ProCurve Series 2510 Switches Access Security Guide

ProCurve Series 2510 Switches Access Security Guide
Access Security Guide
2510
ProCurve Switches
Q.11.XX
www.procurve.com
ProCurve Series 2510 Switches
July 2007
Access Security Guide
© Copyright 2007 Hewlett-Packard Company, L.P.
The information contained herein is subject to change without
notice.
Publication Number
5991-4763
July 2007
information is provided "as is" without warranty of any kind
and is subject to change without notice. The warranties for
Hewlett-Packard Company products are set forth in the
express limited warranty statements for such products.
Nothing herein should be construed as constituting an
additional warranty.
Hewlett-Packard assumes no responsibility for the use or
reliability of its software on equipment that is not furnished
by Hewlett-Packard.
Applicable Products
ProCurve Switch 2510-24G - (J9019A)
Warranty
Trademark Credits
See the Customer Support/Warranty booklet included with
the product.
Windows NT®, Windows®, and MS Windows® are US
registered trademarks of Microsoft Corporation.
Software Credits
SSH on ProCurve Switches is based on the OpenSSH
software toolkit. This product includes software developed
by the OpenSSH Project for use in the OpenSSH Toolkit. For
more information on OpenSSH, visit www.openssh.com.
SSL on ProCurve Switches is based on the OpenSSL software
toolkit. This product includes software developed by the
OpenSSL Project for use in the OpenSSL Toolkit. For more
information on OpenSSL, visit
www.openssl.org.
This product includes cryptographic software written by
Eric Young (eay@cryptsoft.com)
This product includes software written by Tim Hudson
(tjh@cryptsoft.com)
Disclaimer
HEWLETT-PACKARD COMPANY MAKES NO WARRANTY
OF ANY KIND WITH REGARD TO THIS MATERIAL,
INCLUDING, BUT NOT LIMITED TO, THE IMPLIED
WARRANTIES OF MERCHANTABILITY AND FITNESS
FOR A PARTICULAR PURPOSE. Hewlett-Packard shall not
be liable for errors contained herein or for incidental or
consequential damages in connection with the furnishing,
performance, or use of this material.
Hewlett-Packard Company shall not be liable for technical
or editorial errors or omissions contained herein. The
Hewlett-Packard Company
8000 Foothills Boulevard, m/s 5551
Roseville, California 95747-5551
http://www.procurve.com
A copy of the specific warranty terms applicable to your
Hewlett-Packard products and replacement parts can be
obtained from your HP Sales and Service Office or
authorized dealer.
Contents
Product Documentation
About Your Switch Manual Set . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . xi
Feature Index . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .xii
1 Getting Started
Contents . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1-1
Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1-2
Overview of Access Security Features . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1-2
Management Access Security Protection . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1-3
General Switch Traffic Security Guidelines . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1-4
Conventions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1-5
Command Syntax Statements . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1-5
Command Prompts . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1-6
Screen Simulations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1-6
Port Identity Examples . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1-6
Sources for More Information . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1-7
Need Only a Quick Start? . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1-8
IP Addressing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1-8
To Set Up and Install the Switch in Your Network . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1-9
2 Configuring Username and Password Security
Contents . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-1
Overview . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-2
Configuring Local Password Security . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-4
Menu: Setting Passwords . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-4
CLI: Setting Passwords and Usernames . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-5
Web: Setting Passwords and Usernames . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-6
Front-Panel Security . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-7
iii
When Security Is Important . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-7
Front-Panel Button Functions ‘ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-8
Configuring Front-Panel Security . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-10
Password Recovery . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-15
Password Recovery Process . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-17
3 Web and MAC Authentication
Contents . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-1
Overview . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-2
Client Options . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-3
General Features . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-4
How Web and MAC Authentication Operate . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-5
Authenticator Operation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-5
Terminology . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-9
Operating Rules and Notes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-10
General Setup Procedure for Web/MAC Authentication . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-12
Do These Steps Before You Configure Web/MAC Authentication . . 3-12
Additional Information for Configuring the RADIUS
Server To Support MAC Authentication . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-14
Configuring the Switch To Access a RADIUS Server . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-15
Configuring Web Authentication . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-17
Overview . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-17
Configure the Switch for Web-Based Authentication . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-18
Configuring MAC Authentication on the Switch . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-22
Overview . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-22
Configure the Switch for MAC-Based Authentication . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-23
Show Status and Configuration of Web-Based Authentication . . . . . . . . 3-26
Show Status and Configuration of MAC-Based Authentication . . . . . . . . 3-28
Show Client Status . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-30
iv
4 TACACS+ Authentication
Contents . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4-1
Overview . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4-2
Terminology Used in TACACS Applications: . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4-3
General System Requirements . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4-5
General Authentication Setup Procedure . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4-5
Configuring TACACS+ on the Switch . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4-8
Before You Begin . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4-8
CLI Commands Described in this Section . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4-9
Viewing the Switch’s Current Authentication Configuration . . . . . . . 4-9
Viewing the Switch’s Current TACACS+ Server
Contact Configuration . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4-10
Configuring the Switch’s Authentication Methods . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4-11
Configuring the Switch’s TACACS+ Server Access . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4-15
How Authentication Operates . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4-20
General Authentication Process Using a TACACS+ Server . . . . . . . . 4-20
Local Authentication Process . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4-22
Using the Encryption Key . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4-23
Controlling Web Browser Interface Access When Using TACACS+
Authentication . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4-24
Messages Related to TACACS+ Operation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4-25
Operating Notes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4-25
5 RADIUS Authentication and Accounting
Contents . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5-1
Overview . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5-2
Terminology . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5-3
Switch Operating Rules for RADIUS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5-4
General RADIUS Setup Procedure . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5-5
Configuring the Switch for RADIUS Authentication . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5-6
Outline of the Steps for Configuring RADIUS Authentication . . . . . . 5-7
v
1. Configure Authentication for the Access Methods
You Want RADIUS To Protect . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5-8
2. Configure the Switch To Access a RADIUS Server . . . . . . . . . . . . 5-10
3. Configure the Switch’s Global RADIUS Parameters . . . . . . . . . . . 5-12
Local Authentication Process . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5-16
Controlling Web Browser Interface Access When Using RADIUS
Authentication . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5-17
Configuring RADIUS Accounting . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5-17
Operating Rules for RADIUS Accounting . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5-19
Steps for Configuring RADIUS Accounting . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5-19
Viewing RADIUS Statistics . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5-25
General RADIUS Statistics . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5-25
RADIUS Authentication Statistics . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5-28
RADIUS Accounting Statistics . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5-29
Changing RADIUS-Server Access Order . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5-30
Messages Related to RADIUS Operation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5-32
6 Configuring Secure Shell (SSH)
Contents . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6-1
Overview . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6-2
Terminology . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6-4
Prerequisite for Using SSH . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6-5
Public Key Formats . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6-5
Steps for Configuring and Using SSH
for Switch and Client Authentication . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6-6
General Operating Rules and Notes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6-8
Configuring the Switch for SSH Operation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6-9
1. Assign Local Login (Operator) and Enable (Manager) Password . 6-9
2. Generate the Switch’s Public and Private Key Pair . . . . . . . . . . . . 6-10
3. Provide the Switch’s Public Key to Clients . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6-12
4. Enable SSH on the Switch and Anticipate SSH
Client Contact Behavior . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6-15
5. Configure the Switch for SSH Authentication . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6-18
vi
6. Use an SSH Client To Access the Switch . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6-22
Further Information on SSH Client Public-Key Authentication . . . . . . . . 6-23
Messages Related to SSH Operation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6-29
7 Configuring Secure Socket Layer (SSL)
Contents . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7-1
Overview . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7-2
Terminology . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7-3
Prerequisite for Using SSL . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7-5
Steps for Configuring and Using SSL for
Switch and Client Authentication . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7-5
General Operating Rules and Notes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7-6
1. Assign Local Login (Operator) and Enable (Manager) Password . 7-7
2. Generate the Switch’s Server Host Certificate . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7-8
3. Enable SSL on the Switch and Anticipate SSL
Browser Contact Behavior . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7-17
Common Errors in SSL Setup . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7-21
8 Configuring Port-Based and Client-Based
Access Control (802.1X)
Contents . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8-1
Overview . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8-2
Why Use Port-Based or Client-Based Access Control? . . . . . . . . . . . . 8-2
General Features . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8-2
User Authentication Methods . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8-3
Terminology . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8-6
General 802.1X Authenticator Operation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8-9
Example of the Authentication Process . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8-9
Switch-Port Supplicant Operation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8-10
General Operating Rules and Notes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8-11
General Setup Procedure for 802.1X Access Control . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8-13
Do These Steps Before You Configure 802.1X Operation . . . . . . . . . 8-13
Overview: Configuring 802.1X Authentication on the Switch . . . . . . 8-14
vii
Configuring Switch Ports as 802.1X Authenticators . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8-16
1. Enable 802.1X Authentication on Selected Ports . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8-16
2. Reconfigure Settings for Port-Access . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8-19
3. Configure the 802.1X Authentication Method . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8-22
4. Enter the RADIUS Host IP Address(es) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8-23
5. Enable 802.1X Authentication on the Switch . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8-23
6. Optionally Resetting Authenticator Operation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8-24
802.1X Open VLAN Mode . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8-25
Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8-25
VLAN Membership Priorities . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8-26
Use Models for 802.1X Open VLAN Modes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8-27
Operating Rules for Authorized-Client and
Unauthorized-Client VLANs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8-30
Setting Up and Configuring 802.1X Open VLAN Mode . . . . . . . . . . . . 8-33
802.1X Open VLAN Operating Notes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8-37
Option For Authenticator Ports: Configure Port-Security To Allow
Only 802.1X Devices . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8-39
Configuring Switch Ports To Operate As
Supplicants for 802.1X Connections to Other Switches . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8-41
Displaying 802.1X Configuration, Statistics, and Counters . . . . . . . . . . . . 8-46
Show Commands for Port-Access Authenticator . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8-46
Viewing 802.1X Open VLAN Mode Status . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8-49
Show Commands for Port-Access Supplicant . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8-52
How RADIUS/802.1X Authentication Affects VLAN Operation . . . . . . . . 8-53
Messages Related to 802.1X Operation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8-57
9 Configuring and Monitoring Port Security
Contents . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9-1
Overview . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9-2
Basic Operation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9-2
Blocking Unauthorized Traffic . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9-3
Trunk Group Exclusion . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9-4
Planning Port Security . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9-5
Port Security Command Options and Operation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9-6
viii
Retention of Static MAC Addresses . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9-10
Displaying Current Port Security Settings . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9-10
Configuring Port Security . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9-12
Web: Displaying and Configuring Port Security Features . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9-17
Reading Intrusion Alerts and Resetting Alert Flags . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9-17
Notice of Security Violations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9-17
How the Intrusion Log Operates . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9-18
Keeping the Intrusion Log Current by Resetting Alert Flags . . . . . . . 9-19
Using the Event Log To Find Intrusion Alerts . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9-24
Web: Checking for Intrusions, Listing Intrusion Alerts,
and Resetting Alert Flags . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9-25
Operating Notes for Port Security . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9-25
Configuring Protected Ports . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9-27
10 Using Authorized IP Managers
Contents . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10-1
Overview . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10-2
Configuration Options . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10-3
Access Levels . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10-3
Defining Authorized Management Stations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10-4
Overview of IP Mask Operation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10-4
Menu: Viewing and Configuring IP Authorized Managers . . . . . . . . . 10-5
CLI: Viewing and Configuring Authorized IP Managers . . . . . . . . . . . 10-6
Web: Configuring IP Authorized Managers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10-9
Building IP Masks . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10-9
Configuring One Station Per Authorized Manager IP Entry . . . . . . . 10-9
Configuring Multiple Stations Per Authorized Manager IP Entry . . 10-10
Additional Examples for Authorizing Multiple Stations . . . . . . . . . 10-12
Operating Notes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10-12
Index
ix
x
Product Documentation
About Your Switch Manual Set
The switch manual set includes the following:
Note
■
Read Me First - a printed guide shipped with your switch. Provides
software update information, product notes, and other information.
■
Installation and Getting Started Guide - a printed guide shipped
with your switch. This guide explains how to prepare for and perform
the physical installation and connection to your network.
■
Management and Configuration Guide - a PDF file on the
ProCurve Networking Web Site. This guide describes how to
configure, manage, and monitor basic switch operation.
■
Advanced Traffic Management Guide - a PDF file on the ProCurve
Networking Web Site. This guide explains the configuration and
operation of traffic management features such as spanning tree and
VLANs.
■
Access Security Guide - a PDF file on the ProCurve Networking
Web Site. This guide explains the configuration and operation of
access security and user authentication features on the switch.
■
Release Notes - posted on the ProCurve web site to provide
information on software updates. The release notes describe new
features, fixes, and enhancements that become available between
revisions of the above guides.
For the latest version of all ProCurve switch documentation, including release
notes covering recently added features, visit the ProCurve Networking
website at www.procurve.com. Click on Technical support, and then click
on Product manuals.
xi
Product Documentation
Feature Index
For the manual set supporting your switch model, the following feature index
indicates which manual to consult for information on a given software feature.
Feature
Management and
Configuration
Advanced Traffic
Management
Access Security
Guide
802.1Q VLAN Tagging
-
X
-
802.1p Priority
X
-
-
802.1X Authentication
-
-
X
Authorized IP Managers
-
-
X
Config File
X
-
-
Copy Command
X
-
-
Debug
X
-
-
DHCP Configuration
-
X
-
DHCP/Bootp Operation
X
-
-
Diagnostic Tools
X
-
-
Downloading Software
X
-
-
Event Log
X
-
-
Factory Default Settings
X
-
-
File Management
X
-
-
File Transfers
X
-
-
GVRP
-
X
-
IGMP
-
X
-
Interface Access (Telnet, Console/Serial, Web)
X
-
-
IP Addressing
X
-
-
LACP
X
-
-
Link
X
-
-
xii
Product Documentation
Feature
Management and
Configuration
Advanced Traffic
Management
Access Security
Guide
LLDP
X
-
-
MAC Address Management
X
-
-
Monitoring and Analysis
X
-
-
Multicast Filtering
-
X
-
Network Management Applications (LLDP, SNMP)
X
-
-
Passwords
-
-
X
Ping
X
-
-
Port Configuration
X
-
-
Port Security
-
-
X
Port Status
X
-
-
Port Trunking (LACP)
X
-
-
Port-Based Access Control
-
-
X
Port-Based Priority (802.1Q)
X
-
-
Quality of Service (QoS)
-
X
-
RADIUS Authentication and Accounting
-
-
X
Secure Copy
X
-
-
SFTP
X
-
-
SNMP
X
-
-
Software Downloads (SCP/SFTP, TFTP, Xmodem)
X
-
-
Spanning Tree (MSTP)
-
X
-
SSH (Secure Shell) Encryption
-
-
X
SSL (Secure Socket Layer)
-
-
X
Stack Management (Stacking)
-
X
-
Syslog
X
-
-
System Information
X
-
-
TACACS+ Authentication
-
-
X
xiii
Product Documentation
Feature
Management and
Configuration
Advanced Traffic
Management
Access Security
Guide
Telnet Access
X
-
-
TFTP
X
-
-
Time Protocols (TimeP, SNTP)
X
-
-
Troubleshooting
X
-
-
VLANs
-
X
-
Xmodem
X
-
-
xiv
1
Getting Started
Contents
Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1-2
Overview of Access Security Features . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1-2
Management Access Security Protection . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1-3
General Switch Traffic Security Guidelines . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1-4
Conventions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1-5
Command Syntax Statements . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1-5
Command Prompts . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1-6
Screen Simulations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1-6
Port Identity Examples . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1-6
Sources for More Information . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1-7
Need Only a Quick Start? . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1-8
IP Addressing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1-8
To Set Up and Install the Switch in Your Network . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1-9
1-1
Getting Started
Introduction
Introduction
This Access Security Guide describes how to use ProCurve’s switch security
features to protect access to your switch. This guide is intended to support
the following switches:
■
ProCurve Switch 2510-24G
For an overview of other product documentation for the above switches, refer
to “Product Documentation” on page xi.
You can download a copy from the ProCurve Networking website,
www.procurve.com.
Overview of Access Security Features
The access security features covered in this guide include:
1-2
■
Local Manager and Operator Passwords (page 2-1): Control
access and privileges for the CLI, menu, and web browser interfaces.
■
TACACS+ Authentication (page 4-1): Uses an authentication application on a server to allow or deny access to a switch.
■
RADIUS Authentication and Accounting (page 5-1): Like
TACACS+, uses an authentication application on a central server to
allow or deny access to the switch. RADIUS also provides accounting
services for sending data about user activity and system events to a
RADIUS server.
■
Secure Shell (SSH) Authentication (page 6-1): Provides
encrypted paths for remote access to switch management functions.
■
Secure Socket Layer (SSL) (page 7-1): Provides remote web access
to the switch via encrypted authentication paths between the switch
and management station clients capable of SSL/TLS operation.
Getting Started
Overview of Access Security Features
■
Port-Based Access Control (802.1X) (page 8-1): On point-to-point
connections, enables the switch to allow or deny traffic between a
port and an 802.1X-aware device (supplicant) attempting to access
the switch. Also enables the switch to operate as a supplicant for
connections to other 802.1X-aware switches.
■
Port Security (page 9-1): Enables a switch port to maintain a unique
list of MAC addresses defining which specific devices are allowed to
access the network through that port. Also enables a port to detect,
prevent, and log access attempts by unauthorized devices.
■
Authorized IP Managers (page 10-1): Allows access to the switch
by a networked device having an IP address previously configured in
the switch as “authorized”.
Management Access Security Protection
In considering management access security for your switch, there are two key
areas to protect:
■
Unauthorized client access to switch management features
■
Unauthorized client access to the network.
Table 1-1 on page 1-4 provides an overview of the type of protection offered
by each switch security feature.
Note
ProCurve recommends that you use local passwords together with your
switch’s other security features to provide a more comprehensive security
fabric than if you use only local passwords.
1-3
Getting Started
Overview of Access Security Features
Table 1-1.
Management Access Security Protection
Security Feature
Offers Protection Against Unauthorized Client Access to Offers Protection
Switch Management Features
Against
Unauthorized Client
Connection Telnet
SNMP
Web
SSH
Access to the
(Net Mgmt) Browser Client
Network
PtP: Yes
No
Yes
Yes
No
Local Manager and Operator
Usernames and Passwords1
Remote: Yes
No
Yes
Yes
No
PtP: Yes
No
No
Yes
No
TACACS+
Remote: Yes
No
No
Yes
No
PtP: Yes
No
No
Yes
No
RADIUS
Remote: Yes
No
No
Yes
No
Ptp: Yes
No
No
Yes
No
SSH
Remote: Yes
No
No
Yes
No
Ptp:
No
No
Yes
No
No
SSL
Remote:
No
No
Yes
No
No
Port-Based Access Control (802.1X)
PtP: Yes
Yes
Yes
Yes
Yes
Remote:
No
No
No
No
No
PtP: Yes
Yes
Yes
Yes
Yes
Port Security (MAC address)
Remote: Yes
Yes
Yes
Yes
Yes
PtP: Yes
Yes
Yes
Yes
No
Authorized IP Managers
Remote: Yes
Yes
Yes
Yes
No
General Switch Traffic Security Guidelines
Where the switch is running multiple security options, it implements network
traffic security based on the OSI (Open Systems Interconnection model)
precedence of the individual options, from the lowest to the highest. The
following list shows the order in which the switch implements configured
security features on traffic moving through a given port.
1.
Disabled/Enabled physical port
2.
Port security
3.
Authorized IP Managers
4.
Application features at higher levels in the OSI model, such as SSH
(The above list does not address the mutually exclusive relationship that
exists among some security features.)
1-4
Getting Started
Conventions
Conventions
This guide uses the following conventions for command syntax and displayed
information.
Command Syntax Statements
Syntax: aaa port-access authenticator < port-list >
[ control < authorized | auto | unauthorized >]
■
Vertical bars ( | ) separate alternative, mutually exclusive elements.
■
Square brackets ( [ ] ) indicate optional elements.
■
Braces ( < > ) enclose required elements.
■
Braces within square brackets ( [ < > ] ) indicate a required element
within an optional choice.
■
Boldface indicates use of a CLI command, part of a CLI command
syntax, or other displayed element in general text. For example:
“Use the copy tftp command to download the key from a TFTP server.”
■
Italics indicate variables for which you must supply a value when
executing the command. For example, in this command syntax, < portlist > indicates that you must provide one or more port numbers:
Syntax: aaa port-access authenticator < port-list >
1-5
Getting Started
Conventions
Command Prompts
In the default configuration, your switch displays the following CLI prompt:
ProCurve Switch 2510-24#
To simplify recognition, this guide uses ProCurve to represent command
prompts for all models. For example:
ProCurve#
(You can use the hostname command to change the text in the CLI prompt.)
Screen Simulations
Figures containing simulated screen text and command output look like this:
ProCurve(config)# show version
Image stamp:
/sw/code/build/bass(ppne_swt)
Mar 17 2006 11:44:02
Q.10.XX
2624
Boot Image:
Primary
Build Options:
QA
Watchdog:
ENABLED
Figure 1-1. Example of a Figure Showing a Simulated Screen
In some cases, brief command-output sequences appear outside of a
numbered figure. For example:
ProCurve(config)# ip default-gateway 18.28.152.1/24
ProCurve(config)# vlan 1 ip address 18.28.36.152/24
ProCurve(config)# vlan 1 ip igmp
Port Identity Examples
This guide describes software applicable to both chassis-based and stackable
ProCurve switches. Where port identities are needed in an example, this guide
uses the chassis-based port identity system, such as “A1”, “B3 - B5”, “C7”, etc.
However, unless otherwise noted, such examples apply equally to the
stackable switches, which for port identities typically use only numbers, such
as “1”, “3-5”, “15”, etc.
1-6
Getting Started
Sources for More Information
Sources for More Information
For additional information about switch operation and features not covered
in this guide, consult the following sources:
■
Note
For information on which product manual to consult on a given
software feature, refer to “Product Documentation” on page xi.
For the latest version of all ProCurve switch documentation, including
release notes covering recently added features, visit the ProCurve
Networking Web Site at www.procurve.com. Click on Technical
support, and then click on Product manuals.
■
For information on specific parameters in the menu interface, refer
to the online help provided in the interface. For example:
Online Help for
Menu interface
Figure 1-2. Getting Help in the Menu Interface
■
For information on a specific command in the CLI, type the command
name followed by “help”. For example:
1-7
Getting Started
Need Only a Quick Start?
Figure 1-3. Getting Help in the CLI
■
For information on specific features in the Web browser interface,
use the online help. For more information, refer to the Management
and Configuration Guide for your switch.
■
For further information on ProCurve Networking switch technology,
visit the ProCurve Networking Website at:
www.procurve.com
Need Only a Quick Start?
IP Addressing
If you just want to give the switch an IP address so that it can communicate
on your network, or if you are not using multiple VLANs, ProCurve
recommends that you use the Switch Setup screen to quickly configure IP
addressing. To do so, do one of the following:
■
Enter setup at the CLI Manager level prompt.
ProCurve# setup
■
In the Main Menu of the Menu interface, select
8. Run Setup
For more on using the Switch Setup screen, see the Quick Installation Guide
you received with the switch.
1-8
Getting Started
Need Only a Quick Start?
To Set Up and Install the Switch in Your Network
I m po r t a n t !
Use the Quick Installation Guide shipped with your switch for the following:
■
Notes, cautions, and warnings related to installing and using the
switch
■
Instructions for physically installing the switch in your network
■
Quickly assigning an IP address and subnet mask, setting a Manager
password, and (optionally) configuring other basic features.
■
Interpreting LED behavior.
For the latest version of the Installation and Getting Started Guide and other
documentation for your switch, visit the ProCurve Networking Web site.
(Refer to “Product Documentation” on page xi of this guide for further
details.)
1-9
Getting Started
Need Only a Quick Start?
1-10
2
Configuring Username and Password Security
Contents
Overview . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-2
Configuring Local Password Security . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-4
Menu: Setting Passwords . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-4
CLI: Setting Passwords and Usernames . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-5
Web: Setting Passwords and Usernames . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-6
Front-Panel Security . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-7
When Security Is Important . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-7
Front-Panel Button Functions ‘ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-8
Configuring Front-Panel Security . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-10
Password Recovery . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-15
Password Recovery Process . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-17
2-1
Configuring Username and Password Security
Overview
Overview
Feature
Default
Menu
CLI
Web
Set Usernames
none
—
—
page 2-6
Set a Password
none
page 2-4
page 2-5
page 2-6
Delete Password Protection
n/a
page 2-4
page 2-6
page 2-6
Show front-panel-security
n/a
—
page 1-13
—
—
page 1-13
—
Front-panel-security
password-clear
enabled
—
page 1-13
—
reset-on-clear
disabled
—
page 1-14
—
factory-reset
enabled
—
page 1-15
—
password-recovery
enabled
—
page 1-15
—
Console access includes both the menu interface and the CLI. There are two
levels of console access: Manager and Operator. For security, you can set a
password pair (username and password) on each of these levels.
Note
Usernames are optional. Also, in the menu interface, you can configure
passwords, but not usernames. To configure usernames, use the CLI or the
web browser interface.
Level
Actions Permitted
Manager:
Access to all console interface areas.
This is the default level. That is, if a Manager password has not been set prior
to starting the current console session, then anyone having access to the
console can access any area of the console interface.
Operator:
Access to the Status and Counters menu, the Event Log, and the CLI*, but no
Configuration capabilities.
On the Operator level, the configuration menus, Download OS, and Reboot
Switch options in the Main Menu are not available.
*Allows use of the ping, link-test, show, menu, exit, and logout commands, plus the enable
command if you can provide the Manager password.
2-2
Configuring Username and Password Security
Overview
To configure password security:
1.
Set a Manager password pair (and an Operator password pair, if applicable for your system).
2.
Exit from the current console session. A Manager password pair will now
be needed for full access to the console.
If you do steps 1 and 2, above, then the next time a console session is started
for either the menu interface or the CLI, a prompt appears for a password.
Assuming you have protected both the Manager and Operator levels, the level
of access to the console interface will be determined by which password is
entered in response to the prompt.
If you set a Manager password, you may also want to configure the
Inactivity Time parameter. (Refer to the Management and Configuration
Guide for your switch.) This causes the console session to end after the
specified period of inactivity, thus giving you added security against unauthorized console access.
Note
The manager and operator passwords and (optional) usernames control
access to the menu interface, CLI, and web browser interface.
If you configure only a Manager password (with no Operator password), and
in a later session the Manager password is not entered correctly in response
to a prompt from the switch, then the switch does not allow management
access for that session.
Passwords are case-sensitive.
Caution
If the switch has neither a Manager nor an Operator password, anyone
having access to the switch through either Telnet, the serial port, or the web
browser interface can access the switch with full manager privileges. Also,
if you configure only an Operator password, entering the Operator password enables full manager privileges.
The rest of this section covers how to:
■
Set passwords
■
Delete passwords
■
Recover from a lost password
2-3
Configuring Username and Password Security
Configuring Local Password Security
Configuring Local Password Security
Menu: Setting Passwords
As noted earlier in this section, usernames are optional. Configuring a username requires either the CLI or the web browser interface.
1.
From the Main Menu select:
3. Console Passwords
Figure 2-1. The Set Password Screen
2.
To set a new password:
a.
Select Set Manager Password or Set Operator Password. You will then
be prompted with Enter new password.
b.
Type a password of up to 16 ASCII characters with no spaces and
press [Enter]. (Remember that passwords are case-sensitive.)
c.
When prompted with Enter new password again, retype the new password and press [Enter].
After you configure a password, if you subsequently start a new console
session, you will be prompted to enter the password. (If you use the CLI or
web browser interface to configure an optional username, the switch will
prompt you for the username, and then the password.)
To Delete Password Protection (Including Recovery from a Lost
Password): This procedure deletes all usernames (if configured) and passwords (Manager and Operator).
2-4
Configuring Username and Password Security
Configuring Local Password Security
If you have physical access to the switch, press and hold the Clear button (on
the front of the switch) for a minimum of one second to clear all password
protection, then enter new passwords as described earlier in this chapter.
If you do not have physical access to the switch, you will need Manager-Level
access:
1.
Enter the console at the Manager level.
2.
Go to the Set Passwords screen as described above.
3.
Select Delete Password Protection. You will then see the following prompt:
Continue Deletion of password protection? No
4.
Press the Space bar to select Yes, then press [Enter].
5.
Press [Enter] to clear the Password Protection message.
To Recover from a Lost Manager Password: If you cannot start a console session at the Manager level because of a lost Manager password, you
can clear the password by getting physical access to the switch and pressing
and holding the Clear button for a minimum of one second. This action deletes
all passwords and usernames (Manager and Operator) used by both the
console and the web browser interface.
CLI: Setting Passwords and Usernames
Commands Used in This Section
password
See below.
Configuring Manager and Operator Passwords.
Syntax:
[ no ] password <manager | operator > [ user-name ASCII-STR ]
[ no ] password < all >
• Password entries appear
as asterisks.
• You must type the
password entry twice.
Figure 2-2. Example of Configuring Manager and Operator Passwords
2-5
Configuring Username and Password Security
Configuring Local Password Security
To Remove Password Protection. Removing password protection means
to eliminate password security. This command prompts you to verify that you
want to remove one or both passwords, then clears the indicated password(s).
(This command also clears the username associated with a password you are
removing.) For example, to remove the Operator password (and username, if
assigned) from the switch, you would do the following:
Press [Y] (for yes) and press [Enter].
Figure 2-3. Removing a Password and Associated Username from the Switch
The effect of executing the command in figure 2-3 is to remove password
protection from the Operator level. (This means that anyone who can access
the switch console can gain Operator access without having to enter a username or password.)
Web: Setting Passwords and Usernames
In the web browser interface you can enter passwords and (optional) usernames.
To Configure (or Remove) Usernames and Passwords in the Web
Browser Interface.
1.
Click on the Security tab.
Click on [Device Passwords].
2.
3.
Do one of the following:
•
To set username and password protection, enter the usernames and
passwords you want in the appropriate fields.
•
To remove username and password protection, leave the fields blank.
Implement the usernames and passwords by clicking on [Apply Changes].
To access the web-based help provided for the switch, click on [?] in the web
browser screen.
2-6
Configuring Username and Password Security
Front-Panel Security
Front-Panel Security
The front-panel security features provide the ability to independently enable
or disable some of the functions of the two buttons located on the front of the
switch for clearing the password (Clear button) or restoring the switch to its
factory default configuration (Reset+Clear buttons together). The ability to
disable Password Recovery is also provided for situations which require a
higher level of switch security.
The front-panel Security features are designed to prevent malicious users
from:
■
Resetting the password(s) by pressing the Clear button
■
Restoring the factory default configuration by using the Reset+Clear
button combination.
■
Gaining management access to the switch by having physical access to
the switch itself
When Security Is Important
Some customers require a high level of security for information. Also, the
Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act (HIPAA) of 1996 requires
that systems handling and transmitting confidential medical records must be
secure.
It used to be assumed that only system and network administrators would be
able to get access to a network switch because switches were typically placed
in secure locations under lock and key. For some customers this is no longer
true. Others simply want the added assurance that even if someone did
manage to get to the switch that data would still remain secure.
If you do not invoke front-panel security on the switch, user-defined passwords can be deleted by pushing the Clear button on the front panel. This
function exists so that if customers forget the defined passwords they can still
get back into the switch and reset the passwords. This does, however, leave
the switch vulnerable when it is located in an area where non-authorized
people have access to it. Passwords could easily be cleared by pressing the
Clear button. Someone who has physical access to the switch may be able to
erase the passwords (and possibly configure new passwords) and take control
of the switch.
2-7
Configuring Username and Password Security
Front-Panel Security
As a result of increased security concerns, customers now have the ability to
stop someone from removing passwords by disabling the Clear and/or Reset
buttons on the front of the switch.
Front-Panel Button Functions ‘
The front panel of the switch includes the Reset button and the Clear button.
Reset Button
Clear Button
Figure 2-4. Example Front-Panel Button Locations
Clear Button
Pressing the Clear button alone for one second resets the password(s) configured on the switch.
Reset
Clear
Figure 2-5. Press the Clear Button for One Second To Reset the Password(s)
2-8
Configuring Username and Password Security
Front-Panel Security
Reset Button
Pressing the Reset button alone for one second causes the switch to reboot.
Reset
Clear
Figure 2-6. Press and hold the Reset Button for One Second To Reboot the Switch
Restoring the Factory Default Configuration
You can also use the Reset button together with the Clear button (Reset+Clear)
to restore the factory default configuration for the switch. To do this:
1.
Press and hold the Reset button.
Reset
2.
Clear
While holding the Reset button, press and hold the Clear button.
Reset
Clear
2-9
Configuring Username and Password Security
Front-Panel Security
3.
Release the Reset button and wait for about one second for the Self-Test
LED to start flashing.
Reset
Clear
Self
Test
4.
When the Self-Test LED begins flashing, release the Clear button
.
Reset
Clear
Self
Test
This process restores the switch configuration to the factory default settings.
Configuring Front-Panel Security
Using the front-panel-security command from the global configuration context
in the CLI you can:
2-10
•
Disable or re-enable the password-clearing function of the Clear
button. Disabling the Clear button means that pressing it does not
remove local password protection from the switch. (This action
affects the Clear button when used alone, but does not affect the
operation of the Reset+Clear combination described under “Restoring the Factory Default Configuration” on page 2-9.)
•
Configure the Clear button to reboot the switch after clearing any
local usernames and passwords. This provides an immediate, visual
means (plus an Event Log message) for verifying that any usernames
and passwords in the switch have been cleared.
Configuring Username and Password Security
Front-Panel Security
•
Modify the operation of the Reset+Clear combination (page 2-9) so
that the switch still reboots, but does not restore the switch’s factory
default configuration settings. (Use of the Reset button alone, to
simply reboot the switch, is not affected.)
•
Disable or re-enable Password Recovery.
Syntax: show front-panel-security
Displays the current front-panel-security settings:
Clear Password: Shows the status of the Clear button on the front
panel of the switch. Enabled means that pressing the Clear
button erases the local usernames and passwords configured
on the switch (and thus removes local password protection
from the switch). Disabled means that pressing the Clear
button does not remove the local usernames and passwords
configured on the switch. (Default: Enabled.)
Reset-on-clear: Shows the status of the reset-on-clear option
(Enabled or Disabled). When reset-on-clear is disabled and
Clear Password is enabled, then pressing the Clear button
erases the local usernames and passwords from the switch.
When reset-on-clear is enabled, pressing the Clear button
erases the local usernames and passwords from the switch
and reboots the switch. (Enabling reset-on-clear
automatically enables clear-password.) (Default: Disabled.)
Factory Reset: Shows the status of the Reset button on the front
panel of the switch. Enabled means that pressing the Reset
button reboots the switch and also enables the Reset button to
be used with the Clear button (page 2-9) to reset the switch to
its factory-default configuration. (Default: Enabled.)
Password Recovery: Shows whether the switch is configured
with the ability to recover a lost password. (Refer to
“Password Recovery Process” on page 2-17.) (Default:
Enabled.)
CAUTION: Disabling this option removes the ability to
recover a password on the switch. Disabling this option is
an extreme measure and is not recommended unless you
have the most urgent need for high security. If you disable
password-recovery and then lose the password, you will
have to use the Reset and Clear buttons (page 2-9) to reset
the switch to its factory-default configuration and create a
new password.
2-11
Configuring Username and Password Security
Front-Panel Security
For example, show front-panel-security produces the following output when
the switch is configured with the default front-panel security settings.
Figure 2-7. The Default Front-Panel Security Settings
Disabling the Clear Password Function of the Clear Button
on the Switch’s Front Panel
Syntax: no front-panel-security password-clear
In the factory-default configuration, pressing the Clear button
on the switch’s front panel erases any local usernames and
passwords configured on the switch. This command disables
the password clear function of the Clear button, so that
pressing it has no effect on any local usernames and
passwords. (Default: Enabled.)
Note: Although the Clear button does not erase passwords
when disabled, you can still use it with the Reset button
(Reset+Clear) to restore the switch to its factory default
configuration, as described under “Restoring the Factory
Default Configuration” on page 2-9.
This command displays a Caution message in the CLI. If you want to proceed
with disabling the Clear button, type [Y]; otherwise type [N]. For example:
Indicates the command has disabled the Clear
button on the switch’s front panel. In this case
the Show command does not include the reseton-clear status because it is inoperable while
the Clear Password functionality is disabled, and
must be reconfigured whenever Clear Password
is re-enabled .
Figure 2-8. Example of Disabling the Clear Button and Displaying the New Configuration
2-12
Configuring Username and Password Security
Front-Panel Security
Re-Enabling the Clear Button on the Switch’s Front Panel and
Setting or Changing the “Reset-On-Clear” Operation
Syntax: [no] front-panel-security password-clear reset-on-clear
This command does both of the following:
• Re-enables the password-clearing function of the Clear
button on the switch’s front panel.
• Specifies whether the switch reboots if the Clear button is
pressed.
To re-enable password-clear, you must also specify whether
to enable or disable the reset-on-clear option.
Defaults:
– password-clear: Enabled.
– reset-on-clear: Disabled.
Thus:
• To enable password-clear with reset-on-clear disabled, use
this syntax:
no front-panel-security password-clear reset-on-clear
• To enable password-clear with reset-on-clear also enabled,
use this syntax:
front-panel-security password-clear reset-on-clear
(Either form of the command enables password-clear.)
Note: If you disable password-clear and also disable the
password-recovery option, you can still recover from a lost
password by using the Reset+Clear button combination at
reboot as described on page 2-9. Although the Clear button
does not erase passwords when disabled, you can still use
it with the Reset button (Reset+Clear) to restore the switch
to its factory default configuration. You can then get access
to the switch to set a new password.
For example, suppose that password-clear is disabled and you want to restore
it to its default configuration (enabled, with reset-on-clear disabled).
2-13
Configuring Username and Password Security
Front-Panel Security
Shows password-clear disabled.
Enables password-clear, with reset-onclear disabled by the “no” statement at
the beginning of the command.
Shows password-clear enabled, with
reset-on-clear disabled.
Figure 2-9. Example of Re-Enabling the Clear Button’s Default Operation
Changing the Operation of the Reset+Clear Combination
In their default configuration, using the Reset+Clear buttons in the combination described under “Restoring the Factory Default Configuration” on page
2-9 replaces the switch’s current startup-config file with the factory-default
startup-config file, then reboots the switch, and removes local password
protection. This means that anyone who has physical access to the switch
could use this button combination to replace the switch’s current configuration with the factory-default configuration, and render the switch accessible without the need to input a username or password. You can use the
factory-reset command to prevent the Reset+Clear combination from being
used for this purpose.
Syntax: [no] front-panel-security factory-reset
Disables or re-enables the following functions associated with
using the Reset+Clear buttons in the combination described
under “Restoring the Factory Default Configuration” on page 2-9:
• Replacing the current startup-config file with the factorydefault startup-config file
• Clearing any local usernames and passwords configured on
the switch
(Default: Both functions enabled.)
Notes: The Reset+Clear button combination always reboots
the switch, regardless of whether the “no” form of the
command has been used to disable the above two functions.
Also, if you disable factory-reset, you cannot disable the
password-recovery option, and the reverse.
2-14
Configuring Username and Password Security
Front-Panel Security
The command to disable the factory-reset operation produces this caution.
To complete the command, press [Y]. To abort the command, press [N].
Completes the command to
disable the factory reset option.
Displays the current frontpanel-security configuration,
with Factory Reset disabled.
Figure 2-10. Example of Disabling the Factory Reset Option
Password Recovery
The password recovery feature is enabled by default and provides a method
for regaining management access to the switch (without resetting the switch
to its factory default configuration) in the event that the system administrator
loses the local manager username (if configured) or password. Using Password Recovery requires:
■
password-recovery enabled (the default) on the switch prior to an attempt
to recover from a lost username/password situation
■
Contacting your ProCurve Customer Care Center to acquire a one-timeuse password
Disabling or Re-Enabling the Password Recovery Process
Disabling the password recovery process means that the only method for
recovering from a lost manager username (if configured) and password is to
reset the switch to its factory-default configuration, which removes any non
default configuration settings.
Caution
Disabling password-recovery requires that factory-reset be enabled, and locks
out the ability to recover a lost manager username (if configured) and password on the switch. In this event, there is no way to recover from a lost
manager username/password situation without resetting the switch to its
factory-default configuration. This can disrupt network operation and make
it necessary to temporarily disconnect the switch from the network to prevent
unauthorized access and other problems while it is being reconfigured. Also,
with factory-reset enabled, unauthorized users can use the Reset+Clear button
combination to reset the switch to factory-default configuration and gain
management access to the switch.
2-15
Configuring Username and Password Security
Front-Panel Security
Syntax: [no] front-panel-security password-recovery
Enables or (using the “no” form of the command) disables the
ability to recover a lost password.
When this feature is enabled, the switch allows management
access through the password recovery process described below.
This provides a method for recovering from a lost manager
username (if configured) and password. When this feature is
disabled, the password recovery process is disabled and the
only way to regain management access to the switch is to use
the Reset+Clear button combination (page 2-9) to restore the
switch to its factory default configuration.
Note: To disable password-recovery:
– You must have physical access to the front panel of the
switch.
– The factory-reset parameter must be enabled (the default).
(Default: Enabled.)
Steps for Disabling Password-Recovery.
1.
Set the CLI to the global interface context.
2.
Use show front-panel-security to determine whether the factory-reset
parameter is enabled. If it is disabled, use the front-panel-security factoryreset command to enable it.
3.
Press and release the Clear button on the front panel of the switch.
4.
Within 60-seconds of pressing the Clear button, enter the following command:
no front-panel-security password-recovery
5.
Do one of the following after the “CAUTION” message appears:
•
If you want to complete the command, press [Y] (for “Yes”).
•
If you want to abort the command, press [N] (for “No”)
Figure 2-11 shows an example of disabling the password-recovery parameter.
2-16
Configuring Username and Password Security
Front-Panel Security
Figure 2-11. Example of the Steps for Disabling Password-Recovery
Password Recovery Process
If you have lost the switch’s manager username/password, but passwordrecovery is enabled, then you can use the Password Recovery Process to gain
management access to the switch with an alternate password supplied by
ProCurve.
Note
If you have disabled password-recovery, which locks out the ability to recover
a manager username/password pair on the switch, then the only way to
recover from a lost manager username/password pair is to use the
Reset+Clear button combination described under “Restoring the Factory
Default Configuration” on page 2-9. This can disrupt network operation and
make it necessary to temporarily disconnect the switch from the network to
prevent unauthorized access and other problems while it is being reconfigured.
To use the password-recovery option to recover a lost password:
1.
Note the switch’s base MAC address. It is shown on the label located on
the upper right front corner of the switch.
2.
Contact your ProCurve Customer Care Center for further assistance.
Using the switch’s MAC address, the ProCurve Customer Care Center will
generate and provide a “one-time use” alternate password you can use
with the to gain management access to the switch. Once you gain access,
you can configure a new, known password.
2-17
Configuring Username and Password Security
Front-Panel Security
Note
The alternate password provided by the ProCurve Customer Care Center is
valid only for a single login attempt.
You cannot use the same “one-time-use” password if you lose the password
a second time. Because the password algorithm is randomized based upon
your switch's MAC address, the password will change as soon as you use the
“one-time-use” password provided to you by the ProCurve Customer Care
Center.
2-18
3
Web and MAC Authentication
Contents
Overview . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-2
Client Options . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-3
General Features . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-4
How Web and MAC Authentication Operate . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-5
Authenticator Operation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-5
Terminology . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-9
Operating Rules and Notes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-10
General Setup Procedure for Web/MAC Authentication . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-12
Do These Steps Before You Configure Web/MAC Authentication . . 3-12
Additional Information for Configuring the RADIUS
Server To Support MAC Authentication . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-14
Configuring the Switch To Access a RADIUS Server . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-15
Configuring Web Authentication . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-17
Overview . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-17
Configure the Switch for Web-Based Authentication . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-18
Configuring MAC Authentication on the Switch . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-22
Overview . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-22
Configure the Switch for MAC-Based Authentication . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-23
Show Status and Configuration of Web-Based Authentication . . . . . . . . 3-26
Show Status and Configuration of MAC-Based Authentication . . . . . . . . 3-28
Show Client Status . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-30
3-1
Web and MAC Authentication
Overview
Overview
Feature
Default
Menu
CLI
Web
Configure Web Authentication
n/a
—
3-17
—
Configure MAC Authentication
n/a
—
3-22
—
Display Web Authentication Status and Configuration
n/a
—
3-26
—
Display MAC Authentication Status and Configuration
n/a
—
3-28
—
Web and MAC Authentication are designed for employment on the “edge” of
a network to provide port-based security measures for protecting private
networks and the switch itself from unauthorized access. Because neither
method requires clients to run any special supplicant software, both are
suitable for legacy systems and temporary access situations where introducing supplicant software is not an attractive option. Both methods rely on using
a RADIUS server for authentication. This simplifies access security management by allowing you to control access from a master database in a single
server. (You can use up to three RADIUS servers to provide backups in case
access to the primary server fails.) It also means the same credentials can be
used for authentication, regardless of which switch or switch port is the
current access point into the LAN.
Web Authentication (Web-Auth). This method uses a web page login to
authenticate users for access to the network. When a user connects to the
switch and opens a web browser the switch automatically presents a login
page. The user then enters a username and password, which the switch
forwards to a RADIUS server for authentication. After authentication, the
switch grants access to the secured network. Other than a web browser, the
client needs no special supplicant software.
Note
Client web browsers may not use a proxy server to access the network.
MAC Authentication (MAC-Auth). This method grants access to a secure
network by authenticating devices for access to the network. When a device
connects to the switch, either by direct link or through the network, the switch
forwards the device’s MAC address to the RADIUS server for authentication.
The RADIUS server uses the device MAC address as the username and
3-2
Web and MAC Authentication
Overview
password, and grants or denies network access in the same way that it does
for clients capable of interactive logons. (The process does not use either a
client device configuration or a logon session.) MAC authentication is wellsuited for clients that are not capable of providing interactive logons, such as
telephones, printers, and wireless access points. Also, because most RADIUS
servers allow for authentication to depend on the source switch and port
through which the client connects to the network, you can use MAC-Auth to
“lock” a particular device to a specific switch and port.
Note
You can configure only one authentication type on a port. This means that
Web authentication, MAC authentication, 802.1X, MAC lockdown, MAC lockout, and port-security are mutually exclusive on a given port. Also, LACP must
be disabled on ports configured for any of these authentication methods.
Client Options
Web-Auth and MAC-Auth provide a port-based solution in which a port can
belong to one, untagged VLAN at a time. The switch allows 2 clients per port.
In the default configuration, the switch blocks access to clients that the
RADIUS server does not authenticate. However, you can configure an individual port to provide limited services to unauthorized clients by joining a
specified “unauthorized” VLAN during sessions with such clients. The unauthorized VLAN assignment can be the same for all ports, or different, depending on the services and access you plan to allow for unauthenticated clients.
Access to an optional, unauthorized VID is configured in the switch when Web
and MAC Authentication are configured on a port.
3-3
Web and MAC Authentication
Overview
General Features
Web and MAC Authentication includes the following:
3-4
■
On a port configured for Web or MAC Authentication, the switch
operates as a port-access authenticator using a RADIUS server and
the CHAP protocol. Inbound traffic is processed by the switch alone,
until authentication occurs. Some traffic from the switch is available
to an unauthorized client (for example, broadcast or unknown destination packets) before authentication occurs.
■
Proxy servers may not be used by browsers accessing the switch
through ports using Web Authentication.
■
You can optionally configure the switch to temporarily assign “authorized” and “unauthorized” VLAN memberships on a per-port basis to
provide different services and access to authenticated and unauthenticated clients.
■
Web pages for username and password entry and the display of
authorization status are provided when using Web Authentication.
■
You can use the RADIUS server to temporarily assign a port to a static
VLAN to support an authenticated client. When a RADIUS server
authenticates a client, the switch-port membership during the client’s
connection is determined according to the following hierarchy:
1.
A RADIUS-assigned VLAN
2.
An authorized VLAN specified in the Web- or MAC-Auth configuration
for the subject port.
3.
A static, port-based, untagged VLAN to which the port is configured.
A RADIUS-assigned VLAN has priority over switch-port membership
in any VLAN.
■
You can allow wireless clients to move between switch ports under
Web/MAC Authentication control. Clients may move from one Web
authorized port to another or from one MAC authorized port to
another. This capability allows wireless clients to move from one
access point to another without having to reauthenticate.
■
Unlike 802.1X operation, clients do not need supplicant software for
Web or MAC Authentication; only a web browser (for Web Authentication) or a MAC address (for MAC Authentication).
■
You can use “Show” commands to display session status and portaccess configuration settings.
Web and MAC Authentication
How Web and MAC Authentication Operate
How Web and MAC Authentication
Operate
Authenticator Operation
Before gaining access to the network clients first present their authentication
credentials to the switch. The switch then verifies the supplied credentials
with a RADIUS authentication server. Successfully authenticated clients
receive access to the network, as defined by the System Administrator. Clients
who fail to authenticate successfully receive no network access or limited
network access as defined by the System Administrator.
Web-based Authentication
When a client connects to a Web-Auth enabled port, communication is redirected to the switch. A temporary IP address is assigned by the switch and a
login screen is presented for the client to enter their credentials.
Figure 3-1. Example of User Login Screen
The temporary IP address pool can be specified using the dhcp-addr and
dhcp-lease options of the aaa port-access web-based command. If SSL is
enabled on the switch and ssl-login is enabled on the port the client is
redirected to a secure login page (https://...).
The switch passes the supplied username and password to the RADIUS server
for authentication.
3-5
Web and MAC Authentication
How Web and MAC Authentication Operate
Figure 3-2. Progress Message During Authentication
If the client is authenticated and the maximum number of clients allowed on
the port (client-limit) has not been reached, the port is assigned to a static,
untagged VLAN for network access. If specified, the client is redirected to a
specific URL (redirect-url).
Figure 3-3. Authentication Completed
The assigned VLAN is determined, in order of priority, as follows:
1.
If there is a RADIUS-assigned VLAN, then, for the duration of the client
session, the port belongs to this VLAN and temporarily drops all other
VLAN memberships.
2.
If there is no RADIUS-assigned VLAN, then, for the duration of the client
session, the port belongs to the authorized VLAN (auth-vid if configured)
and temporarily drops all other VLAN memberships.
3.
If neither 1 or 2, above, apply, but the port is an untagged member of a
statically configured, port-based VLAN, then the port remains in this
VLAN.
4.
If neither 1, 2, or 3, above, apply, then the client session does not have
access to any statically configured, untagged VLANs and client access is
blocked.
The assigned port VLAN remains in place until the session ends. Clients may
be forced to reauthenticate after a fixed period of time (reauth-period) or at
any time during a session (reauthenticate). An implicit logoff period can be set
if there is no activity from the client after a given amount of time (logoff-period).
In addition, a session ends if the link on the port is lost, requiring reauthentication of all clients. Also, if a client moves from one port to another and client
3-6
Web and MAC Authentication
How Web and MAC Authentication Operate
moves have not been enabled (client-moves) on the ports, the session ends and
the client must reauthenticate for network access. At the end of the session
the port returns to its pre-authentication state. Any changes to the port’s VLAN
memberships made while it is an authorized port take affect at the end of the
session.
A client may not be authenticated due to invalid credentials or a RADIUS
server timeout. The max-retries parameter specifies how many times a client
may enter his credentials before authentication fails. The server-timeout
parameter sets how long the switch waits to receive a response from the
RADIUS server before timing out. The max-requests parameter specifies how
many authentication attempts may result in a RADIUS server timeout before
authentication fails. The switch waits a specified amount of time (quietperiod) before processing any new authentication requests from the client.
Network administrators may assign unauthenticated clients to a specific
static, untagged VLAN (unauth-vid), to provide access to specific (guest)
network resources. If no VLAN is assigned to unauthenticated clients the port
is blocked and no network access is available. Should another client successfully authenticate through that port any unauthenticated clients on the unauthvid are dropped from the port.
MAC-based Authentication
When a client connects to a MAC-Auth enabled port traffic is blocked. The
switch immediately submits the client’s MAC address (in the format specified
by the addr-format) as its certification credentials to the RADIUS server for
authentication.
If the client is authenticated and the maximum number of MAC addresses
allowed on the port (addr-limit) has not been reached, the port is assigned to
a static, untagged VLAN for network access.
The assigned VLAN is determined, in order of priority, as follows:
1.
If there is a RADIUS-assigned VLAN, then, for the duration of the client
session, the port belongs to this VLAN and temporarily drops all other
VLAN memberships.
2.
If there is no RADIUS-assigned VLAN, then, for the duration of the client
session, the port belongs to the Authorized VLAN (auth-vid if configured)
and temporarily drops all other VLAN memberships.
3.
If neither 1 or 2, above, apply, but the port is an untagged member of a
statically configured, port-based VLAN, then the port remains in this
VLAN.
3-7
Web and MAC Authentication
How Web and MAC Authentication Operate
4.
If neither 1, 2, or 3, above, apply, then the client session does not have
access to any statically configured, untagged VLANs and client access is
blocked.
The assigned port VLAN remains in place until the session ends. Clients may
be forced to reauthenticate after a fixed period of time (reauth-period) or at
any time during a session (reauthenticate). An implicit logoff period can be set
if there is no activity from the client after a given amount of time (logoff-period).
In addition, a session ends if the link on the port is lost, requiring reauthentication of all clients. Also, if a client moves from one port to another and client
moves have not been enabled (addr-moves) on the ports, the session ends and
the client must reauthenticate for network access. At the end of the session
the port returns to its pre-authentication state. Any changes to the port’s VLAN
memberships made while it is an authenticated port take affect at the end of
the session.
A client may not be authenticated due to invalid credentials or a RADIUS
server timeout. The server-timeout parameter sets how long the switch waits
to receive a response from the RADIUS server before timing out. The maxrequests parameter specifies how many authentication attempts may result in
a RADIUS server timeout before authentication fails. The switch waits a
specified amount of time (quiet-period) before processing any new authentication requests from the client.
Network administrators may assign unauthenticated clients to a specific
static, untagged VLAN (unauth-vid), to provide access to specific (guest)
network resources. If no VLAN is assigned to unauthenticated clients the port
remains in its original VLAN configuration. Should another client successfully
authenticate through that port any unauthenticated clients are dropped from
the port.
3-8
Web and MAC Authentication
Terminology
Terminology
Authorized-Client VLAN: Like the Unauthorized-Client VLAN, this is a
conventional, static, untagged, port-based VLAN previously configured on
the switch by the System Administrator. The intent in using this VLAN is
to provide authenticated clients with network access and services. When
the client connection terminates, the port drops its membership in this
VLAN.
Authentication Server: The entity providing an authentication service to
the switch, for example, a RADIUS server.
Authenticator: In ProCurve switch applications, a device that requires a
client or device to provide the proper credentials (MAC address, or
username and password) before being allowed access to the network.
CHAP: Challenge Handshake Authentication Protocol. Also known as
“CHAP-RADIUS”.
Client: In this application, an end-node device such as a management station,
workstation, or mobile PC linked to the switch through a point-to-point
LAN link.
Redirect URL: A System Administrator-specified web page presented to an
authorized client following Web Authentication. ProCurve recommends
specifying this URL when configuring Web Authentication on a switch.
Refer to aaa port-access web-based [e] < port-list > [redirect-url < url >] on
page 3-21.
Static VLAN: A VLAN that has been configured as “permanent” on the switch
by using the CLI vlan < vid > command or the Menu interface.
Unauthorized-Client VLAN: A conventional, static, untagged, port-based
VLAN previously configured on the switch by the System Administrator.
It is used to provide limited network access and services to clients who
are not authenticated.
3-9
Web and MAC Authentication
Operating Rules and Notes
Operating Rules and Notes
■
■
Note on Port
Access
M a na g e m e nt
•
Web Authentication
•
MAC Authentication
•
802.1X
Order of Precedence for Port Access Management (highest to lowest):
•
MAC lockout
•
MAC lockdown or Port Security
•
Port-based Access Control (802.1X) or Web Authentication or MAC
Authentication
When configuring a port for Web or MAC Authentication, be sure that a higher
precedent port access management feature is not enabled on the port. For
example, be sure that Port Security is disabled on a port before configuring it
for Web or MAC Authentication. If Port Security is enabled on the port this
misconfiguration does not allow Web or MAC Authentication to occur.
■
3-10
You can configure one type of authentication on a port. That is, the
following authentication types are mutually exclusive on a given
port:
VLANs: If your LAN does not use multiple VLANs, then you do not
need to configure VLAN assignments in your RADIUS server or
consider using either Authorized or Unauthorized VLANs. If your LAN
does use multiple VLANs, then some of the following factors may
apply to your use of Web-Auth and MAC-Auth.
•
Web-Auth and MAC-Auth operate only with port-based VLANs. Operation with protocol VLANs is not supported, and clients do not have
access to protocol VLANs during Web-Auth and MAC-Auth sessions.
•
A port can belong to one, untagged VLAN during any client session.
Where multiple authenticated clients may simultaneously use the
same port, they must all be capable of operating on the same VLAN.
•
During an authenticated client session, the following hierarchy determines a port’s VLAN membership:
1. If there is a RADIUS-assigned VLAN, then, for the duration of the
client session, the port belongs to this VLAN and temporarily
drops all other VLAN memberships.
Web and MAC Authentication
Operating Rules and Notes
2.
3.
4.
If there is no RADIUS-assigned VLAN, then, for the duration of
the client session, the port belongs to the Authorized VLAN (if
configured) and temporarily drops all other VLAN memberships.
If neither 1 or 2, above, apply, but the port is an untagged member
of a statically configured, port-based VLAN, then the port remains
in this VLAN.
If neither 1, 2, or 3, above, apply, then the client session does not
have access to any statically configured, untagged VLANs and
client access is blocked.
•
After an authorized client session begins on a given port, the port’s
VLAN membership does not change. If other clients on the same port
become authenticated with a different VLAN assignment than the first
client, the port blocks access to these other clients until the first client
session ends.
•
The optional “authorized” VLAN (auth-vid) and “unauthorized” VLAN
(unauth-vid) you can configure for Web- or MAC-based authentication
must be statically configured VLANs on the switch. Also, if you
configure one or both of these options, any services you want clients
in either category to access must be available on those VLANs.
■
Where a given port’s configuration includes an unauthorized client
VLAN assignment, the port will allow an unauthenticated client
session only while there are no requests for an authenticated client
session on that port. In this case, if there is a successful request for
authentication from an authorized client, the switch terminates the
unauthorized-client session and begins the authorized-client session.
■
When a port on the switch is configured for Web or MAC Authentication and is supporting a current session with another device, rebooting the switch invokes a re-authentication of the connection.
■
When a port on the switch is configured as a Web- or MAC-based
authenticator, it blocks access to a client that does not provide the
proper authentication credentials. If the port configuration includes
an optional, unauthorized VLAN (unauth-vid), the port is temporarily
placed in the unauthorized VLAN if there are no other authorized
clients currently using the port with a different VLAN assignment. If
an authorized client is using the port with a different VLAN or if there
is no unauthorized VLAN configured, the unauthorized client does not
receive access to the network.
■
Web- or MAC-based authentication and LACP cannot both be enabled
on the same port.
3-11
Web and MAC Authentication
General Setup Procedure for Web/MAC Authentication
N o t e o n Web /
MAC
A u t h e n t i c a t i on
and LACP
The switch does not allow Web or MAC Authentication and LACP to both be
enabled at the same time on the same port. The switch automatically disables
LACP on ports configured for Web or MAC Authentication.
General Setup Procedure for Web/MAC
Authentication
Do These Steps Before You Configure Web/MAC
Authentication
3-12
1.
Configure a local username and password on the switch for both the
Operator (login) and Manager (enable) access levels. (While this is not
required for a Web- or MAC-based configuration, ProCurve recommends
that you use a local user name and password pair, at least until your other
security measures are in place, to protect the switch configuration from
unauthorized access.)
2.
Determine which ports on the switch you want to operate as authenticators. Note that before you configure Web- or MAC-based authentication
on a port operating in an LACP trunk, you must remove the port from the
trunk. (refer to the “Note on Web/MAC Authentication and LACP” on
page 3-12.)
3.
Determine whether any VLAN assignments are needed for authenticated
clients.
a.
If you configure the RADIUS server to assign a VLAN for an authenticated client, this assignment overrides any VLAN assignments configured on the switch while the authenticated client session remains
active. Note that the VLAN must be statically configured on the
switch.
b.
If there is no RADIUS-assigned VLAN, the port can join an “Authorized
VLAN” for the duration of the client session, if you choose to configure
one. This must be a port-based, statically configured VLAN on the
switch.
Web and MAC Authentication
General Setup Procedure for Web/MAC Authentication
c.
If there is neither a RADIUS-assigned VLAN or an “Authorized VLAN”
for an authenticated client session on a port, then the port’s VLAN
membership remains unchanged during authenticated client sessions. In this case, configure the port for the VLAN in which you want
it to operate during client sessions.
Note that when configuring a RADIUS server to assign a VLAN, you can
use either the VLAN’s name or VID. For example, if a VLAN configured in
the switch has a VID of 100 and is named vlan100, you could configure the
RADIUS server to use either “100” or “vlan100” to specify the VLAN.
4.
Determine whether to use the optional “Unauthorized VLAN” mode for
clients that the RADIUS server does not authenticate. This VLAN must be
statically configured on the switch. If you do not configure an “Unauthorized VLAN”, the switch simply blocks access to unauthenticated clients
trying to use the port.
5.
Determine the authentication policy you want on the RADIUS server and
configure the server. Refer to the documentation provided with your
RADIUS application and include the following in the policy for each client
or client device:
• The CHAP-RADIUS authentication method.
• An encryption key
• One of the following:
– If you are configuring Web-based authentication, include the user
name and password for each authorized client.
– If you are configuring MAC-based authentication, enter the
device MAC address in both the username and password fields of
the RADIUS policy configuration for that device. Also, if you want
to allow a particular device to receive authentication only
through a designated port and switch, include this in your policy.
6.
Determine the IP address of the RADIUS server(s) you will use to support
Web- or MAC-based authentication. (For information on configuring the
switch to access RADIUS servers, refer to “Configuring the Switch To
Access a RADIUS Server” on page 3-15.)
3-13
Web and MAC Authentication
General Setup Procedure for Web/MAC Authentication
Additional Information for Configuring the RADIUS
Server To Support MAC Authentication
On the RADIUS server, configure the client device authentication in the same
way that you would any other client, except:
■
Configure the client device’s (hexadecimal) MAC address as both
username and password. Be careful to configure the switch to use the
same format that the RADIUS server uses. Otherwise, the server will
deny access. The switch provides four format options:
aabbccddeeff (the default format)
aabbcc-ddeeff
aa-bb-cc-dd-ee-ff
aa:bb:cc:dd:ee:ff
Note on MAC
Addresses
Letters in MAC addresses must be in lowercase.
■
3-14
If the device is a switch or other VLAN-capable device, use the base
MAC address assigned to the device, and not the MAC address
assigned to the VLAN through which the device communicates with
the authenticator switch. Note that each switch covered by this guide
applies a single MAC address to all VLANs configured in the switch.
Thus, for a given switch, the MAC address is the same for all VLANs
configured on the switch. (Refer to the chapter titled “Static Virtual
LANs (VLANs)” in the Advanced Traffic Management Guide for your
switch.)
Web and MAC Authentication
Configuring the Switch To Access a RADIUS Server
Configuring the Switch To Access a
RADIUS Server
RADIUS Server Configuration Commands
radius-server
[host <ip-address>]
below
[key < global-key-string >]
below
radius-server host <ip-address> key <server-specific key-string>
3-16
This section describes the minimal commands for configuring a RADIUS
server to support Web-Auth and MAC Auth. For information on other RADIUS
command options, refer to chapter 5, “RADIUS Authentication and Accounting” .
Syntax: [no] radius-server
[host < ip-address >]
Adds a server to the RADIUS configuration or (with no)
deletes a server from the configuration. You can configure up to three RADIUS server addresses. The switch uses
the first server it successfully accesses. (Refer to
“RADIUS Authentication and Accounting” on page 5-1.)
[key < global-key-string >]
Specifies the global encryption key the switch uses with
servers for which the switch does not have a serverspecific key assignment (below). This key is optional if
all RADIUS server addresses configured in the switch
include a server-specific encryption key. (Default: Null.)
3-15
Web and MAC Authentication
Configuring the Switch To Access a RADIUS Server
Syntax: radius-server host < ip-address > key <server-specific key-string>
[no] radius-server host < ip-address > key
Optional. Specifies an encryption key for use during
authentication (or accounting) sessions with the specified server. This key must match the encryption key used
on the RADIUS server. Use this command only if the
specified server requires a different encryption key than
configured for the global encryption key, above.
The no form of the command removes the key configured
for a specific server.
For example, to configure the switch to access a RADIUS server at IP address
192.168.32.11 using a server-specific shared secret key of ‘2Pzo22’
ProCurve(config)# radius-server host 192.168.32.11 key
2Pzo22
ProCurve(config)# show radius
Status and Counters - General RADIUS Information
Deadtime(min) : 0
Timeout(secs) : 5
Retransmit Attempts : 3
Global Encryption Key :
Auth Acct
Server IP Addr Port Port Encryption Key
--------------- ----- ----- ------------------------------192.168.32.11
1812
1813
2Pzo22
ProCurve(config)#
Figure 3-4. Example of Configuring a Switch To Access a RADIUS Server
3-16
Web and MAC Authentication
Configuring Web Authentication
Configuring Web Authentication
Overview
1.
If you have not already done so, configure a local username and password
pair on the switch.
2.
Identify or create a redirect URL for use by authenticated clients.
ProCurve recommends that you provide a redirect URL when using Web
Authentication. If a redirect URL is not specified, web browser behavior
following authentication may not be acceptable.
3.
If you plan to use multiple VLANs with Web Authentication, ensure that
these VLANs are configured on the switch and that the appropriate port
assignments have been made. Also, confirm that the VLAN used by
authorized clients can access the redirect URL.
4.
Use the ping command in the switch console interface to ensure that the
switch can communicate with the RADIUS server you have configured to
support Web-Auth on the switch.
5.
Configure the switch with the correct IP address and encryption key to
access the RADIUS server.
6.
Configure the switch for Web-Auth:
7.
Note
a.
Configure Web Authentication on the switch ports you want to use.
b.
If the necessary to avoid address conflicts with the secure network,
specify the base IP address and mask to be used by the switch for
temporary DHCP addresses.The lease length for these temporary IP
addresses may also be set.
c.
If you plan to use SSL for logins configure and enable SSL on the
switch before you specify it for use with Web-Auth.
d.
Configure the switch to use the redirect URL for authorized clients.
Test both authorized and unauthorized access to your system to ensure
that Web Authentication works properly on the ports you have configured
for port-access using Web Authentication.
Client web browsers may not use a proxy server to access the network.
3-17
Web and MAC Authentication
Configuring Web Authentication
Configure the Switch for Web-Based Authentication
Command
Page
Configuration Level
aaa port-access web-based dhcp-addr
3-18
aaa port-access web-based dhcp-lease
3-18
[no] aaa port-access web-based [e] < port-list >
3-19
[auth-vid]
3-19
[client-limit]
3-19
[client-moves]
3-19
[logoff-period]
3-20
[max-requests]
3-20
[max-retries]
3-20
[quiet-period]
3-20
[reauth-period]
3-20
[reauthenticate]
3-20
[redirect-url
3-21
[server-timeout]
3-21
[ssl-login]
3-21
[unauth-vid]
3-22
Syntax:
aaa port-access web-based dhcp-addr <ip-address/mask>
Specifies the base address/mask for the temporary IP
pool used by DHCP. The base address can be any valid
ip address (not a multicast address). Valid mask range
value is <255.255.240.0 - 255.255.255.0>.
(Default: 192.168.0.0/255.255.255.0)
Syntax:
aaa port-access web-based dhcp-lease <5 - 25>
Specifies the lease length, in seconds, of the temporary
IP address issued for Web Auth login purposes.
(Default: 10 seconds)
3-18
Web and MAC Authentication
Configuring Web Authentication
Syntax:
[no] aaa port-access web-based [e] < port-list>
Enables web-based authentication on the specified
ports. Use the no form of the command to disable webbased authentication on the specified ports.
Syntax:
aaa port-access web-based [e] < port-list> [auth-vid <vid>]
no aaa port-access web-based [e] < port-list> [auth-vid]
Specifies the VLAN to use for an authorized client. The
Radius server can override the value (accept-response
includes a vid). If auth-vid is 0, no VLAN changes occur
unless the RADIUS server supplies one.
Use the no form of the command to set the auth-vid to 0.
(Default: 0).
Syntax:
aaa port-access web-based [e] < port-list > [client-limit <1-2>]
Specifies the maximum number of authenticated
clients to allow on the port. (Default: 1)
Syntax:
[no] aaa port-access web-based [e] < port-list > [client-moves]
Allows client moves between the specified ports under
Web Auth control. When enabled, the switch allows
clients to move without requiring a re-authentication.
When disabled, the switch does not allow moves and
when one does occur, the user will be forced to reauthenticate. At least two ports (from port(s) and to
port(s)) must be specified.
Use the no form of the command to disable client moves
between ports under Web Auth control.
(Default: disabled – no moves allowed)
3-19
Web and MAC Authentication
Configuring Web Authentication
Syntax:
aaa port-access web-based [e] < port-list > [logoff-period] <60-9999999>]
Specifies the period, in seconds, that the switch
enforces for an implicit logoff. This parameter is
equivalent to the MAC age interval in a traditional
switch sense. If the switch does not see activity after a
logoff-period interval, the client is returned to its preauthentication state. (Default: 300 seconds)
Syntax:
aaa port-access web-based [e] < port-list > [max-requests <1-10>]
Specifies the number of authentication attempts that
must time-out before authentication fails.
(Default: 2)
Syntax:
aaa port-access web-based [e] < port-list > [max-retries <1-10>]
Specifies the number of the number of times a client
can enter their user name and password before authentication fails. This allows the reentry of the user name
and password if necessary.
(Default: 3)
Syntax:
aaa port-access web-based [e] < port-list > [quiet-period <1 - 65535>]
Specifies the time period, in seconds, the switch should
wait before attempting an authentication request for
a client that failed authentication.
(Default: 60 seconds)
Syntax:
aaa port-access web-based [e] < port-list > [reauth-period <0 - 9999999>]
Specifies the time period, in seconds, the switch
enforces on a client to re-authenticate. When set to 0,
reauthentication is disabled. (Default: 300 seconds)
Syntax:
aaa port-access web-based [e] < port-list > [reauthenticate]
Forces a reauthentication of all attached clients on the
port.
3-20
Web and MAC Authentication
Configuring Web Authentication
Syntax:
aaa port-access web-based [e] < port-list > [redirect-url <url>]
no aaa port-access web-based [e] < port-list > [redirect-url]
Specifies the URL that a user is redirected to after a
successful login. Any valid, fully-formed URL may be
used, for example, http://welcome-server/welcome.htm
or http://192.22.17.5. ProCurve recommends that you
provide a redirect URL when using Web Authentication.
Use the no form of the command to remove a specified
redirect URL.
(Default: There is no default URL. Browser behavior
for authenticated clients may not be acceptable.)
Syntax:
aaa port-access web-based [e] < port-list > [server-timeout <1 - 300>]
Specifies the period, in seconds, the switch waits for a
server response to an authentication request. Depending on the current max-requests value, the switch sends
a new attempt or ends the authentication session.
(Default: 30 seconds)
Syntax:
[no] aaa port-access web-based [e] < port-list > [ssl-login]
Enables or disables SSL login (https on port 443). SSL
must be enabled on the switch.
If SSL login is enabled, a user is redirected to a secure
page, where they enter their username and password.
If SSL login is disabled, a user is not redirected to a
secure page to enter their credentials.
Use the no form of the command to disable SSL login.
(Default: disabled)
3-21
Web and MAC Authentication
Configuring MAC Authentication on the Switch
Syntax:
aaa port-access web-based [e] < port-list > [unauth-vid <vid>]
no aaa port-access web-based [e] < port-list > [unauth-vid]
Specifies the VLAN to use for a client that fails authentication. If unauth-vid is 0, no VLAN changes occur.
Use the no form of the command to set the unauth-vid to 0.
(Default: 0)
Configuring MAC Authentication on the
Switch
Overview
1.
If you have not already done so, configure a local username and password
pair on the switch.
2.
If you plan to use multiple VLANs with MAC Authentication, ensure that
these VLANs are configured on the switch and that the appropriate port
assignments have been made.
3.
Use the ping command in the switch console interface to ensure that the
switch can communicate with the RADIUS server you have configured to
support MAC-Auth on the switch.
4.
Configure the switch with the correct IP address and encryption key to
access the RADIUS server.
5.
Configure the switch for MAC-Auth:
a.
6.
3-22
Configure MAC Authentication on the switch ports you want to use.
Test both the authorized and unauthorized access to your system to
ensure that MAC Authentication works properly on the ports you have
configured for port-access.
Web and MAC Authentication
Configuring MAC Authentication on the Switch
Configure the Switch for MAC-Based Authentication
Command
Page
Configuration Level
aaa port-access mac-based addr-format
3-23
[no] aaa port-access mac-based [e] < port-list >
3-23
[addr-limit]
3-24
[addr-moves]
3-24
[auth-vid]
3-24
[logoff-period]
3-24
[max-requests]
3-24
[quiet-period]
3-25
[reauth-period]
3-25
[reauthenticate]
3-25
[server-timeout]
3-25
[unauth-vid]
3-25
Syntax:
aaa port-access mac-based addr-format
<no-delimiter|single-dash|multi-dash|multi-colon>
Specifies the MAC address format to be used in the
RADIUS request message. This format must match the
format used to store the MAC addresses in the RADIUS
server. (Default: no-delimiter)
no-delimiter — specifies an aabbccddeeff format.
single-dash — specifies an aabbcc-ddeeff format.
multi-dash — specifies an aa-bb-cc-dd-ee-ff format.
multi-colon — specifies an aa:bb:cc:dd:ee:ff format.
Syntax:
[no] aaa port-access mac-based [e] < port-list >
Enables MAC-based authentication on the specified
ports. Use the no form of the command to disable MACbased authentication on the specified ports.
3-23
Web and MAC Authentication
Configuring MAC Authentication on the Switch
Syntax:
aaa port-access mac-based [e] < port-list > [addr-limit <1-2>]
Specifies the maximum number of authenticated
MACs to allow on the port. (Default: 1)
Syntax:
[no] aaa port-access mac-based [e] < port-list > [addr-moves]
Allows client moves between the specified ports under
MAC Auth control. When enabled, the switch allows
addresses to move without requiring a re-authentication. When disabled, the switch does not allow moves
and when one does occur, the user will be forced to reauthenticate. At least two ports (from port(s) and to
port(s)) must be specified.
Use the no form of the command to disable MAC address
moves between ports under MAC Auth control.
(Default: disabled – no moves allowed)
Syntax:
aaa port-access mac-based [e] < port-list > [auth-vid <vid>]
no aaa port-access mac-based [e] < port-list > [auth-vid]
Specifies the VLAN to use for an authorized client. The
Radius server can override the value (accept-response
includes a vid). If auth-vid is 0, no VLAN changes occur
unless the RADIUS server supplies one.
Use the no form of the command to set the auth-vid to 0.
(Default: 0).
Syntax:
aaa port-access mac-based [e] < port-list >
[logoff-period] <60-9999999>]
Specifies the period, in seconds, that the switch
enforces for an implicit logoff. This parameter is
equivalent to the MAC age interval in a traditional
switch sense. If the switch does not see activity after a
logoff-period interval, the client is returned to its preauthentication state. (Default: 300 seconds)
Syntax:
aaa port-access mac-based [e] < port-list > [max-requests <1-10>]
Specifies the number of authentication attempts that
must time-out before authentication fails.
(Default: 2)
3-24
Web and MAC Authentication
Configuring MAC Authentication on the Switch
Syntax:
aaa port-access mac-based [e] < port-list > [quiet-period <1 - 65535>]
Specifies the time period, in seconds, the switch should
wait before attempting an authentication request for
a MAC address that failed authentication.
(Default: 60 seconds)
Syntax:
aaa port-access mac-based [e] < port-list > [reauth-period <0 - 9999999>]
Specifies the time period, in seconds, the switch
enforces on a client to re-authenticate. When set to 0,
reauthentication is disabled. (Default: 300 seconds)
Syntax:
aaa port-access mac-based [e] < port-list > [reauthenticate]
Forces a reauthentication of all attached clients on the
port.
Syntax:
aaa port-access mac-based [e] < port-list > [server-timeout <1 - 300>]
Specifies the period, in seconds, the switch waits for a
server response to an authentication request. Depending on the current max-requests value, the switch sends
a new attempt or ends the authentication session.
(Default: 30seconds)
Syntax:
aaa port-access mac-based [e] < port-list > [unauth-vid <vid>]
no aaa port-access mac-based [e] < port-list > [unauth-vid]
Specifies the VLAN to use for a client that fails authentication. If unauth-vid is 0, no VLAN changes occur.
Use the no form of the command to set the unauth-vid to 0.
(Default: 0)
3-25
Web and MAC Authentication
Show Status and Configuration of Web-Based Authentication
Show Status and Configuration of
Web-Based Authentication
Command
Page
show port-access [port-list] web-based
3-26
[clients]
3-26
[config]
3-26
[config [auth-server]]
3-27
[config [web-server]]
3-27
show port-access port-list web-based config detail
Syntax:
3-27
show port-access [port-list] web-based
Shows the status of all Web-Authentication enabled
ports or the specified ports. The number of authorized
and unauthorized clients is listed for each port, as well
as its current VLAN ID. Ports without Web Authentication enabled are not listed.
Syntax:
show port-access [port-list] web-based [clients]
Shows the port address, Web address, session status,
and elapsed session time for attached clients on all
ports or the specified ports. Ports with multiple clients
have an entry for each attached client. Ports without
any attached clients are not listed.
Syntax:
show port-access [port-list] web-based [config]
Shows Web Authentication settings for all ports or the
specified ports, including the temporary DHCP base
address and mask. The authorized and unauthorized
VLAN IDs are shown. If the authorized or unauthorized VLAN ID is 0 then no VLAN change is made,
unless the RADIUS server supplies one.
3-26
Web and MAC Authentication
Show Status and Configuration of Web-Based Authentication
Syntax:
show port-access [port-list] web-based [config [auth-server]]
Shows Web Authentication settings for all ports or the
specified ports, along with the RADIUS server specific
settings for the timeout wait, the number of timeout
failures before authentication fails, and the length of
time between authentication requests.
Syntax:
show port-access [port-list] web-based [config [web-server]]
Shows Web Authentication settings for all ports or the
specified ports, along with the web specific settings for
password retries, SSL login status, and a redirect URL,
if specified.
Syntax:
show port-access port-list web-based config detail
Shows all Web Authentication settings, including the
Radius server specific settings for the specified ports.
3-27
Web and MAC Authentication
Show Status and Configuration of MAC-Based Authentication
Show Status and Configuration of
MAC-Based Authentication
Command
Page
show port-access [port-list] mac-based
3-28
[clients]
3-28
[config]
3-28
[config [auth-server]]
3-29
show port-access port-list mac-based config detail
Syntax:
3-29
show port-access [port-list] mac-based
Shows the status of all MAC-Authentication enabled
ports or the specified ports. The number of authorized
and unauthorized clients is listed for each port, as well
as its current VLAN ID. Ports without MAC Authentication enabled are not listed.
Syntax:
show port-access [port-list] mac-based [clients]
Shows the port address, MAC address, session status,
and elapsed session time for attached clients on all
ports or the specified ports. Ports with multiple clients
have an entry for each attached client. Ports without
any attached clients are not listed.
Syntax:
show port-access [port-list] mac-based [config]
Shows MAC Authentication settings for all ports or the
specified ports, including the MAC address format
being used. The authorized and unauthorized VLAN
IDs are shown. If the authorized or unauthorized
VLAN ID is 0 then no VLAN change is made, unless the
RADIUS server supplies one.
3-28
Web and MAC Authentication
Show Status and Configuration of MAC-Based Authentication
Syntax:
show port-access [port-list] mac-based [config [auth-server]]
Shows MAC Authentication settings for all ports or the
specified ports, along with the Radius server specific
settings for the timeout wait, the number of timeout
failures before authentication fails, and the length of
time between authentication requests.
Syntax:
show port-access port-list mac-based config detail
Shows all MAC Authentication settings, including the
Radius server specific settings for the specified ports.
3-29
Web and MAC Authentication
Show Client Status
Show Client Status
The table below shows the possible client status information that may be
reported by a Web-based or MAC-based ‘show... clients’ command.
3-30
Reported Status
Available Network
Connection
Possible Explanations
authenticated
Authorized VLAN
Client authenticated. Remains
connected until logoff-period or
reauth-period expires.
authenticating
Switch only
Pending RADIUS request.
rejected-no vlan
No network access
rejected-unauth vlan
Unauthorized VLAN only 1. Invalid credentials supplied.
2. RADIUS Server difficulties. See log
file.
timed out-no vlan
No network access
RADIUS request timed out. If unauthvid is specified it cannot be
successfully applied to the port. An
authorized client on the port has
precedence. Credentials resubmitted
after quiet-period expires.
timed out-unauth vlan
Unauthorized VLAN only
RADIUS request timed out. After the
quiet-period expires credentials are
resubmitted when client generates
traffic.
unauthenticated
Switch only
Waiting for user credentials.
1. Invalid credentials supplied.
2. RADIUS Server difficulties. See log
file.
3. If unauth-vid is specified it cannot be
successfully applied to the port. An
authorized client on the port has
precedence.
4
TACACS+ Authentication
Contents
Overview . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4-2
Terminology Used in TACACS Applications: . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4-3
General System Requirements . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4-5
General Authentication Setup Procedure . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4-5
Configuring TACACS+ on the Switch . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4-8
Before You Begin . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4-8
CLI Commands Described in this Section . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4-9
Viewing the Switch’s Current Authentication Configuration . . . . . . . 4-9
Viewing the Switch’s Current TACACS+ Server
Contact Configuration . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4-10
Configuring the Switch’s Authentication Methods . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4-11
Configuring the Switch’s TACACS+ Server Access . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4-15
How Authentication Operates . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4-20
General Authentication Process Using a TACACS+ Server . . . . . . . . 4-20
Local Authentication Process . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4-22
Using the Encryption Key . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4-23
Controlling Web Browser Interface Access When Using TACACS+
Authentication . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4-24
Messages Related to TACACS+ Operation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4-25
Operating Notes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4-25
4-1
TACACS+ Authentication
Configuring TACACS+ on the Switch
Overview
Feature
Default
Menu
CLI
Web
view the switch’s authentication configuration
n/a
—
page 4-9
—
view the switch’s TACACS+ server contact
configuration
n/a
—
page
4-10
—
configure the switch’s authentication methods
disabled
—
page
4-11
—
configure the switch to contact TACACS+ server(s) disabled
—
page
4-15
—
TACACS+ authentication enables you to use a central server to allow or deny
access to the switch (and other TACACS-aware devices) in your network. This
means that you can use a central database to create multiple unique username/
password sets with associated privilege levels for use by individuals who have
reason to access the switch from either the switch’s console port (local
access) or Telnet (remote access).
A4
A3 or
B3
Primary
TACACS+
Server
A1
ProCurve Switch
Configured for
TACACS+ Operation
A2 or
B2
B4
B1
The switch passes the login
requests from terminals A and B
to the TACACS+ server for
authentication. The TACACS+
server determines whether to
allow access to the switch and
what privilege level to allow for
a given access request.
A
Terminal “A” Directly
Accessing the Switch
Via Switch’s Console
Port
B
Terminal “B” Remotely Accessing The Switch Via Telnet
Access Request
A1 - A4: Path for Request from
Terminal A (Through Console Port)
TACACS Server
Response
B1 - B4: Path for Request from
Terminal B (Through Telnet)
Figure 4-1. Example of TACACS+ Operation
TACACS+ in the switch manages authentication of logon attempts through
either the Console port or Telnet. TACACS+ uses an authentication hierarchy
consisting of (1) remote passwords assigned in a TACACS+ server and (2)
local passwords configured on the switch. That is, with TACACS+ configured,
the switch first tries to contact a designated TACACS+ server for authentica-
4-2
TACACS+ Authentication
Configuring TACACS+ on the Switch
tion services. If the switch fails to connect to any TACACS+ server, it defaults
to its own locally assigned passwords for authentication control if it has been
configured to do so. For both Console and Telnet access you can configure a
login (read-only) and an enable (read/write) privilege level access.
Notes
The software does not support TACACS+ authorization or accounting
services.
TACACS+ does not affect web browser interface access. See “Controlling Web
Browser Interface Access” on page 4-24.
Terminology Used in TACACS
Applications:
■
NAS (Network Access Server): This is an industry term for a
TACACS-aware device that communicates with a TACACS server for
authentication services. Some other terms you may see in literature
describing TACACS operation are communication server, remote
access server, or terminal server. These terms apply when TACACS+
is enabled on the switch (that is, when the switch is TACACS-aware).
■
TACACS+ Server: The server or management station configured as
an access control server for TACACS-enabled devices. To use
TACACS+ with the switch and any other TACACS-capable devices in
your network, you must purchase, install, and configure a TACACS+
server application on a networked server or management station in
the network. The TACACS+ server application you install will provide
various options for access control and access notifications. For more
on the TACACS+ services available to you, see the documentation
provided with the TACACS+ server application you will use.
■
Authentication: The process for granting user access to a device
through entry of a user name and password and comparison of this
username/password pair with previously stored username/password
data. Authentication also grants levels of access, depending on the
privileges assigned to a user name and password pair by a system
administrator.
4-3
TACACS+ Authentication
Configuring TACACS+ on the Switch
4-4
•
Local Authentication: This method uses username/password
pairs configured locally on the switch; one pair each for managerlevel and operator-level access to the switch. You can assign local
usernames and passwords through the CLI or web browser interface. (Using the menu interface you can assign a local password,
but not a username.) Because this method assigns passwords to
the switch instead of to individuals who access the switch, you
must distribute the password information on each switch to
everyone who needs to access the switch, and you must configure
and manage password protection on a per-switch basis. (For
more on local authentication, refer to “Configuring Username
and Password Security” on page 2-1.)
•
TACACS+ Authentication: This method enables you to use a
TACACS+ server in your network to assign a unique password,
user name, and privilege level to each individual or group who
needs access to one or more switches or other TACACS-aware
devices. This allows you to administer primary authentication
from a central server, and to do so with more options than you
have when using only local authentication. (You will still need to
use local authentication as a backup if your TACACS+ servers
become unavailable.) This means, for example, that you can use
a central TACACS+ server to grant, change, or deny access to a
specific individual on a specific switch instead of having to
change local user name and password assignments on the switch
itself, and then have to notify other users of the change.
TACACS+ Authentication
Configuring TACACS+ on the Switch
General System Requirements
To use TACACS+ authentication, you need the following:
Notes
■
A TACACS+ server application installed and configured on one or
more servers or management stations in your network. (There are
several TACACS+ software packages available.)
■
A switch configured for TACACS+ authentication, with access to one
or more TACACS+ servers.
The effectiveness of TACACS+ security depends on correctly using your
TACACS+ server application. For this reason, ProCurve recommends that you
thoroughly test all TACACS+ configurations used in your network.
TACACS-aware ProCurve switches include the capability of configuring
multiple backup TACACS+ servers. ProCurve recommends that you use a
TACACS+ server application that supports a redundant backup installation.
This allows you to configure the switch to use a backup TACACS+ server if it
loses access to the first-choice TACACS+ server.
TACACS+ does not affect web browser interface access. Refer to “Controlling
Web Browser Interface Access When Using TACACS+ Authentication” on
page 4-24.
General Authentication Setup Procedure
It is important to test the TACACS+ service before fully implementing it.
Depending on the process and parameter settings you use to set up and test
TACACS+ authentication in your network, you could accidentally lock all
users, including yourself, out of access to a switch. While recovery is simple,
it may pose an inconvenience that can be avoided.To prevent an unintentional
lockout on a switch, use a procedure that configures and tests TACACS+
protection for one access type (for example, Telnet access), while keeping the
4-5
TACACS+ Authentication
Configuring TACACS+ on the Switch
other access type (console, in this case) open in case the Telnet access fails
due to a configuration problem. The following procedure outlines a general
setup procedure.
Note
If a complete access lockout occurs on the switch as a result of a TACACS+
configuration, see “Troubleshooting TACACS+ Operation” in the Troubleshooting chapter of the Management and Configuration Guide for your
switch.
1.
Familiarize yourself with the requirements for configuring your
TACACS+ server application to respond to requests from a switch. (Refer
to the documentation provided with the TACACS+ server software.) This
includes knowing whether you need to configure an encryption key. (See
“Using the Encryption Key” on page 4-23.)
2.
Determine the following:
• The IP address(es) of the TACACS+
server(s) you want the switch to use
for authentication. If you will use
more than one server, determine
which server is your first-choice for
authentication services.
• The encryption key, if any, for
allowing the switch to communicate
with the server. You can use either a
global key or a server-specific key,
depending on the encryption
configuration in the TACACS+
server(s).
• The number of log-in attempts you
will allow before closing a log-in
session. (Default: 3)
3.
4-6
• The period you want the switch to
wait for a reply to an authentication
request before trying another
server.
• The username/password pairs you
want the TACACS+ server to use for
controlling access to the switch.
• The privilege level you want for
each username/password pair
administered by the TACACS+
server for controlling access to the
switch.
• The username/password pairs you
want to use for local authentication
(one pair each for Operator and
Manager levels).
Plan and enter the TACACS+ server configuration needed to support
TACACS+ operation for Telnet access (login and enable) to the switch.
This includes the username/password sets for logging in at the Operator
(read-only) privilege level and the sets for logging in at the Manager (read/
write) privilege level.
TACACS+ Authentication
Configuring TACACS+ on the Switch
Note on
Privil ege Levels
When a TACACS+ server authenticates an access request from a switch,
it includes a privilege level code for the switch to use in determining which
privilege level to grant to the terminal requesting access. The switch
interprets a privilege level code of “15” as authorization for the Manager
(read/write) privilege level access. Privilege level codes of 14 and lower
result in Operator (read-only) access. Thus, when configuring the
TACACS+ server response to a request that includes a username/password pair that should have Manager privileges, you must use a privilege
level of 15. For more on this topic, refer to the documentation you received
with your TACACS+ server application.
If you are a first-time user of the TACACS+ service, ProCurve recommends that you configure only the minimum feature set required by the
TACACS+ application to provide service in your network environment.
After you have success with the minimum feature set, you may then want
to try additional features that the application offers.
4.
Caution
Ensure that the switch has the correct local username and password for
Manager access. (If the switch cannot find any designated TACACS+
servers, the local manager and operator username/password pairs are
always used as the secondary access control method.)
You should ensure that the switch has a local Manager password. Otherwise, if authentication through a TACACS+ server fails for any reason,
then unauthorized access will be available through the console port or
Telnet.
5.
Using a terminal device connected to the switch’s console port, configure
the switch for TACACS+ authentication only for telnet login access and
telnet enable access. At this stage, do not configure TACACS+ authentication for console access to the switch, as you may need to use the
console for access if the configuration for the Telnet method needs
debugging.
6.
Ensure that the switch is configured to operate on your network and can
communicate with your first-choice TACACS+ server. (At a minimum,
this requires IP addressing and a successful ping test from the switch to
the server.)
7.
On a remote terminal device, use Telnet to attempt to access the switch.
If the attempt fails, use the console access to check the TACACS+
configuration on the switch. If you make changes in the switch configuration, check Telnet access again. If Telnet access still fails, check the
4-7
TACACS+ Authentication
Configuring TACACS+ on the Switch
configuration in your TACACS+ server application for mis-configurations or missing data that could affect the server’s interoperation with
the switch.
8.
After your testing shows that Telnet access using the TACACS+ server is
working properly, configure your TACACS+ server application for
console access. Then test the console access. If access problems occur,
check for and correct any problems in the switch configuration, and then
test console access again. If problems persist, check your TACACS+
server application for mis-configurations or missing data that could
affect the console access.
9.
When you are confident that TACACS+ access through both Telnet and
the switch’s console operates properly, use the write memory command
to save the switch’s running-config file to flash memory.
Configuring TACACS+ on the Switch
Before You Begin
If you are new to TACACS+ authentication, ProCurve recommends that you
read the “General Authentication Setup Procedure” on page 4-5 and configure
your TACACS+ server(s) before configuring authentication on the switch.
The switch offers three command areas for TACACS+ operation:
4-8
■
show authentication and show tacacs: Displays the switch’s TACACS+
configuration and status.
■
aaa authentication: A command for configuring the switch’s authentication methods
■
tacacs-server: A command for configuring the switch’s contact with
TACACS+ servers
TACACS+ Authentication
Configuring TACACS+ on the Switch
CLI Commands Described in this Section
Command
Page
show authentication
4-9
show tacacs
4-10
aaa authentication
pages 4-11 through 4-14
console
Telnet
num-attempts <1-10 >
tacacs-server
pages 4-15
host < ip-addr >
pages 4-15
key
4-19
timeout < 1-255 >
4-20
Viewing the Switch’s Current Authentication
Configuration
This command lists the number of login attempts the switch allows in a single
login session, and the primary/secondary access methods configured for each
type of access.
Syntax:
show authentication
This example shows the default authentication configuration.
Configuration for login and enable access
to the switch through the switch console
port.
Configuration for login and enable access
to the switch through Telnet.
Figure 4-2. Example Listing of the Switch’s Authentication Configuration
4-9
TACACS+ Authentication
Configuring TACACS+ on the Switch
Viewing the Switch’s Current TACACS+ Server
Contact Configuration
This command lists the timeout period, encryption key, and the IP addresses
of the first-choice and backup TACACS+ servers the switch can contact.
Syntax:
show tacacs
For example, if the switch was configured for a first-choice and two backup
TACACS+ server addresses, the default timeout period, and paris-1 for a
(global) encryption key, show tacacs would produce a listing similar to the
following:
First-Choice
TACACS+ Server
Second-Choice
TACACS+ Server
Third-Choice
TACACS+ Server
Figure 4-3. Example of the Switch’s TACACS+ Configuration Listing
4-10
TACACS+ Authentication
Configuring TACACS+ on the Switch
Configuring the Switch’s Authentication Methods
The aaa authentication command configures the access control for console
port and Telnet access to the switch. That is, for both access methods, aaa
authentication specifies whether to use a TACACS+ server or the switch’s local
authentication, or (for some secondary scenarios) no authentication (meaning
that if the primary method fails, authentication is denied). This command also
reconfigures the number of access attempts to allow in a session if the first
attempt uses an incorrect username/password pair.
Syntax: aaa authentication
< console | telnet >
Selects either console (serial port) or Telnet access for
configuration.
< enable | login >
Selects either the Manager (enable) or Operator (login)
access level.
< local | tacacs | radius >
Selects the type of security access:
local — Authenticates with the Manager and Operator
password you configure in the switch.
tacacs — Authenticates with a password and other
data configured on a TACACS+ server.
radius — Authenticates with a password and other
data configured on a RADIUS server. (Refer to
“RADIUS Authentication and Accounting” on page
5-1.)
[< local | none >]
If the primary authentication method fails, determines
whether to use the local password as a secondary method
or to disallow access.
aaa authentication num-attempts < 1-10 >
Specifies the maximum number of login attempts allowed in
the current session. Default: 3
4-11
TACACS+ Authentication
Configuring TACACS+ on the Switch
Table 4-1.
AAA Authentication Parameters
Name
Default
Range
Function
console
- or telnet
n/a
n/a
Specifies whether the command is configuring authentication for the console port
or Telnet access method for the switch.
enable
- or login
n/a
n/a
Specifies the privilege level for the access method being configured.
login: Operator (read-only) privileges
enable: Manager (read-write) privileges
local
- or tacacs
local
n/a
Specifies the primary method of authentication for the access method being
configured.
local: Use the username/password pair configured locally in the switch for
the privilege level being configured
tacacs: Use a TACACS+ server.
local
- or none
none
n/a
Specifies the secondary (backup) type of authentication being configured.
local: The username/password pair configured locally in the switch for the
privilege level being configured
none: No secondary type of authentication for the specified
method/privilege path. (Available only if the primary method of
authentication for the access being configured is local.)
Note: If you do not specify this parameter in the command line, the switch
automatically assigns the secondary method as follows:
• If the primary method is tacacs, the only secondary method is local.
• If the primary method is local, the default secondary method is none.
num-attempts
3
1 - 10
In a given session, specifies how many tries at entering the correct username/
password pair are allowed before access is denied and the session terminated.
As shown in the next table, login and enable access is always available locally
through a direct terminal connection to the switch’s console port. However,
for Telnet access, you can configure TACACS+ to deny access if a TACACS+
server goes down or otherwise becomes unavailable to the switch.
4-12
TACACS+ Authentication
Configuring TACACS+ on the Switch
Table 4-2.
Primary/Secondary Authentication Table
Access Method and
Privilege Level
Authentication Options
Console — Login
Console — Enable
Telnet — Login
Telnet — Enable
Effect on Access Attempts
Primary
Secondary
local
none*
Local username/password access only.
tacacs
local
If Tacacs+ server unavailable, uses local username/password access.
local
none*
Local username/password access only.
tacacs
local
If Tacacs+ server unavailable, uses local username/password access.
local
none*
Local username/password access only.
tacacs
local
If Tacacs+ server unavailable, uses local username/password access.
tacacs
none
If Tacacs+ server unavailable, denies access.
local
none*
Local username/password access only.
tacacs
local
If Tacacs+ server unavailable, uses local username/password access.
tacacs
none
If Tacacs+ server unavailable, denies access.
*When “local” is the primary option, you can also select “local” as the secondary option. However, in this case, a
secondary “local” is meaningless because the switch has only one local level of username/password protection.
Caution Regarding
the Use of Local for
Login Primary
Access
During local authentication (which uses passwords configured in the switch
instead of in a TACACS+ server), the switch grants read-only access if you
enter the Operator password, and read-write access if you enter the Manager
password. For example, if you configure authentication on the switch with
Telnet Login Primary as Local and Telnet Enable Primary as Tacacs, when you
attempt to Telnet to the switch, you will be prompted for a local password. If
you enter the switch’s local Manager password (or, if there is no local Manager
password configured in the switch) you can bypass the TACACS+ server
authentication for Telnet Enable Primary and go directly to read-write (Manager) access. Thus, for either the Telnet or console access method, configuring
Login Primary for Local authentication while configuring Enable Primary for
TACACS+ authentication is not recommended, as it defeats the purpose of
using the TACACS+ authentication. If you want Enable Primary log-in
attempts to go to a TACACS+ server, then you should configure both Login
Primary and Enable Primary for Tacacs authentication instead of configuring
Login Primary to Local authentication.
4-13
TACACS+ Authentication
Configuring TACACS+ on the Switch
For example, here is a set of access options and the corresponding commands
to configure them:
Console Login (Operator or Read-Only) Access: Primary using TACACS+ server.
Secondary using Local.
ProCurve (config)# aaa authentication console login tacacs local
Console Enable (Manager or Read/Write) Access: Primary using TACACS+ server.
Secondary using Local.
ProCurve (config)# aaa authentication console enable tacacs local
Telnet Login (Operator or Read-Only) Access: Primary using TACACS+ server.
Secondary using Local.
ProCurve (config)# aaa authentication Telnet login tacacs local
Telnet Enable (Manager or Read/Write Access: Primary using TACACS+ server.
Secondary using Local.
ProCurve (config)# aaa authentication telnet enable tacacs local
Deny Access and Close the Session After Failure of Two Consecutive Username/Password Pairs:
ProCurve (config)# aaa authentication num-attempts 2
4-14
TACACS+ Authentication
Configuring TACACS+ on the Switch
Configuring the Switch’s TACACS+ Server Access
The tacacs-server command configures these parameters:
Note
■
The host IP address(es) for up to three TACACS+ servers; one firstchoice and up to two backups. Designating backup servers provides
for a continuation of authentication services in case the switch is
unable to contact the first-choice server.
■
An optional encryption key. This key helps to improve security,
and must match the encryption key used in your TACACS+ server
application. In some applications, the term “secret key” or “secret”
may be used instead of “encryption key”. If you need only one encryption key for the switch to use in all attempts to authenticate through
a TACACS+ server, configure a global key. However, if the switch is
configured to access multiple TACACS+ servers having different
encryption keys, you can configure the switch to use different encryption keys for different TACACS+ servers.
■
The timeout value in seconds for attempts to contact a TACACS+
server. If the switch sends an authentication request, but does not
receive a response within the period specified by the timeout value,
the switch resends the request to the next server in its Server IP Addr
list, if any. If the switch still fails to receive a response from any
TACACS+ server, it reverts to whatever secondary authentication
method was configured using the aaa authentication command (local
or none; see “Configuring the Switch’s Authentication Methods” on
page 4-11.)
As described under “General Authentication Setup Procedure” on page 4-5,
ProCurve recommends that you configure, test, and troubleshoot authentication via Telnet access before you configure authentication via console port
access. This helps to prevent accidentally locking yourself out of switch
access due to errors or problems in setting up authentication in either the
switch or your TACACS+ server.
4-15
TACACS+ Authentication
Configuring TACACS+ on the Switch
Syntax: tacacs-server host < ip-addr > [key < key-string >]
Adds a TACACS+ server and optionally assigns a serverspecific encryption key.
[no] tacacs-server host < ip-addr >
Removes a TACACS+ server assignment (including its
server-specific encryption key, if any).
tacacs-server key <key-string>
Enters the optional global encryption key.
[no] tacacs-server key
Removes the optional global encryption key. (Does not
affect any server-specific encryption key assignments.)
tacacs-server timeout < 1-255 >
Changes the wait period for a TACACS server response.
(Default: 5 seconds.)
Note on
E n cr y p t i o n K e ys
Encryption keys configured in the switch must exactly match the encryption
keys configured in TACACS+ servers the switch will attempt to use for
authentication.
If you configure a global encryption key, the switch uses it only with servers
for which you have not also configured a server-specific key. Thus, a global
key is more useful where the TACACS+ servers you are using all have an
identical key, and server-specific keys are necessary where different
TACACS+ servers have different keys.
If TACACS+ server “X” does not have an encryption key assigned for the
switch, then configuring either a global encryption key or a server-specific key
in the switch for server “X” will block authentication support from server “X”.
4-16
TACACS+ Authentication
Configuring TACACS+ on the Switch
Table 4-3.
Details on Configuring TACACS Servers and Keys
Name
Default
Range
tacacs-server host <ip-addr>
none
n/a
This command specifies the IP address of a device running a TACACS+ server application. Optionally, it can also specify
the unique, per-server encryption key to use when each assigned server has its own, unique key. For more on the
encryption key, see “Using the Encryption Key” on page 4-23 and the documentation provided with your TACACS+ server
application.
You can enter up to three IP addresses; one first-choice and two (optional) backups (one second-choice and one thirdchoice).
Use show tacacs to view the current IP address list.
If the first-choice TACACS+ server fails to respond to a request, the switch tries the second address, if any, in the show
tacacs list. If the second address also fails, then the switch tries the third address, if any.
(See figure 4-3, “Example of the Switch’s TACACS+ Configuration Listing” on 4-10.)
The priority (first-choice, second-choice, and third-choice) of a TACACS+ server in the switch’s TACACS+ configuration
depends on the order in which you enter the server IP addresses:
1. When there are no TACACS+ servers configured, entering a server IP address makes that server the first-choice
TACACS+ server.
2. When there is one TACACS+ serves already configured, entering another server IP address makes that server the
second-choice (backup) TACACS+ server.
3. When there are two TACACS+ servers already configured, entering another server IP address makes that server
the third-choice (backup) TACACS+ server.
• The above position assignments are fixed. Thus, if you remove one server and replace it with another, the new server
assumes the priority position that the removed server had. For example, suppose you configured three servers, A, B,
and C, configured in order:
First-Choice:A
Second-Choice:B
Third-Choice: C
• If you removed server B and then entered server X, the TACACS+ server order of priority would be:
First-Choice:A
Second-Choice:X
Third-Choice: C
• If there are two or more vacant slots in the TACACS+ server priority list and you enter a new IP address, the new
address will take the vacant slot with the highest priority. Thus, if A, B, and C are configured as above and you (1)
remove A and B, and (2) enter X and Y (in that order), then the new TACACS+ server priority list would be X, Y, and C.
• The easiest way to change the order of the TACACS+ servers in the priority list is to remove all server addresses in
the list and then re-enter them in order, with the new first-choice server address first, and so on.
To add a new address to the list when there are already three addresses present, you must first remove one of the currently
listed addresses.
See also “General Authentication Process Using a TACACS+ Server” on page 4-20.
4-17
TACACS+ Authentication
Configuring TACACS+ on the Switch
Name
Default
Range
[ key <key-string> ]
none (null) n/a
Specifies the optional, global “encryption key” that is also assigned in the TACACS+ server(s) that the switch will access
for authentication. This option is subordinate to any “per-server” encryption keys you assign, and applies only to
accessing TACACS+ servers for which you have not given the switch a “per-server” key. (See the host <ip-addr> [key
<key-string> entry at the beginning of this table.)
For more on the encryption key, see “Using the Encryption Key” on page 4-23 and the documentation provided with your
TACACS+ server application.
timeout <1 - 255>
5 sec
1 - 255 sec
Specifies how long the switch waits for a TACACS+ server to respond to an authentication request. If the switch does
not detect a response within the timeout period, it initiates a new request to the next TACACS+ server in the list. If all
TACACS+ servers in the list fail to respond within the timeout period, the switch uses either local authentication (if
configured) or denies access (if none configured for local authentication).
Adding, Removing, or Changing the Priority of a TACACS+ Server.
Suppose that the switch was already configured to use TACACS+ servers at
10.28.227.10 and 10.28.227.15. In this case, 10.28.227.15 was entered first, and
so is listed as the first-choice server:
First-Choice TACACS+ Server
Figure 4-4. Example of the Switch with Two TACACS+ Server Addresses Configured
To move the “first-choice” status from the “15” server to the “10” server, use
the no tacacs-server host <ip-addr> command to delete both servers, then use
tacacs-server host <ip-addr> to re-enter the “10” server first, then the “15”
server.
The servers would then be listed with the new “first-choice” server, that is:
4-18
TACACS+ Authentication
Configuring TACACS+ on the Switch
The “10” server is now the “first-choice” TACACS+ authentication device.
Figure 4-5. Example of the Switch After Assigning a Different “First-Choice” Server
To remove the 10.28.227.15 device as a TACACS+ server, you would use this
command:
ProCurve(config)# no tacacs-server host 10.28.227.15
Configuring an Encryption Key. Use an encryption key in the switch if the
switch will be requesting authentication from a TACACS+ server that also uses
an encryption key. (If the server expects a key, but the switch either does not
provide one, or provides an incorrect key, then the authentication attempt will
fail.) Use a global encryption key if the same key applies to all TACACS+
servers the switch may use for authentication attempts. Use a per-server
encryption key if different servers the switch may use will have different keys.
(For more details on encryption keys, see “Using the Encryption Key” on page
4-23.)
To configure north01 as a global encryption key:
ProCurve(config) tacacs-server key north01
To configure north01 as a per-server encryption key:
ProCurve(config)# tacacs-server host 10.28.227.63 key
north01
An encryption key can contain up to 100 characters, without spaces, and is
likely to be case-sensitive in most TACACS+ server applications.
To delete a global encryption key from the switch, use this command:
ProCurve(config)# no tacacs-server key
4-19
TACACS+ Authentication
Configuring TACACS+ on the Switch
To delete a per-server encryption key in the switch, re-enter the tacacs-server
host command without the key parameter. For example, if you have north01
configured as the encryption key for a TACACS+ server with an IP address of
10.28.227.104 and you want to eliminate the key, you would use this command:
ProCurve(config)# tacacs-server host 10.28.227.104
Note
The show tacacs command lists the global encryption key, if configured.
However, to view any configured per-server encryption keys, you must use
show config or show config running (if you have made TACACS+ configuration
changes without executing write mem).
Configuring the Timeout Period. The timeout period specifies how long
the switch waits for a response to an authentication request from a TACACS+
server before either sending a new request to the next server in the switch’s
Server IP Address list or using the local authentication option. For example,
to change the timeout period from 5 seconds (the default) to 3 seconds:
ProCurve(config)# tacacs-server timeout 3
How Authentication Operates
General Authentication Process Using a TACACS+
Server
Authentication through a TACACS+ server operates generally as described
below. For specific operating details, refer to the documentation you received
with your TACACS+ server application.
Terminal “A” Directly Accessing This
Switch Via Switch’s Console Port
First-Choice
TACACS+ Server
Second-Choice
TACACS+ Server
(Optional)
Third-Choice
TACACS+ Server
(Optional)
4-20
ProCurve Switch
Configured for
TACACS+ Operation
ProCurve Switch
Configured for
TACACS+ Operation
A
Terminal “B” Remotely
Accessing This Switch Via Telnet
B
TACACS+ Authentication
Configuring TACACS+ on the Switch
Figure 4-6. Using a TACACS+ Server for Authentication
Using figure 4-6, above, after either switch detects an operator’s logon request
from a remote or directly connected terminal, the following events occur:
1.
The switch queries the first-choice TACACS+ server for authentication
of the request.
•
If the switch does not receive a response from the first-choice
TACACS+ server, it attempts to query a secondary server. If the
switch does not receive a response from any TACACS+ server,
then it uses its own local username/password pairs to authenticate the logon request. (See “Local Authentication Process” on
page 4-22.)
•
If a TACACS+ server recognizes the switch, it forwards a username prompt to the requesting terminal via the switch.
2.
When the requesting terminal responds to the prompt with a username,
the switch forwards it to the TACACS+ server.
3.
After the server receives the username input, the requesting terminal
receives a password prompt from the server via the switch.
4.
When the requesting terminal responds to the prompt with a password,
the switch forwards it to the TACACS+ server and one of the following
actions occurs:
•
If the username/password pair received from the requesting
terminal matches a username/password pair previously stored in
the server, then the server passes access permission through the
switch to the terminal.
•
If the username/password pair entered at the requesting terminal
does not match a username/password pair previously stored in
the server, access is denied. In this case, the terminal is again
prompted to enter a username and repeat steps 2 through 4. In
the default configuration, the switch allows up to three attempts
to authenticate a login session. If the requesting terminal
exhausts the attempt limit without a successful TACACS+
authentication, the login session is terminated and the operator
at the requesting terminal must initiate a new session before
trying again.
4-21
TACACS+ Authentication
Configuring TACACS+ on the Switch
Local Authentication Process
When the switch is configured to use TACACS+, it reverts to local authentication only if one of these two conditions exists:
■
“Local” is the authentication option for the access method being used.
■
TACACS+ is the primary authentication mode for the access method
being used. However, the switch was unable to connect to any
TACACS+ servers (or no servers were configured) and Local is the
secondary authentication mode being used.
(For a listing of authentication options, see table 4-2, “Primary/Secondary
Authentication Table” on 4-13.)
For local authentication, the switch uses the operator-level and manager-level
username/password set(s) previously configured locally on the switch. (These
are the usernames and passwords you can configure using the CLI password
command, the web browser interface, or the menu interface—which enables
only local password configuration).
Note
4-22
■
If the operator at the requesting terminal correctly enters the username/password pair for either access level, access is granted.
■
If the username/password pair entered at the requesting terminal does
not match either username/password pair previously configured
locally in the switch, access is denied. In this case, the terminal is
again prompted to enter a username/password pair. In the default
configuration, the switch allows up to three attempts. If the requesting
terminal exhausts the attempt limit without a successful authentication, the login session is terminated and the operator at the requesting
terminal must initiate a new session before trying again.
The switch’s menu allows you to configure only the local Operator and
Manager passwords, and not any usernames. In this case, all prompts for local
authentication will request only a local password. However, if you use the CLI
or the web browser interface to configure usernames for local access, you will
see a prompt for both a local username and a local password during local
authentication.
TACACS+ Authentication
Configuring TACACS+ on the Switch
Using the Encryption Key
General Operation
When used, the encryption key (sometimes termed “key”, “secret key”, or
“secret”) helps to prevent unauthorized intruders on the network from reading
username and password information in TACACS+ packets moving between
the switch and a TACACS+ server. At the TACACS+ server, a key may include
both of the following:
Note
■
Global key: A general key assignment in the TACACS+ server application that applies to all TACACS-aware devices for which an individual key has not been configured.
■
Server-Specific key: A unique key assignment in the TACACS+
server application that applies to a specific TACACS-aware device.
Configure a key in the switch only if the TACACS+ server application has this
exact same key configured for the switch. That is, if the key parameter in
switch “X” does not exactly match the key setting for switch “X” in the
TACACS+ server application, then communication between the switch and
the TACACS+ server will fail.
Thus, on the TACACS+ server side, you have a choice as to how to implement
a key. On the switch side, it is necessary only to enter the key parameter so
that it exactly matches its counterpart in the server. For information on how
to configure a general or individual key in the TACACS+ server, refer to the
documentation you received with the application.
Encryption Options in the Switch
When configured, the encryption key causes the switch to encrypt the
TACACS+ packets it sends to the server. When left at “null”, the TACACS+
packets are sent in clear text. The encryption key (or just “key”) you configure
in the switch must be identical to the encryption key configured in the
corresponding TACACS+ server. If the key is the same for all TACACS+
servers the switch will use for authentication, then configure a global key in
the switch. If the key is different for one or more of these servers, use “serverspecific” keys in the switch. (If you configure both a global key and one or
more per-server keys, the per-server keys will override the global key for the
specified servers.)
4-23
TACACS+ Authentication
Configuring TACACS+ on the Switch
For example, you would use the next command to configure a global encryption key in the switch to match a key entered as north40campus in two target
TACACS+ servers. (That is, both servers use the same key for your switch.)
Note that you do not need the server IP addresses to configure a global key in
the switch:
ProCurve(config)# tacacs-server key north40campus
Suppose that you subsequently add a third TACACS+ server (with an IP
address of 10.28.227.87) that has south10campus for an encryption key.
Because this key is different than the one used for the two servers in the
previous example, you will need to assign a server-specific key in the switch
that applies only to the designated server:
ProCurve(config)# tacacs-server host 10.28.227.87 key
south10campus
With both of the above keys configured in the switch, the south10campus key
overrides the north40campus key only when the switch tries to access the
TACACS+ server having the 10.28.227.87 address.
Controlling Web Browser Interface
Access When Using TACACS+
Authentication
Configuring the switch for TACACS+ authentication does not affect web
browser interface access. To prevent unauthorized access through the web
browser interface, do one or more of the following:
4-24
■
Configure local authentication (a Manager user name and password
and, optionally, an Operator user name and password) on the switch.
■
Configure the switch’s Authorized IP Manager feature to allow web
browser access only from authorized management stations. (The
Authorized IP Manager feature does not interfere with TACACS+
operation.)
■
Disable web browser access to the switch by going to the System
Information screen in the Menu interface and configuring the Web
Agent Enabled parameter to No.
TACACS+ Authentication
Configuring TACACS+ on the Switch
Messages Related to TACACS+
Operation
The switch generates the CLI messages listed below. However, you may see
other messages generated in your TACACS+ server application. For information on such messages, refer to the documentation you received with the
application.
CLI Message
Meaning
Connecting to Tacacs server
The switch is attempting to contact the TACACS+ server identified in the switch’s tacacs-
server configuration as the first-choice (or only) TACACS+ server.
Connecting to secondary
Tacacs server
The switch was not able to contact the first-choice TACACS+ server, and is now
attempting to contact the next (secondary) TACACS+ server identified in the switch’s
tacacs-server configuration.
Invalid password
The system does not recognize the username or the password or both. Depending on the
authentication method (tacacs or local), either the TACACS+ server application did not
recognize the username/password pair or the username/password pair did not match the
username/password pair configured in the switch.
No Tacacs servers
responding
The switch has not been able to contact any designated TACACS+ servers. If this message
is followed by the Username prompt, the switch is attempting local authentication.
Not legal combination of
authentication methods
For console access, if you select tacacs as the primary authentication method, you must
select local as the secondary authentication method. This prevents you from being locked
out of the switch if all designated TACACS+ servers are inaccessible to the switch.
Record already exists
When resulting from a tacacs-server host <ip addr> command, indicates an attempt to
enter a duplicate TACACS+ server IP address.
Operating Notes
■
If you configure Authorized IP Managers on the switch, it is not
necessary to include any devices used as TACACS+ servers in the
authorized manager list. That is, authentication traffic between a
TACACS+ server and the switch is not subject to Authorized IP
Manager controls configured on the switch. Also, the switch does not
attempt TACACS+ authentication for a management station that the
Authorized IP Manager list excludes because, independent of
TACACS+, the switch already denies access to such stations.
4-25
TACACS+ Authentication
Configuring TACACS+ on the Switch
■
4-26
When TACACS+ is not enabled on the switch—or when the switch’s
only designated TACACS+ servers are not accessible— setting a local
Operator password without also setting a local Manager password
does not protect the switch from manager-level access by unauthorized persons.)
5
RADIUS Authentication and Accounting
Contents
Overview . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5-2
Terminology . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5-3
Switch Operating Rules for RADIUS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5-4
General RADIUS Setup Procedure . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5-5
Configuring the Switch for RADIUS Authentication . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5-6
Outline of the Steps for Configuring RADIUS Authentication . . . . . . 5-7
1. Configure Authentication for the Access Methods
You Want RADIUS To Protect . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5-8
2. Configure the Switch To Access a RADIUS Server . . . . . . . . . . . . 5-10
3. Configure the Switch’s Global RADIUS Parameters . . . . . . . . . . . 5-12
Local Authentication Process . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5-16
Controlling Web Browser Interface Access When Using RADIUS
Authentication . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5-17
Configuring RADIUS Accounting . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5-17
Operating Rules for RADIUS Accounting . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5-19
Steps for Configuring RADIUS Accounting . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5-19
Viewing RADIUS Statistics . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5-25
General RADIUS Statistics . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5-25
RADIUS Authentication Statistics . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5-28
RADIUS Accounting Statistics . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5-29
Changing RADIUS-Server Access Order . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5-30
Messages Related to RADIUS Operation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5-32
5-1
RADIUS Authentication and Accounting
Overview
Overview
Feature
Default
Menu
CLI
Web
Configuring RADIUS Authentication
None
n/a
5-6
n/a
Configuring RADIUS Accounting
None
n/a
5-17
n/a
n/a
n/a
5-25
n/a
Viewing RADIUS Statistics
RADIUS (Remote Authentication Dial-In User Service) enables you to use
up to three servers (one primary server and one or two backups) and maintain
separate authentication and accounting for each RADIUS server employed.
For authentication, this allows a different password for each user instead of
having to rely on maintaining and distributing switch-specific passwords to
all users. For accounting, this can help you track network resource usage.
Authentication. You can use RADIUS to verify user identity for the following types of primary password access to the ProCurve switch:
Note
■
Serial port (Console)
■
Telnet
■
SSH
■
Web
■
Port-Access
The switch does not support RADIUS security for SNMP (network management) access. For information on blocking unauthorized access through the
web browser interface, refer to “Controlling Web Browser Interface Access
When Using RADIUS Authentication” on page 5-17.
Accounting. RADIUS accounting on the switch collects resource consumption data and forwards it to the RADIUS server. This data can be used for trend
analysis, capacity planning, billing, auditing, and cost analysis.
5-2
RADIUS Authentication and Accounting
Terminology
Terminology
CHAP (Challenge-Handshake Authentication Protocol): A challengeresponse authentication protocol that uses the Message Digest 5 (MD5)
hashing scheme to encrypt a response to a challenge from a RADIUS server.
EAP (Extensible Authentication Protocol): A general PPP authentication
protocol that supports multiple authentication mechanisms. A specific
authentication mechanism is known as an EAP type, such as MD5-Challenge,
Generic Token Card, and TLS (Transport Level Security).
Host: See RADIUS Server.
NAS (Network Access Server): In this case, a ProCurve switch configured
for RADIUS security operation.
RADIUS (Remote Authentication Dial In User Service):
RADIUS Client: The device that passes user information to designated
RADIUS servers.
RADIUS Host: See RADIUS server.
RADIUS Server: A server running the RADIUS application you are using on
your network. This server receives user connection requests from the switch,
authenticates users, and then returns all necessary information to the switch.
For the ProCurve switch, a RADIUS server can also perform accounting
functions. Sometimes termed a RADIUS host.
Shared Secret Key: A text value used for encrypting data in RADIUS packets.
Both the RADIUS client and the RADIUS server have a copy of the key, and
the key is never transmitted across the network.
5-3
RADIUS Authentication and Accounting
Switch Operating Rules for RADIUS
Switch Operating Rules for RADIUS
5-4
■
You must have at least one RADIUS server accessible to the switch.
■
The switch supports authentication and accounting using up to three
RADIUS servers. The switch accesses the servers in the order in
which they are listed by show radius (page 5-25). If the first server does
not respond, the switch tries the next one, and so-on. (To change the
order in which the switch accesses RADIUS servers, refer to
“Changing RADIUS-Server Access Order” on page 5-30.)
■
You can select RADIUS as the primary authentication method for each
type of access. (Only one primary and one secondary access method
is allowed for each access type.)
■
In the ProCurve switch, EAP RADIUS uses MD5 and TLS to encrypt
a response to a challenge from a RADIUS server.
RADIUS Authentication and Accounting
General RADIUS Setup Procedure
General RADIUS Setup Procedure
Preparation:
Table 5-1.
1.
Configure one to three RADIUS servers to support the switch. (That is,
one primary server and one or two backups.) Refer to the documentation
provided with the RADIUS server application.
2.
Before configuring the switch, collect the information outlined below.
Preparation for Configuring RADIUS on the Switch
• Determine the access methods (console, Telnet, Port-Access (802.1X), SSH, and/or web browser interface) for which
you want RADIUS as the primary authentication method. Consider both Operator (login) and Manager (enable) levels,
as well as which secondary authentication methods to use (local or none) if the RADIUS authentication fails or does
not respond.
ProCurve> show authentication
Status and Counters - Authentication Information
Login Attempts : 3
Respect Privilege : Disabled
Console access
requires Local as
secondary method to
| Login
Login
Enable
Enable
Access Task | Primary
Secondary Primary
Secondary prevent lockout if the
primary RADIUS
----------- + ---------- ---------- ---------- ---------- access fails due to loss
Console
| Radius
Local
Radius
Local
of RADIUS server
access or other
Telnet
| Radius
None
Radius
None
problems with the
Port-Access | EapRadius
server.
Webui
SSH
Web-Auth
MAC-Auth
|
|
|
|
Radius
None
Radius
None
ChapRadius
ChapRadius
Radius
Radius
None
None
Figure 5-1. Example of Possible RADIUS Access Assignments
• Determine the IP address(es) of the RADIUS server(s) you want to support the switch. (You can configure the switch
for up to three RADIUS servers.)
• If you need to replace the default UDP destination port (1812) the switch uses for authentication requests to a specific
RADIUS server, select it before beginning the configuration process.
• If you need to replace the default UDP destination port (1813) the switch uses for accounting requests to a specific
Radius server, select it before beginning the configuration process.
5-5
RADIUS Authentication and Accounting
Configuring the Switch for RADIUS Authentication
• Determine whether you can use one, global encryption key for all RADIUS servers or if unique keys will be required
for specific servers. With multiple RADIUS servers, if one key applies to two or more of these servers, then you can
configure this key as the global encryption key. For any server whose key differs from the global key you are using,
you must configure that key in the same command that you use to designate that server’s IP address to the switch.
• Determine an acceptable timeout period for the switch to wait for a server to respond to a request. ProCurve
recommends that you begin with the default (five seconds).
• Determine how many times you want the switch to try contacting a RADIUS server before trying another RADIUS
server or quitting. (This depends on how many RADIUS servers you have configured the switch to access.)
• Determine whether you want to bypass a RADIUS server that fails to respond to requests for service. To shorten
authentication time, you can set a bypass period in the range of 1 to 1440 minutes for non-responsive servers. This
requires that you have multiple RADIUS servers accessible for service requests.
Configuring the Switch for RADIUS
Authentication
RADIUS Authentication Commands
aaa authentication
< console | telnet | ssh | web > < enable | login > radius
< local | none >
[no] radius-server host < IP-address >
5-8
5-8
5-8
5-10
[auth-port < port-number >]
5-10
[acct-port < port-number >]
5-10, 5-20
[key < server-specific key-string >]
5-10
[no] radius-server key < global key-string >
5-12
radius-server timeout < 1 - 15>
5-12
radius-server retransmit < 1 - 5 >
5-12
[no] radius-server dead-time < 1 - 1440 >
5-14
show radius
5-25
[< host < ip-address>]
5-6
Page
5-26
show authentication
5-28
show radius authentication
5-28
RADIUS Authentication and Accounting
Configuring the Switch for RADIUS Authentication
Outline of the Steps for Configuring RADIUS
Authentication
There are three main steps to configuring RADIUS authentication:
1.
2.
Note
Configure RADIUS authentication for controlling access through one or
more of the following
•
Serial port
•
Telnet
•
SSH
•
Web browser interface
•
Port-Access (802.1X)
Configure the switch for accessing one or more RADIUS servers (one
primary server and up to two backup servers):
This step assumes you have already configured the RADIUS server(s) to
support the switch. Refer to the documentation provided with the
RADIUS server documentation.)
3.
•
Server IP address
•
(Optional) UDP destination port for authentication requests (default:
1812; recommended)
•
(Optional) UDP destination port for accounting requests (default:
1813; recommended)
•
(Optional) encryption key for use during authentication sessions with
a RADIUS server. This key overrides the global encryption key you
can also configure on the switch, and must match the encryption key
used on the specified RADIUS server. (Default: null)
Configure the global RADIUS parameters.
•
Server Key: This key must match the encryption key used on the
RADIUS servers the switch contacts for authentication and accounting services unless you configure one or more per-server keys.
(Default: null.)
•
Timeout Period: The timeout period the switch waits for a RADIUS
server to reply. (Default: 5 seconds; range: 1 to 15 seconds.)
•
Retransmit Attempts: The number of retries when there is no server
response to a RADIUS authentication request. (Default: 3; range of 1
to 5.)
•
Server Dead-Time: The period during which the switch will not send
new authentication requests to a RADIUS server that has failed to
respond to a previous request. This avoids a wait for a request to time
5-7
RADIUS Authentication and Accounting
Configuring the Switch for RADIUS Authentication
out on a server that is unavailable. If you want to use this feature,
select a dead-time period of 1 to 1440 minutes. (Default: 0—disabled;
range: 1 - 1440 minutes.) If your first-choice server was initially
unavailable, but then becomes available before the dead-time expires,
you can nullify the dead-time by resetting it to zero and then trying to
log on again. As an alternative, you can reboot the switch, (thus
resetting the dead-time counter to assume the server is available) and
then try to log on again.
•
Number of Login Attempts: This is an aaa authentication command.
It controls how many times in one session a RADIUS client (as well
as clients using other forms of access) can try to log in with the correct
username and password. (Default: Three times per session.)
(For RADIUS accounting features, refer to “Configuring RADIUS Accounting”
on page 5-17.)
1. Configure Authentication for the Access Methods
You Want RADIUS To Protect
This section describes how to configure the switch for RADIUS authentication
through the following access methods:
■
Console: Either direct serial-port connection or modem connection.
■
Telnet: Inbound Telnet must be enabled (the default).
■
SSH: To employ RADIUS for SSH access, you must first configure the
switch for SSH operation. Refer to “Configuring Secure Shell (SSH)”
on page 6-1.
■
Web: Web browser interface.
You can also use RADIUS for Port-Based Access authentication. Refer to
“Configuring Port-Based and Client-Based Access Control (802.1X)” on page
8-1.
You can configure RADIUS as the primary password authentication method
for the above access methods. You will also need to select either local or none
as a secondary, or backup, method. Note that for console access, if you
configure radius (or tacacs) for primary authentication, you must configure
local for the secondary method. This prevents the possibility of being completely locked out of the switch in the event that all primary access methods
fail.
5-8
RADIUS Authentication and Accounting
Configuring the Switch for RADIUS Authentication
Syntax: aaa authentication < console | telnet | ssh | web > < enable | login > < radius >
Configures RADIUS as the primary password authentication
method for console, Telnet, SSH and/or the Web browser interface.
(The default primary < enable | login > authentication is local.)
[< local | none >]
Provides options for secondary authentication (default:
none). Note that for console access, secondary authentication must be local if primary access is not local. This
prevents you from being completely locked out of the
switch in the event of a failure in other access methods.
For example, suppose you have already configured local passwords on the
switch, but want to use RADIUS to protect primary Telnet and SSH access
without allowing a secondary Telnet or SSH access option (which would be
the switch’s local passwords):
ProCurve(config)#
ProCurve(config)#
ProCurve(config)#
ProCurve(config)#
ProCurve(config)#
aaa authentication telnet login radius none
aaa authentication telnet enable radius none
aaa authentication ssh login radius none
aaa authentication ssh enable radius none
show authentication
Status and Counters - Authentication Information
Login Attempts : 3
Respect Privilege : Disabled
Access Task
----------Console
Telnet
Port-Access
Webui
SSH
|
|
+
|
|
|
|
|
Login
Primary
---------Local
Radius
Local
Local
Radius
Login
Secondary
---------None
None
Enable
Primary
---------Local
Radius
Enable
Secondary
---------None
None
None
None
Local
Radius
None
None
The switch now
allows Telnet and
SSH authentication
only through
RADIUS.
Figure 5-2. Example Configuration for RADIUS Authentication
Note
In the above example, if you configure the Login Primary method as local
instead of radius (and local passwords are configured on the switch), then you
can gain access to either the Operator or Manager level without encountering
the RADIUS authentication specified for Enable Primary. Refer to “Local
Authentication Process” on page 5-16.
5-9
RADIUS Authentication and Accounting
Configuring the Switch for RADIUS Authentication
2. Configure the Switch To Access a RADIUS Server
This section describes how to configure the switch to interact with a RADIUS
server for both authentication and accounting services.
Note
If you want to configure RADIUS accounting on the switch, go to page 5-17:
“Configuring RADIUS Accounting” instead of continuing here.
Syntax: [no] radius-server host < ip-address >
Adds a server to the RADIUS configuration or (with no)
deletes a server from the configuration. You can configure
up to three RADIUS server addresses. The switch uses the
first server it successfully accesses. (Refer to “Changing
the RADIUS Server Access Order” on page 5-30.)
[auth-port < port-number >]
Optional. Changes the UDP destination port for authentication requests to the specified RADIUS server (host). If
you do not use this option with the radius-server host
command, the switch automatically assigns the default
authentication port number. The auth-port number must
match its server counterpart. (Default: 1812)
[acct-port < port-number >]
Optional. Changes the UDP destination port for accounting requests to the specified RADIUS server. If you do not
use this option with the radius-server host command, the
switch automatically assigns the default accounting port
number. The acct-port number must match its server counterpart.(Default: 1813)
[key < key-string >]
Optional. Specifies an encryption key for use during
authentication (or accounting) sessions with the specified
server. This key must match the encryption key used on
the RADIUS server. Use this command only if the specified
server requires a different encryption key than configured
for the global encryption key.
no radius-server host < ip-address > key
Use the no form of the command to remove the key for a
specified server.
5-10
RADIUS Authentication and Accounting
Configuring the Switch for RADIUS Authentication
For example, suppose you have configured the switch as shown in figure 5-3
and you now need to make the following changes:
1.
Change the encryption key for the server at 10.33.18.127 to “source0127”.
2.
Add a RADIUS server with an IP address of 10.33.18.119 and a serverspecific encryption key of “source0119”.
Figure 5-3. Sample Configuration for RADIUS Server Before Changing the Key and
Adding Another Server
To make the changes listed prior to figure 5-3, you would do the following:
Changes the key
for the existing
server to
“source0127”
Adds the new
RADIUS server
with its required
“source0119” key.
Lists the switch’s
new RADIUS
server
configuration.
Compare this with
Figure 5-4. Sample Configuration for RADIUS Server After Changing the Key and Adding Another Server
To change the order in which the switch accesses RADIUS servers, refer to
“Changing RADIUS-Server Access Order” on page 5-30.
5-11
RADIUS Authentication and Accounting
Configuring the Switch for RADIUS Authentication
3. Configure the Switch’s Global RADIUS Parameters
You can configure the switch for the following global RADIUS parameters:
5-12
■
Number of login attempts: In a given session, specifies how many
tries at entering the correct username and password pair are allowed
before access is denied and the session terminated. (This is a general
aaa authentication parameter and is not specific to RADIUS.)
■
Global server key: The server key the switch will use for contacts
with all RADIUS servers for which there is not a server-specific key
configured by radius-server host < ip-address > key < key-string >. This
key is optional if you configure a server-specific key for each RADIUS
server entered in the switch. (Refer to “2. Configure the Switch To
Access a RADIUS Server” on page 5-10.)
■
Server timeout: Defines the time period in seconds for authentication attempts. If the timeout period expires before a response is
received, the attempt fails.
■
Server dead time: Specifies the time in minutes during which the
switch avoids requesting authentication from a server that has not
responded to previous requests.
■
Retransmit attempts: If the first attempt to contact a RADIUS
server fails, specifies how many retries you want the switch to attempt
on that server.
RADIUS Authentication and Accounting
Configuring the Switch for RADIUS Authentication
Syntax: aaa authentication num-attempts < 1 - 10 >
Specifies how many tries for entering the correct username and password before shutting down the session
due to input errors. (Default: 3; Range: 1 - 10).
[no] radius-server
key < global-key-string >
Specifies the global encryption key the switch uses with
servers for which the switch does not have a serverspecific key assignment. This key is optional if all
RADIUS server addresses configured in the switch
include a server-specific encryption key. (Default:
Null.)
dead-time < 1 - 1440 >
Optional. Specifies the time in minutes during which
the switch will not attempt to use a RADIUS server that
has not responded to an earlier authentication attempt.
(Default: 0; Range: 1 - 1440 minutes)
radius-server timeout < 1 - 15 >
Specifies the maximum time the switch waits for a
response to an authentication request before counting
the attempt as a failure. (Default: 3 seconds; Range: 1
- 15 seconds)
radius-server retransmit < 1 - 5 >
If a RADIUS server fails to respond to an authentication request, specifies how many retries to attempt
before closing the session. (Default: 3; Range: 1 - 5)
Note
Where the switch has multiple RADIUS servers configured to support authentication requests, if the first server fails to respond, then the switch tries the
next server in the list, and so-on. If none of the servers respond, then the switch
attempts to use the secondary authentication method configured for the type
of access being attempted (console, Telnet, or SSH). If this occurs, refer to
“RADIUS-Related Problems” in the Troubleshooting chapter of the Management and Configuration Guide for your switch.
5-13
RADIUS Authentication and Accounting
Configuring the Switch for RADIUS Authentication
For example, suppose that your switch is configured to use three RADIUS
servers for authenticating access through Telnet and SSH. Two of these
servers use the same encryption key. In this case your plan is to configure the
switch with the following global authentication parameters:
■
Allow only two tries to correctly enter username and password.
■
Use the global encryption key to support the two servers that use the
same key. (For this example, assume that you did not configure these
two servers with a server-specific key.)
■
Use a dead-time of five minutes for a server that fails to respond to
an authentication request.
■
Allow three seconds for request timeouts.
■
Allow two retries following a request that did not receive a response.
Figure 5-5. Example of Global Configuration Exercise for RADIUS Authentication
5-14
RADIUS Authentication and Accounting
Configuring the Switch for RADIUS Authentication
ProCurve# show authentication
Status and Counters - Authentication Information
After two attempts failing due
to username or password
entry errors, the switch will
terminate the session.
Login Attempts : 2
Respect Privilege : Disabled
Access Task
----------Console
Telnet
Port-Access
Webui
SSH
Web-Auth
MAC-Auth
|
|
+
|
|
|
|
|
|
|
Login
Primary
---------Local
Radius
Local
Local
Radius
ChapRadius
ChapRadius
Login
Secondary
---------None
None
Enable
Primary
---------Local
Radius
Enable
Secondary
---------None
None
None
None
Local
Radius
None
None
ProCurve# show radius
Status and Counters - General RADIUS Information
Deadtime(min) : 5
Timeout(secs) : 3
Retransmit Attempts : 2
Global Encryption Key : My-Global-Key-1099
Auth
Server IP Addr Port
--------------- ----10.33.18.127
1812
10.33.18.119
1812
10.33.18.151
1812
Global RADIUS parameters
from figure 5-5.
Server-specific encryption key
for the RADIUS server that will
Acct
not use the global encryption
Port Encryption Key
key.
----- -------------------------------1813 source0127
These two servers will use the
1813
global encryption key.
1813
Figure 5-6. Listings of Global RADIUS Parameters Configured In Figure 5-5
5-15
RADIUS Authentication and Accounting
Local Authentication Process
Local Authentication Process
When the switch is configured to use RADIUS, it reverts to local authentication
only if one of these two conditions exists:
■
“Local” is the authentication option for the access method being used.
■
The switch has been configured to query one or more RADIUS servers
for a primary authentication request, but has not received a response,
and local is the configured secondary option.
For local authentication, the switch uses the Operator-level and Manager-level
username/password set(s) previously configured locally on the switch. (These
are the usernames and passwords you can configure using the CLI password
command, the web browser interface, or the menu interface—which enables
only local password configuration).
5-16
■
If the operator at the requesting terminal correctly enters the username/password pair for either access level (Operator or Manager),
access is granted on the basis of which username/password pair was
used. For example, suppose you configure Telnet primary access for
RADIUS and Telnet secondary access for local. If a RADIUS access
attempt fails, then you can still get access to either the Operator or
Manager level of the switch by entering the correct username/password pair for the level you want to enter.
■
If the username/password pair entered at the requesting terminal does
not match either local username/password pair previously configured
in the switch, access is denied. In this case, the terminal is again
prompted to enter a username/password pair. In the default configuration, the switch allows up to three attempts. If the requesting
terminal exhausts the attempt limit without a successful authentication, the login session is terminated and the operator at the requesting
terminal must initiate a new session before trying again.
RADIUS Authentication and Accounting
Controlling Web Browser Interface Access When Using RADIUS Authentication
Controlling Web Browser Interface Access
When Using RADIUS Authentication
To prevent unauthorized access through the web browser interface, do one
or more of the following:
■
Configure local authentication (a Manager user name and password
and, optionally, an Operator user name and password) on the switch.
■
Configure the switch’s Authorized IP Manager feature to allow web
browser access only from authorized management stations. (The
Authorized IP Manager feature does not interfere with TACACS+
operation.)
■
Disable web browser access to the switch.
Configuring RADIUS Accounting
RADIUS Accounting Commands
Page
[no] radius-server host < ip-address >
5-20
[acct-port < port-number >]
5-20
[key < key-string >]
5-20
[no] aaa accounting < exec | network | system >
< start-stop | stop-only> radius
5-23
[no] aaa accounting update
periodic < 1 - 525600 > (in minutes)
5-24
[no] aaa accounting suppress null-username
5-24
show accounting
5-29
show accounting sessions
5-30
show radius accounting
5-29
5-17
RADIUS Authentication and Accounting
Configuring RADIUS Accounting
Note
This section assumes you have already:
■
Configured RADIUS authentication on the switch for one or more
access methods
■
Configured one or more RADIUS servers to support the switch
If you have not already done so, refer to “General RADIUS Setup Procedure”
on page 5-5 before continuing here.
RADIUS accounting collects data about user activity and system events and
sends it to a RADIUS server when specified events occur on the switch, such
as a logoff or a reboot. The switch supports three types of accounting services:
■
Network accounting: Provides records containing the information
listed below on clients directly connected to the switch and operating
under Port-Based Access Control (802.1X):
•
•
•
•
•
•
Acct-Session-Id
Acct-Status-Type
Acct-Terminate-Cause
Acct-Authentic
Acct-Delay-Time
Acct-Input-Packets
•
•
•
•
•
•
Acct-Output-Packets
Acct-Input-Octets
Nas-Port
Acct-Output-Octets
Acct-Session-Time
Username
•
•
•
•
Service-Type
NAS-IP-Address
NAS-Identifier
Called-Station-Id
(For 802.1X information for the switch, refer to “Configuring Port-Based
and Client-Based Access Control (802.1X)” on page 8-1.)
■
Exec accounting: Provides records holding the information listed
below about login sessions (console, Telnet, and SSH) on the switch:
•
•
•
•
■
•
•
•
•
Acct-Delay-Time
Acct-Session-Time
Username
Service-Type
• NAS-IP-Address
• NAS-Identifier
• Calling-Station-Id
System accounting: Provides records containing the information
listed below when system events occur on the switch, including
system reset, system boot, and enabling or disabling of system
accounting.
•
•
•
•
5-18
Acct-Session-Id
Acct-Status-Type
Acct-Terminate-Cause
Acct-Authentic
Acct-Session-Id
Acct-Status-Type
Acct-Terminate-Cause
Acct-Authentic
•
•
•
•
Acct-Delay-Time
Username
Service-Type
NAS-IP-Address
• NAS-Identifier
• Calling-Station-Id
RADIUS Authentication and Accounting
Configuring RADIUS Accounting
The switch forwards the accounting information it collects to the designated
RADIUS server, where the information is formatted, stored, and managed by
the server. For more information on this aspect of RADIUS accounting, refer
to the documentation provided with your RADIUS server.
Operating Rules for RADIUS Accounting
■
You can configure up to three types of accounting to run simultaneously: exec, system, and network.
■
RADIUS servers used for accounting are also used for authentication.
■
The switch must be configured to access at least one RADIUS server.
■
RADIUS servers are accessed in the order in which their IP addresses
were configured in the switch. Use show radius to view the order. As
long as the first server is accessible and responding to authentication
requests from the switch, a second or third server will not be
accessed. (For more on this topic, refer to “Changing RADIUS-Server
Access Order” on page 5-30.)
■
If access to a RADIUS server fails during a session, but after the client
has been authenticated, the switch continues to assume the server is
available to receive accounting data. Thus, if server access fails during
a session, it will not receive accounting data transmitted from the
switch.
Steps for Configuring RADIUS Accounting
1.
Configure the switch for accessing a RADIUS server.
You can configure a list of up to three RADIUS servers (one primary, two
backup). The switch operates on the assumption that a server can operate
in both accounting and authentication mode. (Refer to the documentation
for your RADIUS server application.)
•
Use the same radius-server host command that you would use to
configure RADIUS authentication. Refer to “2. Configure the Switch
To Access a RADIUS Server” on page 5-10.
•
Provide the following:
– A RADIUS server IP address.
– Optional—a UDP destination port for authentication requests.
Otherwise the switch assigns the default UDP port (1812; recommended).
5-19
RADIUS Authentication and Accounting
Configuring RADIUS Accounting
–
2.
3.
Optional—if you are also configuring the switch for RADIUS
authentication, and need a unique encryption key for use during
authentication sessions with the RADIUS server you are designating, configure a server-specific key. This key overrides the
global encryption key you can also configure on the switch, and
must match the encryption key used on the specified RADIUS
server. For more information, refer to the key < key-string > parameter on page 5-10. (Default: null)
Configure accounting types and the controls for sending reports to the
RADIUS server.
•
Accounting types: exec (page 5-18), network (page 5-18), or system
(page 5-18)
•
Trigger for sending accounting reports to a RADIUS server: At
session start and stop or only at session stop
(Optional) Configure session blocking and interim updating options
•
Updating: Periodically update the accounting data for sessions-inprogress
•
Suppress accounting: Block the accounting session for any
unknown user with no username access to the switch
1. Configure the Switch To Access a RADIUS Server
Before you configure the actual accounting parameters, you should first
configure the switch to use a RADIUS server. This is the same as the process
described on page 5-10. You need to repeat this step here only if you have not
yet configured the switch to use a RADIUS server, your server data has
changed, or you need to specify a non-default UDP destination port for
accounting requests. Note that switch operation expects a RADIUS server to
accommodate both authentication and accounting.
5-20
RADIUS Authentication and Accounting
Configuring RADIUS Accounting
Syntax: [no] radius-server host < ip-address >
Adds a server to the RADIUS configuration or (with no)
deletes a server from the configuration.
[acct-port < port-number >]
Optional. Changes the UDP destination port for
accounting requests to the specified RADIUS server. If
you do not use this option, the switch automatically
assigns the default accounting port number. (Default:
1813)
[key < key-string >]
Optional. Specifies an encryption key for use during
accounting or authentication sessions with the specified server. This key must match the encryption key
used on the RADIUS server. Use this command only if
the specified server requires a different encryption key
than configured for the global encryption key.
(For a more complete description of the radius-server command and its
options, turn to page 5-10.)
For example, suppose you want to the switch to use the RADIUS server
described below for both authentication and accounting purposes.
■
IP address: 10.33.18.151
■
A non-default UDP port number of 1750 for accounting.
For this example, assume that all other RADIUS authentication parameters
for accessing this server are acceptable at their default settings, and that
RADIUS is already configured as an authentication method for one or more
types of access to the switch (Telnet, Console, etc.).
5-21
RADIUS Authentication and Accounting
Configuring RADIUS Accounting
Because the radius-server command
includes an acct-port element with a nondefault 1750, the switch assigns this value to
the accounting port UDP port numbers.
Because auth-port was not included in the
command, the authentication UDP port is set
to the default 1812.
Figure 5-7. Example of Configuring for a RADIUS Server with a Non-Default Accounting UDP Port Number
The radius-server command as shown in figure 5-7, above, configures the
switch to use a RADIUS server at IP address 10.33.18.151, with a (non-default)
UDP accounting port of 1750, and a server-specific key of “source0151”.
2. Configure Accounting Types and the Controls for Sending
Reports to the RADIUS Server
Select the Accounting Type(s):
■
Exec: Use exec if you want to collect accounting information on login
sessions on the switch via the console, Telnet, or SSH. (See also
“Accounting” on page 5-2.)
■
System: Use system if you want to collect accounting data when:
•
A system boot or reload occurs
•
System accounting is turned on or off
Note that there is no time span associated with using the system option.
It simply causes the switch to transmit whatever accounting data it
currently has when one of the above events occurs.
■
Network: Use Network if you want to collect accounting information
on 802.1X port-based-access users connected to the physical ports on
the switch to access the network. (See also “Accounting” on page 2.)
For information on this feature, refer to “Configuring Port-Based and
Client-Based Access Control (802.1X)” on page 8-1.
Determine how you want the switch to send accounting data to a RADIUS
server:
5-22
RADIUS Authentication and Accounting
Configuring RADIUS Accounting
■
Start-Stop:
•
Send a start record accounting notice at the beginning of the accounting session and a stop record notice at the end of the session. Both
notices include the latest data the switch has collected for the
requested accounting type (Network, Exec, or System).
•
Do not wait for an acknowledgement.
The system option (page 5-22) ignores start-stop because the switch sends
the accumulated data only when there is a reboot, reload, or accounting
on/off event.
■
Stop-Only:
•
Send a stop record accounting notice at the end of the accounting
session. The notice includes the latest data the switch has collected
for the requested accounting type (Network, Exec, or System).
•
Do not wait for an acknowledgment.
The system option (page 5-22) always delivers stop-only operation because
the switch sends the accumulated data only when there is a reboot, reload,
or accounting on/off event.
Syntax: [no] aaa accounting < exec | network | system > < start-stop | stop-only >
radius
Configures RADIUS accounting type and how data will be
sent to the RADIUS server.
For example, to configure RADIUS accounting on the switch with start-stop
for exec functions and stop-only for system functions:
Configures exec and system
accounting and controls.
Summarizes the switch’s
accounting configuration.
Exec and System accounting are
active. (Assumes the switch is
configured to access a reachable
Figure 5-8. Example of Configuring Accounting Types
5-23
RADIUS Authentication and Accounting
Configuring RADIUS Accounting
3. (Optional) Configure Session Blocking and Interim
Updating Options
These optional parameters give you additional control over accounting data.
■
Updates: In addition to using a Start-Stop or Stop-Only trigger, you
can optionally configure the switch to send periodic accounting
record updates to a RADIUS server.
■
Suppress: The switch can suppress accounting for an unknown user
having no username.
Syntax: [no] aaa accounting update periodic < 1 - 525600 >
Sets the accounting update period for all accounting sessions on the switch. (The no form disables the update
function and resets the value to zero.) (Default: zero; disabled)
Syntax: [no] aaa accounting suppress null-username
Disables accounting for unknown users having no username. (Default: suppression disabled)
To continue the example in figure 5-8, suppose that you wanted the switch to:
■
Send updates every 10 minutes on in-progress accounting sessions.
■
Block accounting for unknown users (no username).
• Update Period
• Suppress Unknown User
Figure 5-9. Example of Optional Accounting Update Period and Accounting Suppression on Unknown User
5-24
RADIUS Authentication and Accounting
Viewing RADIUS Statistics
Viewing RADIUS Statistics
General RADIUS Statistics
Syntax: show radius [host < ip-addr >]
Shows general RADIUS configuration, including the server
IP addresses. Optional form shows data for a specific
RADIUS host. To use show radius, the server’s IP address must
be configured in the switch, which. requires prior use of the
radius-server host command. (See “Configuring RADIUS
Accounting” on page 5-17.)
Figure 5-10. Example of General RADIUS Information from Show Radius Command
5-25
RADIUS Authentication and Accounting
Viewing RADIUS Statistics
Figure 5-11. RADIUS Server Information From the Show Radius Host Command
5-26
RADIUS Authentication and Accounting
Viewing RADIUS Statistics
Table 5-2.
Values for Show Radius Host Output (Figure 5-11)
Term
Definition
Round Trip Time
The time interval between the most recent Accounting-Response and the AccountingRequest that matched it from this RADIUS accounting server.
Pending Requests
The number of RADIUS Accounting-Request packets sent to this server that have not yet
timed out or received a response. This variable is incremented when an accounting-Request
is sent and decremented due to receipt of an Accounting-Response, a timeout or a
retransmission.
Retransmissions
The number of RADIUS Accounting-Request packets retransmitted to this RADIUS
accounting server. Retransmissions include retries where the Identifier and Acct-Delay have
been updated, as well as those in which they remain the same.
Timeouts
The number of accounting timeouts to this server. After a timeout the client may retry to the
same server, send to a different server, or give up. A retry to the same server is counted as
a retransmit as well as a timeout. A send to a different server is counted as an AccountingRequest as well as a timeout.
Malformed Responses
The number of malformed RADIUS Accounting-Response packets received from this server.
Malformed packets include packets with an invalid length. Bad authenticators and unknown
types are not included as malformed accounting responses.
Bad Authenticators
The number of RADIUS Accounting-Response packets which contained invalid
authenticators received from this server.
Unknown Types
The number of RADIUS packets of unknown type which were received from this server on
the accounting port.
Packets Dropped
The number of RADIUS packets which were received from this server on the accounting port
and dropped for some other reason.
Access Requests
The number of RADIUS Access-Requests the switch has sent since it was last rebooted.
(Does not include retransmissions.)
Accounting Requests
The number of RADIUS Accounting-Request packets sent. This does not include
retransmissions.
Access Challenges
The number of RADIUS Access-Challenge packets (valid or invalid) received from this server.
Access Accepts
The number of RADIUS Access-Accept packets (valid or invalid) received from this server.
Access Rejects
The number of RADIUS Access-Reject packets (valid or invalid) received from this server.
Responses
The number of RADIUS packets received on the accounting port from this server.
5-27
RADIUS Authentication and Accounting
Viewing RADIUS Statistics
RADIUS Authentication Statistics
Syntax: show authentication
Displays the primary and secondary authentication methods configured for the Console, Telnet, Port-Access (802.1X),
and SSH methods of accessing the switch. Also displays the
number of access attempts currently allowed in a session.
show radius authentication
Displays NAS identifier and data on the configured RADIUS
server and the switch’s interactions with this server.
(Requires prior use of the radius-server host command to
configure a RADIUS server IP address in the switch. See
“Configuring RADIUS Accounting” on page 5-17.)
Figure 5-12. Example of Login Attempt and Primary/Secondary Authentication
Information from the Show Authentication Command
Figure 5-13. Example of RADIUS Authentication Information from a Specific Server
5-28
RADIUS Authentication and Accounting
Viewing RADIUS Statistics
RADIUS Accounting Statistics
Syntax: show accounting
Lists configured accounting interval, “Empty User” suppression status, accounting types, methods, and modes.
show radius accounting
Lists accounting statistics for the RADIUS server(s) configured in the switch (using the radius-server host command).
show accounting sessions
Lists the accounting sessions currently active on the switch.
Figure 5-14. Listing the Accounting Configuration in the Switch
Figure 5-15. Example of RADIUS Accounting Information for a Specific Server
5-29
RADIUS Authentication and Accounting
Changing RADIUS-Server Access Order
Figure 5-16. Example Listing of Active RADIUS Accounting Sessions on the Switch
Changing RADIUS-Server Access Order
The switch tries to access RADIUS servers according to the order in which
their IP addresses are listed by the show radius command. Also, when you add
a new server IP address, it is placed in the highest empty position in the list.
Adding or deleting a RADIUS server IP address leaves an empty position, but
does not change the position of any other server addresses in the list. For
example if you initially configure three server addresses, they are listed in the
order in which you entered them. However, if you subsequently remove the
second server address in the list and add a new server address, the new
address will be placed second in the list.
Thus, to move a server address up in the list, you must delete it from the list,
ensure that the position to which you want to move it is vacant, and then reenter it. For example, suppose you have already configured the following three
RADIUS server IP addresses in the switch:
RADIUS server IP addresses listed in the order
in which the switch will try to access them. In this
case, the server at IP address 10.10.10.1 is first.
Note: If the switch successfully accesses the
first server, it does not try to access any other
servers in the list, even if the client is denied
access by the first server.
Figure 5-17. Search Order for Accessing a RADIUS Server
5-30
RADIUS Authentication and Accounting
Changing RADIUS-Server Access Order
To exchange the positions of the addresses so that the server at 10.10.10.003
will be the first choice and the server at 10.10.10.001 will be the last, you would
do the following:
1.
Delete 10.10.10.003 from the list. This opens the third (lowest) position in
the list.
2.
Delete 10.10.10.001 from the list. This opens the first (highest) position in
the list.
3.
Re-enter 10.10.10.003. Because the switch places a newly entered address
in the highest-available position, this address becomes first in the list.
4.
Re-enter 10.10.10.001. Because the only position open is the third position,
this address becomes last in the list.
Removes the “003” and “001” addresses from
the RADIUS server list.
Inserts the “003” address in the first position in
the RADIUS server list, and inserts the “001”
address in the last position in the list.
Shows the new order in which the switch
searches for a RADIUS server.
Figure 5-18. Example of New RADIUS Server Search Order
5-31
RADIUS Authentication and Accounting
Messages Related to RADIUS Operation
Messages Related to RADIUS Operation
Message
Meaning
Can’t reach RADIUS server < x.x.x.x >.
A designated RADIUS server is not responding to an
authentication request. Try pinging the server to
determine whether it is accessible to the switch. If the
server is accessible, then verify that the switch is using
the correct encryption key and that the server is correctly
configured to receive an authentication request from the
switch.
No server(s) responding.
The switch is configured for and attempting RADIUS
authentication, however it is not receiving a response
from a RADIUS server. Ensure that the switch is
configured to access at least one RADIUS server. (Use
show radius.) If you also see the message Can’t
reach RADIUS server < x.x.x.x >, try the
suggestions listed for that message.
Not legal combination of authentication
methods.
Indicates an attempt to configure local as both the
primary and secondary authentication methods. If local
is the primary method, then none must be the secondary
method.
5-32
6
Configuring Secure Shell (SSH)
Contents
Overview . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6-2
Terminology . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6-4
Prerequisite for Using SSH . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6-5
Public Key Formats . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6-5
Steps for Configuring and Using SSH
for Switch and Client Authentication . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6-6
General Operating Rules and Notes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6-8
Configuring the Switch for SSH Operation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6-9
1. Assign Local Login (Operator) and Enable (Manager) Password . 6-9
2. Generate the Switch’s Public and Private Key Pair . . . . . . . . . . . . 6-10
3. Provide the Switch’s Public Key to Clients . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6-12
4. Enable SSH on the Switch and Anticipate SSH
Client Contact Behavior . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6-15
5. Configure the Switch for SSH Authentication . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6-18
6. Use an SSH Client To Access the Switch . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6-22
Further Information on SSH Client Public-Key Authentication . . . . . . . . 6-23
Messages Related to SSH Operation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6-29
6-1
Configuring Secure Shell (SSH)
Overview
Overview
Feature
Generating a public/private key pair on the switch
Using the switch’s public key
Default
Menu
CLI
Web
No
n/a
page 6-10
n/a
n/a
n/a
page 6-12
n/a
Enabling SSH
Disabled
n/a
page 6-15
n/a
Enabling client public-key authentication
Disabled
n/a
pages 6-19,
6-23
n/a
Enabling user authentication
Disabled
n/a
page 6-18
n/a
The ProCurve switches covered in this guide use Secure Shell version 1 or 2
(SSHv1 or SSHv2) to provide remote access to management functions on the
switches via encrypted paths between the switch and management station
clients capable of SSH operation.
SSH provides Telnet-like functions but, unlike Telnet, SSH provides encrypted,
authenticated transactions. The authentication types include:
■
Client public-key authentication
■
Switch SSH and user password authentication
Client Public Key Authentication (Login/Operator Level) with User
Password Authentication (Enable/Manager Level). This option uses
one or more public keys (from clients) that must be stored on the switch. Only
a client with a private key that matches a stored public key can gain access
to the switch. (The same private key can be stored on one or more clients.)
1. Switch-to-Client SSH authentication.
ProCurve
Switch
(SSH
Server)
2.Client-to-Switch (login rsa) authentication
3.User-to-Switch (enable password) authentication
options:
– Local
– TACACS+
– RADIUS
– None
Figure 6-1. Client Public Key Authentication Model
6-2
SSH
Client
WorkStation
Configuring Secure Shell (SSH)
Overview
Note
SSH in the ProCurve is based on the OpenSSH software toolkit. For more
information on OpenSSH, visit www.openssh.com.
Switch SSH and User Password Authentication . This option is a subset
of the client public-key authentication show in figure 6-1. It occurs if the switch
has SSH enabled but does not have login access (login public-key) configured
to authenticate the client’s key. As in figure 6-1, the switch authenticates itself
to SSH clients. Users on SSH clients then authenticate themselves to the
switch (login and/or enable levels) by providing passwords stored locally on
the switch or on a TACACS+ or RADIUS server. However, the client does not
use a key to authenticate itself to the switch.
1. Switch-to-Client SSH
ProCurve
Switch
2. User-to-Switch (login password and
enable password authentication)
options:
– Local
– TACACS+
(SSH
Server)
SSH
Client
WorkStation
Figure 6-2. Switch/User Authentication
SSH on the ProCurve switches covered in this guide supports these data
encryption methods:
Note
■
3DES (168-bit)
■
DES (56-bit)
The ProCurve switches covered in this guide use the RSA algorithm for
internally generated keys (v1/v2 shared host key & v1 server key). However,
ProCurve switches support both RSA and DSA/DSS keys for client authentication. All references to either a public or private key mean keys generated
using these algorithms unless otherwise noted
6-3
Configuring Secure Shell (SSH)
Terminology
Terminology
6-4
■
SSH Server: A ProCurve switch with SSH enabled.
■
Key Pair: A pair of keys generated by the switch or an SSH client
application. Each pair includes a public key, that can be read by
anyone and a private key, that is held internally in the switch or by a
client.
■
PEM (Privacy Enhanced Mode): Refers to an ASCII-formatted
client public-key that has been encoded for portability and efficiency.
SSHv2 client public-keys are typically stored in the PEM format. See
figures 6-3 and 6-4 for examples of PEM-encoded ASCII and nonencoded ASCII keys.
■
Private Key: An internally generated key used in the authentication
process. A private key generated by the switch is not accessible for
viewing or copying. A private key generated by an SSH client application is typically stored in a file on the client device and, together with
its public key counterpart, can be copied and stored on multiple
devices.
■
Public Key: An internally generated counterpart to a private key. A
device’s public key is used to authenticate the device to other devices.
■
Enable Level: Manager privileges on the switch.
■
Login Level: Operator privileges on the switch.
■
Local password or username: A Manager-level or Operator-level
password configured in the switch.
■
SSH Enabled: (1) A public/private key pair has been generated on
the switch (crypto key generate ssh [rsa]) and (2) SSH is enabled (ip
ssh). (You can generate a key pair without enabling SSH, but you
cannot enable SSH without first generating a key pair. See “2.
Generate the Switch’s Public and Private Key Pair” on page 6-10 and
“4. Enable SSH on the Switch and Anticipate SSH Client Contact
Behavior” on page 6-15.)
Configuring Secure Shell (SSH)
Prerequisite for Using SSH
Prerequisite for Using SSH
Before using the switch as an SSH server, you must install a publicly or
commercially available SSH client application on the computer(s) you use for
management access to the switch. If you want client public-key authentication
(page 6-2), then the client program must have the capability to generate or
import keys.
Public Key Formats
Any client application you use for client public-key authentication with the
switch must have the capability export public keys. The switch can accept
keys in the PEM-Encoded ASCII Format or in the Non-Encoded ASCII format.
Beginning of actual SSHv2
public key in PEM-Encoded
ASCII format.
Comment
describing public
key identity.
Figure 6-3. Example of Public Key in PEM-Encoded ASCII Format Common for SSHv2 Clients
Bit
Size
Exponent <e>
Modulus <n>
Figure 6-4. Example of Public Key in Non-Encoded ASCII Format (Common for SSHv1 Client Applications)
6-5
Configuring Secure Shell (SSH)
Steps for Configuring and Using SSH for Switch and Client Authentication
Steps for Configuring and Using SSH
for Switch and Client Authentication
For two-way authentication between the switch and an SSH client, you must
use the login (Operator) level.
Table 6-1.
Switch
Access
Level
Operator
(Login)
Level
Manager
(Enable)
Level
1
SSH Options
Primary SSH
Authentication
ssh login rsa
Authenticate
Switch Public Key
to SSH Clients?
Authenticate
Client Public Key
to the Switch?
Primary Switch
Password
Authentication
Secondary Switch
Password
Authentication
Yes
Yes1
No1
local or none
ssh login Local
Yes
No
Yes
none
ssh login TACACS
Yes
No
Yes
local or none
ssh login RADIUS
Yes
No
Yes
local or none
ssh enable local
Yes
No
Yes
none
ssh enable tacacs
Yes
No
Yes
local or none
ssh enable radius
Yes
No
Yes
local or none
For ssh login public-key, the switch uses client public-key authentication instead of the switch password options for
primary authentication.
The general steps for configuring SSH include:
A. Client Preparation
1.
Install an SSH client application on a management station you want
to use for access to the switch. (Refer to the documentation provided
with your SSH client application.)
2.
Optional—If you want the switch to authenticate a client public-key
on the client:
a. Either generate a public/private key pair on the client computer
(if your client application allows) or import a client key pair that
you have generated using another SSH application.
b. Copy the client public key into an ASCII file on a TFTP server
accessible to the switch and download the client public key file to
the switch. (The client public key file can hold up to ten client
keys.) This topic is covered under “To Create a Client-Public-Key
Text File” on page 6-24.
6-6
Configuring Secure Shell (SSH)
Steps for Configuring and Using SSH for Switch and Client Authentication
B. Switch Preparation
1.
Assign a login (Operator) and enable (Manager) password on the
switch (page 6-9).
2.
Generate a public/private key pair on the switch (page 6-10).
You need to do this only once. The key remains in the switch even if
you reset the switch to its factory-default configuration. (You can
remove or replace this key pair, if necessary.)
3.
Copy the switch’s public key to the SSH clients you want to access
the switch (page 6-12).
4.
Enable SSH on the switch (page 6-15).
5.
Configure the primary and secondary authentication methods you
want the switch to use. In all cases, the switch will use its host-publickey to authenticate itself when initiating an SSH session with a client.
• SSH Login (Operator) options:
– Option A:
Primary: Local, TACACS+, or RADIUS password
Secondary: Local password or none. If the primary
method is local, the secondary method cannot be local.
– Option B:
Primary: Client public-key authentication (login publickey — page 6-23)
Secondary: None
Note that if you want the switch to perform client public-key
authentication, you must configure the switch with Option B.
• SSH Enable (Manager) options:
Primary: Local, TACACS+, or RADIUS
Secondary: Local password or none. If the primary method
is local, the secondary method cannot be local.
6.
Use your SSH client to access the switch using the switch’s IP address
or DNS name (if allowed by your SSH client application). Refer to the
documentation provided with the client application.
6-7
Configuring Secure Shell (SSH)
General Operating Rules and Notes
General Operating Rules and Notes
6-8
■
Public keys generated on an SSH client must be exportable to the
switch. The switch can only store ten client key pairs.
■
The switch’s own public/private key pair and the (optional) client
public key file are stored in the switch’s flash memory and are not
affected by reboots or the erase startup-config command.
■
Once you generate a key pair on the switch you should avoid regenerating the key pair without a compelling reason. Otherwise, you
will have to re-introduce the switch’s public key on all management
stations (clients) you previously set up for SSH access to the switch.
In some situations this can temporarily allow security breaches.
■
On ProCurve switches that support stacking, when stacking is
enabled, SSH provides security only between an SSH client and the
stack manager. Communications between the stack commander and
stack members are not secure.
■
The switch does not support outbound SSH sessions. Thus, if you
Telnet from an SSH-secure switch to another SSH-secure switch, the
session is not secure.
Configuring Secure Shell (SSH)
Configuring the Switch for SSH Operation
Configuring the Switch for SSH
Operation
SSH-Related Commands in This Section
Page
show ip ssh
6-17
show crypto client-public-key [<manager | operator>] [keylist-str]
[< babble | fingerprint >]
6-26
show crypto host-public-key [< babble | fingerprint >]
6-14
show authentication
6-21
crypto key < generate | zeroize > ssh [rsa]
6-11
ip ssh
6-16
filetransfer
6-16
port < 1 - 65535 | default >
6-16
timeout < 5 - 120 >
6-16
aaa authentication ssh
login < local | tacacs | radius | public-key >
< local | none >
enable < tacacs | radius | local >
< local | none >
6-18, 6-20
6-18
6-18
6-18
copy tftp pub-key-file <tftp server IP> <public key file> [<append |
manager | operator>]
6-26
clear crypto client-public-key <manager | operator > [keylist-str]
6-27
1. Assign Local Login (Operator) and Enable (Manager)
Password
At a minimum, ProCurve recommends that you always assign at least a
Manager password to the switch. Otherwise, under some circumstances,
anyone with Telnet, web, or serial port access could modify the switch’s
configuration.
To Configure Local Passwords. You can configure both the Operator and
Manager password with one command.
Syntax: password < manager | operator | all >
6-9
Configuring Secure Shell (SSH)
Configuring the Switch for SSH Operation
Figure 6-5. Example of Configuring Local Passwords
2. Generate the Switch’s Public and Private Key Pair
You must generate a public and private host key pair on the switch. The switch
uses this key pair, along with a dynamically generated session key pair to
negotiate an encryption method and session with an SSH client trying to
connect to the switch.
The host key pair is stored in the switch’s flash memory, and only the public
key in this pair is readable. The public key should be added to a "known hosts"
file (for example, $HOME/.ssh/known_hosts on UNIX systems) on the
SSH clients which should have access to the switch. Some SSH client applications automatically add the switch’s public key to a "known hosts" file. Other
SSH applications require you to manually create a known hosts file and place
the switch’s public key in the file. (Refer to the documentation for your SSH
client application.)
(The session key pair mentioned above is not visible on the switch. It is a
temporary, internally generated pair used for a particular switch/client session, and then discarded.)
6-10
Configuring Secure Shell (SSH)
Configuring the Switch for SSH Operation
Notes
When you generate a host key pair on the switch, the switch places the key
pair in flash memory (and not in the running-config file). Also, the switch
maintains the key pair across reboots, including power cycles. You should
consider this key pair to be "permanent"; that is, avoid re-generating the key
pair without a compelling reason. Otherwise, you will have to re-introduce the
switch’s public key on all management stations you have set up for SSH access
to the switch using the earlier pair.
Removing (zeroing) the switch’s public/private key pair renders the switch
unable to engage in SSH operation and automatically disables IP SSH on the
switch. (To verify whether SSH is enabled, execute show ip ssh.) However, any
active SSH sessions will continue to run, unless explicitly terminated with the
CLI kill command.
To Generate or Erase the Switch’s Public/Private RSA Host Key Pair.
Because the host key pair is stored in flash instead of the running-config file,
it is not necessary to use write memory to save the key pair. Erasing the key
pair automatically disables SSH.
Syntax: crypto key generate ssh [rsa]
Generates a public/private key pair for the switch. If a
switch key pair already exists, replaces it with a new
key pair. (See the Note, above.)
crypto key zeroize ssh [rsa]
Erases the switch’s public/private key pair and disables SSH operation.
show crypto host-public-key
Displays switch’s public key. Displays the version 1
and version 2 views of the key.
[ babble ]
Displays hashes of the switch’s public key in
phonetic format. (See “Displaying the Public
Key” on page 6-14.)
[ fingerprint ]
Displays fingerprints of the switch’s public key
in hexadecimal format. (See “Displaying the
Public Key” on page 6-14.)
6-11
Configuring Secure Shell (SSH)
Configuring the Switch for SSH Operation
For example, to generate and display a new key:
Host Public
Key for the
Switch
Version 1 and Version 2 Views
of Same Host Public Key
Figure 6-6. Example of Generating a Public/Private Host Key Pair for the Switch
The 'show crypto host-public-key' displays data in two different formats
because your client may store it in either of these formats after learning the
key. If you wish to compare the switch key to the key as stored in your client's
known-hosts file, note that the formatting and comments need not match. For
version 1 keys, the three numeric values bit size, exponent <e>, and modulus
<n> must match; for PEM keys, only the PEM-encoded string itself must
match.
Notes
"Zeroizing" the switch’s key automatically disables SSH (sets ip ssh to no).
Thus, if you zeroize the key and then generate a new key, you must also reenable SSH with the ip ssh command before the switch can resume SSH
operation.
3. Provide the Switch’s Public Key to Clients
When an SSH client contacts the switch for the first time, the client will
challenge the connection unless you have already copied the key into the
client’s "known host" file. Copying the switch’s key in this way reduces the
chance that an unauthorized device can pose as the switch to learn your access
passwords. The most secure way to acquire the switch’s public key for
6-12
Configuring Secure Shell (SSH)
Configuring the Switch for SSH Operation
distribution to clients is to use a direct, serial connection between the switch
and a management device (laptop, PC, or UNIX workstation), as described
below.
The public key generated by the switch consists of three parts, separated by
one blank space each:
Bit Size
Exponent <e>
Modulus <n>
896 35 427199470766077426366625060579924214851527933248752021855126493
2934075407047828604329304580321402733049991670046707698543529734853020
0176777055355544556880992231580238056056245444224389955500310200336191
3610469786020092436232649374294060627777506601747146563337525446401
Figure 6-7. Example of a Public Key Generated by the Switch
(The generated public key on the switch is always 896 bits.)
With a direct serial connection from a management station to the switch:
1.
Use a terminal application such as HyperTerminal to display the switch’s
public key with the show crypto host-public-key command (figure 6-6).
2.
Bring up the SSH client’s "known host" file in a text editor such as Notepad
as straight ASCII text, and copy the switch’s public key into the file.
3.
Ensure that there are no changes in breaks in the text string. (A public
key must be an unbroken ASCII string. Line breaks are not allowed
Changes in the line breaks will corrupt the Key.) For example, if you are
using Windows® Notepad, ensure that Word Wrap (in the Edit menu) is
disabled, and that the key text appears on a single line.
Figure 6-8. Example of a Correctly Formatted Public Key
6-13
Configuring Secure Shell (SSH)
Configuring the Switch for SSH Operation
4.
Inserted
IP
Address
Bit
Size
Add any data required by your SSH client application. For example Before
saving the key to an SSH client’s "known hosts" file you may have to insert
the switch’s IP address:
Exponent <e>
Modulus <n>
Figure 6-9. Example of a Switch Public Key Edited To Include the Switch’s IP Address
For more on this topic, refer to the documentation provided with your SSH
client application.
Displaying the Public Key. The switch provides three options for displaying its public key. This is helpful if you need to visually verify that the public
key the switch is using for authenticating itself to a client matches the copy
of this key in the client’s "known hosts" file:
■
Non-encoded ASCII numeric string: Requires a client ability to
display the keys in the “known hosts” file in the ASCII format. This
method is tedious and error-prone due to the length of the keys. (See
figure 6-8 on page 6-13.)
■
Phonetic hash: Outputs the key as a relatively short series of alphabetic character groups. Requires a client ability to convert the key to
this format.
■
Hexadecimal hash: Outputs the key as a relatively short series of
hexadecimal numbers. Requires a parallel client ability.
For example, on the switch, you would generate the phonetic and hexadecimal
versions of the switch’s public key in figure 6-8 as follows:
6-14
Configuring Secure Shell (SSH)
Configuring the Switch for SSH Operation
Phonetic "Hash" of Switch’s Public Key
Hexadecimal
"Fingerprints" of
the Same Switch
Figure 6-10. Examples of Visual Phonetic and Hexadecimal Conversions of the Switch’s Public Key
The two commands shown in figure 6-10 convert the displayed format of the
switch’s (host) public key for easier visual comparison of the switch’s public
key to a copy of the key in a client’s “known host” file. The switch has only
one RSA host key. The 'babble' and 'fingerprint' options produce two hashes
for the key--one that corresponds to the challenge hash you will see if connecting with a v1 client, and the other corresponding to the hash you will see
if connecting with a v2 client. These hashes do not correspond to different
keys, but differ only because of the way v1 and v2 clients compute the hash
of the same RSA key. The switch always uses ASCII version (without babble
or fingerprint conversion) of its public key for file storage and default display
format.
4. Enable SSH on the Switch and Anticipate SSH
Client Contact Behavior
The ip ssh command enables or disables SSH on the switch and modifies
parameters the switch uses for transactions with clients. After you enable
SSH, the switch can authenticate itself to SSH clients.
Note
Before enabling SSH on the switch you must generate the switch’s public/
private key pair. If you have not already done so, refer to “2. Generate the
Switch’s Public and Private Key Pair” on page 6-10.
When configured for SSH, the switch uses its host public-key to authenticate
itself to SSH clients. If you also want SSH clients to authenticate themselves
to the switch you must configure SSH on the switch for client public-key
authentication at the login (Operator) level. To enhance security, you should
also configure local, TACACS+, or RADIUS authentication at the enable
(Manager) level.
Refer to “5. Configure the Switch for SSH Authentication” on page 6-18.
6-15
Configuring Secure Shell (SSH)
Configuring the Switch for SSH Operation
SSH Client Contact Behavior. At the first contact between the switch and
an SSH client, if you have not copied the switch’s public key into the client,
your client’s first connection to the switch will question the connection and,
for security reasons, give you the option of accepting or refusing. As long as
you are confident that an unauthorized device is not using the switch’s IP
address in an attempt to gain access to your data or network, you can accept
the connection. (As a more secure alternative, you can directly connect the
client to the switch’s serial port and copy the switch’s public key into the client.
See the following Note.)
Note
When an SSH client connects to the switch for the first time, it is possible for
a "man-in-the-middle" attack; that is, for an unauthorized device to pose
undetected as the switch, and learn the usernames and passwords controlling
access to the switch. You can remove this possibility by directly connecting
the management station to the switch’s serial port, using a show command to
display the switch’s public key, and copying the key from the display into a
file. This requires a knowledge of where your client stores public keys, plus
the knowledge of what key editing and file format might be required by your
client application. However, if your first contact attempt between a client and
the switch does not pose a security problem, this is unnecessary.
To enable SSH on the switch.
1.
Generate a public/private key pair if you have not already done so. (Refer
to “2. Generate the Switch’s Public and Private Key Pair” on page 6-10.)
2.
Execute the ip ssh command.
To disable SSH on the switch, do either of the following:
■
Execute no ip ssh.
■
Zeroize the switch’s existing key pair. (page 6-11).
Syntax: [no] ip ssh
Enables or disables SSH on the switch.
filetransfer
Enable or disable secure file transfer capability.
6-16
Configuring Secure Shell (SSH)
Configuring the Switch for SSH Operation
[port < 1-65535 | default >]
The TCP port number for SSH connections (default:
22). Important: See “Note on Port Number” on page
6-17.
[timeout < 5 - 120 >]
The SSH login timeout value (default: 120 seconds).
Note on Port
Num b er
ProCurve recommends using the default TCP port number (22). However, you
can use ip ssh port to specify any TCP port for SSH connections except those
reserved for other purposes. Examples of reserved IP ports are 23 (Telnet)
and 80 (http). Some other reserved TCP ports on the ProCurve switches are
49, 80, 1506, and 1513.
Enables SSH on the switch.
Lists the current SSH
configuration and status.
The switch uses these settings internally for
transactions with clients. See the Caution on page
6-18.
With SSH running, the switch allows one
console session and up to three other sessions
(SSH and/or Telnet). Web browser sessions are
also allowed, but do not appear in the show ip ssh
Figure 6-11. Example of Enabling IP SSH and Listing the SSH Configuration and Status
6-17
Configuring Secure Shell (SSH)
Configuring the Switch for SSH Operation
Caution
Protect your private key file from access by anyone other than yourself. If
someone can access your private key file, they can then penetrate SSH security
on the switch by appearing to be you.
SSH does not protect the switch from unauthorized access via the web
interface, Telnet, SNMP, or the serial port. While web and Telnet access can
be restricted by the use of passwords local to the switch, if you are unsure of
the security this provides, you may want to disable web-based and/or Telnet
access (no web-management and no telnet). If you need to increase SNMP
security, you should use SNMP version 3 only. If you need to increase the
security of your web interface, refer to chapter 7, “Configuring Secure Socket
Layer (SSL)” . Another security measure is to use the Authorized IP Managers
feature described in the switch’s Management and Configuration Guide. To
protect against unauthorized access to the serial port (and the Clear button,
which removes local password protection), keep physical access to the switch
restricted to authorized personnel.
5. Configure the Switch for SSH Authentication
Note that all methods in this section result in authentication of the switch’s
public key by an SSH client. However, only Option B (page 6-19) results in the
switch also authenticating the client’s public key. Also, for a more detailed
discussion of the topics in this section, refer to “Further Information on SSH
Client Public-Key Authentication” on page 6-23
Note
ProCurve recommends that you always assign a Manager-Level (enable)
password to the switch. Without this level of protection, any user with Telnet,
web, or serial port access to the switch can change the switch’s configuration.
Also, if you configure only an Operator password, entering the Operator
password through telnet, web, SSH or serial port access enables full manager
privileges. See “1. Assign Local Login (Operator) and Enable (Manager)
Password” on page 6-9.
Option A: Configuring SSH Access for Password-Only SSH
Authentication. When configured with this option, the switch uses its public key to authenticate itself to a client, but uses only passwords for client
authentication.
6-18
Configuring Secure Shell (SSH)
Configuring the Switch for SSH Operation
Syntax: aaa authentication ssh login < local | tacacs | radius >[< local | none >]
Configures a password method for the primary and secondary login (Operator) access. If you do not specify an optional
secondary method, it defaults to none. If the primary password method is local, you cannot use local for the secondary
password method.
aaa authentication ssh enable < local | tacacs | radius>[< local | none >]
Configures a password method for the primary and secondary enable (Manager) access. If you do not specify an
optional secondary method, it defaults to none. If the primary
password method is local, you cannot use local for the secondary password method.
Option B: Configuring the Switch for Client Public-Key SSH
Authentication. If configured with this option, the switch uses its public
key to authenticate itself to a client, but the client must also provide a client
public-key for the switch to authenticate. This option requires the additional
step of copying a client public-key file from a TFTP server into the switch. This
means that before you can use this option, you must:
1.
Create a key pair on an SSH client.
2.
Copy the client’s public key into a public-key file (which can contain up
to ten client public-keys).
3.
Copy the public-key file into a TFTP server accessible to the switch and
download the file to the switch.
(For more on these topics, refer to “Further Information on SSH Client PublicKey Authentication” on page 6-23.)
6-19
Configuring Secure Shell (SSH)
Configuring the Switch for SSH Operation
With steps 1 - 3, above, completed and SSH properly configured on the switch,
if an SSH client contacts the switch, login authentication automatically occurs
first, using the switch and client public-keys. After the client gains login
access, the switch controls client access to the manager level by requiring the
passwords configured earlier by the aaa authentication ssh enable command.
Syntax: copy tftp pub-key-file < ip-address > < filename >
Copies a public key file into the switch.
aaa authentication ssh login public-key
Configures the switch to authenticate a client public-key at
the login level with an optional secondary password method
(Default: none).
Caution
To allow SSH access only to clients having the correct public key, you must
configure the secondary (password) method for login public-key to none.
Otherwise a client without the correct public key can still gain entry by
submitting a correct local login password.
Syntax: aaa authentication ssh enable < local | tacacs | radius > < local | none >
Configures a password method for the primary and secondary enable (Manager) access. If you do not specify an
optional secondary method, it defaults to none. If the primary
password method is local, you cannot use local for the secondary password method.
For example, assume that you have a client public-key file named ClientKeys.pub (on a TFTP server at 10.33.18.117) ready for downloading to the
switch. For SSH access to the switch you want to allow only clients having a
private key that matches a public key found in Client-Keys.pub. For Managerlevel (enable) access for successful SSH clients you want to use TACACS+ for
primary password authentication and local for secondary password authentication, with a Manager username of "1eader" and a password of "m0ns00n".
To set up this operation you would configure the switch in a manner similar
to the following:
6-20
Configuring Secure Shell (SSH)
Configuring the Switch for SSH Operation
Configures Manager username and password.
Copies a public key file
named "Client-Keys.pub"
into the switch.
Configures the
switch to allow
SSH access only a
client whose
public key
matches one of the
keys in the public
key file
Configures the primary and
secondary password methods for
Manager (enable) access. (Becomes
available after SSH access is granted
Figure 6-12. Configuring for SSH Access Requiring a Client Public-Key Match and Manager Passwords
Figure 6-13 shows how to check the results of the above commands.
Lists the current SSH
authentication
configuration.
Client Key Index Number
Shows the contents of
the public key file
downloaded with the
copy tftp command in
figure 6-12. In this
example, the file
contains two client
public-keys.
Figure 6-13. SSH Configuration and Client-Public-Key Listing From Figure 6-12
6-21
Configuring Secure Shell (SSH)
Configuring the Switch for SSH Operation
6. Use an SSH Client To Access the Switch
Test the SSH configuration on the switch to ensure that you have achieved the
level of SSH operation you want for the switch. If you have problems, refer to
"RADIUS-Related Problems" in the Troubleshooting chapter of the Management and Configuration Guide for your switch.
6-22
Configuring Secure Shell (SSH)
Further Information on SSH Client Public-Key Authentication
Further Information on SSH Client
Public-Key Authentication
The section titled “5. Configure the Switch for SSH Authentication” on page
6-18 lists the steps for configuring SSH authentication on the switch. However,
if you are new to SSH or need more details on client public-key authentication,
this section may be helpful.
When configured for SSH operation, the switch automatically attempts to use
its own host public-key to authenticate itself to SSH clients. To provide the
optional, opposite service—client public-key authentication to the switch—
you can configure the switch to store up to ten RSA or DSA public keys for
authenticating clients. This requires storing an ASCII version of each client’s
public key (without babble conversion, or fingerprint conversion) in a client
public-key file that you create and TFTP-copy to the switch. In this case, only
clients that have a private key corresponding to one of the stored public keys
can gain access to the switch using SSH. That is, if you use this feature, only
the clients whose public keys are in the client public-key file you store on
the switch will have SSH access to the switch over the network. If you do not
allow secondary SSH login (Operator) access via local password, then the
switch will refuse other SSH clients.
SSH clients that support client public-key authentication normally provide a
utility to generate a key pair. The private key is usually stored in a passwordprotected file on the local host; the public key is stored in another file and is
not protected.
(Note that even without using client public-key authentication, you can still
require authentication from whoever attempts to access the switch from an
SSH client— by employing the local username/password, TACACS+, or
RADIUS features. Refer to “5. Configure the Switch for SSH Authentication”
on page 6-18.)
If you enable client public-key authentication, the following events occur
when a client tries to access the switch using SSH:
1.
The client sends its public key to the switch with a request for authentication.
2.
The switch compares the client’s public key to those stored in the switch’s
client-public-key file. (As a prerequisite, you must use the switch’s copy
tftp command to download this file to flash.)
6-23
Configuring Secure Shell (SSH)
Further Information on SSH Client Public-Key Authentication
3.
If there is not a match, and you have not configured the switch to accept
a login password as a secondary authentication method, the switch denies
SSH access to the client.
4.
If there is a match, the switch:
a.
Generates a random sequence of bytes.
b.
Uses the client’s public key to encrypt this sequence.
c.
Send these encrypted bytes to the client.
5.
The client uses its private key to decrypt the byte sequence.
6.
The client then:
7.
a.
Combines the decrypted byte sequence with specific session data.
b.
Uses a secure hash algorithm to create a hash version of this information.
c.
Returns the hash version to the switch.
The switch computes its own hash version of the data in step 6 and
compares it to the client’s hash version. If they match, then the client is
authenticated. Otherwise, the client is denied access.
Using client public-key authentication requires these steps:
1.
Generate a public/private key pair for each client you want to have SSH
access to the switch. This can be a separate key for each client or the same
key copied to several clients.
2.
Copy the public key for each client into a client-public-key text file.
3.
Use copy tftp to copy the client-public-key file into the switch. Note that
the switch can hold 10 keys. The new key is appended to the client publickey file
4.
Use the aaa authentication ssh command to enable client public-key
authentication.
To Create a Client-Public-Key Text File. These steps describe how to
copy client-public-keys into the switch for RSA challenge-response authentication, and require an understanding of how to use your SSH client application.
Bit Size
Exponent <e>
Modulus <n>
Figure 6-14. Example of a Client Public Key
6-24
Comment
Configuring Secure Shell (SSH)
Further Information on SSH Client Public-Key Authentication
Notes
Comments in public key files, such as smith@support.cairns.com in figure 6-14,
may appear in a SSH client application’s generated public key. While such
comments may help to distinguish one key from another, they do not pose any
restriction on the use of a key by multiple clients and/or users.
Public key illustrations such as the key shown in figure 6-14 usually include
line breaks as a method for showing the whole key. However, in practice, line
breaks in a public key will cause errors resulting in authentication failure.
1.
Use your SSH client application to create a public/private key pair. Refer
to the documentation provided with your SSH client application for
details. The switch supports the following client-public-key properties:
Property
Supported
Value
Comments
Key Format
ASCII
See figure 6-8 on page 6-13. The key must be one unbroken ASCII string. If you add
more than one client-public-key to a file, terminate each key (except the last one)
with a <CR><LF>. Spaces are allowed within the key to delimit the key’s components.
Note that, unlike the use of the switch’s public key in an SSH client application, the
format of a client-public-key used by the switch does not include the client’s IP
address.
Key Type
RSA only
Maximum Supported 3072 bits
Public Key Length
Maximum Key Size
Shorter key lengths allow faster operation, but also mean diminished security.
1024
Includes the bit size, public index, modulus, any comments, <CR>, <LF>, and all blank
characters spaces.
If necessary, you can use an editor application to verify the size of a key. For example,
placing a client-public-key into a Word for Windows text file and clicking on File |
Properties | Statistics, lets you view the number of characters in the file, including
spaces.
2.
Copy the client’s public key into a text file (filename.txt). (For example,
you can use the Notepad editor included with the Microsoft® Windows®
software. If you want several clients to use client public-key authentication, copy a public key for each of these clients (up to ten) into the file.
Each key should be separated from the preceding key by a <CR><LF>.
3.
Copy the client-public-key file into a TFTP server accessible to the switch.
6-25
Configuring Secure Shell (SSH)
Further Information on SSH Client Public-Key Authentication
Copying a client-public-key into the switch requires the following:
Note on Public
K e ys
■
One or more client-generated public keys. Refer to the documentation
provided with your SSH client application.
■
A copy of each client public key (up to ten) stored in a single text file
or individual on a TFTP server to which the switch has access.
Terminate all client public-keys in the file except the last one with a
<CR><LF>.
The actual content of a public key entry in a public key file is determined by
the SSH client application generating the key. (Although you can manually
add or edit any comments the client application adds to the end of the key,
such as the smith@fellow at the end of the key in figure 6-14 on page 6-24.)
Syntax: copy tftp pub-key-file <ip-address> <filename> [<append | manager |
operator>]
Copies a public key file from a TFTP server into flash
memory in the switch.
The append option adds the key(s) for operator access.
The manager option replaces the key(s) for manager
access; follow with the append option to add the key(s).
The operator option replaces the key(s) for operator
access (default); follow with the append option to add
the key(s).
show crypto client-public-key [manager | operator] [keylist-str] [babble |
fingerprint]
Displays the client public key(s) in the switch’s current
client-public-key file.
The manager option selects the manager public keys.
The operator option selects operator public keys.
The keylist-str option allows you to select keys to display
(a comma-delimited list).
The babble option converts the key data to phonetic
hashes that are easier for visual comparisons.
The fingerprint option converts the key data to hexadecimal hashes that are for the same purpose.
6-26
Configuring Secure Shell (SSH)
Further Information on SSH Client Public-Key Authentication
For example, if you wanted to copy a client public-key file named clientkeys.txt
from a TFTP server at 10.38.252.195 and then display the file contents:
Key Index Number
Figure 6-15. Example of Copying and Displaying a Client Public-Key File Containing Two Client Public Keys
Replacing or Clearing the Public Key File. The client public-key file
remains in the switch’s flash memory even if you erase the startup-config file,
reset the switch, or reboot the switch.
■
You can remove the existing client public-key file or specific keys by
executing the clear crypto public-key command.
Syntax: clear crypto client-public-key
Deletes the client-public-key file from the switch.
Syntax: clear crypto client-public-key 3
Deletes the entry with an index of 3 from the
client-public-key file on the switch.
Enabling Client Public-Key Authentication. After you TFTP a clientpublic-key file into the switch (described above), you can configure the switch
to allow one of the following:
■
If an SSH client’s public key matches the switch’s client-public-key
file, allow that client access to the switch. If there is not a public-key
match, then deny access to that client.
■
If an SSH client’s public key does not have a match in the switch’s
client-public-key file, allow the client access if the user can enter the
switch’s login (Operator) password. (If the switch does not have an
Operator password, then deny access to that client.
6-27
Configuring Secure Shell (SSH)
Further Information on SSH Client Public-Key Authentication
Syntax: aaa authentication ssh login public-key none
Allows SSH client access only if the switch detects a match
between the client’s public key and an entry in the clientpublic-key file most recently copied into the switch.
Caution
6-28
To enable client public-key authentication to block SSH clients whose public
keys are not in the client-public-key file copied into the switch, you must
configure the Login Secondary as none. Otherwise, the switch allows such
clients to attempt access using the switch’s Operator password.
Configuring Secure Shell (SSH)
Messages Related to SSH Operation
Messages Related to SSH Operation
Message
Meaning
00000K Peer unreachable.
Indicates an error in communicating with the tftp server or
not finding the file to download. Causes include such factors
as:
• Incorrect IP configuration on the switch
• Incorrect IP address in the command
• Case (upper/lower) error in the filename used in the
command
• Incorrect configuration on the TFTP server
• The file is not in the expected location.
• Network misconfiguration
• No cable connection to the network
00000K Transport error.
Indicates the switch experienced a problem when
trying to copy tftp the requested file. The file may not
be in the expected directory, the filename may be
misspelled in the command, or the file permissions
may be wrong.
Cannot bind reserved TCP port
<port-number>.
The ip ssh port command has attempted to configure a
reserved TCP port. Use the default or select another port
number. See “Note on Port Number” on page 6-17.
Client public key file corrupt or
not found. Use 'copy tftp pub-keyfile <ip-addr> <filename>' to download new file.
Download failed: overlength key in
key file.
The client key does not exist in the switch. Use copy
tftp to download the key from a TFTP server.
Download failed: too many keys in key
file.
Download failed: one or more keys is
not a valid public key.
The public key file you are trying to download has one of the
following problems:
• A key in the file is too long. The maximum key length is
1024 characters, including spaces. This could also mean
that two or more keys are merged together instead of
being separated by a <CR><LF>.
• There are more than ten public keys in the key file and
switch total. Delete some keys from the switch or file. The
switch does not detect duplicate keys.
• One or more keys in the file is corrupted or is not a valid
rsa public key.
Refer to “To Create a Client-Public-Key Text File” on page
24 for information on client-public-key properties.
Error: Requested keyfile does not exist. The client key does not exist in the switch. Use copy
tftp to download the key from a TFTP server.
6-29
Configuring Secure Shell (SSH)
Messages Related to SSH Operation
Message
Meaning
Generating new RSA host key. If the
cache is depleted, this could take
up to two minutes.
After you execute the crypto key generate ssh [rsa]
command, the switch displays this message while it
is generating the key.
Host RSA key file corrupt or not
found. Use 'crypto key generate ssh
rsa' to create new host key.
The switch’s key is missing or corrupt. Use the crypto
key generate ssh [rsa] command to generate a new
key for the switch.
6-30
7
Configuring Secure Socket Layer (SSL)
Contents
Overview . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7-2
Terminology . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7-3
Prerequisite for Using SSL . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7-5
Steps for Configuring and Using SSL for
Switch and Client Authentication . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7-5
General Operating Rules and Notes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7-6
1. Assign Local Login (Operator) and Enable (Manager) Password . 7-7
2. Generate the Switch’s Server Host Certificate . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7-8
3. Enable SSL on the Switch and Anticipate SSL
Browser Contact Behavior . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7-17
Common Errors in SSL Setup . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7-21
7-1
Configuring Secure Socket Layer (SSL)
Overview
Overview
Feature
Generating a Self Signed Certificate on the switch
Generating a Certificate Request on the switch
Enabling SSL
Default
Menu
CLI
Web
No
n/a
page 7-8
page 7-12
No
n/a
n/a
page 7-15
Disabled
n/a
page 7-17
page 7-19
The ProCurve switches covered by this manual use Secure Socket Layer
Version 3 (SSLv3) and support for Transport Layer Security(TLSv1) to provide
remote web access to the switches via encrypted paths between the switch
and management station clients capable of SSL/TLS operation.
Note
ProCurve switches use SSL and TLS for all secure web transactions, and all
references to SSL mean using one of these algorithms unless otherwise noted
SSL provides all the web functions but, unlike standard web access, SSL
provides encrypted, authenticated transactions. The authentication type
includes server certificate authentication with user password authentication.
Note
SSL in ProCurve switches is based on the OpenSSL software toolkit. For more
information on OpenSSL, visit www.openssl.com.
Server Certificate authentication with User Password
Authentication . This option is a subset of full certificate authentication of
the user and host. It occurs only if the switch has SSL enabled. As in figure 71, the switch authenticates itself to SSL enabled web browser. Users on SSL
browser then authenticate themselves to the switch (operator and/or manger
levels) by providing passwords stored locally on the switch or on a TACACS+
or RADIUS server. However, the client does not use a certificate to authenticate itself to the switch.
7-2
Configuring Secure Socket Layer (SSL)
Terminology
1. Switch-to-Client SSL Cert.
ProCurve
Switch
SSL Client
Browser
2. User-to-Switch (login password and
enable password authentication)
options:
– Local
– TACACS+
– RADIUS
(SSL
Server)
Figure 7-1. Switch/User Authentication
SSL on the ProCurve switches supports these data encryption methods:
Note:
■
3DES (168-bit, 112 Effective)
■
DES (56-bit)
■
RC4 (40-bit, 128-bit)
ProCurve switches use RSA public key algorithms and Diffie-Hellman. All
references to a key mean keys generated using these algorithms unless
otherwise noted
Terminology
■
SSL Server: A ProCurve switch with SSL enabled.
■
Key Pair: Public/private pair of RSA keys generated by switch, of
which public portion makes up part of server host certificate and
private portion is stored in switch flash (not user accessible).
■
Digital Certificate: A certificate is an electronic “passport” that is
used to establish the credentials of the subject to which the certificate
was issued. Information contained within the certificate includes:
name of the subject, serial number, date of validity, subject's public
key, and the digital signature of the authority who issued the certificate. Certificates on Procurve switches conform to the X.509v3 standard, which defines the format of the certificate.
7-3
Configuring Secure Socket Layer (SSL)
Terminology
7-4
■
Self-Signed Certificate: A certificate not verified by a third-party
certificate authority (CA). Self-signed certificates provide a reduced
level of security compared to a CA-signed certificate.
■
CA-Signed Certificate: A certificate verified by a third party certificate authority (CA). Authenticity of CA-Signed certificates can be
verified by an audit trail leading to a trusted root certificate.
■
Root Certificate: A trusted certificate used by certificate authorities
to sign certificates (CA-Signed Certificates) and used later on to verify
that authenticity of those signed certificates. Trusted certificates are
distributed as an integral part of most popular web clients. (see
browser documentation for which root certificates are pre-installed).
■
Manager Level: Manager privileges on the switch.
■
Operator Level: Operator privileges on the switch.
■
Local password or username: A Manager-level or Operator-level
password configured in the switch.
■
SSL Enabled: (1) A certificate key pair has been generated on the
switch (web interface or CLI command: crypto key generate cert
[key size] (2) A certificate been generated on the switch (web
interface or CLI command: crypto host-cert generate self-signed
[arg-list]) and (3) SSL is enabled (web interface or CLI command:
web-management ssl). (You can generate a certificate without
enabling SSL, but you cannot enable SSL without first generating a
Certificate.
Configuring Secure Socket Layer (SSL)
Prerequisite for Using SSL
Prerequisite for Using SSL
Before using the switch as an SSL server, you must install a publicly or
commercially available SSL enabled web browser application on the computer(s) you use for management access to the switch.
Steps for Configuring and Using SSL for
Switch and Client Authentication
The general steps for configuring SSL include:
A. Client Preparation
1.
Note:
Install an SSL capable browser application on a management station
you want to use for access to the switch. (Refer to the documentation
provided with your browser.)
The latest versions of Microsoft Internet Explorer and Netscape web browser
support SSL and TLS functionality. See the browser documentation for additional details
B. Switch Preparation
1.
Assign a login (Operator) and enable (Manager) password on the
switch (page 7-7).
2.
Generate a host certificate on the switch (page 7-8).
i. Generate certificate key pair
ii. Generate host certificate
You need to do this only once. The switch's own public/private
certificate key pair and certificate are stored in the switch's flash
memory and are not affected by reboots or the erase startup-config
command. (You can remove or replace this certificate, if necessary.)
The certificate key pair and the SSH key pair are independent of each
other, which means a switch can have two keys pairs stored in flash.
3.
Enable SSL on the switch (page 7-17).
4.
Use your SSL enabled browser to access the switch using the switch’s
IP address or DNS name (if allowed by your browser). Refer to the
documentation provided with the browser application.
7-5
Configuring Secure Socket Layer (SSL)
General Operating Rules and Notes
General Operating Rules and Notes
7-6
■
Once you generate a certificate on the switch you should avoid regenerating the certificate without a compelling reason. Otherwise,
you will have to re-introduce the switch’s certificate on all management stations (clients) you previously set up for SSL access to the
switch. In some situations this can temporarily allow security
breaches.
■
The switch's own public/private certificate key pair and certificate
are stored in the switch's flash memory and are not affected by
reboots or the erase startup-config command
■
The public/private certificate key pair is not be confused with the SSH
public/private key pair. The certificate key pair and the SSH key pair
are independent of each other, which means a switch can have two
keys pairs stored in flash
■
On ProCurve switches that support stacking, when stacking is
enabled, SSL provides security only between an SSL client and the
stack manager. Communications between the stack commander and
stack members is not secure.
Configuring Secure Socket Layer (SSL)
General Operating Rules and Notes
Configuring the Switch for SSL Operation
SSL-Related CLI Commands in This Section
Page
web-management ssl
page 7-19
show config
page 7-19
show crypto host-cert
page 7-12
crypto key
generate cert [rsa] <512 | 768 |1024>
page 7-10
zeroize cert
page 7-10
crypto host-cert
generate self-signed [arg-list]
page 7-10
zeroize
page 7-10
1. Assign Local Login (Operator) and Enable (Manager)
Password
At a minimum, ProCurve recommends that you always assign at least a
Manager password to the switch. Otherwise, under some circumstances,
anyone with Telnet, web, or serial port access could modify the switch’s
configuration.
7-7
Configuring Secure Socket Layer (SSL)
General Operating Rules and Notes
Using the web browser interface To Configure Local Passwords. You
can configure both the Operator and Manager password on one screen. To
access the web browser interface refer to the chapter titled “Using the Web
Browser Interface” in the Management and Configuration Guide for your
switch.
Password Button
Security Tab
Figure 7-2. Example of Configuring Local Passwords
1.
Proceed to the security tab and select device passwords button.
2.
Click in the appropriate box in the Device Passwords window and enter
user names and passwords. You will be required to repeat the password
strings in the confirmation boxes.
Both the user names and passwords can be up to 16 printable ASCII
characters.
3.
Click on Apply Changes button to activate the user names and passwords.
2. Generate the Switch’s Server Host Certificate
You must generate a server certificate on the switch before enabling SSL. The
switch uses this server certificate, along with a dynamically generated session
key pair to negotiate an encryption method and session with a browser trying
7-8
Configuring Secure Socket Layer (SSL)
General Operating Rules and Notes
to connect via SSL to the switch. (The session key pair mentioned above is
not visible on the switch. It is a temporary, internally generated pair used for
a particular switch/client session, and then discarded.)
The server certificate is stored in the switch’s flash memory. The server
certificate should be added to your certificate folder on the SSL clients who
you want to have access to the switch. Most browser applications automatically add the switch’s host certificate to there certificate folder on the first
use. This method does allow for a security breach on the first access to the
switch. (Refer to the documentation for your browser application.)
There are two types of certificated that can be used for the switch’s host
certificate. The first type is a self-signed certificate, which is generated and
digitally signed by the switch. Since self-signed certificates are not signed by
a third-party certificate authority, there is no audit trail to a root CA certificate
and no fool-proof means of verifying authenticity of certificate. The second
type is a certificate authority-signed certificate, which is digitally signed by a
certificate authority, has an audit trail to a root CA certificate, and can be
verified unequivocally
Note:
There is usually a fee associated with receiving a verified certificate and the
valid dates are limited by the root certificate authority issuing the certificate.
When you generate a certificate key pair and/or certificate on the switch, the
switch places the key pair and/or certificate in flash memory (and not in
running config). Also, the switch maintains the certificate across reboots,
including power cycles. You should consider this certificate to be “permanent”; that is, avoid re-generating the certificate without a compelling reason.
Otherwise, you will have to re-introduce the switch’s host certificate on all
management stations you have set up for SSL access to the switch using the
earlier certificate.
Removing (zeroizing) the switch's certificate key pair or certificate render the
switch unable to engage in SSL operation and automatically disables SSL on
the switch. (To verify whether SSL is enabled, execute show config.)
To Generate or Erase the Switch’s Server Certificate with the
CLI
Because the host certificate is stored in flash instead of the running-config
file, it is not necessary to use write memory to save the certificate. Erasing the
host certificate automatically disables SSL.
7-9
Configuring Secure Socket Layer (SSL)
General Operating Rules and Notes
CLI commands used to generate a Server Host Certificate.
Syntax: crypto key generate cert [rsa] < 512 | 768 |1024 >
Generates a key pair for use in the certificate.
crypto key zeroize cert
Erases the switch’s certificate key and disables SSL operation.
crypto host-cert generate self-signed [arg-list]
Generates a self signed host certificate for the switch. If a
switch certificate already exists, replaces it with a new
certificate. (See the Note on page 7-9.)
crypto host-cert zeroize
Erases the switch’s host certificate and disables SSL operation.
To generate a host certificate from the CLI:
i. Generate a certificate key pair. This is done with the crypto key
generate cert command. The default key size is 512.
Note:
If a certificate key pair is already present in the switch, it is not necessary to
generate a new key pair when generating a new certificate. The existing key
pair may be re-used and the crypto key generate cert command does not have
to be executed
ii.
Note:
Generate a new self-signed host certificate. This is done with the
crypto host-cert generate self-signed [ Arg-List ] command.
When generating a self-signed host certificate on the CLI if there is not
certificate key generated this command will fail.
Comments on Certificate Fields.
There are a number arguments used in the generation of a server certificate.
table 7-1, “Certificate Field Descriptions” describes these arguments.
7-10
Configuring Secure Socket Layer (SSL)
General Operating Rules and Notes
Table 7-1.
Certificate Field Descriptions
Field Name
Description
Valid Start Date
This should be the date you desire to begin using the SSL
functionality.
Valid End Date
This can be any future date, however good security practices would
suggest a valid duration of about one year between updates of
passwords and keys.
Common name
This should be the IP address or domain name associated with the
switch. Your web browser may warn you if this field does not match
the URL entered into the web browser when accessing the switch
Organization
This is the name of the entity (e.g. company) where the switch is in
service.
Organizational
Unit
This is the name of the sub-entity (e.g. department) where the
switch is in service.
City or location
This is the name of the city where switch is in service
State name
This is the name of the state or province where switch is in service
Country code
This is the ISO two-letter country-code where switch is in service
For example, to generate a key and a new host certificate:
Generate New Key
Generate New Certificate
Enter certificate Arguments
Figure 7-3. Example of Generating a Self-Signed Server Host certificate on the CLI for the Switch.
Notes
“Zeroizing” the switch’s server host certificate or key automatically disables
SSL (sets web-management ssl to No). Thus, if you zeroize the server host
certificate or key and then generate a new key and server certificate, you must
also re-enable SSL with the web-management ssl command before the switch
can resume SSL operation.
7-11
Configuring Secure Socket Layer (SSL)
General Operating Rules and Notes
CLI Command to view host certificates.
Syntax: show crypto host-cert
Displays switch’s host certificate
To view the current host certificate from the CLI you use the show crypto
host-cert command.
For example, to display the new server host certificate:
Show host certificate command
Figure 7-4. Example of show crypto host-cert command
Generate a Self-Signed Host Certificate with the Web browser
interface
You can configure SSL from the web browser interface. For more information
on how to access the web browser interface, refer to the chapter titled “Using
the Web Browser Interface” in the Management and Configuration Guide
for your switch.
To generate a self signed host certificate from the web browser interface:
7-12
Configuring Secure Socket Layer (SSL)
General Operating Rules and Notes
i.
ii.
iii.
iv.
v.
vi.
Note
Select the Security tab then the [SSL] button. The SSL configuration
screen is divided into two halves. The left half is used for creating
a new certificate key pair and (self-signed / CA-signed) certificate.
The right half displays information on the currently installed
certificate.
Select the Create Certificate/Certificate Request radio button.
Select Self-Signed in the Certificate Type drop-down list.
Select the RSA Key Size desired. If you want to re-use the current
certificate key, select Current from this list.
Fill in the remaining certificate arguments. (Refer to “Comments
on Certificate Fields.” on page 7-10.)
Click on the [Apply Changes] button to generate new certificate
and key, if selected.
When generating a self-signed host certificate, if no key is present and the
current option is selected in the RSA key size box and error will be generated.
New key generation can take up to two minutes if the key queue is empty.
7-13
Configuring Secure Socket Layer (SSL)
General Operating Rules and Notes
For example, to generate a new host certificate via the web browsers interface:
Security Tab
SSL button
Create Certificate Button
Certificate Type Box
Key Size Selection
Certificate Arguments
Figure 7-5. Self-Signed Certificate generation via SSL Web Browser Interface Screen
To view the current host certificate in the web browser interface:
7-14
1.
Proceed to the Security tab
2.
Then the [SSL] button
Configuring Secure Socket Layer (SSL)
General Operating Rules and Notes
Current SSL Host Certificate
Current SSL Host Certificate
Figure 7-6. Web browser Interface showing current SSL Host Certificate
Generate a CA-Signed server host certificate with the Web
Browser Interface
This section describes how to install a CA-Signed server host certificate from
the web browser interface. (For more information on how to access the web
browser interface, refer to the chapter titled “Using the Web Browser Interface” in the Management and Configuration Guide for your switch.)
The installation of a CA-signed certificate involves interaction with other
entities and consists of three phases. The first phase is the creation of the CA
certificate request, which is then copied off from the switch for submission to
the certificate authority. The second phase is the actual submission process
7-15
Configuring Secure Socket Layer (SSL)
General Operating Rules and Notes
that involves having the certificate authority verify the certificate request and
then digitally signing the request to generate a certificate response (the usable
server host certificate). The third phase is the download phase consisting of
pasting to the switch web server the certificate response, which is then
validated by the switch and put into use by enabling SSL.
To generate a certificate request from the web browser interface:
i. Select the Security tab, then the [SSL] button.
ii. Select the Create Certificate/Certificate Request radio button.
iii. Select Create CA Request from the Certificate Type drop-down list.
iv. Select the key size from the RSA Key Size drop-down list. If you
want to re-use the current certificate key, select Current from this
list.
v. Fill in the remaining certificate arguments. (Refer to “Comments
on Certificate Fields.” on page 7-10.)
vi. Click on [Apply Changes] to create the certificate request. A new
web browser page appears, consisting of two text boxes. The
switch uses the upper text box for the certificate request text. The
lower text box appears empty. You will use it for pasting in the
certificate reply after you receive it from the certificate authority.
(This authority must return a none-PEM encoded certificate
request reply.)
vii. After the certificate authority processes your request and sends
you a certificate reply (that is, an installable certificate), copy and
paste the certificate into the lower text box.
viii. Click on the [Apply Changes] button to install the certificate.
7-16
Configuring Secure Socket Layer (SSL)
General Operating Rules and Notes
Certificate Request
Certificate Request Reply
-----BEGIN CERTIFICATE----MIICZDCCAc2gAwIBAgIDMA0XMA0GCSqGSIb3DQEBBAUAMIGHMQswCQYDVQQGEwJa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 7-7. Example of a Certificate Request and Reply
3. Enable SSL on the Switch and Anticipate SSL
Browser Contact Behavior
The web-management ssl command enables SSL on the switch and modifies
parameters the switch uses for transactions with clients. After you enable SSL,
the switch can authenticate itself to SSL enabled browsers. The no webmanagement ssl command is used to disable SSL on the switch.
7-17
Configuring Secure Socket Layer (SSL)
General Operating Rules and Notes
Note
Before enabling SSL on the switch you must generate the switch’s host
certificate and key. If you have not already done so, refer to “2. Generate the
Switch’s Server Host Certificate” on page 7-8.
When configured for SSL, the switch uses its host certificate to authenticate
itself to SSL clients, however unless you disable the standard web browser
interface with the no web-management command it will be still available for
unsecured transactions.
SSL Client Contact Behavior. At the first contact between the switch and
an SSL client, if you have not copied the switch’s host certificate into the
browser’s certificate folder, your browser’s first connection to the switch will
question the connection and, for security reasons, give you the option of
accepting or refusing. If a CA-signed certificate is used on the switch, for which
a root certificate exists on the client browser side, then the browser will NOT
prompt the user to ensure the validity of the certificate. The browser will be
able to verify the certificate chain of the switch server certificate up to the
root certificate installed in the browser, thus authenticating the switch
unequivocally. As long as you are confident that an unauthorized device is not
using the switch’s IP address in an attempt to gain access to your data or
network, you can accept the connection.
Note
When an SSL client connects to the switch for the first time, it is possible for
a “man-in-the-middle” attack; that is, for an unauthorized device to pose
undetected as the switch, and learn the usernames and passwords controlling
access to the switch. When using self-signed certificates with the switch, there
is a possibility for a “man-in-the-middle” attack when connecting for the first
time; that is, an unauthorized device could pose undetected as a switch, and
learn the usernames and passwords controlling access to the switch. Use
caution when connecting for the first time to a switch using self-signed
certificates. Before accepting the certificate, closely verify the contents of the
certificate (see browser documentation for additional information on viewing
contents of certificate).
The security concern described above does not exist when using CA-signed
certificates that have been generated by certificate authorities that the web
browser already trusts
7-18
Configuring Secure Socket Layer (SSL)
General Operating Rules and Notes
Using the CLI interface to enable SSL
Syntax: [no] web-management ssl
Enables or disables SSL on the switch.
[port < 1-65535 | default:443 >]
The TCP port number for SSL connections (default:
443). Important: See “Note on Port Number” on page
7-20.
show config
Shows status of the SSL server. When enabled, webmanagement ssl appears in the config list.
To enable SSL on the switch
1.
Generate a Host certificate if you have not already done so. (Refer to “2.
Generate the Switch’s Server Host Certificate” on page 7-8.)
2.
Execute the web-management ssl command.
To disable SSL on the switch, do either of the following:
■
Execute no web-management ssl.
■
Zeroize the switch’s host certificate or certificate key. (page 7-9).
Using the Web Browser Interface to Enable SSL
To enable SSL on the switch
i. Proceed to the Security tab then the SSL button
ii. Select SSL Enable to on and enter the TCP port you desire to
connect on.
iii. Click on the [Apply Changes] button to enable SSL on the port.
To disable SSL on the switch, do either of the following:
i. Proceed to the Security tab then the SSL button
ii. Select SSL Enable to off .
iii. Click on the [Apply Changes] button to enable SSL on the port.
7-19
Configuring Secure Socket Layer (SSL)
General Operating Rules and Notes
Enable SSL and Port number selection
Figure 7-8. Using the web browser interface to enable SSL and select TCP port number
Note on Port
Num b er
ProCurve recommends using the default IP port number (443). However, you
can use web-management ssl tcp-port to specify any TCP port for SSL connections except those reserved for other purposes. Examples of reserved IP ports
are 23 (Telnet) and 80 (http). Some other reserved TCP ports on the switch
are 49, 80, 1506, and 1513.
Caution
SSL does not protect the switch from unauthorized access via the Telnet,
SNMP, or the serial port. While Telnet access can be restricted by the use of
passwords local to the switch, if you are unsure of the security this provides,
you may want to disable Telnet access (no telnet). If you need to increase
SNMP security, use SNMP version 3 only for SNMP access. Another security
measure is to use the Authorized IP Managers feature described in the switch’s
Security Guide. To protect against unauthorized access to the serial port (and
the Clear button, which removes local password protection), keep physical
access to the switch restricted to authorized personnel.
7-20
Configuring Secure Socket Layer (SSL)
Common Errors in SSL Setup
Common Errors in SSL Setup
Error During
Possible Cause
Generating host certificate on CLI
You have not generated a certificate
key. (Refer to “CLI commands used to
generate a Server Host Certificate” on
page 7-10.)
Enabling SSL on the CLI or Web browser interface
You have not generated a host
certificate. (Refer to “Generate a SelfSigned Host Certificate with the Web
browser interface” on page 7-12.)
You may be using a reserved TCP port.
(Refer to “Note on Port Number” on
page 7-20.)
Unable to Connect with SSL
You may not have SSL enabled (Refer
to “3. Enable SSL on the Switch and
Anticipate SSL Browser Contact
Behavior” on page 7-17.)
Your browser may not support SSLv3
or TLSv1 or it may be disabled. (Refer
to the documentation provided for
your browser.)
7-21
Configuring Secure Socket Layer (SSL)
Common Errors in SSL Setup
7-22
8
Configuring Port-Based and Client-Based
Access Control (802.1X)
Contents
Overview . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8-2
Why Use Port-Based or Client-Based Access Control? . . . . . . . . . . . . 8-2
General Features . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8-2
User Authentication Methods . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8-3
Terminology . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8-6
General 802.1X Authenticator Operation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8-9
Example of the Authentication Process . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8-9
Switch-Port Supplicant Operation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8-10
General Operating Rules and Notes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8-11
General Setup Procedure for 802.1X Access Control . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8-13
Do These Steps Before You Configure 802.1X Operation . . . . . . . . . 8-13
Overview: Configuring 802.1X Authentication on the Switch . . . . . . 8-14
Configuring Switch Ports as 802.1X Authenticators . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8-16
1. Enable 802.1X Authentication on Selected Ports . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8-16
2. Reconfigure Settings for Port-Access . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8-19
3. Configure the 802.1X Authentication Method . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8-22
4. Enter the RADIUS Host IP Address(es) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8-23
5. Enable 802.1X Authentication on the Switch . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8-23
6. Optionally Resetting Authenticator Operation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8-24
802.1X Open VLAN Mode . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8-25
Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8-25
VLAN Membership Priorities . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8-26
Use Models for 802.1X Open VLAN Modes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8-27
Operating Rules for Authorized-Client and
Unauthorized-Client VLANs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8-30
8-1
Configuring Port-Based and Client-Based Access Control (802.1X)
Contents
Setting Up and Configuring 802.1X Open VLAN Mode . . . . . . . . . . . . 8-33
802.1X Open VLAN Operating Notes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8-37
Option For Authenticator Ports: Configure Port-Security To Allow
Only 802.1X Devices . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8-39
Configuring Switch Ports To Operate As
Supplicants for 802.1X Connections to Other Switches . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8-41
Displaying 802.1X Configuration, Statistics, and Counters . . . . . . . . . . . . 8-46
Show Commands for Port-Access Authenticator . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8-46
Viewing 802.1X Open VLAN Mode Status . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8-49
Show Commands for Port-Access Supplicant . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8-52
How RADIUS/802.1X Authentication Affects VLAN Operation . . . . . . . . 8-53
Messages Related to 802.1X Operation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8-57
8-2
Configuring Port-Based and Client-Based Access Control (802.1X)
Overview
Overview
Feature
Default
Menu
CLI
Web
Configuring Switch Ports as 802.1X Authenticators
Disabled
n/a
page 8-17
n/a
Configuring 802.1X Open VLAN Mode
Disabled
n/a
page 8-26
n/a
Configuring Switch Ports to Operate as 802.1X Supplicants
Disabled
n/a
page 8-42
n/a
n/a
n/a
page 8-47
n/a
n/a
n/a
page 8-54
n/a
Displaying 802.1X Configuration, Statistics, and Counters
How 802.1X Affects VLAN Operation
RADIUS Authentication and Accounting
Refer to “RADIUS Authentication and Accounting” on page
5-1
Why Use Port-Based or Client-Based Access Control?
Local Area Networks are often deployed in a way that allows unauthorized
clients to attach to network devices, or allows unauthorized users to get
access to unattended clients on a network. Also, the use of DHCP services and
zero configuration make access to networking services easily available. This
exposes the network to unauthorized use and malicious attacks. While access
to the network should be made easy, uncontrolled and unauthorized access
is usually not desirable. 802.1X simplifies security management by providing
access control along with the ability to control user profiles from up to three
RADIUS servers while allowing a given user to use the same entering valid
user credentials for access from multiple points within the network.
General Features
802.1X on the ProCurve switches covered in this manual includes the following:
■
Switch operation as both an authenticator (for supplicants having a
point-to-point connection to the switch) and as a supplicant for pointto-point connections to other 802.1X-aware switches.
•
Authentication of 802.1X clients using a RADIUS server and either the
EAP or CHAP protocol.
•
Provision for enabling clients that do not have 802.1 supplicant software to use the switch as a path for downloading the software and
initiating the authentication process (802.1X Open VLAN mode).
Client-Based access control option with support for up to 2 authenticated
clients per-port.
8-3
Configuring Port-Based and Client-Based Access Control (802.1X)
Overview
Port-Based access control option allowing authentication by a single client to
open the port. This option does not force a client limit and, on a port opened
by an authenticated client, allows unlimited client access without requiring
further authentication.
•
Supplicant implementation using CHAP authentication and independent username and password configuration on each port.
■
Prevention of traffic flow in either direction on unauthorized ports.
■
Local authentication of 802.1X clients using the switch’s local username and password (as an alternative to RADIUS authentication).
■
Temporary on-demand change of a port’s VLAN membership status
to support a current client’s session. (This does not include ports that
are members of a trunk.)
■
Session accounting with a RADIUS server, including the accounting
update interval.
■
Use of Show commands to display session counters.
User Authentication Methods
The switch offers two methods for using 802.1X access control. Generally, the
“Port Based” method supports one 802.1X-authenticated client on a port,
which opens the port to an unlimited number of clients. The “Client-Based”
method supports up to two 802.1X-authenticated clients on a port. In both
cases, there are operating details to be aware of that can influence your choice
of methods.
802.1X Client-Based Access Control
802.1X operation with access control on a per-client basis provides client-level
security that allows LAN access to individual 802.1X clients (up to 2 per port),
where each client gains access to the LAN by entering valid user credentials.
This operation improves security by opening a given port only to individually
authenticated clients, while simultaneously blocking access to the same port
for clients that cannot be authenticated. All sessions must use the same
untagged VLAN. Also, an authenticated client can use any tagged VLAN
memberships statically configured on the port, provided the client is configured to use the tagged VLAN memberships available on the port.
8-4
Configuring Port-Based and Client-Based Access Control (802.1X)
Overview
802.1X Port-Based Access Control
802.1X port-based access control provides port-level security that allows LAN
access only on ports where a single 802.1X-capable client (supplicant) has
entered authorized RADIUS user credentials. For reasons outlined below, this
option is recommended for applications where only one client at a time can
connect to the port. Using this option, the port processes all traffic as if it
comes from the same client. Thus, in a topology where multiple clients can
connect to the same port at the same time:
■
If the first client authenticates and opens the port, and then another client
authenticates, the port responds as if the original client has initiated a
reauthentication. With multiple clients authenticating on the port, the
RADIUS configuration response to the latest client authentication
replaces any other configuration from an earlier client authentication. If
all clients use the same configuration this should not be a problem. But if
the RADIUS server responds with different configurations for different
clients, then the last client authenticated will effectively lock out any
previously authenticated client. When any client to authenticate closes
its session, the port will also close and remain so until another client
successfully authenticates.
■
The most recent client authentication determines the untagged VLAN
membership for the port. Also, any client able to use the port can access
any tagged VLAN memberships statically configured on the port, provided
the client is configured to use the available, tagged VLAN memberships.
■
If the first client authenticates and opens the port, and then one or more
other clients connect without trying to authenticate, then the port configuration as determined by the original RADIUS response remains
unchanged and all such clients will have the same access as the authenticated client. When the authenticated client closes the session, the port
will also be closed to any other, unauthenticated clients that may have
also been using the port.
This operation unblocks the port while an authenticated client session is in
progress. In topologies where simultaneous, multiple client access is possible
this can allow unauthorized and unauthenticated access by another client
while an authenticated client is using the port. If you want to allow only
authenticated clients on the port, then client-based access control (page 8-4)
should be used instead of port-based access control. Using the client-based
method enables you to specify up to 2 authenticated clients.
Authenticating Users. Port-Based Access Control (802.1X) provides
switch-level security that allows LAN access only to users who enter the
authorized RADIUS username and password on 802.1X-capable clients (supplicants). This simplifies security management by allowing you to control
8-5
Configuring Port-Based and Client-Based Access Control (802.1X)
Overview
access from a master database in a single server (although you can use up to
three RADIUS servers to provide backups in case access to the primary server
fails). It also means a user can enter the same username and password pair
for authentication, regardless of which switch is the access point into the LAN.
Note that you can also configure 802.1X for authentication through the
switch’s local username and password instead of a RADIUS server, but doing
so increases the administrative burden, decentralizes username/password
administration, and reduces security by limiting authentication to one Operator/Manager password set for all users.
Providing a Path for Downloading 802.1X Supplicant Software. For
clients that do not have the necessary 802.1X supplicant software, there is also
the option to configure the 802.1X Open VLAN mode. This mode allows you
to assign such clients to an isolated VLAN through which you can provide the
necessary supplicant software these clients need to begin the authentication
process. (Refer to “802.1X Open VLAN Mode” on page 8-26.)
Authenticating One Switch to Another. 802.1X authentication also
enables the switch to operate as a supplicant when connected to a port on
another switch running 802.1X authentication.
Switch Running 802.1X and
Operating as an Authenticator
802.1X-Aware
Client
(Supplicant)
LAN Core
Switch Running 802.1X and
Connected as a Supplicant
RADIUS Server
Figure 8-1. Example of an 802.1X Application
Accounting . The switch also provides RADIUS Network accounting for
802.1X access. Refer to “RADIUS Authentication and Accounting” on page 5-1.
8-6
Configuring Port-Based and Client-Based Access Control (802.1X)
Terminology
Terminology
802.1X-Aware: Refers to a device that is running either 802.1X authenticator
software or 802.1X client software and is capable of interacting with other
devices on the basis of the IEEE 802.1X standard.
Authorized-Client VLAN: Like the Unauthorized-Client VLAN, this is a
conventional, static VLAN previously configured on the switch by the
System Administrator. The intent in using this VLAN is to provide authenticated clients with network services that are not available on either the
port’s statically configured VLAN memberships or any VLAN memberships that may be assigned during the RADIUS authentication process.
While an 802.1X port is a member of this VLAN, the port is untagged. When
a port loses its authenticated client connection, it drops its membership
in this VLAN. Note that with multiple clients on a port, all such clients use
the same untagged, port-based VLAN membership.
Authentication Server: The entity providing an authentication service to
the switch when the switch is configured to operate as an authenticator.
In the case of a switch running 802.1X, this is a RADIUS server (unless
local authentication is used, in which case the switch performs this
function using its own username and password for authenticating a
supplicant).
Authenticator: In ProCurve applications, a switch that requires a supplicant
to provide the proper credentials before being allowed access to the
network.
CHAP (MD5): Challenge Handshake Authentication Protocol.
Client: In this application, an end-node device such as a management station,
workstation, or mobile PC linked to the switch through a point-to-point
LAN link.
Client-Based Authentication: The 802.1X extension in the switches covered in this guide. In this operation, multiple clients on the same port must
individually authenticate themselves.
Guest VLAN: See “Unauthorized-Client VLAN”.
EAP (Extensible Authentication Protocol): EAP enables network access that
supports multiple authentication methods.
8-7
Configuring Port-Based and Client-Based Access Control (802.1X)
Terminology
EAPOL: Extensible Authentication Protocol Over LAN,
802.1X standard.
as defined in the
Friendly Client: A client that does not pose a security risk if given access to
the switch and your network.
MD5: An algorithm for calculating a unique digital signature over a stream of
bytes. It is used by CHAP to perform authentication without revealing the
shared secret (password).
PVID (Port VID): This is the VLAN ID for the untagged VLAN to which an
802.1X port belongs.
Port-Based Authentication: In this operation, the first client on a port to
authenticate itself unblocks the port for the duration of the client’s 802.1Xauthenticated session. The switches covered in this guide use port-based
authentication.
Static VLAN: A VLAN that has been configured as “permanent” on the switch
by using the CLI vlan < vid > command or the Menu interface.
Supplicant: The entity that must provide the proper credentials to the switch
before receiving access to the network. This is usually an end-user workstation, but it can be a switch, router, or another device seeking network
services.
Tagged Membership in a VLAN: This type of VLAN membership allows a
port to be a member of multiple VLANs simultaneously. If a client
connected to the port has an operating system that supports 802.1Q VLAN
tagging, then the client can access VLANs for which the port is a tagged
member. If the client does not support VLAN tagging, then it can access
only a VLAN for which the port is an untagged member. (A port can be an
untagged member of only one port-based VLAN at a time.) Where a port
is a tagged member of a VLAN, 802.1X Open VLAN mode does not affect
the port’s access to the VLAN unless the port is statically configured as a
member of a VLAN that is also configured as the Unauthorized-Client or
Authorized-Client VLAN. See also “Untagged Membership in a VLAN”.
Unauthorized-Client VLAN: A conventional, static VLAN statically configured on the switch. It is used to provide access to a client prior to
authentication, and is sometimes termed a guest VLAN. It should be set
up to allow an unauthenticated client to access only the initialization
services necessary to establish an authenticated connection, plus any
other desirable services whose use by an unauthenticated client poses no
security threat to your network. (Note that an unauthenticated client has
access to all network resources that have membership in the VLAN you
8-8
Configuring Port-Based and Client-Based Access Control (802.1X)
Terminology
designate as the Unauthorized-Client VLAN.) A port configured to use a
given Unauthorized-Client VLAN does not have to be statically configured
as a member of that VLAN as long as at least one other port on the switch
is statically configured as a tagged or untagged member of the same
Unauthorized-Client VLAN. An unauthorized-client VLAN is available on
a port only if there is no authenticated client already using the port.
Untagged Membership in a VLAN: A port can be an untagged member of
only one VLAN. (In the factory-default configuration, all ports on the
switch are untagged members of the default VLAN.) An untagged VLAN
membership is required for a client that does not support 802.1q VLAN
tagging. A port can simultaneously have one untagged VLAN membership
and multiple tagged VLAN memberships. Depending on how you
configure 802.1X Open VLAN mode for a port, a statically configured,
untagged VLAN membership may become unavailable while there is a
client session on the port. See also “Tagged Membership in a VLAN”.
8-9
Configuring Port-Based and Client-Based Access Control (802.1X)
General 802.1X Authenticator Operation
General 802.1X Authenticator Operation
This operation provides security on a direct, point-to-point link between a
single client and the switch, where both devices are 802.1X-aware. (If you
expect desirable clients that do not have the necessary 802.1X supplicant
software, you can provide a path for downloading such software by using the
802.1X Open VLAN mode—refer to “802.1X Open VLAN Mode” on page 8-26.)
Example of the Authentication Process
Suppose that you have configured a port on the switch for 802.1X authentication operation. If you then connect an 802.1X-aware client (supplicant) to the
port and attempt to log on:
8-10
1.
When the switch detects the client on the port, it blocks access to the LAN
from that port.
2.
The switch responds with an identity request.
3.
The client responds with a user name that uniquely defines this request
for the client.
4.
The switch responds in one of the following ways:
•
If 802.1X (port-access) on the switch is configured for RADIUS
authentication, the switch then forwards the request to a RADIUS
server.
i. The server responds with an access challenge which the switch
forwards to the client.
ii. The client then provides identifying credentials (such as a user
certificate), which the switch forwards to the RADIUS server.
iii. The RADIUS server then checks the credentials provided by the
client.
iv. If the client is successfully authenticated and authorized to connect to the network, then the server notifies the switch to allow
access to the client. Otherwise, access is denied and the port
remains blocked.
•
If 802.1X (port-access) on the switch is configured for local authentication, then:
i. The switch compares the client’s credentials with the username
and password configured in the switch (Operator or Manager
level).
Configuring Port-Based and Client-Based Access Control (802.1X)
General 802.1X Authenticator Operation
ii.
If the client is successfully authenticated and authorized to connect to the network, then the switch allows access to the client.
Otherwise, access is denied and the port remains blocked.
Switch-Port Supplicant Operation
This operation provides security on links between 802.1X-aware switches. For
example, suppose that you want to connect two switches, where:
■
Switch “A” has port A1 configured for 802.1X supplicant operation.
■
You want to connect port A1 on switch “A” to port B5 on switch “B”.
Switch “B”
Port B5
Port A1
Switch “A”
Port A1 Configured as an
802.1X Supplicant
LAN Core
RADIUS Server
Figure 8-2. Example of Supplicant Operation
1.
2.
When port A1 on switch “A” is first connected to a port on switch “B”, or
if the ports are already connected and either switch reboots, port A1
begins sending start packets to port B5 on switch “B”.
•
If, after the supplicant port sends the configured number of start
packets, it does not receive a response, it assumes that switch “B” is
not 802.1X-aware, and transitions to the authenticated state. If switch
“B” is operating properly and is not 802.1X-aware, then the link should
begin functioning normally, but without 802.1X security.
•
If, after sending one or more start packets, port A1 receives a request
packet from port B5, then switch “B” is operating as an 802.1X
authenticator. The supplicant port then sends a response/ID packet.
Switch “B” forwards this request to a RADIUS server.
The RADIUS server then responds with an MD5 access challenge that
switch “B” forwards to port A1 on switch “A”.
8-11
Configuring Port-Based and Client-Based Access Control (802.1X)
General Operating Rules and Notes
Note
3.
Port A1 replies with an MD5 hash response based on its username and
password or other unique credentials. Switch “B” forwards this response
to the RADIUS server.
4.
The RADIUS server then analyzes the response and sends either a “success” or “failure” packet back through switch “B” to port A1.
•
A “success” response unblocks port B5 to normal traffic from port A1.
•
A “failure” response continues the block on port B5 and causes port
A1 to wait for the “held-time” period before trying again to achieve
authentication through port B5.
You can configure a switch port to operate as both a supplicant and an
authenticator at the same time.
General Operating Rules and Notes
■
In the client-based mode, when there is an authenticated client on a port,
the following traffic movement is allowed:
•
Multicast and broadcast traffic is allowed on the port.
•
Unicast traffic to authenticated clients on the port is allowed.
•
All traffic from authenticated clients on the port is allowed.
■
When a port on the switch is configured as either an authenticator or
supplicant and is connected to another device, rebooting the switch
causes a re-authentication of the link.
■
Using client-based 802.1X authentication, when a port on the switch is
configured as an authenticator the port allows only authenticated clients
up to the currently configured client limit.
For clients that do not have the proper 802.1X supplicant software, the
optional 802.1X Open VLAN mode can be used to open a path for downloading 802.1X supplicant software to a client or to provide other services
for unauthenticated clients.
■
8-12
Using port-based 802.1X authentication, when a port on the switch is
configured as an authenticator, one authenticated client opens the
port. Other clients that are not running an 802.1X supplicant application can have access to the switch and network through the opened
Configuring Port-Based and Client-Based Access Control (802.1X)
General Operating Rules and Notes
port. If another client uses an 802.1X supplicant application to access
the opened port, then a re-authentication occurs using the RADIUS
configuration response for the latest client to authenticate. To control
access by all clients, use the client-based method.
■
If a port on switch “A” is configured as an 802.1X supplicant and is
connected to a port on another switch, “B”, that is not 802.1X-aware,
access to switch “B” will occur without 802.1X security protection.
■
You can configure a port as both an 802.1X authenticator and an
802.1X supplicant.
■
If a port on switch “A” is configured as both an 802.1X authenticator
and supplicant and is connected to a port on another switch, “B”, that
is not 802.1X-aware, access to switch “B” will occur without 802.1X
security protection, but switch “B” will not be allowed access to
switch “A”.
■
If a client already has access to a switch port when you configure the
port for 802.1X authenticator operation, the port will block the client
from further network access until it can be authenticated.
■
On a port configured for 802.1X with RADIUS authentication, if the
RADIUS server specifies a VLAN for the supplicant and the port is a
trunk member, the port will be blocked. If the port is later removed
from the trunk, the port will try to authenticate the supplicant. If
authentication is successful, the port becomes unblocked. Similarly,
if the supplicant is authenticated and later the port becomes a trunk
member, the port will be blocked. If the port is then removed from
the trunk, it tries to re-authenticate the supplicant. If successful, the
port becomes unblocked.
■
To help maintain security, 802.1X and LACP cannot both be enabled
on the same port. If you try to configure 802.1X on a port already
configured for LACP (or the reverse) you will see a message similar
to the following:
Error configuring port X: LACP and 802.1X cannot be run together.
N o t e o n 8 02 . 1 X
and LACP
To help maintain security, the switch does not allow 802.1X and LACP to both
be enabled at the same time on the same port. Refer to “802.1X Operating
Messages” on page 8-58
8-13
Configuring Port-Based and Client-Based Access Control (802.1X)
General Setup Procedure for 802.1X Access Control
General Setup Procedure for 802.1X
Access Control
Do These Steps Before You Configure 802.1X Operation
8-14
1.
Configure a local username and password on the switch for both the
Operator (login) and Manager (enable) access levels. (While this may or
may not be required for your 802.1X configuration, ProCurve recommends
that you use a local username and password pair at least until your other
security measures are in place.)
2.
Determine which ports on the switch you want to operate as authenticators and/or supplicants, and disable LACP on these ports. (See the “Note
on 802.1X and LACP” on page 8-13.)
3.
Determine whether to use client-based access control or port-based
access control.
4.
Determine whether to use the optional 802.1X Open VLAN mode for
clients that are not 802.1X-aware; that is, for clients that are not running
802.1X supplicant software. (This will require you to provide downloadable software that the client can use to enable an authentication session.)
For more on this topic, refer to “802.1X Open VLAN Mode” on page 8-26.
5.
For each port you want to operate as a supplicant, determine a username
and password pair. You can either use the same pair for each port or use
unique pairs for individual ports or subgroups of ports. (This can also be
the same local username/password pair that you assign to the switch.)
6.
Unless you are using only the switch’s local username and password for
802.1X authentication, configure at least one RADIUS server to authenticate access requests coming through the ports on the switch from external
supplicants (including switch ports operating as 802.1X supplicants). You
can use up to three RADIUS servers for authentication; one primary and
two backups. Refer to the documentation provided with your RADIUS
application.
Configuring Port-Based and Client-Based Access Control (802.1X)
General Setup Procedure for 802.1X Access Control
Overview: Configuring 802.1X Authentication on the
Switch
This section outlines the steps for configuring 802.1X on the switch. For
detailed information on each step, refer to “RADIUS Authentication and
Accounting” on page 5-1 or “Configuring Switch Ports To Operate As Supplicants for 802.1X Connections to Other Switches” on page 8-42.
1.
Enable 802.1X authentication on the individual ports you want to serve as
authenticators. On the ports you will use as authenticators, either accept
the default 802.1X settings or change them, as necessary. Note that, by
default, the port-control parameter is set to auto for all ports on the switch.
This requires a client to support 802.1X authentication and to provide valid
credentials to get network access. Refer to page 8-17.
2.
If you want to provide a path for clients without 802.1X supplicant
software to download the software so that they can initiate an authentication session, enable the 802.1X Open VLAN mode on the ports you want
to support this feature. Refer to page 8-26.
3.
Configure the 802.1X authentication type. Options include:
•
Local Operator username and password (the default). This option
allows a client to use the switch’s local username and password as
valid 802.1X credentials for network access.
•
EAP RADIUS: This option requires your RADIUS server application
to support EAP authentication for 802.1X.
•
CHAP (MD5) RADIUS: This option requires your RADIUS server
application to support CHAP (MD5) authentication.
See page 8-23.
Note
4.
If you select either eap-radius or chap-radius for step 3, use the radius host
command to configure up to three RADIUS server IP address(es) on the
switch. See page 8-24.
5.
Enable 802.1X authentication on the switch. See page 8-17.
6.
Test both the authorized and unauthorized access to your system to
ensure that the 802.1X authentication works properly on the ports you
have configured for port-access.
If you want to implement the optional port security feature (step 7) on the
switch, you should first ensure that the ports you have configured as 802.1X
authenticators operate as expected.
8-15
Configuring Port-Based and Client-Based Access Control (802.1X)
General Setup Procedure for 802.1X Access Control
8-16
7.
If you are using Port Security on the switch, configure the switch to allow
only 802.1X access on ports configured for 802.1X operation, and (if
desired) the action to take if an unauthorized device attempts access
through an 802.1X port. See page 8-40.
8.
If you want a port on the switch to operate as a supplicant in a connection
with a port operating as an 802.1X authenticator on another device, then
configure the supplicant operation. (Refer to “Configuring Switch Ports
To Operate As Supplicants for 802.1X Connections to Other Switches” on
page 8-42.)
Configuring Port-Based and Client-Based Access Control (802.1X)
Configuring Switch Ports as 802.1X Authenticators
Configuring Switch Ports as 802.1X
Authenticators
802.1X Authentication Commands
Page
[no] aaa port-access authenticator < [ethernet] < port-list >
8-17
[control | quiet-period | tx-period | client-limit | supplicant-timeout |
server-timeout | logoff-period | max-requests | reauth-period |
auth-vid | unauth-vid | initialize | reauthenticate | clear-statistics]
aaa authentication port-access
8-18
8-23
< local | eap-radius | chap-radius >
[no] aaa port-access authenticator active
8-17
[no] port-security [ethernet] < port-list > learn-mode port-access
8-40
802.1X Open VLAN Mode Commands
8-26
802.1X Supplicant Commands
8-42
802.1X-Related Show Commands
8-47
RADIUS server configuration
8-24
1. Enable 802.1X Authentication on Selected Ports
This task configures the individual ports you want to operate as 802.1X
authenticators for point-to-point links to 802.1X-aware clients or switches,
and consists of two steps:
A. Enable the selected ports as authenticators.
B. Specify either client-based or port-based 802.1X authentication.
(Actual 802.1X operation does not commence until you perform step 5 on page
8-15 to activate 802.1X authentication on the switch.)
Note
When you enable 802.1X authentication on a port, the switch automatically
disables LACP on that port. However, if the port is already operating in an
LACP trunk, you must remove the port from the trunk before you can configure it for 802.1X authentication.
8-17
Configuring Port-Based and Client-Based Access Control (802.1X)
Configuring Switch Ports as 802.1X Authenticators
A. Enable the Selected Ports as Authenticators and Enable
the (Default) Port-Based Authentication
Syntax:
[ no ] aaa port-access authenticator < port-list >
Enables specified ports to operate as 802.1X authenticators
and enables port-based authentication. (To enable clientbased authentication, execute this command first, and then
execute the client-limit < port-list > version of this command
described in the next section.) The no form of the command
removes 802.1X authentication from < port-list >. To activate
configured 802.1X operation, you must enable 802.1X
authentication. Refer to “5. Enable 802.1X Authentication
on the switch” on page 8-15.
B. Specify Client-Based or Return to Port-Based 802.1X
Authentication
Client-Based 802.1X Authentication.
Syntax:
aaa port-access authenticator client-limit < port-list > < 1 - 2>
Used after executing aaa port-access authenticator < port-list >
(above) to convert authentication from port-based to clientbased. Specifies client-based 802.1X authentication and the
maximum number of 802.1X-authenticated client sessions
allowed on each of the ports in < port-list >. If a port currently
has no authenticated client sessions, the next authenticated
client session the port accepts determines the untagged
VLAN membership to which the port is assigned during the
session. If another client session begins later on the same
port while an earlier session is active, the later session will
be on the same untagged VLAN membership as the earlier
session.
8-18
Configuring Port-Based and Client-Based Access Control (802.1X)
Configuring Switch Ports as 802.1X Authenticators
Port-Based 802.1X Authentication.
no aaa port-access authenticator client-limit
Used to convert a port from client-based authentication to
port-based authentication, which is the default setting for
ports on which authentication is enabled. (Executing aaa
port-access authenticator < port-list > enables 802.1X authentication on < port-list > and enables port-based authentication—page 8-17.) If a port currently has no authenticated
client sessions, the next authenticated client session the port
accepts determines the untagged VLAN membership to
which the port is assigned during the session. If another
authenticated client session begins later on the same port
while an earlier session is active, the later session replaces
the currently active session and will be on the untagged
VLAN membership specified by the RADIUS server for the
later session.
Example: Configuring Client-Based 802.1X Authentication
This example enables ports A10-A12 to operate as authenticators, and then
configures the ports for client-based authentication.
ProCurve(config)# aaa port-access authenticator a10-A12
ProCurve(config)# aaa port-access authenticator a10-A12 client-limit 2
Figure 8-3. Example of Configuring Client-Based 802.1X Authentication
Example: Configuring Port-Based 802.1X Authentication
This example enables ports A13-A15 to operate as authenticators, and then
configures the ports for port-based authentication.
ProCurve(config)# aaa port-access authenticator a13-a15
Figure 8-4. Example of Configuring Port-Based 802.1X Authentication
8-19
Configuring Port-Based and Client-Based Access Control (802.1X)
Configuring Switch Ports as 802.1X Authenticators
2. Reconfigure Settings for Port-Access
The commands in this section are initially set by default and can be reconfigured as needed.
Syntax:
aaa port-access authenticator < port-list >
[control < authorized | auto | unauthorized >]
Controls authentication mode on the specified port:
authorized: Also termed “Force Authorized”. Gives
access to a device connected to the port. In this case,
the device does not have to provide 802.1X credentials
or support 802.1X authentication. (You can still
configure console, Telnet, or SSH security on the port.)
auto (the default): The device connected to the port must
support 802.1X authentication and provide valid
credentials to get network access. (Optional: You can
use the Open VLAN mode to provide a path for clients
without 802.1X supplicant software to down-load this
software and begin the authentication process. Refer
to “802.1X Open VLAN Mode” on page 8-26.)
unauthorized: Also termed “Force Unauthorized”. Do not
grant access to the network, regardless of whether the
device provides the correct credentials and has 802.1X
support. In this state, the port blocks access to any
connected device.
8-20
Configuring Port-Based and Client-Based Access Control (802.1X)
Configuring Switch Ports as 802.1X Authenticators
[quiet-period < 0 - 65535 >]
Sets the period during which the port does not try to
acquire a supplicant. The period begins after the last
attempt authorized by the max-requests parameter fails
(next page). (Default: 60 seconds)
[tx-period < 0 - 65535 >]
Sets the period the port waits to retransmit the next
EAPOL PDU during an authentication session.
(Default: 30 seconds)
[supplicant-timeout < 1 - 300 >]
Sets the period of time the switch waits for a supplicant
response to an EAP request. If the supplicant does not
respond within the configured time frame, the session
times out. (Default: 30 seconds)
[server-timeout < 1 - 300 >]
Sets the period of time the switch waits for a server
response to an authentication request. If there is no
response within the configured time frame, the switch
assumes that the authentication attempt has timed
out. Depending on the current max-requests setting, the
switch will either send a new request to the server or
end the authentication session. (Default: 30 seconds)
[max-requests < 1 - 10 >]
Sets the number of authentication attempts that must
time-out before authentication fails and the authentication session ends. If you are using the Local authentication option, or are using RADIUS authentication
with only one host server, the switch will not start
another session until a client tries a new access
attempt. If you are using RADIUS authentication with
two or three host servers, the switch will open a session
with each server, in turn, until authentication occurs
or there are no more servers to try. During the quietperiod (previous page), if any, you cannot reconfigure
this parameter. (Default: 2)
—Continued—
8-21
Configuring Port-Based and Client-Based Access Control (802.1X)
Configuring Switch Ports as 802.1X Authenticators
[reauth-period < 0 - 9999999 >]
Sets the period of time after which clients connected
must be re-authenticated. When the timeout is set to 0
the reauthentication is disabled (Default: 0 second)
[unauth-vid < vlan-id >]
Configures an existing static VLAN to be the Unauthorized-Client VLAN. This enables you to provide a path
for clients without supplicant software to download the
software and begin an authentication session. Refer to
“802.1X Open VLAN Mode” on page 8-26.
[logoff-period]< 1 - 999999999 >
Configures the period of time the switch waits for
client activity before removing an inactive client from
the port. (Default: 300 seconds)
[auth-vid < vid >]
Configures an existing, static VLAN to be the Authorized-Client VLAN. Refer to “802.1X Open VLAN Mode”
on page 8-26.
[initialize]
On the specified ports, blocks inbound and outbound
traffic and restarts the 802.1X authentication process.
This happens only on ports configured with control auto
and actively operating as 802.1X authenticators.
Note: If a specified port is configured with control
authorized and port-security, and the port has learned an
authorized address, the port will remove this address
and learn a new one from the first packet it receives.
[reauthenticate]
Forces reauthentication (unless the authenticator is in
'HELD' state).
[clear-statistics]
Clears authenticator statistics counters.
8-22
Configuring Port-Based and Client-Based Access Control (802.1X)
Configuring Switch Ports as 802.1X Authenticators
3. Configure the 802.1X Authentication Method
This task specifies how the switch will authenticate the credentials provided
by a supplicant connected to a switch port configured as an 802.1X authenticator.
Syntax:
aaa authentication port-access < local | eap-radius | chap-radius >
Determines the type of RADIUS authentication to use.
local Use the switch’s local username and password for
supplicant authentication.
eap-radius Use EAP-RADIUS authentication. (Refer to the
documentation for your RADIUS server.)
chap-radius Use CHAP-RADIUS (MD-5) authentication.
(Refer to the documentation for your RADIUS server application.)
For example, to enable the switch to perform 802.1X authentication using one
or more EAP-capable RADIUS servers:
Configuration command
for EAP-RADIUS
authentication.
802.1X (Port-Access)
configured for EAPRADIUS authentication.
Figure 8-5. Example of 802.1X (Port-Access) Authentication
8-23
Configuring Port-Based and Client-Based Access Control (802.1X)
Configuring Switch Ports as 802.1X Authenticators
4. Enter the RADIUS Host IP Address(es)
If you selected either eap-radius or chap-radius for the authentication method,
configure the switch to use 1 to 3 RADIUS servers for authentication. The
following syntax shows the basic commands. For coverage of all commands
related to RADIUS server configuration, refer to “RADIUS Authentication and
Accounting” on page 5-1.
Syntax:
radius host < ip-address >
Adds a server to the RADIUS configuration.
[key < server-specific key-string >]
Optional. Specifies an encryption key for use during
authentication (or accounting) sessions with the specified server. This key must match the key used on the
RADIUS server. Use this option only if the specified
server requires a different key than configured for the
global encryption key.
radius-server key < global key-string >
Specifies the global encryption key the switch uses for
sessions with servers for which the switch does not have
a server-specific key. This key is optional if all RADIUS
server addresses configured in the switch include a
server- specific encryption key.
5. Enable 802.1X Authentication on the Switch
After configuring 802.1X authentication as described in the preceding four
sections, activate it with this command:
Syntax:
aaa port-access authenticator active
Activates 802.1X port-access on ports you have configured
as authenticators.
8-24
Configuring Port-Based and Client-Based Access Control (802.1X)
Configuring Switch Ports as 802.1X Authenticators
6. Optionally Resetting Authenticator Operation
After authentication has begun operating, these commands can be used to
reset authentication and related statistics on specific ports.
Syntax:
aaa port-access authenticator < port-list >
[initialize]
On the specified ports, blocks inbound and outbound
traffic and restarts the 802.1X authentication process.
This happens only on ports configured with control auto
and actively operating as 802.1X authenticators.
[reauthenticate]
On the specified ports, forces reauthentication (unless
the authenticator is in “HELD” state).
[clear-statistics]
On the specified ports, clears authenticator statistics
counters.
8-25
Configuring Port-Based and Client-Based Access Control (802.1X)
802.1X Open VLAN Mode
802.1X Open VLAN Mode
802.1X Authentication Commands
page 8-17
802.1X Supplicant Commands
page 8-44
802.1X Open VLAN Mode Commands
[no] aaa port-access authenticator [e] < port-list >
page 8-37
[auth-vid < vlan-id >]
[unauth-vid < vlan-id >]
802.1X-Related Show Commands
page 8-47
RADIUS server configuration
pages 8-24
Introduction
This section describes how to use the 802.1X Open VLAN mode to configure
unauthorized-client and authorized-client VLANs on ports configured as
802.1X authenticators.
Configuring the 802.1X Open VLAN mode on a port changes how the port
responds when it detects a new client. In earlier releases, a “friendly” client
computer not running 802.1X supplicant software could not be authenticated
on a port protected by 802.1X access security. As a result, the port would
become blocked and the client could not access the network. This prevented
the client from:
■
Acquiring IP addressing from a DHCP server
■
Downloading the 802.1X supplicant software necessary for an authentication session
The 802.1X Open VLAN mode solves this problem by temporarily suspending
the port’s static, tagged and untagged VLAN memberships and placing the port
in a designated Unauthorized-Client VLAN. In this state the client can
proceed with initialization services, such as acquiring IP addressing and
802.1X software, and starting the authentication process.
8-26
Configuring Port-Based and Client-Based Access Control (802.1X)
802.1X Open VLAN Mode
Note
On ports configured to allow multiple sessions using 802.1X client-based
access control, all clients must use the same untagged VLAN. On a given port
where there are no currently active, authenticated clients, the first authenticated client determines the untagged VLAN in which the port will operate for
all subsequent, overlapping client sessions.
If the switch operates in an environment where some valid clients will not be
running 802.1X supplicant software and need to download it from your
network. Then, because such clients would need to use the UnauthorizedClient VLAN and authenticated clients would be using a different VLAN (for
security reasons), allowing multiple clients on an 802.1X port can result in
blocking some or all clients needing to use the Unauthorized-Client VLAN.
On ports configured for port-based 802.1X access control, if multiple clients
try to authenticate on the same port, the most recently authenticated client
determines the untagged VLAN membership for that port. Clients that connect
without trying to authenticate will have access to the untagged VLAN membership that is currently assigned to the port.
VLAN Membership Priorities
Following client authentication, an 802.1X port resumes membership in any
tagged VLANs for which it is already assigned in the switch configuration. The
port also becomes an untagged member of one VLAN according to the
following order of options:
1.
1st Priority: The port joins a VLAN to which it has been assigned by a
RADIUS server during authentication.
2.
2nd Priority: If RADIUS authentication does not include assigning the
port to a VLAN, then the switch assigns the port to the VLAN entered in
the port’s 802.1X configuration as an Authorized-Client VLAN, if configured.
3.
3rd Priority: If the port does not have an Authorized-Client VLAN
configured, but does have a static, untagged VLAN membership in its
configuration, then the switch assigns the port to this VLAN.
A port assigned to a VLAN by an Authorized-Client VLAN configuration (or a
RADIUS server) will be an untagged member of the VLAN for the duration of
the authenticated session. This applies even if the port is also configured in
the switch as a tagged member of the same VLAN.
8-27
Configuring Port-Based and Client-Based Access Control (802.1X)
802.1X Open VLAN Mode
Note
After client authentication, the port resumes membership in any tagged
VLANs for which it is configured. If the port belongs to a tagged VLAN used
for 1 or 2 above, then it operates as an untagged member of that VLAN while
the client is connected. When the client disconnects, the port reverts to tagged
membership in the VLAN.
Use Models for 802.1X Open VLAN Modes
You can apply the 802.1X Open VLAN mode in more than one way. Depending
on your use, you will need to create one or two static VLANs on the switch for
exclusive use by per-port 802.1X Open VLAN mode authentication:
8-28
■
Unauthorized-Client VLAN: Configure this VLAN when unauthenticated, friendly clients will need access to some services before being
authenticated.
■
Authorized-Client VLAN: Configure this VLAN for authenticated
clients when the port is not statically configured as an untagged
member of a VLAN you want clients to use, or when the port is
statically configured as an untagged member of a VLAN you do not
want clients to use. (A port can be configured as untagged on only
one VLAN. When an Authorized-Client VLAN is configured, it will
always be untagged and will block the port from using a statically
configured, untagged membership in another VLAN.) Note that after
client authentication, the port returns to membership in any tagged
VLANs for which you have configured it. See the "Note", above.
Configuring Port-Based and Client-Based Access Control (802.1X)
802.1X Open VLAN Mode
Table 8-1.
802.1X Open VLAN Mode Options
802.1X Per-Port Configuration
Port Response
No Open VLAN mode:
The port automatically blocks a client that cannot initiate an
authentication session.
Open VLAN mode with both of the following configured:
Unauthorized-Client VLAN
• When the port detects a client, it automatically becomes an
untagged member of this VLAN. If you previously configured the
port as a static, tagged member of the VLAN, membership
temporarily changes to untagged while the client remains
unauthenticated.
• If the port already has a statically configured, untagged
membership in another VLAN, then the port temporarily closes
access to this other VLAN while in the Unauthorized-Client VLAN.
• To limit security risks, the network services and access available
on the Unauthorized-Client VLAN should include only what a client
needs to enable an authentication session. If the port is statically
configured as a tagged member of any other VLANs, access to
these VLANs is blocked while the port is a member of the
Unauthorized-Client VLAN.
Authorized-Client VLAN
• After the client is authenticated, the port drops membership in the
Unauthorized-Client VLAN and becomes an untagged member of
this VLAN.
Note: if RADIUS authentication assigns a VLAN, the port
temporarily becomes a member of the RADIUS-assigned VLAN —
instead of the Authorized-Client VLAN—while the client is
connected.
• If the port is statically configured as a tagged member of a VLAN,
and this VLAN is used as the Authorized-Client VLAN, then the port
temporarily becomes an untagged member of this VLAN when the
client becomes authenticated. When the client disconnects, the
port returns to tagged membership in this VLAN.
• If the port is statically configured as a tagged member of a VLAN
that is not used by 802.1X Open VLAN mode, the port returns to
tagged membership in this VLAN upon successful authentication.
This happens even if the RADIUS server assigns the port to
another, authorized VLAN. If the port is already configured as a
tagged member of a VLAN that RADIUS assigns as an authorized
VLAN, then the port becomes an untagged member of that VLAN
for the duration of the client connection. After the client
disconnects, the port returns to tagged membership in that VLAN.
8-29
Configuring Port-Based and Client-Based Access Control (802.1X)
802.1X Open VLAN Mode
Table 8-1.
802.1X Open VLAN Mode Options
802.1X Per-Port Configuration
Port Response
Open VLAN Mode with Only an Unauthorized-Client VLAN Configured:
• When the port detects a client, it automatically becomes an
untagged member of this VLAN. To limit security risks, the network
services and access available on this VLAN should include only
what a client needs to enable an authentication session. If the port
is statically configured as an untagged member of another VLAN,
the switch temporarily removes the port from membership in this
other VLAN while membership in the Unauthorized-Client VLAN
exists.
• After the client is authenticated, and if the port is statically
configured as an untagged member of another VLAN, the port’s
access to this other VLAN is restored.
Note: If RADIUS authentication assigns a VLAN to the port, this
assignment overrides any statically configured, untagged VLAN
membership on the port (while the client is connected).
• If the port is statically configured as a tagged member of a VLAN
that is not used by 802.1X Open VLAN mode, the port returns to
tagged membership in this VLAN upon successful client
authentication. This happens even if the RADIUS server assigns
the port to another, authorized VLAN. Note that if the port is already
configured as a tagged member of a VLAN that RADIUS assigns
as an authorized VLAN, then the port becomes an untagged
member of that VLAN for the duration of the client connection.
After the client disconnects, the port returns to tagged
membership in that VLAN.
8-30
Configuring Port-Based and Client-Based Access Control (802.1X)
802.1X Open VLAN Mode
Table 8-1.
802.1X Open VLAN Mode Options
802.1X Per-Port Configuration
Port Response
Open VLAN Mode with Only an Authorized-Client VLAN Configured:
• Port automatically blocks a client that cannot initiate an
authentication session.
• If the client successfully completes an authentication session, the
port becomes an untagged member of this VLAN.
Note: if RADIUS authentication assigns a VLAN, the port
temporarily becomes an untagged member of the RADIUSassigned VLAN —instead of the Authorized-Client VLAN—while
the client is connected.
• If the port is statically configured as a tagged member of any other
VLAN, the port returns to tagged membership in this VLAN upon
successful client authentication. This happens even if the RADIUS
server assigns the port to another, authorized VLAN. If the port is
already configured as a tagged member of a VLAN that RADIUS
assigns as an authorized VLAN, then the port becomes an
untagged member of that VLAN for the duration of the client
connection. After the client disconnects, the port returns to
tagged membership in that VLAN.
Operating Rules for Authorized-Client and
Unauthorized-Client VLANs
Condition
Rule
These must be configured on the switch before you configure an
Static VLANs used as AuthorizedClient or Unauthorized-Client VLANs 802.1X authenticator port to use them. (Use the vlan < vlan-id >
command or the VLAN Menu screen in the Menu interface.)
VLAN Assignment Received from a
RADIUS Server
If the RADIUS server specifies a VLAN for an authenticated supplicant
connected to an 802.1X authenticator port, this VLAN assignment
overrides any Authorized-Client VLAN assignment configured on the
authenticator port. This is because both VLANs are untagged, and the
switch allows only one untagged VLAN membership per-port. For
example, suppose you configured port A4 to place authenticated
supplicants in VLAN 20. If a RADIUS server authenticates supplicant
“A” and assigns this supplicant to VLAN 50, then the port can access
VLAN 50 as an untagged member while the client session is running.
When the client disconnects from the port, then the port drops these
assignments and uses the untagged VLAN memberships for which it
is statically configured. (After client authentication, the port resumes
any tagged VLAN memberships for which it is already configured. For
details, refer to the Note on page 8-28.)
8-31
Configuring Port-Based and Client-Based Access Control (802.1X)
802.1X Open VLAN Mode
Condition
Rule
Temporary VLAN Membership During • Port membership in a VLAN assigned to operate as the
Unauthorized-Client VLAN is temporary, and ends when the client
a Client Session
receives authentication or the client disconnects from the port,
whichever is first.
• Port membership in a VLAN assigned to operate as the AuthorizedClient VLAN is also temporary, and ends when the client
disconnects from the port.If a VLAN assignment from a RADIUS
server is used instead, the same rule applies.
Effect of Unauthorized-Client VLAN
session on untagged port VLAN
membership
• When an unauthenticated client connects to a port that is already
configured with a static, untagged VLAN, the switch temporarily
moves the port to the Unauthorized-Client VLAN (also untagged).
(While the Unauthorized-Client VLAN is in use, the port does not
access the static, untagged VLAN.)
• When the client either becomes authenticated or disconnects, the
port leaves the Unauthorized-Client VLAN and reacquires its
untagged membership in the statically configured VLAN.
Effect of Authorized-Client VLAN
session on untagged port VLAN
membership.
• When a client becomes authenticated on a port that is already
configured with a static, untagged VLAN, the switch temporarily
moves the port to the Authorized-Client VLAN (also untagged).
While the Authorized-Client VLAN is in use, the port does not have
access to the statically configured, untagged VLAN.
• When the authenticated client disconnects, the switch removes the
port from the Authorized-Client VLAN and moves it back to the
untagged membership in the statically configured VLAN. (After
client authentication, the port resumes any tagged VLAN
memberships for which it is already configured. For details, refer to
the Note on page 8-28.)
Multiple Authenticator Ports Using
the Same Unauthorized-Client and
Authorized-Client VLANs
You can use the same static VLAN as the Unauthorized-Client VLAN
for all 802.1X authenticator ports configured on the switch. Similarly,
you can use the same static VLAN as the Authorized-Client VLAN for
all 802.1X authenticator ports configured on the switch.
Caution: Do not use the same static VLAN for both the unauthorized
and the Authorized-Client VLAN. Using one VLAN for both creates a
security risk by defeating the isolation of unauthenticated clients.
Effect of Failed Client Authentication When there is an Unauthorized-Client VLAN configured on an 802.1X
authenticator port, an unauthorized client connected to the port has
Attempt
access only to the network resources belonging to the UnauthorizedClient VLAN. This access continues until the client disconnects from
the port. (If there is no Unauthorized-Client VLAN configured on the
authenticator port, the port simply blocks access for any unauthorized
client that cannot be authenticated.)
8-32
Configuring Port-Based and Client-Based Access Control (802.1X)
802.1X Open VLAN Mode
Condition
Rule
IP Addressing for a Client Connected A client can either acquire an IP address from a DHCP server or have
to a Port Configured for 802.x Open a preconfigured, manual IP address before connecting to the switch.
VLAN Mode
A friendly client, without 802.1X supplicant software, connecting to an
802.1X Supplicant Software for a
Client Connected to a Port Configured authenticator port must be able to download this software from the
Unauthorized-Client VLAN before authentication can begin.
for 802.1X Open VLAN Mode
Switch with a Port Configured To
Allow Multiple Authorized-Client
Sessions
When a new client is authenticated on a given port:
• If no other clients are authenticated on that port, then the port joins
one VLAN in the following order of precedence:
a. A RADIUS-assigned VLAN, if configured.
b. An Authenticated-Client VLAN, if configured.
c. A static, port-based VLAN to which the port belongs as an
untagged member.
d. Any VLAN(s) to which the port is configured as a tagged
member (provided that the client can operate in that VLAN).
• If another client is already authenticated on the port, then the port
is already assigned to a VLAN for the previously-existing client
session, and the new client must operate in this same VLAN,
regardless of other factors. (This means that a client without 802.1X
client authentication software cannot access a configured,
Unauthenticated-Client VLAN if another, authenticated client is
already using the port.)
Note: Limitation on Using an
Unauthorized-Client VLAN on an
802.1X Port Configured to Allow
Multiple-Client Access
You can optionally enable switches to allow up to 2 clients per-port.
The Unauthorized-Client VLAN feature can operate on an 802.1Xconfigured port regardless of how many clients the port is configured
to support. However, all clients on the same port must operate through
the same untagged VLAN membership. This means that any client
accessing a given port must be able to authenticate and operate on
the same VLAN as any other previously authenticated clients that are
currently using the port. Thus, an Unauthorized-Client VLAN
configured on a switch port that allows multiple 802.1X clients cannot
be used if there is already an authenticated client using the port on
another VLAN. Also, a client using the Unauthenticated-Client VLAN
will be blocked when another client becomes authenticated on the
port. For this reason, the best utilization of the Unauthorized-Client
VLAN feature is in instances where only one client is allowed per-port.
Otherwise, unauthenticated clients are subject to being blocked at
any time by authenticated clients using a different VLAN. (Using the
same VLAN for authenticated and unauthenticated clients can create
a security risk and is not recommended.)
8-33
Configuring Port-Based and Client-Based Access Control (802.1X)
802.1X Open VLAN Mode
Note
If you use the same VLAN as the Unauthorized-Client VLAN for all authenticator ports, unauthenticated clients on different ports can communicate with
each other.
Setting Up and Configuring 802.1X Open VLAN Mode
Preparation. This section assumes use of both the Unauthorized-Client and
Authorized-Client VLANs. Refer to Table 8-3 on page 8-51 for other options.
Before you configure the 802.1X Open VLAN mode on a port:
■
Caution
Statically configure an “Unauthorized-Client VLAN” in the switch. The
only ports that should belong to this VLAN are ports offering services
and access you want available to unauthenticated clients. (802.1X
authenticator ports do not have to be members of this VLAN.)
Do not allow any port memberships or network services on this VLAN that
would pose a security risk if exposed to an unauthorized client.
■
Statically configure an Authorized-Client VLAN in the switch. The
only ports that should belong to this VLAN are ports offering services
and access you want available to authenticated clients. 802.1X authenticator ports do not have to be members of this VLAN.
Note that if an 802.1X authenticator port is an untagged member of
another VLAN, the port’s access to that other VLAN will be temporarily
removed while an authenticated client is connected to the port. For
example, if:
i. Port A5 is an untagged member of VLAN 1 (the default VLAN).
ii. You configure port A5 as an 802.1X authenticator port.
iii. You configure port A5 to use an Authorized-Client VLAN.
Then, if a client connects to port A5 and is authenticated, port A5 becomes
an untagged member of the Authorized-Client VLAN and is temporarily
suspended from membership in the default VLAN.
■
8-34
If you expect friendly clients to connect without having 802.1X supplicant software running, provide a server on the Unauthorized-Client
VLAN for downloading 802.1X supplicant software to the client, and
a procedure by which the client initiates the download.
Configuring Port-Based and Client-Based Access Control (802.1X)
802.1X Open VLAN Mode
■
A client must either have a valid IP address configured before
connecting to the switch, or download one through the UnauthorizedClient VLAN from a DHCP server. In the latter case, you will need to
provide DHCP services on the Unauthorized-Client VLAN.
■
Ensure that the switch is connected to a RADIUS server configured
to support authentication requests from clients using ports configured as 802.1X authenticators. (The RADIUS server should not be on
the Unauthorized-Client VLAN.)
Note that as an alternative, you can configure the switch to use local
password authentication instead of RADIUS authentication. However,
this is less desirable because it means that all clients use the same
passwords and have the same access privileges. Also, you must use 802.1X
supplicant software that supports the use of local switch passwords.
Caution
Ensure that you do not introduce a security risk by allowing UnauthorizedClient VLAN access to network services or resources that could be compromised by an unauthorized client.
Configuring General 802.1X Operation: These steps enable 802.1X
authentication, and must be done before configuring 802.1X VLAN operation.
1.
Enable 802.1X authentication on the individual ports you want to serve
as authenticators. (The switch automatically disables LACP on the ports
on which you enable 802.1X.) On the ports you will use as authenticators
with VLAN operation, ensure that the (default) port-control parameter is
set to auto. (Refer to “1. Enable 802.1X Authentication on Selected Ports”
on page 8-17.) This setting requires a client to support 802.1X authentication (with 802.1X supplicant operation) and to provide valid credentials
to get network access.
Syntax:
aaa port-access authenticator e < port-list > control auto
Activates 802.1X port-access on ports you have configured as
authenticators.
8-35
Configuring Port-Based and Client-Based Access Control (802.1X)
802.1X Open VLAN Mode
2.
Configure the 802.1X authentication type. Options include:
Syntax:
aaa authentication port-access < local | eap-radius | chap-radius >
Determines the type of RADIUS authentication to use.
local: Use the switch’s local username and password for
supplicant authentication (the default).
eap-radiusUse EAP-RADIUS authentication. (Refer to the
documentation for your RADIUS server.)
chap-radiusUse CHAP-RADIUS (MD5) authentication.
(Refer to the documentation for your RADIUS server
software.)
3.
If you selected either eap-radius or chap-radius for step 2, use the radius
host command to configure up to three RADIUS server IP address(es) on
the switch.
Syntax:
radius host < ip-address >
Adds a server to the RADIUS configuration.
[key < server-specific key-string >]
Optional. Specifies an encryption key for use with the
specified server. This key must match the key used on
the RADIUS server. Use this option only if the specified
server requires a different key than configured for the
global encryption key.
radius-server key < global key-string >
Specifies the global encryption key the switch uses for
sessions with servers for which the switch does not
have a server-specific key. This key is optional if all
RADIUS server addresses configured in the switch
include a server- specific encryption key.
4.
Activate authentication on the switch.
Syntax:
aaa port-access authenticator active
Activates 802.1X port-access on ports you have configured as authenticators.
5.
8-36
Test both the authorized and unauthorized access to your system to
ensure that the 802.1X authentication works properly on the ports you
have configured for port-access.
Configuring Port-Based and Client-Based Access Control (802.1X)
802.1X Open VLAN Mode
Note
If you want to implement the optional port security feature on the switch, you
should first ensure that the ports you have configured as 802.1X authenticators
operate as expected. Then refer to “Option For Authenticator Ports: Configure
Port-Security To Allow Only 802.1X Devices” on page 8-40.
After you complete steps 1 and 2, the configured ports are enabled for 802.1X
authentication (without VLAN operation), and you are ready to configure
VLAN Operation.
Configuring 802.1X Open VLAN Mode. Use these commands to actually
configure Open VLAN mode. For a listing of the steps needed to prepare the
switch for using Open VLAN mode, refer to “Preparation” on page 8-34.
Syntax:
aaa port-access authenticator [e] < port-list >
[auth-vid < vlan-id >]
Configures an existing, static VLAN to be the AuthorizedClient VLAN.
[< unauth-vid < vlan-id >]
Configures an existing, static VLAN to be the Unauthorized-Client VLAN.
For example, suppose you want to configure 802.1X port-access with Open
VLAN mode on ports A10 - A20 and:
■
These two static VLANs already exist on the switch:
•
Unauthorized, VID = 80
•
Authorized, VID = 81
■
Your RADIUS server has an IP address of 10.28.127.101. The server
uses rad4all as a server-specific key string. The server is connected to
a port on the Default VLAN.
■
The switch's default VLAN is already configured with an IP address
of 10.28.127.100 and a network mask of 255.255.255.0
ProCurve(config)# aaa authentication port-access eap-radius
Configures the switch for 802.1X authentication using an EAP-RADIUS server.
ProCurve(config)# aaa port-access authenticator a10-a20
Configures ports A10 - A20 as 802.1 authenticator ports.
ProCurve(config)# radius host 10.28.127.101 key rad4all
8-37
Configuring Port-Based and Client-Based Access Control (802.1X)
802.1X Open VLAN Mode
Configures the switch to look for a RADIUS server with an IP address of 10.28.127.101
and an encryption key of rad4all.
ProCurve(config)# aaa port-access authenticator e a10-a20 unauth-vid 80
Configures ports A10 - A20 to use VLAN 80 as the Unauthorized-Client VLAN.
ProCurve(config)# aaa port-access authenticator e a10-a20 auth-vid 81
Configures ports A10 - A20 to use VLAN 81 as the Authorized-Client VLAN.
ProCurve(config)# aaa port-access authenticator active
Activates 802.1X port-access on ports you have configured as authenticators.
Inspecting 802.1X Open VLAN Mode Operation. For information and
an example on viewing current Open VLAN mode operation, refer to “Viewing
802.1X Open VLAN Mode Status” on page 8-50.
802.1X Open VLAN Operating Notes
8-38
■
Although you can configure Open VLAN mode to use the same VLAN
for both the Unauthorized-Client VLAN and the Authorized-Client
VLAN, this is not recommended. Using the same VLAN for both
purposes allows unauthenticated clients access to a VLAN intended
only for authenticated clients, which poses a security breach.
■
While an Unauthorized-Client VLAN is in use on a port, the switch
temporarily removes the port from any other statically configured
VLAN for which that port is configured as a member. Note that the
Menu interface will still display the port’s statically configured
VLAN(s).
■
A VLAN used as the Unauthorized-Client VLAN should not allow
access to resources that must be protected from unauthenticated
clients.
■
If a port is configured as a tagged member of VLAN "X" that is not used
as an Unauthorized-Client, Authorized-Client, or RADIUS-assigned
VLAN, then the port returns to tagged membership in VLAN "X" upon
successful client authentication. This happens even if the RADIUS
server assigns the port to another, authorized VLAN "Y". Note that if
RADIUS assigns VLAN "X" as an authorized VLAN, then the port
becomes an untagged member of VLAN "X" for the duration of the
client connection. After the client disconnects, the port returns to
tagged membership in VLAN "X". (If there is no Authorized-Client or
Configuring Port-Based and Client-Based Access Control (802.1X)
802.1X Open VLAN Mode
RADIUS-assigned VLAN, then an authenticated client without tagged
VLAN capability can access only a statically configured, untagged
VLAN on that port.)
■
When a client’s authentication attempt on an Unauthorized-Client
VLAN fails, the port remains a member of the Unauthorized-Client
VLAN until the client disconnects from the port.
■
During an authentication session on a port in 802.1X Open VLAN
mode, if RADIUS specifies membership in an untagged VLAN, this
assignment overrides port membership in the Authorized-Client
VLAN. If there is no Authorized-Client VLAN configured, then the
RADIUS assignment overrides any untagged VLAN for which the port
is statically configured.
■
If the only authenticated client on a port loses authentication during a
session in 802.1X Open VLAN mode, the port VLAN membership reverts
back to the Unauthorized-Client VLAN. If there is no Unauthorized-Client
VLAN configured, then the client loses access to the port until it can
reauthenticate itself. If there are multiple clients authenticated on the
port, if one client loses access and attempts to re-authenticate, that client
will be handled as a new client on the port.
■
The first client to authenticate on a port configured to support multiple
clients will determine the port’s VLAN membership for any subsequent
clients that authenticate while an active session is already in effect.
8-39
Configuring Port-Based and Client-Based Access Control (802.1X)
Option For Authenticator Ports: Configure Port-Security To Allow Only 802.1X Devices
Option For Authenticator Ports:
Configure Port-Security To Allow
Only 802.1X Devices
If you use port-security on authenticator ports, you can configure it to learn
only the MAC address of the first 802.1X-aware device detected on the port.
Then, only traffic from this specific device is allowed on the port. When this
device logs off, another 802.1X-aware device can be authenticated on the port.
Syntax:
port-security [ethernet] < port-list >
learn-mode port-access
Configures port-security on the specified port(s) to allow
only the first 802.1X-aware device the port detects.
action < none | send-alarm | send-disable >
Configures the port’s response (in addition to blocking
unauthorized traffic) to detecting an intruder.
Note
Port-Security operates with 802.1X authentication as described above only if
the selected ports are configured as 802.1X; that is with the control mode in
the port-access authenticator command set to auto. For example, to configure
port A10 for 802.1X authenticator operation and display the result:
ProCurve(config)# aaa port-access authenticator e A10
control auto
ProCurve(config)# show port-access authenticator e A10
config
8-40
Configuring Port-Based and Client-Based Access Control (802.1X)
Option For Authenticator Ports: Configure Port-Security To Allow Only 802.1X Devices
Note on
If the port’s 802.1X authenticator control mode is configured to authorized (as
B l o c k i n g a N o n - shown below, instead of auto), then the first source MAC address from any
80 2 . 1X D e vice
device, whether 802.1X-aware or not, becomes the only authorized device on
the port.
aaa port-access authenticator < port-list > control authorized
With 802.1X authentication disabled on a port or set to authorized (Force
Authorize), the port may learn a MAC address that you don’t want authorized.
If this occurs, you can block access by the unauthorized, non-802.1X device
by using one of the following options:
■
If 802.1X authentication is disabled on the port, use these command
syntaxes to enable it and allow only an 802.1X-aware device:
aaa port-access authenticator e < port-list >
Enables 802.1X authentication on the port.
aaa port-access authenticator e < port-list > control auto
Forces the port to accept only a device that supports 802.1X
and supplies valid credentials.
■
If 802.1X authentication is enabled on the port, but set to authorized
(Force Authorized), use this command syntax to allow only an 802.1Xaware device:
aaa port-access authenticator e < port-list > control auto
Forces the port to accept only a device that supports 802.1X
and supplies valid credentials.
Note
If 802.1X port-access is configured on a given port, then port-security learnmode for that port must be set to either continuous (the default) or port-access.
In addition to the above, to use port-security on an authenticator port, use the
per-port client-limit option to control how many MAC addresses of 802.1Xauthenticated devices the port is allowed to learn. (Using client-limit sets
802.1X to client-based operation on the specified ports.) When this limit is
reached, no further devices can be authenticated until a currently authenticated device disconnects and the current delay period or logoff period has
expired.
8-41
Configuring Port-Based and Client-Based Access Control (802.1X)
Configuring Switch Ports To Operate As Supplicants for 802.1X Connections to Other Switches
Configure the port access type.
Syntax:
aaa port-access auth < port-list > client-limit < 1 - 8>
Configures client-based 802.1X authentication on the
specified ports and sets the number of authenticated
devices the port is allowed to learn. For more on this
command, refer to “Configuring Switch Ports as 802.1X
Authenticators” on page 8-17.)
— Or —
no aaa port-access auth < port-list > client-limit
Configures port-based 802.1X authentication on the
specified ports, which opens the port.
Configuring Switch Ports To Operate As
Supplicants for 802.1X Connections to
Other Switches
802.1X Authentication Commands
page 8-17
802.1X Supplicant Commands
[no] aaa port-access < supplicant > [ethernet] < port-list >
[auth-timeout | held-period | start-period | max-start | initialize |
identity | secret | clear-statistics]
page 8-44
page 8-44
802.1X-Related Show Commands
page 8-47
RADIUS server configuration
pages 8-24
You can configure a switch port to operate as a supplicant in a connection to
a port on another 802.1X-aware switch to provide security on links between
802.1X-aware switches. (A port can operate as both an authenticator and a
supplicant.)
Example
Suppose that you want to connect two switches, where:
8-42
Configuring Port-Based and Client-Based Access Control (802.1X)
Configuring Switch Ports To Operate As Supplicants for 802.1X Connections to Other Switches
■
Switch “A” has port A1 configured for 802.1X supplicant operation
■
You want to connect port A1 on switch “A” to port B5 on switch “B”.
Switch “B”
Port B5
Port A1
Switch “A”
Port A1 Configured as an
802.1X Supplicant
LAN Core
RADIUS Server
Figure 8-6. Example of Supplicant Operation
1.
When port A1 on switch “A” is first connected to a port on switch “B”, or
if the ports are already connected and either switch reboots, port A1
begins sending start packets to port B5 on switch “B”.
•
If, after the supplicant port sends the configured number of start
request packets, it does not receive a response, it assumes that switch
“B” is not 802.1X-aware, and transitions to the authenticated state. If
switch “B” is operating properly and is not 802.1X-aware, then the link
should begin functioning normally, but without 802.1X security.
•
If, after sending one or more start request packets, port A1 receives
a request packet from port B5, then switch “B” is operating as an
802.1X authenticator. The supplicant port then sends a response/ID
packet. If switch “B” is configured for RADIUS authentication, it
forwards this request to a RADIUS server. If switch “B” is configured
for Local 802.1X authentication (page 8-23), the authenticator compares the switch “A” response to its local username and password.
2.
The RADIUS server then responds with an access challenge that switch
“B” forwards to port A1 on switch “A”.
3.
Port A1 replies with a hash response based on its unique credentials.
Switch “B” forwards this response to the RADIUS server.
4.
The RADIUS server then analyzes the response and sends either a “success” or “failure” packet back through switch “B” to port A1.
•
A “success” response unblocks port B5 to normal traffic from port A1.
8-43
Configuring Port-Based and Client-Based Access Control (802.1X)
Configuring Switch Ports To Operate As Supplicants for 802.1X Connections to Other Switches
•
A “failure” response continues the block on port B5 and causes port
A1 to wait for the “held-time” period before trying again to achieve
authentication through port B5.
Supplicant Port Configuration
Enabling a Switch Port To Operate as a Supplicant. You can configure
one or more switch ports to operate as supplicants for point-to-point links to
802.1X-aware ports on other switches. You must configure a port as a
supplicant before you can configure any supplicant-related parameters.
Syntax: [no] aaa port-access supplicant [ethernet] < port-list >
Configures a port to operate as a supplicant using either the
default supplicant parameters or any previously configured
supplicant parameters, whichever is the most recent. The
“no” form of the command disables supplicant operation on
the specified ports.
Configuring a Supplicant Switch Port. Note that you must enable supplicant operation on a port before you can change the supplicant configuration.
This means you must execute the supplicant command once without any other
parameters, then execute it again with a supplicant parameter you want to
configure. If the intended authenticator port uses RADIUS authentication,
then use the identity and secret options to configure the RADIUS-expected
username and password on the supplicant port. If the intended authenticator
port uses Local 802.1X authentication, then use the identity and secret options
to configure the authenticator switch’s local username and password on the
supplicant port.
Syntax:
aaa port-access supplicant [ethernet] < port-list >
To enable supplicant operation on the designated ports,
execute this command without any other parameters.
After doing this, you can use the command again with
the following parameters to configure supplicant opertion. (Use one instance of the command for each
parameter you want to configure The no form disables
supplicant operation on the designated port(s).
8-44
Configuring Port-Based and Client-Based Access Control (802.1X)
Configuring Switch Ports To Operate As Supplicants for 802.1X Connections to Other Switches
[identity < username >]
Sets the username and password to pass to the authenticator port when a challenge-request packet is received
from the authenticator port in response to an authentication request. If the intended authenticator port is
configured for RADIUS authentication, then < username > and < password > must be the username and
password expected by the RADIUS server. If the
intended authenticator port is configured for Local
authentication, then < username > and < password >
must be the username and password configured on the
Authenticator switch. (Defaults: Null)
[secret]
Enter secret: < password >
Repeat secret: < password >
Sets the secret password to be used by the port supplicant when an MD5 authentication request is received
from an authenticator. The switch prompts you to enter
the secret password after the command is invoked.
aaa port-access supplicant [ethernet] < port-list >
[auth-timeout < 1 - 300 >]
Sets the period of time the port waits to receive a
challenge from the authenticator. If the request times
out, the port sends another authentication request, up
to the number of attempts specified by the max-start
parameter. (Default: 30 seconds).
[max-start < 1 - 10 >]
Defines the maximum number of times the supplicant
port requests authentication. See step 1 on page 8-43
for a description of how the port reacts to the authenticator response. (Default: 3).
[held-period < 0 - 65535 >]
Sets the time period the supplicant port waits after an
active 802.1X session fails before trying to re- acquire
the authenticator port. (Default: 60 seconds)
8-45
Configuring Port-Based and Client-Based Access Control (802.1X)
Configuring Switch Ports To Operate As Supplicants for 802.1X Connections to Other Switches
[start-period < 1 - 300 >]
Sets the time period between Start packet retransmissions. That is, after a supplicant sends a start packet,
it waits during the start-period for a response. If no
response comes during the start- period, the supplicant
sends a new start packet. The max-start setting (above)
specifies how many start attempts are allowed in the
session. (Default: 30 seconds)
aaa port-access supplicant [ethernet] < port-list >
[initialize]
On the specified ports, blocks inbound and outbound
traffic and restarts the 802.1X authentication process.
Affects only ports configured as 802.1X supplicants.
[clear-statistics]
Clears and restarts the 802.1X supplicant statistics
counters.
8-46
Configuring Port-Based and Client-Based Access Control (802.1X)
Displaying 802.1X Configuration, Statistics, and Counters
Displaying 802.1X Configuration,
Statistics, and Counters
802.1X Authentication Commands
page 8-17
802.1X Supplicant Commands
page 8-42
802.1X Open VLAN Mode Commands
page 8-26
802.1X-Related Show Commands
show port-access authenticator
below
show port-access supplicant
page 8-53
Details of 802.1X Mode Status Listings
page 8-50
RADIUS server configuration
pages 8-24
Show Commands for Port-Access Authenticator
Syntax: show port-access authenticator [[e] < port-list >]
[config | statistics | session-counters]
• Without [< port-list > [config | statistics | sessioncounters]], displays whether port-access
authenticator is active (Yes or No) and the status of
all ports configured for 802.1X authentication. The
Authenticator Backend State in this data refers to the
switch’s interaction with the authentication server.
• With < port-list > only, same as above, but limits port
status to only the specified port. Does not display
data for a specified port that is not enabled as an
authenticator.
• With [< port-list > [config | statistics | session-counters]],
displays the [config | statistics | session-counters] data
for the specified port(s). Does not display data for a
specified port that is not enabled as an authenticator.
• With [config | statistics | session-counters] only,
displays the [config | statistics | session-counters] data
for all ports enabled as authenticators.
For descriptions of [config | statistics | session-counters]
refer to the next section of this table.
8-47
Configuring Port-Based and Client-Based Access Control (802.1X)
Displaying 802.1X Configuration, Statistics, and Counters
show port-access authenticator (Syntax Continued)
config [[e] < port-list >]
Shows:
• Whether port-access authenticator is active
• The 802.1X configuration of the ports configured as
802.1X authenticators
• Use show running to view the current client-limit
configuration available for switches.
If you do not specify < port-list >, the command lists all
ports configured as 802.1X port-access authenticators.
Does not display data for a specified port that is not
enabled as an authenticator.
statistics [[e] < port-list >]
Shows:
• Whether port-access authenticator is active
• The statistics of the ports configured as 802.1X
authenticators, including the supplicant’s MAC
address, as determined by the content of the last
EAPOL frame received on the port.
Does not display data for a specified port that is not
enabled as an authenticator.
session-counters [[e] < port-list >]
Shows:
• Whether port-access authenticator is active
• The session status on the specified ports configured
as 802.1X authenticators
Also, for each port, the “User” column lists the user
name the supplicant included in its response packet.
(For the switch, this is the identity setting included in
the supplicant command—page 8-44.) Does not display
data for a specified port that is not enabled as an
authenticator.
vlan [< port-list >]
Shows per-port:
8-48
■
The Access Control setting
■
Unauth-VLAN ID (if any)
■
Auth-VLAN ID (if any)
Configuring Port-Based and Client-Based Access Control (802.1X)
Displaying 802.1X Configuration, Statistics, and Counters
ProCurve(config)# show port-access authenticator config
Port Access Authenticator Configuration
Port-access authenticator activated [No] : No
Port
---1
2
|
|
+
|
|
Re-auth
Period
------No
No
Access
Control
-------Auto
Auto
Max
Reqs
----2
2
Quiet
Period
------60
60
TX
Timeout
-------30
30
Supplicant
Timeout
---------30
30
Server
Timeout
-------30
30
Figure 8-7. Example of show port-access authenticator config Command
Table 8-2.
Field Descriptions of show port-access authenticator config Command Output (Figure 8-7)
Field
Description
Port-access
authenticator activated
Whether 802.1X authentication is enabled or disabled on specified port(s).
Port
Port number on switch.
Re-auth Period
Period of time (in seconds) after which clients connected to the port need to be reauthenticated.
Access Control
Port’s authentication mode:
Auto: Network access is allowed to any connected device that supports 802.1X authentication
and provides valid 802.1X credentials.
Authorized: Network access is allowed to any device connected to the port, regardless of
whether it meets 802.1X criteria.
Unauthorized: Network access is blocked to any device connected to the port, regardless of
whether the device meets 802.1X criteria.
Max reqs
Number of authentication attempts that must time-out before authentication fails and the
authentication session ends.
Quiet Period
Period of time (in seconds) during which the port does not try to acquire a supplicant.
TX Timeout
Period of time (in seconds) that the port waits to retransmit the next EAPOL PDU during an
authentication session.
Supplicant Timeout
Period of time (in seconds) that the switch waits for a supplicant response to an EAP request.
Server Timeout
Period of time (in seconds) that the switch waits for a server response to an authentication
request.
8-49
Configuring Port-Based and Client-Based Access Control (802.1X)
Displaying 802.1X Configuration, Statistics, and Counters
Viewing 802.1X Open VLAN Mode Status
You can examine the switch’s current VLAN status by using the show portaccess authenticator and show vlan < vlan-id > commands as illustrated in this
section. Figure 8-8 shows an example of show port-access authenticator output,
and table 8-3 describes the data that this command displays. Figure 8-9 shows
related VLAN data that can help you to see how the switch is using statically
configured VLANs to support 802.1X operation.
An Unauth VLAN ID appearing in the
Current VLAN ID column for the same port
indicates an unauthenticated client is
connected to this port.
(Assumes that the port is not a statically
configured member of VLAN 100.)
1
2
3
Items 1 through 3 indicate that an authenticated client is
connected to port B2:
1.Open in the Status column
2.Authorized in the Authenticator State column
3.The Auth VLAN ID (101) is also in the Current VLAN ID
column. (This assumes that the port is not a statically
configured member of VLAN 101.)
4
5
4.A “0” in the row for port B3 indicates there is no
Authorized VLAN configured for port B3.
5.“No PVID” means there is currently no untagged
VLAN membership on port B4.
Figure 8-8. Example Showing Ports Configured for Open VLAN Mode
Thus, in the show port-access authenticator output:
■
8-50
When the Auth VLAN ID is configured and matches the Current VLAN ID
in the above command output, an authenticated client is connected
to the port. (This assumes the port is not a statically configured
member of the VLAN you are using for Auth VLAN.)
Configuring Port-Based and Client-Based Access Control (802.1X)
Displaying 802.1X Configuration, Statistics, and Counters
■
When the Unauth VLAN ID is configured and matches the Current VLAN
ID in the above command output, an unauthenticated client is
connected to the port. (This assumes the port is not a statically
configured member of the VLAN you are using for Unauth VLAN.)
Note that because a temporary Open VLAN port assignment to either an
authorized or unauthorized VLAN is an untagged VLAN membership, these
assignments temporarily replace any other untagged VLAN membership that
is statically configured on the port. For example, if port A12 is statically
configured as an untagged member of VLAN 1, but is configured to use VLAN
25 as an authorized VLAN, then the port’s membership in VLAN 1 will be
temporarily suspended whenever an authenticated 802.1X client is attached
to the port.
Table 8-3.
Open VLAN Mode Status
Status Indicator
Meaning
Port
Lists the ports configured as 802.1X port-access authenticators.
Status
Closed: Either no client is connected or the connected client has not received authorization through
802.1X authentication.
Open: An authorized 802.1X supplicant is connected to the port.
Access Control
This state is controlled by the following port-access command syntax:
ProCurve(config)# aaa port-access authenticator < port-list > control < authorized | auto | unauthorized >
Auto: Configures the port to allow network access to any connected device that supports 802.1X
authentication and provides valid 802.1X credentials. (This is the default authenticator setting.)
FA: Configures the port for “Force Authorized”, which allows access to any device connected to
the port, regardless of whether it meets 802.1X criteria. (You can still configure console, Telnet, or
SSH security on the port.)
FU: Configures the port for “Force Unauthorized”, which blocks access to any device connected
to the port, regardless of whether the device meets 802.1X criteria.
Authenticator State Connecting: A client is connected to the port, but has not received 802.1X authentication.
Force Unauth: Indicates the “Force Unauthorized” state. Blocks access to the network, regardless
of whether the client supports 802.1X authentication or provides 802.1X credentials.
Force Auth: Indicates the “Force Authorized” state. Grants access to any device connected to the
port. The device does not have to support 802.1X authentication or provide 802.1X credentials.
Authorized: The device connected to the port supports 802.1X authentication, has provided 802.1X
credentials, and has received access to the network. This is the default state for access control.
Disconnected: No client is connected to the port.
Authenticator
Backend State
Idle: The switch is not currently interacting with the RADIUS authentication server. Other states
(Request, Response, Success, Fail, Timeout, and Initialize) may appear temporarily to indicate
interaction with a RADIUS server. However, these interactions occur quickly and are replaced by
Idle when completed.
8-51
Configuring Port-Based and Client-Based Access Control (802.1X)
Displaying 802.1X Configuration, Statistics, and Counters
Table 8-3.
Open VLAN Mode Status
Status Indicator
Meaning
Unauthorized VLAN < vlan-id >: Lists the VID of the static VLAN configured as the unauthorized VLAN for the indicated
ID
port.
0: No unauthorized VLAN has been configured for the indicated port.
< vlan-id >: Lists the VID of the static VLAN configured as the authorized VLAN for the indicated port.
Authorized VLAN ID
Current VLAN ID
0: No authorized VLAN has been configured for the indicated port.
< vlan-id >: Lists the VID of the static, untagged VLAN to which the port currently belongs.
No PVID: The port is not an untagged member of any VLAN.
Syntax:
show vlan < vlan-id >
Displays the port status for the selected VLAN, including an
indication of which port memberships have been temporarily
overridden by Open VLAN mode.
Note that ports B1 and B3 are
not in the upper listing, but are
included under “Overridden
Port VLAN configuration”. This
shows that static, untagged
VLAN memberships on ports B1
and B3 have been overridden
by temporary assignment to the
authorized or unauthorized
VLAN. Using the show portaccess authenticator < portlist > command shown in figure
8-8 provides details.
Figure 8-9. Example of Showing a VLAN with Ports Configured for Open VLAN Mode
8-52
Configuring Port-Based and Client-Based Access Control (802.1X)
Displaying 802.1X Configuration, Statistics, and Counters
Show Commands for Port-Access Supplicant
Syntax:
show port-access supplicant [[e] < port-list >] [statistics]
show port-access supplicant [[e] < port-list >]
Shows the port-access supplicant configuration
(excluding the secret parameter) for all ports or < portlist > ports configured on the switch as supplicants. The
Supplicant State can include the following:
Connecting - Starting authentication.
Authenticated - Authentication completed (regardless
of whether the attempt was successful).
Acquired - The port received a request for
identification from an authenticator.
Authenticating - Authentication is in progress.
Held - Authenticator sent notice of failure. The
supplicant port is waiting for the authenticator’s
held-period (page 8-44).
For descriptions of the supplicant parameters, refer to
“Configuring a Supplicant Switch Port” on page 8-44.
show port-access supplicant [[e] < port-list >] statistics
Shows the port-access statistics and source MAC
address(es) for all ports or < port-list > ports configured
on the switch as supplicants. See the “Note on Supplicant Statistics”, below.
Note on Supplicant Statistics. For each port configured as a supplicant,
show port-access supplicant statistics [e] < port-list >] displays the source MAC
address and statistics for transactions with the authenticator device most
recently detected on the port. If the link between the supplicant port and the
authenticator device fails, the supplicant port continues to show data received
from the connection to the most recent authenticator device until one of the
following occurs:
■
The supplicant port detects a different authenticator device.
■
You use the aaa port-access supplicant [e] < port-list > clear-statistics
command to clear the statistics for the supplicant port.
■
The switch reboots.
Thus, if the supplicant’s link to the authenticator fails, the supplicant retains
the transaction statistics it most recently received until one of the above
events occurs. Also, if you move a link with an authenticator from one
8-53
Configuring Port-Based and Client-Based Access Control (802.1X)
How RADIUS/802.1X Authentication Affects VLAN Operation
supplicant port to another without clearing the statistics data from the first
port, the authenticator’s MAC address will appear in the supplicant statistics
for both ports.
How RADIUS/802.1X Authentication
Affects VLAN Operation
Static VLAN Requirement. RADIUS authentication for an 802.1X client on
a given port can include a (static) VLAN requirement. (Refer to the documentation provided with your RADIUS application.) The static VLAN to which a
RADIUS server assigns a client must already exist on the switch. If it does not
exist or is a dynamic VLAN (created by GVRP), authentication fails. Also, for
the session to proceed, the port must be an untagged member of the required
VLAN. If it is not, the switch temporarily reassigns the port as described below.
If the Port Used by the Client Is Not Configured as an Untagged
Member of the Required Static VLAN: When a client is authenticated on
port “N”, if port “N” is not already configured as an untagged member of the
static VLAN specified by the RADIUS server, then the switch temporarily
assigns port “N” as an untagged member of the required VLAN (for the duration
of the 802.1X session). At the same time, if port “N” is already configured as
an untagged member of another VLAN, port “N” loses access to that other
VLAN for the duration of the session. (This is because a port can be an
untagged member of only one VLAN at a time.)
8-54
Configuring Port-Based and Client-Based Access Control (802.1X)
How RADIUS/802.1X Authentication Affects VLAN Operation
For example, suppose that a RADIUS-authenticated, 802.1X-aware client on
port A2 requires access to VLAN 22, but VLAN 22 is configured for no access
on port A2, and VLAN 33 is configured as untagged on port A2:
Scenario: An
authorized 802.1X
client requires access
to VLAN 22 from port
A2. However, access
to VLAN 22 is blocked
(not untagged or
tagged) on port A2 and
Figure 8-10. Example of an Active VLAN Configuration
In figure 8-10, if RADIUS authorizes an 802.1X client on port 2 with the
requirement that the client use VLAN 22, then:
■
VLAN 22 becomes available as Untagged on port A2 for the duration
of the session.
■
VLAN 33 becomes unavailable to port A2 for the duration of the
session (because there can be only one untagged VLAN on any port).
You can use the show vlan < vlan-id > command to view this temporary change
to the active configuration, as shown below:
■
You can see the temporary VLAN assignment by using the show vlan
< vlan-id > command with the < vlan-id > of the static VLAN that the
authenticated client is using.
8-55
Configuring Port-Based and Client-Based Access Control (802.1X)
How RADIUS/802.1X Authentication Affects VLAN Operation
This entry shows that port A2 is temporarily untagged on
VLAN 22 for an 802.1X session. This is to accommodate
an 802.1X client’s access, authenticated by a RADIUS
server, where the server included an instruction to put
the client’s access on VLAN 22.
Note: With the current VLAN configuration (figure 8-10),
the only time port A2 appears in this show vlan 22 listing
is during an 802.1X session with an attached client.
Otherwise, port A2 is not listed.
Figure 8-11. The Active Configuration for VLAN 22 Temporarily Changes for the 802.1X Session
■
With the preceding in mind, since (static) VLAN 33 is configured as
untagged on port A2 (see figure 8-10), and since a port can be untagged
on only one VLAN, port A2 loses access to VLAN 33 for the duration
of the 802.1X session involving VLAN 22. You can verify the temporary
loss of access to VLAN 33 with the show vlan 33 command.
Even though port A2 is
configured as Untagged
on (static) VLAN 33 (see
figure 8-10), it does not
appear in the VLAN 33
listing while the 802.1X
session is using VLAN 22
in the Untagged status.
However, after the 802.1X
session with VLAN 22
ends, the active
configuration returns port
A2 to VLAN 33.
Figure 8-12. The Active Configuration for VLAN 33 Temporarily Drops Port 22 for the 802.1X Session
8-56
Configuring Port-Based and Client-Based Access Control (802.1X)
How RADIUS/802.1X Authentication Affects VLAN Operation
When the 802.1X client’s session on port A2 ends, the port discards the
temporary untagged VLAN membership. At this time the static VLAN
actually configured as untagged on the port again becomes available.
Thus, when the RADIUS-authenticated 802.1X session on port A2 ends,
VLAN 22 access on port A2 also ends, and the untagged VLAN 33 access
on port A2 is restored.
After the 802.1X session
on VLAN 22 ends, the
active configuration
again includes VLAN 33
on port A2.
Figure 8-13. The Active Configuration for VLAN 33 Restores Port A2 After the 802.1X Session Ends
Notes
Any port VLAN-ID changes you make on 802.1X-aware ports during an 802.1Xauthenticated session do not take effect until the session ends.
With GVRP enabled, a temporary, untagged static VLAN assignment created
on a port by 802.1X authentication is advertised as an existing VLAN. If this
temporary VLAN assignment causes the switch to disable a configured
(untagged) static VLAN assignment on the port, then the disabled VLAN
assignment is not advertised. When the 802.1X session ends, the switch:
■
Eliminates and ceases to advertise the temporary VLAN assignment.
■
Re-activates and resumes advertising the temporarily disabled VLAN
assignment.
8-57
Configuring Port-Based and Client-Based Access Control (802.1X)
Messages Related to 802.1X Operation
Messages Related to 802.1X Operation
Table 8-4.
802.1X Operating Messages
Message
Meaning
Port < port-list > is not an
authenticator.
The ports in the port list have not been enabled as 802.1X
authenticators. Use this command to enable the ports as
authenticators:
ProCurve(config)# aaa port-access
authenticator e 10
Port < port-list > is not a
supplicant.
Occurs when there is an attempt to change the supplicant
configuration on a port that is not currently enabled as a
supplicant. Enable the port as a supplicant and then make
the desired supplicant configuration changes. Refer to
“Enabling a Switch Port To Operate as a Supplicant” on
page 8-44.
No server(s) responding.
This message can appear if you configured the switch for
EAP-RADIUS or CHAP-RADIUS authentication, but the
switch does not receive a response from a RADIUS server.
Ensure that the switch is configured to access at least one
RADIUS server. (Use show radius.) If you also see the
message Can’t reach RADIUS server <
x.x.x.x >, try the suggestions listed for that message
(page 5-32).
LACP has been disabled on 802.1X
port(s).
To maintain security, LACP is not allowed on ports
configured for 802.1X authenticator operation. If you
configure port security on a port on which LACP (active or
passive) is configured, the switch removes the LACP
configuration, displays a notice that LACP is disabled on the
port(s), and enables 802.1X on that port.
Error configuring port < port-number Also, the switch will not allow you to configure LACP on a
port on which port access (802.1X) is enabled.
>: LACP and 802.1X cannot be run
together.
8-58
9
Configuring and Monitoring Port Security
Contents
Overview . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9-2
Basic Operation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9-2
Blocking Unauthorized Traffic . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9-3
Trunk Group Exclusion . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9-4
Planning Port Security . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9-5
Port Security Command Options and Operation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9-6
Retention of Static MAC Addresses . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9-10
Displaying Current Port Security Settings . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9-10
Configuring Port Security . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9-12
Web: Displaying and Configuring Port Security Features . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9-17
Reading Intrusion Alerts and Resetting Alert Flags . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9-17
Notice of Security Violations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9-17
How the Intrusion Log Operates . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9-18
Keeping the Intrusion Log Current by Resetting Alert Flags . . . . . . . 9-19
Using the Event Log To Find Intrusion Alerts . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9-24
Web: Checking for Intrusions, Listing Intrusion Alerts,
and Resetting Alert Flags . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9-25
Operating Notes for Port Security . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9-25
Configuring Protected Ports . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9-27
9-1
Configuring and Monitoring Port Security
Overview
Overview
Note
Port security is not available on ports running at 10 Mbps or the 1000 Mbps
uplinks. It is only available on ports running at 100 mbps.
Feature
Default
Menu
CLI
Web
Displaying Current Port Security n/a
—
page 9-10
page 9-17
Configuring Port Security
disabled
—
page 9-12
page 9-17
Intrusion Alerts and Alert Flags
n/a
page 9-22
page 9-25
page 9-24
Using Port Security, you can configure each switch port with a unique list of
the MAC addresses of devices that are authorized to access the network
through that port. This enables individual ports to detect, prevent, and log
attempts by unauthorized devices to communicate through the switch.
Note
This feature does not prevent intruders from receiving broadcast and multicast traffic.
Basic Operation
Default Port Security Operation. The default port security setting for
each port is off, or continuous. That is, any device can access a port without
causing a security reaction.
Intruder Protection. A port that detects an “intruder” blocks the intruding
device from transmitting to the network through that port.
9-2
Configuring and Monitoring Port Security
Overview
General Operation for Port Security. On a per-port basis, you can
configure security measures to block unauthorized devices, and to send notice
of security violations. Once you have configured port security, you can then
monitor the network for security violations through one or more of the
following:
■
Alert flags that are captured by network management tools
■
Alert Log entries in the switch’s web browser interface
■
Event Log entries in the console interface
■
Intrusion Log entries in either the menu interface, CLI, or web
browser interface
For any port, you can configure the following:
■
Authorized (MAC) Addresses: Specify up to eight devices (MAC
addresses) that are allowed to send inbound traffic through the port.
This feature:
•
Closes the port to inbound traffic from any unauthorized devices
that are connected to the port.
•
Provides the option for sending an SNMP trap notifying of an
attempted security violation to a network management station
and, optionally, disables the port. (For more on configuring the
switch for SNMP management, refer to “Trap Receivers and
Authentication Traps” in the Management and Configuration
Guide for your switch.)
Blocking Unauthorized Traffic
Unless you configure the switch to disable a port on which a security violation
is detected, the switch security measures block unauthorized traffic without
disabling the port. This implementation enables you to apply the security
configuration to ports on which hubs, switches, or other devices are
connected, and to maintain security while also maintaining network access to
authorized users. For example:
9-3
Configuring and Monitoring Port Security
Overview
Physical Topology
Logical Topology for Access to Switch A
Switch A
Port Security
Configured
Switch A
Port Security
Configured
PC 1
Switch B
MAC Address
Authorized by
Switch A
PC 1
MAC Address Authorized
by Switch A
MAC Address Authorized
by Switch A
PC 2
Switch B
MAC Address NOT
Authorized by Switch A
MAC Address
Authorized by
Switch A
PC 3
Switch C
MAC Address NOT
Authorized by
Switch A
MAC Address NOT
Authorized by Switch A
• PC1 can access Switch A.
• PCs 2 and 3 can access Switch B and Switch C, but are
blocked from accessing switch A by the port security
settings in switch A.
• Switch C is not authorized to access Switch A.
Figure 9-1. Example of How Port Security Controls Access
Note
Broadcast and Multicast traffic is not “unauthorized” traffic, and can be read
by intruders connected to a port on which you have configured port security.
Trunk Group Exclusion
Port security does not operate on either a static or dynamic trunk group. If
you configure port security on one or more ports that are later added to a trunk
group, the switch will reset the port security parameters for those ports to the
factory-default configuration. (Ports configured for either Active or Passive
LACP, and which are not members of a trunk, can be configured for port
security.)
9-4
Configuring and Monitoring Port Security
Planning Port Security
Planning Port Security
1.
Plan your port security configuration and monitoring according to the
following:
a.
On which ports do you want port security?
b. Which devices (MAC addresses) are authorized on each port and
how many devices do you want to allow per port (up to 8)?
c.
Within the devices-per-port limit, do you want to let the switch
automatically accept devices it detects on a port, or do you want it
to accept only the devices you explicitly specify? (For example, if
you allow three devices on a given port, but specify only one MAC
address for that port, do you want the switch to automatically accept
the first two additional devices it detects, or not?)
d. For each port, what security actions do you want? (The switch
automatically blocks intruders detected on that port from transmitting to the network.) You can configure the switch to (1) send
intrusion alarms to an SNMP management station and to (2) optionally disable the port on which the intrusion was detected.
e.
2.
How do you want to learn of the security violation attempts the
switch detects? You can use one or more of these methods:
–
Through network management (That is, do you want an
SNMP trap sent to a net management station when a port
detects a security violation attempt?)
–
Through the switch’s Intrusion Log, available through the
CLI, menu, and web browser interface
–
Through the Event Log (in the menu interface or through the
CLI show log command)
Use the CLI or web browser interface to configure port security operating
and address controls. The following table describes the parameters.
9-5
Configuring and Monitoring Port Security
Port Security Command Options and Operation
Port Security Command Options and
Operation
Port Security Commands Used in This Section
show port-security
9-11
port-security
9-12
< [ethernet] port-list >
9-12
[learn-mode]
9-12
[address-limit]
9-12
[mac-address]
9-12
[action]
9-12
[clear-intrusion-flag]
no port-security
9-12
9-12
This section describes the CLI port security command and how the switch
acquires and maintains authorized addresses.
Note
9-6
Use the global configuration level to execute port-security configuration
commands.
Configuring and Monitoring Port Security
Port Security Command Options and Operation
Syntax: port-security [e] < port-list >
learn-mode < continuous | static | configured | port-access >
Continuous (Default): Appears in the factory-default
setting or when you execute no port-security. Allows the port
to learn addresses from inbound traffic from any
device(s) to which it is connected. In this state, the port
accepts traffic from any device(s) to which it is
connected. Addresses learned this way appear in the
switch and port address tables and age out according to
the MAC Age Interval in the System Information configuration screen of the Menu interface or the show systeminformation listing.
Static: The static-learn option enables you to use the macaddress parameter to specify the MAC addresses of the
devices authorized for a port, and the address-limit
parameter to specify the number of MAC addresses
authorized for the port. You can authorize specific
devices for the port, while still allowing the port to accept
other, non-specified devices until the port reaches the
configured address limit. That is, if you enter fewer MAC
addresses than you authorized, the port fills the
remainder of the address allowance with MAC addresses
it automatically learns. For example, if you specify three
authorized devices, but enter only one authorized MAC
address, the port adds the one specifically authorized
MAC address to its authorized-devices list and the first
two additional MAC addresses it detects. If, for example:
– You authorize MAC address 0060b0-880a80 on port A4.
– You allow three devices on port A4, but the port
detects these MAC addresses:
3. 080071-0c45a1
1. 080090-1362f2
2. 00f031-423fc1
4. 0060b0-880a80 (the authorized
address.)
Port A4 then has the following list of authorized
addresses:
080090-1362f2 (The first address detected.)
00f031-423fc1 (The second address detected.)
0060b0-880a80 (The authorized address.)
The remaining MAC address, 080071-0c45a1, is an intruder.
See also “Retention of Static Addresses” on page 9-10.
Caution: When you use learn-mode static with a device limit
greater than the number of MAC addresses you specify with
mac-address, an unwanted device can become “authorized”.
This can occur because the port, in order to fulfill the number of
devices allowed by address-limit, automatically adds devices it
detects until it reaches the specified limit.
9-7
Configuring and Monitoring Port Security
Port Security Command Options and Operation
Syntax: port-security [e] < port-list > (- Continued -)
learn-mode < continuous | static | configured | port-access >
Configured: The static-configured option operates the same
as the static-learn option on the preceding page, except that
it does not allow the switch to accept non-specified
addresses to reach the address limit. Thus, if you configure
an address limit of 3, but only configure two MAC
addresses, the switch will handle as intruders all nonspecified MAC addresses it detects.
Port-Access: Enables you to use Port Security with (802.1X)
Port-Based Access Control. Refer to “Configuring PortBased and Client-Based Access Control (802.1X)” on page
8-1.
address-limit < integer >
When Learn Mode is set to static (static-learn) or configured
(static-configured), this parameter specifies the number of
authorized devices (MAC addresses) to allow. Default: 1;
Range: 1 to 8.
mac-address < mac-addr >
Available for static (static-learn and configured-learn)
modes. Allows up to eight authorized devices (MAC
addresses) per port, depending on the value specified in
the address-limit parameter.
• If you use mac-address with learn-mode configured, but
enter fewer devices than you specified in the addresslimit field, the port accepts only the devices you specified
with mac-address. (See the Note, above.)
• If you use mac-address with learn-mode static, but enter
fewer devices than you specified in the address-limit
field, the port accepts the specified devices AND as many
other devices as it takes to reach the device limit.
9-8
Configuring and Monitoring Port Security
Port Security Command Options and Operation
Syntax: port-security [e] < port-list > (- Continued -)
action < none | send-alarm | send-disable >
Specifies whether an SNMP trap is sent to a network management station. Operates when:
• Learn mode is set to learn-mode static (static-learn) or
learn-mode configured (static-configured) and the port
detects an unauthorized device.
• Learn mode is set to learn-mode continuous and there is a
MAC address change on a port.
none (the default): Prevents an SNMP trap from being sent.
send alarm: Causes the switch to send an SNMP trap to a
network management station.
send-disable: Available only with learn-mode configured and
learn-mode static. Causes the switch to send an SNMP trap
to a network management station and disable the port. If
you subsequently re-enable the port without clearing the
port’s intrusion flag, the port will block further intruders,
but the switch will not disable the port again until you reset
the intrusion flag. See the Note on page 9-19.
For information on configuring the switch for SNMP
management, refer to the Management and Configuration
Guide for your switch.
clear-intrusion-flag
Clears the intrusion flag for a specific port. (Refer to
“Reading Intrusion Alerts and Resetting Alert Flags” on
page 9-17.)
9-9
Configuring and Monitoring Port Security
Port Security Command Options and Operation
Retention of Static MAC Addresses
Learned MAC Addresses
In the following two cases, a port in Static learn mode (learn-mode static)
retains a learned MAC address even if you later reboot the switch or disable
port security for that port:
■
The port learns a MAC address after you configure the port with learnmode static in both the startup-config file and the running-config file
(by executing write memory).
■
The port learns a MAC address after you configure the port with learnmode static in only the running-config file and, after the address is
learned, you execute write memory to configure the startup-config file
to match the running-config file.
Assigned/Authorized MAC Addresses
If you manually assign a MAC address (using mac-address < mac-addr >) and
then execute write memory, the assigned MAC address remains in memory
unless removed by one of the methods described below.
Removing Learned and Assigned Static MAC Addresses
To remove a static MAC address, do one of the following:
■
Delete the address by using no port-security < port-number > macaddress < mac-addr >.
■
Download a configuration file that does not include the unwanted
MAC address assignment.
■
Reset the switch to its factory-default configuration.
Displaying Current Port Security Settings
The CLI uses the same command to provide two types of port security listings:
9-10
■
All ports on the switch with their Learn Mode and (alarm) Action
■
Only the specified ports with their Learn Mode, Address Limit, (alarm)
Action, and Authorized Addresses
Configuring and Monitoring Port Security
Port Security Command Options and Operation
Using the CLI To Display Port Security Settings.
Syntax:
show port-security
show port-security [e] <port number>
show port-security [e] [<port number>-<port number]. . .[,<port number>]
Without port parameters, show port-security displays operating control
settings for all ports on a switch. For example:
Figure 9-2. Example Port Security Listing (Ports A7 and A8 Show the Default
Setting)
With port numbers included in the command, show port-security displays Learn
Mode, Address Limit, (alarm) Action, and Authorized Addresses for the specified ports on a switch. The following example lists the full port security
configuration for a single port:
Figure 9-3. Example of the Port Security Configuration Display for a Single Port
9-11
Configuring and Monitoring Port Security
Port Security Command Options and Operation
The following command example shows the option for entering a range of
ports, including a series of non-contiguous ports. Note that no spaces are
allowed in the port number portion of the command string:
ProCurve(config)# show port-security A1-A3,A6,A8
Configuring Port Security
Using the CLI, you can:
■
Configure port security and edit security settings.
■
Add or delete devices from the list of authorized addresses for one or
more ports.
■
Clear the Intrusion flag on specific ports
Syntax:
port-security [e] < port-list >
[learn-mode < continuous | static | configured | port-access >]
[address-limit < integer >]
[mac-address < mac-addr >] [< mac-addr > . . . < mac-addr >]
[action < none | send-alarm | send-disable >]
[clear-intrusion-flag]
(For the configured option, above, refer to the Note on page 9-6.
no port-security < port-list > mac-address < mac-addr > [< mac-addr > . . .
< mac-addr >]
Specifying Authorized Devices and Intrusion Responses
Learn-Mode Static. This example configures port A1 to automatically
accept the first device (MAC address) it detects as the only authorized device
for that port. (The default device limit is 1.) It also configures the port to send
an alarm to a network management station and disable itself if an intruder is
detected on the port.
ProCurve(config)# port-security a1 learn-mode static
action send-disable
The next example does the same as the preceding example, except that it
specifies a MAC address of 0c0090-123456 as the authorized device instead of
allowing the port to automatically assign the first device it detects as an
authorized device.
9-12
Configuring and Monitoring Port Security
Port Security Command Options and Operation
ProCurve(config)# port-security a1 learn-mode static
mac-address 0c0090-123456 action send-disable
This example configures port A5 to:
■
Allow two MAC addresses, 00c100-7fec00 and 0060b0-889e00, as the
authorized devices.
■
Send an alarm to a management station if an intruder is detected on
the port.
ProCurve(config)# port-security a5 learn-mode static
address-limit 2 mac-address 00c100-7fec00 0060b0-889e00
action send-alarm
If you manually configure authorized devices (MAC addresses) and/or an
alarm action on a port, those settings remain unless you either manually
change them or reset the switch to its factory-default configuration. You can
“turn off” device authorization on a port by configuring the port to continuous
Learn Mode, but subsequently reconfiguring the port to static Learn Mode
restores the configured device authorization.
Learn-Mode Configured. This option allows only MAC addresses specifically configured with learn-mode configured mac-address < mac-address >, and
does not automatically learn non-specified MAC addresses learned from the
network. This example configures port A1 to:
■
Allow only a MAC address of 0c0090-123456 as the authorized device
■
Reserve the option for adding two more specified MAC addresses at
a later time without having to change the address-limit setting.
■
Send an alarm to a management station if an intruder is detected on
the port.
ProCurve(config)# port-security A1 learn-mode configured
mac-address 0c0090-123456 address-limit 3 action senddisable
Adding a MAC Address to an Existing Port List
To simply add a device (MAC address) to a port’s existing Authorized
Addresses list, enter the port number with the mac-address parameter and the
device’s MAC address. This assumes that Learn Mode is either static or
configured and the Authorized Addresses list is not already full (as deter-
9-13
Configuring and Monitoring Port Security
Port Security Command Options and Operation
mined by the current address-limit value). For example, suppose port A1
allows two authorized devices, but has only one device in its Authorized
Address list:
Although the Address
Limit is set to 2, only
one device has been
authorized for this port.
In this case you can add
another without having
to also increase the
Address Limit.
The Address Limit has not
been reached.
Figure 9-4. Example of Adding an Authorized Device to a Port
With the above configuration for port A1, the following command adds the
0c0090-456456 MAC address as the second authorized address.
ProCurve(config)# port-security a1 mac-address 0c0090456456
After executing the above command, the security configuration for port A1
appears as:
The Address Limit has been
reached.
Figure 9-5. Example of Adding a Second Authorized Device to a Port
9-14
Configuring and Monitoring Port Security
Port Security Command Options and Operation
Note
The message Inconsistent value appears if the new MAC address exceeds the
current Address Limit or specifies a device that is already on the list. If you
change a port from static to continuous learn mode, the port retains in memory
any authorized addresses it had while in static mode. If you subsequently
attempt to convert the port back to static mode with the same authorized
address(es), the Inconsistent value message appears because the port
already has the address(es) in its “Authorized” list.
If you are adding a device (MAC address) to a port on which the Authorized
Addresses list is already full (as controlled by the port’s current Address Limit
setting), then you must increase the Address Limit in order to add the device,
even if you want to replace one device with another. Using the CLI, you can
simultaneously increase the limit and add the MAC address with a single
command. For example, suppose port A1 allows one authorized device and
already has a device listed:
Figure 9-6. Example of Port Security on Port A1 with an Address Limit of “1”
To add a second authorized device to port A1, execute a port-security command
for port A1 that raises the address limit to 2 and specifies the additional
device’s MAC address. For example:
ProCurve(config)# port-security a1 mac-address 0c0090456456 address-limit 2
Removing a Device From the “Authorized” List for a Port Configured
for Learn-Mode Static. This command option removes unwanted devices
(MAC addresses) from the Authorized Addresses list. (An Authorized Address
list is available for each port for which Learn Mode is currently set to “Static”.
See the “MAC Address” entry in the table on 9-8.)
9-15
Configuring and Monitoring Port Security
Port Security Command Options and Operation
Caution
The address-limit setting controls how many MAC addresses are allowed in
the Authorized Addresses list for a given port. If you remove a MAC address
without also reducing the address limit by 1, the port may later detect and
accept the same or another MAC address that you do not want in the Authorized Address list. Thus, if you use the CLI to remove a MAC address that is
no longer authorized, you should first reduce the Address Limit (address-limit)
integer by 1, as shown in the next example. This prevents the possibility of the
same device or another device on the network from automatically being
accepted as “authorized” for that port. (You can prevent the port from learning
unauthorized MAC addresses by using the learn-mode configured option
instead of the learn-mode static option. Refer to the Note on page 9-6.)
To remove a device (MAC address) from the “Authorized” list and when the
current number of devices equals the Address Limit value, you should first
reduce the Address Limit value by 1, then remove the unwanted device.
Note
When you have configured the switch for learn-mode static operation, you can
reduce the address limit below the number of currently authorized addresses
on a port. This enables you to subsequently remove a device from the “Authorized” list without opening the possibility for an unwanted device to automatically become authorized. (If you use learn-mode configured instead, the
switch cannot automatically add detected devices not included in the macaddress configuration. Refer to the Note on page 9-6.)
For example, suppose port A1 is configured as shown below and you want to
remove 0c0090-123456 from the Authorized Address list:
ProCurve(config)# show port-security 1
Port Security
Port : 1
Learn Mode [Continuous] : Static
Action [None] : None
Authorized Addresses
-------------------0c0090-123456
0c0090-456456
Address Limit [1] : 2
When removing 0c0090-123456, first
reduce the Address Limit by 1 to prevent
the port from automatically adding another
device that it detects on the network.
Figure 9-7. Example of Two Authorized Addresses on Port A1
9-16
Configuring and Monitoring Port Security
Web: Displaying and Configuring Port Security Features
The following command serves this purpose by removing 0c0090-123456 and
reducing the Address Limit to 1:
ProCurve(config)# port-security a1 address-limit 1
ProCurve(config)# no port-security a1 mac-address 0c0090123456
The above command sequence results in the following configuration for port
A1:
Web: Displaying and Configuring Port
Security Features
1.
Click on the Security tab.
2.
Click on [Port Security].
3.
Select the settings you want and, if you are using the Static Learn Mode,
add or edit the Authorized Addresses field.
4.
Implement your new data by clicking on [Apply Changes].
To access the web-based Help provided for the switch, click on [?] in the web
browser screen.
Reading Intrusion Alerts and Resetting
Alert Flags
Notice of Security Violations
When the switch detects an intrusion on a port, it sets an “alert flag” for that
port and makes the intrusion information available as described below. While
the switch can detect additional intrusions for the same port, it does not list
the next chronological intrusion for that port in the Intrusion Log until the
alert flag for that port has been reset.
9-17
Configuring and Monitoring Port Security
Reading Intrusion Alerts and Resetting Alert Flags
When a security violation occurs on a port configured for Port Security, the
switch responds in the following ways to notify you:
■
■
The switch sets an alert flag for that port. This flag remains set until:
•
You use either the CLI, menu interface, or web browser interface
to reset the flag.
•
The switch is reset to its factory default configuration.
The switch enables notification of the intrusion through the following
means:
•
•
•
•
In the CLI:
–
The show port-security intrusion-log command displays the
Intrusion Log
–
The log command displays the Event Log
In the menu interface:
–
The Port Status screen includes a per-port intrusion alert
–
The Event Log includes per-port entries for security violations
In the web browser interface:
–
The Alert Log’s Status | Overview window includes entries for
per-port security violations
–
The Intrusion Log in the Security | Intrusion Log window lists
per-port security violation entries
In an active network management environment via an SNMP trap
sent to a network management station
How the Intrusion Log Operates
When the switch detects an intrusion attempt on a port, it enters a record of
this event in the Intrusion Log. No further intrusion attempts on that port will
appear in the Log until you acknowledge the earlier intrusion event by resetting the alert flag.
The Intrusion Log lists the 20 most recently detected security violation
attempts, regardless of whether the alert flags for these attempts have been
reset. This gives you a history of past intrusion attempts. Thus, for example,
if there is an intrusion alert for port A1 and the Intrusion Log shows two or
more entries for port 1, only the most recent entry has not been acknowledged
9-18
Configuring and Monitoring Port Security
Reading Intrusion Alerts and Resetting Alert Flags
(by resetting the alert flag). The other entries give you a history of past
intrusions detected on port A1.
Figure 9-8. Example of Multiple Intrusion Log Entries for the Same Port
The log shows the most recent intrusion at the top of the listing. You cannot
delete Intrusion Log entries (unless you reset the switch to its factory-default
configuration). Instead, if the log is filled when the switch detects a new
intrusion, the oldest entry is dropped off the listing and the newest entry
appears at the top of the listing.
Keeping the Intrusion Log Current by Resetting Alert
Flags
When a violation occurs on a port, an alert flag is set for that port and the
violation is entered in the Intrusion Log. The switch can detect and handle
subsequent intrusions on that port, but will not log another intrusion on the
port until you reset the alert flag for either all ports or for the individual port.
Note on
Send-Disable
Operation
On a given port, if the intrusion action is to send an SNMP trap and then disable
the port (send-disable), and then an intruder is detected on the port, the switch
sends an SNMP trap, sets the port’s alert flag, and disables the port. If you reenable the port without resetting the port’s alert flag, then the port operates
as follows:
■
The port comes up and will block traffic from unauthorized devices
it detects.
■
If the port detects another intruder, it will send another SNMP trap,
but will not become disabled again unless you first reset the port’s
intrusion flag.
This operation enables the port to continue passing traffic for authorized
devices while you locate and eliminate the intruder. Otherwise, the presence
of an intruder could cause the switch to repeatedly disable the port.
9-19
Configuring and Monitoring Port Security
Reading Intrusion Alerts and Resetting Alert Flags
Menu: Checking for Intrusions, Listing Intrusion Alerts, and
Resetting Alert Flags
The menu interface indicates per-port intrusions in the Port Status screen, and
provides details and the reset function in the Intrusion Log screen.
1.
From the Main Menu select:
1. Status and Counters
4. Port Status
The Intrusion Alert
column shows “Yes”
for any port on which
a security violation
has been detected.
Figure 9-9. Example of Port Status Screen with Intrusion Alert on Port A3
2.
Type [I] (Intrusion log) to display the Intrusion Log.
MAC Address of
Intruding Device
on Port A3
System Time of Intrusion on Port A3
Indicates this intrusion on port A3
occurred prior to a reset (reboot) at
the indicated time and date.
Figure 9-10. Example of the Intrusion Log Display
9-20
Configuring and Monitoring Port Security
Reading Intrusion Alerts and Resetting Alert Flags
The above example shows two intrusions for port A3 and one intrusion
for port A1. In this case, only the most recent intrusion at port A3 has not
been acknowledged (reset). This is indicated by the following:
•
Because the Port Status screen (figure 9-9 on page 9-20) does not
indicate an intrusion for port A1, the alert flag for the intrusion
on port A1 has already been reset.
•
Since the switch can show only one uncleared intrusion per port,
the older intrusion for port A3 in this example has also been
previously reset.
(The intrusion log holds up to 20 intrusion records and deletes an
intrusion record only when the log becomes full and a new intrusion
is subsequently detected.)
Note also that the “prior to” text in the record for the earliest intrusion
means that a switch reset occurred at the indicated time and that the
intrusion occurred prior to the reset.
3.
To acknowledge the most recent intrusion entry on port A3 and enable
the switch to enter a subsequently detected intrusion on this port, type
[R] (for Reset alert flags). (Note that if there are unacknowledged intrusions on two or more ports, this step resets the alert flags for all such
ports.)
If you then re-display the port status screen, you will see that the Intrusion
Alert entry for port A3 has changed to “No”. That is, your evidence that the
Intrusion Alert flag has been acknowledged (reset) is that the Intrusion Alert
column in the port status display no longer shows “Yes” for the port on which
the intrusion occurred (port A3 in this example). (Because the Intrusion Log
provides a history of the last 20 intrusions detected by the switch, resetting
the alert flags does not change its content. Thus, displaying the Intrusion Log
again will result in the same display as in figure 9-10, above.)
9-21
Configuring and Monitoring Port Security
Reading Intrusion Alerts and Resetting Alert Flags
CLI: Checking for Intrusions, Listing Intrusion Alerts, and
Resetting Alert Flags
The following commands display port status, including whether there are
intrusion alerts for any port(s), list the last 20 intrusions, and either reset the
alert flag on all ports or for a specific port for which an intrusion was detected.
(The record of the intrusion remains in the log. For more information, refer
to “Operating Notes for Port Security” on page 9-25.)
Syntax: show interfaces brief
List intrusion alert status (and other port status information)’.
show port-security intrusion-log
List intrusion log content.
clear intrusion-flags
Clear intrusion flags on all ports.
port-security [e] < port-number > clear-intrusion-flag
Clear the intrusion flag on one or more specific ports.
In the following example, executing show interfaces brief lists the switch’s port
status, which indicates an intrusion alert on port A1.
Intrusion Alert on port A1.
Figure 9-11. Example of an Unacknowledged Intrusion Alert in a Port Status Display
If you wanted to see the details of the intrusion, you would then enter the show
port-security intrusion-log command. For example:
9-22
Configuring and Monitoring Port Security
Reading Intrusion Alerts and Resetting Alert Flags
Dates and Times of
Intrusions
MAC Address of latest
Intruder on Port A1
Earlier intrusions on port
A1 that have already been
cleared (that is, the Alert
Flag has been reset at
least twice before the
most recent intrusion
occurred.
Figure 9-12. Example of the Intrusion Log with Multiple Entries for the Same Port
The above example shows three intrusions for port A1. Since the switch can
show only one uncleared intrusion per port, the older two intrusions in this
example have already been cleared by earlier use of the clear intrusion-log or
the port-security < port-list > clear-intrusion-flag command. (The intrusion log
holds up to 20 intrusion records, and deletes intrusion records only when the
log becomes full and new intrusions are subsequently added.) The “prior to”
text in the record for the third intrusion means that a switch reset occurred
at the indicated time and that the intrusion occurred prior to the reset.
To clear the intrusion from port A1 and enable the switch to enter any
subsequent intrusion for port A1 in the Intrusion Log, execute the port-security
clear-intrusion-flag command. If you then re-display the port status screen, you
will see that the Intrusion Alert entry for port A1 has changed to “No”.
(Executing show port-security intrusion-log again will result in the same display
as above, and does not include the Intrusion Alert status.)
ProCurve(config)# port-security a1 clear-intrusion-flag
ProCurve(config)# show interfaces brief
Intrusion Alert on port A1 is now cleared.
Figure 9-13. Example of Port Status Screen After Alert Flags Reset
For more on clearing intrusions, see “Note on Send-Disable Operation” on
page 9-19.
9-23
Configuring and Monitoring Port Security
Reading Intrusion Alerts and Resetting Alert Flags
Using the Event Log To Find Intrusion Alerts
The Event Log lists port security intrusions as:
W MM/DD/YY HH:MM:SS FFI: port A3 - Security Violation
where “W” is the severity level of the log entry and FFI is the system module
that generated the entry. For further information, display the Intrusion Log,
as shown below.
From the CLI. Type the log command from the Manager or Configuration
level.
Syntax:
log [search-text ]
For search-text , you can use ffi, security, or violation. For example:
Log Command with “security”
for Search String
Log Listing with
Security Violation
Detected
Log Listing with No
Security Violation
Detected
Figure 9-14. Example of Log Listing With and Without Detected Security Violations
From the Menu Interface: In the Main Menu, click on 4. Event Log and use
Next page and Prev page to review the Event Log contents.
For More Event Log Information. See “Using the Event Log To Identify
Problem Sources” in the “Troubleshooting” chapter of the Management and
Configuration Guide for your switch.
9-24
Configuring and Monitoring Port Security
Operating Notes for Port Security
Web: Checking for Intrusions, Listing Intrusion Alerts,
and Resetting Alert Flags
1.
Check the Alert Log by clicking on the Status tab and the [Overview]
button. If there is a “Security Violation” entry, do the following:
a.
Click on the Security tab.
b. Click on [Intrusion Log]. “Ports with Intrusion Flag” indicates any ports
for which the alert flag has not been cleared.
c.
To clear the current alert flags, click on [Reset Alert Flags].
To access the web-based Help provided for the switch, click on [?] in the web
browser screen.
Operating Notes for Port Security
Identifying the IP Address of an Intruder. The Intrusion Log lists
detected intruders by MAC address. Proxy Web Servers
If you are using the switch’s web browser interface through a switch port
configured for Static port security, and your browser access is through a proxy
web server, then it is necessary to do the following:
■
Enter your PC or workstation MAC address in the port’s Authorized
Addresses list.
■
Enter your PC or workstation’s IP address in the switch’s IP Authorized Managers list. See chapter 10, “Using Authorized IP Managers”.)
Without both of the above configured, the switch detects only the proxy
server’s MAC address, and not your PC or workstation MAC address, and
interprets your connection as unauthorized.
“Prior To” Entries in the Intrusion Log. If you reset the switch (using the
Reset button, Device Reset, or Reboot Switch), the Intrusion Log will list the
time of all currently logged intrusions as “prior to” the time of the reset.
Alert Flag Status for Entries Forced Off of the Intrusion Log. If the
Intrusion Log is full of entries for which the alert flags have not been reset, a
new intrusion will cause the oldest entry to drop off the list, but will not change
9-25
Configuring and Monitoring Port Security
Operating Notes for Port Security
the alert flag status for the port referenced in the dropped entry. This means
that, even if an entry is forced off of the Intrusion Log, no new intrusions can
be logged on the port referenced in that entry until you reset the alert flags.
LACP Not Available on Ports Configured for Port Security. To maintain security, LACP is not allowed on ports configured for port security. If you
configure port security on a port on which LACP (active or passive) is
configured, the switch removes the LACP configuration, displays a notice that
LACP is disabled on the port(s), and enables port security on that port. For
example:
ProCurve(config)# port-security e a17 learn-mode static
address-limit 2
LACP has been disabled on secured port(s).
ProCurve(config)#
The switch will not allow you to configure LACP on a port on which port
security is enabled. For example:
ProCurve(config)# int e a17 lacp passive
Error configuring port A17: LACP and port security cannot
be run together.
ProCurve(config)#
To restore LACP to the port, you must remove port security and re-enable
LACP active or passive.
9-26
Configuring and Monitoring Port Security
Configuring Protected Ports
Configuring Protected Ports
There are situations where you want to provide internet access to users but
prevent them from accessing each other. To achieve this control, you can use
the protected-ports command. The command applies per-port, and filters the
outbound traffic from a port. This allows the configuration of two port groups
on a switch—protected ports and unprotected ports. The ports have these
characteristics:
■
Traffic from protected ports is not forwarded to other protected ports.
■
Protected ports can communicate with unprotected ports, but not
with each other.
■
Unprotected ports can communicate with all ports.
■
The protected-ports command applies to logical ports (trunks as well
as untrunked ports)
Syntax:
[no] protected-ports <port-list>
Prevents the selected ports from communicating with each
other.
Default: All ports unprotected.
no protected-ports all
Clears the protection from all ports; all ports can now communicate with each other.
ProCurve(config)# protected-ports 4-5
Figure 9-15. Example of Protected Ports Command for Ports 4 and 5
To display information about which ports have been configured as protected
ports, enter this command:
ProCurve(config)# show protected-ports
9-27
Configuring and Monitoring Port Security
Configuring Protected Ports
ProCurve(config)# show protected-ports
Protected-ports : 4-5
Unprotected-ports: 1-3,6-26
Figure 9-16. Example Showing Protected Ports and Unprotected Ports
If you display the running config file (show running-config) you will see the
ports that have been selected as protected ports.
ProCurve(config)# show running-config
Running configuration:
; J9019A Configuration Editor; Created on release #Q.11.XX
hostname "ProCurve Switch 2510-24"
snmp-server community "public" Unrestricted
vlan 1
name "DEFAULT_VLAN"
untagged 1-26
ip address dhcp-bootp
exit
Protected ports
protected-ports 4-5
Figure 9-17. Example of Running Config File Showing Protected Ports
In the example in Figure 9-18, ports 1 through 8 are protected. Port 2 connects
to Room 2 and Port 4 connects to Room 4. Ports 9 and 10 are unprotected and
provide access to the internet. Ports 2 and 4 are able to access the internet,
but are not able to communicate with each other or any of the other rooms
that are connected to protected ports.
Protected
1
2
Room 2
3
4
Room 4
5
Unprotected
6
7
8
9
10
Switch/Router or
Internet
Figure 9-18. Example With Ports 1-8 Protected and Ports 9 and 10 Unprotected
9-28
Ports 1-8 are protected
and cannot
communicate with each
other. They can only
communicate with the
unprotected ports 9 and
10.
10
Using Authorized IP Managers
Contents
Overview . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10-2
Configuration Options . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10-3
Access Levels . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10-3
Defining Authorized Management Stations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10-4
Overview of IP Mask Operation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10-4
Menu: Viewing and Configuring IP Authorized Managers . . . . . . . . . 10-5
CLI: Viewing and Configuring Authorized IP Managers . . . . . . . . . . . 10-6
Web: Configuring IP Authorized Managers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10-9
Building IP Masks . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10-9
Configuring One Station Per Authorized Manager IP Entry . . . . . . . 10-9
Configuring Multiple Stations Per Authorized Manager IP Entry . . 10-10
Additional Examples for Authorizing Multiple Stations . . . . . . . . . 10-12
Operating Notes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10-12
10-1
Using Authorized IP Managers
Overview
Overview
Authorized IP Manager Features
Feature
Default
Menu
CLI
Web
Listing (Showing) Authorized
Managers
n/a
page 10-5
page 10-6
page 10-9
Configuring Authorized IP
Managers
None
page 10-5
page 10-6
page 10-9
Building IP Masks
n/a
page 10-9
page 10-9
page 10-9
Operating and Troubleshooting
Notes
n/a
page 10-12 page 10-12 page 10-12
The Authorized IP Managers feature uses IP addresses and masks to determine which stations (PCs or workstations) can access the switch through the
network. This covers access through the following means:
– Telnet and other terminal emulation applications
– The switch’s web browser interface
– SNMP (with a correct community name)
Also, when configured in the switch, the Authorized IP Managers feature takes
precedence over local passwords, TACACS+, RADIUS, Port-Based Access
Control (802.1X), and Port Security. This means that the IP address of a
networked management device must be authorized before the switch will
attempt to authenticate the device by invoking other access security features.
If the Authorized IP Managers feature disallows access to the device, then
access is denied. Thus, with authorized IP managers configured, having the
correct passwords is not sufficient for accessing the switch through the
network unless the station attempting access is also included in the switch’s
Authorized IP Managers configuration.
You can use Authorized IP Managers along with other access security features
to provide a more comprehensive security fabric than if you use only one or
two security options. Refer to table 1-1, “Management Access Security Protection” (page 1-4) for a listing of access security features with the security
coverage they provide.
10-2
Using Authorized IP Managers
Access Levels
Configuration Options
You can configure:
Caution
■
Up to 10 authorized manager addresses, where each address applies
to either a single management station or a group of stations
■
Manager or Operator access privileges (for Telnet, SNMPv1, and
SNMPv2c access only)
Configuring Authorized IP Managers does not protect access to the switch
through a modem or direct connection to the Console (RS-232) port. Also, if
an authorized station "spoofs" an authorized IP address, it can gain management access to the switch even though a duplicate IP address condition exists.
For these reasons, you should enhance your network’s security by keeping
physical access to the switch restricted to authorized personnel, using the
username/password and other security features available in the switch, and
preventing unauthorized access to data on your management stations.
Access Levels
Note
The Authorized IP Manager feature can assign an access level to stations using
Telnet, SNMPv1, or SNMPv2c for switch access. The access level the switch
allows for authorized stations using SSH, SNMPv3, or the web browser
interface is determined by the access application itself, and not by the Authorized IP Manager feature.
For each authorized manager address using Telnet, SNMPv1, or SNMPv2c, you
can configure either of these access levels:
■
Manager: Enables full access to all web browser and console interface screens for viewing, configuration, and all other operations
available in these interfaces.
■
Operator: Allows read-only access from the web browser and
console interfaces. (This is the same access that is allowed by the
switch’s operator-level password feature.)
10-3
Using Authorized IP Managers
Defining Authorized Management Stations
Defining Authorized Management
Stations
■
Authorizing Single Stations: The table entry authorizes a single
management station to have IP access to the switch. To use this
method, just enter the IP address of an authorized management
station in the Authorized Manager IP column, and leave the IP Mask
set to 255.255.255.255. This is the easiest way to use the Authorized
Managers feature. (For more on this topic, see “Configuring One
Station Per Authorized Manager IP Entry” on page 10-9.)
■
Authorizing Multiple Stations: The table entry uses the IP Mask
to authorize access to the switch from a defined group of stations.
This is useful if you want to easily authorize several stations to have
access to the switch without having to type an entry for every station.
All stations in the group defined by the one Authorized Manager IP
table entry and its associated IP mask will have the same access
level—Manager or Operator. (For more on this topic, refer to “Configuring Multiple Stations Per Authorized Manager IP Entry” on page
10-10.)
To configure the switch for authorized manager access, enter the appropriate
Authorized Manager IP value, specify an IP Mask, and select either Manager
or Operator for the Access Level. The IP Mask determines how the Authorized
Manager IP value is used to allow or deny access to the switch by a management station.
Overview of IP Mask Operation
The default IP Mask is 255.255.255.255 and allows switch access only to a
station having an IP address that is identical to the Authorized Manager IP
parameter value. (“255” in an octet of the mask means that only the exact value
in the corresponding octet of the Authorized Manager IP parameter is allowed
in the IP address of an authorized management station.) However, you can
alter the mask and the Authorized Manager IP parameter to specify ranges of
authorized IP addresses.
For example, a mask of 255.255.255.0 and any value for the Authorized Manager
IP parameter allows a range of 0 through 255 in the 4th octet of the authorized
IP address, which enables a block of up to 254 IP addresses for IP management
access (excluding 0 for the network and 255 for broadcasts). A mask of
10-4
Using Authorized IP Managers
Defining Authorized Management Stations
255.255.255.252 uses the 4th octet of a given Authorized Manager IP address to
authorize four IP addresses for management station access. The details on
how to use IP masks are provided under “Building IP Masks” on page 10-9.
Note
The IP Mask is a method for recognizing whether a given IP address is
authorized for management access to the switch. This mask serves a different
purpose than IP subnet masks and is applied in a different manner.
Menu: Viewing and Configuring IP Authorized
Managers
From the console Main Menu, select:
2. Switch Configuration …
7. IP Authorized Managers
1. Select Add to add an authorized manager
to the list.
Figure 10-1. Example of How To Add an Authorized Manager Entry
10-5
Using Authorized IP Managers
Defining Authorized Management Stations
2. Enter an Authorized Manager IP address here.
3. Use the default mask to allow access by one
management device, or edit the mask to allow
access by a block of management devices. See
“Building IP Masks” on page 10-9.
4. Use the Space bar to select Manager or Operator
access.
5. Press [Enter], then [S] (for Save) to configure the
IP Authorized Manager entry.
Applies only to access through Telnet, SNMPv1,
and SNMPv2c. Refer to the Note on page 10-3.
Figure 10-2. Example of How To Add an Authorized Manager Entry (Continued)
Editing or Deleting an Authorized Manager Entry. Go to the IP Managers List screen (figure 10-1), highlight the desired entry, and press [E] (for Edit)
or [D] (for Delete).
CLI: Viewing and Configuring Authorized IP Managers
Authorized IP Managers Commands Used in This Section
Command
Page
show ip authorized-managers
below
ip authorized-managers
10-7
<ip-address>
10-8
<ip-mask-bits>
10-8
[access <operator | manager>]
Listing the Switch’s Current Authorized IP Manager(s)
Use the show ip authorized-managers command to list IP stations authorized to
access the switch. For example:
10-6
Using Authorized IP Managers
Defining Authorized Management Stations
Figure 10-3. Example of the Show IP Authorized-Manager Display
The above example shows an Authorized IP Manager List that allows stations
to access the switch as shown below:
IP Mask
Authorized Station IP Address:
Access Mode:
255.255.255.252
10.28.227.100 through 103
Manager
255.255.255.254
10.28.227.104 through 105
Manager
255.255.255.255
10.28.227.125
Manager
255.255.255.0
10.28.227.0 through 255
Operator
Configuring IP Authorized Managers for the Switch
Syntax: ip authorized-managers < ip address >
Configures one or more authorized IP addresses.
[< ip-mask-bits >]
Configures the IP mask for < ip address >
[access < operator | manager >]
Configures the privilege level for < ip address >.
Applies only to access through Telnet, SNMPv1, and
SNMPv2c. Refer to the Note on page 11-3.
To Authorize Manager Access. This command authorizes manager-level
access for any station having an IP address of 10.28.227.0 through
10.28.227.255:
ProCurve(config)# ip authorized-managers 10.28.227.101
255.255.255.0 access manager
10-7
Using Authorized IP Managers
Defining Authorized Management Stations
Similarly, the next command authorizes manager-level access for any station
having an IP address of 10.28.227.101 through 103:
ProCurve(config)# ip authorized-managers 10.28.227.101
255.255.255.252 access manager
If you omit the <mask bits> when adding a new authorized manager, the switch
automatically uses 255.255.255.255 for the mask. If you do not specify either
Manager or Operator access, the switch automatically assigns the Manager
access. For example:
Omitting a mask in the ip authorized-managers command results in a default mask of 255.255.255.255, which authorizes
only the specified station. Refer to “Configuring Multiple Stations Per Authorized Manager IP Entry” on page 10-10.
Figure 10-4. Example of Specifying an IP Authorized Manager with the Default Mask
To Edit an Existing Manager Access Entry. To change the mask or
access level for an existing entry, use the entry’s IP address and enter the new
value(s). (Notice that any parameters not included in the command will be set
to their default.):
ProCurve(config)# ip authorized-managers
10.28.227.101 255.255.255.0 access operator
The above command replaces the existing mask and access level for IP
address 10.28.227.101 with 255.255.255.0 and operator.
The following command replaces the existing mask and access level for IP
address 10.28.227.101 with 255.255.255.255 and manager (the
defaults) because the command does not specify either of these parameters.
ProCurve(config)# ip authorized-managers 10.28.227.101
To Delete an Authorized Manager Entry. This command uses the IP
address of the authorized manager you want to delete:
ProCurve(config)# no ip authorized-managers 10.28.227.101
10-8
Using Authorized IP Managers
Web: Configuring IP Authorized Managers
Web: Configuring IP Authorized Managers
In the web browser interface you can configure IP Authorized Managers as
described below.
To Add, Modify, or Delete an IP Authorized Manager address:
1.
Click on the Security tab.
2.
Click on [Authorized Addresses].
3.
Enter the appropriate parameter settings for the operation you want.
4.
Click on [Add], [Replace], or [Delete] to implement the configuration
change.
For web-based help on how to use the web browser interface screen, click on
the [?] button provided on the web browser screen.
Building IP Masks
The IP Mask parameter controls how the switch uses an Authorized Manager
IP value to recognize the IP addresses of authorized manager stations on your
network.
Configuring One Station Per Authorized Manager IP
Entry
This is the easiest way to apply a mask. If you have ten or fewer management
and/or operator stations, you can configure them quickly by simply adding the
address of each to the Authorized Manager IP list with 255.255.255.255 for the
corresponding mask. For example, as shown in Figure 10-3 on page 10-7, if
you configure an IP address of 10.28.227.125 with an IP mask of 255.255.255.255,
only a station with an IP address of 10.28.227.125 has management access to
the switch.
10-9
Using Authorized IP Managers
Building IP Masks
Table 10-1. Analysis of IP Mask for Single-Station Entries
1st
Octet
2nd
Octet
3rd
Octet
4th
Octet
Manager-Level or Operator-Level Device Access
IP Mask
255
255
255
255
Authorized
Manager IP
10
28
227
125
The “255” in each octet of the mask specifies that only the exact value in
that octet of the corresponding IP address is allowed. This mask allows
management access only to a station having an IP address of 10.33.248.5.
Configuring Multiple Stations Per Authorized Manager
IP Entry
The mask determines whether the IP address of a station on the network meets
the criteria you specify. That is, for a given Authorized Manager entry, the
switch applies the IP mask to the IP address you specify to determine a range
of authorized IP addresses for management access. As described above, that
range can be as small as one IP address (if 255 is set for all octets in the mask),
or can include multiple IP addresses (if one or more octets in the mask are set
to less than 255).
If a bit in an octet of the mask is “on” (set to 1), then the corresponding bit in
the IP address of a potentially authorized station must match the same bit in
the IP address you entered in the Authorized Manager IP list. Conversely, if a
bit in an octet of the mask is “off” (set to 0), then the corresponding bit in the
IP address of a potentially authorized station on the network does not have to
match its counterpart in the IP address you entered in the Authorized Manager
IP list. Thus, in the example shown above, a “255” in an IP Mask octet (all bits
in the octet are “on”) means only one value is allowed for that octet—the value
you specify in the corresponding octet of the Authorized Manager IP list. A “0”
(all bits in the octet are “off”) means that any value from 0 to 255 is allowed
in the corresponding octet in the IP address of an authorized station. You can
also specify a series of values that are a subset of the 0-255 range by using a
value that is greater than 0, but less than 255.
10-10
Using Authorized IP Managers
Building IP Masks
Table 10-2. Analysis of IP Mask for Multiple-Station Entries
1st
Octet
2nd
Octet
3rd
Octet
4th
Octet
Manager-Level or Operator-Level Device Access
The “255” in the first three octets of the mask specify that only the exact
value in the octet of the corresponding IP address is allowed. However,
the zero (0) in the 4th octet of the mask allows any value between 0 and
255 in that octet of the corresponding IP address. This mask allows switch
access to any device having an IP address of 10.28.227.xxx, where xxx is
any value from 0 to 255.
IP Mask
255
255
255
0
Authorized
Manager IP
10
28
227
125
IP Mask
255
255
255
249
Authorized
IP Address
10
28
227
125
In this example (figure 10-5, below), the IP mask allows a group of up to
4 management stations to access the switch. This is useful if the only
devices in the IP address group allowed by the mask are management
stations. The “249” in the 4th octet means that bits 0 and 3 - 7 of the 4th
octet are fixed. Conversely, bits 1 and 2 of the 4th octet are variable. Any
value that matches the authorized IP address settings for the fixed bits is
allowed for the purposes of IP management station access to the switch.
Thus, any management station having an IP address of 10.28.227.121, 123,
125, or 127 can access the switch.
4th Octet of IP Mask:
249
4th Octet of Authorized IP Address: 5
Bit Numbers Bit
7
Bit
6
Bit
5
Bit
4
Bit
3
Bit
2
Bit
1
Bit
0
Bit Values
64
32
16
8
4
2
1
4th Octet of
IP Mask (249)
4th Octet of
IP Authorized
Address (125)
128
Bits 1 and 2 in the mask are “off”, and bits 0 and 3
- 7 are “on”, creating a value of 249 in the 4th octet.
Where a mask bit is “on”, the corresponding bit
setting in the address of a potentially authorized
station must match the IP Authorized Address
setting for that same bit. Where a mask bit is “off”
the corresponding bit setting in the address can be
either “on” or “off”. In this example, in order for a
station to be authorized to access the switch:
• The first three octets of the station’s IP address
must match the Authorized IP Address.
• Bit 0 and Bits 3 through 6 of the 4th octet in the
station’s address must be “on” (value = 1).
• Bit 7 of the 4th octet in the station’s address
must be “off” (value = 0).
• Bits 1 and 2 can be either “on” or “off”.
This means that stations with the IP address
13.28.227.X (where X is 121, 123, 125, or 127) are
authorized.
Figure 10-5. Example of How the Bitmap in the IP Mask Defines Authorized Manager Addresses
10-11
Using Authorized IP Managers
Operating Notes
Additional Examples for Authorizing Multiple Stations
Entries for Authorized Results
Manager List
IP Mask
255 255 0
Authorized
Manager IP
10
33
255
248 1
IP Mask
255 238 255 250
Authorized
Manager IP
10
This combination specifies an authorized IP address of 10.33.xxx.1. It could be
applied, for example, to a subnetted network where each subnet is defined by the
third octet and includes a management station defined by the value of “1” in the
fourth octet of the station’s IP address.
Allows 230, 231, 246, and 247 in the 2nd octet, and 194, 195, 198, 199 in the 4th octet.
247 100 195
Operating Notes
10-12
■
Network Security Precautions: You can enhance your network’s
security by keeping physical access to the switch restricted to authorized personnel, using the password features built into the switch,
using the additional security features described in this manual, and
preventing unauthorized access to data on your management stations.
■
Modem and Direct Console Access: Configuring authorized IP
managers does not protect against access to the switch through a
modem or direct Console (RS-232) port connection.
■
Duplicate IP Addresses: If the IP address configured in an authorized management station is also configured (or "spoofed") in another
station, the other station can gain management access to the switch
even though a duplicate IP address condition exists.
■
Web Proxy Servers: If you use the web browser interface to access
the switch from an authorized IP manager station, it is recommended
that you avoid the use of a web proxy server in the path between the
station and the switch. This is because switch access through a web
proxy server requires that you first add the web proxy server to the
Authorized Manager IP list. This reduces security by opening switch
access to anyone who uses the web proxy server. The following two
options outline how to eliminate a web proxy server from the path
between a station and the switch:
Using Authorized IP Managers
Operating Notes
•
•
Even if you need proxy server access enabled in order to use
other applications, you can still eliminate proxy service for web
access to the switch. To do so, add the IP address or DNS name
of the switch to the non-proxy, or “Exceptions” list in the web
browser interface you are using on the authorized station.
If you don’t need proxy server access at all on the authorized
station, then just disable the proxy server feature in the station’s
web browser interface.
10-13
Using Authorized IP Managers
Operating Notes
10-14
Index
Numerics
3DES … 6-3, 7-3
802.1X
See port-based access control. … 8-1
802.1X access control
authentication methods … 8-3
authentication, client-based … 8-3
authenticator … 8-16
client-based
access … 8-3
See also port based
client authentication … 8-3
client limit … 8-2, 8-3, 8-40
client-limit, enable … 8-17
clients use same VLAN … 8-26
convert to port-based … 8-18
enable … 8-17, 8-41
limit … 8-3
tagged VLAN … 8-3
VLAN … 8-32
client-based vs. port-based … 8-13
client-limit, no … 8-18
control all clients … 8-12
convert to port-based … 8-18
displaying 802.1X port configuration … 8-48
multiple clients, same VLAN … 8-3
open port … 8-3
open VLAN
status … 8-48
overview … 8-2
port-based
enable … 8-41
return to … 8-17
See also client-based.
unauthorized client risk … 8-4
port-security use … 8-4
RADIUS … 8-2
unauthorized-Client VLAN, multiple
clients … 8-32
VLAN
unauthorized-client, best use … 8-32
untagged … 8-26
untagged membership … 8-18
802.1x access control
authenticate users … 8-4
authenticator … 8-17
unblock port … 8-4
authorized-client VLAN, defined … 8-6
auth-vid … 8-21
auto … 8-19
clear-statistics … 8-24
control command … 8-19
EAPOL … 8-7
force authorized … 8-19
force unauthorized … 8-19
guest VLAN … 8-6, 8-7
initialize … 8-24
logoff-period … 8-21
max-requests … 8-20
MD5 … 8-6
port-based
access … 8-3
client without authentication … 8-4
enable … 8-17
latest client, effect … 8-4
multiple client access … 8-4
multiple clients authenticating … 8-4
no client limit … 8-3
open port … 8-3
operation … 8-4
recommended use … 8-4
single client authenticates … 8-4
tagged VLAN membership … 8-4
untagged VLAN membership … 8-4, 8-26
quiet-period … 8-20
reauthenticate … 8-24
reauth-period … 8-21
server-timeout … 8-20
supplicant-timeout … 8-20
terminology … 8-6
tx-period … 8-20
unauthorized … 8-19
unauthorized-client VLAN, defined … 8-7
unauth-vid … 8-21
VLAN
unauthorized-client,
on
different
Index – 1
ports … 8-33
untagged … 8-26
VLAN use, multiple clients … 8-6
connection inactivity time … 2-3
console, for configuring
authorized IP managers … 10-5
A
D
aaa authentication … 4-8
aaa port-access
See Web or MAC Authentication.
access levels, authorized IP managers … 10-3
accounting
See RADIUS.
address
authorized for port security … 9-3
authentication
See TACACS.
authorized addresses
for IP management security … 10-4
for port security … 9-3
authorized IP managers
access levels … 10-3
building IP masks … 10-9
configuring in browser interface … 10-7, 10-9
configuring in console … 10-5
definitions of single and multiple … 10-4
effect of duplicate IP addresses … 10-12
IP mask for multiple stations … 10-10
IP mask for single station … 10-9
IP mask operation … 10-4
operating notes … 10-12
overview … 10-1
precedence over other security … 10-2
troubleshooting … 10-12
DES … 6-3, 7-3
disclaimer … 1-ii
duplicate IP address
effect on authorized IP managers … 10-12
C
certificate
CA-signed … 7-4
root … 7-4
self-signed … 7-4
Clear button
to delete password protection … 2-5
configuration
port security … 9-5
RADIUS
See RADIUS.
SSH
See SSH.
2 – Index
E
event log
intrusion alerts … 9-24
G
guest VLAN … 8-6, 8-7
GVRP, static VLAN not advertised … 8-56
I
inconsistent value, message … 9-15
intrusion alarms
entries dropped from log … 9-25
event log … 9-24
prior to … 9-25
Intrusion Log
prior to … 9-21, 9-23
IP
authorized IP managers … 10-1
reserved port numbers … 6-17
IP masks
building … 10-9
for multiple authorized manager
stations … 10-10
for single authorized manager station … 10-9
operation … 10-4
K
kill command … 6-11
L
LACP
802.1X not allowed … 8-12, 8-16, 8-57
M
MAC Authentication
authenticator operation … 3-5
blocked traffic … 3-4
CHAP
defined … 3-9
usage … 3-4
client status … 3-30
configuration commands … 3-23
configuring
on the switch … 3-22
switch for RADIUS access … 3-15
the RADIUS server … 3-14
features … 3-4
general setup … 3-12
LACP not allowed … 3-11
rules of operation … 3-10
show status and configuration … 3-28
terminology … 3-9
manager password … 2-2, 2-4
manager password recommended … 4-7
MD5
See RADIUS.
message
inconsistent value … 9-15
O
open VLAN mode
See port access control
OpenSSH … 6-3
OpenSSL … 7-2
operating notes
authorized IP managers … 10-12
port security … 9-25
operator password … 2-2, 2-4
P
password
authorized IP managers, precedence … 10-2
browser/console access … 2-3
case-sensitive … 2-4
caution … 2-3
delete … 2-4
deleting with the Clear button … 2-5
if you lose the password … 2-5
incorrect … 2-3
length … 2-4
operator only, caution … 2-3
pair … 2-2
setting … 2-4
password pair … 2-2
password security … 6-18
port
security configuration … 9-2
port access
client limit … 8-17, 8-18
concurrent … 8-17, 8-18
See also 802.1X access control.
Web/MAC … 8-17, 8-18
port security
authorized address definition … 9-3
authorized IP managers, precedence … 10-2
basic operation … 9-2
configuring … 9-5
configuring in browser interface … 9-17, 9-25
event log … 9-24
notice of security violations … 9-17
operating notes … 9-25
overview … 9-2
prior to … 9-25
proxy web server … 9-25
port-based access control
authenticate switch … 8-5
authenticate users … 8-4
authenticator backend state … 8-46
authenticator operation … 8-11
authenticator, show commands … 8-46
authorized IP managers, precedence … 10-2
block traffic … 8-3
blocking non-802.1X device … 8-40
CHAP … 8-2
chap-radius … 8-22
configuration commands … 8-16
configuration overview … 8-14
configuration, displaying … 8-46
configuring method … 8-22
counters … 8-46
EAP … 8-2
eap-radius … 8-22
enabling on ports … 8-16
enabling on switch … 8-23
features … 8-2
general setup … 8-13
GVRP effect … 8-56
Index – 3
LACP not allowed … 8-57
local … 8-22
local username and password … 8-3
messages … 8-57
open VLAN
authorized client … 8-27
configuration … 8-34, 8-36
general operation … 8-25
mode … 8-25
operating notes … 8-37
operating rules … 8-30
PVID, no … 8-49
security breach … 8-37
set up … 8-33
status, viewing … 8-49
suspended VLAN … 8-50
unauthorized client … 8-27
use models … 8-27
VLAN, after authentication … 8-27, 8-31,
8-38
VLAN, tagged … 8-25, 8-27, 8-28, 8-31, 8-37,
8-38, 8-51
operation … 8-9
port-security, with 802.1X … 8-39
RADIUS host IP address … 8-23
rules of operation … 8-11
See 802.1x access control.
show commands … 8-46
show commands, supplicant … 8-52
statistics … 8-46
supplicant operation … 8-11
supplicant operation, switch-port … 8-10
supplicant state … 8-52
supplicant statistics, note … 8-52
supplicant, configuring … 8-41
supplicant, configuring switch port … 8-43
supplicant, enabling … 8-43
switch username and password … 8-3
troubleshooting, gvrp … 8-53
used with port-security … 8-39
VLAN operation … 8-53
ports, protected … 9-27
prior to … 9-21, 9-23, 9-25
Privacy Enhanced Mode (PEM)
See SSH.
protected ports … 9-27
configuring … 9-27
logical ports … 9-27
4 – Index
show … 9-27
show running config … 9-28
proxy
web server … 9-25
Q
quick start … 1-8
R
RADIUS
accounting … 5-2, 5-17
accounting, configuration outline … 5-19
accounting, configure server access … 5-20
accounting, configure types on switch … 5-22
accounting, exec … 5-18, 5-22
accounting, interim updating … 5-24
accounting, network … 5-22
accounting, operating rules … 5-19
accounting, server failure … 5-19
accounting, session-blocking … 5-24
accounting, start-stop method … 5-23
accounting, statistics terms … 5-27
accounting, stop-only method … 5-23
accounting, system … 5-18, 5-22
authentication options … 5-2
authentication, local … 5-16
authorized IP managers, precedence … 10-2
bypass RADIUS server … 5-9
commands, accounting … 5-17
commands, switch … 5-6
configuration outline … 5-7
configure server access … 5-10
configuring switch global parameters … 5-12
general setup … 5-5
local authentication … 5-9
MD5 … 5-4
messages … 5-32
network accounting … 5-18
operating rules, switch … 5-4
security … 5-9
security note … 5-2
server access order … 5-19
server access order, changing … 5-30
servers, multiple … 5-13
show accounting … 5-29
show authentication … 5-28
SNMP access security not supported … 5-2
statistics, viewing … 5-25
terminology … 5-3
TLS … 5-4
Web browser authentication … 5-7
web-browser access controls … 5-17
web-browser security not supported … 5-2, 5-17
RADIUS accounting
See RADIUS.
reserved port numbers … 6-17, 7-20
messages, operating … 6-29
OpenSSH … 6-3
operating rules … 6-8
outbound SSH not secure … 6-8
password security … 6-18
password-only authentication … 6-18
passwords, assigning … 6-9
PEM … 6-4
prerequisites … 6-5
public key … 6-5, 6-13
public key, displaying … 6-14
reserved IP port numbers … 6-17
security … 6-18
SSHv1 … 6-2
SSHv2 … 6-2
stacking, security … 6-8
steps for configuring … 6-6
supported encryption methods … 6-3
switch key to client … 6-12
terminology … 6-4
unauthorized access … 6-20, 6-28
version … 6-2
zeroing a key … 6-11
zeroize … 6-11
S
security
authorized IP managers … 10-1
per port … 9-2
security violations
notices of … 9-17
security, password
See SSH.
setting a password … 2-4
setup screen … 1-8
SSH
authenticating switch to client … 6-3
authentication, client public key … 6-2
authentication, user password … 6-2
caution, restricting access … 6-20
caution, security … 6-18
CLI commands … 6-9
client behavior … 6-15, 6-16
client public-key authentication … 6-19, 6-23
client public-key, clearing … 6-27
client public-key, creating file … 6-24
client public-key, displaying … 6-26
configuring authentication … 6-18
crypto key … 6-11
disabling … 6-11
enable … 6-16, 7-19
enabling … 6-15
erase host key pair … 6-11
generate host key pair … 6-11
generating key pairs … 6-10
host key pair … 6-11
key, babble … 6-11
key, fingerprint … 6-11
keys, zeroing … 6-11
known-host file … 6-13, 6-15
man-in-the-middle spoofing … 6-16
SSL
CA-signed … 7-4, 7-15
CA-signed certificate … 7-4, 7-15
CLI commands … 7-7
client behavior … 7-17, 7-18
crypto key … 7-10
disabling … 7-9
enabling … 7-17
erase certificate key pair … 7-9
erase host key pair … 7-9
generate CA-signed certificate … 7-15
generate host key pair … 7-9
generate self-signed … 7-12
generate self-signed certificate … 7-9, 7-12
generate server host certificate … 7-9
generating Host Certificate … 7-8
host key pair … 7-9
key, babble … 7-12
key, fingerprint … 7-12
man-in-the-middle spoofing … 7-18
OpenSSL … 7-2
operating notes … 7-6
operating rules … 7-6
passwords, assigning … 7-7
Index – 5
prerequisites … 7-5
remove self-signed certificate … 7-9
remove server host certificate … 7-9
reserved TCP port numbers … 7-20
root … 7-4
root certificate … 7-4
self-signed … 7-4, 7-12
self-signed certificate … 7-4, 7-9, 7-12
server host certificate … 7-9
SSL server … 7-3
SSLv3 … 7-2
stacking, security … 7-6
steps for configuring … 7-5
supported encryption methods … 7-3
terminology … 7-3
TLSv1 … 7-2
troubleshooting, operating … 7-21
version … 7-2
zeroize … 7-10, 7-11
stacking
SSH security … 6-8
SSL security … 7-6
T
TACACS
aaa parameters … 4-12
authentication … 4-3
authentication process … 4-20
authentication, local … 4-22
authorized IP managers, effect … 4-25
authorized IP managers, precedence … 10-2
configuration, authentication … 4-11
configuration, encryption key … 4-19
configuration, server access … 4-15
configuration, timeout … 4-20
configuration, viewing … 4-10
encryption key … 4-6, 4-15, 4-16, 4-19
encryption key, general operation … 4-23
encryption key, global … 4-20
general operation … 4-2
IP address, server … 4-15
local manager password requirement … 4-26
messages … 4-25
NAS … 4-3
overview … 1-2
precautions … 4-5
preparing to configure … 4-8
6 – Index
preventing switch lockout … 4-15
privilege level code … 4-7
server access … 4-15
server priority … 4-18
setup, general … 4-5
show authentication … 4-8
system requirements … 4-5
TACACS+ server … 4-3
testing … 4-5
timeout … 4-15
troubleshooting … 4-6
unauthorized access, preventing … 4-7
web access, controlling … 4-24
web access, no effect on … 4-5
tacacs-server … 4-8
TCP
reserved port numbers … 7-20
TLS
See RADIUS.
troubleshooting
authorized IP managers … 10-12
trunk
LACP, 802.1X not allowed … 8-16
See also LACP.
U
user name
cleared … 2-5
V
value, inconsistent … 9-15
VLAN
802.1X … 8-53
802.1X, ID changes … 8-56
802.1X, suspend untagged VLAN … 8-50
not advertised for GVRP … 8-56
W
warranty … 1-ii
Web Authentication
authenticator operation … 3-5
blocked traffic … 3-4
CHAP
defined … 3-9
usage … 3-4
client status … 3-30
configuration commands … 3-18
configuring
on the switch … 3-17
switch for RADIUS access … 3-15
features … 3-4
general setup … 3-12
LACP not allowed … 3-11
redirect URL … 3-9
rules of operation … 3-10
show status and configuration … 3-26
terminology … 3-9
web browser interface, for configuring
authorized IP managers … 10-7, 10-9
web browser interface, for configuring port
security … 9-17, 9-25
web server, proxy … 9-25
Index – 7
8 – Index
Technical information in this document
is subject to change without notice.
© Copyright 2007 Hewlett-Packard
Development Company, L.P.
Reproduction, adaptation, or translation
without prior written permission is prohibited
except as allowed under the copyright laws.
July 2007
Manual Part Number
5991-4763
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