled) or unstable (Stale).
• IPv6 Default Gateway – Sets the IPv6 address of the default next hop router to
use when no other routing information is known about an IPv6 address.
- The specified gateway is only valid if routing is disabled using the IP / General /
Global Settings screen (see page 19-4) or no other routing information is known
4-10
Setting the Switch’s IP Address (IP Version 6)
4
about the target address. If IP routing is disabled, you must define a gateway if
the target device is located in a different subnet.
- If routing is enabled, you can still define a static route using the IP / Routing /
Static Routes screen (see page 19-21) to ensure that traffic to the designated
address or subnet passes through a preferred gateway.
- An IPv6 default gateway can only be successfully set when a network interface
that directly connects to the gateway has been configured on the switch.
• IPv6 MTU – Sets the size of the maximum transmission unit (MTU) for IPv6
packets sent on an interface. (Range: 1280-65535 bytes, Default: 1500 bytes)
- If a non-default value is configured, an MTU option is included in the router
advertisements sent from this device. This option is provided to ensure that all
nodes on a link use the same MTU value in cases where the link MTU is not
otherwise well known.
- IPv6 routers do not fragment IPv6 packets forwarded from other routers.
However, traffic originating from an end-station connected to an IPv6 router may
be fragmented.
- All devices on the same physical medium must use the same MTU in order to
operate correctly.
- IPv6 must be enabled on an interface before the MTU can be set.
IPv6 Address Configuration
Configuration Mode – Selects Auto Configuration or Manual Configuration.
• Auto Configuration – Enables stateless autoconfiguration of IPv6 addresses on
an interface and enables IPv6 functionality on the interface. The network portion of
the address is based on prefixes received in IPv6 router advertisement messages,
and the host portion is automatically generated using the modified EUI-64 form of
the interface identifier (i.e., the switch’s MAC address).
- If the router advertisements have the “other stateful configuration” flag set, the
switch will attempt to acquire other non-address configuration information (such
as a default gateway) from a DHCP for IPv6 server.
• Manual Configuration – Enables IPv6 on an interface. Note that when an explicit
address is assigned to an interface, IPv6 is automatically enabled, and cannot be
disabled until all assigned addresses have been removed.
• IPv6 Address – An IPv6 address can be configured in any of these ways:
- A link-local address can be manually configured by specifying the entire
address in the IPv6 Address field, and selecting the Address Type “Link
Local.” The network prefix length is fixed at 64 bits and cannot be changed.
- A global unicast address can be configured by specifying the network prefix
and the length of the prefix (in the IPv6 Address field), and then selecting the
Address Type “EUI-64” to automatically create the host portion of the address
in the low order 64 bits based on the modified EUI-64 interface identifier.
- A global unicast address can be manually configured by specifying the full
address and network prefix length (in the IP Address field), and selecting the
Address Type “Others.”
4-11
4
Basic Management Tasks
- A global unicast address can also be set by selecting a preconfigured general
prefix for the network portion of the address from the Based on General Prefix
scroll-down list and marking the check box next to this field to enable your
choice (see "Configuring an IPv6 General Network Prefix" on page 4-15), and
then specifying the address (in the IPv6 Address field) and the full network
prefix length (e.g., /64 appended to the end of the specified address) which
includes the general prefix and any contiguous bits starting at the left of the
address that are appended to the network prefix.
Note About Prefix Length – To specify the prefix length, enter a forward slash
followed by a decimal value indicating how many contiguous bits (starting at the
left) of the address comprise the prefix (i.e., the network portion of the address).
When used with a general network prefix to configure a global unicast address,
this length includes both that specified by the general prefix and any contiguous
prefix bits (starting at the left of the specified address) that exceed the length of
the general prefix. If the prefix length specified by this parameter is shorter than
the general prefix, then the length of the general prefix takes precedence.
• Based on General Prefix – Defines a general prefix for the network segment of
the address (see "Configuring an IPv6 General Network Prefix" on page 4-15).
When configuring a global unicast address based on a general network prefix,
the prefix length includes both that specified by the general prefix and any
number of subsequent prefix bits that exceed the length of the general prefix.
Therefore, depending on the specified prefix length, some of the address bits
entered in the IPv6 Address field may be appended to the general prefix.
However, if the prefix length is shorter than the general prefix, then the length of
the general prefix takes precedence, and some of the address bits entered in the
IPv6 Address field will be ignored.
• Address Type – Defines the address type configured for this interface.
• Link Local – Configures an IPv6 link-local address.
- The address prefix must be FE80.
- You can configure only one link-local address per interface.
- The specified address replaces a link-local address that was automatically
generated for the interface.
• EUI-64 (Extended Universal Identifier) – Configures an IPv6 address for an
interface using an EUI-64 interface ID in the low order 64 bits.
- When using EUI-64 format for the low-order 64 bits in the host portion of the
address, the value entered in the IPv6 Address field includes the network
portion of the address, and the prefix length indicates how many contiguous
bits (starting at the left) of the address comprise the prefix (i.e., the network
portion of the address). Note that the value specified in the IPv6 Address
field may include some of the high-order host bits if the specified prefix
length is less than 64 bits. If the specified prefix length exceeds 64 bits, then
the bits used in the network portion of the address will take precedence over
the interface identifier.
- IPv6 addresses are 16 bytes long, of which the bottom 8 bytes typically form
a unique host identifier based on the device’s MAC address. The EUI-64
4-12
Setting the Switch’s IP Address (IP Version 6)
4
specification is designed for devices that use an extended 8-byte MAC
address. For devices that still use a 6-byte MAC address (also known as
EUI-48 format), it must be converted into EUI-64 format by inverting the
universal/local bit in the address and inserting the hexadecimal number
FFFE between the upper and lower three bytes of the MAC address.
For example, if a device had an EUI-48 address of 28-9F-18-1C-82-35, the
global/local bit must first be inverted to meet EUI-64 requirements (i.e., 1 for
globally defined addresses and 0 for locally defined addresses), changing
28 to 2A. Then the two bytes FFFE are inserted between the OUI (i.e.,
organizationally unique identifier, or company identifier) and the rest of the
address, resulting in a modified EUI-64 interface identifier of
2A-9F-18-FF-FE-1C-82-35.
- This host addressing method allows the same interface identifier to be used
on multiple IP interfaces of a single device, as long as those interfaces are
attached to different subnets.
• Others – System will automatically detect the address type according to the
address/prefix entered in the IPv6 Address field.
Current Address Table
• IPv6 Address – IPv6 address assigned to this interface.
In addition to the unicast addresses assigned to an interface, a node is required to
join the all-nodes multicast addresses FF01::1 and FF02::1 for all IPv6 nodes
within scope 1 (interface-local) and scope 2 (link-local), respectively.
FF01::1/16 is the transient node-local multicast address for all attached IPv6
nodes, and FF02::1/16 is the link-local multicast address for all attached IPv6
nodes. The node-local multicast address is only used for loopback transmission of
multicast traffic. Link-local multicast addresses cover the same types as used by
link-local unicast addresses, including all nodes (FF02::1), all routers (FF02::2),
and solicited nodes (FF02::1:FFXX:XXXX) as described below.
A node is also required to compute and join the associated solicited-node multicast
addresses for every unicast and anycast address it is assigned. IPv6 addresses
that differ only in the high-order bits, e.g. due to multiple high-order prefixes
associated with different aggregations, will map to the same solicited-node
address, thereby reducing the number of multicast addresses a node must join. In
this example, FF02::1:FF90:0/104 is the solicited-node multicast address which is
formed by taking the low-order 24 bits of the address and appending those bits to
the prefix.
Note that the solicited-node multicast address (link-local scope FF02) is used to
resolve the MAC addresses for neighbor nodes since IPv6 does not support the
broadcast method used by the Address Resolution Protocol in IPv4.
• Address Type – Global, Link-local or Multicast.
• Configuration Mode – Shows if address is set manually or auto configured.
4-13
4
Basic Management Tasks
Web – Click System, IPv6 Configuration, IPv6 Configuration. Set the IPv6 default
gateway, specify the VLAN to configure, enable IPv6, and set the MTU. Then enter a
global unicast or link-local address and click Add IPv6 Address.
Figure 4-7 IPv6 Interface Configuration
4-14
Setting the Switch’s IP Address (IP Version 6)
4
CLI – This example configures an IPv6 gateway, specifies the management
interface, configures a global unicast address, and then sets the MTU.
Console#config
Console(config)#ipv6 default-gateway 2009:DB9:2229::240
Console(config)#ipv6 general-prefix rd 2009:DB9:2229::/48
Console(config)#interface vlan 1
Console(config-if)#ipv6 address rd 7279::79/64
Console(config-if)#ipv6 mtu 1280
Console(config-if)#ipv6 enable
Console(config-if)#end
Console#show ipv6 default-gateway
ipv6 default gateway: 2009:DB9:2229::240
Console#show ipv6 interface
Vlan 1 is up
IPv6 is enable.
Link-local address:
FE80::200:E8FF:FE90:0/64
Global unicast address(es):
2009:DB9:2229::79, subnet is 2009:DB9:2229:0::/64
Joined group address(es):
FF01::1/16
FF02::1/16
FF02::1:FF00:79/104
FF02::1:FF11:4321/104
MTU is 1280 bytes.
ND DAD is enabled, number of DAD attempts: 1.
ND retransmit interval is 1000 milliseconds
Console#show ipv6 mtu
MTU
Since
Destination Address
1400
00:04:21 5000:1::3
1280
00:04:50 FE80::203:A0FF:FED6:141D
Console#
41-17
41-8
27-1
41-9
41-18
41-7
41-17
41-14
41-19
Configuring an IPv6 General Network Prefix
The IPv6 General Prefix page is used to configure general prefixes that are
subsequently used on the IPv6 Configuration web page (see page 4-9) to specify
the network address portion of an interface address.
Command Usage
• Prefixes may contain zero-value fields or end in zeros.
• A general prefix holds a short prefix that indicates the high-order bits used in the
network portion of the address. Longer, more specific, prefixes can be based on
the general prefix to specify any number of subnets. When the general prefix is
changed, all of the more specific prefixes based on this prefix will also change.
Command Attributes
• General Prefix Name – The label assigned to the general prefix.
• IPv6-Prefix/Prefix-length – The high-order bits of the network address segment
assigned to the general prefix. The prefix must be formatted according to RFC
2373 “IPv6 Addressing Architecture,” using 8 colon-separated 16-bit hexadecimal
values. One double colon may be used in the address to indicate the appropriate
number of zeros required to fill the undefined fields.
4-15
4
Basic Management Tasks
Follow the prefix by a forward slash and a decimal value indicating how many of
the contiguous bits (from the left) of the address comprise the prefix (i.e., the
network portion of the address).
Web – Click System, IPv6 Configuration, IPv6 General Prefix. Click Add to open the
editing fields for a prefix entry. Enter a name for the general prefix, the value for the
general prefix, and the prefix length. Then click Add to enable the entry.
Figure 4-8 IPv6 General Prefix Configuration
CLI – This example creates a general network prefix of 2009:DB9:2229::/48.
Console(config)#ipv6 general-prefix rd 2009:DB9:2229::/48
Console(config)#end
Console#show ipv6 general-prefix
IPv6 general prefix: rd
2009:DB9:2229::/48
Console#
4-16
41-8
41-9
Setting the Switch’s IP Address (IP Version 6)
4
Configuring Neighbor Detection Protocol and Static Entries
IPv6 Neighbor Discovery Protocol supersedes IPv4 Address Resolution Protocol in
IPv6 networks. IPv6 nodes on the same network segment use Neighbor Discovery
to discover each other's presence, to determine each other's link-layer addresses, to
find routers and to maintain reachability information about the paths to active
neighbors. The key parameters used to facilitate this process are the number of
attempts made to verify whether or not a duplicate address exists on the same
network segment, and the interval between neighbor solicitations used to verify
reachability information.
Command Attributes
Protocol Settings
• VLAN – VLAN ID (Range: 1-4093)
• IPv6 ND DAD Attempts – The number of consecutive neighbor solicitation
messages sent on an interface during duplicate address detection. (Range: 0-600,
Default: 1)
- Configuring a value of 0 disables duplicate address detection.
- Duplicate address detection determines if a new unicast IPv6 address already
exists on the network before it is assigned to an interface.
- Duplicate address detection is stopped on any interface that has been
suspended (see "Creating VLANs" on page 11-6). While an interface is
suspended, all unicast IPv6 addresses assigned to that interface are placed in a
“pending” state. Duplicate address detection is automatically restarted when the
interface is administratively re-activated.
- An interface that is re-activated restarts duplicate address detection for all
unicast IPv6 addresses on the interface. While duplicate address detection is
performed on the interface’s link-local address, the other IPv6 addresses remain
in a “tentative” state. If no duplicate link-local address is found, duplicate address
detection is started for the remaining IPv6 addresses.
- If a duplicate address is detected, it is set to “duplicate” state, and a warning
message is sent to the console. If a duplicate link-local address is detected, IPv6
processes are disabled on the interface. If a duplicate global unicast address is
detected, it is not used. All configuration commands associated with a duplicate
address remain configured while the address is in “duplicate” state.
- If the link-local address for an interface is changed, duplicate address detection
is performed on the new link-local address, but not for any of the IPv6 global
unicast addresses already associated with the interface.
• IPv6 ND NS Interval – The interval between transmitting IPv6 neighbor solicitation
messages on an interface. (Range: 1000-3600000 milliseconds;
Default: 1000 milliseconds is used for neighbor discovery operations,
0 milliseconds is advertised in router advertisements)
- This attribute specifies the interval between transmitting neighbor solicitation
messages when resolving an address, or when probing the reachability of a
neighbor. Therefore, avoid using very short intervals for normal IPv6 operations.
4-17
4
Basic Management Tasks
- When a non-default value is configured, the specified interval is used both for
router advertisements and by the router itself.
Current Neighbor Cache Table
• IPv6 Address – IPv6 address of neighbor device.
• Age – The time since the address was verified as reachable (in minutes). A static
entry is indicated by the value “Permanent.”
• Link-layer Address – Physical layer MAC address.
• State – The current state for an entry.
The following states are used for dynamic entries:
- INCMP (Incomplete) - Address resolution is being carried out on the entry.
A neighbor solicitation message has been sent to the multicast address of the
target, but it has not yet returned a neighbor advertisement message.
- REACH (Reachable) - Positive confirmation was received within the last
ReachableTime interval that the forward path to the neighbor was functioning.
While in REACH state, the device takes no special action when sending packets.
- STALE - More than the ReachableTime interval has elapsed since the last
positive confirmation was received that the forward path was functioning. While
in STALE state, the device takes no action until a packet is sent.
- DELAY - More than the ReachableTime interval has elapsed since the last
positive confirmation was received that the forward path was functioning. A
packet was sent within the last DELAY_FIRST_PROBE_TIME interval. If no
reachability confirmation is received within this interval after entering the DELAY
state, the switch will send a neighbor solicitation message and change the state
to PROBE.
- PROBE - A reachability confirmation is actively sought by resending neighbor
solicitation messages every RetransTimer interval until confirmation of
reachability is received.
- ???? - Unknown state.
The following states are used for static entries:
- INCMP (Incomplete) -The interface for this entry is down.
- REACH (Reachable) - The interface for this entry is up. Reachability detection
is not applied to static entries in the IPv6 neighbor discovery cache.
• VLAN – VLAN interface from which the address was reached.
Adding Static Neighbors (IPv6 Neighbor -- Add)
• IPv6 Address – The IPv6 address of a neighbor device that can be reached
through one of the network interfaces configured on this switch. You can specify
either a link-local or global unicast address formatted according to RFC 2373 “IPv6
Addressing Architecture,” using 8 colon-separated 16-bit hexadecimal values. One
double colon may be used in the address to indicate the appropriate number of
zeros required to fill the undefined fields.
• VLAN – VLAN ID (Range: 1-4093)
• Hardware Address – The 48-bit MAC layer address for the neighbor device. This
address must be formatted as six hexadecimal pairs separated by hyphens.
4-18
Setting the Switch’s IP Address (IP Version 6)
4
Web – Click System, IPv6 Configuration, IPv6 ND Neighbor. To configure the
Neighbor Detection protocol settings, select a VLAN interface, set the number of
attempts allowed for duplicate address detection, set the interval for neighbor
solicitation messages, and click Apply. To configure static neighbor entries, click
Add, fill in the IPv6 address, VLAN interface and hardware address. Then click Add.
Figure 4-9 IPv6 Neighbor Detection and Neighbor Cache
4-19
4
Basic Management Tasks
CLI – This example maps a static entry for a global unicast address to a MAC
address.
Console(config)#interface vlan 1
Console(config-if)#ipv6 nd dad attempts 5
Console(config-if)#ipv6 nd ns-interval 30000
Console(config-if)#end
Console#show ipv6 interface
Vlan 1 is up
IPv6 is enable.
Link-local address:
FE80::1034:11FF:FE11:4321/64
Global unicast address(es):
2009:DB9:2229::79, subnet is 2009:DB9:2229:0::/64
Joined group address(es):
FF01::1/16
FF02::1/16
FF02::1:FF00:79/104
FF02::1:FF11:4321/104
MTU is 1280 bytes.
ND DAD is enabled, number of DAD attempts: 5.
ND retransmit interval is 30000 milliseconds
Console#configure
Console(config)#ipv6 neighbor 2009:0DB9::49A vlan 1
30-65-14-01-11-87
Console(config)#end
Console#show ipv6 neighbors
IPv6 Address
Age
Link-layer Addr
2009:DB9:2229::77
Permanent 30-65-14-01-11-87
Console#
4-20
27-1
41-27
41-29
[
41-26
State
REACH
41-30
Vlan
1
Configuring Support for Jumbo Frames
4
Configuring Support for Jumbo Frames
The switch provides more efficient throughput for large sequential data transfers by
supporting jumbo frames up to 9216 bytes. Compared to standard Ethernet frames
that run only up to 1.5 KB, using jumbo frames significantly reduces the per-packet
overhead required to process protocol encapsulation fields.
Command Usage
To use jumbo frames, both the source and destination end nodes (such as a
computer or server) must support this feature. Also, when the connection is
operating at full duplex, all switches in the network between the two end nodes must
be able to accept the extended frame size. And for half-duplex connections, all
devices in the collision domain would need to support jumbo frames.
Command Attributes
Jumbo Packet Status – Configures support for jumbo frames. (Default: Disabled)
Web – Click System, Jumbo Frames. Enable or disable support for jumbo frames,
and click Apply.
Figure 4-10 Configuring Support for Jumbo Frames
CLI – This example enables jumbo frames globally for the switch.
Console(config)#jumbo frame
Console(config)#
23-9
Managing Firmware
You can upload/download firmware to or from a TFTP server, or copy files to and
from switch units in a stack. By saving runtime code to a file on a TFTP server, that
file can later be downloaded to the switch to restore operation. You can also set the
switch to use new firmware without overwriting the previous version. You must
specify the method of file transfer, along with the file type and file names as required.
Command Attributes
• File Transfer Method – The firmware copy operation includes these options:
- file to file – Copies a file within the switch directory, assigning it a new name.
- file to tftp – Copies a file from the switch to a TFTP server.
- tftp to file – Copies a file from a TFTP server to the switch.
- file to unit – Copies a file from this switch to another unit in the stack.
- unit to file – Copies a file from another unit in the stack to this switch.
4-21
4
Basic Management Tasks
• TFTP Server IP Address – The IP address of a TFTP server.
• File Type – Specify opcode (operational code) to copy firmware.
• File Name – The file name should not contain slashes (\ or /), the leading letter of
the file name should not be a period (.), and the maximum length for file names on
the TFTP server is 127 characters or 31 characters for files on the switch.
(Valid characters: A-Z, a-z, 0-9, “.”, “-”, “_”)
• Source/Destination Unit – Stack unit. (Range: 1 - 8)
Note: Up to two copies of the system software (i.e., the runtime firmware) can be stored
in the file directory on the switch. The currently designated startup version of this
file cannot be deleted.
Downloading System Software from a Server
When downloading runtime code, you can specify the destination file name to
replace the current image, or first download the file using a different name from the
current runtime code file, and then set the new file as the startup file.
Web – Click System, File Management, Copy Operation. Select “tftp to file” as the
file transfer method, enter the IP address of the TFTP server, set the file type to
“opcode,” enter the file name of the software to download, select a file on the switch
to overwrite or specify a new file name, then click Apply. If you replaced the current
firmware used for startup and want to start using the new operation code, reboot the
system via the System/Reset menu.
Figure 4-11 Copy Firmware
4-22
Managing Firmware
4
If you download to a new destination file, go to the File Management, Set Start-Up
menu, mark the operation code file used at startup, and click Apply. To start the new
firmware, reboot the system via the System/Reset menu.
Figure 4-12 Setting the Startup Code
To delete a file select System, File Management, Delete. Select the file name from
the given list by checking the tick box and click Apply. Note that the file currently
designated as the startup code cannot be deleted.
Figure 4-13 Deleting Files
CLI – To download new firmware form a TFTP server, enter the IP address of the
TFTP server, select “config” as the file type, then enter the source and destination
file names. When the file has finished downloading, set the new file to start up the
system, and then restart the switch.
4-23
4
Basic Management Tasks
To start the new firmware, enter the “reload” command or reboot the system.
Console#copy tftp file
TFTP server ip address: 10.1.0.19
Choose file type:
1. config: 2. opcode: <1-2>: 2
Source file name: SMC8926_50EM_opcode_V1.1.4.0.BIX
Destination file name: V1140
\Write to FLASH Programming.
-Write to FLASH finish.
Success.
Console#config
Console(config)#boot system opcode:V1140
Console(config)#exit
Console#reload
23-11
23-16
22-4
Saving or Restoring Configuration Settings
You can upload/download configuration settings to/from a TFTP server, or copy files
to and from switch units in a stack. The configuration file can be later downloaded to
restore the switch’s settings.
Command Attributes
• File Transfer Method – The configuration copy operation includes these options:
- file to file – Copies a file within the switch directory, assigning it a new name.
- file to running-config – Copies a file in the switch to the running configuration.
- file to startup-config – Copies a file in the switch to the startup configuration.
- file to tftp – Copies a file from the switch to a TFTP server.
- running-config to file – Copies the running configuration to a file.
- running-config to startup-config – Copies the running config to the startup config.
- running-config to tftp – Copies the running configuration to a TFTP server.
- startup-config to file – Copies the startup configuration to a file on the switch.
- startup-config to running-config – Copies the startup config to the running config.
- startup-config to tftp – Copies the startup configuration to a TFTP server.
- tftp to file – Copies a file from a TFTP server to the switch.
- tftp to running-config – Copies a file from a TFTP server to the running config.
- tftp to startup-config – Copies a file from a TFTP server to the startup config.
- file to unit – Copies a file from this switch to another unit in the stack.
- unit to file – Copies a file from another unit in the stack to this switch.
• TFTP Server IP Address – The IP address of a TFTP server.
• File Type – Specify config (configuration) to copy configuration settings.
• File Name — The configuration file name should not contain slashes (\ or /), the
leading letter of the file name should not be a period (.), and the maximum length
for file names on the TFTP server is 127 characters or 31 characters for files on
the switch. (Valid characters: A-Z, a-z, 0-9, “.”, “-”, “_”)
• Source/Destination Unit – Stack unit. (Range: 1 - 8)
4-24
Saving or Restoring Configuration Settings
4
Note: The maximum number of user-defined configuration files is limited only by
available flash memory space.
Downloading Configuration Settings from a Server
You can download the configuration file under a new file name and then set it as the
startup file, or you can specify the current startup configuration file as the destination
file to directly replace it. Note that the file “Factory_Default_Config.cfg” can be
copied to the TFTP server, but cannot be used as the destination on the switch.
Web – Click System, File Management, Copy Operation. Choose “tftp to
startup-config” or “tftp to file,” and enter the IP address of the TFTP server. Specify
the name of the file to download, select a file on the switch to overwrite or specify a
new file name, and then click Apply.
Figure 4-14 Downloading Configuration Settings for Start-Up
If you download to a new file name using “tftp to startup-config” or “tftp to file,” the file
is automatically set as the start-up configuration file. To use the new settings, reboot
the system via the System/Reset menu. You can also select any configuration file as
the start-up configuration by using the System/File Management/Set Start-Up page.
Figure 4-15 Setting the Startup Configuration Settings
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4
Basic Management Tasks
CLI – Enter the IP address of the TFTP server, specify the source file on the server,
set the startup file name on the switch, and then restart the switch.
Console#copy tftp startup-config
TFTP server ip address: 192.168.1.19
Source configuration file name: config-1
Startup configuration file name [] : startup
\Write to FLASH Programming.
-Write to FLASH finish.
Success.
23-11
Console#reload
To select another configuration file as the start-up configuration, use the boot
system command and then restart the switch.
Console#config
Console(config)#boot system config: startup
Console(config)#exit
Console#reload
23-16
22-4
Console Port Settings
You can access the onboard configuration program by attaching a VT100
compatible device to the switch’s serial console port. Management access through
the console port is controlled by various parameters, including a password, timeouts,
and basic communication settings. These parameters can be configured via the web
or CLI interface.
Command Attributes
• Login Timeout – Sets the interval that the system waits for a user to log into the
CLI. If a login attempt is not detected within the timeout interval, the connection is
terminated for the session. (Range: 0 - 300 seconds; Default: 0)
• Exec Timeout – Sets the interval that the system waits until user input is detected.
If user input is not detected within the timeout interval, the current session is
terminated. (Range: 0 - 65535 seconds; Default: 0 seconds)
• Password Threshold – Sets the password intrusion threshold, which limits the
number of failed logon attempts. When the logon attempt threshold is reached, the
system interface becomes silent for a specified amount of time (set by the Silent
Time parameter) before allowing the next logon attempt. (Range: 0-120; Default: 3
attempts)
• Silent Time – Sets the amount of time the management console is inaccessible
after the number of unsuccessful logon attempts has been exceeded.
(Range: 0-65535; Default: 0)
• Data Bits – Sets the number of data bits per character that are interpreted and
generated by the console port. If parity is being generated, specify 7 data bits per
character. If no parity is required, specify 8 data bits per character. (Default: 8 bits)
4-26
Console Port Settings
4
• Parity – Defines the generation of a parity bit. Communication protocols provided
by some terminals can require a specific parity bit setting. Specify Even, Odd, or
None. (Default: None)
• Speed – Sets the terminal line’s baud rate for transmit (to terminal) and receive
(from terminal). Set the speed to match the baud rate of the device connected to
the serial port. (Range: 9600, 19200, 38400, 57600, or 115200 baud, Auto;
Default: Auto)
• Stop Bits – Sets the number of the stop bits transmitted per byte.
(Range: 1-2; Default: 1 stop bit)
• Password1 – Specifies a password for the line connection. When a connection is
started on a line with password protection, the system prompts for the password.
If you enter the correct password, the system shows a prompt. (Default: No
password)
• Login1 – Enables password checking at login. You can select authentication by a
single global password as configured for the Password parameter, or by
passwords set up for specific user-name accounts. (Default: Local)
Web – Click System, Line, Console. Specify the console port connection parameters
as required, then click Apply.
Figure 4-16 Configuring the Console Port
1. CLI only.
4-27
4
Basic Management Tasks
CLI – Enter Line Configuration mode for the console, then specify the connection
parameters as required. To display the current console port settings, use the show
line command from the Normal Exec level.
Console(config)#line console
Console(config-line)#login local
Console(config-line)#password 0 secret
Console(config-line)#timeout login response 0
Console(config-line)#exec-timeout 0
Console(config-line)#password-thresh 5
Console(config-line)#silent-time 60
Console(config-line)#databits 8
Console(config-line)#parity none
Console(config-line)#speed auto
Console(config-line)#stopbits 1
Console(config-line)#end
Console#show line console
Console configuration:
Password threshold: 5 times
Interactive timeout: Disabled
Login timeout:
Disabled
Silent time:
60
Baudrate:
auto
Databits:
8
Parity:
none
Stopbits:
1
Console#
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23-19
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23-23
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23-25
Telnet Settings
You can access the onboard configuration program over the network using Telnet
(i.e., a virtual terminal). Management access via Telnet can be enabled/disabled and
other various parameters set, including the TCP port number, timeouts, and a
password. These parameters can be configured via the web or CLI interface.
Command Attributes
• Telnet Status – Enables or disables Telnet access to the switch.
(Default: Enabled)
• Telnet Port Number – Sets the TCP port number for Telnet on the switch.
(Default: 23)
• Login Timeout – Sets the interval that the system waits for a user to log into the
CLI. If a login attempt is not detected within the timeout interval, the connection is
terminated for the session. (Range: 0 - 300 seconds; Default: 300 seconds)
• Exec Timeout – Sets the interval that the system waits until user input is detected.
If user input is not detected within the timeout interval, the current session is
terminated. (Range: 0 - 65535 seconds; Default: 600 seconds)
• Password Threshold – Sets the password intrusion threshold, which limits the
number of failed logon attempts. When the logon attempt threshold is reached, the
system interface becomes silent for a specified amount of time (set by the Silent
Time parameter) before allowing the next logon attempt.
(Range: 0-120; Default: 3 attempts)
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4
Telnet Settings
• Password2 – Specifies a password for the line connection. When a connection is
started on a line with password protection, the system prompts for the password.
If you enter the correct password, the system shows a prompt. (Default: No
password)
• Login2 – Enables password checking at login. You can select authentication by a
single global password as configured for the Password parameter, or by
passwords set up for specific user-name accounts. (Default: Local)
Web – Click System, Line, Telnet. Specify the connection parameters for Telnet
access, then click Apply.
Figure 4-17 Configuring the Telnet Interface
CLI – Enter Line Configuration mode for a virtual terminal, then specify the
connection parameters as required. To display the current virtual terminal settings,
use the show line command from the Normal Exec level.
Console(config)#line vty
Console(config-line)#login local
Console(config-line)#password 0 secret
Console(config-line)#timeout login response 300
Console(config-line)#exec-timeout 600
Console(config-line)#password-thresh 3
Console(config-line)#end
Console#show line vty
VTY configuration:
Password threshold: 3 times
Interactive timeout: 600 sec
Login timeout:
300 sec
Console#
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23-21
23-25
2. CLI only.
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4
Basic Management Tasks
Configuring Event Logging
The switch allows you to control the logging of error messages, including the type of
events that are recorded in switch memory, logging to a remote System Log (syslog)
server, and displays a list of recent event messages.
System Log Configuration
The system allows you to enable or disable event logging, and specify which levels
are logged to RAM or flash memory.
Severe error messages that are logged to flash memory are permanently stored in
the switch to assist in troubleshooting network problems. Up to 4096 log entries can
be stored in the flash memory, with the oldest entries being overwritten first when the
available log memory (256 kilobytes) has been exceeded.
The System Logs page allows you to configure and limit system messages that are
logged to flash or RAM memory. The default is for event levels 0 to 3 to be logged to
flash and levels 0 to 7 to be logged to RAM.
Command Attributes
• System Log Status – Enables/disables the logging of debug or error messages to
the logging process. (Default: Enabled)
• Flash Level – Limits log messages saved to the switch’s permanent flash memory
for all levels up to the specified level. For example, if level 3 is specified, all
messages from level 0 to level 3 will be logged to flash. (Range: 0-7, Default: 3)
Table 4-1 Logging Levels
Level
Severity Name
7
Debug
Description
Debugging messages
6
Informational
Informational messages only
5
Notice
Normal but significant condition, such as cold start
4
Warning
Warning conditions (e.g., return false, unexpected return)
3
Error
Error conditions (e.g., invalid input, default used)
2
Critical
Critical conditions (e.g., memory allocation, or free memory
error - resource exhausted)
1
Alert
Immediate action needed
0
Emergency
System unusable
* There are only Level 2, 5 and 6 error messages for the current firmware release.
• RAM Level – Limits log messages saved to the switch’s temporary RAM memory
for all levels up to the specified level. For example, if level 7 is specified, all
messages from level 0 to level 7 will be logged to RAM. (Range: 0-7, Default: 7)
Note: The Flash Level must be equal to or less than the RAM Level.
4-30
Configuring Event Logging
4
Web – Click System, Logs, System Logs. Specify System Log Status, set the level of
event messages to be logged to RAM and flash memory, then click Apply.
Figure 4-18 System Logs
CLI – Enable system logging and then specify the level of messages to be logged to
RAM and flash memory. Use the show logging command to display the current
settings.
Console(config)#logging on
Console(config)#logging history ram 0
Console(config)#
Console#show logging ram
Syslog logging:
Disabled
History logging in RAM: level emergencies
Console#
23-26
23-27
23-30
Remote Log Configuration
The Remote Logs page allows you to configure the logging of messages that are
sent to syslog servers or other management stations. You can also limit the event
messages sent to only those messages at or above a specified level.
Command Attributes
• Remote Log Status – Enables/disables the logging of debug or error messages
to the remote logging process. (Default: Disabled)
• Logging Facility – Sets the facility type for remote logging of syslog messages.
There are eight facility types specified by values of 16 to 23. The facility type is
used by the syslog server to dispatch log messages to an appropriate service.
The attribute specifies the facility type tag sent in syslog messages. (See RFC
3164.) This type has no effect on the kind of messages reported by the switch.
However, it may be used by the syslog server to process messages, such as sorting
or storing messages in the corresponding database. (Range: 16-23, Default: 23)
• Logging Trap – Limits log messages that are sent to the remote syslog server for
all levels up to the specified level. For example, if level 3 is specified, all messages
from level 0 to level 3 will be sent to the remote server. (Range: 0-7, Default: 7)
• Host IP List – Displays the list of remote server IP addresses that will receive
syslog messages. The maximum number of host IP addresses allowed is five.
• Host IP Address – Specifies a new server IP address to add to the Host IP List.
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4
Basic Management Tasks
Web – Click System, Logs, Remote Logs. To add an IP address to the Host IP List,
type the new IP address in the Host IP Address box, and then click Add. To delete
an IP address, click the entry in the Host IP List, and then click Remove.
Figure 4-19 Remote Logs
CLI – Enter the syslog server host IP address, choose the facility type and set the
logging trap.
Console(config)#logging host 10.1.0.9
Console(config)#logging facility 23
Console(config)#logging trap 4
Console(config)#logging trap
Console(config)#exit
Console#show logging trap
Syslog logging:
Enabled
REMOTELOG status:
Disabled
REMOTELOG facility type:
local use 7
REMOTELOG level type:
Warning conditions
REMOTELOG server ip address: 10.1.0.9
REMOTELOG server ip address: 0.0.0.0
REMOTELOG server ip address: 0.0.0.0
REMOTELOG server ip address: 0.0.0.0
REMOTELOG server ip address: 0.0.0.0
Console#
4-32
23-28
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23-29
23-30
Configuring Event Logging
4
Displaying Log Messages
Use the Logs page to scroll through the logged system and event messages. The
switch can store up to 2048 log entries in temporary random access memory (RAM;
i.e., memory flushed on power reset) and up to 4096 entries in permanent flash
memory.
Web – Click System, Log, Logs.
Figure 4-20 Displaying Logs
CLI – This example shows the event message stored in RAM.
Console#show log ram
23-30
[10]01/01/2001 01:58:20 snmp:"Login Success,user:admin,WEB,ip:192.168.0.4"
[9]01/01/2001 00:01:11 snmp:"Login Success,user:admin,Console,ip:192.168.0.2"
[8]01/01/2001 00:01:07 snmp:"ThermalRising: (1:2), threshold(80), current(222)"
[7]01/01/2001
00:01:07 snmp:"ThermalRising: (1:1), threshold(80), current(222)"
.
.
.
Sending Simple Mail Transfer Protocol Alerts
To alert system administrators of problems, the switch can use SMTP (Simple Mail
Transfer Protocol) to send email messages when triggered by logging events of a
specified level. The messages are sent to specified SMTP servers on the network
and can be retrieved using POP or IMAP clients.
Command Attributes
• Admin Status – Enables/disables the SMTP function. (Default: Enabled)
• Email Source Address – Sets the email address used for the “From” field in alert
messages. You may use a symbolic email address that identifies the switch, or the
address of an administrator responsible for the switch.
• Severity – Sets the syslog severity threshold level (see table on page 4-30) used
to trigger alert messages. All events at this level or higher will be sent to the
4-33
4
Basic Management Tasks
configured email recipients. For example, using Level 7 will report all events from
level 7 to level 0. (Default: Level 7)
• SMTP Server List – Specifies a list of up to three recipient SMTP servers. The
switch attempts to connect to the other listed servers if the first fails. Use the New
SMTP Server text field and the Add/Remove buttons to configure the list.
• Email Destination Address List – Specifies the email recipients of alert
messages. You can specify up to five recipients. Use the New Email Destination
Address text field and the Add/Remove buttons to configure the list.
Web – Click System, Log, SMTP. Enable SMTP, specify a source email address,
and select the minimum severity level. To add an IP address to the SMTP Server
List, type the new IP address in the SMTP Server field and click Add. To delete an IP
address, click the entry in the SMTP Server List and click Remove. Specify up to five
email addresses to receive the alert messages, and click Apply.
Figure 4-21 Enabling and Configuring SMTP Alerts
4-34
Renumbering the Stack
4
CLI – Enter the IP address of at least one SMTP server, set the syslog severity level
to trigger an email message, and specify the switch (source) and up to five recipient
(destination) email addresses. Enable SMTP with the logging sendmail command
to complete the configuration. Use the show logging sendmail command to display
the current SMTP configuration.
Console(config)#logging sendmail host 192.168.1.4
Console(config)#logging sendmail level 3
Console(config)#logging sendmail source-email
big-wheels@matel.com
Console(config)#logging sendmail destination-email
chris@matel.com
Console(config)#logging sendmail
Console(config)#exit
Console#show logging sendmail
SMTP servers
----------------------------------------------1. 192.168.1.4
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23-35
SMTP minimum severity level: 4
SMTP destination email addresses
----------------------------------------------1. chris@matel.com
SMTP source email address: big-wheels@matel.com
SMTP status:
Console#
Enabled
Renumbering the Stack
If the units are no longer numbered sequentially after several topology changes or
failures, you can reset the unit numbers using the “Renumbering” command. Just
remember to save the new configuration settings to a startup configuration file prior
to powering off the stack Master.
Command Usage
• The startup configuration file maps configuration settings to each switch in the
stack based on the unit identification number. You should therefore remember to
save the current configuration after renumbering the stack.
• For a line topology, the stack is numbered from top to bottom, with the first unit in
the stack designated at unit 1. For a ring topology, the Master unit taken as the top
of the stack and is numbered as unit 1, and all other units are numbered
sequentially down through the ring.
4-35
4
Basic Management Tasks
Web – Click System, Renumbering.
Figure 4-22 Renumbering the Stack
CLI – This example renumbers all units in the stack.
Console#switch all renumber
Console#
23-2
Resetting the System
Web – Click System, Reset. Click the Reset button to restart the switch. When
prompted, confirm that you want reset the switch.
Figure 4-23 Resetting the System
CLI – Use the reload command to restart the switch.
Console#reload
System will be restarted, continue <y/n>?
22-4
Note: When restarting the system, it will always run the Power-On Self-Test.
Setting the System Clock
Simple Network Time Protocol (SNTP) allows the switch to set its internal clock
based on periodic updates from a time server (SNTP or NTP). Maintaining an
accurate time on the switch enables the system log to record meaningful dates and
times for event entries. You can also manually set the clock using the Current Time
page as described in the next section. If the clock is not set, the switch will only
record the time from the factory default set at the last bootup.
When the SNTP client is enabled, the switch periodically sends a request for a time
update to a configured time server. You can configure up to three time server IP
addresses. The switch will attempt to poll each server in the configured sequence.
4-36
Setting the System Clock
4
Setting the Current Time
You can manually set the system clock if there is no time server on your network, or
if you have not configured the switch to receive signals from a time server.
Command Attributes
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
Hours – Hour in 24-hour format. (Range: 0 - 23)
Minutes – Minute. (Range: 0 - 59)
Seconds – Second. (Range: 0 - 59)
Month – Month. (Range: 1 - 12)
Day – Day of month. (Range: 1 - 31)
Year – Year (4-digit). (Range: 2001 - 2100)
Update Time – Click this button to display the time now in use by the system clock.
Web – Select SNTP, Current Time. Set the date and time, and click Apply.
Figure 4-24 Current Time
CLI – This example sets the system clock to 16:15:58, February 1st, 2008.
Console#calendar set 16 15 58 february 1 2008
Console#
Configuring SNTP
You can configure the switch to send time synchronization requests to time servers.
Command Attributes
• SNTP Client – Configures the switch to operate as an SNTP client. This requires
at least one time server to be specified in the SNTP Server field. (Default: Disabled)
• SNTP Poll Interval – Sets the interval between sending requests for a time update
from a time server. (Range: 16-16384 seconds; Default: 16 seconds)
• SNTP Server – Sets the IP address for up to three time servers. The switch
attempts to update the time from the first server, if this fails it attempts an update
from the next server in the sequence.
• Update Time – Click the Update Time button to send a request to the configured
SNTP servers to immediately update the system time.
4-37
4
Basic Management Tasks
Web – Select SNTP, Configuration. Modify any of the required SNTP parameters,
and click Apply. To send an immediate request to the configured servers, click
Update Time.
Figure 4-25 SNTP Configuration
CLI – This example configures the switch to operate as an SNTP client and then
displays the current time and settings.
Console(config)#sntp client
Console(config)#sntp poll 16
Console(config)#sntp server 10.1.0.19 137.82.140.80 128.250.36.2
Console(config)#sntp update-time
Console(config)#exit
Console#show sntp
Current time: Jan 6 14:56:05 2004
Poll interval: 60
Current mode: unicast
SNTP status : Enabled
SNTP server 10.1.0.19 137.82.140.80 128.250.36.2
Current server: 128.250.36.2
Console#
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Setting the System Clock
4
Setting the Time Zone
SNTP uses Coordinated Universal Time (or UTC, formerly Greenwich Mean Time,
or GMT) based on the time at the Earth’s prime meridian, zero degrees longitude. To
display a time corresponding to your local time, you must indicate the number of
hours and minutes your time zone is east (before) or west (after) of UTC.
Command Attributes
• Predefined – Configures the time zone using predefined settings.
• Manual Setting –
- Direction – Configures the time zone to be before (east) or after (west) UTC.
- Name – Assigns a name to the time zone. (Range: 1-29 characters)
- Hours (0-13) – The number of hours before/after UTC.
- Minutes (0-59) – The number of minutes before/after UTC.
Web – Select SNTP, Clock Time Zone. Select one of the predefined time zones, or
manually set the offset for your time zone relative to the UTC, and click Apply.
Figure 4-26 Clock Time Zone
CLI - This example shows how to select one of the predefined time zones.
Console(config)#clock timezone-predefined GMT-0930-Taiohae
Console#
23-39
This example shows how to manually set the time zone for the system clock.
Console(config)#clock timezone Dhaka hours 6 minute 0 after-UTC
Console#
23-39
4-39
4
Basic Management Tasks
Configuring Summer Time
Use the Summer Time page to set the system clock forward during the summer
months (also known as daylight savings time).
Command Usage
In some countries or regions, clocks are adjusted through the summer months so
that afternoons have more daylight and mornings have less. This is known as
Summer Time, or Daylight Savings Time (DST). Typically, clocks are adjusted
forward one hour at the start of spring and then adjusted backward in autumn.
Command Attributes
General Configuration
• Summer Time in Effect – Shows if the system time has been adjusted.
• Status – Shows if summer time is set to take effect during the specified period.
• Name – Name of the time zone while summer time is in effect, usually an acronym.
(Range: 1-30 characters)
• Mode – Selects one of the following configuration modes.
Predefined Mode – Configures the summer time status and settings for the switch
using predefined configurations for several major regions of the world. To specify
the time corresponding to your local time when summer-time is in effect, select the
predefined summer-time time zone appropriate for your location.
Table 4-2 Predefined Summer-Time Parameters
Region
Start Time, Day, Week, & Month
Australia
00:00:00, Sunday, Week 5 of October 23:59:59, Sunday, Week 5 of March
End Time, Day, Week, & Month
60 min
Europe
00:00:00, Sunday, Week 5 of March
60 min
23:59:59, Sunday, Week 5 of October
Rel. Offset
New Zealand 00:00:00, Sunday, Week 1 of October 23:59:59, Sunday, Week 3 of March
60 min
USA
60 min
02:00:00, Sunday, Week 2 of March
02:00:00, Sunday, Week 1 of November
Date Mode – Sets the start, end, and offset times of summer-time for the switch on a
one-time basis. This mode sets the summer-time time zone relative to the currently
configured time zone. To specify a time corresponding to your local time when
summer-time is in effect, you must indicate the number of minutes your
summer-time time zone deviates from your regular time zone.
• Offset – Summer-time offset from the regular time zone, in minutes.
(Range: 0-99 minutes)
• From – Start time for summer-time offset.
• To – End time for summer-time offset.
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Setting the System Clock
4
Recurring Mode – Sets the start, end, and offset times of summer-time for the switch
on a recurring basis. This mode sets the summer-time time zone relative to the
currently configured time zone. To specify a time corresponding to your local time
when summer-time is in effect, you must indicate the number of minutes your
summer-time time zone deviates from your regular time zone.
• Offset – Summer-time offset from the regular time zone, in minutes.
(Range: 0-99 minutes)
• From – Start time for summer-time offset.
• To – End time for summer-time offset.
Web – Select SNTP, Summer Time. Select one of the configuration modes,
configure the relevant attributes, enable summer time status, and click Apply.
Figure 4-27 Summer Time
CLI - This example configures summer time to take effect for a predefined zone.
Console(config)#clock summer-time MESZ predefined usa
Console#
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4
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Basic Management Tasks
Chapter 5: Simple Network Management
Protocol
Simple Network Management Protocol (SNMP) is a communication protocol
designed specifically for managing devices on a network. Equipment commonly
managed with SNMP includes switches, routers and host computers. SNMP is
typically used to configure these devices for proper operation in a network
environment, as well as to monitor them to evaluate performance or detect potential
problems.
Managed devices supporting SNMP contain software, which runs locally on the
device and is referred to as an agent. A defined set of variables, known as managed
objects, is maintained by the SNMP agent and used to manage the device. These
objects are defined in a Management Information Base (MIB) that provides a
standard presentation of the information controlled by the agent. SNMP defines both
the format of the MIB specifications and the protocol used to access this information
over the network.
The switch includes an onboard agent that supports SNMP versions 1, 2c, and 3.
This agent continuously monitors the status of the switch hardware, as well as the
traffic passing through its ports. A network management station can access this
information using software such as SMC’s EliteView. Access to the onboard agent
from clients using SNMP v1 and v2c is controlled by community strings. To
communicate with the switch, the management station must first submit a valid
community string for authentication.
Access to the switch using from clients using SNMPv3 provides additional security
features that cover message integrity, authentication, and encryption; as well as
controlling user access to specific areas of the MIB tree.
The SNMPv3 security structure consists of security models, with each model having
it’s own security levels. There are three security models defined, SNMPv1,
SNMPv2c, and SNMPv3. Users are assigned to “groups” that are defined by a
security model and specified security levels. Each group also has a defined security
access to set of MIB objects for reading and writing, which are known as “views.”
The switch has a default view (all MIB objects) and default groups defined for
security models v1 and v2c. The following table shows the security models and
levels available and the system default settings.
5-1
5
Simple Network Management Protocol
Table 5-1 SNMPv3 Security Models and Levels
Model Level
Group
Read View
Write View Notify View Security
defaultview
none
v1
noAuthNoPriv public
(read only)
v1
noAuthNoPriv private
defaultview
(read/write)
none
Community string only
defaultview none
Community string only
v1
noAuthNoPriv user defined user defined user defined user defined Community string only
v2c
noAuthNoPriv public
(read only)
v2c
noAuthNoPriv private
defaultview
(read/write)
v2c
noAuthNoPriv user defined user defined user defined user defined Community string only
v3
noAuthNoPriv user defined user defined user defined user defined A user name match only
v3
AuthNoPriv
user defined user defined user defined user defined Provides user
authentication via MD5 or
SHA algorithms
v3
AuthPriv
user defined user defined user defined user defined Provides user
authentication via MD5 or
SHA algorithms and data
privacy using DES 56-bit
encryption
defaultview
none
none
Community string only
defaultview none
Community string only
Note: The predefined default groups and view can be deleted from the system. You can
then define customized groups and views for the SNMP clients that require access.
Enabling the SNMP Agent
Enables SNMPv3 service for all management clients (i.e., versions 1, 2c, 3).
Command Attributes
SNMP Agent Status – Enables SNMP on the switch.
Web – Click SNMP, Agent Status. Enable the SNMP Agent by marking the Enabled
checkbox, and click Apply.
Figure 5-1 Enabling the SNMP Agent
CLI – The following example enables SNMP on the switch.
Console(config)#snmp-server
Console(config)#
5-2
24-2
Setting Community Access Strings
5
Setting Community Access Strings
You may configure up to five community strings authorized for management access
by clients using SNMP v1 and v2c. All community strings used for IP Trap Managers
should be listed in this table. For security reasons, you should consider removing the
default strings.
Command Attributes
• SNMP Community Capability – The switch supports up to five community strings.
• Current – Displays a list of the community strings currently configured.
• Community String – A community string that acts like a password and permits
access to the SNMP protocol.
Default strings: “public” (read-only access), “private” (read/write access)
Range: 1-32 characters, case sensitive
• Access Mode – Specifies the access rights for the community string:
- Read-Only – Authorized management stations are only able to retrieve MIB
objects.
- Read/Write – Authorized management stations are able to both retrieve and
modify MIB objects.
Web – Click SNMP, Configuration. Add new community strings as required, select
the access rights from the Access Mode drop-down list, then click Add.
Figure 5-2 Configuring SNMP Community Strings
CLI – The following example adds the string “spiderman” with read/write access.
Console(config)#snmp-server community spiderman rw
Console(config)#
24-3
5-3
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Simple Network Management Protocol
Specifying Trap Managers and Trap Types
Traps indicating status changes are issued by the switch to specified trap managers.
You must specify trap managers so that key events are reported by this switch to
your management station (using network management platforms such as SMC’s
EliteView). You can specify up to five management stations that will receive
authentication failure messages and other trap messages from the switch.
Command Usage
• If you specify an SNMP Version 3 host, then the “Trap Manager Community String”
is interpreted as an SNMP user name. If you use V3 authentication or encryption
options (authNoPriv or authPriv), the user name must first be defined in the
SNMPv3 Users page (page 5-9). Otherwise, the authentication password and/or
privacy password will not exist, and the switch will not authorize SNMP access for
the host. However, if you specify a V3 host with the no authentication (noAuth)
option, an SNMP user account will be automatically generated, and the switch will
authorize SNMP access for the host.
• Notifications are issued by the switch as trap messages by default. The recipient
of a trap message does not send a response to the switch. Traps are therefore not
as reliable as inform messages, which include a request for acknowledgement of
receipt. Informs can be used to ensure that critical information is received by the
host. However, note that informs consume more system resources because they
must be kept in memory until a response is received. Informs also add to network
traffic. You should consider these effects when deciding whether to issue
notifications as traps or informs.
To send an inform to a SNMPv2c host, complete these steps:
1. Enable the SNMP agent (page 5-2).
2. Enable trap informs as described in the following pages.
3. Create a view with the required notification messages (page 5-17).
4. Create a group that includes the required notify view (page 5-13).
To send an inform to a SNMPv3 host, complete these steps:
1. Enable the SNMP agent (page 5-2).
2. Enable trap informs as described in the following pages.
3. Create a view with the required notification messages (page 5-17).
4. Create a group that includes the required notify view (page 5-13).
5. Specify a remote engine ID where the user resides (page 5-8).
6. Then configure a remote user (page 5-11).
Command Attributes
• Trap Manager Capability – This switch supports up to five trap managers.
• Current – Displays a list of the trap managers currently configured.
• Trap Manager IP Address – IP address of a new management station to receive
notification messages.
• Trap Manager Community String – Specifies a valid community string for the
new trap manager entry. Though you can set this string in the Trap Managers table,
we recommend that you define this string in the SNMP Configuration page (for
5-4
Specifying Trap Managers and Trap Types
•
•
•
•
5
Version 1 or 2c clients), or define a corresponding “User Name” in the SNMPv3
Users page (for Version 3 clients). (Range: 1-32 characters, case sensitive)
Trap UDP Port – Specifies the UDP port number used by the trap manager.
Trap Version – Indicates if the user is running SNMP v1, v2c, or v3. (Default: v1)
Trap Security Level – When trap version 3 is selected, you must specify one of
the following security levels. (Default: noAuthNoPriv)
- noAuthNoPriv – There is no authentication or encryption used in SNMP
communications.
- AuthNoPriv – SNMP communications use authentication, but the data is not
encrypted (only available for the SNMPv3 security model).
- AuthPriv – SNMP communications use both authentication and encryption (only
available for the SNMPv3 security model).
Trap Inform – Notifications are sent as inform messages. Note that this option is
only available for version 2c and 3 hosts. (Default: traps are used)
- Timeout – The number of seconds to wait for an acknowledgment before
resending an inform message. (Range: 0-2147483647 centiseconds;
Default: 1500 centiseconds)
- Retry times – The maximum number of times to resend an inform message if
the recipient does not acknowledge receipt. (Range: 0-255; Default: 3)
• Enable Authentication Traps3 – Issues a notification message to specified IP
trap managers whenever authentication of an SNMP request fails.
(Default: Enabled)
• Enable Link-up and Link-down Traps3 – Issues a notification message
whenever a port link is established or broken. (Default: Enabled)
3. These are legacy notifications and therefore when used for SNMP Version 3 hosts, they must
be enabled in conjunction with the corresponding entries in the Notification View (page 5-13).
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Simple Network Management Protocol
Web – Click SNMP, Configuration. Enter the IP address and community string for
each management station that will receive trap messages, specify the UDP port,
SNMP trap version, trap security level (for v3 clients), trap inform settings (for v2c/v3
clients), and then click Add. Select the trap types required using the check boxes for
Authentication and Link-up/down traps, and then click Apply.
Figure 5-3 Configuring SNMP Trap Managers
CLI – This example adds a trap manager and enables authentication traps.
Console(config)#snmp-server host 10.1.19.23 private version 2c
udp-port 162
Console(config)#snmp-server enable traps authentication
5-6
24-5
24-7
Configuring SNMPv3 Management Access
5
Configuring SNMPv3 Management Access
To configure SNMPv3 management access to the switch, follow these steps:
1. If you want to change the default engine ID, do so before configuring other
SNMP parameters.
2. Specify read and write access views for the switch MIB tree.
3. Configure SNMP user groups with the required security model (i.e., SNMP v1,
v2c or v3) and security level (i.e., authentication and privacy).
4. Assign SNMP users to groups, along with their specific authentication and
privacy passwords.
Setting a Local Engine ID
An SNMPv3 engine is an independent SNMP agent that resides on the switch. This
engine protects against message replay, delay, and redirection. The engine ID is
also used in combination with user passwords to generate the security keys for
authenticating and encrypting SNMPv3 packets.
A local engine ID is automatically generated that is unique to the switch. This is
referred to as the default engine ID. If the local engineID is deleted or changed, all
SNMP users will be cleared. You will need to reconfigure all existing users.
A new engine ID can be specified by entering 9 to 64 hexadecimal characters. If an
odd number of characters are specified, a trailing zero is added to the value to fill in
the missing octet. For example, the value “123456789” is equivalent to
“1234567890”.
Web – Click SNMP, SNMPv3, Engine ID. Enter an ID of up to 64 hexadecimal
characters and then click Save.
Figure 5-4 Setting the SNMPv3 Engine ID
CLI – This example sets an SNMPv3 engine ID.
Console(config)#snmp-server engine-id local 12345abcdef
Console(config)#exit
Console#show snmp engine-id
Local SNMP engineID: 8000002a8000000000e8666672
Local SNMP engineBoots: 1
Console#
24-8
24-9
5-7
5
Simple Network Management Protocol
Specifying a Remote Engine ID
To send inform messages to an SNMPv3 user on a remote device, you must first
specify the engine identifier for the SNMP agent on the remote device where the
user resides. The remote engine ID is used to compute the security digest for
authenticating and encrypting packets sent to a user on the remote host.
SNMP passwords are localized using the engine ID of the authoritative agent. For
informs, the authoritative SNMP agent is the remote agent. You therefore need to
configure the remote agent’s SNMP engine ID before you can send proxy requests
or informs to it. (See "Specifying Trap Managers and Trap Types" on page 5-4 and
"Configuring Remote SNMPv3 Users" on page 5-11.)
A new engine ID can be specified by entering 9 to 64 hexadecimal characters. If an
odd number of characters are specified, a trailing zero is added to the value to fill in
the missing octet. For example, the value “123456789” is equivalent to
“1234567890”.
Web – Click SNMP, SNMPv3, Remote Engine ID. Enter an ID of up to 64
hexadecimal characters and then click Save.
Figure 5-5 Setting an Engine ID
CLI – This example specifies a remote SNMPv3 engine ID.
Console(config)#snmp-server engine-id remote 54321 192.168.1.19
Console(config)#exit
Console#show snmp engine-id
Local SNMP engineID: 8000002a8000000000e8666672
Local SNMP engineBoots: 1
Remote SNMP engineID
80000000030004e2b316c54321
Console#
5-8
24-8
24-9
IP address
192.168.1.19
Configuring SNMPv3 Management Access
5
Configuring SNMPv3 Users
Each SNMPv3 user is defined by a unique name. Users must be configured with a
specific security level and assigned to a group. The SNMPv3 group restricts users to
a specific read, write, or notify view.
Command Attributes
• User Name – The name of user connecting to the SNMP agent. (Range: 1-32
characters)
• Group Name – The name of the SNMP group to which the user is assigned.
(Range: 1-32 characters)
• Security Model – The user security model; SNMP v1, v2c or v3.
• Security Level – The security level used for the user:
- noAuthNoPriv – There is no authentication or encryption used in SNMP
communications. (This is the default for SNMPv3.)
- AuthNoPriv – SNMP communications use authentication, but the data is not
encrypted (only available for the SNMPv3 security model).
- AuthPriv – SNMP communications use both authentication and encryption (only
available for the SNMPv3 security model).
• Authentication Protocol – The method used for user authentication. (Options:
MD5, SHA; Default: MD5)
• Authentication Password – A minimum of eight plain text characters is required.
• Privacy Protocol – The encryption algorithm use for data privacy; only 56-bit DES
is currently available.
• Privacy Password – A minimum of eight plain text characters is required.
• Actions – Enables the user to be assigned to another SNMPv3 group.
5-9
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Simple Network Management Protocol
Web – Click SNMP, SNMPv3, Users. Click New to configure a user name. In the
New User page, define a name and assign it to a group, then click Add to save the
configuration and return to the User Name list. To delete a user, check the box next
to the user name, then click Delete. To change the assigned group of a user, click
Change Group in the Actions column of the users table and select the new group.
Figure 5-6 Configuring SNMPv3 Users
CLI – Use the snmp-server user command to configure a new user name and
assign it to a group.
Console(config)#snmp-server user chris group r&d v3 auth md5
greenpeace priv des56 einstien
Console(config)#exit
Console#show snmp user
EngineId: 80000034030001f488f5200000
User Name: chris
Authentication Protocol: md5
Privacy Protocol: des56
Storage Type: nonvolatile
Row Status: active
Console#
5-10
24-14
24-15
Configuring SNMPv3 Management Access
5
Configuring Remote SNMPv3 Users
Each SNMPv3 user is defined by a unique name. Users must be configured with a
specific security level and assigned to a group. The SNMPv3 group restricts users to
a specific read and a write view.
To send inform messages to an SNMPv3 user on a remote device, you must first
specify the engine identifier for the SNMP agent on the remote device where the
user resides. The remote engine ID is used to compute the security digest for
authenticating and encrypting packets sent to a user on the remote host. (See
"Specifying Trap Managers and Trap Types" on page 5-4 and "Specifying a Remote
Engine ID" on page 5-8.)
Command Attributes
• User Name – The name of user connecting to the SNMP agent. (Range: 1-32
characters)
• Group Name – The name of the SNMP group to which the user is assigned.
(Range: 1-32 characters)
• Engine ID – The engine identifier for the SNMP agent on the remote device where
the remote user resides. Note that the remote engine identifier must be specified
before you configure a remote user. (See "Specifying a Remote Engine ID" on
page 5-8.)
• Remote IP – The Internet address of the remote device where the user resides.
• Security Model – The user security model; SNMP v1, v2c or v3. (Default: v1)
• Security Level – The security level used for the user:
- noAuthNoPriv – There is no authentication or encryption used in SNMP
communications. (This is the default for SNMPv3.)
- AuthNoPriv – SNMP communications use authentication, but the data is not
encrypted (only available for the SNMPv3 security model).
- AuthPriv – SNMP communications use both authentication and encryption (only
available for the SNMPv3 security model).
• Authentication Protocol – The method used for user authentication. (Options:
MD5, SHA; Default: MD5)
• Authentication Password – A minimum of eight plain text characters is required.
• Privacy Protocol – The encryption algorithm use for data privacy; only 56-bit DES
is currently available.
• Privacy Password – A minimum of eight plain text characters is required.
5-11
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Simple Network Management Protocol
Web – Click SNMP, SNMPv3, Remote Users. Click New to configure a user name.
In the New User page, define a name and assign it to a group, then click Add to save
the configuration and return to the User Name list. To delete a user, check the box
next to the user name, then click Delete.
Figure 5-7 Configuring Remote SNMPv3 Users
CLI – Use the snmp-server user command to configure a new user name and
assign it to a group.
Console(config)#snmp-server user mark group r&d remote 192.168.1.19 v3
auth md5 greenpeace priv des56 einstien
24-14
Console(config)#exit
Console#show snmp user
24-15
No user exist.
SNMP remote user
EngineId: 80000000030004e2b316c54321
User Name: mark
Authentication Protocol: none
Privacy Protocol: none
Storage Type: nonvolatile
Row Status: active
Console#
5-12
Configuring SNMPv3 Management Access
5
Configuring SNMPv3 Groups
An SNMPv3 group sets the access policy for its assigned users, restricting them to
specific read, write, and notify views. You can use the pre-defined default groups or
create new groups to map a set of SNMP users to SNMP views.
Command Attributes
• Group Name – The name of the SNMP group. (Range: 1-32 characters)
• Model – The group security model; SNMP v1, v2c or v3.
• Level – The security level used for the group:
- noAuthNoPriv – There is no authentication or encryption used in SNMP
communications.
- AuthNoPriv – SNMP communications use authentication, but the data is not
encrypted (only available for the SNMPv3 security model).
- AuthPriv – SNMP communications use both authentication and encryption (only
available for the SNMPv3 security model).
• Read View – The configured view for read access. (Range: 1-32 characters)
• Write View – The configured view for write access. (Range: 1-32 characters)
• Notify View – The configured view for notifications. (Range: 1-32 characters)
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Simple Network Management Protocol
Table 5-2 Supported Notification Messages
Object Label
Object ID
Description
newRoot
1.3.6.1.2.1.17.0.1
The newRoot trap indicates that the sending
agent has become the new root of the Spanning
Tree; the trap is sent by a bridge soon after its
election as the new root, e.g., upon expiration of
the Topology Change Timer immediately
subsequent to its election.
topologyChange
1.3.6.1.2.1.17.0.2
A topologyChange trap is sent by a bridge when
any of its configured ports transitions from the
Learning state to the Forwarding state, or from
the Forwarding state to the Discarding state. The
trap is not sent if a newRoot trap is sent for the
same transition.
coldStart
1.3.6.1.6.3.1.1.5.1
A coldStart trap signifies that the SNMPv2 entity,
acting in an agent role, is reinitializing itself and
that its configuration may have been altered.
warmStart
1.3.6.1.6.3.1.1.5.2
A warmStart trap signifies that the SNMPv2
entity, acting in an agent role, is reinitializing
itself such that its configuration is unaltered.
linkDown*
1.3.6.1.6.3.1.1.5.3
A linkDown trap signifies that the SNMP entity,
acting in an agent role, has detected that the
ifOperStatus object for one of its communication
links is about to enter the down state from some
other state (but not from the notPresent state).
This other state is indicated by the included
value of ifOperStatus.
linkUp*
1.3.6.1.6.3.1.1.5.4
A linkUp trap signifies that the SNMP entity,
acting in an agent role, has detected that the
ifOperStatus object for one of its communication
links left the down state and transitioned into
some other state (but not into the notPresent
state). This other state is indicated by the
included value of ifOperStatus.
authenticationFailure*
1.3.6.1.6.3.1.1.5.5
An authenticationFailure trap signifies that the
SNMPv2 entity, acting in an agent role, has
received a protocol message that is not properly
authenticated. While all implementations of the
SNMPv2 must be capable of generating this
trap, the snmpEnableAuthenTraps object
indicates whether this trap will be generated.
risingAlarm
1.3.6.1.2.1.16.0.1
The SNMP trap that is generated when an alarm
entry crosses its rising threshold and generates
an event that is configured for sending SNMP
traps.
fallingAlarm
1.3.6.1.2.1.16.0.2
The SNMP trap that is generated when an alarm
entry crosses its falling threshold and generates
an event that is configured for sending SNMP
traps.
RFC 1493 Traps
SNMPv2 Traps
RMON Events (V2)
5-14
Configuring SNMPv3 Management Access
5
Table 5-2 Supported Notification Messages (Continued)
Object Label
Object ID
Description
swPowerStatus
ChangeTrap
1.3.6.1.4.1.202.20.76.2.1.0.1
This trap is sent when the power state changes.
swFanFailureTrap
1.3.6.1.4.1.202.20.76.2.1.0.17
This trap is sent when the fan fails.
swFanRecoverTrap
1.3.6.1.4.1.202.20.76.2.1.0.18
This trap is sent when the fan failure has
recovered.
swIpFilterRejectTrap
1.3.6.1.4.1.202.20.76.2.1.0.40
This trap is sent when an incorrect IP address is
rejected by the IP Filter.
swSmtpConnFailure
Trap
1.3.6.1.4.1.202.20.76.2.1.0.41
This trap is triggered if the SMTP system cannot
open a connection to the mail server
successfully.
swMainBoardVer
MismatchNotificaiton
1.3.6.1.4.1.202.20.76.2.1.0.56
This trap is sent when the slave board version is
mismatched with the master board version. This
trap binds two objects, the first object indicates
the master version, whereas the second
represents the slave version.
swModuleVer
MismatchNotificaiton
1.3.6.1.4.1.202.20.76.2.1.0.57
This trap is sent when the slide-in module
version is mismatched with the main board
version.
swThermalRising
Notification
1.3.6.1.4.1.202.20.76.2.1.0.58
This trap is sent when the temperature exceeds
the switchThermalActionRisingThreshold.
swThermalFalling
Notification
1.3.6.1.4.1.202.20.76.2.1.0.59
This trap is sent when the temperature falls below
the switchThermalActionFallingThreshold.
swModuleInsertion
Notificaiton
1.3.6.1.4.1.202.20.76.2.1.0.60
This trap is sent when a module is inserted.
swModuleRemoval
Notificaiton
1.3.6.1.4.1.202.20.76.2.1.0.61
This trap is sent when a module is removed.
Private Traps -
* These are legacy notifications and therefore must be enabled in conjunction with the corresponding traps on the
SNMP Configuration menu (page 5-6).
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Simple Network Management Protocol
Web – Click SNMP, SNMPv3, Groups. Click New to configure a new group. In the
New Group page, define a name, assign a security model and level, and then select
read, write, and notify views. Click Add to save the new group and return to the
Groups list. To delete a group, check the box next to the group name, then click
Delete.
Figure 5-8 Configuring SNMPv3 Groups
CLI – Use the snmp-server group command to configure a new group, specifying
the security model and level, and restricting MIB access to defined read and write
views.
Console(config)#snmp-server group secure-users v3 priv read defaultview
write defaultview notify defaultview
24-11
Console(config)#exit
Console#show snmp group
24-12
.
.
.
Group Name: secure-users
Security Model: v3
Read View: defaultview
Write View: defaultview
Notify View: defaultview
Storage Type: nonvolatile
Row Status: active
Console#
5-16
Configuring SNMPv3 Management Access
5
Setting SNMPv3 Views
SNMPv3 views are used to restrict user access to specified portions of the MIB tree.
The predefined view “defaultview” includes access to the entire MIB tree.
Command Attributes
• View Name – The name of the SNMP view. (Range: 1-32 characters)
• View OID Subtrees – Shows the currently configured object identifiers of branches
within the MIB tree that define the SNMP view.
• Edit OID Subtrees – Allows you to configure the object identifiers of branches
within the MIB tree. Wild cards can be used to mask a specific portion of the OID
string.
• Type – Indicates if the object identifier of a branch within the MIB tree is included
or excluded from the SNMP view.
Web – Click SNMP, SNMPv3, Views. Click New to configure a new view. In the New
View page, define a name and specify OID subtrees in the switch MIB to be included
or excluded in the view. Click Back to save the new view and return to the SNMPv3
Views list. For a specific view, click on View OID Subtrees to display the current
configuration, or click on Edit OID Subtrees to make changes to the view settings. To
delete a view, check the box next to the view name, then click Delete.
Figure 5-9 Configuring SNMPv3 Views
5-17
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Simple Network Management Protocol
CLI – Use the snmp-server view command to configure a new view. This example
view includes the MIB-2 interfaces table, and the wildcard mask selects all index
entries.
Console(config)#snmp-server view ifEntry.a 1.3.6.1.2.1.2.2.1.1.*
included
Console(config)#exit
Console#show snmp view
View Name: ifEntry.a
Subtree OID: 1.3.6.1.2.1.2.2.1.1.*
View Type: included
Storage Type: nonvolatile
Row Status: active
View Name: readaccess
Subtree OID: 1.3.6.1.2
View Type: included
Storage Type: nonvolatile
Row Status: active
View Name: defaultview
Subtree OID: 1
View Type: included
Storage Type: nonvolatile
Row Status: active
Console#
5-18
24-10
24-11
Chapter 6: User Authentication
You can restrict management access to this switch and provide secure network
access using the following options:
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
User Accounts – Manually configure management access rights for users.
Authentication Settings – Use remote authentication to configure access rights.
HTTPS Settings – Provide a secure web connection.
SSH Settings – Provide a secure shell (for secure Telnet access).
Port Security – Configure secure addresses for individual ports.
802.1X – Use IEEE 802.1X port authentication to control access to specific ports.
IP Filter – Filters management access to the web, SNMP or Telnet interface.
Configuring User Accounts
The guest only has read access for most configuration parameters. However, the
administrator has write access for all parameters governing the onboard agent. You
should therefore assign a new administrator password as soon as possible, and
store it in a safe place.
The default guest name is “guest” with the password “guest.” The default
administrator name is “admin” with the password “admin.”
Command Attributes
• Account List – Displays the current list of user accounts and associated access
levels. (Defaults: admin, and guest)
• New Account – Displays configuration settings for a new account.
- User Name – The name of the user.
(Maximum length: 8 characters; maximum number of users: 16)
- Access Level – Specifies the user level.
(Options: Normal and Privileged)
- Password – Specifies the user password.
(Range: 0-8 characters plain text, case sensitive)
• Change Password – Sets a new password for the specified user.
6-1
6
User Authentication
Web – Click Security, User Accounts. To configure a new user account, enter the
user name, access level, and password, then click Add. To change the password for
a specific user, enter the user name and new password, confirm the password by
entering it again, then click Apply.
Figure 6-1 User Accounts
CLI – Assign a user name to access-level 15 (i.e., administrator), then specify the
password.
25-2
Console(config)#username bob access-level 15
Console(config)#username bob password 0 smith
Console(config)#
Configuring Local/Remote Logon Authentication
Use the Authentication Settings
menu to restrict management
access based on specified user
names and passwords. You can
manually configure access rights
on the switch, or you can use a
remote access authentication
server based on RADIUS or
TACACS+ protocols.
Web
Telnet
RADIUS/
TACACS+
server
console
1. Client attempts management access.
2. Switch contacts authentication server.
3. Authentication server challenges client.
4. Client responds with proper password or key.
5. Authentication server approves access.
6. Switch grants management access.
Remote Authentication Dial-in
User Service (RADIUS) and Terminal Access Controller Access Control System
Plus (TACACS+) are logon authentication protocols that use software running on a
central server to control access to RADIUS-aware or TACACS- aware devices on
6-2
Configuring Local/Remote Logon Authentication
6
the network. An authentication server contains a database of multiple user name/
password pairs with associated privilege levels for each user that requires
management access to the switch.
RADIUS uses UDP while TACACS+ uses TCP. UDP only offers best effort delivery,
while TCP offers a connection-oriented transport. Also, note that RADIUS encrypts
only the password in the access-request packet from the client to the server, while
TACACS+ encrypts the entire body of the packet.
Command Usage
• By default, management access is always checked against the authentication
database stored on the local switch. If a remote authentication server is used, you
must specify the authentication sequence and the corresponding parameters for
the remote authentication protocol. Local and remote logon authentication control
management access via the console port, web browser, or Telnet.
• RADIUS and TACACS+ logon authentication assign a specific privilege level for
each user name/password pair. The user name, password, and privilege level
must be configured on the authentication server.
• You can specify up to three authentication methods for any user to indicate the
authentication sequence. For example, if you select (1) RADIUS, (2) TACACS and
(3) Local, the user name and password on the RADIUS server is verified first. If the
RADIUS server is not available, then authentication is attempted using the
TACACS+ server, and finally the local user name and password is checked.
Command Attributes
• Authentication – Select the authentication, or authentication sequence required:
- Local – User authentication is performed only locally by the switch.
- Radius – User authentication is performed using a RADIUS server only.
- TACACS – User authentication is performed using a TACACS+ server only.
- [authentication sequence] – User authentication is performed by up to three
authentication methods in the indicated sequence.
• RADIUS Settings
- Global – Provides globally applicable RADIUS settings.
- Server Index – Specifies one of five RADIUS servers that may be configured.
The switch attempts authentication using the listed sequence of servers. The
process ends when a server either approves or denies access to a user.
- Server IP Address – Address of authentication server. (Default: 10.1.0.1)
- Server Port Number – Network (UDP) port of authentication server used for
authentication messages. (Range: 1-65535; Default: 1812)
- Secret Text String – Encryption key used to authenticate logon access for
client. Do not use blank spaces in the string. (Maximum length: 48 characters)
- Number of Server Transmits – Number of times the switch tries to authenticate
logon access via the authentication server. (Range: 1-30; Default: 2)
- Timeout for a reply – The number of seconds the switch waits for a reply from
the RADIUS server before it resends the request. (Range: 1-65535; Default: 5)
6-3
6
User Authentication
• TACACS Settings
- Server IP Address – Address of the TACACS+ server. (Default: 10.11.12.13)
- Server Port Number – Network (TCP) port of TACACS+ server used for
authentication messages. (Range: 1-65535; Default: 49)
- Secret Text String – Encryption key used to authenticate logon access for
client. Do not use blank spaces in the string. (Maximum length: 48 characters)
Note: The local switch user database has to be set up by manually entering user names
and passwords using the CLI. (See "username" on page 25-2.)
Web – Click Security, Authentication Settings. To configure local or remote
authentication preferences, specify the authentication sequence (i.e., one to three
methods), fill in the parameters for RADIUS or TACACS+ authentication if selected,
and click Apply.
Figure 6-2 Authentication Server Settings
CLI – Specify all the required parameters to enable logon authentication.
Console(config)#authentication login radius
Console(config)#radius-server port 181
Console(config)#radius-server key green
Console(config)#radius-server retransmit 5
Console(config)#radius-server timeout 10
Console(config)#radius-server 1 host 192.168.1.25
Console(config)#exit
6-4
25-4
25-7
25-7
25-8
25-8
25-9
Configuring HTTPS
Console#show radius-server
6
25-8
Remote RADIUS server configuration:
Global settings:
Communication key with RADIUS server: *****
Server port number:
181
Retransmit times:
5
Request timeout:
10
Server 1:
Server IP address: 192.168.1.25
Communication key with RADIUS server: *****
Server port number: 181
Retransmit times: 5
Request timeout: 10
Console#config
Console(config)#authentication login tacacs
Console(config)#tacacs-server host 10.20.30.40
Console(config)#tacacs-server port 200
Console(config)#tacacs-server key green
Console(config)#exit
Console#show tacacs-server
Server IP address:
10.20.30.40
Communication key with tacacs server: *****
Server port number:
200
Console(config)#
25-4
25-9
25-10
25-10
25-11
Configuring HTTPS
You can configure the switch to enable the Secure Hypertext Transfer Protocol
(HTTPS) over the Secure Socket Layer (SSL), providing secure access (i.e., an
encrypted connection) to the switch’s web interface.
Command Usage
• Both the HTTP and HTTPS service can be enabled independently on the switch.
However, you cannot configure both services to use the same UDP port.
• If you enable HTTPS, you must indicate this in the URL that you specify in your
browser: https://device[:port_number]
• When you start HTTPS, the connection is established in this way:
- The client authenticates the server using the server’s digital certificate.
- The client and server negotiate a set of security protocols to use for the
connection.
- The client and server generate session keys for encrypting and decrypting data.
• The client and server establish a secure encrypted connection.
A padlock icon should appear in the status bar for Internet Explorer 5.x or above
and Netscape 6.2 or above.
6-5
6
User Authentication
• The following web browsers and operating systems currently support HTTPS:
Table 6-1 HTTPS System Support
Web Browser
Operating System
Internet Explorer 5.0 or later
Windows 98,Windows NT (with service pack 6a),
Windows 2000, Windows XP
Netscape 6.2 or later
Windows 98,Windows NT (with service pack 6a),
Windows 2000, Windows XP, Solaris 2.6
Mozilla Firefox 2.0.0.0 or later
Windows 2000, Windows XP, Linux
• To specify a secure-site certificate, see "Replacing the Default Secure-site
Certificate" on page 6-7.
Command Attributes
HTTPS Settings
• HTTPS Status – Allows you to enable/disable the HTTPS server feature on the
switch. (Default: Enabled)
• Change HTTPS Port Number – Specifies the UDP port number used for HTTPS/
SSL connection to the switch’s web interface. (Default: Port 443)
Copy HTTPS Certificate
For more information on this function, see "Replacing the Default Secure-site
Certificate" on page 6-7.
Web – Click Security, HTTPS Settings. Enable HTTPS and specify the port number,
then click Apply.
Figure 6-3 HTTPS Settings
CLI – This example enables the HTTP secure server and modifies the port number.
Console(config)#ip http secure-server
Console(config)#ip http secure-port 441
Console(config)#
6-6
25-12
25-13
Configuring HTTPS
6
Replacing the Default Secure-site Certificate
When you log onto the web interface using HTTPS (for secure access), a Secure
Sockets Layer (SSL) certificate appears for the switch. By default, the certificate that
Netscape and Internet Explorer display will be associated with a warning that the
site is not recognized as a secure site. This is because the certificate has not been
signed by an approved certification authority. If you want this warning to be replaced
by a message confirming that the connection to the switch is secure, you must
obtain a unique certificate and a private key and password from a recognized
certification authority.
Note: For maximum security, we recommend you obtain a unique Secure Sockets Layer
certificate at the earliest opportunity. This is because the default certificate for the
switch is not unique to the hardware you have purchased.
When you have obtained these, place them on your TFTP server and transfer them
to the switch to replace the default (unrecognized) certificate with an authorized one.
Command Attributes
• TFTP Server IP Address – IP address of TFTP server which contains the
certificate file.
• Source Certificate File Name – Name of certificate file stored on the TFTP server.
• Source Private File Name – Name of private key file stored on the TFTP server.
• Private Password – Password stored in the private key file. This password is used
to verify authorization for certificate use, and is verified when downloading the
certificate to the switch.
Web – Click Security, HTTPS Settings. Fill in the TFTP server, certificate and private
file name details, then click Copy Certificate.
Figure 6-4 HTTPS Settings
6-7
6
User Authentication
CLI – This example copies the certificate file from the designated TFTP server.
Console#copy tftp https-certificate
TFTP server ip address: <server ip-address>
Source certificate file name: <certificate file name>
Source private file name: <private key file name>
Private password: <password for private key>
23-11
Note: The switch must be reset for the new certificate to be activated. To reset the
switch, type “reload” at the command prompt: Console#reload
Configuring the Secure Shell
The Berkley-standard includes remote access tools originally designed for Unix
systems. Some of these tools have also been implemented for Microsoft Windows
and other environments. These tools, including commands such as rlogin (remote
login), rsh (remote shell), and rcp (remote copy), are not secure from hostile attacks.
The Secure Shell (SSH) includes server/client applications intended as a secure
replacement for the older Berkley remote access tools. SSH can also provide
remote management access to this switch as a secure replacement for Telnet.
When the client contacts the switch via the SSH protocol, the switch generates a
public-key that the client uses along with a local user name and password for access
authentication. SSH also encrypts all data transfers passing between the switch and
SSH-enabled management station clients, and ensures that data traveling over the
network arrives unaltered.
Note that you need to install an SSH client on the management station to access the
switch for management via the SSH protocol.
Note: The switch supports both SSH Version 1.5 and 2.0 clients.
Command Usage
The SSH server on this switch supports both password and public key
authentication. If password authentication is specified by the SSH client, then the
password can be authenticated either locally or via a RADIUS or TACACS+ remote
authentication server, as specified on the Authentication Settings page (page 6-2).
If public key authentication is specified by the client, then you must configure
authentication keys on both the client and the switch as described in the following
section. Note that regardless of whether you use public key or password
authentication, you still have to generate authentication keys on the switch (SSH
Host Key Settings) and enable the SSH server (Authentication Settings).
To use the SSH server, complete these steps:
1. Generate a Host Key Pair – On the SSH Host Key Settings page, create a host
public/private key pair.
2. Provide Host Public Key to Clients – Many SSH client programs automatically
import the host public key during the initial connection setup with the switch.
Otherwise, you need to manually create a known hosts file on the management
6-8
Configuring the Secure Shell
6
station and place the host public key in it. An entry for a public key in the known
hosts file would appear similar to the following example:
10.1.0.54 1024 35 15684995401867669259333946775054617325313674890836547254
15020245593199868544358361651999923329781766065830956 10825913212890233
76546801726272571413428762941301196195566782 59566410486957427888146206
519417467729848654686157177393901647793559423035774130980227370877945452
4083971752646358058176716709574804776117
3. Import Client’s Public Key to the Switch – Use the copy tftp public-key
command (page 23-11) to copy a file containing the public key for all the SSH
client’s granted management access to the switch. (Note that these clients must
be configured locally on the switch via the User Accounts page as described on
page 6-1.) The clients are subsequently authenticated using these keys. The
current firmware only accepts public key files based on standard UNIX format as
shown in the following example for an RSA key:
1024 35 1341081685609893921040944920155425347631641921872958921143173880
055536161631051775940838686311092912322268285192543746031009371877211996
963178136627741416898513204911720483033925432410163799759237144901193800
609025394840848271781943722884025331159521348610229029789827213532671316
29432532818915045306393916643 steve@192.168.1.19
4. Set the Optional Parameters – On the SSH Settings page, configure the optional
parameters, including the authentication timeout, the number of retries, and the
server key size.
5. Enable SSH Service – On the SSH Settings page, enable the SSH server on the
switch.
6. Authentication – One of the following authentication methods is employed:
Password Authentication (for SSH v1.5 or V2 Clients)
a. The client sends its password to the server.
b. The switch compares the client's password to those stored in memory.
c. If a match is found, the connection is allowed.
Note: To use SSH with only password authentication, the host public key must still be
given to the client, either during initial connection or manually entered into the
known host file. However, you do not need to configure the client’s keys.
Public Key Authentication – When an SSH client attempts to contact the switch,
the SSH server uses the host key pair to negotiate a session key and encryption
method. Only clients that have a private key corresponding to the public keys
stored on the switch can access it. The following exchanges take place during
this process:
Authenticating SSH v1.5 Clients
a. The client sends its RSA public key to the switch.
b. The switch compares the client's public key to those stored in memory.
c. If a match is found, the switch uses its secret key to generate a random
256-bit string as a challenge, encrypts this string with the user’s public key,
and sends it to the client.
6-9
6
User Authentication
d. The client uses its private key to decrypt the challenge string, computes the
MD5 checksum, and sends the checksum back to the switch.
e. The switch compares the checksum sent from the client against that
computed for the original string it sent. If the two checksums match, this
means that the client's private key corresponds to an authorized public key,
and the client is authenticated.
Authenticating SSH v2 Clients
a. The client first queries the switch to determine if DSA public key
authentication using a preferred algorithm is acceptable.
b. If the specified algorithm is supported by the switch, it notifies the client to
proceed with the authentication process. Otherwise, it rejects the request.
c. The client sends a signature generated using the private key to the switch.
d. When the server receives this message, it checks whether the supplied key
is acceptable for authentication, and if so, it then checks whether the
signature is correct. If both checks succeed, the client is authenticated.
Note: The SSH server supports up to four client sessions. The maximum number of
client sessions includes both current Telnet sessions and SSH sessions.
Generating the Host Key Pair
A host public/private key pair is used to provide secure communications between an
SSH client and the switch. After generating this key pair, you must provide the host
public key to SSH clients and import the client’s public key to the switch as
described in the preceding section (Command Usage).
Field Attributes
• Public-Key of Host-Key – The public key for the host.
- RSA: The first field indicates the size of the host key (e.g., 1024), the second
field is the encoded public exponent (e.g., 65537), and the last string is the
encoded modulus.
- DSA: The first field indicates that the encryption method used by SSH is based
on the Digital Signature Standard (DSS). The last string is the encoded modulus.
• Host-Key Type – The key type used to generate the host key pair (i.e., public and
private keys). (Range: RSA, DSA, Both: Default: Both)
The SSH server uses RSA or DSA for key exchange when the client first
establishes a connection with the switch, and then negotiates with the client to
select either DES (56-bit) or 3DES (168-bit) for data encryption.
6-10
Configuring the Secure Shell
6
Note: The switch uses only RSA Version 1 for SSHv1.5 clients and DSA Version 2 for
SSHv2 clients.
• Save Host-Key from Memory to Flash – Saves the host key from RAM (i.e.,
volatile memory to flash memory). Otherwise, the host key pair is stored to RAM
by default. Note that you must select this item prior to generating the host-key pair.
• Generate – This button is used to generate the host key pair. Note that you must
first generate the host key pair before you can enable the SSH server on the SSH
Server Settings page.
• Clear – This button clears the host key from both volatile memory (RAM) and
non-volatile memory (Flash).
Web – Click Security, SSH, Host-Key Settings. Select the host-key type from the
drop-down box, select the option to save the host key from memory to flash (if
required) prior to generating the key, and then click Generate.
Figure 6-5 SSH Host-Key Settings
6-11
6
User Authentication
CLI – This example generates a host-key pair using both the RSA and DSA
algorithms, stores the keys to flash memory, and then displays the host’s public keys.
Console#ip ssh crypto host-key generate
25-20
Console#ip ssh save host-key
25-21
Console#show public-key host
25-23
Host:
RSA:
1024 65537 127250922544926402131336514546131189679055192360076028653006761
82409690947448320102524878965977592168322225584652387791546479807396314033
86925793105105765212243052807865885485789272602937866089236841423275912127
60325919683697053439336438445223335188287173896894511729290510813919642025
190932104328579045764891
DSA:
ssh-dss AAAAB3NzaC1kc3MAAACBAN6zwIqCqDb3869jYVXlME1sHL0EcE/Re6hlasfEthIwmj
hLY4O0jqJZpcEQUgCfYlum0Y2uoLka+Py9ieGWQ8f2gobUZKIICuKg6vjO9XTs7XKc05xfzkBi
KviDa+2OrIz6UK+6vFOgvUDFedlnixYTVo+h5v8r0ea2rpnO6DkZAAAAFQCNZn/x17dwpW8RrV
DQnSWw4Qk+6QAAAIEAptkGeB6B5hwagH4gUOCY6i1TmrmSiJgfwO9OqRPUMbCAkCC+uzxatOo7
drnIZypMx+Sx5RUdMGgKS+9ywsa1cWqHeFY5ilc3lDCNBueeLykZzVS+RS+azTKIk/zrJh8GLG
Nq375R55yRxFvmcGIn/Q7IphPqyJ3o9MK8LFDfmJEAAACAL8A6tESiswP2OFqX7VGoEbzVDSOI
RTMFy3iUXtvGyQAOVSy67Mfc3lMtgqPRUOYXDiwIBp5NXgilCg5z7VqbmRm28mWc5a//f8TUAg
PNWKV6W0hqmshQdotVzDR1e+XKNTZj0uTwWfjO5Kytdn4MdoTHgrbl/DMdAfjnte8MZZs=
Console#
Importing User Public Keys
A user’s Public Key must be uploaded to the switch in order for the user to be able to
log in using the public key authentication mechanism. If the user’s public key does
not exist on the switch, SSH will revert to the interactive password authentication
mechanism to complete authentication.
Field Attributes
• Public-Key of user – The RSA and DSA public keys for the selected user.
- RSA: The first field indicates the size of the host key (e.g., 1024), the second
field is the encoded public exponent (e.g., 37), and the last string is the encoded
modulus.
- DSA: The first field indicates that SSH version 2 was used to create the key. The
second field contains the key comment. The third string is the encoded
modulus, and the last field is a comment denoting the end of the key.
• User Name – This drop-down box selects the user who’s public key you wish to
manage. Note that you must first create users on the User Accounts page (See
"Configuring User Accounts" on page 6-1.).
• Public-Key Type – The type of public key to upload.
- RSA: The switch accepts a RSA version 1 encrypted public key.
- DSA: The switch accepts a DSA version 2 encrypted public key.
The SSH server uses RSA or DSA for key exchange when the client first
establishes a connection with the switch, and then negotiates with the client to
select either DES (56-bit) or 3DES (168-bit) for data encryption.
The switch uses only RSA Version 1 for SSHv1.5 clients and DSA Version 2 for
SSHv2 clients.
6-12
Configuring the Secure Shell
6
• TFTP Server IP Address – The IP address of the TFTP server that contains the
public key file you wish to import. (Default: 0.0.0.0)
• Source File Name – The public key file to upload.
• Copy Public Key – Initiates the public key TFTP import process. If you are
replacing an outdated public key file, it is not necessary to first delete the original
key from the switch. The import process will overwrite the existing key.
• Delete – Deletes a selected RSA or DSA public key that has already been imported
to the switch.
Web – Click Security, SSH, SSH User Public-Key Settings. Select the user name
and the public-key type from the respective drop-down boxes, input the TFTP server
IP address and the public key source file name, and then click Copy Public Key.
Figure 6-6 SSH User Public-Key Settings
6-13
6
User Authentication
CLI – This example imports an SSHv2 DSA public key for the user admin and then
displays admin’s imported public keys. Note that public key authentication through
SSH is only supported for users configured locally on the switch.
Console#copy tftp public-key
TFTP server IP address: 192.168.1.254
Choose public key type:
1. RSA: 2. DSA: <1-2>: 2
Source file name: admin-ssh2-dsa-pub.key
Username: admin
TFTP Download
Success.
Write to FLASH Programming.
Success.
23-11
Console#show public-key user admin
25-23
admin:
RSA:
1024 37 154886675541099600242673908076171863880953984597454546825066951007
29617437427136900505591624068119579408716226078634780682201498685790475062
34519480679939485042653504179153032795337422103356695026441903823445835730
88823472889690842821665429031315937652815279387868298539820466143474130023
09979848162607182657 rsa-key-20071106
DSA:
---- BEGIN SSH2 PUBLIC KEY ---Comment: "dsa-key-20071105"
AAAAB3NzaC1kc3MAAA
CAeqNnwpAVz82Z3zFif0KGF846S5m5useW8rQp8DBv1IQ/sLYRuoCtW/+hllIaUu2F9Ps6D5gJ
dKjyEPKRutJv1rAwq1YZ61/fat9OGpM3oaqMf6UiVUK4gEsaq8T6UqrGsIDcXWyvmbI02+R/
owN43kwEJCfmpBXelhU962AA2G0AAAAVAKxtZo+MjTVzRJ+9mFTFIUpawm7HAAAAgCINbco4jT
WcdMKS1oQTA+WnCehlsd8j5MpDc3VccySMaFzcPgxT+N79WVxWNJQaS8l9TfY3EDg9VfCooLZD
rn/yX67MV3p/IJej57DsNjLnCHpaGE/OKfkAhvjRzlufS4f4wAzOYCBNxb6XY6Vew8Pi7Wri
L/Xrm4AQ0t4wSjjEAAAAgDNcKKEpZw16wW7E9EmbQp5s5gu9lCVCqMz5r76EyEzc
9uIYvxy54GHMtyBwLTITh6lbxEGD6cOnkCW+ieRye9fiJfs7u4QdL9NZb+WLZvcUXm6E1vUc70
OpelDFxbfhQawgGFxvx7rzv85D75ffNEqbLW2mKApehuQrHYbPZOnX
---- END SSH2 PUBLIC KEY ----
Console#
Configuring the SSH Server
The SSH server includes basic settings for authentication.
Field Attributes
• SSH Server Status – Allows you to enable/disable the SSH server on the switch.
(Default: Disabled)
• Version – The Secure Shell version number. Version 2.0 is displayed, but the
switch supports management access via either SSH Version 1.5 or 2.0 clients.
• SSH Authentication Timeout – Specifies the time interval in seconds that the
SSH server waits for a response from a client during an authentication attempt.
(Range: 1 to 120 seconds; Default: 120 seconds)
• SSH Authentication Retries – Specifies the number of authentication attempts
that a client is allowed before authentication fails and the client has to restart the
authentication process. (Range: 1-5 times; Default: 3)
6-14
Configuring the Secure Shell
6
• SSH Server-Key Size – Specifies the SSH server key size. (Range: 512-896 bits;
Default: 768)
- The server key is a private key that is never shared outside the switch.
- The host key is shared with the SSH client, and is fixed at 1024 bits.
Web – Click Security, SSH, Settings. Enable SSH and adjust the authentication
parameters as required, then click Apply. Note that you must first generate the host
key pair on the SSH Host-Key Settings page before you can enable the SSH server.
Figure 6-7 SSH Server Settings
CLI – This example enables SSH, sets the authentication parameters, and displays
the current configuration. It shows that the administrator has made a connection via
SHH, and then disables this connection.
Console(config)#ip ssh server
Console(config)#ip ssh timeout 100
Console(config)#ip ssh authentication-retries 5
Console(config)#ip ssh server-key size 512
Console(config)#end
Console#show ip ssh
SSH Enabled - version 2.0
Negotiation timeout: 120 secs; Authentication retries: 3
Server key size: 768 bits
Console#show ssh
Information of secure shell
Session Username Version Encrypt method Negotiation state
------- -------- ------- -------------- ----------------0
admin
2.0
cipher-3des
session-started
Console#disconnect 0
Console#
25-17
25-18
25-19
25-19
25-22
25-22
23-24
6-15
6
User Authentication
Configuring Port Security
Port security is a feature that allows you to configure a switch port with one or more
device MAC addresses that are authorized to access the network through that port.
When port security is enabled on a port, the switch stops learning new MAC
addresses on the specified port when it has reached a configured maximum
number. Only incoming traffic with source addresses already stored in the dynamic
or static address table will be accepted as authorized to access the network through
that port. If a device with an unauthorized MAC address attempts to use the switch
port, the intrusion will be detected and the switch can automatically take action by
disabling the port and sending a trap message.
To use port security, specify a maximum number of addresses to allow on the port
and then let the switch dynamically learn the <source MAC address, VLAN> pair for
frames received on the port. Note that you can also manually add secure addresses
to the port using the Static Address Table (page 9-1). When the port has reached the
maximum number of MAC addresses the selected port will stop learning. The MAC
addresses already in the address table will be retained and will not age out. Any
other device that attempts to use the port will be prevented from accessing the
switch.
Command Usage
• A secure port has the following restrictions:
- It cannot be used as a member of a static or dynamic trunk.
- It should not be connected to a network interconnection device.
• The default maximum number of MAC addresses allowed on a secure port is zero.
You must configure a maximum address count from 1 - 1024 for the port to allow
access.
• If a port is disabled (shut down) due to a security violation, it must be manually
re-enabled from the Port/Port Configuration page (page 8-3).
Command Attributes
• Port – Port number.
• Name – Descriptive text (page 27-2).
• Action – Indicates the action to be taken when a port security violation is detected:
- None: No action should be taken. (This is the default.)
- Trap: Send an SNMP trap message.
- Shutdown: Disable the port.
- Trap and Shutdown: Send an SNMP trap message and disable the port.
• Security Status – Enables or disables port security on the port. (Default: Disabled)
• Max MAC Count – The maximum number of MAC addresses that can be learned
on a port. (Range: 0 - 1024, where 0 means disabled)
• Trunk – Trunk number if port is a member (page 8-7 and 8-8).
6-16
Configuring Port Security
6
Web – Click Security, Port Security. Set the action to take when an invalid address is
detected on a port, mark the checkbox in the Status column to enable security for a
port, set the maximum number of MAC addresses allowed on a port, and click Apply.
Figure 6-8 Port Security
CLI – This example selects the target port, sets the port security action to send a
trap and disable the port, specifies a maximum address count, and then enables
port security for the port.
Console(config)#interface ethernet 1/5
Console(config-if)#port security action trap-and-shutdown
Console(config-if)#port security max-mac-count 20
Console(config-if)#port security
Console(config-if)#
25-25
6-17
6
User Authentication
Configuring 802.1X Port Authentication
Network switches can provide open and easy access to network resources by
simply attaching a client PC. Although this automatic configuration and access is a
desirable feature, it also allows unauthorized personnel to easily intrude and
possibly gain access to sensitive network data.
The IEEE 802.1X (dot1x) standard defines a port-based access control procedure
that prevents unauthorized access to a network by requiring users to first submit
credentials for authentication. Access to all switch ports in a network can be
centrally controlled from a server, which means that authorized users can use the
same credentials for authentication from any point within the network.
This switch uses the
Extensible Authentication
Protocol over LANs (EAPOL)
802.1x
to exchange authentication
client
protocol messages with the
client, and a remote RADIUS
1. Client attempts to access a switch port.
authentication server to verify
2. Switch sends client an identity request.
3. Client sends back identity information.
RADIUS
user identity and access
4. Switch forwards this to authentication server.
server
5. Authentication server challenges client.
rights. When a client (i.e.,
6. Client responds with proper credentials.
Supplicant) connects to a
7. Authentication server approves access.
8. Switch grants client access to this port.
switch port, the switch (i.e.,
Authenticator) responds with an EAPOL identity request. The client provides its
identity (such as a user name) in an EAPOL response to the switch, which it
forwards to the RADIUS server. The RADIUS server verifies the client identity and
sends an access challenge back to the client. The EAP packet from the RADIUS
server contains not only the challenge, but the authentication method to be used.
The client can reject the authentication method and request another, depending on
the configuration of the client software and the RADIUS server. The authentication
method must be MD5. (TLS, TTLS and PEAP will be supported in future releases.)
The client responds to the appropriate method with its credentials, such as a
password or certificate. The RADIUS server verifies the client credentials and
responds with an accept or reject packet. If authentication is successful, the switch
allows the client to access the network. Otherwise, network access is denied and the
port remains blocked.
The operation of dot1x on the switch requires the following:
•
•
•
•
•
The switch must have an IP address assigned.
The IP address of the RADIUS server must be specified.
802.1X must be enabled globally for the switch.
Each switch port that will be used must be set to dot1x “Auto” mode.
Each client that needs to be authenticated must have dot1x client software
installed and properly configured.
• The RADIUS server and 802.1X client support EAP. (The switch only supports
EAPOL in order to pass the EAP packets from the server to the client.)
6-18
Configuring 802.1X Port Authentication
6
• The RADIUS server and client also have to support the same EAP authentication
type – MD5. (Some clients have native support in Windows, otherwise the dot1x
client must support it.)
Displaying 802.1X Global Settings
The 802.1X protocol provides port authentication.
Command Attributes
802.1X System Authentication Control – The global setting for 802.1X.
Web – Click Security, 802.1X, Information.
Figure 6-9 802.1X Global Information
CLI – This example shows the default global setting for 802.1X.
25-32
Console#show dot1x
Global 802.1X Parameters
system-auth-control: enable
802.1X Port Summary
Port Name Status
1/1
disabled
1/2
disabled
.
.
.
802.1X Port Details
Operation Mode
Single-Host
Single-Host
Mode
ForceAuthorized
ForceAuthorized
Authorized
n/a
n/a
802.1X is disabled on port 1/1
.
.
.
802.1X is disabled on port 26
Console#
6-19
6
User Authentication
Configuring 802.1X Global Settings
The 802.1X protocol provides port authentication. The 802.1X protocol must be
enabled globally for the switch system before port settings are active.
Command Attributes
802.1X System Authentication Control – Sets the global setting for 802.1X.
(Default: Disabled)
Web – Select Security, 802.1X, Configuration. Enable 802.1X globally for the switch,
and click Apply.
Figure 6-10 802.1X Global Configuration
CLI – This example enables 802.1X globally for the switch.
Console(config)#dot1x system-auth-control
Console(config)#
25-27
Configuring Port Settings for 802.1X
When 802.1X is enabled, you need to configure the parameters for the
authentication process that runs between the client and the switch (i.e.,
authenticator), as well as the client identity lookup process that runs between the
switch and authentication server. These parameters are described in this section.
Command Attributes
• Status – Indicates if authentication is enabled or disabled on the port.
(Default: Disabled)
• Operation Mode – Allows single or multiple hosts (clients) to connect to an
802.1X-authorized port. (Range: Single-Host, Multi-Host, MAC-Based; Default:
Single-Host)
- In Single-Host mode, only one host connected to a port can be authenticated for
network access.
- In Multi-Host mode, only one host connected to a port needs to pass
authentication for all other hosts to be granted network access. Similarly, a port
can become unauthorized for all hosts if one attached host fails re-authentication
or sends an EAPOL logoff message. The number of hosts allowed access to a
port operating in this mode is determined by the Max Count attribute described
below.
- In MAC-Based mode, each host connected to a port needs to pass
authentication. The number of hosts allowed access to a port operating in this
mode is limited only by the available space in the secure address table (i.e., up
to 1024 addresses).
6-20
Configuring 802.1X Port Authentication
6
• Max Count – The maximum number of hosts that can connect to a port when the
operation mode is set to Multi-Host. (Range: 1-1024; Default: 5)
• Mode – Sets the authentication mode to one of the following options:
- Auto – Requires a dot1x-aware client to be authorized by the authentication
server. Clients that are not dot1x-aware will be denied access.
- Force-Authorized – Forces the port to grant access to all clients, either
dot1x-aware or otherwise. (This is the default setting.)
- Force-Unauthorized – Forces the port to deny access to all clients, either
dot1x-aware or otherwise.
802.1X port authentication and port security (page 6-16) cannot be configured
together on the same port. Only one of these security mechanisms can be applied.
802.1X port authentication cannot be configured on trunk ports. In other words, a
static or dynamically configured trunk cannot be set to Auto or Force-Unauthorized
mode.
When 802.1X authentication is enabled on a port, the MAC address learning
function for this interface is disabled, and the addresses dynamically learned on
this port are removed.
Authenticated MAC addresses are stored as dynamic entries in the switch’s secure
MAC address table. Configured static MAC addresses are added to the secure
address table when seen on a switch port. Static addresses are treated as
authenticated without sending a request to a RADIUS server.
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
When port status changes to down, all MAC addresses are cleared from the secure
MAC address table. Static VLAN assignments are not restored.
Re-authentication – Sets the client to be re-authenticated after the interval
specified by the Re-authentication Period. (Default: Disabled)
Max Request – Sets the maximum number of times the switch port will retransmit
an EAP request packet to the client before it times out the authentication session.
(Range: 1-10; Default 2)
Quiet Period – Sets the time that a switch port waits after the Max Request count
has been exceeded before attempting to acquire a new client. (Range: 1-65535
seconds; Default: 60 seconds)
Re-authentication Period – Sets the time period after which a connected client
must be re-authenticated. (Range: 1-65535 seconds; Default: 3600 seconds)
TX Period – Sets the time period during an authentication session that the switch
waits before re-transmitting an EAP packet. (Range: 1-65535; Default: 30 seconds)
Authorized –
- Yes – Connected client is authorized.
- No – Connected client is not authorized.
- Blank – Displays nothing when dot1x is disabled on a port.
Supplicant – Indicates the MAC address of a connected client.
Trunk – Indicates if the port is configured as a trunk port.
6-21
6
User Authentication
Web – Click Security, 802.1X, Port Configuration. Modify the parameters required,
and click Apply.
Figure 6-11 802.1X Port Configuration
6-22
Configuring 802.1X Port Authentication
6
CLI – This example sets the 802.1X parameters on port 2. For a description of the
additional fields displayed in this example, see "show dot1x" on page 25-32.
Console(config)#interface ethernet 1/2
Console(config-if)#dot1x port-control auto
Console(config-if)#dot1x re-authentication
Console(config-if)#dot1x max-req 5
Console(config-if)#dot1x timeout quiet-period 40
Console(config-if)#dot1x timeout re-authperiod 5
Console(config-if)#dot1x timeout tx-period 40
Console(config-if)#end
27-1
25-28
25-30
25-27
25-31
25-31
25-32
Console#show dot1x
25-32
Global 802.1X Parameters
system-auth-control: enable
802.1X Port Summary
Port Name
1/1
1/2
.
.
.
1/25
1/26
Status
disabled
enabled
Operation Mode
Single-Host
Single-Host
Mode
ForceAuthorized
Auto
Authorized
yes
yes
disabled
disabled
Single-Host
Single-Host
ForceAuthorized
ForceAuthorized
n/a
n/a
802.1X Port Details
802.1X is disabled on port 1/1
802.1X is enabled on port 1/2
reauth-enabled:
Disable
reauth-period:
3600
quiet-period:
60
tx-period:
30
supplicant-timeout:
30
server-timeout:
10
reauth-max:
2
max-req:
2
Status
Authorized
Operation mode
Single-Host
Max count
5
Port-control
Auto
Supplicant
00-e0-29-94-34-65
Current Identifier
7
Authenticator State Machine
State
Authenticated
Reauth Count
0
Backend State Machine
State
Idle
Request Count
0
Identifier(Server)
6
Reauthentication State Machine
State
Initialize
.
.
.
.
802.1X is disabled on port 1/26
Console#
6-23
6
User Authentication
Displaying 802.1X Statistics
This switch can display statistics for dot1x protocol exchanges for any port.
Table 6-2 802.1X Statistics
Parameter
Description
Rx EAPOL Start
The number of EAPOL Start frames that have been received by this Authenticator.
Rx EAPOL Logoff
The number of EAPOL Logoff frames that have been received by this Authenticator.
Rx EAPOL Invalid
The number of EAPOL frames that have been received by this Authenticator in
which the frame type is not recognized.
Rx EAPOL Total
The number of valid EAPOL frames of any type that have been received by this
Authenticator.
Rx EAP Resp/Id
The number of EAP Resp/Id frames that have been received by this Authenticator.
Rx EAP Resp/Oth
The number of valid EAP Response frames (other than Resp/Id frames) that have
been received by this Authenticator.
Rx EAP LenError
The number of EAPOL frames that have been received by this Authenticator in
which the Packet Body Length field is invalid.
Rx Last EAPOLVer
The protocol version number carried in the most recently received EAPOL frame.
Rx Last EAPOLSrc
The source MAC address carried in the most recently received EAPOL frame.
Tx EAPOL Total
The number of EAPOL frames of any type that have been transmitted by this
Authenticator.
Tx EAP Req/Id
The number of EAP Req/Id frames that have been transmitted by this Authenticator.
Tx EAP Req/Oth
The number of EAP Request frames (other than Rq/Id frames) that have been
transmitted by this Authenticator.
6-24
Configuring 802.1X Port Authentication
6
Web – Select Security, 802.1X, Statistics. Select the required port and then click
Query. Click Refresh to update the statistics.
Figure 6-12 802.1X Port Statistics
CLI – This example displays the dot1x statistics for port 4.
Console#show dot1x statistics interface ethernet 1/4
Eth 1/4
Rx: EAPOL
Start
2
Last
EAPOLVer
1
Tx: EAPOL
Total
2017
Console#
EAPOL
Logoff
0
EAPOL
Invalid
0
EAPOL
Total
1007
EAP
Resp/Id
672
25-32
EAP
EAP
Resp/Oth LenError
0
0
Last
EAPOLSrc
00-00-E8-98-73-21
EAP
Req/Id
1005
EAP
Req/Oth
0
6-25
6
User Authentication
Filtering IP Addresses for Management Access
You can create a list of up to 16 IP addresses or IP address groups that are allowed
management access to the switch through the web interface, SNMP, or Telnet.
Command Usage
• The management interfaces are open to all IP addresses by default. Once you add
an entry to a filter list, access to that interface is restricted to the specified
addresses.
• If anyone tries to access a management interface on the switch from an invalid
address, the switch will reject the connection, enter an event message in the
system log, and send a trap message to the trap manager.
• IP address can be configured for SNMP, web and Telnet access respectively. Each
of these groups can include up to five different sets of addresses, either individual
addresses or address ranges.
• When entering addresses for the same group (i.e., SNMP, web or Telnet), the
switch will not accept overlapping address ranges. When entering addresses for
different groups, the switch will accept overlapping address ranges.
• You cannot delete an individual address from a specified range. You must delete
the entire range, and reenter the addresses.
• You can delete an address range just by specifying the start address, or by
specifying both the start address and end address.
Command Attributes
•
•
•
•
•
•
Web IP Filter – Configures IP address(es) for the web group.
SNMP IP Filter – Configures IP address(es) for the SNMP group.
Telnet IP Filter – Configures IP address(es) for the Telnet group.
IP Filter List – IP address which are allowed management access to this interface.
Start IP Address – A single IP address, or the starting address of a range.
End IP Address – The end address of a range.
6-26
Filtering IP Addresses for Management Access
6
Web – Click Security, IP Filter. Enter the IP addresses or range of addresses that
are allowed management access to an interface, and click Add IP Filtering Entry.
Figure 6-13 IP Filter
CLI – This example restricts management access for Telnet clients.
Console(config)#management telnet-client 192.168.1.19
Console(config)#management telnet-client 192.168.1.25 192.168.1.30
Console(config)#exit
Console#show management all-client
Management IP Filter
HTTP-Client:
Start IP address
End IP address
-----------------------------------------------
25-35
25-36
SNMP-Client:
Start IP address
End IP address
----------------------------------------------TELNET-Client:
Start IP address
End IP address
----------------------------------------------1. 192.168.1.19
192.168.1.19
2. 192.168.1.25
192.168.1.30
Console#
6-27
6
6-28
User Authentication
Chapter 7: Access Control Lists
Access Control Lists (ACL) provide packet filtering for IPv4 frames (based on
address, protocol, Layer 4 protocol port number or TCP control code), IPv6 frames
(based on address, next header type, or flow label), or any frames (based on MAC
address or Ethernet type). To filter incoming packets, first create an access list, add
the required rules, and then bind the list to a specific port.
Configuring Access Control Lists
An ACL is a sequential list of permit or deny conditions that apply to IP addresses,
MAC addresses, or other more specific criteria. This switch tests ingress packets
against the conditions in an ACL one by one. A packet will be accepted as soon as it
matches a permit rule, or dropped as soon as it matches a deny rule. If no rules
match, the packet is accepted.
Command Usage
The following restrictions apply to ACLs:
• Each ACL can have up to 32 rules.
• The maximum number of ACLs is also 32.
• The maximum number of rules that can be bound to the ports is 96 for each of the
following list types: MAC ACLs, IP ACLs (including Standard and Extended ACLs),
IPv6 Standard ACLs, and IPv6 Extended ACLs. For the SMC8926EM, all ports
share this quota. For the SMC8950EM, ports 1-24 share a quota of 96 rules, and
ports 25-50 share another quota of 96 rules (since there are two switch chips in this
system).
The order in which active ACLs are checked is as follows:
1. User-defined rules in IP and MAC ACLs for ingress ports are checked in parallel.
2. Rules within an ACL are checked in the configured order, from top to bottom.
3. If the result of checking an IP ACL is to permit a packet, but the result of a MAC
ACL on the same packet is to deny it, the packet will be denied (because the
decision to deny a packet has a higher priority for security reasons). A packet will
also be denied if the IP ACL denies it and the MAC ACL accepts it.
Setting the ACL Name and Type
Use the ACL Configuration page to designate the name and type of an ACL.
Command Attributes
• Name – Name of the ACL. (Maximum length: 16 characters)
• Type – There are three filtering modes:
- IP Standard: IPv4 ACL mode that filters packets based on the source IPv4
address.
7-1
7
Access Control Lists
- IP Extended: IPv4 ACL mode that filters packets based on source or
destination IPv4 address, as well as protocol type and protocol port number.
If the “TCP” protocol is specified, then you can also filter packets based on the
TCP control code.
- IPv6 Standard: IPv6 ACL mode that filters packets based on the source IPv6
address.
- IPv6 Extended: IPv6 ACL mode that filters packets based on the destination IP
address, as well as the type of the next header and the flow label (i.e., a request
for special handling by IPv6 routers).
- MAC: MAC ACL mode that filters packets based on the source or destination
MAC address and the Ethernet frame type (RFC 1060).
Web – Click Security, ACL, Configuration. Enter an ACL name in the Name field,
select the list type (IP Standard, IP Extended, MAC, IPv6 Standard, IPv6 Extended),
and click Add to open the configuration page for the new list.
Figure 7-1 Selecting ACL Type
CLI – This example creates a standard IP ACL named bill.
Console(config)#access-list ip standard bill
Console(config-std-acl)#
26-2
Configuring a Standard IPv4 ACL
Command Attributes
• Action – An ACL can contain any combination of permit or deny rules.
• Address Type – Specifies the source IP address. Use “Any” to include all possible
addresses, “Host” to specify a specific host address in the Address field, or “IP” to
specify a range of addresses with the Address and SubMask fields. (Options: Any,
Host, IP; Default: Any)
• IP Address – Source IP address.
• Subnet Mask – A subnet mask containing four integers from 0 to 255, each
separated by a period. The mask uses 1 bits to indicate “match” and 0 bits to
indicate “ignore.” The mask is bitwise ANDed with the specified source IP address,
and compared with the address for each IP packet entering the port(s) to which this
ACL has been assigned.
7-2
Configuring Access Control Lists
7
Web – Specify the action (i.e., Permit or Deny). Select the address type (Any, Host,
or IP). If you select “Host,” enter a specific address. If you select “IP,” enter a subnet
address and the mask for an address range. Then click Add.
Figure 7-2 ACL Configuration - Standard IPv4
CLI – This example configures one permit rule for the specific address 10.1.1.21
and another rule for the address range 168.92.16.x – 168.92.31.x using a bitmask.
Console(config-std-acl)#permit host 10.1.1.21
Console(config-std-acl)#permit 168.92.16.0 255.255.240.0
Console(config-std-acl)#
26-2
Configuring an Extended IPv4 ACL
Command Attributes
• Action – An ACL can contain any combination of permit or deny rules.
• Source/Destination Address Type – Specifies the source or destination IP
address. Use “Any” to include all possible addresses, “Host” to specify a specific
host address in the Address field, or “IP” to specify a range of addresses with the
Address and SubMask fields. (Options: Any, Host, IP; Default: Any)
• Source/Destination IP Address – Source or destination IP address.
• Source/Destination Subnet Mask – Subnet mask for source or destination
address. (See the description for SubMask on page 2.)
• Service Type – Packet priority settings based on the following criteria:
- Precedence – IP precedence level. (Range: 0-7)
- TOS – Type of Service level. (Range: 0-15)
- DSCP – DSCP priority level. (Range: 0-63)
• Protocol – Specifies the protocol type to match as TCP, UDP or Others, where
others indicates a specific protocol number (0-255). (Options: TCP, UDP, Others;
Default: TCP)
7-3
7
Access Control Lists
• Source/Destination Port – Source/destination port number for the specified
protocol type. (Range: 0-65535)
• Source/Destination Port Bit Mask – Decimal number representing the port bits
to match. (Range: 0-65535)
• Control Code – Decimal number (representing a bit string) that specifies flag bits
in byte 14 of the TCP header. (Range: 0-63)
• Control Code Bit Mask – Decimal number representing the code bits to match.
The control bitmask is a decimal number (for an equivalent binary bit mask) that is
applied to the control code. Enter a decimal number, where the equivalent binary
bit “1” means to match a bit and “0” means to ignore a bit. The following bits may
be specified:
- 1 (fin) – Finish
- 2 (syn) – Synchronize
- 4 (rst) – Reset
- 8 (psh) – Push
- 16 (ack) – Acknowledgement
- 32 (urg) – Urgent pointer
For example, use the code value and mask below to catch packets with the
following flags set:
- SYN flag valid, use control-code 2, control bitmask 2
- Both SYN and ACK valid, use control-code 18, control bitmask 18
- SYN valid and ACK invalid, use control-code 2, control bitmask 18
7-4
Configuring Access Control Lists
7
Web – Specify the action (i.e., Permit or Deny). Specify the source and/or
destination addresses. Select the address type (Any, Host, or IP). If you select
“Host,” enter a specific address. If you select “IP,” enter a subnet address and the
mask for an address range. Set any other required criteria, such as service type,
protocol type, or TCP control code. Then click Add.
Figure 7-3 ACL Configuration - Extended IPv4
CLI – This example adds three rules:
1. Accept any incoming packets if the source address is in subnet 10.7.1.x. For
example, if the rule is matched; i.e., the rule (10.7.1.0 & 255.255.255.0) equals
the masked address (10.7.1.2 & 255.255.255.0), the packet passes through.
2. Allow TCP packets from class C addresses 192.168.1.0 to any destination
address when set for destination TCP port 80 (i.e., HTTP).
3. Permit all TCP packets from class C addresses 192.168.1.0 with the TCP control
code set to “SYN.”
Console(config-ext-acl)#permit 10.7.1.1 255.255.255.0 any
Console(config-ext-acl)#permit tcp 192.168.1.0 255.255.255.0 any
destination-port 80
Console(config-ext-acl)#permit tcp 192.168.1.0 255.255.255.0 any
control-flag 2 2
Console(config-std-acl)#
26-3
7-5
7
Access Control Lists
Configuring a MAC ACL
Command Attributes
• Action – An ACL can contain any combination of permit or deny rules.
• Source/Destination Address Type – Use “Any” to include all possible addresses,
“Host” to indicate a specific MAC address, or “MAC” to specify an address range
with the Address and Bitmask fields. (Options: Any, Host, MAC; Default: Any)
• Source/Destination MAC Address – Source or destination MAC address.
• Source/Destination MAC Bit Mask – Hexidecimal mask for source or destination
MAC address.
• VID – VLAN ID. (Range: 1-4093)
• VID Bit Mask – VLAN bitmask. (Range: 1-4093)
• Ethernet Type – This option can only be used to filter Ethernet II formatted
packets. (Range: 0000-FFFF hex.)
A detailed listing of Ethernet protocol types can be found in RFC 1060. A few of the
more common types include 0800 (IP), 0806 (ARP), 8137 (IPX).
• Ethernet Type Bit Mask – Protocol bitmask. (Range: 0000-FFFF hex.)
• Packet Format – This attribute includes the following packet types:
- Any – Any Ethernet packet type.
- Untagged-eth2 – Untagged Ethernet II packets.
- Untagged-802.3 – Untagged Ethernet 802.3 packets.
- Tagged-eth2 – Tagged Ethernet II packets.
- Tagged-802.3 – Tagged Ethernet 802.3 packets.
7-6
Configuring Access Control Lists
7
Web – Specify the action (i.e., Permit or Deny). Specify the source and/or
destination addresses. Select the address type (Any, Host, or MAC). If you select
“Host,” enter a specific address (e.g., 11-22-33-44-55-66). If you select “MAC,” enter
a base address and a hexidecimal bitmask for an address range. Set any other
required criteria, such as VID, Ethernet type, or packet format. Then click Add.
Figure 7-4 ACL Configuration - MAC
CLI – This rule permits packets from any source MAC address to the destination
address 00-e0-29-94-34-de where the Ethernet type is 0800.
Console(config-mac-acl)#permit any host 00-e0-29-94-34-de
ethertype 0800
Console(config-mac-acl)#
26-13
Configuring a Standard IPv6 ACL
Command Attributes
• Action – An ACL can contain any combination of permit or deny rules.
• Source Address Type – Specifies the source IP address. Use “Any” to include all
possible addresses, “Host” to specify a specific host address in the Address field,
or “IPv6-prefix” to specify a range of addresses. (Options: Any, Host, IPv6-prefix;
Default: Any)
• Source IPv6 Address – The address must be formatted according to RFC 2373
“IPv6 Addressing Architecture,” using 8 colon-separated 16-bit hexadecimal
values. One double colon may be used in the address to indicate the appropriate
number of zeros required to fill the undefined fields.
7-7
7
Access Control Lists
• Source Prefix-Length – A decimal value indicating how many contiguous bits
(from the left) of the address comprise the prefix (i.e., the network portion of the
address).
Web – Specify the action (i.e., Permit or Deny). Select the address type (Any, Host,
or IPv6-prefix). If you select “Host,” enter a specific address. If you select
“IPv6-prefix,” enter a subnet address and the prefix length. Then click Add.
Figure 7-5 ACL Configuration - Standard IPv6
CLI – This example configures one permit rule for the specific address
2009:DB9:2229::79 and another rule for addresses with the network prefix
2009:DB9:2229:5::/64.
Console(config-std-ipv6-acl)#permit host 2009:DB9:2229::79
Console(config-std-ipv6-acl)#permit 2009:DB9:2229:5::/64
Console(config-std-ipv6-acl)#
26-8
Configuring an Extended IPv6 ACL
Command Attributes
• Action – An ACL can contain any combination of permit or deny rules.
• Destination Address Type – Specifies the destination IP address. Use “Any” to
include all possible addresses, or “IPv6-prefix” to specify a range of addresses.
(Options: Any, IPv6-prefix; Default: Any)
• Destination IP Address – The address must be formatted according to RFC 2373
“IPv6 Addressing Architecture,” using 8 colon-separated 16-bit hexadecimal
values. One double colon may be used in the address to indicate the appropriate
number of zeros required to fill the undefined fields. (The switch only checks the
first 64 bits of the destination address.)
7-8
Configuring Access Control Lists
7
• Destination Prefix-Length – A decimal value indicating how many contiguous bits
(from the left) of the address comprise the prefix (i.e., the network portion of the
address).
• Next Header – Identifies the type of header immediately following the IPv6 header.
(Range: 0-255)
Optional internet-layer information is encoded in separate headers that may be
placed between the IPv6 header and the upper-layer header in a packet. There are
a small number of such extension headers, each identified by a distinct Next
Header value. IPv6 supports the values defined for the IPv4 Protocol field in RFC
1700, and includes these commonly used headers:
0 : Hop-by-Hop Options
(RFC 2460)
6 : TCP Upper-layer Header
(RFC 1700)
17: UDP Upper-layer Header
(RFC 1700)
43: Routing
(RFC 2460)
44: Fragment
(RFC 2460)
51: Authentication
(RFC 2402)
50: Encapsulating Security Payload
(RFC 2406)
60: Destination Options
(RFC 2460)
• DSCP – DSCP priority level. (Range: 0-63)
• Flow Label – A label for packets belonging to a particular traffic “flow” for which
the sender requests special handling by IPv6 routers, such as non-default quality
of service or “real-time” service (see RFC 2460). (Range: 0-16777215)
A flow label is assigned to a flow by the flow's source node. New flow labels must
be chosen pseudo-randomly and uniformly from the range 1 to FFFFF
hexadecimal. The purpose of the random allocation is to make any set of bits within
the Flow Label field suitable for use as a hash key by routers, for looking up the
state associated with the flow.
A flow identifies a sequence of packets sent from a particular source to a particular
(unicast or multicast) destination for which the source desires special handling by
the intervening routers. The nature of that special handling might be conveyed to
the routers by a control protocol, such as a resource reservation protocol, or by
information within the flow's packets themselves, e.g., in a hop-by-hop option. A
flow is uniquely identified by the combination of a source address and a non-zero
flow label. Packets that do not belong to a flow carry a flow label of zero.
Hosts or routers that do not support the functions specified by the flow label must
set the field to zero when originating a packet, pass the field on unchanged when
forwarding a packet, and ignore the field when receiving a packet.
7-9
7
Access Control Lists
Web – Specify the action (i.e., Permit or Deny). Select the address type (Any or
IPv6-prefix). If you select “IPv6-prefix,” enter a subnet address and prefix length. Set
any other required criteria, such as next header, DSCP, or flow label. Then click Add.
Figure 7-6 ACL Configuration - Extended IPv6
CLI – This example adds three rules:
1. Accepts any incoming packets for the destination 2009:DB9:2229::79/48.
2. Allows packets to any destination address when the DSCP value is 5.
3. Allows any packets sent to the destination 2009:DB9:2229::79/48 when the flow
label is 43.
Console(config-ext-ipv6-acl)#permit 2009:DB9:2229::79/48
26-9
Console(config-ext-ipv6-acl)#permit any dscp 5
Console(config-ext-ipv6-acl)#permit 2009:DB9:2229::79/48 flow-label 43
Console(config-ext-ipv6-acl)#
7-10
Binding a Port to an Access Control List
7
Binding a Port to an Access Control List
After configuring the Access Control Lists (ACL), you should bind them to the ports
that need to filter traffic. You can only bind a port to one ACL for each basic type –
IPv4 ingress, MAC ingress, and IPv6 ingress.
Command Usage
• This switch supports ACLs for ingress filtering only.
Command Attributes
•
•
•
•
•
•
Port – Fixed port, SFP module, or XFP module. (Range: 1-26/50)
IP – Specifies the IPv4 ACL to bind to a port.
MAC – Specifies the MAC ACL to bind to a port.
IPv6 – Specifies the IPv6 ACL to bind to a port.
IN – ACL for ingress packets.
ACL Name – Name of the ACL.
Web – Click Security, ACL, Port Binding. Mark the Enable field for the port you want
to bind to an ACL for ingress traffic, select the required ACL from the drop-down list,
then click Apply.
Figure 7-7 ACL Port Binding
CLI – This examples assigns an IP and MAC ingress ACL to port 1, and an IP
ingress ACL to port 2.
Console(config)#interface ethernet 1/1
Console(config-if)#ip access-group tom in
Console(config-if)#mac access-group jerry in
Console(config-if)#exit
Console(config)#interface ethernet 1/2
Console(config-if)#ip access-group tom in
Console(config-if)#
27-1
26-6
26-15
7-11
7
7-12
Access Control Lists
Chapter 8: Port Configuration
Displaying Connection Status
You can use the Port Information or Trunk Information pages to display the current
connection status, including link state, speed/duplex mode, flow control, and
auto-negotiation.
Field Attributes (Web)
•
•
•
•
•
Name – Interface label.
Type – Indicates the port type. (1000BASE-T, SFP, or 10G)
Admin Status – Shows if the interface is enabled or disabled.
Oper Status – Indicates if the link is Up or Down.
Speed Duplex Status – Shows the current speed and duplex mode.
(Auto, or fixed choice)
• Flow Control Status – Indicates the type of flow control currently in use.
(IEEE 802.3x, Back-Pressure or None)
• Autonegotiation – Shows if auto-negotiation is enabled or disabled.
• Media Type4 – Shows the forced/preferred port type to use for combination ports
21-24 (SMC8926EM) or 45-48 (SMC8950EM). (Copper-Forced, SFP-Forced,
SFP-Preferred-Auto)
• Trunk Member4 – Shows if port is a trunk member.
• Creation5 – Shows if a trunk is manually configured or dynamically set via LACP.
Web – Click Port, Port Information or Trunk Information.
Figure 8-1 Port - Port Information
4. Port Information only.
5. Trunk Information only.
8-1
8
Port Configuration
Field Attributes (CLI)
Basic information:
• Port type – Indicates the port type. (1000BASE-T, SFP, or 10G)
• MAC address – The physical layer address for this port. (To access this item on
the web, see "Setting the Switch’s IP Address (IP Version 4)" on page 4-5.)
Configuration:
•
•
•
•
Name – Interface label.
Port admin – Shows if the interface is enabled or disabled (i.e., up or down).
Speed-duplex – Shows the current speed and duplex mode. (Auto, or fixed choice)
Capabilities – Specifies the capabilities to be advertised for a port during
auto-negotiation. (To access this item on the web, see “Configuring Interface
Connections” on page 3-48.) The following capabilities are supported.
• 10half - Supports 10 Mbps half-duplex operation
• 10full - Supports 10 Mbps full-duplex operation
• 100half - Supports 100 Mbps half-duplex operation
• 100full - Supports 100 Mbps full-duplex operation
• 1000full - Supports 1000 Mbps full-duplex operation
• 10Gfull - Supports 10 Gbps full-duplex operation
• Sym - Transmits and receives pause frames for flow control
• FC - Supports flow control
• Broadcast storm – Shows if broadcast storm control is enabled or disabled.
• Broadcast storm limit – Shows the broadcast storm threshold. (500 - 262143
packets per second)
• Flow control – Shows if flow control is enabled or disabled.
• LACP – Shows if LACP is enabled or disabled.
• Port security – Shows if port security is enabled or disabled.
• Max MAC count – Shows the maximum number of MAC address that can be
learned by a port. (0 - 1024 addresses)
• Port security action – Shows the response to take when a security violation is
detected. (shutdown, trap, trap-and-shutdown)
• Media type – Shows the forced/preferred port type to use for combination ports
21-24 (SMC8926EM) or 45-48 (SMC8950EM). (copper forced, SFP forced, SFP
preferred auto)
Current status:
• Link status – Indicates if the link is up or down.
• Port operation status – Provides detailed information on port state.
(Displayed only when the link is up.).
• Operation speed-duplex – Shows the current speed and duplex mode.
• Flow control type – Indicates the type of flow control currently in use.
(IEEE 802.3x, Back-Pressure or none)
8-2
Configuring Interface Connections
8
CLI – This example shows the connection status for Port 5.
Console#show interfaces status ethernet 1/5
27-9
Information of Eth 1/13
Basic information:
Port type:
1000T
Mac address:
00-00-E3-11-10-15
Configuration:
Name:
Port admin:
Up
Speed-duplex:
Auto
Capabilities:
10half, 10full, 100half, 100full, 1000full
Broadcast storm:
Enabled
Broadcast storm limit: 500 packets/second
Flow control:
Disabled
LACP:
Disabled
Port security:
Disabled
Max MAC count:
0
Port security action:
None
Media type:
None
Jumbo Frame state:
DISABLE
Jumbo Frame size:
1522
Current status:
Link status:
Down
Operation speed-duplex: 1000full
Flow control type:
None
Console#
Configuring Interface Connections
You can use the Port Configuration or Trunk Configuration page to enable/disable an
interface, set auto-negotiation and the interface capabilities to advertise, or manually
fix the speed and duplex mode, and flow control.
Command Attributes
• Name – Allows you to label an interface. (Range: 1-64 characters)
• Admin – Allows you to manually disable an interface. You can disable an interface
due to abnormal behavior (e.g., excessive collisions), and then reenable it after the
problem has been resolved. You may also disable an interface for security
reasons.
• Speed/Duplex – Allows you to manually set the port speed and duplex mode
(i.e., with auto-negotiation disabled).
Note: The 1000BASE-T standard does not support forced mode. Always use
auto-negotiation to establish a connection over any 1000BASE-T port or trunk.
• Flow Control – Allows automatic or manual selection of flow control.
• Autonegotiation (Port Capabilities) – Allows auto-negotiation to be enabled/
disabled. When auto-negotiation is enabled, you need to specify the capabilities to
be advertised. When auto-negotiation is disabled, you can force the settings for
speed, duplex mode, and flow control. The following capabilities are supported.
- 10half - Supports 10 Mbps half-duplex operation
- 10full - Supports 10 Mbps full-duplex operation
8-3
8
Port Configuration
-
100half - Supports 100 Mbps half-duplex operation
100full - Supports 100 Mbps full-duplex operation
1000full - Supports 1 Gbps full-duplex operation
10Gfull - Supports 10 Gbps full-duplex operation
Sym (Gigabit only) - Check this item to transmit and receive pause frames, or
clear it to auto-negotiate the sender and receiver for asymmetric pause frames.
(The current switch chip only supports symmetric pause frames.)
- FC - Supports flow control
Flow control can eliminate frame loss by “blocking” traffic from end stations or
segments connected directly to the switch when its buffers fill. When enabled,
back pressure is used for half-duplex operation and IEEE 802.3x for full-duplex
operation. (Avoid using flow control on a port connected to a hub unless it is
actually required to solve a problem. Otherwise back pressure jamming signals
may degrade overall performance for the segment attached to the hub.)
(Default: Autonegotiation enabled; Advertised capabilities for
1000BASE-T – 10half, 10full, 100half, 100full, 1000full;
1000BASE-SX/LX/LH – 1000full;
10GBASE-SR/LR/ER – 10Gfull)
• Media Type – Shows the forced/preferred port type to use for the combination
ports. (SMC8926EM: Ports 21-24; SMC8950EM: Ports 45-48)
- Copper-Forced - Always uses the built-in RJ-45 port.
- SFP-Forced - Always uses the SFP port (even if module is not installed).
- SFP-Preferred-Auto - Uses SFP port if both combination types are functioning
and the SFP port has a valid link.
• Trunk – Indicates if a port is a member of a trunk. To create trunks and select port
members, see "Creating Trunk Groups" on page 8-6.
Note: Auto-negotiation must be disabled before you can configure or force the interface
to use the Speed/Duplex Mode or Flow Control options.
8-4
Configuring Interface Connections
8
Web – Click Port, Port Configuration or Trunk Configuration. Modify the required
interface settings, and click Apply.
Figure 8-2 Port - Port Configuration
CLI – Select the interface, and then enter the required settings.
Console(config)#interface ethernet 1/13
Console(config-if)#description RD SW#13
Console(config-if)#shutdown
.
Console(config-if)#no shutdown
Console(config-if)#no negotiation
Console(config-if)#speed-duplex 100half
.
Console(config-if)#negotiation
Console(config-if)#capabilities 100half
Console(config-if)#capabilities 100full
Console(config-if)#capabilities flowcontrol
Console(config-if)#exit
Console(config)#interface ethernet 1/21
Console(config-if)#media-type copper-forced
Console(config-if)#
27-1
27-2
27-7
27-4
27-3
27-4
27-6
8-5
8
Port Configuration
Creating Trunk Groups
You can create multiple links between devices that work as one virtual, aggregate
link. A port trunk offers a dramatic increase in bandwidth for network segments
where bottlenecks exist, as well as providing a fault-tolerant link between two
devices (i.e., single switch or a stack). You can create up to 32 trunks.
The switch supports both static trunking and dynamic Link Aggregation Control
Protocol (LACP). Static trunks have to be manually configured at both ends of the
link, and the switches must comply with the Cisco EtherChannel standard. On the
other hand, LACP configured ports can automatically negotiate a trunked link with
LACP-configured ports on another device. You can configure any number of ports
on the switch as LACP, as long as they are not already configured as part of a static
trunk. If ports on another device are also configured as LACP, the switch and the
other device will negotiate a trunk link between them. If an LACP trunk consists of
more than eight ports, all other ports will be placed in a standby mode. Should one
link in the trunk fail, one of the standby ports will automatically be activated to
replace it.
Command Usage
Besides balancing the load across each port in the trunk, the other ports provide
redundancy by taking over the load if a port in the trunk fails. However, before
making any physical connections between devices, use the web interface or CLI to
specify the trunk on the devices at both ends. When using a port trunk, take note of
the following points:
• Finish configuring port trunks before you connect the corresponding network
cables between switches to avoid creating a loop.
• You can create up to 32 trunks on a switch or stack, with up to eight Gigabit ports
per trunk or up to four 10Gbps ports per trunk. Note that because the stack
functions conceptually as a single system, you can include ports from different
units in the same trunk. For example, you could connect ports spread across
several units that belong VLAN 2 into a common trunk.
• The ports at both ends of a connection must be configured as trunk ports.
• When configuring static trunks on switches of different types, they must be
compatible with the Cisco EtherChannel standard.
• The ports at both ends of a trunk must be configured in an identical manner,
including communication mode (i.e., speed, duplex mode and flow control), VLAN
assignments, and CoS settings.
• Any of the Gigabit ports on the front panel can be trunked together, including ports
of different media types.
• All the ports in a trunk have to be treated as a whole when moved from/to, added
or deleted from a VLAN.
• STP, VLAN, and IGMP settings can only be made for the entire trunk.
8-6
Creating Trunk Groups
8
Statically Configuring a Trunk
Command Usage
statically
configured
}
• When configuring static trunks, you may not be
able to link switches of different types,
depending on the manufacturer’s
implementation. However, note that the static
trunks on this switch are Cisco EtherChannel
compatible.
• To avoid creating a loop in the network, be sure
you add a static trunk via the configuration
interface before connecting the ports, and also
disconnect the ports before removing a static
trunk via the configuration interface.
active
links
Command Attributes
• Member List (Current) – Shows configured trunks (Trunk ID, Unit, Port).
• New – Includes entry fields for creating new trunks.
- Trunk – Trunk identifier. (Range: 1-32)
- Unit – Stack unit. (Range: 1-8)
- Port – Port identifier. (Range: 1-25/49)
Web – Click Port, Trunk Membership. Enter a trunk ID of 1-32 in the Trunk field,
select any of the switch ports from the scroll-down port list, and click Add. After you
have completed adding ports to the member list, click Apply.
Figure 8-3 Static Trunk Configuration
8-7
8
Port Configuration
CLI – This example creates trunk 1 with ports 9 and 10. Just connect these ports to
two static trunk ports on another switch to form a trunk.
Console(config)#interface port-channel 1
Console(config-if)#exit
Console(config)#interface ethernet 1/9
Console(config-if)#channel-group 1
Console(config-if)#exit
Console(config)#interface ethernet 1/10
Console(config-if)#channel-group 1
Console(config-if)#end
Console#show interfaces status port-channel 1
Information of Trunk 1
Basic information:
Port type:
1000T
Mac address:
00-00-E3-11-10-19
Configuration:
Name:
Port admin:
Up
Speed-duplex:
Auto
Capabilities:
10half, 10full, 100half, 100full, 1000full
Flow control:
Disabled
Port security:
Disabled
Max MAC count:
0
Jumbo Frame state:
DISABLE
Jumbo Frame size:
1522
Current status:
Created by:
User
Link status:
Down
Port operation status: Up
Operation speed-duplex: 1000full
Flow control type:
None
Member Ports: Eth1/9, Eth1/10,
Console#
27-1
27-1
28-2
27-9
Enabling LACP on Selected Ports
Command Usage
}
}
• To avoid creating a loop in the network, be sure
dynamically
enabled
you enable LACP before connecting the ports,
and also disconnect the ports before disabling
LACP.
active
backup
• If the target switch has also enabled LACP on the
links
link
connected ports, the trunk will be activated
automatically.
• A trunk formed with another switch using LACP
will automatically be assigned the next available
configured
members
trunk ID.
• If more than eight ports attached to the same
target switch have LACP enabled, the additional ports will be placed in standby
mode, and will only be enabled if one of the active links fails.
• All ports on both ends of an LACP trunk must be configured for full duplex, either
by forced mode or auto-negotiation.
8-8
Creating Trunk Groups
8
• Trunks dynamically established through LACP will also be shown in the Member
List on the Trunk Membership menu (see page 8-7).
Command Attributes
• Member List (Current) – Shows configured trunks (Unit, Port).
• New – Includes entry fields for creating new trunks.
- Unit – Stack unit. (Range: 1-8)
- Port – Port identifier. (Range: 1-25/49)
Web – Click Port, LACP, Configuration. Select any of the switch ports from the
scroll-down port list and click Add. After you have completed adding ports to the
member list, click Apply.
Figure 8-4 LACP Trunk Configuration
8-9
8
Port Configuration
CLI – The following example enables LACP for ports 1 to 6. Just connect these ports
to LACP-enabled trunk ports on another switch to form a trunk.
Console(config)#interface ethernet 1/1
27-1
Console(config-if)#lacp
28-3
Console(config-if)#exit
.
.
.
Console(config)#interface ethernet 1/6
Console(config-if)#lacp
Console(config-if)#end
Console#show interfaces status port-channel 1
27-9
Information of Trunk 1
Basic information:
Port type:
1000T
Mac address:
00-00-E3-11-10-19
Configuration:
Port admin:
Up
Speed-duplex:
Auto
Capabilities:
10half, 10full, 100half, 100full, 1000full
Flow control:
Disabled
Port security:
Disabled
Max MAC count:
0
Jumbo Frame state:
DISABLE
Jumbo Frame size:
1522
Current status:
Created by:
LACP
Link status:
Up
Port operation status: Up
Operation speed-duplex: 1000full
Flow control type:
None
Member Ports: Eth1/1, Eth1/2, Eth1/3, Eth1/4, Eth1/5, Eth1/6,
Console#
Configuring LACP Parameters
Dynamically Creating a Port Channel –
Ports assigned to a common port channel must meet the following criteria:
• Ports must have the same LACP System Priority.
• Ports must have the same LACP port Admin Key.
• However, if the “port channel” Admin Key is set (page 4-142), then the port Admin
Key must be set to the same value for a port to be allowed to join a channel group.
Note – If the port channel admin key (lacp admin key, page 28-6) is not set (through the
CLI) when a channel group is formed (i.e., it has a null value of 0), this key is set to the
same value as the port admin key used by the interfaces that joined the group (lacp
admin key, as described in this section and on page 28-5).
Command Attributes
Set Port Actor – This menu sets the local side of an aggregate link; i.e., the ports on
this switch.
• Port – Port number. (Range: 1-25/50)
• System Priority – LACP system priority is used to determine link aggregation
group (LAG) membership, and to identify this device to other switches during LAG
negotiations. (Range: 0-65535; Default: 32768)
8-10
Creating Trunk Groups
8
- Ports must be configured with the same system priority to join the same LAG.
- System priority is combined with the switch’s MAC address to form the LAG
identifier. This identifier is used to indicate a specific LAG during LACP
negotiations with other systems.
• Admin Key – The LACP administration key must be set to the same value for ports
that belong to the same LAG. (Range: 0-65535; Default: 1)
• Port Priority – If a link goes down, LACP port priority is used to select a backup
link. (Range: 0-65535; Default: 32768)
Set Port Partner – This menu sets the remote side of an aggregate link; i.e., the
ports on the attached device. The command attributes have the same meaning as
those used for the port actor. However, configuring LACP settings for the partner
only applies to its administrative state, not its operational state, and will only take
effect the next time an aggregate link is established with the partner.
Web – Click Port, LACP, Aggregation Port. Set the System Priority, Admin Key, and
Port Priority for the Port Actor. You can optionally configure these settings for the
Port Partner. (Be aware that these settings only affect the administrative state of the
partner, and will not take effect until the next time an aggregate link is formed with
this device.) After you have completed setting the port LACP parameters, click Apply.
Figure 8-5 LACP - Aggregation Port
8-11
8
Port Configuration
CLI – The following example configures LACP parameters for ports 1-10. Ports 1-8
are used as active members of the LAG, ports 9 and 10 are set to backup mode.
Console(config)#interface ethernet 1/1
27-1
Console(config-if)#lacp actor system-priority 3
28-4
Console(config-if)#lacp actor admin-key 120
28-5
Console(config-if)#lacp actor port-priority 128
28-6
Console(config-if)#exit
.
.
.
Console(config)#interface ethernet 1/10
Console(config-if)#lacp actor system-priority 3
Console(config-if)#lacp actor admin-key 120
Console(config-if)#lacp actor port-priority 512
Console(config-if)#end
Console#show lacp sysid
28-7
Channel Group
System Priority
System MAC Address
------------------------------------------------------------------------1
32768
00-00-E3-11-10-10
2
32768
00-00-E3-11-10-10
3
32768
00-00-E3-11-10-10
.
.
.
Console#show lacp 1 internal
28-7
Port channel: 1
------------------------------------------------------------------------Oper Key: 120
Admin Key: 0
Eth 1/ 1
------------------------------------------------------------------------LACPDUs Internal:
30 sec
LACP System Priority: 3
LACP Port Priority:
128
Admin Key:
120
Oper Key:
120
Admin State: defaulted, aggregation, long timeout, LACP-activity
Oper State:
distributing, collecting, synchronization,
aggregation, long timeout, LACP-activity
.
.
.
8-12
Creating Trunk Groups
8
Displaying LACP Port Counters
You can display statistics for LACP protocol messages.
Table 8-1 LACP Port Counters
Parameter
Description
LACPDUs Sent
Number of valid LACPDUs transmitted from this channel group.
LACPDUs Received
Number of valid LACPDUs received by this channel group.
Marker Sent
Number of valid Marker PDUs transmitted from this channel group.
Marker Received
Number of valid Marker PDUs received by this channel group.
Marker Unknown Pkts
Number of frames received that either (1) Carry the Slow Protocols Ethernet
Type value, but contain an unknown PDU, or (2) are addressed to the Slow
Protocols group MAC Address, but do not carry the Slow Protocols Ethernet
Type.
Marker Illegal Pkts
Number of frames that carry the Slow Protocols Ethernet Type value, but contain
a badly formed PDU or an illegal value of Protocol Subtype.
Web – Click Port, LACP, Port Counters Information. Select a member port to display
the corresponding information.
Figure 8-6 LACP - Port Counters Information
CLI – The following example displays LACP counters for port channel 1.
Console#show lacp 1 counters
28-7
Port channel: 1
------------------------------------------------------------------------Eth 1/ 2
------------------------------------------------------------------------LACPDUs Sent:
19
LACPDUs Receive:
10
Marker Sent:
0
Marker Receive:
0
LACPDUs Unknown Pkts: 0
LACPDUs Illegal Pkts: 0
.
.
.
8-13
8
Port Configuration
Displaying LACP Settings and Status for the Local Side
You can display configuration settings and the operational state for the local side of
an link aggregation.
Table 8-2 LACP Internal Configuration Information
Field
Description
Oper Key
Current operational value of the key for the aggregation port.
Admin Key
Current administrative value of the key for the aggregation port.
LACPDUs Internal
Number of seconds before invalidating received LACPDU information.
LACP System Priority
LACP system priority assigned to this port channel.
LACP Port Priority
LACP port priority assigned to this interface within the channel group.
Admin State,
Oper State
Administrative or operational values of the actor’s state parameters:
• Expired – The actor’s receive machine is in the expired state;
• Defaulted – The actor’s receive machine is using defaulted operational partner
information, administratively configured for the partner.
• Distributing – If false, distribution of outgoing frames on this link is disabled; i.e.,
distribution is currently disabled and is not expected to be enabled in the absence
of administrative changes or changes in received protocol information.
• Collecting – Collection of incoming frames on this link is enabled; i.e., collection
is currently enabled and is not expected to be disabled in the absence of
administrative changes or changes in received protocol information.
• Synchronization – The System considers this link to be IN_SYNC; i.e., it has
been allocated to the correct Link Aggregation Group, the group has been
associated with a compatible Aggregator, and the identity of the Link Aggregation
Group is consistent with the System ID and operational Key information
transmitted.
• Aggregation – The system considers this link to be aggregatable; i.e., a potential
candidate for aggregation.
• Long timeout – Periodic transmission of LACPDUs uses a slow transmission rate.
• LACP-Activity – Activity control value with regard to this link.
(0: Passive; 1: Active)
8-14
Creating Trunk Groups
8
Web – Click Port, LACP, Port Internal Information. Select a port channel to display
the corresponding information.
Figure 8-7 LACP - Port Internal Information
CLI – The following example displays the LACP configuration settings and
operational state for the local side of port channel 1.
Console#show lacp 1 internal
28-7
Port channel: 1
------------------------------------------------------------------------Oper Key: 3
Admin Key: 0
Eth 1/ 2
------------------------------------------------------------------------LACPDUs Internal:
30 sec
LACP System Priority: 32768
LACP Port Priority:
32768
Admin Key:
3
Oper Key:
3
Admin State: defaulted, aggregation, long timeout, LACP-activity
Oper State:
distributing, collecting, synchronization,
aggregation, long timeout, LACP-activity
.
.
.
8-15
8
Port Configuration
Displaying LACP Settings and Status for the Remote Side
You can display configuration settings and the operational state for the remote side
of an link aggregation.
Table 8-3 LACP Neighbor Configuration Information
Field
Description
Partner Admin System ID
LAG partner’s system ID assigned by the user.
Partner Oper System ID
LAG partner’s system ID assigned by the LACP protocol.
Partner Admin Port Number Current administrative value of the port number for the protocol Partner.
Partner Oper Port Number
Operational port number assigned to this aggregation port by the port’s
protocol partner.
Port Admin Priority
Current administrative value of the port priority for the protocol partner.
Port Oper Priority
Priority value assigned to this aggregation port by the partner.
Admin Key
Current administrative value of the Key for the protocol partner.
Oper Key
Current operational value of the Key for the protocol partner.
Admin State
Administrative values of the partner’s state parameters. (See preceding table.)
Oper State
Operational values of the partner’s state parameters. (See preceding table.)
Web – Click Port, LACP, Port Neighbors Information. Select a port channel to
display the corresponding information.
Figure 8-8 LACP - Port Neighbors Information
8-16
Setting Broadcast Storm Thresholds
8
CLI – The following example displays the LACP configuration settings and
operational state for the remote side of port channel 1.
Console#show lacp 1 neighbors
28-7
Port channel 1 neighbors
------------------------------------------------------------------------Eth 1/2
------------------------------------------------------------------------Partner Admin System ID:
32768, 00-00-00-00-00-00
Partner Oper System ID:
32768, 00-01-F4-78-AE-C0
Partner Admin Port Number: 2
Partner Oper Port Number: 2
Port Admin Priority:
32768
Port Oper Priority:
32768
Admin Key:
0
Oper Key:
3
Admin State:
defaulted, distributing, collecting,
synchronization, long timeout,
Oper State:
distributing, collecting, synchronization,
aggregation, long timeout, LACP-activity
.
.
.
Setting Broadcast Storm Thresholds
Broadcast storms may occur when a device on your network is malfunctioning, or if
application programs are not well designed or properly configured. If there is too
much broadcast traffic on your network, performance can be severely degraded or
everything can come to complete halt.
You can protect your network from broadcast storms by setting a threshold for
broadcast traffic for each port. Any broadcast packets exceeding the specified
threshold will then be dropped.
Command Usage
• Broadcast control does not effect IP multicast traffic.
• The resolution is 1 packet per second (pps); i.e., any setting between 500-262143
is acceptable.
Command Attributes
• Port6 – Port number.
• Trunk7 – Trunk number
• Type – Indicates the port type. (1000BASE-T, SFP, or 10G)
• Protect Status – Shows whether or not broadcast storm control has been enabled.
(Default: Enabled)
• Threshold – Threshold as percentage of port bandwidth.
(Options: 500-262143 packets per second; Default: 500 pps)
• Trunk6 – Shows if port is a trunk member.
6. Port Broadcast Control
7. Trunk Broadcast Control
8-17
8
Port Configuration
Web – Click Port, Port Broadcast Control or Trunk Broadcast Control. Check the
Enabled box for any interface, set the threshold, and click Apply.
Figure 8-9 Port Broadcast Control
CLI – Specify any interface, and then enter the threshold. The following disables
broadcast storm control for port 1, and then sets broadcast suppression at 600
packets per second for port 2.
Console(config)#interface ethernet 1/1
Console(config-if)#no switchport broadcast
Console(config-if)#exit
Console(config)#interface ethernet 1/2
Console(config-if)#switchport broadcast packet-rate 600
Console(config-if)#end
Console#show interfaces switchport ethernet 1/2
Information of Eth 1/2
Broadcast threshold:
Enabled, 600 packets/second
LACP status:
Disabled
Ingress rate limit:
Disable, 1000M bits per second
Egress rate limit:
Disable, 1000M bits per second
VLAN membership mode:
Hybrid
Ingress rule:
Disabled
Acceptable frame type:
All frames
Native VLAN:
1
Priority for untagged traffic: 0
GVRP status:
Disabled
Allowed VLAN:
1(u),
Forbidden VLAN:
Console#
8-18
27-1
27-7
27-7
27-11
Configuring Port Mirroring
8
Configuring Port Mirroring
You can mirror traffic from any source port to a
target port for real-time analysis. You can then
attach a logic analyzer or RMON probe to the
target port and study the traffic crossing the
source port in a completely unobtrusive manner.
Source
port(s)
Command Usage
Single
target
port
• Monitor port speed should match or exceed source port speed, otherwise traffic
may be dropped from the monitor port.
• All mirror sessions have to share the same destination port.
• When mirroring port traffic, the target port must be included in the same VLAN as
the source port when using MSTP (see "Spanning Tree Algorithm" on page 10-1).
Command Attributes
•
•
•
•
Mirror Sessions – Displays a list of current mirror sessions.
Source Unit – The unit whose port traffic will be monitored. (Range: 1-8)
Source Port – The port whose traffic will be monitored. (Range: 1-26/50)
Type – Allows you to select which traffic to mirror to the target port, Rx (receive),
Tx (transmit), or Both. (Default: Rx)
• Target Unit – The unit whose port will "duplicate" or "mirror" the traffic on the
source port. (Range: 1-8)
• Target Port – The port that will “mirror” the traffic from the source port.
(Range: 1-26/50)
Web – Click Port, Mirror Port Configuration. Specify the source port, the traffic type
to be mirrored, and the monitor port, then click Add.
Figure 8-10 Mirror Port Configuration
8-19
8
Port Configuration
CLI – Use the interface command to select the monitor port, then use the port
monitor command to specify the source port. Note that default mirroring under the
CLI is for both received and transmitted packets.
Console(config)#interface ethernet 1/10
Console(config-if)#port monitor ethernet 1/13
Console(config-if)#
27-1
29-1
Configuring Rate Limits
This function allows the network manager to control the maximum rate for traffic
transmitted or received on an interface. Rate limiting is configured on interfaces at
the edge of a network to limit traffic into or out of the switch. Traffic that falls within
the rate limit is transmitted, while packets that exceed the acceptable amount of
traffic are dropped.
Rate limiting can be applied to individual ports or trunks. When an interface is
configured with this feature, the traffic rate will be monitored by the hardware to
verify conformity. Non-conforming traffic is dropped, conforming traffic is forwarded
without any changes.
Command Attribute
Rate Limit – Sets the output rate limit for an interface.
Default Status – Disabled
Default Rate – Gigabit Ethernet: 1000 Mbps
Range – Gigabit Ethernet: 1 - 1000 Mbps
Note: Rate limits are not supported for the 10 Gigabit Ethernet ports.
8-20
Configuring Rate Limits
8
Web - Click Port, Rate Limit, Input/Output Port/Trunk Configuration. Set the Input
Rate Limit Status or Output Rate Limit Status, then set the rate limit for the individual
interfaces, and click Apply.
Figure 8-11 Rate Limit Configuration
CLI - This example sets the rate limit for input and output traffic passing through
port 1 to 600 Mbps.
Console(config)#interface ethernet 1/1
Console(config-if)#rate-limit input 600
Console(config-if)#rate-limit output 600
Console(config-if)#
27-1
30-1
8-21
8
Port Configuration
Showing Port Statistics
You can display standard statistics on network traffic from the Interfaces Group and
Ethernet-like MIBs, as well as a detailed breakdown of traffic based on the RMON
MIB. Interfaces and Ethernet-like statistics display errors on the traffic passing
through each port. This information can be used to identify potential problems with
the switch (such as a faulty port or unusually heavy loading). RMON statistics
provide access to a broad range of statistics, including a total count of different
frame types and sizes passing through each port. All values displayed have been
accumulated since the last system reboot, and are shown as counts per second.
Statistics are refreshed every 60 seconds by default.
Note: RMON groups 2, 3 and 9 can only be accessed using SNMP management
software such as SMC’s EliteView.
Table 8-4 Port Statistics
Parameter
Description
Interface Statistics
Received Octets
The total number of octets received on the interface, including framing
characters.
Received Unicast Packets
The number of subnetwork-unicast packets delivered to a higher-layer
protocol.
Received Multicast Packets
The number of packets, delivered by this sub-layer to a higher (sub-)layer,
which were addressed to a multicast address at this sub-layer.
Received Broadcast Packets
The number of packets, delivered by this sub-layer to a higher (sub-)layer,
which were addressed to a broadcast address at this sub-layer.
Received Discarded Packets
The number of inbound packets which were chosen to be discarded even
though no errors had been detected to prevent their being deliverable to a
higher-layer protocol. One possible reason for discarding such a packet
could be to free up buffer space.
Received Unknown Packets
The number of packets received via the interface which were discarded
because of an unknown or unsupported protocol.
Received Errors
The number of inbound packets that contained errors preventing them
from being deliverable to a higher-layer protocol.
Transmit Octets
The total number of octets transmitted out of the interface, including
framing characters.
Transmit Unicast Packets
The total number of packets that higher-level protocols requested be
transmitted to a subnetwork-unicast address, including those that were
discarded or not sent.
Transmit Multicast Packets
The total number of packets that higher-level protocols requested be
transmitted, and which were addressed to a multicast address at this
sub-layer, including those that were discarded or not sent.
Transmit Broadcast Packets
The total number of packets that higher-level protocols requested be
transmitted, and which were addressed to a broadcast address at this
sub-layer, including those that were discarded or not sent.
8-22
Showing Port Statistics
8
Table 8-4 Port Statistics (Continued)
Parameter
Description
Transmit Discarded Packets
The number of outbound packets which were chosen to be discarded even
though no errors had been detected to prevent their being transmitted.
One possible reason for discarding such a packet could be to free up
buffer space.
Transmit Errors
The number of outbound packets that could not be transmitted because of
errors.
Etherlike Statistics
Alignment Errors
The number of alignment errors (missynchronized data packets).
Late Collisions
The number of times that a collision is detected later than 512 bit-times
into the transmission of a packet.
FCS Errors
A count of frames received on a particular interface that are an integral
number of octets in length but do not pass the FCS check. This count does
not include frames received with frame-too-long or frame-too-short error.
Excessive Collisions
A count of frames for which transmission on a particular interface fails due
to excessive collisions. This counter does not increment when the
interface is operating in full-duplex mode.
Single Collision Frames
The number of successfully transmitted frames for which transmission is
inhibited by exactly one collision.
Internal MAC Transmit Errors
A count of frames for which transmission on a particular interface fails due
to an internal MAC sublayer transmit error.
Multiple Collision Frames
A count of successfully transmitted frames for which transmission is
inhibited by more than one collision.
Carrier Sense Errors
The number of times that the carrier sense condition was lost or never
asserted when attempting to transmit a frame.
SQE Test Errors
A count of times that the SQE TEST ERROR message is generated by the
PLS sublayer for a particular interface.
Frames Too Long
A count of frames received on a particular interface that exceed the
maximum permitted frame size.
Deferred Transmissions
A count of frames for which the first transmission attempt on a particular
interface is delayed because the medium was busy.
Internal MAC Receive Errors
A count of frames for which reception on a particular interface fails due to
an internal MAC sublayer receive error.
RMON Statistics
Drop Events
The total number of events in which packets were dropped due to lack of
resources.
Jabbers
The total number of frames received that were longer than 1518 octets
(excluding framing bits, but including FCS octets), and had either an FCS
or alignment error.
Received Bytes
Total number of bytes of data received on the network. This statistic can
be used as a reasonable indication of Ethernet utilization.
Collisions
The best estimate of the total number of collisions on this Ethernet
segment.
8-23
8
Port Configuration
Table 8-4 Port Statistics (Continued)
Parameter
Description
Received Frames
The total number of frames (bad, broadcast and multicast) received.
Broadcast Frames
The total number of good frames received that were directed to the
broadcast address. Note that this does not include multicast packets.
Multicast Frames
The total number of good frames received that were directed to this
multicast address.
CRC/Alignment Errors
The number of CRC/alignment errors (FCS or alignment errors).
Undersize Frames
The total number of frames received that were less than 64 octets long
(excluding framing bits, but including FCS octets) and were otherwise well
formed.
Oversize Frames
The total number of frames received that were longer than 1518 octets
(excluding framing bits, but including FCS octets) and were otherwise well
formed.
Fragments
The total number of frames received that were less than 64 octets in length
(excluding framing bits, but including FCS octets) and had either an FCS
or alignment error.
64 Bytes Frames
The total number of frames (including bad packets) received and
transmitted that were 64 octets in length (excluding framing bits but
including FCS octets).
65-127 Byte Frames
128-255 Byte Frames
256-511 Byte Frames
512-1023 Byte Frames
1024-1518 Byte Frames
1519-1536 Byte Frames
The total number of frames (including bad packets) received and
transmitted where the number of octets fall within the specified range
(excluding framing bits but including FCS octets).
8-24
Showing Port Statistics
8
Web – Click Port, Port Statistics. Select the required interface, and click Query. You
can also use the Refresh button at the bottom of the page to update the screen.
Figure 8-12 Port Statistics
8-25
8
Port Configuration
CLI – This example shows statistics for port 12.
Console#show interfaces counters ethernet 1/12
27-10
Ethernet 1/12
Iftable stats:
Octets input: 868453, Octets output: 3492122
Unicast input: 7315, Unitcast output: 6658
Discard input: 0, Discard output: 0
Error input: 0, Error output: 0
Unknown protos input: 0, QLen output: 0
Extended iftable stats:
Multi-cast input: 0, Multi-cast output: 17027
Broadcast input: 231, Broadcast output: 7
Ether-like stats:
Alignment errors: 0, FCS errors: 0
Single Collision frames: 0, Multiple collision frames: 0
SQE Test errors: 0, Deferred transmissions: 0
Late collisions: 0, Excessive collisions: 0
Internal mac transmit errors: 0, Internal mac receive errors: 0
Frame too longs: 0, Carrier sense errors: 0
Symbol errors: 0
RMON stats:
Drop events: 0, Octets: 4422579, Packets: 31552
Broadcast pkts: 238, Multi-cast pkts: 17033
Undersize pkts: 0, Oversize pkts: 0
Fragments: 0, Jabbers: 0
CRC align errors: 0, Collisions: 0
Packet size <= 64 octets: 25568, Packet size 65 to 127 octets: 1616
Packet size 128 to 255 octets: 1249, Packet size 256 to 511 octets: 1449
Packet size 512 to 1023 octets: 802, Packet size 1024 to 1518 octets: 871
Console#
8-26
Chapter 9: Address Table Settings
Switches store the addresses for all known devices. This information is used to pass
traffic directly between the inbound and outbound ports. All the addresses learned
by monitoring traffic are stored in the dynamic address table. You can also manually
configure static addresses that are bound to a specific port.
Setting Static Addresses
A static address can be assigned to a specific interface on this switch. Static
addresses are bound to the assigned interface and will not be moved. When a static
address is seen on another interface, the address will be ignored and will not be
written to the address table.
Command Attributes
•
•
•
•
•
Static Address Counts8 – The number of manually configured addresses.
Current Static Address Table – Lists all the static addresses.
Interface – Port or trunk associated with the device assigned a static address.
MAC Address – Physical address of a device mapped to this interface.
VLAN – ID of configured VLAN (1-4093).
8. Web Only.
9-1
9
Address Table Settings
Web – Click Address Table, Static Addresses. Specify the interface, the MAC
address and VLAN, then click Add Static Address.
Figure 9-1 Static Addresses
CLI – This example adds an address to the static address table, but sets it to be
deleted when the switch is reset.
Console(config)#mac-address-table static 00-e0-29-94-34-de interface
ethernet 1/1 vlan 1 delete-on-reset
31-1
Console(config)#
Displaying the Address Table
The Dynamic Address Table contains the MAC addresses learned by monitoring the
source address for traffic entering the switch. When the destination address for
inbound traffic is found in the database, the packets intended for that address are
forwarded directly to the associated port. Otherwise, the traffic is flooded to all ports.
Command Attributes
•
•
•
•
Interface – Indicates a port or trunk.
MAC Address – Physical address associated with this interface.
VLAN – ID of configured VLAN (1-4093).
Address Table Sort Key – You can sort the information displayed based on MAC
address, VLAN or interface (port or trunk).
• Dynamic Address Counts – The number of addresses dynamically learned.
• Current Dynamic Address Table – Lists all the dynamic addresses.
9-2
Displaying the Address Table
9
Web – Click Address Table, Dynamic Addresses. Specify the search type (i.e., mark
the Interface, MAC Address, or VLAN checkbox), select the method of sorting the
displayed addresses, and then click Query.
Figure 9-2 Dynamic Addresses
CLI – This example also displays the address table entries for port 1.
Console#show mac-address-table interface ethernet 1/1
Interface Mac Address
Vlan Type
--------- ----------------- ---- ----------------Eth 1/ 1 00-E0-29-94-34-DE
1 Permanent
Eth 1/ 1 00-23-54-EF-1D-AF
2 Learned
Console#
31-3
9-3
9
Address Table Settings
Changing the Aging Time
You can set the aging time for entries in the dynamic address table.
Command Attributes
• Aging Status – Enables/disables the aging function.
• Aging Time – The time after which a learned entry is discarded.
(Range: 10-1000000 seconds; Default: 300 seconds)
Web – Click Address Table, Address Aging. Specify the new aging time, click Apply.
Figure 9-3 Address Aging
CLI – This example sets the aging time to 400 seconds.
Console(config)#mac-address-table aging-time 300
Console(config)#
9-4
31-4
Chapter 10: Spanning Tree Algorithm
The Spanning Tree Algorithm (STA) can be used to detect and disable network
loops, and to provide backup links between switches, bridges or routers. This allows
the switch to interact with other bridging devices (that is, an STA-compliant switch,
bridge or router) in your network to ensure that only one route exists between any
two stations on the network, and provide backup links which automatically take over
when a primary link goes down.
The spanning tree algorithms supported by this switch include these versions:
• STP – Spanning Tree Protocol (IEEE 802.1D)
• RSTP – Rapid Spanning Tree Protocol (IEEE 802.1w)
• MSTP – Multiple Spanning Tree Protocol (IEEE 802.1s)
STP – STP uses a distributed algorithm to select a bridging device (STP-compliant
switch, bridge or router) that serves as the root of the spanning tree network. It
selects a root port on each bridging device (except for the root device) which incurs
the lowest path cost when forwarding a packet from that device to the root device.
Then it selects a designated bridging device from each LAN which incurs the lowest
path cost when forwarding a packet from that LAN to the root device. All ports
connected to designated bridging devices are assigned as designated ports. After
determining the lowest cost spanning tree, it enables all root ports and designated
ports, and disables all other ports. Network packets are therefore only forwarded
between root ports and designated ports, eliminating any possible network loops.
Designated
Root
x
x
x
Designated
Bridge
x
Designated
Port
Root
Port
x
Once a stable network topology has been established, all bridges listen for Hello
BPDUs (Bridge Protocol Data Units) transmitted from the Root Bridge. If a bridge
does not get a Hello BPDU after a predefined interval (Maximum Age), the bridge
assumes that the link to the Root Bridge is down. This bridge will then initiate
negotiations with other bridges to reconfigure the network to reestablish a valid
network topology.
RSTP – RSTP is designed as a general replacement for the slower, legacy STP.
RSTP is also incorporated into MSTP. RSTP achieves must faster reconfiguration
(i.e., around 1 to 3 seconds, compared to 30 seconds or more for STP) by reducing
the number of state changes before active ports start learning, predefining an
alternate route that can be used when a node or port fails, and retaining the
forwarding database for ports insensitive to changes in the tree structure when
reconfiguration occurs.
10-1
10
Spanning Tree Algorithm
MSTP – When using STP or RSTP, it may be difficult to maintain a stable path
between all VLAN members. Frequent changes in the tree structure can easily
isolate some of the group members. MSTP (which is based on RSTP for fast
convergence) is designed to support independent spanning trees based on VLAN
groups. Using multiple spanning trees can provide multiple forwarding paths and
enable load balancing. One or more VLANs can be grouped into a Multiple Spanning
Tree Instance (MSTI). MSTP builds a separate Multiple Spanning Tree (MST) for
each instance to maintain connectivity among each of the assigned VLAN groups.
MSTP then builds a Internal Spanning Tree (IST) for the Region containing all
commonly configured MSTP bridges.
IST
(for this Region)
MST 1
Region R
MST 2
An MST Region consists of a group of interconnected bridges that have the same
MST Configuration Identifiers (including the Region Name, Revision Level and
Configuration Digest – see "Configuring Multiple Spanning Trees" on page 16). An
MST Region may contain multiple MSTP Instances. An Internal Spanning Tree (IST)
is used to connect all the MSTP switches within an MST region. A Common
Spanning Tree (CST) interconnects all adjacent MST Regions, and acts as a virtual
bridge node for communications with STP or RSTP nodes in the global network.
Region 1
Region 1
CIST
CST
IST
Region 2
Region 4
Region 4
Region 3
Region 2
Region 3
MSTP connects all bridges and LAN segments with a single Common and Internal
Spanning Tree (CIST). The CIST is formed as a result of the running spanning tree
algorithm between switches that support the STP, RSTP, MSTP protocols.
10-2
Displaying Global Settings
10
Displaying Global Settings
You can display a summary of the current bridge STA information that applies to the
entire switch using the STA Information screen.
Field Attributes
• Spanning Tree State – Shows if the switch is enabled to participate in an
STA-compliant network.
• Bridge ID – A unique identifier for this bridge, consisting of the bridge priority, the
MST Instance ID 0 for the Common Spanning Tree when spanning tree mode is
set to MSTP (page 10-6), and MAC address (where the address is taken from the
switch system).
• Max Age – The maximum time (in seconds) a device can wait without receiving a
configuration message before attempting to reconfigure. All device ports (except
for designated ports) should receive configuration messages at regular intervals.
Any port that ages out STA information (provided in the last configuration
message) becomes the designated port for the attached LAN. If it is a root port, a
new root port is selected from among the device ports attached to the network.
(References to “ports” in this section mean “interfaces,” which includes both ports
and trunks.)
• Hello Time – Interval (in seconds) at which the root device transmits a
configuration message.
• Forward Delay – The maximum time (in seconds) the root device will wait before
changing states (i.e., discarding to learning to forwarding). This delay is required
because every device must receive information about topology changes before it
starts to forward frames. In addition, each port needs time to listen for conflicting
information that would make it return to a discarding state; otherwise, temporary
data loops might result.
• Designated Root – The priority and MAC address of the device in the Spanning
Tree that this switch has accepted as the root device.
- Root Port – The number of the port on this switch that is closest to the root. This
switch communicates with the root device through this port. If there is no root
port, then this switch has been accepted as the root device of the Spanning Tree
network.
- Root Path Cost – The path cost from the root port on this switch to the root
device.
• Configuration Changes – The number of times the Spanning Tree has been
reconfigured.
• Last Topology Change – Time since the Spanning Tree was last reconfigured.
These additional parameters are only displayed for the CLI:
• Spanning tree mode – Specifies the type of spanning tree used on this switch:
- STP: Spanning Tree Protocol (IEEE 802.1D)
- RSTP: Rapid Spanning Tree (IEEE 802.1w)
- MSTP: Multiple Spanning Tree (IEEE 802.1s)
10-3
10
Spanning Tree Algorithm
• Instance – Instance identifier of this spanning tree. (This is always 0 for the CIST.)
• VLANs configuration – VLANs assigned to the CIST.
• Priority – Bridge priority is used in selecting the root device, root port, and
designated port. The device with the highest priority (i.e., lower numeric value)
becomes the STA root device. However, if all devices have the same priority, the
device with the lowest MAC address will then become the root device.
• Root Hello Time – Interval (in seconds) at which this device transmits a
configuration message.
• Root Maximum Age – The maximum time (in seconds) this device can wait
without receiving a configuration message before attempting to reconfigure. All
device ports (except for designated ports) should receive configuration messages
at regular intervals. If the root port ages out STA information (provided in the last
configuration message), a new root port is selected from among the device ports
attached to the network. (References to “ports” in this section means “interfaces,”
which includes both ports and trunks.)
• Root Forward Delay – The maximum time (in seconds) this device will wait before
changing states (i.e., discarding to learning to forwarding). This delay is required
because every device must receive information about topology changes before it
starts to forward frames. In addition, each port needs time to listen for conflicting
information that would make it return to a discarding state; otherwise, temporary
data loops might result.
• Max hops – The max number of hop counts for the MST region.
• Remaining hops – The remaining number of hop counts for the MST instance.
• Transmission limit – The minimum interval between the transmission of
consecutive RSTP/MSTP BPDUs.
• Path Cost Method – The path cost is used to determine the best path between
devices. The path cost method is used to determine the range of values that can
be assigned to each interface.
Web – Click Spanning Tree, STA, Information.
Figure 10-1 STA Information
10-4
Displaying Global Settings
10
CLI – This command displays global STA settings, followed by settings for each port.
Console#show spanning-tree
Spanning-tree information
--------------------------------------------------------------Spanning Tree Mode:
RSTP
Spanning Tree Enabled/Disabled:
Enabled
Instance:
0
VLANs Configuration:
1-4093
Priority:
32768
Bridge Hello Time (sec.):
2
Bridge Max Age (sec.):
20
Bridge Forward Delay (sec.):
15
Root Hello Time (sec.):
2
Root Max Age (sec.):
20
Root Forward Delay (sec.):
15
Max Hops:
20
Remaining Hops:
20
Designated Root:
32768.0000E3111010
Current Root Port:
0
Current Root Cost:
0
Number of Topology Changes:
2
Last Topology Change Time (sec.): 2869
Transmission Limit:
3
Path Cost Method:
Long
33-18
--------------------------------------------------------------Eth 1/ 1 information
--------------------------------------------------------------Admin Status:
Enabled
Role:
root
State:
forwarding
External Admin Path Cost: 0
Internal Admin Path Cost: 0
External Oper Path Cost: 100000
Internal Oper Path Cost: 100000
Priority:
128
Designated Cost:
0
Designated Port:
128.1
Designated Root:
32768.0000E3111010
Designated Bridge:
32768.0000E3111010
Fast Forwarding:
Disabled
Forward Transitions:
1
Admin Edge Port:
Disabled
Oper Edge Port:
Disabled
Admin Link Type:
auto
Oper Link Type:
Point-to-point
Enabled
.Spanning Tree Status:
.
.
Note: The current root port and current root cost display as zero when this device is not
connected to the network.
10-5
10
Spanning Tree Algorithm
Configuring Global Settings
Global settings apply to the entire switch.
Command Usage
• Spanning Tree Protocol9
Uses RSTP for the internal state machine, but sends only 802.1D BPDUs. This
creates one spanning tree instance for the entire network. If multiple VLANs are
implemented on a network, the path between specific VLAN members may be
inadvertently disabled to prevent network loops, thus isolating group members.
When operating multiple VLANs, we recommend selecting the MSTP option.
• Rapid Spanning Tree Protocol9
RSTP supports connections to either STP or RSTP nodes by monitoring the
incoming protocol messages and dynamically adjusting the type of protocol
messages the RSTP node transmits, as described below:
- STP Mode – If the switch receives an 802.1D BPDU (i.e., STP BPDU) after a
port’s migration delay timer expires, the switch assumes it is connected to an
802.1D bridge and starts using only 802.1D BPDUs.
- RSTP Mode – If RSTP is using 802.1D BPDUs on a port and receives an RSTP
BPDU after the migration delay expires, RSTP restarts the migration delay timer
and begins using RSTP BPDUs on that port.
• Multiple Spanning Tree Protocol
- To allow multiple spanning trees to operate over the network, you must configure
a related set of bridges with the same MSTP configuration, allowing them to
participate in a specific set of spanning tree instances.
- A spanning tree instance can exist only on bridges that have compatible VLAN
instance assignments.
- Be careful when switching between spanning tree modes. Changing modes
stops all spanning-tree instances for the previous mode and restarts the system
in the new mode, temporarily disrupting user traffic.
Command Attributes
Basic Configuration of Global Settings
• Spanning Tree State – Enables/disables STA on this switch. (Default: Enabled)
• Spanning Tree Type – Specifies the type of spanning tree used on this switch:
- STP: Spanning Tree Protocol (IEEE 802.1D); i.e., when this option is selected,
the switch will use RSTP set to STP forced compatibility mode).
- RSTP: Rapid Spanning Tree (IEEE 802.1w); RSTP is the default.
- MSTP: Multiple Spanning Tree (IEEE 802.1s)
• Priority – Bridge priority is used in selecting the root device, root port, and
designated port. The device with the highest priority becomes the STA root device.
However, if all devices have the same priority, the device with the lowest MAC
9.
10-6
STP and RSTP BPDUs are transmitted as untagged frames, and will cross any VLAN
boundaries.
Configuring Global Settings
10
address will then become the root device. (Note that lower numeric values indicate
higher priority.)
• Default: 32768
• Range: 0-61440, in steps of 4096
• Options: 0, 4096, 8192, 12288, 16384, 20480, 24576, 28672, 32768, 36864,
40960, 45056, 49152, 53248, 57344, 61440
Root Device Configuration
• Hello Time – Interval (in seconds) at which the root device transmits a
configuration message.
• Default: 2
• Minimum: 1
• Maximum: The lower of 10 or [(Max. Message Age / 2) -1]
• Maximum Age – The maximum time (in seconds) a device can wait without
receiving a configuration message before attempting to reconfigure. All device
ports (except for designated ports) should receive configuration messages at
regular intervals. Any port that ages out STA information (provided in the last
configuration message) becomes the designated port for the attached LAN. If it is
a root port, a new root port is selected from among the device ports attached to the
network. (References to “ports” in this section mean “interfaces,” which includes
both ports and trunks.)
• Default: 20
• Minimum: The higher of 6 or [2 x (Hello Time + 1)].
• Maximum: The lower of 40 or [2 x (Forward Delay - 1)]
• Forward Delay – The maximum time (in seconds) this device will wait before
changing states (i.e., discarding to learning to forwarding). This delay is required
because every device must receive information about topology changes before it
starts to forward frames. In addition, each port needs time to listen for conflicting
information that would make it return to a discarding state; otherwise, temporary
data loops might result.
• Default: 15
• Minimum: The higher of 4 or [(Max. Message Age / 2) + 1]
• Maximum: 30
Configuration Settings for RSTP
The following attributes apply to both RSTP and MSTP:
• Path Cost Method – The path cost is used to determine the best path between
devices. The path cost method is used to determine the range of values that can
be assigned to each interface.
- Long: Specifies 32-bit based values that range from 1-200,000,000.
(This is the default.)
- Short: Specifies 16-bit based values that range from 1-65535.
• Transmission Limit – The maximum transmission rate for BPDUs is specified by
setting the minimum interval between the transmission of consecutive protocol
messages. (Range: 1-10; Default: 3)
10-7
10
Spanning Tree Algorithm
Configuration Settings for MSTP
• Max Instance Numbers – The maximum number of MSTP instances to which this
switch can be assigned. (Default: 33)
• Configuration Digest – An MD5 signature key that contains the VLAN ID to MST
ID mapping table. In other words, this key is a mapping of all VLANs to the CIST.
• Region Revision10 – The revision for this MSTI. (Range: 0-65535; Default: 0)
• Region Name10 – The name for this MSTI. (Maximum length: 32 characters)
• Max Hop Count – The maximum number of hops allowed in the MST region before
a BPDU is discarded. (Range: 1-40; Default: 20)
10. The MST name and revision number are both required to uniquely identify an MST region.
10-8
Configuring Global Settings
10
Web – Click Spanning Tree, STA, Configuration. Modify the required attributes, and
click Apply.
Figure 10-2 STA Global Configuration
10-9
10
Spanning Tree Algorithm
CLI – This example enables Spanning Tree Protocol, sets the mode to MST, and
then configures the STA and MSTP parameters.
Console(config)#spanning-tree
Console(config)#spanning-tree
Console(config)#spanning-tree
Console(config)#spanning-tree
Console(config)#spanning-tree
Console(config)#spanning-tree
Console(config)#spanning-tree
Console(config)#spanning-tree
Console(config)#spanning-tree
Console(config-mstp)#revision
Console(config-mstp)#name R&D
Console(config-mstp)#max-hops
Console(config-mstp)#
mode mstp
priority 40000
hello-time 5
max-age 38
forward-time 20
pathcost method long
transmission-limit 4
mst-configuration
1
30
33-2
33-2
33-6
33-4
33-5
33-4
33-6
33-7
33-7
33-10
33-9
33-11
Displaying Interface Settings
The STA Port Information and STA Trunk Information pages display the current
status of ports and trunks in the Spanning Tree.
Field Attributes
• Spanning Tree – Shows if STA has been enabled on this interface.
• STA Status – Displays current state of this port within the Spanning Tree:
- Discarding - Port receives STA configuration messages, but does not forward
packets.
- Learning - Port has transmitted configuration messages for an interval set by
the Forward Delay parameter without receiving contradictory information. Port
address table is cleared, and the port begins learning addresses.
- Forwarding - Port forwards packets, and continues learning addresses.
The rules defining port status are:
- A port on a network segment with no other STA compliant bridging device is
always forwarding.
- If two ports of a switch are connected to the same segment and there is no other
STA device attached to this segment, the port with the smaller ID forwards
packets and the other is discarding.
- All ports are discarding when the switch is booted, then some of them change
state to learning, and then to forwarding.
• Forward Transitions – The number of times this port has transitioned from the
Learning state to the Forwarding state.
• Designated Cost – The cost for a packet to travel from this port to the root in the
current Spanning Tree configuration. The slower the media, the higher the cost.
• Designated Bridge – The bridge priority and MAC address of the device through
which this port must communicate to reach the root of the Spanning Tree.
10-10
Displaying Interface Settings
10
• Designated Port – The port priority and number of the port on the designated
bridging device through which this switch must communicate with the root of the
Spanning Tree.
• Oper Path Cost – The contribution of this port to the path cost of paths towards
the spanning tree root which include this port.
• Oper Link Type – The operational point-to-point status of the LAN segment
attached to this interface. This parameter is determined by manual configuration or
by auto-detection, as described for Admin Link Type in STA Port Configuration on
page 10-13.
• Oper Edge Port – This parameter is initialized to the setting for Admin Edge Port
in STA Port Configuration on page 10-13 (i.e., true or false), but will be set to false
if a BPDU is received, indicating that another bridge is attached to this port.
• Port Role – Roles are assigned according to whether the port is part of the active
topology connecting the bridge to the root bridge (i.e., root port), connecting a LAN
through the bridge to the root bridge (i.e., designated port), or is the MSTI regional
root (i.e., master port); or is an alternate or backup port that may provide
connectivity if other bridges, bridge ports, or LANs fail or are removed. The role is
set to disabled (i.e., disabled port) if a port has no role within the spanning tree.
R: Root Port
A: Alternate Port
D: Designated Port
B: Backup Port
Alternate port receives more
useful BPDUs from another
bridge and is therefore not
selected as the designated
R
port.
R
A
D
x
R
A
x
Backup port receives more
useful BPDUs from the same
bridge and is therefore not
selected as the designated
port.
R
D
B
B
• Trunk Member – Indicates if a port is a member of a trunk.
(STA Port Information only)
10-11
10
Spanning Tree Algorithm
These additional parameters are only displayed for the CLI:
• Admin status – Shows if this interface is enabled.
• External path cost – The path cost for the IST. This parameter is used by the
STA to determine the best path between devices. Therefore, lower values should
be assigned to ports attached to faster media, and higher values assigned to ports
with slower media. (Path cost takes precedence over port priority.)
• Internal path cost – The path cost for the MST. See the preceding item.
• Priority – Defines the priority used for this port in the Spanning Tree Algorithm. If
the path cost for all ports on a switch is the same, the port with the highest priority
(i.e., lowest value) will be configured as an active link in the Spanning Tree. This
makes a port with higher priority less likely to be blocked if the Spanning Tree
Algorithm is detecting network loops. Where more than one port is assigned the
highest priority, the port with the lowest numeric identifier will be enabled.
• Designated root – The priority and MAC address of the device in the Spanning
Tree that this switch has accepted as the root device.
• Fast forwarding – This field provides the same information as Admin Edge port,
and is only included for backward compatibility with earlier products.
• Admin Edge Port – You can enable this option if an interface is attached to a LAN
segment that is at the end of a bridged LAN or to an end node. Since end nodes
cannot cause forwarding loops, they can pass directly through to the spanning tree
forwarding state. Specifying Edge Ports provides quicker convergence for devices
such as workstations or servers, retains the current forwarding database to reduce
the amount of frame flooding required to rebuild address tables during
reconfiguration events, does not cause the spanning tree to reconfigure when the
interface changes state, and also overcomes other STA-related timeout problems.
However, remember that Edge Port should only be enabled for ports connected to
an end-node device.
• Admin Link Type – The link type attached to this interface.
- Point-to-Point – A connection to exactly one other bridge.
- Shared – A connection to two or more bridges.
- Auto – The switch automatically determines if the interface is attached to a
point-to-point link or to shared media.
Web – Click Spanning Tree, STA, Port Information or STA Trunk Information.
Figure 10-3 STA Port Information
10-12
Configuring Interface Settings
10
CLI – This example shows the STA attributes for port 5.
Console#show spanning-tree ethernet 1/5
Eth 1/ 5 Information
-------------------------------------------------------------Admin Status:
Enabled
Role:
disable
State:
discarding
Admin Path Cost:
0
Oper Path Cost:
10000
Priority:
128
Designated Cost:
0
Designated Port:
128.5
Designated Root:
32768.0000E3111010
Designated Bridge:
32768.0000E3111010
Fast Forwarding:
Disabled
Forward Transitions:
0
Admin Edge Port:
Disabled
Oper Edge Port:
Disabled
Admin Link Type:
auto
Oper Link Type:
Point-to-point
Spanning Tree Status:
Enabled
Console#
Configuring Interface Settings
You can configure RSTP and MSTP attributes for specific interfaces, including port
priority, path cost, link type, and edge port. You may use a different priority or path
cost for ports of the same media type to indicate the preferred path, link type to
indicate a point-to-point connection or shared-media connection, and edge port to
indicate if the attached device can support fast forwarding. (References to “ports” in
this section means “interfaces,” which includes both ports and trunks.)
Command Attributes
The following attributes are read-only and cannot be changed:
• STA State – Displays current state of this port within the Spanning Tree.
(See Displaying Interface Settings on page 10-10 for additional information.)
• Discarding - Port receives STA configuration messages, but does not forward
packets.
• Learning - Port has transmitted configuration messages for an interval set by
the Forward Delay parameter without receiving contradictory information. Port
address table is cleared, and the port begins learning addresses.
• Forwarding - Port forwards packets, and continues learning addresses.
• Trunk11 – Indicates if a port is a member of a trunk.
11. STA Port Configuration only
10-13
10
Spanning Tree Algorithm
The following interface attributes can be configured:
• Spanning Tree – Enables/disables STA on this interface. (Default: Enabled)
• Priority – Defines the priority used for this port in the Spanning Tree Protocol. If
the path cost for all ports on a switch are the same, the port with the highest priority
(i.e., lowest value) will be configured as an active link in the Spanning Tree. This
makes a port with higher priority less likely to be blocked if the Spanning Tree
Protocol is detecting network loops. Where more than one port is assigned the
highest priority, the port with lowest numeric identifier will be enabled.
• Default: 128
• Range: 0-240, in steps of 16
• Admin Path Cost – This parameter is used by the STA to determine the best path
between devices. Therefore, lower values should be assigned to ports attached to
faster media, and higher values assigned to ports with slower media. (Path cost
takes precedence over port priority.) Note that when the Path Cost Method is set
to short (page 3-63), the maximum path cost is 65,535.
By default, the system automatically detects the speed and duplex mode used on
each port, and configures the path cost according to the values shown below. Path
cost “0” is used to indicate auto-configuration mode.
Table 10-4 Recommended STA Path Cost Range
Port Type
Short Path Cost*
(IEEE 802.1D-1998)
Long Path Cost*
(802.1D-2004)
Gigabit Ethernet
2,000-65,535
2,000-200,000
10G Ethernet
200-20,000
200-20,000
* Use the STA Configuration screen (page 10-6) to set the path cost method.
Table 10-5 Default STA Path Costs
Port Type
Short Path Cost*
(IEEE 802.1D-1998)
Long Path Cost*
(802.1D-2004)
Gigabit Ethernet
10,000
10,000
10G Ethernet
1,000
1,000
* Use the STA Configuration screen (page 10-6) to set the path cost method.
• Admin Link Type – The link type attached to this interface.
• Point-to-Point – A connection to exactly one other bridge.
• Shared – A connection to two or more bridges.
• Auto – The switch automatically determines if the interface is attached to a
point-to-point link or to shared media. (This is the default setting.)
• Admin Edge Port (Fast Forwarding) – You can enable this option if an interface is
attached to a LAN segment that is at the end of a bridged LAN or to an end node.
Since end nodes cannot cause forwarding loops, they can pass directly through to
the spanning tree forwarding state. Specifying Edge Ports provides quicker
convergence for devices such as workstations or servers, retains the current
10-14
Configuring Interface Settings
10
forwarding database to reduce the amount of frame flooding required to rebuild
address tables during reconfiguration events, does not cause the spanning tree to
initiate reconfiguration when the interface changes state, and also overcomes
other STA-related timeout problems. However, remember that Edge Port should
only be enabled for ports connected to an end-node device. (Default: Disabled)
• Migration – If at any time the switch detects STP BPDUs, including Configuration
or Topology Change Notification BPDUs, it will automatically set the selected
interface to forced STP-compatible mode. However, you can also use the Protocol
Migration button to manually re-check the appropriate BPDU format (RSTP or
STP-compatible) to send on the selected interfaces. (Default: Disabled)
Web – Click Spanning Tree, STA, Port Configuration or Trunk Configuration. Modify
the required attributes, then click Apply.
Figure 10-6 STA Port Configuration
CLI – This example sets STA attributes for port 7.
Console(config)#interface ethernet 1/7
Console(config-if)#no spanning-tree spanning-disabled
Console(config-if)#spanning-tree port-priority 0
Console(config-if)#spanning-tree cost 50
Console(config-if)#spanning-tree link-type auto
Console(config-if)#no spanning-tree edge-port
Console(config-if)#spanning-tree protocol-migration
Console(config-if)#
27-1
33-11
33-13
33-12
33-15
33-13
33-17
10-15
10
Spanning Tree Algorithm
Configuring Multiple Spanning Trees
MSTP generates a unique spanning tree for each instance. This provides multiple
pathways across the network, thereby balancing the traffic load, preventing
wide-scale disruption when a bridge node in a single instance fails, and allowing for
faster convergence of a new topology for the failed instance.
By default all VLANs are assigned to the Internal Spanning Tree (MST Instance 0)
that connects all bridges and LANs within the MST region. This switch supports up
to 33 instances. You should try to group VLANs which cover the same general area
of your network. However, remember that you must configure all bridges within the
same MSTI Region (page 10-8) with the same set of instances, and the same
instance (on each bridge) with the same set of VLANs. Also, note that RSTP treats
each MSTI region as a single node, connecting all regions to the Common Spanning
Tree.
To use multiple spanning trees:
1. Set the spanning tree type to MSTP (STA Configuration, page 10-6).
2. Enter the spanning tree priority for the selected MST instance (MSTP VLAN
Configuration).
3. Add the VLANs that will share this MSTI (MSTP VLAN Configuration).
Note: All VLANs are automatically added to the IST (Instance 0).
To ensure that the MSTI maintains connectivity across the network, you must
configure a related set of bridges with the same MSTI settings.
Command Attributes
• MST Instance – Instance identifier of this spanning tree. (Default: 0)
• Priority – The priority of a spanning tree instance. (Range: 0-61440 in steps of
4096; Options: 0, 4096, 8192, 12288, 16384, 20480, 24576, 28672, 32768, 36864,
40960, 45056, 49152, 53248, 57344, 61440; Default: 32768)
• VLANs in MST Instance – VLANs assigned this instance.
• MST ID – Instance identifier to configure. (Range: 0-4094; Default: 0)
• VLAN ID – VLAN to assign to this selected MST instance. (Range: 1-4093)
The other global attributes are described under “Displaying Global Settings,” page 10-3. The
attributes displayed by the CLI for individual interfaces are described under “Displaying Interface
Settings,” page 10-10
10-16
Configuring Multiple Spanning Trees
10
Web – Click Spanning Tree, MSTP, VLAN Configuration. Select an instance
identifier from the list, set the instance priority, and click Apply. To add the VLAN
members to an MSTI instance, enter the instance identifier, the VLAN identifier, and
click Add.
Figure 10-7 MSTP VLAN Configuration
CLI – This displays STA settings for instance 1, followed by settings for each port.
Console#show spanning-tree mst 1
Spanning-tree information
--------------------------------------------------------------Spanning Tree Mode:
MSTP
Spanning Tree Enabled/Disabled:
Enabled
Instance:
1
VLANs Configuration:
1
Priority:
32768
Bridge Hello Time (sec.):
2
Bridge Max Age (sec.):
20
Bridge Forward Delay (sec.):
15
Root Hello Time (sec.):
2
Root Max Age (sec.):
20
Root Forward Delay (sec.):
15
Max Hops:
20
Remaining Hops:
20
Designated Root:
32768.0000E3111010
Current Root Port:
0
Current Root Cost:
0
Number of Topology Changes:
1
Last Topology Change Time (sec.): 47
Transmission Limit:
3
Path Cost Method:
Long
33-18
10-17
10
Spanning Tree Algorithm
--------------------------------------------------------------Eth 1/ 7 information
--------------------------------------------------------------Admin Status:
Enabled
Role:
designate
State:
forwarding
External Admin Path Cost: 0
Internal Admin Path Cost: 0
External Oper Path Cost: 10000
Internal Oper Path Cost: 10000
Priority:
128
Designated Cost:
0
Designated Port:
128.23
Designated Root:
32768.0000E3111010
Designated Bridge:
32768.0000E3111010
Fast Forwarding:
Disabled
Forward Transitions:
2
Admin Edge Port:
Disabled
Oper Edge Port:
Disabled
Admin Link Type:
auto
Oper Link Type:
Point-to-point
Spanning Tree Status:
Enabled
.
.
.
CLI – This example sets the priority for MSTI 1, and adds VLANs 1-5 to this MSTI.
Console(config)#spanning-tree mst-configuration
Console(config-mst)#mst 1 priority 4096
Console(config-mstp)#mst 1 vlan 1-5
Console(config-mst)#
10-18
33-7
33-9
33-8
Displaying Interface Settings for MSTP
10
Displaying Interface Settings for MSTP
The MSTP Port Information and MSTP Trunk Information pages display the current
status of ports and trunks in the selected MST instance.
Field Attributes
MST Instance ID – Instance identifier to configure. (Range: 0-4094; Default: 0)
The other attributes are described under “Displaying Interface Settings,” page 10-10.
Web – Click Spanning Tree, MSTP, Port Information or Trunk Information. Select the
required MST instance to display the current spanning tree values.
Figure 10-8 MSTP Port Information
CLI – This displays STA settings for instance 0, followed by settings for each port.
The settings for instance 0 are global settings that apply to the IST (page 10-3), the
settings for other instances only apply to the local spanning tree.
Console#show spanning-tree mst 0
Spanning-tree information
--------------------------------------------------------------Spanning Tree Mode:
RSTP
Spanning Tree Enabled/Disabled:
Enabled
Instance:
0
VLANs Configuration:
1-4093
Priority:
32768
Bridge Hello Time (sec.):
2
Bridge Max Age (sec.):
20
Bridge Forward Delay (sec.):
15
Root Hello Time (sec.):
2
Root Max Age (sec.):
20
Root Forward Delay (sec.):
15
Max Hops:
20
Remaining Hops:
20
Designated Root:
32768.0000E3111010
Current Root Port:
0
Current Root Cost:
0
Number of Topology Changes:
2
Last Topology Change Time (sec.): 4912
Transmission Limit:
3
Path Cost Method:
Long
33-18
10-19
10
Spanning Tree Algorithm
--------------------------------------------------------------Eth 1/ 1 information
--------------------------------------------------------------Admin Status:
Enabled
Role:
designate
State:
forwarding
External Admin Path Cost: 0
Internal Admin Path Cost: 0
External Oper Path Cost: 10000
Internal Oper Path Cost: 10000
Priority:
128
Designated Cost:
0
Designated Port:
128.2
Designated Root:
32768.0000E3111010
Designated Bridge:
32768.0000E3111010
Fast Forwarding:
Disabled
Forward Transitions:
0
Admin Edge Port:
Disabled
Oper Edge Port:
Disabled
Admin Link Type:
auto
Oper Link Type:
Point-to-point
Spanning Tree Status:
Enabled
.
.
.
Configuring Interface Settings for MSTP
You can configure the STA interface settings for an MST Instance using the MSTP
Port Configuration and MSTP Trunk Configuration pages.
Field Attributes
The following attributes are read-only and cannot be changed:
• STA State – Displays current state of this port within the Spanning Tree.
(See Displaying Interface Settings on page 10-10 for additional information.)
• Discarding - Port receives STA configuration messages, but does not forward
packets.
• Learning - Port has transmitted configuration messages for an interval set by
the Forward Delay parameter without receiving contradictory information. Port
address table is cleared, and the port begins learning addresses.
• Forwarding - Port forwards packets, and continues learning addresses.
• Trunk – Indicates if a port is a member of a trunk.
(STA Port Configuration only)
The following interface attributes can be configured:
• MST Instance ID – Instance identifier to configure. (Range: 0-4094; Default: 0)
• Priority – Defines the priority used for this port in the Spanning Tree Protocol. If
the path cost for all ports on a switch are the same, the port with the highest priority
(i.e., lowest value) will be configured as an active link in the Spanning Tree. This
makes a port with higher priority less likely to be blocked if the Spanning Tree
10-20
Configuring Interface Settings for MSTP
10
Protocol is detecting network loops. Where more than one port is assigned the
highest priority, the port with lowest numeric identifier will be enabled.
• Default: 128
• Range: 0-240, in steps of 16
• Admin MST Path Cost – This parameter is used by the MSTP to determine the
best path between devices. Therefore, lower values should be assigned to ports
attached to faster media, and higher values assigned to ports with slower media.
(Path cost takes precedence over port priority.) Note that when the Path Cost
Method is set to short (page 3-63), the maximum path cost is 65,535.
By default, the system automatically detects the speed and duplex mode used on
each port, and configures the path cost according to the values shown below. Path
cost “0” is used to indicate auto-configuration mode.
Table 10-9 Recommended STA Path Cost Range
Port Type
Short Path Cost*
(IEEE 802.1D-1998)
Long Path Cost*
(802.1D-2004)
Gigabit Ethernet
2,000-65,535
2,000-200,000
10G Ethernet
200-20,000
200-20,000
* Use the STA Configuration screen (page 10-6) to set the path cost method.
Table 10-10 Default STA Path Costs
Port Type
Short Path Cost*
(IEEE 802.1D-1998)
Long Path Cost*
(802.1D-2004)
Gigabit Ethernet
10,000
10,000
10G Ethernet
1,000
1,000
* Use the STA Configuration screen (page 10-6) to set the path cost method.
Web – Click Spanning Tree, MSTP, Port Configuration or Trunk Configuration. Enter
the priority and path cost for an interface, and click Apply.
Figure 10-11 MSTP Port Configuration
10-21
10
Spanning Tree Algorithm
CLI – This example sets the MSTP attributes for port 4.
Console(config)#interface ethernet 1/4
Console(config-if)#spanning-tree mst port-priority 0
Console(config-if)#spanning-tree mst cost 50
Console(config-if)
10-22
27-1
33-17
33-16
Chapter 11: VLAN Configuration
IEEE 802.1Q VLANs
In large networks, routers are used to isolate broadcast traffic for each subnet into
separate domains. This switch provides a similar service at Layer 2 by using VLANs
to organize any group of network nodes into separate broadcast domains. VLANs
confine broadcast traffic to the originating group, and can eliminate broadcast
storms in large networks. This also provides a more secure and cleaner network
environment.
An IEEE 802.1Q VLAN is a group of ports that can be located anywhere in the
network, but communicate as though they belong to the same physical segment.
VLANs help to simplify network management by allowing you to move devices to a
new VLAN without having to change any physical connections. VLANs can be easily
organized to reflect departmental groups (such as Marketing or R&D), usage groups
(such as e-mail), or multicast groups (used for multimedia applications such as
videoconferencing).
VLANs provide greater network efficiency by reducing broadcast traffic, and allow
you to make network changes without having to update IP addresses or IP subnets.
VLANs inherently provide a high level of network security since traffic must pass
through a configured Layer 3 link to reach a different VLAN.
This switch supports the following VLAN features:
• Up to 4093 VLANs based on the IEEE 802.1Q standard
• Distributed VLAN learning across multiple switches using explicit or implicit tagging
and GVRP protocol
• Port overlapping, allowing a port to participate in multiple VLANs
• End stations can belong to multiple VLANs
• Passing traffic between VLAN-aware and VLAN-unaware devices
• Priority tagging
Assigning Ports to VLANs
Before enabling VLANs for the switch, you must first assign each port to the VLAN
group(s) in which it will participate. By default all ports are assigned to VLAN 1 as
untagged ports. Add a port as a tagged port if you want it to carry traffic for one or
more VLANs, and any intermediate network devices or the host at the other end of
the connection supports VLANs. Then assign ports on the other VLAN-aware
network devices along the path that will carry this traffic to the same VLAN(s), either
manually or dynamically using GVRP. However, if you want a port on this switch to
participate in one or more VLANs, but none of the intermediate network devices nor
the host at the other end of the connection supports VLANs, then you should add
this port to the VLAN as an untagged port.
11-1
11
VLAN Configuration
Note: VLAN-tagged frames can pass through VLAN-aware or VLAN-unaware network
interconnection devices, but the VLAN tags should be stripped off before passing it
on to any end-node host that does not support VLAN tagging.
tagged frames
VA
VA
VA: VLAN Aware
VU: VLAN Unaware
tagged
frames
VA
untagged
frames
VA
VU
VLAN Classification – When the switch receives a frame, it classifies the frame in
one of two ways. If the frame is untagged, the switch assigns the frame to an
associated VLAN (based on the default VLAN ID of the receiving port). But if the
frame is tagged, the switch uses the tagged VLAN ID to identify the port broadcast
domain of the frame.
Port Overlapping – Port overlapping can be used to allow access to commonly
shared network resources among different VLAN groups, such as file servers or
printers. Note that if you implement VLANs which do not overlap, but still need to
communicate, you can connect them by enabled routing on this switch.
Untagged VLANs – Untagged (or static) VLANs are typically used to reduce
broadcast traffic and to increase security. A group of network users assigned to a
VLAN form a broadcast domain that is separate from other VLANs configured on the
switch. Packets are forwarded only between ports that are designated for the same
VLAN. Untagged VLANs can be used to manually isolate user groups or subnets.
However, you should use IEEE 802.3 tagged VLANs with GVRP whenever possible
to fully automate VLAN registration.
Automatic VLAN Registration – GVRP (GARP VLAN Registration Protocol)
defines a system whereby the switch can automatically learn the VLANs to which
each end station should be assigned. If an end station (or its network adapter)
supports the IEEE 802.1Q VLAN protocol, it can be configured to broadcast a
message to your network indicating the VLAN groups it wants to join. When this
switch receives these messages, it will automatically place the receiving port in the
specified VLANs, and then forward the message to all other ports. When the
message arrives at another switch that supports GVRP, it will also place the
receiving port in the specified VLANs, and pass the message on to all other ports.
VLAN requirements are propagated in this way throughout the network. This allows
GVRP-compliant devices to be automatically configured for VLAN groups based
solely on endstation requests.
To implement GVRP in a network, first add the host devices to the required VLANs
(using the operating system or other application software), so that these VLANs can
be propagated onto the network. For both the edge switches attached directly to
11-2
IEEE 802.1Q VLANs
11
these hosts, and core switches in the network, enable GVRP on the links between
these devices. You should also determine security boundaries in the network and
disable GVRP on the boundary ports to prevent advertisements from being
propagated, or forbid those ports from joining restricted VLANs.
Note: If you have host devices that do not support GVRP, you should configure static or
untagged VLANs for the switch ports connected to these devices (as described in
"Adding Static Members to VLANs (VLAN Index)" on page 11-8). But you can still
enable GVRP on these edge switches, as well as on the core switches in the
network.
Port-based VLAN
2
1
9
10 11
3
4
5
13
12
14
6
15 16
7
8
18
19
Forwarding Tagged/Untagged Frames
If you want to create a small port-based VLAN for devices attached directly to a
single switch, you can assign ports to the same untagged VLAN. However, to
participate in a VLAN group that crosses several switches, you should create a
VLAN for that group and enable tagging on all ports.
Ports can be assigned to multiple tagged or untagged VLANs. Each port on the
switch is therefore capable of passing tagged or untagged frames. When forwarding
a frame from this switch along a path that contains any VLAN-aware devices, the
switch should include VLAN tags. When forwarding a frame from this switch along a
path that does not contain any VLAN-aware devices (including the destination host),
the switch must first strip off the VLAN tag before forwarding the frame. When the
switch receives a tagged frame, it will pass this frame onto the VLAN(s) indicated by
the frame tag. However, when this switch receives an untagged frame from a
VLAN-unaware device, it first decides where to forward the frame, and then inserts a
VLAN tag reflecting the ingress port’s default VID.
11-3
11
VLAN Configuration
Enabling or Disabling GVRP (Global Setting)
GARP VLAN Registration Protocol (GVRP) defines a way for switches to exchange
VLAN information in order to register VLAN members on ports across the network.
VLANs are dynamically configured based on join messages issued by host devices
and propagated throughout the network. GVRP must be enabled to permit automatic
VLAN registration, and to support VLANs which extend beyond the local switch.
(Default: Disabled)
Web – Click VLAN, 802.1Q VLAN, GVRP Status. Enable or disable GVRP, click
Apply
Figure 11-1 Globally Enabling GVRP
CLI – This example enables GVRP for the switch.
Console(config)#bridge-ext gvrp
Console(config)#
34-2
Displaying Basic VLAN Information
The VLAN Basic Information page displays basic information on the VLAN type
supported by the switch.
Field Attributes
• VLAN Version Number12 – The VLAN version used by this switch as specified in
the IEEE 802.1Q standard.
• Maximum VLAN ID – Maximum VLAN ID recognized by this switch.
• Maximum Number of Supported VLANs – Maximum number of VLANs that can
be configured on this switch.
Web – Click VLAN, 802.1Q VLAN, Basic Information.
Figure 11-2 VLAN Basic Information
12. Web Only.
11-4
IEEE 802.1Q VLANs
11
CLI – Enter the following command.
Console#show bridge-ext
Max support VLAN numbers:
Max support VLAN ID:
Extended multicast filtering services:
Static entry individual port:
VLAN learning:
Configurable PVID tagging:
Local VLAN capable:
Traffic classes:
Global GVRP status:
GMRP:
Console#
34-2
4096
4093
No
Yes
IVL
Yes
No
Enabled
Disabled
Disabled
Displaying Current VLANs
The VLAN Current Table shows the current port members of each VLAN and
whether or not the port supports VLAN tagging. Ports assigned to a large VLAN
group that crosses several switches should use VLAN tagging. However, if you just
want to create a small port-based VLAN for one or two switches, you can disable
tagging.
Command Attributes (Web)
• VLAN ID – ID of configured VLAN (1-4093).
• Up Time at Creation – Time this VLAN was created (i.e., System Up Time).
• Status – Shows how this VLAN was added to the switch.
- Dynamic GVRP: Automatically learned via GVRP.
- Permanent: Added as a static entry.
• Egress Ports – Shows all the VLAN port members.
• Untagged Ports – Shows the untagged VLAN port members.
Web – Click VLAN, 802.1Q VLAN, Current Table. Select any ID from the scroll-down
list.
Figure 11-3 VLAN Current Table
11-5
11
VLAN Configuration
Command Attributes (CLI)
• VLAN – ID of configured VLAN (1-4093, no leading zeroes).
• Type – Shows how this VLAN was added to the switch.
- Dynamic: Automatically learned via GVRP.
- Static: Added as a static entry.
• Name – Name of the VLAN (1 to 32 characters).
• Status – Shows if this VLAN is enabled or disabled.
- Active: VLAN is operational.
- Suspend: VLAN is suspended; i.e., does not pass packets.
• Ports / Channel groups – Shows the VLAN interface members.
CLI – Current VLAN information can be displayed with the following command.
34-13
Console#show vlan id 1
VLAN ID:
Type:
Name:
Status:
Ports/Port Channels:
1
Static
DefaultVlan
Active
Eth2/ 1(S) Eth2/ 2(S)
Eth2/ 6(S) Eth2/ 7(S)
Eth2/11(S) Eth2/12(S)
Eth2/16(S) Eth2/17(S)
Eth2/21(S) Eth2/22(S)
Eth2/26(S) Eth2/27(S)
Eth2/31(S) Eth2/32(S)
Eth2/36(S) Eth2/37(S)
Eth2/41(S) Eth2/42(S)
Eth2/46(S) Eth2/47(S)
Eth2/ 3(S)
Eth2/ 8(S)
Eth2/13(S)
Eth2/18(S)
Eth2/23(S)
Eth2/28(S)
Eth2/33(S)
Eth2/38(S)
Eth2/43(S)
Eth2/48(S)
Eth2/ 4(S)
Eth2/ 9(S)
Eth2/14(S)
Eth2/19(S)
Eth2/24(S)
Eth2/29(S)
Eth2/34(S)
Eth2/39(S)
Eth2/44(S)
Eth2/49(S)
Eth2/ 5(S)
Eth2/10(S)
Eth2/15(S)
Eth2/20(S)
Eth2/25(S)
Eth2/30(S)
Eth2/35(S)
Eth2/40(S)
Eth2/45(S)
Eth2/50(S)
Console#
Creating VLANs
Use the VLAN Static List to create or remove VLAN groups. To propagate
information about VLAN groups used on this switch to external network devices, you
must specify a VLAN ID for each of these groups.
Command Attributes
• Current – Lists all the current VLAN groups created for this system. Up to 4093
VLAN groups can be defined. VLAN 1 is the default untagged VLAN.
• New – Allows you to specify the name and numeric identifier for a new VLAN
group. (The VLAN name is only used for management on this system; it is not
added to the VLAN tag.)
• VLAN ID – ID of configured VLAN (1-4093).
• VLAN Name – Name of the VLAN (1 to 32 characters).
• Status (Web) – Enables or disables the specified VLAN.
- Enable: VLAN is operational.
- Disable: VLAN is suspended; i.e., does not pass packets.
11-6
IEEE 802.1Q VLANs
11
• State (CLI) – Enables or disables the specified VLAN.
- Active: VLAN is operational.
- Suspend: VLAN is suspended; i.e., does not pass packets.
• Add – Adds a new VLAN group to the current list.
• Remove – Removes a VLAN group from the current list. If any port is assigned to
this group as untagged, it will be reassigned to VLAN group 1 as untagged.
Web – Click VLAN, 802.1Q VLAN, Static List. To create a new VLAN, enter the
VLAN ID and VLAN name, mark the Enable checkbox to activate the VLAN, and
then click Add.
Figure 11-4 VLAN Static List - Creating VLANs
CLI – This example creates a new VLAN.
Console(config)#vlan database
Console(config-vlan)#vlan 2 name R&D media ethernet state active
Console(config-vlan)#end
Console#show vlan
VLAN ID:
Type:
Name:
Status:
Ports/Port Channels:
.
.
VLAN ID:
Type:
Name:
Status:
Ports/Port Channels:
1
Static
DefaultVlan
Active
Eth1/ 1(S) Eth1/ 2(S)
Eth1/ 6(S) Eth1/ 7(S)
Eth1/13(S) Eth1/14(S)
Eth1/18(S) Eth1/19(S)
Eth1/23(S) Eth1/24(S)
Eth1/28(S) Eth1/29(S)
Eth1/33(S) Eth1/34(S)
Eth1/38(S) Eth1/39(S)
Eth1/43(S) Eth1/44(S)
Eth1/48(S) Eth1/49(S)
Trunk 1(S).
Eth1/ 3(S)
Eth1/ 8(S)
Eth1/15(S)
Eth1/20(S)
Eth1/25(S)
Eth1/30(S)
Eth1/35(S)
Eth1/40(S)
Eth1/45(S)
Eth1/50(S)
Eth1/ 4(S)
Eth1/11(S)
Eth1/16(S)
Eth1/21(S)
Eth1/26(S)
Eth1/31(S)
Eth1/36(S)
Eth1/41(S)
Eth1/46(S)
34-5
34-6
34-13
Eth1/ 5(S)
Eth1/12(S)
Eth1/17(S)
Eth1/22(S)
Eth1/27(S)
Eth1/32(S)
Eth1/37(S)
Eth1/42(S)
Eth1/47(S)
2
Static
R&D
Active
Console#
11-7
11
VLAN Configuration
Adding Static Members to VLANs (VLAN Index)
Use the VLAN Static Table to configure port members for the selected VLAN index.
Assign ports as tagged if they are connected to 802.1Q VLAN compliant devices, or
untagged they are not connected to any VLAN-aware devices. Or configure a port
as forbidden to prevent the switch from automatically adding it to a VLAN via the
GVRP protocol.
Notes: 1. You can also use the VLAN Static Membership by Port page to configure
VLAN groups based on the port index (page 9). However, note that this
configuration page can only add ports to a VLAN as tagged members.
2. VLAN 1 is the default untagged VLAN containing all ports on the switch, and
can only be modified by first reassigning the default port VLAN ID as
described under "Configuring VLAN Behavior for Interfaces" on page 11-10.
Command Attributes
• VLAN – ID of configured VLAN (1-4093).
• Name – Name of the VLAN (1 to 32 characters).
• Status – Enables or disables the specified VLAN.
- Enable: VLAN is operational.
- Disable: VLAN is suspended; i.e., does not pass packets.
• Port – Port identifier.
• Trunk – Trunk identifier.
• Membership Type – Select VLAN membership for each interface by marking the
appropriate radio button for a port or trunk:
- Tagged: Interface is a member of the VLAN. All packets transmitted by the port
will be tagged, that is, carry a tag and therefore carry VLAN or CoS information.
- Untagged: Interface is a member of the VLAN. All packets transmitted by the
port will be untagged, that is, not carry a tag and therefore not carry VLAN or
CoS information. Note that an interface must be assigned to at least one group
as an untagged port.
- Forbidden: Interface is forbidden from automatically joining the VLAN via
GVRP. For more information, see “Automatic VLAN Registration” on page 11-2.
- None: Interface is not a member of the VLAN. Packets associated with this
VLAN will not be transmitted by the interface.
• Trunk Member – Indicates if a port is a member of a trunk. To add a trunk to the
selected VLAN, use the last table on the VLAN Static Table page.
11-8
IEEE 802.1Q VLANs
11
Web – Click VLAN, 802.1Q VLAN, Static Table. Select a VLAN ID from the
scroll-down list. Modify the VLAN name and status if required. Select the
membership type by marking the appropriate radio button in the list of ports or
trunks. Click Apply.
Figure 11-5 VLAN Static Table - Adding Static Members
CLI – The following example adds tagged and untagged ports to VLAN 2.
Console(config)#interface ethernet 1/1
Console(config-if)#switchport allowed vlan add 2 tagged
Console(config-if)#exit
Console(config)#interface ethernet 1/2
Console(config-if)#switchport allowed vlan add 2 untagged
Console(config-if)#exit
Console(config)#interface ethernet 1/13
Console(config-if)#switchport allowed vlan add 2 tagged
Console(config-if)#
27-1
34-11
Adding Static Members to VLANs (Port Index)
Use the VLAN Static Membership by Port menu to assign VLAN groups to the
selected interface as a tagged member.
Command Attributes
• Interface – Port or trunk identifier.
• Member – VLANs for which the selected interface is a tagged member.
• Non-Member – VLANs for which the selected interface is not a tagged member.
Web – Open VLAN, 802.1Q VLAN, Static Membership by Port. Select an interface
from the scroll-down box (Port or Trunk). Click Query to display membership
information for the interface. Select a VLAN ID, and then click Add to add the
11-9
11
VLAN Configuration
interface as a tagged member, or click Remove to remove the interface. After
configuring VLAN membership for each interface, click Apply.
Figure 11-6 VLAN Static Membership by Port
CLI – This example adds Port 3 to VLAN 1 as a tagged port, and removes Port 3
from VLAN 2.
Console(config)#interface ethernet 1/3
Console(config-if)#switchport allowed vlan add 1 tagged
Console(config-if)#switchport allowed vlan remove 2
Console(config-if)#
27-1
34-11
Configuring VLAN Behavior for Interfaces
You can configure VLAN behavior for specific interfaces, including the default VLAN
identifier (PVID), accepted frame types, ingress filtering, GVRP status, and GARP
timers.
Command Usage
• GVRP – GARP VLAN Registration Protocol defines a way for switches to
exchange VLAN information in order to automatically register VLAN members on
interfaces across the network.
• GARP – Group Address Registration Protocol is used by GVRP to register or
deregister client attributes for client services within a bridged LAN. The default
values for the GARP timers are independent of the media access method or data
rate. These values should not be changed unless you are experiencing difficulties
with GVRP registration/deregistration.
Command Attributes
• PVID – VLAN ID assigned to untagged frames received on the interface. (Default: 1)
- If an interface is not a member of VLAN 1 and you assign its PVID to this VLAN,
the interface will automatically be added to VLAN 1 as an untagged member. For
all other VLANs, an interface must first be configured as an untagged member
before you can assign its PVID to that group.
• Acceptable Frame Type – Sets the interface to accept all frame types, including
tagged or untagged frames, or only tagged frames. When set to receive all frame
11-10
IEEE 802.1Q VLANs
11
types, any received frames that are untagged are assigned to the default VLAN.
(Option: All, Tagged; Default: All)
• Ingress Filtering – Determines how to process frames tagged for VLANs for which
the ingress port is not a member. (Default: Disabled)
- Ingress filtering only affects tagged frames.
- If ingress filtering is disabled and a port receives frames tagged for VLANs for
which it is not a member, these frames will be flooded to all other ports (except
for those VLANs explicitly forbidden on this port).
- If ingress filtering is enabled and a port receives frames tagged for VLANs for
which it is not a member, these frames will be discarded.
- Ingress filtering does not affect VLAN independent BPDU frames, such as GVRP
or STP. However, they do affect VLAN dependent BPDU frames, such as GMRP.
• GVRP Status – Enables/disables GVRP for the interface. GVRP must be globally
enabled for the switch before this setting can take effect. (See "Displaying Bridge
Extension Capabilities" on page 4-4.) When disabled, any GVRP packets received
on this port will be discarded and no GVRP registrations will be propagated from
other ports. (Default: Disabled)
• GARP Join Timer13 – The interval between transmitting requests/queries to
participate in a VLAN group. (Range: 20-1000 centiseconds; Default: 20)
• GARP Leave Timer13 – The interval a port waits before leaving a VLAN group.
This time should be set to more than twice the join time. This ensures that after a
Leave or LeaveAll message has been issued, the applicants can rejoin before the
port actually leaves the group. (Range: 60-3000 centiseconds; Default: 60)
• GARP LeaveAll Timer13 – The interval between sending out a LeaveAll query
message for VLAN group participants and the port leaving the group. This interval
should be considerably larger than the Leave Time to minimize the amount of traffic
generated by nodes rejoining the group.
(Range: 500-18000 centiseconds; Default: 1000)
• Mode – Indicates VLAN membership mode for an interface. (Default: Hybrid)
- 1Q Trunk – Specifies a port as an end-point for a VLAN trunk. A trunk is a direct
link between two switches, so the port transmits tagged frames that identify the
source VLAN. Note that frames belonging to the port’s default VLAN (i.e.,
associated with the PVID) are also transmitted as tagged frames.
- Hybrid – Specifies a hybrid VLAN interface. The port may transmit tagged or
untagged frames.
• Trunk Member – Indicates if a port is a member of a trunk. To add a trunk to the
selected VLAN, use the last table on the VLAN Static Table page.
13. Timer settings must follow this rule: 2 x (join timer) < leave timer < leaveAll timer
11-11
11
VLAN Configuration
Web – Click VLAN, 802.1Q VLAN, Port Configuration or Trunk Configuration. Fill in
the required settings for each interface, click Apply.
Figure 11-7 VLAN Port Configuration
CLI – This example sets port 3 to accept only tagged frames, assigns PVID 3 as the
native VLAN ID, enables GVRP, sets the GARP timers, and then sets the switchport
mode to hybrid.
Console(config)#interface ethernet 1/3
Console(config-if)#switchport acceptable-frame-types tagged
Console(config-if)#switchport ingress-filtering
Console(config-if)#switchport native vlan 3
Console(config-if)#switchport gvrp
Console(config-if)#garp timer join 20
Console(config-if)#garp timer leave 90
Console(config-if)#garp timer leaveall 2000
Console(config-if)#switchport mode hybrid
Console(config-if)#
27-1
34-9
34-9
34-10
34-3
34-4
34-8
Configuring IEEE 802.1Q Tunneling
IEEE 802.1Q Tunneling (QinQ) is designed for service providers carrying traffic for
multiple customers across their networks. QinQ tunneling is used to maintain
customer-specific VLAN and Layer 2 protocol configurations even when different
customers use the same internal VLAN IDs. This is accomplished by inserting
Service Provider VLAN (SPVLAN) tags into the customer’s frames when they enter
the service provider’s network, and then stripping the tags when the frames leave
the network.
A service provider’s customers may have specific requirements for their internal
VLAN IDs and number of VLANs supported. VLAN ranges required by different
customers in the same service-provider network might easily overlap, and traffic
passing through the infrastructure might be mixed. Assigning a unique range of
11-12
Configuring IEEE 802.1Q Tunneling
11
VLAN IDs to each customer would restrict customer configurations, require intensive
processing of VLAN mapping tables, and could easily exceed the maximum VLAN
limit of 4096.
QinQ tunneling uses a single Service Provider VLAN (SPVLAN) for customers who
have multiple VLANs. Customer VLAN IDs are preserved and traffic from different
customers is segregated within the service provider’s network even when they use
the same customer-specific VLAN IDs. QinQ tunneling expands VLAN space by
using a VLAN-in-VLAN hierarchy, preserving the customer’s original tagged packets,
and adding SPVLAN tags to each frame (also called double tagging).
A port configured to support QinQ tunneling must be set to tunnel port mode. The
Service Provider VLAN (SPVLAN) ID for the specific customer must be assigned to
the QinQ tunnel access port on the edge switch where the customer traffic enters
the service provider’s network. Each customer requires a separate SPVLAN, but this
VLAN supports all of the customer's internal VLANs. The QinQ tunnel uplink port
that passes traffic from the edge switch into the service provider’s metro network
must also be added to this SPVLAN. The uplink port can be added to multiple
SPVLANs to carry inbound traffic for different customers onto the service provider’s
network.
When a double-tagged packet enters another trunk port in an intermediate or core
switch in the service provider’s network, the outer tag is stripped for packet
processing. When the packet exits another trunk port on the same core switch, the
same SPVLAN tag is again added to the packet.
When a packet enters the trunk port on the service provider’s egress switch, the
outer tag is again stripped for packet processing. However, the SPVLAN tag is not
added when it is sent out the tunnel access port on the edge switch into the
customer’s network. The packet is sent as a normal IEEE 802.1Q-tagged frame,
preserving the original VLAN numbers used in the customer’s network.
Customer A
(VLANs 1-10)
Customer A
(VLANs 1-10)
QinQ Tunneling
VLAN 10
Tunnel Access Port
Tunnel Access Port
VLAN 20
Customer B
(VLANs 1-50)
Service Provider
(edge switch A)
Service Provider
(edge switch B)
Tunnel Uplink Ports
Double-Tagged Packets
Outer Tag - Service Provider VID
Inner Tag - Customer VID
VLAN 10
Tunnel Access Port
Tunnel Access Port
VLAN 20
Customer B
(VLANs 1-50)
Layer 2 Flow for Packets Coming into a Tunnel Access Port
11-13
11
VLAN Configuration
A QinQ tunnel port may receive either tagged or untagged packets. No matter how
many tags the incoming packet has, it is treated as tagged packet.
The ingress process does source and destination lookups. If both lookups are
successful, the ingress process writes the packet to memory. Then the egress
process transmits the packet. Packets entering a QinQ tunnel port are processed in
the following manner:
1. New SPVLAN tags are added to all incoming packets, no matter how many tags
they already have. The ingress process constructs and inserts the outer tag
(SPVLAN) into the packet based on the default VLAN ID and Tag Protocol
Identifier (TPID, that is, the ether-type of the tag). This outer tag is used for
learning and switching packets. The priority of the inner tag is copied to the outer
tag if it is a tagged or priority tagged packet.
2. After successful source and destination lookup, the ingress process sends the
packet to the switching process with two tags. If the incoming packet is
untagged, the outer tag is an SPVLAN tag, and the inner tag is a dummy tag
(8100 0000). If the incoming packet is tagged, the outer tag is an SPVLAN tag,
and the inner tag is a CVLAN tag.
3. After packet classification through the switching process, the packet is written to
memory with one tag (an outer tag) or with two tags (both an outer tag and inner
tag).
4. The switch sends the packet to the proper egress port.
5. If the egress port is an untagged member of the SPVLAN, the outer tag will be
stripped. If it is a tagged member, the outgoing packets will have two tags.
Layer 2 Flow for Packets Coming into a Tunnel Uplink Port
An uplink port receives one of the following packets:
• Untagged
• One tag (CVLAN or SPVLAN)
• Double tag (CVLAN + SPVLAN)
The ingress process does source and destination lookups. If both lookups are
successful, the ingress process writes the packet to memory. Then the egress
process transmits the packet. Packets entering a QinQ uplink port are processed in
the following manner:
1. If incoming packets are untagged, the PVID VLAN native tag is added.
2. If the ether-type of an incoming packet (single or double tagged) is not equal to
the TPID of the uplink port, the VLAN tag is determined to be a Customer VLAN
(CVLAN) tag. The uplink port’s PVID VLAN native tag is added to the packet.
This outer tag is used for learning and switching packets within the service
provider’s network. The TPID must be configured on a per port basis, and the
verification cannot be disabled.
3. If the ether-type of an incoming packet (single or double tagged) is equal to the
TPID of the uplink port, no new VLAN tag is added. If the uplink port is not the
11-14
Configuring IEEE 802.1Q Tunneling
11
member of the outer VLAN of the incoming packets, the packet will be dropped
when ingress filtering is enabled. If ingress filtering is not enabled, the packet will
still be forwarded. If the VLAN is not listed in the VLAN table, the packet will be
dropped.
4. After successful source and destination lookups, the packet is double tagged.
The switch uses the TPID of 0x8100 to indicate that an incoming packet is
double-tagged. If the outer tag of an incoming double-tagged packet is equal to
the port TPID and the inner tag is 0x8100, it is treated as a double-tagged
packet. If a single-tagged packet has 0x8100 as its TPID, and port TPID is not
0x8100, a new VLAN tag is added and it is also treated as double-tagged packet.
5. If the destination address lookup fails, the packet is sent to all member ports of
the outer tag's VLAN.
6. After packet classification, the packet is written to memory for processing as a
single-tagged or double-tagged packet.
7. The switch sends the packet to the proper egress port.
8. If the egress port is an untagged member of the SPVLAN, the outer tag will be
stripped. If it is a tagged member, the outgoing packet will have two tags.
Configuration Limitations for QinQ
• The native VLAN of uplink ports should not be used as the SPVLAN. If the SPVLAN
is the uplink port's native VLAN, the uplink port must be an untagged member of
the SPVLAN. Then the outer SPVLAN tag will be stripped when the packets are
sent out. Another reason is that it causes non-customer packets to be forwarded
to the SPVLAN.
• Static trunk port groups are compatible with QinQ tunnel ports as long as the QinQ
configuration is consistent within a trunk port group.
• The native VLAN (VLAN 1) is not normally added to transmitted frames. Avoid
using VLAN 1 as an SPVLAN tag for customer traffic to reduce the risk of
misconfiguration. Instead, use VLAN 1 as a management VLAN instead of a data
VLAN in the service provider network.
• There are some inherent incompatibilities between Layer 2 and Layer 3 switching:
- Tunnel ports do not support IP Access Control Lists.
- Layer 3 Quality of Service (QoS) and other QoS features containing Layer 3
information are not supported on tunnel ports.
- Spanning tree bridge protocol data unit (BPDU) filtering is automatically disabled
on a tunnel port.
General Configuration Guidelines for QinQ
1. Configure the switch to QinQ mode (see "Enabling QinQ Tunneling on the
Switch" on page 11-16).
2. Set the Tag Protocol Identifier (TPID) value of the tunnel access port. This step is
required if the attached client is using a nonstandard 2-byte ethertype to identify
802.1Q tagged frames. The default ethertype value is 0x8100. (See "Adding an
11-15
11
VLAN Configuration
Interface to a QinQ Tunnel" on page 11-17.)
3. Create a Service Provider VLAN, also referred to as an SPVLAN (see "Creating
VLANs" on page 11-6).
4. Configure the QinQ tunnel access port to 802.1Q Tunnel mode (see "Adding an
Interface to a QinQ Tunnel" on page 11-17).
5. Configure the QinQ tunnel access port to join the SPVLAN as an untagged
member (see "Adding Static Members to VLANs (VLAN Index)" on page 11-8).
6. Configure the SPVLAN ID as the native VID on the QinQ tunnel access port (see
"Configuring VLAN Behavior for Interfaces" on page 11-10).
7. Configure the QinQ tunnel uplink port to 802.1Q Tunnel Uplink mode (see
"Adding an Interface to a QinQ Tunnel" on page 11-17).
8. Configure the QinQ tunnel uplink port to join the SPVLAN as a tagged member
(see "Adding Static Members to VLANs (VLAN Index)" on page 11-8).
Enabling QinQ Tunneling on the Switch
The switch can be configured to operate in normal VLAN mode or IEEE 802.1Q
(QinQ) tunneling mode which is used for passing Layer 2 traffic across a service
provider’s metropolitan area network. You can also globally set the Tag Protocol
Identifier (TPID) value of the tunnel port if the attached client is using a nonstandard
2-byte ethertype to identify 802.1Q tagged frames.
Command Usage
• Use the TPID field to set a custom 802.1Q ethertype value on the selected
interface. This feature allows the switch to interoperate with third-party switches
that do not use the standard 0x8100 ethertype to identify 802.1Q-tagged frames.
For example, if 0x1234 is set as the custom 802.1Q ethertype on a trunk port,
incoming frames containing that ethertype are assigned to the VLAN contained in
the tag following the ethertype field, as they would be with a standard 802.1Q trunk.
Frames arriving on the port containing any other ethertype are looked upon as
untagged frames, and assigned to the native VLAN of that port.
• All ports on the switch will be set to the same ethertype.
Command Attributes
• 802.1Q Tunnel Status – Sets the switch to QinQ mode, and allows the QinQ
tunnel port to be configured. The default is for the switch to function in normal
mode.
• 802.1Q Ethernet Type – The Tag Protocol Identifier (TPID) specifies the ethertype
of incoming packets on a tunnel port. (Range: hexadecimal 0800-FFFF;
Default: 8100)
11-16
Configuring IEEE 802.1Q Tunneling
11
Web – Click VLAN, 802.1Q VLAN, 802.1Q Tunnel Configuration. Check the Enabled
box, set the TPID of the ports if the client is using a non-standard ethertype to
identify 802.1Q tagged frames, and click Apply.
Figure 11-1 802.1Q Tunnel Status and Ethernet Type
CLI – This example sets the switch to operate in QinQ mode.
34-15
34-16
Console(config)#dot1q-tunnel system-tunnel-control
Console(config-if)#switchport dot1q-tunnel tpid 9100
Console(config)#exit
Console#show dot1q-tunnel
34-17
Current double-tagged status of the system is Enabled
The
The
The
The
The
.
.
.
dot1q-tunnel
dot1q-tunnel
dot1q-tunnel
dot1q-tunnel
dot1q-tunnel
mode
mode
mode
mode
mode
of
of
of
of
of
the
the
the
the
the
set
set
set
set
set
interface
interface
interface
interface
interface
1/1
1/2
1/3
1/4
1/5
is
is
is
is
is
Access
Uplink
Normal
Normal
Normal
mode,
mode,
mode,
mode,
mode,
TPID
TPID
TPID
TPID
TPID
is
is
is
is
is
0x9100.
0x9100.
0x9100.
0x9100.
0x9100.
Adding an Interface to a QinQ Tunnel
Follow the guidelines in the preceding section to set up a QinQ tunnel on the switch.
Use the VLAN Port Configuration or VLAN Trunk Configuration screen to set the
access port on the edge switch to 802.1Q Tunnel mode.
Command Usage
• Use the 802.1Q Tunnel Status screen to set the switch to QinQ mode before
configuring a tunnel port (see "Enabling QinQ Tunneling on the Switch" on page
11-16). Also set the Tag Protocol Identifier (TPID) value of the tunnel port if the
attached client is using a nonstandard 2-byte ethertype to identify 802.1Q tagged
frames (see "Enabling QinQ Tunneling on the Switch" on page 11-16).
• Set the mode to 802.1Q Tunnel (access) or 802.1Q Tunnel Uplink.
Command Attributes
Mode – Set the VLAN membership mode of the port.
• None – The port operates in its normal VLAN mode. (This is the default.)
• 802.1Q Tunnel – Configures IEEE 802.1Q tunneling (QinQ) for a client access port
to segregate and preserve customer VLAN IDs for traffic crossing the service
provider network.
• 802.1Q Tunnel Uplink – Configures IEEE 802.1Q tunneling (QinQ) for an uplink
port to another device within the service provider network.
• Trunk Member – Shows if a port is a member or a trunk.
11-17
11
VLAN Configuration
Web – Click VLAN, 802.1Q VLAN, 802.1Q Tunnel Configuration or Tunnel Trunk
Configuration. Set the mode for a tunnel access port to 802.1Q Tunnel and a tunnel
uplink port to 802.1Q Tunnel Uplink. Click Apply.
Figure 11-2 Tunnel Port Configuration
CLI – This example sets port 2 to tunnel access mode, and sets port 3 to tunnel
uplink mode.
27-1
34-15
Console(config)#interface ethernet 1/2
Console(config-if)#switchport dot1q-tunnel mode access
Console(config-if)#interface ethernet 1/3
Console(config-if)#switchport dot1q-tunnel mode uplink
Console(config-if)#end
Console#show dot1q-tunnel
Current double-tagged
The dot1q-tunnel mode
The dot1q-tunnel mode
The dot1q-tunnel mode
The dot1q-tunnel mode
The dot1q-tunnel mode
The dot1q-tunnel mode
The
dot1q-tunnel mode
.
.
.
status
of the
of the
of the
of the
of the
of the
of the
of the system
set interface
set interface
set interface
set interface
set interface
set interface
set interface
34-15
34-17
is Enabled
1/1 is Normal
1/2 is Access
1/3 is Uplink
1/4 is Normal
1/5 is Normal
1/6 is Normal
1/7 is Normal
mode,
mode,
mode,
mode,
mode,
mode,
mode,
TPID
TPID
TPID
TPID
TPID
TPID
TPID
is
is
is
is
is
is
is
0x9100.
0x9100.
0x9100.
0x9100.
0x9100.
0x9100.
0x9100.
Configuring Private VLANs
Private VLANs provide port-based security and isolation between ports within the
assigned VLAN. Data traffic on downlink ports can only be forwarded to, and from,
uplink ports. (Note that private VLANs and normal VLANs can exist simultaneously
within the same switch.)
Uplink Ports
Primary VLAN
(promiscuous ports)
x
11-18
Downlink Ports
Secondary VLAN
(private ports)
Configuring Private VLANs
11
Enabling Private VLANs
Use the Private VLAN Status page to enable/disable the Private VLAN function.
Web – Click VLAN, Private VLAN, Status. Select Enable or Disable from the
scroll-down box, and click Apply.
Figure 11-8 Private VLAN Status
CLI – This example enables private VLANs.
34-18
Console(config)#pvlan
Console(config)#
Configuring Uplink and Downlink Ports
Use the Private VLAN Link Status page to set ports as downlink or uplink ports.
Ports designated as downlink ports can not communicate with any other ports on the
switch except for the uplink ports. Uplink ports can communicate with any other ports
on the switch and with any designated downlink ports.
Web – Click VLAN, Private VLAN, Link Status. Mark the ports that will serve as
uplinks and downlinks for the private VLAN, then click Apply.
Figure 11-9 Private VLAN Link Status
11-19
11
VLAN Configuration
CLI – This configures port 3 as an uplink and port 5 and 6 as downlinks.
Console(config)#pvlan up-link ethernet 1/3 down-link ethernet 1/5
Console(config)#pvlan up-link ethernet 1/3 down-link ethernet 1/6
Console(config)#end
Console#show pvlan
Private VLAN status: Enabled
Up-link port:
Ethernet 1/3
Down-link port:
Ethernet 1/5
Ethernet 1/6
Console#
34-18
Configuring Protocol-Based VLANs
The network devices required to support multiple protocols cannot be easily grouped
into a common VLAN. This may require non-standard devices to pass traffic
between different VLANs in order to encompass all the devices participating in a
specific protocol. This kind of configuration deprives users of the basic benefits of
VLANs, including security and easy accessibility.
To avoid these problems, you can configure this switch with protocol-based VLANs
that divide the physical network into logical VLAN groups for each required protocol.
When a frame is received at a port, its VLAN membership can then be determined
based on the protocol type being used by the inbound packets.
Command Usage
To configure protocol-based VLANs, follow these steps:
1. First configure VLAN groups for the protocols you want to use (page 6). Although
not mandatory, we suggest configuring a separate VLAN for each major protocol
running on your network. Do not add port members at this time.
2. Create a protocol group for each of the protocols you want to assign to a VLAN
using the Protocol VLAN Configuration page.
3. Then map the protocol for each interface to the appropriate VLAN using the
Protocol VLAN Port Configuration page.
Configuring Protocol Groups
Create a protocol group for one or more protocols.
Command Attributes
• Protocol Group ID – Group identifier of this protocol group.
(Range: 1-2147483647)
• Frame Type14 – Frame type used by this protocol. (Options: Ethernet, RFC_1042,
LLC_other)
14. SNAP frame types are not supported by this switch due to hardware limitations.
11-20
Configuring Protocol-Based VLANs
11
• Protocol Type – The only option for the LLC_other frame type is IPX_raw. The
options for all other frames types include: IP, IPv6, ARP, RARP, and user-defined
(0801-FFFF hexadecimal).
Web – Click VLAN, Protocol VLAN, Configuration. Enter a protocol group ID, frame
type and protocol type, then click Apply.
Figure 11-10 Protocol VLAN Configuration
CLI – The following creates protocol group 1, and then specifies Ethernet frames
with IP and ARP protocol types.
Console(config)#protocol-vlan protocol-group 1
add frame-type ethernet protocol-type ip
Console(config)#protocol-vlan protocol-group 1
add frame-type ethernet protocol-type arp
Console(config)#
34-20
Mapping Protocols to VLANs
Map a protocol group to a VLAN for each interface that will participate in the group.
Command Usage
• When creating a protocol-based VLAN, only assign interfaces using this
configuration screen. If you assign interfaces using any of the other VLAN menus
such as the VLAN Static Table (page 8) or VLAN Static Membership by Port menu
(page 9), these interfaces will admit traffic of any protocol type into the associated
VLAN.
• When a frame enters a port that has been assigned to a protocol VLAN, it is
processed in the following manner:
- If the frame is tagged, it will be processed according to the standard rules applied
to tagged frames.
- If the frame is untagged and the protocol type matches, the frame is forwarded
to the appropriate VLAN.
- If the frame is untagged but the protocol type does not match, the frame is
forwarded to the default VLAN for this interface.
11-21
11
VLAN Configuration
Command Attributes
• Interface – Port or trunk identifier.
• Protocol Group ID – Group identifier of this protocol group.
(Range: 1-2147483647)
• VLAN ID – VLAN to which matching protocol traffic is forwarded. (Range: 1-4093)
Web – Click VLAN, Protocol VLAN, Port Configuration. Select a a port or trunk,
enter a protocol group ID, the corresponding VLAN ID, and click Apply.
Figure 11-11 Protocol VLAN Port Configuration
CLI – The following maps the traffic entering Port 1 which matches the protocol type
specified in protocol group 1 to VLAN 3.
Console(config)#interface ethernet 1/1
Console(config-if)#protocol-vlan protocol-group 1 vlan 3
Console(config-if)#
11-22
34-21
Chapter 12: Link Layer Discovery Protocol
Link Layer Discovery Protocol (LLDP) is used to discover basic information about
neighboring devices on the local broadcast domain. LLDP is a Layer 2 protocol that
uses periodic broadcasts to advertise information about the sending device.
Advertised information is represented in Type Length Value (TLV) format according
to the IEEE 802.1ab standard, and can include details such as device identification,
capabilities and configuration settings. LLDP also defines how to store and maintain
information gathered about the neighboring network nodes it discovers. This
information can be used by SNMP applications to simplify troubleshooting, enhance
network management, and maintain an accurate network topology.
Setting Basic LLDP Timing Attributes
Use the LLDP Configuration screen to set attributes for general functions such as
globally enabling LLDP on the switch, setting the message ageout time, and setting
the frequency for broadcasting general advertisements or reports about changes in
the LLDP MIB.
Command Attributes
• LLDP – Enables LLDP globally on the switch. (Default: Disabled)
• Transmission Interval – Configures the periodic transmit interval for LLDP
advertisements. (Range: 5-32768 seconds; Default: 30 seconds)
This attribute must comply with the following rule:
(Transmission Interval * Hold Time Multiplier) ≤ 65536, and
Transmission Interval >= (4 * Delay Interval)
• Hold Time Multiplier – Configures the time-to-live (TTL) value sent in LLDP
advertisements as shown in the formula below. (Range: 2-10; Default: 4)
The time-to-live tells the receiving LLDP agent how long to retain all information
pertaining to the sending LLDP agent if it does not transmit updates in a timely
manner.
TTL in seconds is based on the following rule:
(Transmission Interval * Holdtime Multiplier) ≤ 65536.
Therefore, the default TTL is 4*30 = 120 seconds.
• Delay Interval – Configures a delay between the successive transmission of
advertisements initiated by a change in local LLDP MIB variables.
(Range: 1-8192 seconds; Default: 2 seconds)
The transmit delay is used to prevent a series of successive LLDP transmissions
during a short period of rapid changes in local LLDP MIB objects, and to increase
the probability that multiple, rather than single changes, are reported in each
transmission.
This attribute must comply with the rule: (4 * Delay Interval) ≤Transmission Interval
12-1
12
Link Layer Discovery Protocol
• Reinitialization Delay – Configures the delay before attempting to re-initialize
after LLDP ports are disabled or the link goes down. (Range: 1-10 seconds;
Default: 2 seconds)
When LLDP is re-initialized on a port, all information in the remote systems LLDP
MIB associated with this port is deleted.
• Notification Interval – Configures the allowed interval for sending SNMP
notifications about LLDP MIB changes. (Range: 5-3600 seconds; Default: 5
seconds)
This parameter only applies to SNMP applications which use data stored in the
LLDP MIB for network monitoring or management.
Information about changes in LLDP neighbors that occur between SNMP
notifications is not transmitted. Only state changes that exist at the time of a
notification are included in the transmission. An SNMP agent should therefore
periodically check the value of lldpStatsRemTableLastChangeTime to detect any
lldpRemTablesChange notification-events missed due to throttling or transmission
loss.
Web – Click LLDP, Configuration. Enable LLDP, modify any of the timing parameters
as required, and click Apply.
Figure 12-4 LLDP Configuration
12-2
Configuring LLDP Interface Attributes
12
CLI – This example several attributes which control basic LLDP message timing.
Console(config)#lldp
Console(config)#lldp refresh-interval 60
Console(config)#lldp holdtime-multiplier 10
Console(config)#lldp tx-delay 10
Console(config)#lldp reinit-delay 10
Console(config)#lldp notification-interval 30
Console(config)#exit
Console#show lldp config
32-2
32-4
32-3
32-5
32-5
32-3
LLDP Global Configuation
LLDP
LLDP
LLDP
LLDP
LLDP
LLDP
.
.
.
Enable
Transmit interval
Hold Time Multiplier
Delay Interval
Reinit Delay
Notification Interval
:
:
:
:
:
:
Yes
60
10
10
10
30
Configuring LLDP Interface Attributes
Use the LLDP Port/Trunk Configuration to specify the message attributes for
individual interfaces, including whether messages are transmitted, received, or both
transmitted and received, whether SNMP notifications are sent, and the type of
information advertised.
Command Attributes
• Admin Status – Enables LLDP message transmit and receive modes for LLDP
Protocol Data Units. (Options: Tx only, Rx only, RxTx, Disabled; Default: RxTx)
• SNMP Notification – Enables the transmission of SNMP trap notifications about
LLDP changes. (Default: Disabled)
This option sends out SNMP trap notifications to designated target stations at the
interval specified by the Notification Interval in the preceding section. Trap
notifications include information about state changes in the LLDP MIB
(IEEE 802.1AB), or vendor-specific LLDP-EXT-DOT1 and LLDP-EXT-DOT3 MIBs.
For information on defining SNMP trap destinations, see "Specifying Trap
Managers and Trap Types" on page 5-4.
Information about additional changes in LLDP neighbors that occur between
SNMP notifications is not transmitted. Only state changes that exist at the time of
a trap notification are included in the transmission. An SNMP agent should
therefore periodically check the value of lldpStatsRemTableLastChangeTime to
detect any lldpRemTablesChange notification-events missed due to throttling or
transmission loss.
• TLV Type – Configures the information included in the TLV field of advertised
messages.
- Port Description – The port description is taken from the ifDescr object in
RFC 2863, which includes information about the manufacturer, the product
name, and the version of the interface hardware/software.
12-3
12
Link Layer Discovery Protocol
- System Description – The system description is taken from the sysDescr
object in RFC 3418, which includes the full name and version identification of the
system's hardware type, software operating system, and networking software.
- Management Address – The management address protocol packet includes
the IPv4 address of the switch. If no management address is available, the
address should be the MAC address for the CPU or for the port sending this
advertisement.
The management address TLV may also include information about the specific
interface associated with this address, and an object identifier indicating the type
of hardware component or protocol entity associated with this address. The
interface number and OID are included to assist SNMP applications perform
network discovery by indicating enterprise specific or other starting points for the
search, such as the Interface or Entity MIB.
Since there are typically a number of different addresses associated with a
Layer 3 device, an individual LLDP PDU may contain more than one
management address TLV.
Every management address TLV that reports an address that is accessible on a
port and protocol VLAN through the particular port should be accompanied by a
port and protocol VLAN TLV that indicates the VLAN identifier (VID) associated
with the management address reported by this TLV.
- System Name – The system name is taken from the sysName object in
RFC 3418, which contains the system’s administratively assigned name. To
configure the system name, see "Displaying System Information" on page 4-1.
- System Capabilities – The system capabilities identifies the primary function(s)
of the system and whether or not these primary functions are enabled. The
information advertised by this TLV is described in IEEE 802.1AB.
Web – Click LLDP, Port/Trunk Configuration. Set the LLDP transmit/receive mode,
specify whether or not to send SNMP trap messages, and select the information to
advertise in LLDP messages. Then click Apply.
Figure 12-5 LLDP Port Configuration
12-4
Displaying LLDP Local Device Information
12
CLI – This example sets the interface to both transmit and receive LLDP messages,
enables SNMP trap messages, and specifies the TLV parameters to advertise.
Console(config)#interface ethernet 1/1
Console(config-if)#lldp tx-rx
Console(config-if)#lldp notification
Console(config-if)#lldp basic-tlv port-description
Console(config-if)#lldp basic-tlv system-description
Console(config-if)#lldp basic-tlv management-ip-address
Console(config-if)#lldp basic-tlv system-name
Console(config-if)#lldp basic-tlv system-capabilities
Console(config-if)#
27-1
32-6
32-6
32-8
32-9
32-7
32-9
32-8
Displaying LLDP Local Device Information
Use the LLDP Local Device Information screen to display information about the
switch, such as its MAC address, chassis ID, management IP address, and port
information.
Field Attributes
Global Settings
• Chassis Type – Identifies the chassis containing the IEEE 802 LAN entity
associated with the transmitting LLDP agent. There are several ways in which a
chassis may be identified and a chassis ID subtype is used to indicate the type of
component being referenced by the chassis ID field.
Table 12-1 Chassis ID Subtype
ID Basis
Reference
Chassis component EntPhysicalAlias when entPhysClass has a value of ‘chassis(3)’ (IETF RFC 2737)
Interface alias
IfAlias (IETF RFC 2863)
Port component
EntPhysicalAlias when entPhysicalClass has a value ‘port(10)’ or ‘backplane(4)’
(IETF RFC 2737)
MAC address
MAC address (IEEE Std 802-2001)
Network address
networkAddress
Interface name
ifName (IETF RFC 2863)
Locally assigned
locally assigned
• Chassis ID – An octet string indicating the specific identifier for the particular
chassis in this system.
• System Name – An string that indicates the system’s administratively assigned
name (see "Displaying System Information" on page 4-1).
• System Description – A textual description of the network entity. This field is also
displayed by the show system command.
12-5
12
Link Layer Discovery Protocol
• System Capabilities Supported – The capabilities that define the primary
function(s) of the system.
Table 12-2 System Capabilities
ID Basis
Reference
Other
—
Repeater
IETF RFC 2108
Bridge
IETF RFC 2674
WLAN Access Point
IEEE 802.11 MIB
Router
IETF RFC 1812
Telephone
IETF RFC 2011
DOCSIS cable device
IETF RFC 2669 and IETF RFC 2670
End Station Only
IETF RFC 2011
• System Capabilities Enabled – The primary function(s) of the system which are
currently enabled. Refer to the preceding table.
• Management Address – The management address protocol packet includes the
IPv4 address of the switch. If no management address is available, the address
should be the MAC address for the CPU or for the port sending this advertisement.
Interface Settings
The attributes listed below apply to both port and trunk interface types. When a trunk
is listed, the descriptions apply to the first port of the trunk.
• Port Description – A string that indicates the port’s description. If RFC 2863 is
implemented, the ifDescr object should be used for this field.
• Port ID – A string that contains the specific identifier for the port from which this
LLDPDU was transmitted.
12-6
Displaying LLDP Local Device Information
12
Web – Click LLDP, Local Information.
Figure 12-6 LLDP Local Device Information
CLI – This example displays LLDP information for the local switch.
Console#show lldp info local-device
32-15
LLDP Local System Information
Chassis Type : MAC Address
Chassis ID
: 00-00-E3-11-10-10
System Name :
System Description : SMC TigerStack II 10/100/1000 SMC8926EM/SMC8950EM
System Capabilities Support : Bridge
System Capabilities Enable : Bridge
Management Address : 192.168.0.101 (IPv4)
LLDP Port Information
Interface |PortID Type
PortID
PortDesc
--------- + ---------------- ----------------- --------------------------Eth 1/1 |MAC Address
00-00-E3-11-10-11 Ethernet Port on unit 1, port 1
Eth 1/2 |MAC Address
00-00-E3-11-10-12 Ethernet Port on unit 1, port 2
Eth 1/3 |MAC Address
00-00-E3-11-10-13 Ethernet Port on unit 1, port 3
Eth 1/4 |MAC Address
00-00-E3-11-10-14 Ethernet Port on unit 1, port 4
Eth 1/5 |MAC Address
00-00-E3-11-10-15 Ethernet Port on unit 1, port 5
.
.
.
12-7
12
Link Layer Discovery Protocol
This example displays detailed information for a specific port on the local switch.
Console#show lldp info local-device ethernet 1/1
32-15
LLDP Port Information Detail
Port
: Eth 1/1
Port Type : MAC Address
Port ID
: 00-00-E3-11-10-10
Port Desc : Ethernet Port on unit 1, port 1
Console#
Displaying LLDP Remote Port Information
Use the LLDP Remote Port/Trunk Information screen to display information about
devices connected directly to the switch’s ports which are advertising information
through LLDP.
Field Attributes
• Local Port – The local port to which a remote LLDP-capable device is attached.
• Chassis ID – An octet string indicating the specific identifier for the particular
chassis in this system.
• Port ID – A string that contains the specific identifier for the port from which this
LLDPDU was transmitted.
• Port Name – A string that indicates the port’s description. If RFC 2863 is
implemented, the ifDescr object should be used for this field.
• System Name – An string that indicates the system’s administratively assigned
name.
Web – Click LLDP, Remote Port/Trunk Information.
Figure 12-7 LLDP Remote Port Information
12-8
Displaying LLDP Remote Information Details
12
CLI – This example displays LLDP information for remote devices attached to this
switch which are advertising information through LLDP.
Console#show lldp info remote-device
32-16
LLDP Remote Devices Information
Interface | ChassisId
PortId
SysName
--------- + ----------------- ----------------- --------------------Eth 1/1
| 00-01-02-03-04-05 00-01-02-03-04-06
Console#
Displaying LLDP Remote Information Details
Use the LLDP Remote Information Details screen to display detailed information
about an LLDP-enabled device connected to a specific port on the local switch.
Field Attributes
• Local Port – The local port to which a remote LLDP-capable device is attached.
• Chassis Type – Identifies the chassis containing the IEEE 802 LAN entity
associated with the transmitting LLDP agent. There are several ways in which a
chassis may be identified and a chassis ID subtype is used to indicate the type of
component being referenced by the chassis ID field. (See Table 12-1, "Chassis ID
Subtype," on page 12-5.)
• Chassis ID – An octet string indicating the specific identifier for the particular
chassis in this system.
• Port Type – Indicates the basis for the identifier that is listed in the Port ID field.
Table 12-3 Port ID Subtype
ID Basis
Reference
Interface alias
IfAlias (IETF RFC 2863)
Chassis component EntPhysicalAlias when entPhysClass has a value of ‘chassis(3)’ (IETF RFC 2737)
Port component
EntPhysicalAlias when entPhysicalClass has a value ‘port(10)’ or ‘backplane(4)’
(IETF RFC 2737)
MAC address
MAC address (IEEE Std 802-2001)
Network address
networkAddress
Interface name
ifName (IETF RFC 2863)
Agent circuit ID
agent circuit ID (IETF RFC 3046)
Locally assigned
locally assigned
• Port Description – A string that indicates the port’s description. If RFC 2863 is
implemented, the ifDescr object should be used for this field.
• Port ID – A string that contains the specific identifier for the port from which this
LLDPDU was transmitted.
• System Name – An string that indicates the system’s configures assigned name.
12-9
12
Link Layer Discovery Protocol
• System Description – A textual description of the network entity.
• System Capabilities Supported – The capabilities that define the primary
function(s) of the system. (See Table 12-2, "System Capabilities," on page 12-6.)
• System Capabilities Enabled – The primary function(s) of the system which are
currently enabled. Refer to the preceding table. (See Table 12-2, "System
Capabilities," on page 12-6.)
• Management Address – The IPv4 address of the remote device. If no
management address is available, the address should be the MAC address for the
CPU or for the port sending this advertisement.
Web – Click LLDP, Remote Information Details. Select an interface from the drop
down lists, and click Query.
Figure 12-8 LLDP Remote Information Details
12-10
Displaying Device Statistics
12
CLI – This example displays LLDP information for an LLDP-enabled remote device
attached to a specific port this switch.
Console#show lldp info remote-device detail ethernet 1/1
32-16
LLDP Remote Devices Information Detail
--------------------------------------------------------------Local PortName
: Eth 1/1
Chassis Type
: MAC Address
Chassis Id
: 00-01-02-03-04-05
PortID Type
: MAC Address
PortID
: 00-01-02-03-04-06
SysName
:
SysDescr
: 24/48 port 10/100/1000 Stackable Managed
Switch with 2 X 10G uplinks
PortDescr
: Ethernet Port on unit 1, port 1
SystemCapSupported : Bridge
SystemCapEnabled
: Bridge
Remote Management Address :
00-01-02-03-04-05 (MAC Address)
Console#
Displaying Device Statistics
Use the LLDP Device Statistics screen to general statistics for LLDP-capable
devices attached to the switch, and for LLDP protocol messages transmitted or
received on all local interfaces.
Field Attributes
General Statistics on Remote Devices
• Neighbor Entries List Last Updated – The time the LLDP neighbor entry list was
last updated.
• New Neighbor Entries Count – The number of LLDP neighbors for which the
remote TTL has not yet expired.
• Neighbor Entries Deleted Count – The number of LLDP neighbors which have
been removed from the LLDP remote systems MIB for any reason.
• Neighbor Entries Dropped Count – The number of times which the local remote
database dropped an LLDPDU because of insufficient resources.
• Neighbor Entries Age-out Count – The number of times that a neighbor’s
information has been deleted from the LLDP remote systems MIB because the
remote TTL timer has expired.
Interface Statistics on LLDP Protocol Messages
• Num Frames Recvd – Number of LLDP PDUs received.
• Num Frames Sent – Number of LLDP PDUs transmitted.
• Num Frames Discarded – Number of frames discarded because they did not
conform to the general validation rules as well as any specific usage rules defined
for the particular TLV.
12-11
12
Link Layer Discovery Protocol
Web – Click LLDP, Device Statistics.
Figure 12-9 LLDP Device Statistics
CLI – This example displays LLDP statistics received from all LLDP-enabled remote
devices connected directly to this switch.
switch#show lldp info statistics
32-18
LLDP Device Statistics
Neighbor Entries List Last Updated
New Neighbor Entries Count
Neighbor Entries Deleted Count
Neighbor Entries Dropped Count
Neighbor Entries Ageout Count
Interface
--------Eth 1/1
Eth 1/2
Eth 1/3
Eth 1/4
Eth 1/5
.
.
.
12-12
|
+
|
|
|
|
|
NumFramesRecvd
-------------10
0
0
0
0
:
:
:
:
:
2450279 seconds
1
0
0
0
NumFramesSent
------------11
0
0
0
0
NumFramesDiscarded
-----------------0
0
0
0
0
Displaying Detailed Device Statistics
12
Displaying Detailed Device Statistics
Use the LLDP Device Statistics Details screen to display detailed statistics for
LLDP-capable devices attached to specific interfaces on the switch.
Field Attributes
• Frames Discarded – Number of frames discarded because they did not conform
to the general validation rules as well as any specific usage rules defined for the
particular TLV.
• Frames Invalid – A count of all LLDPDUs received with one or more detectable
errors.
• Frames Received – Number of LLDP PDUs received.
• Frames Sent – Number of LLDP PDUs transmitted.
• TLVs Unrecognized – A count of all TLVs not recognized by the receiving LLDP
local agent.
• TLVs Discarded – A count of all LLDPDUs received and then discarded due to
insufficient memory space, missing or out-of-sequence attributes, or any other
reason.
• Neighbor Ageouts – A count of the times that a neighbor’s information has been
deleted from the LLDP remote systems MIB because the remote TTL timer has
expired.
Web – Click LLDP, Device Statistics Details.
Figure 12-10 LLDP Device Statistics Details
12-13
12
Link Layer Discovery Protocol
CLI – This example displays detailed LLDP statistics for an LLDP-enabled remote
device attached to a specific port this switch.
switch#show lldp info statistics detail ethernet 1/1
LLDP Port Statistics Detail
PortName
Frames Discarded
Frames Invalid
Frames Received
Frames Sent
TLVs Unrecognized
TLVs Discarded
Neighbor Ageouts
switch#
12-14
:
:
:
:
:
:
:
:
Eth 1/1
0
0
12
13
0
0
0
32-18
Chapter 13: Class of Service
Class of Service (CoS) allows you to specify which data packets have greater
precedence when traffic is buffered in the switch due to congestion. This switch
supports CoS with eight priority queues for each port. Data packets in a port’s
high-priority queue will be transmitted before those in the lower-priority queues. You
can set the default priority for each interface, and configure the mapping of frame
priority tags to the switch’s priority queues.
Layer 2 Queue Settings
Setting the Default Priority for Interfaces
You can specify the default port priority for each interface on the switch. All untagged
packets entering the switch are tagged with the specified default port priority, and
then sorted into the appropriate priority queue at the output port.
Command Usage
• This switch provides eight priority queues for each port. It uses Weighted Round
Robin to prevent head-of-queue blockage.
• The default priority applies for an untagged frame received on a port set to accept
all frame types (i.e, receives both untagged and tagged frames). This priority does
not apply to IEEE 802.1Q VLAN tagged frames. If the incoming frame is an IEEE
802.1Q VLAN tagged frame, the IEEE 802.1p User Priority bits will be used.
• If the output port is an untagged member of the associated VLAN, these frames are
stripped of all VLAN tags prior to transmission.
Command Attributes
• Default Priority15 – The priority that is assigned to untagged frames received on
the specified interface. (Range: 0 - 7, Default: 0)
• Number of Egress Traffic Classes – The number of queue buffers provided for
each port.
15. CLI displays this information as “Priority for untagged traffic.”
13-1
13
Class of Service
Web – Click Priority, Default Port Priority or Default Trunk Priority. Modify the default
priority for any interface, then click Apply.
Figure 13-1 Default Port Priority
CLI – This example assigns a default priority of 5 to port 3.
Console(config)#interface ethernet 1/3
Console(config-if)#switchport priority default 5
Console(config-if)#end
Console#show interfaces switchport ethernet 1/3
Information of Eth 1/3
Broadcast threshold:
Enabled, 500 packets/second
LACP status:
Disabled
Ingress rate limit:
Disable, 1000M bits per second
Egress rate limit:
Disable, 1000M bits per second
VLAN membership mode:
Hybrid
Ingress rule:
Disabled
Acceptable frame type:
All frames
Native VLAN:
1
Priority for untagged traffic: 5
GVRP status:
Disabled
Allowed VLAN:
1(u),
Forbidden VLAN:
Console#
13-2
27-1
35-3
27-11
Layer 2 Queue Settings
13
Mapping CoS Values to Egress Queues
This switch processes Class of Service (CoS) priority tagged traffic by using eight
priority queues for each port, with service schedules based on strict or Weighted
Round Robin (WRR). Up to eight separate traffic priorities are defined in IEEE
802.1p. The default priority levels are assigned according to recommendations in
the IEEE 802.1p standard as shown in the following table.
Table 13-1 Mapping CoS Values to Egress Queues
Priority
0
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
Queue
2
0
1
3
4
5
6
7
The priority levels recommended in the IEEE 802.1p standard for various network
applications are shown in the following table. However, you can map the priority
levels to the switch’s output queues in any way that benefits application traffic for
your own network.
Table 13-2 CoS Priority Levels
Priority Level
Traffic Type
1
Background
2
(Spare)
0 (default)
Best Effort
3
Excellent Effort
4
Controlled Load
5
Video, less than 100 milliseconds latency and jitter
6
Voice, less than 10 milliseconds latency and jitter
7
Network Control
Command Attributes
• Priority – CoS value. (Range: 0-7, where 7 is the highest priority)
• Traffic Class16 – Output queue buffer. (Range: 0-7, where 7 is the highest CoS
priority queue)
16. CLI shows Queue ID.
13-3
13
Class of Service
Web – Click Priority, Traffic Classes. Assign priorities to the traffic classes (i.e.,
output queues), then click Apply.
Figure 13-2 Traffic Classes
CLI – The following example shows how to change the CoS assignments to a
one-to-one mapping.
Console(config)#interface ethernet 1/1
Console(config)#queue cos-map 0 0
Console(config)#queue cos-map 1 1
Console(config)#queue cos-map 2 2
Console(config)#exit
Console#show queue cos-map
Information of Eth 1/1
CoS Value:
0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7
Priority Queue: 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7
Information of Eth 1/2
CoS Value:
0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7
Priority Queue: 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7
.
.
.
*
Mapping specific values for CoS priorities is implemented as an interface configuration
command, but any changes will apply to the all interfaces on the switch.
13-4
27-1
35-4
35-6
Layer 2 Queue Settings
13
Selecting the Queue Mode
You can set the switch to service the queues based on a strict rule that requires all
traffic in a higher priority queue to be processed before lower priority queues are
serviced, or use Weighted Round-Robin (WRR) queuing that specifies a relative
weight of each queue. WRR uses a predefined relative weight for each queue that
determines the percentage of service time the switch services each queue before
moving on to the next queue. This prevents the head-of-line blocking that can occur
with strict priority queuing.
Command Attributes
• WRR - Weighted Round-Robin shares bandwidth at the egress ports by using
scheduling weights 1, 2, 4, 6, 8, 10, 12, 14 for queues 0 through 7 respectively.
(This is the default selection.)
• Strict - Services the egress queues in sequential order, transmitting all traffic in the
higher priority queues before servicing lower priority queues.
Web – Click Priority, Queue Mode. Select Strict or WRR, then click Apply.
Figure 13-3 Queue Mode
CLI – The following sets the queue mode to strict priority service mode.
Console(config)#queue mode strict
Console(config)#exit
Console#show queue mode
35-2
35-5
Queue mode: strict
Console#
13-5
13
Class of Service
Setting the Service Weight for Traffic Classes
This switch uses the Weighted Round Robin (WRR) algorithm to determine the
frequency at which it services each priority queue. As described in "Mapping CoS
Values to Egress Queues" on page 3, the traffic classes are mapped to one of the
eight egress queues provided for each port. You can assign a weight to each of
these queues (and thereby to the corresponding traffic priorities). This weight sets
the frequency at which each queue will be polled for service, and subsequently
affects the response time for software applications assigned a specific priority value.
Command Attributes
• WRR Setting Table17 – Displays a list of weights for each traffic class (i.e., queue).
• Weight Value – Set a new weight for the selected traffic class. (Range: 1-15)
Web – Click Priority, Queue Scheduling. Select the interface, highlight a traffic class
(i.e., output queue), enter a weight, then click Apply.
Figure 13-4 Queue Scheduling
17. CLI shows Queue ID.
13-6
Layer 3/4 Priority Settings
13
CLI – The following example shows how to assign WRR weights to each of the
priority queues.
Console(config)#queue bandwidth 1 3 5 7 9 11 13 15
Console(config)#exit
Console#show queue bandwidth
Information of Eth 1/1
Queue ID Weight
-------- -----0
1
1
3
2
5
3
7
4
9
5
11
6
13
7
15
Information of Eth 1/2
Queue ID Weight
.
.
.
35-4
35-6
Layer 3/4 Priority Settings
Mapping Layer 3/4 Priorities to CoS Values
This switch supports several common methods of prioritizing layer 3/4 traffic to meet
application requirements. Traffic priorities can be specified in the IP header of a
frame, using the priority bits in the Type of Service (ToS) octet or the number of the
TCP port. If priority bits are used, the ToS octet may contain three bits for IP
Precedence or six bits for Differentiated Services Code Point (DSCP) service. When
these services are enabled, the priorities are mapped to a Class of Service value by
the switch, and the traffic then sent to the corresponding output queue.
Because different priority information may be contained in the traffic, this switch
maps priority values to the output queues in the following manner:
• The precedence for priority mapping is IP Port Priority, IP Precedence or DSCP
Priority, and then Default Port Priority.
• IP Precedence and DSCP Priority cannot both be enabled. Enabling one of these
priority types will automatically disable the other.
Selecting IP Precedence/DSCP Priority
The switch allows you to choose between using IP Precedence or DSCP priority.
Select one of the methods or disable this feature.
Command Attributes
• Disabled – Disables both priority services. (This is the default setting.)
• IP Precedence – Maps layer 3/4 priorities using IP Precedence.
• IP DSCP – Maps layer 3/4 priorities using Differentiated Services Code Point
Mapping.
13-7
13
Class of Service
Web – Click Priority, IP Precedence/DSCP Priority Status. Select Disabled,
IP Precedence or IP DSCP from the scroll-down menu, then click Apply.
Figure 13-5 IP Precedence/DSCP Priority Status
CLI – The following example enables IP Precedence service on the switch.
Console(config)#map ip precedence
Console(config)#
35-8
Mapping IP Precedence
The Type of Service (ToS) octet in the IPv4 header includes three precedence bits
defining eight different priority levels ranging from highest priority for network control
packets to lowest priority for routine traffic. The default IP Precedence values are
mapped one-to-one to Class of Service values (i.e., Precedence value 0 maps to
CoS value 0, and so forth). Bits 6 and 7 are used for network control, and the other
bits for various application types. ToS bits are defined in the following table.
Table 13-3 Mapping IP Precedence
Priority Level
Traffic Type
Priority Level
Traffic Type
7
Network Control
3
Flash
6
Internetwork Control
2
Immediate
5
Critical
1
Priority
4
Flash Override
0
Routine
Command Attributes
• IP Precedence Priority Table – Shows the IP Precedence to CoS map.
• Class of Service Value – Maps a CoS value to the selected IP Precedence value.
Note that “0” represents low priority and “7” represent high priority.
13-8
Layer 3/4 Priority Settings
13
Web – Click Priority, IP Precedence Priority. Select an entry from the IP Precedence
Priority Table, enter a value in the Class of Service Value field, and then click Apply.
Figure 13-6 IP Precedence Priority
CLI – The following example globally enables IP Precedence service on the switch,
maps IP Precedence value 1 to CoS value 0 (on port 1), and then displays the IP
Precedence settings.
Console(config)#map ip precedence
Console(config)#interface ethernet 1/1
Console(config-if)#map ip precedence 1 cos 0
Console(config-if)#end
Console#show map ip precedence ethernet 1/1
Precedence mapping status: disabled
35-8
27-1
35-9
35-12
Port
Precedence COS
--------- ---------- --Eth 1/ 1
0
0
Eth 1/ 1
1
0
Eth 1/ 1
2
2
Eth 1/ 1
3
3
Eth 1/ 1
4
4
Eth 1/ 1
5
5
Eth 1/ 1
6
6
Eth 1/ 1
7
7
Console#
*
Mapping specific values for IP Precedence is implemented as an interface configuration
command, but any changes will apply to the all interfaces on the switch.
13-9
13
Class of Service
Mapping DSCP Priority
The DSCP is six bits wide, allowing coding for up to 64 different forwarding
behaviors. The DSCP replaces the ToS bits, but it retains backward compatibility
with the three precedence bits so that non-DSCP compliant, ToS-enabled devices,
will not conflict with the DSCP mapping. Based on network policies, different kinds of
traffic can be marked for different kinds of forwarding. The DSCP default values are
defined in the following table. Note that all the DSCP values that are not specified
are mapped to CoS value 0.
Table 13-4 Mapping DSCP Priority
IP DSCP Value
CoS Value
0
0
8
1
10, 12, 14, 16
2
18, 20, 22, 24
3
26, 28, 30, 32, 34, 36
4
38, 40, 42
5
48
6
46, 56
7
Command Attributes
• DSCP Priority Table – Shows the DSCP Priority to CoS map.
• Class of Service Value – Maps a CoS value to the selected DSCP Priority value.
Note that “0” represents low priority and “7” represent high priority.
Note: IP DSCP settings apply to all interfaces.
Web – Click Priority, IP DSCP Priority. Select an entry from the DSCP table, enter a
value in the Class of Service Value field, then click Apply.
Figure 13-7 IP DSCP Priority
13-10
Layer 3/4 Priority Settings
13
CLI – The following example globally enables DSCP Priority service on the switch,
maps DSCP value 0 to CoS value 1 (on port 1), and then displays the DSCP Priority
settings.
Console(config)#map ip dscp
Console(config)#interface ethernet 1/1
Console(config-if)#map ip dscp 1 cos 0
Console(config-if)#end
Console#show map ip dscp ethernet 1/1
DSCP mapping status: disabled
35-10
27-1
35-10
35-13
Port
DSCP COS
--------- ---- --Eth 1/ 1
0
0
Eth 1/ 1
1
0
Eth 1/ 1
2
0
Eth 1/ 1
3
0
.
.
.
Eth 1/ 1
61
0
Eth 1/ 1
62
0
Eth 1/ 1
63
0
Console#
*
Mapping specific values for IP DSCP is implemented as an interface configuration
command, but any changes will apply to the all interfaces on the switch.
Mapping IP Port Priority
You can also map network applications to Class of Service values based on the IP
port number (i.e., TCP/UDP port number) in the frame header. Some of the more
common TCP service ports include: HTTP: 80, FTP: 21, Telnet: 23 and POP3: 110.
Command Attributes
•
•
•
•
IP Port Priority Status – Enables or disables the IP port priority.
IP Port Priority Table – Shows the IP port to CoS map.
IP Port Number (TCP/UDP) – Set a new IP port number.
Class of Service Value – Sets a CoS value for a new IP port. Note that “0”
represents low priority and “7” represent high priority.
Note: Up to 8 entries can be specified.
IP Port Priority settings apply to all interfaces.
Web – Click Priority, IP Port Priority Status. Set IP Port Priority Status to Enabled.
Figure 13-8 IP Port Priority Status
13-11
13
Class of Service
Click Priority, IP Port Priority. Enter the port number for a network application in the
IP Port Number box and the new CoS value in the Class of Service box, and then
click Apply.
Figure 13-9 IP Port Priority
CLI – The following example globally enables IP Port Priority service on the switch,
maps HTTP traffic (on port 1) to CoS value 0, and then displays the IP Port Priority
settings.
Console(config)#map ip port
Console(config)#interface ethernet 1/1
Console(config-if)#map ip port 80 cos 0
Console(config-if)#end
Console#show map ip port ethernet 1/5
TCP port mapping status: disabled
Port
Port no. COS
--------- -------- --Eth 1/ 1
80
0
Console#
*
Mapping specific values for IP Port Priority is implemented as an interface configuration
command, but any changes will apply to the all interfaces on the switch.
13-12
35-7
27-1
35-8
35-11
Chapter 14: Quality of Service
The commands described in this section are used to configure Quality of Service
(QoS) classification criteria and service policies. Differentiated Services (DiffServ)
provides policy-based management mechanisms used for prioritizing network
resources to meet the requirements of specific traffic types on a per hop basis.
Each packet is classified upon entry into the network based on access lists, IP
Precedence, DSCP values, or VLAN lists. Using access lists allows you select traffic
based on Layer 2, Layer 3, or Layer 4 information contained in each packet. Based
on configured network policies, different kinds of traffic can be marked for different
kinds of forwarding.
All switches or routers that access the Internet rely on class information to provide
the same forwarding treatment to packets in the same class. Class information can
be assigned by end hosts, or switches or routers along the path. Priority can then be
assigned based on a general policy, or a detailed examination of the packet.
However, note that detailed examination of packets should take place close to the
network edge so that core switches and routers are not overloaded.
Switches and routers along the path can use class information to prioritize the
resources allocated to different traffic classes. The manner in which an individual
device handles traffic in the DiffServ architecture is called per-hop behavior. All
devices along a path should be configured in a consistent manner to construct a
consistent end-to-end QoS solution.
Notes: 1. You can configure up to 16 rules per Class Map. You can also include
multiple classes in a Policy Map.
2. You should create a Class Map before creating a Policy Map. Otherwise, you
will not be able to select a Class Map from the Policy Rule Settings screen
(see page 14-6).
Configuring Quality of Service Parameters
To create a service policy for a specific category or ingress traffic, follow these steps:
1. Use the “Class Map” to designate a class name for a specific category of traffic.
2. Edit the rules for each class to specify a type of traffic based on an access list, a
DSCP or IP Precedence value, or a VLAN.
3. Use the “Policy Map” to designate a policy name for a specific manner in which
ingress traffic will be handled.
4. Add one or more classes to the Policy Map. Assign policy rules to each class by
“setting” the QoS value to be assigned to the matching traffic class. The policy
rule can also be configured to monitor the average flow and burst rate, and drop
any traffic that exceeds the specified rate, or just reduce the DSCP service level
for traffic exceeding the specified rate.
5. Use the “Service Policy” to assign a policy map to a specific interface.
14-1
14
Quality of Service
Configuring a Class Map
A class map is used for matching packets to a specified class.
Command Usage
• To configure a Class Map, follow these steps:
- Open the Class Map page, and click Add Class.
- When the Class Configuration page opens, fill in the “Class Name” field, and
click Add.
- When the Match Class Settings page opens, specify type of traffic for this class
based on an access list, a DSCP or IP Precedence value, or a VLAN, and click
the Add button next to the field for the selected traffic criteria. You can specify up
to 16 items to match when assigning ingress traffic to a class map.
• The class map is used with a policy map (page 14-4) to create a service policy
(page 14-7) for a specific interface that defines packet classification, service
tagging, and bandwidth policing. Note that one or more class maps can be
assigned to a policy map.
Command Attributes
Class Map
• Modify Name and Description – Configures the name and a brief description of
a class map. (Range: 1-16 characters for the name; 1-64 characters for the
description)
• Edit Rules – Opens the “Match Class Settings” page for the selected class entry.
Modify the criteria used to classify ingress traffic on this page.
• Add Class – Opens the “Class Configuration” page. Enter a class name and
description on this page, and click Add to open the “Match Class Settings” page.
Enter the criteria used to classify ingress traffic on this page.
• Remove Class – Removes the selected class.
Class Configuration
• Class Name – Name of the class map. (Range: 1-16 characters)
• Type – Only one match command is permitted per class map, so the match-any
field refers to the criteria specified by the lone match command.
• Description – A brief description of a class map. (Range: 1-64 characters)
• Add – Adds the specified class.
• Back – Returns to previous page with making any changes.
Match Class Settings
• Class Name – List of class maps.
• ACL List – Name of an access control list. Any type of ACL can be specified,
including standard or extended IP ACLs and MAC ACLs. (Range: 1-16 characters)
• IP DSCP – A DSCP value contained in an IPv4 packet. (Range: 0-63)
14-2
Configuring Quality of Service Parameters
14
• IP Precedence – An IP Precedence value. (Range: 0-7)
• VLAN – A VLAN. (Range:1-4093)
• IPv6 DSCP – A DSCP value contained in an IPv6 packet. (Range: 0-63)
• Add – Adds specified criteria to the class. Up to 16 items are permitted per class.
• Remove – Deletes the selected criteria from the class.
Web – Click QoS, DiffServ, then click Add Class to create a new class, or Edit Rules
to change the rules of an existing class.
Figure 14-1 Configuring Class Maps
14-3
14
Quality of Service
CLI - This example creates a class map call “rd-class,” and sets it to match packets
marked for DSCP service value 3.
Console(config)#class-map rd_class match-any
Console(config-cmap)#match ip dscp 3
Console(config-cmap)#
36-2
36-3
Creating QoS Policies
This function creates a policy map that can be attached to multiple interfaces.
Command Usage
• To configure a Policy Map, follow these steps:
- Create a Class Map as described on page 14-2.
- Open the Policy Map page, and click Add Policy.
- When the Policy Configuration page opens, fill in the “Policy Name” field, and
click Add.
- When the Policy Rule Settings page opens, select a class name from the
scroll-down list (Class Name field). Configure a policy for traffic that matches
criteria defined in this class by setting the quality of service that an IP packet will
receive (in the Action field), defining the maximum throughput and burst rate (in
the Meter field), and the action that results from a policy violation (in the Exceed
field). Then finally click Add to register the new policy.
• A policy map can contain multiple class statements that can be applied to the same
interface with the Service Policy Settings (page 14-7). You can configure up to 64
policers (i.e., meters or class maps) for each of the following access list types:
MAC ACL, IP ACL (including Standard ACL and Extended ACL), IPv6 Standard
ACL, and IPv6 Extended ACL. This limitation applies to each switch chip
(SMC8926EM: ports 1-26, SMC8950EM: ports 1-25, ports 26-50). Also, note that
the maximum number of classes that can be applied to a policy map is 16.
Policing is based on a token bucket, where bucket depth (i.e., the maximum burst
before the bucket overflows) is by specified the “Burst” field, and the average rate
tokens are removed from the bucket is by specified by the “Rate” option.
• After using the policy map to define packet classification, service tagging, and
bandwidth policing, it must be assigned to a specific interface by a service policy
(page 14-7) to take effect.
Command Attributes
Policy Map
• Modify Name and Description – Configures the name and a brief description of
a policy map. (Range: 1-16 characters for the name; 1-64 characters for the
description)
• Edit Classes – Opens the “Policy Rule Settings” page for the selected class entry.
Modify the criteria used to service ingress traffic on this page.
14-4
Configuring Quality of Service Parameters
14
• Add Policy – Opens the “Policy Configuration” page. Enter a policy name and
description on this page, and click Add to open the “Policy Rule Settings” page.
Enter the criteria used to service ingress traffic on this page.
• Remove Policy – Deletes a specified policy.
Policy Configuration
•
•
•
•
Policy Name — Name of policy map. (Range: 1-16 characters)
Description – A brief description of a policy map. (Range: 1-64 characters)
Add – Adds the specified policy.
Back – Returns to previous page with making any changes.
Policy Rule Settings
- Class Settings • Class Name – Name of class map.
• Action – Shows the service provided to ingress traffic by setting a CoS, DSCP, or
IP Precedence value in a matching packet (as specified in Match Class Settings on
page 14-2).
• Meter – The maximum throughput and burst rate.
- Rate (kbps) – Rate in kilobits per second.
- Burst (byte) – Burst in bytes.
• Exceed Action – Specifies whether the traffic that exceeds the specified rate will
be dropped or the DSCP service level will be reduced.
• Remove Class – Deletes a class.
- Policy Options • Class Name – Name of class map.
• Action – Configures the service provided to ingress traffic by setting a CoS, DSCP,
or IP Precedence value in a matching packet (as specified in Match Class Settings
on page 14-2). (Range - CoS: 0-7, DSCP: 0-63, IP Precedence: 0-7,
IPv6 DSCP: 0-63)
• Meter – Check this to define the maximum throughput, burst rate, and the action
that results from a policy violation.
- Rate (kbps) – Rate in kilobits per second. (Range: 1-100000 kbps or maximum
port speed, whichever is lower)
- Burst (byte) – Burst in bytes. (Range: 64-524288)
• Exceed – Specifies whether the traffic that exceeds the specified rate or burst will
be dropped or the DSCP service level will be reduced.
- Set – Decreases DSCP priority for out of conformance traffic. (Range: 0-63).
- Drop – Drops out of conformance traffic.
• Add – Adds the specified criteria to the policy map.
14-5
14
Quality of Service
Web – Click QoS, DiffServ, Policy Map to display the list of existing policy maps. To
add a new policy map click Add Policy. To configure the policy rule settings click Edit
Classes.
Figure 14-2 Configuring Policy Maps
14-6
Configuring Quality of Service Parameters
14
CLI – This example creates a policy map called “rd-policy,” sets the average
bandwidth the 1 Mbps, the burst rate to 1522 bps, and the response to reduce the
DSCP value for violating packets to 0.
Console(config)#policy-map rd_policy#3
Console(config-pmap)#class rd_class#3
Console(config-pmap-c)#set ip dscp 4
Console(config-pmap-c)#police 100000 1522 exceed-action
set ip dscp 0
Console(config-pmap-c)#
36-5
36-5
36-6
36-7
Attaching a Policy Map to Ingress Queues
This function binds a policy map to the ingress queue of a particular interface.
Command Usage
• You must first define a class map, then define a policy map, and finally bind the
service policy to the required interface.
• You can only bind one policy map to an interface.
• The current firmware does not allow you to bind a policy map to an egress queue.
Command Attributes
•
•
•
•
Ports – Specifies a port.
Ingress – Applies the rule to ingress traffic.
Enabled – Check this to enable a policy map on the specified port.
Policy Map – Select the appropriate policy map from the scroll-down box.
Web – Click QoS, DiffServ, Service Policy Settings. Check Enabled and choose a
Policy Map for a port from the scroll-down box, then click Apply.
Figure 14-3 Service Policy Settings
CLI - This example applies a service policy to an ingress interface.
Console(config)#interface ethernet 1/5
Console(config-if)#service-policy input rd_policy#3
Console(config-if)#
27-1
36-8
14-7
14
14-8
Quality of Service
Chapter 15: Multicast Filtering
Multicasting is used to support real-time
applications such as videoconferencing or
streaming audio. A multicast server does not have
to establish a separate connection with each
client. It merely broadcasts its service to the
network, and any hosts that want to receive the
multicast register with their local multicast switch/
router. Although this approach reduces the
network overhead required by a multicast server,
the broadcast traffic must be carefully pruned at
every multicast switch/router it passes through to
ensure that traffic is only passed on to the hosts
which subscribed to this service.
Unicast
Flow
Multicast
Flow
This switch can use Internet Group Management
Protocol (IGMP) to filter multicast traffic. IGMP
Snooping can be used to passively monitor or
“snoop” on exchanges between attached hosts
and an IGMP-enabled device, most commonly a
multicast router. In this way, the switch can discover the ports that want to join a
multicast group, and set its filters accordingly.
If there is no multicast router attached to the local subnet, multicast traffic and query
messages may not be received by the switch. In this case (Layer 2) IGMP Query
can be used to actively ask the attached hosts if they want to receive a specific
multicast service. IGMP Query thereby identifies the ports containing hosts
requesting to join the service and sends data out to those ports only. It then
propagates the service request up to any neighboring multicast switch/router to
ensure that it will continue to receive the multicast service.
The purpose of IP multicast filtering is to optimize a switched network’s
performance, so multicast packets will only be forwarded to those ports containing
multicast group hosts or multicast routers/switches, instead of flooding traffic to all
ports in the subnet (VLAN).
15-1
15
Multicast Filtering
Layer 2 IGMP (Snooping and Query)
IGMP Snooping and Query – If multicast routing is not supported on other switches
in your network, you can use IGMP Snooping and IGMP Query (page 15-3) to
monitor IGMP service requests passing between multicast clients and servers, and
dynamically configure the switch ports which need to forward multicast traffic.
When using IGMPv3 snooping, service requests from IGMP Version 1, 2 or 3 hosts
are all forwarded to the upstream router as IGMPv3 reports. The primary
enhancement provided by IGMPv3 snooping is in keeping track of information about
the specific multicast sources which downstream IGMPv3 hosts have requested or
refused. The switch maintains information about both multicast groups and
channels, where a group indicates a multicast flow for which the hosts have not
requested a specific source (the only option for IGMPv1 and v2 hosts unless
statically configured on the switch), and a channel indicates a flow for which the
hosts have requested service from a specific source.
Only IGMPv3 hosts can request service from a specific multicast source. When
downstream hosts request service from a specific source for a multicast service,
these sources are all placed in the Include list, and traffic is forwarded to the hosts
from each of these sources. IGMPv3 hosts may also request that service be
forwarded from all sources except for those specified. In this case, traffic is filtered
from sources in the Exclude list, and forwarded from all other available sources.
Notes: 1. When the switch is configured to use IGMPv3 snooping, the snooping
version may be downgraded to version 2 or version 1, depending on the
version of the IGMP query packets detected on each VLAN.
2. IGMP snooping will not function unless a multicast router port is enabled on
the switch. This can be accomplished in one of two ways. A static router port
can be manually configured (see “Specifying Static Interfaces for a Multicast
Router” on page 15-7). Using this method, the router port is never timed out,
and will continue to function until explicitly removed. The other method relies
on the switch to dynamically create multicast routing ports whenever
multicast routing protocol packets or IGMP query packets are detected on a
port.
3. A maximum of up to 255 multicast entries can be maintained for IGMP
snooping, and 255 entries for Multicast Routing, when both of these features
are enabled. If the table’s capacity is exceeded, the IGMPv3 snooping will
not support multicast source filtering, but will forward multicast traffic from all
relevant sources to the requesting hosts.
Static IGMP Router Interface – If IGMP snooping cannot locate the IGMP querier,
you can manually designate a known IGMP querier (i.e., a multicast router/switch)
connected over the network to an interface on your switch (page 15-7). This
interface will then join all the current multicast groups supported by the attached
router/switch to ensure that multicast traffic is passed to all appropriate interfaces
within the switch.
15-2
Layer 2 IGMP (Snooping and Query)
15
Static IGMP Host Interface – For multicast applications that you need to control
more carefully, you can manually assign a multicast service to specific interfaces on
the switch (page 15-9).
Configuring IGMP Snooping and Query Parameters
You can configure the switch to forward multicast traffic intelligently. Based on the
IGMP query and report messages, the switch forwards traffic only to the ports that
request multicast traffic. This prevents the switch from broadcasting the traffic to all
ports and possibly disrupting network performance.
Command Usage
• IGMP Snooping – This switch can passively snoop on IGMP Query and Report
packets transferred between IP multicast routers/switches and IP multicast host
groups to identify the IP multicast group members. It simply monitors the IGMP
packets passing through it, picks out the group registration information, and
configures the multicast filters accordingly.
Note: Unknown multicast traffic is flooded to all ports in the VLAN for several seconds
when first received. If a multicast router port exists on the VLAN, the traffic will be
filtered by subjecting it to IGMP snooping. If no router port exists on the VLAN or
the multicast filtering table is already full, the switch will continue flooding the traffic
into the VLAN.
• IGMP Querier – A router, or multicast-enabled switch, can periodically ask their
hosts if they want to receive multicast traffic. If there is more than one router/switch
on the LAN performing IP multicasting, one of these devices is elected “querier”
and assumes the role of querying the LAN for group members. It then propagates
the service requests on to any upstream multicast switch/router to ensure that it will
continue to receive the multicast service.
Note: Multicast routers use this information, along with a multicast routing protocol such
as DVMRP or PIM, to support IP multicasting across the Internet.
Command Attributes
• IGMP Status — When enabled, the switch will monitor network traffic to determine
which hosts want to receive multicast traffic. This is also referred to as IGMP
Snooping. (Default: Enabled)
• Act as IGMP Querier — When enabled, the switch can serve as the Querier,
which is responsible for asking hosts if they want to receive multicast traffic. This
feature is not supported for IGMPv3 snooping. (Default: Disabled)
• IGMP Query Count — Sets the maximum number of queries issued for which
there has been no response before the switch takes action to drop a client from the
multicast group. (Range: 2-10, Default: 2)
• IGMP Query Interval — Sets the frequency at which the switch sends IGMP
host-query messages. (Range: 60-125 seconds, Default: 125)
• IGMP Report Delay — Sets the time between receiving an IGMP Report for an IP
multicast address on a port before the switch sends an IGMP Query out of that port
and removes the entry from its list. (Range: 5-25 seconds, Default: 10)
15-3
15
Multicast Filtering
• IGMP Query Timeout — The time the switch waits after the previous querier stops
before it considers the router port (i.e., the interface which had been receiving
query packets) to have expired. (Range: 300-500 seconds, Default: 300)
• IGMP Version — Sets the protocol version for compatibility with other devices on
the network. (Range: 1-3; Default: 2)
Notes: 1. All systems on the subnet must support the same version.
2. Some attributes are only enabled for IGMPv2, including IGMP Report Delay
and IGMP Query Timeout.
Web – Click IGMP Snooping, IGMP Configuration. Adjust the IGMP settings as
required, and then click Apply. (The default settings are shown below.)
Figure 15-1 IGMP Configuration
CLI – This example modifies the settings for multicast filtering, and then displays the
current status.
Console(config)#ip igmp snooping
Console(config)#ip igmp snooping querier
Console(config)#ip igmp snooping query-count 10
Console(config)#ip igmp snooping query-interval 100
Console(config)#ip igmp snooping query-max-response-time 20
Console(config)#ip igmp snooping router-port-expire-time 300
Console(config)#ip igmp snooping version 2
Console(config)#exit
Console#show ip igmp snooping
Service Status:
Enabled
Querier Status:
Enabled
Query Count:
10
Query Interval:
100 sec
Query Max Response Time: 20 sec
Router Port Expire Time: 300 sec
Immediate Leave Processing: Disabled on all VLAN
IGMP Snooping Version:
Version 2
Console#
15-4
37-1
37-5
37-6
37-7
37-7
37-8
37-2
37-4
Layer 2 IGMP (Snooping and Query)
15
Enabling IGMP Immediate Leave
The switch can be configured to immediately delete a member port of a multicast
service if a leave packet is received at that port and the immediate-leave function is
enabled for the parent VLAN. This allows the switch to remove a port from the
multicast forwarding table without first having to send an IGMP group-specific query
to that interface.
Command Usage
• If immediate leave is not used, a multicast router (or querier) will send a
group-specific query message when an IGMPv2/v3 group leave message is
received. The router/querier stops forwarding traffic for that group only if no host
replies to the query within the specified timeout period. Note that the timeout period
is determined by the IGMP Query Report Delay (see “Configuring IGMP Snooping
and Query Parameters” on page 15-3).
• If immediate leave is enabled, the switch assumes that only one host is connected
to the interface. Therefore, immediate leave should only be enabled on an interface
if it is connected to only one IGMP-enabled device, either a service host or a
neighbor running IGMP snooping.
• Immediate leave is only effective if IGMP snooping is enabled, and IGMPv2 or
IGMPv3 snooping is used.
• Immediate leave does not apply to a port if the switch has learned that a multicast
router is attached to it.
• Immediate leave can improve bandwidth usage for a network which frequently
experiences many IGMP host add and leave requests.
Command Attributes
• VLAN ID – VLAN Identifier. (Range: 1-4093).
• Immediate Leave – Sets the status for immediate leave on the specified VLAN.
(Default: Disabled)
Web – Click IGMP Snooping, IGMP Immediate Leave. Select the VLAN interface to
configure, set the status for immediate leave, and click Apply.
Figure 15-1 IGMP Immediate Leave
15-5
15
Multicast Filtering
CLI – This example enables IGMP immediate leave for VLAN 1 and then displays
the current IGMP snooping status.
Console(config)#interface vlan 1
Console(config-if)#ip igmp snooping immediate-leave
Console(config-if)#end
Console#show ip igmp snooping
Service Status:
Enabled
Querier Status:
Disabled
Leave proxy status:
Enabled
Query Count:
2
Query Interval:
125 sec
Query Max Response Time: 10 sec
Router Port Expire Time: 300 sec
Immediate Leave Processing: Enabled on VLAN
1,
IGMP Snooping Version:
Version 2
Console#
37-3
37-4
Displaying Interfaces Attached to a Multicast Router
Multicast routers that are attached to ports on the switch use information obtained
from IGMP, along with a multicast routing protocol such as DVMRP or PIM, to
support IP multicasting across the Internet. These routers may be dynamically
discovered by the switch or statically assigned to an interface on the switch.
You can use the Multicast Router Port Information page to display the ports on this
switch attached to a neighboring multicast router/switch for each VLAN ID.
Command Attributes
• VLAN ID – ID of configured VLAN (1-4093).
• Multicast Router List – Multicast routers dynamically discovered by this switch or
those that are statically assigned to an interface on this switch.
Web – Click IGMP Snooping, Multicast Router Port Information. Select the required
VLAN ID from the scroll-down list to display the associated multicast routers.
Figure 15-2 Multicast Router Port Information
15-6
Layer 2 IGMP (Snooping and Query)
15
CLI – This example shows that Port 11 has been statically configured as a port
attached to a multicast router.
Console#show ip igmp snooping mrouter vlan 1
VLAN M'cast Router Port Type
---- ------------------ ------1
Eth 1/11 Static
Console#
37-10
Specifying Static Interfaces for a Multicast Router
Depending on your network connections, IGMP snooping may not always be able to
locate the IGMP querier. Therefore, if the IGMP querier is a known multicast router/
switch connected over the network to an interface (port or trunk) on your switch, you
can manually configure the interface (and a specified VLAN) to join all the current
multicast groups supported by the attached router. This can ensure that multicast
traffic is passed to all the appropriate interfaces within the switch.
Command Attributes
• Interface – Activates the Port or Trunk scroll down list.
• VLAN ID – Selects the VLAN to propagate all multicast traffic coming from the
attached multicast router.
• Unit – Stack unit. (Range: 1-8)
• Port or Trunk – Specifies the interface attached to a multicast router.
Web – Click IGMP Snooping, Static Multicast Router Port Configuration. Specify the
interfaces attached to a multicast router, indicate the VLAN which will forward all the
corresponding multicast traffic, and then click Add. After you have finished adding
interfaces to the list, click Apply.
Figure 15-3 Static Multicast Router Port Configuration
CLI – This example configures port 11 as a multicast router port within VLAN 1.
Console(config)#ip igmp snooping vlan 1 mrouter ethernet 1/11
Console(config)#exit
Console#show ip igmp snooping mrouter vlan 1
VLAN M'cast Router Port Type
---- ------------------ ------1
Eth 1/11 Static
Console#
37-9
37-10
15-7
15
Multicast Filtering
Displaying Port Members of Multicast Services
You can display the port members associated with a specified VLAN and multicast
service.
Command Attribute
• VLAN ID – Selects the VLAN for which to display port members. (Range: 1-4093)
• Multicast IP Address – The IP address for a specific multicast service.
• Multicast Group Port List – Shows the interfaces that have already been
assigned to the selected VLAN to propagate a specific multicast service.
Web – Click IGMP Snooping, IP Multicast Registration Table. Select a VLAN ID and
the IP address for a multicast service from the scroll-down lists. The switch will
display all the interfaces that are propagating this multicast service.
Figure 15-4 IP Multicast Registration Table
CLI – This example displays all the known multicast services supported on VLAN 1,
along with the ports propagating the corresponding services. The Type field shows if
this entry was learned dynamically or was statically configured.
Console#show mac-address-table multicast vlan 1
VLAN M'cast IP addr. Member ports Type
---- --------------- ------------ ------1
224.1.1.12
Eth1/12
USER
1
224.1.2.3
Eth1/12
IGMP
Console#
15-8
37-4
Layer 2 IGMP (Snooping and Query)
15
Assigning Ports to Multicast Services
Multicast filtering can be dynamically configured using IGMP Snooping and IGMP
Query messages as described in "Configuring IGMP Snooping and Query
Parameters" on page 15-3. For certain applications that require tighter control, you
may need to statically configure a multicast service on the switch. First add all the
ports attached to participating hosts to a common VLAN, and then assign the
multicast service to that VLAN group.
Command Usage
• Static multicast addresses are never aged out.
• When a multicast address is assigned to an interface in a specific VLAN, the
corresponding traffic can only be forwarded to ports within that VLAN.
Command Attribute
• Interface – Activates the Port or Trunk scroll down list.
• VLAN ID – Selects the VLAN to propagate all multicast traffic coming from the
attached multicast router/switch. (Range: 1-4093)
• Multicast IP – The IP address for a specific multicast service
• Unit – Stack unit. (Range: 1-8)
• Port or Trunk – Specifies the interface attached to a multicast router/switch.
Web – Click IGMP Snooping, IGMP Member Port Table. Specify the interface
attached to a multicast service (via an IGMP-enabled switch or multicast router),
indicate the VLAN that will propagate the multicast service, specify the multicast IP
address, and click Add. After you have completed adding ports to the member list,
click Apply.
Figure 15-5 IGMP Member Port Table
CLI – This example assigns a multicast address to VLAN 1, and then displays all the
known multicast services supported on VLAN 1.
Console(config)#ip igmp snooping vlan 1 static 224.1.1.12
ethernet 1/12
Console(config)#exit
Console#show mac-address-table multicast vlan 1
VLAN M'cast IP addr. Member ports Type
---- --------------- ------------ ------1
224.1.1.12
Eth1/12
USER
1
224.1.2.3
Eth1/12
IGMP
37-2
37-4
15-9
15
15-10
Multicast Filtering
Chapter 16: Domain Name Service
The Domain Naming System (DNS) service on this switch allows host names to be
mapped to IP addresses using static table entries or by redirection to other name
servers on the network. When a client device designates this switch as a DNS
server, the client will attempt to resolve host names into IP addresses by forwarding
DNS queries to the switch, and waiting for a response.
You can manually configure entries in the DNS table used for mapping domain
names to IP addresses, configure default domain names, or specify one or more
name servers to use for domain name to address translation.
Configuring General DNS Service Parameters
Command Usage
• To enable DNS service on this switch, first configure one or more name servers,
and then enable domain lookup status.
• To append domain names to incomplete host names received from a DNS client
(i.e., not formatted with dotted notation), you can specify a default domain name or
a list of domain names to be tried in sequential order.
• If there is no domain list, the default domain name is used. If there is a domain list,
the system will search it for a corresponding entry. If none is found, the default
domain name is used.
• When an incomplete host name is received by the DNS service on this switch and
a domain name list has been specified, the switch will work through the domain list,
appending each domain name in the list to the host name, and checking with the
specified name servers for a match.
• When more than one name server is specified, the servers are queried in the
specified sequence until a response is received, or the end of the list is reached
with no response.
• Note that if all name servers are deleted, DNS will automatically be disabled.
Command Attributes
• Domain Lookup Status – Enables DNS host name-to-address translation.
• Default Domain Name18 – Defines the default domain name appended to
incomplete host names. (Range: 1-127 alphanumeric characters)
• Domain Name List18 – Defines a list of domain names that can be appended to
incomplete host names. (Range: 1-127 alphanumeric characters; 1-3 names)
• Name Server List – Specifies the address of one or more domain name servers
to use for name-to-address resolution. (Range: 1-6 IP addresses)
Note: When specifying names, do not include the initial dot that separates the host name
from the domain name.
18. Do not include the initial dot that separates the host name from the domain name.
16-1
16
Domain Name Service
Web – Select DNS, General Configuration. Set the default domain name or list of
domain names, specify one or more name servers to use to use for address
resolution, enable domain lookup status, and click Apply.
Figure 16-1 DNS General Configuration
CLI - This example sets a default domain name and a domain list. However,
remember that if a domain list is specified, the default domain name is not used.
Console(config)#ip domain-name sample.com
Console(config)#ip domain-list sample.com.uk
Console(config)#ip domain-list sample.com.jp
Console(config)#ip name-server 192.168.1.55 10.1.0.55
Console(config)#ip domain-lookup
Console#show dns
Domain Lookup Status:
DNS enabled
Default Domain Name:
.sample.com
Domain Name List:
.sample.com.uk
.sample.com.jp
Name Server List:
192.168.1.55
10.1.0.55
Console#
16-2
38-3
38-3
38-4
38-5
38-7
Configuring Static DNS Host to Address Entries
16
Configuring Static DNS Host to Address Entries
You can manually configure static entries in the DNS table that are used to map
domain names to IP addresses.
Command Usage
• Static entries may be used for local devices connected directly to the attached
network, or for commonly used resources located elsewhere on the network.
• Servers or other network devices may support one or more connections via
multiple IP addresses. If more than one IP address is associated with a host name
in the static table or via information returned from a name server, a DNS client can
try each address in succession, until it establishes a connection with the target
device.
Field Attributes
• Host Name – Name of a host device that is mapped to one or more IP addresses.
(Range: 1-127 characters)
• IP Address – Internet address(es) associated with a host name.
(Range: 1-8 addresses)
• Alias – Displays the host names that are mapped to the same address(es) as a
previously configured entry.
16-3
16
Domain Name Service
Web – Select DNS, Static Host Table. Enter a host name and one or more
corresponding addresses, then click Apply.
Figure 16-2 DNS Static Host Table
CLI - This example maps two address to a host name, and then configures an alias
host name for the same addresses.
Console(config)#ip host rd5 192.168.1.55 10.1.0.55
Console(config)#ip host rd6 10.1.0.55
Console#show hosts
Hostname
rd5
Inet address
10.1.0.55 192.168.1.55
Alias
rd6
Console#
16-4
38-1
38-6
Displaying the DNS Cache
16
Displaying the DNS Cache
You can display entries in the DNS cache that have been learned via the designated
name servers.
Field Attributes
• No – The entry number for each resource record.
• Flag – The flag is always “4” indicating a cache entry and therefore unreliable.
• Type – This field includes CNAME which specifies the canonical or primary name
for the owner, and ALIAS which specifies multiple domain names which are
mapped to the same IP address as an existing entry.
• Type – This field includes ADDRESS which specifies the host address for the
owner, and CNAME which specifies an alias.
• IP – The IP address associated with this record.
• TTL – The time to live reported by the name server.
• Domain – The domain name associated with this record.
Web – Select DNS, Cache.
Figure 16-3 DNS Cache
CLI - This example displays all the resource records learned from the designated
name servers.
Console#show dns cache
NO
FLAG
TYPE
0
4
Address
1
4
Address
2
4
Address
3
4
CNAME
4
4
CNAME
Console#
DOMAIN
www.times.com
a1116.x.akamai.net
a1116.x.akamai.net
graphics8.nytimes.com
graphics478.nytimes.com.edgesui
TTL
198
19
19
19
19
38-7
IP
199.239.136.200
61.213.189.120
61.213.189.104
POINTER TO:2
POINTER TO:2
16-5
16
16-6
Domain Name Service
Chapter 17: Dynamic Host Configuration
Protocol
Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol (DHCP) can dynamically allocate an
IP address and other configuration information to network clients when they boot up.
If a subnet does not already include a BOOTP or DHCP server, you can relay DHCP
client requests to a DHCP server on another subnet, or configure the DHCP server
on this switch to support that subnet.
When configuring the DHCP server on this switch, you can configure an address
pool for each unique IP interface, or manually assign a static IP address to clients
based on their hardware address or client identifier. The DHCP server can provide
the host’s IP address, domain name, gateway router and DNS server, information
about the host’s boot image including the TFTP server to access for download and
the name of the boot file, or boot information for NetBIOS Windows Internet Naming
Service (WINS).
Configuring DHCP Relay Service
This switch supports DHCP relay
service for attached host devices.
If DHCP relay is enabled, and this
switch sees a DHCP request
broadcast, it inserts its own IP
DHCP
address into the request so that
Server
Provides IP address
compatible with switch
the DHCP server will know the
segment to which client
is attached
subnet where the client is located.
Then, the switch forwards the
packet to the DHCP server. When
the server receives the DHCP request, it allocates a free IP address for the DHCP
client from its defined scope for the DHCP client’s subnet, and sends a DHCP
response back to the DHCP relay agent (i.e., this switch). This switch then
broadcasts the DHCP response received from the server to the client.
Command Usage
You must specify the IP address for at least one DHCP server. Otherwise, the
switch’s DHCP relay agent will not forward client requests to a DHCP server.
Command Attributes
• VLAN ID – ID of configured VLAN.
• VLAN Name – Name of the VLAN.
• Server IP Address – Addresses of DHCP servers to be used by the switch’s
DHCP relay agent in order of preference.
• Restart DHCP Relay – Use this button to enable or re-initialize DHCP relay
service.
17-1
17
Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol
Web – Click DHCP, Relay Configuration. Enter up to five IP addresses for any
VLAN, then click Restart DHCP Relay to start the relay service.
Figure 17-1 DHCP Relay Configuration
CLI – This example specifies one DHCP relay server for VLAN 1, and enables the
relay service.
Console(config)#interface vlan 1
Console(config-if)#ip dhcp relay server 10.1.0.99
Console(config-if)#ip dhcp restart relay
Console(config-if)#
27-1
39-4
39-3
Configuring the DHCP Server
This switch includes a Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol (DHCP) server that can
assign temporary IP addresses to any attached host requesting service. It can also
provide other network settings such as the domain name, default gateway, Domain
Name Servers (DNS), Windows Internet Naming Service (WINS) name servers, or
information on the bootup file for the host device to download.
Addresses can be assigned to clients from a common address pool configured for a
specific IP interface on this switch, or fixed addresses can be assigned to hosts
based on the client identifier code or MAC address.
Address
Pool
Static
Addresses
17-2
8 network
address pools
32 static addresses
(all within the confines
of configured network
address pools)
Configuring the DHCP Server
17
Command Usage
• First configure any excluded addresses, including the address for this switch.
• Then configure address pools for the network interfaces. You can configure up to
8 network address pools. You can also manually bind an address to a specific
client if required. However, any fixed addresses must fall within the range of an
existing network address pool. You can configure up to 32 fixed host addresses
(i.e., entering one address per pool).
• If the DHCP server is running, you must disable it and then reenable it to implement
any configuration changes. This can be done on the DHCP, Server, General page.
Enabling the Server, Setting Excluded Addresses
Enable the DHCP Server and specify the IP addresses that it should not be
assigned to clients.
Command Attributes
• DHCP Server – Enables or disables the DHCP server on this switch.
(Default: Disabled)
• Excluded Addresses – Specifies IP addresses that the DHCP server should not
assign to DHCP clients. You can specify a single address or an address range.
• New (Excluded Addresses) – New entries for excluded addresses can be specified
as a single address or an address range.
Note: Be sure you exclude the address for this switch and other key network devices.
Web – Click DHCP, Server, General. Enter a single address or an address range,
and click Add.
Figure 17-2 DHCP Server General Configuration
17-3
17
Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol
CLI – This example enables the DHCP and sets an excluded address range.
Console(config)#service dhcp
Console(config)#ip dhcp excluded-address 10.1.0.250 10.1.0.254
Console#
39-5
39-6
Configuring Address Pools
You must configure IP address pools for each IP interface that will provide
addresses to attached clients via the DHCP server.
Command Usage
• First configure address pools for the network interfaces. Then you can manually
bind an address to a specific client if required. However, note that any static host
address must fall within the range of an existing network address pool. You can
configure up to 8 network address pools, and up to 32 manually bound host
address pools (i.e., one address per host pool).
• When a client request is received, the switch first checks for a network address
pool matching the gateway where the request originated (i.e., if the request was
forwarded by a relay server). If there is no gateway in the client request (i.e., the
request was not forwarded by a relay server), the switch searches for a network
pool matching the interface through which the client request was received. It then
searches for a manually configured host address that falls within the matching
network pool. If no manually configured host address is found, it assigns an
address from the matching network address pool. However, if no matching address
pool is found the request is ignored.
• When searching for a manual binding, the switch compares the client identifier and
then the hardware address for DHCP clients. Since BOOTP clients cannot transmit
a client identifier, you must configure a hardware address for this host type. If no
manual binding has been specified for a host entry with a hardware address or
client identifier, the switch will assign an address from the first matching network
pool.
• If the subnet mask is not specified for network or host address pools, the class A,
B, or C natural mask is used (see page 20-5). The DHCP server assumes that all
host addresses are available. You can exclude subsets of the address space by
using the IP Excluded Address field on the DHCP Server General configuration
page.
Command Attributes
Creating a New Address Pool
•
•
•
•
•
Pool Name – A string or integer. (Range: 1-8 characters)
Type – Shows is address pool type is Network or Host.
IP Address – The IP address upon which the pool is based.
Mask – Shows the network (or subnet) and the host portion of the address pool.
Active Pool – The addresses provided by this pool, including those specified by
the IP address and network mask, but minus those excluded on the DHCP server’s
General Configuration page.
17-4
Configuring the DHCP Server
17
• Configure – Click this button to configure the corresponding address pool.
Setting the Network Parameters
• IP – The IP address of the DHCP address pool.
• Subnet Mask – The bit combination that identifies the network (or subnet) and the
host portion of the DHCP address pool.
Setting the Host Parameters
• IP – The IP address of the DHCP address pool.
• Subnet Mask – Specifies the network mask of the client.
• Hardware Address – Specifies the MAC address and protocol used on the client.
(Options: Ethernet, IEEE802, FDDI; Default: Ethernet)
• Client-Identifier – A unique designation for the client device, either a text string
(1-15 characters) or hexadecimal value.
Setting the Optional Parameters
• Default Router – The IP address of the primary and alternate gateway router.
The IP address of the router should be on the same subnet as the client.
• DNS Server – The IP address of the primary and alternate DNS server. DNS
servers must be configured for a DHCP client to map host names to IP addresses.
• Netbios Server – IP address of the primary and alternate NetBIOS Windows
Internet Naming Service (WINS) name server used for Microsoft DHCP clients.
• Netbios Type – NetBIOS node type for Microsoft DHCP clients.
(Options: Broadcast, Hybrid, Mixed, Peer to Peer; Default: Hybrid)
• Domain Name – The domain name of the client. (Range: 1-128 characters)
• Bootfile – The default boot image for a DHCP client. This file should placed on the
Trivial File Transfer Protocol (TFTP) server specified as the Next Server.
• Next Server – The IP address of the next server in the boot process, which is
typically a Trivial File Transfer Protocol (TFTP) server.
• Lease Time – The duration that an IP address is assigned to a DHCP client.
(Options: fixed period, Infinite; Default: 1 day)
17-5
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Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol
Examples
Creating a New Address Pool
Web – Click DHCP, Server, Pool Configuration. Specify a pool name, then click Add.
Figure 17-3 DHCP Server Pool Configuration
CLI – This example adds an address pool and enters DHCP pool configuration
mode.
Console(config)#ip dhcp pool mgr
Console(config-dhcp)#
17-6
39-6
Configuring the DHCP Server
17
Configuring a Network Address Pool
Web – Click DHCP, Server, Pool Configuration. Click the Configure button for any
entry. Click the radio button for “Network.” Enter the IP address and subnet mask for
the network pool. Configure the optional parameters such as gateway server and
DNS server. Then click Apply.
Figure 17-4 DHCP Server Pool - Network Configuration
CLI – This example configures a network address pool.
Console(config)#ip dhcp pool tps
Console(config-dhcp)#network 10.1.0.0 255.255.255.0
Console(config-dhcp)#default-router 10.1.0.253
Console(config-dhcp)#dns-server 10.2.3.4
Console(config-dhcp)#netbios-name-server 10.1.0.33
Console(config-dhcp)#netbios-node-type hybrid
Console(config-dhcp)#domain-name example.com
Console(config-dhcp)#bootfile wme.bat
Console(config-dhcp)#next-server 10.1.0.21
Console(config-dhcp)#lease infinite
Console(config-dhcp)#
39-6
39-7
39-8
39-9
39-10
39-11
39-8
39-10
39-9
39-11
17-7
17
Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol
Configuring a Host Address Pool
Web – Click DHCP, Server, Pool Configuration. Click the Configure button for any
entry. Click the radio button for “Host.” Enter the IP address, subnet mask, and
hardware address for the client device. Configure the optional parameters such as
gateway server and DNS server. Then click Apply.
Figure 17-5 DHCP Server Pool - Host Configuration
CLI – This example configures a host address pool.
Console(config)#ip dhcp pool mgr
Console(config-dhcp)#host 10.1.0.19 255.255.255.0
Console(config-dhcp)#hardware-address 00-e0-29-94-34-28 ethernet
Console(config-dhcp)#client-identifier text bear
Console(config-dhcp)#default-router 10.1.0.253
Console(config-dhcp)#dns-server 10.2.3.4
Console(config-dhcp)#netbios-name-server 10.1.0.33
Console(config-dhcp)#netbios-node-type hybrid
Console(config-dhcp)#domain-name example.com
Console(config-dhcp)#bootfile wme.bat
Console(config-dhcp)#next-server 10.1.0.21
Console(config-dhcp)#lease infinite
Console(config-dhcp)#
17-8
39-6
39-12
39-14
39-13
39-8
39-9
39-10
39-11
39-8
39-10
39-9
39-11
Configuring the DHCP Server
17
Displaying Address Bindings
You can display the host devices which have acquired an IP address from this
switch’s DHCP server.
Command Attributes
•
•
•
•
•
IP Address – IP address assigned to host.
Mac Address – MAC address of host.
Lease time – Duration that this IP address can be used by the host.
Start time – Time this address was assigned by the switch.
Delete – Clears this binding to the host. This command is normally used after
modifying the address pool, or after moving DHCP service to another device.
• Entry Count – Number of hosts that have been given addresses by the switch.
Note: More than one DHCP server may respond to a service request by a host. In this
case, the host generally accepts the first address assigned by any DHCP server.
Web – Click DHCP, Server, IP Binding. You may use the Delete button to clear an
address from the DHCP server’s database.
Figure 17-6 DHCP Server - IP Binding
CLI – This example displays the current binding, and then clears all automatic
binding.
Console#show ip dhcp binding
IP
MAC
Lease Time
Start
--------------- ----------------- ------------ ----------10.1.0.20 00-00-e8-98-73-21
86400 Dec 25 08:01:57 2002
Console#clear ip dhcp binding *
Console#
39-15
39-14
17-9
17
17-10
Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol
Chapter 18: Configuring Router Redundancy
Router redundancy protocols use a virtual IP address to support a primary router
and multiple backup routers. The backup routers can be configured to take over the
workload if the master router fails, or can also be configured to share the traffic load.
The primary goal of router redundancy is to allow a host device which has been
configured with a fixed gateway to maintain network connectivity in case the primary
gateway goes down.
This switch supports the Virtual Router Redundancy Protocol (VRRP). VRRP allows
you to specify the interface of one of the routers participating in the virtual group as
the address for the master virtual router, or to configure an arbitrary address for the
virtual master router. VRRP then selects the backup routers based on the specified
virtual router priority.
Router redundancy can be set up in any of the following configurations. These
examples use the address of one of the participating routers as the master router.
When the virtual router IP address is not a real address, the master router is
selected based on priority. When the priority is the same on several competing
routers, then the router with the highest IP address is selected as the master.
• A master virtual router with one or more backup routers.
Virtual Router (VR23)
VRIP = 192.168.1.3
Master Router
VRID 23
IP(R1) = 192.168.1.3
IP(VR23) = 192.168.1.3
VR Priority = 255
Backup Router
VRID 23
IP(R2) = 192.168.1.5
VRIP(VR23) = 192.168.1.3
VR Priority = 100
• Several virtual master routers using the same set of backup routers.
Master Router
VRID 23
IP(R1) = 192.168.1.3
IP(VR23) = 192.168.1.3
VR Priority = 255
Master Router
VRID 25
IP(R2) = 192.168.2.17
IP(VR25) = 192.168.2.17
VR Priority = 255
Backup Router
VRID 23
IP(R3) = 192.168.1.4
IP(VR23) = 192.168.1.3
VR Priority = 100
VRID 25
IP(R3) = 192.168.2.18
IP(VR23) = 192.168.2.17
VR Priority = 100
18-1
18
Configuring Router Redundancy
• Several virtual master routers configured for mutual backup and load sharing.
Load sharing can be accomplished by assigning a subset of addresses to different
host address pools using the DHCP server. (See 'Configuring Address Pools" on
page 17-4.)
Router 1
Router 2
VRID 23 (Master)
IP(R1) = 192.168.1.3
IP(VR23) = 192.168.1.3
VR Priority = 255
VRID 23 (Backup)
IP(R1) = 192.168.1.5
IP(VR23) = 192.168.1.3
VR Priority = 100
VRID 25 (Backup)
IP(R1) = 192.168.1.3
IP(VR25) = 192.168.1.5
VR Priority = 100
VRID 25 (Master)
IP(R1) = 192.168.1.5
IP(VR25) = 192.168.1.5
VR Priority = 255
LAN Segment A
LAN Segment B
Hosts (192.168.1.10-99)
Hosts (192.168.1.100-250)
Virtual Router Redundancy Protocol
Virtual Router Redundancy Protocol (VRRP) allows you to configure a group of
routers as a single virtual router. The virtual router group is configured with a single
virtual IP address that can be used as the default gateway for host devices on the
attached network.
Configuring VRRP Groups
To configure VRRP, select an interface on each router in the group that will
participate in the protocol as the master router or a backup router. To select a
specific device as the master router, set the address of this interface as the virtual
router address for the group. Now set the same virtual address and a priority on the
backup routers, and configure an authentication string. You can also enable the
preempt feature which allows a router to take over as the master router when it
comes on line if it has a higher priority than the currently active master router.
Command Usage
Address Assignment –
• To designate a specific router as the VRRP master, the IP address assigned to the
virtual router must already be configured on the router that will become the Owner
of the group address. In other words, the IP address for the virtual router exists on
one, and only one, router in the virtual router group, and the network mask for the
virtual router address is derived from the Owner. The Owner will also assume the
role of the Master virtual router in the group.
• If a virtual address is assigned to the group which does not exist on any of the
group members, then the master router is selected based on priority. In cases
18-2
Virtual Router Redundancy Protocol
18
where the configured priority is the same on several group members, then the
master router with the highest IP address is selected from this group.
• If you have multiple secondary addresses configured on the current VLAN
interface, you can add any of these addresses to the virtual router group.
• The interfaces of all routers participating in a virtual router group must be within the
same IP subnet.
• VRRP creates a virtual MAC address for the master router based on a standard
prefix, with the last octet equal to the group ID. When a backup router takes over
as the master, it continues to forward traffic addressed to this virtual MAC address.
However, the backup router cannot reply to ICMP pings sent to addresses
associated with the virtual group because the IP address owner is off line.
Virtual Router Priority –
• The Owner of the virtual IP address is automatically assigned the highest possible
virtual router priority of 255. The backup router with the highest priority will become
the master router if the current master fails. However, because the priority of the
virtual IP address Owner is the highest, the original master router will always
become the active master router when it recovers.
• If two or more routers are configured with the same VRRP priority, the router with
the higher IP address is elected as the new master router if the current master fails.
Preempting the Acting Master –
• The virtual IP Owner has the highest priority, so no other router can preempt it, and
it will always resume control as the master virtual router when it comes back on
line. The preempt function only allows a backup router to take over from a master
router if no router in the group is the virtual IP owner, or from another backup router
that is temporarily acting as the group master. If preemption is enabled and this
router has a higher priority than the current acting master when it comes on line, it
will take over as the acting group master.
• You can add a delay to the preempt function to give additional time to receive an
advertisement message from the current master before taking control. If the router
attempting to become the master has just come on line, this delay also gives it time
to gather information for its routing table before actually preempting the currently
active master router.
Field Attributes (VRRP Group Configuration)
•
•
•
•
•
VLAN ID – ID of a VLAN configured with an IP interface. (Range: 1-4093; Default: 1)
VRID – VRRP group identifier. (Range: 1-255)
State – VRRP router role. (Values: Master, Backup)
Virtual Address – Virtual IP address for this group.
Interval – Interval (in seconds) at which the master virtual router sends
advertisements communicating its state as the master.
• Preemption – Shows if this router is allowed to preempt the acting master.
• Priority – Priority of this router in the VRRP group.
• AuthType – Authentication mode used to verify VRRP packets from other routers.
18-3
18
Configuring Router Redundancy
Command Attributes (VRRP Group Configuration Detail)
• Associated IP Table – IP interfaces associated with this virtual router group.
• Associated IP – IP address of the virtual router, or secondary IP addresses
assigned to the current VLAN interface that are supported by this VRRP group. If
this address matches a real interface on this switch, then this interface will become
the virtual master router for this VRRP group.
• Advertisement Interval – Interval at which the master virtual router sends
advertisements communicating its state as the master. (Range: 1-255 seconds;
Default: 1 second)
- VRRP advertisements from the current master virtual router include information
about its priority and current state as the master.
- VRRP advertisements are sent to the multicast address 224.0.0.8. Using a
multicast address reduces the amount of traffic that has to be processed by
network devices that are not part of the designated VRRP group.
- If the master router stops sending advertisements, backup routers will bid to
become the master router based on priority. The dead interval before attempting
to take over as the master is three times the hello interval plus half a second.
• Preempt Mode – Allows a backup router to take over as the master virtual router
if it has a higher priority than the acting master virtual router (i.e., a master router
that is not the group’s address owner, or another backup router that has taken over
from the previous master.) (Default: Enabled)
• Preempt Delay – Time to wait before issuing a claim to become the master.
(Range: 0-120 seconds; 0 seconds)
• Priority – The priority of this router in a VRRP group. (Range: 1-254; Default: 100)
- The priority for the VRRP group address owner is automatically set to 255.
- The priority for backup routers is used to determine which router will take over
as the acting master router if the current master fails.
• Authentication Type – Authentication mode used to verify VRRP packets
received from other routers. (Options: None, Simple Text)
- If simple text authentication is selected, then you must also enter an
authentication string.
- All routers in the same VRRP group must be set to the same authentication
mode, and be configured with the same authentication string.
- Plain text authentication does not provide any real security. It is supported only
to prevent a misconfigured router from participating in VRRP.
• Authentication String – Key used to authenticate VRRP packets received from
other routers. (Range: 1-8 alphanumeric characters)
- When a VRRP packet is received from another router in the group, its
authentication string is compared to the string configured on this router. If the
strings match, the message is accepted. Otherwise, the packet is discarded.
18-4
Virtual Router Redundancy Protocol
18
Web – Click IP, VRRP, Group Configuration. Select the VLAN ID, enter the VRID
group number, and click Add.
Figure 18-1 VRRP Group Configuration
18-5
18
Configuring Router Redundancy
Click the Edit button for a group entry to open the detailed configuration window.
Enter the IP address of a real interface on this router to make it the master virtual
router for the group. Otherwise, enter the virtual address for an existing group to
make it a backup router, or to compete as the master based on configured priority if
no other members are set as the owner of the group address. Click Add IP to enter
an IP address into the Associated IP Table. Then set any of the other parameters as
required, and click Apply.
Figure 18-2 VRRP Group Configuration Detail
18-6
Virtual Router Redundancy Protocol
18
CLI – This example creates VRRP group 1, sets this switch as the master virtual
router by assigning the primary interface address for the selected VLAN to the virtual
IP address. It then adds a secondary IP address to the VRRP group, sets all of the
other VRRP parameters, and then displays the configured settings.
Console(config)#interface vlan 1
Console(config-if)#vrrp 1 ip 192.168.1.6
Console(config-if)#vrrp 1 ip 192.168.2.6 secondary
Console(config-if)#vrrp 1 timers advertise 5
Console(config-if)#vrrp 1 preempt delay 10
Console(config-if)#vrrp 1 priority 1
Console(config-if)#vrrp 1 authentication bluebird
Console(config-if)#end
Console#show vrrp
Vlan 1 - Group 1,
State
Master
Virtual IP Address
192.168.1.6
Virtual MAC Address
00-00-5E-00-01-01
Advertisement Interval
5 sec
Preemption
enabled
Min Delay
10 sec
Priority
1
Authentication
SimpleText
Authentication Key
bluebird
Master Router
192.168.1.6
Master Priority
255
Master Advertisement Interval
5 sec
Master Down Interval
15
Console#
27-1
40-2
40-4
40-5
40-3
40-3
40-6
Displaying VRRP Global Statistics
The VRRP Global Statistics page displays counters for errors found in VRRP
protocol packets.
Field Attributes
• VRRP Packets with Invalid Checksum – The total number of VRRP packets
received with an invalid VRRP checksum value.
• VRRP Packets with Unknown Error – The total number of VRRP packets
received with an unknown or unsupported version number.
• VRRP Packets with Invalid VRID – The total number of VRRP packets received
with an invalid VRID for this virtual router.
Web – Click IP, VRRP, Global Statistics.
Figure 18-3 VRRP Global Statistics
18-7
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Configuring Router Redundancy
CLI – This example displays counters for protocol errors for all the VRRP groups
configured on this switch.
Console#show vrrp router counters
VRRP Packets with Invalid Checksum : 0
VRRP Packets with Unknown Error
: 0
VRRP Packets with Invalid VRID
: 0
Console#
40-9
Displaying VRRP Group Statistics
The VRRP Group Statistics page displays counters for VRRP protocol events and
errors that have occurred on a specific VRRP interface.
Field Attributes
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
VLAN ID – ID of a VLAN configured with an IP interface. (Range: 1-4093; Default: 1)
VRID – VRRP group identifier. (Range: 1-255)
Times Become Master – Number of times this router has transitioned to master.
Received Packets – Number of VRRP advertisements received by this router.
Error Interval Packets – Number of VRRP advertisements received for which the
advertisement interval is different from the one configured for the local virtual router.
Authentication Failures – Number of VRRP packets received that do not pass the
authentication check.
Error IP TTL Packets – Number of VRRP packets received by the virtual router with
IP TTL (Time-To-Live) not equal to 255.
Received Priority 0 Packets – Number of VRRP packets received by the virtual
router with priority set to 0.
Error Packet Length Packets – Number of packets received with a packet length
less than the length of the VRRP header.
Invalid Type Packets – Number of VRRP packets received by the virtual router
with an invalid value in the “type” field.
Error Address List Packets – Number of packets received for which the address
list does not match the locally configured list for the virtual router.
Invalid Authentication Type Packets – Number of packets received with an
unknown authentication type.
Mismatch Authentication Type Packets – Number of packets received with “Auth
Type” not equal to the locally configured authentication method.
Sent Priority 0 Packets – Number of VRRP packets sent by the virtual router with
priority set to 0. A priority value of zero indicates that the group master has stopped
participating in VRRP, and is used to quickly transition a backup unit to master
mode without having to wait for the master to time out.
18-8
Virtual Router Redundancy Protocol
18
Web – Click IP, VRRP, Group Statistics. Select the VLAN and virtual router group.
Figure 18-4 VRRP Group Statistics
CLI – This example displays VRRP protocol statistics for group 1, VLAN 1.
Console#show vrrp 1 interface vlan 1 counters
Total Number of Times Transitioned to MASTER
Total Number of Received Advertisements Packets
Total Number of Received Error Advertisement Interval Packets
Total Number of Received Authentication Failures Packets
Total Number of Received Error IP TTL VRRP Packets
Total Number of Received Priority 0 VRRP Packets
Total Number of Sent Priority 0 VRRP Packets
Total Number of Received Invalid Type VRRP Packets
Total Number of Received Error Address List VRRP Packets
Total Number of Received Invalid Authentication Type VRRP Packets
Total Number of Received Mismatch Authentication Type VRRP Packets
Total Number of Received Error Packet Length VRRP Packets
Console#
40-9
: 6
: 0
: 0
: 0
: 0
: 0
: 5
: 0
: 0
: 0
: 0
: 0
18-9
18
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Configuring Router Redundancy
Chapter 19: IP Routing
Overview
This switch supports IP routing and routing path management via static routing
definitions (page 19-21) and dynamic routing protocols such as RIP or OSPF
(page 20-2 or 20-14, respectively). When IP routing is enabled (page 19-4), this
switch acts as a wire-speed router, passing traffic between VLANs with different IP
interfaces, and routing traffic to external IP networks. However, when the switch is
first booted, default routing can only forward traffic between local interfaces. As with
all traditional routers, the static and dynamic routing functions must first be
configured to work.
Initial Configuration
By default, all ports belong to the same VLAN and the switch provides only Layer 2
functionality. To segment the attached network, first create VLANs for each unique
user group or application traffic (page 11-6), assign all ports that belong to the same
group to these VLANs (page 11-8), and then assign an IP interface to each VLAN
(page 19-5). By separating the network into different VLANs, it can be partitioned
into subnetworks that are disconnected at Layer 2. Network traffic within the same
subnet is still switched using Layer 2 switching. And the VLANs can now be
interconnected (as required) with Layer 3 switching.
19-1
19
IP Routing
Each VLAN represents a virtual interface to Layer 3. You just need to provide the
network address for each virtual interface, and the traffic between different
subnetworks will be routed by Layer 3 switching.
Inter-subnet traffic (Layer 3 switching)
Routing
Untagged
Unt
Untagged
Unt
VLAN 1
VLAN 2
Tagged or
Tagged
or Untagged
Untagged
Tagged or
Tagged
or Untagged
Untagged
Intra-subnet traffic (Layer 2 switching)
IP Switching
IP Switching (or packet forwarding) encompasses tasks required to forward packets
for both Layer 2 and Layer 3, as well as traditional routing. These functions include:
• Layer 2 forwarding (switching) based on the Layer 2 destination MAC address
• Layer 3 forwarding (routing):
- Based on the Layer 3 destination address
- Replacing destination/source MAC addresses for each hop
- Incrementing the hop count
- Decrementing the time-to-live
- Verifying and recalculating the Layer 3 checksum
If the destination node is on the same subnetwork as the source network, then the
packet can be transmitted directly without the help of a router. However, if the MAC
address is not yet known to the switch, an Address Resolution Protocol (ARP)
packet with the destination IP address is broadcast to get the destination MAC
address from the destination node. The IP packet can then be sent directly with the
destination MAC address.
If the destination belongs to a different subnet on this switch, the packet can be
routed directly to the destination node. However, if the packet belongs to a subnet
19-2
IP Switching
19
not included on this switch, then the packet should be sent to the next hop router
(with the MAC address of the router itself used as the destination MAC address, and
the destination IP address of the destination node). The router will then forward the
packet to the destination node through the correct path. The router can also use the
ARP protocol to find out the MAC address of the destination node of the next router
as necessary.
Note: In order to perform IP switching, the switch should be recognized by other network
nodes as an IP router, either by setting it as the default gateway or by redirection
from another router via the ICMP process.
When the switch receives an IP packet addressed to its own MAC address, the
packet follows the Layer 3 routing process. The destination IP address is checked
against the Layer 3 address table. If the address is not already there, the switch
broadcasts an ARP packet to all the ports on the destination VLAN to find out the
destination MAC address. After the MAC address is discovered, the packet is
reformatted and sent out to the destination. The reformat process includes
decreasing the Time-To-Live (TTL) field of the IP header, recalculating the IP header
checksum, and replacing the destination MAC address with either the MAC address
of the destination node or that of the next hop router.
When another packet destined to the same node arrives, the destination MAC can
be retrieved directly from the Layer 3 address table; the packet is then reformatted
and sent out the destination port. IP switching can be done at wire-speed when the
destination address entry is already in the Layer 3 address table.
If the switch determines that a frame must be routed, the route is calculated only
during setup. Once the route has been determined, all packets in the current flow
are simply switched or forwarded across the chosen path. This takes advantage of
the high throughput and low latency of switching by enabling the traffic to bypass the
routing engine once the path calculation has been performed.
Routing Path Management
Routing Path Management involves the determination and updating of all the routing
information required for packet forwarding, including:
• Handling routing protocols
• Updating the routing table
• Updating the Layer 3 switching database
19-3
19
IP Routing
Routing Protocols
The switch supports both static and dynamic routing.
• Static routing requires routing information to be stored in the switch either manually
or when a connection is set up by an application outside the switch.
• Dynamic routing uses a routing protocol to exchange routing information, calculate
routing tables, and respond to changes in the status or loading of the network.
Basic IP Interface Configuration
To allow routing between different IP subnets, you must enable IP Routing as
described in this section. You also need to you define a VLAN for each IP subnet
that will be connected directly to this switch. Note that you must first create a VLAN
as described under "Creating VLANs" on page 11-6 before configuring the
corresponding subnet. Remember that if you need to manage the switch in-band
then you must define the IP subnet address for at least one VLAN.
Command Attributes
• IP Routing Status – Configures the switch to operate as a Layer 2 switch or as a
multilayer routing switch. (Options: Disable this field to restrict operation to Layer 2
switching; enable it to allow multilayer operation at either Layer 2 or 3 as required.)
- This command affects both static and dynamic unicast routing.
- If IP routing is enabled, all IP packets are routed using either static routing or
dynamic routing via RIP or OSPF, and other packets for all non-IP protocols
(e.g., NetBuei, NetWare or AppleTalk) are switched based on MAC addresses.
If IP routing is disabled, all packets are switched, with filtering and forwarding
decisions based strictly on MAC addresses.
• Default Gateway – The routing device to which the switch will pass packets for all
unknown subnets; i.e., packets that do not match any routing table entry. (Valid IP
addresses consist of four numbers, 0 to 255, separated by periods.)
19-4
Configuring IP Routing Interfaces
19
Web - Click IP, General, Global Settings. Set IP Routing Status to Disabled to restrict
operation to Layer 2, or Enabled to allow multilayer switching, specify the default
gateway which will be forwarded packets for all unknown subnets, and click Apply.
Figure 19-1 IP Global Settings
CLI - This example enables IP routing, and sets the default gateway.
Console(config)#ip routing
Console(config)#ip route default 10.1.0.254
Console(config)#
42-1
42-2
Configuring IP Routing Interfaces
You can specify the IP subnets connected to this router by manually assigning an
IP address to each VLAN, or by using the RIP or OSPF dynamic routing protocols to
identify routes that lead to other interfaces by exchanging protocol messages with
other routers on the network.
Once IP interfaces have been configured, the switch functions as a multilayer
routing switch, operating at either Layer 2 or 3 as required. All IP packets are routed
directly between local interfaces, or indirectly to remote interfaces using either static
routing or dynamic routing. All other packets for non-IP protocols (for example,
NetBuei, NetWare or AppleTalk) are switched based on MAC addresses.
Command Usage
• If this router is directly connected to end node devices (or connected to end nodes
through shared media) that will be assigned to a specific subnet, then you must
create a router interface for each VLAN that will support routing. The router
interface consists of an IP address and subnet mask. This interface address
defines both the network prefix number to which the router interface is attached
and the router’s host number on that network. In other words, a router interface
address defines the network segment that is connected to that interface, and
allows you to send IP packets to or from the router.
19-5
19
IP Routing
• Before you configure any network interfaces on this router, you should first create
a VLAN for each unique user group, or for each network application and its
associated users. Then assign the ports associated with each of these VLANs.
• An IP address must be assigned to gain management access over the network or
to connect the switch to existing IP subnets. A specific IP address can be manually
configured, or the router can be directed to obtain an address from a BOOTP or
DHCP server. Valid IP addresses consist of four numbers, 0 to 255, separated by
periods. Anything other than this format is not be accepted by the configuration
program.
Command Attributes
• VLAN – ID of configured VLAN (1-4093).
• IP Address Mode – Specifies whether the IP address for this interface is statically
assigned, or obtained from a network address server. (Options: Static, DHCP Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol, BOOTP - Boot Protocol; Default: Static)
- If Static address type is selected, then you must also specify whether the IP
address is the primary IP address on the VLAN or a secondary IP address. An
interface can have only one primary IP address, but can have multiple
secondary IP addresses. In other words, you will need to specify secondary
addresses if more than one IP subnet can accessed via this interface.
- If DHCP/BOOTP is enabled, the system will immediately start broadcasting
service requests. IP is enabled but does not function until a reply has been
received from the address server. Requests will be broadcast periodically by the
router for an IP address. (DHCP/BOOTP values can include the IP address,
default gateway, and subnet mask.)
• IP Address – Address of the VLAN interface. Valid IP addresses consist of four
numbers, 0 to 255, separated by periods.
• Subnet Mask – This mask identifies the network portion of the address used for
routing to specific subnets.
• Secondary – If Static address type is selected, the IP address can be the primary
IP address on the VLAN or a secondary IP address. An interface can have only one
primary IP address, but can have multiple secondary IP addresses. In other words,
secondary addresses need to be specified if more than one IP subnet can be
accessed through this interface.
Note that a secondary address cannot be configured prior to setting the primary IP
address, and the primary address cannot be removed if a secondary address is still
present. Also, if any router in a network segment uses a secondary address, all
other routers in that segment must also use a secondary address from the same
network or subnet address space.
19-6
Configuring IP Routing Interfaces
19
Web - Click IP, General, Routing Interface. Specify an IP interface for each VLAN
that will support routing to other subnets. First specify a primary address, and click
Set IP Configuration. If you need to assign secondary addresses, enter these
addresses one at a time, and click Set IP Configuration after entering each address.
Figure 19-2 IP Routing Interface
CLI - This example sets a primary IP address for VLAN 1, and then adds a
secondary IP address for a different subnet also attached to this router interface.
Console(config)#interface vlan 1
Console(config-if)#ip address 10.1.0.253 255.255.255.0
Console(config-if)#ip address 10.1.9.253 255.255.255.0 secondary
Console(config-if)#
41-3
19-7
19
IP Routing
Address Resolution Protocol
If IP routing is enabled (page 19-4), the router uses its routing tables to make routing
decisions, and uses Address Resolution Protocol (ARP) to forward traffic from one
hop to the next. ARP is used to map an IP address to a physical layer (i.e., MAC)
address. When an IP frame is received by this router (or any standards-based
router), it first looks up the MAC address corresponding to the destination IP
address in the ARP cache. If the address is found, the router writes the MAC
address into the appropriate field in the frame header, and forwards the frame on to
the next hop. IP traffic passes along the path to its final destination in this way, with
each routing device mapping the destination IP address to the MAC address of the
next hop toward the recipient, until the packet is delivered to the final destination.
If there is no entry for an IP address in the ARP cache, the router will broadcast an
ARP request packet to all devices on the network. The ARP request contains the
following fields similar to that shown in this example:
Table 19-1 Address Resolution Protocol
destination IP address
10.1.0.19
destination MAC address
?
source IP address
10.1.0.253
source MAC address
00-00-ab-cd-00-00
When devices receive this request, they discard it if their address does not match
the destination IP address in the message. However, if it does match, they write their
own hardware address into the destination MAC address field and send the
message back to the source hardware address. When the source device receives a
reply, it writes the destination IP address and corresponding MAC address into its
cache, and forwards the IP traffic on to the next hop. As long as this entry has not
timed out, the router will be able forward traffic directly to the next hop for this
destination without having to broadcast another ARP request.
19-8
Address Resolution Protocol
19
Basic ARP Configuration
You can use the ARP General configuration menu to specify the timeout for ARP
cache entries, or to enable Proxy ARP for specific VLAN interfaces.
Command Usage
Proxy ARP
When a node in the attached subnetwork does not have routing or a default gateway
configured, Proxy ARP can be used to forward ARP requests to a remote subnetwork.
When the router receives an ARP request for a remote network and Proxy ARP is
enabled, it determines if it has the best route to the remote network, and then
answers the ARP request by sending its own MAC address to the requesting node.
That node then sends traffic to the router, which in turn uses its own routing table to
forward the traffic to the remote destination.
Proxy ARP
no routing,
no default
gateway
ARP
request
Remote
ARP Server
Command Attributes
• Timeout – Sets the aging time for dynamic entries in the ARP cache.
(Range: 300 - 86400 seconds; Default: 1200 seconds or 20 minutes)
The ARP aging timeout can be set for any currently configured VLAN.
The aging time determines how long dynamic entries remain the cache. If the
timeout is too short, the router may tie up resources by repeating ARP requests for
addresses recently flushed from the table.
When a ARP entry expires, it is deleted from the cache and an ARP request packet
is sent to re-establish the MAC address.
• Proxy ARP – Enables or disables Proxy ARP for specified VLAN interfaces,
allowing a non-routing device to determine the MAC address of a host on another
subnet or network. (Default: Disabled)
End stations that require Proxy ARP must view the entire network as a single
network. These nodes must therefore use a smaller subnet mask than that used
by the router or other relevant network devices.
Extensive use of Proxy ARP can degrade router performance because it may lead
to increased ARP traffic and increased search time for larger ARP address tables.
19-9
19
IP Routing
Web - Click IP, ARP, General. Set the timeout to a suitable value for the ARP cache,
enable Proxy ARP for subnetworks that do not have routing or a default gateway,
and click Apply.
Figure 19-3 ARP General
CLI - This example sets the ARP cache timeout for 15 minutes (i.e., 900 seconds),
and enables Proxy ARP for VLAN 3.
Console(config)#arp-timeout 900
Console(config)#interface vlan 3
Console(config-if)#ip proxy-arp
Console(config-if)#
19-10
41-33
27-1
41-35
Address Resolution Protocol
19
Configuring Static ARP Addresses
For devices that do not respond to ARP requests or do not respond in a timely
manner, traffic will be dropped because the IP address cannot be mapped to a
physical address. If this occurs, you can manually map an IP address to the
corresponding physical address in the ARP cache.
Command Usage
• The ARP cache is used to map 32-bit IP addresses into 48-bit hardware (that is,
Media Access Control) addresses. This cache includes entries for hosts and other
routers on local network interfaces defined on this router.
• You can define up to 128 static entries in the ARP cache.
• A static entry may need to be used if there is no response to an ARP broadcast
message. For example, some applications may not respond to ARP requests or
the response arrives too late, causing network operations to time out.
• Static entries will not be aged out or deleted when power is reset. You can only
remove a static entry via the configuration interface.
Command Attributes
• IP Address – IP address statically mapped to a physical MAC address. (Valid IP
addresses consist of four numbers, 0 to 255, separated by periods.)
• MAC Address – MAC address statically mapped to the corresponding IP address.
(Valid MAC addresses are hexadecimal numbers in the format: xx-xx-xx-xx-xx-xx.)
• Entry Count – The number of static entries in the ARP cache.
Web - Click IP, ARP, Static Addresses. Enter the IP address, the corresponding
MAC address, and click Apply.
Figure 19-4 ARP Static Addresses
19-11
19
IP Routing
CLI - This example sets a static entry for the ARP cache.
Console(config)#arp 10.1.0.11 00-11-22-33-44-55
Console(config)#exit
Console#show arp
Arp cache timeout: 1200 (seconds)
41-32
IP Address
MAC Address
Type
Interface
--------------- ----------------- --------- ----------192.168.0.4
00-E0-29-94-34-1C dynamic
1
10.1.0.11
00-11-22-33-44-55 static
2
Total entry : 2
Console(config)#
Displaying Dynamically Learned ARP Entries
The ARP cache contains entries that map IP addresses to the corresponding
physical address. The ARP cache contains static entries, and entries for local
interfaces, including subnet, host, and broadcast addresses. Most of these entries will
be dynamically learned through replies to broadcast messages. You can display all of
the dynamic entries in the ARP cache, change specific dynamic entries into static
entries, or clear all dynamic entries from the cache.
Command Attributes
• IP Address – IP address of a dynamic entry in the cache.
• MAC Address – MAC address mapped to the corresponding IP address.
• Interface – VLAN interface associated with the address entry.
• Dynamic to Static19 – Changes a selected dynamic entry to a static entry.
• Clear All19 – Deletes all dynamic entries from the ARP cache.
• Entry Count – The number of dynamic entries in the ARP cache.
The following field is also displayed in the CLI.
• Type – Indicates if entries were learned through replies to broadcast messages,
are statically configured entries, or are other entries for local interfaces (including
subnet and broadcast addresses).
19. These buttons take effect immediately. You are not prompted to confirm the action.
19-12
Address Resolution Protocol
19
Web - Click IP, ARP, Dynamic Addresses. You can use the buttons provided to
change a dynamic entry to a static entry, or to clear all dynamic entries in the cache.
Figure 19-5 ARP Dynamic Addresses
CLI - This example shows all entries in the ARP cache.
Console#show arp
Arp cache timeout: 1200 (seconds)
IP Address
--------------10.1.0.0
10.1.0.11
10.1.0.12
10.1.0.19
10.1.0.253
10.1.0.255
41-34
MAC Address
Type
Interface
----------------- --------- ----------ff-ff-ff-ff-ff-ff
other
1
00-11-22-33-44-55
static
1
01-02-03-04-05-06
static
1
00-10-b5-62-03-74
dynamic
1
00-00-ab-cd-00-00
other
1
ff-ff-ff-ff-ff-ff
other
1
Total entry : 6
Console#clear arp-cache
This operation will delete all the dynamic entries in ARP Cache.
Are you sure to continue this operation (y/n)?y
Console#
41-34
Displaying Local ARP Entries
The ARP cache also contains entries for local interfaces, including subnet, host, and
broadcast addresses.
Command Attributes
•
•
•
•
IP Address – IP address of a local entry in the cache.
MAC Address – MAC address mapped to the corresponding IP address.
Interface – VLAN interface associated with the address entry.
Entry Count – The number of local entries in the ARP cache.
19-13
19
IP Routing
Web - Click IP, ARP, Other Addresses.
Figure 19-6 ARP Other Addresses
CLI - This router uses the Type specification “other” to indicate local cache entries in
the ARP cache.
Console#show arp
Arp cache timeout: 1200 (seconds)
IP Address
--------------10.1.0.0
10.1.0.11
10.1.0.12
10.1.0.19
10.1.0.253
10.1.0.255
41-34
MAC Address
Type
Interface
----------------- --------- ----------ff-ff-ff-ff-ff-ff
other
1
00-11-22-33-44-55
static
1
01-02-03-04-05-06
static
1
00-10-b5-62-03-74
dynamic
1
00-00-ab-cd-00-00
other
1
ff-ff-ff-ff-ff-ff
other
1
Total entry : 6
Console#
Displaying ARP Statistics
You can display statistics for ARP messages crossing all interfaces on this router.
Table 19-2 ARP Statistics
Parameter
Description
Received Request
Number of ARP Request packets received by the router.
Received Reply
Number of ARP Reply packets received by the router.
Sent Request
Number of ARP Request packets sent by the router.
Sent Reply
Number of ARP Reply packets sent by the router.
19-14
Address Resolution Protocol
19
Web - Click IP, ARP, Statistics.
Figure 19-7 ARP Statistics
CLI - This example provides detailed statistics on common IP-related protocols.
Console#show ip traffic
IP statistics:
Rcvd: 5 total, 5 local destination
0 checksum errors
0 unknown protocol, 0 not a gateway
Frags: 0 reassembled, 0 timeouts
0 fragmented, 0 couldn't fragment
Sent: 9 generated
0 no route
ICMP statistics:
Rcvd: 0 checksum errors, 0 redirects, 0 unreachable, 0 echo
5 echo reply, 0 mask requests, 0 mask replies, 0 quench
0 parameter, 0 timestamp
Sent: 0 redirects, 0 unreachable, 0 echo, 0 echo reply
0 mask requests, 0 mask replies, 0 quench, 0 timestamp
0 time exceeded, 0 parameter problem
UDP statistics:
Rcvd: 0 total, 0 checksum errors, 0 no port
Sent: 0 total
TCP statistics:
Rcvd: 0 total, 0 checksum errors
Sent: 0 total
ARP statistics:
Rcvd: 0 requests, 1 replies
Sent: 1 requests, 0 replies
Console#
42-5
19-15
19
IP Routing
Displaying Statistics for IP Protocols
IP Statistics
The Internet Protocol (IP) provides a mechanism for transmitting blocks of data
(often called packets or frames) from a source to a destination, where these network
devices (i.e., hosts) are identified by fixed length addresses. The Internet Protocol
also provides for fragmentation and reassembly of long packets, if necessary, for
transmission through “small packet” networks.
Table 19-3 IP Statistics
Parameter
Description
Packets Received
The total number of input datagrams received from interfaces, including
those received in error.
Received Address Errors
The number of input datagrams discarded because the IP address in the
header's destination field was not a valid address for this entity.
Received Packets Discarded
The number of input datagrams for which no problems were encountered
to prevent their continued processing, but which were discarded (e.g., for
lack of buffer space).
Output Requests
The total number of datagrams which local IP user-protocols (including
ICMP) supplied to IP in requests for transmission.
Output Packet No Route
The number of datagrams discarded because no route could be found to
transmit them to their destination. Note that this includes any datagrams
which a host cannot route because all of its default gateways are down.
Datagrams Forwarded
The number of input datagrams for which this entity was not their final IP
destination, as a result of which an attempt was made to find a route to
forward them to that final destination.
Reassembly Required
The number of IP fragments received which needed to be reassembled at
this entity.
Reassembly Failures
The number of failures detected by the IP re-assembly algorithm (for
whatever reason: timed out, errors, etc.).
Datagrams Failing
Fragmentation
The number of datagrams that have been discarded because they needed
to be fragmented at this entity but could not be, e.g., because their “Don't
Fragment” flag was set.
Received Header Errors
The number of input datagrams discarded due to errors in their IP
headers, including bad checksums, version number mismatch, other
format errors, time-to-live exceeded, errors discovered in processing their
IP options, etc.
Unknown Protocols Received
The number of locally-addressed datagrams received successfully but
discarded because of an unknown or unsupported protocol.
Received Packets Delivered
The total number of input datagrams successfully delivered to IP
user-protocols (including ICMP).
Discarded Output Packets
The number of output IP datagrams for which no problem was
encountered to prevent their transmission to their destination, but which
were discarded (e.g., for lack of buffer space).
Fragments Created
The number of datagram fragments that have been generated as a result
of fragmentation at this entity.
19-16
Displaying Statistics for IP Protocols
19
Table 19-3 IP Statistics (Continued)
Parameter
Description
Routing Discards
The number of routing entries which were chosen to be discarded even
though they are valid. One possible reason for discarding such an entry
could be to free-up buffer space for other routing entries.
Reassembly Successful
The number of datagrams successfully re-assembled.
Datagrams Successfully
Fragmented
The number of IP datagrams that have been successfully fragmented at
this entity.
Web - Click IP, Statistics, IP.
Figure 19-8 IP Statistics
CLI - See the example on page 19-14.
ICMP Statistics
Internet Control Message Protocol (ICMP) is a network layer protocol that transmits
message packets to report errors in processing IP packets. ICMP is therefore an
integral part of the Internet Protocol. ICMP messages may be used to report various
situations, such as when a datagram cannot reach its destination, when the gateway
does not have the buffering capacity to forward a datagram, and when the gateway
can direct the host to send traffic on a shorter route. ICMP is also used by routers to
feed back information about more suitable routes (i.e., the next hop router) to use for
a specific destination.
Table 19-4 ICMP Statistics
Parameter
Description
Messages
The total number of ICMP messages which the entity received/sent.
Errors
The number of ICMP messages which the entity received/sent but
determined as having ICMP-specific errors (bad ICMP checksums, bad
length, etc.).
19-17
19
IP Routing
Table 19-4 ICMP Statistics (Continued)
Parameter
Description
Destination Unreachable
The number of ICMP Destination Unreachable messages received/sent.
Time Exceeded
The number of ICMP Time Exceeded messages received/sent.
Parameter Problems
The number of ICMP Parameter Problem messages received/sent.
Source Quenches
The number of ICMP Source Quench messages received/sent.
Redirects
The number of ICMP Redirect messages received/sent.
Echos
The number of ICMP Echo (request) messages received/sent.
Echo Replies
The number of ICMP Echo Reply messages received/sent.
Timestamps
The number of ICMP Timestamp (request) messages received/sent.
Timestamp Replies
The number of ICMP Timestamp Reply messages received/sent.
Address Masks
The number of ICMP Address Mask Request messages received/sent.
Address Mask Replies
The number of ICMP Address Mask Reply messages received/sent.
Web - Click IP, Statistics, ICMP.
Figure 19-9 ICMP Statistics
CLI - See the example on page 19-14.
19-18
Displaying Statistics for IP Protocols
19
UDP Statistics
User Datagram Protocol (UDP) provides a datagram mode of packet-switched
communications. It uses IP as the underlying transport mechanism, providing
access to IP-like services. UDP packets are delivered just like IP packets –
connection-less datagrams that may be discarded before reaching their targets.
UDP is useful when TCP would be too complex, too slow, or just unnecessary.
Table 19-5 USP Statistics
Parameter
Description
Datagrams Received
The total number of UDP datagrams delivered to UDP users.
Datagrams Sent
The total number of UDP datagrams sent from this entity.
Receive Errors
The number of received UDP datagrams that could not be delivered for
reasons other than the lack of an application at the destination port.
No Ports
The total number of received UDP datagrams for which there was no
application at the destination port.
Web - Click IP, Statistics, UDP.
Figure 19-10 UDP Statistics
CLI - See the example on page 19-14.
19-19
19
IP Routing
TCP Statistics
The Transmission Control Protocol (TCP) provides highly reliable host-to-host
connections in packet-switched networks, and is used in conjunction with IP to
support a wide variety of Internet protocols.
Table 19-6 TCP Statistics
Parameter
Description
Segments Received
The total number of segments received, including those received in error.
This count includes segments received on currently established
connections.
Segments Sent
The total number of segments sent, including those on current
connections but excluding those containing only retransmitted octets.
Active Opens
The number of times TCP connections have made a direct transition to the
SYN-SENT state from the CLOSED state.
Failed Connection Attempts
The number of times TCP connections have made a direct transition to the
CLOSED state from either the SYN-SENT state or the SYN-RCVD state,
plus the number of times TCP connections have made a direct transition
to the LISTEN state from the SYN-RCVD state.
Current Connections
The number of TCP connections for which the current state is either
ESTABLISHED or CLOSE- WAIT.
Receive Errors
The total number of segments received in error (e.g., bad TCP
checksums).
Segments Retransmitted
The total number of segments retransmitted - that is, the number of TCP
segments transmitted containing one or more previously transmitted
octets.
Passive Opens
The number of times TCP connections have made a direct transition to the
SYN-RCVD state from the LISTEN state.
Reset Connections
The number of times TCP connections have made a direct transition to the
CLOSED state from either the ESTABLISHED state or the CLOSE-WAIT
state.
Web - Click IP, Statistics, TCP.
Figure 19-11 TCP Statistics
CLI - See the example on page 19-14.
19-20
Configuring Static Routes
19
Configuring Static Routes
This router can dynamically configure routes to other network segments using
dynamic routing protocols (i.e., RIP or OSPF). However, you can also manually
enter static routes in the routing table. Static routes may be required to access
network segments where dynamic routing is not supported, or can be set to force the
use of a specific route to a subnet, rather than using dynamic routing. Static routes
do not automatically change in response to changes in network topology, so you
should only configure a small number of stable routes to ensure network
accessibility.
Command Usage
• Up to 64 static routes can be configured.
• If a static route is defined, it will always take preference over a dynamic route.
• Static routes are included in RIP and OSPF updates periodically sent by the router
if this feature is enabled by the RIP or OSPF (see page 20-9 or 20-35,
respectively).
Command Attributes
• Interface – Index number of the IP interface.
• IP Address – IP address of the destination network, subnetwork, or host.
• Netmask – Network mask for the associated IP subnet. This mask identifies the
host address bits used for routing to specific subnets.
• Gateway – IP address of the next router hop used for this route.
• Metric – Cost for this interface. (Range: 1-5, Default: 1)
The metric is an administrative distance, and indicates that this route can be
overridden by dynamic routing information if the distance of the dynamic route is
less than that configured for the static route. Note that the default administrative
distances used by the dynamic unicast routing protocols is 110 for OSPF and 120
for RIP.
• Entry Count – The number of table entries.
19-21
19
IP Routing
Web - Click IP, Routing, Static Routes.
Figure 19-12 IP Static Routes
CLI - This example forwards all traffic for subnet 192.168.1.0 to the router
192.168.5.254, using the default metric of 1.
Console(config)#ip route 192.168.1.0 255.255.255.0 192.168.5.254
Console(config)#
42-2
Displaying the Routing Table
You can display all the routes that can be accessed via the local network interfaces,
through static routes, or through a dynamically learned route. If route information is
available through more than one of these methods, the priority for route selection is
local, static, and then dynamic. Also note that the route for a local interface is not
enabled (i.e., listed in the routing table) unless there is at least one active link
connected to that interface.
Command Attributes
• Interface – Index number of the IP interface.
• IP Address – IP address of the destination network, subnetwork, or host.
Note that the address 0.0.0.0 indicates the default gateway for this router.
• Netmask – Network mask for the associated IP subnet. This mask identifies the
host address bits used for routing to specific subnets.
• Next Hop – The IP address of the next hop (or gateway) in this route.
• Protocol – The protocol which generated this route information.
(Options: Local, Static, RIP, OSPF)
• Metric – Cost for this interface.
• Entry Count – The number of table entries.
19-22
Displaying the Routing Table
19
Web - Click IP, Routing, Routing Table.
Figure 19-13 IP Routing Table
CLI - This example shows routes obtained from various methods.
Console#show ip route
42-3
Ip Address
Netmask
Next Hop
Protocol Metric Interface
--------------- --------------- --------------- -------- ------ --------0.0.0.0
0.0.0.0
10.1.0.254
static
1
1
10.1.0.0
255.255.255.0
10.1.0.253
local
1
1
10.1.1.0
255.255.255.0
10.1.0.254
RIP
2
1
Total entries: 3
Console#
19-23
19
19-24
IP Routing
Chapter 20: Unicast Routing
This switch can route unicast traffic to different subnetworks using the Routing
Information Protocol (RIP) or Open Shortest Path First (OSPF) protocol. It supports
RIP, RIP-2 or OSPFv2 dynamic routing. These protocols exchange routing
information, calculate routing tables, and can respond to changes in the status or
loading of the network.
RIP and RIP-2 Dynamic Routing Protocols
The RIP protocol is the most widely used routing protocol. RIP uses a
distance-vector-based approach to routing. Routes are determined on the basis of
minimizing the distance vector, or hop count, which serves as a rough estimate of
transmission cost. Each router broadcasts its advertisement every 30 seconds,
together with any updates to its routing table. This allows all routers on the network
to learn consistent tables of next hop links which lead to relevant subnets.
OSPFv2 Dynamic Routing Protocol
OSPF overcomes all the problems of RIP. It uses a link state routing protocol to
generate a shortest-path tree, then builds up its routing table based on this tree.
OSPF produces a more stable network because the participating routers act on
network changes predictably and simultaneously, converging on the best route more
quickly than RIP. Moreover, when several equal-cost routes to a destination exist,
traffic can be distributed equally among them.
Non-IP Protocol Routing
The switch supports IP routing only. Non-IP protocols such as IPX and Appletalk
cannot be routed by this switch, and will be confined within their local VLAN group
unless bridged by an external router.
To coexist with a network built on multilayer switches, the subnetworks for non-IP
protocols must follow the same logical boundary as that of the IP subnetworks. A
separate multi-protocol router can then be used to link the subnetworks by
connecting to one port from each available VLAN on the network.
20-1
20
Unicast Routing
Configuring the Routing Information Protocol
The RIP protocol is the most widely used routing protocol. The RIP protocol uses a
distance-vector-based approach to routing. Routes are determined on the basis of
minimizing the distance vector, or hop count, which serves as a rough estimate of
transmission cost. Each router broadcasts its advertisement every 30 seconds,
together with any updates to its routing table. This allows all routers on the network
to learn consistent tables of next hop links which lead to relevant subnets.
A
1
3
D
B
4
6
2
5
E
Cost = 1 for all links
C
A
Link
Cost
A
0
0
B
1
1
C
1
2
D
3
1
E
1
2
Routing table for node A
Command Usage
• Just as Layer 2 switches use the Spanning Tree Algorithm to prevent loops, routers
also use methods for preventing loops that would cause endless retransmission of
data traffic. RIP utilizes the following three methods to prevent loops from occurring:
- Split horizon – Never propagate routes back to an interface port from which they
have been acquired.
- Poison reverse – Propagate routes back to an interface port from which they
have been acquired, but set the distance-vector metrics to infinity. (This provides
faster convergence.)
- Triggered updates – Whenever a route gets changed, broadcast an update
message after waiting for a short random delay, but without waiting for the
periodic cycle.
• RIP-2 is a compatible upgrade to RIP. RIP-2 adds useful capabilities for plain text
authentication, multiple independent RIP domains, variable length subnet masks,
and multicast transmissions for route advertising (RFC 1723).
• There are several serious problems with RIP that you should consider. First of all,
RIP (version 1) has no knowledge of subnets, both RIP versions can take a long
time to converge on a new route after the failure of a link or router during which time
routing loops may occur, and its small hop count limitation of 15 restricts its use to
smaller networks. Moreover, RIP (version 1) wastes valuable network bandwidth
by propagating routing information via broadcasts; it also considers too few
network variables to make the best routing decision.
20-2
Configuring the Routing Information Protocol
20
Configuring General Protocol Settings
RIP is used to specify how routers exchange routing information. When RIP is
enabled on this router, it sends RIP messages to all devices in the network every 30
seconds (by default), and updates its own routing table when RIP messages are
received from other routers. To communicate properly with other routers using RIP,
you need to specify the RIP version used globally by the router, as well as the RIP
send and receive versions used on specific interfaces (page 20-6).
Command Attributes
Global Settings
• RIP Routing Process – Enables RIP routing for all IP interfaces on the router.
(Default: Disabled)
• Global RIP Version – Specifies a RIP version used globally by the router.
(Default: RIP Version 1)
When you specify a Global RIP Version, any VLAN interface not previously set to
a specific Receive or Send Version (page 20-6) is set to the following values:
- RIP Version 1 configures previously unset interfaces to send RIPv1 compatible
protocol messages and receive either RIPv1 or RIPv2 protocol messages.
- RIP Version 2 configures previously unset interfaces to use RIPv2 for both
sending and receiving protocol messages.
RIP send/receive versions set on the RIP Interface Settings screen (page 20-6)
always take precedence over the settings for the Global RIP Version.
Timer Settings
The timers must be set to the same values for all routers in the network.
• Update – Sets the rate at which updates are sent. This is the fundamental timer
used to control all basic RIP processes. This value will also set the timeout timer
to 6 times the update time, and the garbage-collection timer to 4 times the update
time. (Range: 15-60 seconds; Default: 30 seconds)
Setting the update timer to a short interval can cause the router to spend an
excessive amount of time processing updates. On the other hand, setting it to an
excessively long time will make the routing protocol less sensitive to changes in the
network configuration.
• Timeout – Sets the time after which there have been no update messages that a
route is declared dead. The route is marked inaccessible (i.e., the metric set to
infinite) and advertised as unreachable. However, packets are still forwarded on
this route. (Default: 180 seconds)
• Garbage Collection – After the timeout interval expires, the router waits for an
interval specified by the garbage-collection timer before removing this entry from
the routing table. This timer allows neighbors to become aware of an invalid route
prior to purging. (Default: 120 seconds)
20-3
20
Unicast Routing
Web - Click Routing Protocol, RIP, General Settings. Enable or disable RIP, set the
RIP version used on previously unset interfaces to RIPv1 or RIPv2, set the basic
update timer, and then click Apply.
Figure 20-1 RIP General Settings
CLI - This example sets the router to use RIP Version 2, and sets the basic timer to
15 seconds.
Console(config)#router rip
Console(config-router)#version 2
Console(config-router)#timers basic 15
Console(config-router)#end
Console#show rip globals
RIP Process: Enabled
Update Time in Seconds: 15
Number of Route Change: 0
Number of Queries: 1
Console#
20-4
42-6
42-11
42-8
42-16
Configuring the Routing Information Protocol
20
Specifying Network Interfaces for RIP
You must specify network interfaces that will be included in the RIP routing process.
Command Usage
• RIP only sends updates to interfaces specified by this command.
Command Attributes
• Subnet Address – IP address of a network directly connected to this router.
Subnet addresses are interpreted as class A, B or C, based on the first field in the
specified address. In other words, if a subnet address nnn.xxx.xxx.xxx is entered,
the first field (nnn) determines the class:
0 - 127 is class A, and only the first field in the network address is used.
128 - 191 is class B, and the first two fields in the network address are used.
192 - 223 is class C, and the first three fields in the network address are used.
Web - Click Routing Protocol, RIP, Network Addresses. Add all interfaces that will
participate in RIP, and click Apply.
Figure 20-2 RIP Network Addresses
CLI - This example includes network interface 10.1.0.0 in the RIP routing process.
Console(config)#router-rip
Console(config-router)#network 10.1.0.0
Console(config-router)#end
Console#show ip rip status
42-6
42-9
42-16
Peer
UpdateTime
Version
RcvBadPackets
RcvBadRoutes
--------------- ------------ --------- --------------- -------------10.1.0.253
0
0
73
10.1.1.253
0
0
66
Console#
20-5
20
Unicast Routing
Configuring Network Interfaces for RIP
For each interface that participates in the RIP routing process, you must specify the
protocol message type accepted (i.e., RIP version) and the message type sent (i.e.,
RIP version or compatibility mode), the method for preventing loopback of protocol
messages, and whether or not authentication is used (i.e., authentication only
applies if RIPv2 messages are being sent or received).
Command Usage
Specifying Receive and Send Protocol Types
• Setting the RIP Receive Version or Send Version for an interface overrides the
global setting specified by the RIP / General Settings, Global RIP Version field.
• You can specify the Receive Version based on these options:
- Use “RIPv1” or “RIPv2” if all routers in the local network are based on RIPv1 or
RIPv2, respectively.
- Use “RIPv1 or RIPv2” if some routers in the local network are using RIPv2, but
there are still some older routers using RIPv1.
- Use “Do Not Receive” if you do not want to add any dynamic entries to the
routing table for an interface. (For example, you may only want to allow static
routes for a specific interface.)
• You can specify the Send Version based on these options:
- Use “RIPv1” or “RIPv2” if all routers in the local network are based on RIPv1 or
RIPv2, respectively.
- Use “RIPv1 Compatible” to propagate route information by broadcasting to other
routers on the network using the RIPv2 advertisement list, instead of
multicasting as normally required by RIPv2. (Using this mode allows RIPv1
routers to receive these protocol messages, but still allows RIPv2 routers to
receive the additional information provided by RIPv2, including subnet mask,
next hop and authentication information.)
- Use “Do Not Send” to passively monitor route information advertised by other
routers attached to the network.
Loopback Prevention
Just as Layer 2 switches use the Spanning Tree Algorithm to prevent loops, routers
also use methods for preventing loops that would cause endless retransmission of
data traffic. When protocol packets are caught in a loop, links will be congested, and
protocol packets may be lost. However, the network will slowly converge to the new
state. RIP utilizes the following three methods that can provide faster convergence
when the network topology changes and prevent most loops from occurring:
• Split Horizon – Never propagate routes back to an interface port from which they
have been acquired.
• Poison Reverse – Propagate routes back to an interface from which they have
been acquired, but set the distance-vector metrics to infinity. (This provides faster
convergence.)
• Triggered Updates – Whenever a route gets changed, broadcast an update
message after waiting for a short random delay, but without waiting for the periodic
cycle.
20-6
Configuring the Routing Information Protocol
20
Protocol Message Authentication
RIPv1 is not a secure protocol. Any device sending protocol messages from UDP
port 520 will be considered a router by its neighbors. Malicious or unwanted protocol
messages can be easily propagated throughout the network if no authentication is
required.
RIPv2 supports authentication via a simple password or MD5 key encryption. When
a router is configured to exchange authentication messages, it will insert the
password into all transmitted protocol packets, and check all received packets to
ensure that they contain the authorized password. If any incoming protocol
messages do not contain the correct password, they are simply dropped.
For authentication to function properly, both the sending and receiving interface
must be configured with the same password or authentication key.
Command Attributes
• VLAN – ID of configured VLAN (1-4093).
• Receive Version – The RIP version to receive on an interface.
- RIPv1: Accepts only RIPv1 packets.
- RIPv2: Accepts only RIPv2 packets.
- RIPv1 or RIPv2: Accepts RIPv1 or RIPv2 packets. (Default20)
- Do Not Receive: Does not accept incoming RIP packets. This option does not
add any dynamic entries to the routing table for an interface.
• Send Version – The RIP version to send on an interface.
- RIPv1: Sends only RIPv1 packets.
- RIPv2: Sends only RIPv2 packets.
- RIPv1 Compatible: Route information is broadcast to other routers with RIPv2.
(Default20)
- Do Not Send: Does not transmit RIP updates.
• Instability Preventing – Specifies the method used to reduce the convergence
time when the network topology changes, and to prevent RIP protocol messages
from looping back to the source router. (Default: None)
- None: No loopback prevention method is employed. If a loop occurs, the hop
count for a route may be gradually incremented to infinity (i.e., 16) before the
route is deemed unreachable.
- Split Horizon: This method never propagates routes back to an interface from
which they have been acquired.
- Poision Reverse: This method propagates routes back to an interface port from
which they have been acquired, but sets the distance-vector metrics to infinity.
This provides faster convergence.
20. These defaults are displayed on the RIP / Interface Settings page once RIP has been
enabled globally (RIP / General Settings) and an interface added to the RIP process
(RIP / Network Addresses). Note that any configured interface settings take precedence
over the global settings.
20-7
20
Unicast Routing
• Authentication Type – Specifies whether or not authentication is required for
exchanging protocol messages. (Default: No Authentication)
- No Authentication: No authentication is required.
- Simple Password: Requires the interface to exchange routing information with
other routers based on an authorized password. (Note that authentication only
applies to RIPv2.)
- MD5: Message Digest 5 (MD5) authentication.
MD5 is a one-way hash algorithm is that takes the authentication key and
produces a 128 bit message digest or “fingerprint.” This makes it
computationally infeasible to produce two messages having the same message
digest, or to produce any message having a given pre-specified target message
digest.
• Authentication Key – Specifies the key to use for authenticating RIPv2 packets.
For authentication to function properly, both the sending and receiving interface
must use the same password. (Range: 1-16 characters, case sensitive)
Web - Click Routing Protocol, RIP, Interface Settings. Select the RIP protocol
message types that will be received and sent, the method used to provide faster
convergence and prevent loopback (i.e., prevent instability in the network topology),
and the authentication option and corresponding password. Then click Apply.
Figure 20-3 RIP Interface Settings
CLI - This example sets the receive version to accept both RIPv1 or RIPv2
messages, the send mode to RIPv1 compatible (i.e., called v2-broadcast in the CLI),
sets the method of preventing instability in the network topology to Split Horizon,
enables authentication via a simple password (i.e., called text mode in the CLI).
Console(config)#interface vlan 1
Console(config-if)#ip rip receive version 1 2
Console(config-if)#ip rip send version v2-broadcast
Console(config-if)#ip split-horizon
Console(config-if)#ip rip authentication mode text
Console(config-if)#ip rip authentication key mighty
Console#
20-8
27-1
42-12
42-13
42-14
42-15
42-14
Configuring the Routing Information Protocol
20
Redistributing Routing Information from Other Domains
RIP can be configured to import external routing information from other routing
domains (that is, protocols or static routes) into the autonomous system.
Command Attributes
• Redistribute Protocol – Only static routes can be imported into this routing
domain.
• Redistribute Metric – Metric value assigned to all external routes for the specified
protocol. (Range: 1-15; Default: The default metric value is set by the
default-metric command described on page 42-7).
If a redistribution metric has not been configured for static routes, the
default-metric command (page 42-7) sets the metric value to be used for all
imported external routes.
A route metric must be used to resolve the problem of redistributing external routes
with incompatible metrics.
It is advisable to use a low metric when redistributing routes from another protocol
into RIP. Using a high metric limits the usefulness of external routes redistributed
into RIP. For example, if a metric of 10 is defined for redistributed routes, these
routes can only be advertised to routers up to 5 hops away, at which point the
metric exceeds the maximum hop count of 15. By defining a low metric of 1, traffic
can follow a imported route the maximum number of hops allowed within a RIP
domain. However, using a low metric can increase the possibility of routing loops
For example, this can occur if there are multiple redistribution points and the router
learns about the same external network with a better metric from a redistribution
point other than that derived from the original source.
20-9
20
Unicast Routing
Web - Click Routing Protocol, RIP, Redistribute Configuration. Enter the
redistribution metric for static routes, and click Set.
Figure 20-4 RIP Redistribution Configuration
CLI - This example redistributes static routes and sets the metric for all of these
routes to a value of 3.
Console(config)#router rip
Console(config-router)#redistribute static metric 3
Console(config-router)#
20-10
42-6
42-11
Configuring the Routing Information Protocol
20
Displaying RIP Information and Statistics
You can display basic information about the current global configuration settings for
RIP, statistics about route changes and queries, information about the interfaces on
this router that are using RIP, and information about known RIP peer devices.
Table 20-1 RIP Information and Statistics
Parameter
Description
Globals
RIP Routing Process
Indicates if RIP has been enabled or disabled.
Update Time in Seconds
The interval at which RIP advertises known route information.
(Default: 30 seconds)
Number of Route Changes
Number of times routing information has changed.
Number of Queries
Number of router database queries received by this router.
Interface Information
Interface
IP address of the interface.
SendMode
RIP version sent on this interface (none, RIPv1, RIPv2, rip1Compatible).
ReceiveMode
RIP version received on this interface (none, RIPv1, RIPv2, RIPv1Orv2).
InstabilityPreventing
Shows if split-horizon, poison-reverse, or no instability prevention method
is in use.
AuthType
Shows if authentication is set to simple password or none.
RcvBadPackets
Number of bad RIP packets received.
RcvBadRoutes
Number of bad routes received.
SendUpdates
Number of route changes.
Peer Information
PeerAddress
IP address of a neighboring RIP router.
UpdateTime
Last time a route update was received from this peer.
Version
Whether RIPv1 or RIPv2 packets were received from this peer.
RcvBadPackets
Number of bad RIP packets received from this peer.
RcvBadRoutes
Number of bad routes received from this peer.
20-11
20
Unicast Routing
Web - Click Routing Protocol, RIP, Statistics.
Figure 20-5 RIP Statistics
20-12
Configuring the Routing Information Protocol
20
CLI - The information displayed by the RIP Statistics screen via the web interface
can be accessed from the CLI using the following commands.
Console#show rip globals
42-16
RIP Process: Enabled
Update Time in Seconds: 30
Number of Route Change: 4
Number of Queries: 0
Console#show ip rip configuration
42-16
Interface
SendMode
ReceiveMode
Poison
Authentication
--------------- --------------- ------------- -------------- -----------------10.1.0.253 rip1Compatible
RIPv1Orv2
SplitHorizon
noAuthentication
10.1.1.253 rip1Compatible
RIPv1Orv2
SplitHorizon
noAuthentication
Console#show ip rip status
42-16
Interface
RcvBadPackets
RcvBadRoutes
SendUpdates
--------------- --------------- -------------- --------------10.1.0.253
0
0
60
10.1.1.253
0
0
63
Console#show ip rip peer
42-16
Peer
UpdateTime
Version
RcvBadPackets
RcvBadRoutes
--------------- ------------ --------- --------------- -------------10.1.0.254
4610
2
0
0
10.1.1.254
4610
2
0
0
Console#
20-13
20
Unicast Routing
Configuring the Open Shortest Path First Protocol
Open Shortest Path First (OSPF) is more suited for large area networks which
experience frequent changes in the links. It also handles subnets much better than
RIP. OSPF protocol actively tests the status of each link to its neighbors to generate
a shortest path tree, and builds a routing table based on this information. OSPF then
utilizes IP multicast to propagate routing information. A separate routing area
scheme is also used to further reduce the amount of routing traffic.
Note: The OSPF protocol implemented in this device is based on RFC 2328 (Version 2).
It also supports RFC 1583 (early Version 2) compatibility mode to ensure that the
same method is used to calculate summary route costs throughout the network
when older OSPF routers exist; as well as the not-so-stubby area option
(RFC 3101).
isolated
area
stub
ABR
ABR
virtual
link
backbone
ABR
ABR
normal
area
ASBR
NSSA
Autonomous System A
ASBR
ASBR
Router
external network
Autonomous System B
Command Usage
• OSPF looks at more than just the simple hop count. When adding the shortest path
to any node into the tree, the optimal path is chosen on the basis of delay,
throughput and connectivity. OSPF utilizes IP multicast to reduce the amount of
routing traffic required when sending or receiving routing path updates. The
separate routing area scheme used by OSPF further reduces the amount of routing
traffic, and thus inherently provides another level of routing protection. In addition,
all routing protocol exchanges can be authenticated. Finally, the OSPF algorithms
have been tailored for efficient operation in TCP/IP Internets.
20-14
Configuring the Open Shortest Path First Protocol
20
• OSPFv2 is a compatible upgrade to OSPF. It involves enhancements to protocol
message authentication, and the addition of a point-to-multipoint interface which
allows OSPF to run over non-broadcast networks, as well as support for
overlapping area ranges.
• When using OSPF, you must organize your network (i.e., autonomous system) into
normal, stub, or not-so-stubby areas; configure the ranges of subnet addresses
that can be aggregated by link state advertisements; and configure virtual links for
areas that do not have direct physical access to the OSFP backbone.
- To implement OSPF for a large network, you must first organize the network into
logical areas to limit the number of OSPF routers that actively exchange Link
State Advertisements (LSAs). You can then define an OSPF interface by
assigning an IP interface configured on this router to one of these areas. This
OSPF interface will send and receive OSPF traffic to neighboring OSPF routers.
- You can further optimize the exchange of OSPF traffic by specifying an area
range that covers a large number of subnetwork addresses. This is an important
technique for limiting the amount of traffic exchanged between Area Border
Routers (ABRs).
- And finally, you must specify a virtual link to any OSPF area that is not physically
attached to the OSPF backbone. Virtual links can also be used to provide a
redundant link between contiguous areas to prevent areas from being
partitioned, or to merge backbone areas. (Note that virtual links are not
supported for stubs or NSSAs.)
Configuring General Protocol Settings
To implement dynamic OSPF routing, first assign VLAN groups to each IP subnet to
which this router will be attached, then use the OSPF / General Configuration menu
to enable OSPF, assign an Router ID to this device, and set the other basic protocol
parameters.
Command Attributes
General Information –
• OSPF Routing Process – Enables or disables OSPF routing for all IP interfaces
on the router. (Default: Disabled)
• OSPF Router ID – Assigns a unique router ID for this device within the
autonomous system. (Default: The lowest interface address)
The router ID must be unique for every router in the autonomous system. Using the
default setting based on the highest interface address ensures that each router ID
is unique. Also, note that the router ID cannot be set to 0.0.0.0 or 255.255.255.255.
If this router already has registered neighbors, the new router ID will be used when
the router is rebooted, or manually restarted using the no router ospf command
followed by the router ospf command.
• Version Number21 – The OSPF version number. The OSPF protocol
implemented in this device is based on RFC 2328 (Version 2). It also supports RFC
1583 (early Version 2) compatibility mode.
21. These items are read only.
20-15
20
Unicast Routing
• Area Border Router21 – Indicates if this
router connects directly to networks in two
or more areas. An area border router runs
a separate copy of the Shortest Path First
algorithm, maintaining a separate routing
database for each area.
backbone
ABR
area,
stub,
NSSA
• AS Boundary Router22
Autonomous System Boundary
Router – Allows this router to
exchange routing information
AS 2
AS 1
ASBR
ASBR
with boundary routers in other
autonomous systems to which it
may be attached. If a router is
enabled as an ASBR, then every
other router in the autonomous system can learn about external routes from this
device. (Default: Disabled)
• RFC1583 Compatible – If one or more routers in a routing domain are using early
Version 2 of OSPF, this router should use RFC 1583 (early OSPFv2) compatibility
mode to ensure that all routers are using the same RFC for calculating summary
route costs. Enable this field to force the router to calculate summary route costs
using RFC 1583. (Default: Disabled)
When RFC 1583 compatibility is enabled, only cost is used when choosing among
multiple AS-external LSAs advertising the same destination. When disabled,
preference is based on type of path, using cost only to break ties (see RFC 2328).
If there any OSPF routers in an area exchanging summary information
(specifically, ABRs) which have not been upgraded to OSPFv2 (RFC 2328),
RFC 1583 should be used on the newly upgraded OSPFv2 routers to ensure
compatibility with routers still running older OSPFv2 code.
• SPF Hold Time – The hold time between making two consecutive shortest path
first (SPF) calculations. (Range: 0-65535 seconds; Default: 10 seconds)
Setting the SPF holdtime to 0 means that there is no delay between consecutive
calculations.
• Area Numbers21 – The number of configured areas attached to this router.
Default Route Information –
• Originate Default Route22 – Generates a default external route into an
autonomous system. Note that the AS Boundary Router field must be enabled,
and the Advertise Default Route field properly configured. (Default: Disabled)
When this feature is used to redistribute routes into a routing domain (that is, an
Autonomous System), this router automatically becomes an Autonomous System
Boundary Router (ASBR). This allows the router to exchange routing information
with boundary routers in other autonomous systems to which it may be attached.
If a router is functioning as an ASBR, then every other router in the autonomous
system can learn about external routes from this device.
22. CLI - These are configured with the default-information originate command (page 42-21).
20-16
Configuring the Open Shortest Path First Protocol
20
• Advertise Default Route22 – The router can advertise a default external route into
the autonomous system (AS). (Options: NotAlways, Always; Default: NotAlways)
• Always – The router will advertise itself as a default external route for the local
AS, even if a default external route does not actually exist. (To define a default
route, see "Configuring Static Routes" on page 19-21.)
• NotAlways – It can only advertise a default external route into the AS if it has
been configured to import external routes through RIP or static routes, and such
a route is known. (See "Redistributing External Routes" on page 20-35.)
• External Metric Type22 – The external link type used to advertise the default
route. Type 1 route advertisements add the internal cost to the external route
metric. Type 2 routes do not add the internal cost metric. When comparing Type 2
routes, the internal cost is only used as a tie-breaker if several Type 2 routes have
the same cost. (Default: Type 2)
• Default External Metric22 – The Metric assigned to the default route.
(Range: 1-65535; Default: 10)
The metric for the default external route is used to calculate the path cost for traffic
passed from other routers within the AS out through the ASBR.
20-17
20
Unicast Routing
Web - Click Routing Protocol, OSPF, General Configuration. Enable OSPF, specify
the Router ID, configure the other global parameters as required, and click Apply.
Figure 20-6 OSPF General Configuration
CLI - This example configures the router with the same settings as shown in the
screen capture for the web interface.
Console(config)#router ospf
Console(config-router)#router-id 10.1.1.253
Console(config-router)#no compatible rfc1583
Console(config-router)#default-information originate always
metric 10 metric-type 2
Console(config-router)#timers spf 10
Console(config-router)#
20-18
42-19
42-20
42-20
42-21
42-22
Configuring the Open Shortest Path First Protocol
20
Configuring OSPF Areas
OSPF protocol broadcast messages (that is, Link State Advertisements or LSAs) are
restricted by area to limit their impact on network performance. A large network
should be split up into separate OSPF areas to increase network stability, and to
reduce protocol traffic by summarizing routing information into more compact
messages. Each router in an area shares the same view of the network topology,
including area links, route summaries for directly connected areas, and external
links to other areas.
Use the Area Configuration screen to define an OSPF area and the interfaces that
operate within this area. An autonomous system must be configured with a
backbone area, designated by area identifier 0.0.0.0. By default, all other areas are
created as normal transit areas.
Routers in a normal area may import or export routing information about individual
nodes. To reduce the amount of routing traffic flooded onto the network, you can
configure an area to export a single summarized route that covers a broad range of
network addresses within the area (page 20-23). To further reduce the amount of
routes passed between areas, you can configure an area as a stub or a
not-so-stubby area (NSSA).
Normal Area – A large OSPF domain should be
broken up into several areas to increase network
stability and reduce the amount of routing traffic
required through the use of route summaries that
aggregate a range of addresses into a single
route. The backbone or any normal area can pass
traffic between other areas, and are therefore
known as transit areas. Each router in an area
has identical routing tables. These tables may
include area links, summarized links, or external
links that depict the topology of the autonomous
system.
Stub – A stub does not accept external routing
information. Instead, an area border router
adjacent to a stub can be configured to send a
default external route into the stub for all
destinations outside the local area or the
autonomous system. This route will also be
advertised as a single entry point for traffic
entering the stub. Using a stub can significantly
reduce the amount of topology data that has to
be exchanged over the network.
area
ABR
backbone
ABR
area
backbone
ABR
stub
default
external
route
By default, a stub can only pass traffic to other areas in the autonomous system via
the default external route. However, you also can configure an area border router to
send Type 3 summary link advertisements into the stub about subnetworks located
elsewhere in the autonomous system.
20-19
20
Unicast Routing
NSSA – A not-so-stubby area (NSSA) can be configured to control the use of default
routes for Area Border Routers (ABRs) and Autonomous System Boundary Routers
(ASBRs), or external routes learned from other routing domains and imported
through an ABR.
An NSSA is similar to a stub. It blocks most external routing information, and can be
configured to advertise a single default route for traffic passing between the NSSA
and other areas within the autonomous system (AS) when the router is an ABR.
An NSSA can also import external routes from one or more small routing domains
that are not part of the AS, such as a RIP domain or locally configured static routes.
This external AS routing information is generated by the NSSA’s ASBR and
advertised only within the NSSA. By default, these routes are not flooded onto the
backbone or into any other area by ABRs. However, the NSSA’s ABRs will convert
NSSA external LSAs (Type 7) into external LSAs (Type-5) which are propagated into
other areas within the AS.
default external
route for another
routing domain
5
backbone
7
ABR
NSSA ASBR
Router
default external
route for local AS
external network
AS
There are no external routes in an OSPF stub area, so routes cannot be
redistributed from another protocol into a stub area. On the other hand, an NSSA
allows external routes from another protocol to be redistributed into its own area,
and then leaked to adjacent areas.
Routes that can be advertised with NSSA external LSAs include network
destinations outside the AS learned via OSPF, the default route, static routes, routes
derived from other routing protocols such as RIP, or directly connected networks that
are not running OSPF.
Also, note that unlike stub areas, all Type-3 summary LSAs are always imported into
NSSAs to ensure that internal routes are always chosen over Type-7 NSSA external
routes.
An NSSA can be used to simplify administration when connecting a central site
using OSPF to a remote site that is using a different routing protocol. OSPF can be
easily extended to cover the remote connection by defining the area between the
central router and the remote router as an NSSA.
Default Cost – This specifies a cost for the default summary route sent into a stub or
not-so-stubby area (NSSA) from an Area Border Router (ABR).
20-20
Configuring the Open Shortest Path First Protocol
20
Command Usage
• Before you create the backbone, a stub or NSSA, first specify the address range
for the area using the Network Area Address Configuration screen (page 20-31).
• Stubs and NSSAs cannot be used as a transit area, and should therefore be placed
at the edge of the routing domain.
• A stub or NSSA can have multiple ABRs or exit points. However, all of the exit
points and local routers must contain the same external routing data so that the exit
point does not need to be determined for each external destination.
Command Attributes
• Area ID – Identifier for an normal area, stub or NSSA. The area ID must be in the
form of an IPv4 address.
• Area Type – Specifies a normal area, stub area, or not-so-stubby area (NSSA).
Area ID 0.0.0.0 is set to the backbone by default. (Default: Normal area)
• Default Cost – Cost for the default summary route sent into a stub from an area
border router (ABR). (Range: 0-16777215; Default: 1)
- Note that if you set the default cost to “0,” the router will not advertise a default
route into the attached stub.
• Summary – Makes an ABR send a Type-3 summary link advertisement into a stub.
(Default: Summary)
A stub is designed to save routing table space by blocking Type-4 AS summary
LSAs and Type 5 external LSAs. If you use the “NoSummary” option to also block
Type-3 summary LSAs that advertise the default route for destinations external to
the local area or the AS, the stub will become completely isolated.
Define an area as a totally stubby area only if routers in the area do not require
summary LSAs from other areas.
Note: This router supports up to 16 total areas (either normal transit areas, stubs, or
NSSAs).
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20
Unicast Routing
Web - Click Routing Protocol, OSPF, Area Configuration. Set any area to a stub or
NSSA as required, specify the cost for the default summary route sent into a stub,
and click Apply.
Figure 20-7 OSPF Area Configuration
CLI - This example configures area 0.0.0.1 as a normal area, area 0.0.0.2 as a stub,
and area 0.0.0.3 as an NSSA. It also configures the router to propagate a default
summary route into the stub and sets the cost for this default route to 10.
Console(config-router)#network 10.1.1.0 255.255.255.0 area 0.0.0.1
Console(config-router)#area 0.0.0.2 stub summary
Console(config-router)#area 0.0.0.2 default-cost 10
Console(config-router)#area 0.0.0.3 nssa
Console(config-router)#end
20-22
42-26
42-27
42-24
42-28
Configuring the Open Shortest Path First Protocol
Console#show ip ospf
Routing Process with ID 192.168.1.253
Supports only single TOS(TOS0) route
Number of area in this router is 3
Area 0.0.0.0 (BACKBONE)
Number of interfaces in this area is 1
SPF algorithm executed 40 times
Area 0.0.0.2 (STUB)
Number of interfaces in this area is 1
SPF algorithm executed 8 times
Area 0.0.0.3 (NSSA)
Number of interfaces in this area is 1
SPF algorithm executed 40 times
Console#
20
42-39
Configuring Area Ranges (Route Summarization for ABRs)
An OSPF area can include a large number of nodes.
If the Area Border Router (ABR) has to advertise
route information for each of these nodes, this
area
ABR area
wastes a lot of bandwidth and processor time.
Instead, you can configure an ABR to advertise a
summary
route
single summary route that covers all the individual
networks within its area. When using route
summaries, local changes do not have to be propagated to other area routers. This
allows OSPF to be easily scaled for larger networks, and provides a more stable
network topology.
Command Usage
• Use the Area Range Configuration page to summarize intra-area routes, and
advertise this information to other areas through Area Border Routers (ABRs). The
summary route for an area is defined by an IP address and network mask. You
therefore need to structure each area with a contiguous set of addresses so that
all routes in the area fall within an easily specified range. If it is not possible to use
one contiguous set of addresses, then the routes can be summarized for several
area ranges.This router also supports Variable Length Subnet Masks (VLSMs), so
you can summarize an address range on any bit boundary in a network address.
• To summarize the external LSAs imported into your autonomous system (i.e., local
routing domain), use the Summary Address Configuration screen (page 20-33).
Command Attributes
• Area ID – Identifies an area for which the routes are summarized. (The area
ID must be in the form of an IPv4 address.)
• Range Network – Base address for the routes to summarize.
• Range Netmask – Network mask for the summary route.
• Advertising – Indicates whether or not to advertise the summary route. If the
routes are set to be advertised, the router will issue a Type 3 summary LSA for
each specified address range. If the summary is not advertised, the specified
routes remain hidden from the rest of the network. (Default: Advertise)
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20
Unicast Routing
Note: This router supports up 64 summary routes for area ranges.
Web - Click Routing Protocol, OSPF, Area Range Configuration. Specify the area
identifier, the base address and network mask, select whether or not to advertise the
summary route to other areas, and then click Apply.
Figure 20-8 OSPF Range Configuration
CLI - This example summarizes all the routes for area 1. Note that the default for the
area range command is to advertise the route summary. The configured summary
route is shown in the list of information displayed for area 1.
Console(config-router)#area 0.0.0.1 range 10.1.1.0 255.255.255.0
Console(config-router)#end
Console#show ip ospf
Routing Process with ID 10.1.1.253
Supports only single TOS(TOS0) route
Number of area in this router is 4
Area 0.0.0.0 (BACKBONE)
Number of interfaces in this area is 0
SPF algorithm executed 47 times
Area 0.0.0.1
Number of interfaces in this area is 3
SPF algorithm executed 14 times
Area ranges are
255.255.255.0/24 Active
Console#
20-24
42-23
Configuring the Open Shortest Path First Protocol
20
Configuring OSPF Interfaces
You should specify a routing interface for any local subnet that needs to
communicate with other network segments located on this router or elsewhere in the
network. First configure a VLAN for each subnet that will be directly connected to
this router, assign IP interfaces to each VLAN (i.e., one primary interface and one or
more secondary interfaces), and then use the OSPF / Network Area Address
Configuration page to assign an interface address range to an OSPF area.
After assigning a routing interface to an OSPF area, you need to use the OSPF /
Interface Configuration page to configure the interface-specific parameters used by
OSPF to select the designated router, control the timing of link state advertisements,
set the cost used to select preferred paths, and specify the method used to
authenticate routing messages.
Field Attributes
OSPF Interface List
•
•
•
•
•
•
VLAN ID – The VLAN to which an IP interface has been assigned.
Interface IP – The IP interface associated with the selected VLAN.
Area ID – The area to which this interface has been assigned.
Designated Router – Designated router for this area.
Backup Designated Router – Designated backup router for this area.
Entry Count – The number of IP interfaces assigned to this VLAN.
Note: This router supports up 64 OSPF interfaces.
Detailed Interface Configuration
• VLAN ID – The VLAN corresponding to the selected interface.
• Rtr Priority – Sets the interface priority for this router. (Range: 0-255; Default: 1)
A designated router (DR) and backup designated router (BDR) is elected for each
OSPF area based on Router Priority. The DR forms an active adjacency to all other
routers in the area to exchange routing topology information. If for any reason the
DR fails, the BDR takes over this role.
The router with the highest priority becomes the DR and the router with the next
highest priority becomes the BDR. If two or more routers are set to the same
priority, the router with the higher ID will be elected. You can set the priority to zero
to prevent a router from being elected as a DR or BDR.
If a DR already exists for an area when this interface comes up, the new router will
accept the current DR regardless of its own priority. The DR will not change until
the next time the election process is initiated.
Configure router priority for multi-access networks only and not for point-to-point
networks.
• Transmit Delay – Sets the estimated time to send a link-state update packet over
an interface. (Range: 1-65535 seconds; Default: 1 second)
LSAs have their age incremented by this delay before transmission. You should
consider both the transmission and propagation delays for an interface when
20-25
20
•
•
•
•
•
Unicast Routing
estimating this delay. Set the transmit delay according to link speed, using larger
values for lower-speed links.
If this delay is not added, the time required to transmit an LSA over the link is not
taken into consideration by the routing process. On slow links, the router may send
packets more quickly than devices can receive them. To avoid this problem, you
can use the transmit delay to force the router to wait a specified interval between
transmissions.
Retransmit Interval – Sets the time between resending link-state advertisements.
(Range: 1-65535 seconds; Default: 5 seconds)
A router will resend an LSA to a neighbor if it receives no acknowledgment after
the specified retransmit interval. The retransmit interval should be set to a
conservative value that provides an adequate flow of routing information, but does
not produce unnecessary protocol traffic. Note that this value should be larger for
virtual links.
Set this interval to a value that is greater than the round-trip delay between any two
routers on the attached network to avoid unnecessary retransmissions.
Hello Interval – Sets the interval between sending hello packets on an interface.
This interval must be set to the same value for all routers on the network.
(Range: 1-65535 seconds; Default: 10)
Hello packets are used to inform other routers that the sending router is still active.
Setting the hello interval to a smaller value can reduce the delay in detecting
topological changes, but will increase routing traffic.
Rtr Dead Interval – Sets the interval at which hello packets are not seen before
neighbors declare the router down. This interval must be set to the same value for
all routers on the network. (Range: 1-65535 seconds; Default: 40, or 4 times the
Hello Interval)
The dead-interval is advertised in the router's hello packets. It must be a multiple
of hello-interval and be the same for all routers on a specific network.
Cost – Sets the cost of sending a protocol packet on an interface, where higher
values indicate slower ports. (Range: 1-65535; Default: 1)
The interface cost indicates the overhead required to send packets across a
certain interface. This is advertised as the link cost in router link state
advertisements.
Routes are assigned a metric equal to the sum of all metrics for each interface link
in the route.
This router uses a default cost of 1 for all ports. Therefore, if you install a 10 Gigabit
module, you need to reset the cost for all of the 1 Gbps ports to a value greater
than 1 to reflect the actual interface bandwidth.
Authentication Type – Specifies the authentication type used for an interface.
(Options: None, Simple password, MD5; Default: None)
Use authentication to prevent routers from inadvertently joining an unauthorized
area. Configure routers in the same area with the same password (or key). All
neighboring routers on the same network with the same password will exchange
routing data.
20-26
Configuring the Open Shortest Path First Protocol
20
When using simple password authentication, a password is included in the packet.
If it does not match the password configured on the receiving router, the packet is
discarded. This method provides very little security as it is possible to learn the
authentication key by snooping on routing protocol packets.
When using Message-Digest 5 (MD5) authentication, the router uses the MD5
algorithm to verify data integrity by creating a 128-bit message digest from the
authentication key. Without the proper key and key-id, it is nearly impossible to
produce any message that matches the prespecified target message digest.
Before specifying MD5 authentication, configure the message-digest key-id and
key (see Message Digest Key-id).
The Authentication Key and Message Digest Key-id must be used consistently
throughout the autonomous system. (Note that the Message Digest Key-id field is
enabled only when MD5 authentication type is selected.)
• Authentication Key – Assign a plain-text password used by neighboring routers
to verify the authenticity of routing protocol messages. (Range: 1-8 characters for
simple password or 1-16 characters for MD5 authentication; Default: no key)
When plain-text or Message-Digest 5 (MD5) authentication is enabled as
described in the preceding item, this password (key) is inserted into the OSPF
header when routing protocol packets are originated by this device.
A different password can be assigned to each network interface, but the password
must be used consistently on all neighboring routers throughout a network (that is,
autonomous system). All neighboring routers in the same network with the same
password will exchange routing data.
• Message Digest Key-id – Assigns a key-id used in conjunction with the
authentication key to verify the authenticity of routing protocol messages sent to
neighboring routers. (Range: 1-255; Default: none)
Normally, only one key is used per interface to generate authentication information
for outbound packets and to authenticate incoming packets. Neighbor routers must
use the same key identifier and key value.
When changing to a new key, the router will send multiple copies of all protocol
messages, one with the old key and another with the new key. Once all the
neighboring routers start sending protocol messages back to this router with the
new key, the router will stop using the old key. This rollover process gives the
network administrator time to update all the routers on the network without
affecting the network connectivity. Once all the network routers have been updated
with the new key, the old key should be removed for security reasons.
20-27
20
Unicast Routing
Web - Click Routing Protocol, OSPF, Interface Configuration. Select the required
interface from the scroll-down box, and click Detailed Settings.
Figure 20-9 OSPF Interface Configuration
Change any of the interface-specific protocol parameters, and then click Apply.
Figure 20-10 OSPF Interface Configuration - Detailed
20-28
Configuring the Open Shortest Path First Protocol
20
CLI - This example configures the interface parameters for VLAN 1.
Console(config)#interface vlan 1
Console(config-if)#ip ospf priority 5
Console(config-if)#ip ospf transmit-delay 6
Console(config-if)#ip ospf retransmit-interval 7
Console(config-if)#ip ospf hello-interval 5
Console(config-if)#ip ospf dead-interval 50
Console(config-if)#ip ospf cost 10
Console(config-if)#ip ospf authentication message-digest
Console(config-if)#ip ospf message-digest-key 1 md5 aiebel
Console#
42-37
42-38
42-38
42-36
42-36
42-35
42-32
42-34
Configuring Virtual Links
All OSPF areas must connect to the
backbone. If an area does not have a
direct physical connection to the
isolated
backbone, you can configure a
area
virtual link that provides a logical
path to the backbone. To connect an
isolated area to the backbone, the
ABR
logical path can cross a single
non-backbone area (i.e., transit area)
virtual
link
to reach the backbone. To define this
backbone
ABR
path, you must configure an ABR
normal
that serves as an endpoint
area
connecting the isolated area to the
common transit area, and specify a
neighboring ABR as the other
endpoint connecting the common transit area to the backbone itself. (Note that you
cannot configure a virtual link that runs through a stub or NSSA area.)
Virtual links can also be used to create a redundant link between any area and the
backbone to help prevent partitioning, or to connect two existing backbone areas
into a common backbone.
Any area disconnected from the backbone must include the transit area ID and the
router ID for a virtual link neighbor that is adjacent to the backbone.
Command Attributes
• Area ID – Identifies the transit area for the virtual link.
(The area ID must be in the form of an IPv4 address.)
• Neighbor Router ID – Router ID of the virtual link neighbor. This specifies the Area
Border Router (ABR) at the other end of the virtual link. To create a virtual link, it
must be configured for an ABR at both ends of the link. One of the ABRs must be
next to the isolated area and the transit area at one end of the link, while the other
ABR must be next to the transit area and backbone at the other end of the link.
(Default: None)
The other items are described under “Configuring OSPF Interfaces,” page 20-25.
20-29
20
Unicast Routing
Note: This router supports up 64 virtual links.
Web - Click Routing Protocol, OSPF, Virtual Link Configuration. To create a new
virtual link, specify the Area ID and Neighbor Router ID, configure the link attributes,
and click Add. To modify the settings for an existing link, click the Detail button for
the required entry, modify the link settings, and click Set.
Figure 20-11 OSPF Virtual Link Configuration
CLI - This example configures a virtual link from the ABR adjacent to area 0.0.0.4,
through a transit area to the neighbor router 10.1.1.252 at the other end of the link
which is adjacent to the backbone.
Console(config-router)#area 0.0.0.0 virtual-link 10.1.1.252
Console(config-router)#
20-30
42-30
Configuring the Open Shortest Path First Protocol
20
Configuring Network Area Addresses
OSPF protocol broadcast messages (i.e., Link State Advertisements or LSAs) are
restricted by area to limit their impact on network performance. A large network
should be split up into separate OSPF areas to increase network stability, and to
reduce protocol traffic by summarizing routing information into more compact
messages. Each router in an area shares the same view of the network topology,
including area links, route summaries for directly connected areas, and external
links to other areas.
Command Usage
• Use the Network Area Address Configuration page to specify an Area ID and the
corresponding network address range. Each area identifies a logical group of
OSPF routers that actively exchange LSAs to ensure that they share an identical
view of the network topology.
• Each area must be connected to a backbone area. This area passes routing
information between other areas in the autonomous system. The fixed value
0.0.0.0 is used as the Area ID for the backbone. All routers must be connected to
the backbone, either directly, or through a virtual link if a direct physical connection
is not possible.
• An area initially configured via the Network Area Address Configuration page
(other than the backbone) is set as a normal area (or transit area) by default. A
normal area can send and receive external Link State Advertisements (LSAs). If
necessary, you can use the Area Configuration page to configure an area as a
stubby area that cannot send or receive external LSAs, or a not-so-stubby area
(NSSA) that can import external route information into its area (page 20-19).
• An area must be assigned a range of subnetwork addresses. This area and the
corresponding address range forms a routing interface, and can be configured to
aggregate LSAs from all of its subnetwork addresses and exchange this
information with other routers in the network (page 20-23).
• If an address range is overlapped with other network areas, the router will use the
network area with the address range that most closely matches the interface
address. Also, note that if a more specific address range is removed from an area,
the interface belonging to that range may still remain active if a less specific
address range covering that area has been specified.
Command Attributes
• IP Address – Address of the interfaces to add to the area.
• Netmask – Network mask of the address range to add to the area.
• Area ID – Area to which the specified address or range is assigned. An OSPF area
identifies a group of routers that share common routing information. (The area ID
must be in the form of an IPv4 address.)
Set the area ID to the same value for all routers on a network segment using the
network mask to add one or more interfaces to an area.
Note: This router supports up to 16 total areas (either normal transit areas, stubs, or
NSSAs).
20-31
20
Unicast Routing
Web - Click Routing Protocol, OSPF, Network Area Address Configuration.
Configure a backbone area that is contiguous with all the other areas in your
network, configure an area for all of the other OSPF interfaces, then click Apply.
Figure 20-12 OSPF Network Area Address Configuration
20-32
Configuring the Open Shortest Path First Protocol
20
CLI - This example configures the backbone area and one transit area.
Console(config-router)#network 10.0.0.0 255.0.0.0 area 0.0.0.0
Console(config-router)#network 10.1.1.0 255.255.255.0 area 0.0.0.1
Console(config-router)#end
Console#show ip ospf
Routing Process with ID 10.1.1.253
Supports only single TOS(TOS0) route
Number of area in this router is 4
Area 0.0.0.0 (BACKBONE)
Number of interfaces in this area is 1
SPF algorithm executed 8 times
Area 0.0.0.1
Number of interfaces in this area is 1
SPF algorithm executed 5 times
Area 0.0.0.2 (STUB)
Number of interfaces in this area is 1
SPF algorithm executed 13 times
Area 0.0.0.3 (NSSA)
Number of interfaces in this area is 1
SPF algorithm executed 12 times
Console#
42-26
42-39
Configuring Summary Addresses (for External AS Routes)
Redistributing routes from other protocols into OSPF normally requires the router to
advertise each route individually in an external LSA. An Autonomous System
Boundary Router (ASBR) can be configured to redistribute routes learned from other
protocols into all attached autonomous systems. (See "Redistributing External
Routes" on page 20-35.)
To reduce the amount of external LSAs sent to other autonomous systems, you can
configure the router to advertise an aggregate route that consolidates a broad range
of external addresses. This helps both to decrease the number of external LSAs
advertised and the size of the OSPF link state database.
Command Usage
• If you are not sure what address ranges to consolidate, first enable external route
redistribution via the Redistribute Configuration screen, view the routes imported
into the routing table, and then configure one or more summary addresses to
reduce the size of the routing table and consolidate these external routes for
advertising into the local domain.
• To summarize routes sent between OSPF areas, use the Area Range
Configuration screen (page 20-23).
Command Attributes
• IP Address – Summary address covering a range of addresses.
• Netmask – Network mask for the summary route.
Note: This router supports up 16 Type-5 summary routes.
20-33
20
Unicast Routing
Web - Click Routing Protocol, OSPF, Summary Address Configuration. Specify the
base address and network mask, then click Add.
Figure 20-13 OSPF Summary Address Configuration
CLI - This example This example creates a summary address for all routes
contained in 192.168.x.x.
Console(config-router)#summary-address 192.168.0.0 255.255.0.0
Console(config-router)#
20-34
42-24
Configuring the Open Shortest Path First Protocol
20
Redistributing External Routes
You can configure this router to import external routing information from other
routing protocols or static routes into the autonomous system, and to generate
AS-external-LSAs.
Router
ASBR
OSPF
AS
RIP, or
static routes
Command Usage
• This router supports redistribution for entries learned through RIP, and static
routes.
• When you redistribute external routes into an OSPF autonomous system (AS), the
router automatically becomes an autonomous system boundary router (ASBR).
• However, if the router has been manually configured as an ASBR via the General
Configuration screen, but redistribution is not enabled, the router will only generate
a “default” external route into the AS if it has been configured to “always” advertise
a default route even if an external route does not actually exist (page 20-15).
Command Attributes
• Redistribute Protocol – Specifies the external routing protocol type for which
routing information is to be redistributed into the local routing domain.
(Options: RIP, Static; Default: RIP)
• Redistribute Metric Type – Indicates the method used to calculate external route
costs. (Options: Type 1, Type 2; Default: Type 1)
Metric type specifies the way to advertise routes to destinations outside the
autonomous system (AS) through External LSAs. Specify Type 1 to add the
internal cost metric to the external route metric. In other words, the cost of the route
from any router within the AS is equal to the cost associated with reaching the
advertising ASBR, plus the cost of the external route. Specify Type 2 to only
advertise the external route metric.
• Redistribute Metric – Metric assigned to all external routes for the specified
protocol. (Range: 1-65535: Default: 10)
The metric value specified for redistributed routes supersedes the Default External
Metric specified in the OSPF / General Configuration screen (page 20-15).
20-35
20
Unicast Routing
Web - Click Routing Protocol, OSPF, Redistribute. Specify the protocol type to
import, the metric type and path cost, then click Add.
Figure 20-14 OSPF Redistribute Configuration
CLI - This example redistributes routes learned from RIP as Type 1 external routes.
Console(config-router)#redistribute rip metric-type 1
Console(config-router)#
42-25
Configuring NSSA Settings
Use the OSPF / NSSA Settings page to configure a not-so-stubby area (NSSA), and
to control the use of default routes for ABRs and ASBRs, or external routes learned
from other routing domains and imported through an ABR. (For a detailed
description of NSSA areas, refer to "Configuring OSPF Areas" on page 20-19.)
Command Attributes
• Area ID – Identifier for an not-so-stubby area (NSSA). The area ID must be in the
form of an IPv4 address.
• Default Information Originate – An NSSA ASBR originates and floods Type-7
external LSAs throughout its area for known network destination outside of the AS.
However, you can also configure an NSSA ASBR to generate a Type-7 “default”
route to areas outside of the AS, or an NSSA ABR to generate a Type-7 “default”
route to other areas within the AS. (Default: Disabled)
An NSSA is similar to a stub, because when the router is an ABR, it can send a
default route for other areas in the AS into the NSSA using the Originate Default
20-36
Configuring the Open Shortest Path First Protocol
20
Information option. However, an NSSA is different from a stub, because when the
router is an ASBR, it can import a default external AS route (for routing protocol
domains adjacent to the NSSA but not within the OSPF AS) into the NSSA using
this option.
• No Redistribution – Use this option when the router is an NSSA Area Border
Router (ABR) and routes only need to be imported into normal areas (page 20-35),
but not into the NSSA. In other words, redistribution should be disabled to prevent
the NSSA ABR from advertising external routing information (learned through
routers in other areas) into the NSSA. (Default: Enabled)
Note: This router supports up 16 areas, either normal transit areas, stubs, or NSSAs.
Web - Click Routing Protocol, OSPF, NSSA Settings. Create a new NSSA or modify
the routing behavior for an existing NSSA, and click Apply.
Figure 20-15 OSPF NSSA Settings
CLI - This example configures area 0.0.0.1 as a stub and sets the cost for the default
summary route to 10.
Console(config-router)#area 0.0.0.1 nssa
default-information originate
Console(config-router)#area 0.0.0.2 nssa no-redistribution
Console(config-router)#
42-21
42-28
20-37
20
Unicast Routing
Displaying Link State Database Information
OSPF routers advertise routes using Link State Advertisements (LSAs). The full
collection of LSAs collected by a router interface from the attached area is known as
a link state database. Routers that are connected to multiple interfaces will have a
separate database for each area. Each router in the same area should have an
identical database describing the topology for that area, and the shortest path to
external destinations.
The full database is exchanged between neighboring routers as soon as a new
router is discovered. Afterwards, any changes that occur in the routing tables are
synchronized with neighboring routers through a process called reliable flooding.
You can show information about different LSAs stored in this router’s database,
which may include any of the following types:
• Router (Type 1) – All routers in an OSPF area originate Router LSAs that describe
the state and cost of its active interfaces and neighbors.
• Network (Type 2) – The designated router for each area originates a Network LSA
that describes all the routers that are attached to this network segment.
• Summary (Type 3) – Area border routers can generate Summary LSAs that give
the cost to a subnetwork located outside the area.
• AS Summary (Type 4) – Area border routers can generate AS Summary LSAs that
give the cost to an autonomous system boundary router (ASBR).
• AS External (Type 5) – An ASBR can generate an AS External LSA for each known
network destination outside the AS.
• NSSA External (Type 7) – An ASBR within an NSSA generates an NSSA external
link state advertisement for each known network destination outside the AS.
Command Attributes
• Area ID – Area defined for which you want to view LSA information.
(This item must be entered in the form of an IPv4 address.)
• Link ID – The network portion described by an LSA. The Link ID should be:
- An IP network number for Type 3 Summary and Type 5 AS External LSAs.
(When an Type 5 AS External LSA is describing a default route, its Link ID
is set to the default destination 0.0.0.0.)
- A Router ID for Router, Network, and Type 4 AS Summary LSAs.
• Self-Originate – Shows LSAs originated by this router.
• LS Type – LSA Type (Options: Type 1-5, 7). See the preceding description.
• Adv Router – IP address of the advertising router. If not entered, information about
all advertising routers is displayed.
• Age23 – Age of LSA (in seconds).
• Seq23 – Sequence number of LSA (used to detect older duplicate LSAs).
• CheckSum23 – Checksum of the complete contents of the LSA.
23. These items are read only.
20-38
Configuring the Open Shortest Path First Protocol
20
Web - Click Routing Protocol, OSPF, Link State Database Information. Specify
parameters for the LSAs you want to display, then click Query.
Figure 20-16 OSPF Link State Database Information
CLI - The CLI provides a wider selection of display options for viewing the Link State
Database. See "show ip ospf database" on page 42-41.
20-39
20
Unicast Routing
Displaying Information on Border Routers
You can display entries in the local routing table for Area Border Routers (ABR) and
Autonomous System Boundary Routers (ASBR) known by this device.
Field Attributes
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
Destination – Identifier for the destination router.
Next Hop – IP address of the next hop toward the destination.
Cost – Link metric for this route.
Type – Router type of the destination; either ABR, ASBR or both.
Rte Type – Route type; either intra-area or interarea route (INTRA or INTER).
Area – The area from which this route was learned.
SPF No – The number of times the shortest path first algorithm has been executed
for this route.
Web - Click Routing Protocol, OSPF, Border Router Information.
Figure 20-17 OSPF Border Router Information
CLI - This example shows one router that serves as both the ABR for the local area
and the ASBR for the autonomous system.
Console#show ip ospf border-routers
42-40
Destination
Next Hop
Cost
Type RteType
Area
SPF No
--------------- --------------- ------ ----- -------- --------------- ------10.2.44.5
10.2.44.88
1
ABR
INTRA
0.0.0.1
5
10.2.44.5
10.2.44.88
1
ASBR
INTER
0.0.0.1
5
Console#
20-40
Configuring the Open Shortest Path First Protocol
20
Displaying Information on Neighbor Routers
You can display about neighboring routers on each interface within an OSPF area.
Field Attributes
• ID – Neighbor’s router ID.
• Priority – Neighbor’s router priority.
• State – OSPF state and identification flag.
States include:
- Down – Connection down
- Attempt – Connection down, but attempting contact (non-broadcast networks)
- Init – Have received Hello packet, but communications not yet established
- Two-way – Bidirectional communications established
- ExStart – Initializing adjacency between neighbors
- Exchange – Database descriptions being exchanged
- Loading – LSA databases being exchanged
- Full – Neighboring routers now fully adjacent
Identification flags include:
- D – Dynamic neighbor
- S – Static neighbor
- DR – Designated router
- BDR – Backup designated router
• Address – IP address of this interface.
Web - Click Routing Protocol, OSPF, Neighbor Information.
Figure 20-18 OSPF Neighbor Information
CLI - This shows a designated router and backup designated router as neighbors.
Console#show ip ospf neighbor
42-50
ID
Pri
State
Address
--------------- ------ ---------------- --------------10.2.44.5
1
FULL/DR
10.2.44.88
10.2.44.6
2
FULL/BDR
10.2.44.88
Console#
20-41
20
20-42
Unicast Routing
Section III:Command Line Interface
This section provides a detailed description of the Command Line Interface, along
with examples for all of the commands.
Overview of the Command Line Interface . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 21-1
General Commands . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 22-1
System Management Commands . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 23-1
SNMP Commands . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 24-1
User Authentication Commands . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 25-1
Access Control List Commands . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 26-1
Interface Commands . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 27-1
Link Aggregation Commands . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 28-1
Mirror Port Commands . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 29-1
Rate Limit Commands . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 30-1
Address Table Commands . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 31-1
LLDP Commands . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 32-1
Spanning Tree Commands . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 33-1
VLAN Commands . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 34-1
Class of Service Commands . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 35-1
Quality of Service Commands . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 36-1
Multicast Filtering Commands . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 37-1
Domain Name Service Commands . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 38-1
DHCP Commands . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 39-1
Router Redundancy Commands . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 40-1
IP Interface Commands . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 41-1
IP Routing Commands . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 42-1
Command Line Interface
Chapter 21: Overview of the Command Line
Interface
This chapter describes how to use the Command Line Interface (CLI).
Note: You can only access the console interface through the Master unit in the stack.
Using the Command Line Interface
Accessing the CLI
When accessing the management interface for the switch over a direct connection
to the server’s console port, or via a Telnet connection, the switch can be managed
by entering command keywords and parameters at the prompt. Using the switch's
command-line interface (CLI) is very similar to entering commands on a UNIX
system.
Console Connection
To access the switch through the console port, perform these steps:
1.
At the console prompt, enter the user name and password. (The default user
names are “admin” and “guest” with corresponding passwords of “admin” and
“guest.”) When the administrator user name and password is entered, the CLI
displays the “Console#” prompt and enters privileged access mode
(i.e., Privileged Exec). But when the guest user name and password is entered,
the CLI displays the “Console>” prompt and enters normal access mode
(i.e., Normal Exec).
2.
Enter the necessary commands to complete your desired tasks.
3.
When finished, exit the session with the “quit” or “exit” command.
After connecting to the system through the console port, the login screen displays:
User Access Verification
Username: admin
Password:
CLI session with the SMC TigerStack II 10/100/1000 SMC8926EM/SMC8950EM
is opened.
To end the CLI session, enter [Exit].
Console#
Telnet Connection
Telnet operates over the IP transport protocol. In this environment, your
management station and any network device you want to manage over the network
must have a valid IP address. Valid IP addresses consist of four numbers, 0 to 255,
21-1
21
Overview of the Command Line Interface
separated by periods. Each address consists of a network portion and host portion.
For example, the IP address assigned to this switch, 10.1.0.1, with subnet mask
255.255.255.0, consists of a network portion (10.1.0) and a host portion (1).
Note: The IP address for this switch is obtained via DHCP by default.
To access the stack through a Telnet session, you must first set the IP address for
the Master unit, and set the default gateway if you are managing the switch from a
different IP subnet. For example,
Console(config)#interface vlan 1
Console(config-if)#ip address 10.1.0.254 255.255.255.0
Console(config-if)#exit
Console(config)#ip default-gateway 10.1.0.254
If your corporate network is connected to another network outside your office or to
the Internet, you need to apply for a registered IP address. However, if you are
attached to an isolated network, then you can use any IP address that matches the
network segment to which you are attached.
After you configure the switch with an IP address, you can open a Telnet session by
performing these steps:
1.
From the remote host, enter the Telnet command and the IP address of the
device you want to access.
2.
At the prompt, enter the user name and system password. The CLI will display
the “Vty-n#” prompt for the administrator to show that you are using privileged
access mode (i.e., Privileged Exec), or “Vty-n>” for the guest to show that you
are using normal access mode (i.e., Normal Exec), where n indicates the
number of the current Telnet session.
3.
Enter the necessary commands to complete your desired tasks.
4.
When finished, exit the session with the “quit” or “exit” command.
After entering the Telnet command, the login screen displays:
Username: admin
Password:
CLI session with the SMC TigerStack II 10/100/1000 SMC8926EM/SMC8950EM
is opened.
To end the CLI session, enter [Exit].
Vty-0#
Note: You can open up to four sessions to the device via Telnet.
21-2
Entering Commands
21
Entering Commands
This section describes how to enter CLI commands.
Keywords and Arguments
A CLI command is a series of keywords and arguments. Keywords identify a
command, and arguments specify configuration parameters. For example, in the
command “show interfaces status ethernet 1/5,” show interfaces and status are
keywords, ethernet is an argument that specifies the interface type, and 1/5
specifies the unit/port.
You can enter commands as follows:
• To enter a simple command, enter the command keyword.
• To enter multiple commands, enter each command in the required order. For
example, to enable Privileged Exec command mode, and display the startup
configuration, enter:
Console>enable
Console#show startup-config
• To enter commands that require parameters, enter the required parameters after
the command keyword. For example, to set a password for the administrator,
enter:
Console(config)#username admin password 0 smith
Minimum Abbreviation
The CLI will accept a minimum number of characters that uniquely identify a
command. For example, the command “configure” can be entered as con. If an
entry is ambiguous, the system will prompt for further input.
Command Completion
If you terminate input with a Tab key, the CLI will print the remaining characters of a
partial keyword up to the point of ambiguity. In the “logging history” example, typing
log followed by a tab will result in printing the command up to “logging.”
Getting Help on Commands
You can display a brief description of the help system by entering the help
command. You can also display command syntax by using the “?” character to list
keywords or parameters.
21-3
21
Overview of the Command Line Interface
Showing Commands
If you enter a “?” at the command prompt, the system will display the first level of
keywords for the current command class (Normal Exec or Privileged Exec) or
configuration class (Global, ACL, DHCP, Interface, Line, Router, VLAN Database, or
MSTP). You can also display a list of valid keywords for a specific command. For
example, the command “show ?” displays a list of possible show commands:
Console#show ?
access-group
access-list
arp
bridge-ext
calendar
class-map
clock
dns
dot1q-tunnel
dot1x
garp
gvrp
history
hosts
interfaces
ip
ipv6
lacp
line
lldp
log
logging
mac
mac-address-table
management
map
policy-map
port
port-channel
protocol-vlan
public-key
pvlan
queue
radius-server
rip
router
running-config
snmp
sntp
spanning-tree
ssh
startup-config
system
tacacs-server
tech-support
users
version
vlan
vrrp
Console#show
21-4
Access groups
Access lists
Information of ARP cache
Bridge extend information
Date information
Display class maps
DNS information
dot1q-tunnel
Show 802.1x content
GARP property
Show GARP information of interface
Information of history
Host information
Information of interfaces
IP information
IPv6 information
Show LACP statistic
TTY line information
LLDP
Login records
Show the contents of logging buffers
MAC access lists
Set configuration of the address table
Show management IP filter
Map priority
Display policy maps
Characteristics of the port
Port channel
Protocol-VLAN information
Show information of public key
Information of private VLAN
Information of priority queue
RADIUS server information
RIP
Router
The system configuration of running
SNMP statistics
SNTP
Specify spanning-tree
Secure shell
The system configuration of starting up
Information of system
Login by TACACS server
Technical information
Display information about terminal lines
System hardware and software status
Switch VLAN Virtual Interface
Show vrrp
Entering Commands
21
The command “show interfaces ?” will display the following information:
Console#show interfaces ?
counters
Information of interfaces counters
protocol-vlan Protocol-vlan information
status
Information of interfaces status
switchport
Information of interfaces switchport
Console#
Partial Keyword Lookup
If you terminate a partial keyword with a question mark, alternatives that match the
initial letters are provided. (Remember not to leave a space between the command
and question mark.) For example “s?” shows all the keywords starting with “s.”
Console#show s?
snmp
sntp
system
Console#sh s
spanning-tree
ssh
startup-config
Negating the Effect of Commands
For many configuration commands you can enter the prefix keyword “no” to cancel
the effect of a command or reset the configuration to the default value. For example,
the logging command will log system messages to a host server. To disable
logging, specify the no logging command. This guide describes the negation effect
for all applicable commands.
Using Command History
The CLI maintains a history of commands that have been entered. You can scroll
back through the history of commands by pressing the up arrow key. Any command
displayed in the history list can be executed again, or first modified and then
executed.
Using the show history command displays a longer list of recently executed
commands.
21-5
21
Overview of the Command Line Interface
Understanding Command Modes
The command set is divided into Exec and Configuration classes. Exec commands
generally display information on system status or clear statistical counters.
Configuration commands, on the other hand, modify interface parameters or enable
certain switching functions. These classes are further divided into different modes.
Available commands depend on the selected mode. You can always enter a
question mark “?” at the prompt to display a list of the commands available for the
current mode. The command classes and associated modes are displayed in the
following table:
Table 21-1 General Command Modes
Class
Mode
Exec
Normal
Privileged
Configuration
Global*
Access Control List
Class Map
DHCP
Interface
Line
Multiple Spanning Tree
Policy Map
Router
VLAN Database
* You must be in Privileged Exec mode to access the Global configuration mode.
You must be in Global Configuration mode to access any of the other configuration modes.
Exec Commands
When you open a new console session on the switch with the user name and
password “guest,” the system enters the Normal Exec command mode (or guest
mode), displaying the “Console>” command prompt. Only a limited number of the
commands are available in this mode. You can access all commands only from the
Privileged Exec command mode (or administrator mode). To access Privilege Exec
mode, open a new console session with the user name and password “admin.” The
system will now display the “Console#” command prompt. You can also enter
Privileged Exec mode from within Normal Exec mode, by entering the enable
command, followed by the privileged level password “super” (page 22-1).
To enter Privileged Exec mode, enter the following user names and passwords:
Username: admin
Password: [admin login password]
CLI session with the SMC TigerStack II 10/100/1000 SMC8926EM/SMC8950EM
is opened.
To end the CLI session, enter [Exit].
Console#
21-6
Entering Commands
21
Username: guest
Password: [guest login password]
CLI session with the SMC TigerStack II 10/100/1000 SMC8926EM/SMC8950EM
is opened.
To end the CLI session, enter [Exit].
Console>enable
Password: [privileged level password]
Console#
Configuration Commands
Configuration commands are privileged level commands used to modify switch
settings. These commands modify the running configuration only and are not saved
when the switch is rebooted. To store the running configuration in non-volatile
storage, use the copy running-config startup-config command.
The configuration commands are organized into different modes:
• Global Configuration - These commands modify the system level configuration,
and include commands such as hostname and snmp-server community.
• Access Control List Configuration - These commands are used for packet filtering.
• Class Map Configuration - Creates a DiffServ class map for a specified traffic type.
• DHCP Configuration - These commands are used to configure the DHCP server.
• Interface Configuration - These commands modify the port configuration such as
speed-duplex and negotiation.
• Line Configuration - These commands modify the console port and Telnet
configuration, and include command such as parity and databits.
• Multiple Spanning Tree Configuration - These commands configure settings for the
selected multiple spanning tree instance.
• Policy Map Configuration - Creates a DiffServ policy map for multiple interfaces.
• Router Configuration - These commands configure global settings for unicast
routing protocols.
• VLAN Configuration - Includes the command to create VLAN groups.
To enter the Global Configuration mode, enter the command configure in Privileged
Exec mode. The system prompt will change to “Console(config)#” which gives you
access privilege to all Global Configuration commands.
Console#configure
Console(config)#
21-7
21
Overview of the Command Line Interface
To enter the other modes, at the configuration prompt type one of the following
commands. Use the exit or end command to return to the Privileged Exec mode.
Table 21-2 Configuration Command Modes
Mode
Command
Prompt
Line
line {console | vty}
Console(config-line)
Page
23-17
Access
Control List
access-list ip standard
access-list ip extended
access-list mac
access-list ipv6 standard
access-list ipv6 extended
Console(config-std-acl)
Console(config-ext-acl)
Console(config-mac-acl)
Console(config-std-ipv6-acl)
Console(config-ext-ipv6-acl)
26-2
26-2
26-12
26-7
26-7
Class Map
class map
Console(config-cmap)
36-2
DHCP
ip dhcp pool
Console(config-dhcp)
39-6
Interface
interface {ethernet port | port-channel id| vlan id} Console(config-if)
27-1
MSTP
spanning-tree mst-configuration
Console(config-mstp)
33-7
Policy Map
policy map
Console(config-pmap)
36-5
Router
router {rip | ospf}
Console(config-router)
42-6
42-19
VLAN
vlan database
Console(config-vlan)
34-5
For example, you can use the following commands to enter interface configuration
mode, and then return to Privileged Exec mode
Console(config)#interface
ethernet 1/5
.
.
.
Console(config-if)#exit
Console(config)#
21-8
Entering Commands
21
Command Line Processing
Commands are not case sensitive. You can abbreviate commands and parameters
as long as they contain enough letters to differentiate them from any other currently
available commands or parameters. You can use the Tab key to complete partial
commands, or enter a partial command followed by the “?” character to display a list
of possible matches. You can also use the following editing keystrokes for
command-line processing:
Table 21-3 Keystroke Commands
Keystroke
Function
Ctrl-A
Shifts cursor to start of command line.
Ctrl-B
Shifts cursor to the left one character.
Ctrl-C
Terminates the current task and displays the command prompt.
Ctrl-E
Shifts cursor to end of command line.
Ctrl-F
Shifts cursor to the right one character.
Ctrl-K
Deletes all characters from the cursor to the end of the line.
Ctrl-L
Repeats current command line on a new line.
Ctrl-N
Enters the next command line in the history buffer.
Ctrl-P
Enters the last command.
Ctrl-R
Repeats current command line on a new line.
Ctrl-U
Deletes from the cursor to the beginning of the line.
Ctrl-W
Deletes the last word typed.
Esc-B
Moves the cursor back one word.
Esc-D
Deletes from the cursor to the end of the word.
Esc-F
Moves the cursor forward one word.
Delete key or backspace key
Erases a mistake when entering a command.
21-9
21
Overview of the Command Line Interface
Command Groups
The system commands can be broken down into the functional groups shown below.
Table 21-4 Command Group Index
Command Group
Description
General
Basic commands for entering privileged access mode, restarting the
system, or quitting the CLI
Page
22-1
System Management
Display and setting of system information, basic modes of operation,
maximum frame size, file management, console port and telnet
settings, system logs, SMTP alerts, and the system clock
23-1
Simple Network
Management Protocol
Activates authentication failure traps; configures community access
strings, and trap receivers
24-1
User Authentication
Configures user names and passwords, logon access using local or
remote authentication, management access through the web server,
Telnet server and Secure Shell; as well as port security, IEEE 802.1X
port access control, and restricted access based on specified IP
addresses
25-1
Access Control List
Provides filtering for IPv4 frames (based on address, protocol, TCP/
UDP port number or TCP control code), IPv6 frames (based on
destination address, next header type, or flow label), or non-IP frames
(based on MAC address or Ethernet type)
26-1
Interface
Configures the connection parameters for all Ethernet ports,
aggregated links, and VLANs
27-1
Link Aggregation
Statically groups multiple ports into a single logical trunk; configures
Link Aggregation Control Protocol for port trunks
28-1
Mirror Port
Mirrors data to another port for analysis without affecting the data
passing through or the performance of the monitored port
29-1
Rate Limit
Controls the maximum rate for traffic transmitted or received on a port
30-1
Address Table
Configures the address table for filtering specified addresses, displays
current entries, clears the table, or sets the aging time
31-1
Spanning Tree
Configures Spanning Tree settings for the switch
33-1
VLANs
Configures VLAN settings, and defines port membership for VLAN
groups; also enables or configures private VLANs and protocol VLANs
34-1
Class of Service
Sets port priority for untagged frames, selects strict priority or weighted
round robin, relative weight for each priority queue, also sets priority for
TCP/UDP traffic types, IP precedence, and DSCP
35-1
Quality of Service
Configures Differentiated Services
36-1
Multicast Filtering
Configures IGMP multicast filtering, query parameters, and specifies
ports attached to a multicast router
37-1
Domain Name Service
Configures DNS services.
38-1
Dynamic Host
Configuration Protocol
Configures DHCP client, relay and server functions
39-1
IP Interface
Configures IP address for the switch interfaces; also configures ARP
parameters and static entries
41-1
IP Routing
Configures static and dynamic unicast routing
42-1
Router Redundancy
Configures router redundancy to create primary and backup routers
40-1
21-10
Command Groups
21
The access mode shown in the following tables is indicated by these abbreviations:
ACL (Access Control List Configuration)
CM (Class Map Configuration)
DC (DHCP Server Configuration)
GC (Global Configuration)
IC (Interface Configuration)
LC (Line Configuration)
MST (Multiple Spanning Tree)
NE (Normal Exec)
PE (Privileged Exec)
PM (Policy Map Configuration)
RC (Router Configuration)
VC (VLAN Database Configuration)
21-11
21
21-12
Overview of the Command Line Interface
Chapter 22: General Commands
These commands are used to control the command access mode, configuration
mode, and other basic functions.
Table 22-1 General Commands
Command
Function
Mode
Page
enable
Activates privileged mode
NE
disable
Returns to normal mode from privileged mode
PE
22-2
configure
Activates global configuration mode
PE
22-2
show history
Shows the command history buffer
NE, PE
22-3
22-1
reload
Restarts the system
PE
22-4
prompt
Customizes the CLI prompt
GC
22-4
end
Returns to Privileged Exec mode
any
config.
mode
22-4
exit
Returns to the previous configuration mode, or exits the CLI
any
22-5
quit
Exits a CLI session
NE, PE
22-5
help
Shows how to use help
any
NA
?
Shows options for command completion (context sensitive)
any
NA
enable
This command activates Privileged Exec mode. In privileged mode, additional
commands are available, and certain commands display additional information. See
"Understanding Command Modes" on page 21-6.
Syntax
enable [level]
level - Privilege level to log into the device.
The device has two predefined privilege levels: 0: Normal Exec,
15: Privileged Exec. Enter level 15 to access Privileged Exec mode.
Default Setting
Level 15
Command Mode
Normal Exec
Command Usage
• “super” is the default password required to change the command mode from
Normal Exec to Privileged Exec. (To set this password, see the enable
password command on page 25-3.)
22-1
22
General Commands
• The “#” character is appended to the end of the prompt to indicate that the
system is in privileged access mode.
Example
Console>enable
Password: [privileged level password]
Console#
Related Commands
disable (22-2)
enable password (25-3)
disable
This command returns to Normal Exec mode from privileged mode. In normal
access mode, you can only display basic information on the switch's configuration or
Ethernet statistics. To gain access to all commands, you must use the privileged
mode. See "Understanding Command Modes" on page 21-6.
Default Setting
None
Command Mode
Privileged Exec
Command Usage
The “>” character is appended to the end of the prompt to indicate that the
system is in normal access mode.
Example
Console#disable
Console>
Related Commands
enable (22-1)
configure
This command activates Global Configuration mode. You must enter this mode to
modify any settings on the switch. You must also enter Global Configuration mode
prior to enabling some of the other configuration modes, including Interface
Configuration, Line Configuration, VLAN Database Configuration, and Multiple
Spanning Tree Configuration. See "Understanding Command Modes" on page 21-6.
Default Setting
None
Command Mode
Privileged Exec
22-2
show history
22
Example
Console#configure
Console(config)#
Related Commands
end (22-4)
show history
This command shows the contents of the command history buffer.
Default Setting
None
Command Mode
Normal Exec, Privileged Exec
Command Usage
The history buffer size is fixed at 10 Execution commands and
10 Configuration commands.
Example
In this example, the show history command lists the contents of the command
history buffer:
Console#show history
Execution command history:
2 config
1 show history
Configuration command history:
4 interface vlan 1
3 exit
2 interface vlan 1
1 end
Console#
The ! command repeats commands from the Execution command history buffer
when you are in Normal Exec or Privileged Exec Mode, and commands from the
Configuration command history buffer when you are in any of the configuration
modes. In this example, the !2 command repeats the second command in the
Execution history buffer (config).
Console#!2
Console#config
Console(config)#
22-3
22
General Commands
reload
This command restarts the system.
Note: When the system is restarted, it will always run the Power-On Self-Test. It will also
retain all configuration information stored in non-volatile memory by the copy
running-config startup-config command.
Default Setting
None
Command Mode
Privileged Exec
Command Usage
This command resets the entire system.
Example
This example shows how to reset the switch:
Console#reload
System will be restarted, continue <y/n>? y
prompt
This command customizes the CLI prompt. Use the no form to restore the default
prompt.
Syntax
prompt string
no prompt
string - Any alphanumeric string to use for the CLI prompt.
(Maximum length: 255 characters)
Default Setting
Console
Command Mode
Global Configuration
Example
Console(config)#prompt RD2
RD2(config)#
end
This command returns to Privileged Exec mode.
Default Setting
None
22-4
exit
22
Command Mode
Global Configuration, Interface Configuration, Line Configuration, VLAN
Database Configuration, and Multiple Spanning Tree Configuration.
Example
This example shows how to return to the Privileged Exec mode from the Interface
Configuration mode:
Console(config-if)#end
Console#
exit
This command returns to the previous configuration mode or exits the configuration
program.
Default Setting
None
Command Mode
Any
Example
This example shows how to return to the Privileged Exec mode from the Global
Configuration mode, and then quit the CLI session:
Console(config)#exit
Console#exit
Press ENTER to start session
User Access Verification
Username:
quit
This command exits the configuration program.
Default Setting
None
Command Mode
Normal Exec, Privileged Exec
Command Usage
The quit and exit commands can both exit the configuration program.
22-5
22
General Commands
Example
This example shows how to quit a CLI session:
Console#quit
Press ENTER to start session
User Access Verification
Username:
22-6
Chapter 23: System Management Commands
These commands are used to control system logs, passwords, user names,
management options, and display or configure a variety of other system information.
Table 23-1 System Management Commands
Command Group
Function
Page
Device Designation
Configures information that uniquely identifies this switch
23-1
System Status
Displays system configuration, active managers, and version information
23-3
Frame Size
Enables support for jumbo frames
File Management
Manages code image or switch configuration files
23-10
Line
Sets communication parameters for the serial port, including baud rate and
console time-out
23-17
Event Logging
Controls logging of error messages
23-26
SMTP Alerts
Configures SMTP email alerts
23-32
Time (System Clock)
Sets the system clock automatically via NTP/SNTP server or manually
23-35
23-9
Device Designation Commands
This section describes commands used to configure information that uniquely
identifies the switch.
Table 23-2 Device Designation Commands
Command
Function
Mode
Page
hostname
Specifies the host name for the switch
GC
23-1
snmp-server contact
Sets the system contact string
GC
24-4
snmp-server location
Sets the system location string
GC
24-4
switch renumber
Renumbers stack units
PE
23-2
hostname
This command specifies or modifies the host name for this device. Use the no form
to restore the default host name.
Syntax
hostname name
no hostname
name - The name of this host. (Maximum length: 255 characters)
Default Setting
None
23-1
23
System Management Commands
Command Mode
Global Configuration
Example
Console(config)#hostname RD#1
Console(config)#
switch renumber
This command resets the switch unit identification numbers in the stack. All stack
members are numbered sequentially starting from the top unit for a non-loop stack,
or starting from the Master unit for a looped stack.
Syntax
switch all renumber
Default Setting
• For non-loop stacking, the top unit is unit 1.
• For loop stacking, the master unit is unit 1.
Command Mode
Global Configuration
Example
This example shows how to renumber all units.
Console#switch all renumber
Console#
23-2
System Status Commands
23
System Status Commands
This section describes commands used to display system information.
Table 23-3 System Status Commands
Command
Function
Mode
show startup-config
Displays the contents of the configuration file (stored in flash
memory) that is used to start up the system
PE
Page
23-3
show running-config
Displays the configuration data currently in use
PE
23-5
show system
Displays system information
NE, PE
23-7
show users
Shows all active console and Telnet sessions, including user
name, idle time, and IP address of Telnet clients
NE, PE
23-7
show version
Displays version information for the system
NE, PE
23-8
show startup-config
This command displays the configuration file stored in non-volatile memory that is
used to start up the system.
Default Setting
None
Command Mode
Privileged Exec
Command Usage
• Use this command in conjunction with the show running-config command to
compare the information in running memory to the information stored in
non-volatile memory.
• This command displays settings for key command modes. Each mode group
is separated by “!” symbols, and includes the configuration mode command,
and corresponding commands. This command displays the following
information:
-
MAC address for each switch in the stack
SNTP server settings
SNMP community strings
Users (names and access levels)
VLAN database (VLAN ID, name and state)
VLAN configuration settings for each interface
Multiple spanning tree instances (name and interfaces)
IP address configured for VLANs
Layer 4 precedence settings
Routing protocol configuration settings
Spanning tree settings
Any configured settings for the console port and Telnet
23-3
23
System Management Commands
Example
Console#show startup-config
building startup-config, please wait.....
!<stackingDB>0000000000000000</stackingDB>
!<stackingMac>01_00-20-1a-df-9c-a0_00</stackingMac>
!<stackingMac>02_00-20-1a-df-9e-c0_01</stackingMac>
!<stackingMac>00_00-00-00-00-00-00_00</stackingMac>
!<stackingMac>00_00-00-00-00-00-00_00</stackingMac>
!<stackingMac>00_00-00-00-00-00-00_00</stackingMac>
!<stackingMac>00_00-00-00-00-00-00_00</stackingMac>
!<stackingMac>00_00-00-00-00-00-00_00</stackingMac>
!<stackingMac>00_00-00-00-00-00-00_00</stackingMac>
!
phymap 00-20-1a-df-9c-a0 00-20-1a-df-9e-c0 00-00-00-00-00-00
00-00-00-00-00-00 00-00-00-00-00-00 00-00-00-00-00-00 00-00-00-00-00-00
00-00-00-00-00-00
!
SNTP server 0.0.0.0 0.0.0.0 0.0.0.0
!
snmp-server community public ro
snmp-server community private rw!
!
username admin access-level 15
username admin password 7 21232f297a57a5a743894a0e4a801fc3
username guest access-level 0
username guest password 7 084e0343a0486ff05530df6c705c8bb4
enable password level 15 7 1b3231655cebb7a1f783eddf27d254ca
!
vlan database
vlan 1 name DefaultVlan media ethernet state active
!
spanning-tree MST configuration
!
interface ethernet 1/1
switchport allowed vlan add 1 untagged
switchport native vlan 1
.
.
.
interface vlan 1
ip address dhcp
!
no map IP precedence
no map IP DSCP
!
line console
!
line VTY
!
end
Console#
Related Commands
show running-config (23-5)
23-4
System Status Commands
23
show running-config
This command displays the configuration information currently in use.
Default Setting
None
Command Mode
Privileged Exec
Command Usage
• Use this command in conjunction with the show startup-config command to
compare the information in running memory to the information stored in
non-volatile memory.
• This command displays settings for key command modes. Each mode group
is separated by “!” symbols, and includes the configuration mode command,
and corresponding commands. This command displays the following
information:
-
MAC address for each switch in the stack
SNTP server settings
SNMP community strings
Users (names, access levels, and encrypted passwords)
VLAN database (VLAN ID, name and state)
VLAN configuration settings for each interface
Multiple spanning tree instances (name and interfaces)
IP address configured for VLANs
Layer 4 precedence settings
Routing protocol configuration settings
Spanning tree settings
Any configured settings for the console port and Telnet
23-5
23
System Management Commands
Example
Console#show running-config
building running-config, please wait.....
!<stackingDB>0000000000000000</stackingDB>
!<stackingMac>01_00-30-f1-d4-73-a0_00</stackingMac>
!<stackingMac>00_00-00-00-00-00-00_00</stackingMac>
!<stackingMac>00_00-00-00-00-00-00_00</stackingMac>
!<stackingMac>00_00-00-00-00-00-00_00</stackingMac>
!<stackingMac>00_00-00-00-00-00-00_00</stackingMac>
!<stackingMac>00_00-00-00-00-00-00_00</stackingMac>
!<stackingMac>00_00-00-00-00-00-00_00</stackingMac>
!<stackingMac>00_00-00-00-00-00-00_00</stackingMac>
!
phymap 00-30-f1-d4-73-a0 00-00-00-00-00-00 00-00-00-00-00-00
00-00-00-00-00-00 00-00-00-00-00-00 00-00-00-00-00-00 00-00-00-00-00-00
00-00-00-00-00-00
!
SNTP server 0.0.0.0 0.0.0.0 0.0.0.0
!
snmp-server community private rw
snmp-server community public ro
!
username admin access-level 15
username admin password 7 21232f297a57a5a743894a0e4a801fc3
username guest access-level 0
username guest password 7 084e0343a0486ff05530df6c705c8bb4
enable password level 15 7 1b3231655cebb7a1f783eddf27d254ca
!
vlan database
vlan 1 name DefaultVlan media ethernet state active
!
spanning-tree MST-configuration
!
interface ethernet 1/1
switchport allowed vlan add 1 untagged
switchport native vlan 1
.
.
.
interface vlan 1
IP address DHCP
!
no map IP precedence
no map IP DSCP
!
line console
line vty
!
end
Console#
Related Commands
show startup-config (23-3)
23-6
System Status Commands
23
show system
This command displays system information.
Default Setting
None
Command Mode
Normal Exec, Privileged Exec
Command Usage
• For a description of the items shown by this command, refer to "Displaying
System Information" on page 4-1.
• The POST results should all display “PASS.” If any POST test indicates
“FAIL,” contact your distributor for assistance.
Example
Console#show system
System Description: SMC TigerStack II 10/100/1000 SMC8926EM/SMC8950EM
System OID String: 1.3.6.1.4.1.202.20.76
System information
System Up time: 0 days, 1 hours, 23 minutes, and 44.61 seconds
System Name
: [NONE]
System Location
: [NONE]
System Contact
: [NONE]
MAC Address (Unit1):
00-00-E3-11-10-10
Web Server:
Enabled
Web Server Port:
80
Web Secure Server:
Enabled
Web Secure Server Port: 443
Telnet Server:
Enable
Telnet Server Port:
23
Jumbo Frame:
Disabled
Jumbo Frame Size:
1522
POST Result:
DUMMY Test 1 .................
DRAM Test ....................
PCI Device 1 Test ............
I2C Bus Initialization .......
Fan Speed Test ...............
PASS
PASS
PASS
PASS
PASS
Done All Pass.
Console#
show users
Shows all active console and Telnet sessions, including user name, idle time, and IP
address of Telnet client.
Default Setting
None
Command Mode
Normal Exec, Privileged Exec
23-7
23
System Management Commands
Command Usage
The session used to execute this command is indicated by a “*” symbol next to
the Line (i.e., session) index number.
Example
Console#show users
Username accounts:
Username Privilege Public-Key
-------- --------- ---------admin
15
None
guest
0
None
steve
15
RSA
Online users:
Line
Username Idle time (h:m:s) Remote IP addr.
----------- -------- ----------------- --------------0
console
admin
0:14:14
* 1
VTY 0
admin
0:00:00
192.168.1.19
2
SSH 1
steve
0:00:06
192.168.1.19
Web online users:
Line
Remote IP addr Username Idle time (h:m:s).
----------- -------------- -------- -----------------1
HTTP
192.168.1.19
admin
0:00:00
Console#
show version
This command displays hardware and software version information for the system.
Default Setting
None
Command Mode
Normal Exec, Privileged Exec
Command Usage
See "Displaying Switch Hardware/Software Versions" on page 4-3 for detailed
information on the items displayed by this command.
23-8
Frame Size Commands
23
Example
Console#show version
Unit 1
Serial Number:
Hardware Version:
EPLD Version:
Number of Ports:
Main Power Status:
Redundant Power Status:
1.06
50
Up
Not present
Agent (Master)
Unit ID:
Loader Version:
Boot ROM Version:
Operation Code Version:
1
1.1.0.2
1.1.0.3
1.1.4.0
Console#
Frame Size Commands
This section describes commands used to configure the Ethernet frame size on the
switch.
Table 23-4 Frame Size Commands
Command
Function
Mode
jumbo frame
Enables support for jumbo frames
GC
Page
23-9
jumbo frame
This command enables support for jumbo frames. Use the no form to disable it.
Syntax
[no] jumbo frame
Default Setting
Disabled
Command Mode
Global Configuration
Command Usage
• This switch provides more efficient throughput for large sequential data
transfers by supporting jumbo frames up to 9216 bytes. Compared to
standard Ethernet frames that run only up to 1.5 KB, using jumbo frames
significantly reduces the per-packet overhead required to process protocol
encapsulation fields.
• To use jumbo frames, both the source and destination end nodes (such as a
computer or server) must support this feature. Also, when the connection is
operating at full duplex, all switches in the network between the two end nodes
must be able to accept the extended frame size. And for half-duplex
23-9
23
System Management Commands
connections, all devices in the collision domain would need to support jumbo
frames.
• The current setting for jumbo frames can be displayed with the show system
command (page 23-7).
Example
Console(config)#jumbo frame
Console(config)#
Related Commands
show ipv6 mtu (41-19)
File Management Commands
Managing Firmware
Firmware can be uploaded and downloaded to or from a TFTP server. By saving
runtime code to a file on a TFTP server, that file can later be downloaded to the
switch to restore operation. The switch can also be set to use new firmware without
overwriting the previous version.
When downloading runtime code, the destination file name can be specified to
replace the current image, or the file can be first downloaded using a different name
from the current runtime code file, and then the new file set as the startup file.
Saving or Restoring Configuration Settings
Configuration settings can be uploaded and downloaded to and from a TFTP server.
The configuration file can be later downloaded to restore switch settings.
The configuration file can be downloaded under a new file name and then set as the
startup file, or the current startup configuration file can be specified as the
destination file to directly replace it. Note that the file “Factory_Default_Config.cfg”
can be copied to the TFTP server, but cannot be used as the destination on the
switch.
Table 23-5 Flash/File Commands
Command
Function
Mode
copy
Copies a code image or a switch configuration to or from flash
memory or a TFTP server
PE
23-11
delete
Deletes a file or code image
PE
23-13
dir
Displays a list of files in flash memory
PE
23-14
whichboot
Displays the files booted
PE
23-15
boot system
Specifies the file or image used to start up the system
GC
23-16
23-10
Page
File Management Commands
23
copy
This command moves (upload/download) a code image or configuration file
between the switch’s flash memory and a TFTP server. When you save the system
code or configuration settings to a file on a TFTP server, that file can later be
downloaded to the switch to restore system operation. The success of the file
transfer depends on the accessibility of the TFTP server and the quality of the
network connection.
Syntax
copy file {file | running-config | startup-config | tftp | unit}
copy running-config {file | startup-config | tftp}
copy startup-config {file | running-config | tftp}
copy tftp {file | running-config | startup-config | https-certificate |
public-key}
copy unit file
• file - Keyword that allows you to copy to/from a file.
• running-config - Keyword that allows you to copy to/from the current
running configuration.
• startup-config - The configuration used for system initialization.
• tftp - Keyword that allows you to copy to/from a TFTP server.
• https-certificate - Keyword that allows you to copy the HTTPS secure site
certificate.
• public-key - Keyword that allows you to copy a SSH key from a TFTP
server. (See "Secure Shell Commands" on page 25-15.)
• unit - Keyword that allows you to copy to/from a specific unit in the stack.
Default Setting
None
Command Mode
Privileged Exec
Command Usage
• The system prompts for data required to complete the copy command.
• The destination file name should not contain slashes (\ or /), the leading letter
of the file name should not be a period (.), and the maximum length for file
names on the TFTP server is 127 characters or 31 characters for files on the
switch. (Valid characters: A-Z, a-z, 0-9, “.”, “-”, “_”)
• Due to the size limit of the flash memory, the switch supports only two
operation code files.
• The maximum number of user-defined configuration files depends on
available memory.
• You can use “Factory_Default_Config.cfg” as the source to copy from the
factory default configuration file, but you cannot use it as the destination.
• To replace the startup configuration, you must use startup-config as the
destination.
23-11
23
System Management Commands
• Use the copy file unit command to copy a local file to another switch in the
stack. Use the copy unit file command to copy a file from another switch in
the stack.
• The Boot ROM and Loader cannot be uploaded or downloaded from the TFTP
server. You must follow the instructions in the release notes for new firmware,
or contact your distributor for help.
• For information on specifying an https-certificate, see "Replacing the Default
Secure-site Certificate" on page 6-7. For information on configuring the switch
to use HTTPS for a secure connection, see "ip http secure-server" on
page 25-12.
Example
The following example shows how to download new firmware from a TFTP server:
Console#copy tftp file
TFTP server ip address: 10.1.0.19
Choose file type:
1. config: 2. opcode: <1-2>: 2
Source file name: SMC8926_50EM_opcode_V1.1.4.0.BIX
Destination file name: V1140
\Write to FLASH Programming.
-Write to FLASH finish.
Success.
Console#
The following example shows how to upload the configuration settings to a file on
the TFTP server:
Console#copy file tftp
Choose file type:
1. config: 2. opcode: <1-2>: 1
Source file name: startup
TFTP server ip address: 10.1.0.99
Destination file name: startup.01
TFTP completed.
Success.
Console#
The following example shows how to copy the running configuration to a startup file.
Console#copy running-config file
destination file name: startup
Write to FLASH Programming.
\Write to FLASH finish.
Success.
Console#
23-12
File Management Commands
23
The following example shows how to download a configuration file:
Console#copy tftp startup-config
TFTP server ip address: 10.1.0.99
Source configuration file name: startup.01
Startup configuration file name [startup]:
Write to FLASH Programming.
\Write to FLASH finish.
Success.
Console#
This example shows how to copy a secure-site certificate from an TFTP server. It
then reboots the switch to activate the certificate:
Console#copy tftp https-certificate
TFTP server ip address: 10.1.0.19
Source certificate file name: SS-certificate
Source private file name: SS-private
Private password: ********
Success.
Console#reload
System will be restarted, continue <y/n>? y
This example shows how to copy a public-key used by SSH from an TFTP server.
Note that public key authentication via SSH is only supported for users configured
locally on the switch.
Console#copy tftp public-key
TFTP server IP address: 192.168.1.19
Choose public key type:
1. RSA: 2. DSA: <1-2>: 1
Source file name: steve.pub
Username: steve
TFTP Download
Success.
Write to FLASH Programming.
Success.
Console#
delete
This command deletes a file or image.
Syntax
delete [unit:] filename
• filename - Name of configuration file or code image.
• unit - Stack unit. (Range: 1-8)
Default Setting
None
23-13
23
System Management Commands
Command Mode
Privileged Exec
Command Usage
• If the file type is used for system startup, then this file cannot be deleted.
• “Factory_Default_Config.cfg” cannot be deleted.
• A colon (:) is required after the specified unit number.
Example
This example shows how to delete the test2.cfg configuration file from flash memory.
Console#delete test2.cfg
Console#
Related Commands
dir (23-14)
delete public-key (25-20)
dir
This command displays a list of files in flash memory.
Syntax
dir [unit:] {{boot-rom: | config: | opcode:} [filename]}
The type of file or image to display includes:
boot-rom - Boot ROM (or diagnostic) image file.
config - Switch configuration file.
opcode - Run-time operation code image file.
filename - Name of configuration file or code image. If this file exists but
contains errors, information on this file cannot be shown.
• unit - Stack unit. (Range: 1-8)
•
•
•
•
Default Setting
None
Command Mode
Privileged Exec
Command Usage
• If you enter the command dir without any parameters, the system displays all
files.
• A colon (:) is required after the specified unit number.
23-14
File Management Commands
23
• File information is shown below:
Table 23-6 File Directory Information
Column Heading
Description
file name
The name of the file.
file type
File types: Boot-Rom, Operation Code, and Config file.
startup
Shows if this file is used when the system is started.
size
The length of the file in bytes.
Example
The following example shows how to display all file information:
Console#dir
File name
File type
Startup Size (byte)
-------------------------------------------------- ------- ----------Unit1:
SMC8926_50EM_diag_V1.1.0.3.BIX
Boot-Rom Image Y
1596952
SMC8926_50EM_opcode_V1.1.4.0.BIX Operation Code Y
4990052
Factory_Default_Config.cfg
Config File
N
455
startup1.cfg
Config File
Y
5861
--------------------------------------------------------------------------Total free space: 58720256
Console#
whichboot
This command displays which files were booted when the system powered up.
Syntax
whichboot [unit]
unit - Stack unit. (Range: 1-8)
Default Setting
None
Command Mode
Privileged Exec
Example
This example shows the information displayed by the whichboot command. See
the table under the dir command for a description of the file information displayed by
this command.
Console#whichboot
File name
File type Startup Size (byte)
-------------------------------- -------------- ------- ----------Unit1:
SMC8926_50EM_diag_V1.1.0.3.BIX
Boot-Rom Image Y
SMC8926_50EM_opcode_V1.1.4.0.BIX Operation Code Y
startup1.cfg
Config File
Y
Console#
1596952
4990052
5861
23-15
23
System Management Commands
boot system
This command specifies the file or image used to start up the system.
Syntax
boot system [unit:] {boot-rom| config | opcode}: filename
The type of file or image to set as a default includes:
•
•
•
•
•
boot-rom* - Boot ROM.
config* - Configuration file.
opcode* - Run-time operation code.
filename - Name of configuration file or code image.
unit* - Stack unit. (Range: 1-8)
* The colon (:) is required.
Default Setting
None
Command Mode
Global Configuration
Command Usage
• A colon (:) is required after the specified unit number and file type.
• If the file contains an error, it cannot be set as the default file.
Example
Console(config)#boot system config: startup
Console(config)#
Related Commands
dir (23-14)
whichboot (23-15)
23-16
Line Commands
23
Line Commands
You can access the onboard configuration program by attaching a VT100
compatible device to the server’s serial port. These commands are used to set
communication parameters for the serial port or Telnet (i.e., a virtual terminal).
Table 23-7 Line Commands
Command
Function
Mode
line
Identifies a specific line for configuration and starts the line
configuration mode
GC
Page
23-17
login
Enables password checking at login
LC
23-18
password
Specifies a password on a line
LC
23-19
timeout login
response
Sets the interval that the system waits for a login attempt
LC
23-20
exec-timeout
Sets the interval that the command interpreter waits until user
input is detected
LC
23-20
password-thresh
Sets the password intrusion threshold, which limits the number of LC
failed logon attempts
23-21
silent-time*
Sets the amount of time the management console is inaccessible LC
after the number of unsuccessful logon attempts exceeds the
threshold set by the password-thresh command
23-22
databits*
Sets the number of data bits per character that are interpreted and LC
generated by hardware
23-22
parity*
Defines the generation of a parity bit
LC
23-23
speed*
Sets the terminal baud rate
LC
23-23
stopbits*
Sets the number of the stop bits transmitted per byte
LC
23-24
disconnect
Terminates a line connection
PE
23-24
show line
Displays a terminal line's parameters
NE, PE
23-25
* These commands only apply to the serial port.
line
This command identifies a specific line for configuration, and to process subsequent
line configuration commands.
Syntax
line {console | vty}
• console - Console terminal line.
• vty - Virtual terminal for remote console access (i.e., Telnet).
Default Setting
There is no default line.
Command Mode
Global Configuration
23-17
23
System Management Commands
Command Usage
Telnet is considered a virtual terminal connection and will be shown as “VTY”
in screen displays such as show users. However, the serial communication
parameters (e.g., databits) do not affect Telnet connections.
Example
To enter console line mode, enter the following command:
Console(config)#line console
Console(config-line)#
Related Commands
show line (23-25)
show users (23-7)
login
This command enables password checking at login. Use the no form to disable
password checking and allow connections without a password.
Syntax
login [local]
no login
local - Selects local password checking. Authentication is based on the
user name specified with the username command.
Default Setting
login local
Command Mode
Line Configuration
Command Usage
• There are three authentication modes provided by the switch itself at login:
- login selects authentication by a single global password as specified by the
password line configuration command. When using this method, the
management interface starts in Normal Exec (NE) mode.
- login local selects authentication via the user name and password
specified by the username command (i.e., default setting). When using this
method, the management interface starts in Normal Exec (NE) or Privileged
Exec (PE) mode, depending on the user’s privilege level (0 or 15
respectively).
- no login selects no authentication. When using this method, the
management interface starts in Normal Exec (NE) mode.
• This command controls login authentication via the switch itself. To configure
user names and passwords for remote authentication servers, you must use
the RADIUS or TACACS software installed on those servers.
23-18
Line Commands
23
Example
Console(config-line)#login local
Console(config-line)#
Related Commands
username (25-2)
password (23-19)
password
This command specifies the password for a line. Use the no form to remove the
password.
Syntax
password {0 | 7} password
no password
• {0 | 7} - 0 means plain password, 7 means encrypted password
• password - Character string that specifies the line password.
(Maximum length: 8 characters plain text, 32 encrypted, case sensitive)
Default Setting
No password is specified.
Command Mode
Line Configuration
Command Usage
• When a connection is started on a line with password protection, the system
prompts for the password. If you enter the correct password, the system
shows a prompt. You can use the password-thresh command to set the
number of times a user can enter an incorrect password before the system
terminates the line connection and returns the terminal to the idle state.
• The encrypted password is required for compatibility with legacy password
settings (i.e., plain text or encrypted) when reading the configuration file
during system bootup or when downloading the configuration file from a TFTP
server. There is no need for you to manually configure encrypted passwords.
Example
Console(config-line)#password 0 secret
Console(config-line)#
Related Commands
login (23-18)
password-thresh (23-21)
23-19
23
System Management Commands
timeout login response
This command sets the interval that the system waits for a user to log into the CLI.
Use the no form to restore the default setting.
Syntax
timeout login response [seconds]
no timeout login response
seconds - Integer that specifies the timeout interval.
(Range: 0 - 300 seconds; 0: disabled)
Default Setting
• CLI: Disabled (0 seconds)
• Telnet: 300 seconds
Command Mode
Line Configuration
Command Usage
• If a login attempt is not detected within the timeout interval, the connection is
terminated for the session.
• This command applies to both the local console and Telnet connections.
• The timeout for Telnet cannot be disabled.
• Using the command without specifying a timeout restores the default setting.
Example
To set the timeout to two minutes, enter this command:
Console(config-line)#timeout login response 120
Console(config-line)#
exec-timeout
This command sets the interval that the system waits until user input is detected.
Use the no form to restore the default.
Syntax
exec-timeout [seconds]
no exec-timeout
seconds - Integer that specifies the timeout interval.
(Range: 0 - 65535 seconds; 0: no timeout)
Default Setting
CLI: No timeout
Telnet: 10 minutes
Command Mode
Line Configuration
23-20
Line Commands
23
Command Usage
• If user input is detected within the timeout interval, the session is kept open;
otherwise the session is terminated.
• This command applies to both the local console and Telnet connections.
• The timeout for Telnet cannot be disabled.
• Using the command without specifying a timeout restores the default setting.
Example
To set the timeout to two minutes, enter this command:
Console(config-line)#exec-timeout 120
Console(config-line)#
password-thresh
This command sets the password intrusion threshold which limits the number of
failed logon attempts. Use the no form to remove the threshold value.
Syntax
password-thresh [threshold]
no password-thresh
threshold - The number of allowed password attempts.
(Range: 1-120; 0: no threshold)
Default Setting
The default value is three attempts.
Command Mode
Line Configuration
Command Usage
When the logon attempt threshold is reached, the system interface becomes
silent for a specified amount of time before allowing the next logon attempt.
(Use the silent-time command to set this interval.) When this threshold is
reached for Telnet, the Telnet logon interface shuts down.
Example
To set the password threshold to five attempts, enter this command:
Console(config-line)#password-thresh 5
Console(config-line)#
Related Commands
silent-time (23-22)
23-21
23
System Management Commands
silent-time
This command sets the amount of time the management console is inaccessible
after the number of unsuccessful logon attempts exceeds the threshold set by the
password-thresh command. Use the no form to remove the silent time value.
Syntax
silent-time [seconds]
no silent-time
seconds - The number of seconds to disable console response.
(Range: 0-65535; 0: no silent-time)
Default Setting
The default value is no silent-time.
Command Mode
Line Configuration (console only)
Example
To set the silent time to 60 seconds, enter this command:
Console(config-line)#silent-time 60
Console(config-line)#
Related Commands
password-thresh (23-21)
databits
This command sets the number of data bits per character that are interpreted and
generated by the console port. Use the no form to restore the default value.
Syntax
databits {7 | 8}
no databits
• 7 - Seven data bits per character.
• 8 - Eight data bits per character.
Default Setting
8 data bits per character
Command Mode
Line Configuration
Command Usage
The databits command can be used to mask the high bit on input from
devices that generate 7 data bits with parity. If parity is being generated,
specify 7 data bits per character. If no parity is required, specify 8 data bits per
character.
23-22
Line Commands
23
Example
To specify 7 data bits, enter this command:
Console(config-line)#databits 7
Console(config-line)#
Related Commands
parity (23-23)
parity
This command defines the generation of a parity bit. Use the no form to restore the
default setting.
Syntax
parity {none | even | odd}
no parity
• none - No parity
• even - Even parity
• odd - Odd parity
Default Setting
No parity
Command Mode
Line Configuration
Command Usage
Communication protocols provided by devices such as terminals and modems
often require a specific parity bit setting.
Example
To specify no parity, enter this command:
Console(config-line)#parity none
Console(config-line)#
speed
This command sets the terminal line’s baud rate. This command sets both the
transmit (to terminal) and receive (from terminal) speeds. Use the no form to restore
the default setting.
Syntax
speed bps
no speed
bps - Baud rate in bits per second.
(Options: 9600, 19200, 38400, 57600, 115200 bps, or auto)
23-23
23
System Management Commands
Default Setting
auto
Command Mode
Line Configuration
Command Usage
Set the speed to match the baud rate of the device connected to the serial
port. Some baud rates available on devices connected to the port might not be
supported. The system indicates if the speed you selected is not supported. If
you select the “auto” option, the switch will automatically detect the baud rate
configured on the attached terminal, and adjust the speed accordingly.
Example
To specify 57600 bps, enter this command:
Console(config-line)#speed 57600
Console(config-line)#
stopbits
This command sets the number of the stop bits transmitted per byte. Use the no
form to restore the default setting.
Syntax
stopbits {1 | 2}
• 1 - One stop bit
• 2 - Two stop bits
Default Setting
1 stop bit
Command Mode
Line Configuration
Example
To specify 2 stop bits, enter this command:
Console(config-line)#stopbits 2
Console(config-line)#
disconnect
This command terminates an SSH, Telnet, or console connection.
Syntax
disconnect session-id
session-id – The session identifier for an SSH, Telnet or console
connection. (Range: 0-4)
23-24
Line Commands
23
Command Mode
Privileged Exec
Command Usage
Specifying session identifier “0” will disconnect the console connection.
Specifying any other identifiers for an active session will disconnect an SSH or
Telnet connection.
Example
Console#disconnect 1
Console#
Related Commands
show ssh (25-22)
show users (23-7)
show line
This command displays the terminal line’s parameters.
Syntax
show line [console | vty]
• console - Console terminal line.
• vty - Virtual terminal for remote console access (i.e., Telnet).
Default Setting
Shows all lines
Command Mode
Normal Exec, Privileged Exec
Example
To show all lines, enter this command:
Console#show line
Console configuration:
Password threshold: 3 times
Interactive timeout: Disabled
Login timeout: Disabled
Silent time:
Disabled
Baudrate:
auto
Databits:
8
Parity:
none
Stopbits:
1
VTY configuration:
Password threshold: 3 times
Interactive timeout: 600 sec
Login timeout: 300 sec
Console#
23-25
23
System Management Commands
Event Logging Commands
This section describes commands used to configure event logging on the switch.
Table 23-8 Event Logging Commands
Command
Function
Mode
logging on
Controls logging of error messages
GC
Page
23-26
logging history
Limits syslog messages saved to switch memory based on
severity
GC
23-27
logging host
Adds a syslog server host IP address that will receive logging
messages
GC
23-28
logging facility
Sets the facility type for remote logging of syslog messages
GC
23-28
logging trap
Limits syslog messages saved to a remote server based on
severity
GC
23-29
clear log
Clears messages from the logging buffer
PE
23-29
show logging
Displays the state of logging
PE
23-30
show log
Displays log messages
PE
23-31
logging on
This command controls logging of error messages, sending debug or error
messages to a logging process. The no form disables the logging process.
Syntax
[no] logging on
Default Setting
None
Command Mode
Global Configuration
Command Usage
The logging process controls error messages saved to switch memory or sent
to remote syslog servers. You can use the logging history command to
control the type of error messages that are stored in memory. You can use the
logging trap command to control the type of error messages that are sent to
specified syslog servers.
Example
Console(config)#logging on
Console(config)#
Related Commands
logging history (23-27)
logging trap (23-29)
clear log (23-29)
23-26
Event Logging Commands
23
logging history
This command limits syslog messages saved to switch memory based on severity.
The no form returns the logging of syslog messages to the default level.
Syntax
logging history {flash | ram} level
no logging history {flash | ram}
• flash - Event history stored in flash memory (i.e., permanent memory).
• ram - Event history stored in temporary RAM (i.e., memory flushed on
power reset).
• level - One of the levels listed below. Messages sent include the selected
level down to level 0. (Range: 0-7)
Table 23-9 Logging Levels
Level
Severity Name
Description
7
debugging
Debugging messages
6
informational
Informational messages only
5
notifications
Normal but significant condition, such as cold start
4
warnings
Warning conditions (e.g., return false, unexpected return)
3
errors
Error conditions (e.g., invalid input, default used)
2
critical
Critical conditions (e.g., memory allocation, or free
memory error - resource exhausted)
1
alerts
Immediate action needed
0
emergencies
System unusable
* There are only Level 2, 5 and 6 error messages for the current firmware release.
Default Setting
Flash: errors (level 3 - 0)
RAM: warnings (level 7 - 0)
Command Mode
Global Configuration
Command Usage
The message level specified for flash memory must be a higher priority (i.e.,
numerically lower) than that specified for RAM.
Example
Console(config)#logging history ram 0
Console(config)#
23-27
23
System Management Commands
logging host
This command adds a syslog server host IP address that will receive logging
messages. Use the no form to remove a syslog server host.
Syntax
[no] logging host host_ip_address
host_ip_address - The IP address of a syslog server.
Default Setting
None
Command Mode
Global Configuration
Command Usage
• Use this command more than once to build up a list of host IP addresses.
• The maximum number of host IP addresses allowed is five.
Example
Console(config)#logging host 10.1.0.3
Console(config)#
logging facility
This command sets the facility type for remote logging of syslog messages. Use the
no form to return the type to the default.
Syntax
[no] logging facility type
type - A number that indicates the facility used by the syslog server to
dispatch log messages to an appropriate service. (Range: 16-23)
Default Setting
23
Command Mode
Global Configuration
Command Usage
The command specifies the facility type tag sent in syslog messages. (See
RFC 3164.) This type has no effect on the kind of messages reported by the
switch. However, it may be used by the syslog server to sort messages or to
store messages in the corresponding database.
Example
Console(config)#logging facility 19
Console(config)#
23-28
Event Logging Commands
23
logging trap
This command enables the logging of system messages to a remote server, or
limits the syslog messages saved to a remote server based on severity. Use this
command without a specified level to enable remote logging. Use the no form to
disable remote logging.
Syntax
logging trap [level]
no logging trap
level - One of the syslog severity levels listed in the table on page 23-27.
Messages sent include the selected level up through level 0.
Default Setting
• Disabled
• Level 7 - 0
Command Mode
Global Configuration
Command Usage
• Using this command with a specified level enables remote logging and sets
the minimum severity level to be saved.
• Using this command without a specified level also enables remote logging, but
restores the minimum severity level to the default.
Example
Console(config)#logging trap 4
Console(config)#
clear log
This command clears messages from the log buffer.
Syntax
clear log [flash | ram]
• flash - Event history stored in flash memory (i.e., permanent memory).
• ram - Event history stored in temporary RAM (i.e., memory flushed on
power reset).
Default Setting
Flash and RAM
Command Mode
Privileged Exec
Example
Console#clear log
Console#
23-29
23
System Management Commands
Related Commands
show log (23-31)
show logging
This command displays the configuration settings for logging messages to local
switch memory, to an SMTP event handler, or to a remote syslog server.
Syntax
show logging {flash | ram | sendmail | trap}
• flash - Displays settings for storing event messages in flash memory
(i.e., permanent memory).
• ram - Displays settings for storing event messages in temporary RAM
(i.e., memory flushed on power reset).
• sendmail - Displays settings for the SMTP event handler (page 23-35).
• trap - Displays settings for the trap function.
Default Setting
None
Command Mode
Privileged Exec
Example
The following example shows that system logging is enabled, the message level for
flash memory is “errors” (i.e., default level 3 - 0), and the message level for RAM is
“debugging” (i.e., default level 7 - 0).
Console#show logging flash
Syslog logging:
Enabled
History logging in FLASH: level errors
Console#show logging ram
Syslog logging:
Enabled
History logging in RAM: level debugging
Console#
Table 23-10 show logging flash/ram - display description
Field
Description
Syslog logging
Shows if system logging has been enabled via the logging on command.
History logging in FLASH The message level(s) reported based on the logging history command.
History logging in RAM
23-30
The message level(s) reported based on the logging history command.
Event Logging Commands
23
The following example displays settings for the trap function.
Console#show logging trap
Syslog logging: Enable
REMOTELOG status: disable
REMOTELOG facility type: local use 7
REMOTELOG level type:
Debugging messages
REMOTELOG server IP address: 1.2.3.4
REMOTELOG server IP address: 0.0.0.0
REMOTELOG server IP address: 0.0.0.0
REMOTELOG server IP address: 0.0.0.0
REMOTELOG server IP address: 0.0.0.0
Console#
Table 23-11 show logging trap - display description
Field
Description
Syslog logging
Shows if system logging has been enabled via the logging on command.
REMOTELOG status
Shows if remote logging has been enabled via the logging trap command.
REMOTELOG
facility type
The facility type for remote logging of syslog messages as specified in the
logging facility command.
REMOTELOG level type The severity threshold for syslog messages sent to a remote server as specified
in the logging trap command.
REMOTELOG
server IP address
The address of syslog servers as specified in the logging host command.
Related Commands
show logging sendmail (23-35)
show log
This command displays the log messages stored in local memory.
Syntax
show log {flash | ram}
• flash - Event history stored in flash memory (i.e., permanent memory).
• ram - Event history stored in temporary RAM (i.e., memory flushed on
power reset).
Default Setting
None
Command Mode
Privileged Exec
23-31
23
System Management Commands
Example
The following example shows the event message stored in RAM.
Console#show log ram
[1] 00:01:30 2001-01-01
"VLAN 1 link-up notification."
level: 6, module: 5, function: 1, and event no.: 1
[0] 00:01:30 2001-01-01
"Unit 1, Port 1 link-up notification."
level: 6, module: 5, function: 1, and event no.: 1
Console#
SMTP Alert Commands
These commands configure SMTP event handling, and forwarding of alert
messages to the specified SMTP servers and email recipients.
Table 23-12 SMTP Alert Commands
Command
Function
Mode
logging sendmail host
SMTP servers to receive alert messages
GC
Page
23-32
logging sendmail level
Severity threshold used to trigger alert messages
GC
23-33
logging sendmail
source-email
Email address used for “From” field of alert messages
GC
23-33
logging sendmail
destination-email
Email recipients of alert messages
GC
23-34
logging sendmail
Enables SMTP event handling
GC
23-34
show logging sendmail
Displays SMTP event handler settings
NE, PE
23-35
logging sendmail host
This command specifies SMTP servers that will be sent alert messages. Use the no
form to remove an SMTP server.
Syntax
[no] logging sendmail host ip_address
ip_address - IP address of an SMTP server that will be sent alert
messages for event handling.
Default Setting
None
Command Mode
Global Configuration
Command Usage
• You can specify up to three SMTP servers for event handing. However, you
must enter a separate command to specify each server.
23-32
SMTP Alert Commands
23
• To send email alerts, the switch first opens a connection, sends all the email
alerts waiting in the queue one by one, and finally closes the connection.
• To open a connection, the switch first selects the server that successfully sent
mail during the last connection, or the first server configured by this command.
If it fails to send mail, the switch selects the next server in the list and tries to
send mail again. If it still fails, the system will repeat the process at a periodic
interval. (A trap will be triggered if the switch cannot successfully open a
connection.)
Example
Console(config)#logging sendmail host 192.168.1.19
Console(config)#
logging sendmail level
This command sets the severity threshold used to trigger alert messages.
Syntax
logging sendmail level level
level - One of the system message levels (page 23-27). Messages sent
include the selected level down to level 0. (Range: 0-7; Default: 7)
Default Setting
Level 7
Command Mode
Global Configuration
Command Usage
The specified level indicates an event threshold. All events at this level or
higher will be sent to the configured email recipients. (For example, using
Level 7 will report all events from level 7 to level 0.)
Example
This example will send email alerts for system errors from level 3 through 0.
Console(config)#logging sendmail level 3
Console(config)#
logging sendmail source-email
This command sets the email address used for the “From” field in alert messages.
Syntax
logging sendmail source-email email-address
email-address - The source email address used in alert messages.
(Range: 1-41 characters)
23-33
23
System Management Commands
Default Setting
None
Command Mode
Global Configuration
Command Usage
You may use an symbolic email address that identifies the switch, or the
address of an administrator responsible for the switch.
Example
Console(config)#logging sendmail source-email bill@this-company.com
Console(config)#
logging sendmail destination-email
This command specifies the email recipients of alert messages. Use the no form to
remove a recipient.
Syntax
[no] logging sendmail destination-email email-address
email-address - The source email address used in alert messages.
(Range: 1-41 characters)
Default Setting
None
Command Mode
Global Configuration
Command Usage
You can specify up to five recipients for alert messages. However, you must
enter a separate command to specify each recipient.
Example
Console(config)#logging sendmail destination-email ted@this-company.com
Console(config)#
logging sendmail
This command enables SMTP event handling. Use the no form to disable this
function.
Syntax
[no] logging sendmail
Default Setting
Enabled
23-34
Time Commands
23
Command Mode
Global Configuration
Example
Console(config)#logging sendmail
Console(config)#
show logging sendmail
This command displays the settings for the SMTP event handler.
Command Mode
Normal Exec, Privileged Exec
Example
Console#show logging sendmail
SMTP servers
----------------------------------------------192.168.1.19
SMTP minimum severity level: 7
SMTP destination email addresses
----------------------------------------------ted@this-company.com
SMTP source email address: bill@this-company.com
SMTP status: Enabled
Console#
Time Commands
The system clock can be dynamically set by polling a set of specified time servers
(NTP or SNTP). Maintaining an accurate time on the switch enables the system log
to record meaningful dates and times for event entries. If the clock is not set, the
switch will only record the time from the factory default set at the last bootup.
Table 23-13 Time Commands
Command
Function
Mode
Page
sntp client
Accepts time from specified time servers
GC
sntp server
Specifies one or more time servers
GC
23-37
sntp poll
Sets the interval at which the client polls for time
GC
23-37
sntp update-time
Sends a request to immediately update the time
GC
23-38
show sntp
Shows current SNTP configuration settings
NE, PE
23-38
clock timezone
Sets the time zone for the switch’s internal clock
GC
23-39
clock timezone-predefined
Sets the time zone for the switch’s internal clock using
predefined time zone configurations
GC
23-39
23-36
23-35
23
System Management Commands
Table 23-13 Time Commands (Continued)
Command
Function
Mode
clock summertime (date)
Configures summer time (daylight savings time) for the
switch’s internal clock
GC
Page
23-40
clock summertime
(predefined)
Configures summer time (daylight savings time) for the
switch’s internal clock
GC
23-41
clock summertime (recurring) Configures summer time (daylight savings time) for the
switch’s internal clock
GC
23-42
show clock
Shows the time zone and summer-time settings
PE
23-43
calendar set
Sets the system date and time
PE
23-44
show calendar
Displays the current date and time setting
NE, PE
23-44
sntp client
This command enables SNTP client requests for time synchronization from NTP or
SNTP time servers specified with the sntp servers command. Use the no form to
disable SNTP client requests.
Syntax
[no] sntp client
Default Setting
Disabled
Command Mode
Global Configuration
Command Usage
• The time acquired from time servers is used to record accurate dates and
times for log events. Without SNTP, the switch only records the time starting
from the factory default set at the last bootup (i.e., 00:00:00, Jan. 1, 2001).
• This command enables client time requests to time servers specified via the
sntp servers command. It issues time synchronization requests based on the
interval set via the sntp poll command.
Example
Console(config)#sntp server 10.1.0.19
Console(config)#sntp poll 60
Console(config)#sntp client
Console(config)#end
Console#show sntp
Current time: Dec 23 02:52:44 2002
Poll interval: 60
Current mode: unicast
SNTP status : Enabled
SNTP server 137.92.140.80 0.0.0.0 0.0.0.0
Current server: 137.92.140.80
Console#
23-36
Time Commands
23
Related Commands
sntp server (23-37)
sntp poll (23-37)
show sntp (23-38)
sntp server
This command sets the IP address of the servers to which SNTP time requests are
issued. Use the this command with no arguments to clear all time servers from the
current list.
Syntax
sntp server [ip1 [ip2 [ip3]]]
ip - IP address of an time server (NTP or SNTP).
(Range: 1 - 3 addresses)
Default Setting
None
Command Mode
Global Configuration
Command Usage
This command specifies time servers from which the switch will poll for time
updates when set to SNTP client mode. The client will poll the time servers in
the order specified until a response is received. It issues time synchronization
requests based on the interval set via the sntp poll command.
Example
Console(config)#sntp server 10.1.0.19
Console#
Related Commands
sntp client (23-36)
sntp poll (23-37)
show sntp (23-38)
sntp poll
This command sets the interval between sending time requests when the switch is
set to SNTP client mode. Use the no form to restore to the default.
Syntax
sntp poll seconds
no sntp poll
seconds - Interval between time requests. (Range: 16-16384 seconds)
23-37
23
System Management Commands
Default Setting
16 seconds
Command Mode
Global Configuration
Example
Console(config)#sntp poll 60
Console#
Related Commands
sntp client (23-36)
sntp update-time
This command sends a request to the configured SNTP servers to immediately
update the time.
Command Mode
Global Configuration
Example
Console(config)#sntp update-time
Console(config)#
Related Commands
sntp client (23-36)
sntp server (23-37)
show sntp
This command displays the current time and configuration settings for the SNTP
client, and indicates whether or not the local time has been properly updated.
Command Mode
Normal Exec, Privileged Exec
Command Usage
This command displays the current time, the poll interval used for sending
time synchronization requests, and the current SNTP mode (i.e., unicast).
Example
Console#show sntp
Current time: Dec 23 05:13:28 2002
Poll interval: 16
Current mode: unicast
SNTP status : Enabled
SNTP server 137.92.140.80 0.0.0.0 0.0.0.0
Current server: 137.92.140.80
Console#
23-38
Time Commands
23
clock timezone
This command sets the time zone for the switch’s internal clock.
Syntax
clock timezone name hour hours minute minutes {before-utc | after-utc}
•
•
•
•
•
name - Name of timezone, usually an acronym. (Range: 1-29 characters)
hours - Number of hours before/after UTC. (Range: 0-13 hours)
minutes - Number of minutes before/after UTC. (Range: 0-59 minutes)
before-utc - Sets the local time zone before (east) of UTC.
after-utc - Sets the local time zone after (west) of UTC.
Default Setting
None
Command Mode
Global Configuration
Command Usage
This command sets the local time zone relative to the Coordinated Universal
Time (UTC, formerly Greenwich Mean Time or GMT), based on the earth’s
prime meridian, zero degrees longitude. To display a time corresponding to
your local time, you must indicate the number of hours and minutes your time
zone is east (before) or west (after) of UTC.
Example
Console(config)#clock timezone Japan hours 8 minute 0 after-UTC
Console(config)#
Related Commands
show sntp (23-38)
clock timezone-predefined
This command uses predefined time zone configurations to set the time zone for the
switch’s internal clock. Use the no form to restore the default.
Syntax
clock timezone-predefined offset-city
no clock timezone-predefined
• offset - Select the offset from GMT. (Range: GMT-0100 - GMT-1200;
GMT-Greenwich-Mean-Time; GMT+0100 - GMT+1400)
• city - Select the city associated with the chosen GMT offset. After the offset
has been entered, use the tab-complete function to display the available
city options.
Default Setting
GMT-Greenwich-Mean-Time-Dublin,Edinburgh,Lisbon,London
23-39
23
System Management Commands
Command Mode
Global Configuration
Command Usage
This command sets the local time zone relative to the Coordinated Universal
Time (UTC, formerly Greenwich Mean Time or GMT), based on the earth’s
prime meridian, zero degrees longitude. To display a time corresponding to
your local time, you must indicate the number of hours and minutes your time
zone is east (before) or west (after) of UTC.
Example
Console(config)#clock timezone-predefined GMT-0930-Taiohae
Console(config)#
Related Commands
show clock (23-43)
clock summer-time (date)
This command sets the start, end, and offset times of summer-time (daylight savings
time) for the switch on a one-time basis. Use the no form to disable summer-time.
Syntax
clock summer-time name date b-month b-day b-year b-hour b-minute
e-month e-day e-year e-hour e-minute offset
no clock summer-time
• name - Name of the time zone while summer-time is in effect, usually an
acronym. (Range: 1-30 characters)
• b-month - The month when summer-time will begin. (Options: january |
february | march | april | may | june | july | august | september | october
| november | december)
• b-day - The day summer-time will begin. (Options: sunday | monday |
tuesday | wednesday | thursday | friday | saturday)
• b-year- The year summer-time will begin.
• b-hour - The hour summer-time will begin. (Range: 0-23 hours)
• b-minute - The minute summer-time will begin. (Range: 0-59 minutes)
• e-month - The month when summer-time will end. (Options: january |
february | march | april | may | june | july | august | september | october
| november | december)
• e-day - The day summer-time will end. (Options: sunday | monday |
tuesday | wednesday | thursday | friday | saturday)
• e-year- The year summer-time will end.
• e-hour - The hour summer-time will end. (Range: 0-23 hours)
• e-minute - The minute summer-time will end. (Range: 0-59 minutes)
23-40
Time Commands
23
• offset - Summer-time offset from the regular time zone, in minutes.
(Range: 0-99 minutes)
Default Setting
Disabled
Command Mode
Global Configuration
Command Usage
• In some countries or regions, clocks are adjusted through the summer months
so that afternoons have more daylight and mornings have less. This is known
as Summer Time, or Daylight Savings Time (DST). Typically, clocks are
adjusted forward one hour at the start of spring and then adjusted backward
in autumn.
• This command sets the summer-time time zone relative to the currently
configured time zone. To specify a time corresponding to your local time when
summer-time is in effect, you must indicate the number of minutes your
summer-time time zone deviates from your regular time zone.
Example
Console(config)#clock summer-time DEST date april 1 2007 23 23 april 23
2007 23 23 60
Console(config)#
Related Commands
show clock (23-43)
clock summer-time (predefined)
This command configures the summer time (daylight savings time) status and
settings for the switch using predefined configurations for several major regions of
the world. Use the no form to disable summer time.
Syntax
clock summer-time name predefined [australia | europe | new-zealand |
usa]
no clock summer-time
name - Name of the timezone while summer time is in effect, usually an
acronym. (Range: 1-30 characters)
Default Setting
Disabled
Command Mode
Global Configuration
23-41
23
System Management Commands
Command Usage
• In some countries or regions, clocks are adjusted through the summer months
so that afternoons have more daylight and mornings have less. This is known
as Summer Time, or Daylight Savings Time (DST). Typically, clocks are
adjusted forward one hour at the start of spring and then adjusted backward
in autumn.
• This command sets the summer-time time relative to the configured time
zone. To specify the time corresponding to your local time when summer-time
is in effect, select the predefined summer-time time zone appropriate for your
location, or manually configure summer-time if these predefined
configurations do not apply to your location (see clock summer-time (date)
on page 23-40 or clock summer-time (recurring) on page 23-42).
Table 23-14 Predefined Summer-Time Parameters
Region
Start Time, Day, Week, & Month
End Time, Day, Week, & Month
Rel. Offset
Australia
00:00:00, Sunday, Week 5 of October 23:59:59, Sunday, Week 5 of March
60 min
Europe
00:00:00, Sunday, Week 5 of March
60 min
23:59:59, Sunday, Week 5 of October
New Zealand 00:00:00, Sunday, Week 1 of October 23:59:59, Sunday, Week 3 of March
60 min
USA
60 min
02:00:00, Sunday, Week 2 of March
02:00:00, Sunday, Week 1 of November
Example
Console(config)#clock summer-time MESZ predefined europe
Console(config)#
Related Commands
show clock (23-43)
clock summer-time (recurring)
This command allows the user to manually configure the start, end, and offset times
of summer-time (daylight savings time) for the switch on a recurring basis. Use the
no form to disable summer-time.
Syntax
clock summer-time name recurring b-week b-day b-month b-hour b-minute
e-week e-day e-month e-hour e-minute offset
no clock summer-time
• name - Name of the timezone while summer time is in effect, usually an
acronym. (Range: 1-30 characters)
• b-week - The week of the month when summer-time will begin. (Range: 1-5)
• b-day - The day of the week when summer-time will begin. (Options:
sunday | monday | tuesday | wednesday | thursday | friday | saturday)
23-42
Time Commands
23
• b-month - The month when summer-time will begin. (Options: january |
february | march | april | may | june | july | august | september | october
| november | december)
• b-hour - The hour when summer-time will begin. (Range: 0-23 hours)
• b-minute - The minute when summer-time will begin. (Range: 0-59 minutes)
• e-week - The week of the month when summer-time will end. (Range: 1-5)
• e-day - The day of the week summer-time will end. (Options: sunday |
monday | tuesday | wednesday | thursday | friday | saturday)
• e-month - The month when summer-time will end. (Options: january |
february | march | april | may | june | july | august | september | october
| november | december)
• e-hour - The hour when summer-time will end. (Range: 0-23 hours)
• e-minute - The minute when summer-time will end. (Range: 0-59 minutes)
• offset - Summer-time offset from the regular time zone, in minutes.
(Range: 0-99 minutes)
Default Setting
Disabled
Command Mode
Global Configuration
Command Usage
• In some countries or regions, clocks are adjusted through the summer months
so that afternoons have more daylight and mornings have less. This is known
as Summer Time, or Daylight Savings Time (DST). Typically, clocks are
adjusted forward one hour at the start of spring and then adjusted backward
in autumn.
• This command sets the summer-time time zone relative to the currently
configured time zone. To specify a time corresponding to your local time when
summer-time is in effect, you must indicate the number of minutes your
summer-time time zone deviates from your regular time zone.
Example
Console(config)#clock summer-time MESZ recurring 1 friday june 23 59 3
saturday september 2 55 60
Console(config)#
Related Commands
show clock (23-43)
show clock
This command shows the time zone and summer-time settings.
Command Mode
Privileged Exec
23-43
23
System Management Commands
Example
Console#show clock
Time Zone
Summer Time
: GMT-0930-Taiohaer
: offset 60 minutes
Apr 1 2007 23:23 to Apr 23 2007 23:23
Summer Time in Effect : No
Console#
calendar set
This command sets the system clock. It may be used if there is no time server on
your network, or if you have not configured the switch to receive signals from a time
server.
Syntax
calendar set hour min sec {day month year | month day year}
•
•
•
•
•
hour - Hour in 24-hour format. (Range: 0 - 23)
min - Minute. (Range: 0 - 59)
sec - Second. (Range: 0 - 59)
day - Day of month. (Range: 1 - 31)
month - january | february | march | april | may | june | july | august |
september | october | november | december
• year - Year (4-digit). (Range: 2001 - 2100)
Default Setting
None
Command Mode
Privileged Exec
Example
This example shows how to set the system clock to 15:12:34, February 1st, 2002.
Console#calendar set 15 12 34 february 1 2002
Console#
show calendar
This command displays the system clock.
Command Mode
Normal Exec, Privileged Exec
Example
Console#show calendar
15:12:34 February 1 2002
Console#
23-44
Chapter 24: SNMP Commands
Controls access to this switch from management stations using the Simple Network
Management Protocol (SNMP), as well as the error types sent to trap managers.
SNMP Version 3 also provides security features that cover message integrity,
authentication, and encryption; as well as controlling user access to specific areas of
the MIB tree. To use SNMPv3, first set an SNMP engine ID (or accept the default),
specify read and write access views for the MIB tree, configure SNMP user groups
with the required security model (i.e., SNMP v1, v2c or v3) and security level (i.e.,
authentication and privacy), and then assign SNMP users to these groups, along
with their specific authentication and privacy passwords.
Table 24-1 SNMP Commands
Command
Function
Mode
snmp-server
Enables the SNMP agent
GC
Page
24-2
show snmp
Displays the status of SNMP communications
NE, PE
24-2
snmp-server community
Sets up the community access string to permit access to
SNMP commands
GC
24-3
snmp-server contact
Sets the system contact string
GC
24-4
snmp-server location
Sets the system location string
GC
24-4
snmp-server host
Specifies the recipient of an SNMP notification operation
GC
24-5
snmp-server enable traps Enables the device to send SNMP traps (i.e., SNMP
notifications)
GC
24-7
snmp-server engine-id
Sets the SNMP engine ID
GC
24-8
show snmp engine-id
Shows the SNMP engine ID
PE
24-9
snmp-server view
Adds an SNMP view
GC
24-10
show snmp view
Shows the SNMP views
PE
24-11
snmp-server group
Adds an SNMP group, mapping users to views
GC
24-11
show snmp group
Shows the SNMP groups
PE
24-12
snmp-server user
Adds a user to an SNMP group
GC
24-14
show snmp user
Shows the SNMP users
PE
24-15
24-1
24
SNMP Commands
snmp-server
This command enables the SNMPv3 engine and services for all management clients
(i.e., versions 1, 2c, 3). Use the no form to disable the server.
Syntax
[no] snmp-server
Default Setting
Enabled
Command Mode
Global Configuration
Example
Console(config)#snmp-server
Console(config)#
show snmp
This command can be used to check the status of SNMP communications.
Default Setting
None
Command Mode
Normal Exec, Privileged Exec
Command Usage
This command provides information on the community access strings, counter
information for SNMP input and output protocol data units, and whether or not
SNMP logging has been enabled with the snmp-server enable traps
command.
24-2
snmp-server community
24
Example
Console#show snmp
SNMP Agent: enabled
SNMP traps:
Authentication: enable
Link-up-down: enable
SNMP communities:
1. private, and the privilege is read-write
2. public, and the privilege is read-only
0 SNMP packets input
0 Bad SNMP version errors
0 Unknown community name
0 Illegal operation for community name supplied
0 Encoding errors
0 Number of requested variables
0 Number of altered variables
0 Get-request PDUs
0 Get-next PDUs
0 Set-request PDUs
0 SNMP packets output
0 Too big errors
0 No such name errors
0 Bad values errors
0 General errors
0 Response PDUs
0 Trap PDUs
SNMP logging: disabled
Console#
snmp-server community
This command defines the SNMP v1 and v2c community access string. Use the no
form to remove the specified community string.
Syntax
snmp-server community string [ro|rw]
no snmp-server community string
• string - Community string that acts like a password and permits access to
the SNMP protocol. (Maximum length: 32 characters, case sensitive;
Maximum number of strings: 5)
• ro - Specifies read-only access. Authorized management stations are only
able to retrieve MIB objects.
• rw - Specifies read/write access. Authorized management stations are able
to both retrieve and modify MIB objects.
Default Setting
• public - Read-only access. Authorized management stations are only able to
retrieve MIB objects.
24-3
24
SNMP Commands
• private - Read/write access. Authorized management stations are able to both
retrieve and modify MIB objects.
Command Mode
Global Configuration
Example
Console(config)#snmp-server community alpha rw
Console(config)#
snmp-server contact
This command sets the system contact string. Use the no form to remove the
system contact information.
Syntax
snmp-server contact string
no snmp-server contact
string - String that describes the system contact information.
(Maximum length: 255 characters)
Default Setting
None
Command Mode
Global Configuration
Example
Console(config)#snmp-server contact Paul
Console(config)#
Related Commands
snmp-server location (24-4)
snmp-server location
This command sets the system location string. Use the no form to remove the
location string.
Syntax
snmp-server location text
no snmp-server location
text - String that describes the system location.
(Maximum length: 255 characters)
Default Setting
None
24-4
snmp-server host
24
Command Mode
Global Configuration
Example
Console(config)#snmp-server location WC-19
Console(config)#
Related Commands
snmp-server contact (24-4)
snmp-server host
This command specifies the recipient of a Simple Network Management Protocol
notification operation. Use the no form to remove the specified host.
Syntax
snmp-server host host-addr [inform [retry retries | timeout seconds]]
community-string [version {1 | 2c | 3 {auth | noauth | priv} [udp-port port]}
no snmp-server host host-addr
• host-addr - Internet address of the host (the targeted recipient).
(Maximum host addresses: 5 trap destination IP address entries)
• inform - Notifications are sent as inform messages. Note that this option is
only available for version 2c and 3 hosts. (Default: traps are used)
- retries - The maximum number of times to resend an inform message if
the recipient does not acknowledge receipt. (Range: 0-255; Default: 3)
- seconds - The number of seconds to wait for an acknowledgment before
resending an inform message. (Range: 0-2147483647 centiseconds;
Default: 1500 centiseconds)
• community-string - Password-like community string sent with the
notification operation to SNMP V1 and V2c hosts. Although you can set this
string using the snmp-server host command by itself, we recommend that
you define this string using the snmp-server community command prior
to using the snmp-server host command. (Maximum length:
32 characters)
• version - Specifies whether to send notifications as SNMP Version 1, 2c or
3 traps. (Range: 1, 2c, 3; Default: 1)
- auth | noauth | priv - This group uses SNMPv3 with authentication, no
authentication, or with authentication and privacy. See "Simple Network
Management Protocol" on page 5-1 for further information about these
authentication and encryption options.
• port - Host UDP port to use. (Range: 1-65535; Default: 162)
Default Setting
• Host Address: None
• Notification Type: Traps
24-5
24
SNMP Commands
• SNMP Version: 1
• UDP Port: 162
Command Mode
Global Configuration
Command Usage
• If you do not enter an snmp-server host command, no notifications are sent.
In order to configure the switch to send SNMP notifications, you must enter at
least one snmp-server host command. In order to enable multiple hosts, you
must issue a separate snmp-server host command for each host.
• The snmp-server host command is used in conjunction with the
snmp-server enable traps command. Use the snmp-server enable traps
command to enable the sending of traps or informs and to specify which
SNMP notifications are sent globally. For a host to receive notifications, at
least one snmp-server enable traps command and the snmp-server host
command for that host must be enabled.
• Some notification types cannot be controlled with the snmp-server enable
traps command. For example, some notification types are always enabled.
• Notifications are issued by the switch as trap messages by default. The
recipient of a trap message does not send a response to the switch. Traps are
therefore not as reliable as inform messages, which include a request for
acknowledgement of receipt. Informs can be used to ensure that critical
information is received by the host. However, note that informs consume more
system resources because they must be kept in memory until a response is
received. Informs also add to network traffic. You should consider these
effects when deciding whether to issue notifications as traps or informs.
To send an inform to a SNMPv2c host, complete these steps:
1. Enable the SNMP agent (page 24-2).
2. Allow the switch to send SNMP traps; i.e., notifications (page 24-7).
3. Specify the target host that will receive inform messages with the
snmp-server host command as described in this section.
4. Create a view with the required notification messages (page 24-10).
5. Create a group that includes the required notify view (page 24-11).
To send an inform to a SNMPv3 host, complete these steps:
1. Enable the SNMP agent (page 24-2).
2. Allow the switch to send SNMP traps; i.e., notifications (page 24-7).
3. Specify the target host that will receive inform messages with the
snmp-server host command as described in this section.
4. Create a view with the required notification messages (page 24-10).
5. Create a group that includes the required notify view (page 24-11).
6. Specify a remote engine ID where the user resides (page 24-8).
7. Then configure a remote user (page 24-14).
• The switch can send SNMP Version 1, 2c or 3 notifications to a host IP
address, depending on the SNMP version that the management station
24-6
snmp-server enable traps
24
supports. If the snmp-server host command does not specify the SNMP
version, the default is to send SNMP version 1 notifications.
• If you specify an SNMP Version 3 host, then the community string is
interpreted as an SNMP user name. If you use the V3 “auth” or “priv” options,
the user name must first be defined with the snmp-server user command.
Otherwise, the authentication password and/or privacy password will not
exist, and the switch will not authorize SNMP access for the host. However, if
you specify a V3 host with the “noauth” option, an SNMP user account will be
generated, and the switch will authorize SNMP access for the host.
Example
Console(config)#snmp-server host 10.1.19.23 batman
Console(config)#
Related Commands
snmp-server enable traps (24-7)
snmp-server enable traps
This command enables this device to send Simple Network Management Protocol
traps or informs (i.e., SNMP notifications). Use the no form to disable SNMP
notifications.
Syntax
[no] snmp-server enable traps [authentication | link-up-down]
• authentication - Keyword to issue authentication failure notifications.
• link-up-down - Keyword to issue link-up or link-down notifications.
Default Setting
Issue authentication and link-up-down traps.
Command Mode
Global Configuration
Command Usage
• If you do not enter an snmp-server enable traps command, no notifications
controlled by this command are sent. In order to configure this device to send
SNMP notifications, you must enter at least one snmp-server enable traps
command. If you enter the command with no keywords, both authentication
and link-up-down notifications are enabled. If you enter the command with a
keyword, only the notification type related to that keyword is enabled.
• The snmp-server enable traps command is used in conjunction with the
snmp-server host command. Use the snmp-server host command to
specify which host or hosts receive SNMP notifications. In order to send
notifications, you must configure at least one snmp-server host command.
• The authentication, link-up, and link-down traps are legacy notifications, and
therefore when used for SNMP Version 3 hosts, they must be enabled in
24-7
24
SNMP Commands
conjunction with the corresponding entries in the Notify View assigned by the
snmp-server group command (page 24-11).
Example
Console(config)#snmp-server enable traps link-up-down
Console(config)#
Related Commands
snmp-server host (24-5)
snmp-server engine-id
This command configures an identification string for the SNMPv3 engine. Use the
no form to restore the default.
Syntax
snmp-server engine-id {local | remote {ip-address}} engineid-string
no snmp-server engine-id {local | remote {ip-address}}
•
•
•
•
local - Specifies the SNMP engine on this switch.
remote - Specifies an SNMP engine on a remote device.
ip-address - The Internet address of the remote device.
engineid-string - String identifying the engine ID.
(Range: 9-64 hexadecimal characters)
Default Setting
A unique engine ID is automatically generated by the switch based on its MAC
address.
Command Mode
Global Configuration
Command Usage
• An SNMP engine is an independent SNMP agent that resides either on this
switch or on a remote device. This engine protects against message replay,
delay, and redirection. The engine ID is also used in combination with user
passwords to generate the security keys for authenticating and encrypting
SNMPv3 packets.
• A remote engine ID is required when using SNMPv3 informs. (See
snmp-server host on page 24-5.) The remote engine ID is used to compute
the security digest for authenticating and encrypting packets sent to a user on
the remote host. SNMP passwords are localized using the engine ID of the
authoritative agent. For informs, the authoritative SNMP agent is the remote
agent. You therefore need to configure the remote agent’s SNMP engine ID
before you can send proxy requests or informs to it.
• If an odd number of characters are specified, a trailing zero is added to the
value to fill in the missing octet. For example, the value “123456789” is
equivalent to “1234567890”.
24-8
show snmp engine-id
24
• A local engine ID is automatically generated that is unique to the switch. This
is referred to as the default engine ID. If the local engine ID is deleted or
changed, all SNMP users will be cleared. You will need to reconfigure all
existing users (page 24-14).
Example
Console(config)#snmp-server engine-id local 12345
Console(config)#snmp-server engineID remote 54321 192.168.1.19
Console(config)#
Related Commands
snmp-server host (24-5)
show snmp engine-id
This command shows the SNMP engine ID.
Command Mode
Privileged Exec
Example
This example shows the default engine ID.
Console#show snmp engine-id
Local SNMP engineID: 800000ca030000e31110100000
Local SNMP engineBoots: 1
Remote SNMP engineID
800000ca030000e31110100000
Console#
IP address
192.168.1.19
Table 24-2 show snmp engine-id - display description
Field
Description
Local SNMP engineID
String identifying the engine ID.
Local SNMP engineBoots The number of times that the engine has (re-)initialized since the snmp EngineID
was last configured.
Remote SNMP engineID
String identifying an engine ID on a remote device.
IP address
IP address of the device containing the corresponding remote SNMP engine.
24-9
24
SNMP Commands
snmp-server view
This command adds an SNMP view which controls user access to the MIB. Use the
no form to remove an SNMP view.
Syntax
snmp-server view view-name oid-tree {included | excluded}
no snmp-server view view-name
• view-name - Name of an SNMP view. (Range: 1-32 characters)
• oid-tree - Object identifier of a branch within the MIB tree. Wild cards can
be used to mask a specific portion of the OID string. (Refer to the
examples.)
• included - Defines an included view.
• excluded - Defines an excluded view.
Default Setting
defaultview (includes access to the entire MIB tree)
Command Mode
Global Configuration
Command Usage
• Views are used in the snmp-server group command to restrict user access
to specified portions of the MIB tree.
• The predefined view “defaultview” includes access to the entire MIB tree.
Examples
This view includes MIB-2.
Console(config)#snmp-server view mib-2 1.3.6.1.2.1 included
Console(config)#
This view includes the MIB-2 interfaces table, ifDescr. The wild card is used to select
all the index values in this table.
Console(config)#snmp-server view ifEntry.2 1.3.6.1.2.1.2.2.1.*.2 included
Console(config)#
This view includes the MIB-2 interfaces table, and the mask selects all index entries.
Console(config)#snmp-server view ifEntry.a 1.3.6.1.2.1.2.2.1.1.* included
Console(config)#
24-10
show snmp view
24
show snmp view
This command shows information on the SNMP views.
Command Mode
Privileged Exec
Example
Console#show snmp view
View Name: mib-2
Subtree OID: 1.2.2.3.6.2.1
View Type: included
Storage Type: permanent
Row Status: active
View Name: defaultview
Subtree OID: 1
View Type: included
Storage Type: volatile
Row Status: active
Console#
Table 24-3 show snmp view - display description
Field
Description
View Name
Name of an SNMP view.
Subtree OID
A branch in the MIB tree.
View Type
Indicates if the view is included or excluded.
Storage Type
The storage type for this entry.
Row Status
The row status of this entry.
snmp-server group
This command adds an SNMP group, mapping SNMP users to SNMP views. Use
the no form to remove an SNMP group.
Syntax
snmp-server group groupname {v1 | v2c | v3 {auth | noauth | priv}}
[read readview] [write writeview] [notify notifyview]
no snmp-server group groupname
• groupname - Name of an SNMP group. (Range: 1-32 characters)
• v1 | v2c | v3 - Use SNMP version 1, 2c or 3.
• auth | noauth | priv - This group uses SNMPv3 with authentication, no
authentication, or with authentication and privacy. See "Simple Network
Management Protocol" on page 5-1 for further information about these
authentication and encryption options.
• readview - Defines the view for read access. (1-32 characters)
• writeview - Defines the view for write access. (1-32 characters)
• notifyview - Defines the view for notifications. (1-32 characters)
24-11
24
SNMP Commands
Default Setting
•
•
•
•
Default groups: public24 (read only), private25 (read/write)
readview - Every object belonging to the Internet OID space (1.3.6.1).
writeview - Nothing is defined.
notifyview - Nothing is defined.
Command Mode
Global Configuration
Command Usage
• A group sets the access policy for the assigned users.
• When authentication is selected, the MD5 or SHA algorithm is used as
specified in the snmp-server user command.
• When privacy is selected, the DES 56-bit algorithm is used for data encryption.
• For additional information on the notification messages supported by this
switch, see "Supported Notification Messages" on page 5-14. Also, note that
the authentication, link-up and link-down messages are legacy traps and must
therefore be enabled in conjunction with the snmp-server enable traps
command (page 24-7).
Example
Console(config)#snmp-server group r&d v3 auth write daily
Console(config)#
show snmp group
Four default groups are provided – SNMPv1 read-only access and read/write
access, and SNMPv2c read-only access and read/write access.
Command Mode
Privileged Exec
Example
Console#show snmp group
Group Name: r&d
Security Model: v3
Read View: defaultview
Write View: daily
Notify View: none
Storage Type: permanent
Row Status: active
Group Name: public
Security Model: v1
Read View: defaultview
Write View: none
Notify View: none
Storage Type: volatile
Row Status: active
24. No view is defined.
25. Maps to the defaultview.
24-12
show snmp group
24
Group Name: public
Security Model: v2c
Read View: defaultview
Write View: none
Notify View: none
Storage Type: volatile
Row Status: active
Group Name: private
Security Model: v1
Read View: defaultview
Write View: defaultview
Notify View: none
Storage Type: volatile
Row Status: active
Group Name: private
Security Model: v2c
Read View: defaultview
Write View: defaultview
Notify View: none
Storage Type: volatile
Row Status: active
Console#
Table 24-4 show snmp group - display description
Field
Description
groupname
Name of an SNMP group.
security model
The SNMP version.
readview
The associated read view.
writeview
The associated write view.
notifyview
The associated notify view.
storage-type
The storage type for this entry.
Row Status
The row status of this entry.
24-13
24
SNMP Commands
snmp-server user
This command adds a user to an SNMP group, restricting the user to a specific
SNMP Read, Write, or Notify View. Use the no form to remove a user from an SNMP
group.
Syntax
snmp-server user username groupname [remote ip-address] {v1 | v2c | v3
[encrypted] [auth {md5 | sha} auth-password [priv des56 priv-password]]
no snmp-server user username {v1 | v2c | v3 | remote}
• username - Name of user connecting to the SNMP agent.
(Range: 1-32 characters)
• groupname - Name of an SNMP group to which the user is assigned.
(Range: 1-32 characters)
• remote - Specifies an SNMP engine on a remote device.
• ip-address - The Internet address of the remote device.
• v1 | v2c | v3 - Use SNMP version 1, 2c or 3.
• encrypted - Accepts the password as encrypted input.
• auth - Uses SNMPv3 with authentication.
• md5 | sha - Uses MD5 or SHA authentication.
• auth-password - Authentication password. Enter as plain text if the
encrypted option is not used. Otherwise, enter an encrypted password.
(A minimum of eight characters is required.)
• priv des56 - Uses SNMPv3 with privacy with DES56 encryption.
• priv-password - Privacy password. Enter as plain text if the encrypted
option is not used. Otherwise, enter an encrypted password.
Default Setting
None
Command Mode
Global Configuration
Command Usage
• The SNMP engine ID is used to compute the authentication/privacy digests
from the password. You should therefore configure the engine ID with the
snmp-server engine-id command before using this configuration command.
• Before you configure a remote user, use the snmp-server engine-id
command (page 24-8) to specify the engine ID for the remote device where
the user resides. Then use the snmp-server user command to specify the
user and the IP address for the remote device where the user resides. The
remote agent’s SNMP engine ID is used to compute authentication/privacy
digests from the user’s password. If the remote engine ID is not first configured,
the snmp-server user command specifying a remote user will fail.
• SNMP passwords are localized using the engine ID of the authoritative agent.
For informs, the authoritative SNMP agent is the remote agent. You therefore
24-14
show snmp user
24
need to configure the remote agent’s SNMP engine ID before you can send
proxy requests or informs to it.
Example
Console(config)#snmp-server user steve group r&d v3 auth md5 greenpeace
priv des56 einstien
Console(config)#snmp-server user mark group r&d remote 192.168.1.19 v3
auth md5 greenpeace priv des56 einstien
Console(config)#
show snmp user
This command shows information on SNMP users.
Command Mode
Privileged Exec
Example
Console#show snmp user
EngineId: 800000ca030030f1df9ca00000
User Name: steve
Authentication Protocol: md5
Privacy Protocol: des56
Storage Type: nonvolatile
Row Status: active
SNMP remote user
EngineId: 80000000030004e2b316c54321
User Name: mark
Authentication Protocol: mdt
Privacy Protocol: des56
Storage Type: nonvolatile
Row Status: active
Console#
Table 24-5 show snmp user - display description
Field
Description
EngineId
String identifying the engine ID.
User Name
Name of user connecting to the SNMP agent.
Authentication Protocol
The authentication protocol used with SNMPv3.
Privacy Protocol
The privacy protocol used with SNMPv3.
Storage Type
The storage type for this entry.
Row Status
The row status of this entry.
SNMP remote user
A user associated with an SNMP engine on a remote device.
24-15
24
24-16
SNMP Commands
Chapter 25: User Authentication Commands
You can configure this switch to authenticate users logging into the system for
management access using local or remote authentication methods. You can also
enable port-based authentication for network client access using IEEE 802.1X.
Table 25-1 Authentication Commands
Command Group
Function
User Accounts
Configures the basic user names and passwords for management
access
Page
25-1
Authentication Sequence
Defines logon authentication method and precedence
25-4
RADIUS Client
Configures settings for authentication via a RADIUS server
25-6
TACACS+ Client
Configures settings for authentication via a TACACS+ server
25-9
Web Server Settings
Enables management access via a web browser
25-11
Telnet Server Settings
Enables management access via Telnet
25-14
Secure Shell Settings
Provides secure replacement for Telnet
25-15
Port Security
Configures secure addresses for a port
25-24
Port Authentication
Configures host authentication on specific ports using 802.1X
25-26
Management IP Filter
Configures IP addresses that are allowed management access
25-35
User Account Commands
The basic commands required for management access are listed in this section.
This switch also includes other options for password checking via the console or a
Telnet connection (page 23-17), user authentication via a remote authentication
server (page 25-1), and host access authentication for specific ports (page 25-26).
Table 25-2 User Access Commands
Command
Function
Mode
username
Establishes a user name-based authentication system at login
GC
Page
25-2
enable password
Sets a password to control access to the Privileged Exec level
GC
25-3
25-1
25
User Authentication Commands
username
This command adds named users, requires authentication at login, specifies or
changes a user's password (or specify that no password is required), or specifies or
changes a user's access level. Use the no form to remove a user name.
Syntax
username name {access-level level | nopassword |
password {0 | 7} password}
no username name
• name - The name of the user.
(Maximum length: 8 characters, case sensitive. Maximum users: 16)
• access-level level - Specifies the user level.
The device has two predefined privilege levels:
0: Normal Exec, 15: Privileged Exec.
• nopassword - No password is required for this user to log in.
• {0 | 7} - 0 means plain password, 7 means encrypted password.
• password password - The authentication password for the user.
(Maximum length: 8 characters plain text, 32 encrypted, case sensitive)
Default Setting
• The default access level is Normal Exec.
• The factory defaults for the user names and passwords are:
Table 25-3 Default Login Settings
username
access-level
password
guest
admin
0
15
guest
admin
Command Mode
Global Configuration
Command Usage
The encrypted password is required for compatibility with legacy password
settings (i.e., plain text or encrypted) when reading the configuration file during
system bootup or when downloading the configuration file from a TFTP server.
There is no need for you to manually configure encrypted passwords.
Example
This example shows how the set the access level and password for a user.
Console(config)#username bob access-level 15
Console(config)#username bob password 0 smith
Console(config)#
25-2
User Account Commands
25
enable password
After initially logging onto the system, you should set the Privileged Exec password.
Remember to record it in a safe place. This command controls access to the
Privileged Exec level from the Normal Exec level. Use the no form to reset the
default password.
Syntax
enable password [level level] {0 | 7} password
no enable password [level level]
• level level - Level 15 for Privileged Exec. (Levels 0-14 are not used.)
• {0 | 7} - 0 means plain password, 7 means encrypted password.
• password - password for this privilege level.
(Maximum length: 8 characters plain text, 32 encrypted, case sensitive)
Default Setting
• The default is level 15.
• The default password is “super”
Command Mode
Global Configuration
Command Usage
• You cannot set a null password. You will have to enter a password to change
the command mode from Normal Exec to Privileged Exec with the enable
command (page 22-1).
• The encrypted password is required for compatibility with legacy password
settings (i.e., plain text or encrypted) when reading the configuration file
during system bootup or when downloading the configuration file from a TFTP
server. There is no need for you to manually configure encrypted passwords.
Example
Console(config)#enable password level 15 0 admin
Console(config)#
Related Commands
enable (22-1)
authentication enable (25-5)
25-3
25
User Authentication Commands
Authentication Sequence
Three authentication methods can be specified to authenticate users logging into the
system for management access. The commands in this section can be used to
define the authentication method and sequence.
Table 25-4 Authentication Sequence Commands
Command
Function
Mode
authentication login
Defines logon authentication method and precedence
GC
Page
25-4
authentication enable
Defines the authentication method and precedence for
command mode change
GC
25-5
authentication login
This command defines the login authentication method and precedence. Use the no
form to restore the default.
Syntax
authentication login {[local] [radius] [tacacs]}
no authentication login
• local - Use local password.
• radius - Use RADIUS server password.
• tacacs - Use TACACS server password.
Default Setting
Local
Command Mode
Global Configuration
Command Usage
• RADIUS uses UDP while TACACS+ uses TCP. UDP only offers best effort
delivery, while TCP offers a connection-oriented transport. Also, note that
RADIUS encrypts only the password in the access-request packet from the
client to the server, while TACACS+ encrypts the entire body of the packet.
• RADIUS and TACACS+ logon authentication assigns a specific privilege level
for each user name and password pair. The user name, password, and
privilege level must be configured on the authentication server.
• You can specify three authentication methods in a single command to indicate
the authentication sequence. For example, if you enter “authentication login
radius tacacs local,” the user name and password on the RADIUS server is
verified first. If the RADIUS server is not available, then authentication is
attempted on the TACACS+ server. If the TACACS+ server is not available,
the local user name and password is checked.
25-4
Authentication Sequence
25
Example
Console(config)#authentication login radius
Console(config)#
Related Commands
username - for setting the local user names and passwords (25-2)
authentication enable
This command defines the authentication method and precedence to use when
changing from Exec command mode to Privileged Exec command mode with the
enable command (see page 22-1). Use the no form to restore the default.
Syntax
authentication enable {[local] [radius] [tacacs]}
no authentication enable
• local - Use local password only.
• radius - Use RADIUS server password only.
• tacacs - Use TACACS server password.
Default Setting
Local
Command Mode
Global Configuration
Command Usage
• RADIUS uses UDP while TACACS+ uses TCP. UDP only offers best effort
delivery, while TCP offers a connection-oriented transport. Also, note that
RADIUS encrypts only the password in the access-request packet from the
client to the server, while TACACS+ encrypts the entire body of the packet.
• RADIUS and TACACS+ logon authentication assigns a specific privilege level
for each user name and password pair. The user name, password, and
privilege level must be configured on the authentication server.
• You can specify three authentication methods in a single command to indicate
the authentication sequence. For example, if you enter “authentication
enable radius tacacs local,” the user name and password on the RADIUS
server is verified first. If the RADIUS server is not available, then
authentication is attempted on the TACACS+ server. If the TACACS+ server
is not available, the local user name and password is checked.
Example
Console(config)#authentication enable radius
Console(config)#
Related Commands
enable password - sets the password for changing command modes (25-3)
25-5
25
User Authentication Commands
RADIUS Client
Remote Authentication Dial-in User Service (RADIUS) is a logon authentication
protocol that uses software running on a central server to control access to
RADIUS-aware devices on the network. An authentication server contains a
database of multiple user name/password pairs with associated privilege levels for
each user or group that require management access to a switch.
Table 25-5 RADIUS Client Commands
Command
Function
Mode
radius-server host
Specifies the RADIUS server
GC
Page
25-6
radius-server port
Sets the RADIUS server network port
GC
25-7
radius-server key
Sets the RADIUS encryption key
GC
25-7
radius-server retransmit
Sets the number of retries
GC
25-8
radius-server timeout
Sets the interval between sending authentication requests GC
25-8
show radius-server
Shows the current RADIUS settings
25-8
PE
radius-server host
This command specifies primary and backup RADIUS servers and authentication
parameters that apply to each server. Use the no form to restore the default values.
Syntax
[no] radius-server index host host_ip_address [auth-port auth_port] [key
key] [retransmit retransmit] [timeout timeout]
• index - Allows you to specify up to five servers. These servers are queried
in sequence until a server responds or the retransmit period expires.
• host_ip_address - IP address of server.
• auth_port - RADIUS server UDP port used for authentication messages.
(Range: 1-65535)
• key - Encryption key used to authenticate logon access for client. Do not
use blank spaces in the string. (Maximum length: 48 characters)
• retransmit - Number of times the switch will try to authenticate logon access
via the RADIUS server. (Range: 1-30)
• timeout - Number of seconds the switch waits for a reply before resending
a request. (Range: 1-65535)
Default Setting
• auth-port - 1812
• timeout - 5 seconds
• retransmit - 2
Command Mode
Global Configuration
25-6
RADIUS Client
25
Example
Console(config)#radius-server 1 host 192.168.1.20 port 181 timeout 10
retransmit 5 key green
Console(config)#
radius-server port
This command sets the RADIUS server network port. Use the no form to restore the
default.
Syntax
radius-server port port_number
no radius-server port
port_number - RADIUS server UDP port used for authentication
messages. (Range: 1-65535)
Default Setting
1812
Command Mode
Global Configuration
Example
Console(config)#radius-server port 181
Console(config)#
radius-server key
This command sets the RADIUS encryption key. Use the no form to restore the
default.
Syntax
radius-server key key_string
no radius-server key
key_string - Encryption key used to authenticate logon access for client.
Do not use blank spaces in the string. (Maximum length: 48 characters)
Default Setting
None
Command Mode
Global Configuration
Example
Console(config)#radius-server key green
Console(config)#
25-7
25
User Authentication Commands
radius-server retransmit
This command sets the number of retries. Use the no form to restore the default.
Syntax
radius-server retransmit number_of_retries
no radius-server retransmit
number_of_retries - Number of times the switch will try to authenticate
logon access via the RADIUS server. (Range: 1 - 30)
Default Setting
2
Command Mode
Global Configuration
Example
Console(config)#radius-server retransmit 5
Console(config)#
radius-server timeout
This command sets the interval between transmitting authentication requests to the
RADIUS server. Use the no form to restore the default.
Syntax
radius-server timeout number_of_seconds
no radius-server timeout
number_of_seconds - Number of seconds the switch waits for a reply
before resending a request. (Range: 1-65535)
Default Setting
5
Command Mode
Global Configuration
Example
Console(config)#radius-server timeout 10
Console(config)#
show radius-server
This command displays the current settings for the RADIUS server.
Default Setting
None
Command Mode
Privileged Exec
25-8
TACACS+ Client
25
Example
Console#show radius-server
Remote RADIUS server configuration:
Global settings:
Communication key with RADIUS server: *****
Server port number:
1812
Retransmit times:
2
Request timeout:
5
Server 1:
Server IP address:
192.168.1.1
Communication key with RADIUS server: *****
Server port number: 1812
Retransmit times: 2
Request timeout: 5
Console#
TACACS+ Client
Terminal Access Controller Access Control System (TACACS+) is a logon
authentication protocol that uses software running on a central server to control
access to TACACS-aware devices on the network. An authentication server
contains a database of multiple user name/password pairs with associated privilege
levels for each user or group that require management access to a switch.
Table 25-6 TACACS+ Client Commands
Command
Function
Mode
Page
tacacs-server host
Specifies the TACACS+ server
GC
25-9
tacacs-server port
Specifies the TACACS+ server network port
GC
25-10
tacacs-server key
Sets the TACACS+ encryption key
GC
25-10
show tacacs-server
Shows the current TACACS+ settings
GC
25-11
tacacs-server host
This command specifies the TACACS+ server. Use the no form to restore the
default.
Syntax
tacacs-server host host_ip_address
no tacacs-server host
host_ip_address - IP address of a TACACS+ server.
Default Setting
10.11.12.13
25-9
25
User Authentication Commands
Command Mode
Global Configuration
Example
Console(config)#tacacs-server host 192.168.1.25
Console(config)#
tacacs-server port
This command specifies the TACACS+ server network port. Use the no form to
restore the default.
Syntax
tacacs-server port port_number
no tacacs-server port
port_number - TACACS+ server TCP port used for authentication
messages. (Range: 1-65535)
Default Setting
49
Command Mode
Global Configuration
Example
Console(config)#tacacs-server port 181
Console(config)#
tacacs-server key
This command sets the TACACS+ encryption key. Use the no form to restore the
default.
Syntax
tacacs-server key key_string
no tacacs-server key
key_string - Encryption key used to authenticate logon access for the
client. Do not use blank spaces in the string.
(Maximum length: 48 characters)
Default Setting
None
Command Mode
Global Configuration
Example
Console(config)#tacacs-server key green
Console(config)#
25-10
Web Server Commands
25
show tacacs-server
This command displays the current settings for the TACACS+ server.
Default Setting
None
Command Mode
Privileged Exec
Example
Console#show tacacs-server
Remote TACACS server configuration:
Server IP address:
10.11.12.13
Communication key with TACACS server: *****
Server port number:
49
Console#
Web Server Commands
This section describes commands used to configure web browser management
access to the switch.
Table 25-7 Web Server Commands
Command
Function
Mode
ip http port
Specifies the port to be used by the web browser interface
GC
Page
25-11
ip http server
Allows the switch to be monitored or configured from a browser GC
25-12
ip http secure-server
Enables HTTPS (HTTP/SSL) for encrypted communications
GC
25-12
ip http secure-port
Specifies the UDP port number for HTTPS
GC
25-13
ip http port
This command specifies the TCP port number used by the web browser interface.
Use the no form to use the default port.
Syntax
ip http port port-number
no ip http port
port-number - The TCP port to be used by the browser interface.
(Range: 1-65535)
Default Setting
80
Command Mode
Global Configuration
25-11
25
User Authentication Commands
Example
Console(config)#ip http port 769
Console(config)#
Related Commands
ip http server (25-12)
ip http server
This command allows this device to be monitored or configured from a browser. Use
the no form to disable this function.
Syntax
[no] ip http server
Default Setting
Enabled
Command Mode
Global Configuration
Example
Console(config)#ip http server
Console(config)#
Related Commands
ip http port (25-11)
ip http secure-server
This command enables the secure hypertext transfer protocol (HTTPS) over the
Secure Socket Layer (SSL), providing secure access (i.e., an encrypted connection)
to the switch’s web interface. Use the no form to disable this function.
Syntax
[no] ip http secure-server
Default Setting
Enabled
Command Mode
Global Configuration
Command Usage
• Both HTTP and HTTPS service can be enabled independently on the switch.
However, you cannot configure the HTTP and HTTPS servers to use the
same UDP port.
• If you enable HTTPS, you must indicate this in the URL that you specify in
your browser: https://device[:port_number]
25-12
Web Server Commands
25
• When you start HTTPS, the connection is established in this way:
- The client authenticates the server using the server’s digital certificate.
- The client and server negotiate a set of security protocols to use for the
connection.
- The client and server generate session keys for encrypting and decrypting
data.
• The client and server establish a secure encrypted connection.
A padlock icon should appear in the status bar for Internet Explorer 5.x or
above, Netscape 6.2 or above, and Mozilla Firefox 2.0.0.0 or above.
• The following web browsers and operating systems currently support HTTPS:
Table 25-8 HTTPS System Support
Web Browser
Operating System
Internet Explorer 5.0 or later
Windows 98,Windows NT (with service pack 6a),
Windows 2000, Windows XP
Netscape 6.2 or later
Windows 98,Windows NT (with service pack 6a),
Windows 2000, Windows XP, Solaris 2.6
Mozilla Firefox 2.0.0.0 or later
Windows 2000, Windows XP, Linux
• To specify a secure-site certificate, see "Replacing the Default Secure-site
Certificate" on page 6-7. Also refer to the copy command on page 23-11.
Example
Console(config)#ip http secure-server
Console(config)#
Related Commands
ip http secure-port (25-13)
copy tftp https-certificate (23-11)
ip http secure-port
This command specifies the UDP port number used for HTTPS connection to the
switch’s web interface. Use the no form to restore the default port.
Syntax
ip http secure-port port_number
no ip http secure-port
port_number – The UDP port used for HTTPS. (Range: 1-65535)
Default Setting
443
Command Mode
Global Configuration
Command Usage
• You cannot configure the HTTP and HTTPS servers to use the same port.
25-13
25
User Authentication Commands
• If you change the HTTPS port number, clients attempting to connect to the
HTTPS server must specify the port number in the URL, in this format:
https://device:port_number
Example
Console(config)#ip http secure-port 1000
Console(config)#
Related Commands
ip http secure-server (25-12)
Telnet Server Commands
This section describes commands used to configure Telnet management access to
the switch.
Table 25-9 Telnet Server Commands
Command
Function
ip telnet server
Allows the switch to be monitored or configured from Telnet; also GC
specifies the port to be used by the Telnet interface
Mode
Page
25-11
ip telnet server
This command allows this device to be monitored or configured from Telnet. It also
specifies the TCP port number used by the Telnet interface. Use the no form without
the “port” keyword to disable this function. Use the no from with the “port” keyword
to use the default port.
Syntax
ip telnet server [port port-number]
no telnet server [port]
• port - The TCP port used by the Telnet interface.
• port-number - The TCP port number to be used by the browser interface.
(Range: 1-65535)
Default Setting
• Server: Enabled
• Server Port: 23
Command Mode
Global Configuration
Example
Console(config)#ip telnet server
Console(config)#ip telnet port 123
Console(config)#
25-14
Secure Shell Commands
25
Secure Shell Commands
This section describes the commands used to configure the SSH server. Note that
you also need to install a SSH client on the management station when using this
protocol to configure the switch.
Note: The switch supports both SSH Version 1.5 and 2.0 clients.
Table 25-10 Secure Shell Commands
Command
Function
Mode
ip ssh server
Enables the SSH server on the switch
GC
Page
25-17
ip ssh timeout
Specifies the authentication timeout for the SSH server
GC
25-18
ip ssh
authentication-retries
Specifies the number of retries allowed by a client
GC
25-19
ip ssh server-key size
Sets the SSH server key size
GC
25-19
copy tftp public-key
Copies the user’s public key from a TFTP server to the switch
PE
23-11
delete public-key
Deletes the public key for the specified user
PE
25-20
ip ssh crypto host-key
generate
Generates the host key
PE
25-20
ip ssh crypto zeroize
Clear the host key from RAM
PE
25-21
ip ssh save host-key
Saves the host key from RAM to flash memory
PE
25-21
disconnect
Terminates a line connection
PE
23-24
show ip ssh
Displays the status of the SSH server and the configured values PE
for authentication timeout and retries
25-22
show ssh
Displays the status of current SSH sessions
PE
25-22
show public-key
Shows the public key for the specified user or for the host
PE
25-23
show users
Shows SSH users, including privilege level and public key type PE
23-7
Configuration Guidelines
The SSH server on this switch supports both password and public key
authentication. If password authentication is specified by the SSH client, then the
password can be authenticated either locally or via a RADIUS or TACACS+ remote
authentication server, as specified by the authentication login command on
page 25-4. If public key authentication is specified by the client, then you must
configure authentication keys on both the client and the switch as described in the
following section. Note that regardless of whether you use public key or password
authentication, you still have to generate authentication keys on the switch and
enable the SSH server.
25-15
25
User Authentication Commands
To use the SSH server, complete these steps:
1.
Generate a Host Key Pair – Use the ip ssh crypto host-key generate
command to create a host public/private key pair.
2.
Provide Host Public Key to Clients – Many SSH client programs automatically
import the host public key during the initial connection setup with the switch.
Otherwise, you need to manually create a known hosts file on the management
station and place the host public key in it. An entry for a public key in the known
hosts file would appear similar to the following example:
10.1.0.54 1024 35 15684995401867669259333946775054617325313674890836547254
15020245593199868544358361651999923329781766065830956 10825913212890233
76546801726272571413428762941301196195566782 59566410486957427888146206
51941746772984865468615717739390164779355942303577413098022737087794545
24083971752646358058176716709574804776117
3.
Import Client’s Public Key to the Switch – Use the copy tftp public-key
command to copy a file containing the public key for all the SSH client’s granted
management access to the switch. (Note that these clients must be configured
locally on the switch with the username command as described on page 25-2.)
The clients are subsequently authenticated using these keys. The current
firmware only accepts public key files based on standard UNIX format as shown
in the following example for an RSA key:
1024 35 1341081685609893921040944920155425347631641921872958921143173880
05553616163105177594083868631109291232226828519254374603100937187721199
69631781366277414168985132049117204830339254324101637997592371449011938
00609025394840848271781943722884025331159521348610229029789827213532671
31629432532818915045306393916643 steve@192.168.1.19
4.
Set the Optional Parameters – Set other optional parameters, including the
authentication timeout, the number of retries, and the server key size.
5.
Enable SSH Service – Use the ip ssh server command to enable the SSH
server on the switch.
6. Authentication – One of the following authentication methods is employed:
Password Authentication (for SSH v1.5 or V2 Clients)
a. The client sends its password to the server.
b. The switch compares the client's password to those stored in memory.
c. If a match is found, the connection is allowed.
Note: To use SSH with only password authentication, the host public key must still be
given to the client, either during initial connection or manually entered into the
known host file. However, you do not need to configure the client’s keys.
Public Key Authentication – When an SSH client attempts to contact the switch,
the SSH server uses the host key pair to negotiate a session key and encryption
method. Only clients that have a private key corresponding to the public keys
25-16
Secure Shell Commands
25
stored on the switch can access it. The following exchanges take place during
this process:
Authenticating SSH v1.5 Clients
a. The client sends its RSA public key to the switch.
b. The switch compares the client's public key to those stored in memory.
c. If a match is found, the switch uses its secret key to generate a random
256-bit string as a challenge, encrypts this string with the user’s public key,
and sends it to the client.
d. The client uses its private key to decrypt the challenge string, computes the
MD5 checksum, and sends the checksum back to the switch.
e. The switch compares the checksum sent from the client against that
computed for the original string it sent. If the two checksums match, this
means that the client's private key corresponds to an authorized public key,
and the client is authenticated.
Authenticating SSH v2 Clients
a. The client first queries the switch to determine if DSA public key
authentication using a preferred algorithm is acceptable.
b. If the specified algorithm is supported by the switch, it notifies the client to
proceed with the authentication process. Otherwise, it rejects the request.
c. The client sends a signature generated using the private key to the switch.
d. When the server receives this message, it checks whether the supplied key
is acceptable for authentication, and if so, it then checks whether the
signature is correct. If both checks succeed, the client is authenticated.
Note: The SSH server supports up to four client sessions. The maximum number of
client sessions includes both current Telnet sessions and SSH sessions.
ip ssh server
This command enables the Secure Shell (SSH) server on this switch. Use the no
form to disable this service.
Syntax
[no] ip ssh server
Default Setting
Disabled
Command Mode
Global Configuration
Command Usage
• The SSH server supports up to four client sessions. The maximum number of
client sessions includes both current Telnet sessions and SSH sessions.
• The SSH server uses DSA or RSA for key exchange when the client first
establishes a connection with the switch, and then negotiates with the client
to select either DES (56-bit) or 3DES (168-bit) for data encryption.
• You must generate DSA and RSA host keys before enabling the SSH server.
25-17
25
User Authentication Commands
Example
Console#ip ssh crypto host-key generate dsa
Console#configure
Console(config)#ip ssh server
Console(config)#
Related Commands
ip ssh crypto host-key generate (25-20)
show ssh (25-22)
ip ssh timeout
This command configures the timeout for the SSH server. Use the no form to restore
the default setting.
Syntax
ip ssh timeout seconds
no ip ssh timeout
seconds – The timeout for client response during SSH negotiation.
(Range: 1-120)
Default Setting
10 seconds
Command Mode
Global Configuration
Command Usage
The timeout specifies the interval the switch will wait for a response from the
client during the SSH negotiation phase. Once an SSH session has been
established, the timeout for user input is controlled by the exec-timeout
command for vty sessions.
Example
Console(config)#ip ssh timeout 60
Console(config)#
Related Commands
exec-timeout (23-20)
show ip ssh (25-22)
25-18
Secure Shell Commands
25
ip ssh authentication-retries
This command configures the number of times the SSH server attempts to
reauthenticate a user. Use the no form to restore the default setting.
Syntax
ip ssh authentication-retries count
no ip ssh authentication-retries
count – The number of authentication attempts permitted after which the
interface is reset. (Range: 1-5)
Default Setting
3
Command Mode
Global Configuration
Example
Console(config)#ip ssh authentication-retires 2
Console(config)#
Related Commands
show ip ssh (25-22)
ip ssh server-key size
This command sets the SSH server key size. Use the no form to restore the default
setting.
Syntax
ip ssh server-key size key-size
no ip ssh server-key size
key-size – The size of server key. (Range: 512-896 bits)
Default Setting
768 bits
Command Mode
Global Configuration
Command Usage
• The server key is a private key that is never shared outside the switch.
• The host key is shared with the SSH client, and is fixed at 1024 bits.
Example
Console(config)#ip ssh server-key size 512
Console(config)#
25-19
25
User Authentication Commands
delete public-key
This command deletes the specified user’s public key.
Syntax
delete public-key username [dsa | rsa]
• username – Name of an SSH user. (Range: 1-8 characters)
• dsa – DSA public key type.
• rsa – RSA public key type.
Default Setting
Deletes both the DSA and RSA key.
Command Mode
Privileged Exec
Example
Console#delete public-key admin dsa
Console#
ip ssh crypto host-key generate
This command generates the host key pair (i.e., public and private).
Syntax
ip ssh crypto host-key generate [dsa | rsa]
• dsa – DSA (Version 2) key type.
• rsa – RSA (Version 1) key type.
Default Setting
Generates both the DSA and RSA key pairs.
Command Mode
Privileged Exec
Command Usage
• The switch uses only RSA Version 1 for SSHv1.5 clients and DSA Version 2
for SSHv2 clients.
• This command stores the host key pair in memory (i.e., RAM). Use the ip ssh
save host-key command to save the host key pair to flash memory.
• Some SSH client programs automatically add the public key to the known
hosts file as part of the configuration process. Otherwise, you must manually
create a known hosts file and place the host public key in it.
• The SSH server uses this host key to negotiate a session key and encryption
method with the client trying to connect to it.
Example
Console#ip ssh crypto host-key generate dsa
Console#
25-20
Secure Shell Commands
25
Related Commands
ip ssh crypto zeroize (25-21)
ip ssh save host-key (25-21)
ip ssh crypto zeroize
This command clears the host key from memory (i.e. RAM).
Syntax
ip ssh crypto zeroize [dsa | rsa]
• dsa – DSA key type.
• rsa – RSA key type.
Default Setting
Clears both the DSA and RSA key.
Command Mode
Privileged Exec
Command Usage
• This command clears the host key from volatile memory (RAM). Use the no
ip ssh save host-key command to clear the host key from flash memory.
• The SSH server must be disabled before you can execute this command.
Example
Console#ip ssh crypto zeroize dsa
Console#
Related Commands
ip ssh crypto host-key generate (25-20)
ip ssh save host-key (25-21)
no ip ssh server (25-17)
ip ssh save host-key
This command saves the host key from RAM to flash memory.
Syntax
ip ssh save host-key
Default Setting
Saves both the DSA and RSA key.
Command Mode
Privileged Exec
Example
Console#ip ssh save host-key dsa
Console#
25-21
25
User Authentication Commands
Related Commands
ip ssh crypto host-key generate (25-20)
show ip ssh
This command displays the connection settings used when authenticating client
access to the SSH server.
Command Mode
Privileged Exec
Example
Console#show ip ssh
SSH Enabled - version 2.0
Negotiation timeout: 120 secs; Authentication retries: 3
Server key size: 768 bits
Console#
show ssh
This command displays the current SSH server connections.
Command Mode
Privileged Exec
Example
Console#show ssh
Connection Version State
0
2.0
Session-Started
Username Encryption
admin
ctos aes128-cbc-hmac-md5
stoc aes128-cbc-hmac-md5
Console#
Table 25-11 show ssh - display description
Field
Description
Session
The session number. (Range: 0-3)
Version
The Secure Shell version number.
State
The authentication negotiation state.
(Values: Negotiation-Started, Authentication-Started, Session-Started)
Username
The user name of the client.
25-22
Secure Shell Commands
25
Table 25-11 show ssh - display description (Continued)
Field
Description
Encryption
The encryption method is automatically negotiated between the client and server.
Options for SSHv1.5 include: DES, 3DES
Options for SSHv2.0 can include different algorithms for the client-to-server (ctos)
and server-to-client (stoc):
aes128-cbc-hmac-sha1
aes192-cbc-hmac-sha1
aes256-cbc-hmac-sha1
3des-cbc-hmac-sha1
blowfish-cbc-hmac-sha1
aes128-cbc-hmac-md5
aes192-cbc-hmac-md5
aes256-cbc-hmac-md5
3des-cbc-hmac-md5
blowfish-cbc-hmac-md5
Terminology:
DES – Data Encryption Standard (56-bit key)
3DES – Triple-DES (Uses three iterations of DES, 112-bit key)
aes – Advanced Encryption Standard (160 or 224-bit key)
blowfish – Blowfish (32-448 bit key)
cbc – cypher-block chaining
sha1 – Secure Hash Algorithm 1 (160-bit hashes)
md5 – Message Digest algorithm number 5 (128-bit hashes)
show public-key
This command shows the public key for the specified user or for the host.
Syntax
show public-key [user [username]| host]
username – Name of an SSH user. (Range: 1-8 characters)
Default Setting
Shows all public keys.
Command Mode
Privileged Exec
Command Usage
• If no parameters are entered, all keys are displayed. If the user keyword is
entered, but no user name is specified, then the public keys for all users are
displayed.
• When an RSA key is displayed, the first field indicates the size of the host key
(e.g., 1024), the second field is the encoded public exponent (e.g., 35), and
the last string is the encoded modulus. When a DSA key is displayed, the first
field indicates that the encryption method used by SSH is based on the Digital
Signature Standard (DSS), and the last string is the encoded modulus.
25-23
25
User Authentication Commands
Example
Console#show public-key host
Host:
RSA:
1024 65537 13236940658254764031382795526536375927835525327972629521130241
0719421061655759424590939236096954050362775257556251003866130989393834523
1033280214988866192159556859887989191950588394018138744046890877916030583
7768185490002831341625008348718449522087429212255691665655296328163516964
0408315547660664151657116381
DSA:
ssh-dss AAAB3NzaC1kc3MAAACBAPWKZTPbsRIB8ydEXcxM3dyV/yrDbKStIlnzD/Dg0h2Hxc
YV44sXZ2JXhamLK6P8bvuiyacWbUW/a4PAtp1KMSdqsKeh3hKoA3vRRSy1N2XFfAKxl5fwFfv
JlPdOkFgzLGMinvSNYQwiQXbKTBH0Z4mUZpE85PWxDZMaCNBPjBrRAAAAFQChb4vsdfQGNIjw
bvwrNLaQ77isiwAAAIEAsy5YWDC99ebYHNRj5kh47wY4i8cZvH+/p9cnrfwFTMU01VFDly3IR
2G395NLy5Qd7ZDxfA9mCOfT/yyEfbobMJZi8oGCstSNOxrZZVnMqWrTYfdrKX7YKBw/Kjw6Bm
iFq7O+jAhf1Dg45loAc27s6TLdtny1wRq/ow2eTCD5nekAAACBAJ8rMccXTxHLFAczWS7EjOy
DbsloBfPuSAb4oAsyjKXKVYNLQkTLZfcFRu41bS2KV5LAwecsigF/+DjKGWtPNIQqabKgYCw2
o/dVzX4Gg+yqdTlYmGA7fHGm8ARGeiG4ssFKy4Z6DmYPXFum1Yg0fhLwuHpOSKdxT3kk475S7
w0W
Console#
Port Security Commands
These commands can be used to enable port security on a port. When using port
security, the switch stops learning new MAC addresses on the specified port when it
has reached a configured maximum number. Only incoming traffic with source
addresses already stored in the dynamic or static address table for this port will be
authorized to access the network. The port will drop any incoming frames with a
source MAC address that is unknown or has been previously learned from another
port. If a device with an unauthorized MAC address attempts to use the switch port,
the intrusion will be detected and the switch can automatically take action by
disabling the port and sending a trap message.
Table 25-12 Port Security Commands
Command
Function
Mode
port security
Configures a secure port
IC
25-25
mac-address-table static
Maps a static address to a port in a VLAN
GC
31-1
show mac-address-table
Displays entries in the bridge-forwarding database
PE
31-3
25-24
Page
Port Security Commands
25
port security
This command enables or configures port security. Use the no form without any
keywords to disable port security. Use the no form with the appropriate keyword to
restore the default settings for a response to security violation or for the maximum
number of allowed addresses.
Syntax
port security [action {shutdown | trap | trap-and-shutdown}
| max-mac-count address-count]
no port security [action | max-mac-count]
• action - Response to take when port security is violated.
- shutdown - Disable port only.
- trap - Issue SNMP trap message only.
- trap-and-shutdown - Issue SNMP trap message and disable port.
• max-mac-count
- address-count - The maximum number of MAC addresses that can be
learned on a port. (Range: 0 - 1024, where 0 means disabled)
Default Setting
• Status: Disabled
• Action: None
• Maximum Addresses: 0
Command Mode
Interface Configuration (Ethernet)
Command Usage
• When port security is enabled with this command, the switch first clears all
dynamically learned entries from the address table. It then starts learning new
MAC addresses on the specified port, and stops learning addresses when it
reaches a configured maximum number. Only incoming traffic with source
addresses already stored in the dynamic or static address table will be
accepted.
• First use the port security max-mac-count command to set the number of
addresses, and then use the port security command to enable security on
the port. (The specified maximum address count is effective when port
security is enabled or disabled.)
• Use the no port security max-mac-count command to disable port security
and reset the maximum number of addresses to the default.
• You can also manually add secure addresses with the mac-address-table
static command.
• A secure port has the following restrictions:
- Cannot be connected to a network interconnection device.
- Cannot be a trunk port.
• If a port is disabled due to a security violation, it must be manually re-enabled
using the no shutdown command.
25-25
25
User Authentication Commands
Example
The following example enables port security for port 5, and sets the response to a
security violation to issue a trap message:
Console(config)#interface ethernet 1/5
Console(config-if)#port security action trap
Related Commands
shutdown (27-7)
mac-address-table static (31-1)
802.1X Port Authentication
The switch supports IEEE 802.1X (dot1x) port-based access control that prevents
unauthorized access to the network by requiring users to first submit credentials for
authentication. Client authentication is controlled centrally by a RADIUS server
using EAP (Extensible Authentication Protocol).
Table 25-13 802.1X Port Authentication Commands
Command
Function
Mode
dot1x system-auth-control
Enables dot1x globally on the switch.
GC
dot1x default
Resets all dot1x parameters to their default values
GC
25-27
dot1x max-req
Sets the maximum number of times that the switch
retransmits an EAP request/identity packet to the client
before it times out the authentication session
IC
25-27
dot1x port-control
Sets dot1x mode for a port interface
IC
25-28
dot1x operation-mode
Allows single or multiple hosts on an dot1x port
IC
25-29
dot1x re-authenticate
Forces re-authentication on specific ports
PE
25-30
dot1x re-authentication
Enables re-authentication for all ports
IC
25-30
dot1x timeout quiet-period
Sets the time that a switch port waits after the Max
Request Count has been exceeded before attempting to
acquire a new client
IC
25-31
dot1x timeout re-authperiod
Sets the time period after which a connected client must
be re-authenticated
IC
25-31
dot1x timeout tx-period
Sets the time period during an authentication session that IC
the switch waits before re-transmitting an EAP packet
25-32
show dot1x
Shows all dot1x related information
25-32
25-26
PE
Page
25-27
802.1X Port Authentication
25
dot1x system-auth-control
This command enables IEEE 802.1X port authentication globally on the switch.
Use the no form to restore the default.
Syntax
[no] dot1x system-auth-control
Default Setting
Disabled
Command Mode
Global Configuration
Example
Console(config)#dot1x system-auth-control
Console(config)#
dot1x default
This command sets all configurable dot1x global and port settings to their default
values.
Command Mode
Global Configuration
Example
Console(config)#dot1x default
Console(config)#
dot1x max-req
This command sets the maximum number of times the switch port will retransmit an
EAP request/identity packet to the client before it times out the authentication
session. Use the no form to restore the default.
Syntax
dot1x max-req count
no dot1x max-req
count – The maximum number of requests (Range: 1-10)
Default
2
Command Mode
Interface Configuration
Example
Console(config)#interface eth 1/2
Console(config-if)#dot1x max-req 2
Console(config-if)#
25-27
25
User Authentication Commands
dot1x port-control
This command sets the dot1x mode on a port interface. Use the no form to restore
the default.
Syntax
dot1x port-control {auto | force-authorized | force-unauthorized}
no dot1x port-control
• auto – Requires a dot1x-aware connected client to be authorized by the
RADIUS server. Clients that are not dot1x-aware will be denied access.
• force-authorized – Configures the port to grant access to all clients, either
dot1x-aware or otherwise.
• force-unauthorized – Configures the port to deny access to all clients,
either dot1x-aware or otherwise.
Default
force-authorized
Command Mode
Interface Configuration
Command Usage
• 802.1X port authentication and port security cannot be configured together on
the same port. Only one of these security mechanisms can be applied.
• 802.1X port authentication cannot be configured on trunk ports. In other
words, a static trunk or dynamically configured trunk cannot be set to auto or
force-unauthorized mode.
• When 802.1X authentication is enabled on a port, the MAC address learning
function for this interface is disabled, and the addresses dynamically learned
on this port are removed.
• Authenticated MAC addresses are stored as dynamic entries in the switch’s
secure MAC address table. Configured static MAC addresses are added to
the secure address table when seen on a switch port. Static addresses are
treated as authenticated without sending a request to a RADIUS server.
• When port status changes to down, all MAC addresses are cleared from the
secure MAC address table. Static VLAN assignments are not restored.
Example
Console(config)#interface eth 1/2
Console(config-if)#dot1x port-control auto
Console(config-if)#
25-28
802.1X Port Authentication
25
dot1x operation-mode
This command allows single or multiple hosts (clients) to connect to an
802.1X-authorized port. Use the no form with no keywords to restore the default to
single host. Use the no form with the multi-host max-count keywords to restore the
default maximum count.
Syntax
dot1x operation-mode {single-host | multi-host [max-count count] |
mac-based-auth}
no dot1x operation-mode [multi-host max-count]
• single-host – Allows only a single host to connect to this port.
• multi-host – Allows multiple hosts to connect to this port, with only one host
needing to be authenticated.
• max-count – Keyword for the maximum number of hosts.
count – The maximum number of hosts that can connect to a port.
(Range: 1-1024; Default: 5)
• mac-based-auth – Allows multiple hosts to connect to this port, with each
host needing to be authenticated.
Default
Single-host
Command Mode
Interface Configuration
Command Usage
• The “max-count” parameter specified by this command is only effective if the
dot1x mode is set to “auto” by the dot1x port-control command (page 4-105).
• In “multi-host” mode, only one host connected to a port needs to pass
authentication for all other hosts to be granted network access. Similarly, a
port can become unauthorized for all hosts if one attached host fails
re-authentication or sends an EAPOL logoff message.
• In “mac-based-auth” mode, each host connected to a port needs to pass
authentication. The number of hosts allowed access to a port operating in this
mode is limited only by the available space in the secure address table (i.e.,
up to 1024 addresses).
Example
Console(config)#interface eth 1/2
Console(config-if)#dot1x operation-mode multi-host max-count 10
Console(config-if)#
25-29
25
User Authentication Commands
dot1x re-authenticate
This command forces re-authentication on all ports or a specific interface.
Syntax
dot1x re-authenticate [interface]
interface
• ethernet unit/port
- unit - Stack unit. (Range: 1-8)
- port - Port number. (Range: 1-26/50)
Command Mode
Privileged Exec
Command Usage
The re-authentication process verifies the connected client’s user ID and
password on the RADIUS server. During re-authentication, the client remains
connected the network and the process is handled transparently by the dot1x
client software. Only if re-authentication fails is the port blocked.
Example
Console#dot1x re-authenticate
Console#
dot1x re-authentication
This command enables periodic re-authentication for a specified port. Use the no
form to disable re-authentication.
Syntax
[no] dot1x re-authentication
Command Mode
Interface Configuration
Command Usage
• The re-authentication process verifies the connected client’s user ID and
password on the RADIUS server. During re-authentication, the client remains
connected the network and the process is handled transparently by the dot1x
client software. Only if re-authentication fails is the port blocked.
• The connected client is re-authenticated after the interval specified by the
dot1x timeout re-authperiod command. The default is 3600 seconds.
Example
Console(config)#interface eth 1/2
Console(config-if)#dot1x re-authentication
Console(config-if)#
25-30
802.1X Port Authentication
25
Related Commands
dot1x timeout re-authperiod (25-31)
dot1x timeout quiet-period
This command sets the time that a switch port waits after the Max Request Count
has been exceeded before attempting to acquire a new client. Use the no form to
reset the default.
Syntax
dot1x timeout quiet-period seconds
no dot1x timeout quiet-period
seconds - The number of seconds. (Range: 1-65535)
Default
60 seconds
Command Mode
Interface Configuration
Example
Console(config)#interface eth 1/2
Console(config-if)#dot1x timeout quiet-period 350
Console(config-if)#
dot1x timeout re-authperiod
This command sets the time period after which a connected client must be
re-authenticated.
Syntax
dot1x timeout re-authperiod seconds
no dot1x timeout re-authperiod
seconds - The number of seconds. (Range: 1-65535)
Default
3600 seconds
Command Mode
Interface Configuration
Example
Console(config)#interface eth 1/2
Console(config-if)#dot1x timeout re-authperiod 300
Console(config-if)#
25-31
25
User Authentication Commands
dot1x timeout tx-period
This command sets the time that an interface on the switch waits during an
authentication session before re-transmitting an EAP packet. Use the no form to
reset to the default value.
Syntax
dot1x timeout tx-period seconds
no dot1x timeout tx-period
seconds - The number of seconds. (Range: 1-65535)
Default
30 seconds
Command Mode
Interface Configuration
Example
Console(config)#interface eth 1/2
Console(config-if)#dot1x timeout tx-period 300
Console(config-if)#
show dot1x
This command shows general port authentication related settings on the switch or a
specific interface.
Syntax
show dot1x [statistics] [interface interface]
• statistics - Displays dot1x status for each port.
• interface
• ethernet unit/port
- unit - Stack unit. (Range: 1-8)
- port - Port number. (Range: 1-26/50)
Command Mode
Privileged Exec
Command Usage
This command displays the following information:
• Global 802.1X Parameters – Shows whether or not 802.1X port
authentication is globally enabled on the switch.
• 802.1X Port Summary – Displays the port access control parameters for
each interface that has enabled 802.1X, including the following items:
- Status
– Administrative state for port access control.
- Operation Mode
– Allows single or multiple hosts (page 25-29).
- Mode
– Dot1x port control mode (page 25-28).
- Authorized
– Authorization status (yes or n/a - not authorized).
25-32
802.1X Port Authentication
25
• 802.1X Port Details – Displays the port access control parameters for each
interface, including the following items:
- reauth-enabled
– Periodic re-authentication (page 25-30).
- reauth-period
– Time after which a connected client must be
re-authenticated (page 25-31).
- quiet-period
– Time a port waits after Max Request Count is
exceeded before attempting to acquire a new
client (page 25-31).
- tx-period
– Time a port waits during authentication session
before re-transmitting EAP packet (page 25-32).
- supplicant-timeout – Supplicant timeout.
- server-timeout
– Server timeout.
- reauth-max
– Maximum number of reauthentication attempts.
- max-req
– Maximum number of times a port will retransmit
an EAP request/identity packet to the client
before it times out the authentication session
(page 25-27).
- Status
– Authorization status (authorized or not).
- Operation Mode
– Shows if single or multiple hosts (clients) can
connect to an 802.1X-authorized port.
- Max Count
– The maximum number of hosts allowed to
access this port (page 25-29).
- Port-control
– Shows the dot1x mode on a port as auto,
force-authorized, or force-unauthorized
(page 25-28).
- Supplicant
– MAC address of authorized client.
- Current Identifier
– The integer (0-255) used by the Authenticator to
identify the current authentication session.
• Authenticator State Machine
- State
– Current state (including initialize, disconnected,
connecting, authenticating, authenticated,
aborting, held, force_authorized,
force_unauthorized).
- Reauth Count
– Number of times connecting state is re-entered.
• Backend State Machine
- State
– Current state (including request, response,
success, fail, timeout, idle, initialize).
- Request Count
– Number of EAP Request packets sent to the
Supplicant without receiving a response.
- Identifier(Server)
– Identifier carried in the most recent EAP
Success, Failure or Request packet received
from the Authentication Server.
• Reauthentication State Machine
- State
– Current state (including initialize, reauthenticate).
25-33
25
User Authentication Commands
Example
Console#show dot1x
Global 802.1X Parameters
system-auth-control: enable
802.1X Port Summary
Port Name
1/1
1/2
.
.
.
1/25
1/26
Status
disabled
disabled
Operation Mode
Single-Host
Single-Host
Mode
ForceAuthorized
ForceAuthorized
Authorized
n/a
n/a
disabled
enabled
Single-Host
Single-Host
ForceAuthorized
Auto
yes
yes
802.1X Port Details
802.1X
is enabled on port 1/1
.
.
.
802.1X is enabled on port 26
Reauth-enabled:
Enabled
Reauth-period:
3600
Quiet-period:
60
TX-period:
30
Supplicant-timeout:
30
Server-timeout:
10
Reauth-max:
2
Max-req:
2
Status
Authorized
Operation Mode
Multi-Host
Max count
5
Port-control
Auto
Supplicant
00-e0-29-94-34-65
Current Identifier
3
Authenticator State Machine
State
Authenticated
Reauth Count
0
Backend State Machine
State
Idle
Request Count
0
Identifier(Server) 2
Reauthentication State Machine
State
Initialize
Console#
25-34
Management IP Filter Commands
25
Management IP Filter Commands
This section describes commands used to configure IP management access to the
switch.
Table 25-14 IP Filter Commands
Command
Function
Mode
management
Configures IP addresses that are allowed management access
GC
25-35
PE
25-36
show management Displays the switch to be monitored or configured from a browser
Page
management
This command specifies the client IP addresses that are allowed management
access to the switch through various protocols. Use the no form to restore the
default setting.
Syntax
[no] management {all-client | http-client | snmp-client | telnet-client}
start-address [end-address]
•
•
•
•
•
•
all-client - Adds IP address(es) to the SNMP, web and Telnet groups.
http-client - Adds IP address(es) to the web group.
snmp-client - Adds IP address(es) to the SNMP group.
telnet-client - Adds IP address(es) to the Telnet group.
start-address - A single IP address, or the starting address of a range.
end-address - The end address of a range.
Default Setting
All addresses
Command Mode
Global Configuration
Command Usage
• If anyone tries to access a management interface on the switch from an invalid
address, the switch will reject the connection, enter an event message in the
system log, and send a trap message to the trap manager.
• IP address can be configured for SNMP, web and Telnet access respectively.
Each of these groups can include up to five different sets of addresses, either
individual addresses or address ranges.
• When entering addresses for the same group (i.e., SNMP, web or Telnet), the
switch will not accept overlapping address ranges. When entering addresses
for different groups, the switch will accept overlapping address ranges.
• You cannot delete an individual address from a specified range. You must
delete the entire range, and reenter the addresses.
• You can delete an address range just by specifying the start address, or by
specifying both the start address and end address.
25-35
25
User Authentication Commands
Example
This example restricts management access to the indicated addresses.
Console(config)#management all-client 192.168.1.19
Console(config)#management all-client 192.168.1.25 192.168.1.30
Console#
show management
This command displays the client IP addresses that are allowed management
access to the switch through various protocols.
Syntax
show management {all-client | http-client | snmp-client | telnet-client}
•
•
•
•
all-client - Adds IP address(es) to the SNMP, web and Telnet groups.
http-client - Adds IP address(es) to the web group.
snmp-client - Adds IP address(es) to the SNMP group.
telnet-client - Adds IP address(es) to the Telnet group.
Command Mode
Privileged Exec
Example
Console#show management all-client
Management Ip Filter
HTTP-Client:
Start IP address
End IP address
----------------------------------------------1. 192.168.1.19
192.168.1.19
2. 192.168.1.25
192.168.1.30
SNMP-Client:
Start IP address
End IP address
----------------------------------------------1. 192.168.1.19
192.168.1.19
2. 192.168.1.25
192.168.1.30
TELNET-Client:
Start IP address
End IP address
----------------------------------------------1. 192.168.1.19
192.168.1.19
2. 192.168.1.25
192.168.1.30
Console#
25-36
Chapter 26: Access Control List Commands
Access Control Lists (ACL) provide packet filtering for IPv4 frames (based on
address, protocol, Layer 4 protocol port number or TCP control code), IPv6 frames
(based on address, next header type, or flow label), or any frames (based on MAC
address or Ethernet type). To filter packets, first create an access list, add the
required rules, and then bind the list to a specific port. This section describes the
Access Control List commands.
Table 26-1 Access Control List Commands
Command Groups
Function
IPv4 ACLs
Configures ACLs based on IPv4 addresses, TCP/UDP port number,
protocol type, and TCP control code
Page
26-1
IPv6 ACLs
Configures ACLs based on IPv6 addresses, next header type, and flow
label
26-7
MAC ACLs
Configures ACLs based on hardware addresses, packet format, and
Ethernet type
ACL Information
Displays ACLs and associated rules; shows ACLs assigned to each port 26-16
26-12
IPv4 ACLs
The commands in this section configure ACLs based on IPv4 addresses, TCP/UDP
port number, protocol type, and TCP control code. To configure IPv4 ACLs, first
create an access list containing the required permit or deny rules, and then bind the
access list to one or more ports
Table 26-2 IPv4 ACL Commands
Command
Function
Mode
access-list ip
Creates an IPv4 ACL and enters configuration mode for
standard or extended IPv4 ACLs
GC
Page
26-2
permit, deny
Filters packets matching a specified source IPv4 address
IPv4STD-ACL
26-2
permit, deny
Filters packets meeting the specified criteria, including
source and destination IPv4 address, TCP/UDP port
number, protocol type, and TCP control code
IPv4EXT-ACL
26-3
show ip access-list
Displays the rules for configured IPv4 ACLs
PE
26-5
ip access-group
Adds a port to an IPv4 ACL
IC
26-6
show ip access-group
Shows port assignments for IPv4 ACLs
PE
26-6
26-1
26
Access Control List Commands
access-list ip
This command adds an IP access list and enters configuration mode for standard or
extended IPv4 ACLs. Use the no form to remove the specified ACL.
Syntax
[no] access-list ip {standard | extended} acl_name
• standard – Specifies an ACL that filters packets based on the source IP
address.
• extended – Specifies an ACL that filters packets based on the source or
destination IP address, and other more specific criteria.
• acl_name – Name of the ACL. (Maximum length: 16 characters)
Default Setting
None
Command Mode
Global Configuration
Command Usage
• When you create a new ACL or enter configuration mode for an existing ACL,
use the permit or deny command to add new rules to the bottom of the list.
To create an ACL, you must add at least one rule to the list.
• To remove a rule, use the no permit or no deny command followed by the
exact text of a previously configured rule.
• An ACL can contain up to 32 rules.
Example
Console(config)#access-list ip standard david
Console(config-std-acl)#
Related Commands
permit, deny 26-2
ip access-group (26-6)
show ip access-list (26-5)
permit, deny (Standard IPv4 ACL)
This command adds a rule to a Standard IPv4 ACL. The rule sets a filter condition
for packets emanating from the specified source. Use the no form to remove a rule.
Syntax
[no] {permit | deny} {any | source bitmask | host source}
•
•
•
•
26-2
any – Any source IP address.
source – Source IP address.
bitmask – Decimal number representing the address bits to match.
host – Keyword followed by a specific IP address.
IPv4 ACLs
26
Default Setting
None
Command Mode
Standard IPv4 ACL
Command Usage
• New rules are appended to the end of the list.
• Address bitmasks are similar to a subnet mask, containing four integers from
0 to 255, each separated by a period. The binary mask uses 1 bits to indicate
“match” and 0 bits to indicate “ignore.” The bitmask is bitwise ANDed with the
specified source IP address, and then compared with the address for each IP
packet entering the port(s) to which this ACL has been assigned.
Example
This example configures one permit rule for the specific address 10.1.1.21 and
another rule for the address range 168.92.16.x – 168.92.31.x using a bitmask.
Console(config-std-acl)#permit host 10.1.1.21
Console(config-std-acl)#permit 168.92.16.0 255.255.240.0
Console(config-std-acl)#
Related Commands
access-list ip (26-2)
permit, deny (Extended IPv4 ACL)
This command adds a rule to an Extended IPv4 ACL. The rule sets a filter condition
for packets with specific source or destination IP addresses, protocol types, source
or destination protocol ports, or TCP control codes. Use the no form to remove a
rule.
Syntax
[no] {permit | deny} [protocol-number | udp]
{any | source address-bitmask | host source}
{any | destination address-bitmask | host destination}
[precedence precedence] [tos tos] [dscp dscp]
[source-port sport [bitmask]] [destination-port dport [port-bitmask]]
[no] {permit | deny} tcp
{any | source address-bitmask | host source}
{any | destination address-bitmask | host destination}
[precedence precedence] [tos tos] [dscp dscp]
[source-port sport [bitmask]] [destination-port dport [port-bitmask]]
[control-flag control-flags flag-bitmask]
•
•
•
•
protocol-number – A specific protocol number. (Range: 0-255)
source – Source IP address.
destination – Destination IP address.
address-bitmask – Decimal number representing the address bits to match.
26-3
26
Access Control List Commands
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
host – Keyword followed by a specific IP address.
precedence – IP precedence level. (Range: 0-7)
tos – Type of Service level. (Range: 0-15)
dscp – DSCP priority level. (Range: 0-63)
sport – Protocol26 source port number. (Range: 0-65535)
dport – Protocol26 destination port number. (Range: 0-65535)
port-bitmask – Decimal number representing the port bits to match.
(Range: 0-65535)
• control-flags – Decimal number (representing a bit string) that specifies flag
bits in byte 14 of the TCP header. (Range: 0-63)
• flag-bitmask – Decimal number representing the code bits to match.
Default Setting
None
Command Mode
Extended IPv4 ACL
Command Usage
• All new rules are appended to the end of the list.
• Address bitmasks are similar to a subnet mask, containing four integers from
0 to 255, each separated by a period. The binary mask uses 1 bits to indicate
“match” and 0 bits to indicate “ignore.” The bitmask is bitwise ANDed with the
specified source IP address, and then compared with the address for each IP
packet entering the port(s) to which this ACL has been assigned.
• You can specify both Precedence and ToS in the same rule. However, if
DSCP is used, then neither Precedence nor ToS can be specified.
• The control-code bitmask is a decimal number (representing an equivalent bit
mask) that is applied to the control code. Enter a decimal number, where the
equivalent binary bit “1” means to match a bit and “0” means to ignore a bit.
The following bits may be specified:
- 1 (fin) – Finish
- 2 (syn) – Synchronize
- 4 (rst) – Reset
- 8 (psh) – Push
- 16 (ack) – Acknowledgement
- 32 (urg) – Urgent pointer
For example, use the code value and mask below to catch packets with the
following flags set:
- SYN flag valid, use “control-code 2 2”
- Both SYN and ACK valid, use “control-code 18 18”
- SYN valid and ACK invalid, use “control-code 2 18”
26. Includes TCP, UDP or other protocol types.
26-4
IPv4 ACLs
26
Example
This example accepts any incoming packets if the source address is within subnet
10.7.1.x. For example, if the rule is matched; i.e., the rule (10.7.1.0 & 255.255.255.0)
equals the masked address (10.7.1.2 & 255.255.255.0), the packet passes through.
Console(config-ext-acl)#permit 10.7.1.1 255.255.255.0 any
Console(config-ext-acl)#
This allows TCP packets from class C addresses 192.168.1.0 to any destination
address when set for destination TCP port 80 (i.e., HTTP).
Console(config-ext-acl)#permit 192.168.1.0 255.255.255.0 any
destination-port 80
Console(config-ext-acl)#
This permits all TCP packets from class C addresses 192.168.1.0 with the TCP
control code set to “SYN.”
Console(config-ext-acl)#permit tcp 192.168.1.0 255.255.255.0 any
control-flag 2 2
Console(config-ext-acl)#
Related Commands
access-list ip (26-2)
show ip access-list
This command displays the rules for configured IPv4 ACLs.
Syntax
show ip access-list {standard | extended} [acl_name]
• standard – Specifies a standard IP ACL.
• extended – Specifies an extended IP ACL.
• acl_name – Name of the ACL. (Maximum length: 16 characters)
Command Mode
Privileged Exec
Example
Console#show ip access-list standard
IP standard access-list david:
permit host 10.1.1.21
permit 168.92.0.0 255.255.15.0
Console#
Related Commands
permit, deny 26-2
ip access-group (26-6)
26-5
26
Access Control List Commands
ip access-group
This command binds a port to an IPv4 ACL. Use the no form to remove the port.
Syntax
[no] ip access-group acl_name in
• acl_name – Name of the ACL. (Maximum length: 16 characters)
• in – Indicates that this list applies to ingress packets.
Default Setting
None
Command Mode
Interface Configuration (Ethernet)
Command Usage
• A port can only be bound to one ACL.
• If a port is already bound to an ACL and you bind it to a different ACL, the
switch will replace the old binding with the new one.
Example
Console(config)#int eth 1/2
Console(config-if)#ip access-group standard david in
Console(config-if)#
Related Commands
show ip access-list (26-5)
show ip access-group
This command shows the ports assigned to IPv4 ACLs.
Command Mode
Privileged Exec
Example
Console#show ip access-group
Interface ethernet 1/2
IP standard access-list david
Console#
Related Commands
ip access-group (26-6)
26-6
IPv6 ACLs
26
IPv6 ACLs
The commands in this section configure ACLs based on IPv6 addresses, next
header type, and flow label. To configure IPv6 ACLs, first create an access list
containing the required permit or deny rules, and then bind the access list to one or
more ports
Table 26-3 IPv6 ACL Commands
Command
Function
Mode
access-list ipv6
Creates an IPv6 ACL and enters configuration mode for
standard or extended IPv6 ACLs
GC
26-7
permit, deny
Filters packets matching a specified source IPv6 address
IPv6STD-ACL
26-8
permit, deny
Filters packets meeting the specified criteria, including
IPv6destination IPv6 address, next header type, and flow label EXT-ACL
26-9
show ipv6 access-list
Displays the rules for configured IPv6 ACLs
PE
Page
26-11
ipv6 access-group
Adds a port to an IPv6 ACL
IC
26-11
show ipv6 access-group
Shows port assignments for IPv6 ACLs
PE
26-12
access-list ipv6
This command adds an IP access list and enters configuration mode for standard or
extended IPv6 ACLs. Use the no form to remove the specified ACL.
Syntax
[no] access-list ipv6 {standard | extended} acl_name
• standard – Specifies an ACL that filters packets based on the source IP
address.
• extended – Specifies an ACL that filters packets based on the destination
IP address, and other more specific criteria.
• acl_name – Name of the ACL. (Maximum length: 16 characters)
Default Setting
None
Command Mode
Global Configuration
Command Usage
• When you create a new ACL or enter configuration mode for an existing ACL,
use the permit or deny command to add new rules to the bottom of the list.
To create an ACL, you must add at least one rule to the list.
• To remove a rule, use the no permit or no deny command followed by the
exact text of a previously configured rule.
• An ACL can contain up to 32 rules.
26-7
26
Access Control List Commands
Example
Console(config)#access-list ipv6 standard david
Console(config-std-ipv6-acl)#
Related Commands
permit, deny (26-8)
ipv6 access-group (26-11)
show ipv6 access-list (26-11)
permit, deny (Standard IPv6 ACL)
This command adds a rule to a Standard IPv6 ACL. The rule sets a filter condition
for packets emanating from the specified source. Use the no form to remove a rule.
Syntax
[no] {permit | deny} {any | source-ipv6-address[/prefix-length] |
host source-ipv6-address}
• any – Any source IP address.
• source-ipv6-address - An IPv6 source address. The address must be
formatted according to RFC 2373 “IPv6 Addressing Architecture,” using 8
colon-separated 16-bit hexadecimal values. One double colon may be used
in the address to indicate the appropriate number of zeros required to fill the
undefined fields.
• prefix-length - A decimal value indicating how many contiguous bits (from
the left) of the address comprise the prefix (i.e., the network portion of the
address).
• host – Keyword followed by a specific IP address.
Default Setting
None
Command Mode
Standard IPv6 ACL
Command Usage
New rules are appended to the end of the list.
Example
This example configures one permit rule for the specific address 2009:DB9:2229::79
and another rule for the addresses with the network prefix 2009:DB9:2229:5::/64.
Console(config-std-ipv6-acl)#permit host 2009:DB9:2229::79
Console(config-std-ipv6-acl)#permit 2009:DB9:2229:5::/64
Console(config-std-ipv6-acl)#
Related Commands
access-list ipv6 (26-7)
26-8
IPv6 ACLs
26
permit, deny (Extended IPv6 ACL)
This command adds a rule to an Extended IPv6 ACL. The rule sets a filter condition
for packets with specific destination IP addresses, next header type, or flow label.
Use the no form to remove a rule.
Syntax
[no] {permit | deny}
{any | destination-ipv6-address[/prefix-length]}
[next-header next-header] [dscp dscp] [flow-label flow-label]
• any – Keyword indicating any IPv6 destination address (an abbreviation for
the IPv6 prefix ::/0).
• destination-ipv6-address - An IPv6 destination address. The address must
be formatted according to RFC 2373 “IPv6 Addressing Architecture,” using
8 colon-separated 16-bit hexadecimal values. One double colon may be
used in the address to indicate the appropriate number of zeros required to
fill the undefined fields. (The switch only checks the first 64 bits of the
destination address.)
• prefix-length - A decimal value indicating how many contiguous bits (from
the left) of the address comprise the prefix (i.e., the network portion of the
address).
• dscp – DSCP priority level. (Range: 0-63)
• flow-label – A label for packets belonging to a particular traffic “flow” for
which the sender requests special handling by IPv6 routers, such as
non-default quality of service or “real-time” service (see RFC 2460).
(Range: 0-16777215)
• next-header – Identifies the type of header immediately following the IPv6
header. (Range: 0-255)
Default Setting
None
Command Mode
Extended IPv6 ACL
Command Usage
• All new rules are appended to the end of the list.
• A flow label is assigned to a flow by the flow's source node. New flow labels
must be chosen pseudo-randomly and uniformly from the range 1 to FFFFF
hexadecimal. The purpose of the random allocation is to make any set of bits
within the Flow Label field suitable for use as a hash key by routers, for looking
up the state associated with the flow.
A flow identifies a sequence of packets sent from a particular source to a
particular (unicast or multicast) destination for which the source desires
special handling by the intervening routers. The nature of that special handling
might be conveyed to the routers by a control protocol, such as a resource
reservation protocol, or by information within the flow's packets themselves,
26-9
26
Access Control List Commands
e.g., in a hop-by-hop option. A flow is uniquely identified by the combination
of a source address and a non-zero flow label. Packets that do not belong to
a flow carry a flow label of zero.
Hosts or routers that do not support the functions specified by the flow label
must set the field to zero when originating a packet, pass the field on
unchanged when forwarding a packet, and ignore the field when receiving a
packet.
• Optional internet-layer information is encoded in separate headers that may
be placed between the IPv6 header and the upper-layer header in a packet.
There are a small number of such extension headers, each identified by a
distinct Next Header value. IPv6 supports the values defined for the IPv4
Protocol field in RFC 1700, including these commonly used headers:
0 : Hop-by-Hop Options
(RFC 2460)
6 : TCP Upper-layer Header
(RFC 1700)
17 : UDP Upper-layer Header
(RFC 1700)
43 : Routing
(RFC 2460)
44 : Fragment
(RFC 2460)
51 : Authentication
(RFC 2402)
50 : Encapsulating Security Payload
(RFC 2406)
60 : Destination Options
(RFC 2460)
Example
This example accepts any incoming packets if the destination address is
2009:DB9:2229::79/48.
Console(config-ext-ipv6-acl)#permit 2009:DB9:2229::79/48
Console(config-ext-ipv6-acl)#
This allows packets to any destination address when the DSCP value is 5.
Console(config-ext-ipv6-acl)#permit any dscp 5
Console(config-ext-ipv6-acl)#
This allows any packets sent to the destination 2009:DB9:2229::79/48 when the flow
label is 43.”
Console(config-ext-ipv6-acl)#permit 2009:DB9:2229::79/48 flow-label 43
Console(config-ext-ipv6-acl)#
Related Commands
access-list ipv6 (26-7)
26-10
IPv6 ACLs
26
show ipv6 access-list
This command displays the rules for configured IPv6 ACLs.
Syntax
show ip access-list {standard | extended} [acl_name]
• standard – Specifies a standard IPv6 ACL.
• extended – Specifies an extended IPv6 ACL.
• acl_name – Name of the ACL. (Maximum length: 16 characters)
Command Mode
Privileged Exec
Example
Console#show ipv6 access-list standard
IPv6 standard access-list david:
permit host 2009:DB9:2229::79
permit 2009:DB9:2229:5::/64
Console#
Related Commands
permit, deny (26-8)
ipv6 access-group (26-11)
ipv6 access-group
This command binds a port to an IPv6 ACL. Use the no form to remove the port.
Syntax
[no] ipv6 access-group acl_name in
• acl_name – Name of the ACL. (Maximum length: 16 characters)
• in – Indicates that this list applies to ingress packets.
Default Setting
None
Command Mode
Interface Configuration (Ethernet)
Command Usage
• A port can only be bound to one ACL.
• If a port is already bound to an ACL and you bind it to a different ACL, the
switch will replace the old binding with the new one.
• IPv6 ACLs can only be applied to ingress packets.
Example
Console(config)#int eth 1/2
Console(config-if)#ipv6 access-group standard david in
Console(config-if)#
26-11
26
Access Control List Commands
Related Commands
show ipv6 access-list (26-11)
show ipv6 access-group
This command shows the ports assigned to IPv6 ACLs.
Command Mode
Privileged Exec
Example
Console#show ip access-group
Interface ethernet 1/2
IPv6 standard access-list david in
Console#
Related Commands
ipv6 access-group (26-11)
MAC ACLs
The commands in this section configure ACLs based on hardware addresses,
packet format, and Ethernet type. To configure MAC ACLs, first create an access list
containing the required permit or deny rules, and then bind the access list to one or
more ports
Table 26-4 MAC ACL Commands
Command
Function
Mode
Page
access-list mac
Creates a MAC ACL and enters configuration mode
GC
26-12
permit, deny
Filters packets matching a specified source and
destination address, packet format, and Ethernet type
MAC-ACL
26-13
show mac access-list
Displays the rules for configured MAC ACLs
PE
26-15
mac access-group
Adds a port to a MAC ACL
IC
26-15
show mac access-group
Shows port assignments for MAC ACLs
PE
26-16
access-list mac
This command adds a MAC access list and enters MAC ACL configuration mode.
Use the no form to remove the specified ACL.
Syntax
[no] access-list mac acl_name
acl_name – Name of the ACL. (Maximum length: 16 characters)
Default Setting
None
26-12
MAC ACLs
26
Command Mode
Global Configuration
Command Usage
• When you create a new ACL or enter configuration mode for an existing ACL,
use the permit or deny command to add new rules to the bottom of the list.
To create an ACL, you must add at least one rule to the list.
• To remove a rule, use the no permit or no deny command followed by the
exact text of a previously configured rule.
• An ACL can contain up to 32 rules.
Example
Console(config)#access-list mac jerry
Console(config-mac-acl)#
Related Commands
permit, deny (26-13)
mac access-group (26-15)
show mac access-list (26-15)
permit, deny (MAC ACL)
This command adds a rule to a MAC ACL. The rule filters packets matching a
specified MAC source or destination address (i.e., physical layer address), or
Ethernet protocol type. Use the no form to remove a rule.
Syntax
[no] {permit | deny}
{any | host source | source address-bitmask}
{any | host destination | destination address-bitmask}
[vid vid vid-bitmask] [ethertype protocol [protocol-bitmask]]
Note:- The default is for Ethernet II packets.
[no] {permit | deny} tagged-eth2
{any | host source | source address-bitmask}
{any | host destination | destination address-bitmask}
[vid vid vid-bitmask] [ethertype protocol [protocol-bitmask]]
[no] {permit | deny} untagged-eth2
{any | host source | source address-bitmask}
{any | host destination | destination address-bitmask}
[ethertype protocol [protocol-bitmask]]
[no] {permit | deny} tagged-802.3
{any | host source | source address-bitmask}
{any | host destination | destination address-bitmask}
[vid vid vid-bitmask]
26-13
26
Access Control List Commands
[no] {permit | deny} untagged-802.3
{any | host source | source address-bitmask}
{any | host destination | destination address-bitmask}
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
tagged-eth2 – Tagged Ethernet II packets.
untagged-eth2 – Untagged Ethernet II packets.
tagged-802.3 – Tagged Ethernet 802.3 packets.
untagged-802.3 – Untagged Ethernet 802.3 packets.
any – Any MAC source or destination address.
host – A specific MAC address.
source – Source MAC address.
destination – Destination MAC address range with bitmask.
address-bitmask27 – Bitmask for MAC address (in hexidecimal format).
vid – VLAN ID. (Range: 1-4093)
vid-bitmask27 – VLAN bitmask. (Range: 1-4093)
protocol – A specific Ethernet protocol number. (Range: 600-fff hex.)
protocol-bitmask27 – Protocol bitmask. (Range: 600-fff hex.)
Default Setting
None
Command Mode
MAC ACL
Command Usage
• New rules are added to the end of the list.
• The ethertype option can only be used to filter Ethernet II formatted packets.
• A detailed listing of Ethernet protocol types can be found in RFC 1060. A few
of the more common types include the following:
- 0800 - IP
- 0806 - ARP
- 8137 - IPX
Example
This rule permits packets from any source MAC address to the destination address
00-e0-29-94-34-de where the Ethernet type is 0800.
Console(config-mac-acl)#permit any host 00-e0-29-94-34-de ethertype 0800
Console(config-mac-acl)#
Related Commands
access-list mac (26-12)
27. For all bitmasks, “1” means care and “0” means ignore.
26-14
MAC ACLs
26
show mac access-list
This command displays the rules for configured MAC ACLs.
Syntax
show mac access-list [acl_name]
acl_name – Name of the ACL. (Maximum length: 16 characters)
Command Mode
Privileged Exec
Example
Console#show mac access-list
MAC access-list jerry:
permit any 00-e0-29-94-34-de ethertype 0800
Console#
Related Commands
permit, deny 26-13
mac access-group (26-15)
mac access-group
This command binds a port to a MAC ACL. Use the no form to remove the port.
Syntax
mac access-group acl_name in
• acl_name – Name of the ACL. (Maximum length: 16 characters)
• in – Indicates that this list applies to ingress packets.
Default Setting
None
Command Mode
Interface Configuration (Ethernet)
Command Usage
• A port can only be bound to one ACL.
• If a port is already bound to an ACL and you bind it to a different ACL, the
switch will replace the old binding with the new one.
Example
Console(config)#interface ethernet 1/2
Console(config-if)#mac access-group jerry in
Console(config-if)#
Related Commands
show mac access-list (26-15)
26-15
26
Access Control List Commands
show mac access-group
This command shows the ports assigned to MAC ACLs.
Command Mode
Privileged Exec
Example
Console#show mac access-group
Interface ethernet 1/5
MAC access-list M5 in
Console#
Related Commands
mac access-group (26-15)
ACL Information
This section describes commands used to display ACL information.
Table 26-5 ACL Information Commands
Command
Function
Mode
Page
show access-list
Show all IPv4 ACLs and associated rules
PE
26-16
show access-group
Shows the IPv4 ACLs assigned to each port
PE
26-17
show access-list
This command shows all IPv4 ACLs and associated rules.
Command Mode
Privileged Exec
Example
Console#show access-list
IP standard access-list david:
permit host 10.1.1.21
permit 168.92.0.0 255.255.15.0
IP extended access-list bob:
permit 10.7.1.1 255.255.255.0 any
permit 192.168.1.0 255.255.255.0 any destination-port 80 80
permit 192.168.1.0 255.255.255.0 any protocol tcp control-code 2 2
MAC access-list jerry:
permit any host 00-30-29-94-34-de ethertype 800 800
IP extended access-list A6:
deny tcp any any control-flag 2 2
permit any any
Console#
26-16
ACL Information
26
show access-group
This command shows the port assignments of IPv4 ACLs.
Command Mode
Privileged Executive
Example
Console#show access-group
Interface ethernet 1/2
IP standard access-list david
MAC access-list jerry
Console#
26-17
26
26-18
Access Control List Commands
Chapter 27: Interface Commands
These commands are used to display or set communication parameters for an
Ethernet port, aggregated link, or VLAN.
Table 27-1 Interface Commands
Command
Function
Mode
interface
Configures an interface type and enters interface configuration GC
mode
Page
27-1
description
Adds a description to an interface configuration
IC
27-2
speed-duplex
Configures the speed and duplex operation of a given interface IC
when autonegotiation is disabled
27-3
negotiation
Enables autonegotiation of a given interface
IC
27-4
capabilities
Advertises the capabilities of a given interface for use in
autonegotiation
IC
27-4
flowcontrol
Enables flow control on a given interface
IC
27-5
media-type
Force port type selected for combination ports
IC
27-6
shutdown
Disables an interface
IC
27-7
switchport broadcast
packet-rate
Configures the broadcast storm control threshold
IC
27-7
clear counters
Clears statistics on an interface
PE
27-8
show interfaces status Displays status for the specified interface
NE, PE
27-9
show interfaces
counters
Displays statistics for the specified interfaces
NE, PE
27-10
show interfaces
switchport
Displays the administrative and operational status of an
interface
NE, PE
27-11
interface
This command configures an interface type and enter interface configuration mode.
Use the no form with a trunk to remove an inactive interface.
Syntax
interface interface
no interface port-channel channel-id
interface
• ethernet unit/port
- unit - Stack unit. (Range: 1-8)
- port - Port number. (Range: 1-26/50)
• port-channel channel-id (Range: 1-32)
• vlan vlan-id (Range: 1-4093)
27-1
27
Interface Commands
Default Setting
None
Command Mode
Global Configuration
Example
To specify port 4, enter the following command:
Console(config)#interface ethernet 1/4
Console(config-if)#
description
This command adds a description to an interface. Use the no form to remove the
description.
Syntax
description string
no description
string - Comment or a description to help you remember what is attached
to this interface. (Range: 1-64 characters)
Default Setting
None
Command Mode
Interface Configuration (Ethernet, Port Channel)
Command Usage
The description is displayed by the show interfaces status command
(page 27-9) and in the running-configuration file. An example of the value
which a network manager might store in this object is the name of the
manufacturer, and the product name.
Example
The following example adds a description to port 4.
Console(config)#interface ethernet 1/4
Console(config-if)#description RD-SW#3
Console(config-if)#
27-2
speed-duplex
27
speed-duplex
This command configures the speed and duplex mode of a given interface when
autonegotiation is disabled. Use the no form to restore the default.
Syntax
speed-duplex {10000full | 1000full | 100full | 100half | 10full | 10half}
no speed-duplex
•
•
•
•
•
•
10000full - Forces 10 Gbps full-duplex operation
1000full - Forces 1 Gbps full-duplex operation
100full - Forces 100 Mbps full-duplex operation
100half - Forces 100 Mbps half-duplex operation
10full - Forces 10 Mbps full-duplex operation
10half - Forces 10 Mbps half-duplex operation
Default Setting
• Auto-negotiation is enabled by default.
• When auto-negotiation is disabled, the default speed-duplex setting is:
- Gigabit Ethernet ports – 1000full (1 Gbps full-duplex)
- 10 Gigabit Ethernet ports – 10000full (10 Gbps full-duplex)
Command Mode
Interface Configuration (Ethernet, Port Channel)
Command Usage
• The 1000BASE-T and 10GBASE-T standards do not support forced mode.
Auto-negotiation should always be used to establish a connection over any
1000BASE-T or 10GBASE-T port or trunk. If not used, the success of the link
process cannot be guaranteed when connecting to other types of switches.
• To force operation to the speed and duplex mode specified in a speed-duplex
command, use the no negotiation command to disable auto-negotiation on
the selected interface.
• When using the negotiation command to enable auto-negotiation, the
optimal settings will be determined by the capabilities command. To set the
speed/duplex mode under auto-negotiation, the required mode must be
specified in the capabilities list for an interface.
Example
The following example configures port 5 to 100 Mbps, half-duplex operation.
Console(config)#interface ethernet 1/5
Console(config-if)#speed-duplex 100half
Console(config-if)#no negotiation
Console(config-if)#
Related Commands
negotiation (27-4)
capabilities (27-4)
27-3
27
Interface Commands
negotiation
This command enables autonegotiation for a given interface. Use the no form to
disable autonegotiation.
Syntax
[no] negotiation
Default Setting
Enabled
Command Mode
Interface Configuration (Ethernet, Port Channel)
Command Usage
• 1000BASE-T and 10GBASE-T do not support forced mode. Auto-negotiation
should always be used to establish a connection over any 1000BASE-T or
10GBASE-T port or trunk.
• When auto-negotiation is enabled the switch will negotiate the best settings
for a link based on the capabilities command. When auto-negotiation is
disabled, you must manually specify the link attributes with the speed-duplex
and flowcontrol commands.
• If autonegotiation is disabled, auto-MDI/MDI-X pin signal configuration will
also be disabled for the RJ-45 ports.
Example
The following example configures port 11 to use autonegotiation.
Console(config)#interface ethernet 1/11
Console(config-if)#negotiation
Console(config-if)#
Related Commands
capabilities (27-4)
speed-duplex (27-3)
capabilities
This command advertises the port capabilities of a given interface during
autonegotiation. Use the no form with parameters to remove an advertised
capability, or the no form without parameters to restore the default values.
Syntax
[no] capabilities {10000full | 1000full | 100full | 100half | 10full | 10half |
flowcontrol | symmetric}
•
•
•
•
27-4
10000full - Supports 10 Gbps full-duplex operation
1000full - Supports 1 Gbps full-duplex operation
100full - Supports 100 Mbps full-duplex operation
100half - Supports 100 Mbps half-duplex operation
flowcontrol
•
•
•
•
27
10full - Supports 10 Mbps full-duplex operation
10half - Supports 10 Mbps half-duplex operation
flowcontrol - Supports flow control
symmetric (Gigabit only) - When specified, the port transmits and receives
pause frames; when not specified, the port will auto-negotiate to determine
the sender and receiver for asymmetric pause frames. (The current switch
ASIC only supports symmetric pause frames for 1 Gbps connections.)
Default Setting
• 1000BASE-T: 10half, 10full, 100half, 100full, 1000full
• 1000BASE-SX/LX/LH (SFP): 1000full
• 10GBASE-SR/LR/ER (XFP): 10000full
Command Mode
Interface Configuration (Ethernet, Port Channel)
Command Usage
• 1000BASE-T and 10GBASE-T do not support forced mode. Auto-negotiation
should always be used to establish a connection over any 1000BASE-T or
10GBASE-T port or trunk.
• When auto-negotiation is enabled with the negotiation command, the switch
will negotiate the best settings for a link based on the capabilites command.
When auto-negotiation is disabled, you must manually specify the link
attributes with the speed-duplex and flowcontrol commands.
Example
The following example configures Ethernet port 5 capabilities to 100half and 100full.
Console(config)#interface ethernet 1/5
Console(config-if)#capabilities 100half
Console(config-if)#capabilities 100full
Console(config-if)#
Related Commands
negotiation (27-4)
speed-duplex (27-3)
flowcontrol (27-5)
flowcontrol
This command enables flow control. Use the no form to disable flow control.
Syntax
[no] flowcontrol
Default Setting
Disabled
Command Mode
Interface Configuration (Ethernet, Port Channel)
27-5
27
Interface Commands
Command Usage
• 1000BASE-T and 10GBASE-T do not support forced mode. Auto-negotiation
should always be used to establish a connection over any 1000BASE-T or
10GBASE-T port or trunk.
• Flow control can eliminate frame loss by “blocking” traffic from end stations or
segments connected directly to the switch when its buffers fill. When enabled,
back pressure is used for half-duplex operation and IEEE 802.3-2005
(formally IEEE 802.3x) for full-duplex operation.
• To force flow control on or off (with the flowcontrol or no flowcontrol
command), use the no negotiation command to disable auto-negotiation on
the selected interface.
• When using the negotiation command to enable auto-negotiation, the
optimal settings will be determined by the capabilities command. To enable
flow control under auto-negotiation, “flowcontrol” must be included in the
capabilities list for any port
• Avoid using flow control on a port connected to a hub unless it is actually
required to solve a problem. Otherwise back pressure jamming signals may
degrade overall performance for the segment attached to the hub.
Example
The following example enables flow control on port 5.
Console(config)#interface ethernet 1/5
Console(config-if)#flowcontrol
Console(config-if)#no negotiation
Console(config-if)#
Related Commands
negotiation (27-4)
capabilities (flowcontrol, symmetric) (27-4)
media-type
This command forces the port type selected for combination ports 21-24/45-48. Use
the no form to restore the default mode.
Syntax
media-type mode
no media-type
• mode
- copper-forced - Always uses the built-in RJ-45 port.
- sfp-forced - Always uses the SFP port (even if module not installed).
- sfp-preferred-auto - Uses SFP port if both combination types are
functioning and the SFP port has a valid link.
Default Setting
sfp-preferred-auto
27-6
shutdown
27
Command Mode
Interface Configuration (Ethernet - Ports 21-24/45-48)
Example
This forces the switch to use the built-in RJ-45 port for the combination port 48.
Console(config)#interface ethernet 1/48
Console(config-if)#media-type copper-forced
Console(config-if)#
shutdown
This command disables an interface. To restart a disabled interface, use the no
form.
Syntax
[no] shutdown
Default Setting
All interfaces are enabled.
Command Mode
Interface Configuration (Ethernet, Port Channel)
Command Usage
This command allows you to disable a port due to abnormal behavior
(e.g., excessive collisions), and then reenable it after the problem has been
resolved. You may also want to disable a port for security reasons.
Example
The following example disables port 5.
Console(config)#interface ethernet 1/5
Console(config-if)#shutdown
Console(config-if)#
switchport broadcast packet-rate
This command configures broadcast storm control. Use the no form to disable
broadcast storm control.
Syntax
switchport broadcast packet-rate rate
no switchport broadcast
rate - Threshold level as a rate; i.e., packets per second.
(Range: 500-262143)
Default Setting
Enabled for all ports
Packet-rate limit: 500 pps
27-7
27
Interface Commands
Command Mode
Interface Configuration (Ethernet)
Command Usage
• When broadcast traffic exceeds the specified threshold, packets above that
threshold are dropped.
• Broadcast control does not effect IP multicast traffic.
Example
The following shows how to configure broadcast storm control at 600 packets per
second:
Console(config)#interface ethernet 1/5
Console(config-if)#switchport broadcast packet-rate 600
Console(config-if)#
clear counters
This command clears statistics on an interface.
Syntax
clear counters interface
interface
• ethernet unit/port
- unit - Stack unit. (Range: 1-8)
- port - Port number. (Range: 1-26/50)
• port-channel channel-id (Range: 1-32)
Default Setting
None
Command Mode
Privileged Exec
Command Usage
Statistics are only initialized for a power reset. This command sets the base
value for displayed statistics to zero for the current management session.
However, if you log out and back into the management interface, the statistics
displayed will show the absolute value accumulated since the last power reset.
Example
The following example clears statistics on port 5.
Console#clear counters ethernet 1/5
Console#
27-8
show interfaces status
27
show interfaces status
This command displays the status for an interface.
Syntax
show interfaces status [interface]
interface
• ethernet unit/port
- unit - Stack unit. (Range: 1-8)
- port - Port number. (Range: 1-26/50)
• port-channel channel-id (Range: 1-32)
• vlan vlan-id (Range: 1-4093)
Default Setting
Shows the status for all interfaces.
Command Mode
Normal Exec, Privileged Exec
Command Usage
If no interface is specified, information on all interfaces is displayed. For a
description of the items displayed by this command, see "Displaying
Connection Status" on page 8-1.
Example
Console#show interfaces status ethernet 1/5
Information of Eth 1/5
Basic Information:
Port Type
: 1000T
Mac Address
: 00-00-E3-11-10-15
Configuration:
Name
:
Port Admin
: Up
Speed-duplex
: Auto
Capabilities
: 10half, 10full, 100half, 100full, 1000full
Broadcast Storm
: Enabled
Broadcast Storm Limit : 500 packets/second
Flow Control
: Disabled
LACP
: Disabled
Port Security
: Disabled
Max MAC Count
: 0
Port Security Action
: None
Media Type
: None
Jumbo Frame state
: DISABLE
Jumbo Frame size:
: 1522
Current status:
Link Status
: Up
Operation Speed-duplex : 100full
Flow Control Type
: None
Console#show interfaces status vlan 1
Information of VLAN 1
MAC Address:
00-00-E3-11-10-10
Console#
27-9
27
Interface Commands
show interfaces counters
This command displays interface statistics.
Syntax
show interfaces counters [interface]
interface
• ethernet unit/port
- unit - Stack unit. (Range: 1-8)
- port - Port number. (Range: 1-26/50)
• port-channel channel-id (Range: 1-32)
Default Setting
Shows the counters for all interfaces.
Command Mode
Normal Exec, Privileged Exec
Command Usage
If no interface is specified, information on all interfaces is displayed. For a
description of the items displayed by this command, see "Showing Port
Statistics" on page 8-22.
Example
Console#show interfaces counters ethernet 1/7
Ethernet 1/7
Iftable Stats:
Octets Input: 30658, Octets Output: 196550
Unicast Input: 6, Unicast Output: 5
Discard Input: 0, Discard Output: 0
Error Input: 0, Error Output: 0
Unknown Protos Input: 0, QLen Output: 0
Extended iftable Stats:
Multi-cast input: 0, Multi-cast output: 3064
Broadcast input: 262, Broadcast output: 1
Ether-like Stats:
Alignment Errors: 0, FCS Errors: 0
Single Collision Frames: 0, Multiple Collision Frames: 0
SQE Test Errors: 0, Deferred Transmissions: 0
Late Collisions: 0, Excessive Collisions: 0
Internal Mac Transmit Errors: 0, Internal Mac Receive Errors: 0
Frames Too Long: 0, Carrier Sense Errors: 0
In Pause Frames: 0, Out Pause Frames: 0
Symbol Errors: 0
RMON stats:
Drop Events: 0, Octets: 227208, Packets: 3338
Broadcast Pkts: 263, Multi-cast Pkts: 3064
Undersize Pkts: 0, Oversize Pkts: 0
Fragments: 0, Jabbers: 0
CRC Align Errors: 0, Collisions: 0
Packet Size <= 64 octets: 3150, Packet Size 65 to 127 octets: 139
Packet Size 128 to 255 octets: 49, Packet Size 256 to 511 octets: 0
Packet Size 512 to 1023 octets: 0, Packet Size 1024 to 1518 octets: 0
Console#
27-10
show interfaces switchport
27
show interfaces switchport
This command displays the administrative and operational status of the specified
interfaces.
Syntax
show interfaces switchport [interface]
interface
• ethernet unit/port
- unit - Stack unit. (Range: 1-8)
- port - Port number. (Range: 1-26/50)
• port-channel channel-id (Range: 1-32)
Default Setting
Shows all interfaces.
Command Mode
Normal Exec, Privileged Exec
Command Usage
If no interface is specified, information on all interfaces is displayed.
Example
This example shows the configuration setting for port 4.
Console#show interfaces switchport ethernet 1/4
Broadcast Threshold
: Enabled, 500 packets/second
LACP Status
: Disabled
Ingress Rate Limit
: Disable, 1000M bits per second
Egress Rate Limit
: Disable, 1000M bits per second
VLAN Membership Mode
: Hybrid
Ingress Rule
: Disabled
Acceptable Frame Type
: All frames
Native VLAN
: 1
Priority for Untagged Traffic : 0
GVRP Status
: Disabled
Allowed VLAN
: 1(u),
Forbidden VLAN
:
802.1Q-tunnel Status:
Disable
802.1Q-tunnel Mode:
NORMAL
802.1Q-tunnel TPID:
8100(Hex)
Console#
Table 27-2 show interfaces switchport - display description
Field
Description
Broadcast Threshold
Shows if broadcast storm suppression is enabled or disabled; if enabled it also
shows the threshold level (page 27-7).
LACP Status
Shows if Link Aggregation Control Protocol has been enabled or disabled
(page 28-3).
Ingress/Egress Rate Limit
Shows if rate limiting is enabled, and the current rate limit (page 30-1).
VLAN Membership Mode
Indicates membership mode as Trunk or Hybrid (page 34-8).
27-11
27
Interface Commands
Table 27-2 show interfaces switchport - display description (Continued)
Field
Description
Ingress Rule
Shows if ingress filtering is enabled or disabled (page 34-9).
Acceptable Fame Type
Shows if acceptable VLAN frames include all types or tagged frames only
(page 34-9).
Native VLAN
Indicates the default Port VLAN ID (page 34-10).
Priority for Untagged Traffic Indicates the default priority for untagged frames (page 35-3).
GVRP Status
Shows if GARP VLAN Registration Protocol is enabled or disabled (page 34-3).
Allowed VLAN
Shows the VLANs this interface has joined, where “(u)” indicates untagged and
“(t)” indicates tagged (page 34-11).
Forbidden VLAN
Shows the VLANs this interface can not dynamically join via GVRP
(page 34-12).
802.1Q-tunnel Status
Shows if 802.1Q tunnel is enabled on this interface (page 34-15).
802.1Q-tunnel Mode
Shows the tunnel mode as Normal, 802.1Q Tunnel or 802.1Q Tunnel Uplink
(page 34-15).
802.1Q-tunnel TPID
Shows the Tag Protocol Identifier used for learning and switching packets
(page 34-16).
27-12
Chapter 28: Link Aggregation Commands
Ports can be statically grouped into an aggregate link (i.e., trunk) to increase the
bandwidth of a network connection or to ensure fault recovery. Or you can use the
Link Aggregation Control Protocol (LACP) to automatically negotiate a trunk link
between this switch and another network device. For static trunks, the switches have
to comply with the Cisco EtherChannel standard. For dynamic trunks, the switches
have to comply with LACP. This switch supports up to 12 trunks, and up to 32 for the
stack. For example, a trunk consisting of two 1000 Mbps ports can support an
aggregate bandwidth of 4 Gbps when operating at full duplex.
Table 28-1 Link Aggregation Commands
Command
Function
Mode
Page
Manual Configuration Commands
interface port-channel
Configures a trunk and enters interface
configuration mode for the trunk
GC
27-1
channel-group
Adds a port to a trunk
IC (Ethernet)
28-2
IC (Ethernet)
28-3
Dynamic Configuration Commands
lacp
Configures LACP for the current interface
lacp system-priority
Configures a port's LACP system priority
IC (Ethernet)
28-4
lacp admin-key
Configures a port's administration key
IC (Ethernet)
28-5
lacp admin-key
Configures an port channel’s administration key
IC (Port Channel)
28-6
lacp port-priority
Configures a port's LACP port priority
IC (Ethernet)
28-6
Trunk Status Display Commands
show interfaces status
port-channel
Shows trunk information
NE, PE
27-9
show lacp
Shows LACP information
PE
28-7
Guidelines for Creating Trunks
General Guidelines –
• Finish configuring port trunks before you connect the corresponding network
cables between switches to avoid creating a loop.
• A trunk can have up to 8 ports.
• The ports at both ends of a connection must be configured as trunk ports.
• All ports in a trunk must be configured in an identical manner, including
communication mode (i.e., speed and duplex mode), VLAN assignments, and
CoS settings.
• Any of the Gigabit ports on the front panel can be trunked together, including
ports of different media types.
• All the ports in a trunk have to be treated as a whole when moved from/to,
added or deleted from a VLAN via the specified port-channel.
28-1
28
Link Aggregation Commands
• STP, VLAN, and IGMP settings can only be made for the entire trunk via the
specified port-channel.
Dynamically Creating a Port Channel –
Ports assigned to a common port channel must meet the following criteria:
• Ports must have the same LACP system priority.
• Ports must have the same port admin key (Ethernet Interface).
• If the port channel admin key (lacp admin key - Port Channel) is not set when
a channel group is formed (i.e., it has the null value of 0), this key is set to the
same value as the port admin key (lacp admin key - Ethernet Interface) used
by the interfaces that joined the group.
• However, if the port channel admin key is set, then the port admin key must
be set to the same value for a port to be allowed to join a channel group.
• If a link goes down, LACP port priority is used to select the backup link.
channel-group
This command adds a port to a trunk. Use the no form to remove a port from a trunk.
Syntax
channel-group channel-id
no channel-group
channel-id - Trunk index (Range: 1-32)
Default Setting
The current port will be added to this trunk.
Command Mode
Interface Configuration (Ethernet)
Command Usage
• When configuring static trunks, the switches must comply with the Cisco
EtherChannel standard.
• Use no channel-group to remove a port group from a trunk.
• Use no interfaces port-channel to remove a trunk from the switch.
Example
The following example creates trunk 1 and then adds port 11:
Console(config)#interface port-channel 1
Console(config-if)#exit
Console(config)#interface ethernet 1/11
Console(config-if)#channel-group 1
Console(config-if)#
28-2
lacp
28
lacp
This command enables 802.3ad Link Aggregation Control Protocol (LACP) for the
current interface. Use the no form to disable it.
Syntax
[no] lacp
Default Setting
Disabled
Command Mode
Interface Configuration (Ethernet)
Command Usage
• The ports on both ends of an LACP trunk must be configured for full duplex,
either by forced mode or auto-negotiation.
• A trunk formed with another switch using LACP will automatically be assigned
the next available port-channel ID.
• If the target switch has also enabled LACP on the connected ports, the trunk
will be activated automatically.
• If more than eight ports attached to the same target switch have LACP
enabled, the additional ports will be placed in standby mode, and will only be
enabled if one of the active links fails.
Example
The following shows LACP enabled on ports 10-12. Because LACP has also been
enabled on the ports at the other end of the links, the show interfaces status
port-channel 1 command shows that Trunk1 has been established.
Console(config)#interface ethernet 1/10
Console(config-if)#lacp
Console(config-if)#interface ethernet 1/11
Console(config-if)#lacp
Console(config-if)#interface ethernet 1/12
Console(config-if)#lacp
Console(config-if)#end
Console#show interfaces status port-channel 1
Information of Trunk 1
Basic Information:
Port Type
: 100TX
Mac Address
: 00-00-E3-11-10-10
Configuration:
Name
:
Port Admin
: Up
Speed-duplex
: Auto
Capabilities
: 10half, 10full, 100half, 100full
Flow Control
: Disabled
Port Security
: Disabled
Max MAC Count
: 0
28-3
28
Link Aggregation Commands
Current status:
Created By
Link Status
Port Operation Status
Operation speed-duplex
Flow control Type
Member Ports
Console#
:
:
:
:
:
:
LACP
Up
Up
100full
None
Eth1/10, Eth1/11, Eth1/12,
lacp system-priority
This command configures a port's LACP system priority. Use the no form to restore
the default setting.
Syntax
lacp {actor | partner} system-priority priority
no lacp {actor | partner} system-priority
• actor - The local side an aggregate link.
• partner - The remote side of an aggregate link.
• priority - This priority is used to determine link aggregation group (LAG)
membership, and to identify this device to other switches during LAG
negotiations. (Range: 0-65535)
Default Setting
32768
Command Mode
Interface Configuration (Ethernet)
Command Usage
• Port must be configured with the same system priority to join the same LAG.
• System priority is combined with the switch’s MAC address to form the LAG
identifier. This identifier is used to indicate a specific LAG during LACP
negotiations with other systems.
• Once the remote side of a link has been established, LACP operational
settings are already in use on that side. Configuring LACP settings for the
partner only applies to its administrative state, not its operational state, and
will only take effect the next time an aggregate link is established with the
partner.
Example
Console(config)#interface ethernet 1/5
Console(config-if)#lacp actor system-priority 3
Console(config-if)#
28-4
lacp admin-key (Ethernet Interface)
28
lacp admin-key (Ethernet Interface)
This command configures a port's LACP administration key. Use the no form to
restore the default setting.
Syntax
lacp {actor | partner} admin-key key
[no] lacp {actor | partner} admin-key
• actor - The local side an aggregate link.
• partner - The remote side of an aggregate link.
• key - The port admin key must be set to the same value for ports that belong
to the same link aggregation group (LAG). (Range: 0-65535)
Default Setting
0
Command Mode
Interface Configuration (Ethernet)
Command Usage
• Ports are only allowed to join the same LAG if (1) the LACP system priority
matches, (2) the LACP port admin key matches, and (3) the LACP port
channel key matches (if configured).
• If the port channel admin key (lacp admin key - Port Channel) is not set when
a channel group is formed (i.e., it has the null value of 0), this key is set to the
same value as the port admin key (lacp admin key - Ethernet Interface) used
by the interfaces that joined the group.
• Once the remote side of a link has been established, LACP operational
settings are already in use on that side. Configuring LACP settings for the
partner only applies to its administrative state, not its operational state, and
will only take effect the next time an aggregate link is established with the
partner.
Example
Console(config)#interface ethernet 1/5
Console(config-if)#lacp actor admin-key 120
Console(config-if)#
28-5
28
Link Aggregation Commands
lacp admin-key (Port Channel)
This command configures a port channel's LACP administration key string. Use the
no form to restore the default setting.
Syntax
lacp admin-key key
[no] lacp admin-key
key - The port channel admin key is used to identify a specific link
aggregation group (LAG) during local LACP setup on this switch.
(Range: 0-65535)
Default Setting
0
Command Mode
Interface Configuration (Port Channel)
Command Usage
• Ports are only allowed to join the same LAG if (1) the LACP system priority
matches, (2) the LACP port admin key matches, and (3) the LACP port
channel key matches (if configured).
• If the port channel admin key (lacp admin key - Port Channel) is not set when
a channel group is formed (i.e., it has the null value of 0), this key is set to the
same value as the port admin key (lacp admin key - Ethernet Interface) used
by the interfaces that joined the group. Note that when the LAG is no longer
used, the port channel admin key is reset to 0.
Example
Console(config)#interface port-channel 1
Console(config-if)#lacp admin-key 3
Console(config-if)#
lacp port-priority
This command configures LACP port priority. Use the no form to restore the default
setting.
Syntax
lacp {actor | partner} port-priority priority
no lacp {actor | partner} port-priority
• actor - The local side an aggregate link.
• partner - The remote side of an aggregate link.
• priority - LACP port priority is used to select a backup link. (Range: 0-65535)
Default Setting
32768
28-6
show lacp
28
Command Mode
Interface Configuration (Ethernet)
Command Usage
• Setting a lower value indicates a higher effective priority.
• If an active port link goes down, the backup port with the highest priority is
selected to replace the downed link. However, if two or more ports have the
same LACP port priority, the port with the lowest physical port number will be
selected as the backup port.
• Once the remote side of a link has been established, LACP operational
settings are already in use on that side. Configuring LACP settings for the
partner only applies to its administrative state, not its operational state, and will
only take effect the next time an aggregate link is established with the partner.
Example
Console(config)#interface ethernet 1/5
Console(config-if)#lacp actor port-priority 128
show lacp
This command displays LACP information.
Syntax
show lacp [port-channel] {counters | internal | neighbors | sys-id}
•
•
•
•
•
port-channel - Local identifier for a link aggregation group. (Range: 1-32)
counters - Statistics for LACP protocol messages.
internal - Configuration settings and operational state for local side.
neighbors - Configuration settings and operational state for remote side.
sys-id - Summary of system priority and MAC address for all channel groups.
Default Setting
Port Channel: all
Command Mode
Privileged Exec
28-7
28
Link Aggregation Commands
Example
Console#show lacp 1 counters
Port Channel: 1
------------------------------------------------------------------------Eth 1/ 2
------------------------------------------------------------------------LACPDUs Sent
: 12
LACPDUs Receive
: 6
Marker Sent
: 0
Marker Receive
: 0
LACPDUs Unknown Pkts : 0
LACPDUs Illegal Pkts : 0
.
.
.
Table 28-2 show lacp counters - display description
Field
Description
LACPDUs Sent
Number of valid LACPDUs transmitted from this channel group.
LACPDUs Received
Number of valid LACPDUs received on this channel group.
Marker Sent
Number of valid Marker PDUs transmitted from this channel group.
Marker Received
Number of valid Marker PDUs received by this channel group.
LACPDUs Unknown Pkts Number of frames received that either (1) Carry the Slow Protocols Ethernet
Type value, but contain an unknown PDU, or (2) are addressed to the Slow
Protocols group MAC Address, but do not carry the Slow Protocols Ethernet
Type.
LACPDUs Illegal Pkts
Number of frames that carry the Slow Protocols Ethernet Type value, but contain
a badly formed PDU or an illegal value of Protocol Subtype.
Console#show lacp 1 internal
Port Channel : 1
-----------------------------------------------------------------------------Oper Key : 3
Admin Key : 0
Eth 1/ 1
-----------------------------------------------------------------------------LACPDUs Internal
: 30 seconds
LACP System Priority : 32768
LACP Port Priority
: 32768
Admin Key
: 3
Oper Key
: 3
Admin State
: defaulted, aggregation, long timeout, LACP-activity
Oper State
: distributing, collecting, synchronization, aggregation,
long timeout, LACP-activity
.
.
.
Table 28-3 show lacp internal - display description
Field
Description
Oper Key
Current operational value of the key for the aggregation port.
Admin Key
Current administrative value of the key for the aggregation port.
LACPDUs Internal
Number of seconds before invalidating received LACPDU information.
LACP System Priority LACP system priority assigned to this port channel.
28-8
show lacp
28
Table 28-3 show lacp internal - display description (Continued)
Field
Description
LACP Port Priority
LACP port priority assigned to this interface within the channel group.
Admin State,
Oper State
Administrative or operational values of the actor’s state parameters:
• Expired – The actor’s receive machine is in the expired state;
• Defaulted – The actor’s receive machine is using defaulted operational partner
information, administratively configured for the partner.
• Distributing – If false, distribution of outgoing frames on this link is disabled; i.e.,
distribution is currently disabled and is not expected to be enabled in the absence
of administrative changes or changes in received protocol information.
• Collecting – Collection of incoming frames on this link is enabled; i.e., collection is
currently enabled and is not expected to be disabled in the absence of
administrative changes or changes in received protocol information.
• Synchronization – The System considers this link to be IN_SYNC; i.e., it has been
allocated to the correct Link Aggregation Group, the group has been associated
with a compatible Aggregator, and the identity of the Link Aggregation Group is
consistent with the System ID and operational Key information transmitted.
• Aggregation – The system considers this link to be aggregatable; i.e., a potential
candidate for aggregation.
• Long timeout – Periodic transmission of LACPDUs uses a slow transmission rate.
• LACP-Activity – Activity control value with regard to this link. (0: Passive; 1: Active)
Console#show lacp 1 neighbors
Port Channel 1 neighbors
------------------------------------------------------------------------Eth 1/ 1
------------------------------------------------------------------------Partner Admin System ID
: 32768, 1.3.6.1.4.1.202.20.76
Partner Oper System ID
: 32768, 00-00-E3-11-10-10
Partner Admin Port Number : 1
Partner Oper Port Number : 1
Port Admin Priority
: 32768
Port Oper Priority
: 32768
Admin Key
: 0
Oper Key
: 3
Admin State:
defaulted, distributing, collecting,
synchronization, long timeout,
Oper State:
distributing, collecting, synchronization,
aggregation, long timeout, LACP-activity
.
.
.
Table 28-4 show lacp neighbors - display description
Field
Description
Partner Admin System ID
LAG partner’s system ID assigned by the user.
Partner Oper System ID
LAG partner’s system ID assigned by the LACP protocol.
Partner Admin
Port Number
Current administrative value of the port number for the protocol Partner.
Partner Oper
Port Number
Operational port number assigned to this aggregation port by the port’s protocol
partner.
Port Admin Priority
Current administrative value of the port priority for the protocol partner.
28-9
28
Link Aggregation Commands
Table 28-4 show lacp neighbors - display description (Continued)
Field
Description
Port Oper Priority
Priority value assigned to this aggregation port by the partner.
Admin Key
Current administrative value of the Key for the protocol partner.
Oper Key
Current operational value of the Key for the protocol partner.
Admin State
Administrative values of the partner’s state parameters. (See preceding table.)
Oper State
Operational values of the partner’s state parameters. (See preceding table.)
Console#show lacp sysid
Port Channel
System Priority
System MAC Address
------------------------------------------------------------------------1
32768
00-30-F1-8F-2C-A7
2
32768
00-30-F1-8F-2C-A7
3
32768
00-30-F1-8F-2C-A7
4
32768
00-30-F1-8F-2C-A7
5
32768
00-30-F1-8F-2C-A7
6
32768
00-30-F1-8F-2C-A7
7
32768
00-30-F1-D4-73-A0
8
32768
00-30-F1-D4-73-A0
9
32768
00-30-F1-D4-73-A0
10
32768
00-30-F1-D4-73-A0
11
32768
00-30-F1-D4-73-A0
12
32768
00-30-F1-D4-73-A0
.
.
.
Table 28-5 show lacp sysid - display description
Field
Description
Channel group
A link aggregation group configured on this switch.
System Priority*
LACP system priority for this channel group.
System MAC Address*
System MAC address.
* The LACP system priority and system MAC address are concatenated to form the LAG system ID.
28-10
Chapter 29: Mirror Port Commands
This section describes how to mirror traffic from a source port to a target port.
Table 29-1 Mirror Port Commands
Command
Function
Mode
port monitor
Configures a mirror session
IC
Page
29-1
show port monitor
Shows the configuration for a mirror port
PE
29-2
port monitor
This command configures a mirror session. Use the no form to clear a mirror
session.
Syntax
port monitor interface [rx | tx | both]
no port monitor interface
• interface - ethernet unit/port (source port)
- unit - Stack unit. (Range: 1-8)
- port - Port number. (Range: 1-26/50)
• rx - Mirror received packets.
• tx - Mirror transmitted packets.
• both - Mirror both received and transmitted packets.
Default Setting
No mirror session is defined. When enabled, the default mirroring is for both
received and transmitted packets.
Command Mode
Interface Configuration (Ethernet, destination port)
Command Usage
• You can mirror traffic from any source port to a destination port for real-time
analysis. You can then attach a logic analyzer or RMON probe to the
destination port and study the traffic crossing the source port in a completely
unobtrusive manner.
• The destination port is set by specifying an Ethernet interface.
• The mirror port and monitor port speeds should match, otherwise traffic may
be dropped from the monitor port.
• You can create multiple mirror sessions, but all sessions must share the same
destination port. However, you should avoid sending too much traffic to the
destination port from multiple source ports.
29-1
29
Mirror Port Commands
Example
The following example configures the switch to mirror all packets from port 6 to 11:
Console(config)#interface ethernet 1/11
Console(config-if)#port monitor ethernet 1/6 both
Console(config-if)#
show port monitor
This command displays mirror information.
Syntax
show port monitor [interface]
interface - ethernet unit/port (source port)
• unit - Stack unit. (Range: 1-8)
• port - Port number. (Range: 1-26/50)
Default Setting
Shows all sessions.
Command Mode
Privileged Exec
Command Usage
This command displays the currently configured source port, destination port,
and mirror mode (i.e., RX, TX, RX/TX).
Example
The following shows mirroring configured from port 6 to port 11:
Console(config)#interface ethernet 1/11
Console(config-if)#port monitor ethernet 1/6
Console(config-if)#end
Console#show port monitor
Port Mirroring
------------------------------------Destination port(listen port):Eth1/1
Source port(monitored port) :Eth1/6
Mode
:RX/TX
Console#
29-2
Chapter 30: Rate Limit Commands
This function allows the network manager to control the maximum rate for traffic
transmitted or received on an interface. Rate limiting is configured on interfaces at
the edge of a network to limit traffic into or out of the network. Packets that exceed
the acceptable amount of traffic are dropped.
Rate limiting can be applied to individual ports or trunks. When an interface is
configured with this feature, the traffic rate will be monitored by the hardware to
verify conformity. Non-conforming traffic is dropped.
Table 30-1 Rate Limit Commands
Command
Function
Mode
rate-limit
Configures the maximum input or output rate for a port
IC
Page
30-1
rate-limit
This command defines the rate limit for a specific interface. Use this command
without specifying a rate to restore the default rate. Use the no form to restore the
default status of disabled.
Syntax
rate-limit {input | output} [rate]
no rate-limit {input | output}
• input – Input rate
• output – Output rate
• rate – Maximum value in Kbps.
(Range: 1-10000 Mbps for Gigabit Ethernet ports)
Default Setting
Gigabit Ethernet: 1000 Mbps
Command Mode
Interface Configuration (Ethernet, Port Channel)
Command Usage
Rate limits are not supported for the 10 Gigabit Ethernet ports.
Example
Console(config)#interface ethernet 1/1
Console(config-if)#rate-limit input 600
Console(config-if)#
Related Command
show interfaces switchport (27-11)
30-1
30
30-2
Rate Limit Commands
Chapter 31: Address Table Commands
These commands are used to configure the address table for filtering specified
addresses, displaying current entries, clearing the table, or setting the aging time.
Table 31-1 Address Table Commands
Command
Function
Mode
Page
mac-address-table static
Maps a static address to a port in a VLAN
GC
31-1
clear mac-address-table
dynamic
Removes any learned entries from the forwarding database PE
31-2
show mac-address-table
Displays entries in the bridge-forwarding database
PE
31-3
mac-address-table
aging-time
Sets the aging time of the address table
GC
31-4
show mac-address-table
aging-time
Shows the aging time for the address table
PE
31-4
mac-address-table static
This command maps a static address to a destination port in a VLAN. Use the no
form to remove an address.
Syntax
mac-address-table static mac-address interface interface
vlan vlan-id [action]
no mac-address-table static mac-address vlan vlan-id
• mac-address - MAC address.
• interface
• ethernet unit/port
- unit - Stack unit. (Range: 1-8)
- port - Port number. (Range: 1-26/50)
• port-channel channel-id (Range: 1-32)
• vlan-id - VLAN ID (Range: 1-4093)
• action - delete-on-reset - Assignment lasts until the switch is reset.
- permanent - Assignment is permanent.
Default Setting
No static addresses are defined. The default mode is permanent.
Command Mode
Global Configuration
31-1
31
Address Table Commands
Command Usage
The static address for a host device can be assigned to a specific port within
a specific VLAN. Use this command to add static addresses to the MAC
Address Table. Static addresses have the following characteristics:
• Static addresses will not be removed from the address table when a given
interface link is down.
• Static addresses are bound to the assigned interface and will not be moved.
When a static address is seen on another interface, the address will be
ignored and will not be written to the address table.
• A static address cannot be learned on another port until the address is
removed with the no form of this command.
Example
Console(config)#mac-address-table static 00-00-E3-11-10-10 interface
ethernet 1/1 vlan 1 delete-on-reset
Console(config)#
Related Commands
ipv6 neighbor (41-26)
clear mac-address-table dynamic
This command removes any learned entries from the forwarding database and
clears the transmit and receive counts for any static or system configured entries.
Default Setting
None
Command Mode
Privileged Exec
Example
Console#clear mac-address-table dynamic
Console#
31-2
show mac-address-table
31
show mac-address-table
This command shows classes of entries in the bridge-forwarding database.
Syntax
show mac-address-table [address mac-address [mask]] [interface interface]
[vlan vlan-id] [sort {address | vlan | interface}]
• mac-address - MAC address.
• mask - Bits to match in the address.
• interface
• ethernet unit/port
- unit - Stack unit. (Range: 1-8)
- port - Port number. (Range: 1-26/50)
• port-channel channel-id (Range: 1-32)
• vlan-id - VLAN ID (Range: 1-4093)
• sort - Sort by address, vlan or interface.
Default Setting
None
Command Mode
Privileged Exec
Command Usage
• The MAC Address Table contains the MAC addresses associated with each
interface. Note that the Type field may include the following types:
- Learned - Dynamic address entries
- Permanent - Static entry
- Delete-on-reset - Static entry to be deleted when system is reset
• The mask should be hexadecimal numbers (representing an equivalent bit
mask) in the form xx-xx-xx-xx-xx-xx that is applied to the specified MAC
address. Enter hexadecimal numbers, where an equivalent binary bit “0”
means to match a bit and “1” means to ignore a bit. For example, a mask of
00-00-00-00-00-00 means an exact match, and a mask of
FF-FF-FF-FF-FF-FF means “any.”
• The maximum number of address entries is 8191.
Example
Console#show mac-address-table
Interface MAC Address
VLAN Type
--------- ----------------- ---- ----------------Eth 1/ 1 00-00-E3-11-10-10
1 Delete-on-reset
Console#
Related Commands
show ipv6 neighbors (41-30)
31-3
31
Address Table Commands
mac-address-table aging-time
This command sets the aging time for entries in the address table. Use the no form
to restore the default aging time.
Syntax
mac-address-table aging-time seconds
no mac-address-table aging-time
seconds - Aging time. (Range: 10-1000000 seconds; 0 to disable aging)
Default Setting
300 seconds
Command Mode
Global Configuration
Command Usage
The aging time is used to age out dynamically learned forwarding information.
Example
Console(config)#mac-address-table aging-time 100
Console(config)#
show mac-address-table aging-time
This command shows the aging time for entries in the address table.
Default Setting
None
Command Mode
Privileged Exec
Example
Console#show mac-address-table aging-time
Aging time: 300 sec.
Console#
31-4
Chapter 32: LLDP Commands
Link Layer Discovery Protocol (LLDP) is used to discover basic information about
neighboring devices on the local broadcast domain. LLDP is a Layer 2 protocol that
uses periodic broadcasts to advertise information about the sending device.
Advertised information is represented in Type Length Value (TLV) format according
to the IEEE 802.1ab standard, and can include details such as device identification,
capabilities and configuration settings. LLDP also defines how to store and maintain
information gathered about the neighboring network nodes it discovers.
Table 32-1
LLDP Commands
Command
Function
Mode
lldp
Enables LLDP globally on the switch
GC
Page
32-2
lldp holdtime-multiplier
Configures the time-to-live (TTL) value sent in LLDP
advertisements
GC
32-3
lldp notification-interval
Configures the allowed interval for sending SNMP
notifications about LLDP changes
GC
32-3
lldp refresh-interval
Configures the periodic transmit interval for LLDP
advertisements
GC
32-4
lldp reinit-delay
Configures the delay before attempting to re-initialize after
LLDP ports are disabled or the link goes down
GC
32-5
lldp tx-delay
Configures a delay between the successive transmission of GC
advertisements initiated by a change in local LLDP MIB
variables
32-5
lldp admin-status
Enables LLDP transmit, receive, or transmit and receive
mode on the specified port
IC
32-6
lldp notification
Enables the transmission of SNMP trap notifications about
LLDP changes
IC
32-6
lldp basic-tlv
management-ip-address
Configures an LLDP-enabled port to advertise the
management address for this device
IC
32-7
lldp basic-tlv
port-description
Configures an LLDP-enabled port to advertise its port
description
IC
32-8
lldp basic-tlv
system-capabilities
Configures an LLDP-enabled port to advertise its system
capabilities
IC
32-8
lldp basic-tlv
system-description
Configures an LLDP-enabled port to advertise the system
description
IC
32-9
lldp basic-tlv
system-name
Configures an LLDP-enabled port to advertise its system
name
IC
32-9
lldp dot1-tlv
proto-ident*
Configures an LLDP-enabled port to advertise the supported IC
protocols
32-10
lldp dot1-tlv
proto-vid*
Configures an LLDP-enabled port to advertise port related
VLAN information
IC
32-10
lldp dot1-tlv
pvid*
Configures an LLDP-enabled port to advertise its default
VLAN ID
IC
32-11
32-1
32
LLDP Commands
Table 32-1
LLDP Commands (Continued)
Command
Function
Mode
Page
lldp dot1-tlv
vlan-name*
Configures an LLDP-enabled port to advertise its VLAN
name
IC
32-11
lldp dot3-tlv
link-agg
Configures an LLDP-enabled port to advertise its link
aggregation capabilities
IC
32-12
lldp dot3-tlv
mac-phy
Configures an LLDP-enabled port to advertise its MAC and
physical layer specifications
IC
32-12
lldp dot3-tlv
max-frame
Configures an LLDP-enabled port to advertise its maximum IC
frame size
32-13
lldp dot3-tlv
poe
Configures an LLDP-enabled port to advertise its
Power-over-Ethernet capabilities
IC
32-13
show lldp config
Shows LLDP configuration settings for all ports
PE
32-14
show lldp info
local-device
Shows LLDP global and interface-specific configuration
settings for this device
PE
32-15
show lldp info
remote-device
Shows LLDP global and interface-specific configuration
settings for remote devices
PE
32-16
show lldp info
statistics
Shows statistical counters for all LLDP-enabled interfaces
PE
32-18
* Vendor-specific options may or may not be advertised by neighboring devices.
lldp
This command enables LLDP globally on the switch. Use the no form to disable
LLDP.
Syntax
[no] lldp
Default Setting
Enabled
Command Mode
Global Configuration
Example
Console(config)#lldp
Console(config)#
32-2
lldp holdtime-multiplier
32
lldp holdtime-multiplier
This command configures the time-to-live (TTL) value sent in LLDP advertisements.
Use the no form to restore the default setting.
Syntax
lldp holdtime-multiplier value
no lldp holdtime-multiplier
value - Calculates the TTL in seconds based on
(holdtime-multiplier * refresh-interval) ≤ 65536
(Range: 2 - 10)
Default Setting
Holdtime multiplier: 4
TTL: 4*30 = 120 seconds
Command Mode
Global Configuration
Command Usage
The time-to-live tells the receiving LLDP agent how long to retain all
information pertaining to the sending LLDP agent if it does not transmit
updates in a timely manner.
Example
Console(config)#lldp holdtime-multiplier 10
Console(config)#
lldp notification-interval
This command configures the allowed interval for sending SNMP notifications about
LLDP MIB changes. Use the no form to restore the default setting.
Syntax
lldp notification-interval seconds
no lldp notification-interval
seconds - Specifies the periodic interval at which SNMP notifications are
sent. (Range: 5 - 3600 seconds)
Default Setting
5 seconds
Command Mode
Global Configuration
32-3
32
LLDP Commands
Command Usage
• This parameter only applies to SNMP applications which use data stored in
the LLDP MIB for network monitoring or management.
• Information about changes in LLDP neighbors that occur between SNMP
notifications is not transmitted. Only state changes that exist at the time of a
notification are included in the transmission. An SNMP agent should therefore
periodically check the value of lldpStatsRemTableLastChangeTime to detect
any lldpRemTablesChange notification-events missed due to throttling or
transmission loss.
Example
Console(config)#lldp notification-interval 30
Console(config)#
lldp refresh-interval
This command configures the periodic transmit interval for LLDP advertisements.
Use the no form to restore the default setting.
Syntax
lldp refresh-interval seconds
no lldp refresh-delay
seconds - Specifies the periodic interval at which LLDP advertisements
are sent. (Range: 5 - 32768 seconds)
Default Setting
30 seconds
Command Mode
Global Configuration
Command Usage
This attribute must comply with the following rule:
(refresh-interval * holdtime-multiplier) ≤ 65536
Example
Console(config)#lldp refresh-interval 60
Console(config)#
32-4
lldp reinit-delay
32
lldp reinit-delay
This command configures the delay before attempting to re-initialize after LLDP
ports are disabled or the link goes down. Use the no form to restore the default
setting.
Syntax
lldp reinit-delay seconds
no lldp reinit-delay
seconds - Specifies the delay before attempting to re-initialize LLDP.
(Range: 1 - 10 seconds)
Default Setting
2 seconds
Command Mode
Global Configuration
Command Usage
When LLDP is re-initialized on a port, all information in the remote systems
LLDP MIB associated with this port is deleted.
Example
Console(config)#lldp reinit-delay 10
Console(config)#
lldp tx-delay
This command configures a delay between the successive transmission of
advertisements initiated by a change in local LLDP MIB variables. Use the no form
to restore the default setting.
Syntax
lldp tx-delay seconds
no lldp tx-delay
seconds - Specifies the transmit delay. (Range: 1 - 8192 seconds)
Default Setting
2 seconds
Command Mode
Global Configuration
Command Usage
• The transmit delay is used to prevent a series of successive LLDP
transmissions during a short period of rapid changes in local LLDP MIB
32-5
32
LLDP Commands
objects, and to increase the probability that multiple, rather than single
changes, are reported in each transmission.
• This attribute must comply with the following rule:
(4 * tx-delay) ≤ refresh-interval
Example
Console(config)#lldp tx-delay 10
Console(config)#
lldp admin-status
This command enables LLDP transmit, receive, or transmit and receive mode on the
specified port. Use the no form to disable this feature.
Syntax
lldp admin-status {rx-only | tx-only | tx-rx}
no lldp admin-status
• rx-only - Only receive LLDP PDUs.
• tx-only - Only transmit LLDP PDUs.
• tx-rx - Both transmit and receive LLDP Protocol Data Units (PDUs).
Default Setting
tx-rx
Command Mode
Interface Configuration (Ethernet, Port Channel)
Example
Console(config)#interface ethernet 1/1
Console(config-if)#lldp admin-status rx-only
Console(config-if)#
lldp notification
This command enables the transmission of SNMP trap notifications about LLDP
changes. Use the no form to disable LLDP notifications.
Syntax
[no] lldp notification
Default Setting
Enabled
Command Mode
Interface Configuration (Ethernet, Port Channel)
32-6
lldp basic-tlv management-ip-address
32
Command Usage
• This option sends out SNMP trap notifications to designated target stations at
the interval specified by the lldp notification-interval command (page 32-3).
Trap notifications include information about state changes in the LLDP MIB
(IEEE 802.1AB), or organization-specific LLDP-EXT-DOT1 and
LLDP-EXT-DOT3 MIBs.
• SNMP trap destinations are defined using the snmp-server host command
(page 24-5).
• Information about additional changes in LLDP neighbors that occur between
SNMP notifications is not transmitted. Only state changes that exist at the time
of a trap notification are included in the transmission. An SNMP agent should
therefore periodically check the value of lldpStatsRemTableLastChangeTime
to detect any lldpRemTablesChange notification-events missed due to
throttling or transmission loss.
Example
Console(config)#interface ethernet 1/1
Console(config-if)#lldp notification
Console(config-if)#
lldp basic-tlv management-ip-address
This command configures an LLDP-enabled port to advertise the management
address for this device. Use the no form to disable this feature.
Syntax
[no] lldp basic-tlv management-ip-address
Default Setting
Enabled
Command Mode
Interface Configuration (Ethernet, Port Channel)
Command Usage
• The management address protocol packet includes the IPv4 address of the
switch. If no management address is available, the address should be the
MAC address for the CPU or for the port sending this advertisement.
• The management address TLV may also include information about the
specific interface associated with this address, and an object identifier
indicating the type of hardware component or protocol entity associated with
this address. The interface number and OID are included to assist SNMP
applications to perform network discovery by indicating enterprise specific or
other starting points for the search, such as the Interface or Entity MIB.
• Since there are typically a number of different addresses associated with a
Layer 3 device, an individual LLDP PDU may contain more than one
management address TLV.
32-7
32
LLDP Commands
• Every management address TLV that reports an address that is accessible on
a port and protocol VLAN through the particular port should be accompanied
by a port and protocol VLAN TLV that indicates the VLAN identifier (VID)
associated with the management address reported by this TLV.
Example
Console(config)#interface ethernet 1/1
Console(config-if)#lldp basic-tlv management-ip-address
Console(config-if)#
lldp basic-tlv port-description
This command configures an LLDP-enabled port to advertise its port description.
Use the no form to disable this feature.
Syntax
[no] lldp basic-tlv port-description
Default Setting
Enabled
Command Mode
Interface Configuration (Ethernet, Port Channel)
Command Usage
The port description is taken from the ifDescr object in RFC 2863, which
includes information about the manufacturer, the product name, and the
version of the interface hardware/software.
Example
Console(config)#interface ethernet 1/1
Console(config-if)#lldp basic-tlv port-description
Console(config-if)#
lldp basic-tlv system-capabilities
This command configures an LLDP-enabled port to advertise its system capabilities.
Use the no form to disable this feature.
Syntax
[no] lldp basic-tlv system-capabilities
Default Setting
Enabled
Command Mode
Interface Configuration (Ethernet, Port Channel)
32-8
lldp basic-tlv system-description
32
Command Usage
The system capabilities identifies the primary function(s) of the system and
whether or not these primary functions are enabled. The information
advertised by this TLV is described in IEEE 802.1AB.
Example
Console(config)#interface ethernet 1/1
Console(config-if)#lldp basic-tlv system-capabilities
Console(config-if)#
lldp basic-tlv system-description
This command configures an LLDP-enabled port to advertise the system
description. Use the no form to disable this feature.
Syntax
[no] lldp basic-tlv system-description
Default Setting
Enabled
Command Mode
Interface Configuration (Ethernet, Port Channel)
Command Usage
The system description is taken from the sysDescr object in RFC 3418, which
includes the full name and version identification of the system's hardware type,
software operating system, and networking software.
Example
Console(config)#interface ethernet 1/1
Console(config-if)#lldp basic-tlv system-description
Console(config-if)#
lldp basic-tlv system-name
This command configures an LLDP-enabled port to advertise the system name. Use
the no form to disable this feature.
Syntax
[no] lldp basic-tlv system-name
Default Setting
Enabled
Command Mode
Interface Configuration (Ethernet, Port Channel)
32-9
32
LLDP Commands
Command Usage
The system name is taken from the sysName object in RFC 3418, which
contains the system’s administratively assigned name, and is in turn based on
the hostname command (page 23-1).
Example
Console(config)#interface ethernet 1/1
Console(config-if)#lldp basic-tlv system-name
Console(config-if)#
lldp dot1-tlv proto-ident
This command configures an LLDP-enabled port to advertise the supported
protocols. Use the no form to disable this feature.
Syntax
[no] lldp dot1-tlv proto-ident
Default Setting
Enabled
Command Mode
Interface Configuration (Ethernet, Port Channel)
Command Usage
This option advertises the protocols that are accessible through this interface.
Example
Console(config)#interface ethernet 1/1
Console(config-if)#no lldp dot1-tlv proto-ident
Console(config-if)#
lldp dot1-tlv proto-vid
This command configures an LLDP-enabled port to advertise port related VLAN
information. Use the no form to disable this feature.
Syntax
[no] lldp dot1-tlv proto-vid
Default Setting
Enabled
Command Mode
Interface Configuration (Ethernet, Port Channel)
32-10
lldp dot1-tlv pvid
32
Command Usage
This option advertises the port-based and protocol-based VLANs configured
on this interface (see "Configuring VLAN Interfaces" on page 34-7 and
"Configuring Protocol-based VLANs" on page 34-20).
Example
Console(config)#interface ethernet 1/1
Console(config-if)#no lldp dot1-tlv proto-vid
Console(config-if)#
lldp dot1-tlv pvid
This command configures an LLDP-enabled port to advertise its default VLAN ID.
Use the no form to disable this feature.
Syntax
[no] lldp dot1-tlv pvid
Default Setting
Enabled
Command Mode
Interface Configuration (Ethernet, Port Channel)
Command Usage
The port’s default VLAN identifier (PVID) indicates the VLAN with which
untagged or priority-tagged frames are associated (see "switchport native
vlan" on page 34-10).
Example
Console(config)#interface ethernet 1/1
Console(config-if)#no lldp dot1-tlv pvid
Console(config-if)#
lldp dot1-tlv vlan-name
This command configures an LLDP-enabled port to advertise its VLAN name. Use
the no form to disable this feature.
Syntax
[no] lldp dot1-tlv vlan-name
Default Setting
Enabled
Command Mode
Interface Configuration (Ethernet, Port Channel)
32-11
32
LLDP Commands
Command Usage
This option advertises the name of all VLANs to which this interface has been
assigned. See "switchport allowed vlan" on page 34-11 and "protocol-vlan
protocol-group (Configuring Interfaces)" on page 34-21.
Example
Console(config)#interface ethernet 1/1
Console(config-if)#no lldp dot1-tlv vlan-name
Console(config-if)#
lldp dot3-tlv link-agg
This command configures an LLDP-enabled port to advertise link aggregation
capabilities. Use the no form to disable this feature.
Syntax
[no] lldp dot3-tlv link-agg
Default Setting
Enabled
Command Mode
Interface Configuration (Ethernet, Port Channel)
Command Usage
This option advertises link aggregation capabilities, aggregation status of the
link, and the 802.3 aggregated port identifier if this interface is currently a link
aggregation member.
Example
Console(config)#interface ethernet 1/1
Console(config-if)#no lldp dot3-tlv link-agg
Console(config-if)#
lldp dot3-tlv mac-phy
This command configures an LLDP-enabled port to advertise its MAC and physical
layer capabilities. Use the no form to disable this feature.
Syntax
[no] lldp dot3-tlv mac-phy
Default Setting
Enabled
Command Mode
Interface Configuration (Ethernet, Port Channel)
32-12
lldp dot3-tlv max-frame
32
Command Usage
This option advertises MAC/PHY configuration/status which includes
information about auto-negotiation support/capabilities, and operational
Multistation Access Unit (MAU) type.
Example
Console(config)#interface ethernet 1/1
Console(config-if)#no lldp dot3-tlv mac-phy
Console(config-if)#
lldp dot3-tlv max-frame
This command configures an LLDP-enabled port to advertise its maximum frame
size. Use the no form to disable this feature.
Syntax
[no] lldp dot3-tlv max-frame
Default Setting
Enabled
Command Mode
Interface Configuration (Ethernet, Port Channel)
Command Usage
Refer to "Frame Size Commands" on page 23-9 for information on configuring
the maximum frame size for this switch.
Example
Console(config)#interface ethernet 1/1
Console(config-if)#lldp dot3-tlv max-frame
Console(config-if)#
lldp dot3-tlv poe
This command configures an LLDP-enabled port to advertise its
Power-over-Ethernet (PoE) capabilities. Use the no form to disable this feature.
Syntax
[no] lldp dot3-tlv poe
Default Setting
Enabled
Command Mode
Interface Configuration (Ethernet, Port Channel)
32-13
32
LLDP Commands
Command Usage
This option advertises Power-over-Ethernet capabilities, including whether or
not PoE is supported, currently enabled, if the port pins through which power
is delivered can be controlled, the port pins selected to deliver power, and the
power class.
Example
Console(config)#interface ethernet 1/1
Console(config-if)#lldp dot3-tlv poe
Console(config-if)#
show lldp config
This command shows LLDP configuration settings for all ports.
Syntax
show lldp config [detail interface]
• detail - Shows configuration summary.
• interface
• ethernet unit/port
- unit - Stack unit. (Range: 1-8)
- port - Port number. (Range: 1-26/50)
• port-channel channel-id (Range: 1-32)
Command Mode
Privileged Exec
Example
Console#show lldp config
LLDP Global Configuation
LLDP
LLDP
LLDP
LLDP
LLDP
LLDP
Enable
Transmit interval
Hold Time Multiplier
Delay Interval
Reinit Delay
Notification Interval
:
:
:
:
:
:
Yes
30
4
2
2
5
LLDP Port Configuration
Interface |AdminStatus NotificationEnabled
--------- + ----------- ------------------Eth 1/1
| Tx-Rx
True
Eth 1/2
| Tx-Rx
True
Eth 1/3
| Tx-Rx
True
Eth 1/4
| Tx-Rx
True
Eth 1/5
| Tx-Rx
True
.
.
.
32-14
show lldp info local-device
32
Console#show lldp config detail ethernet 1/1
LLDP Port Configuration Detail
Port : Eth 1/1
Admin Status : Tx-Rx
Notification Enabled : True
Basic TLVs Advertised:
port-description
system-name
system-description
system-capabilities
management-ip-address
802.1 specific TLVs Advertised:
*port-vid
*vlan-name
*proto-vlan
*proto-ident
802.3 specific TLVs Advertised:
*mac-phy
*poe
*link-agg
*max-frame
Console#
show lldp info local-device
This command shows LLDP global and interface-specific configuration settings for
this device.
Syntax
show lldp info local-device [detail interface]
• detail - Shows detailed information.
• interface
• ethernet unit/port
- unit - Stack unit. (Range: 1-8)
- port - Port number. (Range: 1-26/50)
• port-channel channel-id (Range: 1-32)
Command Mode
Privileged Exec
32-15
32
LLDP Commands
Example
Console#show lldp info local-device
LLDP Local System Information
Chassis Type : MAC Address
Chassis ID
: 00-01-02-03-04-05
System Name :
System Description : 24/48 port 10/100/1000 Stackable Managed Switch with
2 X 10G uplinks
System Capabilities Support : Bridge, Router
System Capabilities Enable : Bridge, Router
Management Address : 192.168.0.2 (IPv4)
LLDP Port Information
Interface |PortID Type
PortID
PortDesc
--------- + ---------------- ----------------- --------------------------Eth 1/1 |MAC Address
00-01-02-03-04-06 Ethernet Port on unit 1, port 1
Eth 1/2 |MAC Address
00-01-02-03-04-07 Ethernet Port on unit 1, port 2
Eth 1/3 |MAC Address
00-01-02-03-04-08 Ethernet Port on unit 1, port 3
Eth 1/4 |MAC Address
00-01-02-03-04-09 Ethernet Port on unit 1, port 4
.
.
.
Console#show lldp info local-device detail ethernet 1/1
LLDP Port Information Detail
Port
: Eth 1/1
Port Type : MAC Address
Port ID
: 00-01-02-03-04-06
Port Desc : Ethernet Port on unit 1, port 1
Console#
show lldp info remote-device
This command shows LLDP global and interface-specific configuration settings for
remote devices attached to an LLDP-enabled port.
Syntax
show lldp info remote-device [detail interface]
• detail - Shows detailed information.
• interface
• ethernet unit/port
- unit - Stack unit. (Range: 1-8)
- port - Port number. (Range: 1-26/50)
• port-channel channel-id (Range: 1-32)
Command Mode
Privileged Exec
32-16
show lldp info remote-device
32
Example
Console#show lldp info remote-device
LLDP Remote Devices Information
Interface | ChassisId
PortId
SysName
--------- + ----------------- ----------------- --------------------Eth 1/1
| 00-01-02-03-04-05 00-01-02-03-04-06
Console#show lldp info remote-device detail ethernet 1/1
Chassis Type
Chassis Id
PortID Type
PortID
SysName
SysDescr
:
:
:
:
:
MAC Address
00-00-E8-90-00-00
MAC Address
00-00-E8-90-00-01
: 24/48 port 10/100/1000 Stackable Managed Switch
with 2 X 10G uplinks
PortDescr
: Ethernet Port on unit 1, port 1
SystemCapSupported : Bridge, Router
SystemCapEnabled
: Bridge, Router
Remote Management Address :
192.168.0.5 (IPv4)
Remote Port VID : 1
Remote Port-Protocol VLAN :
VLAN-1 : supported, disabled
Remote VLAN Name :
VLAN-1 : DefaultVlan
Remote Protocol Identity (Hex) : 88-CC
Remote MAC/PHY configuration status :
Remote port auto-neg supported : Yes
Remote port auto-neg enabled : Yes
Remote port auto-neg advertised cap (Hex) : 6C01
Remote port MAU type : 30
Remote Link Aggregation :
Remote link aggregation capable : Yes
Remote link aggragation enable : No
Remote link aggragation port id : 0
Remote Max Frame Size : 1522
Console#
32-17
32
LLDP Commands
show lldp info statistics
This command shows statistics based on traffic received through all attached
LLDP-enabled interfaces.
Syntax
show lldp info statistics [detail interface]
• detail - Shows detailed information.
• interface
• ethernet unit/port
- unit - Stack unit. (Range: 1-8)
- port - Port number. (Range: 1-26/50)
• port-channel channel-id (Range: 1-32)
Command Mode
Privileged Exec
Example
switch#show lldp info statistics
LLDP Device Statistics
Neighbor Entries List Last Updated
New Neighbor Entries Count
Neighbor Entries Deleted Count
Neighbor Entries Dropped Count
Neighbor Entries Ageout Count
:
:
:
:
:
2450279 seconds
1
0
0
0
Port | NumFramesRecvd NumFramesSent NumFramesDiscarded
----- + -------------- ------------- -----------------1
| 0
20
0
2
| 13
13
0
3
| 2
2
0
4
| 0
0
0
5
| 0
0
0
.
.
.
switch#show lldp info statistics detail ethernet 1/1
LLDP Port Statistics Detail
PortName
Frames Discarded
Frames Invalid
Frames Received
Frames Sent
TLVs Unrecognized
TLVs Discarded
Neighbor Ageouts
switch#
32-18
:
:
:
:
:
:
:
:
Eth 1/1
0
0
12
13
0
0
0
Chapter 33: Spanning Tree Commands
This section includes commands that configure the Spanning Tree Algorithm (STA)
globally for the switch, and commands that configure STA for the selected interface.
Table 33-1 Spanning Tree Commands
Command
Function
Mode
Page
spanning-tree
Enables the spanning tree protocol
GC
33-2
spanning-tree mode
Configures STP, RSTP or MSTP mode
GC
33-2
spanning-tree forward-time
Configures the spanning tree bridge forward time
GC
33-4
spanning-tree hello-time
Configures the spanning tree bridge hello time
GC
33-4
spanning-tree max-age
Configures the spanning tree bridge maximum age
GC
33-5
spanning-tree priority
Configures the spanning tree bridge priority
GC
33-6
spanning-tree
path-cost method
Configures the path cost method for RSTP/MSTP
GC
33-6
spanning-tree
transmission-limit
Configures the transmission limit for RSTP/MSTP
GC
33-7
spanning-tree
mst-configuration
Changes to MSTP configuration mode
GC
33-7
mst vlan
Adds VLANs to a spanning tree instance
MST
33-8
mst priority
Configures the priority of a spanning tree instance
MST
33-9
name
Configures the name for the multiple spanning tree
MST
33-9
revision
Configures the revision number for the multiple spanning
tree
MST
33-10
max-hops
Configures the maximum number of hops allowed in the
region before a BPDU is discarded
MST
33-11
spanning-tree
spanning-disabled
Disables spanning tree for an interface
IC
33-11
spanning-tree cost
Configures the spanning tree path cost of an interface
IC
33-12
spanning-tree port-priority
Configures the spanning tree priority of an interface
IC
33-13
spanning-tree edge-port
Enables fast forwarding for edge ports
IC
33-13
spanning-tree portfast
Sets an interface to fast forwarding
IC
33-14
spanning-tree link-type
Configures the link type for RSTP/MSTP
IC
33-15
spanning-tree mst cost
Configures the path cost of an instance in the MST
IC
33-16
spanning-tree mst
port-priority
Configures the priority of an instance in the MST
IC
33-17
spanning-tree
protocol-migration
Re-checks the appropriate BPDU format
PE
33-17
33-1
33
Spanning Tree Commands
Table 33-1 Spanning Tree Commands (Continued)
Command
Function
show spanning-tree
Shows spanning tree configuration for the common
PE
spanning tree (i.e., overall bridge), a selected interface, or
an instance within the multiple spanning tree
Mode
Page
33-18
show spanning-tree mst
configuration
Shows the multiple spanning tree configuration
33-20
PE
spanning-tree
This command enables the Spanning Tree Algorithm globally for the switch. Use the
no form to disable it.
Syntax
[no] spanning-tree
Default Setting
Spanning tree is enabled.
Command Mode
Global Configuration
Command Usage
The Spanning Tree Algorithm (STA) can be used to detect and disable
network loops, and to provide backup links between switches, bridges or
routers. This allows the switch to interact with other bridging devices (that is,
an STA-compliant switch, bridge or router) in your network to ensure that only
one route exists between any two stations on the network, and provide backup
links which automatically take over when a primary link goes down.
Example
This example shows how to enable the Spanning Tree Algorithm for the switch:
Console(config)#spanning-tree
Console(config)#
spanning-tree mode
This command selects the spanning tree mode for this switch. Use the no form to
restore the default.
Syntax
spanning-tree mode {stp | rstp | mstp}
no spanning-tree mode
• stp - Spanning Tree Protocol (IEEE 802.1D)
• rstp - Rapid Spanning Tree Protocol (IEEE 802.1w)
• mstp - Multiple Spanning Tree (IEEE 802.1s)
33-2
spanning-tree mode
33
Default Setting
rstp
Command Mode
Global Configuration
Command Usage
• Spanning Tree Protocol
Uses RSTP for the internal state machine, but sends only 802.1D BPDUs.
- This creates one spanning tree instance for the entire network. If multiple
VLANs are implemented on a network, the path between specific VLAN
members may be inadvertently disabled to prevent network loops, thus
isolating group members. When operating multiple VLANs, we recommend
selecting the MSTP option.
• Rapid Spanning Tree Protocol
RSTP supports connections to either STP or RSTP nodes by monitoring
the incoming protocol messages and dynamically adjusting the type of
protocol messages the RSTP node transmits, as described below:
- STP Mode – If the switch receives an 802.1D BPDU after a port’s migration
delay timer expires, the switch assumes it is connected to an 802.1D bridge
and starts using only 802.1D BPDUs.
- RSTP Mode – If RSTP is using 802.1D BPDUs on a port and receives an
RSTP BPDU after the migration delay expires, RSTP restarts the migration
delay timer and begins using RSTP BPDUs on that port.
• Multiple Spanning Tree Protocol
- To allow multiple spanning trees to operate over the network, you must
configure a related set of bridges with the same MSTP configuration,
allowing them to participate in a specific set of spanning tree instances.
- A spanning tree instance can exist only on bridges that have compatible
VLAN instance assignments.
- Be careful when switching between spanning tree modes. Changing modes
stops all spanning-tree instances for the previous mode and restarts the
system in the new mode, temporarily disrupting user traffic.
Example
The following example configures the switch to use Rapid Spanning Tree:
Console(config)#spanning-tree mode rstp
Console(config)#
33-3
33
Spanning Tree Commands
spanning-tree forward-time
This command configures the spanning tree bridge forward time globally for this
switch. Use the no form to restore the default.
Syntax
spanning-tree forward-time seconds
no spanning-tree forward-time
seconds - Time in seconds. (Range: 4 - 30 seconds)
The minimum value is the higher of 4 or [(max-age / 2) + 1].
Default Setting
15 seconds
Command Mode
Global Configuration
Command Usage
This command sets the maximum time (in seconds) the root device will wait
before changing states (i.e., discarding to learning to forwarding). This delay is
required because every device must receive information about topology
changes before it starts to forward frames. In addition, each port needs time to
listen for conflicting information that would make it return to the discarding
state; otherwise, temporary data loops might result.
Example
Console(config)#spanning-tree forward-time 20
Console(config)#
spanning-tree hello-time
This command configures the spanning tree bridge hello time globally for this switch.
Use the no form to restore the default.
Syntax
spanning-tree hello-time time
no spanning-tree hello-time
time - Time in seconds. (Range: 1-10 seconds).
The maximum value is the lower of 10 or [(max-age / 2) -1].
Default Setting
2 seconds
Command Mode
Global Configuration
Command Usage
This command sets the time interval (in seconds) at which the root device
transmits a configuration message.
33-4
spanning-tree max-age
33
Example
Console(config)#spanning-tree hello-time 5
Console(config)#
Related Commands
spanning-tree forward-time (33-4)
spanning-tree max-age (33-5)
spanning-tree max-age
This command configures the spanning tree bridge maximum age globally for this
switch. Use the no form to restore the default.
Syntax
spanning-tree max-age seconds
no spanning-tree max-age
seconds - Time in seconds. (Range: 6-40 seconds)
The minimum value is the higher of 6 or [2 x (hello-time + 1)].
The maximum value is the lower of 40 or [2 x (forward-time - 1)].
Default Setting
20 seconds
Command Mode
Global Configuration
Command Usage
This command sets the maximum time (in seconds) a device can wait without
receiving a configuration message before attempting to reconfigure. All device
ports (except for designated ports) should receive configuration messages at
regular intervals. Any port that ages out STA information (provided in the last
configuration message) becomes the designated port for the attached LAN. If
it is a root port, a new root port is selected from among the device ports
attached to the network.
Example
Console(config)#spanning-tree max-age 40
Console(config)#
Related Commands
spanning-tree forward-time (33-4)
spanning-tree hello-time (33-4)
33-5
33
Spanning Tree Commands
spanning-tree priority
This command configures the spanning tree priority globally for this switch. Use the
no form to restore the default.
Syntax
spanning-tree priority priority
no spanning-tree priority
priority - Priority of the bridge. (Range: 0 - 65535)
(Range – 0-61440, in steps of 4096; Options: 0, 4096, 8192, 12288,
16384, 20480, 24576, 28672, 32768, 36864, 40960, 45056, 49152,
53248, 57344, 61440)
Default Setting
32768
Command Mode
Global Configuration
Command Usage
Bridge priority is used in selecting the root device, root port, and designated
port. The device with the highest priority (i.e., lower numeric value) becomes
the STA root device. However, if all devices have the same priority, the device
with the lowest MAC address will then become the root device.
Example
Console(config)#spanning-tree priority 40000
Console(config)#
spanning-tree pathcost method
This command configures the path cost method used for Rapid Spanning Tree and
Multiple Spanning Tree. Use the no form to restore the default.
Syntax
spanning-tree pathcost method {long | short}
no spanning-tree pathcost method
• long - Specifies 32-bit based values that range from 1-200,000,000.
This method is based on the IEEE 802.1w Rapid Spanning Tree Protocol.
• short - Specifies 16-bit based values that range from 1-65535.
This method is based on the IEEE 802.1 Spanning Tree Protocol.
Default Setting
Long method
Command Mode
Global Configuration
33-6
spanning-tree transmission-limit
33
Command Usage
The path cost method is used to determine the best path between devices.
Therefore, lower values should be assigned to ports attached to faster media,
and higher values assigned to ports with slower media. Note that path cost
(page 33-12) takes precedence over port priority (page 33-13).
Example
Console(config)#spanning-tree pathcost method long
Console(config)#
spanning-tree transmission-limit
This command configures the minimum interval between the transmission of
consecutive RSTP/MSTP BPDUs. Use the no form to restore the default.
Syntax
spanning-tree transmission-limit count
no spanning-tree transmission-limit
count - The transmission limit in seconds. (Range: 1-10)
Default Setting
3
Command Mode
Global Configuration
Command Usage
This command limits the maximum transmission rate for BPDUs.
Example
Console(config)#spanning-tree transmission-limit 4
Console(config)#
spanning-tree mst-configuration
This command changes to Multiple Spanning Tree (MST) configuration mode.
Default Setting
• No VLANs are mapped to any MST instance.
• The region name is set the switch’s MAC address.
Command Mode
Global Configuration
Example
Console(config)#spanning-tree mst-configuration
Console(config-mstp)#
33-7
33
Spanning Tree Commands
Related Commands
mst vlan (33-8)
mst priority (33-9)
name (33-9)
revision (33-10)
max-hops (33-11)
mst vlan
This command adds VLANs to a spanning tree instance. Use the no form to remove
the specified VLANs. Using the no form without any VLAN parameters to remove all
VLANs.
Syntax
[no] mst instance_id vlan vlan-range
• instance_id - Instance identifier of the spanning tree. (Range: 0-4094)
• vlan-range - Range of VLANs. (Range: 1-4093)
Default Setting
none
Command Mode
MST Configuration
Command Usage
• Use this command to group VLANs into spanning tree instances. MSTP
generates a unique spanning tree for each instance. This provides multiple
pathways across the network, thereby balancing the traffic load, preventing
wide-scale disruption when a bridge node in a single instance fails, and
allowing for faster convergence of a new topology for the failed instance.
• By default all VLANs are assigned to the Internal Spanning Tree (MSTI 0) that
connects all bridges and LANs within the MST region. This switch supports up
to 58 instances. You should try to group VLANs which cover the same general
area of your network. However, remember that you must configure all bridges
within the same MSTI Region (page 33-9) with the same set of instances, and
the same instance (on each bridge) with the same set of VLANs. Also, note
that RSTP treats each MSTI region as a single node, connecting all regions
to the Common Spanning Tree.
Example
Console(config-mstp)#mst 1 vlan 2-5
Console(config-mstp)#
33-8
mst priority
33
mst priority
This command configures the priority of a spanning tree instance. Use the no form
to restore the default.
Syntax
mst instance_id priority priority
no mst instance_id priority
• instance_id - Instance identifier of the spanning tree. (Range: 0-4094)
• priority - Priority of the a spanning tree instance.
(Range: 0-61440 in steps of 4096; Options: 0, 4096, 8192, 12288, 16384,
20480, 24576, 28672, 32768, 36864, 40960, 45056, 49152, 53248, 57344,
61440)
Default Setting
32768
Command Mode
MST Configuration
Command Usage
• MST priority is used in selecting the root bridge and alternate bridge of the
specified instance. The device with the highest priority (i.e., lowest numerical
value) becomes the MSTI root device. However, if all devices have the same
priority, the device with the lowest MAC address will then become the root
device.
• You can set this switch to act as the MSTI root device by specifying a priority
of 0, or as the MSTI alternate device by specifying a priority of 16384.
Example
Console(config-mstp)#mst 1 priority 4096
Console(config-mstp)#
name
This command configures the name for the multiple spanning tree region in which
this switch is located. Use the no form to clear the name.
Syntax
name name
name - Name of the spanning tree.
Default Setting
Switch’s MAC address
Command Mode
MST Configuration
33-9
33
Spanning Tree Commands
Command Usage
The MST region name and revision number (page 33-10) are used to
designate a unique MST region. A bridge (i.e., spanning-tree compliant device
such as this switch) can only belong to one MST region. And all bridges in the
same region must be configured with the same MST instances.
Example
Console(config-mstp)#name R&D
Console(config-mstp)#
Related Commands
revision (33-10)
revision
This command configures the revision number for this multiple spanning tree
configuration of this switch. Use the no form to restore the default.
Syntax
revision number
number - Revision number of the spanning tree. (Range: 0-65535)
Default Setting
0
Command Mode
MST Configuration
Command Usage
The MST region name (page 33-9) and revision number are used to designate
a unique MST region. A bridge (i.e., spanning-tree compliant device such as
this switch) can only belong to one MST region. And all bridges in the same
region must be configured with the same MST instances.
Example
Console(config-mstp)#revision 1
Console(config-mstp)#
Related Commands
name (33-9)
33-10
max-hops
33
max-hops
This command configures the maximum number of hops in the region before a
BPDU is discarded. Use the no form to restore the default.
Syntax
max-hops hop-number
hop-number - Maximum hop number for multiple spanning tree.
(Range: 1-40)
Default Setting
20
Command Mode
MST Configuration
Command Usage
An MSTI region is treated as a single node by the STP and RSTP protocols.
Therefore, the message age for BPDUs inside an MSTI region is never
changed. However, each spanning tree instance within a region, and the
internal spanning tree (IST) that connects these instances use a hop count to
specify the maximum number of bridges that will propagate a BPDU. Each
bridge decrements the hop count by one before passing on the BPDU. When
the hop count reaches zero, the message is dropped.
Example
Console(config-mstp)#max-hops 30
Console(config-mstp)#
spanning-tree spanning-disabled
This command disables the spanning tree algorithm for the specified interface. Use
the no form to reenable the spanning tree algorithm for the specified interface.
Syntax
[no] spanning-tree spanning-disabled
Default Setting
Enabled
Command Mode
Interface Configuration (Ethernet, Port Channel)
Example
This example disables the spanning tree algorithm for port 5.
Console(config)#interface ethernet 1/5
Console(config-if)#spanning-tree spanning-disabled
Console(config-if)#
33-11
33
Spanning Tree Commands
spanning-tree cost
This command configures the spanning tree path cost for the specified interface.
Use the no form to restore the default auto-configuration mode.
Syntax
spanning-tree cost cost
no spanning-tree cost
cost - The path cost for the port.
(Range: 0 for auto-configuration, 1-65535 for short path cost method28,
1-200,000,000 for long path cost method)
Table 33-2 Recommended STA Path Cost Range
Port Type
Short Path Cost
(IEEE 802.1D-1998)
Long Path Cost
(802.1D-2004)
Gigabit Ethernet
2,000-65,535
2,000-200,000
10G Ethernet
200-20,000
200-20,000
Default Setting
By default, the system automatically detects the speed and duplex mode used
on each port, and configures the path cost according to the values shown
below. Path cost “0” is used to indicate auto-configuration mode. When the
short path cost method is selected and the default path cost recommended by
the IEEE 8021D-2004 standard exceeds 65,535, the default is set to 65,535.
Table 33-3 Default STA Path Costs
Port Type
Short Path Cost
(IEEE 802.1D-1998)
Long Path Cost
(802.1D-2004)
Gigabit Ethernet
10,000
10,000
10G Ethernet
1,000
1,000
Command Mode
Interface Configuration (Ethernet, Port Channel)
Command Usage
• This command is used by the Spanning Tree Algorithm to determine the best
path between devices. Therefore, lower values should be assigned to ports
attached to faster media, and higher values assigned to ports with slower
media.
• Path cost takes precedence over port priority.
• When the spanning-tree pathcost method (page 33-6) is set to short, the
maximum value for path cost is 65,535.
28. Use the spanning-tree pathcost method command on page 33-6 to set the path cost method.
33-12
spanning-tree port-priority
33
Example
Console(config)#interface ethernet 1/5
Console(config-if)#spanning-tree cost 50
Console(config-if)#
spanning-tree port-priority
This command configures the priority for the specified interface. Use the no form to
restore the default.
Syntax
spanning-tree port-priority priority
no spanning-tree port-priority
priority - The priority for a port. (Range: 0-240, in steps of 16)
Default Setting
128
Command Mode
Interface Configuration (Ethernet, Port Channel)
Command Usage
• This command defines the priority for the use of a port in the Spanning Tree
Algorithm. If the path cost for all ports on a switch are the same, the port with
the highest priority (that is, lowest value) will be configured as an active link in
the spanning tree.
• Where more than one port is assigned the highest priority, the port with lowest
numeric identifier will be enabled.
Example
Console(config)#interface ethernet 1/5
Console(config-if)#spanning-tree port-priority 0
Related Commands
spanning-tree cost (33-12)
spanning-tree edge-port
This command specifies an interface as an edge port. Use the no form to restore the
default.
Syntax
[no] spanning-tree edge-port
Default Setting
Disabled
Command Mode
Interface Configuration (Ethernet, Port Channel)
33-13
33
Spanning Tree Commands
Command Usage
• You can enable this option if an interface is attached to a LAN segment that
is at the end of a bridged LAN or to an end node. Since end nodes cannot
cause forwarding loops, they can pass directly through to the spanning tree
forwarding state. Specifying Edge Ports provides quicker convergence for
devices such as workstations or servers, retains the current forwarding
database to reduce the amount of frame flooding required to rebuild address
tables during reconfiguration events, does not cause the spanning tree to
initiate reconfiguration when the interface changes state, and also overcomes
other STA-related timeout problems. However, remember that Edge Port
should only be enabled for ports connected to an end-node device.
• This command has the same effect as the spanning-tree portfast.
Example
Console(config)#interface ethernet ethernet 1/5
Console(config-if)#spanning-tree edge-port
Console(config-if)#
Related Commands
spanning-tree portfast (33-14)
spanning-tree portfast
This command sets an interface to fast forwarding. Use the no form to disable fast
forwarding.
Syntax
[no] spanning-tree portfast
Default Setting
Disabled
Command Mode
Interface Configuration (Ethernet, Port Channel)
Command Usage
• This command is used to enable/disable the fast spanning-tree mode for the
selected port. In this mode, ports skip the Discarding and Learning states, and
proceed straight to Forwarding.
• Since end-nodes cannot cause forwarding loops, they can be passed through
the spanning tree state changes more quickly than allowed by standard
convergence time. Fast forwarding can achieve quicker convergence for
end-node workstations and servers, and also overcome other STA related
timeout problems. (Remember that fast forwarding should only be enabled for
ports connected to a LAN segment that is at the end of a bridged LAN or for
an end-node device.)
33-14
spanning-tree link-type
33
• This command is the same as spanning-tree edge-port, and is only included
for backward compatibility with earlier products. Note that this command may
be removed for future software versions.
Example
Console(config)#interface ethernet 1/5
Console(config-if)#bridge-group 1 portfast
Console(config-if)#
Related Commands
spanning-tree edge-port (33-13)
spanning-tree link-type
This command configures the link type for Rapid Spanning Tree and Multiple
Spanning Tree. Use the no form to restore the default.
Syntax
spanning-tree link-type {auto | point-to-point | shared}
no spanning-tree link-type
• auto - Automatically derived from the duplex mode setting.
• point-to-point - Point-to-point link.
• shared - Shared medium.
Default Setting
auto
Command Mode
Interface Configuration (Ethernet, Port Channel)
Command Usage
• Specify a point-to-point link if the interface can only be connected to exactly
one other bridge, or a shared link if it can be connected to two or more bridges.
• When automatic detection is selected, the switch derives the link type from the
duplex mode. A full-duplex interface is considered a point-to-point link, while
a half-duplex interface is assumed to be on a shared link.
• RSTP only works on point-to-point links between two bridges. If you designate
a port as a shared link, RSTP is forbidden. Since MSTP is an extension of
RSTP, this same restriction applies.
Example
Console(config)#interface ethernet ethernet 1/5
Console(config-if)#spanning-tree link-type point-to-point
33-15
33
Spanning Tree Commands
spanning-tree mst cost
This command configures the path cost on a spanning instance in the Multiple
Spanning Tree. Use the no form to restore the default auto-configuration mode.
Syntax
spanning-tree mst instance_id cost cost
no spanning-tree mst instance_id cost
• instance_id - Instance identifier of the spanning tree.
(Range: 0-4094, no leading zeroes)
• cost - Path cost for an interface. (Range: 0 for auto-configuration, 1-65535
for short path cost method29, 1-200,000,000 for long path cost method)
The recommended path cost range is listed in Table 33-2 on page 33-12.
Default Setting
By default, the system automatically detects the speed and duplex mode
used on each port, and configures the path cost according to the values
shown below. Path cost “0” is used to indicate auto-configuration mode.
When the short path cost method is selected and the default path cost
recommended by the IEEE 8021D-2004 standard exceeds 65,535, the
default is set to 65,535. The default path costs are listed in Table 33-3 on
page 33-12.
Command Mode
Interface Configuration (Ethernet, Port Channel)
Command Usage
• Each spanning-tree instance is associated with a unique set of VLAN IDs.
• This command is used by the multiple spanning-tree algorithm to determine
the best path between devices. Therefore, lower values should be assigned
to interfaces attached to faster media, and higher values assigned to
interfaces with slower media.
• Use the no spanning-tree mst cost command to specify auto-configuration
mode.
• Path cost takes precedence over interface priority.
Example
Console(config)#interface ethernet ethernet 1/5
Console(config-if)#spanning-tree mst 1 cost 50
Console(config-if)#
Related Commands
spanning-tree mst port-priority (33-17)
29. Use the spanning-tree pathcost method command on page 33-6 to set the path cost method.
33-16
spanning-tree mst port-priority
33
spanning-tree mst port-priority
This command configures the interface priority on a spanning instance in the
Multiple Spanning Tree. Use the no form to restore the default.
Syntax
spanning-tree mst instance_id port-priority priority
no spanning-tree mst instance_id port-priority
• instance_id - Instance identifier of the spanning tree.
(Range: 0-4094, no leading zeroes)
• priority - Priority for an interface. (Range: 0-240 in steps of 16)
Default Setting
128
Command Mode
Interface Configuration (Ethernet, Port Channel)
Command Usage
• This command defines the priority for the use of an interface in the multiple
spanning-tree. If the path cost for all interfaces on a switch are the same, the
interface with the highest priority (that is, lowest value) will be configured as
an active link in the spanning tree.
• Where more than one interface is assigned the highest priority, the interface
with lowest numeric identifier will be enabled.
Example
Console(config)#interface ethernet ethernet 1/5
Console(config-if)#spanning-tree mst 1 port-priority 0
Console(config-if)#
Related Commands
spanning-tree mst cost (33-16)
spanning-tree protocol-migration
This command re-checks the appropriate BPDU format to send on the selected
interface.
Syntax
spanning-tree protocol-migration interface
interface
• ethernet unit/port
- unit - Stack unit. (Range: 1-8)
- port - Port number. (Range: 1-26/50)
• port-channel channel-id (Range: 1-32)
33-17
33
Spanning Tree Commands
Command Mode
Privileged Exec
Command Usage
If at any time the switch detects STP BPDUs, including Configuration or
Topology Change Notification BPDUs, it will automatically set the selected
interface to forced STP-compatible mode. However, you can also use the
spanning-tree protocol-migration command at any time to manually
re-check the appropriate BPDU format to send on the selected interfaces
(i.e., RSTP or STP-compatible).
Example
Console#spanning-tree protocol-migration eth 1/5
Console#
show spanning-tree
This command shows the configuration for the common spanning tree (CST) or for
an instance within the multiple spanning tree (MST).
Syntax
show spanning-tree [interface | mst instance_id]
• interface
• ethernet unit/port
- unit - Stack unit. (Range: 1-8)
- port - Port number. (Range: 1-26/50)
• port-channel channel-id (Range: 1-32)
• instance_id - Instance identifier of the multiple spanning tree.
(Range: 0-4094, no leading zeroes)
Default Setting
None
Command Mode
Privileged Exec
Command Usage
• Use the show spanning-tree command with no parameters to display the
spanning tree configuration for the switch for the Common Spanning Tree
(CST) and for every interface in the tree.
• Use the show spanning-tree interface command to display the spanning tree
configuration for an interface within the Common Spanning Tree (CST).
• Use the show spanning-tree mst instance_id command to display the
spanning tree configuration for an instance within the Multiple Spanning Tree
(MST).
• For a description of the items displayed under “Spanning-tree information,”
see "Configuring Global Settings" on page 10-6. For a description of the items
33-18
show spanning-tree
33
displayed for specific interfaces, see "Displaying Interface Settings" on
page 10-10.
Example
Console#show spanning-tree
Spanning Tree Information
--------------------------------------------------------------Spanning Tree Mode:
MSTP
Spanning Tree Enabled/Disabled:
Enabled
Instance:
0
VLANs Configuration:
1-4093
Priority:
32768
Bridge Hello Time (sec.):
2
Bridge Max Age (sec.):
20
Bridge Forward Delay (sec.):
15
Root Hello Time (sec.):
2
Root Max Age (sec.):
20
Root Forward Delay (sec.):
15
Max Hops:
20
Remaining Hops:
20
Designated Root:
32768.0000E3111010
Current Root Port:
2
Current Root Cost:
10000
Number of Topology Changes:
2
Last Topology Change Time (sec.): 4100
Transmission Limit:
3
Path Cost Method:
Long
--------------------------------------------------------------Eth 1/ 1 information
--------------------------------------------------------------Admin Status:
Enabled
Role:
root
State:
forwarding
External Admin Path Cost: 0
Internal Admin Path Cost: 0
External Oper Path Cost: 10000
Internal Oper Path Cost: 10000
Priority:
128
Designated Cost:
0
Designated Port:
128.1
Designated Root:
32768.0000E3111010
Designated Bridge:
32768.0000E3111010
Fast Forwarding:
Disabled
Forward Transitions:
1
Admin Edge Port:
Disabled
Oper Edge Port:
Disabled
Admin Link Type:
auto
Oper Link Type:
Point-to-point
Spanning Tree Status:
Enabled
.
.
.
33-19
33
Spanning Tree Commands
show spanning-tree mst configuration
This command shows the configuration of the multiple spanning tree.
Command Mode
Privileged Exec
Example
Console#show spanning-tree mst configuration
Mstp Configuration Information
-------------------------------------------------------------Configuration Name: R&D
Revision level:0
Instance VLANs
-------------------------------------------------------------0
1,3-4093
1
2
Console#
33-20
Chapter 34: VLAN Commands
A VLAN is a group of ports that can be located anywhere in the network, but
communicate as though they belong to the same physical segment. This section
describes commands used to create VLAN groups, add port members, specify how
VLAN tagging is used, and enable automatic VLAN registration for the selected
interface.
Table 34-1 VLAN Commands
Command Groups
Function
Page
GVRP and Bridge Extension Configures GVRP settings that permit automatic VLAN learning;
shows the configuration for bridge extension MIB
34-1
Editing VLAN Groups
Sets up VLAN groups, including name, VID and state
34-5
Configuring VLAN
Interfaces
Configures VLAN interface parameters, including ingress and egress
tagging mode, ingress filtering, PVID, and GVRP
34-7
Displaying VLAN
Information
Displays VLAN groups, status, port members, and MAC addresses
34-12
Configuring 802.1Q
Tunneling
Configures 802.1Q Tunneling (QinQ Tunneling)
34-14
Configuring Private VLANs
Configures private VLANs, including uplink and downlink ports
Configuring Protocol VLANs Configures protocol-based VLANs based on frame type and protocol
34-18
34-20
GVRP and Bridge Extension Commands
GARP VLAN Registration Protocol defines a way for switches to exchange VLAN
information in order to automatically register VLAN members on interfaces across
the network. This section describes how to enable GVRP for individual interfaces
and globally for the switch, as well as how to display default configuration settings
for the Bridge Extension MIB.
Table 34-2 GVRP and Bridge Extension Commands
Command
Function
Mode
bridge-ext gvrp
Enables GVRP globally for the switch
GC
Page
34-2
show bridge-ext
Shows the global bridge extension configuration
PE
34-2
switchport gvrp
Enables GVRP for an interface
IC
34-3
switchport forbidden vlan
Configures forbidden VLANs for an interface
IC
34-12
show gvrp configuration
Displays GVRP configuration for the selected interface NE, PE
34-3
garp timer
Sets the GARP timer for the selected function
IC
34-4
show garp timer
Shows the GARP timer for the selected function
NE, PE
34-5
34-1
34
VLAN Commands
bridge-ext gvrp
This command enables GVRP globally for the switch. Use the no form to disable it.
Syntax
[no] bridge-ext gvrp
Default Setting
Disabled
Command Mode
Global Configuration
Command Usage
GVRP defines a way for switches to exchange VLAN information in order to
register VLAN members on ports across the network. This function should be
enabled to permit automatic VLAN registration, and to support VLANs which
extend beyond the local switch.
Example
Console(config)#bridge-ext gvrp
Console(config)#
show bridge-ext
This command shows the configuration for bridge extension commands.
Default Setting
None
Command Mode
Privileged Exec
Command Usage
See "Displaying Basic VLAN Information" on page 11-4 and "Displaying Bridge
Extension Capabilities" on page 4-4 for a description of the displayed items.
Example
Console#show bridge-ext
Max support VLAN numbers:
Max support VLAN ID:
Extended multicast filtering services:
Static entry individual port:
VLAN learning:
Configurable PVID tagging:
Local VLAN capable:
Traffic classes:
Global GVRP status:
GMRP:
Console#
34-2
256
4093
No
Yes
IVL
Yes
No
Enabled
Disabled
Disabled
GVRP and Bridge Extension Commands
34
switchport gvrp
This command enables GVRP for a port. Use the no form to disable it.
Syntax
[no] switchport gvrp
Default Setting
Disabled
Command Mode
Interface Configuration (Ethernet, Port Channel)
Example
Console(config)#interface ethernet 1/1
Console(config-if)#switchport gvrp
Console(config-if)#
show gvrp configuration
This command shows if GVRP is enabled.
Syntax
show gvrp configuration [interface]
interface
• ethernet unit/port
- unit - Stack unit. (Range: 1-8)
- port - Port number. (Range: 1-26/50)
• port-channel channel-id (Range: 1-32)
Default Setting
Shows both global and interface-specific configuration.
Command Mode
Normal Exec, Privileged Exec
Example
Console#show gvrp configuration ethernet 1/7
Eth 1/ 7:
GVRP configuration: Disabled
Console#
34-3
34
VLAN Commands
garp timer
This command sets the values for the join, leave and leaveall timers. Use the no
form to restore the timers’ default values.
Syntax
garp timer {join | leave | leaveall} timer_value
no garp timer {join | leave | leaveall}
• {join | leave | leaveall} - Which timer to set.
• timer_value - Value of timer.
Ranges:
join: 20-1000 centiseconds
leave: 60-3000 centiseconds
leaveall: 500-18000 centiseconds
Default Setting
• join: 20 centiseconds
• leave: 60 centiseconds
• leaveall: 1000 centiseconds
Command Mode
Interface Configuration (Ethernet, Port Channel)
Command Usage
• Group Address Registration Protocol is used by GVRP and GMRP to register
or deregister client attributes for client services within a bridged LAN. The
default values for the GARP timers are independent of the media access
method or data rate. These values should not be changed unless you are
experiencing difficulties with GMRP or GVRP registration/deregistration.
• Timer values are applied to GVRP for all the ports on all VLANs.
• Timer values must meet the following restrictions:
- leave >= (2 x join)
- leaveall > leave
Note: Set GVRP timers on all Layer 2 devices connected in the same network to
the same values. Otherwise, GVRP may not operate successfully.
Example
Console(config)#interface ethernet 1/1
Console(config-if)#garp timer join 100
Console(config-if)#
Related Commands
show garp timer (34-5)
34-4
Editing VLAN Groups
34
show garp timer
This command shows the GARP timers for the selected interface.
Syntax
show garp timer [interface]
interface
• ethernet unit/port
- unit - Stack unit. (Range: 1-8)
- port - Port number. (Range: 1-26/50)
• port-channel channel-id (Range: 1-32)
Default Setting
Shows all GARP timers.
Command Mode
Normal Exec, Privileged Exec
Example
Console#show garp timer ethernet 1/1
Eth 1/ 1 GARP timer status:
Join timer:
20 centiseconds
Leave timer:
60 centiseconds
Leaveall timer: 1000 centiseconds
Console#
Related Commands
garp timer (34-4)
Editing VLAN Groups
Table 34-3 Commands for Editing VLAN Groups
Command
Function
Mode
vlan database
Enters VLAN database mode to add, change, and delete
VLANs
GC
Page
34-5
vlan
Configures a VLAN, including VID, name and state
VC
34-6
vlan database
This command enters VLAN database mode. All commands in this mode will take
effect immediately.
Default Setting
None
Command Mode
Global Configuration
34-5
34
VLAN Commands
Command Usage
• Use the VLAN database command mode to add, change, and delete VLANs.
After finishing configuration changes, you can display the VLAN settings by
entering the show vlan command.
• Use the interface vlan command mode to define the port membership mode
and add or remove ports from a VLAN. The results of these commands are
written to the running-configuration file, and you can display this file by
entering the show running-config command.
Example
Console(config)#vlan database
Console(config-vlan)#
Related Commands
show vlan (34-13)
vlan
This command configures a VLAN. Use the no form to restore the default settings or
delete a VLAN.
Syntax
vlan vlan-id [name vlan-name] media ethernet [state {active | suspend}]
no vlan vlan-id [name | state]
• vlan-id - ID of configured VLAN. (Range: 1-4093, no leading zeroes)
• name - Keyword to be followed by the VLAN name.
- vlan-name - ASCII string from 1 to 32 characters.
• media ethernet - Ethernet media type.
• state - Keyword to be followed by the VLAN state.
- active - VLAN is operational.
- suspend - VLAN is suspended. Suspended VLANs do not pass packets.
Default Setting
By default only VLAN 1 exists and is active.
Command Mode
VLAN Database Configuration
Command Usage
• no vlan vlan-id deletes the VLAN.
• no vlan vlan-id name removes the VLAN name.
• no vlan vlan-id state returns the VLAN to the default state (i.e., active).
• You can configure up to 4093 VLANs on the switch.
34-6
Configuring VLAN Interfaces
34
Example
The following example adds a VLAN, using VLAN ID 105 and name RD5. The VLAN
is activated by default.
Console(config)#vlan database
Console(config-vlan)#vlan 105 name RD5 media ethernet
Console(config-vlan)#
Related Commands
show vlan (34-13)
Configuring VLAN Interfaces
Table 34-4 Commands for Configuring VLAN Interfaces
Command
Function
Mode
interface vlan
Enters interface configuration mode for a specified VLAN
IC
Page
switchport mode
Configures VLAN membership mode for an interface
IC
34-8
switchport
acceptable-frame-types
Configures frame types to be accepted by an interface
IC
34-9
switchport ingress-filtering
Enables ingress filtering on an interface
IC
34-9
switchport native vlan
Configures the PVID (native VLAN) of an interface
IC
34-10
switchport allowed vlan
Configures the VLANs associated with an interface
IC
34-11
switchport gvrp
Enables GVRP for an interface
IC
34-3
switchport forbidden vlan
Configures forbidden VLANs for an interface
IC
34-12
switchport priority default
Sets a port priority for incoming untagged frames
IC
35-3
34-7
interface vlan
This command enters interface configuration mode for VLANs, which is used to
configure VLAN parameters for a physical interface.
Syntax
interface vlan vlan-id
vlan-id - ID of the configured VLAN. (Range: 1-4093, no leading zeroes)
Default Setting
None
Command Mode
Global Configuration
34-7
34
VLAN Commands
Example
The following example shows how to set the interface configuration mode to
VLAN 1, and then assign an IP address to the VLAN:
Console(config)#interface vlan 1
Console(config-if)#ip address 192.168.1.254 255.255.255.0
Console(config-if)#
Related Commands
shutdown (27-7)
switchport mode
This command configures the VLAN membership mode for a port. Use the no form
to restore the default.
Syntax
switchport mode {hybrid | trunk}
no switchport mode
• hybrid - Specifies a hybrid VLAN interface. The port may transmit tagged
or untagged frames.
• trunk - Specifies a port as an end-point for a VLAN trunk. A trunk is a direct
link between two switches, so the port transmits tagged frames that identify
the source VLAN. Note that frames belonging to the port’s default VLAN
(i.e., associated with the PVID) are also transmitted as tagged frames.
Default Setting
All ports are in hybrid mode with the PVID set to VLAN 1.
Command Mode
Interface Configuration (Ethernet, Port Channel)
Example
The following shows how to set the configuration mode to port 1, and then set the
switchport mode to hybrid:
Console(config)#interface ethernet 1/1
Console(config-if)#switchport mode hybrid
Console(config-if)#
Related Commands
switchport acceptable-frame-types (34-9)
34-8
Configuring VLAN Interfaces
34
switchport acceptable-frame-types
This command configures the acceptable frame types for a port. Use the no form to
restore the default.
Syntax
switchport acceptable-frame-types {all | tagged}
no switchport acceptable-frame-types
• all - The port accepts all frames, tagged or untagged.
• tagged - The port only receives tagged frames.
Default Setting
All frame types
Command Mode
Interface Configuration (Ethernet, Port Channel)
Command Usage
When set to receive all frame types, any received frames that are untagged
are assigned to the default VLAN.
Example
The following example shows how to restrict the traffic received on port 1 to tagged
frames:
Console(config)#interface ethernet 1/1
Console(config-if)#switchport acceptable-frame-types tagged
Console(config-if)#
Related Commands
switchport mode (34-8)
switchport ingress-filtering
This command enables ingress filtering for an interface. Use the no form to restore
the default.
Syntax
[no] switchport ingress-filtering
Default Setting
Disabled
Command Mode
Interface Configuration (Ethernet, Port Channel)
Command Usage
• Ingress filtering only affects tagged frames.
34-9
34
VLAN Commands
• If ingress filtering is disabled and a port receives frames tagged for VLANs for
which it is not a member, these frames will be flooded to all other ports (except
for those VLANs explicitly forbidden on this port).
• If ingress filtering is enabled and a port receives frames tagged for VLANs for
which it is not a member, these frames will be discarded.
• Ingress filtering does not affect VLAN independent BPDU frames, such as
GVRP or STA. However, they do affect VLAN dependent BPDU frames, such
as GMRP.
Example
The following example shows how to set the interface to port 1 and then enable
ingress filtering:
Console(config)#interface ethernet 1/1
Console(config-if)#switchport ingress-filtering
Console(config-if)#
switchport native vlan
This command configures the PVID (i.e., default VLAN ID) for a port. Use the no
form to restore the default.
Syntax
switchport native vlan vlan-id
no switchport native vlan
vlan-id - Default VLAN ID for a port. (Range: 1-4093, no leading zeroes)
Default Setting
VLAN 1
Command Mode
Interface Configuration (Ethernet, Port Channel)
Command Usage
• If an interface is not a member of VLAN 1 and you assign its PVID to this
VLAN, the interface will automatically be added to VLAN 1 as an untagged
member. For all other VLANs, an interface must first be configured as an
untagged member before you can assign its PVID to that group.
• If acceptable frame types is set to all or switchport mode is set to hybrid, the
PVID will be inserted into all untagged frames entering the ingress port.
Example
The following example shows how to set the PVID for port 1 to VLAN 3:
Console(config)#interface ethernet 1/1
Console(config-if)#switchport native vlan 3
Console(config-if)#
34-10
Configuring VLAN Interfaces
34
switchport allowed vlan
This command configures VLAN groups on the selected interface. Use the no form
to restore the default.
Syntax
switchport allowed vlan {add vlan-list [tagged | untagged] |
remove vlan-list}
no switchport allowed vlan
• add vlan-list - List of VLAN identifiers to add.
• remove vlan-list - List of VLAN identifiers to remove.
• vlan-list - Separate nonconsecutive VLAN identifiers with a comma and no
spaces; use a hyphen to designate a range of IDs. Do not enter leading
zeros. (Range: 1-4093).
Default Setting
• All ports are assigned to VLAN 1 by default.
• The default frame type is untagged.
Command Mode
Interface Configuration (Ethernet, Port Channel)
Command Usage
• A port, or a trunk with switchport mode set to hybrid, must be assigned to at
least one VLAN as untagged.
• If a trunk has switchport mode set to trunk (i.e., 1Q Trunk), then you can only
assign an interface to VLAN groups as a tagged member.
• Frames are always tagged within the switch. The tagged/untagged parameter
used when adding a VLAN to an interface tells the switch whether to keep or
remove the tag from a frame on egress.
• If none of the intermediate network devices nor the host at the other end of the
connection supports VLANs, the interface should be added to these VLANs
as an untagged member. Otherwise, it is only necessary to add at most one
VLAN as untagged, and this should correspond to the native VLAN for the
interface.
• If a VLAN on the forbidden list for an interface is manually added to that
interface, the VLAN is automatically removed from the forbidden list for that
interface.
Example
The following example shows how to add VLANs 1, 2, 5 and 6 to the allowed list as
tagged VLANs for port 1:
Console(config)#interface ethernet 1/1
Console(config-if)#switchport allowed vlan add 1,2,5,6 tagged
Console(config-if)#
34-11
34
VLAN Commands
switchport forbidden vlan
This command configures forbidden VLANs. Use the no form to remove the list of
forbidden VLANs.
Syntax
switchport forbidden vlan {add vlan-list | remove vlan-list}
no switchport forbidden vlan
• add vlan-list - List of VLAN identifiers to add.
• remove vlan-list - List of VLAN identifiers to remove.
• vlan-list - Separate nonconsecutive VLAN identifiers with a comma and no
spaces; use a hyphen to designate a range of IDs. Do not enter leading
zeros. (Range: 1-4093).
Default Setting
No VLANs are included in the forbidden list.
Command Mode
Interface Configuration (Ethernet, Port Channel)
Command Usage
• This command prevents a VLAN from being automatically added to the
specified interface via GVRP.
• If a VLAN has been added to the set of allowed VLANs for an interface, then
you cannot add it to the set of forbidden VLANs for that same interface.
Example
The following example shows how to prevent port 1 from being added to VLAN 3:
Console(config)#interface ethernet 1/1
Console(config-if)#switchport forbidden vlan add 3
Console(config-if)#
Displaying VLAN Information
This section describes commands used to display VLAN information.
Table 34-5 Commands for Displaying VLAN Information
Command
Function
Mode
show vlan
Shows VLAN information
NE, PE
show interfaces status vlan
Displays status for the specified VLAN interface
NE, PE
27-9
show interfaces switchport
Displays the administrative and operational status of an
interface
NE, PE
27-11
34-12
Page
34-13
Displaying VLAN Information
34
show vlan
This command shows VLAN information.
Syntax
show vlan [id vlan-id | name vlan-name]
• id - Keyword to be followed by the VLAN ID.
vlan-id - ID of the configured VLAN. (Range: 1-4093, no leading zeroes)
• name - Keyword to be followed by the VLAN name.
vlan-name - ASCII string from 1 to 32 characters.
Default Setting
Shows all VLANs.
Command Mode
Normal Exec, Privileged Exec
Example
The following example shows how to display information for VLAN 1.
Console#show vlan id 1
VLAN ID:
Type:
Name:
Status:
Ports/Port Channels:
1
Static
DefaultVlan
Active
Eth1/ 1(S) Eth1/ 2(S)
Eth1/ 6(S) Eth1/ 7(S)
Eth1/11(S) Eth1/12(S)
Eth1/16(S) Eth1/17(S)
Eth1/21(S) Eth1/22(S)
Eth1/26(S)
Eth1/ 3(S)
Eth1/ 8(S)
Eth1/13(S)
Eth1/18(S)
Eth1/23(S)
Eth1/ 4(S)
Eth1/ 9(S)
Eth1/14(S)
Eth1/19(S)
Eth1/24(S)
Eth1/ 5(S)
Eth1/10(S)
Eth1/15(S)
Eth1/20(S)
Eth1/25(S)
Console#
34-13
34
VLAN Commands
Configuring IEEE 802.1Q Tunneling
IEEE 802.1Q tunneling (QinQ tunneling) uses a single Service Provider VLAN
(SPVLAN) for customers who have multiple VLANs. Customer VLAN IDs are
preserved and traffic from different customers is segregated within the service
provider’s network even when they use the same customer-specific VLAN IDs. QinQ
tunneling expands VLAN space by using a VLAN-in-VLAN hierarchy, preserving the
customer’s original tagged packets, and adding SPVLAN tags to each frame (also
called double tagging).
This section describes commands used to configure QinQ tunneling.
Table 34-6
IEEE 802.1Q Tunneling Commands
Command
Function
Mode
Page
dot1q-tunnel
system-tunnel-control
Configures the switch to operate in normal mode or QinQ
mode
GC
34-15
switchport dot1q-tunnel
mode
Configures an interface as a QinQ tunnel port
IC
34-15
switchport dot1q-tunnel tpid Sets the Tag Protocol Identifier (TPID) value of a tunnel port IC
34-16
show dot1q-tunnel
Displays the configuration of QinQ tunnel ports
PE
34-17
show interfaces switchport
Displays port QinQ operational status
PE
27-11
General Configuration Guidelines for QinQ
1. Configure the switch to QinQ mode (dot1q-tunnel system-tunnel-control,
page 34-15).
2. Create a SPVLAN (vlan, page 34-6).
3. Configure the QinQ tunnel access port to dot1Q-tunnel access mode
(switchport dot1q-tunnel mode, page 34-15).
4. Set the Tag Protocol Identifier (TPID) value of the tunnel access port. This step
is required if the attached client is using a nonstandard 2-byte ethertype to
identify 802.1Q tagged frames. The standard ethertype value is 0x8100. (See
switchport dot1q-tunnel tpid, page 34-16.)
5. Configure the QinQ tunnel access port to join the SPVLAN as an untagged
member (switchport allowed vlan, page 34-11).
6. Configure the SPVLAN ID as the native VID on the QinQ tunnel access port
(switchport native vlan, page 34-10).
7. Configure the QinQ tunnel uplink port to dot1Q-tunnel uplink mode (switchport
dot1q-tunnel mode, page 34-15).
8. Configure the QinQ tunnel uplink port to join the SPVLAN as a tagged member
(switchport allowed vlan, page 34-11).
34-14
Configuring IEEE 802.1Q Tunneling
34
Limitations for QinQ
• The native VLAN for the tunnel uplink ports and tunnel access ports cannot be the
same. However, the same service VLANs can be set on both tunnel port types.
• IGMP Snooping should not be enabled on a tunnel access port.
• If the spanning tree protocol is enabled, be aware that a tunnel access or tunnel
uplink port may be disabled if the spanning tree structure is automatically
reconfigured to overcome a break in the tree. It is therefore advisable to disable
spanning tree on these ports.
dot1q-tunnel system-tunnel-control
This command sets the switch to operate in QinQ mode. Use the no form to disable
QinQ operating mode.
Syntax
[no] dot1q-tunnel system-tunnel-control
Default Setting
Disabled
Command Mode
Global Configuration
Command Usage
QinQ tunnel mode must be enabled on the switch for QinQ interface settings
to be functional.
Example
Console(config)#dot1q-tunnel system-tunnel-control
Console(config)#
Related Commands
show dot1q-tunnel (34-17)
show interfaces switchport (27-11)
switchport dot1q-tunnel mode
This command configures an interface as a QinQ tunnel port. Use the no form to
disable QinQ on the interface.
Syntax
switchport dot1q-tunnel mode {access | uplink}
no switchport dot1q-tunnel mode
• access – Sets the port as an 802.1Q tunnel access port.
• uplink – Sets the port as an 802.1Q tunnel uplink port.
Default Setting
Disabled
34-15
34
VLAN Commands
Command Mode
Interface Configuration (Ethernet, Port Channel)
Command Usage
• QinQ tunneling must be enabled on the switch using the dot1q-tunnel
system-tunnel-control command before the switchport dot1q-tunnel
mode interface command can take effect.
• When a tunnel uplink port receives a packet from a customer, the customer
tag (regardless of whether there are one or more tag layers) is retained in the
inner tag, and the service provider’s tag added to the outer tag.
• When a tunnel uplink port receives a packet from the service provider, the
outer service provider’s tag is stripped off, and the packet passed on to the
VLAN indicated by the inner tag. If no inner tag is found, the packet is passed
onto the native VLAN defined for the uplink port.
Example
Console(config)#interface ethernet 1/1
Console(config-if)#switchport dot1q-tunnel mode access
Console(config-if)#
Related Commands
show dot1q-tunnel (34-17)
show interfaces switchport (27-11)
switchport dot1q-tunnel tpid
This command sets the Tag Protocol Identifier (TPID) value of a tunnel port. Use the
no form to restore the default setting.
Syntax
switchport dot1q-tunnel tpid tpid
no switchport dot1q-tunnel tpid
tpid – Sets the ethertype value for 802.1Q encapsulation. This identifier is
used to select a nonstandard 2-byte ethertype to identify 802.1Q tagged
frames. The standard ethertype value is 0x8100. (Range: 0800-FFFF
hexadecimal)
Default Setting
0x8100
Command Mode
Interface Configuration (Ethernet, Port Channel)
Command Usage
• Use the switchport dot1q-tunnel tpid command to set a custom 802.1Q
ethertype value on the selected interface. This feature allows the switch to
interoperate with third-party switches that do not use the standard 0x8100
ethertype to identify 802.1Q-tagged frames. For example, 0x1234 is set as the
34-16
Configuring IEEE 802.1Q Tunneling
34
custom 802.1Q ethertype on a trunk port, incoming frames containing that
ethertype are assigned to the VLAN contained in the tag following the
ethertype field, as they would be with a standard 802.1Q trunk. Frames
arriving on the port containing any other ethertype are looked upon as
untagged frames, and assigned to the native VLAN of that port.
• All ports on the switch will be set to the same ethertype.
Example
Console(config)#interface ethernet 1/1
Console(config-if)#switchport dot1q-tunnel tpid 9100
Console(config-if)#
Related Commands
show interfaces switchport (27-11)
show dot1q-tunnel
This command displays information about QinQ tunnel ports.
Command Mode
Privileged Exec
Example
Console(config)#dot1q-tunnel system-tunnel-control
Console(config)#interface ethernet 1/1
Console(config-if)#switchport dot1q-tunnel mode access
Console(config-if)#interface ethernet 1/2
Console(config-if)#switchport dot1q-tunnel mode uplink
Console(config-if)#end
Console#show dot1q-tunnel
Current double-tagged
The dot1q-tunnel mode
The dot1q-tunnel mode
The
dot1q-tunnel mode
.
.
.
status
of the
of the
of the
of the system
set interface
set interface
set interface
is Enabled
1/1 is Access mode, TPID is 0x8100.
1/2 is Uplink mode, TPID is 0x8100.
1/3 is Normal mode, TPID is 0x8100.
Related Commands
switchport dot1q-tunnel mode (34-15)
34-17
34
VLAN Commands
Configuring Private VLANs
Private VLANs provide port-based security and isolation between ports within the
assigned VLAN. This section describes commands used to configure private VlANs.
Table 34-7 Private VLAN Commands
Command
Function
Mode
pvlan
Enables and configured private VLANS
GC
Page
34-18
show pvlan
Displays the configured private VLANS
PE
34-19
pvlan
This command enables or configures a private VLAN. Use the no form to disable the
private VLAN.
Syntax
pvlan [up-link interface-list down-link interface-list]
no pvlan
• up-link – Specifies an uplink interface.
• down-link – Specifies a downlink interface.
Default Setting
No private VLANs are defined.
Command Mode
Global Configuration
Command Usage
• A private VLAN provides port-based security and isolation between ports
within the VLAN. Data traffic on the downlink ports can only be forwarded to,
and from, the uplink port. Data cannot pass between downlink ports in the
same private VLAN, nor to ports which do not belong to a private VLAN.
• Any port can be defined as an uplink port or downlink port, but cannot
configured to serve both roles.
• Private VLANs and normal VLANs can exist simultaneously within the same
switch. Traffic may pass freely between uplink ports in private VLANs and
ports in normal VLANs.
• Enter the pvlan command without any parameters to enable the private VLAN
functions. Then set the interface members for the private VLAN.
• Enter no pvlan to disable private VLAN functions and clear the configuration
settings for the PVLAN.
34-18
Configuring Private VLANs
34
Example
This example enables the private VLAN, and then sets port 12 as the uplink and
ports 5-8 as the downlinks.
Console(config)#pvlan
Console(config)#pvlan up-link ethernet 1/12 down-link ethernet 1/5-8
Console(config)#
show pvlan
This command displays the configured private VLAN.
Command Mode
Privileged Exec
Example
Console#show pvlan
Private VLAN status: Enabled
Up-link port:
Ethernet 1/12
Down-link port:
Ethernet 1/5
Ethernet 1/6
Ethernet 1/7
Ethernet 1/8
Console#
34-19
34
VLAN Commands
Configuring Protocol-based VLANs
The network devices required to support multiple protocols cannot be easily grouped
into a common VLAN. This may require non-standard devices to pass traffic
between different VLANs in order to encompass all the devices participating in a
specific protocol. This kind of configuration deprives users of the basic benefits of
VLANs, including security and easy accessibility.
To avoid these problems, you can configure this switch with protocol-based VLANs
that divide the physical network into logical VLAN groups for each required protocol.
When a frame is received at a port, its VLAN membership can then be determined
based on the protocol type in use by the inbound packets.
Table 34-8 Protocol-based VLAN Commands
Command
Function
Mode
Page
protocol-vlan protocol-group Create a protocol group, specifying the supported protocols GC
34-20
protocol-vlan protocol-group Maps a protocol group to a VLAN
IC
34-21
show protocol-vlan
protocol-group
PE
34-22
Shows the interfaces mapped to a protocol group and the PE
show interfaces
protocol-vlan protocol-group corresponding VLAN
34-22
Shows the configuration of protocol groups
To configure protocol-based VLANs, follow these steps:
1.
2.
3.
First configure VLAN groups for the protocols you want to use (page 34-6).
Although not mandatory, we suggest configuring a separate VLAN for each
major protocol running on your network. Do not add port members at this time.
Create a protocol group for each of the protocols you want to assign to a VLAN
using the protocol-vlan protocol-group command (General Configuration
mode).
Then map the protocol for each interface to the appropriate VLAN using the
protocol-vlan protocol-group command (Interface Configuration mode).
protocol-vlan protocol-group (Configuring Groups)
This command creates a protocol group, or to add specific protocols to a group. Use
the no form to remove a protocol group.
Syntax
protocol-vlan protocol-group group-id [{add | remove} frame-type frame
protocol-type protocol]
no protocol-vlan protocol-group group-id
• group-id - Group identifier of this protocol group. (Range: 1-2147483647)
• frame30 - Frame type used by this protocol. (Options: ethernet, rfc-1042,
llc-other)
30. SNAP frame types are not supported by this switch due to hardware limitations.
34-20
Configuring Protocol-based VLANs
34
• protocol - Protocol type. The only option for the llc-other frame type is
ipx_raw. The options for all other frames types include: ip, ipv6, arp, rarp,
and user-defined (0801-FFFF hexadecimal).
Default Setting
No protocol groups are configured.
Command Mode
Global Configuration
Example
The following creates protocol group 1, and specifies Ethernet frames with IP and
ARP protocol types:
Console(config)#protocol-vlan protocol-group 1 add frame-type ethernet
protocol-type ip
Console(config)#protocol-vlan protocol-group 1 add frame-type ethernet
protocol-type arp
Console(config)#
protocol-vlan protocol-group (Configuring Interfaces)
This command maps a protocol group to a VLAN for the current interface. Use the
no form to remove the protocol mapping for this interface.
Syntax
protocol-vlan protocol-group group-id vlan vlan-id
no protocol-vlan protocol-group group-id vlan
• group-id - Group identifier of this protocol group. (Range: 1-2147483647)
• vlan-id - VLAN to which matching protocol traffic is forwarded.
(Range: 1-4093)
Default Setting
No protocol groups are mapped for any interface.
Command Mode
Interface Configuration (Ethernet, Port Channel)
Command Usage
• When creating a protocol-based VLAN, only assign interfaces via this
command. If you assign interfaces using any of the other VLAN commands
(such as vlan on page 34-6), these interfaces will admit traffic of any protocol
type into the associated VLAN.
• When a frame enters a port that has been assigned to a protocol VLAN, it is
processed in the following manner:
- If the frame is tagged, it will be processed according to the standard rules
applied to tagged frames.
- If the frame is untagged and the protocol type matches, the frame is
forwarded to the appropriate VLAN.
34-21
34
VLAN Commands
- If the frame is untagged but the protocol type does not match, the frame is
forwarded to the default VLAN for this interface.
Example
The following example maps the traffic entering Port 1 which matches the protocol
type specified in protocol group 1 to VLAN 2.
Console(config)#interface ethernet 1/1
Console(config-if)#protocol-vlan protocol-group 1 vlan 2
Console(config-if)#
show protocol-vlan protocol-group
This command shows the frame and protocol type associated with protocol groups.
Syntax
show protocol-vlan protocol-group [group-id]
group-id - Group identifier for a protocol group. (Range: 1-2147483647)
Default Setting
All protocol groups are displayed.
Command Mode
Privileged Exec
Example
This shows protocol group 1 configured for IP over Ethernet:
Console#show protocol-vlan protocol-group
ProtocolGroup ID
Frame Type
Protocol Type
------------------ ------------- --------------1
ethernet
08 00
Console#
show interfaces protocol-vlan protocol-group
This command shows the mapping from protocol groups to VLANs for the selected
interfaces.
Syntax
show interfaces protocol-vlan protocol-group [interface]
interface
• ethernet unit/port
- unit - Stack unit. (Range: 1-8)
- port - Port number. (Range: 1-26/50)
• port-channel channel-id (Range: 1-32)
Default Setting
The mapping for all interfaces is displayed.
34-22
Configuring Protocol-based VLANs
34
Command Mode
Privileged Exec
Example
This shows that traffic entering Port 1 that matches the specifications for protocol
group 1 will be mapped to VLAN 2:
Console#show interfaces protocol-vlan protocol-group
Port
ProtocolGroup ID
Vlan ID
---------- ------------------ ----------Eth 1/1
1
vlan2
Console#
34-23
34
34-24
VLAN Commands
Chapter 35: Class of Service Commands
The commands described in this section allow you to specify which data packets
have greater precedence when traffic is buffered in the switch due to congestion.
This switch supports CoS with eight priority queues for each port. Data packets in a
port’s high-priority queue will be transmitted before those in the lower-priority
queues. You can set the default priority for each interface, the relative weight of each
queue, and the mapping of frame priority tags to the switch’s priority queues.
Table 35-1 Priority Commands
Command Groups
Function
Priority (Layer 2)
Configures default priority for untagged frames, sets queue weights,
and maps class of service tags to hardware queues
Page
35-1
Priority (Layer 3 and 4)
Sets the default priority processing method (CoS, IP Precedence or
DSCP); and maps TCP ports, IP precedence tags, or IP DSCP tags to
class of service values
35-7
Priority Commands (Layer 2)
This section describes commands used to configure Layer 2 traffic priority on the
switch.
Table 35-2 Priority Commands (Layer 2)
Command
Function
Mode
queue mode
Sets the queue mode to strict priority or Weighted
Round-Robin (WRR)
GC
Page
35-2
switchport priority default
Sets a port priority for incoming untagged frames
IC
35-3
queue bandwidth
Assigns round-robin weights to the priority queues
IC
35-4
queue cos-map
Assigns class-of-service values to the priority queues
IC
35-4
show queue mode
Shows the current queue mode
PE
35-5
show queue bandwidth
Shows round-robin weights assigned to the priority queues
PE
35-6
show queue cos-map
Shows the class-of-service map
PE
35-6
PE
27-11
show interfaces switchport Displays the administrative and operational status of an
interface
35-1
35
Class of Service Commands
queue mode
This command sets the queue mode to strict priority or Weighted Round-Robin
(WRR) for the class of service (CoS) priority queues. Use the no form to restore the
default value.
Syntax
queue mode {strict | wrr}
no queue mode
• strict - Services the egress queues in sequential order, transmitting all
traffic in the higher priority queues before servicing lower priority queues.
• wrr - Weighted Round-Robin shares bandwidth at the egress ports by using
scheduling weights 1, 2, 4, 6, 8, 10, 12, 14 for queues 0 - 7 respectively.
Default Setting
Weighted Round Robin
Command Mode
Global Configuration
Command Usage
You can set the switch to service the queues based on a strict rule that
requires all traffic in a higher priority queue to be processed before lower
priority queues are serviced, or use Weighted Round-Robin (WRR) queuing
that specifies a relative weight of each queue. WRR uses a predefined relative
weight for each queue that determines the percentage of service time the
switch services each queue before moving on to the next queue. This
prevents the head-of-line blocking that can occur with strict priority queuing.
Example
The following example sets the queue mode to strict priority service mode:
Console(config)#queue mode strict
Console(config)#
Related Commands
queue bandwidth (35-4)
show queue mode (35-5)
35-2
Priority Commands (Layer 2)
35
switchport priority default
This command sets a priority for incoming untagged frames. Use the no form to
restore the default value.
Syntax
switchport priority default default-priority-id
no switchport priority default
default-priority-id - The priority number for untagged ingress traffic.
The priority is a number from 0 to 7. Seven is the highest priority.
Default Setting
The priority is not set, and the default value for untagged frames received on
the interface is zero.
Command Mode
Interface Configuration (Ethernet, Port Channel)
Command Usage
• The precedence for priority mapping is IP Port, IP Precedence or IP DSCP,
and default switchport priority.
• The default priority applies for an untagged frame received on a port set to
accept all frame types (i.e, receives both untagged and tagged frames). This
priority does not apply to IEEE 802.1Q VLAN tagged frames. If the incoming
frame is an IEEE 802.1Q VLAN tagged frame, the IEEE 802.1p User Priority
bits will be used.
• This switch provides eight priority queues for each port. It is configured to use
strict priority queuing or Weighted Round Robin using the queue mode
command (see page 35-2). Inbound frames that do not have VLAN tags are
tagged with the input port's default ingress user priority, and then placed in the
appropriate priority queue at the output port. The default priority for all ingress
ports is zero. Therefore, any inbound frames that do not have priority tags will
be placed in queue 2 of the output port. (Note that if the output port is an
untagged member of the associated VLAN, these frames are stripped of all
VLAN tags prior to transmission.)
Example
The following example shows how to set a default priority on port 3 to 5:
Console(config)#interface ethernet 1/3
Console(config-if)#switchport priority default 5
Related Commands
show interfaces switchport (27-11)
35-3
35
Class of Service Commands
queue bandwidth
This command assigns weighted round-robin (WRR) weights to the eight class of
service (CoS) priority queues. Use the no form to restore the default weights.
Syntax
queue bandwidth weight0...weight7
no queue bandwidth
weight0...weight7 - The ratio of weights for queues 0 - 7 determines the
weights used by the WRR scheduler. (Range: 1 - 15)
Default Setting
Weights 1, 2, 4, 6, 8, 10, 12, 14 are assigned to queues 0 - 7 respectively.
Command Mode
Interface Configuration (Ethernet, Port Channel)
Command Usage
• WRR controls bandwidth sharing at the egress port by defining scheduling
weights.
• Bandwidth is allocated to each queue by calculating a precise number of bytes
per second that will be serviced on each round. The granularity used to
calculate this number is based on a unit of 2k bytes. The bytes serviced per
second per queue in each round is (queue weight*granularity).
Example
This example shows how to assign WRR weights to each of the priority queues:
Console#configure
Console(config)#int eth 1/5
Console(config-if)#queue bandwidth 1 3 5 7 9 11 13 15
Console(config-if)#
Related Commands
show queue bandwidth (35-6)
queue cos-map
This command assigns class of service (CoS) values to the priority queues (i.e.,
hardware output queues 0 - 7). Use the no form set the CoS map to the default
values.
Syntax
queue cos-map queue_id [cos1 ... cosn]
no queue cos-map
• queue_id - The ID of the priority queue.
Ranges are 0 to 7, where 7 is the highest priority queue.
35-4
Priority Commands (Layer 2)
35
• cos1 ... cosn - The CoS values that are mapped to the queue ID. It is a
space-separated list of numbers. The CoS value is a number from 0 to 7,
where 7 is the highest priority.
Default Setting
This switch supports Class of Service by using eight priority queues, with
Weighted Round Robin queuing for each port. Eight separate traffic classes
are defined in IEEE 802.1p. The default priority levels are assigned according
to recommendations in the IEEE 802.1p standard as shown below.
Table 35-3 Default CoS Priority Levels
Priority
0
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
Queue
2
0
1
3
4
5
6
7
Command Mode
Interface Configuration (Ethernet, Port Channel)
Command Usage
• CoS values assigned at the ingress port are also used at the egress port.
• This command sets the CoS priority for all interfaces.
Example
The following example shows how to change the CoS assignments to a one-to-one
mapping:
Console(config)#interface ethernet 1/1
Console(config-if)#queue cos-map 0 0
Console(config-if)#queue cos-map 1 1
Console(config-if)#queue cos-map 2 2
Console(config-if)#exit
Console#show queue cos-map ethernet 1/1
Information of Eth 1/1
Traffic Class : 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7
Priority Queue: 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7
Console#
Related Commands
show queue cos-map (35-6)
show queue mode
This command shows the current queue mode.
Command Mode
Privileged Exec
Example
Console#show queue mode
Queue Mode: wrr
Console#
35-5
35
Class of Service Commands
show queue bandwidth
This command displays the weighted round-robin (WRR) bandwidth allocation for
the eight priority queues.
Syntax
show queue bandwidth [interface]
interface
• ethernet unit/port
- unit - Stack unit. (Range: 1-8)
- port - Port number. (Range: 1-26/50)
• port-channel channel-id (Range: 1-32)
Command Mode
Privileged Exec
Example
Console#show queue bandwidth
Information of Eth 1/1
Queue ID Weight
-------- -----0
1
1
2
2
4
3
6
4
8
5
10
6
12
7
14
.
.
.
show queue cos-map
This command shows the class of service priority map.
Syntax
show queue cos-map [interface]
interface
• ethernet unit/port
- unit - Stack unit. (Range: 1-8)
- port - Port number. (Range: 1-26/50)
• port-channel channel-id (Range: 1-32)
Command Mode
Privileged Exec
35-6
Priority Commands (Layer 3 and 4)
35
Example
Console#show queue
Information of Eth
CoS Value:
0
Priority Queue: 2
Console#
cos-map ethernet 1/1
1/1
1 2 3 4 5 6 7
0 1 3 4 5 6 7
Priority Commands (Layer 3 and 4)
This section describes commands used to configure Layer 3 and Layer 4 traffic
priority on the switch.
Table 35-4 Priority Commands (Layer 3 and 4)
Command
Function
Mode
map ip port
Enables TCP/UDP class of service mapping
GC
Page
map ip port
Maps TCP/UDP socket to a class of service
IC
35-8
map ip precedence
Enables IP precedence class of service mapping
GC
35-8
map ip precedence
Maps IP precedence value to a class of service
IC
35-9
map ip dscp
Enables IP DSCP class of service mapping
GC
35-10
map ip dscp
Maps IP DSCP value to a class of service
IC
35-10
show map ip port
Shows the IP port map
PE
35-11
35-7
show map ip precedence
Shows the IP precedence map
PE
35-12
show map ip dscp
Shows the IP DSCP map
PE
35-13
map ip port (Global Configuration)
This command enables IP port mapping (i.e., class of service mapping for TCP/UDP
sockets). Use the no form to disable IP port mapping.
Syntax
[no] map ip port
Default Setting
Disabled
Command Mode
Global Configuration
Command Usage
The precedence for priority mapping is IP Port, IP Precedence or IP DSCP,
and default switchport priority.
Example
The following example shows how to enable TCP/UDP port mapping globally:
Console(config)#map ip port
Console(config)#
35-7
35
Class of Service Commands
map ip port (Interface Configuration)
This command sets IP port priority (i.e., TCP/UDP port priority). Use the no form to
remove a specific setting.
Syntax
map ip port port-number cos cos-value
no map ip port port-number
• port-number - 16-bit TCP/UDP port number. (Range: 0-65535)
• cos-value - Class-of-Service value (Range: 0-7)
Default Setting
None
Command Mode
Interface Configuration (Ethernet, Port Channel)
Command Usage
• The precedence for priority mapping is IP Port, IP Precedence or IP DSCP,
and default switchport priority.
• Up to 8 entries can be specified for IP Port priority mapping.
• This command sets the IP port priority for all interfaces.
Example
The following example shows how to map HTTP traffic to CoS value 0:
Console(config)#interface ethernet 1/5
Console(config-if)#map ip port 80 cos 0
Console(config-if)#
map ip precedence (Global Configuration)
This command enables IP precedence mapping (i.e., IP Type of Service). Use the
no form to disable IP precedence mapping.
Syntax
[no] map ip precedence
Default Setting
Disabled
Command Mode
Global Configuration
Command Usage
• The precedence for priority mapping is IP Port, IP Precedence or IP DSCP,
and default switchport priority.
• IP Precedence and IP DSCP cannot both be enabled. Enabling one of these
priority types will automatically disable the other type.
35-8
Priority Commands (Layer 3 and 4)
35
Example
The following example shows how to enable IP precedence mapping globally:
Console(config)#map ip precedence
Console(config)#
map ip precedence (Interface Configuration)
This command sets IP precedence priority (i.e., IP Type of Service priority). Use the
no form to restore the default table.
Syntax
map ip precedence ip-precedence-value cos cos-value
no map ip precedence
• precedence-value - 3-bit precedence value. (Range: 0-7)
• cos-value - Class-of-Service value (Range: 0-7)
Default Setting
The list below shows the default priority mapping.
Table 35-5 Mapping IP Precedence to CoS Values
IP Precedence Value
0
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
CoS Value
0
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
Command Mode
Interface Configuration (Ethernet, Port Channel)
Command Usage
• The precedence for priority mapping is IP Port, IP Precedence or IP DSCP,
and default switchport priority.
• IP Precedence values are mapped to default Class of Service values on a
one-to-one basis according to recommendations in the IEEE 802.1p standard,
and then subsequently mapped to the eight hardware priority queues.
• This command sets the IP Precedence for all interfaces.
Example
The following example shows how to map IP precedence value 1 to CoS value 0:
Console(config)#interface ethernet 1/5
Console(config-if)#map ip precedence 1 cos 0
Console(config-if)#
35-9
35
Class of Service Commands
map ip dscp (Global Configuration)
This command enables IP DSCP mapping (i.e., Differentiated Services Code Point
mapping). Use the no form to disable IP DSCP mapping.
Syntax
[no] map ip dscp
Default Setting
Disabled
Command Mode
Global Configuration
Command Usage
• The precedence for priority mapping is IP Port, IP Precedence or IP DSCP,
and default switchport priority.
• IP Precedence and IP DSCP cannot both be enabled. Enabling one of these
priority types will automatically disable the other type.
Example
The following example shows how to enable IP DSCP mapping globally:
Console(config)#map ip dscp
Console(config)#
map ip dscp (Interface Configuration)
This command sets IP DSCP priority (i.e., Differentiated Services Code Point
priority). Use the no form to restore the default table.
Syntax
map ip dscp dscp-value cos cos-value
no map ip dscp
• dscp-value - 8-bit DSCP value. (Range: 0-63)
• cos-value - Class-of-Service value (Range: 0-7)
35-10
Priority Commands (Layer 3 and 4)
35
Default Setting
The DSCP default values are defined in the following table. Note that all the
DSCP values that are not specified are mapped to CoS value 0.
Table 35-6 Mapping IP DSCP to CoS Values
IP DSCP Value
CoS Value
0
0
8
1
10, 12, 14, 16
2
18, 20, 22, 24
3
26, 28, 30, 32, 34, 36
4
38, 40, 42
5
48
6
46, 56
7
Command Mode
Interface Configuration (Ethernet, Port Channel)
Command Usage
• The precedence for priority mapping is IP Port, IP Precedence or IP DSCP,
and default switchport priority.
• DSCP priority values are mapped to default Class of Service values according
to recommendations in the IEEE 802.1p standard, and then subsequently
mapped to the eight hardware priority queues.
• This command sets the IP DSCP priority for all interfaces.
Example
The following example shows how to map IP DSCP value 1 to CoS value 0:
Console(config)#interface ethernet 1/5
Console(config-if)#map ip dscp 1 cos 0
Console(config-if)#
show map ip port
This command shows the IP port priority map.
Syntax
show map ip port [interface]
interface
• ethernet unit/port
- unit - Stack unit. (Range: 1-8)
- port - Port number. (Range: 1-26/50)
• port-channel channel-id (Range: 1-32)
35-11
35
Class of Service Commands
Command Mode
Privileged Exec
Example
The following shows that HTTP traffic has been mapped to CoS value 0:
Console#show map ip port
TCP port mapping status: disabled
Port
Port no. COS
--------- -------- --Eth 1/ 5
80
0
Console#
Related Commands
map ip port (Global Configuration) (35-7)
map ip port (Interface Configuration) (35-8)
show map ip precedence
This command shows the IP precedence priority map.
Syntax
show map ip precedence [interface]
interface
• ethernet unit/port
- unit - Stack unit. (Range: 1-8)
- port - Port number. (Range: 1-26/50)
• port-channel channel-id (Range: 1-32)
Command Mode
Privileged Exec
Example
Console#show map ip precedence ethernet 1/5
Precedence mapping status: disabled
Port
Precedence COS
--------- ---------- --Eth 1/ 5
0
0
Eth 1/ 5
1
1
Eth 1/ 5
2
2
Eth 1/ 5
3
3
Eth 1/ 5
4
4
Eth 1/ 5
5
5
Eth 1/ 5
6
6
Eth 1/ 5
7
7
Console#
Related Commands
map ip precedence (Global Configuration) (35-8)
map ip precedence (Interface Configuration) (35-9)
35-12
Priority Commands (Layer 3 and 4)
35
show map ip dscp
This command shows the IP DSCP priority map.
Syntax
show map ip dscp [interface]
interface
• ethernet unit/port
- unit - Stack unit. (Range: 1-8)
- port - Port number. (Range: 1-26/50)
• port-channel channel-id (Range: 1-32)
Command Mode
Privileged Exec
Example
Console#show map ip dscp ethernet 1/1
DSCP mapping status: disabled
Port
DSCP COS
--------- ---- --Eth 1/ 1
0
0
Eth 1/ 1
1
0
Eth 1/ 1
2
0
Eth 1/ 1
3
0
.
.
.
Eth 1/ 1
61
0
Eth 1/ 1
62
0
Eth 1/ 1
63
0
Console#
Related Commands
map ip dscp (Global Configuration) (35-10)
map ip dscp (Interface Configuration) (35-10)
35-13
35
35-14
Class of Service Commands
Chapter 36: Quality of Service Commands
The commands described in this section are used to configure Differentiated
Services (DiffServ) classification criteria and service policies. You can classify traffic
based on access lists, IP Precedence or DSCP values, or VLANs. Using access lists
allows you select traffic based on Layer 2, Layer 3, or Layer 4 information contained
in each packet.
Table 36-1 Quality of Service Commands
Command
Function
Mode
class-map
Creates a class map for a type of traffic
GC
36-2
match
Defines the criteria used to classify traffic
CM
36-3
rename
Redefines the name of a class map
CM
36-4
description
Specifies the description of a class map
CM
36-4
policy-map
Creates a policy map for multiple interfaces
GC
36-5
class
Defines a traffic classification for the policy to act on
PM
36-5
rename
Redefines the name of a policy map
PM
36-4
description
Specifies the description of a policy map
PM
set
Classifies IP traffic by setting a CoS, DSCP, or IP-precedence PM-C
value in a packet
36-6
police
Defines an enforcer for classified traffic
36-7
service-policy
Applies a policy map defined by the policy-map command to IC
the input of a particular interface
36-8
show class-map
Displays the QoS class maps which define matching criteria PE
used for classifying traffic
36-9
show policy-map
Displays the QoS policy maps which define classification
criteria for incoming traffic, and may include policers for
bandwidth limitations
PE
36-9
show policy-map interface Displays the configuration of all classes configured for all
service policies on the specified interface
PE
36-10
PM-C
Page
36-4
To create a service policy for a specific category of ingress traffic, follow these steps:
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
Use the class-map command to designate a class name for a specific category
of traffic, and enter the Class Map configuration mode.
Use the match command to select a specific type of traffic based on an access
list, a DSCP or IP Precedence value, or a VLAN.
Use the policy-map command to designate a policy name for a specific
manner in which ingress traffic will be handled, and enter the Policy Map
configuration mode.
Use the class command to identify the class map, and enter Policy Map Class
configuration mode. A policy map can contain multiple class statements.
Use the set command to modify the QoS value for matching traffic class, and
use the policer command to monitor the average flow and burst rate, and drop
36-1
36
6.
Quality of Service Commands
any traffic that exceeds the specified rate, or just reduce the DSCP service level
for traffic exceeding the specified rate.
Use the service-policy command to assign a policy map to a specific interface.
Notes: 1. You can configure up to 16 rules per Class Map. You can also include
multiple classes in a Policy Map.
2. You should create a Class Map (page 36-2) before creating a Policy Map
(page 36-5). Otherwise, you will not be able to specify a Class Map with the
class command (page 36-5) after entering Policy-Map Configuration mode.
class-map
This command creates a class map used for matching packets to the specified
class, and enters Class Map configuration mode. Use the no form to delete a class
map and return to Global configuration mode.
Syntax
[no] class-map class-map-name [match-any]
• match-any - Match any condition within a class map.
• class-map-name - Name of the class map. (Range: 1-16 characters)
Default Setting
None
Command Mode
Global Configuration
Command Usage
• First enter this command to designate a class map and enter the Class Map
configuration mode. Then use the match command (page 36-3) to specify the
criteria for ingress traffic that will be classified under this class map.
• Up to 16 match commands are permitted per class map.
• One or more class maps can be assigned to a policy map (page 36-5). The
policy map is then bound by a service policy to an interface (page 36-8). A
service policy defines packet classification, service tagging, and bandwidth
policing. Once a policy map has been bound to an interface, no additional
class maps may be added to the policy map, nor any changes made to the
assigned class maps with the match or set commands.
Example
This example creates a class map call “rd_class,” and sets it to match packets
marked for DSCP service value 3:
Console(config)#class-map rd_class match-any
Console(config-cmap)#match ip dscp 3
Console(config-cmap)#
Related Commands
show class map (36-9)
36-2
match
36
match
This command defines the criteria used to classify traffic. Use the no form to delete
the matching criteria.
Syntax
[no] match {access-list acl-name | ip dscp dscp | ipv6 dscp dscp | ip
precedence ip-precedence | vlan vlan}
• acl-name - Name of the access control list. Any type of ACL can be
specified, including standard or extended IP ACLs and MAC ACLs.
(Range: 1-16 characters)
• dscp - A Differentiated Service Code Point value. (Range: 0-63)
• ip-precedence - An IP Precedence value. (Range: 0-7)
• vlan - A VLAN. (Range:1-4093)
Default Setting
None
Command Mode
Class Map Configuration
Command Usage
• First enter the class-map command to designate a class map and enter the
Class Map configuration mode. Then use the match command to specify the
fields within ingress packets that must match to qualify for this class map.
• If an ingress packet matches an ACL specified by this command, any deny
rules included in the ACL will be ignored.
• If match criteria includes an IP ACL or IP priority rule, then a VLAN rule cannot
be included in the same class map.
If match criteria includes a MAC ACL or VLAN rule, then neither an IP ACL nor
IP priority rule can be included in the same class map.
• Up to 16 match commands are permitted per class map.
Example
This example creates a class map called “rd_class#1,” and sets it to match packets
marked for DSCP service value 3:
Console(config)#class-map rd_class#1_ match-any
Console(config-cmap)#match ip dscp 3
Console(config-cmap)#
This example creates a class map call “rd_class#2,” and sets it to match packets
marked for IP Precedence service value 5:
Console(config)#class-map rd_class#2 match-any
Console(config-cmap)#match ip precedence 5
Console(config-cmap)#
36-3
36
Quality of Service Commands
This example creates a class map call “rd_class#3,” and sets it to match packets
marked for VLAN 1.
Console(config)#class-map rd_class#3 match-any
Console(config-cmap)#match vlan 1
Console(config-cmap)#
rename
This command redefines the name of a class map or policy map.
Syntax
rename map-name
map-name - Name of the class map or policy map.
(Range: 1-16 characters)
Command Mode
Class Map Configuration
Policy Map Configuration
Example
Console(config)#class-map rd-class#1
Console(config-cmap)#rename rd-class#9
Console(config-cmap)#
description
This command specifies the description of a class map or policy map.
Syntax
description string
string - Description of the class map or policy map.
(Range: 1-64 characters)
Command Mode
Class Map Configuration
Policy Map Configuration
Example
Console(config)#class-map rd_class#1
Console(config-cmap)#description matches packets marked for DSCP service
value 3
Console(config-cmap)#
36-4
policy-map
36
policy-map
This command creates a policy map that can be attached to multiple interfaces, and
enters Policy Map configuration mode. Use the no form to delete a policy map.
Syntax
[no] policy-map policy-map-name
policy-map-name - Name of the policy map. (Range: 1-16 characters)
Default Setting
None
Command Mode
Global Configuration
Command Usage
• Use the policy-map command to specify the name of the policy map, and
then use the class command to configure policies for traffic that matches
criteria defined in a class map.
• A policy map can contain multiple class statements that can be applied to the
same interface with the service-policy command (page 36-8).
• Create a Class Map (page 36-5) before assigning it to a Policy Map.
Example
This example creates a policy called “rd_policy,” uses the class command to specify
the previously defined “rd_class,” uses the set command to classify the service that
incoming packets will receive, and then uses the police command to limit the
average bandwidth to 100,000 Kbps, the burst rate to 1522 bytes, and configure the
response to drop any violating packets.
Console(config)#policy-map rd_policy
Console(config-pmap)#class rd_class
Console(config-pmap-c)#set ip dscp 3
Console(config-pmap-c)#police 100000 1522 exceed-action drop
Console(config-pmap-c)#
class
This command defines a traffic classification upon which a policy can act, and enters
Policy Map Class configuration mode. Use the no form to delete a class map.
Syntax
[no] class class-map-name
class-map-name - Name of the class map. (Range: 1-16 characters)
Default Setting
None
Command Mode
Policy Map Configuration
36-5
36
Quality of Service Commands
Command Usage
• Use the policy-map command to specify a policy map and enter Policy Map
configuration mode. Then use the class command to enter Policy Map Class
configuration mode. And finally, use the set and police commands to specify
the match criteria, where the:
- set command classifies the service that an IP packet will receive.
- police command defines the maximum throughput, burst rate, and the
action that results from a policy violation.
• You can configure up to 16 rules per Class Map. You can also include multiple
classes in a Policy Map.
Example
This example creates a policy called “rd_policy,” uses the class command to specify
the previously defined “rd_class,” uses the set command to classify the service that
incoming packets will receive, and then uses the police command to limit the
average bandwidth to 100,000 Kbps, the burst rate to 1522 bytes, and configure the
response to drop any violating packets.
Console(config)#policy-map rd_policy
Console(config-pmap)#class rd_class
Console(config-pmap-c)#set ip dscp 3
Console(config-pmap-c)#police 100000 1522 exceed-action drop
Console(config-pmap-c)#
set
This command services IP traffic by setting a CoS, DSCP, or IP Precedence value in
a matching packet (as specified by the match command on page 36-3). Use the no
form to remove the traffic classification.
Syntax
[no] set {cos new-cos | ip dscp new-dscp | ip precedence new-precedence |
ipv6 dscp new-dscp}
• new-cos - New Class of Service (CoS) value. (Range: 0-7)
• new-dscp - New Differentiated Service Code Point (DSCP) value.
(Range: 0-63)
• new-precedence - New IP Precedence value. (Range: 0-7)
Default Setting
None
Command Mode
Policy Map Class Configuration
36-6
police
36
Example
This example creates a policy called “rd_policy,” uses the class command to specify
the previously defined “rd_class,” uses the set command to classify the service that
incoming packets will receive, and then uses the police command to limit the
average bandwidth to 100,000 Kbps, the burst rate to 1522 bytes, and configure the
response to drop any violating packets.
Console(config)#policy-map rd_policy
Console(config-pmap)#class rd_class
Console(config-pmap-c)#set ip dscp 3
Console(config-pmap-c)#police 100000 1522 exceed-action drop
Console(config-pmap-c)#
police
This command defines an policer for classified traffic based on the metered flow
rate. Use the no form to remove a policer.
Syntax
[no] police rate-kbps burst-byte [exceed-action {drop | set}]
• rate-kbps - Committed information rate in kilobits per second.
(Range: 1-100000 kbps or maximum port speed, whichever is lower)
• burst-byte - Committed burst size in bytes. (Range: 64-524288 bytes)
• drop - Drop packet when specified rate or burst are exceeded.
• set - Set DSCP service to the specified value. (Range: 0-63)
Default Setting
Drop out-of-profile packets.
Command Mode
Policy Map Class Configuration
Command Usage
• You can configure up to 64 policers (i.e., meters or class maps) for each of the
following access list types: MAC ACL, IP ACL (including Standard ACL and
Extended ACL), IPv6 Standard ACL, and IPv6 Extended ACL. This limitation
applies to each switch chip (SMC8926EM: ports 1-26,
SMC8950EM: ports 1-25, ports 26-50).
• Policing is based on a token bucket, where bucket depth (i.e., the maximum
burst before the bucket overflows) is by specified the burst-byte field, and the
average rate tokens are removed from the bucket is by specified by the
rate-bps option.
36-7
36
Quality of Service Commands
Example
This example creates a policy called “rd_policy,” uses the class command to specify
the previously defined “rd_class,” uses the set command to classify the service that
incoming packets will receive, and then uses the police command to limit the
average bandwidth to 100,000 Kbps, the burst rate to 1522 bytes, and configure the
response to drop any violating packets.
Console(config)#policy-map rd_policy
Console(config-pmap)#class rd_class
Console(config-pmap-c)#set ip dscp 3
Console(config-pmap-c)#police 100000 1522 exceed-action drop
Console(config-pmap-c)#
service-policy
This command applies a policy map defined by the policy-map command to the
ingress queue of a particular interface. Use the no form to remove the policy map
from this interface.
Syntax
[no] service-policy input policy-map-name
• input - Apply to the input traffic.
• policy-map-name - Name of the policy map for this interface.
(Range: 1-16 characters)
Default Setting
No policy map is attached to an interface.
Command Mode
Interface Configuration (Ethernet, Port Channel)
Command Usage
• Only one policy map can be assigned to an interface.
• First define a class map, then define a policy map, and finally use the
service-policy command to bind the policy map to the required interface.
• The switch does not allow a policy map to be bound to an interface for egress
traffic.
Example
This example applies a service policy to an ingress interface.
Console(config)#interface ethernet 1/1
Console(config-if)#service-policy input rd_policy
Console(config-if)#
36-8
show class-map
36
show class-map
This command displays the QoS class maps which define matching criteria used for
classifying traffic.
Syntax
show class-map [class-map-name]
class-map-name - Name of the class map. (Range: 1-16 characters)
Default Setting
Displays all class maps.
Command Mode
Privileged Exec
Example
Console#show class-map
Class Map match-any rd_class#1
Match ip dscp 3
Class Map match-any rd_class#2
Match ip precedence 5
Class Map match-any rd_class#3
Match vlan 1
Console#
show policy-map
This command displays the QoS policy maps which define classification criteria for
incoming traffic, and may include policers for bandwidth limitations.
Syntax
show policy-map [policy-map-name [class class-map-name]]
• policy-map-name - Name of the policy map. (Range: 1-16 characters)
• class-map-name - Name of the class map. (Range: 1-16 characters)
Default Setting
Displays all policy maps and all classes.
Command Mode
Privileged Exec
36-9
36
Quality of Service Commands
Example
Console#show policy-map
Policy Map rd_policy
class rd_class
set ip dscp 3
Console#show policy-map rd_policy class rd_class
Policy Map rd_policy
class rd_class
set ip dscp 3
Console#
show policy-map interface
This command displays the service policy assigned to the specified interface.
Syntax
show policy-map interface interface input
interface
• ethernet unit/port
- unit - Stack unit. (Range: 1-8)
- port - Port number. (Range: 1-26/50)
• port-channel channel-id (Range: 1-32)
Command Mode
Privileged Exec
Example
Console#show policy-map interface ethernet 1/5
Service-policy rd_policy input
Console#
36-10
Chapter 37: Multicast Filtering Commands
This switch uses IGMP (Internet Group Management Protocol) to query for any
attached hosts that want to receive a specific multicast service. It identifies the ports
containing hosts requesting a service and sends data out to those ports only. It then
propagates the service request up to any neighboring multicast switch/router to
ensure that it will continue to receive the multicast service.
Table 37-1 Multicast Filtering Commands
Command Groups
Function
IGMP Snooping
Configures multicast groups via IGMP snooping or static assignment,
sets the IGMP version, displays current snooping and query settings,
and displays the multicast service and group members
Page
37-1
IGMP Query
Configures IGMP query parameters for multicast filtering at Layer 2
37-5
Static Multicast Interface
Configures static multicast router ports which forward all inbound
multicast traffic to the attached VLANs
37-9
IGMP Snooping Commands
This section describes commands used to configure IGMP snooping on the switch.
Table 37-2 IGMP Snooping Commands
Command
Function
Mode
ip igmp snooping
Enables IGMP snooping
GC
Page
37-1
ip igmp snooping vlan static Adds an interface as a member of a multicast group
GC
37-2
ip igmp snooping version
Configures the IGMP version for snooping
GC
37-2
ip igmp snooping
immediate-leave
Immediately deletes a member port of a multicast service if IC
a leave packet is received at that port and immediate-leave
is enabled for the parent VLAN
37-3
show ip igmp snooping
Shows the IGMP snooping and query configuration
PE
37-4
show mac-address-table
multicast
Shows the IGMP snooping MAC multicast list
PE
37-4
ip igmp snooping
This command enables IGMP snooping on this switch. Use the no form to disable it.
Syntax
[no] ip igmp snooping
Default Setting
Enabled
Command Mode
Global Configuration
37-1
37
Multicast Filtering Commands
Example
The following example enables IGMP snooping.
Console(config)#ip igmp snooping
Console(config)#
ip igmp snooping vlan static
This command adds a port to a multicast group. Use the no form to remove the port.
Syntax
[no] ip igmp snooping vlan vlan-id static ip-address interface
• vlan-id - VLAN ID (Range: 1-4093)
• ip-address - IP address for multicast group
• interface
• ethernet unit/port
- unit - Stack unit. (Range: 1-8)
- port - Port number. (Range: 1-26/50)
• port-channel channel-id (Range: 1-32)
Default Setting
None
Command Mode
Global Configuration
Command Usage
• Static multicast entries are never aged out.
• When a multicast entry is assigned to an interface in a specific VLAN, the
corresponding traffic can only be forwarded to ports within that VLAN.
Example
The following shows how to statically configure a multicast group on a port:
Console(config)#ip igmp snooping vlan 1 static 224.0.0.12 ethernet 1/5
Console(config)#
ip igmp snooping version
This command configures the IGMP snooping version. Use the no form to restore
the default.
Syntax
ip igmp snooping {1 | 2 | 3}
no ip igmp snooping version
• 1 - IGMP Version 1
• 2 - IGMP Version 2
• 3 - IGMP Version 3
37-2
IGMP Snooping Commands
37
Default Setting
IGMP Version 2
Command Mode
Global Configuration
Command Usage
• This command configures the IGMP report/query version used by IGMP
snooping. Versions 1 - 3 are all supported, and versions 2 and 3 are backward
compatible, so the switch can operate with other devices, regardless of the
snooping version employed.
• Some commands are only enabled for IGMPv2, including ip igmp
query-max-response-time and ip igmp query-timeout.
Example
The following configures the switch to use IGMP Version 1.
Console(config)#ip igmp snooping version 1
Console(config)#
ip igmp snooping immediate-leave
This command immediately deletes a member port of a multicast service if a leave
packet is received at that port and immediate-leave is enabled for the parent VLAN.
Use the no form to restore the default.
Syntax
[no] ip igmp snooping immediate-leave
Default Setting
Disabled
Command Mode
Interface Configuration (VLAN)
Command Usage
• If immediate-leave is not used, a multicast router (or querier) will send a
group-specific query message when an IGMPv2/v3 group leave message is
received. The router/querier stops forwarding traffic for that group only if no
host replies to the query within the timeout period (see the ip igmp snooping
query-count and ip igmp snooping query-max-response-time commands
on page 37-6 and 37-7).
• If immediate-leave is enabled, the switch assumes that only one host is
connected to the interface. Therefore, immediate leave should only be
enabled on an interface if it is connected to only one IGMP-enabled device,
either a service host or a neighbor running IGMP snooping.
• This command is only effective if IGMP snooping is enabled, and IGMPv2 or
IGMPv3 snooping is used.
37-3
37
Multicast Filtering Commands
Example
The following shows how to enable immediate leave.
Console(config)#ip igmp snooping vlan 1 immediate-leave
Console(config)#
show ip igmp snooping
This command shows the IGMP snooping and query configuration settings.
Command Mode
Privileged Exec
Command Usage
See "Configuring IGMP Snooping and Query Parameters" on page 15-3 for a
description of the displayed items.
Example
The following shows the current IGMP snooping configuration:
Console#show ip igmp snooping
Service Status:
Enabled
Querier Status:
Disabled
Query Count:
2
Query Interval:
125 sec
Query Max Response Time: 10 sec
Router Port Expire Time: 300 sec
Immediate Leave Processing: Disabled on all VLAN
IGMP Snooping Version:
Version 2
Console#
show mac-address-table multicast
This command shows known multicast group, source, and host port mappings for
the specified interface (or for all interfaces if none is specified), or for a specified
multicast address.
Syntax
show mac-address-table multicast [interface [user | igmp-snooping]]
[user | igmp-snooping] [multicast-address]
• interface
• ethernet unit/port
- unit - Stack unit. (Range: 1-8)
- port - Port number. (Range: 1-26/50)
• port-channel channel-id (Range: 1-32)
• vlan vlan-id - VLAN ID (1-4093)
• user - Display only the user-configured multicast entries.
• igmp-snooping - Display only entries learned through IGMP snooping.
• multicast-address - An IP multicast group address.
(Range: 224.0.0.0 to 239.255.255.255)
37-4
IGMP Query Commands
37
Default Setting
None
Command Mode
Privileged Exec
Command Usage
Member types displayed include IGMP or USER, depending on selected
options.
Example
The following shows the multicast entries learned through IGMP snooping for
VLAN 1:
Console#show mac-address-table multicast vlan 1 igmp-snooping
VLAN M'cast IP addr. Member ports Type
---- --------------- ------------ ------1
224.1.2.3
Eth1/11
IGMP
Console#
IGMP Query Commands
This section describes commands used to configure IGMP query on the switch.
Table 37-3 IGMP Query Commands
Command
Function
ip igmp snooping querier
Allows this device to act as the querier for IGMP snooping GC
Mode
Page
37-5
ip igmp snooping
query-count
Configures the query count
GC
37-6
ip igmp snooping
query-interval
Configures the query interval
GC
37-7
ip igmp snooping
query-max-response-time
Configures the report delay
GC
37-7
ip igmp snooping
router-port-expire-time
Configures the query timeout
GC
37-8
ip igmp snooping querier
This command enables the switch as an IGMP querier. Use the no form to disable it.
Syntax
[no] ip igmp snooping querier
Default Setting
Enabled
Command Mode
Global Configuration
37-5
37
Multicast Filtering Commands
Command Usage
If enabled, the switch will serve as querier if elected. The querier is
responsible for asking hosts if they want to receive multicast traffic.
Example
Console(config)#ip igmp snooping querier
Console(config)#
ip igmp snooping query-count
This command configures the query count. Use the no form to restore the default.
Syntax
ip igmp snooping query-count count
no ip igmp snooping query-count
count - The maximum number of queries issued for which there has been
no response before the switch takes action to drop a client from the
multicast group. (Range: 2-10)
Default Setting
2 times
Command Mode
Global Configuration
Command Usage
The query count defines how long the querier waits for a response from a
multicast client before taking action. If a querier has sent a number of queries
defined by this command, but a client has not responded, a countdown timer
is started using the time defined by ip igmp snooping query-maxresponse-time. If the countdown finishes, and the client still has not
responded, then that client is considered to have left the multicast group.
Example
The following shows how to configure the query count to 10:
Console(config)#ip igmp snooping query-count 10
Console(config)#
Related Commands
ip igmp snooping query-max-response-time (37-7)
37-6
IGMP Query Commands
37
ip igmp snooping query-interval
This command configures the query interval. Use the no form to restore the default.
Syntax
ip igmp snooping query-interval seconds
no ip igmp snooping query-interval
seconds - The frequency at which the switch sends IGMP host-query
messages. (Range: 60-125)
Default Setting
125 seconds
Command Mode
Global Configuration
Example
The following shows how to configure the query interval to 100 seconds:
Console(config)#ip igmp snooping query-interval 100
Console(config)#
ip igmp snooping query-max-response-time
This command configures the query report delay. Use the no form to restore the
default.
Syntax
ip igmp snooping query-max-response-time seconds
no ip igmp snooping query-max-response-time
seconds - The report delay advertised in IGMP queries. (Range: 5-25)
Default Setting
10 seconds
Command Mode
Global Configuration
Command Usage
• The switch must be using IGMPv2 for this command to take effect.
• This command defines the time after a query, during which a response is
expected from a multicast client. If a querier has sent a number of queries
defined by the ip igmp snooping query-count, but a client has not
responded, a countdown timer is started using an initial value set by this
command. If the countdown finishes, and the client still has not responded,
then that client is considered to have left the multicast group.
37-7
37
Multicast Filtering Commands
Example
The following shows how to configure the maximum response time to 20 seconds:
Console(config)#ip igmp snooping query-max-response-time 20
Console(config)#
Related Commands
ip igmp snooping version (37-2)
ip igmp snooping query-max-response-time (37-7)
ip igmp snooping router-port-expire-time
This command configures the query timeout. Use the no form to restore the default.
Syntax
ip igmp snooping router-port-expire-time seconds
no ip igmp snooping router-port-expire-time
seconds - The time the switch waits after the previous querier stops before
it considers the router port (i.e., the interface which had been receiving
query packets) to have expired. (Range: 300-500)
Default Setting
300 seconds
Command Mode
Global Configuration
Command Usage
The switch must use IGMPv2 for this command to take effect.
Example
The following shows how to configure the default timeout to 300 seconds:
Console(config)#ip igmp snooping router-port-expire-time 300
Console(config)#
Related Commands
ip igmp snooping version (37-2)
37-8
Static Multicast Routing Commands
37
Static Multicast Routing Commands
This section describes commands used to configure static multicast interfaces on
the switch.
Table 37-4 Static Multicast Routing Commands
Command
Function
Mode
ip igmp snooping vlan
mrouter
Adds a multicast router port
GC
Page
37-9
show ip igmp snooping
mrouter
Shows multicast router ports
PE
37-10
ip igmp snooping vlan mrouter
This command statically configures a multicast router port on the specified VLAN.
Use the no form to remove the configuration.
Syntax
[no] ip igmp snooping vlan vlan-id mrouter interface
• vlan-id - VLAN ID (Range: 1-4093)
• interface
• ethernet unit/port
- unit - Stack unit. (Range: 1-8)
- port - Port number. (Range: 1-26/50)
• port-channel channel-id (Range: 1-32)
Default Setting
No static multicast router ports are configured.
Command Mode
Global Configuration
Command Usage
Depending on your network connections, IGMP snooping may not always be
able to locate the IGMP querier. Therefore, if the IGMP querier is a known
multicast router/switch connected over the network to an interface (port or
trunk) on your router, you can manually configure that interface to join all the
current multicast groups.
Example
The following shows how to configure port 11 as a multicast router port within VLAN 1:
Console(config)#ip igmp snooping vlan 1 mrouter ethernet 1/11
Console(config)#
37-9
37
Multicast Filtering Commands
show ip igmp snooping mrouter
This command displays information on statically configured and dynamically learned
multicast router ports.
Syntax
show ip igmp snooping mrouter [vlan vlan-id]
vlan-id - VLAN ID (Range: 1-4093)
Default Setting
Displays multicast router ports for all configured VLANs.
Command Mode
Privileged Exec
Command Usage
Multicast router port types displayed include Static.
Example
The following shows that port 11 in VLAN 1 is attached to a multicast router:
Console#show ip igmp snooping mrouter vlan 1
VLAN M'cast Router Ports Type
---- ------------------- ------1
Eth 1/11 Static
Console#
37-10
Chapter 38: Domain Name Service Commands
These commands are used to configure Domain Naming System (DNS) services.
Entries can be manually configured in the DNS domain name to IP address mapping
table, default domain names configured, or one or more name servers specified to
use for domain name to address translation.
Note that domain name services will not be enabled until at least one name server is
specified with the ip name-server command and domain lookup is enabled with the
ip domain-lookup command.
Table 38-1 DNS Commands
Command
Function
Mode
ip host
Creates a static host name-to-address mapping
GC
Page
clear host
Deletes entries from the host name-to-address table
PE
38-2
ip domain-name
Defines a default domain name for incomplete host names
GC
38-3
38-1
ip domain-list
Defines a list of default domain names for incomplete host names GC
38-3
ip name-server
Specifies the address of one or more name servers to use for host GC
name-to-address translation
38-4
ip domain-lookup
Enables DNS-based host name-to-address translation
GC
38-5
show hosts
Displays the static host name-to-address mapping table
PE
38-6
show dns
Displays the configuration for DNS services
PE
38-7
show dns cache
Displays entries in the DNS cache
PE
38-7
clear dns cache
Clears all entries from the DNS cache
PE
38-8
ip host
This command creates a static entry in the DNS table that maps a host name to an
IP address. Use the no form to remove an entry.
Syntax
[no] ip host name address1 [address2 … address8]
• name - Name of the host. (Range: 1-127 characters)
• address1 - Corresponding IP address.
• address2 … address8 - Additional corresponding IP addresses.
Default Setting
No static entries
Command Mode
Global Configuration
38-1
38
Domain Name Service Commands
Command Usage
Servers or other network devices may support one or more connections via
multiple IP addresses. If more than one IP address is associated with a host
name using this command, a DNS client can try each address in succession,
until it establishes a connection with the target device.
Example
This example maps two address to a host name.
Console(config)#ip host rd5 192.168.1.55 10.1.0.55
Console(config)#end
Console#show hosts
Hostname
rd5
Inet address
10.1.0.55 192.168.1.55
Alias
Console#
clear host
This command deletes entries from the DNS table.
Syntax
clear host {name | *}
• name - Name of the host. (Range: 1-127 characters)
• * - Removes all entries.
Default Setting
None
Command Mode
Privileged Exec
Example
This example clears all static entries from the DNS table.
Console(config)#clear host *
Console(config)#
38-2
ip domain-name
38
ip domain-name
This command defines the default domain name appended to incomplete host
names (i.e., host names passed from a client that are not formatted with dotted
notation). Use the no form to remove the current domain name.
Syntax
ip domain-name name
no ip domain-name
name - Name of the host. Do not include the initial dot that separates the
host name from the domain name. (Range: 1-127 characters)
Default Setting
None
Command Mode
Global Configuration
Example
Console(config)#ip domain-name sample.com
Console(config)#end
Console#show dns
Domain Lookup Status:
DNS disabled
Default Domain Name:
.sample.com
Domain Name List:
Name Server List:
Console#
Related Commands
ip domain-list (38-3)
ip name-server (38-4)
ip domain-lookup (38-5)
ip domain-list
This command defines a list of domain names that can be appended to incomplete
host names (i.e., host names passed from a client that are not formatted with dotted
notation). Use the no form to remove a name from this list.
Syntax
[no] ip domain-list name
name - Name of the host. Do not include the initial dot that separates the
host name from the domain name. (Range: 1-127 characters; 1-3 names)
Default Setting
None
Command Mode
Global Configuration
38-3
38
Domain Name Service Commands
Command Usage
• Domain names are added to the end of the list one at a time.
• When an incomplete host name is received by the DNS service on this switch,
it will work through the domain list, appending each domain name in the list to
the host name, and checking with the specified name servers for a match.
• If there is no domain list, the domain name specified with the ip domain-name
command is used. If there is a domain list, the default domain name is not used.
Example
This example adds two domain names to the current list and then displays the list.
Console(config)#ip domain-list sample.com.jp
Console(config)#ip domain-list sample.com.uk
Console(config)#end
Console#show dns
Domain Lookup Status:
DNS disabled
Default Domain Name:
.sample.com
Domain Name List:
.sample.com.jp
.sample.com.uk
Name Server List:
Console#
Related Commands
ip domain-name (38-3)
ip name-server
This command specifies the address of one or more domain name servers to use for
name-to-address resolution. Use the no form to remove a name server from this list.
Syntax
[no] ip name-server server-address1 [server-address2 … server-address6]
• server-address1 - IP address of domain-name server.
• server-address2 … server-address6 - IP address of additional
domain-name servers.
Default Setting
None
Command Mode
Global Configuration
Command Usage
The listed name servers are queried in the specified sequence until a
response is received, or the end of the list is reached with no response.
38-4
ip domain-lookup
38
Example
This example adds two domain-name servers to the list and then displays the list.
Console(config)#ip domain-server 192.168.1.55 10.1.0.55
Console(config)#end
Console#show dns
Domain Lookup Status:
DNS disabled
Default Domain Name:
.sample.com
Domain Name List:
.sample.com.jp
.sample.com.uk
Name Server List:
192.168.1.55
10.1.0.55
Console#
Related Commands
ip domain-name (38-3)
ip domain-lookup (38-5)
ip domain-lookup
This command enables DNS host name-to-address translation. Use the no form to
disable DNS.
Syntax
[no] ip domain-lookup
Default Setting
Disabled
Command Mode
Global Configuration
Command Usage
• At least one name server must be specified before you can enable DNS.
• If all name servers are deleted, DNS will automatically be disabled.
38-5
38
Domain Name Service Commands
Example
This example enables DNS and then displays the configuration.
Console(config)#ip domain-lookup
Console(config)#end
Console#show dns
Domain Lookup Status:
DNS enabled
Default Domain Name:
.sample.com
Domain Name List:
.sample.com.jp
.sample.com.uk
Name Server List:
192.168.1.55
10.1.0.55
Related Commands
ip domain-name (38-3)
ip name-server (38-4)
show hosts
This command displays the static host name-to-address mapping table.
Command Mode
Privileged Exec
Example
Note that a host name will be displayed as an alias if it is mapped to the same
address(es) as a previously configured entry.
Console#show hosts
Hostname
rd5
Inet address
10.1.0.55 192.168.1.55
Alias
1.rd6
Console#
38-6
show dns
38
show dns
This command displays the configuration of the DNS service.
Command Mode
Privileged Exec
Example
Console#show dns
Domain Lookup Status:
DNS enabled
Default Domain Name:
sample.com
Domain Name List:
sample.com.jp
sample.com.uk
Name Server List:
192.168.1.55
10.1.0.55
Console#
show dns cache
This command displays entries in the DNS cache.
Command Mode
Privileged Exec
Example
Console#show dns cache
NO
FLAG
TYPE
0
4
Address
1
4
Address
2
4
Address
3
4
CNAME
4
4
CNAME
Console#
DOMAIN
www.times.com
a1116.x.akamai.net
a1116.x.akamai.net
graphics8.nytimes.com
graphics478.nytimes.com.edgesui
TTL
198
19
19
19
19
IP
199.239.136.200
61.213.189.120
61.213.189.104
POINTER TO:2
POINTER TO:2
Table 38-2 show dns cache - display description
Field
Description
NO
The entry number for each resource record.
FLAG
The flag is always “4” indicating a cache entry and therefore unreliable.
TYPE
This field includes ADDRESS which specifies the host address for the owner, and
CNAME which specifies an alias.
IP
The IP address associated with this record.
TTL
The time to live reported by the name server.
DOMAIN
The domain name associated with this record.
38-7
38
Domain Name Service Commands
clear dns cache
This command clears all entries in the DNS cache.
Command Mode
Privileged Exec
Example
Console#clear dns cache
Console#show dns cache
NO
FLAG
TYPE
IP
Console#
38-8
TTL
DOMAIN
Chapter 39: DHCP Commands
These commands are used to configure Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol
(DHCP) client, relay, and server functions. You can configure any VLAN interface to
be automatically assigned an IP address via DHCP. This switch can be configured to
relay DHCP client configuration requests to a DHCP server on another network, or
you can configure this switch to provide DHCP service directly to any client.
Table 39-1 DHCP Commands
Command Group
Function
DHCP Client
Allows interfaces to dynamically acquire IP address information
Page
39-1
DHCP Relay
Relays DHCP requests from local hosts to a remote DHCP server
39-3
DHCP Server
Configures DHCP service using address pools or static bindings
39-5
DHCP Client
Use the commands in this section to allow the switch’s VLAN interfaces to
dynamically acquire IP address information.
Table 39-2 DHCP Client Commands
Command
Function
Mode Page
ip dhcp client-identifier
Specifies the DHCP client identifier for this switch
IC
39-1
ip dhcp restart client
Submits a BOOTP or DHCP client request
PE
39-2
ip dhcp client-identifier
This command specifies the DCHP client identifier for the current interface. Use the
no form to remove this identifier.
Syntax
ip dhcp client-identifier {text text | hex hex}
no ip dhcp client-identifier
• text - A text string. (Range: 1-15 characters)
• hex - The hexadecimal value.
Default Setting
None
Command Mode
Interface Configuration (VLAN)
39-1
39
DHCP Commands
Command Usage
This command is used to include a client identifier in all communications with
the DHCP server, which uses it to index its database of address bindings. The
information included in the identifier is based on RFC 2132 Option 60, and
must be unique for all clients in the same administrative domain.
Example
Console(config)#interface vlan 2
Console(config-if)#ip dhcp client-identifier hex 00-00-e8-66-65-72
Console(config-if)#
Related Commands
ip dhcp restart client (39-2)
ip dhcp restart client
This command submits a BOOTP or DHCP client request.
Default Setting
None
Command Mode
Privileged Exec
Command Usage
• This command issues a BOOTP or DHCP client request for any IP interface
that has been set to BOOTP or DHCP mode via the ip address command.
• DHCP requires the server to reassign the client’s last address if available.
• If the BOOTP or DHCP server has been moved to a different domain, the
network portion of the address provided to the client will be based on this new
domain.
Example
In the following example, the device is reassigned the same address.
Console(config)#interface vlan 1
Console(config-if)#ip address dhcp
Console(config-if)#exit
Console#ip dhcp restart client
Console#show ip interface
Vlan 1 is up, addressing mode is DHCP
Interface address is 192.168.1.54, mask is 255.255.255.0, Primary
MTU is 1500 bytes
Proxy ARP is disabled
Split horizon is enabled
Console#
Related Commands
ip address (41-3)
39-2
DHCP Relay
39
DHCP Relay
Table 39-3 DHCP Relay Commands
Command
Function
Mode Page
ip dhcp restart relay
Enables DHCP relay agent
IC
39-3
ip dhcp relay server
Specifies DHCP server addresses for relay
IC
39-4
ip dhcp restart relay
This command enables DHCP relay for the specified VLAN. Use the no form to
disable it.
Syntax
[no] ip dhcp relay
Default Setting
Disabled
Command Mode
Interface Configuration (VLAN)
Command Usage
This command is used to configure DHCP relay functions for host devices
attached to the switch. If DHCP relay service is enabled, and this switch sees
a DHCP request broadcast, it inserts its own IP address into the request so
the DHCP server will know the subnet where the client is located. Then, the
switch forwards the packet to the DHCP server on another network. When the
server receives the DHCP request, it allocates a free IP address for the DHCP
client from its defined scope for the DHCP client’s subnet, and sends a DHCP
response back to the DHCP relay agent (i.e., this switch). This switch then
broadcasts the DHCP response received from the server to the client.
Example
In the following example, the device is reassigned the same address.
Console(config)#interface vlan 1
Console(config-if)#ip dhcp relay
Console(config-if)#end
Console#show ip interface
Vlan 1 is up, addressing mode is Dhcp
Interface address is 10.1.0.254, mask is 255.255.255.0, Primary
MTU is 1500 bytes
Proxy ARP is disabled
Split horizon is enabled
Console#
Related Commands
ip dhcp relay server (39-4)
39-3
39
DHCP Commands
ip dhcp relay server
This command specifies the addresses of DHCP servers to be used by the switch’s
DHCP relay agent. Use the no form to clear all addresses.
Syntax
ip dhcp relay server address1 [address2 [address3 ...]]
no ip dhcp relay server
address - IP address of DHCP server. (Range: 1-3 addresses)
Default Setting
None
Command Mode
Interface Configuration (VLAN)
Usage Guidelines
• You must specify the IP address for at least one DHCP server. Otherwise, the
switch’s DHCP relay agent will not forward client requests to a DHCP server.
• To start DHCP relay service, enter the ip dhcp restart relay command.
Example
Console(config)#interface vlan 1
Console(config-if)#ip dhcp relay server 10.1.0.99
Console(config-if)#
Related Commands
ip dhcp restart relay (39-3)
39-4
DHCP Server
39
DHCP Server
Table 39-4 DHCP Server Commands
Command
Function
Mode Page
service dhcp
Enables the DHCP server feature on this switch
GC
39-5
ip dhcp
excluded-address
Specifies IP addresses that a DHCP server should not assign to GC
DHCP clients
39-6
ip dhcp pool
Configures a DHCP address pool on a DHCP Server
GC
39-6
network
Configures the subnet number and mask for a DHCP address
pool
DC
39-7
default-router
Specifies the default router list for a DHCP client
DC
39-8
domain-name
Specifies the domain name for a DHCP client
DC
39-8
dns-server
Specifies the Domain Name Server (DNS) servers available to a DC
DHCP client
39-9
next-server
Configures the next server in the boot process of a DHCP client
39-9
DC
bootfile
Specifies a default boot image for a DHCP client
DC
39-10
netbios-name-server
Configures NetBIOS Windows Internet Naming Service (WINS)
name servers available to Microsoft DHCP clients
DC
39-10
netbios-node-type
Configures NetBIOS node type for Microsoft DHCP clients
DC
39-11
lease
Sets the duration an IP address is assigned to a DHCP client
DC
39-11
host*
Specifies the IP address and network mask to manually bind to a DC
DHCP client
39-12
client-identifier*
Specifies a client identifier for a DHCP client
DC
39-13
hardware-address*
Specifies the hardware address of a DHCP client
DC
39-14
clear ip dhcp binding
Deletes an automatic address binding from the DHCP server
database
PE
39-14
show ip dhcp binding
Displays address bindings on the DHCP server
PE,
NE
39-15
* These commands are used for manually binding an address to a client.
service dhcp
This command enables the DHCP server on this switch. Use the no form to disable
the DHCP server.
Syntax
[no] service dhcp
Default Setting
Enabled
Command Mode
Global Configuration
39-5
39
DHCP Commands
Command Usage
If the DHCP server is running, you must restart it to implement any
configuration changes.
Example
Console(config)#service dhcp
Console(config)#
ip dhcp excluded-address
This command specifies IP addresses that the DHCP server should not assign to
DHCP clients. Use the no form to remove the excluded IP addresses.
Syntax
[no] ip dhcp excluded-address low-address [high-address]
• low-address - An excluded IP address, or the first IP address in an excluded
address range.
• high-address - The last IP address in an excluded address range.
Default Setting
All IP pool addresses may be assigned.
Command Mode
Global Configuration
Example
Console(config)#ip dhcp excluded-address 10.1.0.19
Console(config)#
ip dhcp pool
This command configures a DHCP address pool and enter DHCP Pool
Configuration mode. Use the no form to remove the address pool.
Syntax
[no] ip dhcp pool name
name - A string or integer. (Range: 1-8 characters)
Default Setting
DHCP address pools are not configured.
Command Mode
Global Configuration
Usage Guidelines
• After executing this command, the switch changes to DHCP Pool
Configuration mode, identified by the (config-dhcp)# prompt.
• From this mode, first configure address pools for the network interfaces (using
the network command). You can also manually bind an address to a specific
39-6
DHCP Server
39
client (with the host command) if required. You can configure up to 8 network
address pools, and up to 32 manually bound host address pools (i.e., listing
one host address per pool). However, note that any address specified in a
host command must fall within the range of a configured network address
pool.
Example
Console(config)#ip dhcp pool R&D
Console(config-dhcp)#
Related Commands
network (39-7)
host (39-12)
network
This command configures the subnet number and mask for a DHCP address pool.
Use the no form to remove the subnet number and mask.
Syntax
network network-number [mask]
no network
• network-number - The IP address of the DHCP address pool.
• mask - The bit combination that identifies the network (or subnet) and the
host portion of the DHCP address pool.
Command Mode
DHCP Pool Configuration
Usage Guidelines
• When a client request is received, the switch first checks for a network
address pool matching the gateway where the request originated (i.e., if the
request was forwarded by a relay server). If there is no gateway in the client
request (i.e., the request was not forwarded by a relay server), the switch
searches for a network pool matching the interface through which the client
request was received. It then searches for a manually configured host address
that falls within the matching network pool. If no manually configured host
address is found, it assigns an address from the matching network address
pool. However, if no matching address pool is found the request is ignored.
• This command is valid for DHCP network address pools only. If the mask is
not specified, the class A, B, or C natural mask is used (see page 20-5). The
DHCP server assumes that all host addresses are available. You can exclude
subsets of the address space by using the ip dhcp excluded-address
command.
Example
Console(config-dhcp)#network 10.1.0.0 255.255.255.0
Console(config-dhcp)#
39-7
39
DHCP Commands
default-router
This command specifies default routers for a DHCP pool. Use the no form to
remove the default routers.
Syntax
default-router address1 [address2]
no default-router
• address1 - Specifies the IP address of the primary router.
• address2 - Specifies the IP address of an alternate router.
Default Setting
None
Command Mode
DHCP Pool Configuration
Usage Guidelines
The IP address of the router should be on the same subnet as the client. You
can specify up to two routers. Routers are listed in order of preference
(starting with address1 as the most preferred router).
Example
Console(config-dhcp)#default-router 10.1.0.54 10.1.0.64
Console(config-dhcp)#
domain-name
This command specifies the domain name for a DHCP client. Use the no form to
remove the domain name.
Syntax
domain-name domain
no domain-name
domain - Specifies the domain name of the client.
(Range: 1-128 characters)
Default Setting
None
Command Mode
DHCP Pool Configuration
Example
Console(config-dhcp)#domain-name sample.com
Console(config-dhcp)#
39-8
DHCP Server
39
dns-server
This command specifies the Domain Name System (DNS) IP servers available to a
DHCP client. Use the no form to remove the DNS server list.
Syntax
dns-server address1 [address2]
no dns-server
• address1 - Specifies the IP address of the primary DNS server.
• address2 - Specifies the IP address of the alternate DNS server.
Default Setting
None
Command Mode
DHCP Pool Configuration
Usage Guidelines
• If DNS IP servers are not configured for a DHCP client, the client cannot
correlate host names to IP addresses.
• Servers are listed in order of preference (starting with address1 as the most
preferred server).
Example
Console(config-dhcp)#dns-server 10.1.1.253 192.168.3.19
Console(config-dhcp)#
next-server
This command configures the next server in the boot process of a DHCP client. Use
the no form to remove the boot server list.
Syntax
[no] next-server address
address - Specifies the IP address of the next server in the boot process,
which is typically a Trivial File Transfer Protocol (TFTP) server.
Default Setting
None
Command Mode
DHCP Pool Configuration
Example
Console(config-dhcp)#next-server 10.1.0.21
Console(config-dhcp)#
Related Commands
bootfile (39-10)
39-9
39
DHCP Commands
bootfile
This command specifies the name of the default boot image for a DHCP client. This
file should placed on the Trivial File Transfer Protocol (TFTP) server specified with
the next-server command. Use the no form to delete the boot image name.
Syntax
bootfile filename
no bootfile
filename - Name of the file that is used as a default boot image.
Default Setting
None
Command Mode
DHCP Pool Configuration
Example
Console(config-dhcp)#bootfile wme.bat
Console(config-dhcp)#
Related Commands
next-server (39-9)
netbios-name-server
This command configures NetBIOS Windows Internet Naming Service (WINS)
name se