DT80 Series User`s Manual

DT80 Series User`s Manual
UM-0085-B7
~
Intelligent Data Logging Products
DT80
Range
DT80/81/82/85
Series 1, 2 & 3
Includes CEM20
User's Manual
A complete guide to:
 data acquisition
 data logging
 programming
 sensor wiring
 communications
www.datataker.com
DT80 Range User’s Manual
Page 1
®
DT80 Range User’s Manual
© Copyright 2005-2011 Thermo Fisher Scientific Australia Pty Ltd ABN 52 058 390 917
UM-0085-B7
 Warranty
Thermo Fisher Scientific Australia Pty Ltd (“Thermo Fisher”) warrants the instruments it manufactures against defects in
either the materials or the workmanship for a period of three years from the date of delivery to the original customer. This
warranty is limited to, and purchaser’s sole remedy for a breach of this warranty is, the replacement or repair of such defects,
without charge, when the instrument is returned to Thermo Fisher or to one of its authorized dealers pursuant to Thermo
Fisher’s return policy procedures.
The obligations set forth above shall be void with respect to any damage to the instrument resulting from accident, abuse,
improper implementation or use, lack of reasonable care, loss of parts, force majeure, or any other third party cause beyond
Thermo Fisher’s control. Any installation, maintenance, repair, service, or alteration to or of, or other tampering with, the
instruments performed by any person or entity other than Thermo Fisher without its prior written approval, or any use of
replacement parts not supplied by Thermo Fisher, shall immediately void and cancel all warranties with respect to the
affected instruments.
Thermo Fisher shall not be liable for any incidental, indirect, special, punitive or consequential loss or damages resulting
from or arising out of the use of the instrument, In no event shall Thermo Fisher’s liability with respect to the instrument, the
use thereof, this warranty statement or any cause of action related thereto, under any circumstances exceed the purchase
price of the instrument actually paid by purchaser.
Where Thermo Fisher supplies to the customer equipment or items manufactured by a third party, then the warranty
provided by the third party manufacturer shall pass through to purchaser, but only to the extent allowed by the original
manufacturer or third party supplier.
EXCEPT AS EXPRESSLY PROVIDED IN THIS WARRANTY STATEMENT, THERMO FISHER DISCLAIMS ALL OTHER
WARRANTIES, WHETHER EXPRESS OR IMPLIED, ORAL OR WRITTEN, WITH RESPECT TO THE INSTRUMENTS,
INCLUDING WITHOUT LIMITATION ALL IMPLIED WARRANTIES OF MERCHANTABILITY OR FITNESS FOR ANY
PARTICULAR PURPOSE. THERMO FISHER DOES NOT WARRANT THAT THE INSTRUMENTS ARE ERROR-FREE
OR WILL ACCOMPLISH ANY PARTICULAR RESULT. ANY ADVICE OR ASSISTANCE FURNISHED BY THERMO
FISHER IN RELATION TO THE INSTRUMENTS SHALL NOT GIVE RISE TO ANY WARRANTY OR GUARANTEE OF ANY
KIND, AND SHALL NOT CONSTITUTE A WAIVER BY THERMO FISHER.
The Purchaser shall be solely responsible for complying with all applicable local, state and Federal laws with respect to the
installation, use and implementation of the equipment.
 Trademarks
dataTaker is a registered trademark of Thermo Fisher Scientific Australia Pty Ltd
Adobe® Flash® Player. Copyright © 1996 – 2006 Adobe Systems Incorporated. All Rights Reserved. Protected by U.S.
Patent 6,879,327; Patents Pending in the United States and other countries. Adobe and Flash are either trademarks or
registered trademarks in the United States and/or other countries.
All other brand and product names are trademarks or registered trademarks of their respective holders.
 Regulatory Notices
This equipment has been tested and found to comply with the limits for a Class A digital device, pursuant to part 15 of the
FCC Rules. These limits are designed to provide reasonable protection against harmful interference when the equipment is
operated in a commercial environment. This equipment generates, uses, and can radiate radio frequency energy and, if not
installed and used in accordance with the instruction manual, may cause harmful interference to radio communications.
Operation of this equipment in a residential area is likely to cause harmful interference in which case the user will be required
to correct the interference at his own expense.
Changes or modifications not expressly approved by the party responsible for compliance could void the user's authority to
operate the equipment.
 Warning
dataTaker products are not authorized for use as critical components in any life support system where failure of the product
is likely to affect the system’s safety or effectiveness.
 Important: Firmware Version Covered in This Manual
This version of the dataTaker DT80 Range User’s Manual (UM-0085-B7) applies to the DT80 range of data loggers (DT80,
DT80G, DT80L, DT80LM, DT80GL, DT81, DT82E, DT82EM, DT82I, DT85, DT85G, DT85L, DT85LM, DT85GL and
DT85GLM, Series 1, 2 and 3) running Version 9.08 firmware.
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Contents
Contents ......................................................................................................................3
Part A –
The DT80 ..................................................................................12
DT80 Concepts..........................................................................................................12
What is the DT80?.......................................................................................................... 12
The DT80 Product Family............................................................................................... 13
DT80-Friendly Software ................................................................................................. 15
About This Manual ......................................................................................................... 15
A Tour of the DT80's Interfaces...................................................................................... 15
Getting Started ............................................................................................................... 16
Sending Commands ....................................................................................................... 17
Getting Help ................................................................................................................... 18
Designing Your Data Logging System............................................................................ 18
Measurements...........................................................................................................18
What can the DT80 Measure?........................................................................................ 18
Analog Channels – Introduction ..................................................................................... 19
Digital Channels – Introduction....................................................................................... 21
Serial Channels – Introduction ....................................................................................... 21
Programming the DT80 ............................................................................................22
Typical Workflow ............................................................................................................ 22
USB memory devices ..................................................................................................... 24
Format of Returned Data..........................................................................................25
Real-time data ................................................................................................................ 25
Logged Data................................................................................................................... 26
Part B –
Channels ..................................................................................28
Channel Definitions ..................................................................................................28
Channel Numbers .....................................................................................................29
Channel Number Sequence ........................................................................................... 30
Channel Types ..........................................................................................................30
Internal Channel Types .................................................................................................. 33
Channel Options .......................................................................................................37
Overview ........................................................................................................................ 37
A Special Channel Option — Channel Factor ................................................................ 37
Multiple Reports ............................................................................................................. 38
Mutually Exclusive Options............................................................................................. 38
Order of Application........................................................................................................ 38
Default Channel Options ................................................................................................ 39
Channel Option Table .................................................................................................... 40
Part C –
Schedules ................................................................................44
Schedule Concepts ..................................................................................................44
What are Schedules? ..................................................................................................... 44
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Schedule Syntax ............................................................................................................ 44
Types of Schedules ..................................................................................................47
General-Purpose Report Schedules............................................................................... 47
Immediate Report Schedules ......................................................................................... 51
Statistical Report Schedules........................................................................................... 52
Working with Schedules ..........................................................................................53
Entering Schedules into the DT80 (BEGIN–END).......................................................... 53
Triggering and Schedule Order ...................................................................................... 53
Changing a Schedule Trigger......................................................................................... 54
Halting & Resuming Schedules ...................................................................................... 54
Executing Commands in Schedules............................................................................... 55
Time Triggers — Synchronizing to Midnight................................................................... 55
Part D –
Jobs..........................................................................................56
What is a Job?................................................................................................................ 56
Entering a Job ................................................................................................................ 56
Loading an Existing Job ................................................................................................. 57
Job Structure .................................................................................................................. 57
Job Commands .............................................................................................................. 58
Startup Job ..................................................................................................................... 59
ONINSERT Job .............................................................................................................. 59
Part E –
Manipulating Data ...................................................................60
Scaling .......................................................................................................................60
Channel Factor............................................................................................................... 60
Spans (Sn) ..................................................................................................................... 60
Polynomials (Yn) ............................................................................................................ 61
Thermistor Scaling (Tn) .................................................................................................. 61
Intrinsic Functions (Fn) ................................................................................................... 62
Combining Scaling Options ............................................................................................ 62
Calculations ..............................................................................................................63
Channel Variables (nCV)................................................................................................ 63
Calculation Only Channels ............................................................................................. 64
Reference Channels....................................................................................................... 64
Expressions .................................................................................................................... 66
Combining Methods ....................................................................................................... 69
Derived Quantities ....................................................................................................70
Rates and Integrals ........................................................................................................ 70
Edge Timing ................................................................................................................... 70
Statistical Channel Options .....................................................................................71
Overview ........................................................................................................................ 71
Statistical Functions ....................................................................................................... 72
Multi Value Statistical Options ................................................................................73
Histogram (Hx:y:m..nCV)................................................................................................ 73
Rainflow Cycle Counting ................................................................................................ 74
Part F –
Alarms ......................................................................................77
Alarm Concepts ........................................................................................................77
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Alarm Commands .....................................................................................................77
Alarm Number ................................................................................................................ 78
Alarm Condition .............................................................................................................. 78
Alarm Digital Action Channels ........................................................................................ 80
Alarm Action Text ........................................................................................................... 80
Alarm Communication Actions ....................................................................................... 82
Alarm Action Processes ................................................................................................. 83
Alarm Records ..........................................................................................................87
Real Time Alarm Return ................................................................................................. 87
Logging Alarms .............................................................................................................. 87
Polling Alarm Inputs .................................................................................................88
Part G –
Logging and Retrieving Data .................................................89
Logging Data.............................................................................................................89
Enabling and Disabling Data Logging ............................................................................ 89
How Data and Alarms are Stored................................................................................... 89
Logging Options ............................................................................................................. 91
Factors Which May Prevent Logging.............................................................................. 91
Checking Logging Status ............................................................................................... 92
Retrieving Logged Data............................................................................................93
Overview ........................................................................................................................ 93
LISTD – List Available Data ........................................................................................... 93
COPYD – Unload Data................................................................................................... 97
DELD - Delete Logged Data......................................................................................... 106
Background Commands ............................................................................................... 107
Obsolete Commands.................................................................................................... 108
The DT80 File System.............................................................................................109
Internal File System (B:) ............................................................................................... 109
External USB Devices (A:) ........................................................................................... 110
File Commands ............................................................................................................ 111
Data Recovery.............................................................................................................. 112
Part H –
DT80 Front Panel...................................................................113
Display .....................................................................................................................113
Displaying Channels and Alarms.................................................................................. 113
Bar Graph ..................................................................................................................... 114
Controlling what is shown on the display...................................................................... 115
Auto-scrolling................................................................................................................ 115
Auto-acknowledge ........................................................................................................ 115
Pop-up Messages ........................................................................................................ 115
Interactive Screens....................................................................................................... 116
Display Backlight .......................................................................................................... 116
User Defined Functions.......................................................................................... 116
Defining Functions........................................................................................................ 116
Selecting Functions ...................................................................................................... 116
Default Functions ......................................................................................................... 117
Keypad operation ...................................................................................................117
Special Key Sequences ............................................................................................... 117
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Status Indicator Lights ...........................................................................................118
Sample Indicator .......................................................................................................... 118
Disk Indicator................................................................................................................ 118
Power Indicator ............................................................................................................ 118
Attn Indicator ................................................................................................................ 118
Part I –
Web Interface.........................................................................120
What is the Web Interface? .......................................................................................... 120
dEX vs. Classic Web Interface ..................................................................................... 120
Connecting to the Web Interface .................................................................................. 120
Home Page .................................................................................................................. 120
Starting dEX ................................................................................................................. 121
Browser Requirements ................................................................................................. 122
dEX Configuration Builder ..................................................................................... 122
About Configurations .................................................................................................... 122
Using the Configuration Builder.................................................................................... 122
Defining Schedules ...................................................................................................... 124
Defining Channels ........................................................................................................ 126
Global Settings ............................................................................................................. 131
Managing Configurations ............................................................................................. 138
Logger Controls ............................................................................................................ 139
Preventing Configuration Changes............................................................................... 139
dEX Web Interface ..................................................................................................140
Using the Web Interface ............................................................................................... 140
Status Screens ............................................................................................................. 141
Data Retrieval............................................................................................................... 143
Displaying Real-Time Measurements........................................................................... 145
Command Window ....................................................................................................... 154
Help .............................................................................................................................. 155
Customising the Web Interface ............................................................................. 156
Overview ...................................................................................................................... 156
The Web Interface Configuration Tool.......................................................................... 156
Preventing Configuration Changes............................................................................... 159
Classic Web Interface............................................................................................. 160
Browser Requirements ................................................................................................. 160
Navigating the Web Interface ....................................................................................... 160
Home Page .................................................................................................................. 160
Channels Page............................................................................................................. 161
Status Page.................................................................................................................. 161
Files Page .................................................................................................................... 162
Help Page..................................................................................................................... 162
Customising the Classic Interface ........................................................................ 163
Web Application Programming Interface (API)............................................................. 163
Server-Side Include (SSI) Directives ............................................................................ 163
Building A Custom Web Page ...................................................................................... 166
Part J –
Modbus Interface...................................................................168
About Modbus .............................................................................................................. 168
Connecting to a Modbus Network ................................................................................ 168
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Modbus Registers ........................................................................................................ 169
Putting It All Together ................................................................................................... 172
Part K –
Communications ...................................................................175
Overview..................................................................................................................175
Services........................................................................................................................ 175
Protocols ...................................................................................................................... 175
Physical Ports............................................................................................................... 176
About the Communications Diagram............................................................................ 176
The Command Interface ......................................................................................... 179
Connecting to the Command Interface......................................................................... 179
Command Interface Operation ..................................................................................... 179
Detecting DT80 Presence ............................................................................................ 179
Password Protection .................................................................................................... 179
USB Port ..................................................................................................................180
Configuring the USB Port ............................................................................................. 180
About DtUsb ................................................................................................................. 180
Installing DtUsb ............................................................................................................ 181
Using DtUsb ................................................................................................................. 184
USB Direct Serial Mode................................................................................................ 186
Sleep Mode .................................................................................................................. 186
RS-232 Communications........................................................................................ 187
Direct RS-232 Connection............................................................................................ 187
RS-232 Flow Control .................................................................................................... 187
Sleep Mode .................................................................................................................. 188
Host RS-232 Port .................................................................................................... 188
Configuring the Host RS-232 Port ................................................................................ 188
Serial Sensor Port...................................................................................................190
Connecting to the Serial Sensor Port ........................................................................... 190
Configuring the Serial Sensor Port ............................................................................... 191
External Modem ......................................................................................................193
Modem (Remote) RS-232 Connection ......................................................................... 193
Automatic Modem Detection ........................................................................................ 193
DT80-to-Modem Cable ................................................................................................. 193
Modem Initialisation...................................................................................................... 194
Powering the DT80’s Modem ....................................................................................... 195
Modem Communications Operation ............................................................................. 196
Setting Up a Remote Connection ................................................................................. 197
Part L –
Network Communications ....................................................198
TCP/IP Concepts.....................................................................................................198
About TCP/IP ............................................................................................................... 198
About This Section ....................................................................................................... 198
TCP/IP Parameters ...................................................................................................... 198
Integrated Modem ...................................................................................................200
Mobile Plans ................................................................................................................. 200
Getting Started ............................................................................................................. 203
Configuring the Integrated Modem ............................................................................... 203
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Verifying Modem Operation.......................................................................................... 207
Troubleshooting and Advanced Configuration ............................................................. 210
Communications Sessions .................................................................................... 216
Session Timing ............................................................................................................. 216
Error handling ............................................................................................................... 218
Session Diagnostics ..................................................................................................... 221
Ethernet Sessions ........................................................................................................ 223
Ethernet Communications ..................................................................................... 225
Connecting to the DT80 Ethernet Port ......................................................................... 225
Ethernet Commands .................................................................................................... 226
How to set up Ethernet ................................................................................................. 228
Accessing the DT80 via the Internet............................................................................. 231
PPP Communications.............................................................................................234
About PPP .................................................................................................................... 234
Setting up PPP ............................................................................................................. 234
Using PPP .................................................................................................................... 241
Network Services....................................................................................................243
Using the Network Command Interface........................................................................ 243
Using the DT80 FTP Server ......................................................................................... 244
Security ........................................................................................................................ 246
Part M –
Configuration.........................................................................247
Configuring the DT80 ............................................................................................. 247
Parameters ................................................................................................................... 247
Switches ....................................................................................................................... 250
Profile Settings ............................................................................................................. 251
Setting the System Time .............................................................................................. 255
Automatic Time Adjustment (NTP) ............................................................................... 256
Resetting the DT80 ................................................................................................. 259
Soft Reset..................................................................................................................... 259
Hard Reset ................................................................................................................... 259
Safe Mode .................................................................................................................... 260
Factory Settings ........................................................................................................... 260
Diagnostic Commands ...........................................................................................261
TEST Command........................................................................................................... 261
Event Logs ................................................................................................................... 262
STATUS Command...................................................................................................... 262
CHARAC Command..................................................................................................... 263
SERVICEDATA Command........................................................................................... 263
Part N –
Hardware & Power.................................................................264
Inputs and Outputs .................................................................................................264
Wiring Panel ................................................................................................................. 264
Left Side Panel ............................................................................................................. 265
Right Side Panel (DT8xM only) .................................................................................... 266
Front Panel................................................................................................................... 266
Rear Panel (DT8xG only) ............................................................................................. 266
Inside the DT80 ....................................................................................................... 267
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Accessing the main battery (if fitted) ............................................................................ 267
Accessing the lithium memory backup battery ............................................................. 268
Installation............................................................................................................... 270
Dimensions................................................................................................................... 270
Operating Environment ................................................................................................ 270
Grounding..................................................................................................................... 271
Powering the DT80 ................................................................................................. 272
Power Subsystem ........................................................................................................ 272
External Power ............................................................................................................. 272
Internal Power .............................................................................................................. 273
Power Outputs.............................................................................................................. 275
Internal Memory-Backup Battery .................................................................................. 276
Monitoring DT80 Power................................................................................................ 277
Power Consumption ...............................................................................................277
Power Consumption ..................................................................................................... 277
Battery Life ................................................................................................................... 282
Minimising Power Consumption ................................................................................... 283
Sleep Mode..............................................................................................................284
About Sleep Mode ........................................................................................................ 284
Wake Events ................................................................................................................ 285
Controlling Sleep .......................................................................................................... 285
Forced Sleep Mode ...................................................................................................... 285
Part O –
Sensors & Channels.................................................................286
Analog Channels ....................................................................................................286
About the Analog Input Terminals ................................................................................ 286
Voltage ......................................................................................................................... 287
Current ......................................................................................................................... 290
4–20mA Current Loops ................................................................................................ 292
Resistance.................................................................................................................... 292
Bridges ......................................................................................................................... 295
Temperature – Thermocouples .................................................................................... 299
Temperature – Thermistors .......................................................................................... 301
Temperature – RTDs.................................................................................................... 302
Temperature – AD590 Series IC Sensors .................................................................... 303
Temperature – LM35 Series IC Sensors ...................................................................... 304
Temperature – LM135 Series IC Sensors .................................................................... 305
Humidity Sensors ......................................................................................................... 306
Frequency .................................................................................................................... 306
Strain Gauges – Bridge ................................................................................................ 307
Strain Gauges – Vibrating Wire .................................................................................... 308
Strain Gauges – Carlson Meter .................................................................................... 310
Analog Logic State Inputs ............................................................................................ 313
Digital Channels......................................................................................................314
About the Digital I/O Channels ..................................................................................... 314
Digital Inputs................................................................................................................. 315
Digital Outputs .............................................................................................................. 316
Counters – Low Speed ................................................................................................. 320
Counters – High Speed ................................................................................................ 321
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Phase Encoders ........................................................................................................... 323
Examples – Digital and Counters ................................................................................. 324
SDI-12 Channel .......................................................................................................325
About SDI-12................................................................................................................ 325
Testing and Configuring an SDI-12 Device .................................................................. 325
Reading Data from SDI-12 Devices ............................................................................. 326
Example ....................................................................................................................... 328
Other Considerations ................................................................................................... 328
Troubleshooting............................................................................................................ 329
Generic Serial Channel........................................................................................... 330
Connecting to and Configuring the Serial Port ............................................................. 330
Serial Channel Commands .......................................................................................... 331
Serial Channel Operation ............................................................................................. 331
Control String – Output Actions .................................................................................... 333
Control String – Input Actions....................................................................................... 335
Control String – Example ............................................................................................. 337
Schedules..................................................................................................................... 338
Serial Sensor Direct Mode............................................................................................ 339
Serial Interface Power Control...................................................................................... 339
Serial Channel Debugging Tools.................................................................................. 340
Serial Channel Examples ............................................................................................. 340
Modbus Channel .....................................................................................................343
About Modbus .............................................................................................................. 343
Connecting Serial Modbus Sensors ............................................................................. 343
Connecting Network Modbus Sensors ......................................................................... 344
Reading Data from Modbus Devices............................................................................ 345
MODBUS Channel Options .......................................................................................... 346
Block Transfers ............................................................................................................ 347
Examples...................................................................................................................... 347
Troubleshooting............................................................................................................ 348
Technical Details & Troubleshooting.................................................................... 349
DT80 Analog Sub-System ............................................................................................ 349
Grounds, Ground Loops and Isolation ......................................................................... 353
Noise Pickup ................................................................................................................ 354
Self-Heating of Sensors ............................................................................................... 354
Getting Optimal Speed from Your DT80....................................................................... 354
Part P –
The CEM20 .............................................................................355
What is the CEM20? .................................................................................................... 355
Connecting CEM20s .................................................................................................... 355
CEM20 Addresses ....................................................................................................... 357
Powering the CEM20 ................................................................................................... 357
Accessing CEM20 Channels ........................................................................................ 357
CEM20 Temperature Reference .................................................................................. 358
Troubleshooting............................................................................................................ 358
Part Q –
Reference ...............................................................................359
DT80 Series Specifications ....................................................................................359
Analog Inputs ............................................................................................................... 359
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Digital Inputs and Outputs ............................................................................................ 360
High Speed Counter Inputs .......................................................................................... 361
Serial Channels ............................................................................................................ 361
Data Manipulation and Logging.................................................................................... 362
Communication Interfaces............................................................................................ 362
Network (TCP/IP) Services........................................................................................... 363
System ......................................................................................................................... 364
CEM20 Specifications.............................................................................................366
Command Summary ...............................................................................................367
ASCII-Decimal Tables ............................................................................................. 370
RS-232......................................................................................................................373
Signals.......................................................................................................................... 373
Cables .......................................................................................................................... 373
Upgrading DT80 Firmware ..................................................................................... 375
Recommended Preparation ......................................................................................... 375
Firmware Upgrade – USB Flash Device....................................................................... 376
Firmware Upgrade – Host USB or RS232 Port ............................................................ 376
Firmware Upgrade – Remote TCP/IP........................................................................... 377
Reverting Back to Old Firmware................................................................................... 377
In Case of Failed Upgrade ........................................................................................... 377
Upgrading Modem Firmware ........................................................................................ 377
Error Messages.......................................................................................................378
Standard Messages ..................................................................................................... 378
Data Errors ................................................................................................................... 382
DT80 Abnormal Resets ................................................................................................ 382
Glossary ..................................................................................................................383
Safety Information ..................................................................................................393
General......................................................................................................................... 393
Models with Internal Lead Acid Battery ........................................................................ 393
Models with Integrated Modem .................................................................................... 393
Index ........................................................................................................................394
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Part A – The DT80
Figure 1: The dataTaker DT80G, DT80 and DT81 (rear), DT85G and DT85 (centre), DT82E and CEM20 (front)
DT80 Concepts
What is the DT80?
The dataTaker DT80 range of data acquisition and logging instruments are tools to measure and record a wide variety of
quantities and values in the real world.
The web based dEX graphical user interface makes it quick and easy to define basic measurement tasks. Logged data can
then be easily extracted via a USB "memory stick", or downloaded using the web interface into files ready for import into
spreadsheets and data analysis tools.
The DT80 range of loggers also include a powerful programming language which allows complex systems to be developed
and monitored.
Extensive sensor support and communications options, and a rugged and low-power design, make the DT80 a very flexible
data logger.
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The DT80 Product Family
Models
The DT80 product family includes the following models:

The DT80 is a full-featured data logger,

The DT81 is a single channel variant of the DT80.

The DT82E is a low cost, low power logger designed for environmental applications.

The DT82I is designed for industrial applications.

The DT85 is an expanded and enhanced version of the DT80.

The DT80L and DT85L are low power variants of the DT80 and DT85.

The DT80G and DT85G GeoLoggers are designed for Geotechnical applications.

The DT80GL and DT85GL are low power variants of the DT80G and DT85G.

The DT82EM3, DT80LM3, DT85LM3 and DT85GLM3 contain an inbuilt GSM/EDGE/WCDMA cellular modem.

The DT82EM2, DT80LM2, DT85LM2 and DT85GLM2 contain an inbuilt GSM/EDGE cellular modem.

The CEM20 (Channel Expansion Module) is a 20-channel analog multiplexer which can be used to expand the
number of analog input channels on a DT80 or DT85.
All of these models operate in a similar way; the differences are mainly to do with the number of input channels and other
hardware features.
Table 1 (P14) lists the main differences between each model.
Series 1, 2 and 3
In January 2008, the original DT80, DT81 and DT85 models were superseded by enhanced Series 2 models. These offered
an all-new web based interface (dEX), additional power outputs, and more flexible analog input switching.
Series 3 models were introduced from October 2010. These supersede Series 2 and include enhanced resistance
measurement options and an isolated switched 5V power output.
Series 2 and 3 units are clearly labelled as such on the front panel.
When a logger model number is displayed, the series is shown as a suffix, e.g. "DT85L-3" is a Series 3 DT85L.
GeoLoggers
The DT80G/GL and DT85G/GL "GeoLoggers" are equivalent to the DT80 and DT85, but also include direct support for
vibrating wire strain gauges, which are widely used in geotechnical applications; see Strain Gauges – Vibrating Wire
(P308). Throughout this manual, references to the DT80 and DT85 also refer to the DT80G and DT85G respectively, unless
otherwise noted.
Low Power Models
Most DT80 models include an internal 6V lead acid battery. However the low power "L" and "E" models do not include an
internal battery and are instead optimised for operation with an external battery (often solar charged). Throughout this
manual, references to the DT80 and DT85 also refer to the DT80L and DT85L respectively, unless otherwise noted.
Modem Models
The "M" models (DT82EM, DT80LM, DT85LM, DT85GLM) include an integrated cellular modem, which provides a
convenient wireless solution for control of the DT80 and data retrieval. The "M3" models support 2G and 3G networks
(GSM/GPRS/EDGE/WCDMA), while the "M2" models support 2G only (GSM/GPRS/EDGE). Apart from this difference, the
M2 and M3 variants operate identically.
Channel Expansion Module
The CEM20 is an analog multiplexer designed to work with a DT80 or DT85 Series 2 logger. It provides an easy way to
expand the number of input channels. Up to 16 CEM20 modules can be connected to a DT85, giving a total of 320 input
channels. See The CEM20 (P355).
Note: In this manual, the term DT80 (italics) is used to refer to all products (DT80, DT81, DT82 and DT85; Series 1, 2 and 3).
If a feature or behaviour is specific to a particular model, this will be made clear in the text.
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DT80 Range User’s Manual
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current models
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
4


5
3 4 4
1
4
4 4 4
2 2
-  
-  
- 
  
   
  
  
-  
- 1.2 1.2
-  
  
4 4 4
  
  

5
4
4
4
2










4


5
4
4
4
2









4


5
4
4
4
2









4


5
4
4
4
2









4


 - 
5 16 16
4 4 4
4 4 4
4 7 4
2 3 2
  
  
  
  
  
  
-  
  
-  
- 4.0 4.0
  
  
4 4 4
  
  
5
3 4 4
1
4
4 4 4
2 2
-  
  
- 
  
  
  
-  
- 1.2 1.2
-  
  
4 4 4
  
  
 - 
5 16 16
4 4 4
4 4 4
4 4 4
2 2 2
  
  
  
  
  
  
-  
  
- 4.0 4.0
  
  
4 4 4
  
  
Table 1: Feature listing for DT80 Range data logger models
UM-0085-B7
DT85GLM2-3
DT80LM2-3
5
DT85GL-3
DT80L-3
5
DT85LM3-3
DT80G-3
5
DT85LM2-3
DT80-3
2
DT85L-3
DT82I-3
2
DT85G-3
DT82EM3-3
2
DT85-3
DT82EM2-3
2
DT80GL-3
DT82E-3
16 16
DT80LM3-3
DT85G-2
discontinued models
2 2 5 5
Analog input channels
1 5 16 1
Fully isolated analog input pairs (+- and *#
-  
terminals switched independently)
2-wire resistance measurements on *#, +# and
-# terminal pairs
Vibrating wire strain gauge support
CEM20 modules supported
Digital I/O channels (open-drain outputs)
3 4 4 3
Digital I/O channels (logic outputs / SDI-12)
1 4 4 1
High speed counter inputs
4 4 4 4
Phase encoder inputs
1 2 2 1
RS232/422/485 communications port
-   RS232 communications port
   
USB communications port
   
Ethernet port
   
Integrated GSM/GPRS/EDGE/WCDMA modem Integrated GSM/GPRS/EDGE modem
USB memory device port
   
Switched 12V power output
-  
Unswitched external power output
-  Switched isolated 5V power output
Battery charger for internal/external battery
   
Internal battery (capacity in Ah)
1.2 1.2 4.0 1.2
Modbus master function
-   LCD display & keypad
-   Status LEDs
4 3 4 4
Classic web interface (HTML)
   
dEX Enhanced web interface (Flash)
- 
DT85-2
DT80G-2
DT80-2
DT82I-2
DT82E-2
DT81-2
DT85-1
DT80-1
DT81-1
Feature
Page 14
-   
16 16 16 16 16 16
4 4 4 4 4 4
4 4 4 4 4 4
7 7 7 4 7 7
3 3 3 2 3 3
     
 -       
     
-  - 
-  -       
     
     
     
     
     
4 4 4 4 4 4
     
     
DT80-Friendly Software
Programming and Configuration
There are three main ways to set up and program the DT80.

dEX is a web based application for programming and monitoring DT80 Series 2/3 data loggers. dEX is built into the
logger (no installation required) and runs in your web browser. It provides a totally graphical interface, which means
that knowledge of the dataTaker programming language is not required. Channels and schedules are defined simply
by clicking on icons and making selections from menus and dialog boxes; dEX will then generate the required DT80
program and load it onto the logger.

Alternatively, commands entered interactively and then sent to the DT80 via one of its comms ports or a TCP/IP
network. This allows full access to the DT80's capabilities. DeTransfer, or the enhanced web interface's command
window, are the best tools for the job here. They both have separate send and receive windows, a macro facility, and
many other useful features. A standard terminal program (e.g. HyperTerminal) can also be used.

Finally, you can develop a DT80 program off-line (e.g. using a text editor), then transfer it to the DT80 using a USB
memory device or send it as a file using DeTransfer. DeLoad is a Windows based application which allows a
pre-written program to be transferred to the logger using a simple "drag and drop" operation.
Viewing Data and Status
Once the DT80 has been set up, there are a number of options for retrieving data and monitoring status:

The DT80's inbuilt web interface (dEX) provides a convenient way to access current data values and status
information from any web browser. dEX is available on all Series 2 or 3 loggers.

A simple HTML-based web interface is also provided on all loggers. This can be customised if required to provide an
application-specific user interface. This interface is designed to operate efficiently on slow communications networks
or on portable devices with a small display screen.

DeTransfer can be used to view real-time and logged data in text format.

DeLoad provides an easy way of collecting logged data, which can then be saved or sent by email.

dataTaker Instrument driver for LabVIEW™ is a set of drivers and documentation which allows dataTaker data
loggers to be incorporated in a LabVIEW environment. LabVIEW is National Instruments' industry-leading graphical
software development environment for measurement and automation applications.
All software is provided on the CD supplied with your DT80, and updates are available from the Datataker website,
www.datataker.com (Support/Downloads section).
About This Manual
This manual is intended for all users of the DT80. It describes:

how to connect sensors and other devices to the DT80's input and output channels.

how to program the DT80 to collect and return data as required.

how to manage the data that the DT80 collects.
The main focus of this manual will be on directly programming the DT80 using its command language. However, most of the
concepts discussed here also apply when building programs using tools such as dEX.
A Tour of the DT80's Interfaces
The DT80's interfaces with the outside world are grouped into three main areas: user interface (top), sensor interface (front)
and communications interface (side). See also Inputs and Outputs (P264).
 User Interface
On the top panel of the DT80 you will find controls which allow the user to interact with the unit during operation – without
requiring a host computer:

A 2-line LCD display shows status messages, measured values, and a menu of pre-defined functions (not DT81)

Six keypad buttons allow the user to navigate between the various displayed options (not DT81)

Four status LEDs are provided – the blue Sample LED flashes each time a measurement is taken, the green Disk
LED indicates internal flash disk activity, the red Attn LED indicates various warning conditions, and the green Power
LED flashes at 3 second intervals while the logger is powered and not in low "sleep" mode. The duty cycle of the flash
indicates whether the logger is externally powered (long flashes) or running from its internal battery (short flashes).
(Note that the Power LED is not present on DT80 Series 1.)

A USB socket allows connection of a USB memory device, which provides a convenient way to retrieve data from the
DT80 (or load a program onto it)
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 Sensor Interface
On the sloping front panel of the DT80 there are two rows of terminal blocks – digital channels on the left, analog channels on
the right. The green terminal blocks can be quickly unplugged from the DT80 without unscrewing the sensor cabling.
This interface includes:

8 digital input/output/counter channels (1D – 8D), 4 of which are SDI-12 compatible (DT82I: 4 channels; DT81/82E: 4
channels, one of which is SDI-12 compatible)

an input to wake the DT80 from low power "sleep" mode (WK)

4 high speed counter inputs (7 on DT85/85L Series 3) (1C – 4C)

2 phase encoder inputs, shared with the counter inputs connected) (1PE – 2PE) (one phase encoder input on DT81,
none on DT82E, 3 on DT85/85L Series 3)

a pair of voltage free relay contact outputs (RELAY A and B)

a general purpose switched 12V 150mA power output (12V) (DT80/81/82E Series 2/3 and DT85 only)

a general purpose current limited (300mA) power output (PWR OUT), which is derived from the external power input
(DT85 only)

an isolated switched 5V power output (5V SW) (Series 3 only)

digital / power ground terminals (DGND)

an RS232/422/485 compatible serial port (Tx, Rx, RTS and CTS) (not present on DT81/82E)

a number of analog input channels (5 channels for DT80, 1 channel for DT81, 16 channels for DT85)

an external excitation input (EXT *)

isolated analog ground terminals (AGND on DT80/81, EXT# on DT80 Series 2 and DT85)
(Note that early production DT80 models only had 4 analog inputs.)
 Communications/Power Interface
On the left side panel you have a variety of connectivity options:

10-Base-T Ethernet for connection to a host computer or local area network

USB for high speed connection to a host computer (not present on DT82)

RS232 for connection to host computer or modem (not present on DT8xM)

two alternative DC power connectors – a standard plug-pack socket (DC jack) and a 4-pin terminal block (2-pin for
DT82E/80L/85L)
For more details, see Communications (P175)
 Wireless Modem Interface (DT8xM only)
On the right side panel are the integrated modem ports:

SIM card slot (subscriber identity module)

red status LED

coaxial screw connector for optional "receive diversity" antenna (DT8xM3 only)

coaxial screw connector for main antenna.
A threaded earth point is also available on both left and right side panels. See Grounding (P271).
Getting Started
Power
Powering the DT80(P272) discusses the ways to provide power to the DT80. The simplest option is to plug in the supplied AC
adaptor.
All DT80 models except the DT82E include an internal 6V lead-acid battery which can power the logger if the main external
supply is interrupted.
Important The DT80 is shipped with its main internal battery disconnected. We recommend the battery is connected as
soon as practical so that it can charge from the mains adaptor or other external power source. This is achieved by simply
plugging the green power connector, see Powering the DT80 (P272).
Switch On!
When power is connected, you should observe:

the LCD backlight switches on (DT80/85), and the green Power LED starts flashing

a brief clicking sound as the unit performs an initial self-calibration

DT80 restarted / Power loss is displayed on the LCD
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
the front panel LEDs flash a few times then the red Attn LED continues to flash.
The DT80 is warning you that its power has been interrupted. Press any of the front panel keys to clear this indication. The
Attn LED should stop flashing and the display should now read: DT80 V9.08 / No current job. This indicates that:

the version of DT80 firmware in use is "9.08" (this number may vary), and

no user program (or "job") has been loaded
The DT80 is now idle and waiting for instructions.
Connecting to a Host Computer
In order to program the DT80, it is generally necessary to connect it to a "host" computer. The easiest option here is to use
the supplied USB cable, or, for the DT82E/82I, the supplied Ethernet cable. Other options are to use a "null-modem"
(cross-over) RS232 cable, or to connect the logger to an Ethernet network. See Communications (P175) for more details of
the different communications options.
Very briefly, connecting the DT80 via USB involves the following steps:
1.
Install the supplied DtUsb driver software. This allows you to access to DT80's network services via a USB
connection.
2.
Connect the USB cable between the DT80 and the PC.
3.
The Windows "New Hardware Found" wizard will then run automatically (if required) to complete the installation of the
necessary drivers.
4.
Your default web browser will then be launched automatically and the dEX home page will be displayed.
To connect to the DT80 using Ethernet:
1.
Connect the Ethernet cable between the DT80 and the PC, or between the DT80 and a socket on your computer's
local area network.
2.
Use the DT80 keypad to scroll down to the "Ethernet" screen. Check that a valid IP address is displayed, e.g.
169.254.3.202
3.
Launch your web browser and type the logger's IP address into the address bar. The dEX home page should be
displayed.
The above is only an brief overview. See USB Port (P180) for detailed, step by step instructions.
As an alternative to the dEX web-based interface, you can also install the supplied DeTransfer software, which can be used
to send the text-based commands described in this manual to the logger. DeTransfer can operate over a direct RS2323/USB
connection or a network connection, and will work with any logger model.
The remainder of this manual will assume you have successfully established a connection between the host PC and the
DT80.
Sending Commands
The DT80 is programmed by sending it textual commands. These commands may be either:

manually entered (using DeTransfer, or the Command screen in dEX), or

generated by the dEX configuration builder, based on details entered using its graphical user interface controls.
Commands are executed by the DT80 only after it receives a carriage-return character ().
Commands are not case-sensitive; that is, they may be entered using either uppercase or lowercase characters.
In this manual all commands are shown in UPPERCASE. Responses from the DT80 are shown like this.
After receiving a command, the DT80 will normally echo the command, after converting it to uppercase. Note that the DT80
does not echo each character as it is received.
After a command has been processed, the DT80 will normally indicate that it is ready for the next one by transmitting a
prompt string, such as:
DT80>
(Command echo and the prompt string can be turned off if required using the /e switch command, see Switches (P250).)
The maximum length of a command is 1023 characters.
The general categories of commands are:

channel definitions (P28) (e.g. 2TK("Kiln temp",FF4)) – these define what measurements are to be taken,
how they are to be acquired and how the measured values are to be presented.

schedule definitions (P44) (e.g. RA(DATA:2MB)10S) – these define when a set of measurements are to be taken
and where the results are to be stored

job management commands (P58) (e.g. BEGIN, END, SHOWPROG) – these allow a set of schedule and channel
definitions to be grouped into a single program, or "job", which can then be treated as a unit.

data management commands (P93) (e.g. COPYD, LISTD) – these allow logged data points and alarms to be
retrieved, displayed or deleted.
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
configuration commands (P247) (e.g. PROFILE) – these allow various aspects of the DT80's operation to be
adjusted to suit particular requirements.
Jobs (sets of commands) are stored in the DT80's internal file system along with the data they generate. Different jobs can
be loaded under manual or program control. In addition, the DT80 can automatically run a particular job every time it is reset
or powered up. See Startup Job (P59).
Getting Help
There are several options for getting help with programming the DT80:

The command HELP topic will display useful summary information on a number of topics. Type HELP by itself to
display a list of available topics. For example, HELP COMMANDS will display a list of DT80 commands.

This user manual, firmware release notes and a list of known issues are automatically installed onto the DT80's
internal file system each time a firmware upgrade is done. In this way you always have access to up-to-date
documentation for the installed firmware version. The easiest way to view these is via the DT80's built-in web
interface.

The Datataker website (www.datataker.com) contains an extensive database of frequently asked questions, code
examples, sensor information, application notes, video tutorials and an online forum.
Designing Your Data Logging System
Data acquisition and data logging are orderly processes and should be undertaken in a systematic way. In order to obtain
effective information efficiently, do the following:

Identify the quantities to be measured.

Select the sensors, considering measurement range, accuracy, stability, ruggedness and cost.

Select the wiring configuration. For example, resistive sensors can be connected in 2, 3 or 4 wire configuration, while
serial sensors can use different electrical standards (RS232/RS485 etc.) and data rates.

Determine sensor output scaling, that is, the relationship between sensor output voltage/current/resistance/etc. and
the actual quantity. For many sensor types this calculation is performed automatically by the DT80 – all you need to do
is specify the appropriate channel type.

Determine how data is to be processed, for example statistical functions such as max/min or histograms may be
required.

Decide on the sample frequency – don't sample faster than you need to.

Calculate the volume of data to be collected.

Decide on the method of data recovery and archiving – real-time data return or logging or both? Will logged data be
unloaded via a comms port, or collected using a USB memory device, or transmitted to an FTP site? How often?

Decide on an appropriate communications technology for setup/maintenance and normal operation: RS232, USB,
Ethernet, modem, none?

Consider the power consumption, including the use of low power “sleep” mode. In the event of a power failure will the
DT80’s internal battery provide adequate running time?
The remainder of this manual will help you address these questions and then generate a suitable program for your DT80.
Measurements
What can the DT80 Measure?
Analog
Using its analog inputs, the DT80 can directly measure the following:

DC voltage (30mV, 300mV, 3V and 30V ranges)

DC current (0.3mA, 3mA and 30mA ranges)

resistance (10Ω, 100Ω, 1kΩ, 10kΩ ranges)

frequency (0.1 to 10,000 Hz)
Many other quantities can be measured by connecting appropriate sensors which convert a physical quantity into
something that the DT80 can measure. The DT80 directly supports:

4-20mA current loop sensors (0 to 100%)

temperature sensors (thermocouples, RTDs, thermistors, IC sensors)

bridges and strain gauges
UM-0085-B7
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
vibrating wire strain gauges (DT80G/85G only)
This list can be extended by means of user specified scaling calculations.
Digital
The DT80’s digital and counter channels allow the measurement of:

digital input state (contact closure or TTL logic)

pulse count (32 bit)

phase encoder position (32 bit)
Serial
Various “smart sensors” can also be read:

SDI-12 (Serial Data Interface – 1200 baud) based sensor networks

other serial sensor devices with an RS232/422/485 interface, such as weighing machines, barcode scanners

CAN (Controller Area Network) sensors, using the optional dataTaker CANgate CAN to ASCII gateway device. The
use of this product is outside the scope of this manual.
Analog Channels – Introduction
EXT EXT 5V A
sw GND
LAY
ANALOG
* +1- # * +3- # * +5- #
* +2- # * +4- # * #
Figure 2: DT80 analog terminals
Input Terminals
The DT80 provides five analog input channels, numbered 1 to 5. Depending on the wiring configuration used, these allow
between 5 and 15 separate voltages to be measured. The DT81 has one analog input channel, allowing 1-3 separate
voltages to be measured, and the DT82E has two (2-6 separate voltage measurements). Finally, the DT85 has 16 analog
input channels, allowing 16-48 separate voltage measurements.
Each analog input channel on a DT80 is a 4-wire connection (see Figure 3) that allows voltage, current, resistance and
frequency to be measured. These are the fundamental signals output by most sensors. It is not necessary to use all four
terminals on each channel— two are often adequate.
Excite Terminal
Positive Terminal
Negative Terminal
Return Terminal
Figure 3: Analog input channel terminal labels
The exact function of each terminal varies depending on how the channel is programmed. In general terms:

The * ("Excite") terminal can be a voltage input (relative to # terminal), or it can provide sensor excitation (for example,
for resistance measurement) See Sensor Excitation (P20).

The + ("Plus") terminal is a voltage input (relative to – or # terminal)

The – ("Minus") terminal is a voltage input (relative to # terminal)

The # ("Return") terminal is normally used as a common or return terminal. It can also be used as a current input, using
the DT80's internal shunt resistor.
Multiplexers
The DT80's analog input channels are multiplexed. The required input terminals are first connected to the input of the
DT80's instrumentation amplifier and analog to digital converter, then a measurement is taken. The next channel to be
sampled is then switched through to the amplifier and ADC, and so on. Simultaneous sampling of analog channels is not
possible.
Channel definition commands in the DT80 program determine which terminals are used for a particular measurement. For
example, the channel definition 1+V measures the voltage between the + and # terminals on channel 1.
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Gain Ranges and Attenuators
The DT80's instrumentation amplifier has three switchable gain settings. These give three basic voltage measurement
ranges (3V, 300mV and 30mV full scale)
The DT80’s default is for its instrumentation amplifier to automatically change gain range to suit the input signal applied to it
by the multiplexers.
If the amplitude of your input signals are known, then the gain can be set manually. Do this by applying the GLx (gain lock)
channel option, which disables autoranging for that channel and sets the gain to a fixed range.
The analog inputs also include switchable 10:1 attenuators, which effectively provide a fourth range (30V).
Warning Maximum input voltage on any analog input is ±30V dc, relative to the AGND/EXT# terminal. If this is exceeded
then permanent damage may occur.
Analog Input Configurations
The basic quantity that the DT80 measures is voltage. Voltages can be measured using two different input configurations:

shared-terminal analog inputs

independent analog inputs
 Shared-Terminal Analog Inputs
Sometimes called "single-ended" inputs, a shared-terminal input is one that shares one or more of its terminals with another
input. In Figure 4, the three sensors share channel 1’s # terminal. Each of the three inputs is a shared-terminal input.
Figure 4 Shared-terminal voltage inputs sharing a channel’s # terminal (voltage inputs used as example)
In a shared-terminal configuration, a sensor’s "return" or "negative" wire is usually connected to the channel's # terminal. The
remaining sensor wire (the "positive" or "signal") is connected to any of the channel’s other three terminals. The common
terminal need not be at ground potential – all voltage measurements (shared or unshared) are differential, i.e. only the
difference in voltage between the two terminals is reported.
For shared-terminal inputs, the channel number is given a suffix indicating the terminal to which the positive wire is
connected. For example, a shared-terminal voltage input applied to channel 1 between the + and # terminals is recognized
by the channel definition 1+V.
 Independent Analog Inputs
An independent input (also known as an "unshared" input) is one that connects to its own terminals and does not share any
of those terminals with any other inputs. For example, in Figure 5, sensor A is connected to channel 1’s + and – terminals,
and sensor B is connected to the other two terminals of the channel. In other words, each sensor’s terminals are independent
of the other’s — no terminal is used by both sensors.
Figure 5 Wiring one or two independent inputs to a single channel (voltage inputs used as example)
Note that each analog input channel can support two independent voltage inputs. In the above example, the channel
definition 1V will read sensor A while 1*V will read sensor B. The channel definition syntax is fully described in Channels
(P28)
Sensor Excitation
Many sensors require excitation (electrical energy) so that they can provide an output signal. For example, to read the
temperature of a thermistor, excitation current is passed through the thermistor to generate a voltage drop that can be
measured.
The DT80 can provide
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
Voltage source of approx. 4.5V via 1kΩ. Useful for powering some sensors however the supply is not regulated and
consequently liable to drift with temperature

200μA (approx.) current source. Default excitation for resistance measurement. Very stable over environmental
temperature range.

2.5mA (approx.) current source. Default excitation for RTD and bridge measurement. Very stable over environmental
temperature range.

User supplied external excitation EXT* terminal. The user can provide an external excitation which is appropriate to
the sensor being used. (The DT80 Series 2 and DT85 provide two general purpose DC power outputs which may be
connected to the EXT* terminal to provide external excitation if required.)
See the Excitation category in the Table 4: DT80 Channel Options (P43) table.
More Information
For full details on how to connect sensors and make measurements using the DT80's analog inputs, see Analog Channels
(P286).
D WK 12V
1D 2D 3D 4D GND
D
5D 6D 7D 8D GND
1
3
1C 2C 3C 4C D
Tx Rx RTS CTS D
Z A Y B GND
2
4
1PE
2PE
GND
RELAY
A B
5
ANALOG
DIGITAL
Digital Channels – Introduction
Figure 6: DT80 digital terminals
The DT80 provides:

4 bidirectional digital I/O channels (1D-4D) with open drain output driver and pull-up resistor (DT81/82E: 3 channels,
1D-3D)

4 bidirectional digital I/O channels (5D-8D) with tri-stateable output driver and weak pull-down resistor. These
channels may also be used for controlling intelligent sensors using the SDI-12 protocol (DT81/82E: 1 channel, 4D)

1 voltage free latching relay contact output (RELAY)

1 LED output (Attn)

4 hardware counter inputs (1C-4C) which can be used as independent counter channels or as two quadrature (phase
encoder) inputs (DT81: one phase encoder input, shared with inputs 3C and 4C. There are no phase encoder inputs
on the DT82E.)
As with analog channels, channel definition commands are used to specify which digital inputs are to be measured and/or
what digital output states are to be set. For example, the command 1DS will read the digital state (0 or 1) on channel 1D,
while 3DSO=0 will set channel 3D low.
A transition on a digital channel can be used to trigger a schedule. This allows a series of measurements to be made (or
commands executed) in response to a change in digital state.
The DT80 can count the number of pulses received on any digital input. The four dedicated counter inputs provide additional
capabilities:

a higher maximum count rate

the ability to keep counting even if the logger is in low-power "sleep" mode

optional low-level (5mV) input threshold levels

optional decoding of phase-encoded input signals
For more details, see Digital Channels (P314)
Serial Channels – Introduction
The DT80 supports two main classes of "smart sensor":

A wide range of sensors, particularly in the environmental monitoring field, use the SDI-12 protocol. The DT80 fully
supports this protocol making it a simple process to read measured values. See SDI-12 Channel (P325).

The DT80 also provides a generic serial channel.
The serial channel allows a wide variety of sensors and devices to be controlled and polled. The serial channel:

can use the dedicated serial sensor port (not DT81/82E), the host RS232 port (not DT8xM), and/or the USB port

supports USB, RS232, RS422 and RS485 signal levels (depending on the port)

supports point-to-point or multi-drop operation (point-to-point only for the host/USB port)

features programmable output (poll) strings and a variety of options for parsing returned data

can trigger execution of a schedule in response to received data
For more details, see Generic Serial Channel (P330).
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Programming the DT80
Typical Workflow
When creating a program to send to the DT80, typically the work will follow this order:
Connect Sensors
Sensors & Channels (P286) describes how to measure many different quantities and read many different sensor types using
the DT80’s analog, digital and serial inputs.
The first step is therefore to refer to the sub-section relating to the quantity you wish to measure. This will help you decide on
the most appropriate way to connect the sensor to the DT80.
Define Channels
Programming the DT80 essentially consists of :

defining a series of measurements to take, and

specifying when to take them.
Each measurement definition is referred to as a channel. It is important to be clear on how the word “channel” is used – in
DT80 parlance, it refers to a measurement to be made, not a physical input channel.
For example, if you program the DT80 to measure a voltage on analog input 1, then read the state of digital input 3, then
measure the voltage on analog input 1 again then you have defined three channels. The fact that the first and third channels
both measure the same physical quantity (the voltage on analog input 1) is irrelevant – as far as the DT80 is concerned, they
are two entirely separate measurements.
To specify when measurements are to be made, channel definitions may be grouped into schedule definitions. These
specify whether the channels should be sampled immediately, or periodically, or in response to some event.
To define a channel, you need to specify:

the input number (e.g. 1 for analog input 1)

the channel type (e.g. V to perform a voltage measurement)

any channel options that may be required (listed in parentheses, e.g. (GL3V,FF3)
So to define the three channels mentioned above, you could enter:
1V 3DS 1V
Since we haven’t specified any schedule, these three measurements will be taken immediately, one after the other. Default
settings will be used, since no channel options were specified. By default, the DT80 will then return the measured values in
ASCII form to the host computer, e.g.
1V 234.9 mV
3DS 1 State
1V 233.0 mV
So once you have connected the sensor as described in Sensors (P286), you can then test it out by directly entering a
suitable channel definition.
For example, suppose we want to check the resistance of a resistor. In the section Resistance (P292), several different wiring
configurations are given. In this case we are going to connect the resistor directly to the DT80’s terminals so we don’t need
to worry about lead resistance issues. The simplest 2-wire configuration is therefore suitable, as described in R4 – 2-Wire
Independent Resistance Inputs (P293). We therefore pick an analog input to use, say input 2, and wire the resistor between
the * and # terminals on analog input 2. We can now enter the channel definition:
DT80>2*R
2*R 559.1 Ohm
In this case the channel number is 2* (analog input 2, measuring between * and # terminals) and the channel type is R
(measure resistance) and there were no channel options, so the complete channel definition is 2*R.
Note that a particular physical input can be read using different channel types. For example, a thermocouple can be read as
a thermocouple or as a voltage. The command
1TK 1V
returns both a temperature and a voltage based on two readings of the same sensor.
For more information about how channels (measurements) are specified in the DT80 programming language, see Channels
(P28).
Define Measurement Schedules
A schedule defines when a set of channels should be measured. It consists of a list of channel definitions preceded by a
scan trigger specification. See Schedules (P44).
As a general rule when creating schedules, don’t instruct the DT80 to read channels more frequently than is really
necessary. For example, temperatures generally change slowly so rapid reading does not provide extra useful information.
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Up to eleven different schedules can be declared (A to K), each with a different trigger based on a time interval or a digital
input event. The schedule’s trigger can be changed at any time, either manually or under program control.
A list of channels without a trigger specification can be entered at any time. These are scanned immediately, without
affecting other schedules that may be operating. For more information, see Immediate Report Schedules (P51).
Important Whilst a schedule’s trigger can be changed at any time, its channel list cannot be altered without re-entering all
schedules. In fact, all schedules must be entered at the same time, either all on one line or between BEGIN and END
keywords (see Working with Schedules (P53)).
Jobs
A DT80 job is a logical "hold-all" for a group of schedule definitions and other commands. The command BEGIN signifies
the start of a job, and the command END signifies the end of the job. Once a job has been fully entered, the DT80 will activate
all schedules defined therein.
The DT80 can store more than one job (each with its own separate logged data and alarms), but only one can be the
current/active job. See Jobs (P56) for more details.
Scaling and Calculations
The DT80 can scale the channel input data to engineering units by applying intrinsic functions, spans or polynomials.
Arithmetic expressions provide cross-channel and other calculations. Various statistical functions, including averaging and
histogram channel options, can be applied. See Scaling (P60).
Reducing Data
In many instances the volume of the data recorded can be reduced by taking averages, maximums, minimums, standard
deviations, histograms or integrals. See Statistical Channel Options (P71).
Alarms and Conditional Execution
The DT80’s alarm facility is flexible and powerful. Alarms are used to warn of certain conditions (e.g. setpoint exceeded) and
to control the DT80’s operation. Alarms can

control DT80 digital state outputs

initiate execution of DT80 commands

trigger the sending of messages to the host computer.

set variables
Executing DT80 commands from an alarm can be particularly useful in modifying the DT80’s programming in response to
changes in input(s). See Alarms (P77).
Data Logging
The DT80 stores measurements in its internal data store or in a removable USB memory device.
Logging begins only after you issue the LOGON command. Time and date stamping is automatic.
By default, the DT80 overwrites the oldest data with new data once the memory is full. If you prefer to have the logger stop
logging once the memory is full then you need to set the no-overwrite schedule option (NOV) (P45).
For more details see Logging and Retrieving Data (P89)
 Selective Logging
To selectively log channels and schedules:

For channels, use the NL (no log) channel option

For schedules, use the LOGONx & LOGOFFx commands
See Enabling and Disabling Data Logging (P89).
Retrieving Data
The DT80 can do two things with the data it measures:

Return it immediately to the host computer, where it can be seen arriving on-screen. This monitoring function is data
return in real time.

Store it in its internal memory and/or an inserted USB memory device ready for retrieval (unload) to the host computer
at a later time. This is data logging.
The DT80 can carry out these functions separately, or at the same time.
 Retrieving Real-Time Data
The DT80’s default is to return data in ASCII text form to a connected host computer instantaneously – that is, as it is
measured. (To override this send the /r switch to the data logger (P250)).
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The logger's inbuilt dEX software can also display real-time data in tabular form in your web browser, or you can define
mimics to display the data in graphical form such as dials or trend charts.
Note that if the DT80 is configured to take measurements at a rapid rate then it is possible that not all data values will be
returned. All measurements will, however, be logged (if logging is enabled).
 Retrieving Logged Data
Data stored in a DT80’s internal memory or USB memory device can be retrieved (or unloaded) by means of the Host
RS-232 port, the Ethernet port, or the USB port. Data can be retrieved for an individual schedule or all schedules, or for all
jobs or an individual job.
USB memory devices
The DT80’s USB port supports USB memory devices, which can be used

as a medium for transferring logged data from the internal memory of a DT80 to a computer (see Retrieving Logged
Data (P93))

as removable data storage. See Logging Data (P89)

to load a job into a DT80. See ONINSERT Job (P59).

to upgrade a DT80’s firmware. See Firmware Upgrade – USB Flash Device (P376).
Data stored on the USB memory device is in a Windows-compatible file structure – see The DT80 File System (P109).
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Format of Returned Data
As mentioned earlier, the DT80 can:

make data available to a host computer as it is measured (real-time data), and/or

store data in memory to be retrieved at a later date (logged data)
You can control whether data is returned or logged on a per channel, per schedule or global basis.
Real-time data
Web Access (dEX)
If the DT80 is connected to a host computer via a TCP/IP network then the logger's built in web interface can be used to
display real-time data in any web browser. This may be presented in tabular numeric format, or as graphical "mimic"
displays. See Displaying Real-Time Measurements (P145).
ASCII Data
The DT80 can also return real-time data in ASCII (text) form via its command interface. This can be in one of two formats:

free format mode

fixed format mode (also known as "host mode", or "formatted mode")
The /h switch command selects free format mode (which is the default); /H selects fixed format mode.
 Free Format Mode /h
In free format mode, data is returned as human-readable ASCII text. Various settings are available to control how the data is
presented. By default, each channel is printed on a separate line, prefixed by its name (either a standard DT80 channel
name e.g. "3TK", or a user-specified name e.g. "Inlet temp") and followed by appropriate units.
Thus the following program:
RA30S 1V("Pressure~kPa") 2TK 5DS("Valve state")
would result in text similar to the following text being sent to the active communications port:
Pressure 102.3 kPa
2TK 98.0 degC
Valve state 1 State
Pressure 107.3 kPa
2TK 98.2 degC
Valve state 1 State
and so on.
By applying various formatting settings you can get different results. One possible example would be:
/n/c/u/T P33=10 RA30S 1V("Pressure~kPa",FF2) 2TK(FF2) 5DS("Valve state")
which would format the data thus:
12:46:00.029
102.32
12:46:30.017
107.34
97.98
98.22
1
1
In this example, /n/c/u are switch commands (P250) that have been used to switch off output of channel numbers,
channel names and units. The /T switch causes each data record to be prefixed by a timestamp. P33=10 is a parameter
setting (P247) that sets each data value to a fixed width (10 characters). Finally, the FF2 channel option (P43) specifies
that the channel value is to be rounded to 2 decimal places.
 Fixed Format Mode /H
Fixed format mode is designed for use with dataTaker host software. Data is still returned in ASCII form, but the record
format is fixed to allow it to be easily parsed by a computer. If /H is specified then both of the above examples will return
data as:
D,081044,"JOB1",2005/03/29,12:46:00,0.0293681,0;A,0,102.322,97.979902,1;0072;065F
D,081044,"JOB1",2005/03/29,12:46:30,0.0170320,0;A,0,107.341,98.220014,1;0072;3BEB
In fixed format mode:

all formatting commands (e.g. FF2, /n, channel names) are ignored – fixed settings are used

all records are prefixed by a header, which specifies that this is a data record (D), from DT80 serial number 081044,
running a job called "JOB1". This is followed a timestamp (date, time, and sub-second time). The 0 indicates that this
is real-time data, the A identifies the schedule, and the 0 is the index within the schedule of the first data value.

floating point data values are always specified to 8 significant digits

each record includes an error-detection code (CRC) on the end. This allows host software to reject corrupted records.
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Data records such as the above are only one of several types of fixed format message. A comprehensive description of all
fixed format message types is beyond the scope of this manual.
Logged Data
This section discusses the different formats in which logged data can be retrieved. For details on how to go about retrieving
your data, what mechanisms are available (web, file, FTP etc.) and what commands and options to use, see Retrieving
Logged Data (P93).
CSV Format Data
CSV (comma separated value) is a widely used text based format for transferring data. The DT80 command COPYD can be
used to report logged data in CSV format. Data can be written to either:

the active comms port, so the data appears in the dEX or DeTransfer command window from which the COPYD
command was issued, or

a file on the DT80's internal file system, or

a file on a removable USB device, or

a file on an FTP server
 CSV Record Format
By default, the DT80 merges logged data and alarms from multiple schedules into a single file. The file consists of a number
of rows. Each row is terminated by a CR-LF sequence.
Each row consists of a number of fields (columns), separated by commas.
Each row consists of the following fields, in order:

timestamp (e.g. 2010/03/01 09:54:38.000)

timezone. Currently, this field will always have the value "n", meaning "no timezone"

data values for first schedule (zero or more fields, one for each loggable channel). Numeric data values are specified
in "mixed" format (may be either standard or exponential format), to 8 significant digits and trailing zeroes after the
decimal point are trimmed. String values are enclosed in quotes, with any control characters represented in ^c form
(e.g. a CR character would appear as ^M).

alarm number, alarm state (0-3) and alarm text (see Alarm Records (P87)) for first schedule (three fields; only present
if schedule has one or more loggable alarm channels)

data values for second schedule (if any)

alarm number, alarm state and alarm text for second schedule (if any)

(and so on, for each schedule)
The first row in the file is a header row, which contains a descriptive name for each field. For example, the name of a data
value field has the form "chanName (units)", e.g. "Ext Temp (degC)"
The first block of rows after the header row contain all data records for the first schedule. The next block of rows contain all
alarm records for the first schedule. Then comes the data records for the second schedule, and so on.
In other words, the CSV data is generated in schedule order, not in time order. However, once it is loaded into a spreadsheet
it is a trivial exercise to re-sort by the timestamp field.
 Example
For example, a typical file might look like:
"Timestamp","TZ","Ext Temp (degC)","2V (mV)","1CV","B.ALnum","B.ALstate","B.ALtext"
2010/03/01 09:54:38.000,n,22.896844,-0.05822
2010/03/01 09:54:39.000,n,22.894454,-0.058563
2010/03/01 09:54:40.000,n,22.899576,-0.057869
2010/03/01 09:54:41.000,n,22.897856,-0.056656
2010/03/01 09:54:42.000,n,22.893504,-0.05735
2010/03/01 09:54:38.233,n,,,3
2010/03/01 09:54:40.249,n,,,4
2010/03/01 09:54:42.237,n,,,1
2010/03/01 09:54:40.249,n,,,,2,1,"trig 22.9"
 Variations
To simplify parsing by host applications, the CSV format files generated by the DT80 are essentially fixed format. However
the following parameters may be used to vary the format:

P38 can be used to change the character used as the decimal point. By default, this is set to 46, which is the ASCII
code for a period character (.). For European applications, it is often set to 44, which is the code for comma (,). If this
is set to comma then the data separator is automatically changed to semi-colon (;).

P41 can be used to change the number of decimal places shown for timestamp values (default 3).
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For example, setting
P38=44 P41=0
would result in:
"Timestamp";"TZ";"Ext Temp (degC)";"2V (mV)";"1CV";"B.ALnum";"B.ALstate";"B.ALtext"
2010/03/01 09:54:38;n;22,896844;-0,05822
2010/03/01 09:54:39;n;22,894454;-0,058563
2010/03/01 09:54:40;n;22,899576;-0,057869
2010/03/01 09:54:41;n;22,897856;-0,056656
2010/03/01 09:54:42;n;22,893504;-0,05735
2010/03/01 09:54:38;n;;;3
2010/03/01 09:54:40;n;;;4
2010/03/01 09:54:42;n;;;1
2010/03/01 09:54:40;n;;;;2;1;"trig 22.9"
Data in this format can then be readily imported into spreadsheet applications which are set up for a European locale.
 Error Values
In the event of an erroneous sample value, e.g. analog input overrange, or calculation error, a textual error string will be
inserted into the CSV data in place of the data value, e.g.
2010/03/01 09:54:40.000,n,OverRange,-0.057869
When this is imported into a spreadsheet application, the non-numeric data value will typically plot as zero.
Native (DBD) Format Data
When the DT80 logs data to its internal memory, it stores it in fixed size data files, one for each schedule. These files have a
.DBD file extension, e.g. DATA_A.DBD.
An alternative way of getting data out of a DT80 is to transfer relevant .DBD files to the host computer. These files can then
be opened using tools such as:

dataTaker dump_dbd (which can convert to CSV format). This utility is available on the dataTaker resource CD or on
the datataker.com website.

third party packages such as DPlot, which provides plotting facilities.
For large data files, it is often significantly faster to transfer data in DBD format, as the DT80 does not need to perform any
data conversion and formatting.
Native format DT80 data files can be saved to files on the DT80 internal file system, a USB memory device or an FTP server.
As with CSV format output, this is done using the COPYD command; the only difference being that a format=dbd option is
specified.
For more details, see Retrieving Logged Data (P93).
Fixed Format Data
Logged data may also be unloaded to a file as fixed format records, as described in Fixed Format Mode /H (P25). This is
primarily intended for use with legacy host applications such as DeLogger.
To retrieve data in fixed format, use COPYD format=fixed.
Free Format Data
Data may also be unloaded in traditional dataTaker "free format" mode, as described in Free Format Mode /h (P25). This
format may be customised using a number of parameter and switch settings.
To retrieve data in fixed format, use COPYD format=free.
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Part B – Channels
Channel Definitions
A channel definition defines a measurement to be taken. It is therefore the fundamental building block that you use when
programming the DT80.
Channel definitions are normally enclosed in a schedule definition. The schedule definition specifies when to take the
measurements. The channel definitions specify what to measure, on which terminals and how to sample and process the
data value.
A sample schedule definition is shown below
RA2S
2DS
3R(4W)
2*V(0.1,GL3V,"Speed~km/h",FF0)
9CV(W)=9CV+1
This shows four channel definitions which are part of the "A" schedule. Each time this schedule runs (which will be every 2
seconds), four measurements will be taken:
1.
The logic state of digital channel 2 will be sampled
2.
A resistance connected to analog channel 3 (4-wire connection) will be measured
3.
A voltage connected to analog channel 2 (* and # terminals) will be measured and displayed as a speed value
4.
An internal general purpose variable will be updated (incremented)
Let us now examine the syntax of a channel definition more closely.
A channel definition consists of up to four components

the channel type is a mnemonic code which tells the DT80 what sort of quantity is being measured, or what sort of
sensor is attached. In the above example the channel types are DS (digital state), R (resistance), V (voltage) and CV
(channel variable). A channel definition must always include a channel type.

a channel number prefix is required for most channel types. This specifies which channel to measure. In the above
example we are measuring digital channel 2, analog channel 3, analog channel 2* and internal variable #9

channel options are enclosed in round brackets after the channel type and further specify how the channel is to be
measured and processed. In the above example, the 3R, 2*V and 9CV channels have user-specified options, the
2DS channel does not.

some channel types are "writable" (e.g. internal variables and digital output channels) and therefore allow a value to
be assigned using an expression. In the above example the 9CV channel definition contains an expression.
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Channel Numbers
A DT80 channel number identifies a particular channel within a certain class of channels. The following table lists the
various classes of DT80 channels. As can be seen, each class has its own range of channel numbers.
channel class
terminal labels
channel numbers
applicable channel types
analog
1 – 16 (DT8x)
1 – 20 (CEM20)
1 – 16
n01 – n20
V HV I L R BGI BGV AS F FW Tx AD5xx CU NI
LMx35 LMxx PT3xx TMPxx YSxx
(n = CEM20 number)
plus optional *
modifier
1D – 8D
1C – 7C
1PE – 3PE
digital
counter
phase encoder
+ – #
1–8
1–7
1–3
C DB DBO DN DNO DS DSO
HSC
PE
1
1
1–3
RELAY
WARN
SERIAL MODBUS
4
MODBUS
PWR12V
PWR5V
SDI12
shared with counter
RELAY
Attn
relay
LED
serial
1 = serial sensor
2 = host RS232
3 = USB
TCP/IP
power output
12V
5V SW
no number
SDI-12
5D – 8D (DT80/85)
4D (DT81/82)
channel variable
system variable
string
timer
temperature
reference
internal
5 – 8 (DT80/85)
4 (DT81/82)
1 – 1000
1 – 85
1 – 50
1–4
special
internal
internal
internal
internal
internal
no number (DT8x)
1 – 15 (CEM20)
no number
CV
SV
$
ST
REFT
D T DELAY CALC &name CMRR IBAT R100 VANA
VBAT VC VDD VEXT VLITH VREF VRELAY VSYS
VZERO
The "applicable channel types" column lists the different ways in which a physical input can be measured. For example,
analog channel 1 can be used to measure a voltage (specified by entering 1V), or a PT385 RTD (1PT385) or a frequency
(1F). All of these channel types fall into the analog class, so when we talk about channel 1 we are talking about analog
channel 1.
Because each channel type is a member of one class only, there is never any confusion about which "channel 1" is being
referred to. 1C refers to digital input 1 because, from the above table, the C (counter) channel type is in the digital class.
1HSC, on the other hand, refers to counter input 1 because the HSC (high speed counter) channel type is in the counter
class.
An analog channel number can be suffixed by a modifier character, which identifies the pair of terminals between which to
measure, as shown in the following table:
Modifier
Measure voltage between
none
+ and * and #
+ and #
- and #
# and AGND/EXT# (normally only used for current measurements)
*
+
–
#
Thus the channel ID 3V defines a measurement between the + and – terminals, while 3*V, 3+V and 3-V define
measurements between the *, + or – terminals (respectively) and the # terminal.
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Channel Number Sequence
A channel ID that contains two channel numbers separated by two decimal points (for example, 1..3) defines a
continuous sequence of channels. If the channel IDs include terminal modifiers then the sequence will include all terminal
modifiers between that of the first channel ID and that of the second (inclusive, in the order *, +, –, #, and only where valid
for the channel type). For example
Sequence
is equivalent to
1..4V
1#..3#I
1+..3-R(3W)
1V 2V 3V 4V
1#I 2#I 3#I
1+R(3W) 1-R(3W) 2+R(3W) 2-R(3W) 3+R(3W) 3-R(3W)
Channel Types
The following table lists all of the channel types supported by the DT80. For each channel type, the table shows:

the channel type mnemonic (e.g. HV). Remember that in most cases this will be prefixed by a channel number. Refer
to Channel Numbers (P29) for details of the allowable range of channel numbers for each channel type.

whether the channel type is "writable" (shown in the Channel Type column). Writable channel types can be assigned
a value, e.g. 2C=200 or 1CV=(2CV+3)+SIN(5CV)

the default channel options for this channel type. These override the standard default values shown in the channel
option table. See also Channel Options (P37).

what the channel factor does for this channel type

the units in which data will be returned. By default, the indicated units string will be shown on the display and
appended to free format returned data, although it can be overridden if required.

references to further details about the channel type
Category
Channel
Type
Voltage
V
HV
Current
I
Signal\ Sensor Details
Voltage
input ranges are ±3V,
±300mV & ±30mV
Higher Voltage
input ranges are ±30V,
±3V & ±300mV
Current
Default Channel
Options
Channel
Factor
Output
Units
More Information
(U)
scaling
factor
mV
Voltage (P287)
(A)
scaling
factor
V
(100,T)
current
shunt Ω
current
shunt Ω
offset
adjust Ω
mA
Note 1
Note 1, 2
L
(100)
4-20mA current loop
Note 2
Resistance
R
Bridge
BGI
BGV
Resistance by 2, 3 or
4-wire methods, 10k
maximum.
4-wire bridge, 3-wire
simulated bridge
current excitation
4 & 6-wire bridges,
voltage excitation
(I,3W)
F
UM-0085-B7
Resistance (P292)
(V,4W)
Bridges (P295)
Bridges (P295)
Note 4
Vibrating Wire Strain
Gauge frequency
DT80G/85G only
Temperature TB, TC, Thermocouples Type B,
TD, TE, C, D, E, G, J, K, N, R, S
TG, TJ, and T
TK, TN,
TR, TS,
Platinum RTDs
( = 0.00385, 0.00392)
Nickel RTD
( = 0.005001)
Ohm
ppm
arm
resistance
Ω
ppm
offset
adjust ppm
Frequency measurement (30,T)
FW
TT
PT385
PT392
NI
%
Note 4
(350,II,
3W)
.
Frequency
Current (P290)
sample
period ms
Note 1
(200,MD350) sample
period ms
Hz
Frequency (P306)
Hz
Strain Gauges –
Vibrating Wire (P308)
(T)
degC
Temperature –
Thermocouples (P299)
Note 1
(100,3W,
II)
(1000,3W,
I)
scaling
factor
Note 3
0°C resist- degC
Note 3
ance Ω
Temperature – RTDs
(P302)
0°C resist- degC
Note 3
ance Ω
DT80 Range User’s Manual
Page 30
Category
Channel
Type
Signal\ Sensor Details
CU
Copper RTD
( = 0.0039)
YS01
YS02
YS03
YS04
YS05
YS06
YS07
YS16
YS17
AD590
AD592
TMP17
LM135
LM235
LM335
LM34
LM35
LM45
LM50
LM60
TMP35
TMP36
TMP37
T
Thermistors: Yellow
Springs 400XX series
Time, Date
and System writable
Timers
D
Default Channel
Options
Channel
Factor
(100,3W,
II)
(3W,I)
0°C resist- degC
Note 3
ance Ω
Semiconductor current
source types
(Analog Devices)
(100,V,U)
Semiconductor (zener
diode) voltage output
types
(2,V)
Semiconductor voltage
output types
(V)
Note 2
Output
Units
parallel
resistor Ω
degC
current
shunt Ω
degC
voltage
divider
degC
offset
adjust °C
degC
Note 3
Note 3
Note 3
Note 3
More Information
Temperature –
Thermistors (P301)
Temperature – AD590
Series IC Sensors (P303)
Temperature – LM135
Series IC Sensors (P305)
Temperature – LM35
Series IC Sensors (P304)
Note 4
Time of day
Time (P33)
Day or date
writable
1ST
2ST
3ST
4ST
System timers
Increment every
sec (1ST), min (2ST),
hour (3ST), day (4ST)
(60)
(60)
(24)
(7)
range
Counts System Timers (P34)
writable
Delay
DELAY
writable
System Data SV
ms
Delays schedule
execution for nominated
time
System variable
Note 6
some are
writable
Variables
CV
writable
IV
Calculation
Channel variables:
general purpose holders
for data, calculation
results
Integer variables
CALC
Temporary holder for
calculation result
&name Last measurement value
for channel called name
$
General purpose text for
headings, etc. (max. 80
writable
characters each)
SERIAL Transmit to and receive
from serial device
writable
Reference
Text
Serial
Modbus
UM-0085-B7
Delay (P35)
scaling
factor
System Variables (P35)
scaling
factor
Channel Variables (nCV)
scaling
factor
scaling
factor
scaling
factor
Rainflow Cycle Counting
(P63)
(P74)
Calculation Only
Channels (P64)
Reference Channels
(P64)
Text (P34)
(P53)
State
timeout
ie. P53 specifies (sec)
default timeout
SDI12 Control SDI-12 sensors (AD0,R1)
scaling
factor
using digital channels 5-8
SSPORT Enable/disable serial
delay (ms) State
sensor port (not DT81)
Note 6
writable
MODBUS Read/control Modbus
(MBI,MES,
scaling
sensors
factor
TO3,RT0)
DT80 Range User’s Manual
Generic Serial Channel
(P330)
SDI-12 Channel (P325)
Serial Interface Power
Control (P339)
Modbus Channel (P343)
Page 31
Category
Power
Output
Channel
Type
Channel
Factor
Output
Units
PWR12V Enable/disable 12V power
delay (ms) State
writable
Note 6
PWR5V
writable
DS
DN
Digital
Input
Default Channel
Options
Signal\ Sensor Details
DB
output (Series 2)
Enable/disable isolated
5V power output (Series 3)
Digital state input (1 bit)
(15)
Digital nybble input (4
bits)
Digital byte input (8 bits) (255)
delay (ms) State
Note 6, 7
bit mask
State
Nybble
More Information
Controlling 12V Power
Output (P276)
Controlling 5V Power
Output (P276)
Digital Inputs (P315)
Note 5
bit mask
Byte
Note 5
AS
Digital
Output
DSO
writable
DNO
writable
DBO
writable
RELAY
writable
WARN
writable
Counter
C
writable
HSC
writable
PE
(2500)
Digital state input on an
analog channel
Output on a single digital
channel.
Nybble output on a group (15)
of digital channels
Byte output on a group of (255)
digital channels
threshold State
(mV)
delay (ms) State
1=Relay output closed
0=Relay output open
1=Attn LED on
0=Attn LED off
Pulse count on digital
input (0 to range-1)
High Speed Up Counter
(0 to range-1)
Phase Encoder
delay (ms) State
Reference temperature of
DT80 or CEM20 terminal
block
scaling
factor
degC
Terminal voltage of
internal 6V lead acid
battery
Internal Lithium
memory-backup battery
voltage.
Internal main battery
current
Analog 2.5V voltage
source reference
Analog zero voltage
reference
Internal 100 Ohm Shunt
scaling
factor
V
scaling
factor
V
Replace battery if below
2.8V.
scaling
factor
scaling
factor
scaling
factor
scaling
factor
scaling
factor
scaling
factor
scaling
factor
scaling
factor
scaling
factor
mA
Positive if charging,
negative if discharging
Analog Logic State Inputs
(P313)
Digital Outputs (P316)
Note 6
bit mask
Nybble
Note 5
bit mask
Byte
Note 5
Note 6
delay (ms) State
Note 6
range
Counts Counters – Low Speed
range
Counts Counters – High Speed
(P320)
(P321)
Counts Phase Encoders (P323)
writable
REFT
Internal
Maintenance
VBAT
VLITH
IBAT
VREF
VZERO
R100
VANA
VDD
Internal analog 3.8V rail
voltage
Internal 3.3V rail voltage
VSYS
Internal system supply rail
voltage
VRELAY Internal relay supply
voltage
VEXT
Raw voltage onto system
from external supply
CMRR
Common-mode rejection
ratio at maximum gain
Note 3
Temperature –
Thermocouples (P299),
CEM20 Temperature
Reference (P358)
Battery flat if below 5.6V.
V
mV
Ohms
mV
mV
mV
mV
V
dB
Table 2: DT80 Channel Types
 Notes
1.
Input termination is on by default (T) for DT80/81 Series 1 for non-attenuated measurements between + and terminals
UM-0085-B7
DT80 Range User’s Manual
Page 32
2.
If the current shunt value is specified (as the channel factor) then that value is used. Otherwise, if the measurement
uses the DT80's internal shunt on the # terminal (e.g. 3#I), then the DT80 uses the actual calibrated resistance of its
shunt. Otherwise, the external shunt is assumed to be 100.0 ohms.
3.
Alternatively, parameter P36 can be set to force all temperatures to be returned in degF, degR or K.
4.
Offset corrections are subtracted from the measured value.
5.
The bitmask specifies which channels are affected by a multi-bit read or write. Channels where the corresponding
bitmask bit is zero are not affected. For example 1DNO(3)=0 will set digital outputs 1D and 2D low but the state of
outputs 3D and 4D will be unchanged.
6.
The delay channel factor can be used in conjunction with the R channel option to generate a fixed width pulse output.
7.
5V power output will only be active while analog section is powered; use P21=1 if continuously power output is
required.
Note: use delay carefully as it prevents execution of any other schedules, measurements or outputs during the delay.
Internal Channel Types
The DT80 has its own internal channels, which can be read in exactly the same way as the obvious "external" channels. Use
the channel types below.
Time
The DT80’s real-time clock/calendar has a resolution of 0.1ms, based on a 24-hour clock. Time is read in the same way as
any channel, but without a channel number. That is, sending
T
returns
Time 11:45:10.213
This channel type is writable, so you can set the time by sending:
T=12:20:00
Time can be in several formats, selected by parameter P39 as follows:
P39=
Format
Example
0 (default)
Hours:minute:seconds.subseconds
P41 controls the number of sub-second digits between 0 and 6;
default is 3 digits
s.s (decimal seconds) since midnight
m.m (decimal minutes) since midnight
h.h (decimal hours) since midnight
11:45:10.003
1
2
3
42310.003
705.1667
11.7528
If the time is assigned to a channel variable (see Channel Variables (nCV) (P63)) then the CV will contain the number of
seconds since midnight, e.g.
T(=1CV) 1CV
Time 17:40:50.748
1CV 63650.7
You can also set the time using a CV, e.g.
1CV=7200 T=1CV
1CV 7200.0
Time 02:00:00.000
See also Setting the System Time(P255).
Date
The current date can also be returned and set:
D
Date 22/05/2005
D=25/12/2010
Date 25/12/2010
Date can be in several formats, selected by P31 as follows:
P31=
Format
0
1 (default)
2
3
Day number
European
North American
ISO
Example
DDDDD
DD/MM/YYYY
MM/DD/YYYY
YYYY/MM/DD
86
28/03/2002
03/28/2002
2002/03/28
If the date is assigned to a channel variable then the CV will contain the number of seconds since 1-Jan-1989. The date can
also be set from a CV, e.g.
D(=1CV) 1CV=1CV+86400 D=1CV
Date 04/03/2010
UM-0085-B7
DT80 Range User’s Manual
Page 33
1CV 668176400.0
Date 05/03/2010
 System Variables
The following system variables (see System Variables (P35)) return date related information which can then be tested in
alarms:

12SV returns the current date/time as decimal days since 1-Jan-1989

15SV returns the day number of the year (0-365)

20SV returns the day of the month (1-31)

21SV returns the month (1-12)

22SV returns the year (1989-9999)
Text
Fifty 80-character text channels (1$ – 50$) are available for labelling, data headings, site identification, DT80 identification,
and so on.
Define the string by sending, for example
2$="my text string^M^J"
Then, the string is returned (unloaded) whenever n$ is included in a channel list.
Text channels can also be set based on data returned via the serial channel. Control String – Input Actions (P335)
Control characters may be included in the text string, e.g. ^M for carriage return.
Internal Maintenance
There are several internal maintenance channels, which are read in the same way as normal channels. These allow, for
example, the terminal voltage of the DT80's internal batteries to be measured. See the Internal Maintenance section of the
DT80 Channel Types table (P30).
System Timers
There are four internal reloading system timers, which are read in the same way as channels. The four timers increment at
the following rates, and reset to zero when their range (maximum value) is reached:
System
Timer
Channel
Type
Increments
Every
Default range
Provides
1
2
3
4
1ST
2ST
3ST
4ST
1 second
1 minute
1 hour
1 day
60 (1 minute)
60 (1 hour)
24 (1 day)
7 (1 week)
Second of the minute
Minute of the hour
Hour of the day
Day of the week:
(0 = Sunday, 1= Monday, etc.)
System timers are normally synchronised to the previous midnight or Sunday, and increment at the beginning of each
second, minute, hour or day.
If the DT80's date/time is set, the system timer channels will be updated to match the new time.
The range of a system timer can be set using the channel factor. For example, 2ST(15) will count from 0 to 14, resetting
every quarter hour, on the quarter hour.
If the range is set to 0 then the timer will not reset, except at midnight (1-3ST) or midnight Sunday (4ST)
If a system timer is explicitly set to a value, e.g. 1ST=12, then it will no longer necessarily be synchronised to the actual
time. In this example, after being set 1ST will count up from 12 to 60, at which point it will reset back to 0 and start counting
again. It will always differ from the time-of-day seconds count by a fixed offset.
If a system timer's range is set, it will automatically be resynchronised to the actual time. Therefore 2ST(60) can be
entered at any time to return 2ST to its default behaviour.
If a system timer is set to a value outside its range, it is immediately adjusted so that it is in range. When you enter nST=x,
you are actually doing nST=x mod range. Thus 2ST=62 will actually set 2ST to 2.
 Examples
Assume the time is now 12:34:56. Then:
2ST
2ST 34
(34 minutes past the hour – counter resets on the hour)
2ST 754
(754 minutes since midnight – counter resets at midnight only)
2ST 6
(754 mod 22 – counter resets at midnight and every 22 minutes thereafter)
2ST 1
(counter is no longer synchronised to midnight)
2ST(0)
2ST(22)
2ST=1
UM-0085-B7
DT80 Range User’s Manual
Page 34
2ST(22)
2ST 6
(setting range value resynchronises timer to current time)
2ST will now increment every minute, resetting back to 0 each time it reaches 22. When midnight comes around, it will again
be reset to 0.
Delay
It is often useful to insert a fixed delay into a DT80 program. There are two ways of doing this, each for a particular purpose.
As discussed in Executing Commands in Schedules (P55), there is a distinction between channel definitions and
commands. Channel definitions (1V, T, 5SDI12 etc) are executed as part of a schedule. Any commands (U, G, DELDATA
etc.) triggered by the schedule (using ALARM or DO statements) will be queued but not executed until the schedule
completes.
The DELAY=n channel definition will insert a delay of n ms between two channel definitions. For example:
RA20S 1WARN=1 DELAY=1000 1WARN=0
will turn on the Attn LED, wait one second, then turn it off. (There are more better and more compact ways to do this, e.g.
1WARN(1000,R)=1; the above is simply to illustrate a point.)
On the other hand, the PAUSE n command will insert a delay of n ms between two commands. The following will do a similar
thing to the previous example:
RA20S DO{SATTN; PAUSE 1000; CATTN}
In this case the SATTN and CATTN commands are used to turn the Attn LED on and off, rather than the 1WARN channel.
 Delay Accuracy
The actual delay will not necessarily be exactly as specified. For delays of 20ms or less it will be close (within 1ms). For
longer delays the resolution is +/- 16ms however it is guaranteed that the duration will be at least the specified time.
For the DELAY channel type, the PT (precise timing) channel option may be specified to force a precise delay time, even if
the duration is greater than 20ms. For example:
DELAY(PT)=1000
Note however that during this time all logger operations including communications, display updates and sampling will be
suspended.
Note Performing long delays using the DELAY channel or the PAUSE command is not recommended as it can prevent the
timely evaluation of other schedules. This is true regardless of whether the PT option is specified.
System Variables
System variables provide various pieces of information about the state of the DT80 and its current job. All system variables
are read-only except where indicated as writable in the table below.
As with any other channel type, SVs are, by default, displayed to one decimal place. Use the FFn channel option to vary this
if required, e.g. 14SV(FF2)
System
Variable
Function
Notes
Writable
1SV
2SV
3SV
4SV
5SV
Free space in the internal file system (B:)
Used space in the internal file system (B:)
Free space in USB memory device (A:)
Used space in USB memory device (A:)
External power status
6SV
7SV
Build number of the DT80’s firmware
Job loaded flag
8SV
9SV
Mains frequency setting in Hz (P11)
in kBytes
in kBytes
in kBytes, 0 if no memory device present
in kBytes, 0 if no memory device present
0 = external power not connected
1 = external power connected
e.g. = 2 for firmware version 6.18.0002
0 = no current job
1 = a job is loaded
Can be used to change P11 within a schedule

10SV
ID of the owning schedule
11SV
Returns 0.0
12SV
13SV
14SV
15SV
Decimal days since base date (00:00, 1-Jan-1989)
DT80 serial number
Version number of the DT80’s firmware
Day number of the current year (integer)
USB memory device presence
0 = none
1 = USB memory device inserted
0 = RX schedule
1 = RA schedule

11 = RK schedule
12 = immediate schedule
Can be used as thermocouple reference
channel for cases where the thermocouple
output is already compensated, e.g.
RA1S 11SV(TR) 1TT
UM-0085-B7
e.g. = 6.18 for firmware version 6.18.0002
0 = 1st of January
DT80 Range User’s Manual
Page 35
System
Variable
Function
Notes
16SV
Host RS-232 port input handshake line states
17SV
Host RS-232 port output handshake line states
18SV
Serial Channel input handshake line states (RS232
mode only)
Serial Channel output handshake line states
(RS232 mode only)
Current day of the month
Current month
Current year
Status of a modem connected to the DT80’s Host
RS-232 port
Bitmask, 0 to 15
8 = RI, 4 = DCD, 2 = DSR, 1 = CTS
Bitmask, 0 to 3
2 = DTR, 1 = RTS
Bitmask, 0 to 1
1 = CTS
Bitmask, 0 to 1
1 = RTS
1 - 31
1 - 12
1989 - 5999
0 = no modem connected (direct connection
assumed)
1 = modem connected and no call in progress
2 = modem connected and call in progress
0 = no NTP requests have been attempted
1 = time adjustment in process
2 = last request successful
-1..-5 = last request unsuccessful
in milliseconds
0 = no unloads have been attempted
1 = unload in progress
2 = last unload was successful
-10..-19 = destination store file error
-20..-29 = source store file error
-30 = communications queue is full
-99 = unload aborted by user
-1 = no current job; or no storefile has been
created for the specified schedule in the current
job
19SV
20SV
21SV
22SV
25SV
26SV
Status of last NTP attempt
27SV
29SV
Time discrepancy as at last NTP request
Status of last unload attempt
30SV
31SV
32SV
33SV
52SV
53SV
80SV
81SV
82SV
Number of logged data records for RX schedule
Number of logged alarm records for RX schedule
Number of logged data records for RA schedule
Number of logged alarm records for RA schedule

Number of logged data records for RK schedule
Number of logged alarm records for RK schedule
Communications session state
Result of last communications session
Last sampled mobile network signal level
83SV
Last sampled mobile network type
84SV
85SV
Last sampled mobile network bit error rate
Current Ethernet communications state
Writable



see States (P210) (DT8xM models only)
see Errors (P210) (DT8xM models only)
value in dBm, typical range -113 to -51
(DT8xM models only)
see Network (P213)
(DT8xM models only)
value in % (DT8xM models only)
0 = disabled/no cable
1 = starting
2 = online
3 = limited connectivity (link-local IP address)
Table 3: DT80 System Variables
UM-0085-B7
DT80 Range User’s Manual
Page 36
Channel Options
Overview
All channel types can be modified in various ways by channel options, which define the way in which the input channel is
managed when sampled. There are channel options that specify the type of sensor excitation, the termination of the input
channel, scaling and linearization of the input signal, the format and destination of channel data, fixed channel gain values,
resistance and bridge wiring methods, statistical operations on the channel data, and so on.
As shown below, channel options are placed in round brackets immediately following the channel ID (channel number and
type). If multiple channel options are specified then they should be separated by a comma (no spaces).
RA2S 1TK 3R(4W) 2*V(0.1,GL3V,"Speed~km/h",FF0)
In the above example:

The first channel, 1TK, has no channel options specified so it will measure the thermocouple using default settings.

The second channel (3R) includes the 4W channel option, which specifies that a 4-wire resistance measurement
should be taken.

Finally, the 2*V channel is in this case used to read a speed sensor which outputs a voltage that is directly
proportional to speed (10mV per km/h). The 0.1 channel option is the channel factor, which for a voltage channel is
interpreted as a simple scaling factor (mV * 0.1 = km/h). The GL3V (gain lock) option tells the DT80 to select the 3V
measurement range (rather than auto-ranging). The last two options concern the presentation of the data on the LCD
display and in returned real-time data when in free format (/h) mode. In particular, they define the channel name and
units, and specify that no decimal places be displayed (FF0).
The channel's data will therefore be returned/displayed as:
Speed 72 km/h
instead of the default:
2*V 721.3 mV
Only certain channel options can be applied to each channel type. If an inappropriate channel option is applied (or an
incompatible combination of options), the DT80 notifies by returning an E3 - Channel option error message.
The same channel can be put in the list more than once, with the same or different channel options. The DT80 treats each
occurrence as a separate measurement.
A Special Channel Option — Channel Factor
The DT80’s channel factor channel option is simply a floating point number. This number is interpreted in different ways
depending on the channel type, as indicated by the following table.
Channel Type
Channel Factor’s function
V, HV, Tx, CV, SV, CALC, &name, Scaling factor – for example, 1V(5.5) means multiply the reading by 5.5
MODBUS, SDI12, internal
channels e.g. VBAT, REFT
External voltage divider factor, or slope calibration factor
LMx35 (voltage output)
Resistance (ohms) of the external current shunt (the DT80 uses this value and
I, L, AD5xx, TMP17 (current)
LMxx, TMP3x (voltage output)
BGI (current excited bridge)
BGV (voltage excited bridge)
PT3xx, NI, CU (RTD)
YSxx (thermistor)
R (resistance)
AS (state)
F, FW (frequency)
C, HSC, STx (counter, timer)
DN, DB, DNO, DBO (digital multiple)
DSO, WARN, RELAY, PWR12V,
PWR5V (digital output)
SERIAL
UM-0085-B7
the voltage it measures across the shunt to calculate current flow)
Offset adjustment (°C)
Bridge arm resistance (ohms)
Offset adjustment (ppm)
Resistance of the RTD element at 0°C (ohms)
Value of connected parallel resistance (ohms)
Offset adjustment (ohms)
Logic threshold value (mV)
Sample Period (ms)
Count modulo value (reset after every n counts)
Bitmask (only channels with 1 in bitmask are read/output)
Delay time (ms)
Timeout (sec)
DT80 Range User’s Manual
Page 37
For example, the three channel definitions in the schedule command
RA30S 1V(10.1) 4PT385(200.0) 2DSO(100,R)=0
contain channel factor channel options that instruct the DT80 to do the following:

scale (multiply) the voltage measured on input channel 1 by 10.1

use 200.0 (instead of the default 100.0 at 0°C) when calculating the temperature represented by the signal from
the RTD on channel 4

output a 100ms pulse on digital channel 2.
Multiple Reports
The DT80 samples each channel in the channel list once every scan. However, by adding additional channel option sets
(each set enclosed in round brackets) you can generate additional reports. That is, you can report the same data value in
different ways.
The first channel option set determines how the channel is sampled, and must include all sampling options required for the
channel. These channel options are listed above the configuration line in the Channel Option Table (P40). Second and
subsequent option sets may only contain reporting options (those below the configuration line.
Multiple reports are particularly useful for statistical reports (see Statistical Report Schedules (P52)) in that several different
statistical operations can be performed on the same data set.
For Example:
RA1H 3YS04(II,AV)(MX)(TMX)(MN)(TMN)
defines five option sets. The first option set specifies one sampling option (II – use 2.5mA excitation) and returns the
average temperature value, calculated over the period (1 hour in this case) since the last report scan. The remaining option
sets will return the maximum reading over the same interval, the time at which it occurred, the minimum and the time of
minimum.
Remember that the first option set can contain options from any part of the channel option table, while subsequent option
sets can only contain options from below the configuration line.
Mutually Exclusive Options
Options grouped by a shaded rectangle in the Mutual Exclusions column of the table below are mutually exclusive. If more
than one channel option from a mutual exclusion group is placed in a channel list, only the last one specified is recognised.
Order of Application
The DT80 applies channel options in a specific order, regardless of the order in which they are specified in a channel
definition. The channel option table below lists the channel options more or less in the order of application.
In general terms, the ordering is as follows:
1.
First, the raw value is sampled, taking note of sampling options, i.e. those relating to the physical measurement
process. These include options in the input termination (T, U) , input attenuator (A, NA), resistance/bridge wiring (2W,
W, 4W), gain lock (GL30V, GL3V, GL300MV, GL30MV) and excitation (I, II, V, E, N) categories, along with
NSHUNT, 2V, ESn and MDn.
The raw value may then be linearised according to the channel type, e.g. for thermocouples the appropriate
polynomial will be applied to convert millivolts into a temperature value (in the units specified by P36).
The resulting linearised value is then further processed as follows.
2.
The channel factor is then applied, if specified. For most channel types this is a simple scaling (multiplier) value.
3.
A user specified scaling option – a span (Sn), polynomial (Yn), thermistor scaling (Tn) or intrinsic function (Fn) – is
then applied.
4.
The resulting scaled and linearised value may then be manipulated using a data manipulation option – difference
(DF), time difference (DT), rate of change (RC), reading per time (RS) or integrate (IB).
5.
A digital manipulation option for measuring the timing of signal transitions may then be applied (TRR, TRF, TFR,
TFF, TOR or TOF)
6.
The data value processed up to this point may then be used as a reference value for other measurements (TR, BR or
TZ)
7.
The data value may then be accumulated using one or more statistical options (each one in a separate option set).
Statistical channel options include AV, SD, MX, MN, TMX, TMN, DMX, DMN, IMX, IMN, INT, NUM and H (histogram).
8.
Finally, the resultant value after applying the above options (or values if multiple option sets are used) may be stored
in a channel variable using =CV and op=CV options. Return, logging and/or display of the data may be disabled using
the NR, NL, ND and W options, and output formatting can be specified using FFn, FEn and FMn and "name~units".
UM-0085-B7
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Default Channel Options
All channel options have default values. The DT80 follows a 3-step procedure to determine what options to apply:
1.
Start with the basic set of default options specified in the channel option table.
2.
If the channel type specifies any default options then they are applied, overriding any conflicting basic default options.
Default options for each channel type are listed in the channel type table refer Table 2: DT80 Channel Types (P32)
3.
Finally, if an option is explicitly specified in the channel definition then that setting is used, overriding any default
setting. If more than one mutually exclusive option is specified then only the last one is used, e.g. 1V(AV,MX) is
interpreted as 1V(MX). (If you want to output both the average and the maximum then use two separate option sets,
i.e. 1V(AV)(MX).)
For example, if you specify:
1R(4W)
then you are really specifying:
1R(U,NA,N,ES0,MD10,FF1,I,3W,4W)
In this case the basic default options are (U,NA,N,ES0,MD10,FF1). The R channel type specifies (I,3W) as its
default options, so the (I) option (200µA excitation) overrides the (N) option (no excitation). Then the user specifies (4W)
which overrides the R channel type's default wiring option setting (3W).
UM-0085-B7
DT80 Range User’s Manual
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Category
Channel Option
Input
Termination
T
(DT80/81 Series
1 only)
U
Input
Attenuators
A
Mutual
Excl
Channel Option Table
Range of
Option (n)
Function
Terminate +, – inputs with
1M to AGND terminal
Unterminate +, – inputs
Provides input bias current path to ground to
prevent inputs "floating" – particularly when
independent (differential) inputs are used.
Not required on DT80 Series 2 or DT85 as a
ground path is always present.
Attenuators default ON for HV, AS channel
types, OFF for other types.
default
NA
Comment
Enable ÷10 input
attenuators
Disable input attenuators
default
Resistance
and Bridge
Gain lock
2W
2-wire measurement
3W default
3-wire measurement
4W
4-wire measurement
(none)
Auto-range over 3 gain
ranges
default
GL30V
GL3V
GL300MV
GL30MV
Excitation
I
Supply 2.5mA current
excitation on * terminal
V
Supply approx. 4.5V
voltage excitation on *
terminal
E
Connect external
excitation source (EXT *
terminal) to channel's *
terminal
No excitation by DT80
(assumes externally
applied excitation)
Linearise/scale the
measured value
default
Channel
Factor
value
Reference
Offset
2V
Extra Samples ESn
default = 0
Measurement
Delay
MDn
default = 10
Low Threshold LT
UM-0085-B7
Selects between 3V, 300mV, 30mV ranges if
input attenuators disabled
Selects between 30V, 3V, 300mV ranges if
input attenuators enabled
Valid only if input attenuators are enabled
Lock channel gain for
±30V input signal range
Lock channel gain for
±3V input signal range
Lock channel gain for
±300mV input signal
range
Lock channel gain for
±30mV input signal range
Supply 200µA current
excitation on * terminal
II
N
Specifies the number of wires run between
the DT80 and the resistance or bridge. More
wires generally mean better accuracy.
Valid only if input attenuators are disabled
Precision current source. Low excitation
current minimises self-heating in resistive
temperature sensors and allows high
resistances to be measured.
Precision current source. Higher excitation
current allows more accurate measurement
of low resistances (< 700Ω).
Voltage source is not regulated
Excite terminal (*) may be used as a
shared-terminal input channel
depends
on chan
type
A scale factor or other parameter specific to
channel type (see the channel factor column
in Table 2: DT80 Channel Types (P32))
Measure relative to 2.5V
Used with F channel type to set threshold to
rather than 0V
+2.5V (suitable for TTL level input signals)
rather than the default of 0V.
Perform n additional
0 to 30000 Can reduce noise. Total measurement time
samples and average
is n+1 mains periods. Analog channel types
them
only.
After selecting channel,
0 to 30000 Specifies the settling time required before a
sensor can be measured. Default is 350ms
delay for n ms before
starting measurement
for FW channel. Analog channel types only.
Set low input voltage
Valid for 1HSC, 2HSC (DT80/81/85) and
thresholds for high speed
1PE (not DT81) channels.
counters
DT80 Range User’s Manual
Page 40
Mutual
Excl
Range of
Option (n)
Category
Channel Option
Reset
R
Reset channel after
reading
Internal Shunt
NSHUNT
Disconnect internal 100R
shunt between # terminal
and AGND
Force precise timing
(DT80/81 Series
1 only)
Delay
PT
Scaling
Sn
SRn
Yn
Fn
Tn
Data
Manipulation
DF
DT
Valid for DELAY, DSO, WARN and RELAY
channel types. Forces a precise (+/- 1ms)
delay time even for long delays.
Applies a previously-defined span
See Spans (Sn) (P60))
1 to 50
(poly &
span index
Apply reversed span n
is shared) Applies a span in reverse
See Spans (Sn) (P60))
Apply polynomial n
Applies a previously-defined polynomial
See Polynomials (P61)
Function
Apply intrinsic function n. 1 to 7
n
1
1/x
2
√x
3
Ln(x)
4
Log(x)
5
Absolute(x)
6
X2
7
Gray code to binary conversion (16
bit)
Apply thermistor scaling 1 to 20
Applies a previously-defined thermistor
(correction) n
scaling equation
See Thermistor Scaling(P61) and
Temperature – Thermistors(P301)).).
Difference
Returns the difference (xUnits) between the
latest reading and the previous reading
Δx
Apply span n
RS
Reading / time difference
x / Δt
IB
"Integrate"
( x – Δx / 2 ) Δt
Rate of change (xUnits per second). Useful
when the sensor reading is already a
difference (e.g. resetting counters)
"Integration" with respect to time (xUnits .
seconds) between the latest and the previous
readings (area under curve)
TRR
Time from rising edge to
rising edge
Time from rising edge to
falling edge
Time from falling edge to
rising edge
Time from falling edge to
falling edge
Time of rising edge
TFR
TFF
UM-0085-B7
Valid for C, HSC, ST and CV channel types,
which are reset to 0 after returning their
current value.
Also valid for digital output channel types
(DSO, DNO, DBO) which invert the state of
each bit after returning its value.
Allows # terminal to be used for shared-input
voltage measurements
Time difference (seconds) between the latest
reading and the previous reading
TRF
Reference
Channel
Comment
Time difference
Δt
Rate of change
Δx / Δt
RC
Digital
Manipulation
Function
TOR
TOF
TR
Rate of change (xUnits per second) based on
latest and previous readings and their
respective times
Normally used for digital channels.
If used on analog channels then channel
factor is interpreted as a threshold value.
Time of falling edge
Use this channel's value
as thermocouple
reference junction
temperature
DT80 Range User’s Manual
Any non-thermocouple temperature sensor
measuring isothermal block temperature.
If already compensated use 11SV(TR) as
reference channel (11SV always returns 0.0).
TR channel temperature is used for all
subsequent thermocouple measurements in
this schedule
Page 41
SDI-12
Channel Option
Range of
Option (n)
Function
TZ
Use this channel's value
to correct the DT80's
electrical zero
BR
Use this channel's value
as bridge excitation
voltage
Sensor address (quotes
optional for 0-9)
AD"n"
Rnnn
CM
VERnn
Modbus
Mutual
Excl
Category
ADn
AD"ip-addr"
Rt:rrrrr:b
MBtype
MEorder
TOn
RTn
MUIDn
Serial Channel "commands"
Register to read
Configure sensor to
measure continuously
Only use commands
supported by SDI12
version n.n
Sensor address (serial)
Sensor address (TCPIP)
Register(s) to read or
write
data type: int16,
unsigned16, int32,
float32, Enron int32,
Enron float32
32-bit word order:
standard, reversed
comms timeout (sec)
max retries
unit id
Input and output actions
This zero would be measured at the
isothermal block
TZ channel zero is used for all subsequent
thermocouple measurements in this
schedule
BR channel voltage used for all subsequent
BGV measurements in this schedule
0-9, A-Z,
a-z
TMN
DMX
DMN
IMX
IMN
INT
NUM
10, 11,
12, 13
1 to 247
See Modbus Channel (P343)
IP address
0:0 to
4:65536
I, U, L, F,
LE, FE
S, R
1 to 255
0 to 25
0 to 255
ASCII text See Generic Serial Channel (P330)
Hx:y:m..nCV
UM-0085-B7
See Rainflow Cycle Counting (P74)
These channel options link the channel to the
statistical sub-schedule RS. The channel is
sampled at times determined by the RS
trigger (which defaults to 1S).
At the report time as determined by the report
schedules, the statistical summary is
reported. If insufficient samples have been
taken before the reporting time, an error is
reported (NotYetSet).
.
Time of maximum
channel reading
Time of minimum channel
reading
Date of maximum channel
reading
Date of minimum channel
reading
Instant (time and date) of
maximum
Instant (time and date) of
minimum
Integral for channel
(using time in seconds)
Number of samples in
statistical calculation
Histogram
See SDI-12 Channel (P325)
1 to 999
Rainflow Cycle RAINFLOW
Analysis
CONFIGURATION LINE (see Multiple Reports (P38))
AV
Statistical
Average of channel
readings
See Statistical SD
Standard deviation of
Channel
channel readings
Options (P71) MX
Maximum channel
reading
MN
Minimum channel reading
TMX
Comment
x, y ±1e18 Divide data range x to y into discrete buckets
and accumulate in CVs the number of
m, n
samples in each bucket
1-1000
See Histogram (Hx:y:m..nCV) (P73)
DT80 Range User’s Manual
Page 42
Mutual
Excl
Range of
Option (n)
Category
Channel Option
Function
Variables
=nCV
See Channel
Variables
(nCV) (P63)
Assign channel reading to 1 to 1000
channel variable.
nCV = reading
+=nCV
Add channel reading to
channel variable.
nCV = nCV + reading
–=nCV
Subtract channel reading 1 to 1000
from channel variable.
nCV = nCV – reading
*=nCV
Multiply channel variable
by channel reading.
nCV = nCV * reading
/=nCV
Divide channel variable by 1 to 1000
channel reading.
nCV = nCV ÷ reading
=m..nCV
(MODBUS
Assign values to a range
of CVs
1 to 1000
1 to 1000
Comment
Channel variables are like memory registers
in a calculator. They can be assigned directly
(e.g. 1CV=2.5), or assigned a channel
reading at scan time (e.g. 1V(=7CV)).
The contents of a variable can also be read,
modified and then updated. For example
1V(/=7CV) means that the value of 7CV is
divided by the reading on channel 1 and the
result is returned to 7CV.
Note that these actions occur only at report
time and not during statistical sampling.
channel only)
Destination
Output Data
Format
NR
No return
NL
No log
ND
No display
W
Working channel
LM
Log alarm measurement
FFn
Fixed-point format
n=decimal places
Exponential format,
n=decimal places
Mixed: FF or FE,
n=significant digits
0 to 7
User-specified name
Default units
User-specified name
User-specified units
ASCII text Allows channel name and/or units to be
overridden for display and free format (/h)
real-time data.
Max 24 characters for user-specified channel
name; 10 characters for units.
default = 1
Fen
FMn
Channels tagged with NR are not returned to
the host computer (they may still be logged or
displayed).
Channels tagged with NL are not logged
(they may still be returned or displayed).
Channels tagged with ND are not displayed
on the LCD (they may still be returned or
logged).
Same as (NR,NL,ND)
Working channels are usually used to hold
intermediate values in calculations.
Log the value being tested in an alarm.
Ignored for non-alarm channels.
0 to 7
0 to 7
BGmin:max
Channel name "name"
and Units
"name~unit"
"name~"
"~unit"
"~"
User-specified name
No units
No channel name
User-specified units
No channel name
No units
Specifies numeric format for display and free
format (/h) real-time data.
For example, FF2 returns 71.46 mV
For example, FE2 returns 7.14e1 mV
FMn uses exponential format if exponent is
less than –4 or greater than n
Show value as a bargraph on the display.
Table 4: DT80 Channel Options
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Part C – Schedules
Schedule Concepts
What are Schedules?
Schedules are the workhorses of the DT80. They are the underlying structures that you use to manage the repetitive
processes of the DT80 such as

scanning input channels

evaluating calculations

processing alarms

managing output channels

returning data to a host computer

logging data.
The DT80 supports the following schedules:

11 general purpose schedules, A-K, which can be triggered by a variety of different events

a polled schedule, X, which is normally triggered by a poll command from the host computer (although most of the
other triggers can also be applied to it, making it effectively a 12th general purpose schedule)

the immediate schedule, which executes once immediately after being entered

the statistical schedule, which collects and accumulates data to be returned as statistical summaries by the other
schedules.
Schedule Syntax
A typical schedule definition is shown below:
RA"Test1"("B:",DATA:OV:14D)2S 1TK 6R(4W) 7TT
Schedule
ID
Schedule
Name
Schedule Options
Schedule
Trigger
Channel List
Figure 7: Components of a typical schedule command
A schedule consists of a number of parts. Firstly the Schedule ID, next the schedule options and finally the schedule trigger.
There are no spaces between the different parts
Schedule ID
RA"Test1"("B:",DATA:OV:14D)2S 1TK 3R(4W) 2DS
Schedule
ID
Schedule
Name
Schedule Options
Schedule
Trigger
Channel List
The Schedule ID consists of the letter R ("Report schedule") followed by a letter identifying the schedule.
Each schedule has a unique identifier; these are summarized in the following table:
Schedule ID
Quantity
Report schedules (P47)
RA, RB, RC, RD, RE, RF, RG,
RH, RI, RJ, RK, RX
12 available
Immediate report schedule
No schedule ID
Each time you enter an immediate
schedule it replaces the previous one, if
any.
1 available, but is applied to one or more
of the other report schedules
(P51)
Statistical sub-schedule (P52)
UM-0085-B7
RS
DT80 Range User’s Manual
Page 44
Schedule Name
RA"Test1"("B:",DATA:OV:14D)2S 1TK 3R(4W) 2DS
Schedule
ID
Schedule
Name
Schedule Options
Schedule
Trigger
Channel List
The schedule name is optional, and consists of text (max 20 characters) enclosed in double quotes. This name is used in
reports and is normally used to document the purpose of a given schedule.
Schedule Options
RA"Test1"("B:",DATA:OV:14D)2S 1TK 3R(4W) 2DS
Schedule
ID
Schedule
Name
Schedule Options
Schedule
Trigger
Channel List
Schedule options are enclosed in brackets. They define:

where to log the data and alarms generated by the schedule (i.e. internal file system or removable USB device)

the amount of space to allocate for storing data records, and whether old records are to be overwritten when it is full.

the amount of space to allocate for storing alarm records, and whether old records are to be overwritten when it is full.
For more details on how data logging works, see Logging Data (P89)
The schedule option syntax is as follows:
(Dest,DATA:DataOverwrite:DataSize,ALARMS:AlarmOverwrite:AlarmSize:AlarmWidth)
Item
Possible Values
Explanation
Dest
"A:"
Logged data and alarm information from this schedule will be written
directly to the USB memory device (not normally recommended, see
Logging Options (P91))
Logged data and alarm information from this schedule will be stored
on the internal flash disk (default)
Data for this schedule will be overwritten when the data store is full
(default)
Data will not be overwritten when the data store is full. When the data
store fills logging will stop and the Attn LED will flash
Allocate n bytes for storing data for this schedule
Allocate n kilobytes for storing data for this schedule
Allocate n megabytes for storing data for this schedule
Allocate space for n data records for this schedule
Allocate space for n seconds worth of data for this schedule
Allocate space for n minutes worth of data for this schedule
Allocate space for n hours worth of data for this schedule
Allocate space for n days worth of data for this schedule
Alarms for this schedule will be overwritten when the store is full
(default)
Alarms will NOT be overwritten when the store is full. When the store
fills logging will stop and the ‘Attn’ LED will flash
Allocate n bytes for storing alarms for this schedule
Allocate n kilobytes for storing alarms for this schedule
Allocate n megabytes for storing alarms for this schedule
Allocate space for n alarm records for this schedule
Allocate n bytes for storing each alarm string (default=60 bytes)
"B:"
DataOverwrite
OV
NOV
DataSize
nB
nKB
nMB
nR
nS Note 1
nM Note 1
nH Note 1
nD Note 1
AlarmOverwrite
OV
NOV
AlarmSize
AlarmWidth
nB
nKB
nMB
nR
Wn
Note 1: These are only valid for time-triggered schedules (not for polled or event triggered schedules). Furthermore, if the
schedule rate is changed after the job has started running then the store file may no longer contain data for the indicated time
span.
 Default Schedule Options
All schedule options are optional. Default settings are:

Destination is B: (internal flash drive)

New data and alarms overwrite earlier data/alarms once the store file fills

Space allocated for data is 1MB
UM-0085-B7
DT80 Range User’s Manual
Page 45

Space allocated for alarms is 100KB

Space allocated for each logged alarm text string is 60 bytes.
 Examples
RA"Fred"(DATA:NOV:15D)15M
Schedule A is given the name "Fred". Data and alarms are stored on the internal drive and sufficient space is allocated for
1440 readings (15 days worth, based on a 15 minute scan rate). In this case earlier data is considered more valuable than
later data, so no-overwrite mode is selected. If any alarms are defined in this schedule they will use the default storage
parameters (100KB, overwrite enabled)
Schedule Trigger
RA"Test1"("A:",DATA:OV:14D)2S 1TK 3R(4W) 2DS
Schedule
ID
Schedule
Name
Schedule Options
Schedule
Trigger
Channel List
All schedules have a trigger, which defines when the schedule is to execute the processes assigned to it. Here are the
DT80’s schedule triggers:

an interval of time, see Trigger on Time Interval (P47)

a time of day, see Trigger at Date/Time (P47)

an external event (such as a digital input transition), see Trigger on External Event (P48)

an internal event (such as a CV changing), see Trigger on Internal Event (P49)

a poll command, see Trigger on Poll Command (P50)
Triggers can also be conditional upon an external or internal state (that is, trigger only while a particular external state or
internal state exists) — see Trigger While (P51).
Channel List
RA"Test1"("A:",DATA:OV:14D)2S 1TK 3R(4W) 2DS
Schedule
ID
Schedule
Name
Schedule Options
Schedule
Trigger
Channel List
Most often schedules will be created that instruct the DT80 to carry out channel-related tasks, such as scanning one or more
of its input channels and/or setting one or more of its output channels. When these schedules are created, group the channel
details (their IDs and optional instructions) together in a channel list within the schedule. Figure 7 (P44) shows a typical
schedule — notice its schedule header and channel list components.
A channel list may contain just one channel entry or many, and each channel in the list must be separated from the next by
one or more space characters. Similarly, a schedule’s header must be separated from its channel list by one or more space
characters.
The DT80 processes the channels in a channel list from left to right.
 Example — Channel List
The channel list
1V 3R 5..7DS 4TK("Boiler Temp") 3DSO=0
specifies the following channels (each is separated from the next by a space character):

1V — read analog input channel 1 as a voltage

3R — read analog input channel 3 as a resistance

5..7DS — read the state of digital input channels 5 through 7 (inclusive)

4TK("Boiler Temp") — read analog input channel 4 as a type K thermocouple and assign it the name Boiler
Temp

3DSO=0 — set digital state output channel 3 low
Note that the example above is only a channel list and not a complete schedule. Here’s the same channel list used in a
schedule (the schedule header RJ2M has been added):
RJ2M 1V 3R 5..7DS 4TK("Boiler Temp") 3DSO=0
The header identifies the schedule as Report schedule J that runs every 2 Minutes.
A Simple Schedule
A schedule comprises a schedule ID (schedule identifier), a trigger that determines when the schedule runs, and a list of
processes to be carried out every time the schedule runs. For example, the schedule
UM-0085-B7
DT80 Range User’s Manual
Page 46
RA10M 1V 3R
specifies report schedule A as follows:

RA — schedule ID

If logging is enabled then data will be stored to the internal flash disk, 1MB will be allocated and old data will be
overwritten when full. This schedule does not define any alarms, so no alarm storage will be allocated.

10M — trigger (run the schedule every 10 minutes)

1V 3R — channel list
Groups of Schedules — Jobs
A DT80 job is essentially a group of one or more schedules that together perform the overall task. It may also be referred to
as a program.
See also Jobs (P23).
Types of Schedules
General-Purpose Report Schedules
The DT80 supports twelve general-purpose report schedules, which you use to carry out the repetitive processes of
scanning input channels, evaluating calculations, handling alarms, managing output channels, returning and logging data,
and so on.
These report schedules have the identifiers RA, RB, RC, RD, RE, RF, RG, RH, RI, RJ, RK and RX
A report schedule executes the processes assigned to it whenever it is triggered. A schedule trigger can be

an interval of time

a particular time of day

an external event (e.g. a digital input changing state)

an internal event (e.g. an internal variable changing its value)

a poll request from a host computer or an alarm channel

continuous (the schedule executes repeatedly, as quickly as possible)
Trigger on Time Interval
0
1
RA2M…
2
3
RA2M…
4
5
RA2M…
6
7
RA2M…
Every 2 minutes
Figure 8: Time interval schedule
Report schedules can be triggered at regular intervals of time, determined by the DT80’s real-time clock. Intervals can be an
integer number of seconds, minutes, hours or days:
Trigger
Run every n
Range
nD
nH
nM
nS
nT
Days
Hours
Minutes
Seconds
Milliseconds (Thousandths of seconds)
1 – 65535
1 – 65535
1 – 65535
1 – 65535
5 – 65535
Note The schedule first runs on the next multiple of the interval since last midnight (see Time Triggers — Synchronizing to
Midnight (P55)), and subsequently runs every multiple of the interval thereafter. If the interval is not an even multiple of 24
hours, the DT80 inserts a short interval between the last run of the schedule prior to midnight, and the run of the schedule
beginning at midnight.
 Examples
The following schedule will execute every 5 seconds:
RA5S
The following schedule will execute 6-hourly, at 00:00, 06:00, 12:00 and 18:00:
RX6H
Trigger at Date/Time
Schedules can be triggered at particular times of day, days of the week, or dates. This is done by specifying the desired
second, minute, hour, day, month and day of week on which to trigger, as follows:
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[seconds:minutes:hours:day:month:weekday]
where

seconds, minutes and hours specify the time of day at which the schedule should trigger, e.g. 0:0:17 for 5pm.

day and month specify the date on which the schedule should trigger, e.g. 1:7 for 1st July.

weekday specifies the day of the week on which the schedule will trigger. This is a number from 0 to 7, where 0 or 7
represents Sunday. The schedule will trigger if either the date or weekday condition matches.
Each of the six fields may be set to either:

a single value, e.g. 3

a list of values, e.g. 3,4,9

a range of values, e.g. 3-12

*, which means "all values"
Thus [0:0:12:*:*:*] will trigger the schedule daily at noon.
Fields may be omitted starting from the right hand side. Any omitted field is assumed to be '*', so [0:0:12] is equivalent
to the previous example.
Finally, /n may be appended to a range. This means: include every nth value, so 2-14/4 in the hours field means trigger at
2am, 6am, 10am and 2pm, while */6 would mean 12am, 6am, 12pm and 6pm. As a shortcut, if the end point of a range is
omitted (i.e. a single value is specified to the left of the /) then this is interpreted as a range from the indicated value up to the
maximum for the field, e.g. in the hours field 7/2 is equivalent to 7-23/2.
 Examples
Trigger daily at 9:00am:
RA[0:0:9]
Trigger every Monday morning at 10:30am
RA[0:30:10:*:*:1]
Trigger at 4:00am on the first of every month
RA[0:0:4:1]
Trigger every 2 hours (same as RA2H)
RA[0:0:*/2]
Trigger every 2 hours, at 2 minutes before the hour (i.e 1:58, 3:58, etc.)
RA[0:58:1/2]
Trigger at 7:30am on the 1st and 15th of each month
RA[0:30:7:1,15]
Trigger hourly from 9:00am to 5:00pm, weekdays only
RA[0:0:9-17:*:*:1-5]
Trigger on External Event
RA1E…
Any event on
digital input 1
RA1C(5)…
After 5 counts on
counter 1
RA1SERIAL"AbC"…
Text AbC arrives on
Serial Channel
Figure 9: Various external event schedules
Report schedules can also be triggered by external events, which are manifested to the logger as state changes on the
digital input channels nDS, or as pulses on the counter channels nC:
Trigger
Action
nE
n+E
n-E
m..nE
Trigger on a rising or falling transition of digital input channel n
Trigger on a rising transition of digital input channel n
Trigger on a falling transition of digital input channel n
Trigger on a rising or falling transition of any of digital input channels m..n
m..n+E
m..n–E
nC(c)
Trigger on a rising transition of any of digital input channels m..n
Trigger on a falling transition of any of digital input channels m..n
Trigger when low speed counter channel n "wraps around" (i.e. is reset to
0), which will occur when a count value of c is reached.
Trigger when high speed counter channel n "wraps around" (i.e. is reset to
0), which will occur when a count value of c is reached.
nHSC(c)
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nSERIAL"text"
Trigger on the arrival of characters (from an external serial device) at the
DT80’s Serial Channel (serial sensor port if n = 1, host port if n = 2). The
trigger can be of the form
1SERIAL"", where any character arriving triggers the schedule (note that
there is no space between ""), or
1SERIAL"AbC", where arrival of the exact string AbC triggers the
schedule.
See Triggering Schedules (P338).
where:

n is a digital channel number

m..n is a sequence of digital channel numbers (see Digital Channels (P314))

text is a string of characters arriving at the DT80’s Serial Channel terminals from an external serial device
Note For digital input edge triggering the minimum pulse width is approximately 16ms.
Note If a counter is preset to a value greater than its specified trigger count, the schedule is not triggered. For example, a
schedule set to trigger after 10 counts on digital counter 2 (e.g. RA2C(10)) cannot be triggered if counter 2 is assigned a
value of 15.
 Examples – Digital Channel Event
The schedule header
RC1E
instructs the DT80 to run report schedule C on every transition of digital input 1D.
The following schedule will run whenever digital input 3D receives a low to high (positive/rising) transition:
RA3+E
 Examples – Counter Event
The following schedule will run on every 100th pulse received on high speed counter input 1C:
RA1HSC(100)
In this case counter 1HSC will count from 0 to 99 then reset to 0, at which time the schedule will trigger. This means that if
you read the value of 1HSC within this schedule then it will generally always read 0.
The following schedule will be triggered on every second pulse received on digital input 1D:
RA1C(2)
 Examples – Serial Channel Event
The following schedule will run if the specific character sequence Pasta8zZ is received on the serial sensor port:
RB1SERIAL"Pasta8zZ"
The following schedule will run each time any string is received on the host port (assuming the port has been configured for
serial channel operation):
RG2SERIAL""
Trigger on Internal Event
RA1CV…
Any change of 1CV
to or from zero
Figure 10: Internal event (CV change) schedule
Report schedules can also be triggered by channel variables (CVs) changing value:
Trigger
Action
nCV
n+CV
n–CV
m..nCV
m..n+CV
m..n–CV
Trigger if channel variable nCV changes from zero to non-zero, or vice versa
Trigger if channel variable nCV changes from zero to non-zero
Trigger if channel variable nCV changes from non-zero to zero
Trigger if any of the channel variables m..nCV change from zero to non-zero, or vice versa
Trigger if any of the channel variables m..nCV change from zero to non-zero
Trigger if any of the channel variables m..nCV change from non-zero to zero
See also Channel Variables (nCV) (P63).
 Examples
The schedule header
RK6CV
instructs the DT80 to run schedule K upon any change of channel variable 6CV to or from zero.
The schedule header
RA11..13+CV
instructs the DT80 to run schedule A whenever either 11CV, 12CV or 13CV change from 0 to any other value.
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Trigger on Poll Command
RAX…
XA poll command from
host computer or DT80 alarm
Figure 11: Polled schedule
Instead of a time or event trigger, the poll trigger (X) can be applied to a report schedule. The schedule will then only run
when it is polled.
The command to poll a schedule is Xs (where s is the schedule letter). This command can be issued:

by a host computer, or

by an alarm action (see Using an Alarm to Poll a Schedule (P85)).
 Example
The schedule
RDX 1..3TK
samples analog channels 1 to 3 as type K thermocouples (1..3TK) whenever the DT80 receives an XD poll command (that
is, whenever it receives the character sequence XD) either from a connected computer, or by means of an alarm action from
within the DT80.
 Using Poll Commands with Standard Report Schedules
0
1
2
RA2M…
3
4
RA2M…
5
6
RA2M…
7
RA2M…
RA2M…
Every 2 minutes
Additional scan triggered by XA poll command
from host computer or DT80 alarm
XA
Figure 12: Polling a time interval schedule
A report schedule defined with a time or event trigger can also be polled by its appropriate poll command at any time. For
example, the report schedule
RC5M 1V 2V 3V
normally runs every 5 minutes (5M), but it can also be run at any time by an XC poll command (from the host computer or an
alarm).
For schedules that have a long interval, this is useful for checking that a sensor is functioning.
Continuous Trigger
RA…
RA…
RA…
RA…
RA…
RA…
RA…
RA…
RA…
Received by DT80
Figure 13: Continuous schedule
Report schedules that run continuously can be created. A continuous schedule will start scanning as soon as job is loaded
onto the DT80, and run until it is stopped (by sending a halt command or resetting the DT80, for example).
Define a continuous schedule simply by omitting the trigger from a report schedule.
 Example — Continuous Schedule
Sending
RA 1TK 2R(3W) 3TT
causes the DT80 to scan the specified channels continuously.
Note The X schedule does not support continuous trigger. The schedule definition RX is equivalent to RXX, i.e. it defines a
polled schedule, not a continuous schedule.
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Trigger While
While condition
Interval-triggered schedules
TRUE
RA2M…
Event-triggered schedules
Poll-triggered schedules
RA2M…
RA2M…
RD1C(5)…
RB1E…
RJX…
RGX…
RA2M…
RK1CV…
RHX…
RIX…
Only these schedule instances are
enabled ready for triggering.
Figure 14: Schedule "while" condition
A report schedule’s trigger can be enabled or disabled by an external condition. This is called the While condition — that is,
trigger only while the external or internal condition is true.
The While condition can be either

states on one or more of the DT80’s digital input channels (nDS), or

internal conditions specified to the DT80 as states of channel variables:
While clause
Action
:nW
:n~W
:m..nW
:m..n~W
:nCV
:n~CV
:m..nCV
:m..n~CV
Enable schedule while digital input n is high
Enable schedule while digital input n is low
Enable schedule while ANY digital input m to n is high
Enable schedule while ANY digital input m to n is low
Enable schedule while nCV is non-zero
Enable schedule while nCV is zero
Enable schedule while any of the channel variables n..mCV are non-zero
Enable schedule while any of the channel variables n..mCV are zero
Note that the colon (:) is required.
 Examples — While Condition
The schedule header
RA1E:2W
instructs the DT80 to run schedule A on every transition of digital input 1 (1E) only while digital input 2 is high (:2W).
The schedule header
RD1S:4~W
instructs the DT80 to run schedule D every second (1S) while digital input 4 is low (:4~W).
The schedule header
RK2H:9W
instructs the DT80 to run schedule K every two hours (2H) while digital input 9 is high (:9W).
The schedule header
RC5M:12CV
instructs the DT80 to run schedule C every 5 minutes (5M) while channel variable 12 is not zero (:12CV).
The schedule header
RF6..8E:5W
instructs the DT80 to run schedule F on any transition of digital channels D6, D7 or D8 (6..8E) while digital input 5 is high
(:5W).
Immediate Report Schedules
3TK…
Schedule received by DT80
3TK…
Send * to re-run
Figure 15: Immediate schedule
Instead of scanning according to time or event triggers, immediate schedules run immediately — and once only — when
they are received by the DT80.
An immediate schedule is simply a list of input channels, output channels, calculations and/or alarms with no schedule
header (that is, no schedule ID and no trigger). The DT80 executes the list (up to the next carriage return) immediately and
once only.
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Note Any data resulting from an immediate schedule is returned to the host computer, but is not logged.
 Example — Immediate Report Schedule
Sending
1TK 2R(3W) 3TT
causes the DT80 to immediately scan analog channels 1, 2 and 3 once only and return the data. Notice that this schedule
has no schedule ID and no trigger.
 Re-Running an Immediate Schedule
The last-entered immediate schedule can be run again by sending the * (asterisk) command — that is, by sending a *
character. For example:
1..2TK
1TK 31.5 degC
2TK 22.0 degC
*
1TK 34.2 degC
2TK 21.9 degC
Statistical Report Schedules
0
1
2
RA3M 1V(AVE)…
3
4
RA3M 1V(AVE)…
5
6
7
RA3M 1V(AVE)…
Every 3 minutes
Statistical report schedule
Statistical sub-schedule
samples
Statistical sub-schedule
Statistical result
returned every 3 minutes
Figure 16: Statistical and report schedules
A report schedule can instruct the DT80 to return statistical information (average, SD, max., min.,…) for one or more
channels. The DT80 does this by

scanning its input channels and executing calculations at frequent intervals of time, then

retaining intermediate values to produce a statistical data summary at longer intervals.
Note that there are two schedules involved:

The primary statistical data is collected at frequent intervals, which are determined by the statistical sub-schedule
RS.

The statistical data summary (average, SD,…) is returned and logged at longer intervals, which are determined by the
report schedule(s) that are requesting the statistical information.
The statistical sub-schedule has its own interval trigger. The default is one second, but you can change that — see
Redefining the Statistical Sub-Schedule’s Trigger (P52) below.
To return statistical data, include — in any report schedule — a statistical channel option for the specific input channels,
calculations, and so on where statistically scanned is required. For example
RA1M 2TT(AV)
will sample a type T thermocouple connected to channel 2 (2TT) once a second (because one second is the default scan
rate for the statistical sub-schedule). Once a minute (RA1M), the average (AV) of these 60 measurements will be reported
and logged.
Note:

Simply including a statistical channel option ((AV) in the example above) invokes the statistical sub-schedule.

There is no need to include RS, the statistical sub-schedule’s ID, anywhere (unless you want to alter RS’s trigger —
see Redefining the Statistical Sub-Schedule’s Trigger (P52) below).
For details of the statistical channel options available, see Statistical Channel Options (P71).
 Redefining the Statistical Sub-Schedule’s Trigger
The statistical sub-schedule’s trigger can be altered from its default of one second. Define the statistical sub-schedule’s
trigger in the same way as for report schedules (see Changing a Schedule Trigger (P54)), by using the RS schedule ID and
sending an RS… schedule command to the DT80. If you don’t specify the RS schedule’s trigger in this way, it defaults to once
per second. Here are some examples:
The schedule header
instructs DT80 to accumulate specified statistical data
RS10S
RS1-E
RS
every 10 seconds
on each 1 to 0 transition of digital input 1
continuously
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 Statistical Sub-Schedule Halt/Go
The statistical sub-schedule can be halted by sending the HS command, and start it again by sending the GS command.
Important Because statistical sampling of channels stops the moment the HS command is sent, be aware that the reported
statistical summaries do not include data from this halt period.
See also Halting & Resuming Schedules (P54).
 Multiple Statistical Information for a Channel
If more than one type of statistical information is required for a channel, then each statistical option must be placed in a
separate channel option list. For example, the channel list
1TT(AV)(SD)(MX)
results in periodic average, standard deviation and maximum data for the 1TT channel.
 Insufficient Statistical Samples
If no statistical data has been scanned before being reported, then the reported data value will be set to NotYetSet. This
will also occur if insufficient samples have been taken – for example, the standard deviation (SD) option requires at least
two samples to be able to return a value.
This condition may occur when

the statistical sub-schedule is event-triggered

the statistical sub-schedule has been halted

a statistical sub-schedule scan interval is longer than its statistical report scan interval.
When using statistical channel options you need to ensure that the statistical and report schedule triggers are selected such
that sufficient statistical samples are taken between each execution of the report schedule.
 Example — Statistical Report Schedule
The command
RS10S RA1H 1TT 2TT(AV)(MX)
sets the statistical sub-schedule’s scan rate to 10 seconds (RS10S). The main report schedule returns three temperature
readings: a spot reading of channel 1 each hour (RA1H 1TT), and the average and maximum over the hour from 10-second
samplings of channel 2.
Working with Schedules
Entering Schedules into the DT80 (BEGIN–END)
Report schedules must be entered into (that is, sent to) the DT80 as a group. Since the schedules and processes that
comprise a job or program often extend over more than one line, you normally enclose them between the keywords BEGIN
and END to designate the beginning and end of the group. Here’s an example:
BEGIN"walrus"
1DSO=1
3CV(W)=2
RA10S
4TT("Oven Temp")
5TT("Flue Temp")
RB1S
2C("Water Flow")
END
A group of schedules such as this is called a job. In the above example, the job has been named "walrus" and comprises two
report schedules, RA (which measures two thermocouples every 10 seconds) and RB (which measures a counter once a
second). Note also the two "immediate" channels (1DSO and 3CV) which are not part of any schedule. These are executed
once only, when the job is entered.
For more details on how jobs are entered and processed, see Jobs (P56)
Triggering and Schedule Order
When different schedules are due to trigger at the same time, the schedules execute in the order of RA, RB,…RK, RX.
When there are statistical channels in a schedule and the statistical sub-schedule is due at the same time as the report
schedule, the statistical sub-schedule runs prior to the report schedules. You cannot change this order.
Channels within schedules are sampled in the order of entry (left to right).
For example, consider the job:
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BEGIN"cupcake"
RB2S 3V
RA5S 2V(AV)(SD) 1V
RS1S
END
The channels defined here will be sampled and reported in the following order:
Time
Schedule
Channel sampled
Channel reported/logged
12:00:00
S
A
A
A
B
S
S
B
S
S
B
S
A
A
A
S
B
...
2V
1V
3V
2V *
2V *
3V
2V *
2V *
3V
2V *
1V
2V
3V
...
2V(AV)
2V(SD)
1V
3V
3V
3V
2V(AV) average of the 5 samples marked *
2V(SD) standard deviation of the 5 samples marked *
1V
3V
...
12:00:01
12:00:02
12:00:03
12:00:04
12:00:05
12:00:06
...
As can be seen in the above example, when multiple schedules are due at the same time, they execute in a fixed order
governed by their identifier (A, B, etc.) – regardless of the order in which they are specified in the job. Channels, however,
are sampled/reported in the order in which they appear within a schedule definition (e.g. 2V before 1V in the above example).
Changing a Schedule Trigger
The schedule’s trigger can be changed at any time simply by sending a new schedule ID and trigger without any channel
definitions. For example, suppose a schedule had been defined as follows:
RA10M 1V 2DS
This will measure a voltage and a digital input every 10 minutes. If you then send:
RA10S
the schedule will then, from that point on, measure every 10 seconds.
Important If any channel definitions are included on the same line (e.g. RA10S 2V) then this will be interpreted as a whole
new job being entered, which will replace the currently running job.
Halting & Resuming Schedules
Schedules can be halted individually or as a group using the following commands:
Command
Function
H
HA, HB … HK, HX
HS
Halt all schedules
Halt RA … RX schedule
Halt the statistical sub-schedule (see Statistical Sub-Schedule Halt/Go (P53))
Schedules can then be resumed ("GOed") individually or as a group:
Command
Function
G
GA, GB … GK, GX
GS
Resume all schedules
Resume RA … RX schedule
Resume the statistical sub-schedule (see Statistical Sub-Schedule Halt/Go (P53))
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Executing Commands in Schedules
It is important to distinguish between commands and channel definitions. Commands (e.g. H, /S, P11=60, DIRJOB,
COPY etc.) are always executed once only, immediately they are received – even if they appear to be within a schedule
definition.
For example, if you enter
RA1+E 1V HB SATTN 4CV=4CV+1
you might expect that when the schedule was triggered (by a positive going edge on digital input 1) it would measure a
voltage (1V), halt schedule B (HB), switch on the Attn LED (SATTN) and increment a channel variable (4CV=4CV+1).
In fact, the HB and SATTN will execute once only, when the job is entered. The 1V and 4CV=4CV+1 are channel
definitions, so they will execute each time schedule A is triggered.
To execute commands within a schedule, the DO construct can be used. This is actually a special case of the ALARM
statement (see Alarms (P77)) – one where the condition is always true. The syntax is the same as ALARM except that there
is no test condition.
So if the above job was rewritten as:
RA1+E 1V DO{HB SATTN} 4CV=4CV+1
then the following actions would be performed each time schedule A is triggered:

Channel 1V is measured, then channel variable 4CV is incremented

The commands HB and SATTN are queued for execution. They will be actioned "as soon as possible" – once all
schedules that are currently due have completed, and any previously queued commands have been executed.
Note that this means that it is not possible to interleave the execution of commands and channels within a schedule.
Channels are always performed first; commands are executed a short time later.
Commands can also be executed conditionally, using the IF construct, e.g.
RA1M IF(1CV>3.57){XB}
will test the value of 1CV once a minute. If it exceeds 3.57 then schedule B will be triggered.
For more details on ALARM/IF/DO syntax and usage, see Alarms (P77).
Time Triggers — Synchronizing to Midnight
Time triggers for report schedules function in two different ways depending on the setting of the synchronize-to-midnight
switch (/s or /S, see (P250)).
 Synchronize-To-Midnight Switch Enabled
If the synchronize-to-midnight switch is enabled (/S, the DT80’s default), the intervals of all schedules with time triggers are
synchronized to the previous midnight.
When a time-triggered schedule is entered, the schedules first run on the next multiple of the interval since last midnight, and
subsequently run on every multiple of the interval thereafter.
If the interval is not an even multiple of 24 hours, the DT80 inserts a short interval between the last run of the schedule prior
to midnight and the next run of the schedule at midnight.
For example, if you send the schedule
RA10H
to the DT80 at 06:00:00, it first runs at 10:00:00 (4 hours since entry, but 10 hours since midnight) and then at 20:00:00 that
day; then at 00:00:00, 10:00:00 and 20:00:00 the next day; and so on.
If you enter an interval longer than 24 hours then the interval is rounded down to the nearest multiple of 24 hours. So if the
schedule
RA50H
was entered at 09:00 Monday morning then the schedule will first run at 00:00 Wednesday morning, then every 48 hours
thereafter.
 Synchronize-To-Midnight Switch Disabled
If the synchronize-to-midnight switch is disabled (/s), the schedules run at intervals relative to the time that the schedule is
entered. For example, if the same RA10H schedule is sent to the DT80 at 09:30:00, it first runs at 19:30:00 that day; then at
05:30:00 and 15:30:00 on the next day; at 01:30:00 and 11:30:00 on the following day; and so on. That is, every 10 hours of
elapsed time.
Note that the base time (the time at which the specified schedule interval begins) is reset whenever:

the schedule rate is changed, or

the schedule is restarted (using the G command), or

the system time is changed (using the D=, T= or DT commands)
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Part D – Jobs
What is a Job?
A job is a collection of related schedule definitions and commands which together configure the DT80 to perform a particular
data logging task.
Several different jobs can be stored on the DT80's internal file system, but only one can be active at any one time. Each job
has its own separate data/alarm storage area.
Jobs are identified by their job name, which is a user-defined string of up to 8 characters. If a job name is not specified when
the job is entered, the default name UNTITLED is used.
When the DT80 is first started or reset, there is no active job. The logger is idle and No current job is displayed on the
LCD to indicate this.
To make the logger do something useful, you need to either:

enter a new job, or

run (load) an existing job.
Once a job has been entered or loaded successfully, it becomes the currently active job and its name will be displayed on the
LCD. If you then enter or load a different job, all schedules and channels defined by the original job are cleared and replaced
by those of the new job.
Entering a Job
To enter a new job you send the required commands and schedule definitions to the logger using one of the communications
ports (USB, Ethernet or RS232), or by placing the commands in a file on a USB memory device and plugging it into the
logger. Once the complete job has been entered, the DT80 will automatically store the job in its internal file system and
activate it.
To begin entering a new job, the BEGIN command is used. This command:

causes the currently active job to be cleared. All defined schedules will stop running.

specifies the name of the new job, e.g. BEGIN"GOOSE" indicates that the new job will be called "GOOSE". (Just
BEGIN by itself is equivalent to BEGIN"UNTITLED".)

places the DT80 in "job entry mode". After each line of the job is entered the DT80 will output a job> prompt, rather
than the usual DT80> prompt.
As each line of the job is entered the DT80 executes any commands or immediate channels that it finds. Report schedule
definitions, including their constituent channel definitions are recorded but they are not activated just yet.
The END command marks the end of a job. At this point all schedules defined within the job are activated, and the DT80 is no
longer in job entry mode.
If an error occurs during job entry, the DT80 will clear all schedule/channel definitions and ignore the remainder of the job, up
until the END command is seen.
Note In some circumstances the DT80 will not allow a new job to be entered:

if the "fix schedules" switch (P250) is active (/F) – this prevents any change to the currently active job. (Use /f
command to allow the current job to be changed.)

if a different job with the same name already exists, and it has been locked using the LOCKJOB"jobname" command
– this prevents a stored job being accidentally overwritten. (Choose a different job name, or unlock the existing job
using UNLOCKJOB"jobname".)

if a different job with the same name already exists, and it has logged data or alarms – this prevents data from different
jobs (which happen to have the same name) from being mixed up in the one data file. (Choose a different job name, or
delete the existing job's using DELDATA"jobname" and/or DELALARMS"jobname".)
Note An error message will be returned if you attempt to send more than 1023 characters on a single line.
Single Line Jobs
As a shortcut, it is also possible to enter a job simply by entering one or more schedule definitions all on one line, e.g.:
RA1S 1TK
The above is then equivalent to:
BEGIN"UNTITLED" RA1S 1TK END
that is, it will create a new job called "UNTITLED".
Note that entering just a schedule trigger (with no channel definitions after it), e.g.
RA2S
does not create a new job – it simply changes the trigger condition for the currently defined A schedule (if any).
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It is recommended that, for clarity, BEGIN and END are always included explicitly when entering a job.
Loading an Existing Job
The DT80 can also read job text from a file stored in its internal file system and automatically enter it. This job will then
become the current active job, replacing whatever was previously the current active job.
A new job may be loaded when:

the RUNJOB"jobname" command is issued. This will read the job from the file
B:\JOBS\jobname\PROGRAM.DXC.

the DT80 is reset. By default, the previously active job will be loaded (See Startup Job (P59))

A USB memory device is inserted. If a file A:\ONINSERT.DXC or A:\serialnum\ONINSERT.DXC is present then
any commands therein will be executed. These may include a job definition, in which case the job will become the
current active job. (See ONINSERT Job (P59))
Job Structure
A typical DT80 job is shown below (the line numbers are for reference only and are not part of the job)
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
17
18
19
BEGIN"Boiler01"
' No. 1 Boiler monitoring job for DT80
/n/u/S/e
P22=44
Y10=4.5,0.312"kPa"
S1=0,50,0,100"L/m"
1DSO=0
' Enable sensor power relay
RS5S
03-Dec-2005
RB1M 2..3TT("Temp")
RC(DATA:NOV:365D)15M 1V(Y10,AV) 4#L(S1,AV)
RK10S
ALARM1(1V(Y10)>2.25)3DSO
ALARM1(4TT>110.0)3DSO,1CV"Over Temp ?"{RB5S}"
LOGON
END
Note the following salient points:

Line 1 – the BEGIN command tells the DT80 to clear the current job and prepare to receive a new one.

Line 2 – anything following a single quote character (up to the end of the line) is considered a comment and is
ignored. Blank lines are also ignored.

Line 3-7 – the first part of a job normally consists of commands to set switches and parameters, define polynomials
and spans, and evaluate any immediate channels.

Line 8 – this line sets the scan rate for the statistical sub-schedule. All channels which include a statistical channel
option, i.e. 1V(AV) and 3#L(AV), will therefore be scanned every 5 seconds. The measured values will not be
logged or returned; they will only be used for accumulating the average values.

Line 10 – defines the B schedule (measure two thermocouples once per minute).

Line 12 – defines the C schedule (report pressure and flow rate values, averaged over a 15 minute period. Note the
use of a polynomial (Y10) to convert the measured voltage in mV to pressure in kPa. Similarly, a span is used to
convert a current loop % value to a flow rate in l/m.)

Line 14-16 – define the K schedule (every 10s check pressure and temperature against limits. If pressure exceeds
2.25kPa then set digital output 3 to LOW (active); if temperature exceeds 110°C then set digital output 3 to LOW, set
1CV=1, output and log an "Over Temp" alarm string, and change the scan rate of schedule B to 5s.)

Line 18 – enables logging for all schedules (by default logging is disabled)

Line 19 – marks the end of the job; all schedules will now be activated.
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Job Commands
A number of commands are provided for managing jobs on the DT80.
Listing Job Names
The DIRJOBS command lists the names of all jobs stored in the DT80 internal file system, e.g.
DT80> DIRJOBS
FRED
*GEORGE
+ RON
+ GINNY
UNTITLED
An asterisk (*) indicates the currently active job, if any. Locked jobs are indicated by a plus sign (+).
The CURJOB command simply displays the name of the current active job, e.g.
DT80> CURJOB
GEORGE
Specifying Jobs
The following commands act on a specific job or jobs. To specify the job you can enter a jobspec parameter after the
command, where jobspec can be either:

a job name in double quotes, e.g. "FRED", or

an asterisk (*), which will apply the command to all stored jobs, or

nothing, in which case the command will operate on the current active job (an error message will be reported if there is
no currently active job).
Showing Program Text
To show the commands which define a job, use SHOWPROGjobspec, e.g.
DT80> SHOWPROG"RON"
Job Program – RON
BEGIN"RON"
RA1S 3TT 1DS
END
Locking Jobs
If a job is locked then its program text cannot be deleted or overwritten. To lock a job use the LOCKJOBjobspec command;
to unlock use UNLOCKJOBjobspec, e.g.:
DT80> LOCKJOB*
Locking Job FRED – Done
Locking Job GEORGE – Done
Locking Job RON – already locked
Locking Job GINNY – already locked
Locking Job UNTITLED – Done
Deleting Jobs
The DELJOBjobspec command can be used to delete a job from the DT80's internal file system.
However, this command will fail and the job will not be deleted if any of he following apply:

the job is the current active job and the /F (fix schedules) switch is set (use /f to turn this switch off)

the job is locked (use UNLOCKJOB to unlock it)

the job has logged data and/or alarms (use DELD to delete them)
Managing a Job's Logged Data and Alarms
The following commands allow you to manage the data and alarms logged by a job:

LISTD lists details of the number of logged records and the associated time range

COPYD is used to unload data and/or alarms – that is: read data from one or more store files, transform it to the
selected format (e.g. CSV), and output it to the currently active comms port, or a file, or an FTP server

DELD will delete a job's logged data and/or alarms respectively.
For more details on these commands, see Logging and Retrieving Data (P89).
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Startup Job
The DT80 can automatically load a user-defined job every time it is restarted by a hard reset (HRESET command or power
failure or pressing the manual reset button). This allows the DT80 to operate as a dedicated instrument.
The DT80's behaviour following a hard reset is controlled by the following profile setting:
PROFILE STARTUP RUN
There are three possible settings for this profile:

CURRENT_JOB – the DT80 will reload the job that was active prior to the reset (if any). This is the default.

NONE – no job will be loaded following hard reset

jobname – the specified job (if it exists) will be loaded following hard reset.
If a "triple push" reset is performed (see Safe Mode (P260)) then the configured startup job will not be loaded.
ONINSERT Job
When a USB memory device is inserted into a DT80, the DT80 first looks for a file on the USB device named
A:\serialnum\ONINSERT.DXC, where serialnum is the serial number of the DT80 (e.g. SN80322). If found, the
commands in this file are entered into the DT80 exactly as if they had been received via a comms port.
If the above file is not found, the DT80 looks for a command file in the root directory, i.e. A:\ONINSERT.DXC; if found it is
loaded into the DT80 in the same way.
If the USB device contains a suitable ONINSERT.DXC file, a prompt (Run ONINSERT?) will be displayed on the LCD to give
you an opportunity to prevent it running. Press OK/Edit to immediately run the ONINSERT job, or any other key to prevent
execution. If no key is pressed within 5 seconds then the ONINSERT job will be run.
This auto-programming function means that a single USB memory device can be inserted into a number of DT80s, one at a
time, and either:

automatically program all the DT80s with the same job — if no serial-number-specific subdirectories containing
ONINSERT.DXC files exist on the USB device and an ONINSERT.DXC file exists at the root level, or

automatically program particular DT80s with their own specific job — if serial-number-specific subdirectories
containing ONINSERT.DXC files exist on the USB device, or

carry out a combination of these two options — DT80s that do not find a subdirectory named with their serial number
automatically load and run the "standard" ONINSERT.DXC file at the root level, and DT80s that find their specific
subdirectory automatically load and run the "specific" ONINSERT.DXC file found there.
These files are typically created by inserting the USB memory device into a PC and copying the required program files to the
required directories.
Alternatively, the DT80 command:
RUNJOBONINSERT"jobname"
can be used to copy the specified job's program text to A:\serialnum\ONINSERT.DXC.
Similarly,
RUNJOBONINSERTALL"jobname"
will copy the specified job's program text to A:\ONINSERT.DXC.
To delete the ONINSERT.DXC files from the inserted USB memory device, you can use the
DELONINSERT
and
DELONINSERTALL
commands.
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Part E – Manipulating Data
Scaling
Most DT80 channel types automatically scale measured values so that the returned values are in appropriate engineering
units. For example, the thermocouple channel types (e.g. TK) automatically apply the appropriate scaling polynomial so that
the data is returned in °C. However, a number of additional facilities are provided for applying custom scaling or corrections:

channel factor

spans

polynomials

thermistor scaling

intrinsic functions

expressions
Channel Factor
For many channel types, the channel factor (a channel option consisting of just a floating point number) can be used to
provide a simple multiplication factor. See A Special Channel Option — Channel Factor (P37).
For example, if a high voltage is being measured using an external 12.5:1 voltage divider then the following channel
definition:
1V(12.5)
will multiply the raw reading by 12.5 so that the returned value reflects the actual voltage.
Note that for some channel types the channel factor performs a special function, and therefore cannot be used as a scaling
factor. In these cases a span should be used (see below).
For example, if you are measuring a frequency which has passed through a 100:1 prescaler then you will need to use a span
to scale it.
Spans (Sn)
A span transforms a measured signal value (e.g. mV) into the corresponding physical value (e.g. kPa) using a straight line
function:
Physical range
(°C, for example)
Upper
physical
b
Lower
physical
n
atio
libr
Ca
a
c
d
Lower
signal
Upper
signal
Signal range
(mV, for example)
Figure 17: Span coordinates
A span must be defined before it is applied. This is normally done at the start of a job, before any schedules are defined. The
syntax is as follows:
Sn=a,b,c,d"units"
where:

n is the poly/span number (1 to 50), which is used simply to distinguish one span from another. Note that a span and
a polynomial cannot have the same number.

a and b are the physical coordinates of two points on the calibration line (reported or output values)

c and d are the signal coordinates of two points on the calibration line (measured or input values). If not specified, 0
and 100 are assumed.

units replaces the channel's default units text
Spans are particularly suited to 4–20mA current loop inputs. The following defines a span suitable for a current loop sensor
that measures pressure in the range 0-300kPa:
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S2=0,300"kPa"
Note that in this case the default signal coordinates (0 and 100) are used, because the L (current loop) channel type returns
a value in the range 0-100%.
Once defined, a span may be applied to any number of channels in any schedules or alarms using the Sn channel option.
In the following example, two of the above current loop pressure sensors are used, plus a frequency input which passes
through a 10:1 prescaler (frequency divider):
BEGIN"MONKEY"
S1=0,10,0,1"Hz" ' multiply measured freq by 10
S2=0,300"kPa"
' scale 0-100% to 0-300kPa
RA10S 1#L(S2,"Inlet") 2#L(S2,"Outlet") 4F(S1)
END
This will return data in the form:
Inlet 23.9 kPa
Outlet 119.0 kPa
4F 3920 Hz
Note that for the F channel type the channel factor indicates the sample period, so it cannot be used as a scaling factor. A
span is therefore used instead.
A span can also be applied in reverse, using the SRn channel option. Thus
S1=0,100,32,212 1CV(S1)
is equivalent to
S1=32,212,0,100 1CV(SR1)
Polynomials (Yn)
Polynomials are used to define calibrations for non-linear sensors. Each defined polynomial can have up to six polynomial
coefficients.
The DT80 evaluates a polynomial according to the formula
y  k0  k1 x  k2 x 2  k3 x 3  k 4 x 4  k5 x 5
where x is the raw channel reading, and the k’s are coefficient terms.
A polynomial is defined in a similar way to a span:
Yn=k0,k1,k2,k3,k4,k5"units"
where:

n is the poly/span number (1 to 50), which is used simply to distinguish one polynomial from another. Note that a
span and a polynomial cannot have the same number.

k0 … k5 are the polynomial coefficients. If not specified, a coefficient value of zero is assumed

units replaces the channel's default units text
The required coefficients may be supplied by the sensor manufacturer, or they may be determined from a calibration curve or
from measured data points using a least squares regression technique. Various statistical programs are available for this
purpose.
Once defined, a polynomial may be applied to any number of channels using the Yn channel option. For example:
Y1=23.5,0,0.987"deg C"
RA1M 1V(Y1) 2V(Y1)
Thermistor Scaling (Tn)
The DT80 has channel types (e.g. YS03) for many 2-wire thermistors manufactured by MEAS (formerly Yellow Springs
Instruments). For other thermistor types, the DT80 supports thermistor scaling — the conversion of a resistance reading to a
temperature. The DT80 does the conversion from resistance to temperature using
T
1
a  b(ln R)  c(ln R) 3
To apply thermistor scaling, firstly obtain the constant terms a, b and c from the thermistor manufacturer, then define a
thermistor conversion in a similar way to a polynomial or span:
Tn=a,b,c"units"
where:

T is the temperature, in Kelvin (K)
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
n is the thermistor conversion number (1 to 20), which is used simply to distinguish one thermistor equation from
another.

a, b, c are the constants from the above thermistor equation. If not specified, a coefficient value of zero is assumed

units replaces the channel's default units text
Once defined, a thermistor conversion may be applied to any number of resistance channels using the Tn channel option.
For example:
T1=26.5,1.034,8.77e-3"K"
RA1M 3R(T1,"Solvent temp")
See also Temperature – Thermistors (P301).
Intrinsic Functions (Fn)
The DT80 has seven inbuilt and mutually exclusive intrinsic functions that may be applied as channel options. The intrinsic
functions available are
Fn
Description
F1
F2
F3
F4
F5
F6
F7
1/x
inverse
square root
x
Ln(x)
natural logarithm
Log(x)
base ten logarithm
Absolute(x)
absolute value
x*x
square
Gray code conversion (16-bit)
Text Modifier
(Inv)
(Sqrt)
(Ln)
(Log)
(Abs)
(Squ)
(Gc)
The text modifier is appended to the channel's default units string. If a channel's units string has been explicitly set (using the
"name~units" channel option) then no modifier is appended.
For example, the channel definition
1V(F2) 2F(F1,"period~sec")
will return data in the form:
1V 455.7 mV (Sqrt)
period 1.7 sec
Combining Scaling Options
The span (Sn), polynomial (Yn), thermistor (Tn) and intrinsic function (Fn) channel options are all mutually exclusive. If more
than one are specified then only the last one will be applied.
Channel variables and expressions(P64) can be used if multiple scaling operations need to be combined.
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Calculations
Channel Variables (nCV)
Channel variables (CVs) are memory locations (registers) for holding and manipulating floating-point data. The DT80 has
1000 channel variables, identified as 1CV to 1000CV.
All channel variables are reset to 0.0 when the DT80 is reset (HRESET) or cleared (INIT).
Reading Channel Variables
A channel variable behaves in much the same way as any other channel type. Its value may be read (i.e. returned and/or
logged) by including the appropriate nCV channel definition in a schedule. For example, sending
12CV
will immediately return the value of channel variable #12, while
RA10S 1..5CV
will report the values of 1CV through 5CV every 10 seconds.
If a CV is being used for holding an intermediate value then you would normally use the W channel option to make it a working
channel (which is neither returned nor logged).
Setting Channel Variables
A channel variable's value may be set in several different ways:

the CV is set to the value of an expression, i.e. nCV=expression

any channel's value (e.g. a measured temperature) may be assigned to a channel variable by using the =nCV
channel option

certain special channel options (e.g. histogram) return multiple data values, which are written to a specified range of
channel variables. See Multi Value Statistical Options (P73).

data values read from a serial sensor using the generic serial channel type (nSERIAL) may be assigned to CVs. See
Generic Serial Channel (P330).

CVs can be set or read by an external Modbus master device. See Modbus Interface (P168).

CVs can be configured to follow the state of an alarm (e.g set to 1 if the alarm is active, 0 if it is not). See Alarm Digital
Action Channels (P80).
 Expressions
Some examples of using expressions to set CVs:
1..20CV=10.2
initialise multiple CVs
RA1S 1V 9CV=9CV+1 count the number of measurements taken
5CV(W)=3CV*SIN(21CV)+2CV*COS(21CV)
See also Expressions (P66).
 =nCV Channel Option
The =nCV channel option allows a channel value to be assigned directly to a CV, typically so it can then be used in further
calculations.
This can be used to apply a complicated linearisation equation, e.g.:
1V(=2CV,W) 2CV(S9,"temp~K")=2CV/(LN(2CV+1))
This will measure a voltage and assign it to 2CV (note the W option – we are not interested in logging/returning the raw
voltage value). The value in 2CV is then plugged into the specified expression and the result stored back in 2CV. Finally a
span (S9, which must have been previously defined) is applied and the result is returned with appropriate name and units.
An arithmetic operator may also be applied during the assignment, as follows:
Channel Option
Action
=nCV
+=nCV
-=nCV
*=nCV
/=nCV
nCV = channel value
nCV = nCV + channel value
nCV = nCV - channel value
nCV = nCV * channel value
nCV = nCV / channel value
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These allow a CV to be used as an accumulator, e.g.
RA1M 3C(+=2CV) 2CV("Total")
will report the number of counts received in each one minute period, plus the total counts, i.e.:
3C 192 Counts
Total 192
3C 77 Counts
Total 269
Storage Precision
Channel variables may be used to store values with magnitudes from 10-38 to 1038. However, it is important to be aware that
values are stored with 24 bits of precision, or approximately 7.25 significant digits when written in decimal form. This means
th
that whenever the DT80 displays a value, it will only be accurate to 7 significant digits. The 8 digit can be used to distinguish
th
values which are close together, but its value may be out by a few counts. Any changes in the 9 or later digits will not be
reflected in the stored value.
This is particularly noticable when incrementing large integer values. For example:
1CV=3600000
RA1S 1CV=1CV+1
1CV 3600000.0
1CV 3600000.8
1CV 3600002.0
In this example 8 significant digits are being displayed, so the last one is not accurate. It would be better in this case to not
display any decimal places, i.e. 1CV(FF0)=1CV+1.
Once the magnitude of the CV value exceeds 224 (16,777,216), adding one to it will no longer cause its value to change.
A consequence of this is that if you manually count something using a channel variable (e.g. 1CV=1CV+1) then it will stop
counting once its value reaches 16,777,216. Note that this only applies to manual counting using CVs – hardware and
software counters (HSC and C channel types) can count over the full 32-bit range.
If you need a CV to count beyond 16,777,216 then you will need to use two CVs to hold the count value, e.g.:
1CV=1CV+1 IF(1CV>1000000){2CV=2CV+1 1CV=0}
Naming Channel Variables
As with any other channel type, CV channels can be given name and units strings using the "CVname~Units" channel
option.
The command
NAMEDCVS
will return a summary of all CVs that have been explicitly named, e.g.:
CV S CV Name
Value Units
==========================================
5 A Temp
89.1 Deg C
1 A Speed
23.4 m/s
(The "S" column is the schedule identifier)
Calculation Only Channels
If you need to return a calculated value then a channel variable is often used, e.g.
9CV("sum")=1CV+2CV+3CV
However, if you are just logging the result of this expression, and are not going to do any further calculations with it, then
there is no point storing the result in 9CV.
The CALC channel type is a better choice here. An expression can be assigned to it, and the result will be logged in exactly
the same way as a CV. The only difference is that it does not actually copy the result to any particular channel variable.
For example:
CALC("sum")=1CV+2CV+3CV
Reference Channels
A reference channel is used to reference the value of another channel, which is identified by name. In this way a
measurement can be used is multiple places without having to assign it to a channel variable.
To define a reference, use an ampersand followed by the name of the channel whose value you wish to reference, i.e.
&channel. For example:
RA1S 1V &1V
In this (not very useful) example a voltage is measured once but reported twice – once by the original channel and once by
the reference to the channel.
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 Names
If the "source" channel has a user-defined name then it must be used when defining a reference, e.g.
RA1S 1V("Voltage12") &Voltage12
If the source channel's name has spaces or special characters (anything other than A-Z, 0-9, or _) then it should be enclosed
in quotes, e.g.
RA1S 1V("Voltage no. 12") 1+TK
&"Voltage no. 12" &"1+TK"
Note that name comparisons are not case sensitive, so &BIG is a valid reference to 1R("big").
If there is more than one source channel with the same name (a practice that is not recommended) then the reference will
refer to the first one defined. e.g.
RA1S 1V("a") 1R("a") &a
defines a reference to the voltage, not the resistance.
 Options
A reference channel is a channel in its own right so, like any other channel, it can have its own channel options. However,
because a reference channel does not physically measure anything, sampling options will not be applicable. It can have
reporting options, e.g.
RA1S 1V("Voltage12") &Voltage12(Y1,"Pressure12~kPa")
In the above example a voltage based pressure sensor is sampled. Both the raw voltage and the pressure (calculated by
applying polynomial Y1) are returned.
Reference channels inherit their data type (integer or floating point) and default units from the source channel. For example:
1C &1C
1C 210 Counts
&1C 210 Counts
The reference channel's units can of course be overridden:
1C &1C("~Woozles")
1C 210 Counts
&1C 210 Woozles
 Sampling
For a reference channel that is included in a schedule, the source channel must be defined somewhere in the job. The
source channel does not need to occur before the reference to it, but it must be somewhere between the BEGIN and END.
If a source channel is defined in the immediate schedule, then references to it can only be included in the immediate
schedule (not any other schedule), and they must occur later on the same command line.
If the source channel has not been sampled at the time that the reference channel is sampled then the reference channel's
value will be NotYetSet.
Note also that references are read-only; an expression can not be included, e.g.
&1CV=1 'error
 Expressions
References can be included in expressions. For example:
1CV=(&1TK+&2TK)/2
will calculate the mean of two previously sampled temperatures.
Examples
Some of the applications of reference channels are listed below. Many of these could also be done using channel variables,
but using references is generally clearer and more efficient.
 Same reading scaled two ways
The following will log the same reading in both degrees Celsius and Fahrenheit
S1=32,212,0,100"degF" 1TK(FF2) &1TK(S1,FF2)
 Multiple statistics from the same raw data
The following will calculate two different averages from the same raw data
RS1S RA10S 1TK(W)(AV,"10s_ave") RB1M &1TK(AV,"1min_ave")
 Testing one reading in multiple alarms
In this example a temperature is sampled once but then tested in three different alarm conditions.
1TK("indoor")
IF(&indoor<19)"too cold^M^J"
IF(&indoor><19,27)"nice^M^J"
IF(&indoor>27)"too hot^M^J"
 Manually Poll Most Recent Sample
References allow you to make an ad hoc query for the most recent value of a channel that is being regularly sampled.
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BEGIN"zoo" RA1M 1TK END
&1TK
Expressions
The DT80 has a powerful expression evaluation capability, allowing measured values to be manipulated using a variety of
mathematical and logical operations.
An expression consists of one or more operands which are manipulated using operators to produce a numeric result. The
result of an expression can be assigned to any of the channel types identified as "writable" in the table of channel types
(P30). Expressions cannot contain any spaces.
Operands
An expression operand can be either

a numeric constant, e.g. 27 or -2.95 or 2.222e-6 or 0x3fff (hexadecimal)

one of the special constants PI (3.1415927) or E (2.7182818)

a channel variable, e.g. 17CV

a reference to another channel, e.g. &1TK or &"Reactor Temp"

a sub-expression in parentheses, e.g. (1CV+1) or (COS(D2R(3CV))+1). The sub-expression will be evaluated
first and the result will become the operand.
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Operators
The following operators are supported. In the following table the placeholders x, y, etc. can be any of the operand types listed
above.
Operator
Description
Type
x+y
x-y
x*y
x/y
x^y
x%y
x<y
x<=y
x>y
x>=y
x=y
x!=y
xANDy
xORy
xXORy
a?x:y
addition
subtraction
multiplication
division
x raised to power y
x modulo y (remainder after division)
1 if x less than y, otherwise 0
1 if x less than or equal to y, otherwise 0
1 if x greater than y, otherwise 0
1 if x greater than or equal to y, otherwise 0
1 if x equals y, otherwise 0
1 if x equals y, otherwise 0
1 if x is non-zero and y is non-zero, otherwise 0
1 if x is non-zero or y is non-zero, otherwise 0
1 if x is non-zero or y is non-zero but not both, otherwise 0
x if a is non-zero, otherwise y
*
*
*
F
F
*
I
I
I
I
I
I
I
I
I
*
-x
NOTx
negative x
1 if x is zero, otherwise 0
*
I
ABS(x)
SQRT(x)
LOG(x)
LN(x)
SIN(x)
COS(x)
TAN(x)
ASIN(x)
ACOS(x)
ATAN(x)
Sn(x)
SRn(x)
Yn(x)
Tn(x)
Fn(x)
D2R(x)
R2D(x)
XY2MAG(x,y)
XY2DIR(x,y)
MAGDIR2X(mag,dir)
MAGDIR2Y(mag,dir)
absolute value of x
square root of x
base 10 logarithm of x
base e logarithm of x
sine of x (x is in radians)
cosine of x (x is in radians)
tangent of x (x is in radians)
arcsine of x (result is in radians)
arccosine of x (result is in radians)
arctangent of x (result is in radians)
apply span #n
apply reversed span #n
apply polynomial #n
apply thermistor scaling #n
apply intrinsic function #n
x / 57.29576 (convert degrees to radians)
x * 57.29576 (convert radians to degrees)
convert rectangular coordinates x,y to polar magnitude coordinate
convert rectangular coordinates x,y to polar direction coordinate (in radians, 0-2π)
convert polar coordinates mag,dir to rectangular x coordinate (mag in radians)
convert polar coordinates mag,dir to rectangular y coordinate (mag in radians)
*
F
F
F
F
F
F
F
F
F
F
F
F
F
F
F
F
F
F
F
F
Data Types
 Integers and Floating Point
DT80 channels can return either a 32-bit integer or a 32-bit floating point value. Digital and counter channels return an
integer value; most other channel types return floating point values.
The Type column in the above table indicates the data type that results from applying the specified operator. Operators
marked F always result in a floating point value, operators marked I result in an integer, and operators marked * result in a
floating point value if either of their operands is a floating point value. Note that a numeric constant is considered to be an
integer unless it has a decimal point or exponent.
Note however that channel variables can only hold floating point values. Thus if an expression result is assigned to a channel
variable then it will always be converted to a floating point value. This is not the case for a CALC channel, which can return
either an integer or a floating point value.
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 Error Values
If an operand has an error value (e.g. overrange) then the result of any operator will also be an error value. For example,
CALC=&1V/1000
will return a value of OverRange if the original 1V measurement that is being referenced in the expression was overrange.
Operator Precedence
Each operator is assigned a precedence level, as follows:
Precedence Level
Operators
1 (highest)
2
3
4
5
6
7 (lowest)
- (negative)
^
*, /, %
+, - (subtract)
<, <=, =, !=, >=, >
AND, OR, XOR, NOT
?:
When an expression contains more than one operator then the operator with the highest precedence is evaluated first. If the
operators have equal precedence then they are grouped left to right – with the exception of ?:, which is grouped right to left.
Parentheses may be used to create sub-expressions and thereby alter the order of evaluation.
 Examples
Equal precedence operators are grouped left to right:
3CV=7-2+3
'= (7-2)+3 = 8
...except for ?:, which are grouped right to left:
3CV=1?0:2?3:4
'= 1?0:(2?3:4) = 0
Changing evaluation order using parentheses:
4CV=1.5+2*3^2
'4CV = 19.5
4CV=(1.5+2)*3^2
'4CV = 31.5
4CV=((1.5+2)*3)^2 '4CV = 110.25
Negative and subtract operators are different:
2CV=-5^2
2CV=0-5^2
'negative: 2CV = 25
'subtract: 2CV = -25
Logical Expressions
The selection operator (?:) is the easiest way to select either one value or another based on a conditional. For example, the
following will set a channel to 999 if it is outside the range 0..100:
2CV=((2CV<0)OR(2CV>100))?999:2CV
To select between three or more alternatives you can nest the selection operators. For example, to return -999 for under
range and 999 for over range you could use:
2CV=(2CV<0)?-999:((2CV>100)?999:2CV)
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Combining Methods
The different scaling and calculation methods can be used together. The following comprehensive examples are the best
way to demonstrate.
 Example 1
In this program, a vector average is calculated, because it is not meaningful to numerically average wind direction angles.
The inputs are wind speed and direction.
BEGIN"Wind-01"
S1=0,50,0,1000"m/s" 'Wind speed calibration 0–50m/s = 0–1000mV
S2=0,6.2832,0,1000"radians" 'Wind direction 0–2Pi radians = 0–1000mV
Y3=0,3.6"km/h" 'Units text for wind speed report
Y4=0,1"Deg" 'Units text for wind direction report
3..6CV(W)=0
RA5S 'Take a reading every 5 seconds
1V("rawspeed",S1,W)
2V("dir",S2,W)
CALC("speed",W)=(&rawspeed<0)?0:&rawspeed 'clamp neg speed values to 0
3CV("sumX",W)=3CV+MAGDIR2X(&speed,&dir)
4CV("sumY",W)=4CV+MAGDIR2Y(&speed,&dir)
5CV("count",W)=5CV+1
' invalidate reported value if any sample is out of range
6CV("invalid",W)=(6CV)OR(&rawspeed<-1)OR(&rawspeed>60)OR(&dir<-1)OR(&dir>7)
RB1M 'Calculate, report and log every minute
' Report average wind speed (999.9 if invalid)
7CV(W)=XY2MAG(&sumX,&sumY)/&count
CALC("Mean Wind Magnitude",Y3,FF1)=&invalid?999.9:7CV
' Report average direction (-1 if no wind, 999 if invalid)
8CV(W)=(7CV>0)?R2D(XY2DIR(&sumX,&sumY)):-1
CALC("Mean Wind Direction",Y4,FF0)=&invalid?999:8CV
3..6CV(W)=0
LOGON
END
 Example 2
This program scans ten channels and calculates a cross-channel average.
BEGIN"Wind-02"
RA10S
1CV(W)=0 'Clear 1CV
1..10V(+=1CV,W) 'Sum 10 voltages into 1CV
1CV=1CV/10 'Divide by 10 for average
END
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Derived Quantities
The DT80 can automatically compute various commonly used derived quantities such as differences, rates of change,
pulse widths and so on. These are calculated by including the appropriate channel option, as detailed below.
In each case the derived quantity is returned instead of the original reading.
Rates and Integrals
The following derived quantities are calculated based on the current and the previous channel reading.
Channel Option
Description
Formula
DF
DT
RC
RS
IB
Difference
Time difference
Rate of change
Reading / time difference
Integrate
Δx
Δt
Δx / Δt
x / Δt
( x – Δx / 2 ) Δt
The DF channel option returns the difference between the current and previous measurements; the DT option returns the
time difference and the RC channel option combines the two to return the rate of change (Δx / Δt).
For example,
RA1S 1V &1V(DF,"DeltaV") &1V(DT,"DeltaT") &1V(RC,"RC~mV/s")
1V 29.4 mV
DeltaV 3.9 mV
DeltaT 00:00:00.992
RC 4.0 mV/s
In this case four channels are defined in the schedule. The first will measure a voltage and return the reading. The second
channel will compare the newly updated value of 1V to the value it had when the channel was last evaluated (one second
ago) and return the difference. Similarly the third and fourth channels will return the time difference (which will in this case
always be close to one second) and rate of change, respectively.
The RS option is similar to RC except that the numerator is the actual reading, not the difference. This is intended for use with
channels where the reading is already a difference. In the following example the counter is reset after each reading (using
the R channel option), so the count reading is actually the number of counts since the last reading, so to calculate counts per
second the RS option is used:
RA10S 3C(R,RS,"~counts/s")
Finally, the IB option is used to integrate a signal. It returns the area under a straight line connecting the current to the
previous reading. For example:
RA20S
1V(W) 2#I(W)
CALC("Power~W")=&1V*&"2#I"
&Power(IB,W,+=5CV)
5CV("Energy~J")
The above example will, every 20 seconds, first measure a voltage and a current. These are then multiplied to give the
instantaneous power in Watts, then integrated to give the energy used over the 20 second period. Finally, the energy values
are accumulated in channel variable 5CV to give the total energy used.
Edge Timing
A number of channel options are provided for reporting details relating to the timing of digital transitions (edges).
As with the rate and integral options, these derived quantities are calculated based solely on the current and the previous
channel readings.
The TOR and TOF options return the absolute date/time at which a last rising or falling edge occurred. If no edge has
occurred since the last reading then a "zero" date/time value (normally presented as 00:00:00.000,01/01/1989) is
returned.
The following options report the time interval between two edges:

If a rising edge has occurred since the last reading on a channel, and another rising edge has occurred some time
previously, then the TRR option returns the time interval between the two edges, otherwise it returns zero.

If a rising edge has occurred since the last reading on a channel, and a falling edge has occurred some time
previously, then the TFR option returns the time interval between the two edges, otherwise it returns zero.

If a falling edge has occurred since the last reading on a channel, and another falling edge has occurred some time
previously, then the TFF option returns the time interval between the two edges, otherwise it returns zero.
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
If a falling edge has occurred since the last reading on a channel, and a rising edge has occurred some time
previously, then the TRF option returns the time interval between the two edges, otherwise it returns zero.
For example:
RA1E 1DS 1DS(TOF,"-edge at") 1DS(TFF,"period")
1DS 0 State
-edge at 15:30:35.015 01/02/2007
period 00:00:00.000
1DS 1 State
-edge at 00:00:00.000 01/01/1989
period 00:00:00.000
1DS 0 State
-edge at 15:30:45.018 01/02/2007
period 00:00:10.003
1DS 1 State
-edge at 00:00:00.000 01/01/1989
period 00:00:00.000
In the above example the A schedule runs when a rising or falling edge on digital input 1 occurs, and reports the time at
which each falling edge occurs, as well as the time between successive falling edges (i.e. the period).
Note that it is not possible to set the schedule to only trigger on falling edges (using RA1-E), because then the state of 1DS
would be zero each time the schedule ran. This would mean that no falling edges (i.e. current value = 0, previous value = 1)
would be detected.
Statistical Channel Options
Overview
It is often convenient to sample channels frequently and a return and/or log a statistical summary at longer intervals (see
Statistical Report Schedules (P52)). Statistical channels are sampled during the period between report times (at a rate
governed by the statistical schedule, RS), and the statistical summary is generated and returned at report time, i.e. when the
regular schedule runs.
Channels that require statistical sampling must include a channel option to indicate the statistical information to generate.
Here’s a summary of the statistical channel options — see also the Statistical (P42) category in the Table 4: DT80 Channel
Options (P43) table:
Channel Option
Description
AV
SD
MX
MN
TMX
TMN
DMX
DMN
IMX
IMN
INT
NUM
Average
Standard deviation
Maximum
Minimum
Time of maximum
Time of minimum
Date of maximum
Date of minimum
Instant of maximum (combines DMX and TMX)
Instant of minimum (combines DMN and TMN)
Integral
Number of samples
Appended to Units
(Ave)
(SD)
(Max)
(Min)
(Tmx)
(Tmn)
(Dmx)
(Dmn)
(Imx)
(Imn)
(Int)
(Num)
The statistical option is defined by including it as a channel option in parentheses after the channel type. For example:
RA1M 3TT(AV)(NUM)
3TT 103.7 degC (Ave)
3TT 42 (Num)
3TT 110.2 degC (Ave)
3TT 60 (Num)
In this case you will see the Sample LED flash once per second (which is the default rate for RS), but data will only be
returned once per minute. These data consist of average of the samples taken since the A schedule last ran, and the number
of samples (which will normally be 60). Note that a tag, e.g. (Ave), is attached to the units to indicate the statistical function
that has been applied.
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Note There may be fewer than expected samples in the first sample period after starting a schedule. This is because, by
default, schedule execution is synchronised to midnight (see Time Triggers — Synchronizing to Midnight (P55)) so a one
minute schedule will always execute on minute boundaries.
If insufficient statistical samples have been taken at the time when the report schedule runs then an error message returned
and the data value is flagged as "not yet set". The SD and INT options require a minimum of two samples, the others require
at least one sample. To minimise the chance of this condition occurring:

switch off the synchronise to midnight flag (/s), or

ensure that the reporting schedule period is substantially longer than the statistical schedule period.
Statistical Functions
Average (AV)
The average or mean is the sum of all the channel readings divided by the number of readings. It is very useful in reducing
sensor noise.
Standard Deviation (SD)
Standard deviation is a measure of the variability of the data about the average or mean. The variation may be due to
electrical noise or process changes. The units of standard deviation are the same as the channel reading.
Maximum and Minimum (MX and MN)
The maximum and minimum of a set of channel readings can be reported with the MX and MN channel options.
The time at which these occurred can be reported with the TMX and TMN options, the date with DMX and DMN, and the
combined date/time ("instant") with the IMX and IMN channel options.
For example:
RS1M
RA30M 1TK(AV)
RB1D 1TK(MX)(TMX)(MN)(TMN)
1TK 24.2 degC
1TK 21.9 degC
1TK
1TK
1TK
1TK
1TK
19.0 degC
33.9 degC (Max)
15:10:00.000 (Tmx)
12.9 degC (Min)
04:33:00.000 (Tmn)
The above job measures the temperature once a minute (RS1M). Every 30 minutes the average for the 30 minute period is
returned by the A schedule. Once a day (at midnight), the daily min/max temperatures are returned, along with the times at
which they occurred.
Integration (INT)
The integration channel option returns the integral (area under the curve) with respect to time in seconds using a trapezoidal
approximation. The units of an integration are those of the original reading multiplied by seconds.
In the following example a sensor returns a voltage that is proportional to the flow rate (0-1000mV = 0-0.2 l/s):
BEGIN
RS100T
S5=0,0.2,0,1000"litres"
1CV=0
RA2S 1V(S5,INT,+=1CV,W) 1CV("Fuel Used",FF3)
END
Fuel used 0.012 litres
Fuel used 0.104 litres
Every 100ms, the voltage output from the sensor is measured, scaled by span S5 (yielding a value in litre/s) and the integral
is progressively accumulated (yielding a value in litres). This is then accumulated in 1CV (yielding the total number of litres
used since the schedule started), which is reported every 2 seconds.
Note the differences between the INT and IB options (both of which calculate integrals):

The IB option uses two points only (the current value and the previous value) and calculates the area under the curve
using a single trapezoid. It does not involve the statistical schedule.

INT is a statistical option. It calculates the integral using a trapezoid for each sample point measured by the statistical
schedule.
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Multi Value Statistical Options
The statistical options described here are special in that they return multiple values. A channel can only have one return
value, so these options work by setting channel variables.
These channel options do not affect the usual reporting or logging of the channel’s readings.
Histogram (Hx:y:m..nCV)
The DT80 can be used to generate a histogram (frequency distribution) of channel samples by applying the histogram
channel option, which instructs the DT80 to

divide the measured data range into a number of intervals called classes

count the number of readings that occur in each class during the histogram period

load each class count into a separate channel variable.
Then use another schedule to read, log and clear the channel variables.
Classes
Number of
Occurrences
(Counts)
Class interval
x
y
Channel Reading
Figure 18: Histogram
In addition, the DT80 automatically counts the number of under-range, over-range and total readings, and stores these in
three separate channel variables.
The format of the histogram channel option is:
Hx:y:m..nCV
where:

x and y are the lowest and highest channel readings of interest, as shown in the above diagram

m and n denote the range of channel variables (mCV to nCV inclusive) to use for storing count values.
The channel variables are set as follows:
Channel Variable
Function
mCV
number of readings in the lowest class
...
(n-3)CV
number of readings in the highest class
(n-2)CV
number of readings under range (<x)
(n-1)CV
number of readings over range (>y)
nCV
total number of readings including those out of range
The range x..y will therefore be broken up into (n – m – 2) classes.
 Example — Histogram
To create a histogram of a temperature channel over five classes requires eight channel variables:
BEGIN"HISTO"
11..18CV=0
RA1S 1TT(H25.0:35.0:11..18CV)
RBX 16CV("Under") 11..15CV 17CV("Over") 18CV("Total")
RCX 11..18CV=0
END
The A schedule will report the temperature once a second. It will also accumulate a histogram with five temperature classes
and intervals of 2°C:

11CV counts readings in the first class (25.0 to 26.999°C interval)

12CV counts readings in the second class (27.0 to 28.999°C interval)
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
13CV counts readings in the third class (29.0 to 30.999°C interval)

14CV counts readings in the fourth class (31.0 to 32.999°C interval)

15CV counts readings in the fifth class (33.0 to 34.999°C interval)
The following three CVs will also be updated:

16CV is the number of under-range samples (<25°C)

17CV is the number of over-range samples (>35°C)

18CV is the total number of samples (sum of 11..17CV)
The B schedule will, when polled, report the current histogram data. Polling the C schedule will clear the histogram data. A
typical histogram report would look like:
XB
Under 7
11CV 19
12CV 33
13CV 102
14CV 71
15CV 22
Over 2
Total 246
Rainflow Cycle Counting
Rainflow cycle counting (also called rainflow analysis) is an internationally-accepted method of fatigue cycle counting
used for monitoring long-term accumulative structural fatigue damage. The process reduces large quantities of cyclic data —
collected from sensors attached to the structure over a long period of time — into relatively simple histograms.
As a structure deflects due to repetitive external influences, measurements produce arbitrary peak and valley sequences
that form closed loops or cycles. Each loop or cycle has a size (the difference between peak and valley magnitudes), and
rainflow analysis accumulates a profile of the number of cycles versus cycle size into a histogram.
A minimum cycle size can be defined that sets a noise rejection level, and cycle sizes below this level are rejected as noise
and are not counted.
The DT80 implements the ASTM E 1049-85 standard: Standard Practices for Cycle Counting in Fatigue Analysis.
Real-time rainflow analysis can be carried out using the DT80’s RAINFLOW channel option, which instructs the DT80 to
monitor attached strain gauges at regular intervals and reduce the resulting large quantity of data into simple cycle
histograms.
The DT80 can also produce a formatted report of the accumulated cycle histograms — see Reporting Rainflow Data (P75).
Although the rainflow cycle counting has been optimized for welded steel structures, it can be used to record arbitrary
waveforms from other sources — temperature cycles in a furnace or electrical signals, for example.
Collecting Rainflow Data
Rainflow analysis is defined by the RAINFLOW channel option. Although this is generally used for channels measuring
strain gauge inputs, you can also use it for any type of sensor that is monitoring a process that produces cycles of peaks and
valleys with hysteresis.
The overall range of cycle sizes is divided into a number of smaller cycle size classes and, as the analysis proceeds, the
number of cycles of each size class is counted. These counts are accumulated into the DT80’s 32-bit signed Integer
Variables (channel type nIV).
(These integer variables are only for use with rainflow analysis.)
The RAINFLOW channel option requires a maximum cycle size to be specified, a noise rejection level, and a range of
sequential integer variables or channel variables that can be used for accumulating the cycle size counts and other
information. It has the form:
RAINFLOW:a:b:c..dIV
where:

a is the maximum cycle size expressed in the channel type units (for example, ppm)

b is the minimum cycle size for noise rejection expressed as a percentage of a

c and d denote the range of integer variables (cIV to dIV inclusive) to use for storing count values.
Therefore the range of cycle sizes is from zero to the maximum cycle size defined (a), and cycle sizes smaller than b% of a
are rejected and not counted. For example, the channel option
(RAINFLOW:1000:5:c..dIV)
sets the cycle size range to 0–1000 units, and cycle sizes less than 50 (5% of 1000) units are rejected as noise.
The number of variables allocated for the rainflow analysis must be set to the number of cycle size classes required over the
cycle size range, plus seven (7) additional variables for summary data. For example, if you require 10 cycle size classes over
the cycle size range then 17 variables will be needed. The variables can begin at any number in their range of 1 to 500 (c),
and are used sequentially to the last variable number (d).
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The use of variables in the allocated variable range is summarized in the following table. The first column shows how
variables are used within the allocated range, and the last column shows how 20 variables are used. The last 7 variables
contain various summary data.
c..dIV

21..40IV
c+0
c+1
c+2
Contains the count of cycles for the first cycle size class
Contains the count of cycles for the second cycle size class
Contains the count of cycles for the third cycle size class
21IV
22IV
23IV

d–7
d–6

Contains the count of cycles for the last cycle size class
Contains the count of cycles that over-ranged the maximum
cycle size
Contains the count of all cycles
Contains the maximum buffered cycles 0..100 (or 99999 if the buffer has
overflowed and buffered half-cycles have been lost)

Contains the minimum valley encountered
Contains the maximum peak encountered
Contains the total number of good points
Contains the total number of "in error" points (out of range, for example)
37IV
38IV
39IV
40IV
d–5
d–4
Summary data
Example:
IV Contents
d–3
d–2
d–1
d–0
33IV
34IV
35IV
36IV
In practice, some cycles do not close immediately and are buffered until a closure is detected. Variable d–4 contains a count
of these unclosed or "half cycles".
Note: The rainflow channel option can be used on a maximum of 16 channels.
Rainflow cycle data is collected at a rate dependent on the frequency of influences deforming the structure under test. These
might be quite slow events (such as waves crashing against a sea wall), or quite fast (such as a high speed boat hull
travelling through waves).
Place the channel being sampled for rainflow in a schedule that’s triggered fast enough to take sufficient readings during a
cycle to adequately characterise the loop closures. For example, the schedule
RA50T 3BGI(RAINFLOW:a:b:c..dIV,W)
measures the input every 50ms (20 times/sec), and counts loop closures. The W channel option declares this as a working
channel (does not return or log the individual samples of strain-stress.
Reporting Rainflow Data
Rainflow data is collected over long periods of time using the RAINFLOW channel option. Then, periodically, the rainflow
cycle histogram can be retrieved by a computer, using the RAINFLOW command.
To report the rainflow cycle histogram, send the original rainflow channel option exactly as originally defined for the channel,
but as a command. That is, send the command:
RAINFLOW:a:b:c..dIV
The DT80 returns a tabular report as illustrated below:
RAINFLOW:72:5:1..27IV
Rainflow ( 5% rejection)
01/01/2000 00:03:43
n
IV/CV Range
Mean
Cycles
==============================================
1
1
0.0
0.0
0
2
2
3.6
11.4
27
3
3
7.2
11.3
6
4
4
10.8
12.4
6
5
5
14.4
11.9
6
6
6
18.0
12.8
9
7
7
21.6
12.3
2
8
8
25.2
0.0
0
9
9
28.8
0.0
0
10
10
32.4
0.0
0
11
11
36.0
18.0
1
12
12
39.6
0.0
0
13
13
43.2
0.0
0
14
14
46.8
0.0
0
15
15
50.4
0.0
0
16
16
54.0
0.0
0
17
17
57.6
0.0
0
18
18
61.2
0.0
0
19
19
64.8
0.0
0
20
20
68.4
0.0
0
21
21 >=
72.0
0.0
0
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==============================================
Total cycles
58
Peak/Valley mean
12.6
Max Peak
71
Min Valley
-1
Max buffered cycles
11
Valid input points %
100.00
The rainflow report provides a complete summary of the rainflow data for the collection period. The cycle size range for each
class, the number of cycles in each class, and the mean for each class is shown, as well as the summary data.
Although the rainflow report cannot be logged in the DT80, the primary cycle count data used to make up the rainflow report
can. For example, the program
BEGIN"Rainflow"
RA50T 2BGI(RAINFLOW:72:5:1..27IV,W)
RB7D 1..27IV
LOGONB
END
logs the histogram data every 7 days. Reports can be created manually after download of the primary cycle count data.
 Example — Rainflow Cycle Counting
Capture raw strain gauge data and perform rainflow cycle analysis using the program
BEGIN
RA50T 1BGI(RAINFLOW:1000:5:101..127IV,W)
END
This instructs the DT80 to

collect current-excited bridge data (1BGI) every 50ms (RA50T) and carry out rainflow analysis over the range of zero
to 1000 ppm

apply a 5% rejection (that is, cycles smaller than 50ppm are rejected)

accumulate cycles into histogram variables 101 through 127 (101..127); this gives 20 cycle size classes for cycle
counts, and 7 others for summary information.
The matching rainflow report command
RAINFLOW:1000:5:101..127IV
can then be used to return a summary report.
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Part F – Alarms
Alarm Concepts
DT80 alarms allow decisions to be made based on the magnitude of DT80 input channels, channel variables, timers, the
clock/calendar, internal channels, system variables and so on. The decision is a true or false result of an alarm condition
test. The true/false result is also known as the alarm state.
The DT80 can be instructed to carry out actions when an alarm tests true. These actions can be setting the DT80’s digital
state outputs, issuing messages, or executing commands to change the DT80’s operation.
Alarm transitions can also be logged to the DT80's internal file system for later analysis.
There are two types of alarms:

single shot alarms (ALARM command) act once on the transition of the condition test from false to true

repeating alarms (IF and DO commands) act repeatedly each time the enclosing schedule runs, while the condition
tests true
Single-shot alarm RA3S ALARM…
Alarm actions occur once when the alarm becomes true.
Alarm
actions
Alarm=TRUE
Alarm=TRUE
Time
Alarm is tested every 3 seconds
Repeating alarm RA3S ALARMR…
Alarm actions occur every 3 seconds while the alarm is true.
Alarm
actions
Alarm=TRUE
Alarm=TRUE
Time
Alarm is tested every 3 seconds
Figure 19: Comparing single-shot and repeating alarms (3-second schedule example)
Alarm commands can be included in any report schedule, and are processed in sequence with other schedule processes
such as reading input channels and performing calculations.
Alarm Commands
The DT80 provides three main alarm commands, each with a similar basic syntax:
ALARMn(test)digitalAction"actionText"[commsProcess]{actionProcesses}
IFn(test)digitalAction"actionText"[commsProcess]{actionProcesses}
(ALARMR is also accepted as a synonym for IF.)
DOn"actionText"[commsProcess]{actionProcesses}
where:

n is the alarm number, used to distinguish logged alarms (optional)

test is the alarm condition to test

digitalAction is one or two digital output or CV channels which will follow the alarm state (optional)

"actionText" is a text string to output if the alarm condition tests true (optional)

commsProcess is a mailto: or sms: URI that specifies a message to send by email or SMS. Multiple URIs can
be included, each enclosed by []. (sms: is valid for DT8xM models only)

{actionProcesses} is a set of channel definitions and/or commands to be executed if the alarm condition tests true
(optional)
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These are explained further in the following sections.
Note that the DO command is the same as IF except that the alarm condition is assumed to be always true.
Alarm Number
Alarm commands can optionally be given a number (1-255), which is used to identify the alarm when an alarm transition is
logged.
For example:
RA1S ALARM1(2TT<15)"Too cold" ALARM2(2TT>30)"Too hot" LOGON
will test a temperature once per second. If the temperature dips below 15°C an alarm record indicating that alarm #1 has
triggered will be logged to the DT80's internal file system. See Logging and Retrieving Data (P89) for more details about the
logging of data and alarms.
Alarm numbers need not be allocated in order, and they need not be unique (although normally they would be) – whatever
you select as the alarm number will be what is logged if the alarm is triggered.
Note that unnumbered alarms, e.g.:
IF(1CV>10){9CV=9CV+1}
are not logged, even if logging is enabled for the schedule
Alarm Condition
The alarm condition compares a channel value to one or two setpoints. The state of the alarm is then set to true or false
based on this test. (Note that in the case of the DO command, no alarm condition is specified – the state of the alarm is
always true.)
Six different types of test are supported:
Condition
Alarm is true if
(chan==setpoint)
(chan!=setpoint)
(chan<setpoint)
(chan>setpoint)
(chan><setpoint1,setpoint2)
channel value is equal to setpoint
channel value is not equal to setpoint
channel value is less than setpoint
channel value is greater than or equal to setpoint
channel value is greater than or equal to setpoint1 AND less than setpoint2
(that is, between the two setpoints)
channel value is less than setpoint1 OR greater than or equal to setpoint2
(that is, outside the setpoint range)
(chan<>setpoint1,setpoint2)
where:

chan is a standard channel definition, which will be evaluated (i.e. measured) in the usual way. One set of channel
options may be included if required. If the channel is being assigned from an expression then the whole definition
should be enclosed in parentheses, eg
IF((CALC=&1TK*2)>52)

setpoint is a constant (e.g. 2.77) or channel variable specifier (e.g. 13CV)
Note The equality (==) and inequality (!=) tests should normally only be used where the quantities being compared are
integers. Floating point values are subject to rounding errors. For example, after adding 0.1 to a CV ten times, the result will
not necessarily be exactly 1.0
In addition, a time specifier may be appended to the above. If a time specifier is present, the alarm will only be set true after
the condition has been continuously true for the specified time.
A time specifier has one of the following forms:
Time Specifier
Condition must be continuously true for
/nS
/nM
/nH
/nD
n seconds
n minutes
n hours
n days
Some sample alarm conditions are shown below:
Condition
Alarm is true if
(2R(II)>51.5)
(3+V(AV)<-200)
((CALC=(&1TK+&2TK)/2)<50)
(4ST==1)
(REFT<>-10,45)
(T><9:00,17:30)
(32SV>10000)
channel 2R value is greater than or equal to 51.5 ohms
channel 3+V (averaged over schedule interval) is less than -200mV
average of two thermocouple readings is < 50°C
today is Monday
temperature inside DT80 is outside the range -10°C - +45°C
time is between 9am and 5:30pm
10000 or more data records have been logged for schedule A
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(1CV<2CV/2M)
(4DS==0)
(1CV(ND)>1)
1CV is less than 2CV, and has been for at least 2 minutes
digital input 4DS is low
1CV is greater than or equal to 1. Don't display this alarm.
Note that by default the value of the channel that is tested in an alarm condition is neither logged nor returned. It will,
however, be displayed, unless you disable this using the ND or W options.
If you want to log or output the channel's value each time it is tested then include the LM (log measurement) option, e.g.
ALARM(1TK(LM)>35)"Hot"
Complex Conditions
As indicated above, only relatively simple condition tests can be included in an alarm command. There are two ways to
perform a more complex test.
 Boolean Expressions
An arbitrarily complicated boolean expression can be constructed and assigned to a CV, which can in turn then be tested in
an alarm command. For example:
RA5S
1V 2V 3V 3CV
9CV=((&1V>2.2)AND(&1V/&2V<=0.9)AND(&3V>=(&1V+&2V)))OR(3CV=0.0)
ALARM(9CV>0.5)"Condition red"
Note that the syntax for boolean expressions is quite different to that used in alarm conditions.
In the above example 9CV will get the value 1.0 if the expression evaluates to true, otherwise 0.0
You can also use the result of a boolean expression in an arithmetic expression, making use of the fact that the value of the
boolean expression is always 1.0 or 0.0. For example,
12CV=4CV*(1CV>2.5)+5CV*(1CV<2.5)
will set 12CV to the value of 4CV if 1CV is greater than 2.5, otherwise it will set it to the value of 5CV. In many cases,
however, using the selection operator would be simpler:
12CV=(1CV>2.5)?4CV:5CV
See Expressions (P66) for more information about using expressions.
 Combining Alarms
An alternative method of building up a complex alarm condition is to chain a number of consecutive alarm commands
together. They are combined using logical operators (AND, OR or XOR), which replace the digitalAction, actionText and
actionProcesses of all except the last alarm. The actions associated with the combined test are attached to the last alarm.
Any alarm delay period is also associated with the last alarm.
For example, the combined alarm
ALARM(1*TK>100)OR
ALARM(1+TK>100)OR
ALARM(1-TK>100)AND
ALARM3(T>10:00:00)"Temp Error"{1DBO=12}
produces a single alarm output based on several temperature tests and a time test. The combined alarm becomes true when
any one of 1*TK, 1+TK or 1-TK exceeds 100°C after 10:00:00 am. Notice that the alarm conditions are evaluated
sequentially ("left to right"); the three logical operators (AND, OR or XOR) all have equal precedence.
Note also that the type of alarm (single shot vs. repeating) and the alarm number are solely determined by the last channel in
a chain of concatenated alarm channels e.g.
ALARM27(1CV>1)AND
ALARM5(2CV>4)"boo"
is exactly equivalent to
IF99(1CV>1)AND
ALARM5(2CV>4)"boo"
ie it's a single shot alarm with ID 5.
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Alarm Digital Action Channels
One or two comma-separated digital action channels can be declared for each alarm. These channels will then mimic the
state of the alarm. That is, these outputs are set to their default state if the alarm tests false, and are set to there non default
state if the alarm tests true:
Digital action channels can be:

digital outputs (nDSO)

Attn LED output (1WARN)

latching relay output (1RELAY)

channel variables (nCV)
These will be set according to the following table:
Digital Action Channel
Value if Alarm FALSE
Value if Alarm TRUE
1..4DSO (DT80/82I/85)
1..3DSO (DT81/82)
5..8DSO (DT80/85)
4DSO (DT81/82)
1WARN
1RELAY
nCV
1 (high/off)
0 (low/on)
0 (low)
1 (high)
0 (LED off)
0 (relay open)
0.0
1 (LED on)
1 (relay closed)
1.0
Typically, the digital state outputs are used to annunciate the DT80 alarm by switching devices such as relays, sirens and
lights, or to directly control actuators and similar equipment.
For example,
RA1M ALARM(4TK<-1)3DSO"Heater on^M"
will check the temperature every minute. If it drops below -1°C a message will be output and digital output 3D will go low,
energising an external heater relay. The digital output will remain low (heater on) until the temperature (measured every
minute) is no longer below -1°C.
Similarly,
RB10S ALARM(2+TC>2100)2CV,1RELAY"ReactorScram"
checks a temperature every 10s; if it exceeds 2100°C then the relay will close and 2CV will be set to 1.0 until the temperature
drops back below the setpoint. Once this occurs the relay will open and 2CV will be set back to 0.0.
Alarm Action Text
Action text may be included in an alarm command. This text string is automatically returned to the host computer and/or
logged to the internal file system and/or transmitted by email/SMS:

once whenever the state of a single-shot alarm (ALARM) goes from false to true, or

repeatedly at the controlling schedule’s rate while a repeating alarm (IF or DO) remains true.
Up to 511 characters of action text can be included in each alarm. Note however that the resultant string (after processing
any substitution characters; see Substitution Characters (P81)) may be truncated depending on its final destination:
Destination
Max number of characters that will be output
host computer via command interface
LCD display
log file
511
16
set by ALARMS:Wn (alarm width) schedule
option (default 60, max 245)
255
160
email
SMS
Setting the alarm message switch (P250) to /z stops the return of the action text to the host – in a similar way to the NR (no
return) channel option.
Destination for Text
Action text is normally enclosed in "double quotes", in which case it is returned to the host computer using the currently
active communication port. If, however, the action text is instead enclosed in 'single quotes', the actionText is sent
exclusively to the RS232 Host Port on the logger. This is useful for communicating with external modems when they are in
command mode and when the host port is used for other purposes.
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Substitution Characters
Special substitution characters can be placed into actionText. These instruct the DT80 to dynamically insert the following
information when the alarm returns and/or logs its action text:
Alarm text
where
!
!!
@
@@
#
##
?C
?N
?R
?U
?V
?A
?nFp
?nEp
?nMp
?nF
?nE
?nM
?nA
?n$
?n
??
?
A = any letter (A-Z)
other than CNRUV
n = 1-1000, p = 0-7
n = 1-1000, p = 0-7
n = 1-1000, p = 0-7
n = 1-1000
n = 1-1000
n = 1-1000
A = any letter (A-Z)
other than FEM
n = 1-50
n = 1-1000
c = any character
c
Substitutes the following
Example
DT80 serial number, :, alarm number
! character
time at which action text was returned
(in P39 and P40 format)
@ character
date at which action text was returned
(in P31 format)
# character
standard channel name
user channel name
relation (test condition)
channel units
channel value when alarm tested true
(use FFn etc. channel options to control format)
not valid
080035:8
!
12:13:14.634
value of nCV in fixed point format, p decimal places
value of nCV in exponential format, p decimal places
value of nCV in mixed format, p significant digits
same as ?nF1
same as ?nE1
same as ?nM1
not valid
-1257.42 (p=2)
-1.26E3 (p=2)
-1.3E3
(p=2)
-1257.4
-1.3E3
-1E3
value of string variable n$
same as ?nF1
? character
same as ?V
c
east
-1257.4
?
100.2
a
@
17/9/2007
#
2PT385
Boiler
>100
degC
100.2
Note Substitution characters are not case sensitive (?v is equivalent to ?V)
Special Characters
Special characters may be inserted in alarm strings using control character (e.g. ^M) or backslash (e.g. \013) notation. See
ASCII-Decimal Tables (P370) for more information.
For example,
ALARM(3TT>120)"\192 hautes temp\233ratures!! ?v \176C^M^J"
will return/log the following string when the specified temperature is exceeded:
À hautes températures! 129.4 °C
In this example the \192 and \233 insert the accented characters, \176 inserts the degree symbol, and ^M^J adds a
carriage return/line feed pair. Note also the !! to generate a single exclamation mark, and the ?v substitution string, which
is replaced by the channel value.
If the software used to enter the program text supports it, you could alternatively have entered the special characters directly,
i.e.
ALARM(3TT>120)"À hautes températures!! ?v °C^M^J"
Be aware that many extended ASCII character codes display differently on the DT80's LCD compared with the host
computer. See ASCII-Decimal Tables (P370).
Examples
 Substitution Characters
The following command:
ALARM(9TK("Oven 9")<200)"Alarm: SN ! at # @, ?n value is ?v ?u"[sms:+61400123456]
would, on DT8xM models, send an SMS alarm message similar to the following:
Alarm: SN 081234:0 at 17/5/2011 19:09:11.002, Oven 9 value is 187.2 degC
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 Text Labels
The DO command in conjunction with alarm text provides a simple way to output a text string in a schedule, e.g.:
RA5M DO"Boiler 1^M^J" 1TK 2TK DO"Boiler 2^M^J" 3TK 4TK DO"^M^J"
will include a heading before each group of measurements:
Boiler 1
1TK 239.4 degC
2TK 99.9 degC
Boiler 2
3TK 212.4 degC
4TK 90.9 degC
Alarm Communication Actions
Alarm communication actions allow you to send the alarm action text (or other message) to one or more recipients via email
and/or SMS.
Alarm Email Messages
To send an alarm email, add a mailto: URI (Uniform Resource Identifier), in square brackets, after the alarm text string.
The URI consists of a recipient email address, followed by up to four optional parameters, i.e.
mailto:recipient-email?priority=priority&subject=subject&body=body&interface=iface
where:

recipient-email is a comma-separated list of up to 5 email addresses in the usual format (e.g. jake@peg.edu). Note
that there is no extra overhead in sending an email to multiple addresses – the data is only sent once and the delivery
to the required recipients is handled by the Internet email system.

priority is high, normal (default) or low. A high priority message will be sent as soon as possible, with the "high
importance" flag set (typically displayed as an exclamation mark in email clients). A normal priority message is also
sent as soon as possible, but without the "high importance" flag. A low priority message will be queued and sent when
a communications session next starts. (If a communications session is already active then it will be sent immediately.)
If the Ethernet interface is used then all messages are either high or normal priority – if low priority is specified then
normal priority is assumed.

subject is a string to use as the subject of the email. If not specified then "dataTaker SN serial alarm" is used as
the subject (where serial is the DT80 serial number).

body is a string to use as the body of the email. If not specified then the alarm action text is used.

interface is applicable to DT8xM models only, and specifies the network interface to use: modem (default), or
ethernet. For models without internal modem, Ethernet is always used and this option is ignored.
Notice that the format of this URI is identical to that used for email unloads (see Email (P101))
See Communications Sessions (P216) for more details about how email transmission is managed.
Note No more than 12 emails can be queued; any subsequent attempts will be discarded (a message will be written to the
event log, and a warning email will be generated).
 Examples
Send the alarm text (e.g. "Hi temp 3TK=47.2") in the body of an email to two recipients:
ALARM(3TK>45)"Hi temp ?n=?v"[mailto:fred@hsww.edu,george@hsww.edu]
Send a test email:
DO[mailto:cat@mammals.org?subject=test subject!&body=test body!]
Measure a temperature every 4 hours and generate an email, but send all emails in one daily batch at 9am:
RA4H IF(1TK<9999)"Temp at # @: ?v"[mailto:sullivanj@monsters.com?priority=low]
RB[0:0:9] DO{SESSION START}
Alarm SMS Messages
DT8xM models only
Sending an alarm SMS is similar to sending an email – add an sms: URI in square brackets. An SMS URI consists of the
recipient phone number, then up to two optional parameters, i.e.
sms:recipient-phone?priority=priority&body=body
where:

recipient-phone is the destination phone number. The acceptable number formats will depend on the country. For
example, in Australia you can enter a standard mobile number (e.g. 0400123456) or a fixed line number with area
code (e.g. 0398765432). The safest approach, however, is to use international format, i.e. a "+", then country code,
then area code with any leading zero dropped, then the number (e.g. +61400123456).
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
priority is normal (default) or low. A normal priority message will be sent as soon as possible. Low priority
messages are queued and will be sent at the start of the next communications session. Unlike email, if a session is
already active then low priority SMS will still be deferred until the start of the next session (see below).

body is a string to use as the body of the text message. If not specified then the alarm action text is used.
Note that sending an SMS in the middle of an active session may cause the established data connection to be disrupted and
the session to end prematurely. For this reason, SMS messages are normally sent at the start of the session, and low priority
SMS messages that occur during a session are deferred until the start of the next session.
See Communications Sessions (P216) for more details about how SMS transmission is managed.
Note No more than 5 SMS messages can be queued; any subsequent attempts will be discarded (a message will be written
to the event log, and a warning SMS will be generated).
 Examples
Send the alarm text to an email address and two phone numbers:
IF(1CV<10)"LowPress: ?v"[sms:+61400123456][sms:+12125550909][mailto:bunny@rodents.org]
(Note that, unlike email, sending to multiple SMS recipients involves multiple operations, each of which will be charged at the
applicable SMS rate.)
Send a test SMS:
DO[sms:+61400123456?body=Test only!]
Limits
Be aware of the following command length limits when crafting complex alarm commands. These limits apply to the resultant
string after substituting any replaceable parameters:
Element
Max number of characters
Complete command line
Email recipient(s)
Option list: priority, subject, body
Email subject
Email message body
SMS phone number
SMS message body
1023
255
511
255
255
19
160
Note also that if any special characters (e.g. @, :) appear within a component of an email or SMS URI then they should be
replaced with the appropriate "escape sequence", to prevent them being confused with the characters used to separate the
various URI components.
See URI Escape Characters (P102) for more details.
Alarm Action Processes
Action processes can be any DT80 functions to be executed when an alarm is true. These functions can be reading input
channels, setting output channels, calculations, setting parameters and switches, and so on.
In addition, action processes are a very powerful programming facility for the DT80. Use them to perform a wide range of
program-related functions such as re-programming on events, adaptive schedules (see examples below), programmed
calibration cycles, management of digital state outputs, and management of the Serial Channel.
Action processes are also useful with unconditional alarm commands (DO commands) as a means of executing a DT80
command (as opposed to a channel) within a schedule. See Executing Commands in Schedules (P55) for more details.
Action processes are placed within braces { } as the last element in an alarm command. Each "process" is either:

a channel definition (e.g. 1+V(=1CV) or 3DSO=0), or

a command (e.g. XC or P12=5 or SATTN or LOGONA), or

a schedule trigger re-definition (e.g. RA100T)
Alarm commands cannot be included.
Any number of processes may be included, but they must all be on the same line. Processes can be separated by
semi-colon (;) or space characters.
Order of Execution
When an alarm is triggered, things happen in the following sequence:
1.
Digital action channels (if any) are set to the required value
2.
Alarm text (if any) is generated and returned/logged
3.
Email/SMS communication actions (if any) are queued for transmission
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4.
Any channels in the action process list are evaluated, left to right. All channels in an alarm process list are treated as
working channels – they are neither returned, logged nor displayed.
5.
Any commands or schedule trigger re-definitions are queued for execution, working left to right.
6.
Any further channels or alarm commands in the current schedule are executed
7.
Any queued commands, including the ones generated by the alarm, are executed.
For example, the job
BEGIN
RA5S ALARM1(3TK>30){XB 1DSO=0 SATTN} 4V(NR)
RC1S 1V
RBX 1SERIAL("{boo!}")
LOGON
END
will perform as follows:
1.
Schedules A & C will become due at the same time, because A's scan rate is an exact multiple of C's. A will run first,
because, as noted in Triggering and Schedule Order (P53), A comes before C in the priority order.
2.
Channel 3TK exceeds 30 so the alarm is triggered. The alarm is numbered and logging is enabled so an alarm record
will be logged, although the alarm text field will be an empty string.
3.
Channel 1DSO is evaluated – output 1D is set low.
4.
The command string XB;SATTN; is queued for execution.
5.
Channel 4V is evaluated. It's value is logged and displayed but not returned.
6.
Schedule A is now finished; schedule C is selected to run next. It does not actually run, however, because there are
queued commands to execute.
7.
The XB command is now executed. This causes the B schedule to become due.
8.
The SATTN command is executed, which turns on the Attn LED
9.
There are no more queued commands so the C schedule can now run. Channel 1V is evaluated and
logged/displayed/returned.
10. Schedule B is also due, so it now runs. The 1SERIAL channel is evaluated, which causes a string to be sent out the
serial sensor port.
11. There is nothing further to do so the logger idles until schedule C next becomes due.
In most applications the ordering is not particularly important as all of the alarm actions occur within a very short space of
time. However, it can cause surprises in some circumstances, as illustrated below.
 Trap – Commands Don't Affect Channels in Same Schedule
Any commands executed in an action process list will not take effect until after all channels have been processed. For
example, if you wanted some measurements to be returned in fixed format mode and some in free format, you might try:
RA1S DO{/H/R} 1V
DO{/h/R} 2V
' does not work!
but in fact both channels will be returned in free format mode.
To achieve the desired result you need to do something like:
RA1S 1V DO{/H/R XB}
RBX 2V DO{/h/R}
In this example 1V will be returned in free format mode, then we switch to fixed format mode, then we issue the command to
poll schedule B. Schedule B will then do the same thing: return 2V in fixed format mode, then switch back to free format
mode so that the next time schedule A runs it will return its value in the correct format.
Note In the DT80, commands have higher priority than schedules. If there are any queued commands outstanding, they will
be executed ahead of any schedules that happen to be due. However, once a schedule starts executing, it always runs to
completion – any queued commands will be held off until the schedule completes.
 Trap – Don't Use DELAY Between Commands
The DELAY=ms function is a channel, not a command. It therefore cannot be used to insert a delay between two
commands. For example, if you wanted to light the Attn LED for 5 seconds to indicate that a measurement was about to be
taken, you might try
RA20M DO{SATTN; DELAY=5000; CATTN; XB} RBX 1V
' does not work!
but this is no good because the DELAY, being a channel, is executed first, then SATTN;CATTN;XB in quick succession.
The PAUSE ms command does the same thing as DELAY except that it is a command, so you can use:
RA20M DO{SATTN; PAUSE 5000; CATTN; XB} RBX 1V
' OK
(The semicolons between commands are optional in most cases. They are included in the above example because they
make the program a little more readable, especially when commands with space-separated parameters are used.)
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Note also that a simpler way to implement the above functionality would be to not use commands at all, e.g.:
RA20M 1WARN=1 DELAY=5000 1WARN=0 1V
or, even better:
RA20M 1WARN(5000,R)=1 1V
Examples
 Controlling a System
Alarm action processes can be used to control a system or process. This is often preferable to the method used in the
example in Alarm Digital Action Channels (P80) because it allows some hysteresis to be included.
For example,
RA1S
ALARM(1TK<74.75)"Heater ON"{1DSO(W)=0}
ALARM(1TK>75.25)"Heater OFF"{1DSO(W)=1}
is a simple heater control for a water bath. The two alarms work to hold the temperature at 75°C ± 0.25°C.
 Adaptive Scheduling
Adaptive scheduling is the dynamic adjustment of the acquisition of data about a system or process as the system or process
changes.
As the examples below show, adaptive scheduling can reduce total data volume while giving greater time resolution when
required.
The schedule:
RA15M
1V("Wind speed",S1)
ALARM(&1V>5.25){RA2M}
ALARM(&1V<4.75){RA15M}
measures wind speed

every 2 minutes if wind speed is greater than 5m/s, or

every 15 minutes if wind speed is less that 5m/s
Note the deliberate 0.5m/s hysteresis to prevent oscillation around the switchover point. If the measured wind speed
exceeds 5.25m/s, schedule A's trigger is re-defined to run every 2 minutes. When it drops below 4.75m/s it is reset back to
every 15 minutes.
The following job:
RC30M 1TK("Oven Temp")
RD1M ALARM(5TK>120){GC}
LOGONC HC
ALARM(5TK<110){HC}
continuously monitors the temperature of an oven and logs the temperature whenever it exceeds 120°C.
Initially the logging schedule (C) is halted (HC). Schedule D checks the temperature every minute, and when it exceeds
120°C schedule C is started (GC), and it is stopped again once it goes below 110°C.
 Using an Alarm to Poll a Schedule
As mentioned above, if any channels are included in an action process list then they cannot be logged, returned or displayed.
This limits the types of channels that can usefully be included in an action process list to:

output channels (e.g. 2DSO=0)

calculations (e.g. 1CV=1CV+1)

channels that assign to a CV (e.g. 2*V(=2CV))
If you need to conditionally take measurements and log/return them, you will need to set up a separate schedule and then
use the alarm to poll it.
For example, the job:
BEGIN
1..3CV(W)=0
RA1S
1CV(W)=1CV+1
ALARM(1CV>3CV){XB 2CV(W)=2CV+1 3CV(W)=2^3CV}
RBX LOGONB
1..5TK
END
logs data at increasing intervals as the experiment proceeds. The program calculates the next log point as an incrementing
power of 2 seconds — that is, it logs the temperatures at t = 0, 1, 2, 4, 8, 16,… seconds. The following table lists the values
of the three CVs at the point at which the ALARM statement is executed.
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Time (s)
1CV
2CV
3CV
0
1
0
0
Alarm active – B schedule polled
1
2
1
2
Alarm active – B schedule polled
2
3
2
4
3
4
2
4
4
5
3
8
5
6
3
8
6
7
3
8
7
8
3
8
8
9
4
16
Alarm active – B schedule polled
Alarm active – B schedule polled
etc.
(Remember that (1CV>3CV) means 1CV is greater than or equal to 3CV.)
The following example will log all voltage readings that exceed 200mV:
BEGIN
RA1S IF(2V(=1CV)>200){X}
RX 1CV("Vout~mV")
LOGONX
END
Note that assigning to a CV in this way and then reporting the CV value is preferable to including 2V in both schedules.
Alternatively, a reference (&2V) could have been used.
 Executing Commands in Schedules
The following will output a directory listing every time a positive edge is received on digital input 7:
RA7+E DO{DIR"B:"}
 Selecting a Job to Run
The following schedule
RA1SERIAL""
1SERIAL("%1d",=1CV)
IF(1CV><0.5,1.5){RUNJOB"MIX"}
IF(1CV><1.5,2.5){RUNJOB"CHURN"}
IF(1CV><2.5,3.5){RUNJOB"GRIND"}
will run when a character is received on the serial sensor port. If the character is 1, 2 or 3 then the indicated job will be
loaded and run, replacing the current job.
 Automatic Data Archive
The schedule command
RE1D DO{COPYD dest=a: sched=A start=new}
instructs the DT80 to — every midnight (1D trigger) — move all new data for schedule A to an archive file on the USB
memory device.
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Alarm Records
Real Time Alarm Return
If an alarm is triggered while free format mode (/h) is selected, the configured alarm action text (if any) will be returned.
If an alarm is triggered while fixed format mode (/H) is selected, a fixed format alarm record will be returned. This has a
similar format to a fixed format data record (see Format of Returned Data (P25))
For example, the job:
BEGIN"B1" RB1S ALARM8(1V(S1)>1.5)"OverPressure ?vMPa^M^J" END
would, when triggered, return text similar to the following if normal (/h) mode was selected:
OverPressure 1.563MPa
In fixed format (/H) mode, however, it would return an alarm record:
A,080035,"B1",2006/04/16,14:32:01,0.254870,0;B,8,1,"OverPressure 1.563MPa^M^J";0078;3D95
An alarm record consists of:

the usual fixed format header and trailer (serial number, job name, timestamp, error check fields)

a 0 to indicate real time (as opposed to logged) data

the schedule (B)

the alarm number (8)

the transition type (1 – false to true)

the alarm text string (if any). Note that control characters (ASCII code < 32) are not output; they are left in the string in
^x notation.
The real time return of alarm action text or alarm records can be disabled using the /z switch.
Logging Alarms
Alarm records may also be logged to the DT80's internal file system. This will occur if an alarm number is provided (e.g.
ALARM7), and logging is enabled for the enclosing schedule.
As with data, when logged alarm records are unloaded, they will be returned as fixed format records, as illustrated above.
By default, an alarm record is only logged when an alarm is triggered, i.e. its state changes from false to true. However, by
setting parameter P9=3, the DT80 will also log a record when the alarm goes inactive (true to false).
Also note that numbered IF and DO commands (which are seldom used) will log an alarm record every time their schedule
executes, while their condition is true.
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The following table summarises what is logged, and what is returned for the various types of alarm command.
Alarm Command
State/Transition
Parameter 9
(default P9=1)
Logged
Transition Type, Alarm Text
Returned
AlarmText
ALARM(test)"actionText"
False to true ↑
x
—
actionText
Continuing true
x
—
—
True to false ↓
x
—
—
False to true ↑
Continuing true
P9=1 or 3
P9=0 or 2
x
1,"actionText"
—
—
actionText
actionText
—
True to false ↓
P9=0 or 1
—
—
P9=2 or 3
3,"ALARMn FALSE"
—
False to true ↑
x
—
actionText
Continuing true
x
—
actionText
True to false ↓
x
—
—
False to true ↑
Continuing true
P9=1 or 3
P9=0 or 2
x
1,"actionText"
—
2,"actionText"
actionText
actionText
actionText
True to false ↓
P9=0 or 1
—
—
ALARMn(test)"actionText"
IF(test)"actionText"
(or ALARMR)
IFn(test)"actionText"
(or ALARMR)
DO"actionText"
DOn"actionText"
P9=2 or 3
3,"ALARMn FALSE"
—
x
x
—
actionText
x
x
2,"actionText"
actionText
Polling Alarm Inputs
The current values of the channels being tested in alarm conditions can be polled (requested) by the host computer at any
time. There are three commands for polling alarm data:
Command Function
?n
?x
?ALL
returns the current input value of alarm n (if n = 0 then all un-numbered alarms are returned)
returns the current input values of all alarms in schedule x, where x = A, B,…K, X
returns the current input values of all alarms in all schedules
The output of each of these commands consists of:

the alarm number (An). When un-numbered alarms are polled, the alarm number is returned as A0

the schedule to which the alarm belongs

the alarm condition (so that un-numbered alarms can be distinguished). For an alarm with no condition (i.e. DO), the
word DO is shown

the current value of the channel being tested in the alarm condition
For example
BEGIN
RA2S
ALARM4(2R>50)"High R"
ALARM(1CV<>-10,10){2CV=2CV+1}
IF(2CV>4){1V(=9CV)}
ALARM5(9CV<100){RA100T}
END
?ALL
A4
A0
A0
A5
A
A
A
A
4R>50 1300.6
1CV<>-10,10 99.0
2CV>4 102.0
9CV<100 0.0
If the DT80 is set to formatted mode (/H) then formatted mode records containing the same information are returned.
The dEX web interface will also indicate the status and value of alarm channels.
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Part G – Logging and
Retrieving Data
Logging Data
By default, the DT80 returns measurement data to a host computer in real time. However, the DT80 can also automatically
record each reading taken for some or all of a schedule’s channels. These data are stored in the DT80’s internal memory,
and can be retrieved at a later date, using a USB memory device or via one of the communications ports, or via the web
interface (Series 2 only).
Each reading is automatically timestamped.
Logged data is retained in the internal memory until it is explicitly cleared, even if the DT80 is reset or loses power.
Enabling and Disabling Data Logging
LOGON and LOGOFF Commands
By default, data logging is disabled when a schedule is entered. The following commands switch logging on or off. They may
be entered as part of a job, or they may be sent at any time after a job has started running:
Command
Function
LOGON
LOGOFF
LOGONsched
LOGOFFsched
Enables logging (data and alarms) for all schedules.
Disables logging (data and alarms) for all schedules.
Enables logging for schedule sched (data and alarms)
Disables logging for schedule sched (data and alarms)
For example the following job defines a schedule and enables logging:
BEGIN"LUMPY" RA2M 2V 3V LOGONA END
This will create a store file with the default size. Every two minutes, two voltages will be measured and the results will be
stored, along with the time at which the measurements were taken.
Disabling Data Logging for Specific Channels
If logging is enabled for a schedule then by default all channels defined therein will be logged. To disable logging for specific
channels:

use the NL (no log) channel option, or

use the W channel option (working channel; do not log, return or display)
How Data and Alarms are Stored
The DT80 File System
The DT80's internal flash memory is organised as a DOS-compatible file system, which uses files and folders in a similar
way to a desktop computer. When a USB memory device is inserted it is treated in a similar way. Note that:

the USB memory device, if present, is referred to as drive A:

the DT80's internal file system is referred to as drive B:

the DT80's internal RAM disk (a small but higher speed file system) is referred to as drive D:
(The DIR and DIRTREE commands can be used to explore the contents of either drive. For example DIRTREE B: will list
the names of all files and directories on the internal file system.)
The standard internal file system has a capacity of 128Mbyte. The DT80 stores approximately 90,000 data values per
megabyte of memory, so the internal memory can hold approximately 10,000,000 data values.
The internal RAM disk has a capacity of 128kbyte (approx. 10,000 data values).
Note the RAM disk (D:) may be cleared if all power to the DT80 is lost (including the lithium memory backup battery). It
should not normally be used for long term data storage.
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Store Files
When a job is first entered, a directory (folder) is created on the internal file system: B:\JOBS\jobname. This folder
contains files which record the job's program text and other details about the job.
For each of the job's schedules that contain loggable channels (that is, channels which do not specify the NL or W options),
a data storage sub-folder for that schedule is then created: B:\JOBS\jobname\sched.
Finally, a store file is created in the schedules data storage folder. Note the following important points:

A store file is a pre-allocated, fixed size file. The size of the file (as returned by the DIR command, for example) does
not change are data is stored.

A store file contains two fixed size sections – one for data (measured channel values), one for alarms (text strings
which are logged when a particular condition is true). The sizes of these sections is configurable on a per-schedule
basis.

A store file is a binary file. The data contained in it are not directly human-readable. See Retrieving Logged Data
(P93).

A store file has a name of the form DATA_sched.DBD.
For example, the job:
BEGIN"BUMPY"
RA2M 2V 3V
RB1S 2DS
RK20S 1V(W)
LOGONA LOGONK
END
would create the following store files:
B:\JOBS\BUMPY\A\DATA_A.DBD
B:\JOBS\BUMPY\B\DATA_B.DBD
Note that no file is created for schedule K because all of its channels are specified as "working", or "non-loggable" channels.
Note also that a file is created for schedule B, even though it initially has logging disabled. This ensures that storage will be
available if logging is enabled (using the LOGONB command) at some later time.
In the above example, the store files would all have the same, default size (approx. 1Mbyte).
How Much Data Can I Store?
Each time a schedule executes (assuming logging is enabled for the schedule), it writes one data record to its store file. A
data record consists of the values of all channels defined in the schedule, other than those for which logging has been
disabled (using the NL or W channel options).
As a rule of thumb, one data record uses 10 + (10 x numberOfLoggedChannels) bytes, assuming "normal" channel types
(time/date channels and $ strings require more space)
So for the schedule:
RA1S 1V 2CV(NL) 3TK
each data record will use 30 bytes, so the default 1Mbyte allocation for data is enough for 1,048,576 / 30 = 34,952 data
records. The store file will therefore contain the most recent 9 hours or so of readings, assuming a 1 second scan rate.
How Many Alarms Can I Store?
Normally, one alarm record is logged each time a numbered alarm is triggered, i.e. its state goes from false to true. However,
as discussed in Logging Alarms(P87), the true-to-false transition may optionally also be logged, and numbered IF and DO
alarm commands may log a record each time their schedule executes while their condition is true.
As a rule of thumb, one alarm record uses 12 + alarmWidth bytes, where alarmWidth is set using the ALARMS:Wn
schedule option; see Schedule Options (P45). So assuming the default setting of 60 is used, each alarm record will use 72
bytes. The default 100kbyte allocation will therefore store 102,400 / 72 = 1,422 alarm records.
How Fast Can I Log Data?
The time taken to log one data record for a schedule is essentially the sum of:

measurement time – the time taken to acquire data for all channels in the schedule. For digital channels and channel
variables (CVs) this is close to negligible; for analog measurements it can be significant (normally at least 30ms per
measurement); for serial channels it can be very significant (possibly many seconds for SDI-12, for example)

processing time – the time taken to perform any linearisation or other data manipulation calculations that may be
required

communications time – the time taken to format and return real time data values over a communications link

logging preparation time – the time taken to generate a data record to be logged

file system time – the time taken to physically write the data to the internal flash disk or external USB device.
The first three of these depend on the job and the logger settings. We can largely eliminate them by defining a job consisting
only of CVs, and switching off real time data returns (/r).
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As discussed above, there is a storage overhead associated with each data record; hence 20 records each with one channel
will require more space than one record with 20 channels. The same goes for time – there is a fixed time overhead in
preparing a data record, plus a variable time which depends on the number of channels.
The following table list some typical logging rates:
Schedule
Description
Logging rate
/r
/r
/r
/r
/r
log one CV to internal memory
log 20 CVs to internal memory
log one CV to 512M USB device
log 20 CVs to 512M USB device
log one CV to internal RAM disk
55 records/s
40 records/s
4 records/s
3 records/s
120 records/s
RA("B:") 1CV
RA("B:") 1..20CV
RA("A:") 1CV
RA("A:") 1..20CV
RA("D:",DATA:100KB) 1CV
There may be some variation in performance depending on the brand and capacity of the USB device, but in general logging
to USB will be around an order of magnitude slower than logging to the internal flash memory.
Logging Options
Various data logging parameters can be changed by means of schedule options. These options are inserted in a schedule
definition just before the schedule trigger. See Schedule Options (P45) for details.
Schedule options can be used to specify:

the logging destination. Using the "A:" schedule option it is possible to configure a schedule to data directly to a USB
memory device. In this case the store file will be placed in the A:\SNserial-num\JOBS\jobname\sched folder.

the space allocated for data. This can be specified in bytes, records, or (for time-based schedules) as a time period ("I
want to store 30 days of data")

the space allocated for alarms

whether new data/alarm records are permitted to overwrite old records (OV) or whether logging should stop when the
store file is full (NOV).
For example, the following schedule definition:
RA(DATA:30D)1M 1V 2V LOGONA
will allocate a store file with space for 43,200 data records (30x24x60). No space is allocated for alarms because no alarms
are defined in this schedule.
Note When determining how much space to allocate for data storage, it is important to ensure that adequate free space
remains on the 128MB internal flash memory. If you choose to retrieve logged data by either:

unloading it to an FTP server, or

unloading in DBD format via the web interface (dEX)
then there must be sufficient space available on the internal drive to create a temporary file prior to sending to the server. The
space required will depend on the amount of data being unloaded. If you unload the entire contents of a 10MB storefile to
FTP in DBD format then you will need 10MB of free space for the temporary file. If you unload in CSV format then the space
required will be of the order of 10MB, but may be less or more depending on the data values.
As a rule of thumb, if you plan to use one of the above unload methods then you should generally size your storefiles so that
they occupy no more than 50% of the total space on the DT80 internal drive.
Note It is normally better to always log data to the internal file system. Logging directly to a USB device is possible, but is
subject to the following caveats:

The logging performance is significantly slower than for the internal drive.

There is the potential for data corruption if the USB device is removed during a write operation. Be sure to always halt
logging and use the REMOVEMEDIA command (see Using a USB Memory Device (P111)) to shut down the device
prior to removing it.

The DT80's USB socket is designed for easy access, and will not necessarily retain a USB device securely over a long
period, particularly if the DT80 is wall mounted or subject to vibration.
Factors Which May Prevent Logging
When a job is loaded onto the DT80, the logger will attempt to create all required store files. If this is not possible then the job
will not be loaded.
Insufficient Space to Create Store File
When a job is entered, the DT80 attempts to create a store file of the required size. If, however, there is insufficient free
space on the selected logging drive (or it is not present at all) then an error will be reported and the job will not be loaded.
To determine how much space is available on the internal file system for creating new store files, see Checking Logging
Status (P92).
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Because the store files are fixed size, a lack of free disk space will normally not be a problem once the job has been started
successfully.
If, however, the job is configured to log direct to a USB device, and the device is removed during operation, then a "Cannot
log" error message will be displayed on the LCD and the Attn LED will start flashing. The schedule will still execute –
channels will be measured and values returned – but no data will be logged.
If the USB device is replaced with a new one during operation then the DT80 will attempt to create store files on the new
device. If this fails (e.g. there is insufficient free space) then again the job will keep running, with the Attn LED flashing. Once
you insert a USB device on which the store files can be created, then the Attn LED will stop flashing.
Store File Full
Normally, when a store file fills up it will automatically begin overwriting the oldest logged data. However, in some
circumstances the older data may be more valuable than the newest. In these cases you would use the NOV (no overwrite)
schedule option. If this option is set then logging for that schedule will stop when the store file becomes full, and the Attn LED
will start flashing.
Logging will resume (and the Attn LED will stop flashing) if you delete the logged data from the storefile using the DELD
command.
To determine how many records have been logged to a store file, see Checking Logging Status
(P92).
Pre-existing Store Files
When a job is entered, the DT80 checks whether there are any pre-existing store files associated with the job name. For
example, if you enter a job called "FIDO" (using BEGIN"FIDO" ...) then the DT80 will check to see if there are any existing
store files under the B:\JOBS\FIDO directory.
If there are existing store files, the DT80 then checks to see whether the existing store files were created by the same job as
the one being entered (this information is encoded within the store file). Note that to be considered the same, the new job's
program text must be identical to that used to create the store files.
If the new job matches then logging will commence and data will be added to the existing store files.
If, however, the job being entered is not the same as the job used to create the store files then the new job will not be loaded
and an error message will be displayed, e.g.:
Cannot log: job 'FIDO' has existing data/alarms
To get around this you need to either:

rename the new job, or

remove the existing data in the store files, using DELD.
This check ensures that all data in a store file is consistent.
Checking Logging Status
A number of commands can be used while a job is running to monitor the data logging status. You can also determine all
these details via the web interface.
Free Space for Creating New Store Files
To determine how much space is available on the internal file system for creating store files you can use the DIR B:
command (or DIR A: for a USB device). This will list the various files stored in the root directory, and will then show the
remaining free space, e.g.:
3 File(s)
42902196 Bytes free
Alternatively, system variable 1SV (P35) will return the current free space, in kbytes (1kbyte = 1024 bytes), on the internal file
system (or 3SV for a USB device), e.g.:
1SV
1SV 41896.0
Number of Records Logged
To determine how many records have been logged to a store file, and the associated date/time range, you can use the
LISTD command. See LISTD – List Available Data (P93).
The number of logged data and alarm records for each schedule of the current job are also available in system variables
30SV – 53SV (see System Variables (P35)), e.g.
32SV
28.0
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Retrieving Logged Data
Overview
There are several different ways to retrieve logged data from the DT80.

Use the Retrieve Data function in dEX. The graphical web-based interface allows you to select the desired time
range, among other options. Data will be downloaded to your computer and saved as a CSV or DBD format file.

Interactively send a data unload command (COPYD) to the logger's command interface, which will output logged data
in CSV, fixed or free format to the active communications port.

Insert a USB memory device and use COPYD to unload data to file(s) on the USB device in the desired format
(CSV/DBD/fixed/free). To automate this process the command can be placed in an ONINSERT file on the USB
device, so that the unload is performed as soon as the USB device is inserted.

Include a COPYD command in your job to periodically unload data to a remote FTP server, or an email address, or to
a file on the internal file system or USB device.

Use COPYD (manually, or from the job – possibly in response to some event) to unload data to a local archive file. An
archive file is a DBD file which contains a read-only snapshot of the main store file, with any empty space removed.
Archive files can then be unloaded at a later date (using COPYD) into a CSV format file.

Use an FTP client to access the DT80's FTP server and collect any archive files or locally stored CSV files.
Unload Commands
The DT80 provides three related commands for unloading and managing logged data:

LISTD gives details of the data available to unload, such as the number of logged records and the time range that

COPYD is used to extract selected data from store files and save it in the selected format to the selected destination.

DELD is used to remove data from a store file.
they cover.
These three commands share a similar syntax: the command is followed by zero or more space-separated options. Each
option has the form name=value. The value may optionally be enclosed in quotes, i.e. name="option value". A typical
command line might be:
COPYD start=new dest=a:
Option names and values are not case-sensitive, and the options may be specified in any order.
Option names (not values) may also be abbreviated, so long as the result is not ambiguous. Thus the following is equivalent
to the previous command line:
copyd DEST=A: ST=NEW
All options have a default value, which will be used if the option is not specified.
LISTD – List Available Data
Using LISTD
In its simplest form, the LISTD command will list details for all store files associated with the current job. For example:
LISTD
Job
========
*SAMPLE
*SAMPLE
*SAMPLE
*SAMPLE
*SAMPLE
*SAMPLE
Sch
===
A
A
B
B
B
B
Type
==========
Data Live
Data Arc
Data Live
Alarm Live
Data Arc
Alarm Arc
Ov Lg Go
== == ==
Y Y N
Y
Y
First
===================
2010-03-01 09:54:23
2010-03-01 09:54:23
2010-03-01 09:54:24
2010-03-01 09:54:40
2010-03-01 09:54:24
2010-03-01 09:54:40
Y
Y
N
N
Recs
========
46
38
23
3
19
2
Capacity
========
34952
38
52428
1455
19
2
Last
===================
2010-03-11 19:32:00
2010-03-04 18:50:55
2010-03-11 19:32:00
2010-03-11 19:32:00
2010-03-04 18:50:55
2010-03-01 09:54:48
—
File
===========================================
B:\JOBS\SAMPLE\A\DATA_A.DBD
B:\JOBS\SAMPLE\002_20100311T193043.DBD
B:\JOBS\SAMPLE\B\DATA_B.DBD
B:\JOBS\SAMPLE\B\DATA_B.DBD
B:\JOBS\SAMPLE\002_20100311T193043.DBD
B:\JOBS\SAMPLE\002_20100311T193043.DBD
(The above listing has been split in order to fit with this manual's page width.)
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Each row of the report describes a store. A store is a set of logged data or alarm records for a particular schedule. Each
store is contained within a store file (.DBD file). There can be multiple stores in the one store file.
There are two different types of store file: live (Live) and archive (Arc).
 Live Store Files
Live store files are the files to which data and alarm records are written, as they are sampled. Each schedule (that has
loggable channels) has a live store file called DATA_s.DBD, which contains one data store and/or one alarm store. In the
above example, there are three live stores listed:

schedule A's data store, which currently contains 46 logged data records out of a capacity of 34952

schedule B's data store, which currently contains 23 logged data records

schedule B's alarm store, which currently contains 3 logged alarm records
In this example schedule A does not have any alarms defined, so it does not have an alarm store in its live store file.
For each live store, the following information is listed:

Ov (Overwrite) column: indicates whether old records will be overwritten by new ones. (This is controlled by the OV
and NOV schedule options, see Schedule Options (P45).)

Lg (Log) column: indicates whether logging is currently enabled for this schedule. (This is controlled by the LOGON
and LOGOFF commands, see LOGON and LOGOFF Commands (P89).)

Go column: indicates whether the schedule is currently running. (This is controlled by the G and H commands, see
Halting & Resuming Schedules (P54).)

Recs column: current number of logged records

Capacity column: maximum number of records that can be stored. (This is controlled by the DATA and ALARMS
schedule options, see Schedule Options (P45).)

First column: timestamp of the oldest logged record in the store

Last column: timestamp of the newest logged record in the store

File column: name of the store file that contains this store
 Archive Files
An archive file contains a "snapshot" of a live store file. Archive files have the same format (.DBD) as live store files, except
that all empty space is removed for each store.
Archive files are created by using the COPYD command to unload data from a live store file in .DBD format and save it to a
file. By default, archive files have an automatically generated file name which indicates the date and time at which they were
created.
An "archive file" is therefore really just an unload output file, as is a CSV file. The difference is that because it is still in the
logger's native .DBD format, the DT80 knows exactly what is in it – which schedules, channels, time ranges and so on.
Archive files will therefore appear in a LISTD report, whereas CSV format files will not. You can also selectively unload data
from an archive file the same as you would from a live store file.
In the sample LISTD output shown above, one archive file has been created, named 002_20100311T193043.DBD. The
name indicates that it was created on 11-Mar-2010 at 19:30:43. The file name does not indicate anything about the time
range covered by the records therein – this information is obtained from the LISTD report.
In this case the archive file contains three stores:

a snapshot of schedule A's data store, which contains 38 data records

a snapshot of schedule B's data store, which contains 19 data records

a snapshot of schedule B's alarm store, which contains 2 alarm records
Notice that for an archive file, the number of records in each store is always equal to the capacity.
Also note that the Ov, Lg and Go columns are not applicable for archive files, as you cannot log new data to an archive file.
 Orphans
You may occasionally see the word [orphan] displayed at the end of a row in a LISTD report. This indicates that the job
used to generate the data in the file is no longer present on the DT80. In other words, the store file has lost the "parent" job
that created it – hence the name.
For example:
B:\JOBS\WEST3\000_20100312T143919.DBD [orphan]
indicates that version of the WEST3 job that created the data saved in this archive file no longer exists – it may have been
modified or deleted.
Orphaned live store files should normally never occur, because the DT80 will refuse to load a job if logged data exists that
was generated by a different job with the same name. Note however that any archive files that may be lying around are not
checked, so if you change the contents of an existing job then its archive files will become orphans.
Orphan store files are ignored by COPYD, so if you wish to keep the data in them you will need to manually copy the files
using the COPY command, or retrieve them using an FTP client.
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LISTD Options
The LISTD command supports a number of options which can be used to filter the results, so the report will only list
information for the data and alarm stores that you are interested in.
 Job
By default, LISTD will show details for the currently loaded job only. If there is no currently active job and you just type
LISTD then an error message will be returned.
To show details for all jobs present on the logger, use the job=* option. So continuing the previous example:
LISTD job=*
Job
========
*SAMPLE
*SAMPLE
*SAMPLE
*SAMPLE
*SAMPLE
*SAMPLE
CONFIG
CONFIG
Sch
===
A
A
B
B
B
B
A
B
Type
==========
Data Live
Data Arc
Data Live
Alarm Live
Data Arc
Alarm Arc
Data Live
Data Live
Ov Lg Go
== == ==
Y Y N
Y
Y
First
===================
2010-03-01 09:54:23
2010-03-01 09:54:23
2010-03-01 09:54:24
2010-03-01 09:54:40
2010-03-01 09:54:24
2010-03-01 09:54:40
2010-02-19 14:35:25
2010-02-19 14:35:25
Y
Y
N
N
Recs
========
46
38
23
3
19
2
204
204
Capacity
========
34952
38
52428
1455
19
2
52428
34952
Last
===================
2010-03-11 19:32:00
2010-03-04 18:50:55
2010-03-11 19:32:00
2010-03-11 19:32:00
2010-03-04 18:50:55
2010-03-01 09:54:48
2010-02-21 00:10:25
2010-02-21 00:10:25
—
File
===========================================
B:\JOBS\SAMPLE\A\DATA_A.DBD
B:\JOBS\SAMPLE\002_20100311T193043.DBD
B:\JOBS\SAMPLE\B\DATA_B.DBD
B:\JOBS\SAMPLE\B\DATA_B.DBD
B:\JOBS\SAMPLE\002_20100311T193043.DBD
B:\JOBS\SAMPLE\002_20100311T193043.DBD
B:\JOBS\CONFIG\A\DATA_A.DBD
B:\JOBS\CONFIG\B\DATA_B.DBD
The list is now longer because it contains details for another job that happens to be present on the logger, called CONFIG.
Notice also that the job SAMPLE is prefixed by an asterisk (*) to indicate that it is the currently active job.
The Ov, Lg and Go columns are not shown for the CONFIG job, as they only have meaning for the currently active job.
You can also specify an explicit job name for this option, e.g.
LISTD job=config
 Schedule
By default, LISTD returns details for all schedules. If you are only interested in a particular set of schedules then the
sched= option can be used. For example:
LISTD job=config sched=B
Job
Sch Type
Ov Lg Go
======== === ========== == == ==
CONFIG
B
Data Live
First
===================
2010-02-19 14:35:25
Recs
========
204
Capacity
========
34952
Last
===================
2010-02-21 00:10:25
—
File
===========================================
B:\JOBS\CONFIG\B\DATA_B.DBD
The value for the sched option is actually a list of schedules to include, e.g.
LISTD sched=ABK
would include details for schedules A, B and K only.
 Data and Alarms
By default, LISTD returns details for both data and alarm stores. You can restrict it to one or other of these store types using
the data= and alarms= options. These are both yes/no options so you can select just data, just alarms, or both (selecting
neither, i.e. data=N alarms=N, is generally not useful!)
For example, if you are only interested in alarms:
LISTD data=n
Job
========
*SAMPLE
*SAMPLE
Sch
===
B
B
Type
Ov Lg Go
========== == == ==
Alarm Live Y Y N
Alarm Arc
First
===================
2010-03-01 09:54:40
2010-03-01 09:54:40
UM-0085-B7
Recs
========
3
2
Capacity
========
1455
2
Last
===================
2010-03-11 19:32:00
2010-03-01 09:54:48
—
File
===========================================
B:\JOBS\SAMPLE\B\DATA_B.DBD
B:\JOBS\SAMPLE\002_20100311T193043.DBD
DT80 Range User’s Manual
Page 95
 Live and Archive Files
By default, LISTD returns details for both live and archive files. You can select which you want to include using the live=
and archive= options. These are both yes/no options and they work in much the same way as the data= and alarm=
options.
 Source Drive
Store files may exist on any of the three file system drives – A: (USB device), B: (internal file system) and D: (RAM disk). By
default, LISTD searches all three drives. Using the src= option you can restrict the search to one or more of these drives.
For example, if you are only interested in seeing what store files are on a USB device you can use
LISTD src=a
Drive letters can be combined, so the default setting is src=abd.
 Source Path
By default, LISTD will search for store files in appropriate folders under B:\JOBS, and/or D:\JOBS and/or
B:\Snserial\JOBS. The exact search path depends on the src, job and sched option settings.
Alternatively, you can force a particular root folder to search using the path option. If this option is set to a valid folder path
(which must end in a \ character) then only store files in the specified folder (or any subfolders) will be returned. For
example:
LISTD path=b:\myarchives\
You can also specify a single .DBD file name. LISTD will then list the details for just that store file. For example:
LISTD path= B:\JOBS\SAMPLE\002_20100311T193043.DBD
LISTD Option Summary
The following table summarises the available LISTD options:
Option
Value
Description
Default Value
job=
jobname
include specified job only
include all jobs
include current job only
include specified schedules only
include data stores (yes/no)
include alarm stores (yes/no)
include live stores (yes/no)
include archive stores (yes/no)
search for store files on specified drives only
search for store files in specified folder or sub-folders only
list details for specified store file only
search path based on src, job and sched options
(none)
*
sched=
data=
alarms=
live=
archive=
src=
path=
UM-0085-B7
(none)
schedule-list
Y/N
Y/N
Y/N
Y/N
drive-list
folder-path\
file-path
(none)
DT80 Range User’s Manual
XABCDEFGHIJK
Y
Y
Y
Y
ABD
(none)
Page 96
COPYD – Unload Data
The COPYD command is used to unload data and alarms from one or more store files. That is, data is read from the source
.DBD file(s), transformed into the desired output format (CSV, DBD etc.), then written to the desired destination (comms port,
file, FTP server).
The COPYD command supports many options, which are used to:

select the data or alarm stores from which you wish to unload,

select the range of data records to unload,

select the format you want it in,

select where you want it to go, and

select what to do with the source data after it has been unloaded.
Selecting the Stores to Unload
The first group of COPYD options are used to select the set of data/alarm stores from which to unload. These options are
identical to those used for LISTD, apart from some different defaults, and are listed in COPYD Option Summary (P104).
Note that by default COPYD does not unload from archive files – specify archive=Y to include them.
Selecting the Range of Data to Unload
The second group of COPYD options allow you to further refine the selection of what data to unload, by specifying a time
range of interest.
 Start and End Times
By default, all available data in the selected data/alarm stores will be unloaded. To select a smaller range, use the start=
and end= options.

If the start= option is specified then only records with timestamp later than or equal to the indicated time will be
unloaded.

If the end= option is specified then only records with timestamp less than the indicated time will be unloaded.
The actual start and end times can be specified in a number of different ways. These formats are all based on the ISO8601
time format, which is
yyyy-mm-ddThh:mm:ss.ttt
Time components may be omitted, starting from the subseconds field. If a time component is not specified then 0 is
assumed.
Date components may also be left off, starting with the days field. Missing date components are assumed to be 1. If all date
components are omitted then a date of 'today" is assumed.
If just the date part is specified, the trailing T is still required, to eliminate any possible ambiguities.
Some examples of possible start= and end= option values:
Value
Description
2010-02-15T12:05:02.25
2010-02-15T
2010-02T
13:20
0
12:05:02.25, 15-Feb-2010
midnight, 15-Feb-2010
midnight, 01-Feb-2010
13:20 today
midnight today
For example, to unload all data logged between 9:00am and 5:30pm today:
COPYD start=9 end=17:30
Relative times can also be specified by prefixing either the date or time part with a minus sign.
If the date part is relative, i.e.
-ddThh:mm:ss.tt
then this means "the specified time (hh:mm:ss.tt), dd days ago".
If the time part is relative, i.e.
-hh:mm:ss.tt
then this means "the current time, minus the specified offset (hh:mm:ss.tt), rounded down to the smallest specified time
component"
Some examples may clarify this. These assume that the current time is 17:05:22.888, 20-Feb-2010
Value
Description
-1T17:30
-7T
5:30pm yesterday (17:30:00.000, 19-Feb-2010)
midnight 7 days ago (00:00:00.000, 13-Feb-2010)
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-0:10
-2
-48
-48:00:00.000
10 minutes ago, rounded down to the minute (16:55:00.000, 20-Feb-2010)
2 hours ago, rounded down to the hour (15:00:00.000, 20-Feb-2010)
48 hours ago, rounded down to the hour (17:00:00.000, 18-Feb-2010)
exactly 48 hours ago (17:05:22.888, 18-Feb-2010)
Calculated times can be specified by replacing either or both of the date and time parts with channel variable references,
mCVT hh:mm:ss.tt or
yyyy-mm-ddTnCV or
mCVTnCV
If a channel variable is used for the date part then the CV value should be in seconds since 1-Jan-1989. The current date, in
seconds since 1-Jan-1989, can be obtained using D(=mCV).
If a channel variable is used for the time part then the CV value should be in seconds since midnight. The current time, in
seconds since midnight, can be obtained using T(=mCV).
For example:
Value
Description
1CVT2:30
T22CV
7CVT8CV
2:30am on the date specified by 1CV
the time specified by 22CV, today
the time specified by 7CV, on the date specified by 8CV
 Unloading New Data Only
The start= option may also be set to the special value of new. This will unload all data logged since the last unload.
For example,
RA1H DO{COPYD start=new}
will, every hour, unload all data logged since the last unload.
Unload requests can come from users of the web interface, or users of the command interface, or from schedules in the
running job. If these requests specify start=new then the question then arises: what was the "last unload"?
The DT80 is capable of tracking up to 40 "last unload" points – that is, the time at which a particular user last unloaded a
particular store.
In order to identify the "user", the id= option is used. This is an arbitrary number which is used to track when you last
unloaded data from a store.
If this option is not specified then the default setting of id=0 will be used.
Thus start=new really means "unload all data logged since the last time this store was unloaded with this id value"
For example, suppose Fred has a USB memory device with the following command in its ONINSERT job (see ONINSERT
Job (P59))
COPYD start=new id=27 dest=a:
Every time Fred plugs his memory stick into the DT80, it will unload all data logged since he last plugged in his device.
Ginger's memory stick contains a similar ONINSERT job:
COPYD start=new id=111 dest=a:
Because Ginger has used a different id value, when she plugs in her USB device she will get the data logged since she last
plugged in her device.
(This may or may not be the desired behaviour. For example, suppose Fred and Ginger are employed to collect data from
the DT80 on alternate weeks, with both of them bringing the data back to the same central office. In this scenario you would
normally use the same id value on each device.)
The value used for the id= option can be any integer; the only requirement is that it be different for each of the unload
"users" between which you want to distinguish.
By default, the COPYD command uses a setting of id=0. When an unload is done using dEX (the web interface), it uses a
value of id=1. Thus if you choose to specify an id value, choose a value other than 0 or 1.
Note that the DT80's set of stored "last unload" times will be retained following a hard reset. However, they will be cleared if
a different job is loaded.
 Lost Unload Data
Suppose that after unloading all new data onto his memory stick, Fred then loses it on the way back to the office. When he
goes back to the DT80 with a new memory stick, he needs a way of repeating the last unload he did, so that he gets a new
copy of the data he lost, plus anything that has been logged since.
The start=new2 option can help here. This will unload all data logged since the second last unload command, excluding
any start=new2 unloads.
So to recover the lost data, Fred would use the following command:
COPYD start=new2 id=27 dest=a:
which is the same as his normal command, except with new2 rather than new
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If (perish the thought) this unload data was also lost, Fred can simply repeat the same command. This will work because the
unload will start from, as stated above, the second last non-start=new2 unload, which is the same starting point as the
original lost unload. Once he successfully gets the data to the office he can go back to using his regular start=new
command.
 Step Size
If you have a very large data set on the logger then it may take considerable time to unload. The step= option allows you to
download a smaller sample of data points so that you can get a quick overview of the data.
To use this feature, specify step=interval, where interval is the required minimum time interval between successive
samples.
For example, the following schedule executes every 100ms so it will log 864,000 samples per day (approx. 20MB)
RA(DATA:1D)100T 1V
To get a quick picture of the day's data you could download samples at, say, 10s intervals rather than 100ms, which would
result in a more manageable 8640 data points. The command for this would be:
COPYD step=10
Fractional times can also be specified, e.g. step=2.5, which would set the minimum interval between unloaded samples
to 2.5 seconds.
Note also that the DT80 is returning the original samples, just fewer of them. It is not performing any averaging or
minimum/maximum detection, so by using the step= option you may miss peaks in the data.
Selecting the Data Format
The third group of COPYD options is concerned with the format of the unloaded data.
 Data Format
Data and alarms can be unloaded in one of four different formats:

CSV format (Comma Separated Value). This is the default. CSV files can be imported into any spreadsheet or data
analysis package.

DBD format. Unloading in this binary format creates an archive file, from which you can then unload at a later date.
DBD files can also be opened by certain PC data analysis packages.

fixed format. This text-based format is similar to CSV, and can be read by applications such as DeLoad.

free format. This text-based format can be customised using the DT80's switch and parameter settings.
These formats are described in more detail in Format of Returned Data (P25).
To set the COPYD output format, use the format= option, which may be set to csv, dbd, fixed or free.
Note Unloading in any of the text based formats (CSV, fixed or free) is significantly slower than unloading in DBD format. If
you have very large store files then you may prefer to unload to DBD, transfer the DBD file(s) to the PC, and then use a utility
such as dump_dbd (or other DBD-aware application) to convert to CSV, rather than doing the conversion on the DT80.
 Merged Files
By default, COPYD will merge data from the selected store files into a single output file. This is not a true "merge", in that
duplicate records are not eliminated, and records in the resulting file will not necessarily be in time order. However, these
issues are relatively easy to deal with using a host tool such as a spreadsheet package.
For example, suppose there are two jobs on the logger, HEDGEHOG and ECHIDNA. The former has one schedule (A), with
logged data and alarms. ECHIDNA has a two schedules, J and K, with logged data only. Some time ago an archive file was
generated for ECHIDNA.
The source store files on the logger are therefore:
B:\JOBS\HEDGEHOG\A\DATA_A.DBD (data and alarms for HEDGEHOG schedule A)
B:\JOBS\ECHIDNA\J\DATA_J.DBD (data for ECHIDNA schedule J)
B:\JOBS\ECHIDNA\K\DATA_K.DBD (data for ECHIDNA schedule K)
B:\JOBS\ECHIDNA\000_20091225T123409.DBD (archive file containing ECHIDNA J & K data snapshot)
We now wish to retrieve all available data to a USB memory device:
COPYD job=* archive=Y dest=a:
This will then create a single output file:
A:\SN081234\JOBS\001_20100313T181008.CSV
This file will contain, in order, the following elements:

a CSV header row for all of ECHIDNA's channels: J data, K data

schedule J data values from live store file

schedule J data values from archive file

schedule K data values from live store file

schedule K data values from archive file

a CSV header row for all of HEDGEHOG's channels: A data, A alarms
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
schedule A data values

schedule A alarm values
It is also possible to unload to separate files, by adding an option:
COPYD job=* archive=Y dest=a: merge=N
This will then create output files similar to the following:
A:\SN081234\JOBS\ECHIDNA\001_20100313T181008_J.CSV (J data from live store file)
A:\SN081234\JOBS\ECHIDNA\002_20100313T181008_K.CSV (K data from live store file)
A:\SN081234\JOBS\ECHIDNA\000_20091225T123409_J.CSV (J data from archive file)
A:\SN081234\JOBS\ECHIDNA\000_20091225T123409_K.CSV (K data from archive file)
A:\SN081234\JOBS\HEDGEHOG\003_20100313T181008_A.CSV (A data and alarms)
Notice that the archive file (which was originally created by merging data from J and K schedules) has now been "unmerged"
into its constituent schedules. Also notice that for data sourced from archive files, the original archive file name is preserved
(apart from the file extension, which was changed to .CSV to suit the new file format, and the schedule suffix).
Merging works in a similar way for other output formats (DBD, fixed and free) – the various parts are combined in the same
order as for CSV.
Selecting the Unload Destination
The dest= option is used to specify where the unloaded data should go. The five broad choices are:

display the data, i.e. return it to the active comms port on which the COPYD command was sent. This is the default for
text-based unload formats. It is not applicable for DBD format unloads, as DBD is a binary format.

write it to file(s) on the internal file system. This is the default for DBD format unloads.

write it to file(s) on a USB memory device

upload the data to an FTP server

send the data as an attachment to an email address (DT8xM models only).
To display the data interactively, no option is required as this is the default. For example, just typing
COPYD
will unload all data for the current job to the active comms port, in CSV format.
During an unload to the active comms port, the DT80 disables real time data and alarm return, command echo and error
messages, to prevent these messages being mixed in with the unload stream. These functions will be re-enabled once the
unload completes.
 Local Files
To output to a file or files in the default location on the internal file system, use dest=B:. The actual folder(s) used depend
on the job= and merge= settings:
job
merge
Destination folder
job=*
job=jobname (or omitted)
job=*
job=jobname (or omitted)
merge=y
merge=y
merge=n
merge=n
B:\JOBS
B:\JOBS\jobname
B:\JOBS\job1, B:\JOBS\job2, ...
B:\JOBS\jobname
By default, each file created will have an auto-generated filename which identifies the time that the unload took place, e.g.
001_20100910T120900.csv. (The 001_ is a sequence number.) For merge=n unloads, the schedule name will be
appended ot each output file, e.g. 001_20100910T120900_A.csv.
The same goes for unloading to a file on the USB memory device, except that this time you would use dest=A:. Files will
then be written to A:\Snserial-num\JOBS or a subfolder of this, depending on the options.
You can also specify an alternative destination folder, e.g.
COPYD dest=B:\mydir\x1\
(Note that the trailing backslash is required), in which case files will be written to B:\mydir\x1 or a subfolder of this,
depending on the options.
Finally, you can also specify an explicit destination file name, e.g.
COPYD dest=a:\mydir\data2009.dbd
For merge=N unloads the schedule name will be appended, e.g. data2009_B.dbd.
UM-0085-B7
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 FTP Server
The DT80 is also able to unload data to files on a remote server, using FTP (File Transfer Protocol).
An FTP transfer is initiated by specifying an FTP Uniform Resource Identifier (URI) as the value of the dest= option. This
URI has the form:
ftp://username:password@host-ip:port/pathname?priority=priority&interface=interface
where:

username is the user name to use when logging in to the FTP server

password is the password to use when logging in to the FTP server

host-ip is the IP address of the computer running the FTP server. This may be specified in numeric form (e.g.
192.168.1.23), or as a domain name (e.g. ftp.datataker.com).

port is the TCP port number to use – optional, default is port 21.

pathname is the path (and, optionally, filename) into which to write the unloaded data.

priority is optional and is either normal (default) or low. A normal priority unload will immediately trigger a
communications session if one is not already active, while a low priority unload will be queued until a session next
becomes active. This option is only applicable if the internal modem is being used. For Ethernet, the priority is always
normal.

interface is applicable to DT8xM models only, and specifies the network interface to use: modem (default), or
ethernet. For models without internal modem, Ethernet is always used and this option is ignored.
For an FTP transfer, the destination folder(s) are created in the same way as for a local unload. For example:
COPYD job=CAT9 dest=ftp://harryp:snitch@ftp.hsww.edu/transfig/
In this example, the DT80 will log in to the FTP server ftp.hsww.edu using the username harryp and the password snitch,
create the folder /transfig/CAT9, then unload all data for the CAT9 job to a file such as 002_20100314T090500.CSV in that
folder.
If an explicit filename is specified then data will be written to that file, e.g.
COPYD dest="ftp://harryp:snitch@ftp.hsww.edu/transfig/my data.csv"
Note When retrieving logged data by unloading it to an FTP server there must be sufficient space available on the DT80
internal flash drive to create a temporary file prior to sending to the server. The space required will depend on the amount of
data being unloaded. If you unload the entire contents of a 10MB storefile to FTP in DBD format then you will need 10MB free
for the temporary file. If you unload in CSV format then the space required will be of the order of 10MB, but may be less or
more depending on the data values.
The unload data file will be queued for transfer using a communications session. The configured unload priority (normal or
low) determines whether or not a communications session will be immediately started in response to the unload.
See Communications Sessions (P216) for more details about how FTP transmission is managed.
Note No more than 12 FTP transfers can be queued; any subsequent attempts will be discarded (a message will be written
to the event log, and the start=new pointer will not be updated, so the next unload will contain additional data).
Note also that:

The DT80 always uses passive mode FTP transfers. Passive transfers are less likely to cause problems with network
firewalls.

If there are special characters, e.g. @ in the username or filename parts of the URI then they must be escaped, i.e.
replaced by a special numeric sequence (% followed by the character's ASCII code, in hexadecimal). @ characters
should threfore be replaced with %40, e.g if your FTP username is lucy@cows.org then this would be specified as:
dest=ftp://lucy%40cows.org:m00@ftp.cows.org/bovine23/
If there are spaces in the URI then then entire URI should be enclosed in quotes, as in the above example. Alternatively,
space characters can be escaped by replacing them with %20.
See URI Escape Characters (P102) for more details.
 Email
Unloads can also be sent via email. In this case the data file is included as an attachment to the email.
Specifying an email destination is similar to FTP, except that a mailto: URI is used. This has the form:
mailto:recipient-email?priority=priority&subject=subject&body=body&interface=interface
where:

recipient-email is a comma-separated list of up to 5 email addresses in the usual format (e.g. jake@peg.edu.au).
Note that there is no extra overhead in sending an email to multiple addresses – the data is only sent once and the
delivery to the required recipients is handled by the Internet email system.

priority is high, normal (default) or low. A high priority message will be sent as soon as possible, with the "high
importance" flag set (typically displayed as an exclamation mark in email clients). A normal priority message is also
sent as soon as possible, but without the "high importance" flag. A low priority messages will be queued and sent
when a communications session next starts. (If a communications session is already active then it will be sent
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immediately.) If the Ethernet interface is used then all messages are either high or normal priority – if low priority is
specified then normal priority is assumed

subject is a string to use as the subject of the email. If not specified then "dataTaker SN serial alarm" is used as
the subject (where serial is the DT80 serial number).

body is a string to use as the body of the email. If not specified then the alarm action text is used.

interface is applicable to DT8xM models only, and specifies the network interface to use: modem (default), or
ethernet. For models without internal modem, Ethernet is always used and this option is ignored.
Notice that the format of this URI is identical to that used for email alarms (see Alarm Email Messages (P82))
See Communications Sessions (P216) for more details about how email transmission is managed.
Note No more than 12 separate emails can be queued; any subsequent attempts will be discarded (a message will be
written to the event log, and the start=new pointer will not be updated, so the next unload will contain additional data).
For example, the following has merge=n set, so it will send two emails (one for schedule A's data, one for schedule B).
Each email will be directed to two recipients.
COPYD merge=n sched=AB dest=mailto:harpo@marx.org,groucho@marx.org
If merge=y had been used then each recipient would get a single email with a single merged file attached, containing data
from both schedules.
 Unload Destination Replaceable Parameters
The dest= option can include embedded replaceable parameters. These are special text sequences which will be
replaced with dynamic values when the unload command is processed. The following replaceable parameters may be used:
Parameter
Substitutes the following
Example
?(timestamp)
?(seq)
?(serial)
?(nCV)
?(n$)
time (yyyymmddThhmmss) at which unload started
3-digit sequence number
6-digit DT80 serial number
value of channel variable nCV (integer part only)
value of string variable n$
20110414T120344
007
089999
23
ABCD
For example,
COPYD dest=ftp://bee@ftp.honey.net/data/?(serial)/?(timestamp).csv
will write files such as /data/081122/20110104T030001.csv on the FTP server.
In the following example a very similar job is deployed to a number of different sites – the only difference being that the first
line of each job sets string variable 1$ to a unique site code (e.g. "BKLO" or "CTVA"). Then the following command is placed
in ONINSERT.DXC on a USB memory device:
COPYD dest=a:\?(1$)\
When this is plugged into the logger it will generate files such as \BKLO\002_20110202T112233.csv on the USB device.
 URI Escape Characters
If any of the following characters are used within an FTP or email URI component (FTP user name, FTP password, FTP
folder or file name, email recipient, email subject or email body), after applying any replaceable parameter substitutions, then
they must be replaced with "escape sequences", as follows. This prevents them being confused with the characters used to
separate the various parts of a URI.
Character
Replace with
&
/
:
;
=
?
@
%26
%2F
%3A
%3B
%3D
%3F
%40
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 Limits
Be aware of the following command length limits when crafting complex unload commands. These limits apply to the
resultant string after substituting any replaceable parameters:
Element
Max number of characters
Complete command line
FTP credentials and host name, or email recipient(s)
FTP path and filename
Option list: priority, session, subject, body
Email subject
Email message body
1023
255
255
511
255
255
Other Options
The final COPYD option is delete=. If this is set to Y then following a successful unload, the records just unloaded will be
deleted from the source DBD file.
In most cases there is no benefit in doing this, and it would also mean that for example the start=new2 feature would no
longer work because the data will no longer be present on the logger.
This option may however be useful if you have a NOV (no overwrite) store file, or if you want to create archive files (possibly
in response to events) where there is no overlap between successive archive files.
Option Conflicts
Certain combinations of COPYD options are invalid, and will result in a "parameter/option conflict" error message. In
particular:

If format=dbd then the step= option is not supported. All records in the specified time range will be unloaded.

If format=dbd then dest=stream is not valid: DBD format data can only be output to a file (either local or on an
FTP server). If DBD format output is specified then the default value of dest is B: rather than stream.

If merge=n then dest=stream is invalid.

If start=new or end=new (or new2) then the job= option is invalid: tracking of the last unloaded record is only
supported for the current job.

If delete=y then the start= option is invalid: data are always deleted from the start of the storefile
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COPYD Option Summary
The following table summarises the available COPYD options:
Option
Value
Store selection options
job=
jobname
*
Description
Default Value
Unload specified job only
Unload all jobs
Unload current job only
Unload specified schedules only
Unload data (yes/no)
Unload alarms (yes/no)
Unload from live stores (yes/no)
Unload from archive stores (yes/no)
Search for store files on specified drives only
Search for store files in specified folder or sub-folders only
Unload from specified store file only
Search path based on src, job and sched options
(none)
(none)
schedule-list
Y/N
Y/N
Y/N
Y/N
drive-list
folder-path\
file-path
(none)
Data Range options
start=
yyyy-mm-ddThh:m Unload records later than or equal to specified timestamp.
Date/time components may be omitted, starting with least
m:ss.tt
significant.
timestamp is specified time, dd days ago
-ddThh:mm:ss.tt
timestamp is current time, minus the specified offset,
-hh:mm:ss.tt
rounded down to the smallest specified time component
date part of timestamp is mCV value (seconds since
mCVThh:mm:ss.tt
1-Jan-1989)
time part of timestamp is nCV value (seconds since
yyyy-mm-ddTnCV
midnight)
date and time parts of timestamp given by mCV and nCV
mCVTnCV
new
Unload new records logged since the last unload of this store
with the same id value
new2
Unload new records logged since the second-last unload
(excluding start=new2 unloads) of this store with the
same id value
end=
Unload records earlier than specified timestamp
as for start=,
except new, new2
id=
Arbitrary user identifier for tracking last unload time
integer
step=
Minimum time interval between successive unloaded records
number
(0 = unload all records)
Output Format options
format=
csv, dbd, fixed, Unload data in the specified format
sched=
data=
alarms=
live=
archive=
src=
path=
merge=
free
Y/N
Generate a single merged output file (yes/no)
XABCDEFGHIJK
Y
Y
Y
N
ABD
(none)
start with oldest
logged record
end with latest
logged record
0
0
csv
Y
Unload Destination options
dest=
stream
Unload to active comms port (CSV/fixed/free format only)
(requires merge=Y)
B:
Unload to B:\JOBS and/or subfolders
A:
Unload to A:\Snserial-num\JOBS and/or subfolders
Unload to path and/or subfolders
path\
Unload to file filename
path\filename
ftp://user:pwd@ Unload to path on FTP server (autogenerated filename)
Can include priority= and interface= URI options
ip/path/
ftp://user:pwd@ Unload to file filename on FTP server
Can include priority= and interface= URI options
ip/path/filename
mailto:email-addr Unload to file and attach to email (autogenerated filename)
Can include priority=, subject=, body= and
interface= URI options
stream
Y/N
N
(CSV/fixed/free), or
B: (DBD)
Other options
delete=
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Aborting an Unload
The Q (quit unload) command can be used to abort all current and pending COPYD unloads. It has no effect on unloads
initiated via the Retrieve Data function in dEX.
Note that this command will not prevent queued unload data files from being sent via FTP or email during a communications
session. The only way to prevent transmission of already queued files is to clear the queues using the SESSION CLEAR
command.
Detecting Unload Status
The system variable 29SV can be used to determine the success or otherwise of the last COPYD command.
29SV
Meaning
0
1
2
-16
-17
-20
-21
-22
-30
-99
No unloads have been attempted
Unload in progress
Last unload was successful
File transfer error: could not open destination file (directory or read-only file exists with same name)
File transfer error: could not write to file (disk may be full)
Source store file error: problem accessing file
Source store file error: store file is corrupted
Source store file error: some other problem
Unload output file could not be queued for transmission because communications session queue is full
Unload was aborted by user (Q command)
Any negative value indicates that the unload was unsuccessful. If start=new was specified then the data pointer will not
have been updated so the next unload will contain the data associated with the unsuccessful unload.
Note For unloads to a remote destination (email/FTP), the unload is considered "successful" once it has been queued for
transmission. In this case 29SV will be set to 2 but this does not necessarily mean that the data has successfully reached the
destination server. The DT80 will repeatedly attempt to send a queued unload following a server or network outage. For
more details, see Communications Sessions (P216).
Further COPYD Examples
 Precise hourly data ranges
The following fragment will unload hourly data to an FTP server with the boundaries of each unload occurring precisely on
the hour. This is achieved by using the end=-0 option. This time value has a leading minus sign, so it is interpreted as a
relative time. An offset of 0 means "now", but recall that one of the properties of a COPYD relative time spec is that the time
is rounded down to the start of the smallest specified time interval. In this case only the hours part of the time has been
specified, so the resulting time will be rounded down to the start of the hour.
RA1H DO{COPYD start=new end=-0 dest="ftp://blah.fr/leData.csv"}
 Capturing Pre-Trigger Data Using Archive Files
Archive files can be used for applications such as capturing pre-trigger data leading up to some event. For example:
BEGIN"SPARROW"
1..2CV(W)=0
RA(DATA:200R:OV)1S 2V
ALARM(1DS(LM)==0){2CV=1}
1CV(W)=1CV+2CV
IF(1CV>100){1..2CV(W)=0; COPYD format=dbd}
LOGONA
END
In this example, a small store file is declared for schedule A (capacity 200 records). The channel of interest (2V) is measured
and logged once per second, with old values being overwritten. When digital input 1D (1DS) goes low we counting samples,
accumulating the count in 1CV. After a further 100 samples have been taken schedule A will then execute the COPYD
command, which will create an archive file on the local file system. The end result is that each archive file that is created will
contain 100 samples taken just prior to the trigger event, and 100 samples taken immediately after.
Note If data are being logged at a relatively fast rate, the earliest samples may be overwritten before they can be copied into
the archive file, which may result in fewer than expected pre-trigger records being present in the archive file. In the above
example there might be 198 samples in the archive (98 pre-trigger, 100 post-trigger)
If you need to have exactly the right number of samples then you should halt sampling for the duration of the archive
operation, i.e.:
IF(1CV>100){1..2CV(W)=0; HA; COPYD format=dbd; GA}
 Multiple Network Interfaces
In this example, a DT8xM is configured to perform regular daily data unloads to an FTP server on the local Ethernet LAN,
which does not have an Internet connection. In the event of an alarm condition, however, the modem interface (which is the
default) is used to send an email alert.
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BEGIN"LYREBIRD"
RA2S
IF(1TK(LM,"Ambient")<>5,35)[mailto:alert@womble.org]
RB1D
DO{COPYD dest=ftp://cat:dog@10.33.112.99/lyrebird/?interface=eth start=new}
END
Notice also that option values (but not option names) can be shortened if desired, e.g. interface=eth is equivalent to
interface=ethernet.
DELD - Delete Logged Data
The DELD command is used to delete data and alarms from one or more store files.
The DELD command options are used to:

select the data or alarm stores from which you wish to delete records

select the range of data records to delete
The options used to select the set of data/alarm stores from which to delete are identical to those used for LISTD, apart from
some different defaults, and are listed in DELD Option Summary (P107).
Note that by default DELD does not delete archive files – specify archive=Y to include them.
You can specify a range of data to delete using the end= option, which works in the same way as the equivalent COPYD
option. That is, you can delete all data older than the specified time.
Note that DELD does not support the start= option.
For example, to delete all logged data for the current job which is older than 30 days, including data in archive files, use:
DELD archive=Y end=-30T
Some points to note:

Once the required records have been deleted from an archive file, if the archive file is then empty then the file will be
deleted.

Live store files are not deleted, even if all records have been deleted.

If any orphan store files are found (live or archive) then they will be deleted.
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DELD Option Summary
The following table summarises the available DELD options:
Option
Value
Store selection options
job=
jobname
*
Description
Default Value
Delete records for specified job only
Delete records for all jobs
Delete records for current job only
Delete records for specified schedules only
Delete data (yes/no)
Delete alarms (yes/no)
Delete from live stores (yes/no)
Delete from archive stores (yes/no)
Search for store files on specified drives only
Search for store files in specified folder or sub-folders only
Unload from specified store file only
Search path based on src, job and sched options
(none)
(none)
schedule-list
Y/N
Y/N
Y/N
Y/N
drive-list
folder-path\
file-path
(none)
Data Range options
end=
yyyy-mm-ddThh:m Delete records earlier than specified timestamp. Date/time
components may be omitted, starting with least significant.
m:ss.tt
timestamp is specified time, dd days ago
-ddThh:mm:ss.tt
timestamp is current time, minus the specified offset,
-hh:mm:ss.tt
rounded down to the smallest specified time component
date part of timestamp is mCV value (seconds since
mCVThh:mm:ss.tt
1-Jan-1989)
time part of timestamp is nCV value (seconds since
yyyy-mm-ddTnCV
midnight)
date and time parts of timestamp given by mCV and nCV
mCVTnCV
new
Delete records logged prior to the last unload of this store with
the same id value
new2
Delete records logged prior to the second-last unload
(excluding start=new2 unloads) of this store with the
same id value
id=
Arbitrary user identifier for tracking last unload time
integer
sched=
data=
alarms=
live=
archive=
src=
path=
XABCDEFGHIJK
Y
Y
Y
N
ABD
(none)
delete all records
0
Deleting Store Files
 Deleting Jobs
A job's store files are physically deleted when the job is deleted using DELJOB (see Deleting Jobs (P58)). However, note
that as a safeguard against accidental deletion, you first need to "empty" the store files using DELD .
Therefore, to delete all trace of job WEST3, you could send the following sequence:
DELD j=west3
Deleting: WEST3 A Data
Deleting: WEST3 B Alarms
DELJOB "west3"
Deleting: WEST3
Done
 Deleting All Jobs
The DELALLJOBS command is a quick way of deleting all jobs and their store files.
This command will:

halt and delete the current job, including any logged data and alarms

delete all other stored jobs and logged data, i.e. all files under the B:\JOBS directory.
Note that the program files for any locked jobs will not be deleted. Use the UNLOCKJOB command first.
Background Commands
DT80 commands are normally executed sequentially – if you type two commands in quick succession then the second one
will not be carried out until the first command has been completed.
However, if a large amount of data has been logged then the COPYD command can take a significant amount of time to
execute. This could potentially cause subsequent commands to be delayed for a long time, which is undesirable in many
applications.
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To address this problem, the COPYD command is designated as a background command. Background commands can
execute "in parallel" with other commands.
When a background command is started (e.g. you type COPYD), the transfer will commence but you will notice that the
DT80> prompt is returned immediately, indicating that further commands may be entered and they will be acted on
immediately, even though the unload operation is still in progress. Similarly, if an ALARM statement triggers an action
command then it will be executed immediately, without having to wait for the background command to complete.
There are situations, however, where sequential execution is required. For example, it is common to execute a COPYD
dest=a: command to copy logged data to a USB memory device, followed by a REMOVEMEDIA command to shut down
the USB port to allow the memory device to be removed. Clearly the REMOVEMEDIA command can only be carried out once
the COPYD command has finished.
The DT80 uses the following rules:
1.
A sequence of commands on the same command line always executes sequentially. So if you enter:
COPYD; HA; COPYD; SATTN
all on the one line, or if you include them all in a single alarm command string, e.g.
RA1D DO{ COPYD; HA; COPYD; SATTN }
then the HA; COPYD; SATTN commands will be delayed until the first COPYD completes.
2.
If a background command is in progress and you attempt to execute another background command then the new
command will be delayed until the first command completes. Because of Rule 1, any commands that occur after the
new command on the same command line will also be delayed.
For example, the command line
COPYD dest=A:; REMOVEMEDIA
will operate as expected, i.e. the REMOVEMEDIA will not be executed until the copy completes.
By contrast,
COPYD dest=A:
REMOVEMEDIA
will likely cause various error messages to be returned, because the REMOVEMEDIA will execute in parallel with the
COPYD, causing the memory device to be shut down prematurely.
Simultaneous Unloads
Because of Rule 2 above, only one COPYD command can execute at any one time – if you or your job tries to start a second
then it will remain pending until the first unload completes.
It is permissible, however, to perform a web unload (using the dEX Retrieve Data function) at the same time as a COPYD
unload or another web unload.
Obsolete Commands
The COPYD, LISTD and DELD commands replace a number of other unload related commands. These commands are still
supported but are considered obsolete and may be removed in future firmware versions.
The following table lists the commands (not all possible combinations are shown), and their current equivalents.
Old command
Replacement
U
A
/H U
Usch
U"job"sch
U"job"sch(start)(end)
COPYD format=free alarms=N src=AB
COPYD format=free data=N src=AB
COPYD format=fixed alarms=N src=AB
COPYD format=free alarms=N src=AB sched=sch
COPYD format=free alarms=N src=AB sched=sch job=job
COPYD format=free alarms=N src=AB sched=sch job=job start=start
end=end (format of start and end is a little different)
COPYD format=free alarms=N src=AB sched=sch job=job dest=ftp-URI
COPYD format=dbd archive=Y src=B dest=A:
COPYD format=dbd archive=Y src=B dest=A: delete=Y
COPYD format=dbd src=B dest=B:
LISTD archive=N
LISTD archive=N job=*
DELD alarms=N
DELD data=N
U"job"sch "ftp-URI"
COPYDATA
MOVEDATA
ARCHIVE
DIRJOB
DIRJOB*
DELDATA
DELALARMS
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The DT80 File System
Internal File System (B:)
The DT80 uses a Windows compatible FAT16/FAT32 file system for storing logged information (data and alarms) and
system information. The internal file system uses flash memory, so all files will be preserved even if the DT80 is reset or
loses all power. The size of this file system for a standard DT80 is 128Mbyte.
The internal file system is used to store information such as:

program text for stored jobs (e.g. B:\JOBS\MYJOB\PROGRAM.DXC)

store files (e.g. B:\JOBS\MYJOB\A\DATA_A.DBD)

archive files (e.g. B:\JOBS\MYJOB\A\009_20100401T090002.DBD)

other unload output files (e.g. B:\MYDATA\MYJOB\021_20100101T190012.CSV)

current profile settings (B:\INI\USER.INI)

system event and/or error logs (B:\EVENTS\EVENT.LOG and ERROR.LOG)

web interface files (e.g. B:\WWW\index.html)

documentation files (e.g. B:\DOC\DT8x Users Manual.pdf)
Note Path and file names shown above are for illustrative purposes only, and may change in future firmware revisions.
A typical directory listing (see File Commands (P111)) of the internal file system might look like:
DIRTREE B:
Volume in drive B has no label.
2006/02/06 12:13
133120 <RO>
- FAILSAFE
2006/02/06 12:13
<DIR> - EVENTS
2006/02/08 12:17
1501
EVENT.LOG
2006/02/06 12:36
<DIR> - INI
2006/02/08 10:56
199
USER.INI
2006/02/07 10:50
213
USER.BAK
2006/02/06 12:14
<DIR> - JOBS
2006/02/06 15:17
<DIR> SPARROW
2006/02/06 15:17
<DIR> A
2006/02/06 15:56
4208
DATA_A.DBD
2006/02/06 15:19
3028
001_20060206T151936.DBD
2006/02/06 15:56
4208
002_20060206T155654.DBD
2006/02/06 16:33
4208
003_20060206T163356.DBD
2006/02/07 13:02
138
STATUS14
2006/02/07 13:02
121
PROGRAM.DXC
2006/02/06 16:01
<DIR> UNTITLED
2006/02/08 10:53
95
STATUS14
2006/02/08 10:53
41
PROGRAM.DXC
2006/02/07 13:03
<DIR> DTCAN169
2006/02/07 13:03
<DIR> A
2006/02/07 13:03
1051584
DATA_A.DBD
2006/02/07 13:03
<DIR> D
2006/02/07 13:03
1049104
DATA_D.DBD
2006/02/07 13:03
3466
STATUS14
2006/02/07 13:03
17523
PROGRAM.DXC
25 File(s)
63074304 Bytes free
In this example there are three jobs stored on the DT80: SPARROW (one schedule; three archive files have been created at
various times; in the case of the first one the store file was not yet full at the time it was created, hence its size is smaller than
the others), UNTITLED (no schedules have logging enabled, hence no store files) and DTCAN169 (two schedules with
logged data).
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External USB Devices (A:)
An external USB memory device plugged into the DT80 can be used to store:

store files (e.g. A:\SN081234\JOBS\MYJOB\A\DATA_A.DBD) for schedules that are configured to log directly
to the USB device (using the "A:" schedule option)

archive files (e.g. A:\SN081234\JOBS\MYJOB\A\001_20060401T090002.DBD)

an ONINSERT job (A:\SN081234\ONINSERT.DXC) which will run when the memory device is inserted into this
DT80

an ONINSERT job (A:\ONINSERT.DXC) which will run when the memory device is inserted into any DT80

other files which have been manually copied from the DT80, e.g. event logs

other files not related to the DT80
Notice that DT80 related files are always stored in a subtree whose name is based on the DT80 serial number. This allows
data from a number of different DT80s to be collected on the one USB device.
A typical directory listing (see File Commands (P111)) of a USB device might look like:
DIRTREE A:
Volume in drive A is JD1
2006/02/06
2006/02/06
2006/02/06
2006/02/06
2006/02/06
2006/02/07
2006/02/07
2006/02/07
2006/02/07
2006/02/07
2006/01/27
2006/01/27
2006/02/07
2006/02/07
2006/02/07
2006/02/07
2006/02/07
2006/02/07
12:40
12:40
12:40
12:40
12:40
13:36
13:36
13:36
13:36
13:36
10:46
10:46
17:46
17:46
17:46
17:46
17:46
17:46
<DIR>
<DIR>
<DIR>
<DIR>
1048784
<DIR>
<DIR>
8928
<DIR>
4788
<DIR>
202
<DIR>
<DIR>
<DIR>
1048784
<DIR>
1048784
18 File(s)
-
SN080043
JOBS
UNTITLED
A
DATA_A.DBD
DTCAN169
A
001_20060207T133615.DBD
D
002_20060207T133615.DBD
SN080122
ONINSERT.DXC
JOBS
XAM
A
DATA_A.DBD
B
DATA_B.DBD
125306880 Bytes free
In this case the memory device has been used in two different DT80s. Serial number 080043 has logged some data directly
to the device as part of job UNTITLED, while archive files have been created for job DTCAN169 – probably using
COPYDATA. Serial number 080122 has logged data directly to store files on the device, and it also has an ONINSERT job
defined, which will run whenever the memory device is plugged into DT80 serial number 080122.
Supported USB Device Types
For an external USB memory device to be recognised by the DT80, the device must:

draw no more than 100mA from the USB bus, and

support the standard USB "mass storage" device class interface (this includes most USB "memory sticks", MP3
players and USB hard disks, but does not include devices such as USB printers, modems and so on), and

have the primary disk partition formatted using a FAT16 or FAT32 file system.
USB memory devices are nearly always shipped pre-formatted using a FAT16/FAT32 file system.
If a memory device is inserted that is not properly formatted, the DT80 will display:
USB device unrecognised
on the LCD.
Formatting a USB Memory Device
The FORMAT A: command (see File Commands (P111)) can be used to re-format the device. This will delete all data from
the device. Alternatively the device can be formatted in a Windows based computer.
Note For larger capacity USB memory devices (1Gbyte and above), it is recommended that you always format the device in
the logger before using it for the first time. This is because the DT80 will format the device in a way that maximises
performance and minimises the time taken to read the device each time it is inserted. In particular:

for capacities in the range 1-2GB, the DT80 will create a FAT16 file system, whereas Windows will normally format the
device as FAT32 by default. FAT16 is less space-efficient if there are many small files, but it is faster.
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
for capacities 4GB and above, the DT80 will create a FAT32 file system. It will, however, select a larger allocation unit
size to maximise speed at the expense of space efficiency.
Note that even though Windows and the DT80 may use different formatting parameters, Windows will always be able to read
a DT80-formatted device, and vice versa.
Using a USB Memory Device
 Startup
When a USB memory device is first plugged in, the DT80 needs to read various information from the device before it can be
used. This process can take several seconds (possibly a minute or more for large media), but it is a background operation so
sampling and logging can continue. The DT80 displays
Reading USB device
on the LCD while this operation is in progress.
Once the USB device is ready, it can be accessed in the same way as the internal drive.
 Removal
Important The USB device must not be removed while it is being accessed. Doing so may result in data corruption.
To safely remove a USB device, you should always first issue the REMOVEMEDIA command. This command is also one of
the default options on the front panel function menu (P116). This command will:
1.
suspend logging for any schedules that are configured to log directly to the USB memory device. This will cause an
error message to be returned, and the Attn LED will start flashing.
2.
make sure that all required information has been fully copied to the device and all files are closed
3.
shut down the device. If the device has an indicator light, it should now be off.
If you change your mind and want to keep using the device, you will now need to remove it and then re-insert it.
File Commands
The DT80 provides a number of general purpose file manipulation commands. These will work both for files stored on the
internal file system (B:) and an external USB memory device (A:), if one is present.
Command
Function
COPY source dest
reads the file source and creates a copy called dest. If dest is a folder name (i.e it ends
with a \ character) then a file will be created with the same name as the source.
uploads the file source to the FTP server pathname specified by ftp-URI
downloads the FTP server file ftp-URI and writes it to local file dest
rename file path source to file path dest
rename FTP server file path ftp-URI to file name destfile
lists the contents of directory path. If path is not specified, B:\ is assumed.
list contents of FTP server folder path ftp-URI
lists the contents of directory path and all sub-directories. If path is not specified, B:\ is
assumed.
displays the contents of file source. Use only with text files.
deletes the file source. Use with care!
deletes the directory path and all subdirectories. Use with care!
deletes all files from the USB memory device and re-creates the file system. Use with
care! For best performance, it is recommended that new USB devices be formatted in
the DT80 before use.
deletes all files from the internal flash drive and re-creates the file system. This
command would normally only ever be used if the DT80's internal compact flash card
was replaced. After executing this command it will be necessary to repeat the firmware
upgrade process in order to re-install system files (e.g. for the web interface) onto the
internal flash drive.
COPY source ftp-URI
COPY ftp-URI dest
RENAME source dest
RENAME ftp-URI destfile
DIR path
DIR ftp-URI
DIRTREE path
TYPE source
DEL source
DELTREE path
FORMAT A:
FORMAT B: DELETEALL
Note These commands are for advanced users only. In most cases the standard DT80 commands (e.g. LISTD, DELD and
so on) are preferred. Furthermore, note that file names or locations may be subject to change in future firmware versions.
The DT80's default directory is B:\. So the command DIR JOBS is equivalent to DIR B:\JOBS.
For example, if you want to copy the DT80's system event log to a USB memory device for later analysis you could use:
COPY EVENTS\EVENT.LOG A:\EVENT_20060219.LOG
Done
Note that wildcards (e.g. "*.LOG") are not supported by any of these commands.
Important The DeTransfer program, which is often used to supervise the DT80, has a number of special commands that
begin with a \ (backslash) character. These are interpreted by DeTransfer and not sent to the DT80. In order to send a \
character from DeTransfer, you need to enter a double backslash (\\). For example, the above example would be entered
into DeTransfer as follows:
COPY EVENTS\\EVENT.LOG A:\\EVENT_20060219.LOG
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This rule applies to DeTransfer only; it does not apply to the "Text" window in DeLogger, nor to the web interface Command
window.
Data Recovery
Prevention
If you accidentally remove a USB device while it is being accessed, then it is possible that the file system on the USB device
may be corrupted. (The same applies if you remove a USB memory device from a Windows computer without selecting the
"Safely Remove Hardware" option.)
The internal file system or USB memory device may also be corrupted if the logger suddenly loses all power while it is writing
to the disk.
To minimise the chance of data loss due to these causes, remember to:

ensure that the battery link is in place. This will allow the DT80 to keep operating normally for a period of time, in the
event of an external power failure

always use the REMOVEMEDIA command before removing the memory device if there are schedules logging directly
to the USB device
Note that the DT80 provides some protection against gradual power failure (e.g. the internal battery becoming discharged).
If it detects that the supply voltage is becoming critically low, the DT80 will automatically close all store files and force the unit
into low power sleep mode (P284). The DT80 will remain asleep until the power supply recovers to an adequate level.
Recovery
 Media Removal
If a USB device was accidentally removed while it was being logged to, you should plug it into a Windows computer. Before
attempting to open any of the files, run a Windows file system check utility (e.g. type chkdsk drive: at a command prompt,
where drive is the drive letter assigned to the USB device). This will detect and if possible repair any inconsistencies in the
file system structure.
Note that even if there are no file system errors, there may still be corruption in one or more store files (DATA_x.DBD) if they
were being actively logged to at the time of the media removal. Copy the files to the host PC and verify that they can be
opened successfully and all the expected data is there.
If the files appear to be damaged (e.g. they don't open correctly in dump_dbd) then the original files on the USB device
should be deleted before inserting the device back into the DT80 and re-enabling logging. This avoids having the DT80
attempt to log data to a damaged file, possibly causing more damage in the process.
 Power Failure
If external power was lost and the battery link was not present or the internal battery was flat, then the internal file system
may be corrupted (if it was being written to at the time of the failure).
When power is restored, the DT80 will attempt to automatically repair the file system (using the B:\FAILSAFE file) if
necessary.
Before re-enabling logging, it would be prudent to manually copy to a USB device the store files for the job that was active at
the time of the failure, e.g.:
COPY B:\JOBS\JOE\A\DATA_A.DBD A:\JOE_SAVE\DATA_A.DBD
and verify that they can be opened on the host PC.
 Store File Recovery
If a store file is damaged, contact Datataker for assistance. We may be able to recover data from the file. But note that
prevention is always better than cure.
 Badly Formatted Device
In exceptional cases, a severely corrupted memory device may result in a fatal error occurring on the DT80 when the device
is inserted, and this may cause the DT80 to reset. If this is the case, you can try holding down the Cancel/Func button while
inserting the memory device. This will cause the DT80 to not attempt to read the device; instead it will display USB device
unrecognised. You can now reformat the device using the FORMAT A: command.
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Part H – DT80 Front Panel
The DT80 front panel user interface comprises:

a 2 line by 16 character back-lit liquid crystal display (not DT81)

6 keys (not DT81) – Up, Down, Left, Right, Cancel/Func and OK/Edit

4 status indicator lights (3 for DT80 Series 1) – Sample, Disk, Attn and Power.
The display provides information about data logger status, channel data, alarms and store operation. In addition the display
will indicate conditions that require attention and USB memory device status.
The DT80 from cannot be programmed from the front panel. However, pre-defined commands can be issued by selecting
from the function list via the front panel.
Figure 20 DT80 Front Panel
Display
(Not applicable to DT81)
The display normally shows the current value for each channel and alarm in the current job. Each channel or alarm is shown
one at a time. The Up and Down directional keys on the front panel are used to scroll through the available channels, as well
as various status screens. The channels and alarms are arranged in the same order that they are defined in for the current
job.
Displaying Channels and Alarms
When channel data is displayed, the top line of the display shows the channel identification. The default is the channel
number and type. If channel identification text has been entered as a channel option, then the first 16 characters of that text
is displayed.
The bottom line on the display shows the most recent reading as a numeric value or bar graph. If the channel or alarm has
not yet been sampled, the display shows " NotYetSet".
When alarms are displayed the top line of the display identifies the alarm and the state of the alarm – ON or OFF. If the alarm
channel definition includes identification text, then this is displayed when the alarm is not true. If the alarm contains action
text, this is displayed when the alarm is true.
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 Example
As an example, assume that the following job has been defined:
BEGIN"MYJOB"
RA1M 1TK("Boiler Temp",FF0)
2LM35
ALARM4(3V>2000)"Over voltage"
1CV(W)=1CV+1
ALARM7(4TT("Oven OK")>107)"Oven Over Temp"
END
The following "screens" will then be available. These can be scrolled through using the Up and Down arrows on the keypad.
Pressing Down
Display screen
Comments
DT80 V9.00
MYJOB
Date: 23/10/2009
Time: 16:44:02
Battery:
-290mA
90% ↓
6.2V
Telstra
3■□□□
203.112.100.109
Eth IP:
Auto
192.168.11.160
Boiler Temp
97 C
Channel 2LM35
17.9 C
Alarm4 OFF
1356.3 mV
Oven Over Temp
117.2 C
The default "sign-on" screen indicates the DT80's firmware version number and the name
of the currently loaded job (No current job is displayed if there isn't one)
Current date and time (format can be changed using P31 and P39)
Internal battery status. This shows the approximate battery charge as a percentage, a
charge (↑) or discharge (↓) indicator, battery current (negative=discharging) and the battery
terminal voltage. NC is displayed if the internal battery is not connected.
This screen is not present on models with no internal battery charger, e.g. DT82E
Internal modem status. While the modem is connected the display shows the mobile carrier
name, network type (e.g. '3' for 3G), signal strength and IP address. If the modem is not
connected then modem status is shown e.g. Modem is off.
This screen is only present on models with an integrated modem (DT8xM)
Ethernet port mode (Automatic, Manual or Disabled) and current IP address
First user channel (user defined channel name)
Second user channel (default channel name)
Alarm #4 state
Alarm #7 state (alarm text replaces channel name when alarm is active)
Note that channel 1CV is not displayed because it is defined as a working (W) channel. Working channels are neither
logged, returned nor displayed.
Bar Graph
The channel value can be shown as a bar graph instead of a numeric value by using the BG channel option. The BG option
allows the values to be set that represent the left and right side of the graph scale. The channel label can be used to set the
graph scale labels. For example:
Display screen
E--Fuel Level--F
███████
UM-0085-B7
Comments
4V("E--Fuel Level--F",BG10:900)
displays zero scale (no bars) if measured voltage < 10mV; displays full scale (16 bars) if
voltage > 900mV
DT80 Range User’s Manual
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Controlling what is shown on the display
All defined channels and alarms will be shown on the display, except for:

channels which specify the ND (no display) channel option

working channels (W channel option)

un-numbered alarms

alarms where the channel in the alarm condition is a no-display (ND) or working (W) channel
For example:
4TT
3CV(W)=3CV+1
ALARM1(2CV>10)"Quokka"
ALARM(2CV>20)"Platypus"
ALARM2(2CV(ND)>30)"Echidna"
'
'
'
'
'
displayed
not displayed
displayed
not displayed
not displayed
Auto-scrolling
The DT80 may also be configured to automatically scroll through the channel display screens. This is useful in applications
where the DT80 is mounted behind a glass panel – the display is visible but the keypad is inaccessible.
To enable auto-scroll set the following profile:
PROFILE DISPLAY AUTOSCROLL_INTERVAL=10S
which in this case will automatically switch between channel display screens every 10 seconds. If this profile is set to 0 then
auto-scroll is disabled.
Pressing a key on the keypad while auto-scroll is active will temporarily suspend auto-scroll and allow you to manually
navigate through the screens. By default, auto-scroll will resume (if it is enabled) 30 seconds after the last key press. This
time can be changed using:
PROFILE DISPLAY AUTOSCROLL_DELAY=1M
which in this case will wait one minute before resuming auto-scroll.
Auto-acknowledge
In applications where the keypad is inaccessible, the following profile can be set to automatically acknowledge (clear) any
pop-up messages after a period of time:
PROFILE DISPLAY AUTOACK_DELAY=1M
Set to 0 to disable this feature.
Pop-up Messages
The display may also show temporary status screens, such as.
Display screen
Comments
Reading USB
device
When a USB device is inserted the DT80 needs to read certain system information from it
before it can be used.
USB device
unrecognised
This indicates that the DT80 does not recognise the device as a valid USB mass storage
device.
Processing
ONINSERT.DXC
Copy→USB
████████
UM-0085-B7
If the USB memory device contains a file called ONINSERT.DXC then it will be
automatically loaded and run by the DT80
1/3
This indicates progress during a COPYD operation where the destination is set to the USB
device. The numeric counter on the top line indicates the data/alarm store being processed
(store 1 of 3), while the bargraph shows unload progress for each store.
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Interactive Screens
In some situations the display will prompt for information to be entered via the keypad.
Display screen
Run ONINSERT?
Enter SIM PIN:
123█
Comments
This is displayed briefly following insertion of a USB memory device that contains an
ONINSERT.DXC file. Press OK/Edit to allow the file to execute (which is the default), or
press any other key to skip execution of the file.
For models with an integrated modem, this screen will be displayed if the inserted SIM card
has a PIN set. Use the Up and Down keys to change the value of each digit, and use the
Left and Right keys to select the digit to edit. Press OK/Edit when done.
Display Backlight
The display backlight will normally only stay on for 30 seconds after the last key press. The actual period that the backlight
stays on for after a key press is controlled by P17 in seconds.
Parameter P20 (P247) can be used to further control the operation of the backlight, for example setting P20=0 will cause the
backlight to be always off, while P20=1 will leave the backlight always on (except while the logger is sleeping).
User Defined Functions
(Not applicable to DT81)
The user can define up to 10 named macros called functions. These functions can be executed by the user via the LCD and
keypad of the DT80.
Defining Functions
Functions are defined using the following profile settings, one pair for each of the 10 available functions:
PROFILE FUNCTION F1_LABEL=label
PROFILE FUNCTION F1_COMMAND=command string
These will define the label to display on the LCD (up to 16 characters), and the command string to execute when the function
is selected. Substitute F2, F3 etc. in the profile key names to define further functions.
Enclose label or command string in double quotes if they contain spaces or special characters.
For example:
Command
Description
PROFILE FUNCTION F1_LABEL=Start
PROFILE FUNCTION F1_COMMAND=G
This function would display Start and when selected would
issue the G or go command to the logger which would start
all schedules
PROFILE FUNCTION F2_LABEL="Temp \176F"
This function would display Temp °F and when selected
PROFILE FUNCTION F2_COMMAND=REFT(S2,=5CV) would measure the logger's internal temperature and store
the scaled value to channel variable 5CV
PROFILE FUNCTION F3_LABEL=Upload
PROFILE FUNCTION F3_COMMAND="copyd
start=new dest=ftp://x.com/unit42/"
PROFILE FUNCTION F4_LABEL=Clear
PROFILE FUNCTION F4_COMMAND=1..20CV(W)=0
This would display Upload and when selected would unload
new data to an FTP server
This function would display Clear and would set channel
variables 1-20 back to zero.
Selecting Functions
Pressing the Cancel/Func key will cause the function list to be shown on the display. One function is shown at a time, and
only those functions which have a command defined are shown. The up and down direction keys can be pressed to scroll
through the list of functions. Once the desired function is visible on the display it can be executed by pressing the OK/Edit
key. If you wish to exit the function list without executing any function then press the Cancel/Func key to cancel the function
selection process.
After selecting the function to execute, the display will indicate that the function selected has been initiated.
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Default Functions
Following reset, the DT80 automatically defines three commonly used functions:

Remove USB – disables USB memory device to allow safe removal

Copy logged data – unload all logged data for current job to USB memory device

Auto Ethernet IP – sets Ethernet port to AUTO and forces the DT80 to re-acquire an IP address
For models with an integrated modem, the following additional functions are defined by default:

Start comms – starts a communications session

Stop comms – ends a communications session

Check signal – continuously measure and update signal strength
These functions can be redefined or removed if desired by changing the profile settings, or using the dEX configuration
builder (see Keypad Functions (P134)).
Keypad operation
(Not applicable to DT81)
Direction Keys
The up and down direction keys allow scrolling through the available channels, alarms and status
screens on the display. When the function list is shown, then the up and down direction keys allows
scrolling through the list of available of functions.
When entering the SIM PIN/PUK code via the keypad the left/right direction keys select the digit
and the up/down keys change the value.
OK (Edit) Key
The OK/Edit key is used to select a function to execute when the function list is displayed. The edit
function will be used in a later firmware version that supports editing of values.
Cancel (Function) Key
The Cancel/Func key is used to enter the function list display. It can be pressed again to exit the
function list without selecting a function.
Special Key Sequences
 Entering Bootstrap Mode
Holding down the OK/Edit key during the logger reset or power-up sequence will force the logger into bootstrap mode. This
would only be required if there is a corruption of the firmware in the logger.
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Status Indicator Lights
Sample Indicator
The Sample indicator is illuminated whenever any channel in the current job is sampled. This includes all analog, digital and
internal channels.
Disk Indicator
The Disk indicator is illuminated whenever the internal disk is reading or writing. For example, the disk indicator will
illuminate when writing data to the internal data store or when unloading data from the data store.
Power Indicator
not present on DT80 Series 1
This indicator flashes every 3 seconds while the logger is awake. A long "LED on" time followed by a short "LED off" time
indicates that the logger is externally powered; a short "on" time followed by a long "off" time indicates battery power.
Attn Indicator
This LED is used to:

warn that an unexpected DT80 reset has occurred, e.g. due to a power failure (flashing)

warn that logging has been partially or fully suspended (flashing)

indicate a warning state under the control of a user program (continuously on)
Unexpected Reset
A message such as the following may be displayed following DT80 reset, in conjunction with a flashing Attn LED. Press any
key to clear the message and the flashing LED.
Display
Comments
DT80 restarted
Power loss
The DT80 lost power, both external and the internal battery. This message may also be
displayed if the hardware reset button (accessed using a paper clip) is pressed.
DT80 restarted
Safe mode
A "triple-push" reset was performed (by pressing the hardware reset button three times
within 10s), which temporarily restores factory settings
DT80 restarted
SW exception
This indicates a possible problem with the DT80 firmware. Contact Datataker Support if
you see this message.
DT80 restarted
All mem cleared
The DT80 lost power, and all internal RAM has been cleared, probably due to the internal
Lithium memory backup battery being flat. Programs and logged data will not be affected
but you will need to reset the DT80's time/date.
Logging Suspended
If data for one or more schedules cannot be logged for some reason then the DT80 will continue to run the job but it will flash
the Attn LED and display a message such as the following. Pressing a key will clear the message from the display, but the
Attn LED will keep flashing until space is made available (e.g. by deleting data or inserting a USB device)
Display
Comments
Cannot log
Data full
Cannot log
No USB device
UM-0085-B7
One or more schedules have been set to "no-overwrite" mode (NOV schedule option), and
the allocated space is now full
The "A:" schedule option (log directly to USB device) has been specified, but no USB
device is inserted.
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User Control
You can also turn the Attn LED on or off using the SATTN (Set Attention) and CATTN (Clear Attention) commands.
Alternatively, the 1WARN channel type (which works in the same way as a digital output channel) may be used.
For example:
RA1S ALARM1(3TT>500)"Meltdown"{SATTN}
will cause the LED to come on and stay on if the alarm is triggered, and
RA1S 1CV=(1CV+1)%10 IF(1CV==0){1WARN(R,200)=1}
will give a 200ms flash every tenth time the schedule is scanned.
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Part I –
Web Interface
What is the Web Interface?
The DT80 provides an embedded web interface that provides simple, intuitive access to the logger’s operations using a
standard web browser. You can view current sensor readings, job status and access data and other files stored in the file
system.
The standard web interface is built into the logger’s firmware. It does not need to be installed on the logger or on your PC.
Simply use your existing browser to browse to the logger’s IP address and the home page will be displayed.
dEX vs. Classic Web Interface
The DT80 actually features two web interfaces:

dEX, also known as the enhanced web interface, is available on all Series 2 or later loggers. This uses Adobe Flash
technology to provide a full-featured and easy to use interface.

The classic web interface is available on all loggers. This HTML-based interface has fewer features than the
enhanced interface, but it is customisable and is also more suitable for slow connections and small-screen web
clients.
The following table summarises the differences between the two web interfaces:
Feature
dEX
Classic web
interface
Display basic logger information (serial number, firmware version etc.)
Display schedule status (log/run status, number of logged records, etc.)
Display current channel values in tabular form
Display event logs
Display user manual, release notes, etc.
Graphically configure the logger, i.e. define schedules, channels and global
settings without using the logger command language
Display selected channels in a configurable "mimic" displays, including trend
charts
Unload data and save to CSV or DBD file
Text command window (similar to DeTransfer)
Display current job's program text
Display file system free/used space breakdown
Display TEST and SERVICEDATA command response
User customisable branding (images, web links, help pages)
Menu options can be selectively disabled or restricted
Suitable for low bandwidth connection e.g. dial-up modem
Suitable for small screen client e.g. PDA
User customisable HTML pages
yes
yes
yes
yes
yes
yes
yes
yes
yes
yes
yes
-
yes
-
yes
yes
yes
yes
yes
yes
yes
-
yes
yes
yes
Connecting to the Web Interface
In order to access the DT80 web interface, a TCP/IP connection between the DT80 and the PC is required. You can either:

connect the DT80's Ethernet port to a local area network, or directly to the PC using an Ethernet cross-over cable (see
Ethernet Communications (P225))

use DtUsb to provide a TCP/IP connection via a USB cable (see USB Port (P180))

start a communication session using the integrated modem on DT8xM models (see Integrated Modem (P200))
Once a TCP/IP connection has been established, all you need to do is type the DT80's IP address into the address field of
your browser. The web interface home page should then be displayed.
Home Page
For Series 1 loggers, when you enter the DT80's IP address into your browser you will be immediately directed to the home
page for the classic web interface (Series 1 loggers do not support dEX). See Classic Web Interface (P160) for more details.
For Series 2 or later loggers, you have the choice of running either dEX or the classic interface. The first screen you will see
after browsing to the DT80's IP address is the Logger Home screen, as shown below.
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Figure 21: Logger home page
The Logger home page provides four options, which are organised into two tabs. With the High speed connection tab
selected, you can:

click Configure the logger to launch the dEX configuration builder. This allows you to configure the DT80 using a
graphical interface, rather than the logger's command language.

click Monitor the logger to launch the dEX web interface, which allows you to monitor the current state of the DT80,
unload data and use the command interface.

click Customise dEX to launch an application which allows you to customise or restrict parts of the web interface. See
Customising the Web Interface (P156).
Note The Configure the logger and Customise dEX options might not be visible if they have been hidden or deleted by an
administrator.
To launch the classic web interface, select the Low speed connection tab, then click Launch web interface.
Once the desired interface (dEX or classic) starts up, you may wish to bookmark its home page so that in the future you can
go straight to it, bypassing the Logger home screen.
When configuring the logger, it is often convenient to have the dEX configuration builder running in one browser tab, and the
dEX web interface running in another. You can then easily switch between them without having to return to the Logger Home
page.
Starting dEX
The dEX Configuration Builder and the dEX web interface are Adobe Flash applications. When you select either of these
options on the Logger home screen, the following sequence of events takes place:
1.
A check is made to see if the browser contains the required Adobe Flash plug-in. This plug-in is a software component
produced by Adobe Systems Inc. which allows the web browser to run Flash applications such as the DT80 web
interface. The plug-in is also sometimes referred to as the "Flash Player". The Flash Player only needs to be installed
once, so it is likely that your computer will already have it installed.
2.
If the Flash Player is not already installed, or it is older than Version 10.0, then the browser will automatically attempt
to download the required plug-in from the Internet and install it. The exact sequence of events will vary from browser to
browser. You may receive various security alerts during this process which you will need to approve in order for the
installation to complete. You may also require administrative rights for your computer; check with your IT department.
3.
The selected dEX application will now be automatically downloaded from the logger onto your computer. The size of
this file is approximately 1-2Mbyte, so this will take a few seconds over an Ethernet connection and considerably
longer over a modem link. During this time a progress bar will be displayed.
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4.
The Flash Player will then launch the dEX application and the configuration builder or web interface main screen will
appear in the web browser.
Note If your computer does not have the Flash Player installed, and does not have an Internet connection, then you will need
to obtain and install the Flash Player manually. Using a computer which does have Internet access you can download the
Flash Player package from www.adobe.com, transfer the installation file onto your computer and then launch it to install
Flash Player.
Note If you press the Refresh or Reload button on your browser then the above process will be repeated. That is, the
application will be re-downloaded and will then restart at the Welcome page. Most screens within the web interface
application include an Update button – use this button (not the browser Refresh button) to update displayed information.
Browser Requirements
An Adobe Flash plug-in is available for most popular web browsers, including:

Microsoft Internet Explorer Version 7 or later

Mozilla Firefox

Apple Safari

Google Chrome
Once the plug-in is installed (which, as described above, is normally an automatic process), any of these browsers can be
used to access the DT80 Web Interface.
Note that JavaScript needs to be enabled in the browser options (this is normally the default).
dEX Configuration Builder
About Configurations
The dEX configuration builder is used to graphically define the DT80 configuration. A configuration comprises:

a complete set of DT80 profile settings (see Profile Settings (P251)). These are set using graphical controls in the
configuration builder, then sent to the logger as a block of PROFILE commands.

a DT80 job (see Jobs (P56)), which will always be named CONFIG. This job consists of schedule and channel
definitions, which again are set using graphical controls, plus any manually entered DT80 commands that may be
required. As with any DT80 job, this dEX generated job is enclosed by BEGIN and END commands.
The configuration builder stores configurations in XML files. The current configuration is stored on the logger, while any
number of other configurations can be stored in .dex files on the host computer. See Managing Configurations (P138) for
more details.
Using the Configuration Builder
When the dEX configuration builder is started, the current state of the logger will be automatically loaded and displayed. That
is:

the current values for all profile settings are read and used to initialise the global settings pages

the current configuration XML file is retrieved from the logger and opened, which will cause all defined schedules and
channels to be displayed
Note The configuration builder can only retrieve configurations that it has created. It will not be able to display the current
state if the logger has been programmed manually using textual commands. If this is the case then a warning will be
displayed and a blank configuration will be loaded.
The following screenshot shows the general configuration builder screen layout:
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Figure 22: Typical configuration builder display
Tree View
The area on the left of the screen shows a tree view of the current configuration. As configuration elements (channels and
schedules) are defined, entries are added to the tree view. This part of the interface thus gives an overview of the
configuration, showing which channels belong to which schedules.
The tree contains three "levels", with each level's entries indented further to the right.

At the top level there is a single entry for the logger as a whole. This entry represents the logger's global settings, such
as profile settings and statistical schedule rate.

Beneath that are the schedules. In the screenshot three schedules have been defined: the built-in On logger
activation entry represents the immediate schedule, and is followed by two user schedules, A and B (a.k.a
"Schedule_1" and "Schedule_2").

Finally, at the third level are the channels: in this case, "Indoor", "Outdoor" and "Wind Speed".
If you highlight an entry in the tree, its details will be displayed in the large properties pane area which occupies most of the
screen area. The border between the tree view and the properties pane can be dragged left or right to adjust the width of
these two areas.
If you double click on a tree entry, its name will become editable. This allows you to rename an existing schedule or channel.
At the bottom of the tree view area are four buttons:

The arrow buttons are used to re-order items in the tree by moving the highlighted entry up or down.

The double rectangle button creates a duplicate of the currently selected channel

The Recycle Bin button will delete the highlighted entry.
Finally, the small triangles next to the logger and schedule tree view entries can be used to hide/unhide all of their constituent
entries, which can reduce clutter when you are working on a large configuration.
Properties Pane
The large properties pane on the right hand side is used to display all of the detailed settings for the selected tree view item.
The layout of this area varies depending on the type of entry selected on the tree – logger, schedule or channel:

If the Logger tree entry is selected, the properties pane shows some basic details of the logger, such as the model and
the number of CEMs connected. This is also the place to set any of the DT80's profile settings.

If a schedule tree entry is selected then details of the schedule's trigger and storage options are shown.
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
If a channel entry is selected (as is the case on the screenshot) then in most cases the top part of the properties pane
will show the selected wiring configuration and channel number, while the lower part will feature a number of tabs
containing detailed settings.
Menu
The menu bar across the top works in the same way as the menu bar in any other window-based application. Note that many
of the menus have cascading sub-menus, as shown in the screenshot.
Figure 23: Typical configuration builder menu
Six menus are provided:

The File menu is used to clear the current configuration or load an existing configuration, which may be either the
logger's current configuration or a locally saved file. This menu also allows you to save a completed configuration to
the logger, which will also "activate" the configuration, i.e. it will start running. See Managing Configurations (P138).

The Edit menu simply duplicates the functions of the tree view buttons.

The View menu allows you to view the logger program generated from your current settings.

The Logger menu can be used to perform a few basic logger management tasks, including setting the time, reloading
the current configuration, halting and resuming schedules, and clearing all logged data. See .

The Add menu is used to define new tree entries – schedules and channels.

Finally, the Help menu identifies the version of the configuration builder. It also provides links to various useful files on
the DT80, including the user manual and firmware release notes, as well as links to online resources such as traning
documents and videos.
Banner Area
The banner area along the top of the screen contains:

a Logger Home button, which returns you to the Logger Home page

the dataTaker logo on the right hand side will jump to the dataTaker website, www.datataker.com
Note Navigating away from the configuration builder using the Logger Home button, or the dataTaker web link, or pressing
the browser Refresh button will all cause any unsaved configuration entries to be lost. Be sure to save your work (using File
/ Save to disc...) before leaving the configuration builder.
It is often convenient to have the configuration builder running in one browser tab, and the dEX web interface running in
another. You can then easily switch between them without having to return to the Logger Home page.
Defining Schedules
When the configuration builder starts up, two pre-defined schedules are shown: the immediate schedule (On logger
activation) and one user schedule (A).
If you click on schedule A's entry in the tree view its details will be displayed in the properties pane. The On logger
activation (immediate) schedule does not have a trigger or any storage options, so if you select it the properties pane will be
blank.
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Figure 24: Schedule configuration
Schedule Trigger
By default, the configuration builder sets a new schedule to a 5 second trigger. To change this time, simply alter the indicated
number and/or time units.
To define a daily trigger at a particular time of day, select the Daily at option.
To define other types of schedule trigger (e.g. event triggered, manual trigger), click on Advanced Triggering, which will
cause more controls to appear. Use the Trigger control to select the type of trigger (see Types of Schedules (P47)), then set
any further details that may be required. For example, the following settings will trigger the schedule when a falling edge is
detected on digital input 1D or 2D:
Figure 25: Schedule configuration – advanced trigger
Schedule Conditions
The Conditions area is used to define the schedule "while" condition (see Trigger While (P51)) – where, for example, a
schedule will only trigger while a certain digital input is active. By default, there is no while condition.
Storage Settings
To set the schedule storage parameters, click on the Storage tab. This allows you to define various schedule options such
as store file size and whether you want old data to be overwritten by new. See Logging Data (P89) for more details.
Note The Enable Logging control selects the initial logging state (on or off) for the schedule. Regardless of the setting,
space will still be allocated for data storage, as specified in the data and alarms Storage Size controls. If you do not want to
allocate any space for logging data then set the Storage Size controls to 0.
Managing Schedules
To add a new schedule, select the Add menu, then Schedule. This will add a new entry to the tree view, and display it with
the name editable. Enter a name for the schedule then click the green tick.
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To change the priority order of schedules, select a schedule on the tree and use the up/down arrow buttons at the bottom of
the tree view to move it up or down. Note that if the schedule order is changed then the schedule identifier (A, B etc.) will
change but the schedule name will remain the same. The topmost user schedule in the tree is always schedule A.
To delete a schedule and all of its constituent channels, select the schedule and click the Recycle Bin button.
Defining Channels
In the configuration builder, the DT80's channel types are categorised as follows:

Measurement channels include all analog, digital and internal channel types

Control channels are digital outputs

Serial channels currently include the SDI12 channel type only

Reference, Calculation and Delay channels refer to the &chan, CALC and DELAY channels

Action channels allow certain commands to be inserted into a schedule. These will be placed inside a DO{...} block
so that they will be executed when the schedule is triggered.

Manual channels allow entry of a channel definition using the DT80 command language. Use this for any channel
types not directly supported by the configuration builder.
To add a new channel:
1.
In the tree view, select the schedule to contain the new channel, or select any existing channel within that schedule.
2.
Select the Add menu, then find the required channel type.
3.
An entry for the channel will be added to the tree. Enter a name for the channel, and click the green tick (or press
Enter).
4.
For most measurement channels, you now need to select a wiring diagram from the available choices on the
properties pane, and select the channel number.
5.
If required, the other channel options in the tabs in the lower part of the properties pane can now be set.
Note All channel names in a configuration must be unique.
Measurement and Serial Channels
All measurement and serial channel types have a similar properties pane layout, as shown in Figure 22.
The control at the top of the screen specifies the specific channel type. In some cases this control is used to further refine the
channel type selected in the Add menu, in other cases it is a fixed value. In the example shown, Thermocouple was
selected in the Add menu, then K-type thermocouple was selected on this control.
Next comes the wiring configuration and channel number controls. These must both be set in order for the configuration
builder to generate a correct logger program.
The remainder of the options are presented in five tabs in the lower part of the properties pane. These all have default
settings; however you should check that these defaults match your requirements.
 General Settings
The most important setting on this tab is the Log and display this value checkbox. For intermediate calculation channels
(working channels) this should normally be cleared to avoid cluttering the logged data with intermediate channels.
Note that the configuration builder does not support individual control of channel value display, logging and return (ND, NL
and NR channel options).
This tab also sets the units string that will be included in CSV data headings and shown on the display (assuming that the
"log and display" checkbox is ticked)
You can also assign the measured value to a channel variable. You may want to do this if the value is to be made available
to a Modbus client system, for example. If you want to use the value in a calculation, then it is easier to just use a direct
reference to the channel in the calculation; there is no need to assign it to a CV.
Some channel types may include other controls on this tab. For example, for an SDI-12 channel the device and register
addresses are specified here.
 Scaling
The Scaling tab is where you define either a simple scaling factor (channel factor), or a span or polynomial. Selecting
"Spans and Polynomials" will bring up a list of defined spans and polynomials on the left hand side. Clicking on an entry will
show its details in the area on the right.
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Figure 26: Defining a polynomial
Initially, no spans or polynomials will be defined. To add one, click the Add button, select Span or Polynomial, then enter
the required coefficients. In the above screen shot, the following polynomial has been defined:
22.5 + 1.236x – 0.000275x2
Note that span and polynomial definitions are shared between channels. If you now define a new channel, all previously
entered spans and polynomials will be available for selection. This means that if you select an already defined polynomial
and then edit it (change the coefficient values) then you may be affecting other channels. A warning is displayed when an
existing span/polynomial is selected to remind you of this.
 Statistics
The Statistics tab is used to define additional statistical report values for the selected channel.
Figure 27: Defining additional statistical report values
For each row that is ticked, an additional measurement value will be calculated and reported. So in the above example a total
of four values will be logged: the original measurement, plus the average, minimum and maximum values calculated over the
period since the time the enclosing schedule was executed.
If any statistical values are defined for a channel, the channel will then be sampled at the statistical schedule rate, rather than
the rate of the channel's own schedule. It will, however, still be logged at its own schedule's rate.
The statistical schedule rate is a global setting, which is set by clicking on the top level "logger" entry in the tree view.
For example, if the statistical schedule rate is set to its default of 1 second, and the above channel's schedule is set to its
default rate of 5 seconds, then the sensor will be sampled once per second. Every 5 seconds it will log the instantaneous
value of the sensor, plus the average, minimum and maximum, calculated over the previous 5-second period.
For each selected statistical value, an automatically generated channel name is used (e.g. "Indoor12_AV"), which consists
of the channel name plus a suffix describing the statistical operation.
You can choose not to log a calculated statistical value. For example, it may be being used as an input to a calculation
channel.
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Finally, each statistical value may optionally be assigned to a channel variable. You may want to do this if the value is to be
made available to a Modbus client system, for example.
 Event/Alarm
This tab is used to create an alarm channel. This will test the channel's measured value against a setpoint and then take
some action if the condition is satisfied. Alarms are also referred to as "events" in the configuration builder.
The first step in defining an alarm is to specify the alarm condition.
Figure 28: Defining an alarm condition
In the above example, the alarm condition will be true if the channel value is outside the range -5 to +45.
The next step is to define the actions to perform.
Figure 29: Defining alarm actions
The checkbox at the top specifies whether the actions should be repeated each time that the alarm condition tests true, or
whether they should be performed once, when the alarm condition goes from false to true. In DT80 parlance, the former is an
IF channel, while the latter is an ALARM.
The Output text field specifies the alarm text, which will be logged to the schedule's alarm store when (or while) the alarm is
triggered. Special "substitution characters" can be included, which will cause the DT80 to insert certain dynamic values. In
the example above, the ?V and ?U sequences will be replaced by the channel value and units respectively. The logged
alarm string will therefore be something like:
Temp outside range: 49.2 degC
As well as being logged, the alarm text is also sent to the DT80's currently active comms port. If the Send to Host Port
option is set then it will instead be sent to the host RS232 port, regardless of which port is currently active. This is typically
used for sending modem control messages.
Use the Action Navigator to add one or more actions to perform when (or while) the alarm is triggered. These actions may
include:

executing a DT80 command (or string of commands)

sending an email message
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
sending an SMS message

mirroring the state of the alarm (true or false) on up to two digital outputs or channel variables.
Each time an action is added, a panel appears on the right hand side containing details about the action. Adding or selecting
an action will highlight its details panel and allow its settings to be modified.
In the example shown in Figure 29, three actions have been defined:

The DT80 relay output will mirror the alarm, so it will be closed while the alarm condition is true, open when it is false.
The relay state will be updated each time the channel is evaluated.

The command string: 9CV=9CV+1; XD will be executed, which will increment channel variable 9CV, then manually
trigger schedule D.

An email message will be sent to thomas@sodor.org. The subject of the message will be Logger Alarm and the
message body will contain the output text, e.g. Temp outside range: 49.2 degC.
To remove an action, click the Delete button.
 Advanced
The Advanced tab contains various other options, which will vary according to the channel type. For example, an analog
channel might include input gain lock settings, while a frequency input channel might have a sample period setting.
For most channel types, data manipulation options (e.g. rate of change) can also be selected here.
Control Channels
Control channels are outputs, so many of the options to do with sampling or processing the channel return value are not
relevant. Consequently there is only one tab for these channel types.
In the configuration builder, three different digital output channel types are provided (LED driver, Relay driver and Logic
state). These all translate to the logger DSO channel type, the only difference between them is in the displayed graphics for
the wiring diagrams and controls.
A typical properties pane display for a control channel is shown below.
Figure 30: Defining a control channel
For digital outputs, the channel number is selected by choosing the appropriate wiring diagram, rather than setting a
separate control (as is the case for analog channels).
The controls in the lower part of the properties pane select whether the control output state should be on, off, set according
to a CV value (on if the CV is non-zero, off if it is zero) or inverted.
You can also specify that the output should be pulsed – that is, set to the specified state for the indicated time, then inverted.
Thus in the above example the DT80 relay will be held closed for 500ms then released.
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Action Channels
An action is used to insert a command into a schedule. Currently, two actions are available – unload data via email and
unload data via FTP.
These actions translate into commands of the form:
DO{COPYD dest=ftp://... format= sched= data= alarms= start=
and
DO{COPYD dest=mailto://... format= sched= data= alarms= start=
respectively. (See COPYD – Unload Data (P97))
 FTP Logged Data
The properties pane for the FTP Logged Data action is shown in Figure 31.
Figure 31: FTP action settings
The upper part of the pane contains controls for specifying the unload destination – FTP server details and destination path
name. In this example, a replaceable parameter ?(serial) has been entered as the folder name. As discussed in Unload
Destination Replaceable Parameters (P102), this will be replaced with the DT80 serial number when the unload command is
executed. The file name field has been left blank, so a filename with the default format will be generated, e.g.
077_20110303T110908.csv.
The lower part of the screen defines the other options in the COPYD command, namely:

unload format (CSV or DBD)

whether data or alarm records are included, or both

the unload time range. The end time is always "now", while the start time can be either: the earliest available record, or
the earliest record that has not yet been unloaded ("new data only"), or n minutes/hours/days ago.

the schedules to include (on the Optional tab)
 Email Logged Data
The properties pane for an email unload is very similar. The lower part is the same as for FTP. The upper part is where you
specify the email destination – the recipient's email address (or addresses, comma separated), plus an optional custom
message subject and body.
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Special Channel Types
 Reference
A reference channel gets its value from another previously measured value. Thus if you add a reference channel you will be
asked to select which existing channel you wish to reference.
Other than that, a reference channel is configured in a similar way to any other measurement channel, i.e. the same five tabs
of options are displayed.
References are useful in alarms. You can define multiple alarm channels, all of which are testing a reference to a single
measurement against different setpoints.
Note Reference channels cannot be added to the On Logger Activation (immediate) schedule, and channels in the On
Logger Activation schedule cannot themselves be referenced.
 Calculation
A calculation channel gets its value from an mathematical expression, which may include references to other measurement
channels. The result of the calculation can be logged, have statistics applied to it, and so on – the same as any other
measurement channel.
The configuration builder provides an "expression builder" to make it easier to enter a valid expression. This will appear
when you click inside the Calculation field.
Figure 32: Defining a calculation
The three boxes below the calculation entry field list the available maths functions, operators and previously defined
channels that can be referenced. Clicking on any of the items in these boxes will insert it into the calculation entry field. You
can also edit the calculation field manually.
In the above example, the calculation channel is working out the mean of two separate thermocouple readings.
 Delay
The Delay channel inserts a fixed delay between the execution of the channels immediately above and below it in the tree
view.
 Manual Channel
This channel type allows you to manually define one or more channels. It is useful for situations where the configuration
builder does not directly support the DT80 channel type you wish to use – for example the generic serial channel (SERIAL).
Anything you type here will be copied verbatim to the generated DT80 program – no syntax or consistency checking is
performed by the configuration builder.
One substitution that will be made, however, is that any occurrences of $name will be replaced by the actual name of the
manual channel, as shown in its tree view entry.
Global Settings
Clicking on the top entry in the tree view will display the logger's global settings. A vertical menu of categories will be
displayed. If you click on a category name then a set of related controls will be displayed in the main part of the window.
These controls cause the configuration builder to generate appropriate profile settings, which will then be included in your
configuration. Controls vs. Profiles (P136) summarises the relationship between global settings controls and profile settings.
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Site information
This page is provided as a way of identifying and documenting a configuration.
Figure 33: Site information page
As shown in Figure 33, there are two controls:

Name is an optional configuration name. This will be shown on the home screen of the DT80 LCD display. If not
specified then the job name will be shown, which is always CONFIG for a job generated by the dEX configuration
builder.

Site details is a free text field, where you may wish to record further details about the site, a history of changes made
to the configuration, and so on. This information is not used by the DT80 at all.
Regional
The Regional page contains settings related to the region in which the logger is deployed:

The Mains frequency setting should be set to the local power mains frequency. The DT80 integrates analog
measurements over an integral number of mains cycles, in order to provide maximum rejection of mains-related noise.

Set the Temperature units to the desired units to be used for all temperature measurements.

Decimal point character is used to select the number format used in CSV and free format data returned by the
logger. See CSV Format Data (P26) for more details.
Time and Date
The Time and Date page contains time related settings:

The Time zone control must be set if you are using NTP to synchronise the DT80's system time; see Automatic Time
Adjustment (NTP) (P256). If NTP is not used then this does not need to be set. Note that the city names are provided
as a guide only, and do not take daylight savings into account.

A button is provided for setting the logger date and time. The same function is provided on the Logger menu.

There are controls relating to Network Time Protocol (NTP). The DT80 can use NTP to synchronise its internal system
time to a time server on the Internet. See Automatic Time Adjustment (NTP) (P256). If NTP is enabled then the time
zone control must be set appropriately.
Statistics
Any channels which are configured to report statistical values will be sampled at this rate, which should always be faster than
the channel's schedule's trigger rate. See Statistical Report Schedules (P52).
CEM
If your logger has Channel Expansion Modules connected then the Number of CEMs field must be set correctly, otherwise
you will not be able to select the channel number for any CEM-connected sensors.
Note also that the configuration builder assumes that the CEMs' addresses are set sequentially starting at 1. That is, if you
specify that two CEMs are connected then they must be set to addresses 1 and 2.
See The CEM20 (P355) for more details.
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Power
This page contains a number of options that can be used to trade off the DT80's speed and availability against power
consumption.
Four aspects of DT80 operation can be controlled on this page:

Enabling low power sleep mode (see Sleep Mode (P284)) will reduce the DT80 power consumption to very low levels
after a defined period of inactivity and between scheduled measurements. However, during sleep no communications
or other interaction with the logger are possible.
By default, sleep mode is disabled when the DT80 is externally powered. For applications which use an external
12/24V battery you will probably want to clear this checkbox, so that the DT80 can sleep while externally powered.
Sleep is also disabled by default if an Ethernet or USB cable is connected, because any USB/Ethernet connection will
be lost when the DT80 goes to sleep. You can force the DT80 to go to sleep regardless of cable status by clearing the
"disable sleep if using USB/ethernet" checkbox.

The DT80's analog measurement subsystem can be powered continuously, or switched on and off as required (see
Analog Warm Up Time (P352)). The latter option saves power, but requires a short "warm up" time before each group
of analog measurements, which will reduce the DT80's maximum sample rate.

The display backlight can be powered continuously (making the LCD easier to read), or switched on for a short time
following a key press, or not used at all. See Display Backlight (P116).

The 12V power output can be enabled continuously (possibly also during sleep mode), or it can be configured to
automatically switch on when a CEM measurement is required. See Controlling 12V Power Output (P276).
At the bottom of the page, a bar graph shows the relative power consumption of the selected settings. This is intended as a
guide only, and the power increments shown on the graph are not to scale.
Security
Allowing access to the DT80's servers via the Internet can present a security risk. This page allows you to restrict access to
selected DT80 services. See also Security (P246).

The DT80's command, FTP and Modbus servers can be selectively enabled or disabled. Note that the web (HTTP)
server cannot be disabled via the dEX configuration builder, as dEX requires the web server in order to function. (Use
manual profile commands if you wish to disable the DT80 web server or set these servers to non-standard TCP port
numbers.)

The FTP server credentials (user name and password) can be set, and you can specify whether read-only
anonymous FTP access to the DT80 is permitted. These credentials are also used when connecting to the DT80 from
a remote PPP client.

A command server password and timeout can be defined. If a password is set then the DT80 will ignore anything
sent to the command server until the password is sent. See Password Protection (P179).
Serial Port Controls
The three DT80 serial ports (USB, host RS232 and serial sensor) are configured in a similar way: Each has its own page of
controls.

On the USB port page (not present on DT82 models), there is only one setting: the port function, which specifies
whether the port should be used for command/PPP, PPP only, serial sensor or Modbus. You can also disable the port.
See Configuring the USB Port (P180).

On the host port page (not present on DT8xM models), you can set the port function, as well as the serial parameters
(baud rate, flow control etc.) The flow control timeout (maximum time to spend waiting for a "clear to send" indication
before sending anyway) can also be set. See Configuring the Host RS-232 Port (P188).

On the sensor port page (not present on DT81/82E models) there are a similar set of controls for the serial sensor
port, plus an extra one to select the port mode (RS232/422/485). See Configuring the Serial Sensor Port (P191).
Ethernet
On this page you can:

enable or disable the Ethernet port.

select automatic or manual configuration. Automatic is suitable if there is a DHCP server running on your local
network, or if you a connecting directly to a single PC via a cross-over cable. Select manual if you wish to configure a
static IP address.

manually set up the required network parameters, if manual configuration was selected. These include IP address,
subnet mask, gateway address and DNS server addresses. These are normally specified by your network
administrator.
See How to set up Ethernet (P228) for more details.
Note If you are running the dEX configuration builder over the Ethernet connection then bear in mind that any change to
these settings may result in the connection being lost.
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Ethernet Email
The Ethernet email page is used to configure the required settings for sending email via Ethernet. This includes:

a name to be used in the "From" field for all emails sent by the logger. Typically the name would be a site name. If not
specified then a name based on the DT80's model and serial number is used e.g. "DT85LM-3 098812".

an email address to be used in the "From" field. This must be a validly formatted email address. If you are using a
third-party email provider then this normally needs to be the address that is associated with your account. If any emails
sent by the logger cannot be delivered then a "bounce" message will usually be sent to this address.

details of the SMTP (email) server to use: server address and username and password, as specified by your ISP or
network administrator.
See Setting Up Email (P227) for more details.
Modem Email
DT8xM models only
This page is similar to the Ethernet email page except that the settings relate to sending email via the integrated modem.
The From Name and From email settings specify the desired sender details, as for Ethernet. Note that if you are using the
email service provided by your mobile carrier then the From email setting can usually be any address.
The DT80 includes a list of SMTP servers provided by certain mobile carriers. If Automatic is selected then it will attempt to
locate the correct SMTP server settings based on the inserted SIM card. If this doesn't work (a "SMTP server not set" error is
returned when the DT80 first attempts to send email) then you will need to select Manual and obtain the correct settings from
your mobile carrier.
Note Not all mobile carriers provide an SMTP server. If your carrier doesn't then you will need to source a third party email
provider.
See Email (P205) for more details.
Modem
This page contains settings for the integrated modem (DT8xM models only). The page is divided into four tabs:

The General tab contains basic connectivity settings. If the SIM has a PIN set then it must be entered here.
This is also where the Access Point Name (APN) is set. The DT80 includes a list of APNs used by certain mobile
carriers. If one of the "set by SIM" options is selected then the DT80 will attempt to locate the correct APN settings
based on the inserted SIM card. If this doesn't work (an "APN not set" error is returned when the DT80 first attempts to
connect to the Internet) then you will need to select Manual and obtain the correct APN settings from your mobile
carrier. See Manual Configuration (P204) for more details.

The Power tab is used to configure communications session timing parameters – such as when a session should start
and how long it should persist for – as described in Session Timing Settings (P217).

The Session connection tab deals with communications session error handling. See Session Failures (P218) for
more information.

Finally, the Network capabilities tab allows you to restrict the modem to either 3G or GSM operation, or restrict it to
particular frequency bands. These settings are seldom required as the DT80 will automatically connect to the best
available network that has adequate signal level. However, if you wish to force the DT80 to connect to a particular
mobile network, and you know its frequency band, then these settings can provide a way of doing this. See also
Network (P213).
For regular models (no integrated modem), this page contains selected settings for an external modem. These correspond to
profile settings in the HOST_MODEM section.
Modem DDNS
This page contains settings for the DT80's Dynamic DNS client, which allows you to access the logger from the Internet
using a custom domain name. These settings are described in Dynamic DNS (P206).
Startup
The settings on this page control the DT80's behaviour following a hard reset (HRESET command, power failure, hardware
reset switch, or abnormal reset).
By default, the current job will be reloaded following reset, but this can be disabled by unticking the Automatically activate
checkbox.
You can also make the DT80 restore all digital outputs (including the latching relay output) to their previous state following
reset (by default they will be reset to the "off" state), using the Maintain digital outputs checkbox.
Keypad Functions
This page allows up to ten commands to be added to the function menu that is displayed when the Func key is pressed. To
add or edit a label or command click on the appropriate table cell, enter the new text then press Enter or click on another cell.
See also User Defined Functions (P116).
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LCD
The options on this page are mostly intended for applications where the display is visible but the keypad is not accessible.
The Auto-scroll option will cycle through all defined channels on the display at the specified rate, while the Auto-dismiss
option will automatically acknowledge any warning messages that may be shown on the LCD after they have been displayed
for the specified time. See also Display (P113).
Calibration
This page contains a control to set the voltage drift threshold (in microvolts) for triggering an automatic recalibration of the
DT80's analog system. Automatic recalibration reduces the effect of temperature changes on analog measurements. See
Calibration and Characterisation (P352).
Advanced
The Advanced page lists those profile settings that are not covered by controls on the previous pages. These profiles are
less commonly used. Refer to Profile Settings (P251) for information on all profile settings.
Figure 34 shows a typical Advanced settings display.
Figure 34: Advanced settings
Note the following points:


To change a value, click on it and type the new value. No checking is performed on the entered value so carefully
check the format and allowable range, otherwise an error may be generated when you try to load the configuration
onto the logger. After entering a new value, press Enter or click anywhere else to commit the change.
If a setting has a non-default value then it will be shown in red. In the above screenshot, the
MIN_SIGNAL_FOR_DATA_DBM profile is set to -113, which is not the default.

You may see some profile settings in grey, which cannot be edited. These are "hidden" profiles and are generally
internal settings. Hidden profiles will not be included in your configuration and are are normally invisible. If a hidden
profile is present in this table then this is a warning that it is currently set to a non-default value and may affect the
operation of the logger.
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Controls vs. Profiles
The following table summarises the mapping between the controls described in this section and the DT80 profile settings,
which are discussed in Profile Settings (P251) and throughout this manual.
Category
Control
Site
information
Regional
Name
Mains frequency
Temperature units
Decimal point char
Time & date Time zone
Use NTP
NTP server
Statistics
CEM
Power
Update clock every
Stat. schedule rate
Number of CEMs
Allow sleep
Delay until sleep
Disable sleep if ext power
Disable sleep if Eth/USB
Power analog subsystem
Display backlight
12V power output
Security
Command server
FTP server
HTTP server
Modbus server
FTP username
FTP password
Anonymous FTP
Command password
Command timeout
USB port
Function
Host port
Function
Data rate
Data bits
Stop bits
Parity
Flow control
Flow control timeout
Sensor port Function
Data rate
Data bits
Stop bits
Parity
Mode
Flow control
Flow control timeout
Ethernet
Enable
Auto-config
Static IP address
Subnet mask
Ethernet
UM-0085-B7
Gateway address
Primary DNS
Secondary DNS
From name
Default
Equivalent command language setting and default
PROFILE USER SITE=
50Hz
°C
Standard
0
no
0.datataker.pool
.ntp.org
3599 s
1s
0
yes
30 s
yes
yes
only when taking a
reading
on when key pressed
on when taking CEM
reading
enabled
enabled
enabled (fixed)
enabled
DATATAKER
DATATAKER
enabled
600 s
command
command
57600
8
1
none
software
60 s
serial sensor
1200
8
1
none
RS232
none
60 s
yes
yes
0.0.0.0
255.255.255.0
0.0.0.0
0.0.0.0
0.0.0.0
PROFILE PARAMETERS P11=50
PROFILE PARAMETERS P36=0
PROFILE PARAMETERS P38=46
PROFILE LOCALE TIME_ZONE=0S
PROFILE NTP BACKGROUND_ENABLE=NO
PROFILE NTP SERVER=
0.datataker.pool.ntp.org
PROFILE NTP BACKGROUND_PERIOD=3599S
RS1S
-
PROFILE
PROFILE
PROFILE
PROFILE
PROFILE
PARAMETERS
PARAMETERS
PARAMETERS
PARAMETERS
PARAMETERS
P15=0
P17=30
P15=0
P15=0
P21=0
PROFILE PARAMETERS P20=2
PROFILE PARAMETERS P28=0
PROFILE COMMAND_SERVER PORT=7700
PROFILE FTP_SERVER PORT=21
PROFILE HTTP_SERVER PORT=80
PROFILE MODBUS_SERVER TCPIP_PORT=502
PROFILE FTP_SERVER USER=DATATAKER
PROFILE FTP_SERVER PASSWORD=DATATAKER
PROFILE FTP_SERVER ALLOW_ANONYMOUS=YES
PASSWORD=
PROFILE PARAMETERS P14=600
PROFILE USB_PORT FUNCTION=COMMAND
PROFILE HOST_PORT FUNCTION=COMMAND
PROFILE HOST_PORT BPS=57600
PROFILE HOST_PORT DATA_BITS=8
PROFILE HOST_PORT STOP_BITS=1
PROFILE HOST_PORT PARITY=NONE
PROFILE HOST_PORT FLOW=SOFTWARE
PROFILE PARAMETERS P26=60
PROFILE SERSEN_PORT FUNCTION=SERIAL
PROFILE SERSEN_PORT BPS=1200
PROFILE SERSEN_PORT DATA_BITS=8
PROFILE SERSEN_PORT STOP_BITS=1
PROFILE SERSEN_PORT PARITY=NONE
PROFILE SERSEN_PORT MODE=RS232
PROFILE SERSEN_PORT FLOW=NONE
PROFILE PARAMETERS P26=60
PROFILE ETHERNET ENABLE=YES
PROFILE ETHERNET IP_ADDRESS=AUTO
PROFILE ETHERNET IP_ADDRESS=AUTO
PROFILE ETHERNET
SUBNET_MASK=255.255.255.0
PROFILE ETHERNET GATEWAY=0.0.0.0
PROFILE NETWORK DNS_SERVER_1=0.0.0.0
PROFILE NETWORK DNS_SERVER_2=0.0.0.0
PROFILE ETHERNET_SESSION SENDER_NAME=
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Category
Control
Default
Email
From email
your.logger@
datataker.com
Modem
Email
SMTP server
Username
Password
From name
From email
Modem
(DT8xM
models)
Modem
(standard
models)
Modem
DDNS
Start up
Keypad
LCD
Calibration
SMTP server
Username
Password
SIM PIN
Mobile network
APN
Username
Password
Modem power
Leave on for at least
Once idle, leave on for
Force off after
Try to register for
Retry interval
Heartbeat method
Ping servers
Service
GSM bands
3G bands
Assume modem present
Modem power control
Reset modem if idle for
Enable DDNS
Logger domain name
Server domain name
Server port
Username
Password
Automatically activate
Maintain digital out/relay
Label x 10
Command x 10
Auto-scroll interval
Auto-dismiss after
Enable auto calibration
Max drift before
recalibration
Equivalent command language setting and default
PROFILE ETHERNET_SESSION RETURN_ADDRESS=
your.logger@datataker.com
PROFILE ETHERNET _SESSION SMTP_SERVER=
PROFILE ETHERNET _SESSION SMTP_ACCOUNT=
PROFILE ETHERNET _SESSION SMTP_PASSWORD=
PROFILE MODEM_SESSION SENDER_NAME=
PROFILE MODEM_SESSION RETURN_ADDRESS=
your.logger@
datataker.com
your.logger@datataker.com
PROFILE MODEM_SESSION SMTP_SERVER=
(*)
PROFILE MODEM_SESSION SMTP_ACCOUNT=
(*)
PROFILE MODEM_SESSION SMTP_PASSWORD=
(*)
PROFILE MODEM PIN=
PROFILE MODEM SMS_ONLY=NO
SMS and internet
PROFILE MODEM APN=
(*)
PROFILE MODEM APN_ACCOUNT=
(*)
PROFILE MODEM APN_PASSWORD=
(*)
PROFILE MODEM_SESSION TIMING_CONTROL=NONE
only when required
PROFILE MODEM_SESSION MIN_DURATION_S=0
0s
PROFILE MODEM_SESSION MIN_IDLE_S=120
120 s
PROFILE MODEM_SESSION MAX_DURATION_S=0
PROFILE MODEM REGISTRATION_WAIT_S=60
60 s
PROFILE MODEM RETRY_DELAY_S=30
30 s
PROFILE MODEM_SESSION NETWORK_CHECK=DNS
DNS
PROFILE MODEM_SESSION PING_SERVERS=
PROFILE MODEM SERVICE=AUTO
auto
PROFILE MODEM GSM_BANDS=7
quad-band
PROFILE MODEM 3G_BANDS=19
tri band
PROFILE HOST_MODEM DETECTION=DSR
if DSR active
PROFILE HOST_MODEM EXT_POWER_SWITCH=NONE
none
PROFILE HOST_MODEM MAX_CD_IDLE=43200
43200 s
PROFILE MODEM_SESSION DDNS_ENABLE=NO
no
PROFILE MODEM_SESSION DDNS_HOST_NAME=
members.dyndns.org/ PROFILE MODEM_SESSION DDNS_SERVER_URI=
nic/update
members.dyndns.org/nic/update
PROFILE MODEM_SESSION DDNS_SERVER_PORT=80
80
PROFILE MODEM_SESSION DDNS_ACCOUNT=
PROFILE MODEM_SESSION DDNS_PASSWORD=
PROFILE STARTUP RUN=CURRENT_JOB
yes
PROFILE STARTUP MAINTAIN_OUTPUTS=NO
no
(varies)
PROFILE FUNCTION Fn_LABEL=
(varies)
PROFILE FUNCTION Fn_COMMAND=
PROFILE DISPLAY AUTOSCROLL_INTERVAL=0S
disabled
PROFILE DISPLAY AUTOACK_DELAY=0S
disabled
PROFILE SWITCHES K=ON
enabled
PROFILE PARAMETERS P0=3
3 μV
Table 5: Global logger controls and equivalent profile settings.
In the above table (*) indicates that a suitable default value will be set automatically if possible, based on the inserted SIM.
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Managing Configurations
Common Tasks
The File menu is where you manage the logger configurations that you create with the configuration builder.
 Backing up Configurations
You can save the configuration that you are working on to your computer using the Save to disc... option on the File menu.
By default, dEX configuration files have a .dex file extension.
Likewise, you can open a saved configuration by selecting Open from disc...
 Activating a Configuration
Once your configuration is complete, you can save it to the logger and it will then start running. The process is as follows.
1.
Select Save to logger on the File menu.
2.
The configuration builder will first check whether there is an existing job on the logger which has the same name as
that used by the configuration builder (which is CONFIG), and which has existing logged data. If so, a warning will be
displayed, indicating that any logged data for the existing job is about to be deleted. If you want to keep the data from
the existing job then click Cancel, other wise click Continue and it will be deleted.
3.
The current logger configuration will then be reset so any currently running job will be stopped. If the logger is nearby
you will hear the relays click as it performs the normal re-calibration that occurs whenever a soft reset is performed.
4.
The new configuration will now be uploaded onto the DT80. This may take 30 seconds or more.
5.
If all goes well the new configuration will start running immediately. If the DT80 detects an error in the configuration
then the error message generated by the DT80 will be displayed – in this case the logger will now have no current job.
6.
Once the configuration has been activated successfully, you can click the Logger Home button and switch over the
dEX web interface, which will allow you to monitor the data being collected by your new configuration.
Note If there are any channels which do not have a wiring or reference source selected then you will be prompted to
complete the definition of these channels before activating the configuration.
 Loading a Configuration
When the configuration builder is started, the logger's current configuration (all defined schedules and channels, plus all
profile settings) will be retrieved and presented. If there is no dEX-generated configuration present on the logger (as will be
the case when the logger is first switched on, for example) then a warning message will be displayed then a blank
configuration will be created. Note however that the logger's current profile settings will still be loaded in this case.
You can also manually load the current configuration from the logger into dEX using the Open from logger option on the
File menu.
 Creating a New Configuration
The New option on the File menu will load a blank configuration into dEX (the logger's actual running configuration will not be
affected until you select Save to logger).
All schedule and channel definitions will be removed, and all profile settings will be reset to factory default values. Note
however that before this is done you will be asked whether you want to clear or retain the current modem and Ethernet
settings.
For example, if you have set a manual Ethernet address for the logger then will probably want to ensure that the Keep
logger's current ethernet settings checkbox is ticked – otherwise when the configuration is saved to the logger the DT80's
IP address will be reset to "automatic" and you will lose your connection to the logger (at least until you enter the new IP
address into your browser).
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Configuration Files
PC
DT80
dEX
configuration
builder
config.xml
config.dxc
schedule &
channel
definitions
profile
settings
mysite.dex
Figure 35: How dEX stores configuration information
The above diagram summarises how configuration details are stored. Notice that:

dEX saves your configuration to the logger as (1) an XML file (config.xml); (2) the equivalent logger command
language file (config.dxc), which the logger then interprets in the usual way in order to set up its schedules and
channels; and (3) the set of profile settings.

dEX retrieves the configuration from the logger by reading back the config.xml file and the profile settings. It does not
read the config.dxc file that it generated, nor can it read the actual schedule and channel definitions (which may have
been changed outside of dEX).

You can store any number of configuration XML files (which also include profile settings) on your computer's file
system (.dex files).
Logger Controls
The Logger menu allows some basic logger control functions to be performed.
The Set Logger Date & Time option allows you to set the logger's time to the current PC time, or to set it manually to a
specific value.
Restart will perform the RUNJOB"CONFIG" command. This will reload the schedule and channel definitions that have
been previously saved to the logger. Unlike the Save to Logger command, Restart will not change any profile settings, nor
will it reset channel variables or digital outputs.
Stop and Resume will issue the H (halt) and G (go) commands respectively, which will halt and resume all schedules.
Finally, the Clear all data option will delete any logged data for the current configuration (DELD job=config).
Preventing Configuration Changes
Once the DT80 has been fully configured, you may wish to remove the configuration builder option from the Logger home
page, so that it is no longer accessible to everyday users. To do this, rename the folder b:\www\jango, which contains the
configuration builder. You can use the command interface:
RENAME b:\www\jango b:\www\jango_hidden
(If entered using DeTransfer, use \\ rather than \.)
Alternatively, connect to the DT80's FTP server and use your FTP client to rename the folder.
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dEX Web Interface
Using the Web Interface
The following screenshot shows the general web interface screen layout:
Figure 36: Welcome Screen
The DT80 web interface comprises the following main elements:

The large properties pane on the right hand side is used to display various "screens" of information. Its contents will
change depending on which screen you select.

The menus on the left hand side are used to select which screen to display. There are five menus: Status, Retrieve
Data, Measurement, Command, and Help. Clicking on a menu button causes its list of menu items (screens) to be
revealed, and the most recently selected screen will be displayed in the properties pane.
In the above screenshot, the Status menu is selected. This menu has five screens: Welcome, Schedules, Storage,
Diagnostics and Program. The Welcome screen is the one that is currently displayed. If you then clicked on
Schedules, for example, then the Schedules screen would be displayed in the properties pane area.
Clicking on the four small triangles at the far left will hide (or restore) the menu, to allow more space for the properties
pane.
Note By using the web interface configuration tool, it is possible to disable or restrict some of the menu options. The
sample displays shown in Figure 36 and throughout this section assume that all options are available (which is the
factory default).

The purple strip above the properties pane contains the name of the selected menu (Logger Status in this case) and
may contain controls (buttons etc.) which relate to the currently displayed screen. In this case there is one button:
Update, which will cause the displayed information to be updated. At the right hand edge of this area is the circular
activity indicator. This symbol will be animated while the web interface is actively communicating with the logger.

The banner area along the top of the screen contains four controls: Firstly, the Logger home button provides a link
back to the Logger Home page (Figure 21). Secondly, the dataTaker logo is a link to the Datataker website
(www.datataker.com). Thirdly, there is a Full Screen link in the top right corner. This link will display the web interface
so it covers the entire screen. All browser controls will be hidden, as will the Windows task bar and desktop. To exit
this mode press Esc or click the Exit Full Screen link. Note that all keyboard input, other than the Esc key (and certain
Windows keystrokes e.g. Alt-Tab), is disabled while in full screen mode. Finally, there is an About link, which displays
the version number of the web interface.
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
Along the bottom of the screen is the status bar. This displays the current time and date according to the PC's clock.
Other status or error messages may also be displayed here.
If the browser window is resized then all elements of the DT80 web interface will resize appropriately. If the browser window
is too small, however, then scroll bars will appear.
Many of the controls and other screen elements in the DT80 web interface include tool tips. If you move the cursor over the
item and hold it there, a small yellow box will appear containing a brief description of the item.
Status Screens
The Status menu allows you to select one of five different screens, each showing useful information about the current status
of the DT80.
Welcome Screen
The Welcome screen, as shown in Figure 36, is the first screen displayed when the web interface is started. It includes the
following basic information about the connected logger:

name of the currently loaded job, if any

current date and time, according to the DT80's real-time clock. Press Update to update the display.

the logger product type, including model number and series (e.g. DT80-2 for a DT80 Series 2)

the logger serial number

the version number of the logger's firmware
Schedules Screen
Figure 37: Schedules Screen
The Schedules screen shows the status of each of the schedules in the current job.
The schedules are presented in tabular form, one row per defined schedule. For each schedule the following information is
displayed:

schedule ID (e.g. A) and user-defined name, if any

whether the schedule is running or halted (in the above example all six schedules are running)

whether logging is enabled for the schedule (in this case logging is enabled for all schedules except schedule E)

the number of logged data and alarm records. The bar graphs give an indication of the percentage of the allocated
storefile space that contains data. For schedules operating in overwrite mode (which is the default), the bar graph is
shown in blue. For schedules in non-overwrite mode (e.g. RA(DATA:5H:NOV)1S), the bargraph is shown in red if
the storefile is greater than 80% full, otherwise green.

the timestamp of the oldest logged record (data or alarm)

the timestamp of the newest logged record (data or alarm)
Press Update to update the displayed details.
Click on a column heading to re-sort the table based on the data in that column. The small triangle shows which column is the
current sort key.
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Note also the yellow tool tip in the above screen shot, which pops up if you move the mouse cursor over the bar graphs. This
shows the storefile mode (overwrite/non-overwrite), the number of logged records and the size in records of the store.
Storage Screen
Figure 38: Storage Screen, showing details for the internal file system (B:)
The Storage screen provides an overview of the amount of space used and available on the DT80's internal file system, or
on a connected USB memory device.
Select the drive to display (B: drive – internal, or A: drive – USB device) using the control at the top of the screen.
The displayed pie chart contains up to four segments:

Free (green) – this space is unused

Current job (orange) – space used by current job, including program text storage, data and alarm files, and any saved
archive files. Remember that the data and alarm storefiles are pre-allocated, fixed size files, so the same amount of
space will be used regardless of the actual number of data points or alarms that have been logged (see How Data and
Alarms are Stored (P89)). If there is no current job loaded then this segment will not be present.

Other job(s) (dark blue) – space used by other jobs which have previously been defined but which are not currently
active. If these jobs and their logged data are no longer required then this space can be recovered using the DELJOB
command (see Deleting Jobs (P58)).

Non job files (light blue) – this includes all other files stored on the drive, such as the web interface, user manual,
event log, and so on.
The actual space used (in bytes) for each segment can be displayed by holding the mouse cursor over the legend on the
right hand side of the screen.
For the USB drive (A:) only two segments are shown: Free and Used.
Diagnostics Screen
Figure 39: Diagnostics Screen, showing Self Test output
The Diagnostics screen provides functions which may be helpful when diagnosing a problem with the DT80. You can:

display the event log, which records events such as resets and power failures (Event Logs (P262))
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
execute a self test, which verifies correct hardware operation (TEST Command (P261))

generate a full service report. This includes the above items, plus several other details regarding the state of the
logger (SERVICEDATA Command (P263)). The report also contains details relating to the web client (i.e. your PC and
browser).
To perform the desired function, press the appropriate button. If this is the first time you have selected the function then it will
be performed immediately and after a short pause the data will appear. If you have previously selected the function then the
previously collected data will be displayed; press Update if desired to repeat the operation.
Program Screen
The Program screen simply displays a listing of the program text for the current job, similar to the SHOWPROG command.
Data Retrieval
Unloading Data Using the Web Interface
The Retrieve Data screen allows you to transfer logged data and alarms from the DT80 to your computer. There are two
variants of this screen:

The Basic screen will be shown by default. You can retrieve data and/or alarms for the current job: either all logged
data, or a specified time range, or just the new data (that is, data logged since you last retrieved data)

The Advanced screen (see Figure 40) is the same, except it also shows details relating to the number of logged
data/alarm records for each schedule (similar to the Schedules screen (P141)). You can also select the schedules for
which to retrieve data.
This process is essentially the same as unloading the data, using the COPYD command (see Retrieving Logged Data
(P93)), in that the logged data is read out of the logger's store files and saved in CSV or DBD form.
CSV data is in form that can be loaded directly into a spreadsheet application such as Excel.
DBD format is the logger's native binary format, which is generally quicker to transfer. DBD files can be opened by the
dataTaker dump_dbd utility and certain data analysis packages.
Figure 40: Retrieve Data Screen (Advanced View)
The general procedure for retrieving data is:
1.
Specify the data format and the extent of the data and/or alarms to be retrieved, using the various controls (described
further below)
2.
Press Retrieve Now
3.
A "Save As" dialog will be displayed where you can enter a filename. The selected data will be saved to this file in CSV
or DBD format.
4.
Locate the saved file and open it using a suitable application
Specifying the Data Range
 Time Range
The range of data to be retrieved is specified using the control at the top of the screen. The options are as follows:
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
All (which is the default) will retrieve all available data/alarms. The displayed start and end times indicate the
approximate time range that will be retrieved. Press Update to update these values.

Range allows you to specify an explicit date/time range. Clicking on the start or end date fields will display a calendar
control, as shown in Figure 41 below. Use the left and right arrow buttons to select the month, then click on the
required day. The currently selected date is highlighted in blue, while today's date is shown in grey. Click outside the
calendar control to dismiss it without changing the selected date.
When using the Range option it is helpful to select the Advanced screen so you can see the time range for each
schedule's logged data/alarms.

New Data Only will retrieve all data logged since the last unload. As with the All option, the displayed start and end
times indicate the approximate time range that will be retrieved. Press Update to update these values.
Note For the New Data Only option, "unload" means a web interface data retrieval by any browser session. In other words,
"since the last unload" does not necessarily mean "since your last unload". The New Data Only feature should therefore
normally only be used where data is being collected by a single web user.
Figure 41: Date Selection Control
 Data or Alarms
The two checkboxes below the range control should be self-explanatory – they select whether data, alarms or both will be
retrieved. The default is to retrieve both data and alarms.
 Data Format
Select DBD or CSV format. DBD will normally be faster to transfer, but CSV can be opened by more applications.
 Schedules
If the Advanced screen is selected then a table showing the status of each schedule is shown in the lower part of the screen.
This has the same format as the Schedules status screen, with the addition of a Get column containing a checkbox for each
schedule.
If a schedule's checkbox is ticked than data and/or alarms for that schedule will be retrieved; if it's not then it won't.
Retrieving Data
When you click on the Retrieve Now button, the web interface will first query the logger to obtain an estimate of the number
of records that will be returned, given the selections you have made. If the DT80 indicates that there is no data to retrieve
than a message to that effect will be displayed and the unload will be cancelled.
Next, the web interface will start the actual data download. At this point the "Save As" dialog will be displayed. Note that a
default filename will be automatically generated, in the following format:
serial_jobname_yyyymmddThhmmss.CSV (or .DBD)
where serial is the DT80's serial number, jobname is the name of the current job and the rest is the date and time at which
the data retrieval was performed. A different name or location may be specified if desired.
A progress dialog will now be displayed. The bar graph gives an approximate indication of the percentage completion.
Once the process is complete, "Done" will be displayed; you can now open the file using your preferred application. A
spreadsheet application (e.g. Excel) provides many analysis and charting capabilities.
CSV Data Format
By default data and alarms are returned in standard Comma Separated Value (CSV) format.
The file consists of a number of rows. Each row is terminated by a CR-LF sequence.
Each row consists of a number of fields (columns), separated by commas. (Semi-colons (;) will be used if the DT80 has
been configured to use a comma as the decimal point character.)
Each row consists of the following fields, in order:

timestamp (e.g. 2007/12/15 20:49:45.905)

timezone. Currently, this field will always have the value "n", meaning "no timezone"
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data values for first schedule (zero or more fields, one for each loggable channel). Numeric data values are specified
in "mixed" format (may be either standard or exponential format), to 8 significant digits and trailing zeroes after the
decimal point are trimmed. String values are enclosed in quotes, with any control characters represented in ^c form
(e.g. a CR character would appear as ^M).

alarm number, alarm state (0-3) and alarm text (see Alarm Records (P87)) for first schedule (three fields; only present
if schedule has one or more loggable alarm channels)

data values for second schedule (if any)

alarm number, alarm state and alarm text for second schedule (if any)

(and so on, for each schedule)
The first row in the file is a header row, which contains a descriptive name for each field. For example, the name of a data
value field has the form " chanName (units)", e.g. "Reactor4 (degC)"
The first block of rows after the header row contain all data records for the first schedule. The next block of rows contain all
alarm records for the first schedule. Then comes the data records for the second schedule, and so on.
In other words, the CSV data is generated in schedule order, not in time order. However, once it is loaded into a spreadsheet
it is a trivial exercise to re-sort by the timestamp field.
DBD Data Format
Data may also be returned in the DT80's native binary (DBD) format. For large files, it can take a significant amount of time
for the DT80 to convert the data to CSV format, so transferring DBD files can be significantly quicker.
DBD files may be opened by certain third party graphing applications, such as DPlot by Hydesoft Computing LLC.
Displaying Real-Time Measurements
The web interface provides two ways of viewing real-time measurements:

all channels can be displayed in tabular form, one row for each defined channel

selected channels can be displayed using a variety of graphical mimic displays
Channel List Screen
Figure 42: Channel List Screen
The Channel List screen lists all channels defined in the current job. For each channel, the following information is
displayed:

Run – if green then the channel's schedule is running

Name – channel name

Value – channel value as at the last update (press Update to immediately update all values)

Units

Alarm – If the channel is an alarm channel (i.e. the channel is the quantity being tested in an ALARM or IF command)
then this column indicates the state of the alarm – active (ringing bell) or inactive (quiet bell). If the channel is not an
alarm channel then this column is blank.

Timestamp – the time at which the indicated value was recorded
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
Log – if green then logging has been enabled for the channel, and its enclosing schedule.

Input – the channel's default (standard) name

Schedule – the name of the schedule containing this channel
By default, working channels are not displayed in the channel list. (A working channel is one with the W channel option
specified, which means that it is not displayed, returned or logged.) However, if you tick the Show Hidden Channels
checkbox then all channels will be displayed.
As with most other screens, the displayed information can be immediately updated by pressing Update. It can also be set to
automatically update, by selecting Auto in the upper right of the screen. You can then specify the number of seconds
between updates.
Note that automatic updates will only continue while the Channel List screen is displayed. If you select a different screen then
the web interface will stop requesting updates from the logger.
Mimics Screen
Figure 43: Typical Mimic screen
The Mimics screen can be used to present selected channel values in a way that resembles traditional control panel
indicators.
Up to five separate mimic screens can be defined, using the web interface configuration tool (see Customising the Web
Interface (P156)).
Each mimic screen provides space for between one and sixteen mimic displays, arranged in a grid layout, as shown in the
screenshot. Initially, all display positions will be blank, with a single Add mimic... button in each display position. The
general procedure for setting up a mimic screen is as follows:
1.
First ensure that the required job is loaded and is working as required.
2.
Create a mimic by clicking on the Add mimic... button in the desired display position. You will then fill in various details
specifying the type of mimic (bar graph, meter, etc.), the channel, and various other options.
3.
Repeat the above to define more mimics. If required, existing mimics can be changed using the Configure control. It
is not necessary to define mimics for all six positions.
4.
When you are happy that all mimics are working as required, press Save Mimics. This will save your mimic
configuration to a file on the logger. The next time you connect to that logger (using any PC), your mimic setup will be
automatically retrieved and displayed.
 Types of Mimics
Eight different types of mimics are available:

Dial Meter – a pointer which moves across a graduated scale

Bar Graph – a variable height vertical bar with a graduated scale

Thermometer – a bar graph in the shape of a bulb thermometer

Compass – a circular compass display for indicating a bearing in degrees

Digital Panel – a numeric display, similar to a digital panel meter

LED – simulates a single or bi-colour LED

State Indicator – indicates one of two states using two LEDs

History List – displays a numeric value, along with previous samples
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
Trend Chart – displays a trend chart for one or more channels

Bar Chart – displays a single channel bar chart
On each mimic page you can present 1-16 channels using any combination of these mimic types.
 Creating a Mimic
To create a mimic, choose one of the six display positions and click the Add Mimic... button. If you want to replace an
existing mimic, then you will first need to delete the old one by clicking on the X button in the top right of the mimic's display
position.
When you click on Add Mimic..., a dialog box will be displayed (Figure 44) where you can specify

the type of mimic

the channel whose value you want to display
Once these have been set, press OK to create the mimic.
Figure 44: Mimic creation dialog
 Configuring the Mimic
Once a mimic has been created, it will be displayed in the selected position and will begin automatically updating at the
default rate, or the rate you set on the mimic creation dialog.
You can now change various aspects of the mimic by clicking on the mimic's Configure link in the lower left corner. This will
bring up a configuration dialog box. The contents of this dialog will vary according to the mimic type. A typical mimic
configuration dialog (for the Dial Meter type) is shown in Figure 45.
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Figure 45: Configuration dialog for Dial Meter mimics
For a given mimic type, the configuration settings may include:

Variable to display – specifies the channel to display

Custom variable label – the name of the channel (as set on the logger) can be overridden here

Update Rate – specifies how often the mimic will request an updated channel value from the logger

Units – this text string will be displayed in the lower right corner. Typically this would be set to Logger's to display the
channel's units string as specified in the logger program.

Minimum, Maximum, Label Steps – defines step size and extent of graduated scale for those mimic types that have
one (Bar Graph, Thermometer and Dial Meter)

Upper threshold, Range colour, Lower Threshold – divides the range of the mimic into three bands; a separate
scale or indicator colour can be specified for each band.

Decimal Places – number of digits after the decimal point in channel value when displayed numerically

Show Measured Value – for mimic types which do not display the numeric channel value as part of their main
graphic, this option allows you to include a small numeric channel value display.

Threshold – for bi-state mimic types (State Indicator and LED), the mimic will be displayed in the "active" state if the
channel value exceeds this threshold value

Colour – for some mimic types, the colour of the main graphic element can be adjusted. For bi-state mimics, both the
"active" and "inactive" colours can be specified.

Size – for some mimic types, the size of the main graphic element can be adjusted (LED radius, bar graph width, panel
meter font size, etc.)

State Labels – for State Indicator mimics, you can customise the text displayed next to each LED.
Once all required mimics have been created and configured, press Save Mimics (top right), which will save your mimic
setup to a file on the logger.
Note that only one mimic configuration can be stored on the logger. When you press Save Mimics, any previously stored
mimic configuration will be overwritten.
Saved mimics will be automatically reloaded whenever you connect to the logger using the web interface and display the
Mimics screen.
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Trend Chart Mimics
 About Charts
The trend chart mimic is the most sophisticated of the mimic types. It can retrieve historical data from the DT80 and plot one
or more channels on a "chart recorder" type display.
Figure 46: Typical chart mimic
Up to 5 different channels can be plotted on each chart mimic, and up to two Y axes can be defined.
The above screenshot shows a typical chart mimic shortly after the job was started. The chart has been configured to show
the last 20 minutes worth of data, and the job has been running for about 12 minutes. The blue trace (temperature) uses the
left hand axis, while the red trace (sine wave) uses the right hand axis.
The Y axis range can either be set manually (as is the case here) or automatically.
Moving the cursor over a trace will display details of an individual sample point, as shown in the screenshot, while moving the
cursor over the green area on the left will display a legend showing the channel name for each trace colour.
Each trace stores and displays up to 1000 data points, which may be fewer than the actual number of data points logged
over the displayed time interval. If this is the case then the trend chart will actually show a sample of the actual logged data.
Be aware that this sampling of the data may cause narrow peaks in the data to be missed, and not displayed.
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 Defining a Chart
Defining a chart is similar to defining any other mimic. Click the Add a mimic... button on any unused mimic space, which will
bring up the mimic creation dialog (Figure 44). Select Chart, and the chart mimic creation dialog (Figure 47) will be
displayed.
Figure 47: Chart mimic creation dialog
To define the chart:

Select the schedule containing the channel(s) to chart. Note that all channels plotted on a single chart must be part of
the same schedule.

Select a channel from the Avaliable list and press the > button to move it to the Selected list. Repeat for any further
channels that you wish to show on the chart.

Use the slider control to select the time window covered by the chart, e.g. selecting "2 hours" will plot data for the last
two hours.

Select the mimic reload rate, i.e. the rate at which new data will be requested from the logger. There is no point setting
this any faster than the logger's sample rate for the schedule.

Press Create mimic.
After creating the mimic, you can change any of these settings by clicking the chart mimic's Configure button to bring up the
chart configuration dialog. You are also able to set the trace colour, as well as the Y-axis scaling and labels.
Don't forget to press Save mimics (top right of the screen) to save all mimics to the logger – otherwise they will be lost when
you close or reload the browser window.
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Bar Chart Mimics
Bar chart mimics are similar to trend charts in that they both plot a channel's value versus time. The differences are:

Bar charts break the displayed time window into discrete intervals, one per displayed bar. For example, if the time
window is one day then the sample interval is one hour.

With bar charts the time window is chosen from a list of pre-defined values (for trend charts any window length can be
specified).

For some of the available bar chart time window selections, the window end time is "rounded up" (for a trend chart, the
end time is always "now"). For example, if "This hour" is selected then the window end time will be the end of the
current hour.

Only a single channel can be plotted on each bar chart.
Figure 48 shows a typical bar chart.
Figure 48: Bar chart mimic
 Bar Chart Time Windows
Creating a bar chart mimic is very similar to creating a trend chart. As noted above, however, the time window is specified
differently. The following time windows are available:
Time Window
Number of bars
Time per bar
Chart start time
This hour
Today
This week
This month
This year
12
24
7
28-31
12
5 min
1 hour
1 day
1 day
1 month
start of current hour
00:00 today
Sunday/Monday (selectable)
1st of this month
January
Last hour
Yesterday
Last week
Last month
Last year
12
24
7
28-31
12
5 min
1 hour
1 day
1 day
1 month
start of previous hour
00:00 yesterday
last Sunday/Monday (selectable)
1st of last month
last January
Last 60 minutes
Last 24 hours
Last 7 days
Last 30 days
Last 12 months
12
24
7
30
12
5 min
1 hour
1 day
1 day
1 month
60 minutes ago
24 hours ago
7 days ago
30 days ago
12 months ago
Bar charts work by taking the first logged data point after the end of a bar's time interval, and using that as the value for the
bar. All other data points are discarded. Bar chart mimics do not perform any averaging on the data.
The DT80's statistical functions can be used to aggregate measurements. For example, the following DT80 program will
sample a temperature every minute, then at the start of each hour calculate the average of the previous hour's readings.
RS1M
RA1H 1TK(AV,"Ave temp")
This average is then suitable for plotting using a bar chart mimic, with the time window set such that the time per bar is 1
hour.
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Slideshow Mode
Slideshow mode will automatically cycle between selected mimic pages. This is useful in applications where the dEX
mimics are used to provide a non-interactive data readout, for example on a public display screen.
To enable slideshow mode, tick the Include in slideshow box at the top of each mimic page that you wish to display
automatically. Ticking this box will cause two further controls to appear, as shown in Figure 49.
Figure 49: Slideshow mode controls
For each mimic page, set the display duration. When all pages have been configured, press Save mimics to save the
settings to the logger, then press Play to start the slideshow.
By default, when the slideshow starts the command menu on the left will disappear and full screen mode will be enabled.
This behaviour can be altered using the web interface configuration tool (select Customise dEX on the Logger home page,
see Customising the Web Interface (P156)).
Using the configuration tool you can also configure slideshow mode to start automatically when you browse to the DT80's
web address.
Note For security reasons, the Flash player that runs the dEX application does not allow full screen mode to be selected
automatically – it requires a user action such as clicking on a button. It is therefore not possible to have slideshow mode start
automatically in full screen mode. (Note however that add-ons are available for some browsers that allow the browser – as
opposed to the Flash player – to automatically enter full screen mode on startup.)
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Remapping Mimics
If you make a change to a configuration that already has mimics defined then dEX will attempt to re-map the mimics to the
new configuration, according to the following rules:

If there is a channel in the new configuration that has the same name as the mimic's configured channel then the
mimic will be automatically remapped to that channel.

Otherwise, a window will pop up giving you the option to either (a) delete the mimic, or (b) manually remap it to one of
the channels in the new configuration.
For example, suppose you have defined a configuration with two channels: "1CV" and "Temp", and have then defined three
mimics: a panel meter showing 1CV, a thermometer showing Temp and a chart showing both.
If you now change the configuration so that "Temp" is renamed to "KilnTemp", then a dialog box similar to the following will
be displayed:
Figure 50: Mimic remapping dialog
This window lists all defined mimics and chart traces. If a channel with matching name was found in the new configuration
(as is the case for the 1CV panel meter and chart trace) then the mimic is displayed in green and the mimic is automatically
remapped to the matching channel.
If there is no channel with the same name in the new configuration then the mimic will be displayed in red.
For each mimic or trace, select whether you want to delete the mimic or remap it to one of the new configuration's channels
("1CV" or "KilnTemp"). If you choose to remap a mimic to a new source channel (as is the case for the thermometer mimic)
then the mimic is displayed in purple.
Once this has been done for all mimics in the list, press Update mimics.
By default, the updated mimics will be automatically saved to the logger. If you don't want this to happen (e.g. the change you
made to the configuration was a temporary test only) then clear the (Also update the saved mimics) checkbox.
Note If matching channels can be found for all defined mimics then the mimic remapping dialog will not be displayed.
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Command Window
Figure 51: Command Window
The Command Window screen provides access to the DT80's command interface. This allows you to send commands to
the DT80 and see its responses, much as you would using DeTransfer. In the above screenshot, the command window has
been used to send the DIR"B:" command (seen in the lower Send pane) and the logger's response has been captured in
the upper Receive pane.
Enabling the Command Window
When the Command Window is first selected, it will be disabled, and it will not be possible to type anything in the Send
pane. To enable the command interface, you need to first select the mode: Normal mode (default) or Snoop mode (tick the
checkbox), then press Enable.
In Normal mode, the web interface will automatically send the sequence /h/E/M/R when you press the Enable button.
This makes the command interface easier to use by ensuring that fixed format mode is switched off (/h), and that command
echo, messages and data return are switched on. When you subsequently press Disable or select a different screen, the
web interface will send /e/m/r.
In Snoop mode, nothing is sent when you enable or disable the interface. This allows you to "snoop" a logger to see what it
is outputting, without affecting its state.
The box to the right of the Snoop Mode checkbox indicates the IP address and TCP port number to which the command
window is "connected". These are not editable.
The three purple buttons above the Receive pane allow you to change the relative sizes of the Send and Receive panes.
Note If you switch to a different web interface screen then the command window will be automatically disabled. If you then
return to the Command Window screen, it will be automatically re-enabled in the same mode (Normal or Snoop). The
contents of the Send and Receive panes will have been preserved. (They will, however, be cleared if you reload the web
interface, e.g. by pressing the browser's Refresh/Reload button.)
Sending Commands
Once the command window has been enabled, you will be able to type standard DT80 commands into the lower Send pane.
Controls will be familiar to DeTransfer users:

Entered text is not sent to the logger until you press Enter or click one of the "Send" buttons

Press Enter to send to the logger all text on the line on which the cursor is positioned.

Click Send All to send all text in the Send pane to the logger

Click Send Selection to send all text in the Send pane that you have highlighted.

Press Shift-Enter to insert a line break. Nothing will be sent to the logger. This is useful for entering a sequence of
commands or a multi-line job which you will later send all in one hit.

The Windows copy and paste mechanism may be used to paste text into the Send pane.
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
Click Clear to erase all text from the Send pane.
Note to DeTransfer users: The web interface command window does not interpret any "backslash" sequences. This means
that to send a "\" character to the logger you enter "\", not "\\".
Viewing Logger Output
Once the command window has been enabled, all output from the logger's command interface will be displayed in the top
Receive pane.
The Receive pane has a 32 kbyte memory buffer for storing received text. As text is received, it is added to the buffer. Once
the buffer becomes full, the oldest data is discarded.
The Receive pane normally displays the newest received data, but you can review data which has scrolled out of the display
are by using the scroll bars. However, if data is being returned quickly then this will be awkward because the Receive pane
will keep jumping back to display the newest data.
The Pause button is useful here – it temporarily stops screen display updates so you can scroll back through the receive
buffer. Note that incoming data will still be captured while the screen is paused. When you un-pause the display (by clicking
on the Pause button a second time) all captured text will be added to the receive buffer and displayed.
Other Features
 Special Characters
The Special Character Mode control specifies how incoming control and non-printable characters are handled. When this
control is set to Off, all characters are written to the receive buffer "as is". When set to one of the other values, any incoming
characters with ASCII codes in the range 0-31 or 127-255 will be replaced by a text string identifying the character. For
example, if Decimal is selected then an incoming ESC character (ASCII 27) will be replaced with the string [27].
To send a special character, enter the special sequence _char(n), where n is the required ASCII code (1-255) in the Send
window at the point you want the special character to be inserted. For example:
1$="abc_char(88)def"
will result in 1$ being set to abcXdef (character "X" has ASCII code 88)
 Delays
It is sometimes useful to insert a delay between commands. This can be done using the special sequence _wait(n),
where n is the number of seconds to wait. This command must be specified on a line by itself. For example, if you enter the
following in the Send pane:
HRESET
_wait(5)
DIR
and press Send All, then the web interface will send HRESET, pause for 5 seconds, then send DIR.
 Macros
If the mouse cursor is moved over the status line area at the bottom of the screen then a set of six macro buttons will appear,
labelled, by default, Macro 1 through Macro 6. These buttons allow you to save commonly used command sequences and
then send them with a single click.
To define a macro button, hold down the Ctrl key and click one of the buttons. A window will pop up, allowing you to set:

the label for the button

the commands to send (_char and _wait sequences may be included)

other options, such as whether you want to be prompted before the command is sent
Pressing Save will save the macro definitions to a file on the logger, from which they will be automatically retrieved when you
next connect to that logger.
Help
These screens provide:

some general tips on using the web interface

links to documentation files (user manual, release notes, etc.) stored on the logger.

links to useful resources on the Datataker web site (www.datataker.com)

information on how to report a problem or get help
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Customising the Web Interface
Overview
Several aspects of the enhanced web interface can be customised to suit site requirements:

Selected menu items can be disabled to help prevent unauthorised or accidental changes to the logger configuration.
For example, access to the Command window can be removed.

Up to 20 mimic screens can be defined, each with up to 16 mimics.

Help pages can be customised to provide site specific information, OEM details, etc.

Users can be prevented from adding or editing mimics.
The Web Interface Configuration Tool
To run the Web Interface Configuration Tool, select Customise dEX on the Logger home page (Figure 21). This will display
a pop-up window, similar to that shown below.
Figure 52: Web interface configuration tool
The configuration tool is laid out in a similar way to the web interface itself. There is a menu of options down the left hand side
which allow you to switch between different categories of settings. The pane on the right displays settings related to the
selected category.
The Save settings button at the lower right will save all settings to the logger. This only needs to be done once; it is not
necessary to save the settings for each category separately. After pressing the Save button, you should see a confirmation
message pop up after a few seconds.
The X symbol at the top right will close the configuration tool and return to the Logger home page. Any changes made since
you last pressed Save settings will be discarded.
Finally, the Restore defaults button at bottom left will reset all settings to factory defaults, and save them to the logger. See
also Restoring Factory Settings (P159).
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Status menu
The settings in this category allow items in the web interface's Status menu to be selectively disabled.
For example, if you wish to prevent the current DT80 program being viewed via the web interface then you should uncheck
the Include 'Diagnostics' menu and Include 'Program' menu options (as well as the Command menu; see below)
Retrieve menu
These settings allow Retrieve menu items to be disabled.
Unchecking the two options ('basic retrieve' and 'advanced retrieve') in this category will prevent users downloading data
from the DT80 to their computer.
Measurement menu
The settings on the Measurement menu page allow you to:

create or delete mimic pages.

disable the List all channels menu item in the web interface (which displays channels and values in tabular form)
Figure 53: Customising mimic pages
By default, the web interface provides a two mimic pages. The first has space for up to 6 mimics arranged as 2 rows x 3
columns, as depicted in Figure 43. The second has two wide mimics, suitable for chart displays.
Up to 20 mimic pages can be defined, and each can have its own arrangement of mimics, from one single mimic up to a 4x4
grid of mimics.
The Custom mimic page area of this screen lists the names of the currently defined mimic pages – these names will appear
in the web interface Measurement menu. In the example shown in Figure 53, the two default mimic pages are shown, called
Mimics and Charts.
To add a mimic page, click the + button, or to edit an existing page click on the page's name, then click Edit. A dialog box will
be displayed allowing you to set the page's name, description (which the web interface will display in the title area directly
above the mimics), and layout (number of rows and columns).
To delete a page, click on its name and press –. To change the order in which they will be displayed, click on the page's
name, then click Up or Down.
Command menu
This page simply allows you to disable the web interface's command window.
Help menu
This page is similar to the Measurement menu settings page, in that it allows you to:
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
disable some or all of the standard help pages (that is, disable some or all of the items on the web interface's Help
menu)

create custom help pages, which will be accessible under the web interface's Help menu.
Custom help pages are text files which you will need to create using a text editor. As well as plain text, these files may also
contain certain HTML tags, which allows for some basic formatting (bold, italic, bullet points etc.) as well as web links, as
depicted in the somewhat contrived example below.
Figure 54: Sample custom help page
If you wish to create a help file with HTML formatting, the easiest way to get started is probably to download the file
b:\www\flash\customHelp\customHelpExample.html (which generates the sample help page shown in
Figure 54) from the DT80 to your PC and use it as a starting point. This can be done by entering the following URL into a web
browser:
ftp://ip-address/www/flash/customHelp
then right clicking on the file customHelpExample.html in the displayed file list and selecting Save Link as... or Save
Target as...
Once you have created and saved a help file on your PC, you can add it using the Help menu page in the web interface
configuration tool. As with the Measurement menu page, click + to add a help page, enter a name and description, then
click on the Source field and select Load help page from computer. You can then navigate to the required file, and it will
be automatically uploaded to the DT80.
If you need to edit an existing help page, first make the changes to the copy on your computer, then select the help page from
the list and press Edit. As before, select Load help page from computer and navigate to the (updated) file, which will then
be uploaded to the logger, thereby replacing the old version.
Note If you upload a new version of an existing help page, as described above, it is necessary to clear the browser cache
before running the web interface. This will force the browser to load the new page rather than its older cached copy. (In
Internet Explorer, clear the cache by selecting "Delete Browsing History..." then select "Temporary Internet Files".)
Branding
The Branding category allows you to customise certain visual elements on the web interface. Currently, this is limited to the
colour used for the thin border around the interface, and in the thick band above the main properties pane (by default, purple)
Security
The Security settings allow you to:

disable all changes to defined mimics. This means that the Add a mimic buttons, as well as existing mimics'
Configure and Close (X) controls (see Figure 43) will no longer be present.

disable full screen mode, which will remove the Full screen link at the top right of the screen.
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Slide Show
The Slide-show settings control the mimic "slide show" feature (see Slideshow Mode (P152)), where the web interface will
automatically cycle through all defined mimic page. This is useful for applications where the web interface is used as a
non-interactive display. The options on this page allow you to:

automatically start the mimic page "slide show" when the web interface is loaded

hide the navigation menu at the left of the screen while the slide show is in operation

automatically switch to full screen mode when the user clicks Play to start the slide show.
Restoring Factory Settings
The configuration tool's Restore defaults button will restore the enhanced web interface to the default look and
functionality. However it will not delete any images or custom help pages that you may have uploaded to the DT80. If
required, these can be manually deleted from the B:\WWW\flash\images and B:\WWW\flash\customHelp
folders using the DEL command (see File Commands (P111)).
Preventing Configuration Changes
Once the web interface has been fully configured, you may wish to remove the configuration tool option from the Logger
home page, so that it is no longer accessible to everyday users. To do this, rename the folder b:\www\needa, which
contains the configuration tool. You can use the command interface:
RENAME b:\www\needa b:\www\needa_hidden
(If entered using DeTransfer, use \\ rather than \.)
Alternatively, connect to the DT80's FTP server and use your FTP client to rename the folder.
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Classic Web Interface
The DT80 classic web interface is standards compliant which helps to make the interface accessible from a wide variety of
web browsers. It has also been designed to be usable even on small-screen devices such as PDAs and mobile phones.
For advanced users, the web interface can also be customised by developing new web pages and loading them onto the
DT80's internal file system.
Browser Requirements
The web interface uses a minimum of browser functions to provide its interface. The browser must however support XHTML
1.0, CSS 1 and JavaScript to fully support the DT80's web interface.
The following browsers have been used and found to be compatible

Microsoft Internet Explorer Version 6 or later

Mozilla Firefox

Google Chrome

Pocket Internet Explorer (on Windows Mobile 5 and Windows Mobile 2003)

Opera 8.x or later, Opera Mobile and Opera Mini

Apple Safari

Mobile Explorer

Palm Web Browser 2.x (Palm Garnet OS)

Sony PlayStation Portable Web browser
Navigating the Web Interface
The built-in web interface consists of the five pages – Home, Details, Status, Admin and Help. The design of the web
interface follows a tab based metaphor where each tab represents a HTML page.
Figure 55: Navigation tabs
To navigate the web interface, simply click on the desired tab heading. The Home page is displayed by default when the web
interface is first loaded.
Home Page
The Home page displays the data logger’s model, firmware version, serial number, the current job name and the current
date and time.
Figure 56: Home page
The page does not provide any functionality other than the display of data logger general information.
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Channels Page
The Channels page displays a table listing all channel entries defined for the current job. This table shows the most recent
measurement for each channel, along with the time that the measurement was taken.
Note that any channels defined as working channels (W channel option) will not be included.
Figure 57: Channels Page
The Channels page is updated every 30 seconds. The time at which the table was last updated is displayed on the top-right
corner of the channel listings table.
Status Page
The Status page displays status information for each defined schedule in the current job. The following information is
displayed for each schedule:

Schedule Name

Schedule Trigger

Schedule Status – whether it is active or halted.

Schedule Logging State – enabled or disabled

The number of data records / alarms logged

The capacity of the schedule's store file

The timestamp for the first and last data / alarm records stored
Figure 58: Status Page
All schedules configured for the current job will be displayed when this page is loaded.
The schedule navigation links at the top of the page ( A – X ) allow you to jump directly to a particular schedule.
Finally, the Top link displayed below each schedule's data provides a quick way to scroll back to the top of the page.
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Files Page
The Files page provides the ability to view files stored on the DT80's file system. Direct links are provided for the system
event and error logs (see Event Logs (P262)), and the remainder of the file system can be browsed using FTP.
Figure 59: Files Page
To view a log file, simply click on the desired log file link. The log file will then be displayed. Click on the Back link to return
to the Files page.
Figure 60: Event Log Page
To access files stored on the DT80's internal file system, or in a connected USB memory device, click on the desired FTP
link. This will then display the directory listing of the drive. Clicking on a file link will then initiate an FTP download of the
selected file.
Using these links is equivalent to typing an ftp:// URL into the browser as described in Using the DT80 FTP Server
(P244). Note however that the web interface links provide read-only (anonymous) access only.
Click on the web browser’s Back button to navigate back to the Files page.
Help Page
The Help page provides troubleshooting and help information, and a link to the Technical Support web page on the
Datataker website.
There is also a link to the DT80 User's Manual (PDF format), which is normally pre-loaded onto the DT80's internal file
system in the B:\doc subdirectory. If the link does not work, verify that the directory and file are present. If required, the
manual can be loaded back onto the logger by repeating the firmware upgrade process.
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Customising the Classic Interface
This section describes some of the technical features of the DT80 web interface. These allow advanced users to replace the
built-in web interface with a customised web user interface.
Web Application Programming Interface (API)
The DT80 provides an application programming interface (API) so that you can build custom web pages that can view and
display data from the logger. The API consists of a set of server-side include (SSI) directives. SSI directives are placed in
HTML pages, and evaluated on the logger when the HTML page is requested. HTML pages that contain SSI directives are
known as SHTML pages, and typically have a .shtml file extension.
When an SHTML page is requested, it is scanned by the web server (logger) for these directives. Once found, the logger
interprets the directive and performs the required action. The output is then sent as part of the response back to the web
browser.
Server-Side Include (SSI) Directives
An SSI directive consists of a special sequence of characters which is placed within an HTML page. The format is as
follows:
<!--#directive attribute="value" attribute="value" … -->
where:

<!--# and --> are the opening and closing identifiers that must be specified when applying an SSI directive.

directive is the name of the directive to be executed.

attribute is the name of an attribute, and value is the value it is set to. Each SSI directive has a set of valid attributes
that can be specified to control the operation of the directive. One or more attribute-value pairs can be specified.
For example
<!--#echo var = "1CV" -->
inserts the SSI directive named echo, which contains one attribute var whose value is set to 1CV.
DT80 SSI Directives
The DT80 web server supports five SSI directives, which are summarised in the table below. Each directive requires the
indicated attribute to be set. In addition, one or more optional attributes may be included.
Directive
Required Attribute Function
echo
channeltable
var
schedule
measure
channel
reading
include
channel
file
or
virtual
Inserts the current value of the indicated variable
Inserts an HTML table containing, for each channel, its schedule, name,
most recent value, units and timestamp – similar to the Channels page
Samples the indicated channel (certain channel types only) and inserts the
measured value
Inserts the most recent value of the indicated channel, plus timestamp
Inserts the contents of the indicated text file, specified as a path relative to
the document root (DOC_ROOT profile setting
Inserts the contents of the indicated text file, specified as an absolute path
 Optional Attributes
One optional attribute is supported, which may be applied to any of the above directives in addition to their standard attribute:
Directive
Attribute
Function
any
cond
Evaluate the directive if and only if the indicated condition is true
The following sections discuss each directive in more detail.
#echo Directive
This directive inserts a specific piece of information into the HTML page.
SSI Directive
Description
<!--#echo var = "D" -->
Inserts the current date.
e.g. 2006/05/02.
Inserts the current time.
e.g. 11:45:23.
Inserts the model number of the logger.
e.g. DT80.
<!--#echo var = "T" -->
<!--#echo var = "dtmodel" -->
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<!--#echo var = "nCV(FFd)" -->
<!--#echo var = "nSV(FFd)" -->
<!--#echo var = "JobName" -->
<!--#echo var = "SchName(s)"
-->
<!--#echo var = "SchTrigger(s)" -->
<!--#echo var = "SchStatus(s)"
-->
<!--#echo var = "SchLogState(s)" -->
<!--#echo var =
"SchDataStoreSize(s)" -->
<!--#echo var =
"SchAlarmStoreSize(s)" -->
<!--#echo var =
"SchDataStartTime(s)" -->
<!--#echo var =
"SchAlarmStartTime(s)" -->
<!--#echo var = "SchDataEndTime(s)"
-->
<!--#echo var = "SchAlarmEndTime(s)"
-->
Inserts the value of channel variable nCV. The (FFd) part is optional,
and specifies the number of decimal places to display (default is one
decimal place)
e.g. 23.4.
Inserts the value of system variable nSV. The (FFd) part is optional,
and specifies the number of decimal places to display (default is no
decimal places)
e.g. 23200
Inserts the name of the current running job (or no current job if
none).
e.g. MYJOB.
Inserts the schedule name associated with schedule s.
e.g. SchWebA.
Inserts the trigger string for schedule s.
e.g. 1S.
Inserts the run status (active/halted) for schedule s.
e.g. active.
Inserts the logging state (enabled/disabled) for schedule s.
e.g. disabled.
Inserts the number of the logged data records for schedule s.
e.g. 2001.
Inserts the number of the logged alarms for schedule s.
e.g. 2301.
Inserts the timestamp of the earliest logged data record for schedule s.
e.g. 2006/05/02 14:15:12.
Inserts the timestamp of the earliest logged alarm for schedule s.
e.g. 2006/05/02 15:15:12.
Inserts the timestamp of the latest data record for schedule s.
e.g. 2006/05/02 11:15:12.
Inserts the timestamp of the latest alarm for schedule s.
e.g. 2006/05/02 14:13:12.
#channeltable Directive
This directive inserts a table of channel values.
SSI Directive
Description
<!--#channeltable schedule = "" --> Inserts an HTML table containing a header row, plus a row for each
defined channel in the current job, excluding working channels and
immediate channels.
Each row contains the following columns:

schedule identifier (A – K, X)

channel name

most recent value of the channel

units string

time at which most recent measurement was taken
<!--#channeltable schedule = "s" --> As above, but only channels belonging to schedule s are included.
Sample HTML output generated by the #channeltable directive is as follows:
<table class="jdt" cellspacing="0">
<colgroup>
<col class="sid"/>
<col class="sun"/>
<col class="chv"/>
<col class="dfu"/>
<col class="tsp"/>
</colgroup>
<thead>
<tr>
<th>Schedule</th>
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<th>Name</th>
<th>Value</th>
<th>Units</th>
<th>Timestamp</th>
</tr>
</thead>
<tbody>
<tr>
<td>A</td>
<td>1V</td>
<td>1.234</td>
<td>mV</td>
<td>2006/04/07 12:12:11</td>
</tr>
<tr>
<td>A</td>
<td>Geyser Temp</td>
<td>122.8</td>
<td>degC</td>
<td>2006/04/07 12:12:11</td>
</tr>
<tr>
<td>C</td>
<td>Gravy Press</td>
<td>69.9</td>
<td>MPa</td>
<td>2006/04/05 12:42:01</td>
</tr>
</tbody>
</table>
Note that the CSS (Cascading Style Sheet) class ids in the table and colgroup tags have been used to style the table. To
change the style (colours, spacing, etc.), create another CSS file, reusing the same class ids. By default, the table will be
displayed without any styles applied.
#measure Directive
This directive is used to perform a input channel measurement. This is executed in the Immediate schedule and the data
gathered is not logged.
SSI Directive
Description
<!--#measure channel = "chan-def" --> Evaluates the specified DT80 channel definition, e.g. 2R(4W), as an
immediate channel, waits for it to complete, then inserts the
measured value
e.g.: 44.0
#reading Directive
This directive is used to return the most recent reading for the specified channel. The channel is assumed to have been
already defined in a schedule in the current job.
SSI Directive
Description
<!--#reading channel = "chan-name" --> Inserts the most recent reading for the specified existing DT80
channel, and the time at which the reading was taken.
e.g. 2009/03/16 20:41:39.298 19.66 degC
#include Directive
This directive is used to insert the contents of another file into a HTML page.
SSI Directive
Description
<!--#include file = "rel-file" -->
Inserts the contents of the file rel-file (specified as a relative path,
e.g. footer.htm) into the current HTML page.
<!--#include virtual = "abs-file" -->
Inserts the contents of the file abs-file (specified as an absolute path,
e.g. b:\events\event.log) into the current HTML page.
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The #include directive may be nested, i.e. a file that has been included may itself then include another file, up to a
maximum of three levels.
cond Attribute
This attribute may be included by any SSI directive, in addition to its normal attribute. It specifies a condition – if the
condition is met then the SSI directive is processed, otherwise it is ignored. This provides a way to conditionally include web
page elements based on the status of the DT80.
condition value
Description
cond = SchDefined(s)
cond = DataStored(s)
cond = AlarmsStored(s)
Process directive if the specified schedule has been defined
Process directive if any data have been logged for the specified schedule
Process directive if any alarms have been logged for the specified schedule
For example:
<!--#include file = "schedA.shm" cond = "SchDefined(A)" -->
will only include the indicated file if schedule A is defined in the current job.
Building A Custom Web Page
This section provides a brief overview of the process of setting up a custom web page for the DT80. It is assumed that the
reader has a good working knowledge of HTML and the DT80.
All custom pages will need to be loaded into a directory of your choice on the DT80's internal file system (B:).
Creating the SHTML Page
An SHTML page can be created with any HTML or text editor. Let’s create a page that is titled "My Custom dataTaker Web
Page" that will contain an image and display the following logger data:
The current job name

The name of schedule A for the current job

The value from channel variable 1
This is what the SHTML page will look like when viewed in a web browser:-
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The SHTML mark-up for this page is as follows:
<html>
<head>
<title>My Custom dataTaker Web Page</title>
</head>
<body>
<h1>My Custom dataTaker Web Page</h1>
<img src="custom1.jpg" align="right"/>
<h3>Job Name:</h3>
<!--#echo var = "JobName" -->
<h4>Schedule Name:</h4>
<!--#echo var = "SchName(A)" -->
<h4>Channel Variable (1CV):</h4>
<!--#echo var = "1CV" -->
</body>
</html>
Notice the SSI directives (red).
Note The SHTML page filename must be saved with the following extensions:- .shtml, .shm or .sht. The SHTML page will
not be rendered correctly if these extensions are not used.
Custom Home Page
It is recommended that a central (Home) page is used when building a custom web interface. The Home page can be an
HTML or SHTML page. Set the Home page filename to index.htm or index.shm.
The DT80 web server will automatically looks for a file with one of these names if the user types just the IP address into their
browser (i.e. no filename specified).
Storing the Custom Web Pages
To test the custom web pages they need to be loaded onto the DT80's internal file system.
Connect to the logger's FTP server, specifying the configured username and password – files cannot be written to the file
system using the default anonymous username. Then upload the files to a directory on the internal drive, e.g.
B:\www\custom.
Customising the Built-in Web Interface
As an alternative to creating the web interface from scratch, you can also use the built-in web pages as a starting point and
customise them as required.
Start by using an FTP client to copy all files from b:\www\html to b:\www\custom, then customise as required.
Using the Custom Web Pages
If you loaded the custom web interface into the b:\www\custom directory then you can either:

access it by typing http://ip-addr/custom into the web browser, or defining a bookmark for this URL

replace the interface selector page (b:\www\index.html) with an alternative page which contains a link to your custom
interface, or which contains an automatic redirection, e.g.:
<html><head>
<meta http-equiv="Refresh" content="0; url=/custom">
</head><body>
<a href="/custom">Click here</a>
</body></html>
In this way a user which just enters the logger's IP address is automatically directed to the custom interface, but can still
access the standard classic interface, for example, by typing http://ip-addr/html.
Automatic Page Refresh
If required, a custom web page can be made to automatically refresh by including the following line within the page header:
<html>
<head>
<meta http-equiv="Refresh" content="30">
...
</head>
...
In this example the page will refresh every 30 seconds.
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Part J – Modbus Interface
About Modbus
Modbus is a simple communications protocol which is widely used in SCADA (supervisory control and data acquisition)
systems. Modbus provides an efficient and standardised way to transport digital states and data values between a remote
terminal unit (RTU) or programmable logic controller (PLC) and a supervisory computer.
Servers and Clients
In a Modbus-based SCADA system, each RTU/PLC acts as a Modbus server, or slave. These servers/slaves listen for and
reply to requests from a Modbus client, or master system. A Modbus client is typically a computer that provides a mimic
display, user interface and various data logging and alarm functions.
Modbus can operate using a broad range of communications media. These fall into two main categories:

a serial connection, typically RS232, RS422 or RS485

a TCP/IP network, which can use a variety of physical link types e.g. Ethernet, wireless, fibre-optic, serial (PPP)
The DT80 is capable of operating as a Modbus server; that is, it can act like an RTU or PLC device. This allows the DT80 to
be easily integrated into any Modbus-based SCADA system. No special drivers are required for the client system.
A Modbus client system can directly read or write any DT80 channel variable (CV) or digital I/O channel.
The DT80 can also operate as a Modbus client, where it can read data from Modbus sensors in the same way that it reads
data from SDI-12 or serial sensors. See Modbus Channel (P343) for more details.
The remainder of this section describes the operation of the DT80 as a Modbus server.
In general terms, the procedure for setting up the DT80 in a Modbus environment is:
1.
Establish a physical connection (TCP/IP or serial) between the Modbus client system and the DT80.
2.
Load a job onto the DT80 that scans the required channels at the required rates. The job should also load the
measured values into channel variables.
3.
Configure the client system to poll the Modbus addresses corresponding to the DT80 CVs and digital I/Os of interest.
Note Even if there is no job loaded, the DT80's Modbus server is still active and the client can query or set any CV or digital
channel.
Connecting to a Modbus Network
The DT80 supports both TCP/IP and serial Modbus networks.
TCP/IP Connection
Up to three Modbus client systems can simultaneously connect to the DT80 using TCP/IP.
The first step in setting up Modbus over TCP/IP is to establish a working TCP/IP connection between the client system and
the DT80. This involves assigning an IP address to the DT80, along with a couple of other settings, depending on whether
Ethernet or PPP is used. See Ethernet Communications (P225) and PPP Communications (P234) for more details.
By default, the DT80's TCP/IP Modbus server is always enabled. It will listen for connection requests from client systems
which are directed to TCP port 502 (which is the standard port number for Modbus). If required, this port number may be
changed using the following DT80 command:
PROFILE MODBUS_SERVER TCPIP_PORT=port
where port is the desired port number (1-65535).
To disable the DT80's TCP/IP Modbus server, set the port number to zero, i.e.
PROFILE MODBUS_SERVER TCPIP_PORT=0
Serial Connection
A serial Modbus network has one client (master) system connected to one or more server (slave) devices. Serial networks
using the RS485 or RS422 standards support multi-drop, i.e. multiple slaves connected to one master. RS232 or USB can
also be used for point-to-point connections (single master and single slave).
Slave devices on a serial Modbus network are identified by an 8-bit slave address (1-247). Every slave device on a
particular serial network must have a unique address. (Slave addresses are not required on a TCP/IP Modbus network,
because the slaves are identified by their IP address.)
The DT80 can be connected to a serial Modbus network using either the serial sensor port, the host RS232 port, or the USB
port.
 Serial Sensor Port
The serial sensor port can be used to connect to a Modbus client via a multi-drop (RS422/485) or point-to-point
(RS232/422/485) link.
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In order to use Modbus on the serial sensor port it is necessary to set the port function, as follows:
PROFILE SERSEN_PORT FUNCTION=MODBUS
You may also need to configure the baud rate or other serial parameters to suit the system to which you are connecting.
Modbus systems commonly use 19200 baud, 8 data bits, 1 stop bit, even parity, no flow control.
For more details on setting up the port and the possible wiring configurations, see Serial Sensor Port (P190).
Note Do not use software flow control (SWFC) on a Modbus serial connection. This is because flow control characters
(XON/XOFF) may legitimately appear in Modbus data, and if they do then they will be stripped out. This will cause data
errors.
 Host RS232 Port
The host RS232 port can be used for a point-to-point serial Modbus connection.
As with the serial sensor port, the port function must be set:
PROFILE HOST_PORT FUNCTION=MODBUS
along with the serial parameters to match the connected system.
For more details on setting up the port and the possible wiring configurations, see Host RS-232 Port (P188).
 USB Port
A USB connection can also be used where the client system is within a few metres of the DT80.
USB is convenient because you don't have to set serial parameters. The port function does need to be set, however:
PROFILE USB_PORT FUNCTION=MODBUS
For more details, see USB Port (P180).
 Slave Address
To enable Modbus operation on the serial sensor port, it is also necessary to set the DT80's slave address. This is done
using the following profile setting:
PROFILE MODBUS_SERVER SERSEN_ADDRESS=addr
where addr is the desired address (1-247). Setting the address to zero (which is the default) will disable Modbus on the serial
sensor port.
In the same way, Modbus can be enabled on the host RS232 and USB port using:
PROFILE MODBUS_SERVER HOST_ADDRESS=addr
PROFILE MODBUS_SERVER USB_ADDRESS=addr
Again, the default setting is zero, which means "disabled".
Modbus Registers
The Modbus Data Model
The Modbus protocol defines a simple data model. It specifies that any Modbus slave device contains the following
resources:

an array of single bit coils (digital outputs). When setting up a Modbus client application, a particular coil is normally
referenced using a 5-digit number in the range 00001-09999, or a 6-digit number 0:00001-0:65536 (depending on the
Modbus client implementation). In this manual the 6-digit notation will be used.

an array of single bit discrete inputs (digital inputs), numbered 10001-19999, or 1:00001-1:65536

an array of 16-bit input registers, numbered 30001-39999, or 3:00001-3:65536

an array of 16-bit output registers (a.k.a holding registers), numbered 40001-49999, or 4:00001-4:65536
As can be seen, the first digit of the register number indicates the type of register – 0, 1, 3 or 4 for coil, discrete input, input
register or output register respectively. This usage is, however, just a convention. This digit is not part of the actual address
transmitted in the Modbus message.
A further potential source of confusion is the fact that the actual transmitted address is zero-based, so register number
x:00003 is actually transmitted as address 0002.
Note In some Modbus client applications, register numbers are entered using these raw protocol addresses, while in others
you specify register numbers including the initial "register type" digit, as described above. The documentation for the
particular package should make clear which convention it uses.
The protocol then defines a set of messages which allow the client to:

read the current value of one or more of the slave's coils, discrete inputs, input registers or output registers

write to one or more of the slave's coils or output registers.
A given type of Modbus slave device will support some quantity of each type of resource – for example a hypothetical device
might support 16 coils, 16 discrete inputs, 4 input registers and no output registers.
Furthermore, it is common for the different register arrays to overlap. In the example device mentioned above, the 16 coils
and discrete inputs may actually refer to the same physical hardware – in this case 16 bi-directional I/O pins. So for this slave
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device, if a client wrote a "1" to coil 0:00007, it would then read the same value back if it did a read from discrete input
1:00007.
Accessing DT80 Channels via Modbus
The DT80 maps blocks of Modbus registers onto certain DT80 channels (channel variables and digital channels), as
specified in the following tables. The Modbus client can therefore directly access any of these DT80 channels by transmitting
a request to read or write the associated Modbus register(s).
The first table shows the action taken by the DT80 in response to requests by the client system to read particular Modbus
registers:
Register number as
specified in Modbus
client application
Type of register to read
Action taken by DT80
0:00001-0:01000
1:00001-1:01000
3:00001-3:01000
4:00001-4:01000
0:04001-0:04085
1:04001-1:04085
3:04001-3:04085
4:04001-4:04085
0:08001-0:08009
1:08001-1:08008
3:08001-3:08008
4:08001-4:08009
coil 1-1000
discrete 1-1000
input reg 1-1000
output reg 1-1000
coil 4001-4085
discrete 4001-4085
input reg 4001-4085
output reg 4001-4085
coil 8001-8009
discrete 8001-8008
input reg 8001-8008
output reg 8001-8009
returns current state of channel variable 1..1000CV (0 if CV value is 0.0,
otherwise 1)
returns current value of channel variable 1..1000CV
returns current state of system variable 1..85SV (0 if SV value is 0.0,
otherwise 1)
returns current value of system variable 1..85SV
returns current state of digital output 1..8DSO or 1RELAY
returns current state of digital input 1..8DS
returns current state of digital input 1..8DS as a numeric value (0 or 1)
returns current state of digital output 1..8DSO or 1RELAY as a numeric
value (0 or 1)
The next table shows the action taken by the DT80 in response to a write request:
Register number as
specified in Modbus
client application
Type of register to write
Action taken by DT80
0:00001-0:01000
4:00001-4:01000
0:04001-0:04085
4:04001-4:04085
0:08001-0:08009
4:08001-4:08009
coil 1-1000
output reg 1-1000
coil 4001-4085
output reg 4001-4085
coil 8001-8009
output reg 8001-8009
sets channel variable 1..1000CV to 0.0 or 1.0
sets channel variable 1..1000CV to the specified value
sets system variable 1..85SV to 0.0 or 1.0 (writable SVs only)
sets system variable 1..85SV to the specified value (writable SVs only)
sets digital output 1..8DSO or 1RELAY to the specified value
sets digital output 1..8DSO or 1RELAY to the specified value (0 if the
specified value is 0, otherwise 1)
If the Modbus client attempts to access any register outside the ranges specified above then the DT80 will return a Modbus
error response and ignore the request.
Note that for the DT81/82, Modbus registers x8001-x8004 correspond to channels 1..4DS and 1..4DSO. Accessing registers
x:08005-x:08008 will not cause an error, but it will not do anything either, because these channels are not present on the
DT81/82. Register x:08009 corresponds to the 1RELAY channel, as with the DT80.
Data Types
Modbus input and output registers are 16 bits wide. The Modbus standard does not, however, define how these bits are to
interpreted, other than stating that the most significant byte of a register value is transmitted first ("big endian" format).
By default, the DT80 interprets a Modbus register as a signed 16-bit integer in the range -32768 to 32767. If a CV or SV's
value is outside this range then the associated Modbus register will "saturate", i.e. the value 32767 will be returned if the
CV/SV value is greater than 32767, and the value -32768 if the value is less than -32768. Also, the CV/SV value will be
rounded to the nearest integer.
There are, however, a number of options for dealing with data values that cannot be represented by a 16-bit integer value:

the register can be treated as an unsigned 16-bit integer (0-65535)

the value can be scaled, typically by a power of ten, to give the required precision or range. For example a scaling
factor of 100 would permit values in the range -327.68 to 327.67 to be returned.

multiple registers can be combined to return a single larger value, e.g. a pair of registers could return a 32-bit quantity.
Clearly, both the slave device and the client system must agree on how a given Modbus register is to be interpreted. It is no
good if the device encodes the value 40000 as an unsigned 16-bit number (9C40 hexadecimal) but then the client interprets
it as a signed number and displays it as -25536.
The only solution is to explicitly configure the required data types on both the slave and the client. For the DT80, this is done
using the SETMODBUS command.
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The SETMODBUS Command
By default, all CV values are transferred to and from the DT80 as signed 16-bit integers, with no scaling factor. The
SETMODBUS command is used to specify alternative data types and scaling factors.
The format of the command is as follows:
SETMODBUS channels format scaling
where:

channels specifies a single channel variable, or a range (e.g. 1CV or 20..29CV)

scaling is an optional floating point scaling factor by which the channel value will be multiplied before being returned.
Conversely, when the client writes a value, it will be divided by the scaling factor before being written to the CV.

format is an optional code that specifies the data type, as follows:
Format code
Data type
Comments
MBI
signed 16-bit integer
MBU
MBLS
(or MBL)
unsigned 16-bit integer
signed 32-bit integer,
standard word order
MBLR
signed 32-bit integer,
reversed word order
MBFS
32-bit floating point,
standard word order
MBFR
(or MBF)
32-bit floating point,
reversed word order
Default setting. Returns -32768 or 32767 if the scaled return value is
outside the valid range.
Returns 0 or 65535 if the scaled return value is outside the valid range.
Upper 16 bits of nCV are returned in Modbus register n. Lower 16 bits are
returned in register n+1. Returns -2,147,483,648 or 2,147,483,647 if the
scaled return value is outside the valid range.
Lower 16 bits of nCV are returned in Modbus register n. Upper 16 bits are
returned in register n+1. Returns -2,147,483,648 or 2,147,483,647 if the
scaled return value is outside the valid range.
Returned as a single precision IEEE-754 floating point number. Upper 16
bits of nCV are returned in Modbus register n. Lower 16 bits are returned in
register n+1.
Returned as a single precision IEEE-754 floating point number. Lower 16
bits of nCV are returned in Modbus register n. Upper 16 bits are returned in
register n+1.
If format and scaling are not specified, the current settings for the indicated range of CVs are displayed.
Any number of these SETMODBUS commands can be issued (typically at the start of the DT80 job) to configure the required
channels.
Note The SETMODBUS command only supports channel variables. However some system variables may have values
outside the range -32768 to 32767, or may have a fractional part. Such SVs can be assigned to a CV, for which an
appropriate data type and/or scaling factor can then be set, e.g.:
SETMODBUS 1CV MBLS
3SV(=1CV)
 Example
This example illustrates some of the technicalities relating to Modbus transfers.
Consider the following job:
BEGIN"PERCY"
SETMODBUS 7CV MBF
SETMODBUS 9..10CV MBU 100
SETMODBUS 11CV MBL
7CV=23.91 8CV=42 9CV=490.22
END
10CV=921.0
11CV=75535.9
If a Modbus client then requests input registers 3:00007-3:00012 it will receive the following raw data:
Register
Value (hex / decimal)
Comments
3:00007
3:00008
3:00009
3:00010
3:00011
3:00012
47AE
41BF
BF7E / 49022
FFFF / 65535
0001 / 1
2710 / 10000
The 32-bit value 41BF47AE is the IEEE754 representation of 23.91
490.22 multiplied by scaling factor (100)
overflow: 921.0 x 100 = 92100 is too big for an unsigned 16-bit integer
The 32-bit value 00012710 equals 75536 decimal
To make sense of this, the client software must support the 32-bit data formats used by the DT80, and it must be told the data
type of each register (or register pair).
Note Be aware that for 32-bit data types, the word order (i.e. whether the upper or lower 16 bits comes first) is not proscribed
by the Modbus standard, so naturally both orderings are widely used. Most client software can be configured to support
either ordering.
Note that in this example 7CV and 11CV are spread across two registers apiece (3:00007-8 and 3:00011-12 respectively),
which makes channel variables 8CV and 12CV effectively inaccessible via Modbus. They can still be used in the program
(e.g. setting 8CV=42 in the above program is perfectly OK and won't interfere with 7CV); it's just that they cannot (easily) be
accessed by a Modbus client.
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Note also that some Modbus clients require that all 32-bit register pairs start on an odd-numbered register. That is, you can
return a 32-bit value using registers 30001-30002, but not using registers 30002-30003.
Putting It All Together
In this example, a greenhouse is monitored by a DT80. Three thermocouples on analog inputs 1-3 monitor the temperature
at various points. The DT80 is required to log the temperatures every 15s and switch on an extractor fan (by setting digital
output 1D low) if any of the temperatures exceed a programmable setpoint. A sensor attached to the fan produces a voltage
proportional to fan speed (1.25mV/rpm) and this is fed into analog input 4. Digital output 2D is connected to a watering
system valve.
The DT80 is connected to an Ethernet network. In a central office an operator runs a Modbus-capable SCADA package. She
wants to be able to:

check current temperatures

set the current extractor fan setpoint

check the status of the extractor fan (fan RPM and state of control output)

switch the watering system on or off

check how many data and alarm records have been logged
The following sections discuss how this might be achieved.
 DT80 Configuration
It is assumed that the DT80's Ethernet connection has already been set up. This can be verified by entering its IP address
into DeTransfer or a web browser and checking that the DT80's command or web interface is accessible. If you cannot
connect to these services then you probably won't be able to connect to the Modbus server either. See Ethernet
Communications (P225) for more information.
Once TCP/IP connectivity has been established, a suitable DT80 job can be entered:
BEGIN"GERANIUM"
SETMODBUS 1..4CV MBI 10 ' temperatures & setpoint
SETMODBUS 5..7CV MBL 1 ' logged data,alarm recs (32 bit)
SETMODBUS 9CV
MBI 1 ' fan RPM
4CV(W)=30.0 ' default setpoint
' update every 15 sec
RA(DATA:30D,ALARMS:500KB)15S
1TK(NR,=1CV)
2TK(NR,=2CV)
3TK(NR,=3CV)
' set 10CV=1 if at least one temp over limit
' set 11CV=1 if all temps under limit
' allow +/- 1 degC hysteresis
10CV(W)=(1CV>4CV+1)OR(2CV>4CV+1)OR(3CV>4CV+1)
11CV(W)=(1CV<4CV-1)AND(2CV<4CV-1)AND(3CV<4CV-1)
ALARM1(10CV>.5)"Temp>?4 Fan ON^M"{1DSO=0}
ALARM2(11CV>.5)"Fan OFF^M"{1DSO=1}
32SV(W,=5CV) ' num logged data recs for sched A
33SV(W,=7CV) ' num logged alarm recs for sched A
4V(W,0.8,=9CV) ' fan speed 1.25mV/rpm
LOGONA
END
This job sets up the following CVs for access by the Modbus client:

1CV, 2CV and 3CV contain the three measured temperatures. A scaling factor of 10.0 is applied so that it can be

4CV is designed to be accessed as an output register, i.e. the Modbus client writes to it. This channel variable is used
returned with one decimal place (range -3276.8 to +3276.7)
as the temperature setpoint, so it is scaled in the same way as the other temperature CVs.

5CV and 7CV return the number of logged data and alarm records for the main A schedule. In this example the store
file size is relatively large (30 days data @ 15s scans), so the number of logged records may exceed the capacity of a
single 16-bit register. They are therefore defined as 32-bit long integers (MBL). (Channel variables 6CV and 8CV
have been skipped because their associated Modbus registers are used for returning the 32-bit 5CV and 7CV
values.)

9CV returns the fan speed in RPM. A standard 16-bit integer is OK here. (The SETMODBUS command for this CV
could have been omitted because the values it is setting are the default values.)
Notice that all Modbus-accessible CVs have been grouped into one contiguous block. This is not essential, but it will improve
the efficiency of the Modbus link because the client can request all relevant CVs in one command.
The digital channels of interest are 1DSO (fan control) and 2DSO (watering system). Since the Modbus client can access
these channels directly, there is no need to include them in the DT80 job.
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One final point is that because all relevant data are returned by Modbus, there is no point having the DT80 return real time
data via its standard command interface – it would just clutter the screen if the operator ever needed to connect to the DT80
using DeTransfer. All channels are therefore set to "working'" (W) or "no return" (NR) channels.
 Modbus Client Configuration
It is now necessary to configure the SCADA software package to suit the DT80 channel usage described above. This is
highly application dependent but in very general terms the steps involved will typically include:

configuring communications details

designing a mimic screen incorporating the required measurement and control fields

associating each element of the mimic with the correct Modbus register address
So in this case the first step might be to select the software package's "generic PLC" device driver and then create a "DT80"
device instance. As a minimum, the DT80's IP address would need to be entered here. If the driver or application provides a
"test" facility, you may at this point be able to try manually reading and writing specific Modbus registers.
The mimic screen for this application might consist of:

three thermometer displays showing the measured temperatures

an entry field where the operator can set the desired setpoint

two numeric indicators showing number of logged data and alarm records

a fan icon with on/off and RPM indicators

a button to turn the watering system on or off.
The final step would typically then be to edit the properties of each control and indicator to specify their behaviour. This would
generally mean specifying:

which slave device to use. This may involve selecting the DT80's "device instance" from a list of connected Modbus
slave devices.

the Modbus register number

the data type (signed or unsigned or floating point, 16 or 32 bits, byte/word ordering)

the scaling factor. This is often presented as a span, similar to a DT80 span (P60). That is, you specify the "device
range" (min/max returned value) and the corresponding "display range" (min/max value to display) – which then
creates a linear scaling curve.

the scan rate (how often to read/write the value from/to the DT80)

other details such as units.
So the setup for this application might be something like:
Mimic
Element
Modbus
Reg
"temp1"
"temp2"
"temp3"
"setpt"
"num_data"
3:00001
3:00002
3:00003
4:00004
3:00005
"num_alm" 3:00007
"fan_rpm" 3:00009
"fan_state" 0:08001
"water"
0:08002
Data Type
Device Range
Display Range
Units
Comments
signed 16-bit
signed 16-bit
signed 16-bit
signed 16-bit
signed 32-bit,
MSW first
signed 32-bit,
MSW first
signed 16-bit
n/a
n/a
-3276 to 3276
-3276 to 3276
-3276 to 3276
-3276 to 3276
-1 to 1000000
-327.6 to 327.6
-327.6 to 327.6
-327.6 to 327.6
-327.6 to 327.6
-1 to 1000000
degC
degC
degC
degC
recs
1CV (input reg)
2CV (input reg)
3CV (input reg)
4CV (output reg)
5CV (input reg)
-1 to 1000000
-1 to 1000000
recs
7CV (input reg)
0 to 32767
n/a
n/a
0 to 32767
n/a
n/a
rpm
on/off
on/off
9CV (input reg)
1DSO (coil)
2DSO (coil)
Notice how input register numbers are prefixed by "3", output registers by "4" and coils (output bits) by "0".
Note Different Modbus client packages may specify Modbus register numbers in different ways. For example, register
3:0001 may be specified as "30001", "300001", "input register 0001", or "input register, address 0000". In all cases the
message transmitted to the DT80 is identical; the difference is just in how you enter it into the software.
Troubleshooting
Setting P56=4 will enable the output of diagnostic messages which allow you to see received and transmitted Modbus
messages as they occur. For example:
P56=4
Modbus
Modbus
Modbus
Modbus
Modbus
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RX
TX
RX
TX
RX
<192.168.1.60:1168: 00000000000601
>192.168.1.60:1168: 00000000001301
<192.168.1.60:1168: 00010000000601
>192.168.1.60:1168: 00010000001301
<HOST: 01 0400000008f1cc (8)
0400000008 (12)
041000000000000000000000000000000000 (25)
0400000008 (12)
041000000000000000000000000000000000 (25)
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Modbus TX >HOST: 01 041000000000000000000000000000000000552c (21)
This shows a message received from a Modbus client at IP address 192.168.1.60 (port 1168) which has total length of 12
bytes. The data is shown in hexadecimal form. The first part is the TCP/IP-specific header, which comprises: a transaction
identifier (0000, used to match up requests and replies), a protocol identifier (0000 indicates Modbus), the number of
following bytes (0006) and the slave address (01 – not applicable for TCP/IP). The actual Modbus frame follows: 04 for
"read input registers" function code, starting address 0000 and length 0008. This is therefore a request to read the values of
1CV to 8CV.
The DT80 then replies with the same function code (04), the byte count (10), and 8 x 16-bit data values (all zero in this case).
This exchange is then repeated; notice that the client has incremented the transaction identifier, which is now 0001.
A serial Modbus message is then received on the host port, addressed to slave ID 01. Again, this is a request to read 1CV to
8CV. Note that serial Modbus also includes a checksum on the end (f1cc).
Assuming that the DT80 has been configured for address 1, using
PROFILE MODBUS_SERVER HOST_ADDRESS=1
then it will respond to the message as shown.
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Part K – Communications
Overview
The DT80 is very flexible and provides many communications options. To understand how these fit together and what
combinations are possible, it is helpful to think of communications in terms of the following hierarchy:

Clients are software programs (e.g. a web browser, or the job running on the logger) that initiate communications to or
from the DT80.

These clients use services that are provided by the logger (e.g. web server, command interface).

The services are in turn implemented using particular communications protocols (e.g. FTP, Modbus).

These protocols cause data to be physically transmitted using one of the DT80's physical communications ports (e.g.
Ethernet port, USB port)

The data travels via a physical connection to one of these ports (e.g. USB cable, Ethernet LAN connection)

Finally, at the other end of the physical connection is the physical device with which the DT80 is communicating (e.g.
PC, serial sensor)
This is illustrated in Figure 61 (P177) for standard models, and Figure 62 (P178) for integrated modem models. These
diagrams are described further below. Later sections will explain common usage scenarios in more detail.
Services
The DT80 provides ten basic services through which it can communicate with a host computer or other device:

a command interface, to which a host computer sends ASCII commands and from which it receives ASCII data and
other responses. All of the various commands and responses described in this manual are sent to the DT80 via its
command interface. See Using the Network Command Interface (P243).

a web interface (dEX). This allows the DT80 to be monitored and configured remotely using a standard web browser,
such as Microsoft Internet Explorer. See Web Interface (P120).

an FTP server. The File Transfer Protocol is a standard TCP/IP based protocol, which allows files to be efficiently
transferred between the DT80's file system and that of a host computer. These transfers are initiated by the host
(client) computer. See Using the DT80 FTP Server (P244).

an FTP client. This allows transfer of data between the DT80's file system and that of a host computer, initiated by the
current job on the DT80. See Retrieving Logged Data (P93).

a Modbus server. This allows the DT80 to be monitored and controlled by a Modbus client system (typically a SCADA
package). See Modbus Interface (P168).

a Modbus client. This allows Modbus sensors to be polled by the current job. See Modbus Channel (P343).

an SDI-12 data recorder function. This allows SDI-12 sensors to be polled under the control of the current job on the
DT80. See SDI-12 Channel (P325).

a generic serial facility, where data strings are transferred to and from a PC or serial sensor device under the control
of the current job on the DT80. See Generic Serial Channel (P330).

an email client. This allows alarm messages and/or logged data to be transferred to an email server, and from there
to a user's email inbox.

an SMS client (DT8xM models only), which allows alarm messages to be sent via SMS to a mobile handset.
Protocols
A communications protocol is a set of rules governing what is transmitted over a communications link. The DT80
implements certain communications protocols, which are used to provide the services listed above.
There are two classes of protocols:

serial protocols, which operate on the DT80's serial ports (USB, host, serial sensor)

TCP/IP network protocols, which require a TCP/IP connection between the host computer and the DT80. (The
process of establishing a TCP/IP connection will be discussed below.)
Serial Protocols
The DT80's serial ports (USB, host, serial sensor) all support the following serial protocols:

the serial command interface protocol. This consists simply of DT80 commands and responses transmitted directly
over a point-to-point serial connection.
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
the serial Modbus protocol. The DT80 only implements the slave (server) side of this protocol.

the generic serial protocol.

PPP (point to point protocol), which allows a TCP/IP connection to be established over a serial link. This then provides
similar capabilities to the Ethernet port, i.e. all TCP/IP-based protocols can then operate using this link.
On DT8xM models, the DT80 uses PPP to connect to the mobile network. On standard models, the DT80 implements
a PPP server on the serial ports. A PPP client (e.g. a PC) can establish a PPP connection to the DT80, but the DT80
cannot establish a PPP connection with a PPP server (e.g. an Internet service provider).
Note that each serial port can only support one of these protocols at a time.
The SDI-12 protocol is only supported on the SDI-12 capable I/O terminals (5D-8D, or 4D on DT81/82).
The GSM SMS (short message service) protocol is only supported on the integrated modem (if present).
TCP/IP Protocols
TCP/IP based protocols are used to communicate between devices that have an IP address set (IP = Internet Protocol). An
IP address can be assigned to the DT80's Ethernet port, and to any serial port on which a PPP connection has been
established.
The DT80 supports the following TCP/IP protocols:

the network command interface protocol. This consists simply of DT80 commands and responses transmitted via
TCP port 7700.

the network Modbus protocol (TCP port 502), which a SCADA system uses to access the DT80's Modbus server,
and the DT80 uses to access other Modbus devices.

the Hypertext Transfer Protocol (HTTP) (TCP port 80), used for accessing the DT80's web server.

the File Transfer Protocol (FTP) (TCP port 21). This allows files to be transferred between the DT80 and another
computer.

the Simple Mail Transport Protocol (SMTP) (TCP port 25). This allows email messages to be sent to an email
server for delivery to a user's email inbox.
Multiple protocols can be active on the one physical port at the same time. See also Network Communications (P198).
Physical Ports
The DT80 has the following physical communications ports:

Ethernet port – supports TCP/IP protocols

USB port – supports serial protocols (and TCP/IP protocols if PPP is used) (not DT82)

host RS232 port – supports serial protocols (and TCP/IP protocols if PPP is used) (not DT8xM)

serial sensor port (RS232/422/485) – supports serial protocols (and TCP/IP protocols if PPP is used) (not DT81/82E)

4 SDI-12 ports (5D-8D) (1 port for DT81/82E: 4D, none for DT82I) – supports SDI-12 protocol only

GSM/GPRS/3G wireless modem port – supports SMS and TCP/IP protocols.
About the Communications Diagram
Figure 61 (P177) and Figure 62 (P178) show the various communications options available on the DT80. The diagram may
appear slightly intimidating; the following notes may help in deciphering what it is trying to indicate.

The outer dashed line represents the boundary of the DT80 itself. The physical comms ports (blue boxes) therefore
appear on the boundary between "inside" and "outside".

The green ellipses represent clients – things which initiate communications actions. Clients are generally software
applications. As can be seen, most of these are external to the DT80 (i.e. running on some external computer system),
the exception being the DT80's current job.

The pink boxes at the bottom represent physical devices connected to the DT80, and the lines connecting these to the
DT80's communications ports (blue) represent physical communications links.

All other boxes are not physical things, but rather they represent aspects of the DT80's functionality. Broadly speaking,
the lines connecting these boxes indicate a "uses" relationship. For example, a "SCADA system" client uses the
DT80's "Modbus server" service, which may then use the "serial Modbus" protocol, which may then use the USB port.

Where multiple lines converge on a single point (e.g. on either side of the physical port boxes), this indicates "choose
one". For example, the USB port can use either the PPP protocol, or the serial Modbus protocol, or the serial
command protocol, or the generic serial protocol. It cannot use more than one protocol at the same time. Similarly, the
Ethernet port can physically connect either directly to a PC (using a "crossover" cable), or to a local or wide area
network (LAN/WAN) by connecting to a network switch or hub.

Where multiple lines join to a box but not at a single point, this implies that simultaneous operation is possible. For
example, the serial command protocol can operate on both the USB and host RS232 ports at the same time if you
wish. Likewise, any or all of the TCP/IP based protocols can be used over the Ethernet port at the same time.
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web browser
DeTransfer,
DeLoad etc.
SCADA
system
FTP client
DT80
Clients
Current job
web
interface
HTTP
FTP
server
FTP
FTP
client
SMTP
Email
client
Network
Modbus
Modbus
server
Command
Interface
Network
Command
Serial
Modbus
Modbus
client
Serial
Command
Generic
serial
SDI-12
data
recorder
Generic
Serial
SDI-12
Services
TCP/IP
protocols
TCP/IP
Protocols
serial
protocols
PPP
Ethernet
Port
USB
Port
Host
RS232
Port
Serial
Sensor
Port
5D 6D 7D 8D
digital I/O
Physical
Ports
4D on DT81/82
Modem
Physical
Connections
RS232,
RS422,
RS485
Phone
Network
LAN/WAN
Modem
PC
PC
PC
FTP
server
PC
serial
sensor
PC
SDI-12
sensors
PC
Connected
Devices
serial
sensors
Figure 61: DT80 communications options
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web browser
DeTransfer,
DeLoad etc.
SCADA
system
FTP client
DT8xM
Clients
Current job
web
interface
HTTP
FTP
server
FTP
FTP
client
SMTP
Email
client
Network
Modbus
Modbus
server
Network
Command
Command
Interface
SMS
SMS
client
Serial
Modbus
Modbus
client
Generic
serial
SDI-12
data
recorder
Serial
Command
Generic
Serial
SDI-12
Services
TCP/IP
protocols
TCP/IP
Protocols
serial
protocols
PPP
Ethernet
Port
USB
Port
GSM/3G
Modem
Serial
Sensor
Port
5D 6D 7D 8D
digital I/O
Physical
Ports
4D on DT82EM
PC
Mobile
Network
LAN /
Internet
PC
FTP
server
Email
server
SDI-12
sensors
Mobile
Handset
PC
PC
Physical
Connections
RS232,
RS422,
RS485
Connected
Devices
serial
sensors
Figure 62: DT80 communications options (integrated modem models)
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The Command Interface
Connecting to the Command Interface
As shown in Figure 61 (P177), the command interface can operate over a serial link ("serial command" protocol), and/or over
a TCP/IP network ("network command" protocol). In other words, you can send commands from a computer to the DT80 via:

a direct connection to the USB port (P180)

a direct RS232 connection to the host RS232 or serial sensor port, using a crossover ("null modem") cable (P193

a fixed or dial-up modem, which is connected to the RS232 port (P193).

a TCP/IP network, which is connected to the Ethernet port (P198).

a point-to-point TCP/IP connection, using PPP. This may use the USB, host RS232 (with or without modem) or serial
sensor port.
Arbitration
The DT80's command interface may be set up to operate over more than one type of communications link at the same time..
In this situation, the DT80 automatically switches between each link as required, responding back through the link from
which the most recent communication was received.
You can therefore switch to a new comms interface at any time, simply by sending a DT80 command (or just a carriage
return character) via that interface.
Broadcasting Data
Up to three different computers can be simultaneously "connected" to the DT80 command interface using TCP/IP.
Although there can only be one active command interface connection at any one time, it is possible for the DT80 to
"broadcast" data to a number of computers simultaneously.
All output text generated by the DT80 (command echoes, messages, returned/unloaded data etc.) is sent to:

the active command interface connection (which may be RS232, USB or TCP/IP), and

all currently open TCP/IP connections (if any)
In this way a number of computers can be connected to the DT80 via a TCP/IP network and passively "listen" to the stream
of returned data generated by the DT80.
Command Interface Operation
Characters received via the command interface are buffered until a carriage return (CR) character is received. This buffer
can hold 1023 characters, so this is the maximum line length that can be sent to the DT80.
Once a CR is received, the DT80 will:
1.
wait until any currently executing schedule completes
2.
echo the received command line (after converting it to uppercase). Command echo can be disabled using the /e
switch command.
3.
process the command.
4.
output the DT80> prompt, to indicate it is ready for the next command.
Note that it is not necessary to wait until a command completes before sending the next command, as the DT80 provides
additional buffering for subsequent command lines. Each type of comms channel provides some form of automatic flow
control to ensure that these buffers do not overflow when a large number of command lines are sent at once.
Detecting DT80 Presence
Host software can detect the presence of a DT80 by sending a DEL character (ASCII 127). If this character is received at any
time, the DT80 will respond with << followed by CR LF. The DEL character is always recognised and responded to, even if a
password has been applied (see below).
Password Protection
To reduce the possibility of unauthorised access to the DT80's command interface, you can configure a password, so that
communication is only possible after the password is entered.
Setting and Removing the Command Interface Password
Set a password by sending
PASSWORD="password"
to the DT80. password can be any text string of up to 10 case-sensitive characters.
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Remove a password by sending
PASSWORD=""
Note The password is cleared if the DT80 performs a hardware or HRESET reset.
Accessing Password-Protected Command Interface
To establish communication at any time, simply send the password followed by a carriage return. If the password is correct,
the DT80 responds with Accepted and opens the comms port.
The port stays open until you send the SIGNOFF command, or while there is comms activity. If there is no communication
for a period of time defined by P14 (default is 600 seconds), the port will time out and close.
Is the Command Interface Protected?
Send the command
PASSWORD
to determine if a command interface password has been set. The DT80 responds with 1 if a password has been set,
otherwise 0.
USB Port
(Not applicable to DT82I/82E/82EM)
Configuring the USB Port
USB is much simpler to configure than RS232 because the baud rate, framing and flow control settings are all fixed by the
USB standard. The DT80's USB interface always operates at the standard USB "full speed" rate (12Mbps).
Note that the USB port supports direct connections only. USB modems are not supported.
The only setting that can be specified is the port function. This is set using the PROFILE command (see Profile Settings
(P251)), e.g.
PROFILE USB_PORT FUNCTION=MODBUS.
The possible settings for the USB port FUNCTION parameter are:

COMMAND (default) – the port accepts DT80 commands sent directly over the serial interface. The port will
automatically switch to PPP mode if an incoming PPP connection is detected. When the PPP connection is closed the
port will go back to accepting direct commands.

PPP – the port accepts PPP connections only.

SERIAL – data transmission and reception is controlled by the current job, using the 3SERIAL channel.

MODBUS – the port receives and processes incoming serial Modbus requests.

MODBUS_MASTER – the port is used for polling a Modbus sensor device, as specified in the current job using the
3MODBUS channel.

DISABLE – the port is disabled. This setting reduces power consumption.
The remainder of this section will assume that the USB port function has been set to COMMAND.
About DtUsb
In order to use the DT80's USB port, it is first necessary to install the dataTaker DtUsb driver software on your computer.
Once DtUsb is installed, it provides two separate "interfaces" to allow application programs to communicate with the
DT80.over USB:

a TCP/IP interface, which allows full access to all of the DT80's TCP/IP services, including the dEX web interface

a secondary "virtual COM port" interface, where the USB port appears as a standard serial COM port. This allows
applications such as DeTransfer to establish a serial connection to the logger over USB in the same way that they
would using RS232 (although note that DeTransfer can also perform most of its functions over a TCP/IP interface)
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PC
Web Browser
TCP/IP interface
127.1.1.1
DtUsb
DT80
USB
Port
USB cable
USB
Port
DeTransfer
Applications
COM port interface
COM6
Figure 63: Using DtUsb to communicate with the DT80 over USB
Note that only one of these interfaces can be active at any one time.
By default, the TCP/IP interface will be active, so when the logger USB cable is plugged in, the logger will then become
visible at IP address 127.1.1.1 (this address may vary).
If, however, you shut down the TCP/IP part of DtUsb then the logger's virtual COM port (shown as COM6 in the diagram) will
become available. See USB Direct Serial Mode (P186).
In most cases, it is simpler and more flexible to perform all communications via the TCP/IP interface.
Note As indicated by the arrows in the diagram above, the purpose of DtUsb is to allow client programs running on the PC
(such as the web browser) to connect to the DT80. DtUsb does not support connections in the opposite direction, i.e. where
the DT80 connects to a server (e.g. an FTP server) on the PC. An alternative is to set up a serial PPP connection using the
USB port (see PPP Communications (P234)), which will allow the DT80 to connect to an FTP server on the local PC.
Installing DtUsb
DtUsb is supplied on the dataTaker Resource CD shipped with your logger. It may also be downloaded from the dataTaker
web site, www.datataker.com.
Note It is recommended that you install DtUsb before connecting the DT80's USB cable to the computer.
System Requirements
DtUsb requires Windows XP or later. It also requires Microsoft .NET Version 2.0 or later. If you have Windows Vista or later
then .NET should already be installed; it may also have been installed by another application on your computer. The DtUsb
installation program will check whether .NET is present during installation.
You will need administrator rights for your computer in order to install DtUsb. Once it is installed, a normal user account can
be used.
Installation Procedure
The following procedure will install DtUsb on to your computer. Do not connect the DT80's USB cable to the computer until
instructed to do so.
Note Depending on your Windows version, you may receive various prompts during the DtUsb installation processes
requesting your permission to run software published by Thermo Fisher Scientific. Answer Yes or Continue to these.
1.
Ensure that you are logged in to your computer as an administrator.
2.
Insert the dataTaker Resource CD. The CD menu program (see below) should start automatically; if it doesn't then
use Windows Explorer to locate DtAutoRun.exe on the CD and double click it.
If you are installing from an installation package downloaded from the dataTaker website then save the downloaded
package and double click to run it. Skip to Step 5.
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3.
Select DT80 range...
4.
Select Install USB driver
5.
DtUsb actually consists of two parts: DtUsb Driver (the low level "plug and play" USB driver) and DtUsb (which
provides the TCP/IP interface). Both of these will now be installed, starting with DtUsb Driver.
Click Next
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6.
After the drivers have been copied to your computer a confirmation screen similar to the following will be displayed.
Check that two green ticks are displayed.
Click Finish
7.
The DtUsb installer will now start. If you are installing from the CD and do not have .NET 2.0 or later on your computer
it will now be installed (after you accept the Microsoft license agreement), then the DtUsb installer will continue. (If you
are using a downloaded DtUsb package then the installer will terminate if .NET is not present and you will need to
obtain it from the Microsoft website.)
Accept the DtUsb license agreement and click Install
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8.
Once DtUsb has been installed a confirmation screen will be displayed.
Click Finish
9.
Now connect the DT80 to the computer using the USB cable. This will trigger the Windows "plug and play" process to
complete driver installation.
You may notice a flurry of activity in the system tray area. The actual sequence of events depends on your operating
system.

For Windows XP, the drivers that you pre-installed in Step 5 will be automatically installed with a minimum of
fuss. A couple of "New hardware found" balloon messages will appear, then finally it should say "Your new
hardware is ready to use"

For Windows Vista, you will be asked whether you want to locate and install driver software, or do nothing.
Specify that you do want to locate and install drivers. It will then search for the drivers on Windows Update.
Assuming you have a working internet connection, it should find the drivers there and install them. If not then the
Windows Update search will time out and it will install the drivers that you pre-installed in Step 5. Eventually
Windows should report that "Your new hardware is ready to use".

For Windows 7, the initial prompt will be skipped and it will go straight to Windows Update. As with Vista, if this
is successful then it will install the drivers it finds there, otherwise it will eventually time out and use the
pre-installed drivers.
Note that DtUsb Driver actually consists of two separate Windows drivers – a USB driver and a virtual COM port
driver. You may therefore see the above "plug and play" process occur twice, once for each driver.
10. Once the two parts of DtUsb Driver have been installed, DtUsb should notice that a logger has been connected. A new
icon should appear in the system tray.
11. DtUsb will now automatically launch your default web browser and display the dEX home page.
12. If desired, you may now log off as administrator and log in as a normal user. DtUsb will be loaded automatically when
any user logs in to the computer.
Using DtUsb
DtUsb is a background process, which is started automatically when any user logs in to the computer. It will, however, do
nothing until a DT80 is connected via USB.
When a DT80 is connected, DtUsb will:
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
establish a PPP connection to the logger over the USB link (PPP is a protocol that allows TCP/IP traffic to be passed
over a point-to-point serial link)

provide a local IP address, typically 127.1.1.1, which effectively becomes the DT80's IP address.

display the purple icon in the task bar, which will remain visible whilst the logger is connected

optionally, automatically launch your default web browser and display the dEX home page
Applications such as a web browser, FTP client, DeTransfer or a Modbus client can then connect to the logger's services
using the 127.1.1.1 address, and DtUsb will forward their requests on to the logger.
Note DtUsb assumes that all logger services are operating using their default port numbers. If you experience problems
accessing a particular service, check the following DT80 profile settings
PROFILE COMMAND_SERVER PORT=7700
PROFILE HTTP_SERVER PORT=80
PROFILE MODBUS_SERVER TCPIP_PORT=502
Remember also that the USB port function must be set to COMMAND (which is the default) in order for DtUsb to work, i.e.
PROFILE USB_PORT FUNCTION=COMMAND
DtUsb GUI
For the most part, DtUsb is intended to be invisible – its main purpose is simply to provide a TCP/IP connection over USB so
that dEX and other logger services can be accessed.
However, DtUsb does include a simple graphical user interface (GUI). To access this, double click on the purple icon while a
logger is connected. Alternatively, you can find a link to DtUsb on the Windows Start menu, in the dataTaker folder.
The DtUsb GUI comprises three screen, selected by clicking on the tabs along the top. Each screen contains the same three
buttons along the bottom:

Quit will terminate DtUsb, which will mean that the logger's TCP/IP services will no longer be available. This should
normally only be used if you wish to use the direct "COM port" interface to the logger, rather than the TCP/IP interface.

Hide will close the GUI, but DtUsb will keep running. Closing the window with the red X button will do the same thing.

Apply will apply any changes you have made on the Configuration tab.
 Loggers Screen
Figure 64: Main DtUsb screen
The Loggers tab shows a list of all connected loggers, along with their IP addresses and the port numbers to use to access
their services.
For the HTTP (web) and FTP services, links are provided which will open a web browser window. The HTTP link will display
the dEX home page, while the FTP link will display the web browser's inbuilt FTP client, allowing you to browse the logger's
file system.
To access the command server (e.g. in DeTransfer) you would create a connection using the indicated IP address and port
number (127.1.1.1 port 7700 in this case). To access the DT80 Modbus server you would enter a similar thing into your
Modbus client application.
Note that the port numbers may not necessarily be the "normal" ones shown in the example. For example, if there is a web
or FTP server running on your PC then DtUsb will automatically assign different port numbers in order to avoid conflicts – for
example, port 81 instead of port 80 for the web interface.
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 Configuration Screen
Figure 65: DtUsb Configuration Screen
This screen allows you to select

whether the dEX home page is automatically launched each time a logger is plugged in

the base IP address that DtUsb presents to other applications. This would only need to change if there was some sort
of conflict with other software on your computer.
USB Direct Serial Mode
If you wish to use DeTransfer to control the DT80 via a USB connection then it is necessary to shut down DtUsb. Double click
on the purple DtUsb icon in the system tray (or choose DtUsb in the Start menu) to bring up the DtUsb GUI then select Quit
(and then confirm by selecting Yes).
You should now be able to run DeTransfer and create a serial connection by selecting the COM port that has been assigned
to the USB interface. If you don't know the COM port number, you can check by using the Windows device manager (right
click on My Computer, select Manage, then Device Manager, then open the Ports (COM & LPT) item in the tree and look
for an entry called Datataker USB Serial Port. See Figure 66.
Figure 66: Determining USB COM port number in Device Manager
Note DtUsb must still be installed (but not running) in order to use the USB port in direct serial mode. If it is not installed then
the DT80 will not be recognised and a COM port will not be assigned to it.
Sleep Mode
If the DT80 enters low power sleep mode then its USB interface will be reset. To the host computer, it will look like the USB
cable has been unplugged, so the configured COM port will disappear.
When the DT80 wakes, the PC will detect that a USB device has been connected, and re-create the COM port. The
application that was using the COM port will, however, most likely not automatically re-connect. For example, DeTransfer
and DeLogger will require you to manually re-establish a connection.
For this reason it is recommended that the logger not be allowed to go to sleep while the USB cable is connected. By default,
low power sleep mode is automatically disabled if a USB cable is connected.
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RS-232 Communications
(Not applicable to DT8xM)
Direct RS-232 Connection
For applications where the DT80 is to be directly connected to a nearby computer, USB is normally the preferred
communications medium. However, you may wish to use a direct RS232 connection if:

your computer has no available USB ports

you have a DT82 model, which does not have a USB port

you need the DT80 to go into low power sleep mode between scans, and you want to continue to receive real-time
data returns; or you want to be able to wake the DT80 by sending a character (See Sleep Mode (P284))

the required cable length is longer than about 5 metres.
Normally the DT80's host RS232 port (P188) is used when making a direct RS232 connection to a host computer. However
the serial sensor port (P190) can also be used.
To set up a direct RS232 connection you will need a "cross-over", or "null-modem" cable. Suitable cables may be ordered for
this purpose (dataTaker product code IBM-6 for host port connection, or CAB-015 for serial sensor port). See Cables (P373)
for wiring information.
It is also possible to use a simpler 3-wire cable (RXD, TXD and GND) although this will mean that hardware flow control is not
possible.
If your computer has no RS232 ports (as is the case for many laptop models) a USB to serial adapter may be used.
Cable Length
Although the RS-232 standard specifies a cable of not more than 4 metres (15 feet), longer cables can be used. It’s possible
to use RS-232 cable runs of 100 metres or more, but to achieve reasonably error-free communication these generally need
to have heavier wires and a slower baud rate may be necessary.
RS-232 Flow Control
Flow control (or handshaking) is the means by which communicating devices (such as the DT80 and a host computer)
control each other’s transmission of characters to avoid data loss. The receiver uses flow control to disable transmissions by
the sender if the receiver’s input buffer is at risk of overflowing and thereby losing data.
The DT80 supports all methods of flow control:

Software flow control (also known as XON/XOFF flow control)

Hardware flow control (also known as RTS/CTS flow control)

No flow control
Software Flow Control
In this mode, the receiver controls the flow of characters by transmitting

the XOFF character (ASCII 19) to stop the sender from sending further characters

the XON character (ASCII 17) to allow the sender to resume sending characters.
If the DT80 receives an XOFF character, it will stop transmission within two character periods. If no XON is received within
60 seconds (see P26 (P248)) the DT80 will resume transmitting anyway.
Hardware Flow Control
With hardware flow control, the transmission of characters is managed by the RTS (Request To Send) and CTS (Clear To
Send) signals. For a DTE device such as a computer or the DT80:

the RTS signal is an output; the device activates this signal while it is able to receive data

the CTS signal is an input; the device will only transmit if this signal is active.
So if a computer and the DT80 are set up to communicate using hardware flow control, then the RTS and CTS lines must be
"crossed over". Thus when one end deactivates its RTS signal then the other will see its CTS signal deactivate, causing it to
stop transmitting.
The DT80 communications cable (product code IBM-6) has the RTS/CTS lines connected in this crossover manner – see
Host Port null modem cable (P373).
Note that for a DCE device (e.g. a modem), the RTS and CTS functions are swapped (as are the TXD and RXD pins). This
allows a "straight through" cable to be used when connecting a DT80 to a modem.
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Hardware flow control is inherently more reliable than software flow control, because the flow control state (send/don't send)
is continuously indicated by the hardware signals. Software flow control can get into difficulties if line noise causes an XON
or XOFF character to be lost, for example.
Hardware flow control is therefore the preferred method. It is not, however, the default because it can only be used if the
cable is wired appropriately and the host computer is configured to use hardware flow control. (In this sense software flow
control is a little more "forgiving").
If the RS232 cable is accidentally disconnected, the DT80 will no longer see CTS active, so it will stop transmitting. If,
however, this condition persists for more than 60 seconds (see P26 (P248)), the DT80 will conclude that the host computer is
no longer connected and will stop trying to transmit, until CTS again becomes active.
No Flow Control
The DT80 can also be set to use no flow control, in which case there is no control of the sender by the receiver. Use this
setting with care, and only where there is no risk of the receiver being over-run by excess data from the sender, otherwise
data loss will occur.
Sleep Mode
If the DT80 is in low power sleep mode, it can be woken by sending a character to the RS232 port (either host port or serial
sensor port). Note, however, that the character that was sent will be discarded, if other characters are sent immediately
afterwards they may be discarded, too.
It is recommended that the DT80 be woken by sending a CR character, then waiting at least 500ms before sending any
commands. (Note that the "Wakeup Required" option in DeTransfer can be used to automatically prefix all commands by the
abovementioned wakeup sequence.)
Note that only the RS232 ports can be used to wake the DT80 in this way, because when the DT80 goes to sleep any
Ethernet or USB connections are terminated.
This also means that the RS232 port can be used to monitor real time data returns where the DT80 is configured to go to
sleep between scheduled scans – something which is not possible with the USB or Ethernet port.
Host RS-232 Port
(Not applicable to DT82EM/80LM/85LM)
The DT80 has a 9-pin male connector for RS-232 serial communication to a computer or modem. The port is configured as
a DTE (Data Terminal Equipment) device, and the pinout is the same as that used on a PC. See RS-232 (P373) for more
details.
Configuring the Host RS-232 Port
There are three parameters that need to be set for any RS232 port, and the DT80's port is no exception:

baud rate (data transfer rate in bits per second) DT80 default is 57600.

serial framing format (number of data bits, parity type, number of stop bits) DT80 default is "N,8,1" – no parity, 8 data
bits, 1 stop bit.

flow control (mechanism for one computer to tell the other to stop sending) DT80 default is software flow control
(special characters are used to signal "stop" and "go").
It is essential that both ends of an RS232 link be configured identically – same baud rate, framing and flow control.
A fourth parameter that needs to be set for the DT80 host port is the port function, which specifies the protocol used by the
port – command, PPP, Modbus or generic serial.
PROFILE Settings
To view the current host port settings use the following command:
PROFILE HOST_PORT
[HOST_PORT]
BPS = 57600
DATA_BITS = 8
STOP_BITS = 1
PARITY = NONE
*FLOW = HARDWARE
FUNCTION = COMMAND
which lists the current baud rate, framing format, flow control and port function. An asterisk indicates a non-default setting.
See Profile Settings (P251)) for more details.
If required, these settings can be changed using individual PROFILE commands, i.e.:
PROFILE HOST_PORT key=value
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The following keys are defined:
Key
Value
BPS
baud rate. Use 300, 600, 1200, 2400, 4800, 9600, 19200, 38400, 57600, or 57600
115200.
DATA_BITS
STOP_BITS
PARITY
FLOW
can be 7 or 8
can be 1 or 2
can be N (none), O (odd) or E (even)
NONE (no flow control)
SOFTWARE (XON/XOFF)
HARDWARE (RTS/CTS)
port function (see below)
FUNCTION
Default
8
1
N
SOFTWARE
COMMAND
For example, the following commands would configure the host port for serial connection to a Modbus client (e.g. a SCADA
system), using the "standard" Modbus settings (19200 baud, 8 data bits, 1 stop bit, even parity, no flow control):
PROFILE
PROFILE
PROFILE
PROFILE
HOST_PORT
HOST_PORT
HOST_PORT
HOST_PORT
BPS=19200
PARITY=EVEN
FLOW=NONE
FUNCTION=MODBUS
Note that these settings, as with all profile settings, will temporarily revert to default settings in the event of a "triple push"
reset, see Safe Mode (P260)).
Note Do not use software flow control (SWFC) if the port is using a binary (non-ASCII) protocol, such as Modbus or PPP or
some serial sensor protocols. This is because flow control characters (XON/XOFF) may legitimately appear in binary data,
and if they do then they will be stripped out. This will cause data errors.
Port Function
The possible settings for the host port FUNCTION parameter are:

COMMAND (default) – the port accepts DT80 commands sent directly over the serial interface. The port will
automatically switch to PPP mode if an incoming PPP connection is detected. When the PPP connection is closed the
port will go back to accepting direct commands.

PPP – the port accepts PPP connections only.

SERIAL – the port is controlled by the current job, using the 2SERIAL channel.

MODBUS – the port receives and processes incoming serial Modbus requests.

MODBUS_MASTER – the port is used for polling a Modbus sensor device, as specified in the current job using the
2MODBUS channel.

DISABLE – the port is disabled. This setting reduces power consumption.
Temporary Settings
The Host RS232 communications parameters can also be temporarily set by the command
PH=baud,parity,databits,stopbits,flow-control
where:
Parameter
Settings
baud
is the required baud rate. Use 300, 600, 1200, 2400, 4800, 9600, 19200, 38400, 57600
57600 or 115200.
Default
parity
databits
stopbits
flow-control
can be N (none), O (odd) or E (even)
can be 7 or 8
can be 1 or 2
NOFC (no flow control)
SWFC (software flow control, i.e. XON/XOFF)
HWFC (hardware flow control, i.e. RTS/CTS)
N
8
1
SWFC
These parameters may be specified in any order and all are optional. Note that the port function cannot be set using this
command.
For example, the command
PH=115200,HWFC
sets the RS232 port to 115200 baud, no parity, 8 data bits, 1 stop bit, and hardware flow control.
These settings will be reset to the PROFILE values by a hard reset (e.g. HRESET).
You can also check the DT80's current RS232 parameters using the PH command, e.g.:
PH
RS232,57600,N,8,1,SWFC
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Finally, the command
PH=
will return the all host port settings to the values specified in the PROFILE.
Serial Sensor Port
(Not applicable to DT81/82E)
The DT80 serial sensor port is normally used to control serial sensor devices. It is, however, a general purpose serial port
which is largely equivalent in functionality to the host RS232 port.
The DT80 serial sensor port:

can be configured for either the RS-232, RS-422 or RS-485 comms standard. RS-232 supports a single point-to-point
connection; the other standards support multiple devices in a multi-drop configuration (for certain protocols).

has a differential transmitter and receiver that provide for the different serial standards

has RTS/CTS handshake lines (RS232 only)

supports baud rates of 300 to 57600 baud

supports the serial command, serial Modbus, PPP and generic serial protocols

does not provide any modem control functions
Connecting to the Serial Sensor Port
The DT80 serial sensor port terminals have different functions depending upon the configured serial standard (RS232,
RS422 or RS485).
Terminal
Tx
Z
Rx
A
RTS
Y
CTS
B
D
GND
RS232
RS422
RS485
Transmit Data
Transmit Data– (A)
Data– (A)
Receive Data
Receive Data+ (B)
Handshake output
Transmit Data+ (B)
Handshake input
Receive Data– (A)
Signal Ground
Ground
Wake

Data+ (B)

Ground
Figure 67: The DT80’s Serial Channel terminals (DTE)
Note that:

The RTS and CTS handshake/control signals are available for RS232 only

The DGND terminal is the signal return (common) for RS232. RS422/485 use differential signalling – the ground is not
used as a reference, but it should still be connected to avoid excessive common mode voltages.

Activity on either of the indicated terminals (i.e. Rx/A and CTS/B) will wake the logger from sleep mode, although the
data in the particular message that woke the logger will be lost. Note also that if the Wake feature is required and
RS485 is being used then it will be necessary to link the Data terminals (Tx/Z and RTS/Y) to the wake-enabled
terminals (Rx/A and CTS/B).
RS232 Connection
The serial sensor port is wired as a DTE device so the data lines must be "crossed over" when connecting to another DTE
device. That is, the DT80's Tx output connects to the sensor's RxD input, and vice versa.
The handshaking signals, if used, must also be crossed over, i.e. RTS connects to CTS and vice versa.
RxD
TxD
RS232
Device
CTS
RTS
GND
Tx
Z
Rx
A
RTS
Y
CTS
B
D
GND
Figure 68: Serial sensor port RS232 connection. RTS/CTS connections are optional.
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A cable suitable for connecting the DT80 serial sensor port to a PC serial port may be ordered (dataTaker part number
CAB-015). See also Serial Sensor Port null modem cable (P374).
RS422 Connection
RS422 allows for multi-drop connection, where one or more sensors are connected in parallel. The DT80 is typically the
"master" device in the network and is therefore wired so that its transmissions will be received by all slave devices. The
slaves' transmit lines are all tied together, which means that only one slave is permitted to transmit at any one time. It is up to
the communications protocol to ensure that this is the case – typically each slave will be assigned a unique address and will
only respond if it receives a request from the master that is addressed to it.
RS422 uses full duplex differential signalling: two wires for transmit (Y and Z) and two wires for receive (A and B). Be sure
to observe the correct signal polarity, as shown in the diagram. Some devices label their terminals as A or B, some as + or –.
T+ T- R+ R- G
(B) (A) (B) (A) N
D
RS422
Slave Device
T+ T- R+ R- G
(B) (A) (B) (A) N
D
RS422
Slave Device
Tx
Z
Rx
A
RTS
Y
CTS
B
D
GND
Figure 69: Serial sensor port RS422 connection, assuming that the DT80 is the designated master device.
RS485 Connection
RS485 uses half duplex differential signalling: there is just one pair of wires, which is used for both transmit and receive. Be
sure to observe the correct signal polarity, as shown in the diagram. Some devices label their terminals as A or B, some as
+ or –.
Notice that with RS485, all devices including the DT80 are wired symmetrically: there is no distinction between "master" and
"slave", at least from a wiring perspective.
An RS485 network should normally be cabled as a single linear "backbone", with relatively short "stub" connections to each
device. For long cable runs or high baud rates a 100Ω termination resistor at each end of the main cable is recommended.
100Ω
- +
(A) (B)
100Ω
G
N
D
- +
(A) (B)
RS485 Device
G
N
D
Tx
Z
Rx
A
RTS
Y
CTS
B
D
GND
RS485 Device
Figure 70: Serial sensor port RS485 connection
Configuring the Serial Sensor Port
The following parameters need to be set for the serial sensor port:

port mode (RS232, RS422 or RS485) – default is RS232.

baud rate (data transfer rate in bits per second) – default is 1200.

serial framing format (number of data bits, parity type, number of stop bits) – default is "N,8,1", i.e. no parity, 8 data
bits, 1 stop bit.

flow control (mechanism for one computer to tell the other to stop sending) – default is no flow control.

port function (protocol to be used: command, PPP, Modbus or generic serial) – default is generic serial.
PROFILE Settings
To view the current serial sensor port settings use the following command:
PROFILE SERSEN_PORT
[SERSEN_PORT]
*BPS = 9600
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DATA_BITS = 8
STOP_BITS = 1
PARITY = NONE
FLOW = NONE
MODE = RS232
FUNCTION = SERIAL
which lists the current baud rate, framing format, flow control, port mode and port function. An asterisk indicates a
non-default setting. See Profile Settings (P251)) for more details.
If required, these settings can be changed using individual PROFILE commands, i.e.:
PROFILE SERSEN_PORT key=value
The following keys are defined:
Key
Value
Default
BPS
DATA_BITS
STOP_BITS
PARITY
FLOW
baud rate. Use 300, 600, 1200, 2400, 4800, 9600, 19200, 38400 or 57600.
can be 7 or 8
can be 1 or 2
can be N (none), O (odd) or E (even)
NONE (no flow control)
SOFTWARE (XON/XOFF)
HARDWARE (RTS/CTS)
signal standard: RS232, RS422 or RS485
port function (see below)
1200
8
1
N
NONE
MODE
FUNCTION
RS232
SERIAL
If required, these settings can be changed using individual PROFILE commands. See Profile Settings (P251)) for details on
the possible values for these settings.
For example, the following commands would configure the serial sensor port for the control of serial sensor devices on an
RS485 network, running at 38400 baud
PROFILE SERSEN_PORT BPS=38400
PROFILE SERSEN_PORT MODE=RS485
Note Do not use software flow control (SWFC) if the port is using a binary (non-ASCII) protocol, such as Modbus or PPP or
some serial sensor protocols. This is because flow control characters (XON/XOFF) may legitimately appear in binary data,
and if they do then they will be stripped out. This will cause data errors.
Port Function
The possible settings for the serial sensor port FUNCTION parameter are:

SERIAL (default) – the port is controlled by the current job, using the 1SERIAL channel.

COMMAND – the port accepts DT80 commands sent directly over the serial interface. The port will automatically switch
to PPP mode if an incoming PPP connection is detected. When the PPP connection is closed the port will go back to
accepting direct commands.

PPP – the port accepts PPP connections only.

MODBUS – the port receives and processes incoming serial Modbus requests.

MODBUS_MASTER – the port is used for polling Modbus sensor devices, as specified in the current job using the
1MODBUS channel.

DISABLE – the port is disabled. This setting reduces power consumption.
Temporary Settings
The serial sensor port communications parameters can also be temporarily set by the command
PS=mode,baud,parity,databits,stopbits,flow-control
where:
Parameter
Settings
Default
mode
baud
specifies the signal standard: RS232, RS422 or RS485
is the baud rate. Use 50, 75, 110, 150, 300, 600, 1200, 2400, 4800, 9600,
19200, 38400 or 57600.
RS232
1200
parity
databits
stopbits
flow-control
can be N (none), O (odd) or E (even)
can be 7 or 8
can be 1 or 2
NOFC (no flow control)
SWFC (software flow control – RS232/RS422 only)
HWFC (hardware flow control – RS232 only)
N
8
1
NOFC
These parameters may be specified in any order and all are optional. Note that the port function cannot be set using this
command.
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For example, the command
PS=RS485,9600
sets the port to RS485 mode, 9600 baud.
These settings will be reset to their defaults by a hard reset (e.g. HRESET).
You can also check the DT80's current serial sensor port parameters using the PS command, e.g.:
PS
RS232,1200,N,8,1,NOFC
Finally, the command
PS=
will return the all serial sensor port settings to the values specified in the PROFILE.
External Modem
(Not applicable to DT8xM models)
Modem (Remote) RS-232 Connection
Another common way of communicating with the DT80 is to connect its Host RS-232 port to a wired or wireless modem,
which communicates with another modem connected to the host computer at the other end of the comms link. This way, the
DT80 can be across town or across the world from the host computer, and the link can use PSTN (landline), radio, GSM
(cellular) or satellite communication. This is known as a modem connection to a remote DT80.
PC
DT80
Serial
(COM)
Port
Modem
Phone
Network
Modem
Host
RS232
Port
Figure 71: Modem connection
The "phone network" cloud in the diagram could be:

a dedicated wired or wireless link, e.g. a leased line or a dedicated radio link

the public switched telephone network (PSTN)

a cellular or satellite mobile network.
The DT80 supervises the modem using standard Hayes-compatible "AT" commands. Certain command strings are
configurable, to allow the widest possible range of modems to be supported.
The DT80 can also control the modem’s power supply. If this facility is used, the DT80 can automatically reset the modem if
it determines that this is necessary. See Powering the DT80’s Modem (P195).
Automatic Modem Detection
By default, the DT80 uses the state of its Host RS-232 port’s DSR terminal to determine whether a modem is connected to
the port. (DSR = "Data Set [i.e. modem] Ready")
If the DSR terminal is not held active by the connected device, the DT80 assumes that it’s connected directly to the host
computer and operates accordingly.
If the DT80’s DSR terminal is held active by the connected device, the DT80 assumes that it’s connected to a modem and
operates accordingly, initialising the modem, monitoring other Host RS-232 lines to determine when a modem connection to
the host computer has been established, and so on.
If required, you can override the automatic modem detection feature by setting the following profile:
PROFILE HOST_MODEM DETECTION=ALWAYS (assume modem is always present, regardless of DSR state), or
PROFILE HOST_MODEM DETECTION=NEVER (assume modem is not present)
The default setting for this profile is PROFILE HOST_MODEM DETECTION=DSR.
DT80-to-Modem Cable
The cable used to connect the DT80 host port to the modem should normally be a straight-through comms cable, as shown
in Host Port modem cable (P373). The DT80 uses the following RS232 control signals:

DSR (Data Set Ready), for modem detection, as described above
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
DTR (Data Terminal Ready), to tell the modem that a data terminal (i.e. the DT80) is connected to it, and also to hang
up a call

RTS (Request To Send) and CTS (Clear To Send), to allow hardware flow control (see RS-232 Flow Control (P190))

DCD (Data Carrier Detect), to allow the DT80 to detect when the modem is on-line (see Modem Communications
Operation (P196)).

RI (Ring Indicator), to allow the DT80 to wake up when an incoming call is detected.
Modem Initialisation
Configuring Your Modem
Modems are highly configurable devices with many different parameters that can be adjusted. To make this long list of
parameters easier to manage, modems normally support a number of different configuration profiles. Each profile consists
of a complete set of parameter values. As a minimum, there would be a fixed factory settings profile, and a
user-configurable default profile. The default profile's settings are automatically loaded when the modem is reset or
powered up.
Although the DT80 includes support for automatically sending initialisation commands to the modem, it is recommended that
you fully pre-configure the modem, and write the configuration to the modem's default profile, before connecting it to the
DT80. This ensures that whenever the modem resets due to power loss or other reason it will start with the correct
configuration.
 Sending Modem Commands
Refer to your modem's user's manual for information on how to go about pre-configuring the modem. This is usually done by
connecting the modem to a PC serial port and running a terminal program such as Hyperterminal or DeTransfer so that you
can then send "AT" commands to configure the modem.
You can also use the SSDIRECT command (see Serial Sensor Direct Mode (P339)) to configure a modem that is already
connected to the host port of the DT80. To use this feature, connect to the DT80 using the USB or Ethernet port, then send
the command
SSDIRECT 2
to enable Serial Sensor Direct Mode. You can now interact with a modem attached to the host RS232 port. for example, you
can sent AT commands and see its responses (assuming the modem is in command mode). When you're done, enter
ENDSSDIRECT.
 Recommended Option Settings
The following is a list of items that should be set in the modem's default profile. You should check your modem user's manual
to determine the exact command to use for each setting.
It is recommended that you start by resetting the modem to its factory defaults so that you have a known starting point. This
is particularly important if someone else has used the modem before and you are uncertain of the settings used. For most
modems the AT&F command will load the factory default profile. After this command has been issued, you can then set all
other settings as detailed below and as required for your specific application.

DSR always on: The DSR (data set ready) signal from the modem must be active while the modem is turned on, as
this is how the logger determines that a modem is connected. Most modems do this by default, if not then you must set
the modem do this (typically by using the command AT&S0). If the modem cannot be configured to operate in this way
then the logger must be tricked by connecting DSR to DTR at the logger side, but this should be done as a last resort
as it is not as robust a method. It is important for the logger to know that a modem is connected so that it can avoid
sending normal data output to the modem when the modem is in command mode.

DCD follows carrier state: The DCD (data carrier detect) signal must be set to follow the carrier state, as this is how
the logger determines when a connection has been established with another modem. Most modems do this by default,
if not then you must set the modem to do this (typically using the command AT&C1).

Hardware flow control: We recommend that you always use hardware flow control on the modem and the logger. For
most modems this is the default. It is typically set using the AT&K3 command.

Force reliable (error correcting protocol) mode: You should ensure that the modem connection always uses an
error correcting protocol such as LAPM or MNP. This is required to ensure the flow control information is passed
between the logger and PC based application as well as to eliminate line errors that may corrupt the data
transmission. If an error correcting protocol is not used then line errors and flow control problems can cause data loss.
Many modems will fall back to a non error correcting mode if an error correcting protocol cannot be agreed with the
other modem. This should be avoided as it can cause data loss. Many PSTN modems can be set to force reliable
mode using the AT\N2 command. That is, they will not connect at all if an error correcting protocol is unavailable.

Auto answer: The DT80 does not issue any commands to the modem to answer a call. Therefore, if dial-in
functionality is required, the modem must be set to auto-answer incoming calls. For most modems the command
ATS0=4 will set the modem to auto-answer incoming calls after 4 rings. This setting may be omitted if you do not
need dial-in functionality, in which case the modem will ignore incoming calls.

Don’t echo commands: Most modems will echo incomming commands. This is not desirable when used with a DT80
as the echo may be treated as a command by the logger which will only confuse it. For most modems the command
ATE0 will turn off echo of modem commands.
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
Quiet mode: Most modems will issue messages whenever a command is sent to the modem or a connection is made
or dropped. This is not desirable when used with a DT80 as the message may be treated as a command by the logger
which will only confuse it. For most modems the command ATQ1 will disable the output of such messages.

DTR hangup: Whenever the logger wants to hang up a connection it will set the DTR (data terminal ready) signal to
inactive. The modem should be set such that it will drop the connection whenever it sees DTR inactive. This behaviour
can be set for most modems with the command AT&D2.

Fixed local baud rate. Most modems will set their local baud rate automatically ("autobaud") to match that of the
connected device, once it sees an AT command from the device. Some modems, such as some GSM/CDMA
modems, will only autobaud up to a particular maximum rate (such as 19200). To use rates above this you must set
the baud rate to a fixed value using a command to the modem. The way to control this varies considerably across
modems. For example on some modems the command AT#BDR can be used to fix the local baud rate.
To ensure reliable communications with the modem under all conditions it is in fact recommended that you always fix
the modem's baud rate. This should be set to match the baud rate of the DT80's host serial port (by default 57600). If
the modem's baud rate cannot be set then you need to ensure that the logger's modem initialisation string (P195)
contains at least one AT command so that the modem can autobaud when it is sent.

Application specific settings. You may need to set other settings in the modem that are particular to your
application.
After entering the required configuration settings, it is necessary to tell the modem to store them into its default profile. This
is normally done using the AT&W command.
To verify that the settngs have been set correctly, power cycle the modem and then send the AT&V command to output the
current settings and check that the initialisation commands above have been set for the active profile.
 Example
The following initialisation commands are suitable for PSTN modems that use a Rockwell chipset. They may be suitable for
other types as well. Please check the modem's users manual to confirm that it supports all the AT commands specified here
before using these commands.
AT&F
ATE0Q1&D2S0=4&C1&S0\N2%C2&K3#BDR=24
AT&W
Note If DeTransfer is used to send these commands to the modem then the \ character must be entered as \\. Also note
that because these incantations include a command to fix the baud rate to 57600, the terminal program must be set to 57600
baud, otherwise the subsequent command (AT&W) would not be recognised.
The above AT commands decode as follows:
Command
Description
&F
E0
Q1
&D2
S0=4
&C1
&S0
\N2
%C2
&K3
#BDR=24
&W
set all parameters to factory defaults
no echo
quiet mode (no messages)
hang up if DTR inactive
auto-answer after 4 rings
DCD follows carrier
DSR always on
don't connect unless error correction is active
enable V42bis data compression
enable hardware flow control (RTS/CTS)
set baud rate to 57600 (24 x 2400) – disable autobaud
write settings to default profile
Modem Initialisation String
The DT80 automatically attempts to initialise the device attached to its Host RS-232 port when it first detects the DSR signal
as active and in certain other circumstances. This is done by sending the initialisation string specified by the INIT profile
key (HOST_MODEM section, see Profile (P251))
The modem should already have been pre-configured (see Configuring Your Modem (P194)), so the recommended
initialisation string is simply AT, which is the default.
Sending AT will ensure that the modem can autobaud, if it has been configured to do so.
Powering the DT80’s Modem
If required, the DT80 can control power to the modem, so that it can be powered down under program control when not in
use.
This can be done using either:
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
the RELAY output – see DO5 – Latching Relay Output (P319); use 1RELAY=1 to switch on modem power,
1RELAY=0 to turn off, or

one of the digital outputs 1D-4D driving an external relay – see DO1 – Driving a Relay (P318); use 1DSO=0 to switch
modem power on, 1DSO=1 to turn off, or

the 12V power output (DT80/81 Series 2 and DT85 only), provided that the modem draws no more than 150mA.
Automatic Modem Power-Down Reset
The DT80 provides an additional feature where the modem can be automatically reset (by removing and re-applying power)
if it appears to be unresponsive – that is, it has been off-line (i.e. not connected to the remote modem) for a long period of
time (12 hours, by default – set this using the MAX_CD_IDLE profile key).
To enable this feature, send one of the following PROFILE commands:

If the modem is powered from one of the DT80’s digital output channels n (where n = 1 to 4), send the command
PROFILE HOST_MODEM EXT_POWER_SWITCH=nDSO

If the modem is powered via the DT80’s relay channel, send the command

If the modem is powered via the DT85's 12V power output, send the command

If the modem is not powered by either of the above, send the command
PROFILE HOST_MODEM EXT_POWER_SWITCH=1RELAY
PROFILE HOST_MODEM EXT_POWER_SWITCH=PWR12V
PROFILE HOST_MODEM EXT_POWER_SWITCH=NONE
to disable the feature.
From then on, the DT80 will automatically cycle the modem power if it detects it to be unresponsive. It will then send the
configured modem initialisation string.
Modem Communications Operation
Dialling In
The DT80 does not communicate via the RS232 host port unless it determines that a call has been established between
itself and a host. When a modem is attached (DSR active) , the DT80 monitors the DCD signal to determine when it can
transmit data and status information, and receive commands.

When DCD is active the DT80 accepts commands, and returns data and status information – exactly as it would for a
direct connection.

When DCD is inactive the DT80 ignores any received characters and does not transmit data or status information.
This behaviour ensures that any rubbish characters received outside of a call are ignored, and that the DT80 does not send
characters to the modem that the modem may interpret as commands to switch into a different operating state.
Dialling Out
The DT80 can also initiate an outgoing modem call, which would typically be done in response to an alarm.
 SETDIALOUTNUMBER Command
Send the command
SETDIALOUTNUMBER"digits"
to the DT80 to specify the telephone number to be dialled by the DIAL command to establish a connection to the host
computer.
 DIAL Command
The DIAL command causes the DT80 to instruct its modem to dial out to the telephone number specified by
SETDIALOUTNUMBER. If a call cannot be placed for any reason, the command is ignored. This is often used as an alarm
action command to cause the DT80 to dial out when an alarm condition arises.
 HANGUP Command
The HANGUP command causes the DT80 to instruct its modem to hang up (disconnect) the current dial-out or dial-in
connection. If there is currently no connection, HANGUP is ignored. This can be used in an alarm action command to cause
the DT80 to hang up a call in progress when an alarm condition arises.
 Example — Modem Control Commands
The use of the DT80’s modem control commands is demonstrated in the following program:
BEGIN"FLUFFY"
SETDIALOUTNUMBER"12345678"
RA10M
'Read boiler temp
1TK(=1CV,W)
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IF(1CV>120){DIAL}
END
Every 10 minutes, the program checks the boiler temperature and then, if it exceeds 120°C, instructs the modem to initiate a
dial-out to phone number 12345678.
Modem Status
The system variable 25SV (P36) gives an indication of the current state of the modem. It can be used with alarms to
determine the current state of the modem connection and to behave accordingly.
Modem Diagnostics
If you experience problems with setting up a modem, it can be helpful to switch on diagnostic messages by setting P56=16.
These messages are output to the active communications port and indicate events (e.g. DCD signal going active) and DT80
actions (e.g. initialisation commands sent to the modem) as they occur.
Set P56=0 to disable the diagnostic messages.
Setting Up a Remote Connection
The following is a brief summary of the steps involved in setting up a remote modem connection between the DT80 and a
host computer.
1.
Pre-configure the modem as described in Configuring Your Modem (P194) and save the settings to the modem's
default profile.
2.
Connect a local PC to the DT80 using a USB or direct RS232 connection and run DeTransfer/DeLogger.
3.
Set the required profile settings to configure the host port and modem. For example:
PROFILE HOST_PORT FLOW_CONTROL=HARDWARE
PROFILE HOST_MODEM EXT_POWER_SWITCH=3DSO
will set hardware flow control (recommended), and configure modem power control using digital output 3D.
4.
Connect power to the modem (in the above example the power would be supplied via a relay driven by 3D).
5.
Connect a suitable comms cable between the serial port on the DT80’s modem and the DT80’s Host RS-232 port.
This cable is normally supplied with the modem, see also DT80-to-Modem Cable (P193).
6.
At the remote end of the link, connect a suitable comms cable between the serial port on the host computer and the
local modem.
7.
On the host computer, configure the modem using the Windows control panel. It is recommended that hardware flow
control and an error-correcting protocol (e.g. V42) are used.
8.
On the host computer, launch suitable terminal software, e.g. DeLogger or DeTransfer. Set up a connection to use the
modem.
9.
Attempt to connect to the DT80 from the host computer.
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Part L – Network
Communications
TCP/IP Concepts
About TCP/IP
TCP/IP (Transmission Control Protocol / Internet Protocol) is a standardised set of rules, or protocols, that allow computers
to talk to each other. TCP/IP is the glue that holds the Internet together.
Most of the TCP/IP based protocols revolve around the concept of a server providing services to a client. Servers and
clients are software modules loaded onto a computer or device. For example, the web browser client on your PC uses
TCP/IP to make requests to a web server, which then returns the requested information.
A single computer or device can support multiple different clients and servers, all operating simultaneously. Likewise, a
single TCP/IP connection allows any number of clients to talk to any number of servers simultaneously.
About This Section
Hardware Interfaces
The DT80 supports TCP/IP using any of the following communications interfaces:

Ethernet, which is typically used to connect to a home or office LAN (local area network), or a single PC, or an Internet
gateway device such as an ADSL modem

a serial interface (USB, host RS232 or serial sensor), using PPP (point to point protocol), which is typically used to
connect to a single PC (e.g. using DtUsb), or to a dial-up Internet service using an external dial-up modem.

the integrated wireless modem (if present), which can connect to the Internet via a mobile telephone network.
The mechanics of setting up the serial interfaces (profile settings, installing DtUsb, and so on) were discussed earlier. Refer
to USB Port (P180), Host RS-232 Port (P188) and Serial Sensor Port (P190).
This section will discuss:

setting up the integrated modem

setting up the Ethernet interface

setting up a PPP connection over one of the RS232 serial interfaces
Services
As shown in the communications diagrams (Figure 61 and Figure 62), the DT80 supports the following TCP/IP based
services:

an external web browser can access the DT80's web server (Web Interface (P120))

an external FTP client can access the DT80's FTP server (Using the DT80 FTP Server (P244))

an external Modbus client (e.g. SCADA system) can access the DT80's Modbus server (Modbus Interface (P168))

an external client (e.g. the dEX command window, or DeTransfer ) can access the DT80's command server (Using
the Network Command Interface (P243))

the DT80 can act as an FTP client in order to push logged data to an FTP server (FTP Server (P101))

the DT80 can act as an email client in order to transfer logged data or alarm messages to an email account (Email
(P101))

the DT80 can act as a Modbus client in order to read data from Modbus sensors (Modbus Channel (P343))
This section will discuss the use of the DT80's FTP server and command server. The other services are documented
elsewhere, as indicated above.
TCP/IP Parameters
In order to operate correctly on a TCP/IP network, the DT80 must know the following:

its own unique IP address
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
for Ethernet connections, the subnet mask applicable to the network to which it is connected

(optional) the gateway IP address applicable to the network to which it is connected

(optional) the DNS server address applicable to the network to which it is connected.
IP Address
Every device that is connected to a TCP/IP network must have its own unique identifier, called its IP address, and the DT80
is no exception. No two devices in the same network can have the same IP address.
An IP address is single 32-bit integer, but it is normally written as four numbers (each in the range 0-255), separated by
periods, e.g. 192.168.2.101.
IP addresses are actually associated with network interfaces, rather than devices. The DT80 has multiple network interfaces,
and may therefore have multiple IP addresses – one for its Ethernet interface, one for the integrated modem, and one for any
serial port set up to use PPP.
 Public and Private Addresses
Traditionally, all IP addresses were "public", which meant that if you knew a particular computer's IP address then you could
connect to it from any computer on any IP network anywhere in the world. This did, however, present some problems. Firstly,
it meant that every computer needed a globally unique IP address, and with the explosive growth of the Internet, IP
addresses are simply running out. Secondly, computers with externally visible IP addresses are potentially vulnerable to
malicious programs on the Internet which attempt to exploit application or operating system "loopholes" in order to gain
control of a computer for nefarious purposes.
Nowadays, the usual practice is to set up private networks, where all computers on the network have a private IP address. In
order for these computers to access web servers and such like on the Internet, all external traffic is passed via a NAT router,
so called because it performs Network Address Translation, i.e. it converts private IP addresses into "real" IP addresses
and vice versa. The end result is that the computers on the private network can "see out", but external systems cannot "see
in" – the router effectively acts as a "firewall" between the secure private network and the Internet.
This is fine for "client" computers such as the one you use for accessing the web or email. For "server" devices (e.g. the
DT80, which has internal web and FTP servers), NAT can present a problem if you want to be able to access the DT80's
servers via the Internet. This will be discussed further in Accessing the DT80 via the Internet (P231).
Private IP addresses normally begin with 10.x.x.x, or 192.168.x.x, or 172.16.x.x through 172.31.x.x, or 169.254.x.x. These
addresses only need to be unique within the local network. Addresses outside these ranges can normally be assumed to be
public IP addresses. Public IP addresses need to be assigned by an Internet Service Provider (ISP).
 Assigning an IP Address (Ethernet)
There are two methods of assigning an IP address to the DT80's Ethernet port:

it can be manually specified in the DT80's profile. This is termed a static IP address.

the DT80 can automatically obtain a dynamic IP address from a DHCP server on the local network. Most networks
include a Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol (DHCP) server, which is responsible for providing IP addresses to
computers connected to the network. If a DHCP server is not available then the DT80 can assign itself an Auto-IP
address.
Note that a DHCP server will typically also automatically set the DT80's subnet mask, gateway and DNS server parameters,
which are described further below.
 Assigning an IP Address (PPP)
If the DT80's network connection is made via a point-to-point link to another computer, as opposed to a shared Ethernet
network, then IP addresses are assigned a little differently.
For a DtUsb connection to the DT80's USB port, the DtUsb software will automatically assign IP addresses to itself and the
DT80. These are private addresses, visible only to DtUsb and the DT80.
For a serial PPP connection to the DT80's USB, host RS232 or serial sensor port, the DT80 will normally assign an IP
address to itself (1.0.0.n) and to the other computer (1.0.1.n), where n is 1 for the serial sensor port, 2 for the host RS232 port
or 3 for the USB port.
For a connection using the integrated modem, the DT80 will be assigned an IP address by the mobile carrier's server once
the modem has registered on the mobile network. Depending on the carrier, this IP address may be a public address or a
private address. If your carrier provides a private address then the DT80's servers will not be able to be accessed via the
Internet).
Subnet Mask
The DT80's Ethernet IP address actually consists of two parts:

The network number, which identifies the network to which the DT80 and its neighbours are connected.

The node number, which uniquely identifies this DT80. No two devices on the network may have the same node
number. Also known as a host number.
The subnet mask is a property of the network to which the DT80 is connected and specifies which part of the IP address is
the network number and which is the node number.
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For example, the subnet mask 255.255.255.0 specifies that the first three parts of the IP address are the network number,
and the last is the node number within the network. So in this case the IP address 192.168.2.101 would represent node 101
on the "192.168.2" network.
As with the IP address, the subnet mask can be set manually using a profile setting, or it can be assigned automatically by a
DHCP server.
Note The subnet mask is not applicable to point-to-point connections; it is only relevant for Ethernet.
Gateway
The DT80 can communicate directly with any of the nodes connected to its local Ethernet network, or to the computer at the
other end of a point-to-point link. In some cases this is all the connectivity that is required.
If, however, the DT80 needs to be accessed from farther afield then it needs to know how to communicate with computers on
different networks. This is done by assigning one of the computers on the DT80's local network to be a gateway. The IP
address of the gateway is then entered into the DT80.
Now, any time the DT80 wants to talk to a computer on a "foreign" network it will simply passes the data to the designated
gateway and let it sort it out. The gateway may then pass the data on to other gateways, until eventually the data finds its way
to its destination. See also Connection to a LAN (P225).
As hinted above, if you only want to connect your DT80 to one computer, or to a few computers which are all on the same
local network, then it is not necessary to specify a gateway.
As with the IP address, the gateway IP address can be set manually using a profile setting, or it can be assigned
automatically by a DHCP server.
For a point-to-point serial or DtUsb connection, the gateway is not relevant because in these cases the network beyond the
computer at the other end of the link is not visible to the DT80.
For a mobile network connection using the integrated modem, the gateway will be set up automatically during the connection
process.
DNS Server
Most networks include a Domain Name System (DNS) server. This is responsible for translating names such as
ftp.datataker.com into numeric IP addresses. If the DT80 is configured with a valid DNS server address then the current job
will be able to access FTP servers by name rather than having to use a raw IP address.
As with the IP address, the DNS server IP address can be set manually using a profile setting, or it can be assigned
automatically by a DHCP server. Often two DNS server addresses are specified – a primary one and a backup.
For a point-to-point serial or DtUsb connection, the DNS server is not relevant because in these cases the network beyond
the computer at the other end of the link is not visible to the DT80.
For a mobile network connection using the integrated modem, the DNS servers will be set up automatically during the
connection process.
Integrated Modem
(Only applicable to DT8xM models)
The DT80 'M' models (DT80LM/82EM/85LM/85GLM) include an integrated wireless (cellular) modem. This allows you to:

connect the logger to the internet wherever there is mobile coverage

configure and monitor the logger over the internet using dEX (if permitted by your mobile plan).

wirelessly unload data to an FTP server or your email inbox

send SMS alarm messages to a mobile handset

send email alarm messages to your computer or smartphone
The DT82EM3, DT80LM3 and DT85LM3 variants support 2G and 3G networks (GSM/GPRS/EDGE/WCDMA), while the
corresponding DT8xM2 models support 2G networks only (GSM/GPRS/EDGE).
Mobile Plans
As with any mobile device, in order to use the integrated modem you will need a SIM card (subscriber identity module),
supplied by a mobile carrier. The SIM needs to be associated with an "appropriate" mobile plan.
There are currently hundreds of different mobile plans on offer by carriers around the world. It is important to select one that
is compatible with the DT80 features that you intend to use.
In certain regions, your DT80 may be supplied with a SIM from a recommended mobile carrier along with an offer to sign up
for a plan which will allow you to take full advantage of the DT80's features. Using this recommended plan also means that
the logger can automatically set all required settings, without requiring any manual configuration.
In the event that a recommended carrier/plan is not available, this subsection will discuss the features that you need to look
for in a mobile plan, and the information that you need to obtain from the carrier.
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The Basics
 Mobile Networks
Mobile networks have evolved significantly over the past few decades. Networks are often characterised by "generations" –
nd
rd
2 generation (2G), 3 generation (3G), plus intermediate enhanced versions of each (sometimes referred to as 2.5G and
3.5G). The DT80 supports all of the network types listed below:

GSM (Global System for Mobile Communication) provides basic voice and SMS facilities (2G)

GPRS (General Packet Radio System) and EDGE (Enhanced Data rates for GSM Evolution) build on GSM to provide
basic mobile internet access (2.5G)

UMTS (Universal Mobile Telecommunications System) refers to a family of 3G networks, of which WCDMA
(Wideband Code Division Multiple Access) is the most common. Mobile Internet access is a core feature of these
networks. Not available on DT8xM2 models.

HSDPA/HSUPA (High Speed Downlink/Uplink Packet Access) builds on WCDMA to provide higher speeds, and may
therefore be referred to as 3.5G. Not available on DT8xM2 models.
In general, the earlier networks offer slower speeds and fewer features, but may have wider coverage. Note also that
although 2G and 3G are physically separate networks, a 3G capable device will invariably also support 2G operation, and
will automatically revert to a 2G connection if a 3G network is not available. The DT80 is no exception here.
 Plan Type
Mobile plans are available for connection to 2G only, or 2G+3G networks. Normally a 2G+3G plan would be recommended,
although a 2G only plan may be adequate if you wish to use the integrated modem for SMS only, or if you know that the
modem will be located in an area with no 3G coverage.
 Home Networks and Roaming
The SIM card contains a list of one or more home networks, which are generally the networks operated by the carrier that
issued the SIM. The carrier may also have a roaming agreement with another carrier, which means that the second carrier
will allow the DT80 to connect to its network if the home network is not available. Usage will still be billed through the home
carrier.
Roaming can occur within a country, or internationally ("global roaming"). Within a country, a small carrier will typically have
a roaming agreement with a larger carrier, so that they can provide wider coverage.
Note Data charges while roaming can be significantly higher than they would be on the home network. You should always
ensure that home network coverage is available at the DT80's installation location.
The DT80 will always try to connect to a home network, if available. If, however, you are outside the coverage area of your
home network, or the network's signal strength is inadequate, then it may roam to an alternative network.
 SMS
If you want the DT80 to be able to send SMS alarm messages then the plan must allow SMS. The plan may include some
number of included SMS (e.g. 100 per month) after which there may be additional charges. You should carefully consider
how many SMS messages the DT80 is likely to generate each month.
 PIN Locking and Activation
A new SIM card may need to be activated. This typically involves contacting the mobile carrier; instructions should be
provided with the SIM for doing this.
The SIM card supplied by the mobile carrier may also have a PIN (personal identity number) set; if so then you need to
ensure you know what it is! The DT80 will prompt for the SIM PIN the first time you insert it.
Internet Access
In order to perform any TCP/IP based communications (FTP, email, web, command interface, Modbus, etc.) the mobile plan
must support data connections. Each plan will generally provide some amount of included data traffic, e.g. 1GB per month,
after which there may be additional charges, which can be substantial. It is therefore important to carefully consider the
amount of data traffic that will be generated each month.
 Data Usage
The amount of data transferred each month will depend on the number of channels sampled, and the frequency.
Assuming that all data logged by the DT80 is transferred to a single FTP server, then the volume of data transferred will be
approximately equivalent to the volume of data logged. As discussed in How Much Data Can I Store? (P90), each time a
schedule executes it will store 10 bytes + 10 bytes per channel (that has logging enabled). So the approximate data volume
per month is given by:
data volume per month per schedule = samples per month x (10 + (10 x number of logged channels))
For example, the job
RA10S 1..5TK
RB1M REFT 2CV(W)=2CV+1
LOGON
would generate 360x24x30 x (10 + 10x5) + 60x24x30 x (10 + 10x1) = 17MB/month, or 20MB/month allowing for some
communications overhead. (Note that the 2CV channel doesn't count because it is a working channel and is not logged.)
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If you wish to configure/control the DT80 remotely using dEX then this will use significantly more data – up to 500MB/month.
It is recommended that you start with a plan with a generous data allowance (say 1GB/month) then monitor your usage and
reduce the plan if required, once you have a good idea of your actual data usage.
Note A mobile plan's data allowance normally only applies when you are using the home network. While roaming, all data
usage may be charged at the "casual" rate, which will usually be much more expensive. It is important to choose a carrier
that has good home network coverage in the area in which the DT80 will be located.
 Settings
In order to connect to a mobile data network the correct Access Point Name (APN) is required. This is a special name (e.g.
telstra.extranet) which is specified by the mobile carrier and identifies the particular service or network to connect to.
By default, the DT80 will attempt to automatically set the APN. This is done by reading the ID of the issuing mobile carrier
from the SIM and then looking up the APN from a fixed database.
This process is not foolproof, however. Your mobile plan may provide access via a different APN to the one in the database,
or the carrier may have changed it. For example, carriers sometimes provide different APNs for prepaid and postpaid
accounts.
In most cases, the APN is all you need, as the network can identify you from the SIM's internal ID number. However, some
carriers may also provide you with an account name and password. This is more common in cases where the SIM is supplied
by a third part integrator/reseller rather than directly from a mobile carrier.
If automatic configuration does not work for your SIM then the logger will need to be manually configured with the correct
APN (and the account name/password if required), as discussed in Configuring the Integrated Modem (P203).
Support for DT80 Network Features
 Basic DT80 Client Services
Any mobile plan which supports TCP/IP data connections will allow the DT80 to access the Internet. This means that the
DT80 will be able to:

unload data to an FTP server

read data from Modbus sensors via the Internet

update its system time from an NTP server

"ping" other computers, for diagnostic purposes
 Email
To send an email, an Internet-connected computer needs to send the message to an SMTP server (Simple Mail transport
Protocol). This server, and its brethren around the world, will then take care of delivering the message to the specified email
address.
Thus in order for the logger to be able to send data or alarm messages via email, it will need to know the name of a suitable
SMTP server.
Many mobile plans provide access to an SMTP server, so that you can send email from your mobile phone. If this is the case
then you need to determine from the mobile carrier the name of their SMTP server, and then specify it in the DT80 profile. In
some cases you may also be given an email username and password, which will also need to be specified.
As with APNs, the DT80 contains a database of SMTP server names provided by various mobile carriers, which it will match
against the SIM's issuing carrier. Once again, it is not guaranteed that a valid server will be found.
If you require the DT80 to send email but your mobile plan does not provide access to an SMTP server then you will need to
set up an email account with a third-party provider. This provider will supply you with the SMTP server name, a username
and a password, which you will need to enter into the DT80's profile.
Note The DT80 only supports third-party email servers that:

support LOGIN authentication

do not require SSL (Secure Sockets Layer) encryption
Note that the second condition rules out the gmail.com service.
 DT80 Servers
Mobile data plans are typically set up to allow mobile client devices to access servers on the Internet. Doing the reverse, i.e.
accessing servers on the mobile device from the Internet, can sometimes be problematic.
The DT80 provides the following servers:

command server (TCP port 7700)

web server (port 80)

FTP server (port 21)

Modbus server (port 502)
If you wish to access any of these remotely using the integrated modem then you will need to ensure that your mobile plan
has the following characteristics:
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
It must provide a public IP address. It need not be a static address, but it must be public. Some mobile carriers allocate
a private address, then use Network Address translation (NAT) to allow you to access external servers. This is OK for
accessing a server from the mobile device, but will make any servers on the device invisible to the rest of the Internet.

It must not block the ports that you wish to use, as listed above. Some mobile carriers block some or all incoming
ports, which again prevents access to mobile servers from the Internet. For example, if you wish to access the DT80
using dEX then the incoming web server connections (port 80) must not be blocked by the carrier.
 Security
If your mobile plan provides a public IP address then you should be aware that the logger will be visible and accessible by
anyone on the Internet, while the modem is connected. This may make it vulnerable to disruption by malicious software that
exists in the wilds of the Internet. See Security (P246) for more details on Internet security.
Getting Started
In order to use the integrated modem, it is necessary to connect the supplied external antenna, and insert your SIM card.
Antenna
DT80 side panel
3
2
1
SIM card
Figure 72: Connectiong the antenna and SIM card
To connect the antenna, carefully screw the connector into the rightmost socket on the DT80 right hand side panel. (Note
that DT8xM3 models include a second connector, for a receive-only "diversity" antenna. You can optionally connect a
second antenna here to improve the receive sensitivity when connected to a 3G network.)
Note Radio emissions from the antenna can interfere with and reduce the accuracy of analog measurements taken by the
DT80. To prevent this, the antenna should be positioned at least 500mm away from the DT80 and any analog sensor wiring.
Note Before loading the SIM card, ensure that the card has been activated, using the instructions provided with the SIM.
To load the SIM card:
1.
Locate the SIM card slot on the right hand side panel
2.
Slide the plastic locking tab to the left, if required, to expose the full width of the slot
3.
Position the SIM card so the edge with the diagonally cut corner is facing inward and the gold contacts are facing up.
Slide the SIM into the slot until it clicks into place
4.
Slide the locking tab to the right to lock the SIM in place. The SIM will not be recognised unless this is done.
To remove the SIM card:
1.
Slide the locking tab to the left
2.
Press the SIM in slightly (you may need a fingernail or small screwdriver), until it pops out.
Warning Be sure that you are aware of the risks and restrictions for operating a radio transmitting device such as the DT80
modem. See Safety Information (P393) for more details.
Configuring the Integrated Modem
Automatic Configuration
By default, the DT80 will attempt to automatically configure the following settings:

Access point name (APN), and account name/password if required
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
Email (SMTP) server name, and account name/password if required
The DT80 auto-configuration feature works by looking up pre-defined settings based on the mobile carrier that issued the
SIM. Be aware that automatic configuration might not be possible if:

the DT80 does not recognise the mobile carrier that issued the SIM card. In this case fixed default settings will be
used. Internet access will not be available, because no valid APN will have been set; you will need to configure this
manually, as discussed below.

the carrier is recognised, but the SIM is not set up to use the "standard" plan from that carrier. Internet access may be
available but some features might not be available. For example, the actual SIM plan might not include access to an
SMTP server, in which case the SMTP server will need to be reconfigured to use a third party email provider.
Manual Configuration
In order to manually configure the integrated modem, it will be necessary to connect to the DT80 using an alternative
communications medium, e.g. Ethernet or USB. You can then either:

directly enter the profile commands described here, or

use the dEX Configuration Builder to generate a configuration that contains the required commands, then save it to
the logger.
In dEX, most of the required modem configuration is done on the Modem page. To reach this page, click on the logger model
name at the top left, then select Modem from the list of categories. See Figure 73.
Figure 73: Modem configuration page
 PIN
If your SIM has a PIN set then you will need to tell the DT80 what it is. Enter it into the SIM PIN field on the modem
configuration page in dEX, or send the following profile command to the logger directly:
PROFILE MODEM PIN=pin
If this profile is not set correctly when you first attempt to use the modem, then the DT80 will prompt for entry of the PIN on
the LCD display. Use the Up and Down arrow keys to set each digit's value, and use the Left and Right arrows to move
between digits. Press OK/Edit when done. Alternatively, use the PROFILE command as above to set the PIN.
If the SIM does not have a PIN set then you can ignore this setting and the DT80 will not prompt for PIN.
If the PIN was entered correctly then the DT80 will remember it, so it normally only needs to be entered once.
Note If an incorrect PIN is entered three times then the SIM will be locked. If this occurs then the DT80 will prompt for entry
of a PIN Unlock Key (PUK). This 8-digit number must be obtained from your mobile carrier and should be entered using the
keypad in the same way as the PIN. It is not possible to enter the PUK code in dEX.
 SMS Only Mode
If you only intend to use the integrated modem to send SMS messages (no Internet access) then the following profile should
be set:
PROFILE MODEM SMS_ONLY=YES
In dEX, select the SMS only option on the modem configuration page.
No further configuration is then required.
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 APN
In order for the DT80 to connect to the Internet using the integrated modem, it is necessary to enter the Access Point Name,
as specified by your mobile carrier. The APN is a text string that looks vaguely like an Internet address e.g. vfinternet.au or
telstra.internet. In some cases an account name and password may also be required – if not then those two settings can be
left blank. The relevant profile settings are:
PROFILE MODEM APN=APN
PROFILE MODEM APN_ACCOUNT=account name
PROFILE MODEM APN_PASSWORD=password
In dEX, select the Manual option on the modem configuration page and enter the APN (and username/password if
required).
 Email
If you require the DT80 to send email messages then a suitable email server must be specified. If email is not required then
the settings described in this section can be ignored.
If your mobile carrier provides access to an SMTP (email) server then it is normally simplest to use it. There is generally only
one setting to configure, the name of the server, which is typically something like mail.mycarrier.com. Set the server using
the following profile:
PROFILE MODEM_SESSION SMTP_SERVER=server name
It is possible that your carrier may also require an email username and password (which may or may not be the same as the
account password mentioned above), which is specified as follows:
PROFILE MODEM_SESSION SMTP_ACCOUNT=email account name
PROFILE MODEM_SESSION SMTP_PASSWORD=password
If your mobile carrier does not provide access to an SMTP server then it will be necessary to sign up for an account with a
third party email provider. Once your account has been created you will need to enter the server name, account name and
password, as above.
Note When selecting a third-party email provider, be sure that it meets the requirements specified in Support for DT80
Network Features (P202) above.
You can also specify the sender name and email address that the DT80 will use when sending email. For example:
PROFILE MODEM_SESSION SENDER_NAME="Peter Rabbit"
PROFILE MODEM_SESSION RETURN_ADDRESS=peter@firtree.net
If SENDER_NAME is not set then the DT80 model and serial number is used, e.g. "DT82EM-3 096605".
Note If a third-party email provider is used, it is normally a requirement that the RETURN_ADDRESS profile be set to the
email address associated with your account.
In dEX, email settings are configured using the modem email configuration page:
Figure 74: Email configuration page
In the above screen shot, the logger has been set up to use the (fictitious) third party email provider hailmail.com. The
server name, as specified by the provider, is smtp.hailmail.com. The account name (megatech) and password have also
been entered.
Email sent by this logger will appear to come from "Pump Room 3", with email address of megatech@hailmail.com. For
third party email providers, it is normally a requirement that the "from" email address is set to the email address associated
with the account.
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Dynamic DNS
As discussed in DT80 Servers (P202), if you wish to remotely connect to the DT80's servers – for example the web server, in
order to run dEX – then it is necessary that a) the IP address allocated to the DT80 by the mobile network is a public address,
and b) the required TCP ports (e.g. port 80 for the web server) are not blocked by the mobile carrier.
Assuming these requirements are satisfied, there is now a third requirement – you need to know what the DT80's IP address
is, so you can type it into your web browser (or FTP client, or DeTransfer). If the logger is on the desk next to you then you
can read the IP address from the modem status screen on the LCD. This is, however, somewhat inconvenient if the logger is
remote, which is where Dynamic DNS comes in.
The Dynamic Domain Name System (DDNS) is an Internet service provided by various companies where a fixed domain
name (e.g. "mylogger.dyndns.org") can be mapped onto the logger's current dynamic IP address.
This service works as follows:

You create an account with a DDNS service provider, e.g. dyndns.com or no-ip.com. Both free and paid subscription
types are normally available.

You create a domain name (e.g. site42.megatech.no-ip.org) for the logger, and attach it to your DDNS account. With
a free account, you can typically create up to 5 domain names for the account, which would allow you to access 5
different loggers.

You enable DDNS on the DT80 by entering the details of your account and your chosen domain name into the
appropriate profile settings, as detailed below.

Next time the DT80 connects to the mobile network, it will automatically contact the DDNS server and advise it of the
IP address that it has just been given by the network.

You enter the logger's domain name into your web browser, which does a normal Domain Name System (DNS) query
to determine the IP address. This query is routed to the DDNS server, which will return the last IP address it received
from the DT80. Assuming that the DT80 is currently connected to the network, you will now be able to communicate
with it.
 Configuring DDNS
Note Remember that DDNS will only work if your mobile carrier provides a public IP address.
To set up DDNS on the DT80, the following profile settings need to be set. First, the protocol needs to be enabled:
PROFILE MODEM_SESSION DDNS_ENABLE=YES
Second, the details of the DDNS provider need to be checked and updated if necessary. The DT80 has been tested with two
DDNS providers – dyndns.com and no-ip.com. The DT80's default settings are
PROFILE MODEM_SESSION DDNS_SERVER_URI=members.dyndns.org/nic/update
PROFILE MODEM_SESSION DDNS_SERVER_PORT=80
which are correct for the dyndns.com service.
If you choose to use the no-ip.com service instead, then the required settings are:
PROFILE MODEM_SESSION DDNS_SERVER_URI=dynupdate.no-ip.com/nic/update
PROFILE MODEM_SESSION DDNS_SERVER_PORT=80
If you wish to use some other provider then you will need to optain the appropriate address update URI and port number from
the provider.
Third, the details of your DDNS account need to be entered – that is, your username and password:
PROFILE MODEM_SESSION DDNS_ACCOUNT=username
PROFILE MODEM_SESSION DDNS_PASSWORD=password
The DT80 will use these to log in to your DDNS account each time it needs to update its IP address.
Finally, the logger's domain name, that you have already associated with the DDNS account, needs to be entered:
PROFILE MODEM_SESSION DDNS_HOST_NAME=domain-name
For example, a typical set of DDNS settings would be as follows:
PROFILE MODEM_SESSION
[MODEM_SESSION]
...
*DDNS_ENABLE = YES
DDNS_SERVER_URI = members.dyndns.org/nic/update
DDNS_SERVER_PORT = 80
*DDNS_ACCOUNT = megatech
*DDNS_PASSWORD = JackFlash
*DDNS_HOST_NAME = turbine12.dyndns.org
*DDNS_REGISTERED_IP = 123.209.58.192
Note that the DDNS_REGISTERED_IP setting does not need to be set; it will be updated automatically following a
successful DDNS update.
 dEX Settings
In the dEX Configuration Builder, all DDNS settings are entered on the Modem DDNS page, as shown in Figure 75.
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Figure 75: DDNS configuration page
Verifying Modem Operation
If the settings described above are set correctly then it should now be possible for the DT80 to establish an Internet
connection. There are a few different ways of testing this.
Modem Status Screen
The simplest method of verifying basic Internet connectivity is to use the modem status screen on the DT80's display. This
does not require an Ethernet/USB connection so it is a convenient method if automatic configuration was used.
The procedure is as follows:
1.
Ensure that your SIM card has been activated and inserted into the DT80, and that the antenna is connected, as
described in Getting Started (P203).
2.
Use the arrow keys to scroll down to the modem status screen. It should show Modem is off.
3.
Press the Func key to bring up the function menu, then select Start comms, and press OK/Edit.
4.
Verify that the small red light next to the antenna connectors is now on.
The modem status screen will show a series of status messages, beginning with:
Starting modem..
Then, if the SIM has a PIN set it will display a prompt:
Enter SIM PIN:
█
Use the Up and Down arrow keys to set each digit, and use Left and Right to move between digits. When done, press
OK/Edit. Assuming the PIN was entered correctly you will then see:
Registering on
mobile network
If all goes well then something similar to the following will be displayed:
Telstra
3■■■□
203.112.100.109
In this example, the display indicates that the logger has connected to a 3G network (indicated by the "3"), operated by
Telstra, with good signal strength (■■■□), and the DT80's IP address is 203.112.100.109.
If the final screen is not displayed, refer to Troubleshooting and Advanced Configuration (P210).
To close the connection, press Func to bring up the function menu, then select Stop comms.
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Command Interface
If you configured the integrated modem by sending PROFILE commands (using DeTransfer or the dEX web interface
command window), then it is convenient to test the modem using the command interface.
Start a communications session as follows:
SESSION START
SESSION: Starting
At this point the small red light next to the antenna connectors should be on.
If the PIN has not been set correctly then SESSION: SIM PIN required will now be displayed. At this point you can either
enter the PIN using the PROFILE HOST_MODEM PIN=nnnn command, or enter it using the keypad and display. If the PIN
has already been set correctly, or the SIM has no PIN set, then the modem will proceed to connect to the network.
If all goes well then a message similar to the following should be displayed within 60 seconds or so:
SESSION: Ready (Telstra,3G,-81dBm,123.209.132.251)
This shows the same information as on the modem status screen: carrier, network type, signal level (the higher, or less
negative, the better. A signal level of -60dBm is very good, while -90dBm is poor.) and IP address.
If an error message is displayed, refer to Troubleshooting and Advanced Configuration (P210).
You may now use the command interface to test certain other network features.
To verify the network connection to a server on the Internet, use the PING command (see Ping (P214)):
PING google.com
66.102.11.104 responded in 816 ms
To send an SMS message, try:
DO"test message"[sms:+61400123456]
...
SMS: Sending to +61400123456
SMS: Sent OK
which will send a message to the Australian mobile number 0400 123456. In this example, the mobile number has been
specified in international format: a "+", then the country code (61 in this case), then the number with any leading zero
dropped.
To send an email, try:
DO"test email"[mailto:cat@felines.org]
...
EMAIL: Connecting to server
EMAIL: Sending to cat@felines.org
EMAIL: Sent OK
If you have a problem with email, try setting P56=8. This will show all traffic between the DT80 and the SMTP server, which
may be helpful in diagnosing he problem.
To close the connection, use:
SESSION STOP
SESSION: Aborted
dEX Modem Test
If you used the dEX Configuration Builder to configure the modem then it is convenient to use dEX's modem test feature. On
the modem configuration screen (Figure 73), press Test modem and connection... This will start a short "wizard" that will
take the modem settings as configured in dEX and then carry out a similar set of tests to those described in Command
Interface (P208) above.
Take note of the warnings on the first page of the wizard, then press Next. You can now enter a mobile number (for testing
SMS), and email address (for receiving a test email) and details of an FTP server (for receiving a test file upload from the
DT80). These settings are all optional – if omitted then the associated test is skipped.
For example, Figure 76 shows the details filled in for the SMS and email tests.
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Figure 76: Modem test wizard setup page
Press Next, then Start tests. This will:

temporarily configure the DT80 using the current dEX settings (send the required PROFILE commands)

start a communications session (SESSION START command) and connect to the mobile network

connect to the Internet

perform a network check, if enabled. This will attempt to contact the DNS or configured ping servers to verify network
connectivity

perform a DDNS update, if enabled

send a test email (if an email address was specified)

send a test file to an FTP server (if server details were specified)

verify all configured ping servers (if ping was selected as the desired network check, or heartbeat, mechanism)

send a test SMS (if a phone number was specified)

end the communications session
After each step, a tick or cross is displayed to indicate success or failure of the operation. If failures are indicated, refer to
Troubleshooting and Advanced Configuration (P210)
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Troubleshooting and Advanced Configuration
This section discussses possible problems that may arise when using the integrated modem.
States
The following table describes the principal states that the modem can be in:
Display
80SV Code
Description
Modem is off
(error msg if any)
Modem starting..
0
Modem is switched off
2
Modem is switched on but not connected to network
Enter SIM PIN:
3
Enter SIM PUK:
4
Checking SIM PIN
12
SIM has a PIN, and the appropriate profile setting is not correctly set. Enter the correct
PIN using the keypad, or set PROFILE MODEM PIN=nnnn
Incorrect PIN has been entered three times, so the SIM is now blocked. Obtain the
8-digit PIN Unlock Key (PUK) from your carrier and enter it using the keypad.
SIM PIN is being checked
Registering on
mobile network
Carrier
x■■□□
Trying better...
Carrier
x■■□□
Sending SMS...
Carrier
x■■□□
Connecting...
Carrier
x■■□□
Checking...
Carrier
x■■□□
123.111.111.111
Modem will retry
(error msg)
5
Modem is attempting to connect to the mobile network
5
Modem has registered with a mobile network, but the signal level is too low so it is
looking for an alternative network.
Modem is connected to mobile network; queued SMS message(s) are being sent.
6
7
8
9
11
Modem is connected to mobile network, and is attempting to connect to the carrier's
APN in order to get Internet access
Modem is verifying the Internet connection, and performing a DDNS update, if
configured.
Modem is connected to the Internet
An error occurred during the last communications session. An attempt will be made in
due course to establish a new session.
Notice that the modem state is reflected in system variable 80SV, which can be logged or tested in a DT80 job.
Errors
If a communications session terminates due to an error, a message will be displayed on the lower line of the modem status
screen, and system variable 81SV will be set to a negative value. The following table lists some possible error messages:
Category
Display
81SV
Description
No error
[SIM problem]
0
1
2
-5
[PIN/PUK needed]
-6
[Network denied]
[No APN set]
-10
-13
[Unkn ping host]
-19
Coverage or [Can't register]
network
problem
[No data servce]
-8,
-9
[Signal too low]
-16
[Data dropped]
-12
[SMS problem]
-13
No session has been started
Session is in progress
Session completed normally
SIM is faulty or not inserted correctly. Ensure that the plastic tab is in the
"locked" position (to the right).
The correct PIN or PUK code was not entered. Restart the communications
session and enter PIN using keypad when prompted, or set the PIN profile
setting
The mobile network denied access. Check that the SIM is activated
Access Point Name must be set in order to access the Internet. Set using the
APN profile setting
The name of one of the configured "ping check" servers could not be resolved.
Check the PING_SERVERS profile setting. This may also be due to a DNS
server problem.
Could not connect to the mobile network. There may be no mobile service in
your location. Try repositioning the antenna, or try a SIM from another carrier.
Also ensure that your SIM has been activated.
The mobile network does not support GPRS or any other data services.
Possibly try a SIM from a different carrier.
The measured signal level is below the minimum required for a usable data
connection (-93dBm). Try relocating the antenna to improve reception. Or set
MIN_SIGNAL_FOR_DATA_DBM profile to lower value.
The connection dropped out, possibly due to congestion or poor signal level.
This can also be due to an incorrectly configured APN setting. Confirm the
correct APN with your carrier.
SMS message(s) could not be sent, possibly due to congestion or poor signal
level.
Incorrect
configuration
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[Network check]
-20
Normal
session
termination
[Modem busy]
-21
[User aborted]
-99
Possible
hardware
fault
[Power problem]
-3
[Comms problem]
-7
The modem appears to be connected, but the DNS server (or configured ping
server) could not be reached, indicating a network problem.
A modem firmware upgrade may be in progress, so a session cannot be
established at this time.
Session was manually cancelled by the user, e.g. using SESSION STOP
command.
Problem powering up the modem. Contact dataTaker support if this problem
persists.
Problem communicating with the internal modem. Reset the DT80 and try
again. Contact dataTaker support if this problem persists.
All error conditions (negative 81SV value) will result in the session being automatically retried, with the exception of those in
the "normal session termination" category, which will not be retried if the session was started manually.
Diagnostic Commands
If you are having problems using the integrated modem, the following diagnostic commands may help in tracking down the
issue. These are low level commands that bypass the normal "communications session" functionality, and should normally
only be used for diagnostic purposes.
Command
Requirements
Description
MODEM ON
MODEM OFF
MODEM PIN?
(0)
(0)
(1)
MODEM PIN=nnnn
MODEM PUK=nnnnnnnn,mmmm
(1)
(1)
MODEM SIGNAL
MODEM NETWORK
(1)
(1)
MODEM
MODEM
MODEM
MODEM
(1) (2)
(1) (2)
(1) (2)
(1) (2)
Switch modem power on. Red indicator light should now be on.
Switch modem power off.
Report PIN status of SIM card (ie whether PIN, PUK or neither is
required
Enter current SIM PIN
Enter 8-digit PIN Unlock Key (PUK), followed by new PIN. Required
if SIM has been locked due to too many incorrect PIN attempts
Report the current signal strength (dBm) and bit error rate (%)
Report status of network registration – not registered, searching,
registered (home network), or registered (roaming)
Enable the SIM PIN
Disable the SIM PIN. The PIN profile no longer needs to be set.
Change the SIM PIN from nnnn to mmmm
Report the SIM card International Mobile Subscriber ID (IMSI). The
first 5-6 digits of this number identify the carrier that issued the SIM,
the remainder are the SIM serial number.
List all mobile networks within range. This command may take a few
minutes to perform.
Report the name of the carrier that operates the network with which
the modem is currently registered
Report modem firmware version
See Upgrading Modem Firmware (P377)
PIN_ENABLE,nnnn
PIN_DISABLE,nnnn
PIN_CHANGE,nnnn,mmmm
IMSI
MODEM ACCESSIBLE_NETWORKS
(0) (1) (2)
MODEM OPERATOR
(1) (2) (3)
MODEM FIRMWARE
MODEM UPGRADE
(1)
(0) (1) *
Each of the above commands can only be used if the indicated requirements are met:
(0) – A communications session must not be active
(1) – Modem must have been switched on for at least 15 seconds
(2) – SIM PIN must have been entered (if SIM PIN is enabled)
(3) – Modem must have successfully registered with a mobile network
For example, use the following sequence to retrieve the SIM IMSI:
MODEM ON
(wait 15 seconds)
MODEM PIN=nnnn
OK
MODEM IMSI
505010123456789
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Signal Levels
In order to achieve reliable data communications using the integrated modem, it is important to ensure that the signal levels
are adequate.
The DT80's modem samples the signal level when connecting to the mobile network, and displays it on the modem status
screen in the form of 0-4 "bars". Note that the displayed signal level is not updated whilst the modem is connected.
The signal level may also be checked manually during operation using the MODEM SIGNAL command, as described in
Diagnostic Commands(P211).
Mobile signal power levels are reported in dBm, which measures the received signal power relative to a power level of 1
milliWatt. It is expressed in deciBels, which is a logarithmic scale: an increase of 10dB is equivalent to a tenfold increase
while an increase of 3dB represents an approximate doubling (so 0dBm equals 1mW power while -100dBm represents a
power level of 10-10 mW). For example, a signal level of -89dBm is roughly twice as strong as -92dBm.
For a cellular mobile device, the received signal level can be categorised as follows:
Signal level
Displayed bars
Description
-113 dBm or less
-112 to -95 dBm
□□□□
■□□□
-94 to -90 dBm
-89 to -72 dBm
-71 dBm or more
■■□□
■■■□
■■■■
No signal – integrated modem is not usable.
Poor signal level. SMS will probably be OK, but an Internet connection will not be
attempted, unless you adjust the MIN_SIGNAL_FOR_DATA_DBM profile setting.
You may experience drop-outs and slow transfers.
Fair/marginal signal level
Good signal level
Excellent signal level
The MODEM SIGNAL command also reports the bit error rate (BER) , which is a measure of signal quality. A value of 0.1%
is ideal, while a value of 15% or more is very poor. A high BER value is generally caused by interference, either from
electrical machinery or signal reflections off large objects such as hills or buildings.
 Monitoring Signal Level
The system variable 82SV contains the measured signal level, as at the start of the current communications session. This
can then be logged or tested, the same as any other DT80 channel. For example, the following will send an SMS alert if the
signal level is unexpectedly low (less than -90dBm in this example):
IF(82SV<-90)"Low signal: ?v dBm"[sms:+61400123456]
 Continuous Signal Check Mode
During system commissioning, it can be helpful to know the instantaneous signal strength – as you position the antenna, for
example. The DT80 provides a special mode for this purpose.
To select this mode:
1.
Select the modem status screen on the display. It should indicate Modem is off. If a session is already in progress
then you will need to terminate it by pressing Func, then selecting Stop comms.
2.
Press Func to bring up the function menu
3.
Select Check signal.
A session will now start. Once the modem registers, the signal strength and bit error rate will now be displayed on the modem
status screen in place of the IP address, e.g.
Telstra
3■■■□
-81dBm
0.14%
The information on this screen (and the system variables 80..84SV) will now be updated every few seconds.
For more information, see Signal Check Mode (P222).
 Manual Display Update
If you select the Check signal option on the function menu while a communications session is in progress then this will
cause the displayed mobile operator name and signal level (number of bars) to be updated (once only).
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 Improving Signal Level and Quality
When commissioning the logger, you should always aim for a good to excellent receive signal level (3-4 bars).
If the measured signal level in your location falls into the fair to inadequate categories (0-2 bars), or if the BER value is high,
then you should take steps to try to improve it, e.g. by

relocating the antenna so it is more elevated

ensuring the antenna is not obstructed by metal objects
The DT80 modem also supports antenna diversity. When in a poor signal area it is often helpful to connect a second
antenna to the left hand antenna socket. The two antennas should then be located a reasonable distance apart. The idea is
that the two antennas provide two diverse samples of the incoming signal, so if one suffers momentary interference or signal
fade then the other may still be adequate.
Note Radio emissions from the antenna can interfere with and reduce the accuracy of analog measurements taken by the
DT80. To prevent this, the antenna should be positioned at least 500mm away from the DT80 and any analog sensor wiring.
Network Selection
 Service Type
The type of network is reported on the modem status screen, to the left of the signal level bar graph. The system variable
83SV is also updated, as shown in the following table:
Display
83SV
Description
x■■□□
G■■□□
E■■□□
3■■□□
H■■□□
H■■□□
H■■□□
0
1
2
3
4
5
6
GSM only (2G). Internet connection is not available
GPRS (2.5G) – low speed packet services are available
EDGE (2.5G) – a faster variant of GPRS
UMTS (3G) – 3rd generation packet network (DT8xM3 only)
HSDPA (3.5G) – 3G network with high speed downlink (DT8xM3 only)
HSUPA (3.5G) – 3G network with high speed uplink (DT8xM3 only)
HSDPA+HSUPA (3.5G) – 3G network with high speed downlink and uplink (DT8xM3 only)
By default, the DT80 modem will attempt to connect to the fastest (latest generation) network that it finds (with preference
given to home networks over roaming). You can, however, override this, by setting:
PROFILE HOST_MODEM SERVICE=service
where service can be:

AUTO – connect to the network that will provide the best performance

3G – connect to a 3G network only

3G_PREFERRED – connect to a 3G network; if none available then connect to a 2G network

GSM – connect to a 2G network only

GSM_PREFERRED – connect to a 2G network; if none available then connect to a 3G network
In most cases AUTO is the best choice. However, if you are in an area where you know that the 3G coverage is poor or
nonexistent then limiting the networks to 2G may provide a more reliable connection and may slightly reduce the time taken
to register on the network, as the modem no longer has to search for 3G networks.
The above setting is not applicable for DT8xM2 models, which support GSM only.
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 Bands
Each mobile network operates on a particular radio frequency band. (For example, in Australia the Telstra NextG™ UMTS
network operates on the 850 MHz band.)The DT80 supports mobile networks using the following bands:

GSM (2G) networks: 850/900/1800/1900 MHz

UMTS (3G) networks: 850/1900/2100 MHz (DT8xM3 only)
By default, the DT80 will connect to networks using any of these bands. However, in some situations, you may wish to
restrict the DT80 to only use certain bands, which will mean that it will then only be able to connect to networks that use those
bands. For example, you could use this to prevent the DT80 from ever roaming to another network (assuming that the other
network uses a different frequency band).
To select the allowed bands, use the dEX Modem settings page, on the Network capabilities tab. The equivalent profile
settings are as follows:
Allowed bands
Profile Setting
GSM 850 MHz only
GSM 900 MHz only
GSM 1800 MHz only
GSM 1900 MHz only
GSM 850/1900 MHz
GSM 900/1800 MHz
GSM 900/1900 MHz
GSM 850/900/1800/1900 MHz
UMTS 2100 MHz
UMTS 1900 MHz
UMTS 1900/2100 MHz
UMTS 850 MHz
UMTS 850/2100 MHz
UMTS 850/1900 MHz
UMTS 850/1900/2100 MHz
PROFILE
PROFILE
PROFILE
PROFILE
PROFILE
PROFILE
PROFILE
PROFILE
PROFILE
PROFILE
PROFILE
PROFILE
PROFILE
PROFILE
PROFILE
MODEM
MODEM
MODEM
MODEM
MODEM
MODEM
MODEM
MODEM
MODEM
MODEM
MODEM
MODEM
MODEM
MODEM
MODEM
GSM_BANDS=0
GSM_BANDS=1
GSM_BANDS=2
GSM_BANDS=3
GSM_BANDS=4
GSM_BANDS=5
GSM_BANDS=6
GSM_BANDS=7 (default)
3G_BANDS=1
3G_BANDS=2
3G_BANDS=3
3G_BANDS=16
3G_BANDS=17
3G_BANDS=18
3G_BANDS=19 (default)
 Selecting a Network
The DT80 will connect to the first network that it finds that satisfies the configured service type and band restrictions
described above (if any). If, however, the chosen network's signal level is considered inadequate (below the threshold set by
the MIN_SIGNAL_FOR_DATA_DBM profile) then the DT80 will look for alternative networks that still satisfy the
service/band restrictions but which may have better signal. Home networks are checked first, then roaming networks. If no
acceptable networks can be found then the communications session will be abandoned and retried later.
Note that if the DT80 has previously successfully connected to a network, then that network will be the first one tried when a
new session is started.
Ping
The PING command can be useful for checking that the DT80 is properly connected to the Internet. The command:
PING hostname
will send an echo request to the specified host and wait for the reply. For example:
PING google.com
72.14.204.104 responded in 272 ms
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DDNS Troubleshooting
If you have enabled DDNS on the logger, as described in Dynamic DNS (P206), then it can be tested simply by starting a
communications session, then attempting to connect to the logger by entering the configured domain name into a web
browser.
If this is unsuccessful, wait a minute or two, then try again. If you have previously connected to the logger using this domain
name then it is possible that its old IP address is still "cached" either on your computer or another server. These cached DNS
entries generally expire after a few minutes, and will then be updated with the correct address.
If you are still having problems then try the following command (ensure that the modem has successfully connected to the
Internet first):
DDNSUPDATE
DDNS response:
good 123.209.62.155
This command will send an update message to the configured DDNS server and report its response. The response consists
of a single word (good in this case), followed by a confirmation of the registered IP address (which would have been supplied
by the DT80 in its request message).
 DDNS Server Responses
Possible DDNS responses include:
Response
Status
Description
good ip-addr
nochg ip-addr
badauth
OK
OK
error
nohost
error
abuse
error
911
error
Successful update; the specified IP address has been registered
Successful update, although no change was detected in the specified IP address
The account name or password specified in the DDNS_ACCOUNT and
DDNS_PASSWORD profiles are invalid. Note that free DDNS accounts typically expire and
will be deleted if they are not used for a period of time.
The host name specified in the DDNS_HOST_NAME profile is not associated with the
DDNS account.
The DDNS account has been blocked due to abuse, which generally means that too many
unnecessary update requests have been performed (where the IP address has not
changed). Contact the DDNS provider to have your account unblocked.
There is a problem with the DDNS server. Try again later.
Note: If you receive too many nochg responses (indicating that the requests were unnecessary, because the IP address
has not changed) then your DDNS account may be blocked for "abuse" and you will start getting abuse responses.
Normally, the DT80 will only send a DDNS update request if its IP address has actually changed; however the
DDNSUPDATE command and the dEX modem test will unconditionally send a request.
 Other DDNS Problems
If DDNS is enabled then an update request will be performed at the start of each communications session, if the DT80 IP
address has changed. If this update fails then the session will still continue; however an error message will be written to the
event log.
Some other possible errors that may be reported when attempting a DDNS update are:

Cannot connect to DDNS server – check the DDNS_SERVER_URI and DDNS_SERVER_PORT settings. Note
that three attempts will be made to contact the server.

DDNS update aborted. Modem interface not open – the DT80 only supports DDNS via the integrated modem.
A communications session must be established, with Internet access, before a DDNS update can be performed.

DDNS update aborted. Modem interface is on private LAN – DDNS will only work if the DT80 has a public
IP address. If it has a private IP address (10.x.x.x, 192.168.x.x or 172.16-31.x.x) then there is no point giving this to a
DDNS server because no system outside the private network will be able to reach it.
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Communications Sessions
DT80 integrated modem models are often deployed in remote locations, with limited power available. Power management is
therefore very important in these applications.
To minimise overall power usage, the DT80 allows modem communications to be grouped into communications sessions.
During a session, the DT80 will automatically:

switch on the modem and connect to the mobile network

send any alarm SMS messages

perform any data transfers (alarm messages or data unloads)

manage retries in the event of a communications failure

optionally remain online for a period of time to allow you to connect to the logger using dEX or DeTransfer

switch off the modem
A number of settings are available to allow you to trade off power consumption against:

accessibility – you can only connect to and remotely control the logger while the modem is switched on, and

notification delay – you can specify whether to immediately establish a connection following an alarm event, or
whether it can wait until the next scheduled session
Note A similar "communications session" mechanism is also used for Ethernet transfers, although without any of the power
control features. For more details see Ethernet Sessions (P223). The remainder of this section will deal with modem
communications sessions, and is therefore applicable to DT8xM models only.
Session Timing
Starting and Ending a Session
The DT80 will begin a communications session when any of the following events occur:

an SMS or email alarm action is triggered, unless the action is designated "low priority". (Low priority alarms are
queued and will be sent when a communications session is next started for some other reason.)

an email or FTP data unload is triggered, unless the unload is designated "low priority"

the current time falls within the defined session time window, if any.

the SESSION START command is issued, or the Start comms option is selected on the keypad function menu

a session retry is required following an earlier communications failure
The session will then continue until any one of the following occurs:

the configured maximum session duration is exceeded (by default there is no maximum), and the current time is not
within the defined time window

the configured minimum session duration has elapsed, and communications have been idle for the configured
minimum idle time, and the current time is not within the defined time window. By default there is no minimum session
duration and the minimum idle time is 2 minutes.

the SESSION STOP command is issued, or the Stop comms option is selected on the keypad function menu.

a communications failure occurs
Priorities
Alarms and data unloads may be designated as either "normal priority" (which is the default) or "low priority". When a normal
priority alarm or unload file is generated, a communications session will immediately be started, if one is not already active.
A low priority alarm/unload, on the other hand, will not automatically start a session.
If no session is currently active then a low priority alarm/unload will be queued until either:

a session is started for some other reason, e.g a normal priority alarm/unload occurs, or the SESSION START
command is issued, or

a queue has no more space available, or

24 hours elapses since the low priority item was generated.
Normally, SMS messages are sent at the start of a session, before a data (Internet) connection is established. Sending an
SMS during an established session may cause the data connection to be disrupted, causing the session to end prematurely.
For this reason, low priority SMS messages will not be sent during an active session – they will be queued and sent at the
start of the next session (unless they have been in the queue for 24 hours, in which case they will be sent mid-session, like
a normal priority SMS).
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Session Time Window
A regular session time window may also be defined by specifying a start and end time. During this time window, the DT80
will attempt to keep the communications session open continuously. The session timeout criteria listed above (maximum
session duration, minimum session duration and minimum idle time) do not apply during the time window.
Setting up a time window will therefore allow you to contact the logger for a defined time each day (or hour, or week). It also
allows you to group all of the day's communications into a single time period – perhaps a time period where communications
are cheaper, or a time where the FTP server to which data is being transferred is least busy. Grouping communications into
a single session will also reduce the overall power usage.
In a non power-sensitive application, a "perpetual" time window can also be configured. This will keep the modem powered
at all times and will attempt to maintain a continuous connection to the network.
Session Timing Settings
The following profile settings define the session timing that applies when not within the defined session time window (If any).
These are all in the MODEM_SESSION section:

MIN_DURATION_S specifies the minimum session duration (in seconds). Default is 0 (no minimum). For example, if
this is set to 600 (seconds) and an alarm causes a communications session to be established and an SMS or email
sent, then the DT80 will hold the connection open for 10 minutes to allow you to connect to it using dEX to check the
status.

MIN_IDLE_S specifies the minimum time (in seconds) that the modem session must be idle (i.e. no data sent or
received) before the session ends. Default is 120 seconds (2 minutes), minimum is 10 seconds. Note that dEX sends
a "heartbeat" message to the logger once a minute while it is running, so if you are running dEX over a modem
connection then the session will normally stay active until you close dEX.

MAX_DURATION_S specifies a hard session time limit (in seconds). The session will be terminated after this time,
and any communications in progress at the time will be aborted, regardless of the MIN_DURATION_S and
MIN_IDLE_S settings. It can be useful if your application has a strict power budget that provides for no more than x
minutes of modem on-time per day. Set this to 0 to disable the session time limit, which is the default setting.
To define a session time window (which will override the above settings), use the following MODEM_SESSION settings:

TIMING_CONTROL is used to specify whether you want no session time window (OFF), a perpetual time window
where the modem is continuously connected (ALWAYS) or a configurable time window (CRON). The default is OFF.

START_CRON is used to configure when the time window should start. It is only applicable if TIMING_CONTROL is
set to CRON. To specify the start time, the "cron" syntax is used – the same as for time of day schedule triggers (see
Trigger at Date/Time (P47)). The default is 0:0:12:*:*:*, which translates to 12:00 daily.

STOP_CRON is used to configure when the time window should end. The default is 0:0:13:*:*:*, or 13:00 daily.
Thus with the default settings (and with TIMING_CONTROL set to CRON), a one hour communications time window
will be set, from noon to 1pm daily.
 Example
The following settings:
PROFILE
PROFILE
PROFILE
PROFILE
PROFILE
PROFILE
MODEM_SESSION
MODEM_SESSION
MODEM_SESSION
MODEM_SESSION
MODEM_SESSION
MODEM_SESSION
MAX_DURATION_S=0
MIN_DURATION_S=0
MIN_IDLE_S=180
TIMING_CONTROL=CRON
START_CRON=0:0:9:*:*:1-5
STOP_CRON=0:30:9:*:*:1-5
specify that

A half hour time window is defined, from 9:00 until 9:30 on weekdays (1-5 indicates Monday to Friday). The modem
will be powered up and connected to the network during this time period

If a session needs to be established outside this time window (e.g. due to an alarm or a scheduled data unload) then
it will remain active for as long as it takes to perform the data transfer(s). Once the connection has been idle for 3
minutes (180 seconds) the session will end and the modem will be turned off.
 dEX Settings
In the dEX Configuration Builder, the session timing settings can be found under Modem, on the Power tab, as shown in
Figure 77.
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Figure 77: Session timing settings
A daily time window can be defined by selecting Periodically and entering the start and stop time. The other "cron" fields
(e.g. day of week) are not supported in dEX.
Error handling
Power supplies, communications links, networks and file servers are often imperfect. Communications sessions provide a
mechanism for automatically handling many common errors that may arise, without the need for special handling in your
DT80 job.
In the event of a failure to establish a network connection, or a disconnection mid-session, the DT80 will generally attempt to
establish a new session, and perform periodic retries as required. Similarly, if an FTP or email data transfer fails then it will be
automatically retried.
Session Failures
There are many reasons why a session might not be able to be established successfully, as indicated in the table in Errors
(P210) above. In the event of any error, the DT80 will automatically retry the session.
A session failure occurs when:

the session never starts, e.g. it cannot connect to the mobile network or the Internet, or

the modem signals that it has detected an error or has lost signal during a session, or

the periodic "network check" test fails (see below).
 Connection Timeout
The following profile setting specifies the maximum time (in seconds) to wait when registering on the mobile network:
PROFILE MODEM REGISTRATION_WAIT_S=60
If this time expires without the DT80 being able to register on a mobile network, then it will reset the modem to automatic
network selection (as opposed to reconnecting the the last used network), and repeat the registration sequence. This means
that the timeout may appear to be effectively double the time specified above.
 Network Check
The network check (a.k.a. "heartbeat") is used to detect cases where the modem is still connected to the mobile network,
but for one reason or another has lost Internet connectivity. By default, the DT80 verifies its network connection by
periodically contacting the network Domain Name System (DNS) server. The DNS server address is provided to the DT80 by
the mobile network, so no configuration is required.
If the DT80's modem is used to connect to a private wide area network (as opposed to the Internet) then a DNS server might
not be available. If this is the case then "ping" may be used as an alternative network check mechanism. To enable this you
need to set the NETWORK_CHECK profile, and configure a comma-separated list of one or more servers that you know will
respond to a ping. For example:
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PROFILE MODEM_SESSION NETWORK_CHECK=PING
PROFILE MODEM_SESSION PING_SERVERS=192.168.10.22
To disable the network check feature, use
PROFILE MODEM_SESSION NETWORK_CHECK=NONE
 Retries
If a retry is required following a session failure, the DT80 will wait for a period of time then start a new session. The timing of
these session retries is configurable, using the following profile setting:
PROFILE MODEM_SESSION RETRY_DELAY_S=n
where n is the minimum delay, in seconds, between a communications session failing and the DT80 attempting to start a
new one. The default setting is 30 seconds. Every third attempt, this delay will be increased by a factor of 60, to allow some
extra time for the problem to be resolved.
If there are queued items to send, or if we are inside a configured communications time window, then session retries will
continue indefinitely, until either

a session can be established successfully, or

the session is no longer required (e.g. we are now outside the time window, or the user manually cleared the pending
data/alarm transmissions using the SESSION CLEAR command; see SESSION Command (P221)).
If, on the other hand, the session was started manually using the SESSION START command, then a maximum of 4 retries
will be performed, after which the session will be abandoned.
 dEX Settings
In the dEX Configuration Builder, the session error handling settings can be found under Modem, on the Session
connection tab, as shown in Figure 78.
Figure 78: Session error handling settings
FTP Failures
A data unload to an FTP server, e.g.
COPYD dest=ftp://freddo:frog@ftp.sweet.net/data/
may fail because of:

a configuration error, e.g. an incorrectly specified username, password, server name or folder name

a server problem, e.g. the FTP server may be down or overloaded

a network problem, e.g. the modem's connection to the mobile network has dropped out.
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 Retries
If any error is detected during the FTP transfer, the DT80 first determines whether the network is still functional. If the
network has failed (e.g. the modem has dropped out, or the DNS/ping network check fails) then this is a session failure and
will be dealt with as described in Session Failures (P218).
If the session is still OK then the problem must be either a problem with the FTP server, or the unload command is incorrect
(e.g. an invalid server name or credentials were specified). Either way, the DT80 will now retry the FTP transfer, using a
similar strategy to that for session retries. That is, it will wait for the configured RETRY_DELAY_S time then retry, with this
time being multiplied by 60 on every third attempt.
By default, these retries will continue indefinitely. However, you can also set a retry limit, as follows:
PROFILE UNLOAD FTP_RETRIES=10
which will perform up to 10 retries, then delete the data file from the queue. Setting the profile to 0 means that only a single
attempt will be made (no retries), while INFINITE will retry indefinitely.
Note If a data file from an incremental unload (one which specified start=new) is abandoned, then the time period
covered by the failed unload will be missing from the data set on the FTP server, even if communications with the server
subsequently recover. The data for this time period will then need to be manually recovered, e.g. using the dEX web
interface "retrieve data" function.
 How Many Retries?
To avoid having to manually recover data after a prolonged server outage, it is important to carefully consider the
FTP_RETRIES setting. The best setting depends on the application:

If you have a simple job which does periodic incremental unloads to a single FTP server then the default
FTP_RETRIES=INFINITE is normally appropriate. If the server goes down then unload files won't be able to be
sent and will remain in the FTP queue indefinitely. If the queue fills up completely then when subsequent unloads
occur the resulting file will not be able to be queued. In this case the "last record unloaded" pointer will not be updated
so it will be as if the unload never happened. When the next scheduled unload occurs, the resulting file will contain
data for both the previous and current intervals. The bottom line is that, provided that the main data storefile is large
enough, there will be no gaps in the data on the server when it eventually recovers.

If your job outputs to multiple FTP servers, or there is a possibility that some FTP transfers could succeed while others
continue to fail, then a finite value for FTP_RETRIES is preferred. Otherwise, the FTP queue may eventually fill up
with requests for the bad server, which will prevent requests for the good server being processed. (Note that a full FTP
queue will not prevent emails or SMS messages being sent.)
Remember that if the logger loses its network connection for a period of time (as opposed to an FTP server outage) then it
will be the session that is failing, not the FTP transfer. The FTP_RETRIES setting is therefore not relevant in this case. The
session will be retried indefinitely.
 File Transfer Process
When the DT80 sends a file to an FTP server, it will first create a temporary file on the server, which will have a .tmp file
extension. Once the transfer is complete, this will be renamed to the correct file name.
If a transfer fails half way (e.g. due to a mobile network drop out) then an incomplete file will be left on the server. However,
because such files have .tmp file extensions they will be easily distinguishable from complete files (which will normally have
a .csv or .dbd file extension).
If communications failures are frequent, a number of incomplete .tmp files may accumulate on the FTP server. Some
periodical FTP server housekeeping may be required, to delete old temporary files.
Email Failures
A email data unload, e.g.
COPYD dest=mailto:bib@bob.com
may fail because of:

a general configuration error, e.g. an incorrectly specified SMTP server name, username, password or return email
address in the profile settings

an invalid destination email address in the COPYD command

a network problem, e.g. the modem's connection to the mobile network has dropped out.

a transient server problem, e.g. the SMTP server may be temporarily overloaded

the SMTP server is down
Note The DT80 will consider that an email has successfully been sent if the message (and data file, if any) is accepted by the
SMTP server. However, acceptance by the SMTP server does not mean that the message will necessarily make it to the
recipient's email inbox. This is simply the nature of email. For example, the user's inbox may be full, or the message may be
blocked or mistakenly interpreted as "spam" by a mail server or the user's email client. If a message is dropped in this way
then a "bounce" message may be sent to the configured return email address, although this is not guaranteed.
 Retries
The retry strategy for email is similar to that for FTP. If any error is detected during while connecting to the SMTP server or
during the transfer, the DT80 first determines whether the network is still functional. If the network has failed (e.g. the modem
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has dropped out, or the DNS/ping network check fails) then this is a session failure and will be dealt with as described in
Session Failures (P218).
If the session is still OK and the problem occurred while connecting to or logging in to the SMTP server then the DT80
concludes that this is a server problem, or the email related profile settings are incorrect. Either way, there is nothing wrong
with the actual email message, so it will remain in the queue. The DT80 will then retry connecting to the SMTP server, using
the same timing parameters as for session retries, i.e the first delay time is RETRY_DELAY_S seconds (60 times longer for
every third attempt) and the retries continue indefinitely.
The third possibility is that the DT80 can connect to the SMTP server successfully, but the server rejects the message. This
may be due to the server being too busy, or the message may be invalid (e.g. the destination email address might be
incorrectly formatted).
For alarm emails, the message will be retried four times, then discarded. An entry will be made in the event log if this
happens.
For emails with attached data files, as with FTP unloads, discarding messages is undesirable due to the potential for gaps in
the transmitted data following an outage. A similar approach is therefore taken to that used for FTP. By default, data emails
are retried indefinitely, although you can set a retry limit using the same profile as for FTP, e.g.
PROFILE UNLOAD FTP_RETRIES=10
(The name of the profile is a little misleading as it applies to both FTP and email data unloads.)
SMS Failures
SMS transmissions may fail due to a transient network problem, or (more likely) an incorrectly specified destination phone
number. Either way, a failed SMS will be retried four times, then deleted – the same behaviour as for a failed alarm email
(assuming that the session and SMTP connection are OK).
Note The DT80 will consider that an SMS has successfully been sent if the message is accepted by the mobile network.
However, this does not mean that the message will necessarily make it to the recipient's SMS inbox. The network will make
a "best effort" to deliver it, but delivery is not guaranteed.
Hard Reset
If a hard reset or power loss occurs then any queued messages or data files will be preserved. Following the reset, a session
will be started immediately (unless all queued items are low priority) and the transfers will proceed in the usual way.
Session Diagnostics
SESSION Command
Normally, communications sessions start and stop automatically in response to alarms and data unloads or time of day.
The SESSION command provides a way to manually control sessions, and determine the current status of a session and
any pending transfers. This command is actually a set of related commands, which will be described below.
 Starting and Stopping Sessions
The SESSION START command will manually start a communications session. The session will then persist for a period of
time as specified in the profile settings (MIN_DURATION_S, MAX_DURATION_S, MIN_IDLE_S). By default, this
command is assigned to an entry in the keypad function menu (Start comms). This would allow a central operator to, for
example, ask an onsite person to wake a sleeping logger and select this option via the keypad. Shortly afterward, the modem
would be online and the central operator would be able to connect to it using dEX.
The SESSION STOP command (by default Stop comms on the function menu) can be used to prematurely terminate a
communications session. The modem will disconnect and switch off.
Note If an "always on" session has been configured (TIMING_CONTROL=ALWAYS) then the SESSION STOP command
will still abort the session in progress, but a new session will be automatically started after a short delay.
 Session Status
The SESSION command (no parameter) will report the current status of the session, similar to that shown on the modem
status screen on the display. A session can be in one of the following states:
Status
Description
Idle
Will retry
Starting modem
Checking PIN/PUK
Registering
Sending SMS
Connecting to Internet
Online
Closing
Modem is switched off
Modem is currently switched off, but a session retry is scheduled
Modem is initialising
Checking configured SIM PIN, or waiting for user to enter PIN
Registering on mobile network
Sending queued SMS messages
Connecting to the Internet
Successfully connected to the Internet
Session is closing
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 Listing Session Queues
When an alarm or unload occurs, the resulting message or data file is placed in a queue. The DT80 uses four separate
queues:

one for SMS alarm messages

one for email alarm messages

one for email unload data files

one for FTP unload data files
Once added to a queue, the message or file will stay there until either:

it is successfully transferred to the FTP server, or the SMTP server, or to the mobile network (for SMS), or

the message is deleted following a number of unsuccessful retries, as detailed in Error handling (P218).
The SESSION LIST command allows you to see the contents of each queue. For example:
SESSION LIST
SMS Alarm Queue (1/6):
2011/04/13,16:17:10: +61400123456, 'alarm: temp=49.3', –
prio:norm, retry:0 (2011/04/13,16:17:10)
Email Alarm Queue (1/13):
2011/04/13,16:17:10: barney@zcorp.com, 'alarm: temp=49.3', iface:modem, –
prio:norm, retry:0 (2011/04/13,16:17:10)
Email Data Queue (0/13):
FTP Data Queue (2/12):
2011/04/13,16:11:11: ftp.zcorp.com, /bj/000_20110413T161110.CSV, iface:modem, –
prio:low, retry:3 (2011/04/13,16:44:12)
2011/04/13,16:16:53: ftp.zcorp.com, /bj/001_20110413T161652.CSV, iface:modem, –
prio:low, retry:0 (2011/04/13,16:16:53)
Modem SMTP server connect retry:1 (2011/04/13,16:18:55)
(Long lines have been split)
In the above example you can glean the following:

There is one pending SMS alarm message. The message was generated at 16:17:10 and is directed to the indicated
number, with the message text as shown. Priority is "normal", which means that a session would have been started as
soon as the message was queued (if one was not already active). The retry count is 0, indicating that the DT80 has not
yet attempted to send the message. The next attempt is scheduled for 16:17:10, i.e. it is due now.

There is one pending email alarm message, which was generated at the same time as the SMS and contains the
same message. It has not yet been attempted. It will be sent using the modem interface (the session queue is used for
both modem and Ethernet alarms and unloads).

There are no pending email data unloads.

There are two pending FTP data unloads. The first has failed three times so far, with the next retry due at 16:44:12.
The second FTP transfer has not yet been attempted. These unloads are designated "low" priority, so they would not
have caused a session to be immediately started.

There was a problem connecting to the SMTP server. This will be retried at 16:18:55.
 Clearing Session Queues
The SESSION CLEAR command will clear all pending transfers, i.e. it will empty all four session queues. Use with care!
Note that if this command is entered while a file or message is being transmitted then that item will not be deleted – it will be
allowed to complete. If you want to cancel the transfer half way through then first abort the session using SESSION STOP,
then use SESSION CLEAR.
 Forcing Retries
The SESSION RETRY command will cause a session to be started immediately (if one is not already active) and all pending
items will be retried. This is handy if you have manually fixed a problem or setting that was causing transmissions to fail. (Of
course, you could also just wait until the scheduled retry time comes around.)
 Signal Check Mode
The SESSION SIGNAL command (Check signal on function menu) can be used to provide a continuously updated
readout of the signal strength and quality. This can be used to optimise antenna placement, for example.
See Signal Levels (P212) for more information.
While this mode is in effect, details of the currently registered network and signal strength will be updated every few seconds
on the display, and a line will also be sent to the command interface, e.g.
SESSION SIGNAL
SESSION: Starting
Network: 3G; Operator: Telstra; Signal: -81dBm; BER:
Network: 3G; Operator: Telstra; Signal: -83dBm; BER:
…
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This shows:

network type/capability (GSM, GPRS, EDGE, 3G, or HSPA)

carrier (network operator) name

receive signal level (-70dBm or higher is excellent, -90dBm is fair, -100dBm is poor)

bit error rate (BER) – 0.14% is optimal, higher values indicate reduced signal quality

whether the network is considered suitable for an Internet connection. To be acceptable, the network must support
data connections, and the signal level must be greater than or equal to that specified by the
MIN_SIGNAL_FOR_DATA_DBM profile setting (default is -93dBm)
To exit from signal check mode, use SESSION STOP.
Note Be sure to exit from signal check mode when you are done, otherwise normal communications sessions may be
blocked.
Note If used while a session is already active, the SESSION SIGNAL command will take a single signal strength reading.
It will return one line of information (as above) and also update the operator name and signal strength (number of bars) on
the LCD display.
 SESSION Command Summary
The following table summarises the available SESSION commands:
Command
Function menu
Description
SESSION
SESSION START
SESSION STOP
SESSION SIGNAL
Start comms
Stop comms
Check signal
SESSION LIST
SESSION CLEAR
SESSION RETRY
-
Return current session state
Start a session
Abort session/cancel signal check mode
Enter signal check mode (if session not active)
Update displayed signal/operator (if session active)
List details of all queued transmissions
Delete all queued transmissions
If there are any queued transmissions then start a session and retry them
Event Log
All communications failures are recorded in the DT80 event log. The event log can be displayed using the UEVTLOG
command, or it can be retrieved via the dEX web interface (Diagnostics page).
The following general types of communications related messages may appear in the event log:

A specific error message, e.g.
FTP: incorrect password (-5)
or:
EMAIL: Cannot connect to SMTP server (-2)
which will be logged each time an attempt or retry fails.

A warning that a queued message or file was not able to be sent (after the required number of retries) and has been
deleted. This will include the words "send failed", e.g.
FTP DATA DISCARDED (send failed), ftp.zcorp.com, 000_20110413T161110.CSV
If this was an incremental unload then this message indicates that the data covered by the unload will need to be
manually retrieved.

A warning that an alarm or unload file was not able to be queued because the queue was full. This will include the
words "queue overflow", e.g.
DATA EMAIL DISCARDED (queue overflow), heron@zcorp.com, 011_20110413T164644.CSV
or:
ALARM SMS DISCARDED (queue overflow), +61400123456, temp=39.7
In the case of an incremental unload, the data that could not be sent will be included as part of the next unload, so no
action is required. In the case of an alarm, the log message indicates that the alarm email/SMS was not sent. However
the text of the alarm message (e.g. temp=39.7) is included in the event log.
Ethernet Sessions
Ethernet transfers also use a form of communications sessions. This allows the DT80 to manage Ethernet transfers and
retries in a consistent way, including sleeping and waking as appropriate.
Queues
If an FTP/email data unload is performed, e.g.
COPYD dest=ftp://womble.com/data/?interface=eth
or an email alarm is triggered, e.g.
IF(1TK>50)"Overtemp"[mailto:wilbur@womble.com?interface=eth]
then an entry will be added to the appropriate communication queue.
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On a DT8xM model, the communications queues may contain items for the modem interface and items for the Ethernet
interface (the interface= option is used to select which interface to use). On a standard model, all transfers will use the
Ethernet interface, so the interface= option is not required.
As described in SESSION Command (P221), the SESSION LIST command can be used to view the contents of the
communications queues, and SESSION CLEAR will delete all entries therein.
Session Timing
 Starting and Ending a Session
An Ethernet session begins when there is something that needs to be sent now, via Ethernet. This may be an FTP data
unload, an email data unload or an email alarm. It may be a newly generated item, or it may be a previously queued item that
now needs to be retried.
The session ends when:

All transfers have been completed successfully, so there are no more Ethernet entries in the FTP or email queues, or

The queues have been manually cleared, using SESSION CLEAR, or

Some or all of the queued Ethernet transfers failed, and it is not yet time to retry them, or

The Ethernet interface is found to be not functional (does not have a valid IP address)
If there is an active Ethernet session then the logger is kept awake until the session completes, at which point it is allowed to
sleep. If retries are required then the DT80 will automatically wake at the required time in order to start a new Ethernet
session.
Note The SESSION START and SESSION STOP commands are not applicable to Ethernet sessions. Also, an Ethernet
session always starts immediately, so there are no "low priority" alarms or unloads.
 Retrying a Session
As with modem sessions, the SESSION RETRY command can be used to force the DT80 to attempt to start a session and
retry all queued items.
Plugging an Ethernet cable into the DT80 will also cause all queued Ethernet items to be immediately retried,
Session State
An Ethernet session can be in one of six states, as described in the table below. The SESSION command (no parameters)
will return the current state. System variable 85SV reflects the state of the Ethernet interface.
Ethernet Status
85SV
Description
Disabled
No cable
Starting
Ready
0
0
1
2
Online
Limited connectivity
2
3
Ethernet port is disabled
Ethernet cable is not connected
IP address is being acquired
A valid IP address has been obtained. The Ethernet interface is usable, but an
Ethernet session is not currently active
An Ethernet session is currently active
DHCP server not found, so a link-local IP address has been assigned
Error Handling
Ethernet session failures are handled in a very similar way to modem communications session failures. Refer to Error
handling (P218) for full details.
If an Ethernet session fails (e.g. the cable is removed, or it cannot obtain a valid IP address) then it will be retried after a short
delay, which can be set using
PROFILE ETHERNET_SESSION RETRY_DELAY_S=seconds
The default setting is 30 seconds, and every third delay will be 60 times longer to give some extra time to resolve the
problem.
If the session is established OK but an email or FTP transfer fails then it will be retried after the same delay time, again with
every third delay lengthened by a factor of 60. Use the SESSION LIST command to see when the next retry is due.
Email alarm messages will be retried four times then discarded.
By default, FTP/email data unloads will be retried indefinitely; however this can be limited if required using
PROFILE UNLOAD FTP_RETRIES=num
which will delete the unload data file from the queue after num retries.
Note If a data file from an incremental unload (one which specified start=new) is abandoned, then the time period
covered by the failed unload will be missing from the data set on the FTP server, even if communications with the server
subsequently recover. The data for this time period will then need to be manually recovered, e.g. using the dEX web
interface "retrieve data" function.
In dEX, the retry interval (RETRY_DELAY_S) is set on the Ethernet settings page, on the Session tab, while the
FTP_RETRIES setting is on the Advanced page.
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Ethernet Communications
All DT80 models are fitted with an Ethernet port for network communications.
Connecting to the DT80 Ethernet Port
The DT80's Ethernet port is designed to connect to any 10-BaseT Ethernet compatible network. This includes 100-BaseT
(fast Ethernet) and 1000-BaseT (gigabit Ethernet) networks. The DT80 Etherent port operates at a maximum data rate of
10Mbps.
There are two ways to connect to a network:

directly connect the DT80 to a single host computer using a "cross-over" cable. In this case you are effectively creating
a new mini-network, with just two devices connected – the DT80 and the host computer.

connect the DT80 to a spare port on an Ethernet hub, bridge or router, using a standard ("straight through) cable. In
this case the DT80 will be joining an existing network.
Note that many recent PC and switch/router models incorporate "auto switching" Ethernet ports. Such devices may be
connected to the DT80 using either a standard or cross-over Ethernet cable.
Direct Connection to a PC
A direct Ethernet connection provides a link between a single PC and the DT80.
PC
DT80
Ethernet 169.254.123.44
Port
169.254.42.199 Ethernet
Port
10BaseT cross-over cable
Figure 79: Direct Ethernet connection
In the above example, the PC and the DT80 have both assigned themselves Auto-IP addresses, as there is no DHCP server
available. Auto-IP addresses always begin with 169.254; the latter part of the IP address is semi-random.
Connection to a LAN
Important Do not connect your DT80 to the network until you’ve configured the DT80 with a suitable IP address and subnet
mask, or selected the "automatic IP address" option. Connecting a device with an invalid or conflicting IP address may cause
significant disruption to the operation of the network.
By connecting the DT80 to a local area network (LAN), the DT80 will be accessible by any of the computers on the LAN, and
possibly also by computers on a wide area network or the Internet, depending on how the LAN is set up.
PC2
Ethernet 10.33.102.8
Port
10.33.102.1
NAT Router
(gateway)
203.54.192.12
Internet
ADSL
modem
192.168.1.1
Ethernet Switch
PC1
to other devices (192.168.1.x)
DT80
192.168.1.7 Ethernet
Port
Ethernet 192.168.1.23
Port
10BaseT standard cable
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Figure 80: Typical Ethernet LAN
In the above example, the DT80, PC1, a router, and possibly some other devices are all connected on the same private LAN
"segment", or "subnet". All devices on this particular subnet have IP addresses beginning with 192.168.1. All devices on the
same subnet can communicate with each other directly.
PC2, on the other hand, is connected to a different subnet. It cannot directly communicate with the DT80; it needs to go via
the router. In other words the router acts as a "gateway" between the various subnets, and also, in this case, the Internet.
This all happens automatically, provided that all devices are correctly configured. In particular, the gateway address for
each device needs to point to the router. So PC1 and the DT80 would both have their gateway address set to 192.168.1.1,
while PC2's gateway would be set to 10.33.102.1.
Note that if a DHCP server is present on the LAN (which will usually be the case), and the DT80 is configured to use it, then
the DHCP server would normally take care of setting all required addresses automatically.
Connection to a Modem-Gateway
Another common connection scenario is where a remote DT80 is connected to the Internet using a "modem-gateway" device
that integrates the modem, NAT router and switch functions into one box. The modem may be a cable, ADSL or wireless
(GPRS/3G) modem.
Internet
203.54.22.177
Mobile Network
Access Point
Integrated
Modem-Gateway
192.168.0.1
DT80
192.168.0.2 Ethernet
Port
10BaseT standard cable
Figure 81: Typical Internet connection using an integrated modem-gateway (wireless modem in this case)
The modem-gateway will typically include a DHCP server, which will automatically set up the required network parameters
on the DT80, including its IP address.
Ethernet Port Indicators
The two LEDs on the DT80’s Ethernet port (P265) indicate the following:

Green LED – Link OK; should come on and stay on as soon as you connect the Ethernet cable

Amber LED – Activity; blinks every time a data packet is received
If the green LED does not come on then either the DT80 Ethernet port is not enabled, or the cable is faulty, or the socket you
are connecting to is not connected to an active Ethernet network, or the hub/bridge/router is not powered up.
Note that the amber LED indicates communications activity anywhere on the local network – this activity is not necessarily
directed at the DT80.
Note These LEDs will only operate if the DT80 Ethernet port is enabled. The Ethernet port will only be enabled if its IP
address has been set, or DHCP has been enabled. (See How to set up Ethernet (P228)).
MAC Address
All Ethernet devices have a globally unique 12-digit identifier programmed into them during manufacture. This is called the
MAC Address. The DT80's assigned MAC address can be viewed using the EAA (Ethernet Adapter Address) command,
but it cannot be changed. You should not need to be concerned with this address.
Ethernet Commands
Querying Ethernet Parameters
The current Ethernet parameters can be viewed using the following commands
Command
Description
IP
IPSN
Returns the DT80’s current IP address
Returns the DT80’s current IP subnet mask
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IPGW
EAA
Returns the DT80’s current IP gateway
Returns the DT80’s Ethernet network adapter MAC address
For example:
IP
192.168.42.15
IPSN
255.255.255.0
IPGW
192.168.42.3
EAA
00-90-2D-00-12-6B
In this example the DT80 has IP address 192.168.42.15, and is connected to network 192.168.42.0/24. The computer or
router at IP address 192.168.42.3 is the designated gateway for this network. Any data that needs to be sent to a different
network will be sent via this computer.
Setting Ethernet Parameters
All Ethernet parameters are set using profile settings (see Profile (P251)), i.e.
PROFILE ETHERNET key=value
The following keys are defined:
Key
Value
Default
ENABLE
IP_ADDRESS
Set to YES to enable the Ethernet port, NO to disable (saves power)
IP address of DT80 Ethernet port. May be set to a static IP address, or
AUTO (obtain an address from a DHCP server)
Subnet mask for the network segment to which the DT80 is connected.
This setting will be ignored if a valid subnet mask was obtained from the
DHCP server.
IP address of the gateway computer/router for network segment to which
the DT80 is connected. This setting will be ignored if a valid gateway
address was obtained from the DHCP server.
YES
AUTO
SUBNET_MASK
GATEWAY
255.255.255.0
0.0.0.0
For example, the following commands would be used to set the parameters in the above example:
PROFILE ETHERNET IP_ADDRESS=192.168.42.15
PROFILE ETHERNET SUBNET_MASK=255.255.255.224
PROFILE ETHERNET GATEWAY=192.168.42.3
Alternatively, if a DHCP server was available on the network then you could simply use:
PROFILE ETHERNET IP_ADDRESS=AUTO
By default, the above command is assigned to one of the DT80's user defined functions, accessible from the front panel; see
User Defined Functions (P116). This makes it easy to enable Ethernet on a new logger without having to connect to it.
Setting DNS Server address
To set the DNS server address use
PROFILE NETWORK DNS_SERVER_1=192.168.42.4
PROFILE NETWORK DNS_SERVER_2=192.168.42.5
The first setting is for the primary DNS server; the second is for an optional alternative server, which will only be used if the
primary server is offline.
These settings will be ignored if valid DNS server address(es) were obtained from the DHCP server.
Setting Up Email
To send an email, an Internet-connected computer needs to send the message to an SMTP server (Simple Mail transport
Protocol). This server, and its brethren around the world, will then take care of delivering the message to the specified email
address.
Thus in order for the DT80 to be able to send data or alarm messages via email, it will need to know the name of a suitable
SMTP server. This may be a corporate email server on the local LAN, or it may be a mail service provided by your ISP, or it
may be a third-party public SMTP server on the Internet (both free and paid email services are available).
Note The DT80 only supports SMTP servers that:

support LOGIN authentication

do not require SSL (Secure Sockets Layer) encryption
Note that the second condition rules out the gmail.com service.
Your email service provider will supply you with the SMTP server name, a username and a password, which you will need to
enter into the DT80's profile, as follows:
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PROFILE ETHERNET_SESSION SMTP_SERVER=server name
PROFILE ETHERNET_SESSION SMTP_ACCOUNT=email account name
PROFILE ETHERNET_SESSION SMTP_PASSWORD=password
You also need to specify the sender name and email address that the DT80 will use when sending email. For example:
PROFILE ETHERNET_SESSION SENDER_NAME="Benjamin Bunny"
PROFILE ETHERNET_SESSION RETURN_ADDRESS=bb@firtree.net
If SENDER_NAME is not set then the DT80 model and serial number is used, e.g. "DT82EM-3 096605".
The RETURN_ADDRESS profile should be set to the email address associated with your account. In the event that an email
sent by the logger is unable to be delivered, a "bounce" error message will normally be sent to this address.
In dEX, email settings are configured using the Ethernet email configuration page:
Figure 82: Email configuration page
In the above screen shot, the logger has been set up to use the (fictitious) third party email provider hailmail.com. The
server name, as specified by the provider, is smtp.hailmail.com. The account name (megatech) and password have also
been entered.
Email sent by this logger will appear to come from "Turbine 12", with email address of megatech@hailmail.com.
How to set up Ethernet
Initial decisions
In order to set up an Ethernet connection to the DT80, you need to decide:

whether the DT80 will connect directly to a PC (Figure 79), or connect to an existing LAN (Figure 80), or connect to a
modem/gateway (Figure 81)

whether the DT80 will use a static (manually configured) or a dynamic (automatic) IP address.
A direct Ethernet connection to a PC will typically be a temporary arrangement, so you would normally choose the automatic
(Auto-IP) IP address option.
For a LAN or gateway connection, the automatic (DHCP) option is considerably simpler to set up, as the IP address, subnet
mask, gateway and DNS server addresses will normally all be set automatically.
There are some drawbacks to a dynamic IP address if you intend to connect to the DT80 using dEX or DeTransfer – namely
you need to determine what that IP address is, and the IP address may change. If the DT80 is close by then you can check
the IP address on its display, but for a remote DT80 this is obviously not practical and a static IP address would normally be
used.
If the DT80 is accessible via the Internet then a web-based dynamic DNS service such as dynDNS.com can also be used to
locate its IP address. This is discussed further below.
Direct Connection to PC – Automatic IP address
 1. Check that Ethernet port is enabled
Using the front panel UP and DOWN keys, select the Ethernet IP screen. It should show:
Eth IP:
Auto
No cable
If this is not the case then the DT80's Ethernet port has been disabled or set to a static IP address. Press Func to access the
function menu, then scroll down to the Auto Ethernet IP option and press OK/Edit. Verify that the display is now as shown
above.
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 2. Connect Ethernet cable
You can now connect a cross-over Ethernet cable between the DT80 and the computer. Verify that the green Link LED on
the DT80's Ethernet connector comes on. If the Link LED does not come on then check that:

the cable is a correctly wired cross-over cable

the computer's Ethernet port is enabled (check "Network Connections" in Windows control panel)
 3. Check DT80 IP address
When the Ethernet cable is connected, the DT80 will begin searching for a DHCP server. When connected directly to a PC,
there will normally be no DHCP server available, so after 10 seconds or so the DT80 will give up and assign itself an
"Auto-IP" address. The Ethernet IP screen will then change to something like:
Eth IP:
Auto
169.254.25.77
If you have a DT81 (which has no front panel display) then you can alternatively send the command:
IP
169.254.25.77
 4. Wait for Windows to acquire IP address
Meanwhile, Windows will also be looking for a DHCP server. During this time you may notice an animated icon in the system
tray, which, for Windows XP, will look something like the following:
Figure 83: Windows XP searching for a DHCP server
Windows normally spends about 60 seconds looking for a DHCP server, then it, like the DT80, will give up and assign itself
an Auto-IP address, at which point the system tray icon will disappear.
A message may be displayed at this point warning that the network connection has "limited or no connectivity". This is
normal, and simply indicates that the Internet will not be accessible using this network connection.
 5. Test the connection
You should now be able to connect to the DT80. For example, you could enter the DT80's IP address (169.254.25.77 in the
above example) into a web browser in order to access the DT80's web interface, or you could create a TCP/IP connection in
DeTransfer or DeLogger, again specifying the DT80's IP address.
Network Connection – Automatic IP address
The procedure for connecting to an existing LAN using automatic configuration is very similar to the above "direct
connection" scenario:
 1. Check Ethernet port
As for the direct connection scenario, check that the display indicates Eth IP:
described above.
Auto. If not then enable the port, as
 2. Connect Ethernet cable
You can now connect a standard Ethernet cable between the DT80 and a network connection point. This might be a wall
socket connected to an office LAN, or a port on a desktop Ethernet switch or router unit.
Verify that the green Link LED comes on on the DT80's Ethernet connector. If the Link LED does not come on then check
that:

the cable is a correctly wired straight through cable

the network access point is active (check with your network administrator)
 3. Check DT80 IP address
When the Ethernet cable is connected, the DT80 will begin searching for a DHCP server. Within a few seconds it should
receive an IP address and the Ethernet IP screen will then change to something like:
Eth IP:
Auto
192.168.11.25
If you have a DT81 then you can alternatively send the command:
IP
192.168.11.25
If the indicated address begins with 169.254 then this indicates that a DHCP server could not be found, so the DT80 has
reverted to an Auto-IP address. This will only work if all other devices on the LAN are also using Auto-IP addresses, which
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would be an unusual way to set up a network. Consult your network administrator at this point to determine why there is no
DHCP server available.
Note If no DHCP server was found, the DT80 will continue to check for one periodically (every 10 seconds at first, then every
5 minutes). If a DHCP server becomes available then the DT80 will switch over to the IP address supplied by the server.
 4. Test the connection
You should now be able to connect to the DT80. For example, you could enter the DT80's IP address into a web browser in
order to access the DT80's web interface, or you could create a TCP/IP connection in DeTransfer, again specifying the
DT80's IP address.
Network Connection – Static IP address
When connecting the DT80 to an existing Ethernet network using a static IP address, you need to be a little more careful.
Setting the DT80 to an inappropriate IP address can severely disrupt the operation of the network.
By far the preferred approach here is to ask your network administrator what you should set the DT80's IP address, subnet
mask and gateway to (and which outlet you should connect the Ethernet cable to). You can then simply enter the required
profile settings (using a USB or serial connection) as described in Setting Ethernet Parameters (P227), connect the DT80's
Ethernet cable, and you are ready to test the connection.
If you don't have a "network administrator", then the following general procedure can be used
 1. Determine subnet details
The first step is to determine the IP address range in use on the subnet, and the gateway address. This can be done using
the ipconfig command. This should be entered on a computer that is connected to the subnet to which you want to
connect the DT80 (i.e. one that is connected to the same Ethernet switch). It is assumed that this computer's network
settings are already correctly configured.
C:\>ipconfig /all
...
Ethernet adapter Local Area Connection:
Connection-specific DNS Suffix
Description . . . . . . . . . .
Physical Address. . . . . . . .
Dhcp Enabled. . . . . . . . . .
Autoconfiguration Enabled . . .
IP Address. . . . . . . . . . .
Subnet Mask . . . . . . . . . .
Default Gateway . . . . . . . .
DHCP Server . . . . . . . . . .
DNS Servers . . . . . . . . . .
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
:
:
:
:
:
:
:
:
:
:
megacorp.com
NETGEAR GA311 Gigabit Adapter
00-1B-2F-28-77-BB
Yes
Yes
192.168.11.44
255.255.255.0
192.168.11.250
192.168.10.100
192.168.10.100
192.168.10.111
...
In this case the subnet mask is 255.255.255.0, which indicates that the first three parts of the IP address (192.168.11)
identify the subnet, while the last part identifies an individual computer. IP addresses on this subnet can therefore range from
192.168.11.1 through 192.168.11.254. If, on the other hand, the subnet mask was 255.255.0.0 then the subnet number is
given by the first two parts of the address. Such a subnet could then contain IP addresses ranging from 192.168.1.1 through
192.168.254.254. If the subnet mask is something other than these then it becomes a little technical and you should ask an
IP expert.
You should also make a note of the Default Gateway address (192.168.11.250 in this case) and the DNS Server addresses
(192.168.10.100 and 192.168.10.111).
 2. Select DT80 IP address
The IP address chosen for the DT80 must:

have the correct subnet number, as determined above. In this example, the subnet number is 192.168.11.

have a unique host number. So in this example the DT80 could not use the host number "44" (i.e. have an IP address
of 192.168.11.44), because that has already been taken by the host computer.
This is where it can get tricky. One method of finding a free address is to "ping" various IP addresses to see whether there is
any reply. Be aware that this is not foolproof, but it may be adequate for a small network where you are aware of all the
devices that use it. The procedure is as follows:
1.
Switch on all computers and devices that are connected to the network in question and allow them to boot up.
2.
From the command prompt window, use the ping utility to test a candidate IP address, e.g.:
ping 192.168.11.10
3.
If you see a Reply from 192.168.11.10… response then that address is not free and cannot be used for the
DT80.
4.
If you see a Request timed out… response then the address can probably be used for the DT80.
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 3. Configure the DT80
You now have all the information you need and can proceed to configuring the DT80. Connect to the DT80 using a USB or
RS232 connection and enter the appropriate profile settings. For this example (assuming that IP address 192.168.11.10
passed the ping test) you would enter:
PROFILE
PROFILE
PROFILE
PROFILE
PROFILE
PROFILE
ETHERNET ENABLE=YES
ETHERNET IP_ADDRESS=192.168.11.10
ETHERNET SUBNET_MASK=255.255.255.0
ETHERNET GATEWAY=192.168.11.250
NETWORK DNS_SERVER_1=192.168.10.100
NETWORK DNS_SERVER_2=192.168.10.111
 4. Check Ethernet port
Using the front panel UP and DOWN keys, select the Ethernet IP screen. It should show the configured IP address:
Eth IP: No cable
192.168.11.10
If this is not the case then the DT80's Ethernet port has not been properly configured, see Step 3 above.
 5. Connect Ethernet cable
You can now connect a standard Ethernet cable between the DT80 and a network connection point. Verify that the green
Link LED comes on on the DT80's Ethernet connector. If the Link LED does not come on then check that:

the cable is a correctly wired straight through cable

the network access point is active (check with your network administrator)
 6. Check DT80 IP address
When the Ethernet cable is connected, the No cable indication should disappear from the Ethernet IP screen:
Eth IP:
Manual
192.168.11.10
If you have a DT81 then you can alternatively send the command:
IP
192.168.11.10
 7. Test the connection
You should now be able to connect to the DT80. For example, you could enter the DT80's IP address (192.168.11.10 in this
case) into a web browser in order to access the DT80's web interface, or you could create a TCP/IP connection in
DeTransfer or DeLogger, again specifying the DT80's IP address.
Accessing the DT80 via the Internet
One of the major advantages connecting to the DT80 via its Ethernet port is that you can then potentially access the DT80
from anywhere in the world via the Internet. That is, you use your computer and its existing Internet connection to access the
DT80 in much the same way as you would access a web site. This section discusses what is required in order to make this
happen.
There are essentially two possible connection scenarios:

The DT80 is on a private network, "behind" a NAT (Network Address Translation) router or firewall. This private
network may be a corporate LAN (Figure 80 (P226)), or a single cable between the DT80 and an integrated
modem-gateway (Figure 81 (P226)).

The DT80 is connected to the Internet directly, or via a conventional (non-NAT) router.
DT80 on Private Network
Figure 80 (P226) shows a typical network arrangement where the DT80 is on a private LAN. In this case the DT80 has been
configured with a static private IP address, 192.168.1.7.
In this example, the organisation's ISP has allocated a single public IP address (203.54.192.12) which is "shared" by PC1,
PC2, the DT80 and any other devices on the local network. As far as the outside world is concerned, the whole network
looks like one single computer with one IP address. The NAT router is responsible for maintaining this fiction – it does this by
remembering which local computer made a given request (e.g. to view a particular web page) and making sure that when the
matching reply from the Internet is received (containing the web page itself), then it is forwarded to the correct computer.
With this network configuration, the DT80 would be set up as follows
PROFILE
PROFILE
PROFILE
PROFILE
PROFILE
PROFILE
ETHERNET ENABLE=YES
ETHERNET IP_ADDRESS=192.168.1.7
ETHERNET SUBNET_MASK=255.255.255.0
ETHERNET GATEWAY=192.168.1.1
NETWORK DNS_SERVER_1=203.54.22.1
NETWORK DNS_SERVER_2=203.54.22.2
In this case there is no DNS server set up on the LAN, so the addresses specified by the Internet Service Provider are used.
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 Port Forwarding
The above setup will allow the DT80 to access servers on the Internet – for example, it can send email or upload data to an
FTP server. However, the DT80 can also act as a server, where it waits for incoming web or FTP or command interface
requests, then processes them.
If you want to allow access to the some or all of the DT80's servers from the Internet, then it is necessary to tell the NAT
router (firewall) to forward such incoming requests to the DT80's IP address. Otherwise, the router will not know what do with
these requests, and simply discard them.
This process is known as port forwarding. You (or your network administrator) will need to configure the router so that
incoming requests using the following TCP/IP ports will be forwarded to the DT80's IP address:

TCP port 80 – allows access to the DT80's web server

TCP port 21 – allows access to the DT80's FTP server (command port)

TCP ports 1024-5000 – allows access to the DT80's FTP server (data port). For "passive mode" FTP transfers, the
DT80 randomly selects a data port from this range.

TCP port 7700 – allows access to the DT80's command interface server

TCP port 843 – allows access to the DT80's enhanced web interface

TCP port 502 – allows access to the DT80's Modbus server

ICMP (Internet Control Message Protocol) – allows "ping" requests to be sent to the DT80; this can be helpful when
diagnosing network problems
(Note that it is not necessary to forward the FTP ports in order for the DT80 to be able to connect to an external FTP server.
It is only necessary if you want to be able to remotely access the DT80's own FTP server.)
The actual procedure for setting up port forwarding will vary according to the particular model of router/firewall. Consult the
unit's documentation for more details.
(Note that the above port numbers listed above are the defaults. Some of these can be changed in the DT80 profile, see
Profile Settings (P251).)
Note You should only enable port forwarding for DT80 facilities that you wish to make available to the Internet. For example,
if you want to prevent any access to the DT80 command server then you should not set up port forwarding for port 7700.
Once the NAT router has been set up to forward the required ports, you should now be able to access the DT80 from outside
the local network using the network's public IP address. So in this example, you could enter http://203.54.192.12
into a web browser and you should see the DT80 web interface.
Note The public IP address (203.54.192.12) should only be used from computers outside the local network. If you wanted to
access the DT80 from PC1 or PC2 you would still use the DT80's private address, 192.168.1.7.
 Adding a DNS Entry
It is customary (although not essential) to set up a Domain Name System (DNS) entry for an Internet-accessible DT80. This
allows you to associate a meaningful name, e.g. mydt80.gigadata.com, with the DT80's public IP address, so users
can just type in the name without having to remember the actual IP address.
Depending on the structure of the local network, this may involve configuring the local DNS server (if any) and/or requesting
that the ISP add an entry to its DNS server. For more details, contact your network administrator or ISP.
Note This assumes that the ISP has assigned a static IP address. More commonly, it will assign a dynamic IP address, in
which case you will need to use a dynamic DNS service in order to locate it.
 Dynamic DNS
The DT80 does not directly support Dynamic DNS (DDNS) on the Ethernet interface – only on the integrated modem
interface (for DT8xM models). However, most Ethernet router or gateway devices include a DDNS client. You could
therefore create a DDNS account as described in Dynamic DNS (P206) and then configure the router/gateway DDNS client
to update it with the DT80's public IP address.
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Direct Internet Connection
The other possible configuration is where the DT80 is essentially connected directly to the Internet. A typical setup is shown
in Figure 84 below.
Ethernet Switch
DT80
Ethernet 203.54.192.13
Port
ADSL
modem
Internet
203.54.192.12
NAT Router
(gateway)
192.168.1.1
Ethernet Switch
PC1
to other devices (192.168.1.x)
Ethernet 192.168.1.23
Port
Figure 84: Typical Ethernet LAN with DT80 directly connected to the Internet
In this case two public IP addresses have been allocated by the ISP – one (203.54.192.13) for the DT80 and one
(203.54.192.12) for everything else, via the NAT router.
Because the DT80 is now effectively directly connected to the ISP's network, its IP address, subnet mask, gateway and DNS
server addresses will need to be set up using values provided by the ISP.
Once the DT80's network profile settings have been set it should be possible to connect to it from either a local computer
(e.g. PC1) or a remote system on the Internet, using its unique public IP address (203.54.192.13).
Note that in this case port forwarding is not required, as requests for the DT80 no longer pass through the NAT router.
If desired, you can request that your ISP set up a DNS entry so that the DT80 can be referred to by name, e.g.
mydt80.nanodata.com.
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PPP Communications
About PPP
Point-to-Point Protocol (PPP) allows TCP/IP-based protocols to be run over the USB, Host RS-232 and/or serial sensor port
of the DT80.
The DT80 operates as a PPP server. A client computer can connect to the DT80, via modem or direct cable, in much the
same was connecting to a dial-up Internet Service Provider. (Modem connections are only supported on the host RS232
port.) When a PPP connection is made, the DT80 will, like an ISP, verify the supplied username and password and allocate
an IP address for the host PC to use for the duration of the session.
Each of the DT80's three PPP-capable ports has its own IP address, which is in turn different to the IP address for the
Ethernet port. This means that TCP/IP can potentially be active on all four ports simultaneously.
Note For the USB port, the dataTaker DtUsb driver software is used to set up and manage a PPP connection in a simple
manner. See USB Port (P180) for more details. There is no need for any of the PPP configuration described in this section if
you are using the USB port. This section is, however, still applicable if you plan to use a direct RS232 or modem connection.
Note While DT8xM models do use PPP to connect to the mobile network, there is no need for any of the PPPconfiguration
described in this section in order to use the integrated modem.
Setting up PPP
Setting up a PPP connection involves four main steps:
1.
Set or verify the required profile settings on the DT80
2.
Install the physical communications link (RS232 cable, modem etc.)
3.
Define a "modem device" on the host computer to represent the physical comms link.
4.
Define a PPP "network connection" on the host computer, which will use the defined modem device.
This normally needs to be done once only. Once the PPP network connection has been set up and saved on the host
computer, you can then establish a connection as and when required. This process is the same as you would use when
connecting to an Internet Service Provider via a dial-up connection. See Using PPP (P241).
1. DT80 Profile Settings
 PPP Settings
The DT80's PPP settings can be listed using the PROFILE command:
PROFILE PPP
[PPP]
USER = DATATAKER
PASSWORD = DATATAKER
These show the username and password that the host computer must supply when establishing a PPP connection.
These profile settings can be changed in the usual way, e.g.
PROFILE PPP USER=DT
PROFILE PPP PASSWORD=SECRET
 IP Addresses
Because PPP is used for a point-to-point connection between just two devices, it doesn't really matter what IP addresses are
chosen for each end – so long as the two addresses are different.
The DT80 therefore uses a fixed IP address for each of its three serial ports, and allocates a fixed IP address to the host
comoputer at the other end of the link.
The IP addresses used by the DT80 for PPP are as follows:
Interface
DT80 IP address
Host computer IP address
serial sensor port
host RS232 port
USB port
1.0.0.1
1.0.0.2
1.0.0.3
1.0.1.1
1.0.1.2
1.0.1.3
For example, if you establish a PPP connection to the host RS232 port then the DT80's IP address would be 1.0.0.2. You
could therefore access the DT80's web interface by entering http://1.0.0.2 into a web browser, for example.
 Comms Port Settings
The settings for the desired DT80 port will also need to be set or checked. For example, if the host RS232 port is used then
the current settings can be queried using:
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PROFILE HOST_PORT
[HOST_PORT]
BPS = 57600
DATA_BITS = 8
STOP_BITS = 1
PARITY = NONE
*FLOW = HARDWARE
FUNCTION = COMMAND
In order for the port to support PPP, the FUNCTION parameter must be set to COMMAND or PPP:

The COMMAND setting (which is the default for USB and host RS232 ports) means that the port supports both the
regular command interface and PPP, automatically switching between the two when a PPP connection is established
and disconnected.

The PPP setting only allows PPP connections on the port. This provides improved security, especially on modem
links, as a valid username and password must be supplied before a PPP connection can be established.
For the host and serial sensor RS232 ports, the flow control should be set to HARDWARE (RTS/CTS). Software flow control
is not recommended for PPP.
For RS232 ports, also make a note of the baud rate and framing settings – these will be needed when setting up the host PC
end of the connection.
2. Install the Physical Communications Link
The physical communications link over which PPP is to be run should now be installed. This link might be

a null modem (cross-over) RS232 cable, connected between the DT80 host RS232 or serial sensor port and a PC
RS232 port (or USB to RS232 adapter). For the serial sensor port, RS422/485 may also be used, with an appropriate
adapter at the PC end.

a modem (dial-up, radio, cellular), connected to the DT80 host RS232 port, with another internal or external modem
connected to the host computer.
You now need to determine the PC COM port. This can be done by attempting to establish a standard command interface
connection, using DeTransfer. (Note that this will not work if the DT80 port function has been be set to PPP. Set it to
COMMAND for this test.)
Once you have verified that a connection can be established, be sure to close the connection in DeTransfer. Make a note of
the COM port number.
3. Install the Windows Modem Device
It is now necessary to set up the "modem device" that Windows will use for communicating over this link. This is done as
follows. Be sure that the cable or modem is plugged in to the host computer before proceeding.
Note When using Windows Vista, note that at various points during this process you may see "Windows needs your
permission" messages. Click Continue in each case.
1.
Open the Windows Control Panel.
2.
Open the Phone and Modems Options item. This may be listed under the Printers and Other Hardware (XP) or
Hardware and Sound (Vista) category.
3.
If the Dialling Rules dialog is displayed, ensure that a valid area code is entered.
4.
Once the area code has been set, select the Modems tab:
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Figure 85: List of installed modem devices (Windows XP)
This dialog shows all currently installed modem devices. In the above example the computer's internal dial-up modem
is shown (COM3), along with two null modem cables (which, as far as the computer is concerned, are still "modems").
In this case it so happens that the COM4 null modem cable is an RS232 cable, while COM5 is a USB cable – although
this is not apparent in this dialog.
5.
If the modem (or null modem cable) that you intend to use for PPP is not listed, then you will need to add it, using the
Add button. This will launch the Windows Add Hardware Wizard.
a)
If you are using a direct USB or RS232 null modem cable then tick the Don't detect modem; I will select it from a
list option. (If you are using a modem then you can leave this unticked; Windows will then attempt to automatically
detect it. If this fails then you will need to select the modem type from a list, in the next step.)
b)
You should now see a list of different modem types. If you are using a direct USB or RS232 null modem cable then
select the first one in the list, Communications cable between two computers.
c)
Select the correct COM port number from the list. If the required COM port number is not listed then double check
that you have closed any connections using that port in DeTransfer or DeLogger.
d)
The modem device should now have been added, and you will be returned to the modem list screen (Figure 85).
Verify that the newly added modem device is now present.
6.
If a direct RS232 cable is being used then one further step is required. This is not necessary for a direct USB or
modem connection.
a)
Select the RS232 cable from the list of modem devices and click Properties.
b)
Select the Modem tab and set the Maximum Port Speed field equal to the configured baud rate on the DT80, then
press OK.
The final step is to define a Windows "network connection" using the Network Connection Wizard. This process varies
depending on whether a direct cable or modem connection is used.
4a. PPP Network – Direct Cable Connection
This section describes the process of creating a Windows "network connection", when using a direct USB or RS232 cable
connection. If you are using a modem, see 4b. PPP Network – Modem Connection (P239).
The following is applicable to Windows XP
1.
From the Start menu, select Control Panel, then Network Connections. This will display a list of currently defined
network connections (if any).
2.
Select the New Connection Wizard, or the Create a new connection task. This will start the Network Connection
Wizard.
3.
Select Setup an advanced Connection.
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4.
Select the option to Connect directly to another computer.
5.
Specify that you are setting up a Guest connection
6.
Enter a name for the connection, e.g. "DT80 USB ppp"
7.
Select the appropriate "Communications cable between two computers" modem device from the list.
8.
Specify whether you want the connection to be available just for your Windows user name, or for anyone who uses the
computer.
9.
Complete the wizard by specifying whether or not you would like it to create a desktop icon for the connection. (A
desktop icon allows you to establish the PPP connection simply by double clicking on the icon.)
10. The wizard will now display the Connect dialog. (Figure 86; you will see this dialog each time you establish a PPP
connection to the logger.) Press Cancel for now. A few more options should be set before connecting, as detailed
below.
The following is applicable to Windows Vista and Windows 7
1.
From the Start menu, select Control Panel, then Network and Sharing Center.
2.
Select Setup a new connection or network. This will start the Network Connection Wizard.
3.
Select Setup a dial-up connection.
4.
If more there is more than one "modem device" installed then you will be asked to select which one you want to use.
Select the appropriate "Communications cable between two computers" from the list.
5.
You will now be prompted for your ISP connection details (telephone number, username and password). For a direct
cable connection the telephone number won't be used so you can enter anything here.
Enter a name for the connection, e.g. "DT80 USB ppp". The username and password can be left blank for now. Press
Connect.
6.
Windows will report that the connection attempt failed. Select Setup the connection anyway to save the connection
details.
7.
Press Close.
 Additional Settings
A few further settings are required (these are applicable to both XP and Vista/Windows 7)
1.
Select Connect to a network, then select the PPP connection that you just created. If required, press Connect.
2.
The Connect dialog will now be displayed.
Figure 86: PPP Connect dialog (Windows XP)
Enter the username and password specified in the DT80 profile (by default DATATAKER and DATATAKER, note
these are case sensitive), and tick the Save this username and password option so you won't have to enter it next
time.
Now click Properties.
3.
The connection properties page will now be displayed. On the General tab, click Configure.
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Figure 87: PPP Modem Configuration for direct cable connection (Windows XP)
For a direct RS232 cable connection, ensure that the Maximum speed setting is set to the configured baud rate of the
DT80 serial port in use. For a USB connection this setting is irrelevant. Check that the other settings are as shown in
Figure 87, then press OK.
4.
On Windows XP, select the Networking tab, then press Settings. On Windows Vista/Windows 7, select the Options
tab then press PPP Settings. This will display the PPP Settings dialog.
Figure 88: PPP Settings
Set the options as shown. In particular, disable the Enable software compression option, then press OK. This will
reduce the time taken to establish a PPP connection.
5.
On the Networking tab, select the Internet Protocol option (Internet Protocol Version 4 on Windows 7) and then
click Properties.
6.
Click Advanced to display the Advanced TCP/IP Settings dialog.
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Figure 89: TCP/IP Settings – uncheck the Use Default Gateway option
Check the settings against those shown in Figure 89. In particular, the Use default gateway option should be
disabled. If this is not done then Windows will attempt to use the PPP connection as its default Internet connection, the
end result being that the Internet will not be accessible from your computer while a PPP connection to the DT80 is in
progress. (If your computer does not have an Internet connection then this step can be ignored.)
7.
Press OK to close the various "properties" dialogs, and return to the Connect dialog (Figure 86). You can now try
establishing a PPP connection, see Using PPP (P241).
4b. PPP Network – Modem Connection
This section describes the process of defining a Windows "network connection" when using a modem connection. It is
assumed that an appropriate "modem device" has already been installed, as described in 3. Install the Windows Modem
Device (P235).
The following is applicable to Windows XP
1.
From the Start menu, select Control Panel, then Network Connections. This will display a list of currently defined
network connections (if any).
2.
Select the New Connection Wizard, or the Create a new connection task. This will start the Network Connection
Wizard.
3.
Select Connect to the Internet.
4.
Select Set up my connection manually.
5.
Select Connect using a dial-up modem.
6.
When prompted for an "ISP Name", enter a name for the connection, e.g. "DT80 modem ppp"
7.
Select which modem you wish to use. If you only have one modem connected then this step will be skipped.
8.
Enter the phone number for dialing in to the DT80 modem.
9.
Specify whether you want the connection to be available just for your Windows user name, or for anyone who uses the
computer.
10. Enter the username and password specified in the DT80 profile (by default DATATAKER and DATATAKER, note
these are case sensitive).
Uncheck the Use this account when anyone connects to the Internet option.
Uncheck the Make this the default internet connection option.
11. The wizard will now display the Connect dialog. (Figure 86; you will see this dialog each time you establish a PPP
connection to the logger.) Press Cancel for now. A few more options should be set before connecting, as detailed
below.
The following is applicable to Windows Vista/Windows 7
1.
From the Start menu, select Control Panel, then Network and Sharing Center.
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2.
Select Setup a new connection or network. This will start the Network Connection Wizard.
3.
Select Setup a dial-up connection.
4.
If more there is more than one modem installed then you will be asked to select which one you want to use. Select the
correct one from the list.
5.
You will now be prompted for your ISP connection details (telephone number, username and password).
Enter the phone number for dialing in to the DT80 modem.
Enter the username and password specified in the DT80 profile (by default DATATAKER and DATATAKER, note
these are case sensitive).
Enter a name for the connection, e.g. "DT80 modem ppp".
Press Connect.
6.
Windows will report that the connection attempt failed. Select Setup the connection anyway to save the connection
details.
7.
Press Close.
 Additional Settings
A few further settings are required (these are applicable to both XP and Vista/Windows 7)
1.
Select Connect to a network, then select the PPP connection that you just created. If required, press Connect.
The Connect dialog (Figure 86) will now be displayed. Click Properties.
2.
The connection properties page will now be displayed. On the General tab, click Configure.
Figure 90: PPP Modem Configuration for modem connection (Windows XP)
For a modem connection, the Maximum speed setting should normally be set higher than the modem connect speed
(e.g. set to 115200 for a 56kbps modem). Unlike the direct cable connection case, it does not need to match the DT80
port speed.
The modem error control and compression options should also be enabled. Enabling the modem speaker is optional.
Press OK.
3.
On Windows XP, select the Networking tab, then press Settings. On Windows Vista/Windows 7, select the Options
tab then press PPP Settings. This will display the PPP Settings dialog (Figure 88). As with the direct connection,
disable the Enable software compression option, then press OK.
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4.
On the Networking tab, select the Internet Protocol option (Internet Protocol Version 4 on Windows 7) and then
click Properties.
5.
Click Advanced to display the Advanced TCP/IP Settings dialog (Figure 89). As with the direct connection, the Use
default gateway option should be disabled to prevent Windows from attempting to use the PPP connection as its
default Internet connection.
6.
Press OK to close the various "properties" dialogs, and return to the Connect dialog (Figure 86). You can now try
establishing a PPP connection, see Using PPP (P241).
Using PPP
Once a PPP connection has been set up, the general day to day process for using it is as follows:
1.
Ensure that the physical communications link is plugged in (modem or null modem cable).
2.
Establish a PPP connection by "dialing up" to the DT80 (for a direct cable connection no actual "dialling" occurs).
3.
After the connection process completes you will be able to access the DT80 via the IP address for the serial port in use
(see IP Addresses (P234). For example, if the host RS232 port is being used then the IP address is 1.0.0.2.
4.
When you have finished, the PPP connection can be disconnected. The DT80's IP address (e.g. 1.0.0.2) will no longer
be valid.
See below for more details.
Establishing a Connection
To establish a connection:
1.
From the Start menu, select Control Panel, then Network Connections (or Network and Sharing Center), then
Connect to a Network, then select the "network connection" that you created for the PPP link.
2.
The Connect dialog (Figure 86) will be displayed. Press Connect.
3.
If all goes well, a few status messages will be displayed briefly as Windows establishes the physical connection, logs
in to the DT80, and then adds the DT80's IP address to its networking configuration.
4.
By default, an icon representing the PPP connection will now be displayed in the Windows system tray:
Figure 91: System tray icon for an active PPP connection (Windows XP)
Note that for a USB connection, the indicated "speed" is irrelevant. USB always operates at a fixed rate.
Using the Connection
Once the connection has been established, you can access the DT80 in much the same way as you would using an Ethernet
connection. The IP addresses for the three DT80 serial ports are:

1.0.0.1 for the serial sensor port

1.0.0.2 for the host RS232 port

1.0.0.3 for the USB port
The appropriate IP address can then be entered into a web browser, or FTP client, or DeTransfer/DeLogger, etc.
The IP address of the host computer at the other end of the PPP link is as above but with a 1 rather than a 0 in the second
last position. So for a host RS232 PPP connection the DT80's IP address is 1.0.0.2, and the host computer's IP address is
1.0.1.2.
 Limitations
It is important to note that a PPP connection provides connectivity between the DT80 and a single host computer only. The
PPP "network" linking the computer and the DT80 is a private network and is not visible to any other computers.
Closing a Connection
To terminate a PPP session, simply right click on the connection's system tray icon and select Disconnect. Alternatively,
use Connect To to bring up the list of all defined network connections, then right click on the appropriate connection and
select Disconnect.
You can also end a PPP session by sending the DT80 command CLOSEDIRECTPPP. By default, this command will close
all currently active PPP connections. To close a connection on one particular port, specify the port number (1=serial sensor,
2=host, 3=USB), e.g.
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CLOSEDIRECTPPP 3
will close the PPP session on the USB port.
A PPP session will also be automatically terminated if the USB cable is disconnected, or the modem connection drops out.
Troubleshooting
This section discusses a few possible reasons why a PPP connection may fail to connect. The error messages listed here
are the common ones returned by Windows XP. Windows Vista is somewhat less helpful in that it simply indicates that "the
connection failed", which could be due to any of the reasons below.
 Error 663 – Modem already in use or not configured properly
This indicates that Windows could not open the specified COM port. Check that:

the cables are properly connected

you specified the correct COM port when creating the Windows modem device

no other programs (e.g. DeTransfer) are currently using the specified COM port.
 Error 691 – Access is denied
Check that the username and password specified in the Connect dialog exactly match that configured in the DT80 profile.
 Error 777 – Modem or remote computer is out of order
This indicates that the expected responses were not received from the DT80. Check that:

for direct RS232 cable connections, the specified maximum baud rate matches that configured in the DT80 profile.

the port function setting in the DT80 profile is set to COMMAND or PPP.

if a modem is used, it appears to be dialling and connecting successfully. If not then check phone number and phone
line.
 Slow connection
When connecting, if there is a long pause (up to 60 seconds) during which Registering your computer on the network is
displayed, this normally indicates that Windows is requesting a particular PPP option but that the DT80 is rejecting it. One
such option is "software compression"; ensure that this option is unchecked in the PPP Settings dialog (Figure 88).
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Network Services
Unless otherwise specified, the TCP/IP network services described here operate the same way regardless of the hardware
interface used (Ethernet, serial PPP, DtUsb or integrated modem).
Using the Network Command Interface
Connecting
To access the DT80's command interface over Ethernet you need to use a terminal program on the host computer that can
send/receive text to a TCP port. DeTransfer and DeLogger support this. By default, TCP Port 7700 is used; this can be
changed in the DT80 profile if required.
Using DeTransfer, for example, you first need to set up a connection. This is the same as setting up a connection for RS232
or USB, except that instead of specifying a COM port number, you now need to specify an IP address. The following screen
shot illustrates this.
Figure 92: Example software connection for a DT80 on an Ethernet network (DeTransfer software shown)
Note When creating a new connection the current version of DeTransfer defaults to Port 8. It must therefore be explicitly set
to Port 7700.
If you now press Connect, you should be able to send commands to the DT80 and receive data, just as you would using USB
or RS232.
Multiple Connections
Up to three client computers (or three DeTransfer sessions on the one computer) can simultaneously connect to the DT80
command interface using the TCP/IP network. This is in addition to a possible USB and/or RS232 connection.
At any one time, only one of these interfaces/sessions can be the active interface. The active interface is the one on which
the most recent DT80 command was sent.
Whenever the DT80 transmits something over the command interface (e.g. returned/unloaded data, prompt strings,
messages, etc.), it is send to the current active interface, plus all connected TCP/IP sessions. This provides a way to
"broadcast" data to a number of different computers, each of which operates as a passive listener.
Disconnecting
It is important to note that all Ethernet sessions will be disconnected if the DT80:

undergoes a hard reset (HRESET, manual reset or power failure)

enters low power sleep mode.
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For this reason, the DT80 normally disables sleep mode while an Ethernet cable is connected (although this can be
overridden by setting P15 to 3 or 4.
If an Ethernet session is disconnected in this way, you may need to manually disconnect then reconnect in DeTransfer.
Using the DT80 FTP Server
The DT80 can also function as an FTP (File Transfer Protocol) server. You can use this mechanism to transfer data and
program files to and from the DT80. This is done by running an FTP client application on the host computer and using it to
connect to the DT80's FTP server (by specifying the DT80's IP address).
Passwords
The FTP server supports two types of access:

an anonymous login (username ANONYMOUS, password can be anything) provides read-only access to the DT80's
file system.

a full login (using the username and password configured in the DT80 profile) provides read/write access.
To set the FTP password, use the following profile commands:
PROFILE FTP_SERVER USER=DT
PROFILE FTP_SERVER PASSWORD=TOPSECRET
If, for security reasons, you want to disable the FTP server altogether, enter:
PROFILE FTP_SERVER SUPPORTED=NO
You can also disable anonymous logins, using:
PROFILE FTP_SERVER ALLOW_ANONYMOUS=NO
FTP Client Software
A Windows computer includes at least two different FTP clients that can be used to access the DT80's file system. You can
run the traditional command-line version by typing
ftp ip-address
in a command prompt window (ip-address is the IP address of the DT80).
Alternatively, most web browsers will allow you to browse the DT80 by entering the following URL:
ftp://user:password@ip-address/drive:/, or
ftp://ip-address/drive:/ (for anonymous read-only access)
where:

user and password are the username and password to use.

ip-address is the DT80's IP address

drive is the DT80 drive to browse (A or B).
The browser should then present a list of available files and folders, through which you can navigate simply by clicking on
links.
Figure 93: Typical file display when connected to DT80 FTP server
In order to load a file onto the DT80, or delete a file, you will need to:
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
use a true FTP client, as opposed to a web browser. Windows Explorer (not Internet Explorer), or the command line
client are suitable, or there are numerous others available.

specify the configured username and password as set in the profile. For example, with the default settings you could
enter the following into the Windows Explorer address bar:
ftp://DATATAKER:DATATAKER@192.168.1.202/B:/
and then if you drag files into it then they should be uploaded to the logger.
Troubleshooting
If you experience problems connecting to the DT80 FTP server, it can be helpful to examine the raw FTP messages that are
being exchanged. To enable display of received and transmitted FTP messages, set P56=8. For example:
P56=8
>> 220 dataTaker FTP Server ready. Type HELP for help
<< USER anonymous
>> 331 User name okay, need password.
<< PASS IEUser@
>> 230 User logged in, proceed.
<< syst
>> 215 UNIX Type: L8
<< PWD
>> 257 "/" is current directory.
<< CWD \b:\
>> 250 Requested file action okay, completed.
<< TYPE A
>> 200 Command okay.
<< PASV
>> 227 Entering Passive Mode (192,168,1,202,14,183)
<< LIST
>> 150 File status okay; about to open data connection.
>> 226 Closing data connection. Transfer succeeded
This shows an anonymous user logging in and requesting a directory listing. Lines beginning with << were received by the
DT80, while >> indicates lines that were transmitted by the DT80.
Note that this setting will also show exchanges between the DT80 and an external FTP server – for example when unloading
or copying archive files to an FTP server (see Retrieving Logged Data (P93)).
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Security
If the DT80 is made visible on the Internet then you should carefully consider the security implications of this.
With a public IP address, the logger will be visible and accessible by anyone on the Internet. This may make it vulnerable to
disruption by malicious software that exists in the wilds of the Internet.
Given the specialised nature of the DT80's operating system, it is highly unlikely that any type of computer virus would be
able to be loaded onto the DT80.
However the network services provided by the DT80 may be vulnerable to disruption. For example, if the DT80's FTP server
is enabled then it may be found by an automated "port scanner" program, which may then repeatedly attempt to guess the
FTP server username and password. If successful, it would then be able to access and delete files on the DT80's internal file
system.
To minimise the risks, there are a number of measures you can take:

Disable any servers that are not required, using the appropriate profile settings, e.g.:

Use non-standard port numbers, e.g.
PROFILE
PROFILE
PROFILE
PROFILE
PROFILE
PROFILE
PROFILE
PROFILE
FTP_SERVER PORT=0
HTTP_SERVER PORT=0
MODBUS_SERVER TCPIP_PORT=0
COMMAND_SERVER PORT=0
FTP_SERVER PORT=2100
HTTP_SERVER PORT=8000
MODBUS_SERVER TCPIP_PORT=50200
COMMAND_SERVER PORT=7709
which may fool casual hackers. When legitimate users connect they will need to specify the port number, e.g.
http://mylogger.com:8000/

Enable the command server password (see Password Protection (P179)), e.g.

Disable anonymous FTP login:

Change the FTP username and password

Set up the DT80 on a private LAN behind a NAT router. You will need to configure the router to forward traffic to the
required servers' ports to the DT80 (see DT80 on Private Network (P231)).

Disable any pages that are not required in the dEX web interface, using the Web Interface Configuration Tool (see
Customising the Web Interface (P156)).

Disable the dEX Configuration Builder by renaming the "jango" folder, which will make it disappear from the logger
home page, e.g.
PASSWORD=zx81
SIGNOFF
PROFILE FTP_SERVER ALLOW_ANONYMOUS=NO
PROFILE FTP_SERVER USER=paranoia
PROFILE FTP_SERVER PASSWORD=Cant89203432reMemBer9909283thIS
RENAME \www\jango \www\secret_builder

Disable the Web Interface Configuration Tool by renaming the "needa" folder, which will make it disappear from the
logger home page, e.g.
RENAME \www\needa \www\secret_customise

If you connect to the DT80 using PPP over a dial-up modem then configure the host port for PPP only:
PROFILE HOST_PORT FUNCTION=PPP
which means that incoming connections will be rejected if the correct PPP username and password is not specified.

If you connect to the DT80 using PPP over a dial-up modem then change the default PPP username and password:
PROFILE PPP USER=fear
PROFILE PPP PASSWORD=Cant89203432reMemBer9909283thIS222eithER
Note that in the dEX configuration builder, FTP and PPP share the same username and password.
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Part M – Configuration
Configuring the DT80
Parameters
DT80 parameters are internal system settings. They are global in their effect, and allow a variety of options to be set. As a
general rule, set the parameters that require changing before programming schedules and alarms.
Parameters are numbered from P0 to P62, although not all numbers are used. Each parameter is an integer; the range of
allowable values varies from parameter to parameter.
Reading Parameters
To read the current setting of a parameter, simply send the parameter’s ID. For example, to read the value of P11:
P11
50
Setting Parameters
Parameters can be set at any time, and new settings generally take effect immediately. For example, send:
P11=60
to set parameter P11's value to 60.
Note Parameters are not channels. The statement P11=60 is a command, and is carried out immediately, even if it
appears within a schedule definition. You can use the DO command to set parameters when a schedule executes – see
Executing Commands in Schedules (P55) for more information.
Parameter Lifetime
All parameter settings are cleared back to their default values when a soft or hard reset (INIT or HRESET) is performed, or
if both external and battery power is lost.
To make a parameter setting "permanent", it should be set using the matching profile setting (see Profile Settings (P251)),
e.g.
PROFILE PARAMETERS P11=60
When a parameter is set in the profile, it effectively becomes the new default value. You can still override it temporarily using
the Pnn=xx command, but it will revert to the profile value if a soft or hard reset occurs.
To reset a parameter to its factory default value you can use

PROFILE PARAMETERS P11= to reset a single parameter

PROFILE PARAMETERS= to reset all parameters

FACTORYDEFAULTS to reset all settings, including parameters, switches and profile settings
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The DT80 recognises the following parameters:
Parameter
Specifies
Units
Default
Value
Range of
Values
P0
Max analog input drift before
re-calibration
µV
3
0 to 10000
P3
Minimum sleep period
ms
1500
1 to 30000
P4
Sleep-to-wake latency
ms
800
1 to 30000
P8
Command processor diagnostic mode
mode
0
0 to 1
P9
Logging of alarm state
mode
1
0 to 3
P11
Mains frequency
Hz
50
1 to 10000
P14
Comms ports password
protection timeout
seconds
600
1 to 30000
P15
Low-power operation
Mode
0
0 to 4
P16
LED test mode
bitmask
0
0 to 32
P17
Delay to low-power mode
seconds
30
1 to 30000
P20
LCD backlight control
mode
2
0 to 3
P21
Analog subsystem power
mode
0
0 to 1
P22
Data delimiter character
ASCII
32
1 to 255
(space)
P24
Scan delimiter character
ASCII
13
(CR)
1 to 255
P26
Flow control timeout
seconds
60
0 to 30000
P27
3HSC input mode
mode
0
0 to 3
P28
12V power output mode
mode
0
0 to 3
UM-0085-B7
DT80 Range User’s Manual
Comment
Voltage measurements may "drift" as the ambient
temperature changes. If the drift is greater than this
amount the DT80 will automatically re-calibrate itself to
restore accuracy.
The DT80 will only go to sleep if the sleep duration can
be for at least this period of time
Time required by DT80 to resume normal operation after
leaving sleep mode
If this parameter is set to 1 then each and every
command string will be displayed before being executed.
This can be useful for verifying that alarm actions are
being carried out, as these commands are not normally
echoed.
0 = do not log alarms
1 = log false to true transitions only
2 = log true to false transitions only
3 = log both transitions
Sets analog measurement duration to 1/P11 seconds .
Set P11 to the local mains frequency for best noise
rejection.
When a password is defined, the DT80 automatically
signs off after this period of inactivity (see Password
Protection (P179)
0 = Allow sleep, but not if externally powered or if
Ethernet/USB is connected
1 = Allow sleep, but not if Ethernet/USB is connected
2 = Do not allow sleep
3 = Allow sleep
4 = Allow sleep, but not if externally powered
See Controlling Sleep (P285)
0 = normal operation
32 = LCD backlight and all LEDs off
1-31: set specific LED pattern, as follows:
bit 0 set = turn on Power LED
bit 1 set = turn on Attn LED
bit 2 set = turn on Disk LED
bit 3 set = turn on Sample LED
bit 4 set = turn on backlight
Sets how long the DT80 waits before entering low-power
sleep mode after the last communication or key press
0 = backlight off always
1 = backlight on always
2 = backlight on for P17 seconds after last user activity
e.g. key press
3 = if externally powered: backlight on always; if battery
powered: as for P20=2
0 = analog subsystem powered during analog
measurement only
1 = analog subsystem always powered
In free format mode with units disabled (/h/u), this
character is inserted between the data value and the
next data value
In free format mode with units disabled (/h/u), this
character is inserted at the end of each schedule's data.
Note that CR characters are always followed by LF.
If the DT80 has been prevented from returning data for
this amount of time (e.g. due to XOFF received or CTS
not active) then it will assume that the host computer is
no longer connected and will discard subsequent output
text.
Set to 0 to disable this timeout
Clock source for 3HSC counter
0 = 3C terminal
1 = internal 32768Hz signal, count while 3C terminal is
low
2 = 3C terminal, count while 4C terminal is low
3 = internal 1024Hz signal
0 = Auto CEM power. If schedule contains any CEM20
channels then 12V is turned on prior to any analog
measurement, then turned off again at the end of the
schedule if no other schedules are due.
1 = 12V on all the time
Page 248
Parameter
Specifies
Default
Value
Units
Range of
Values
P31
Date format
mode
1
0 to 3
P32
Number of significant digits
digits
8
1 to 9
P33
Minimum field width
characters 0
0 to 80
P36
Temperature units
mode
0
0 to 3
P38
Decimal point character
ASCII
46 (.)
1 to 255
P39
Time format
mode
0
0 to 3
P40
Time separator character
ASCII
58 (:)
1 to 255
P41
P50
Time sub-second digits
digits
3
0 to 6
Time instant format
mode
0
0 to 5
P51
Time interval format
mode
6
0 to 5
P53
Default serial sensor timeout
seconds
10
0 to 30000
P55
Enable schedule wakeup
bitmask
16383
0 to 16383
P56
Diagnostic output
bitmask
0
0 to 16383
P62
Retain multiplexer settings after mode
measurement
0
0 to 1
Comment
2 = 12V on all the time including while asleep
3 = manual control of 12V output . CEM20s if used are
assumed to be externally powered.
0 = days since 1-Jan-1989
1 = European (DD/MM/YYYY)
2 = North American (MM/DD/YYYY)
3 = ISO (YYYY/MM/DD)
Sets the number of significant digits shown in returned
data or unloaded logged data
If non-zero, all data values returned in free format mode
(/h) will be padded with leading spaces so that the total
field width is at least P33 characters.
Units for all temperature measurements:
0 = ºC Celsius
1 = ºF Fahrenheit
2 = K Kelvin
3 = ºR Rankine
In CSV and free format mode (/h) data, this character is
used as the decimal point character. CSV data separator
automatically changed to ";" if this is set to comma (44).
0 = HH:MM:SS.TTT
1 = decimal seconds since midnight
2 = decimal minutes since midnight
3 = decimal hours since midnight
This character is used to separate HH, MM and SS fields
in time values.
Sets number of decimal places in time values
Specifies the format to use when returning an absolute
date/time value:
0 = P39P22P31 (time, delimiter, date)
1 = P31P22P39 (date, delimiter, time)
2 = decimal seconds since 1-Jan-1989
3 = decimal minutes since 1-Jan-1989
4 = decimal hours since 1-Jan-1989
5 = decimal days since 1-Jan-1989
Specifies the format to use when returning a relative time
value:
0 = P39P22d.d (time, delimiter, days)
1 = d.dP22P39 (days, delimiter, time)
2 = decimal seconds
3 = decimal minutes
4 = decimal hours
5 = decimal days
6 = P39 format (hours may be > 24)
Max time that the DT80 will wait for a serial sensor input
or output action to complete.
May be overridden by channel factor
If P53=0 then characters satisfying the input action must
already have been received at the time that the input
action is processed.
bit 0 = not used
bit 1 set = wake from sleep if schedule X is due
bit 2 set = wake from sleep if schedule A is due
bit 3 set = wake from sleep if schedule B is due
…
bit 12 set = wake from sleep if schedule K is due
bit 13 set = wake from sleep if schedule S is due
By default DT80 will wake if any schedule is due.
Enable diagnostic output
bit 0 set (e.g. P56=1) – SERIAL channel
bit 1 set (e.g. P56=2) – SDI12
bit 2 set (e.g. P56=4) – Modbus
bit 3 set (e.g. P56=8) – FTP and SMTP
bit 4 set (e.g. P56=16) – Modem
0 = all terminals are disconnected from the DT80
measurement and excitation circuits at the end of each
scan
1 = connections are left set according to the last
measurement in the schedule. This can be useful for
verifying the DT80's excitation output, or for rapid
measurements of a single channel.
Table 6: DT80 Parameters
UM-0085-B7
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Switches
DT80 switches provide a further set of boolean parameters. Each switch is identified by a letter, and can either be on
(uppercase) or off (lowercase).
Reading Switches
To read the current settings of all switches, use the STATUS9 command (P262), e.g.:
STATUS9
/C/d/E/f/h/i/K/l/M/N/R/S/t/U/w/x/Z
Switches that are ON are displayed in uppercase.
Setting Switches
Switches can be set at any time, and new settings generally take effect immediately. For example, send:
/T /e/m
to set switch T on, and set switches E and M off.
Note Switches are not channels. The statement /T is a command, and is carried out immediately, even if it appears within
a schedule definition. You can use the DO command to set switches when a schedule executes – see Executing Commands
in Schedules (P55) for more information.
Switch Lifetime
Switches work in the same way as parameters. All switch settings are cleared back to their default values when a soft or hard
reset (INIT or HRESET) is performed, or if both external and battery power is lost.
As with parameters, to make a switch setting "permanent", it should be set using the matching profile setting (see Profile
Settings (P251)), e.g.
PROFILE SWITCHES T=ON
The DT80 recognises the following switches:
Switch
Function
Default
Comment
/C
/D
/E
Include Channel name
Returns channel name before each data value (/h mode only)
Enable command Echo
/C
/d
/E
/F
Lock (Fix) schedules
/f
/H
/I
Fixed-format (Host) mode
/h
/i
/K
Enable automatic
re-calibration
Include serial number
/K
/M
/N
Enable Messages
/M
/N
/R
/S
Enable data Return
/T
/U
Include Time
Include Units
/t
/U
/W
Return Working channels
/w
/X
Progressive maxima and
minima
Enable alarm messages
/x
/L
/Z
//
Include Date
Include Schedule ID
Include verbose ID
Synchronize to midnight
Default switches
/l
/R
/S
/Z
–
Returns current date before each scan's data. (/h mode only, see also /N)
Enables echo of commands to host computer (if not unloading data and not in
fixed-format mode).
Prevents a DT80’s scan schedules (trigger or channel list) being modified. Note
that a reset still erases the schedules.
Returns data in fixed-format mode (P25).
Returns schedule ID before returning the schedule's data (/h mode only, see
also /N)
Before each scan the DT80 checks for drift due to changes in ambient
temperature and re-calibrates if required.
Returns logger serial number before each scan's data (/h mode only, see also
/N)
Enables error and warning messages to be returned to host
Returns "dataTaker 80 " before serial number (/h/L mode only)
Returns "Schedule " before schedule ID (/h/I mode only)
Returns "Date " before scan date (/h/D mode only)
Returns "Time " before schedule ID (/h/T mode only)
Returns real-time data to the host computer.
Synchronizes all schedules’ time intervals to midnight — for example, RA1H
scans on the hour. See Time Triggers — Synchronizing to Midnight (P53).
Returns current time before each scan's data. (/h mode only, see also /N)
Appends measurement units to returned data (/h mode only)
Separates data items by CRLF rather than P22 character (/h mode only)
Makes error messages verbose
Allows working channels (see W channel option (P43)) to be returned (for
diagnostic purposes) but not logged.
Displays the progressive maximum and minimum values for statistical channels
on the built-in display only.
Enables alarms to issue action text to host computer or printer.
Sets all switches to their default state
Table 7: DT80 Switches
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Page 250
Profile Settings
The DT80 profile is a group of named settings which control aspects of the logger's operation. Unlike parameters and
switches, profile settings are "permanent", in that they are not cleared by a soft or hard reset (INIT and HRESET
commands respectively, see Resetting the DT80 (P259))
Structure
The DT80's profile settings are divided into a number of sections, each of which deals with a particular area, e.g. host port,
modem, Modbus server, etc. Each section is identified by name, e.g. "HOST_PORT".
Each section then contains a number of keys (settings). Each key has a name (e.g. "BPS") and a value (e.g. "57600").
Depending on the key, the value may be a numeric, boolean (yes/no) or string value.
The value of any of the defined keys can be viewed of changed using the PROFILE command.
The PROFILE Command
The PROFILE command syntax is as follows:
Command
Description
PROFILE
PROFILE
PROFILE
PROFILE
PROFILE
PROFILE
return current settings for all profile keys
return current settings for all profile keys in section
return current value of specified profile key
set specified profile key to default value
set all keys in section to default value
set specified profile key to keystring. Enclose in quotes, i.e. "keystring" if
the string contains spaces or control characters
section
section key
section key=
section=
section key=keystring
 Displaying Profile Settings
The following command will display all profile values in the HOST_PORT section:
PROFILE HOST_PORT
[HOST_PORT]
BPS = 57600
DATA_BITS = 8
STOP_BITS = 1
PARITY = NONE
*FLOW = HARDWARE
FUNCTION = COMMAND
When profile values are returned, an asterisk (*) before a key name indicates that the key has been changed from its factory
default value. In the above example, to return the FLOW key to its default setting you would use:
PROFILE HOST_PORT FLOW=
 Setting Profile Keys
The following command will change the default host baud rate to 115200 bps:
PROFILE HOST_PORT BPS=115200
Profile setting changes generally take effect immediately. So in this case, if the active command port was the host RS232
port then all subsequent commands would need to be sent at 115200 bps.
The DT80 supports the following profile keys:
UM-0085-B7
DT80 Range User’s Manual
Page 251
Section Name
Key Name
Legal Values
USER
SITE
string
Factory Default
Comment
300, 600, 1200,
2400, 4800, 9600,
19200, 38400,
57600, 115200
7, 8
1, 2
NONE, EVEN, ODD
HARDWARE,
SOFTWARE, NONE
COMMAND, PPP,
SERIAL, MODBUS,
MODBUS_MASTER,
DISABLE
300, 600, 1200,
2400, 4800, 9600,
19200, 38400,
57600
7, 8
1, 2
NONE, EVEN, ODD
HARDWARE,
SOFTWARE, NONE
RS232, RS422,
RS485
COMMAND, PPP,
SERIAL, MODBUS,
MODBUS_MASTER,
DISABLE
COMMAND, PPP,
SERIAL, MODBUS,
MODBUS_MASTER,
DISABLE
NONE, 1RELAY,
nDSO, PWR12V
57600
Site name to display on LCD instead of
job name
Serial parameters for Host RS-232 port
See Configuring the Host RS-232 Port
(P188)
HOST_PORT
(not present on
DT8xM models)
BPS
DSR
Method used to detect whether modem
is present
INIT
DSR, ALWAYS,
NEVER, WHEN_ON
string
AT
MAX_CD_IDLE
0-864000
43200
(12 hours)
PIN
string
PIN_WAIT_S
0-86400
120
SERVICE (not DT8xM2)
AUTO
GSM_BANDS
AUTO, GSM 3G,
GSM_PREFERRED,
3G_PREFERRED
0-7
String to send to initialise host port
modem
The number of seconds to wait while the
DCD signal is inactive before
re-initialising the modem (0=disable).
If SIM has a PIN set then it can be
entered here.
Max time to wait for user to enter PIN via
keypad
Specifies the network types that the
modem to which the DT80 should
attempt to connect.
3G_BANDS (not DT8xM2)
1-511
19
REGISTRATION_WAIT_S
0-86400
60
DATA_BITS
STOP_BITS
PARITY
FLOW
FUNCTION
SERSEN_PORT
(not present on
DT82E models)
BPS
DATA_BITS
STOP_BITS
PARITY
FLOW
MODE
FUNCTION
USB_PORT
FUNCTION
(not present on
DT82E/82I models)
HOST_MODEM
(not present on
DT8xM models)
MODEM
(DT8xM models
only)
EXT_POWER_SWITCH
DETECTION
8
1
NONE
SOFTWARE
COMMAND
Host port function: command/PPP
interface, PPP interface, serial channel
or Modbus
1200
Serial parameters for Serial Sensor port
See Configuring the Serial Sensor Port
(P191)
8
1
NONE
NONE
RS232
SERIAL
Serial sensor port function:
command/PPP interface, PPP interface,
serial channel or Modbus
COMMAND
USB port function: command/PPP
interface, PPP interface, serial channel
or Modbus
See Configuring the USB Port (P180)
Output channel used to control modem
power
NONE
7
MIN_SIGNAL_FOR_DATA_ -113 - -51 (dBm) -93
DBM
MODEM_SESSION
(DT8xM models
only)
UM-0085-B7
SMS_ONLY
YES, NO
NO
APN
string
(*)
APN_ACCOUNT
string
(*)
APN_PASSWORD
string
(*)
MIN_DURATION_S
0-86400
0
MAX_DURATION_S
0-86400
0
DT80 Range User’s Manual
Specifies the GSM bands to use
See Network Selection (P213)
Specifies the 3G bands to use
See Network Selection (P213)
Time allowed for modem to register on
mobile network
If signal level is below this then a data
connection will not be attempted and
DT80 will attempt to find a better
network.
If YES then an Internet connection will
not be established. SMS will be sent.
Access Point Name, as specified by
mobile carrier.
Account name if required, as specified
by mobile carrier
Account password if required, as
specified by mobile carrier
Minimum communications session
duration
Maximum communications session
Page 252
Section Name
Key Name
Legal Values
Factory Default
MIN_IDLE_S
10-86400
120
RETRY_DELAY_S
TIMING_CONTROL
10-86400
30
ALWAYS, CRON, OFF OFF
START_CRON
cron-spec
0:0:12:*:*:*
STOP_CRON
cron-spec
0:0:13:*:*:*
NETWORK_CHECK
DNS, PING, OFF
DNS
PING_SERVERS
string
SMTP_SERVER
SMTP_ACCOUNT
SMTP_PASSWORD
RETURN_ADDRESS
string
string
string
string
SENDER_NAME
string
DDNS_ENABLE
DDNS_SERVER_URI
YES, NO
string
DDNS_SERVER_PORT
DDNS_ACCOUNT
DDNS_PASSWORD
DDNS_HOST_NAME
0-65535
string
string
string
SMTP_SERVER
SMTP_ACCOUNT
SMTP_PASSWORD
RETURN_ADDRESS
string
string
string
string
SENDER_NAME
string
RETRY_DELAY_S
ENABLE
IP_ADDRESS
10-86400
YES, NO
n.n.n.n or AUTO
30
YES
AUTO
SUBNET_MASK
n.n.n.n
255.255.255.0
GATEWAY
n.n.n.n
0.0.0.0
PPP
USER
PASSWORD
string
string
DATATAKER
DATATAKER
FTP_SERVER
PORT
0-65535
21
USER
PASSWORD
string
string
DATATAKER
DATATAKER
ALLOW_ANONYMOUS
YES, NO
YES
DNS_SERVER_1
n.n.n.n
0.0.0.0
DNS_SERVER_2
n.n.n.n
0.0.0.0
COMMAND_SERVER PORT
0-65535
7700
HTTP_SERVER
PORT
0-65535
80
MODBUS_SERVER
TCPIP_PORT
0-65535
502
ETHERNET_
SESSION
ETHERNET
NETWORK
UM-0085-B7
(*)
(*)
(*)
your.logger@
datataker.com
NO
members.dyndns.
org/nic/update
80
your.logger@
datataker.com
DT80 Range User’s Manual
Comment
duration (hard limit, 0=disable)
End communications session if
communications link has been idle for
this time.
Delay between session retries
Session will be maintained between
start and stop time, or always
If TIMING_CONTROL=CRON then this
specifies session start time
If TIMING_CONTROL=CRON then this
specifies session end time
Method to use for checking network
connectivity.
If NETWORK_CHECK=PING then this
is a comma-separated list of ping
servers
Name of SMTP (email) server
SMTP account name, if required
SMTP password, if required
Sender email address to use in email
from logger
Sender name to use in email from logger
(if blank then logger model/serial used)
Enable Dynamic DNS client
DDNS server "address update" URI
DDNS server port number
DDNS account name
DDNS password
Configured logger domain name
associated with DDNS account
Name of SMTP (email) server
SMTP account name, if required
SMTP password, if required
Sender email address to use in email
from logger
Sender name to use in email from logger
(if blank then logger model/serial used)
Delay between session retries
Enable Ethernet port
IP address to assign to the DT80's
Ethernet port
AUTO = use DHCP to automatically set
IP address, subnet mask, gateway and
DNS servers.
Subnet mask for the network segment
connected to the DT80's Ethernet port.
Ignored if IP_ADDRESS=AUTO.
IP address of the computer that acts as
a gateway to other networks.
Ignored if IP_ADDRESS=AUTO.
User name and password that a remote
PPP client must supply in order to
connect to the DT80 via PPP (not
required for USB port)
TCP port number used by FTP server
(0=disable)
Username and password that an FTP
client must supply in order to be granted
read/write access.
If YES, read-only FTP access is
permitted for anonymous users
If NO, all FTP users must login using the
configured username and password.
IP address of primary DNS server.
Ignored if IP_ADDRESS=AUTO.
IP address of secondary DNS server, to
be used if primary server is unavailable.
Ignored if IP_ADDRESS=AUTO.
TCP port number used by command
interface (0=disable)
TCP port number used by web server
(0=disable)
TCP port number used by Modbus
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Section Name
NTP
LOCALE
STARTUP
Key Name
Legal Values
Factory Default
SERSEN_ADDRESS
0-247
0
HOST_ADDRESS
0-247
0
USB_ADDRESS
0-247
0
BACKGROUND_ENABLE
YES, NO
NO
SERVER
string
BACKGROUND_PERIOD
MAX_SLEW_CORRECTION
time 30M-7D
time 0-60S
0.datataker.
pool.ntp.org
3599S
3S
MAX_JUMP_CORRECTION
time 0-24H
24H
MIN_CORRECTION
SLEW_RATE
time 0-24H
1-50
50T
10
TIMEOUT
BACKGROUND_WAKEUP_DE
LAY
TIME_ZONE
RUN
time 0-10S
time 0-10M
2S
3S
0S
CURRENT_JOB
MAINTAIN_OUTPUTS
time -24H-24H
CURRENT_JOB,
NONE, jobname
YES, NO
Restore state of digital outputs 1..8DSO
and 1RELAY following hard reset
Number of times to retry a failed FTP
0-1000, INFINITE INFINITE
unload.
0S
Auto scroll through channel screens on
time 0-24H
LCD at this rate (0=disable)
30S
Suspend autoscroll for this time if key
time 0-24H
pressed
0S
Auto-acknowledge pop-up messages on
time 0-24H
LCD after this time (0=disable)
Label for LCD function key #n (n=1-10)
string
Command string for LCD function key #n
string
(n=1-10)
varies with switch
Similarly for switches
OFF, ON
See Table 7: DT80 Switches (P250)
varies with parameter Sets the specified parameter to the
integer
specified value, and makes it the
limits vary with
"default" value, i.e. the value to which it
parameter
will be set on soft or hard reset.
See Table 6: DT80 Parameters (P249).
UNLOAD
FTP_RETRIES
DISPLAY
AUTOSCROLL_INTERVAL
AUTOSCROLL_DELAY
AUTOACK_DELAY
FUNCTION
Fn_LABEL
Fn_COMMAND
SWITCHES
A, B, C,…Z
PARAMETERS
Pn
Comment
server (0=disable)
The DT80's slave address when using
Modbus on the serial sensor port
(0=disable)
The DT80's slave address when using
Modbus on the host port. (0=disable)
The DT80's slave address when using
Modbus on the USB port. (0=disable)
Periodically synchronise DT80 system
time to an NTP server
NTP server address (numeric IP
address or host name)
Interval between NTP updates
Max allowable time adjustment using
"gradual" adjustment method
Max allowable time adjustment using
"time jump" method
Minimum time adjustment to apply
Percentage change to clock rate during
gradual adjustment
NTP request timeout
Delay following wakeup before first NTP
request
Local time zone offset
Job to be automatically loaded following
hard reset
NO
Table 8: DT80 PROFILE Details
Values marked time in the table are specified in a similar way to schedule time intervals – that is, an integer followed by a unit
letter (D, H, M, S or T for days, hours, minutes, seconds and milliseconds respectively).
Values marked cron-spec are a "cron" time/date specifier, as described in Trigger at Date/Time (P47).
In the default column, (*) indicates that a suitable default value will be set automatically, if possible, based on the mobile
carrier that issued the SIM.
 Examples
To set the DT80's IP address for the Ethernet port:
PROFILE ETHERNET IP_ADDRESS=192.168.1.225
To set the default date format to North American style:
PROFILE PARAMETERS P31=2
Note Special characters may be inserted into profile values using ^x or \nnn notation, as described in ASCII-Decimal
Tables (P370). This means that if the profile value requires an actual \ character then it must be entered twice, e.g.
PROFILE FUNCTION F1_COMMAND="DIR B:\\JOBS
Remember also that if DeTransfer is used to send the above line then the backslashes must be doubled again, i.e.
PROFILE FUNCTION F1_COMMAND="DIR B:\\\\JOBS
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Setting the System Time
The DT80’s real-time clock/calendar is based on a 24-hour clock that has a resolution of approximately 0.1ms. This is used
to timestamp all logged data.
Time and date are maintained when the logger is switched off or reset. If the logger is switched off and the internal
Memory-Backup battery (see Internal Memory-Backup Battery(P276)) is removed or discharged, then the date and time will
be reset to 1989/01/01 00:00:00
D and T Channel Types
The DT80's time and date can be set using the T and D internal channel types (Time (P33)), e.g.:
T=13:05
Time 13:05:00.000
D=1/4/2006
Date 01/04/2006
The time and date must be specified in the current P39 and P31 formats.
The time can also be set to a CV value, where the CV value is the number of seconds since midnight. Similarly for the date,
except the value is now the number of seconds since the base date (1/1/1989).
For example, to set the system time forward one hour you could use:
T(=1CV) 1CV(W)=1CV+3600 T=1CV
Time 15:59:23.460
Time 16:59:23.461
Note that only a single CV can be placed after the "=". Expressions are not supported.
DT Command
Alternatively, the DT command can be used to set both date and time. In this case the date/time is specified either in
dataTaker ISO format or ISO8601 format and enclosed in square brackets, e.g.:
DT=[2006/04/01,13:05:00] or
DT=[2006-04-01T13:05:00]
Time Zone
Depending on the application, you may choose to set the DT80's time to either:

local time. In this case you may need to alter the time periodically to adjust for daylight saving time, if applicable.

local standard time. The logger is still set to the local time zone, but no correction is made for daylight saving time.

UTC (GMT) time. This may be appropriate if there are a number of DT80s (connected to the host computer via a wide
area TCP/IP network, for example) which are in different time zones.
The DT80 and the dataTaker host software currently do not provide any specific support for data collected in disparate time
zones – it is therefore up to the user to manage this.
Note If the DT80 system time is synchronised to an NTP server (see below), and the DT80 time is set to local or local
standard time, then the TIME_ZONE profile setting must be set correctly. If NTP is not used then this profile setting is not
used.
Setting the Time in dEX
The dEX configuration builder can be used to set the DT80 time manually, or synchronise it to the PC's time. Select the
Logger menu, then Set logger date & time. This will display a dialog box showing the PC time and the logger time.
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Figure 94: Time adjustment dialog in configuration builder
To correct the logger time so that it matches the PC time simply press the Set logger's time to match computer's time
button. Alternatively, select the manual option to set the logger's time to a specific value. This will be required if the logger is
set to a different time zone to the PC, for example.
Automatic Time Adjustment (NTP)
Network Time Protocol (NTP) allows devices on a TCP/IP network to synchronise their clock to an NTP server, which will in
turn be linked to a very accurate time reference.
If your DT80 has Internet access, or if you have access to an NTP server on your local network, then you can enable the
DT80's automatic time adjustment feature. The DT80 will then periodically (by default, hourly) contact the NTP server and if
necessary adjust its clock/calendar to match.
For small time adjustments (by default, up to 3 seconds) the DT80 will gradually adjust its time by speeding up or slowing
down its clock for a period of time. This avoids any sudden changes in time, and the time will never go backwards (which
could have caused complications when you came to interpret the logged data). This process is also referred to as "slewing"
the time.
For example, if the NTP server indicates that the DT80 time is 1.2 seconds fast then the DT80 clock will be slowed down by
10% (by default). After 13.2 seconds (12.0s as measured by the DT80 clock) the required time adjustment of -1.2s will have
been made and the clock rate will be set back to normal.
If a larger time adjustment is required, the "gradual" method is impractical and the DT80 will do a "jump" adjustment, where
the time will change instantaneously (forward or backward). A message is logged to the event log (see Event Logs (P262))
each time a time jump occurs (including manual time changes).
Using NTP
In order to use NTP, you first need to ensure that you have an accessible NTP server.
If the DT80 has access to the Internet then you can use the public NTP server at 0.datataker.pool.ntp.org.
Alternatively, a local NTP server may be available on the local area network to which the DT80 is connected. If this is the
case then you will need to find out the IP address or host name of the NTP server. Note that using a local server will normally
result in better time accuracy, because it avoids the variable delays that may occur when making a request over the Internet.
Once you have determined the address of the NTP server that you wish to use, you can enable NTP updates by setting the
following profiles:
PROFILE LOCALE TIME_ZONE=offset
PROFILE NTP SERVER=host address
PROFILE NTP BACKGROUND_ENABLE=YES
The timezone setting (offset) is the time difference between UTC (GMT) time and the logger's local time. For example, for
Pacific Standard Time (UTC-8:00), use
PROFILE LOCALE TIME_ZONE=-8H
while for Australian Central Standard Time (UTC+9:30), use
PROFILE LOCALE TIME_ZONE=570M
(9.5 hours = 570 minutes)
The NTP server address (host address) may be specified as a numeric IP address (e.g. 10.2.30.212) or as a host name
(e.g. ntp3.petacorp.com). Using a host name requires that the DT80 have access to a working DNS (domain name
system) server.
NTP Options
The above three profile settings are the minimum that need to be set in order to enable NTP updates. There are, however, a
number of settings that may be adjusted to suit particular applications.
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 Time Request Interval
By default, the DT80 will perform a time request every 3599 seconds. Selecting a value of "not quite one hour" helps ensure
that the DT80's requests do not ever end up always occurring "on the hour". NTP servers tend to be busiest at this time and
this can cause reduced time accuracy for requests made at these times.
The request interval can be changed to any value from 30 minutes to 7 days, using the following profile:
PROFILE NTP BACKGROUND_PERIOD=time
where time is a time value such as 50M (50 minutes) or 97H (97 hours)
 Correction Limits
When the DT80 obtains a time value from the NTP server, it will do one of the following, based on the magnitude of the
required time adjustment:

do nothing (the DT80 time is already "close enough")

begin a gradual time adjustment (speed up or slow down the DT80 clock rate until it reaches the correct time)

immediately set the DT80 time to the NTP server value

do nothing (the time difference is very great – possibly the NTP server is faulty)
The following profiles set the thresholds between these behaviours:

PROFILE NTP MIN_CORRECTION=time specifies the smallest time adjustment that will be applied. By default this
is 50T, so if the DT80's time is within 50ms of the server time then nothing will be done.

PROFILE NTP MAX_SLEW_CORRECTION=time specifies the largest adjustment that will be performed using the
"gradual" adjustment method. By default this is 3 seconds (3S). Setting this larger will reduce the chance of time

PROFILE NTP MAX_JUMP_CORRECTION=time specifies the largest adjustment that will be performed using the
jumps in logged data, at the expense of possibly allowing larger time deviations from the true time.
"jump" adjustment method. If the time difference is greater than this then the DT80 will reject it and do nothing. By
default this setting is 24 hours (24H). This value allows a logger that has changed time zone to receive its initial time
update from NTP rather than having to be set manually. However you may wish to reduce this value in order to prevent
the DT80 clock being changed when the server time difference is unexpectedly large – possibly due to a faulty server.
Set to 0 to disable "jump" corrections altogether.
If all power to the DT80 is lost, including the internal lithium battery, then the DT80's clock will be reset to 1-Jan-1989. As a
special case, therefore, if the DT80 finds that its date is set to a value earlier than 2000 then it will apply any NTP update,
even though the "max jump correction" limit is exceeded.
 Gradual Adjustment Rate
By default, during a gradual time adjustment the DT80 clock will run 10% faster or slower. This rate can be adjusted between
1% and 50% using the following profile:
PROFILE NTP SLEW_RATE=percent
Lower rates will give a more gradual time adjustment, which may be preferable if your data is being logged at a fast rate, at
the expense of the adjustment process taking longer.
 Communications Timing
When the DT80 sends a time request, it expects a timely reply. A late reply (e.g. due to network congestion) may be worse
than no reply at all, given that the purpose of the message is to accurately set the DT80 time. The default communications
timeout for NTP is 2 seconds (2S). This may be made shorter or longer using:
PROFILE NTP TIMEOUT=time
 Sleep Wakeup Timing
Each time the DT80 wakes from sleep, it will attempt to perform an NTP time update. However, it can take a little time for the
network to become operational following wake – for example a DHCP query may need to be done. By default therefore, the
DT80 will, after waking up, wait 3 seconds before attempting an NTP request. This may be adjusted up or down using the
following profile:
PROFILE NTP BACKGROUND_WAKEUP_DELAY=time
Manually Triggered NTP Requests
When background NTP requests are enabled in the profile, a request will be performed:

at the configured time intervals

following hard reset

following wake from sleep

following any change to any of the NTP profile settings
An NTP request can also be triggered manually, regardless of whether or not background NTP updates are enabled. This is
done using the NTP command. This command may then be included in a schedule, inside an ALARM or DO statement, which
allows more control over the timing of NTP requests.
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The NTP command will perform an immediate NTP request, using the settings defined in the profile (the
BACKGROUND_ENABLE, BACKGROUND_PERIOD and BACKGROUND_WAKEUP_DELAY settings will be ignored) . For
example:
NTP
NTP: Adjusting time (-254 ms)
NTP
NTP: No time change required
Checking NTP Status
System variable 26SV reports the status of the last NTP request, as follows
26SV
Meaning
0
1
2
-1
-2
-3
No NTP requests have been performed
Gradual time adjustment in progress
Time adjustment completed successfully
Could not resolve NTP server name
NTP request failed: could not connect to server, or no response within timeout time
Required time adjustment was not performed because it exceeded the
MAX_SLEW_CORRECTION and MAX_JUMP_CORRECTION settings.
NTP request failed due to an internal DT80 error
Daily limit of 50 requests to 0.datataker.pool.ntp.org was exceeded
-4
-5
System variable 27SV returns the discrepancy between the DT80's time and the NTP server, as at the last successful NTP
request. If the NTP request resulted in the DT80 clock being adjusted, 27SV holds the discrepancy before the correction was
applied. For example, a value of -150 indicates that the logger time was 150ms ahead of the NTP server time. 27SV=0 if no
NTP requests have been made.
Any request that results in a "time jump" adjustment will also be logged to the event log.
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Resetting the DT80
The DT80 can be reset in the following ways:

soft reset – clears current job and resets parameters and switches

hard reset – restarts DT80 firmware

safe mode reset (a.k.a. triple push reset) – restarts DT80 firmware and runs using factory default settings.
Soft Reset
The INIT command performs a soft reset, which has the following effects:

The message Initializing... is returned.

The current job is cleared, i.e. all schedule and channel definitions are cleared.

All span/polynomial definitions are cleared.

All CVs are reset to 0.0.

All parameters and switches are reset to their power-on default values, as specified in the associated profile settings.

All digital outputs are reset to their default state.

All counter channels are reset to 0.

All Modbus definitions set using the SETMODBUS command are cleared.

All serial port settings set using PH= and PS= revert to the settings specified in the profile.

The modem dialout number set by SETDIALOUTNUMBER is cleared.

A self-calibration is performed.
A soft reset is analogous to closing and restarting an application on a PC.
Hard Reset
A hard reset causes all DT80 hardware to be physically reset, and the DT80 firmware will be restarted. A hard reset may be
caused by:

the HRESET command

pressing the manual reset button (by inserting a straightened paper clip into the small hole between the Ethernet and
USB connectors)

applying power following a complete loss of power (e.g. external power disconnected and the battery link is not in
place, or the main battery is completely flat)

applying power after the DT80 entered forced sleep mode due to battery voltage dropping below power fail threshold.

the DT80 detecting a critical error such as a serious hardware fault, or an internal inconsistency in the firmware. In
these situations a hard reset is forced in order to try to return the DT80 to a stable operational state.
A hard reset is analogous to rebooting a PC.
A hard reset has the following effects:

All TCP/IP (Ethernet or PPP) connections are terminated.

USB connection is terminated if power was lost or the reset button was pressed.

All communications and other settings are read from the profile and applied.

All LEDs flash rapidly four times.

If the reset was due to a power failure, manual reset button or critical error, then a message is displayed on the LCD
(e.g. DT80 restarted / Power loss) and the Attn LED starts flashing.

A sign-on message e.g. dataTaker 80 Version 8.00 is returned. (This can be disabled if required by switching off
the messages flag in the startup profile, i.e. PROFILE SWITCHES M=OFF)

A soft reset is performed, as described in the previous section.

If the STARTUP / MAINTAIN_OUTPUTS profile is set to YES then all digital outputs are restored to the state they
had prior to the reset.

The job that was running prior to the reset is re-loaded, and becomes the current job. Alternatively, a particular job or
no job at all may be loaded by setting the STARTUP / RUN profile.
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Note A hard reset may take a few seconds to perform. You should refrain from sending further commands to the DT80
during this time.
Safe Mode
If there is an error in the DT80's profile settings or the job that is automatically loaded following hard reset then you may find
that you are unable to communicate with the logger. For example – the startup profile specifies the wrong RS232 parameters
(and you're not sure what they are), or the job specifies an immediate 1SERIAL channel with a very long timeout (and the
serial channel is not connected to anything).
Safe Mode provides a mechanism to regain control and fix the problem. To select safe mode you need to perform a
"triple-push" reset:
1.
Press the manual reset button
2.
Wait approximately 3 seconds, then press the reset button again.
3.
Wait approximately 3 seconds, then press the reset button a third time.
4.
Verify that DT80 restarted / Safe mode is displayed on the LCD.
This will have the same effect as a hard reset, except that:

all profile settings are ignored – factory default settings are used (for example, the host port parameters will be set to
57600,8,N,1,SWFC)

no job is loaded

any queued unload or alarm messages will not be attempted
Note that the profile settings are not cleared – they are simply ignored for this session only. If you now do a normal hard reset
they will once again be loaded.
Factory Settings
To restore the DT80 to factory default settings, send the FACTORYDEFAULTS command, which will reset all profile settings
to their factory defaults, then perform a hard reset.
Note that this command does not delete any files from the internal file system. The DELALLJOBS command may be used to
remove all jobs and all logged data.
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Diagnostic Commands
TEST Command
The TEST command causes the DT80 to perform a self-calibration, then run a series of self tests. Test results that are out of
range are flagged with a FAIL message.
This command can also be issued via the DT80 web interface (Series 2 only).
A typical test report is shown below.
TEST
TEST report generated at 2008/02/13,16:05:09
0 dataTaker 80 Version 7.02.0002 Flash 2007/12/21 17:09:56
29 Product:
1 Serial Number:
DT80-2
080043
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
VEXT
VBAT (6V)
IBAT
VSYS
VLITH (3.6V)
VDD (3.3V)
VANA (3.8V)
VRELAY (4.5V)
11.0
6.74
+13
6.71
3.68
3.25
3.65
4.20
V
V
mA
V
V
V
V
V
PASS
PASS
PASS
PASS
PASS
PASS
PASS
10
11
12
13
14
24
15
16
17
18
19
25
26
27
28
20
21
22
VREF (2.5V)
Ics I
Ics II
Vos diff
Vos 3W I
Vos 3W II
Vos shunt
Vos +
Vos Vos *
Vos #
Vos diff atten
Vos + atten
Vos - atten
Vos * atten
Term. factor
Shunt (100R)
CMRR
2509.72 mV
0.21341 mA
2.5755 mA
-0.2 uV
345.7 uV
-58.7 uV
-1.2 uV
2.4 uV
2.9 uV
-24.3 uV
57.6 uV
-0.3 uV
64.4 uV
67.7 uV
37.2 uV
1.00470
99.681 Ohm
137.3 dB
PASS
PASS
PASS
PASS
PASS
PASS
PASS
PASS
PASS
PASS
PASS
PASS
PASS
PASS
PASS
PASS
PASS
PASS
23 Overall health
PASS
You can also request just one line of the report using TESTn, where n is the line number (0-29, as indicated above). For
example, the following will return the firmware version number:
TEST0
dataTaker 80 Version 7.02.0002 Flash 2007/12/21 17:09:56
Some other useful test report parameters are described below:

Product – this indicates the product type and series, for example DT80-2 indicates a DT80 Series 2.

Serial number – this should match the number on the label affixed to the outside of the unit.

VEXT – the voltage at the external power input.

VBAT – internal battery terminal voltage.

IBAT – internal battery current: positive when battery is charging, negative when discharging.

VLITH – internal memory backup battery terminal voltage.
The other parameters listed in the test report are generally only useful to Datataker service personnel. A description of these
entries is beyond the scope of this manual.
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Note that if the main or Lithium battery are absent then there will be FAIL lines in the output from the normal TEST command
but this will not affect the overall pass/fail result.
 Power on Self Test
The TEST command is also run automatically, following a hard reset. If this test fails then
Self test failed
is displayed on the LCD in conjunction with two flashing LEDs, and a message is output to comms port and event log. Press
any key to clear the LCD message. You should then send a TEST command to see which particular test is failing.
If the power-on test passes there will be no indication (no report is generated).
Event Logs
To aid in troubleshooting, the DT80 automatically logs significant events into an event log, which is a text file
B:\EVENTS\EVENT.LOG. These events include:

any of the errors listed under Error Messages (P378)

USB memory device inserted

external power connected or disconnected

system time changed

low power forced sleep

communications errors

logger reset

safe mode (triple push) reset

self test failure

logger not characterised warning

user defined messages, using the LOG "string" command
The event log may help pinpoint the cause of any unexpected readings or failures, and will be used by Datataker engineers
if the DT80 is returned for service.
In the event of an abnormal reset due to a firmware error, the DT80 may store additional information in a companion file, the
error log (B:\EVENTS\ERROR.LOG).
The contents of the event and error logs can be viewed using the UEVTLOG and UERRLOG commands.
They may also be viewed via the web interface.
The event and error logs can be cleared using the CEVTLOG and CERRLOG commands.
STATUS Command
The STATUS command returns a report showing the status of the DT80's schedules, channels, alarms, memory and logging
to the host computer. A typical report is shown below:
STATUS
dataTaker 80 Version 6.16.0002 Flash 2007/03/21 17:09:56
A B C,F Scan Schedules Active,Halted
4,0 Alarms/IFs Active,Halted
0 Polynomials/Spans Defined
A B C F,none Scan Schedules LOGON,LOGOFF
61650,1026 Internal kB free,used
0,0 External kB free,used
/C/d/E/f/h/I/K/l/M/N/r/S/t/U/w/x/Z
If the /u switch is set (don't display units) then the descriptive text on the end of each line is not returned.
As with the TEST command, lines in the status report can be returned individually, using STATUSn.
Command
Description
STATUS1
returns model name and firmware version (same as TEST0)
STATUS2
lists active schedules, and halted schedules
STATUS3
returns the number of alarms in active schedules, and the number in halted schedules
STATUS4
returns the number of polynomial/spans defined, and displays the definition of each
STATUS5
lists schedules with logging enabled, and schedules with logging disabled
STATUS6
returns total free space (kbytes) on internal file system, and total used space
STATUS7
returns total free space (kbytes) on inserted USB memory device, and total used space
STATUS9
returns current settings for all switches
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STATUS10
returns internal details about the current job
STATUS14
an extended version of STATUS10
The STATUS14 command is somewhat special in that it can also be applied to a non-current job, i.e.:
STATUS14 "jobname"
CHARAC Command
During manufacture, each DT80 is characterised – that is, various operational parameters are measured and then
programmed into the unit's flash memory. This process is designed to cancel out any variations between units due to
component tolerances and such like.
The CHARAC command lists the various characterisation parameters. These will vary slightly from unit to unit.
If any of these parameters have not been set correctly then a warning message such as
DT80 not characterised
will be displayed on the LCD. Contact Datataker support if you see this message.
SERVICEDATA Command
The SERVICEDATA command automatically issues a number of diagnostic commands which together provide a
comprehensive "snapshot" of the current state of the DT80. If you contact Datataker support to resolve a problem with the
logger you may be asked to run this command and then send the results to Datataker for analysis.
By default, this command will output its results to the current comms connection. Alternatively, it may be directed to a text file
using: SERVICEDATA "filename". This file may then be retrieved from the logger using FTP or by using the COPY
command to copy it to a USB memory device.
This command can also be issued via the DT80 web interface (Series 2 only).
A SERVICEDATA report includes:

TEST command output

CHARAC command output

STATUS command output

current parameter settings

current profile settings

event log

error log

current job program listing

DIRJOB* command output (storefile status for all jobs)

DIRTREE command output

internal file system integrity check

comms settings and statistics

firmware thread status

memory status

TCP/IP communications status
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Part N – Hardware & Power
Inputs and Outputs
Wiring Panel
The front face of the DT80 is the sensor interface. Removable screw terminal blocks make it easy to connect and disconnect
sensor wiring.
D WK 12V
1D 2D 3D 4D GND
D
5D 6D 7D 8D GND
1C 2C 3C 4C D
Tx Rx RTS CTS D
Z A Y B GND
2PE GND
1PE
RELAY
A B
* +1- # * +3- # * +5- #
* +2- # * +4- # * #
EXT EXT 5V A
sw GND
ANALOG
DIGITAL
The terminals are labelled as shown below. Note that the label is removable, so it can be replaced with application specific
labelling if required.
* +1- #
D WK 12V
1D 2D 3D 4D GND
1C 2C 3C 4C D
1PE
GND
EXT EXT EXT EXT
RELAY
A B
* # * #
ANALOG
DIGITAL
DT80/80G Series 3
D WK 12V
1D 2D 3D 4D GND
D
1C 2C 3C 4C GND
* +1- #
RELAY
A B
* +2- #
EXT EXT 5V A
* # sw GND
ANALOG
DIGITAL
DT81 Series 2
* +1- # * +2- #
D WK 12V
1D 2D 3D 4D GND
1C 2C 3C 4C D
2PE GND
1PE
RELAY
A B
EXT EXT 5V A
* # sw GND
Tx Rx RTS CTS D
Z A Y B GND
ANALOG
DIGITAL
DT82E Series 3
DT82I Series 3
DIGITAL
2
5C 6C3 7C
D WK512V D 5D 6D 7D 8D D7
1D 2D 3D 4D GND
GND
GND
* +9 1- # * +113- #
* 10+2- # * +124- #
3PE
1C 2C4 3C 4C D
1PE
2PE GND
6
RELAY PWR
A B OUT
8
Tx Rx RTS CTS D
Z A Y B GND
13
15
# * +7 - #
*
+

6
* +14- # * +816- #
5
5V 9A
SW GND
10
EXT EXT
*#
ANALOG
1
11
12
2
D WK 12V
D
D
3 4D GND
5 GND
1D 2D 3D
5D 6D 7D 8D GND
7
6
8
1C 2C 3C
4 4C D
1PE
2PE GND
RELAY PWR
A B OUT
Tx Rx RTS CTS D
Z A Y B GND
* +19- # * +311- #
* +102- # * +412- #
5
 6
* +13- # * +7 15- #
* +14- # * +8 16- #
5V 9A
SW GND
EXT 10
EXT
* #
ANALOG
1
DIGITAL
DT85/85L Series 3
11
12
DT85G/85GL Series 3
Note: for DT80/81 Series 1 units, DGND replaces 12V, EXT* replaces 5V SW, AGND replaces EXT#
for DT80/82/85 Series 2 units, EXT* replaces 5V SW, EXT# replaces AGND
Figure 95 Standard terminal labels for DT80, DT81, DT82 and DT85
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The sensor interface comprises:

1D – 8D: Digital Input/Output Channels (P314)

WK: Wake Terminal (P285)

12V: 12V power output (not DT80/81 Series 1) (P275)

DGND: Digital Ground (P350)

1C – 4C: High Speed Counter Inputs (P321), shared with Phase Encoder Inputs (1PE – 2PE) (P323)

5C – 7C: High Speed Counter Inputs, shared with Phase Encoder Input (3PE) (DT85/85L Series 3 only)

RELAY: Relay Output (P316)

PWR OUT: Unswitched external power output (DT85) (P275)

Tx/Z Rx/A RTS/Y CTS/B: Serial Sensor Port (P190)

1 – 16 (* + – #): Analog Input Channels (P286)

5V SW: Isolated switched 5V output (Series 3) (P276)

AGND: Analog Ground (P350)

EXT*: External Excitation Input (P20)

EXT#: Switched Analog Ground (not DT80/81 Series 1) (P350)
Left Side Panel
Ethernet port
USB port
(not present on DT82)
Hardware
reset
Host RS232 port
(not present on DT8xM)
Earth point
Plug-pack 10-30VDC power input
10-30VDC power input
Battery charger terminals
(not present on DT82E/80L/85L)
Figure 96 DT80 Left Side Panel
The DT80's side panel provides communications and power interfaces. Some models use cast endplates (as shown in
Figure 96) while some use plain sheet metal endplates. However the layout of the ports is the same. Interfaces on the side
panel include:

Ethernet Port (P198)

USB Port (not present on DT82E/82I/82EM) (P180)

RS232 Port (not present on DT82EM/80LM/85LM/85GLM) (P186)

Hardware Reset Hole (P259)

External 10-30VDC Input Terminals (P272)

Battery Charger Terminals (not present on DT82E/82EM/80L/80LM/85L/85LM/85GL/85GLM) (P272)

10-30VDC Plug Pack Connector (P272)
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A threaded hole is also provided as an earthing point. This is internally connected to DGND. On some models, this point also
acts as a protective ground (indicated by the Earth symbol enclosed within a circle). See Grounding (P271) for more
information.
Right Side Panel (DT8xM only)
Earth point
(present on all models)
Indicator
LED
Main antenna
connector
Rx Diversity
antenna connector
(DT8xM3 only)
SIM slot
SIM locking tab
Figure 97 DT8xM Right Side Panel
DT80 models with integrated modem have modem related interfaces on the right side panel. From left to right:

SIM card slot. Be sure to slide the locking tab into place after inserting the card.

Indicator LED (red). On indicates that the modem is powered on, flashing indicates that the modem is connecting or
connected to the mobile network

Diversity antenna connector. This is a receive-only antenna connection, which can provide improved receive signal
level when operating on a 3G network.

Main antenna connector. The supplied external antenna cable should be connected here. To minimise interference,
the actual antenna should be located at least 500mm away from the logger.
A threaded hole is also provided as a functional earth point. This is internally connected to DGND.
Front Panel
The top face of the DT80 is the user interface – keypad, display, indicators and USB memory device slot. See DT80 Front
Panel (P113)
Rear Panel (DT8xG only)
For DT80G/85G GeoLoggers, there is also a headphone jack on the rear panel, normally covered by a rubber grommet. This
is used for checking the response of vibrating wire strain gauges. See Listening to the Gauge(P309)
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Inside the DT80
Accessing the main battery (if fitted)
1.
Remove the power connector
2.
Remove the screws from the other end of the
logger
3.
Remove this end of the logger
4.
Pull the purple 'battery tail'
5.
Disconnect the battery terminals
Figure 98: How to remove the main battery
Warning When reconnecting the main battery, observe the correct polarity. The red plug connects to the positive (+) battery
terminal.
Warning Any replacement battery must be identical in specification to the factory fitted battery. There is a risk of explosion if
the battery is replaced by an incorrect type.
Warning Dispose of used batteries via an appropriate recycling facility only.
Warning When reinserting the main battery, ensure that the battery is oriented so that battery terminals are closest to the
upper side of the battery. If the battery is inserted upside down then the terminals may contact the case, causing a risk of a
short circuit.
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Accessing the lithium memory backup battery
1.
Remove the power connector (if fitted)
2.
Remove all the terminal blocks
3.
Terminal blocks removed
4.
Remove the screws from the right hand end
of the logger
5.
Remove this end of the logger
6.
Pull the purple 'battery tail'
(models with internal battery only)
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7.
Disconnect the battery terminals
(models with internal battery only)
8.
Remove screws on bottom of logger.
DT80/81/82 models have two screws, DT85
models have three.
9.
Remove the battery cage
(models with internal battery only)
10. Carefully slide the circuit board bundle
partially out of the case. Be careful of the
flexible cable running between the top circuit
board and the keypad. Do not completely
remove the circuit boards from the case.
For models with integrated modem, remove
the modem module from the logger case but
leave its cables connected.
Note Before touching the circuit boards,
discharge any static electricity that may be
present on your body by touching a grounded
metal surface or wearing an anti-static wrist
strap.
11. Open the boards slightly so the lithium
battery can be removed.
Figure 99: How to remove the lithium battery
Warning When installing the new lithium battery, observe the correct polarity, as marked on the printed circuit board.
Warning Any replacement battery must be identical in specification to the factory fitted battery. There is a risk of explosion if
the battery is replaced by an incorrect type.
Warning Dispose of used batteries via an appropriate recycling facility only.
Warning When reconnecting the main battery (if fitted), observe the correct polarity. The red plug connects to the positive
(+) battery terminal.
Warning When reinserting the main battery, ensure that the battery is oriented so that battery terminals are closest to the
upper side of the battery. If the battery is inserted upside down then the terminals may contact the case, causing a risk of a
short circuit.
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Installation
Dimensions
180mm (DT80/81) / 300mm (DT85)
24mm
75mm
(M
5)
38mm
170mm (DT80/81) / 290mm (DT85)
Figure 100: Mounting hole positions and overall dimensions

DT80/81/82 overall dimensions (L x W x H): 180mm x 137mm x 65mm

DT85 overall dimensions: 300mm x 137mm x 65mm

CEM20 overall dimensions: 180mm x 100mm x 50mm. Note that CEM20 mounting hole centres are the same as for
the DT80/81/82.

Mounting screw size: M5

Some clearance for communications/power cabling will be required on the left hand side of the unit, and at the front for
sensor wiring. DT8xM models require access on the right hand side for the antenna connection.

Logger should be oriented either in table top configuration (keypad/display facing up), or wall mounted (terminals
facing down). Do not wall mount with terminals facing upwards.
Operating Environment
The DT80 is an electronic instrument. Electronics and water in any form do not mix. Condensation can be a serious problem
in the tropics, and in cooler areas where wide temperature variations are possible. Use a sealed case and include sachets of
silica gel to avoid problems.
If the DT80 gets wet, immediately disconnect and remove all power sources (including the main internal battery), and dry the
DT80 in a warm place. If the unit comes into contact with salt water, rinse it thoroughly in fresh water, then in distilled water,
then dry it — salt must NOT be allowed to remain on the circuit boards.
The DT80 operates over a wide temperature range (–45°C to +70°C), but its accuracy can be reduced at extremes. Try to
minimize the DT80’s exposure to temperature extremes.
The capacity and service life of the lead acid battery in the logger will be significantly reduced if it is operated outside the
range -15°C to +50°C. Furthermore, if the battery is subject to regular charge/discharge cycles then the recommended
temperature range is +5°C to +35°C. When operating outside these ranges consideration must be given to an alternative
power source for the logger.
The LCD display is typically only usable over a temperature range of 0°C to +50°C.
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Grounding
Warning Correct grounding provides a safe discharge path for large electrical currents which may occur due to lightning or
electrical faults. When installing the DT80, consideration must be given to proper grounding, particularly where sensor or
antenna cabling is outdoors, and therefore potentially subject to lightning strike.
Figure 101: Protective earth connection
Some DT80 models incorporate a protective earth connection. This is identified by the earth symbol enclosed in a circle, as
shown in Figure 101. Any ground point that is not marked with this symbol is a functional earth, and is not suitable for a
protective earth connection.
When installing a protective earth, note the following points:

The earth connection must be made by a qualified electrician.

The earth connector must be permanently connected to an earth ground as defined by the local wiring code.

The protective earth cable and connector are not supplied with the logger. Use connector and cable with a minimum
wire size of 14 AWG that are certified as appropriate for the country of installation.

Ensure the earth terminal screw is tightened properly to prevent accidental loosening.
Note All sensor cables that may be subject to lightning must have a maximum current rating of no more than 5A.
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Powering the DT80
Power Subsystem
The following block diagrams give an overview of the DT80's internal power subsystem.
External
Power Input
10 – 30 V
B C – +
link
VBAT
IBAT
+ VSYS (5 – 7 V)
charger
circuit
Internal 6V battery
not DT80G
DGND
12V 150mA
reg.
300mA limit
PWR
OUT
DGND
5V 25mA
isolated
5V
SW
12V
not DT80/81
Series 1
DT85 only
AGND
Series 3
only
Figure 102: DT80/81/82I/85 internal power subsystem
– +
External
Power Input
10 – 30 V
VSYS (5 – 7 V)
DGND
300mA limit
PWR
OUT
12V 150mA reg.
DGND
12V
DT85 only
5V 25mA
isolated
5V
SW
AGND
Series 3
only
Figure 103: DT82E/80L/85L internal power subsystem
External Power
The DT80 is normally powered by an external 10-30V DC supply. This might, for example, be:

a mains supply (e.g. using the supplied plug pack)

a 12V or 24V solar charged external battery

a 12V or 24V vehicle supply.
This external power supply may be connected in one of two ways, using either:

the round plug pack power socket (inner pin is positive), or

the rightmost two terminals (- and +) of the adjacent 4-way removable screw terminal power connector. This provides
a more robust connection.
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Internally these two connectors are wired in parallel, so you can for example power the unit via the plugpack and then draw
power from the screw terminals for powering external relays or sensors.
Note Switch mode power supplies can introduce noise into analog readings and are therefore not normally recommended
for powering the DT80.
Internal Power
not applicable to DT82E/80L/85L/85GL
If the external power supply is interrupted, the DT80 can run for a limited time on battery power.
Main battery
The DT80 and DT81/82I are fitted with an internal 6V 1.2Ah sealed lead-acid gel-cell battery, while the DT85 uses a higher
capacity 6V 4Ah battery. It’s known as the DT80’s "main" battery to distinguish it from the DT80’s other internal battery, the
"memory-backup" battery.
Note The DT80G does not include an internal battery. It does, however, include the battery charger circuit so an external
lead acid battery can easily be connected; see Connecting a Larger Battery (P273).
The main battery is completely maintenance-free and rechargeable, being automatically charged by the logger’s inbuilt
battery charger whenever an external power supply is connected to the DT80. If properly cared for (which essentially means
keeping it charged), the battery should give several years' service.
Note The battery's life will be reduced if operated at temperatures exceeding 50°C.
If the main battery ever needs to be replaced, Inside the DT80 (P267) explains how to do so.
Connect the Battery Link
The DT80 is shipped with the main battery disconnected.
To connect the battery, all you need to do is plug the supplied 4-way terminal block into the power connector on the side of
the DT80. The supplied terminal block includes a link which connects the B and C terminals on the power connector. This will
connect up the internal battery to the DT80 circuitry.
It is recommended that the battery link be left permanently attached to the DT80 during operation. This guarantees
uninterrupted data acquisition and logging because the internal main battery is always available to continue powering the
data logger if the primary/external supply is accidentally disconnected or fails.
Main Battery Life
The length of time that the DT80 can operate using its internal battery depends on many things, such as:

scan interval

number and types of channels being scanned

volume of RS232/USB/Ethernet communications

power management settings (e.g. sleep mode timeouts)

sensor excitation requirements

condition of internal battery and ambient temperature
For the DT80/81/82I (1.2Ah internal battery), a new, fully charged battery will typically run the logger for between 3 and 3000
hours (4 months), depending on the above factors. The DT85's power consumption is similar to the DT80/81/82I, so its 4Ah
battery can be expected to last 3-4 times longer.
The scan interval is the main determinant of battery life. For a continuous schedule with some analog channels, the battery
life would typically be about 3 hours; for a 5 second schedule it would be about 24 hours; while for sample intervals of 1 hour
or greater the battery would typically last for up to 4 months.
In order to properly estimate the expected battery life, it is necessary to calculate the DT80's average power consumption for
the particular application. This is discussed further in Power Consumption (P277).
Connecting a Larger Battery
To extend the time that the DT80 can run whilst on battery power, a larger capacity battery can be connected externally.
(This is also applicable for the DT80G, which does not include an internal battery.) There are two main options, which are
discussed below.
 1. External Battery Charged by Logger
An external 6V lead acid battery (max capacity 4Ah) may be connected between the C and – terminals. This will connect
the battery to the output of the DT80's charging circuit. An external power supply should then be connected to the + and –
terminals (or DC power socket).
Note To prevent excessive current flows between the batteries, the internal battery should always be disconnected from the
charging circuit when an external 6V battery is used. This can be achieved either by:

not connecting the battery link between the B and C terminals (Figure 104), or
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
connecting the link between the B and C terminals but disconnecting the internal battery connector (Figure 105). If
desired the internal battery can then be removed altogether. This is the preferred option because then the VBAT
channel type can be used to monitor the state of the external battery; see Monitoring DT80 Power (P277).
+
VBAT
B C – +
External
6V battery
–
charger
circuit
Internal battery
(not used)
–
+
External
Power Input
10 – 30 V
Figure 104: Connecting an external 6V battery – battery link removed
+
VBAT
B C – +
External
6V battery
–
charger
circuit
Internal battery
(disconnected)
–
+
External
Power Input
10 – 30 V
Figure 105: Connecting an external 6V battery – internal battery disconnected or removed
Note that larger capacity batteries will take longer to charge.
Note also that this configuration is not useful for a DT85 because it already includes a 4Ah internal battery.
Note The DT80's charging circuit includes temperature compensation. For this to be effective, the external battery and the
DT80 must be at a similar ambient temperature.
 2. External Battery with External Charger
In this case an external 6V battery (any type and capacity) is again connected to the C and – terminals. However this time an
external power supply is not connected. The battery is therefore the primary power source for the logger.
As with Option 1, the internal battery must be disconnected, either by not connecting the battery link or by unplugging the
internal battery connector (the latter scenario is shown in the diagram below).
+
–
+
–
External
charger
B C – +
External
6V battery
VBAT
charger
circuit
Internal battery
(disconnected)
Figure 106: Connecting an externally charged 6V battery – internal battery disconnected or removed
In most cases, an external 12/24V battery system connected to the logger's external power input is preferable to an
externally charged 6V battery. This is because it allows the internal battery to act as an Uninterruptible Power Supply (UPS)
and keep the logger running if the external supply is temporarily interrupted. Also, the PWR OUT (DT80 Series 2 and DT85
only) power output will not be available when running from 6V.
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The 6V option is, however, the most power-efficient way to run the logger. See Power Consumption (P277) for more details.
It can therefore be useful in emergency situations where normal power is not available. In these cases the logger could be
powered for a limited time by connecting 4 x 1.5V alkaline cells, for example.
Storage
If the DT80 is not to be used for a period of time, consideration needs to be given to the health of its internal battery.
Important Avoid storing the internal battery in a discharged state. If a gel-cell battery remains flat for any length of time, its
capacity and service life will be significantly reduced.
Before placing a DT80 into storage, you should therefore ensure that the main battery is fully charged (at least eight hours
charge time). The battery link should then be disconnected.
Other Considerations
The main battery is a "sealed" type; however it does contain a regulator valve on its top face near the terminals. This has the
following implications:

Ventilation must be provided to allow any battery gases to escape. If the DT80 is mounted in a sealed enclosure then
a valve should be provided to prevent gas build-up.

When operating at high temperatures, acid may seep from the regulator valve if it is facing downward. The internal
battery's terminals face the rear panel of the DT80. The logger should therefore be oriented either in table top
configuration (keypad/display facing up), or wall mounted (input terminals facing down). It should not be wall mounted
upside down (input terminals facing upwards) because then the battery terminals and regulator valve would face
downward.
Power Outputs
As shown in Figure 102, the DT80 provides various general purpose power outputs.
Standard Outputs
For the following power outputs the return terminal is DGND.

The PWR OUT terminal (DT85 only) provides a current limited power output derived from the external power input.
The output voltage will be 1-2V below that of the external power input. If you attempt to draw more than the rated
maximum current then the voltage output will drop.

The 12V terminal (not DT80/81 Series 1) provides a switched regulated 12V output (max 150mA). Unlike PWR OUT,
this power is available even if the logger is running on battery power.
These power outputs may be used to power such devices as:

CEM20 channel expansion modules (see The CEM20 (P355))

relays (see DO1 – Driving a Relay (P318))

SDI-12 sensor networks (see SDI-12 Channel (P325))

modems (see also Powering the DT80’s Modem (P195))

application-specific digital interfaces
Note The plug pack supplied with the DT80 is rated at 15V 800mA (12W). However this may be insufficient for a DT85 with
fully loaded power outputs and a flat internal battery, in which case a higher capacity power supply may be required. See
Power Consumption (P277) for more details.
Isolated Output
The Series 3 models also provide an isolated switched 5V output, 5V SW. The return terminal for this power output is AGND.
This output is typically used for powering analog sensors. Maximum output current is 25mA.
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Controlling 12V Power Output
The switched 12V output may be controlled in three different ways:

It may be switched on or off manually using the PWR12V (or 1SSPWR) channel type. Use PWR12V=1 to switch on the
12V output, or PWR12V=0 to switch it off.

It may be switched on automatically prior to execution of a schedule containing CEM20 channels. (As noted in
Powering the CEM20 (P357), any connected CEM20 units are normally powered using the 12V output.)

It may be switched on or off automatically if the DT80 is configured to power a modem using this power output, as
described in Powering the DT80’s Modem (P195).
Parameter P28 is used to control the behaviour of the 12V output.
P28
Description
P28=0
Auto CEM20 power control: DT80 ensures that 12V is
 12V output is used to power CEM20s
switched on prior to execution of a schedule that contains
CEM20 channels. 12V will be switched off at the end of the
schedule (unless there is another schedule due which
requires it)
12V output is switched on all of the time
 12V output is used to power other equipment
 12V output is used to power CEM20s and you
wish to avoid the 50ms warm up delay which
occurs each time the 12V output is switched on
12V output is switched on all of the time, even when asleep  12V output is used to power other equipment
which needs to remain powered even if DT80 is
asleep (e.g. a dial-in modem)
12V output is not changed
 12V output to be controlled explicitly, using
default
P28=1
P28=2
P28=3
Scenarios
PWR12V=
 CEM20s are assumed to be independently
powered
The current state of the 12V output can be queried at any time sending PWR12V.
Controlling 5V Power Output
Use PWR5V=1 to switch on the isolated 5V power output, and PWR5V=0 to switch it off.
Note The 5V output is derived from the analog power supply, so it will only be on if the analog section is powered. By default,
the DT80 analog section is only powered while a measurement is being taken. If you require the 5V output to be on
continuously then it is necessary to set P21=1 so that the analog section is continuously powered. See Analog
Measurement System (P283) for more details.
Internal Memory-Backup Battery
In addition to the internal main battery, the DT80 contains a small lithium "memory-backup" battery.
The memory-backup battery maintains the DT80's clock/calendar and certain memory settings. (Note that the DT80's
internal file system, which stores programs and logged data, uses non-volatile flash memory. This does not depend on the
memory-backup battery.)
Replacing the Battery
Under normal operation the memory-backup battery should last approximately five years, or approximately one year if there
is no other power to the DT80 (i.e. both external power and the main battery are disconnected).
See Inside the DT80 (P267) for details on how to remove and replace the internal memory-backup battery. The
memory-backup battery is a ½AA size 3.6V lithium type (for example, SAFT LS 14250). It’s important that 3.6V and not 3.0V
types be used (both types are the same physical size).
Storage
If the DT80 is to be placed in long term storage, it is recommended that the memory-backup battery be removed, to keep it
from discharging. When disconnected, the battery has a 10-year shelf life.
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Monitoring DT80 Power
The DT80 provides a number of internal channel types for monitoring the various power systems. These can be queried at
any time or used in alarms, like any other channel type.
The following channel types are available:
Channel Type
Units
Description
VEXT
VBAT
IBAT
VLITH
V
V
mA
V
External power supply voltage
Main battery terminal voltage (5.6V or lower indicates that internal battery is flat)
Instantaneous main battery current – positive if charging, negative if discharging
Memory-backup battery voltage
Note that VEXT will read about 1V under the actual input voltage, due to a series diode.
Power Consumption
The DT80 incorporates a number of power management features which aim to minimise the overall power consumption.
This section discusses how to estimate the average power consumption of the DT80 in a given application, and gives some
guidelines on how to configure the DT80 for minimum power usage.
Power Consumption
Power States
At any point in time the DT80 is in one of three power states:

Active – the DT80's microprocessor is running at full speed, actively performing a computation. Power usage is
highest when in this state.

Idle – processor is idle; running at reduced speed and waiting for something to happen. The DT80 automatically and
instantly switches between idle and active mode as required. Power usage is reduced by about 70% in this state.

Sleep – processor and most other hardware is powered down. The DT80 will automatically "wake up" when certain
events occur (see Sleep Mode (P284)), a process which typically takes about 800 ms. Power usage is lowest in this
state – as low as 2mW when running from the internal battery.
Power Source
The DT80 uses the least amount of power when it is running from the internal battery.
When external power is connected, there will be some losses in the DT80's internal power supply and battery charger, so the
overall power consumption will be higher. These losses will increase as the external voltage increases.
The following table gives an indication of how the typical instantaneous power consumption varies according to the power
source (internal/external) and supply voltage:
Power state
DT80
Battery power (6V)
DT80
External power (12V)
DT80
External power (24V)
DT82E/80L/85L
External Power (12V)
DT82E/80L/85L
External Power (24V)
Active
Idle
Sleep
1200 mW
300 mW
2 mW
1800 mW
500 mW
60 mW
2200 mW
700 mW
250 mW
1300 mW
350 mW
10 mW
1400 mW
400 mW
20 mW
Table 9: DT80 and DT82E/80L/85L core hardware instantaneous power consumption
Notice that the power consumption for the low power models (those with 'E' or 'L' in the model name) is significantly less. This
is partly due to the fact that these models do not have an internal battery charger, which will consume some power even if no
battery is connected.
Note that the power consumption values listed above are for the core hardware only, and do not include power used by other
hardware modules (within the DT80) which may or may not be enabled, depending on the application. These modules are
described in the following section.
Hardware Modules
The following hardware modules will consume additional power whilst they are enabled:

analog measurement subsystem

Ethernet Interface

integrated modem (DT8xM only)

LCD backlight (not DT81)

battery charger (DT80/81/82I/85/85G only)
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
12V regulated power output (not DT80/81 Series 1)

5V SW regulated power output (Series 3 only)
The actual power consumption of each of these will be discussed further below.
Calculating Average Power Consumption
The DT80's average power consumption will depend on:

the amount of time that is spent in each power state (active, idle and sleep), which mainly depends on the schedule
sample rate and the number and type of channels being measured

the number of analog channels being measured (sampling an analog channel will cause the analog measurement
subsystem to be enabled for the duration of the measurement)

which other hardware modules are enabled

whether logging is enabled
 Step 1 – Core Hardware
The first step is to determine the average power consumption of the DT80 core hardware – that is, excluding "non-core"
hardware modules such as Ethernet or the battery charger.
Each of the following tables lists the typical power consumption of the DT80 core hardware for various sample rates (a single
time based schedule is assumed) and various numbers of analog channels (0, 5, 30 and 300). It is assumed that logging is
enabled (LOGON), real-time data returns are disabled (/r), and sleep is enabled (see Sleep Mode (P284)).
The first table indicates the average power consumption when running from the internal 6V battery, the second is for when
an external 12V supply is used and the third is for an external 24V supply.
Scan rate
0 analog channels
5 analog channels
30 analog channels
300 analog channels
continuous
1 sec
5 sec
10 sec
1 min
10 min
1 hour
10 hour and above
1200 mW
320 mW
170 mW
90 mW
16 mW
4 mW
3 mW
2 mW
1550 mW
610 mW
250 mW
120 mW
20 mW
4 mW
3 mW
2 mW
1520 mW
1520 mW
510 mW
260 mW
45 mW
6 mW
3 mW
2 mW
1520 mW
1520 mW
1520 mW
1520 mW
280 mW
30 mW
7 mW
2 mW
Table 10: DT80/81/82I/85/85G core hardware average power consumption (internal battery power)
Scan rate
0 analog channels
5 analog channels
30 analog channels
300 analog channels
continuous
1 sec
5 sec
10 sec
1 min
10 min
1 hour
10 hour and above
1800 mW
520 mW
310 mW
190 mW
85 mW
62 mW
61 mW
60 mW
2300 mW
950 mW
420 mW
240 mW
90 mW
63 mW
61 mW
60 mW
2260 mW
2260 mW
800 mW
430 mW
120 mW
65 mW
61 mW
60 mW
2260 mW
2260 mW
2260 mW
2260 mW
470 mW
100 mW
67 mW
60 mW
Table 11: DT80/81/82I/85/85G core hardware average power consumption (external 12V power)
Scan rate
0 analog channels
5 analog channels
30 analog channels
300 analog channels
continuous
1 sec
5 sec
10 sec
1 min
10 min
1 hour
10 hour and above
2200 mW
730 mW
530 mW
390 mW
275 mW
253 mW
250 mW
250 mW
2800 mW
1250 mW
650 mW
450 mW
290 mW
253 mW
250 mW
250 mW
2760 mW
2760 mW
1080 mW
670 mW
320 mW
255 mW
250 mW
250 mW
2760 mW
2760 mW
2760 mW
2760 mW
720 mW
300 mW
255 mW
250 mW
Table 12: DT80/81/82I/85/85G core hardware average power consumption (external 24V power)
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The following tables show the equivalent data for the "low power" DT80 models
Scan rate
0 analog channels
5 analog channels
30 analog channels
300 analog channels
continuous
1 sec
5 sec
10 sec
1 min
10 min
1 hour
10 hour and above
1300 mW
370 mW
200 mW
100 mW
25 mW
12 mW
10 mW
10 mW
2020 mW
720 mW
280 mW
150 mW
35 mW
12 mW
10 mW
10 mW
2000 mW
2000 mW
630 mW
320 mW
65 mW
15 mW
11 mW
10 mW
2000 mW
2000 mW
2000 mW
2000 mW
380 mW
50 mW
17 mW
10 mW
Table 13: DT82E/80L/80GL/85L/85GL core hardware average power consumption (external 12V power)
Scan rate
0 analog channels
5 analog channels
30 analog channels
300 analog channels
continuous
1 sec
5 sec
10 sec
1 min
10 min
1 hour
10 hour and above
1400 mW
420 mW
220 mW
120 mW
35 mW
21 mW
20 mW
20 mW
2300 mW
820 mW
320 mW
170 mW
45 mW
22 mW
20 mW
20 mW
2300 mW
2300 mW
720 mW
370 mW
80 mW
26 mW
21 mW
20 mW
2300 mW
2300 mW
2300 mW
2300 mW
440 mW
65 mW
27 mW
20 mW
Table 14: DT82E/80L/80GL/85L/85GL core hardware average power consumption (external 24V power)
Note that:

At slow scan rates the logger spends nearly all of its time asleep, so the average power consumption is determined
solely by the core hardware's sleep mode power consumption, which is fixed.

If sleep is disabled, then for slow scan rates the core hardware power consumption will approach the "idle" power state
value (300/500/700 mW for 6/12/24 V supply, or 350/400mW for 12/24V supply for low power models)

For a continuous schedule, the "30 analog channels" case actually uses slightly less power than the "5 analog
channels" case. This is because a greater proportion of the time is spent with the processor idle, waiting for the analog
sampling to complete.

These tables assume that the schedule contains only analog channels. Digital channels can usually be disregarded,
but if there are a significant number of calculations being done then the average power consumption will increase. If
any very time consuming operations are performed (e.g. reading SDI-12 sensors) then these tables are no longer
applicable. Refer to Example 3 (P281) for more information.

A measurement made using a CEM20 channel takes approximately twice as long as a DT80 channel. Thus if 15
CEM20 channels are sampled, you should use the values in the "30 analog channels" column above. See Example 4
(P281).
For example, if 10 analog channels are being sampled once per minute then interpolating from Table 11 the core hardware
will draw an average of approximately 100 mW from a 12V external supply (although from Table 9 the peak demand may be
up to 1800 mW).
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 Step 2 – Other Hardware
The following table specifies the typical additional power required by each of the DT80's "non-core" hardware modules:
Module
Powered during sleep
Battery power (6V)
DT80/81/82I/85/85G
External power (12/24V)
DT82E/80L/80GL/85L/85GL
External power (12/24V)
Ethernet
LCD Backlight
Analog Subsystem (see
note below)
12V Power Output
CEM20 active
12V Load
(max 150 mA)
PWR OUT Load
(max 300 mA)
Battery charge current
(max 600 mA)
DT8xM3 modem idle
no
no
no
300 mW
450 mW
650 mW
500 mW
600 mW
1000 mW
400 mW
350 mW
650 mW
no (yes if P28=2)
no (yes if P28=2)
no (yes if P28=2)
400 mW
350 mW
up to 1800 mW
550 mW
350 mW
up to 1800 mW
350 mW
350 mW
up to 1800 mW
yes
-
up to 3600 mW
up to 3600 mW
yes
-
up to 3600 mW
-
no
-
-
DT8xM3 modem sending
no
-
-
DT8xM2 modem idle
DT8xM2 modem sending
no
no
-
-
1600 mW (3G)
1200 mW (GSM)
2500 mW (3G)
1900 mW (GSM)
400 mW (GSM)
700 mW (GSM)
Table 15: Power consumption for DT80 hardware modules
Note that:

The Ethernet interface is enabled by default, and will consume close to the indicated power even if there is no Ethernet
cable connected. To save this power it is necessary to explicitly disable the port using PROFILE ETHERNET
ENABLE=NO or PROFILE ETHERNET IP_ADDRESS=0.0.0.0.

The LCD module itself consumes negligible power, but the backlight's power usage is significant. By default, the
backlight will switch off 30 seconds after the last key press.

The Analog Subsystem figures represent the power used while performing an analog measurement. This power does
not need to be added when calculating average power consumption, as it has already been incorporated into the Core
Hardware calculation. It is included here to assist in calculating the peak power demand.

The figure quoted for the 12V Power Output is the "no load" consumption which will be present whenever the power
output is enabled (PWR12V=1, or during a CEM20 measurement). The additional power drawn by an external device
connected to the 12V output is shown separately.

The quoted CEM20 power consumption is for when it is actively in use i.e. its relays are enabled. Only one CEM20 will
be active at any one time. CEM20s which are powered but idle draw minimal power (10mW).

The battery charge current will be close to zero once the battery is fully charged; for a flat battery it will be up to 600 mA
(3600 mW).

For integrated modem models, the modem draws zero power when it is not in use. The "idle" power is applicable
during the network registration process (typically 60s) and while the modem is online but not actively sending data.

For integrated modem models, the indicated power values are average values. Peak power usage can be up to
3500mW for the DT8xM3 and 1700mW for the DT8xM2.
For hardware modules which are powered during sleep mode (e.g. PWR OUT output), their power consumption can be
simply added to the core hardware average power consumption calculated above.
For modules which are not powered during sleep mode (e.g. 12V output) it is necessary to scale their power usage according
to the percentage of time that the logger spends awake, which can be estimated from the following table:
Scan rate
0 analog channels
5 analog channels
30 analog channels
300 analog channels
2 sec and below
3 sec
5 sec
10 sec
1 min
10 min
1 hour
10 hour and above
100%
24%
15%
7%
1.2%
0.1%
0.02%
0%
100%
34%
20%
10%
1.7%
0.2%
0.03%
0%
100%
100%
38%
19%
3.2%
0.3%
0.05%
0%
100%
100%
100%
100%
19%
1.9%
0.3%
0.03%
Table 16: Approx. percentage of time spent awake
 Example 1
A DT85 is powered by an external 12V supply, is running a 10 second schedule with 5 analog channels, and the 12V power
output is enabled with a 200mW load connected. The Ethernet port is disabled.
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Using Table 11, the average power consumption for the core hardware is 420mW. We now need to add the power used by
the 12V power output (550+200 = 750mW, from Table 15). But from Table 16, the logger spends only 10% of its time awake,
so this hardware module will, on average, contribute 750 x 10% = 75mW. The overall average power consumption is
therefore 420 + 75 = 495mW.
 Example 2
A remote monitoring station consists of a DT80L measuring and logging 10 analog channels and 5 digital channels every 5
minutes. It is powered by a 12V solar-charged battery. The Ethernet port is disabled.
Using Table 13, we need to interpolate between the 5 and 30 analog channel columns, and between the 1 and 10 minute
schedule rate rows. So we estimate 16 mW average power usage for a 5 minute schedule. Note that we can disregard the
digital channel measurements as the power usage will be negligible compared to the analog channels. We also assume that
Ethernet and the LCD backlight will be disabled, so there is no extra power usage there.
The solar panel and external battery can now be sized based on these calculated power requirements (16 mW average).
The power system (i.e. the external battery) will also need to be able to handle the peak power demand, which can be
calculated by adding up the worst case instantaneous consumption figures: 1300mW (core hardware, active power state) +
analog subsystem (650 mW). This works out to around 2W, or 200 mA @ 12V.
 Example 3
A DT85 is powered by an external 12V supply and is set up to poll a network of SDI-12 sensors every 5 minutes. It takes a
total of 30 seconds to power up and read all of the sensors. The SDI-12 network is powered by the DT85's switched 12V
output, and draws a total of 800 mW. The Ethernet port is disabled.
In this case we cannot just look up the average power consumption for a 5 minute schedule with zero analog channels,
because the long SDI-12 measurement will keep the logger awake for much longer.
Instead, we need to estimate how long the logger is spending in each of its power states. In this case:

allow 2 seconds for the logger to wake up and do the actual SDI-12 communications, logging, etc. (active power state)

allow 30 seconds of doing nothing waiting for the sensors to return values (idle power state)

and sleep for the remaining 4 minutes and 28 seconds (268 seconds) (sleep power state).
The power consumption for each power state is listed in Table 9 – 1800, 500 and 60 mW for the active, idle and sleep states
respectively.
We also need to allow for the power drawn from the 12V output terminal by the SDI-12 network, which will be 550 mW for the
power supply plus 800 mW for the load (1350 mW total). This power output will be active for 32 seconds.
So if we average the power consumption over the 5 minute (300 second) schedule interval:
Ave Power = (1800+1350)mW x 2/300 + (500+1350)mW x 30/300 + 60mW x 268/300 = 260 mW
 Example 4
80 thermocouples are connected to two CEM20 modules controlled by a DT80, and are measured once a minute. The
CEM20s are powered by the DT80's 12V output. The Ethernet port is disabled.
CEM20 measurements take about twice as long as regular measurements, so this system is roughly equivalent to sampling
160 analog channels. Using Table 11, we estimate the average core hardware power drawn from an external 12V supply to
be 300mW.
We now need to add the power used by the 12V output and the CEM20s, which will be 550+350 = 900mW, from Table 15).
From Table 16, we estimate that the logger spends about 10% of its time awake, so the CEM20s will, on average, contribute
900 x 10% = 90mW. The overall average power consumption is therefore approximately 300 + 90 = 390mW.
 Example 5
A DT82EM3 powered by a 12V supply is set up to sample 2 analog channels every 10 seconds and transmit the resulting
data daily at 9am via modem to an FTP server. Ethernet is disabled. The modem is configured to stay online for a minimum
of 10 minutes during this process to allow the user to connect via dEX in case any maintenance is required. In this example
the modem is in an area with 3G network coverage.
Using Table 13, we estimate the average core power consumption to be 120mW.
Based on the rule of thumb of 10 bytes per sample plus 10 per schedule iteration, a total of 24 x 60 x 6 x (10 + 2 x 10) =
260kbytes of data. If the 3G data rate is, say, 15kbyte/s then the data will take about 17 seconds to transfer, which is fairly
negligible compared to the modem startup and network registration time (60s) plus the configured minimum session time (10
minutes).
So assuming that each day the modem spends 640 seconds idle and 20s actively sending then the additional daily power
use for the modem is, from Table 15, 640 x 1600 + 20 x 2500 = 1074000 mW.s, so the increase in overall average power
would be 1074000 / (24x60x60) = 13 mW
Note also that the logger is now spending an extra 680s awake each day, so you need to add this additional power.
Assuming that the logger is predominately in the idle state (350mW) during this time the average extra power is 680 x 350 /
(24x60x60) = 3 mW
The total average power use would therefore be about 136 mW. However some additional margin would need to be added to
allow for communications retries and time spent online using dEX.
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Note that peak power consumption could be much higher: 1300mW (core hardware, active power state) + 650mW (analog
subsystem) + 3500mW (modem), makes a total of about 5500mW (450mA @ 12V). It is necessary to ensure that the
external battery can deliver this current for a short period while maintaining its output voltage.
 Example 6
The DT82EM3 in the previous example is reconfigured to send the data every 30 minutes. No minimum session time is
configured, and the minimum idle time is reduced from the default of 120s to 10s (the minimum setting).
There has been no change to the sample rate, so the average core power use remains at 120mW.
Only 5kbyte of data is now being sent each time, which will typically be transferred in less than a second, so it can be
ignored. However each day the modem now spends about 48 x (60+10) = 3360 seconds in the idle state (1600mW for 3G),
as 48 times a day it now needs to power up and register (60s) then wait for the connection to be idle for 10s. During this time
the logger also needs to be awake, in its idle power state (350mW)
So the total power usage is 120 + 3360 x (1600+350) / (24x60x60) = 195 mW.
Incidentally, you could trim 15mW from this by forcing the modem to use a GSM connection (PROFILE MODEM
SERVICE=GSM), as the difference in data transfer time would be negligible but the idle power consumption is now 1200mW
rather than 1600mW.
Battery Life
Once the average power consumption for the application has been calculated, we can estimate how long the DT80's internal
battery will be able to keep the logger operating.
For a lead acid battery, the battery voltage is relatively constant during discharge, then drops rapidly once the battery is
nearly flat. The DT80 will automatically enter an indefinite forced sleep mode once the terminal voltage drops below about
5.5V. The "battery life" is therefore defined as the elapsed time between disconnecting external power and the DT80 being
forced into sleep mode.
The quoted capacity of a lead acid battery (e.g. 1.2Ah) is the energy that can be extracted from the battery at a 20 hour
discharge rate. In other words if you draw 1.2/20 amps (60 mA, or 360 mW) then the battery will last for 20 hours. It does not
follow, however, that if you draw 600 mA (10 times more) then the battery will last for 2 hours (10 times less). In fact it will last
for closer to 1 hour.
The maximum instantaneous discharge current for a lead acid battery is typically three times the capacity, i.e. 3.6A (21W) for
a 1.2Ah battery. (At this rate the battery life would be only about 3 minutes.)
At the other end of the scale (very low discharge currents), the self-discharge rate of the battery can become significant. A
lead acid battery will typically lose 3% of its capacity per month at 20°C (1.5% per month at 0°C, 10% per month at 40°C).
The following table takes all these effects into account, and can be used to estimate the life of a new, fully charged 1.2Ah
(DT80/81) or 4.0Ah (DT85) battery, given a calculated average power consumption:
Average power
consumption from
battery
Approx 1.2Ah
battery life
Approx 4.0Ah
battery life
5000 mW
2000 mW
1000 mW
500 mW
200 mW
100 mW
50 mW
20 mW
10 mW
5 mW
2 mW
0.5 hours
2 hours
5 hours
12 hours
36 hours
3 days
6 days
15 days
30 days
1.5 months
4 months
3 hours
10 hours
24 hours
48 hours
5 days
10 days
20 days
45 days
3 months
5 months
11 months
Table 17: Approximate lead acid battery life
The above assumes a battery ambient temperature of 20°C.
At 40°C, the battery life will be slightly improved at high discharge currents, but will be significantly shorter at low discharge
currents, due to the accelerated self-discharge rate.
At 0°C, the overall battery capacity will be reduced by about 20% (compared to 20°C), so the battery life for high and mid
discharge rates will be shortened. However, the self-discharge rate will also be reduced, so for very low discharge rates the
battery life will be comparable to that for 20°C.
 Example 1
A DT85 is set up to measure 10 analog channels every 5 seconds. How long can it run using the internal 4.0Ah battery?
The first step is to calculate the average power consumption. Using Table 10, we estimate the core hardware power
consumption at 300mW for a 5 second schedule with 10 analog channels. No other hardware modules (e.g. Ethernet) are
used, so we take this value as the overall power consumption.
Using Table 17, we see that at 300 mW the battery life should be around 3-4 days.
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 Example 2
A DT80 is powered by the supplied 15V plug pack and every 10 seconds it reads 2 analog channels and polls a serial sensor
(which we assume has its own battery backed power supply). Communications with the host computer use the Ethernet
interface. For how long will the logger be able to run in the event of a mains power failure?
The Ethernet interface is enabled, so the DT80 will normally not sleep, as going to sleep will cause any network connections
to be disconnected. We therefore cannot use Table 10 to estimate average power consumption, because this table assumes
that the logger will sleep between scans.
Instead, we will assume that the DT80 spends:

1 second doing the communications and measurements, logging the result etc. (active power state, analog subsystem
enabled, Ethernet enabled)

9 seconds waiting for the next scan to come around (idle power state, analog subsystem disabled, Ethernet enabled)
Using Table 9, the average core hardware power consumption when battery powered will be 1200mW while active and
300mW while idle. Using Table 15, the analog subsystem will add 650mW while enabled, and Ethernet adds 300mW.
Putting this all together:
Ave Power = (1200+650+300)mW x 1/10 + (300+300)mW x 9/10 = 755 mW
Finally, from Table 17 we see that the DT80's 1.2Ah battery should keep the logger running for about 8 hours.
Minimising Power Consumption
In order to minimise power consumption, the general aims are to:

disable hardware modules which are not required, and

maximise the time spent in the "sleep" power state (see Sleep Mode (P284))
Disable Unnecessary Hardware
 Analog Measurement System
Setting P21=0 (which is the default) will minimise power consumption. When an analog measurement is due, the analog
subsystem will be switched on, then the DT80 will wait 50 ms for it to stabilise and then take the measurement. The analog
power will remain on until there are no more schedules to execute; hence any subsequent analog measurements in the
schedule or any other schedule due to be executed at the same time will not include this 50ms delay.
For high speed sampling, where power consumption is less of a concern, it is preferable to set P21=1. In this case the
analog subsystem remains powered all the time (except in sleep mode), which removes the need for the 50ms delays. For
situations where the logger stays awake all the time, this setting will also minimise differences between readings due to the
analog section's warm-up characteristic, which can take a few minutes to fully stabilise (see Analog Warm Up Time (P352)).
 CEM20
Setting P28=0 (which is the default) will cause the CEM20 power (i.e. the DT80 12V output) to be managed in a similar way
to the analog subsystem power when P21=0. That is, the power output will be switched on only during schedules which
include a CEM20 analog measurement.
 Ethernet Port
The Ethernet interface is enabled by default, and will consume power even if no Ethernet cable is connected. If Ethernet
connectivity is not required then the port should be disabled, as follows:
PROFILE ETHERNET ENABLE=NO
 Serial Ports
The serial ports also use a small amount of power while idle, so if they are not required then they can be disabled, too:
PROFILE SERSEN_PORT FUNCTION=DISABLE
PROFILE HOST_PORT FUNCTION=DISABLE
PROFILE USB_PORT FUNCTION=DISABLE
 LCD Backlight
Parameter P20 controls the operation of the LCD backlight. By default (P20=2), it will switch on when there is user activity
(e.g. key pressed, or USB cable inserted), then switch off a short time (P17 seconds) later. This should be adequate for most
applications. For minimum power usage it can be forced to be always off by setting P20=0.
Maximise Sleep Time
The following guidelines will help maximise the time that the logger spends asleep, thereby minimising power consumption:

Scan as slowly as possible – don't scan every minute if you can get away with scanning every 5 minutes

Align schedule intervals to minimise the number of wakeups, even if this means that some schedules sample more
frequently. For example:
RA40S 1V
RB20S 2V
is generally better than
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RA40S 1V
RB30S 2V
because the two schedules are more likely to be processed together.

Reduce the P17 setting (delay before entering sleep mode, seconds), say P17=5, so that if a wakeup event does
occur, the logger will go back to sleep quickly.

Consider reducing the P4 setting (wake-up latency, ms), say P4=100. This will result in the DT80 allowing less time
for the wake process than it actually takes, so it will therefore be able to sleep a little longer. Following wake, the DT80
will now not have to wait for the schedule's appointed time to come around – it will have already passed. The schedule
will then be executed immediately, albeit slightly late.

It is normally not recommended to change the P3 (minimum sleep time) setting. Sleeping for periods shorter than 1.5
seconds is generally counter-productive: the additional processing time associated with waking up outweighs the
lower sleep mode power usage, leading to a net increase in the average power consumption.
Optimise Modem Communications
The integrated modem can use a significant amount of power so the aim is to minimise the amount of time spent with the
modem powered up. For example:

Upload data infrequently. As shown in Example 6
power than unloading daily (75mW vs. 13mW)

If the volume of data to be transferred is not great, consider using GSM in preference to 3G. Using the DT8xM3 model,
you can force it to use GSM with the following profile setting:
(P282)
above, unloading every 30 minutes can use 5 times more
PROFILE MODEM SERVICE=GSM
If available in your market, choosing the DT8xM2 model (GSM only) over the M3 will result in an even more significant
reduction in power consumption.

If you don't need to interactively access the logger remotely, set the minimum session and minimum idle times to the
minimum value, so that the modem is switched off as soon as possible:
PROFILE MODEM_SESSION MIN_DURATION_S=0
PROFILE MODEM_SESSION MIN_IDLE_S=10
(Note however that if the connection quality is poor then it may be necessary to increase MIN_IDLE_S to avoid
unwanted disconnections cope in the event of long network delays.)

If possible, use SMS rather than email for alarms.

For large data transfers, unloading to email may be faster (and therefore use less power) than unloading to an FTP
server because the data is being transferred to the carrier's own SMTP server rather than going over the Internet to
the FTP server. Note however that for email attachments, any binary file (such as a DBD format data file) must be
encoded into printable form for transmission, which can increase the data volume by about 30%. This is not the case
for FTP.
Sleep Mode
The DT80 has a low power sleep mode that significantly reduces the power consumption – to as low as 2 mW when running
from the internal battery. While asleep no measurements or processing can be done, but the state of the current job is
preserved. The DT80 will automatically wake from sleep when a measurement is due, or some other event occurs.
About Sleep Mode
While the DT80 is asleep:

The LCD and all front panel LEDs are switched off.

All communications ports (Ethernet, USB, serial) are disabled. Any USB or TCP/IP connections will be disconnected
when the logger goes to sleep and will need to be re-established by host software after the logger wakes.

Digital output states and the state of the latching relay are maintained.

Digital inputs are not scanned – transitions will not wake the logger, trigger schedules or be counted by low speed
counter channels (1..4C channel types).

Pulses on the high speed counter inputs (1C-4C terminals, 1..4HSC channel types) will be counted, without waking
the logger. As discussed in Counting While Asleep (P322), it is necessary to wake the logger periodically using a timed
schedule to ensure that the 16-bit hardware counters do not overflow.

The 12V power output is switched off.

The PWR OUT power output will still be available, assuming that the logger is externally powered.

All parameter settings, CV values, comms port settings and other job-related state information is preserved.
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Wake Events
Once asleep, the DT80 will stay that way until one of the following events occur:

a timed schedule becomes due

a modem communications session time window becomes due

a modem/Ethernet communications session retry is due

a keypad button is pressed

the WK (wake) input terminal is pulled to logic low

a character is received on the serial sensor port, or there is a transition on the CTS line

external power is connected

a USB communications cable is connected

a character is received on the host RS232 port
Any of these will cause the DT80 to wake. If the reason for waking was a timed schedule, the DT80 will execute the schedule,
then immediately go back to sleep (if there are no other schedules due within the next few seconds). During this time the
LCD and backlight will remain off.
For all other wake sources, the DT80 will stay awake for at least the period specified by parameter P17 (default 30s). This
timer will be reset if any further wake events occur, or if data is received on any comms port. Once the timer expires the DT80
will go back to sleep.
Note also that:

Event triggered schedules (i.e. schedules triggered by digital input transitions, counters, serial data or CV values) will
not cause the logger to wake. Only timed schedules will cause a wake up.

If the DT80 is woken by receipt of RS232 data on the host or serial sensor port, the first character (and possibly some
of the following ones) will be lost. You should therefore always send a dummy character (e.g. LF) to wake the DT80,
then wait about one second before sending the first actual command.
Controlling Sleep
By default, the DT80 will not go into sleep mode if any of the following are true:

a schedule or command is being executed, or is due to execute soon

the Ethernet port is enabled and a cable is connected

a USB cable is connected

a PPP session is currently active

a modem or Ethernet communications session is active

a job has been partially entered

there has been "activity" (e.g. key press, command, Modbus/web/FTP request) within the last P17 seconds
Note that any Ethernet and USB connections are terminated whenever the DT80 goes to sleep – which is why the DT80 will
by default disallow sleep while either of these ports are connected.
Some of the above conditions can be overridden using the P15 parameter, as follows.
Setting
Result
P15=0 (default)
P15=1
P15=2
P15=3
P15=4
Allow sleep, but not if externally powered or if Ethernet/USB is connected
Allow sleep, but not if Ethernet/USB is connected
Do not allow sleep
Allow sleep
Allow sleep, but not if externally powered
For example, if you set P15=3 then the DT80 will be allowed to go to sleep, even if the logger is externally powered or
Ethernet/USB is connected.
Forced Sleep Mode
The DT80 provides some protection against gradual power failure (e.g. the internal battery becoming discharged). If it
detects that the supply voltage is becoming critically low (terminal voltage less than about 5.5V), the DT80 will automatically
close all store files and force the unit into sleep mode. The DT80 will remain asleep until the power supply recovers to an
adequate level. During this time schedules will not execute.
Once power is restored, a hard reset will occur.
An entry will be added to the event log (P262) any time that the DT80 enters forced sleep mode.
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Part O – Sensors & Channels
Overview
This section describes how to use the DT80's analog, digital and serial inputs to measure many different physical quantities.
The focus here is on the measurement process – connecting up a sensor and successfully reading it.
The following topics are covered for each sensor type:

an overview of how a measurement is made

wiring configurations – how to physically connect to the DT80's input terminals. For reference, each wiring
configuration presented here is given a number, e.g. "V1" for voltage wiring #1.

the applicable DT80 channel types and channel options – that is, how to program the DT80 to read the particular
sensor or measure the particular quantity.
This section also includes some general information about how the DT80's analog measurement system works, and how to
get the best out of it.
What Can Be Measured?
Analog channel types:

voltage

current and current loops

resistance

ratiometric resistance (bridges)

temperature – thermocouples, thermistors, RTDs and IC sensors

frequency

strain gauges – bridges, vibrating wire, Carlson sensors

logic state
Digital channel types:

digital inputs

digital outputs

pulse counters – standard and high speed

phase encoder (quadrature) inputs
Serial channel types:

SDI-12

generic serial sensors
Analog Channels
EXT EXT EXT EXT
RELAY
ANALOG
* +1- # * +3- # * +5- #
* +2- # * +4- # * # * #
For detailed specifications, see Analog Inputs (P359).
About the Analog Input Terminals
Each of the DT80’s analog inputs has four terminals: * (Excite), + (Plus), – (Minus) and # (Return).
Any analog measurement involves at least two terminals: a signal terminal and a return terminal. At the core of most
measurements is a voltage measurement between these two terminals.
To specify which terminals to use, the channel type (V, TK, BGI etc.) is prefixed by an input number (1, 2, 3 etc.) and a
terminal specifier.
The terminal specifier can be either:

nothing : measure between + and – terminals,

* : measure between * and # terminals,
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
+ : measure between + and # terminals,

- : measure between – and # terminals, or

# : measure between # and AGND/EXT# terminals
For example, the command 3+V causes the DT80 to measure the voltage between the + and # terminals on analog input 3,
while 1R means measure the voltage between + and – on analog input 1 (which will then be used to calculate the unknown
resistance, provided it is connected as shown in the wiring diagrams).
A particular channel type will not necessarily support all of the above terminal specifiers. For example, the # specifier is only
available for current-based channel types.
Voltage
Voltage (difference in electrical potential) is the fundamental quantity that is measured during any analog measurement.
The DT80 measures a voltage by:
1.
connecting the required input terminals to the instrumentation amplifier by closing the appropriate input relays and
selecting input attenuators if required;
2.
converting the amplified signal to a frequency using a precision Voltage Controlled Oscillator (VCO);
3.
digitally measuring the frequency and calculating the resultant voltage reading;
4.
possibly repeating steps 2 and 3 using a different amplifier gain setting if required.
Note Because all analog measurements (including current, resistance, thermocouple, etc.) are fundamentally voltage
measurements, much of the information in this section is applicable to them, too.
Channel Types
The following channel types will directly return a voltage value:
Channel Type
Description
Units
V
HV
voltage, attenuators disabled by default (max input 3V)
voltage, attenuators enabled by default (max input 30V)
mV
V
For example, to measure the voltage between the * and # terminals on analog input 2 you would include the channel
definition 2*V in your DT80 program (or, to make a single "immediate" measurement, simply send 2*V to the DT80's
command interface, e.g. by typing it into the DeTransfer send window).
Channel Options
The following channel options are commonly used when measuring voltages:

GL30MV, GL300MV, GL3V and GL30V (gain lock) allow the DT80's input gain to be locked on a particular range.
See Gain Ranges and Attenuators below.

A (attenuator) and NA (no attenuator; default) allow the DT80's 10:1 input attenuators to be switched in or out. See

ESn (extra samples) specifies that n additional measurements should be taken and the result averaged. This can help
Gain Ranges and Attenuators below.
with very noisy signals.

a channel factor (a floating point number) can be specified as a simple scaling factor. The measured voltage will be
multiplied by this factor before being returned. For more advanced scaling options, see Manipulating Data (P60).
Gain Ranges and Attenuators
The DT80's instrumentation amplifier has three switchable gain settings. These give three basic voltage measurement
ranges (30mV, 300mV and 3V full scale).
The analog inputs also include switchable 10:1 attenuators, which effectively provide a fourth range (30V).
By default the appropriate gain range is selected automatically. The first time a channel is measured, the DT80 will select the
highest input range (3V if attenuators are not enabled, 30V if they are). If the reading is close to zero then up to two additional
measurements will be made on progressively lower input ranges.
For subsequent measurements of the same channel, the DT80 will initially use the same input range as was used previously.
If the reading is overrange or close to zero then the input range will be adjusted up or down respectively and the
measurement repeated.
The auto-ranging process may therefore cause the time taken to sample a channel to be increased on occasion. To avoid
this, the gain can be locked on a particular setting, using the GLx channel options.
Note that auto-ranging does not affect the attenuator setting. Each channel definition command specifies (either implicitly or
explicitly) whether the attenuators should be on or off.
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The following table summarises all possible gain/attenuator options
Channel definition
Attenuators
Input range
Units
1V
1V(GL30MV)
1V(GL300MV)
1V(GL3V)
1V(GL30V)
1V(A)
1V(A,GL30MV)
1V(A,GL300MV)
1V(A,GL3V)
1V(A,GL30V)
1HV
1HV(GL30MV)
1HV(GL300MV)
1HV(GL3V)
1HV(GL30V)
1HV(NA)
1HV(NA,GL30MV)
1HV(NA,GL300MV)
1HV(NA,GL3V)
1HV(NA,GL30V)
off
off
off
off
error
on
error
on
on
on
on
error
on
on
on
off
off
off
off
error
auto 30mV, 300mV, 3V
30mV
300mV
3V
mV
mV
mV
mV
auto 300mV, 3V, 30V
mV
300mV
3V
30V
auto 300mV, 3V, 30V
mV
mV
mV
V
300mV
3V
30V
auto 30mV, 300mV, 3V
30mV
300mV
3V
V
V
V
V
V
V
V
Warning Maximum input voltage on any analog input is ±30V dc, relative to the AGND/EXT# terminal. If this is exceeded
then permanent damage may occur.
Input Configurations
By definition, a voltage is a measurement between two points. Multiple separate voltage measurements can share a
common reference point, or each measurement can have an independent reference point.
The reference point, be it shared or unshared, need not be at ground potential. All voltage measurements made by the DT80
are therefore differential measurements – they measure only the difference in voltage between the two terminals.
Another way of looking at it is that the DT80 will reject (ignore) the terminals' common mode voltage – that is, the voltage
that is common to both terminals. So if a channel's + terminal is at 7V (relative to the DT80's analog ground) and the –
terminal is at 5V then the 1V channel will return a value of 2V. The common mode voltage (5V) has been rejected.
Important The DT80 can effectively remove the unwanted common mode component from the input signals provided that
the common mode limits for each terminal is not exceeded (max. 3.5V/35V for attenuators off/on, relative to the DT80's
analog ground). Note that because the DT80's analog ground is isolated, it can normally "float" up to match whatever
common mode voltage is present on the sensor being measured, thereby keeping the common mode voltage seen by the
DT80's amplifier within limits.
 Shared-Terminal Inputs
In a shared-terminal configuration, a sensor’s "return" or "negative" wire is usually connected to the channel's # terminal, as
shown in V1 – Shared-Terminal Voltage Inputs (P289). The remaining sensor wire (the "positive" or "signal") is connected to
any of the channel’s other three terminals.
Each of the DT80's analog inputs can therefore support up to three shared terminal voltage inputs.
For shared-terminal inputs, the channel number is given a suffix indicating the terminal to which the positive wire is
connected. For example, the channel definition 1+V specifies a shared-terminal voltage input applied to channel 1 between
the + and # terminals (and likewise 1*V and 1-V).
 Independent Analog Inputs
An independent, or "unshared" input is one that connects to its own terminals and does not share any of those terminals with
any other inputs. As shown in V2 – Independent Voltage Inputs (P289), each analog input can support up to two independent
voltage inputs – one between the + and – terminals (1V) and one between * and # (1*V).
For the DT80 Series 2 and DT85, these two independent inputs (i.e. 1V and 1*V) operate identically. For the DT80/81
however, they have slightly different characteristics. In particular, referencing a measurement to the # terminal (i.e. the 1*V
configuration) provides a better ground reference, so in most cases it is preferred. See Input Termination (P351) for more
details.
Analog Input Isolation
The DT80 uses relay multiplexers to switch input channels through to the instrumentation amplifier one at a time. All four
terminals of each analog input channel remain disconnected from the DT80's electronics, except when that channel is being
measured. This means that each analog input channel is totally isolated from any other input channel.
What about the case where two independent inputs are connected to a single analog input channel?
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For the DT80/81 Series 1, these two "independent" inputs are in fact not completely isolated from each other. This is
because for these logger models, all four terminals for a given channel are switched together. So if you are measuring 1V
(voltage between + and – input terminals), bear in mind that the * and # terminals will also be connected to the DT80 circuitry.
This may cause problems if the two sensors have significantly different common mode voltages. If this is the case then they
should be connected to separate input channels.
For the DT80 Series 2 and DT85, the two pairs of input terminals (+ - and * #) can be switched independently. This means
that when doing a 1V measurement, the * and # terminals remain isolated. Similarly, when doing a 1*V measurement, the +
and – terminals remain isolated. The upshot of this is that sensor V1 (Figure 108) could have 10V common mode voltage and
sensor V2 could have -2V common mode and both would still be measured correctly. On a DT80/81, these two sensors
would need to be connected to separate channels (e.g. 1V and 2V).
V1 – Shared-Terminal Voltage Inputs
In this configuration up to three separate voltage inputs can be connected to one analog input channel. The # terminal acts
as a shared common. See Shared-Terminal Analog Inputs (P20)
Shielded cable may be helpful when the signal has a high output impedance or when noise pickup from other cables is a
problem. Ensure that the shield is only connected to ground at one end of the cable, either to a DGND terminal or the earth
point on the side of the DT80 case.
V1
V2
*
+
-#
V3
Figure 107: Wiring for shared-terminal voltage input
To measure
Use the command
V1
V2
V3
1*V
1+V
1-V
V2 – Independent Voltage Inputs
In this configuration each voltage measurement is independent of any other (no wires are shared). The trade-off is that at
most two voltages can be measured per analog input channel.
For the DT80 Series 2 and DT85, the two measurements are completely isolated – while measuring V1, V2 is disconnected,
and vice versa.
This is not the case, however, for the DT80/81, where both voltage sources will be connected to the logger electronics (and
therefore referenced to the logger's analog ground) when either is being measured. This can cause measurement errors if
the two inputs have significantly different common mode voltages. See Input Switching (P350).
As with shared terminal inputs, a cable shield may be helpful when the signal has a high output impedance or when noise
pickup for other cables is a problem. Ensure that the shield is only connected to ground at one end of the cable, either to a
DGND terminal or the earth point on the side of the DT80 case.
V2
*+
-#
V1
Figure 108: Wiring for independent voltage input.
To measure
Use the command
V1
V2
1V
1*V
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Current
Current (rate of electrical charge movement) is measured by inserting a known shunt resistance into the circuit, and
measuring the voltage across it. Using Ohm's Law, Current = Voltage / Resistance.
The I channel type returns the current value in milliamps (mA).
The DT80 incorporates an internal 100Ω shunt resistor between the # terminal and analog ground. Alternatively, an external
shunt may be used. The value of the external shunt must be known and must be specified when the channel is defined.
For example, the channel definition 3#I will measure the current which enters at channel 3's # terminal, flows through the
internal shunt, and returns via the AGND/EXT# terminal.
On the other hand, 2+I(51.2) will return the current flowing through a 51.2Ω shunt wired between the + and # terminals
of channel 2.
Channel Options
The following channel options are commonly used when measuring currents:

A (attenuator) specifies that the DT80's input attenuator should be enabled, which allows voltages of up to 30V to be

the excitation options specify how the current source is powered: N (assume external power supply; default), V
(enable internal 4.5V voltage source on * terminal) or E (assume external supply connected to EXT* terminal).

E (external excitation) specifies that the power supply for the current sources is connected to the DT80's EXT*
terminal. This will then be automatically connected to each current source for the duration of a measurement, then
disconnected.

MDn (measurement delay) specifies that the DT80 should wait n ms (default 10ms) after selecting a channel before
starting the actual measurement. This can be useful in conjunction with the E option, as it allows the sensor some time
to stabilise after power is applied to it.

the channel factor specifies the shunt resistance in ohms (default 100.0 Ω)

GLx, ESn, as for voltage measurements
measured across the shunt resistors. Note that this option is not available if the internal shunt is used.
The following sections describe some common wiring configurations for measuring current.
C1 – Shared-Terminal Current Inputs with External Shunts
In this configuration up to three separate current sources can be measured. This is done by measuring the voltages across
the shunts in the shared terminal configuration; see V1 – Shared-Terminal Voltage Inputs (P289).
To avoid cross-channel coupling, connect the bottom of the shunts with the minimum of shared resistance to the sense point.
The resistance of each shunt should be specified as the channel factor.
I1 I2 I3
+
24V
DC
*
+#
-
Figure 109: Wiring for shared-terminal current input using external shunt
To measure
Use the command
I1
I2
I3
1*I(R1)
1+I(R2)
1-I(R3)
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C2 – Independent Current Inputs with External Shunts
In this configuration up to two separate current sources can be measured. This is done by measuring the voltages across the
shunts in the independent terminal configuration; see V2 – Independent Voltage Inputs (P289)
The resistance of each shunt should be specified as the channel factor.
I2 I1
+
R2
24V
DC
*
+
-
R1
#
-
Figure 110: Wiring for independent-terminal current input using external shunts
To measure
Use the command
I1
I2
1I(R1)
1*I(R2)
C3 – Independent Current Input using the internal shunt
In this configuration the DT80's internal 100 Ω shunt resistor is used. The internal shunt resistor is connected between the
channels # terminal and AGND (EXT# on DT80 Series 2/DT85).
Note that input attenuation is not available for # terminal measurements. This means that the maximum current that can be
measured using the internal shunt is approximately 30mA. For higher currents, or situations where the common mode
voltage relative to analog ground exceeds 3V, it will be necessary to use an external shunt.
*
+
#
+

24V
DC
I
EXT *
A GND/EXT#
-
Figure 111: Wiring for Independent current input using internal shunt
To measure
Use the command
I
1#I
C4 – Independent Current using internal shunt and switched excitation
In this configuration the DT80 switches a single excitation supply through to each channel as it is measured (this means that
between measurements the current source will be unpowered).

*+
-#
I
24V +
DC
-
EXT *
A GND/EXT#
Figure 112: Wiring for independent current using internal shunt and external excitation
To measure
Use the command
I
1#I(E)
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4–20mA Current Loops
Many different sensor types provide a 4-20mA current output, where the current is proportional to the quantity being
measured.
The channel type for a 4-20mA current loop measurement is L; channel options are as for Current measurements; see
Current (P290).
To read a current loop sensor, the DT80 first measures the current. Any of the Current wiring configurations may be used.
The measured current is then scaled so that the channel returns 0% for 4mA and 100% for 20mA.
For example, if a current loop sensor is connected as per C3 – Independent Current Input using the internal shunt(P291) then
it would be read using 1#L.
A span is often applied to this value so that the final reported value is in the proper engineering units for the quantity being
measured.
For example, if a pressure sensor with 4-20mA output operates over a range of 100-500kPa then
BEGIN S1=100,500"kPa" RA2S 4#L(S1) END
will return a pressure reading in kPa every 2s. The loop would in this case be connected across the 4# and AGND/EXT#
terminals, making use of the internal shunt resistor.
One advantage of a current loop system is that a cable fault can be readily detected. An open circuit loop will give a negative
reading, normally -25% (0mA), which can then be detected in an ALARM statement.
 Multiple Devices in One Loop
Multiple measurement devices can be connected in series in the one current loop. For example, a current loop might include
both a DT80 and a 4-20mA digital panel display module, in series. (There can only be one 4-20mA sensor in a given loop.)
In these situations care needs to be taken to ensure that the DT80's common mode voltage limits are not exceeded,
especially if the DT80 is placed "above" the other devices in the loop. The DT80's input attenuators may be enabled using
the A channel option, which will increase the common mode limit to ±35V, relative to AGND/EXT#
Note If there are multiple devices in the loop then the loop should be continuously powered. This implies the use of an
external shunt (C1 – Shared-Terminal Current Inputs with External Shunts (P290)), as the DT80 normally disconnects the
EXT# terminal between measurements.
Resistance
Resistance (degree of impediment to current flow) is measured by passing a known excitation current through the
resistance and measuring the voltage across it. From Ohm's law, Resistance = Voltage / Current.
The R channel type returns the resistance value in ohms (Ω).
The DT80 incorporates two precision current sources. When measuring a resistance, one or other of these sources is
switched through to the * (Excite) terminal, which is then connected to the unknown resistance. (On Series 3 models,
excitation can also be directed to the + or – terminals.)
By default, an accurately known current of approximately 200μA is generated by the DT80. This allows measurement of
resistances up to about 10kΩ. For low resistances (up to 700Ω), the II channel option can be used to select a higher
excitation current (2.5mA), which will allow a more accurate reading.
One problem which occurs when measuring low resistance values is the fact that the wires used to connect the unknown
resistance to the logger also have resistance. As shown in the wiring diagrams below, there are various ways to overcome
this. These involve the use of separate wires to carry the excitation current and to sense the voltage.
For example, the channel 1R(4W) will perform a four-wire measurement. Excitation current flows out the * terminal,
through the unknown R, and returns to the # terminal. Two separate sense wires connect the + and – terminals to the
unknown R. Because the DT80 has a very high input impedance (>10MΩ), negligible current will flow in these sense wires,
resulting in a negligible voltage drop. The measured voltage will therefore be the voltage across the unknown R only, and will
not include any voltage drop in the current-carrying excitation cables.
The downside of a four-wire measurement is that you need, well, four wires. The three and two wire configurations provide
for reduced cable cost, at the expense of accuracy.
Channel Options
The following channel options are commonly used when measuring resistances:

3W (3 wire; default), 4W (4 wire) or 2W (2 wire; Series 3 only) specifies the type of resistance measurement (number of
wires)

I (200μA excitation; default) or II (2.5mA excitation) specifies the amount of current to be passed through the
resistance.

the channel factor specifies an offset adjustment (ohms) which is subtracted from the measured value. This can be
used to compensate for lead resistance in 2-wire configurations.

GLx, ESn, as for voltage measurements
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R1 – 4-Wire Resistance Inputs
In this configuration the * and # terminals send an excitation current through the unknown resistance while the remaining
terminals sense the voltage across it.
4-wire resistance methods are the most accurate, especially for low resistances.
*
+
#
Figure 113: Wiring for 4-wire resistance input
To measure
Use the command
R
1R(4W)
R2 – 3-Wire Resistance Inputs
In this configuration the DT80 effectively measures the voltage drop in the return lead and uses it to compensate for the
voltage drop in both leads. This assumes that the excite and return lead resistances are equal.
See 3-Wire Compensation (P352) for more details.
*
+
#
Figure 114: Wiring for 3-wire resistance input
To measure
Use the command
R
1R
R3 – 2-Wire Resistance Inputs
2-wire configurations are only recommended if the lead resistance is negligible compared to the resistance being measured.
You can, however, compensate for the lead resistance by inserting a resistor equal to the total lead resistance (excite lead
resistance + return lead resistance) between the – and # terminals, in place of the link shown. This uses the DT80's 3-wire
compensation circuit to effectively subtract the measured voltage drop across the resistor from the reading.
Alternatively, the total lead resistance could be specified as the channel factor, e.g. if the total lead resistance is known to be
2.8 Ω then you would specify the channel as 1R(2.8). (This assumes that the lead resistance remains fixed, which may
not be the case if the temperature varies.)
*
+
-
#
Figure 115: Wiring for 2-wire resistance input
To measure
Use the command
R
1R
R4 – 2-Wire Independent Resistance Inputs
Note This configuration is not available on DT80/81 Series 1 loggers.
A 2-wire measurement can also be made by connecting the resistance to * and # only. This frees up the + and – terminals for
a separate independent measurement. For example, vibrating wire strain gauges often incorporate a thermistor temperature
sensor. This wiring configuration would allow the gauge to be connected to + and – and the thermistor to * and #.
Note that no lead resistance compensation is possible with this configuration (other than by using the channel factor).
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*+
-#
Figure 116: Wiring for 2-wire independent resistance input
To measure
Use the command
R
1*R
R5 – Series 3 2-Wire Resistance Inputs
Note These configurations are only available on Series 3 loggers.
Series 3 models can direct excitation to either the *, + or – terminal. This allows 2-wire resistance measurements to be made
between the + and –, * and #, + and # or – and # terminals.
Use the 2W channel option to select these types of measurements.
*
+
-
#
Figure 117: Wiring for 2-wire independent resistance input (Series 3 only)
To measure
Use the command
R
1R(2W)
R1
R2
R3
*
+
-
#
Figure 118: Wiring for 2-wire shared terminal resistance inputs (Series 3 only)
To measure
Use the command
R1
R2
R3
1*R(2W)
1+R(2W)
1-R(2W)
Note For these 2-wire configurations, the excitation is fixed at 200μA (I). The II channel option is invalid.
These measurements can be useful for detecting open circuit sensors. For example, the following will force an invalid
reading to be logged if a vibrating wire strain gauge is detected as open circuit:
1FW(=1CV,W)
IF(1R(2W)>5000){1CV=99999}
1CV("freq")
R6 – High Resistance Input with Parallel Resistor
Resistance measurements are limited to a maximum of about 10kΩ. This can be extended by wiring a known resistor in
parallel with the resistance being measured. This will, however, reduce the resolution of low resistance measurements.
R
*+
-#
Rp
Figure 119: Wiring for 4-wire resistance input, using a parallel resistor
To measure
Use the command
R
1R(4W,W)
CALC("R~ohm")=(Rp*&1R)/(Rp-&1R)
As shown above, we first read the combined resistance, then calculate the value of R using an expression that references
the combined resistance measurement (&1R). Rp represents the value of the parallel resistor in ohms.
As well as the 4-wire configuration shown here, a parallel resistor can also be used with a 3-wire or 2-wire resistance
measurement.
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In all cases, the parallel resistor (Rp) should be located near the sensor (R), as shown above, so that the lead resistances
can be correctly compensated for.
If it is not practical to locate the resistor near the sensor then it can be located at the logger end of the cable. In this
configuration the best accuracy will be obtained by connecting the sense inputs (+ and -) across Rp (if its resistance is
significantly less than R). If Rp is greater than R then the sense inputs should instead be connected across R, although in this
case the effect of cable resistance is likely to be negligible, given that both R and Rp are high resistances.
 Calculating Parallel Resistor Value
The required value of the parallel resistor Rp is given by:
Rp 
10000  Rmax
Rmax  10000
where Rmax is the maximum resistance required to be measured.
For example, to measure up to 100 kΩ a parallel resistor of about 10kΩ would be suitable.
Bridges
Because of its sensitivity, the Wheatstone bridge circuit is commonly used for the measurement of small changes in
electrical resistance. Applications include load cells, pressure sensors and strain gauges.
Bridge
excitation
voltage
Vex
R1
R2
R4
R3
Bridge
output
voltage
Vout
Figure 120: Wheatstone bridge
Bridges are designed such that under quiescent conditions the ratios R1/R4 and R2/R3 are equal, resulting in a zero output
voltage, Vout. A small change to one or the resistances will then cause a corresponding change to Vout, which can then be
measured accurately using the DT80’s sensitive 30mV range.
When one of the four resistors in a bridge is active (that is, sensitive to the quantity being measured) the circuit is called a
quarter bridge, and the remaining three resistors are called bridge completion resistors. Similarly, half and full bridges
imply two and four active gauges. All completion resistors should be close-tolerance precision resistors.
The DT80 returns all bridge measurements in a ratiometric form with units of parts per million (ppm):
Bout 
Vout
 10 6
Vex
ppm
where:

Vout is the measured bridge output voltage

Vex is the excitation voltage
For a bridge measurement to be accurate, both of these voltages must be known accurately, and any lead or connector
resistances must be compensated for.
Channel Types
The DT80 supports two bridge channel types, which differ by the way in which the excitation voltage Vex is determined.
For a BGV channel, Vex is measured at the bridge; for BGI, the bridge is excited using a known current and then Vex is
calculated from the known current and arm resistance values.
The BGI channel type supports two different wiring variants: a true bridge configuration and a 3-wire "simulated bridge"
which has many of the properties of a bridge.
Channel Types
Description
BGV
BGI(4W)
BGI(3W)
Voltage-excited Wheatstone bridge
Current-excited Wheatstone bridge
Current-excited simulated bridge
For a voltage-excited bridge, two separate measurements are therefore required – one to measure Vex and one to measure
Vout. To provide the maximum flexibility in wiring, this is done using two separate channels (one V, one BGV), which are
linked using the special BR channel option, as described below.
For a current-excited bridge, the nominal arm resistance is specified, and the DT80 uses this, along with the known
excitation current, to calculate Vex.
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Channel Options – BGV
The following channel options are applicable when using BGV channels

the excitation options specify how the bridge is powered: V (use internal 4.5V voltage source; default), E (external
supply connected to EXT* terminal) or N (external supply).

GLx, ESn, as for voltage measurements

the channel factor specifies an offset in ppm, which will be subtracted from the reading. This can be used to “zero”
the output.

the BR (bridge reference) option must be specified for the voltage (V) channel used to measure Vex. This tells the
DT80 to use the measured voltage as Vex for a subsequent BGV channel in the same schedule.
Channel Options – BGI
The following channel options are applicable when using BGI channels

the excitation options specify how the bridge is excited: II (use 2.5mA precision current source; default) or I (use
200μA source).

the wiring options specify the type of bridge: 3W (simulated bridge; default) or 4W (true bridge)

the channel factor specifies the arm resistance, in ohms (default is 350. All arms are assumed to have equal nominal
resistance.
The following sections describe the various bridge wiring configurations.
B1 – 6-Wire BGV Inputs
In this configuration the bridge excitation is supplied by an external supply. This power supply can be either:

a standard supply, max 3V. This allows the DT80 to measure the actual excitation voltage using the * and # terminals
(1*V), as shown in the wiring diagram.

a standard supply in the range 3-6V. This is too large to directly measure using the * and # terminals, so instead we
use the bridge as a 2:1 voltage divider. That is, we measure the voltage between the + and # terminals (1+V), then
scale the result by 2 to give the actual excitation voltage.

a precision 5.00V supply. In this case the DT80 does not measure Vex – it assumes that it is exactly 5.00V. The power
supply should be located close to the bridge to avoid voltage drop due to cable resistance.
Note Using the HV channel type to measure the bridge excitation voltage is not recommended. This channel type is normally
not sufficiently accurate for bridge applications.
Assuming a non-precision power supply, two channel definitions will be required.

The first (1*V) measures the voltage between the * and # terminals, and includes the BR (bridge reference) option
which indicates that its value is to be used as the excitation voltage for subsequent bridge channels in the same
schedule. It is also usually made a working channel (W) because it is merely an intermediate measurement.
If a 3-6V supply is used then the appropriate channel definition would instead be 1+V(2,BR,W): measure between
+ and #, scale by 2 then use as bridge reference.
If a 5.00V precision supply is used then this channel is not required.

The second (1BGV) measures the bridge output voltage between the + and – terminals. The N (no excitation) channel
option is specified because in this configuration the excitation is provided externally.
*+
-#
+
3V
DC
-
Figure 121: Wiring for 6-wire bridge using external voltage excitation
To measure
Use the command
bridge output (3V supply)
bridge output (6V supply)
bridge output (5.00V supply)
1*V(BR,W)
1BGV(N)
1+V(2,BR,W) 1BGV(N)
1BGV(N)
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B2 – 4-Wire BGV Inputs
This configuration is similar to the 6-wire configuration except that the bridge excitation is supplied by the DT80's internal
voltage source (approx 4.5V). This supply is in the range 3-6V, so it requires that the excitation be measured using the +
rather than the * terminal then scaled by 2.
Note also that the V channel option must be specified to tell the DT80 to switch on voltage excitation while the voltage
measurement is being taken. This option is the default for the BGV channel, so it need not be specified.
This configuration is not recommended if the lead lengths are long, because the return wire is carrying the excitation current
and we cannot compensate for the voltage drop over the length of the return wire. This will lead to an inaccurate excitation
voltage measurement, and hence an inaccurate bridge measurement.
*+
-#
Figure 122: Wiring for 4 wire bridge input using internal excitation
To measure
Use the command
bridge output
1+V(BR,2,V,W) 1BGV
Note Using the HV channel type to measure the bridge excitation voltage is not recommended. This channel type is normally
not sufficiently accurate for bridge applications.
B3 – Multiple BGV Half Bridge Inputs
In this configuration, three (or more) separate half bridges are wired in parallel so they share the same power supply and
completion resistors (Rc). This allows three separate bridge measurements to be made per input channel (plus one channel
to measure the excitation.)
The excitation voltage is measured in the same way as for the 6-wire configuration. That is, it is either

measured directly, using * and # terminals, or

measured using the completion resistors as a 2:1 voltage divider, or

assumed to be 5.00V
Then the half bridge output voltages (relative to the junction between the completion resistors) are measured using separate
analog inputs.
Note that the excitation voltage need only be measured once; it will then be used for all subsequent BGV channels in the
same schedule.
+
3V
DC
Rc
Rc
-
*+
-# 1
*+
-# 2
Figure 123: Wiring for multiple half bridges using shared external excitation
To measure
Use the command
3 x bridge outputs (3V supply)
3 x bridge outputs (6V supply)
Connect 1* to Rc junction
3 x bridge outputs (5.00V supply)
1*V(BR,W)
2*BGV(N) 2+BGV(N) 2-BGV(N)
1*V(2,BR,W) 2*BGV(N) 2+BGV(N) 2-BGV(N)
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B4 – 4-Wire BGI Inputs
A current excited bridge is the recommended configuration for 4 wire bridge measurement, especially for bridges that are
distant from the DT80.
In this configuration the DT80's precision current source provides the excitation. To calculate the excitation voltage, the
DT80 needs to know the arm resistance, Ra, which is specified as the channel factor. The default is 350 Ω.
*+
-#
Figure 124: B2 Wiring for 4 wire bridge input using internal excitation
To measure
Use the command
bridge output
1BGI(4W, Ra)
B5 – 3-Wire BGI Input
In this configuration Rc may be either an active gauge (if the strain on it is in the opposite direction to that on Ra and of the
same magnitude) or a completion resistor. For temperature compensation, Rc can also be a gauge which has the same
temperature characteristics as Ra but is not under any strain.
The resistances of Rc and Ra should be equal, and must be specified as the channel factor (max. 5kΩ, default is 350Ω).
This configuration simulates a bridge by using the DT80's 3-wire compensation circuit to "compensate" for the voltage drop
across Rc. The end result is that, like a bridge, the DT80 measures the difference between the voltages across the two arms.
Ra
Rc
*+
-#
Figure 125: B3 Wiring for 3 wire bridge input using internal current excitation
To measure
Use the command
bridge output
1BGI(Ra)
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Temperature – Thermocouples
Thermocouple Theory
Reference Junction
(isothermal block)
Measurement Junction
Metal 1
Copper
Metal 2
Copper
To
microvolt
meter
Reference
Junction
Temperature
Prime temperature
gradient
Temperature sensor
Figure 126: Thermocouple principle of operation
A thermocouple consists of two wires of dissimilar metals that are

electrically connected at one end (the measurement junction) and

thermally connected at the other end (the reference, or "cold" junction).

A small voltage is produced when the two junctions are at different temperatures. (The voltage is produced by the
temperature gradient along the wires, not by the junctions.)
 Making The Measurement Junction
The measurement junction can be made by welding, brazing, soldering or crimping the two wires together. Take care to
ensure that the wire material is not contaminated where the temperature gradient is to occur.
The junction can be insulated, or left bare for a more rapid response. If left bare, ensure that the junction does not make
intermittent contact with metal objects. This can introduce electrical noise.
Sometimes thermocouple measurement junctions are electrically connected (by welding, brazing, soldering or by contact) to
the object being measured. This is only possible if the object is grounded to the DT80’s analog ground terminal AGND/EXT#,
or if the voltage on the object relative to the DT80's analog ground is within the DT80's common mode limits.
 Reference Junction Compensation
Conventionally, the reference junction is held at 0°C, and thermocouple responses are determined with a 0°C reference.
This is inconvenient in most situations and so, in practice, the reference junction is allowed to follow to ambient temperature.
Then this non-zero reference junction temperature must be compensated for by measuring the reference temperature with
another temperature sensor. The DT80 does this compensation automatically when a thermocouple channel type is
selected.
 Isothermal Block
Generally the reference junctions and the associated temperature sensor are held at the same temperature by a physical
arrangement that ensures good thermal conductivity between the junctions. This structure is called an "isothermal block". It
is advisable to insulate the isothermal block from rapid ambient temperature changes.
Channel Types
The DT80 supports all commonly-recognized thermocouple types:
Type
Positive
Negative
Range
B
C
D
E
G
J
Pt, 30%Rh
W, 5%Re
W, 3%Re
Ni, 10%Cr
W
Fe
Pt, 6%Rh
W, 26% Re
W, 25%Re
Cu, 45%Ni
W, 26% Re
Cu, 45% Ni
+50 – +1820 °C
0 – +2320 °C
0 – +2320 °C
-270 – +1000 °C
0 – +2320 °C
-210 – +1200 °C
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K
N
R
S
T
Ni, 10%Cr
Ni, 14%Cr, 1%Si
Pt, 13%Rh
Pt, 10%Rh
Cu
Ni,2%Mn, 2%Al
Ni, 4%Si, 0.1%Mg
Pt
Pt
Cu, 45%Ni
-270 – +1372 °C
-270 – +1300 °C
-50 – +1768 °C
-50 – +1768 °C
-270 – +400 °C
Each type has characteristics (sensitivity, stability, temperature range, robustness and cost) that make it appropriate for
particular applications.
The DT80's thermocouple linearisation data are based on the ITS90 International Temperature Scale.
Channel Options
The applicable channel options for thermocouples are as follows

GLx, ESn, as for voltage measurements

the channel factor specifies a scaling factor, as for voltage channels

If an external isothermal block is used then the TR (temperature reference) and/or TZ (electrical zero reference)
options should be specified for the channels used to measure reference junction temperature and reference junction
electrical zero. See Isothermal Block Support (P300) below.
Using Thermocouples with the DT80
Thermocouples are wired to the DT80 as for any other voltage input, see Voltage (P287). Be sure to connect the
thermocouple the right way around – for K type thermocouples the red wire is normally negative and would therefore be
wired to the # or – terminal.
The channel type is a Tt where t is the thermocouple type. So to measure a K-type thermocouple you would use the TK
channel type, e.g. 4TK for a thermocouple wired to channel 4's + and – terminals, or 4-TK if the thermocouple is wired
between – and #.
Using the thermocouple channel type reads the channel as a voltage and automatically applies reference junction
compensation and linearization.
By default, the DT80 uses an internal temperature sensor to measure the reference junction temperature. You can check the
reading of this sensor using the REFT channel type.
Each CEM20 channel expansion module includes its own temperature sensor, which is used for any thermocouple
measurements made using that CEM20. This sensor can be read using the nREFT channel type, where n is the CEM
number (1-15).
Isothermal Block Support
For higher accuracy measurements, the DT80 also supports the use of an external isothermal block. In this case the
isothermal block's temperature sensor is measured by a separate DT80 channel. This channel uses the TR channel option
to identify it as the temperature reference – its reading will then be used as the reference for all subsequent thermocouple
measurements in that schedule.
For example:
RA10S 5AD590(TR) 1..4TT
In this example four T-type thermocouples are measured. Their reference junctions are enclosed in an isothermal block,
along with an AD590 temperature sensor, which is connected to analog channel 5.
If the isothermal block is already compensated (i.e. it is held at 0°C) then it is not necessary to measure its temperature.
Instead, use 11SV(TR) as reference channel (system variable 11SV always returns 0.0).
To further enhance accuracy, you can use another DT80 channel to measure the electrical "zero" at the isothermal block in
order to compensate for any voltage offsets between the logger and the reference junctions. This is done by running a
separate pair of wires (similar to those used for the thermocouple channels) from the DT80 to the isothermal block, at which
point they are shorted together. A voltage channel is then used to measure the offset voltage and the TZ channel option is
specified. This will cause all subsequent thermocouple channels in the same schedule to use this value as their zero, rather
then the DT80's internal zero. For example:
RA10S 5AD590(TR) 6V(TZ) 1..4TT
Note If a TR/TZ channel is used, it must precede the thermocouple channel(s) to which it applies, and be in the same
sampling schedule. If a statistical option (e.g. AV, MX) is applied to a thermocouple channel then the sampling schedule is
the statistical schedule, so the reference channel must be sampled in the statistical schedule too. This can be achieved by
applying a statistical option to the reference channel, e.g.
RS1S
RA1M 5PT385(TR,AV,W) 1..2TE(AV) 3TK
In this example, the PT385 will be read once a second, and will be used as the cold junction reference for the two subsequent
TE thermocouple measurements. The average theremocouple readings will then be reported once a minute. The third
thermocouple (3TK) is not sampled in the statistical schedule, and will use the default internal temperature reference.
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Accuracy — Thermocouple Techniques
The accuracy of temperature measurement with thermocouples depends on

the reference junction isothermal characteristics

the reference temperature sensor accuracy

induced electrical noise

the quality of the thermocouple wire

drift in the wire characteristics, especially at high temperatures

the basic measurement accuracy of the DT80

the linearization accuracy of the DT80.
 Reference Junction Error
The most significant source of error is the reference junction. The DT80 must not be exposed to non-uniform heating
because a single reference temperature sensor is used to measure the temperature of the terminals of all channels. If a
temperature gradient occurs along the terminals, errors of the magnitude of the temperature difference occur.
For the DT80/81, the reference temperature sensor is positioned behind analog channels 2 and 4, and behind channel 10 on
the DT85. Therefore, when precise temperature measurements are required, attach thermocouples here for the least
temperature differential from the DT80’s reference temperature.
 Linearization Error
The DT80's linearization errors are much lower (< 0.1°C over the full range) than other error sources.
Temperature – Thermistors
Thermistors are devices that change their electrical resistance with temperature. They measure temperatures from –80°C
up to 250°C, and are sensitive but highly nonlinear.
Thermistors may be connected using any of the resistance wiring configurations, i.e. in 2-wire, 3-wire or 4-wire configuration.
See Resistance (P292)
Channel Types
The DT80 has channel types for many 2-wire YSI (Yellow Springs Instruments) thermistors and, for other thermistor types,
the DT80 supports thermistor scaling — see Thermistor Scaling (P61).
Channel
Type
R (ohms) at
25°C
YSI Thermistor
Max. Temp
°C
Min. Temp °C
(without Rp)
YS01
YS02
YS03
100
300
1000
–75
–50
–25
YS04
2252
100
100
100
100
150
75
200
YS05
YS07
YS17
3000
5000
6000
10k
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44001A, 44101A
44002A, 44102A
44003A, 44103A
44035
44004, 44104
44033
45004, 46004
46033, 46043
44901
44902
44005, 44105
44030
45005, 46005
46030, 46040
44903
44904
44007, 44107
44034
45007, 46007
46034, 46044
44905
44906
44017, 44117
45017
46017
46037, 46047
44016, 44116
–5
90
70
150
75
200
0
90
70
150
75
250
10
90
70
150
250
200
15
150
25
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YS16
10k
YS06
10k
44016, 44116
44036
46036
44006, 44106
44031
45006
46006
46031, 46041
44907
44908
150
75
200
150
75
250
200
25
25
90
70
Channel Options
The following channel options are useful with thermistors (YSnn channel type):

3W, 4W can be used to select the wiring configuration, as with any resistance measurement

I, II can be used to set the excitation. For thermistors the I (200µA) option should normally be used, to minimise any
self-heating effects which may occur with higher excitation currents.

the channel factor is the value of an optional parallel resistor, Rp, which can be used to extend the temperature
range, as described below.
 Reading Low Temperatures with Thermistors
Most thermistors increase in resistance as the measured temperature decreases (i.e. they have a negative temperature
coefficient). They tend to be quite non linear and increase in resistance rapidly as the temperature falls into the lower part of
the sensing range.
The DT80 has an upper limit of 10kΩ for resistance measurement which can limit the usable sensing range of thermistors.
To overcome this you can use a parallel resistor to scale the output of the thermistor back into the measurement range of the
logger, as described in R6 – High Resistance Input with Parallel Resistor (P294)
For YSnn thermistors, the value of the parallel resistor can be specified as the channel factor and the DT80 will automatically
scale the measured value appropriately. For example, a YS06 thermistor has a resistance of approximately 80kΩ at –20°C,
so to measure down to this temperature a parallel resistor of about 10kΩ would be suitable. You would then read the channel
using
1YS06(10000)
i.e. the channel factor indicates that a 10000Ω parallel resistor is being used.
If a custom thermistor scaling function is being used then the correction will need to be done using channel variables or
references, as described in R6 – High Resistance Input with Parallel Resistor (P294).
Temperature – RTDs
Resistance Temperature Detectors are sensors generally made from a pure (or lightly doped) metal whose electrical
resistance increases with temperature. Provided that the element is not mechanically stressed and is not contaminated by
impurities, the devices are stable, reliable and accurate.
Channel Types
The DT80 supports four RTD types:
Channel Type
Metal
Default 0°C ohms
Alpha
Standard
PT385
PT392
NI
CU
Platinum
Platinum
Nickel
Copper
100
100
1000
100
0.003850
0.003916
0.005001
0.00390
DIN43760 (European)
JIS C1604 (American)
The alpha is defined by:

R100  R0
100R0
Ω/Ω/°C
where Ro is the resistance at 0°C and R100 is the resistance at 100°C.
The 0°C resistance is assumed to be 100 for platinum (PT100), and 1000 for nickel types. Other values can be specified
as a channel option.
Channel Options
The following channel options are useful with RTD channel types:

3W, 4W can be used to select the wiring configuration, as with any resistance measurement

I, II can be used to set the excitation. For the Platinum and Copper RTDs, the II (2.5mA) option (which is the
default) should normally be used, to provide good measurement resolution for the relatively low resistance value being
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measured. If self-heating is a concern, the I (200µA) excitation option can also be used. For the higher resistance
Nickel type, I (200µA) is the default.

the channel factor is the 0°C value of the RTD, e.g. 100 for a PT100 sensor. The default value for each type is shown
in the table above.
For example,
PT385(4W,50)
reads a 4-wire 50 (at 0°C) device.
Temperature – AD590 Series IC Sensors
AD590 series sensors are 2-terminal semiconductor devices which produce a current that is proportional to absolute
temperature. This makes them useful with long lead lengths. Supply voltage is typically 4-30V.
Channel Types
The following channel types are supported. All operate identically.
Channel Type
Description
Range
AD590
AD592
TMP17
1µA / K
1µA / K
1µA / K
-55 – +105 °C
-25 – +105 °C
-40 – +105 °C
Channel Options
The following channel options are sometimes used when measuring AD590 series devices:

the excitation options specify how the sensor is powered: V (use internal 4.5V voltage source; default), E (external
supply connected to EXT* terminal) or N (external supply).

MDn (measurement delay) specifies that the DT80 should wait n ms (default 10ms) after selecting a channel before
starting the actual measurement. This can be useful in conjunction with the E or V option, as it allows the sensor some
time to stabilise after power is applied to it.

the channel factor specifies the shunt resistance in ohms (default 100.0 Ω), as for current measurements

GLx, ESn, as for voltage measurements
Calibration
The channel factor (shunt resistor value) can also be used as a calibration factor. For example, if the sensor reads 290.7K
when the actual temperature is 289.5K (an error of +1.2K) then the required scaling factor would be 1 – (1.2 / 289.5) =
0.9959, which would then be multiplied by the nominal shunt resistance (100). So the correction would be applied as:
1AD590(99.59)
Note that if the DT80's internal shunt is used (e.g. 1#AD590), then you need to specify the shunt resistor's nominal
resistance as the channel factor when doing the calibration measurement, i.e. 1#AD590(100). If this is not done then the
DT80 will use the actual shunt resistance (which it determines during its self calibration process), which will upset the above
calculation because you won't know what to multiply the scaling factor by.
IC1 – 2-Wire AD590-Series Inputs
The wiring configuration shown below uses the DT80's internal voltage excitation to power the sensor, and the internal shunt
resistor to measure the output current.
+
*
+#
AD590
-
Figure 127: Wiring for AD590 series input using internal shunt
To measure
Use the command
temperature
1#AD590
Other Wiring Options
External shunts and/or external power supplies (as per the wiring configurations for current) can also be used to allow more
sensors to be measured per channel.
For example, the configuration shown in C1 – Shared-Terminal Current Inputs with External Shunts (P290) could be used to
allow three AD590s to be measured on the one channel. Note that in this case the N channel option would be required, in
order to disable the default voltage excitation output on the * terminal, i.e.
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To measure temperature
Use the command
I1
I2
I3
1*AD590(N,R1)
1+AD590(N,R2)
1-AD590(N,R3)
Alternatively, separately connected shunts could be used, as shown in C2 – Independent Current Inputs with External
Shunts (P291). That is:
To measure temperature
Use the command
I1
I2
1AD590(N,R1)
1*AD590(N,R2)
Temperature – LM35 Series IC Sensors
LM35 series sensors are 3-terminal semiconductor devices which produce a voltage output that is proportional to
temperature. Supply voltage is typically 4-30V.
Channel Types
The following channel types are supported:
Channel Types
Description
Range
LM34
LM35
LM45
LM50
LM60
TMP35
TMP36
TMP37
10mV/°F
10mV/°C
10mV/°C
10mV/°C + 500mV
6.25mV/°C + 424mV
10mV/°C
10mV/°C + 500mV
20mV/°C
-50
-55
-20
-40
-40
-40
-40
-40
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
+300 °F
+150 °C
+100 °C
+125 °C
+125 °C
+125 °C
+125 °C
+125 °C
The devices with a voltage offset (LM50, LM60 and TMP36) allow negative temperatures to be read without additional
components.
Channel Options
The following channel options are sometimes used when measuring LM35 series devices:

the excitation options specify how the sensor is powered: V (use internal 4.5V voltage source; default), E (external
supply connected to EXT* terminal) or N (external supply).

MDn (measurement delay) specifies that the DT80 should wait n ms (default 10ms) after selecting a channel before
starting the actual measurement. This can be useful in conjunction with the E or V option, as it allows the sensor some
time to stabilise after power is applied to it.

the channel factor specifies an offset adjustment, in °C

GLx, ESn, as for voltage measurements
Calibration
For LM35 series sensors, the channel factor is an offset correction, in °C. So if the sensor reads 25.4°C when the actual
temperature is 25.0°C (an error of +0.4°C) then the channel factor would simply be specified as:
4+LM35(0.4)
IC2 – LM35-Series Inputs
In this wiring configuration the sensor is powered by the DT80’s 4.5V voltage excitation. This single-ended supply means
that the sensor’s output voltage will not be able to go below about 100mV. For devices with no offset voltage (e.g. LM35) this
restricts the minimum usable temperature to 10°C (for LM35).
Accuracy can be improved by replacing the link wire between the # and – terminals with a wire from the – terminal of the
logger to the – terminal of the sensor. This will compensate for voltage drops due to cable resistance, similar to a 4-wire
resistance measurement.
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*
+
#
+
LM out
35
-
Figure 128: L2 Wiring for LM35 series input – restricted temperature range
To measure
Use the command
temperature
1LM35
IC3 – LM35-Series Inputs – full temperature range
This wiring configuration biases the negative terminal of the device to allow negative temperatures to be read. Refer to the
manufacturer's data sheet for more details.
*+
-#
+
2K2
out
LM
35
-
10K
2 x 1N914
Figure 129: Wiring for LM35 series input – full temperature range
To measure
Use the command
temperature
1LM35
Other Wiring Options
Shared input configurations and/or external power supplies (as per the wiring configurations for Voltage) can also be used to
allow more sensors to be measured per channel.
For example, the configuration shown in V1 – Shared-Terminal Voltage Inputs (P289) could be used to allow three externally
powered LM35s to be measured on the one channel. That is, an external 4-30V dc supply powers the three sensors’ + and
– terminals, with the – terminals also connected to the DT80’s # terminal. The three out terminals would then connect to the
DT80’s *, + and – terminals. These sensors could then be read using 1*LM35(N), 1+LM35(N) and 1-LM35(N)
respectively. Note that in this case the N channel option is required in order to disable the default voltage excitation output on
the * terminal.
Temperature – LM135 Series IC Sensors
LM135 series sensors are 2-terminal zener diode based sensors which produce a voltage output that is proportional to
absolute temperature. Operating current is typically 0.5 – 5mA.
Channel Types
The following channel types are supported:
Channel Types
Description
Range
LM135
LM235
LM335
10mV / K
10mV / K
10mV / K
-55 – +150 °C
-40 – +125 °C
-40 – +100 °C
Channel Options
The following channel options are sometimes used when measuring LM35 series devices:

the excitation options specify how the sensor is powered: V (use internal 4.5V voltage source; default), E (external
supply connected to EXT* terminal) or N (external supply).

MDn (measurement delay) specifies that the DT80 should wait n ms (default 10ms) after selecting a channel before
starting the actual measurement. This can be useful in conjunction with the E or V option, as it allows the sensor some
time to stabilise after power is applied to it.

GLx, ESn, as for voltage measurements

the channel factor specifies a voltage divider value.
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Note A 2:1 voltage divider is normally used to ensure that the output of the sensor stays within the DT80's 3V input range.
The default channel factor is therefore 2.0 for these channel types. If a different voltage divider ratio is used then an
appropriate channel factor must be specified, e.g. if there is no divider then specify 1LM335(1).
Calibration
For LM135 series sensors, the channel factor specifies a voltage divider ratio, which can be used to correct a slope error
based on a single point calibration. For example, suppose an LM135 is connected using a 2:1 voltage divider as shown in the
wiring diagram. If the channel then reads 301.0K when the actual temperature is 302.4K (an error of -1.4K) then the required
scaling factor would be 2 – (–1.4 / 302.4) = 2.0046, which would be applied as:
2LM135(2.0046)
Most LM135 series devices also provide an ADJ pin which allows the connection of an optional external trimpot.
IC4 – 4-Wire LM135-Series Inputs
In this wiring configuration the DT80’s 4.5V voltage excitation is used to power the sensor (via an internal current limiting
resistor). The output voltage then feeds a 2:1 voltage divider and is measured using the DT80’s + and – inputs.
LM335
+
10K
ADJ
50K
10K
*
+
-#
-
Figure 130: Wiring for LM135 series input
To measure
Use the command
temperature
1LM335
Humidity Sensors
Relative humidity is commonly measured by the "wet bulb depression" method. Two temperature sensors are required, one
to measure air temperature and the other the cooling effect of a wetted surface. Usually a temperature sensor is encased in
a wick extending into a reservoir of distilled water. The temperature difference between the two sensors is the wet bulb
depression.
The choice of temperature sensors is critical if reasonable accuracy is required at high relative humidity where the wet bulb
depression is small. If platinum RTDs are used they should have good accuracy or matching (0.2°C).
Good accuracy can also be achieved by use of a temperature difference sensor such as a thermocouple or thermopile.
Measure the dry bulb with a standard grade temperature sensor and subtract the difference sensor reading to obtain the wet
bulb temperature.
The sensors are normally placed within a radiation screen to prevent radiant heat affecting the readings. This is particularly
important for outdoor applications.
 Example — Humidity Measurement
The following program reads two RTDs and calculates the relative humidity with an accuracy of a few percent for
temperature above 5°C and over most of the relative humidity range (the algorithm assumes that the sensors are ventilated
but not aspirated).
BEGIN"STICKY"
Y1=6.1,0.44,0.014,2.71E-4,2.73E-6,2.75E-8 'SVP polynomial
RA5S
1PT385("Dry bulb",4W)
2PT385("Wet bulb",4W)
3CV(Y1,W)=&"Dry bulb"
4CV(Y1,W)=&"Wet bulb"
5CV("RH%",FF1)=(4CV-0.8*(1CV-2CV))/3CV
END
Frequency
The frequency of an analog input signal can be measured using the F channel type, which returns a value in Hz.
Any of the Voltage wiring configurations may be used (P287).
Note that the default threshold point is 0V, so the input signal must have zero crossings in order to be measured. If this is not
the case (e.g. for a logic signal), the 2V channel option can be used to change the threshold point to +2.5V.
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Channel Options
Useful channel options for F channels are:

the channel factor – this is the sample period (gate time) in ms (default is 30ms)

2V – this option will offset input signal by -2.5V. This effectively changes the threshold point from 0V to approx. +2.5V,
which is useful for TTL level inputs

GLx, ESn, as for voltage measurements
Note For DT80/81 Series 1 loggers, the 2V channel option is not supported for differential measurements (measurements
between the + and – terminals, e.g. 1F)
Note For frequency measurements, the maximum gain range (30mV full scale) is not available. The GL30MV option is
therefore not valid for this channel type.
The range of frequencies that can be measured depends on the configured sample period (channel factor). For the default
setting of 30ms, this range is approximately 33Hz – 20kHz. If the input frequency is too low to be measured, UnderRange
will be returned.
To measure lower frequencies, the sample period should be increased. For example
3F(1000)
will measure down to 1Hz (upper limit is still 20kHz), while
3F(10000)
will allow frequencies down to 0.1Hz to be resolved.
The drawback to selecting a long sample period is that the measurement will take a long time to complete. This may delay
the execution of other schedules.
Period Measurement
The period of a signal can be measured by taking the reciprocal of a frequency measurement, e.g.:
RA5S 3+F(2V,1000,F1,"Period~s",FF4)
will return the period, in seconds, of an TTL-level logic signal connected between 3+ and 3#. Given the 1000ms sample
period, the maximum period that can be returned will be approximately 1.0s. The F1 option applies intrinsic function #1 (1/x).
Strain Gauges – Bridge
Bridge Wiring Configurations
Strain gauges change resistance when stretched or compressed. They are commonly wired in a bridge configuration,
because bridges are well suited to measuring small changes in resistance; see Bridges (P295).
Each of the arms of the bridge can be either:

an active element: a strain gauge which is subjected to the forces acting on the structure

a temperature compensation element: a strain gauge which is not stressed but which has similar temperature
coefficient to the active gauge. This is used to cancel out any changes to the active gauge's resistance due to
temperature effects.

a completion resistor: a precision resistor whose resistance is equal to the nominal (at rest) strain gauge resistance.
A full bridge has four active gauges, typically two on one side of a structure (in tension) and two on the other (in
compression). A half bridge has two active gauges; the other two arms are temperature compensation gauges or
completion resistors. Finally a quarter bridge has only one active gauge.
Calculating Strain
The strain-to-resistance relationship is
strain 
L 1 R
 
L
G R
where:

L is the original length

ΔL is the length change

R is the original gauge resistance

ΔR is the gauge resistance change

G is the gauge factor, a measure of the sensitivity of the gauge (typical foil gauges have a gauge factor of 2.0, which
means that if they are stretched by 1% their resistance changes by 2%)
Strain is a dimensionless quantity, as it is a ratio of length to length. Strain is often expressed in ppm form (i.e. the length ratio
is multiplied by 1,000,000), in which case it has the units of µStrain (microstrain).
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To convert the DT80’s ppm bridge readings to strain, use the formula:
strain 
4
Bout
GN
µStrain
where

Bout is the DT80's bridge channel (BGV or BGI) result (ppm)

G is the gauge factor

N is the number of active gauges in the bridge
The conversion can be done in the DT80 by applying a polynomial as a channel option (see Polynomials (P61)):
Y1=0,k"uStrain" ' Polynomial definition
3BGV(Y1)
' Bridge channel
where k = 4 / GN
For the 3-wire BGI "simulated bridge" configuration (see B5 – 3-Wire BGI Input (P298)) the formula to convert ppm reading to
strain is slightly different:
strain 
2
Bout
GN
µStrain
Strain Gauges – Vibrating Wire
DT80G/85G GeoLogger only
Vibrating wire strain gauges (VWSGs) are widely used for measuring strain in geotechnical applications. A gauge consists of
a tensioned steel wire whose resonant frequency changes as deflections causes the wire’s tension to change.
The DT80G/85G GeoLoggers include special hardware to support VW gauges. This works by generating a short electrical
pulse to "pluck" the gauge, then measuring the resulting frequency as it resonates. The strain experienced by the gauge is
proportional to the square of the resonant frequency minus the square of the "at rest" resonant frequency.
The FW channel type is used to measure the frequency of a VWSG. This operates in a similar way to the regular frequency
channel type (F), except that the defaults for some options are different.
Channel Options
The following channel options are relevant for the FW channel type:

the channel factor – this is the sample period (gate time) in ms (default is 200ms)

MD (measurement delay) is important, as described below (default is 350ms)
Note that channel options relating to the DT80's instrumentation amplifier, e.g. GLx (gain lock) and A (attenuators), are not
relevant for FW channels because much of the normal input circuitry is bypassed when performing a VWSG measurement.
VS1 – Vibrating Wire Strain Gauge and Thermistor
VW gauges can be connected to the DT80 as for any other voltage input. For example, up to three gauges could be
connected to one channel using the configuration shown in V1 – Shared-Terminal Voltage Inputs (P289)
Often the gauge will include an integral thermistor, to allow temperature corrections to be made. In this case it is often
convenient to read both the thermistor and the gauge using a single DT80 analog channel, as shown below.
*
+
#
Figure 131: Wiring for vibrating wire strain gauge with thermistor
To measure
Use the command
strain
temperature
1FW
1*YS01 (for example)
Measurement Timing
When an FW channel is evaluated, the measurement process is as follows:
1.
The pluck circuit begins charging. The MD timer starts here also.
2.
After about 100ms, the pluck circuit releases its energy in the form of a narrow high voltage pulse. Inside the sensor
this causes the wire to start vibrating. The resonant frequency will typically be in the range 500-5000Hz.
3.
Once the pluck is complete (about 0.2ms), the DT80 disconnects the pluck circuit and begins listening to the sensor.
Inside the sensor the wire's vibrations are sensed and a corresponding electrical signal is generated.
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4.
Over the next 100-200ms the DT80's phase locked loop (PLL) locks on to the fundamental frequency and filters out
noise and harmonics. During this time the amplitude of the signal gradually decays as wire’s vibrations decay.
5.
Once the MD timer expires the DT80 will begin measuring the frequency of the filtered signal.
6.
Once the required sample period (gate time) has elapsed, the DT80 reports the measured frequency value.
It is important that the measurement delay is set such that the incoming signal is stable and of adequate amplitude for the
duration of the measurement period. The default value is suitable for most gauges, but in some cases it may need
adjustment, as discussed in Measurement Delay and Sample Period (P309).
Troubleshooting
 Listening to the Gauge
The DT80G/85G GeoLoggers provide a headphone output socket which can be useful in diagnosing problems, given that
the sensor’s vibration falls within the audible frequency range (500-5000Hz).
To check a gauge, connect headphones or speakers, then enter the following:
P21=1
this keeps the DT80's analog section powered after the end of the measurement
P62=1
this maintains the multiplexer settings after the end of the measurement
1FW
this samples the VWSG connected to, in this case, channel 1 + and – terminals.
Each time you send the FW command you should hear a clear "ping" sound which decays over a period of a few seconds. If
not:

If there is no sound or only random noise, double check that you entered the correct channel number. Check all
connections. Check the resistance of the gauge by connecting it to the * and # terminals then entering 1*R several
times. These 2-wire resistance measurements should return stable values. If not then a cable or gauge fault is
indicated.

If a ping can be heard but it is faint or buried in random noise, then the cable is too long or is "leaky", or the gauge
sensitivity is too low.

If the ping is not clean and pure, then the gauge is possibly faulty. The gauge may have been mechanically damaged
during installation.

If you can hear a low frequency hum, then noise pick is a problem. If the gauge is placed near a transformer, electric
motor, high current power cables, etc, then relocate or reorient the gauge for minimum pickup. Ensure that the cable is
shielded to prevent capacitive pickup. (Connect the shield to DGND or the DT80 chassis earth point.)
Be sure to reset the P21 and P62 settings when finished.
 Measurement Delay and Sample Period
If a strong and clear signal is heard, but the frequency measurements are unstable (variations of 10-20Hz or more) then
there may be strong harmonics present in the gauge's vibration. Because harmonics usually decay faster than the
fundamental, it will often help to increase the MD setting. This will mean that the actual frequency measurement phase starts
later, at which point the amplitude of the harmonics should be less. If the measurement delay is increased too much,
however, the overall signal amplitude may decay below the noise level.
If the signal is clear but decays rapidly then the default MD setting may in fact be too long – by the time the measurement
completes the signal has decayed to nothing.
Some trial and error may be required to find optimal settings. The recommended procedure is as follows. For each step
perform several measurements in order to gauge the stability of the readings.
1.
Start with minimum values for measurement delay and sample period, e.g. 1FW(MD150,30)
2.
Increase the MD setting in, say, 20ms steps until stable readings are obtained, then go one step further.
3.
Further improvement can usually be obtained by progressively increasing the sample period so that the frequency is
measured over a longer time interval. If this is increased too far however then the signal amplitude will descend into
the nose and readings will get rapidly worse.
Converting Frequency to Strain
As mentioned above, the strain experienced by a VWSG is proportional to the change in the square of the resonant
frequency. That is:

strain  G f 2  f 0
2

where:

G is the gauge factor (supplied by the manufacturer)

f is the measured frequency

f0 is the zero or "at rest" frequency
It is therefore necessary to take a zero reading, after installation of the gauge. This value should be recorded; it can then be
used in a DT80 program in order to return strain, e.g.
BEGIN
RA1M
1FW("freq",W)
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CALC("strain")=G*(&freq^2-f0^2)
END
calculate the strain, given gauge factor G and zero frequency f0
Temperature Correction
As the temperature of the VWSG changes, the steel wire will expand or contract. Its change in length is proportional to the
change in temperature. A temperature change will therefore cause an addition or reduction to the measured strain. That is:


strain  G f 2  f 0  C T  T0 
2
where:

C is the temperature correction factor (supplied by the manufacturer; this is basically the coefficient of thermal
expansion for the grade of steel used for the wire)

T is the current temperature

T0 is the temperature at which the zero frequency measurement was taken
So if the gauge incorporates a YS04 thermistor and is wired as per VS1 – Vibrating Wire Strain Gauge and Thermistor
then a typical program might be:
(P308)
BEGIN
RA1M
read the frequency
1FW("freq",W)
1*YS04("temp")
read the temperature
CALC("strain")=G*(&freq^2-f0^2)+C*(&temp-T0) calculate the strain and apply temperature correction
END
Strain Gauges – Carlson Meter
A Carlson meter consists of two tensioned steel wires (connected in series) whose resistance changes as they are strained.
The wires are arranged so that a given strain causes the resistance of one wire to increase and the other to decrease. The
strain is then proportional to the ratio of the two resistances.
The resistance labelled R1 in the wiring diagrams is the expansion wire (its resistance increases as the gauge is stretched),
while R2 is the compression wire (its resistance increases as the gauge is compressed). Thus when the gauge is stretched,
the ratio R1/R2 will increase, resulting in a positive strain reading. Conversely, compression will cause a decrease in ratio
R1/R2 and a negative strain reading.
The wire resistances are also temperature dependent. The temperature is proportional to the total resistance, i.e. the sum of
the two resistances.
A Carlson stress meter uses the same principle as a strain meter but is designed to indicate stress (force per unit area, unit
MPa) rather than strain (displacement). Stress and strain proportional to each other according to the modulus of elasticity of
the material.
Carlson meters are supplied in 3, 4, 5 or 6 wire configurations. The extra wires allow the logger to properly compensate for
the cable resistance, which is often an important issue given that meters typically have a total resistance in the range
50-100Ω. Standard wire colours are normally (although not universally) used, as shown in the wiring diagrams.
Due to their low resistance, Carlson meters should normally be measured using the high (2.5mA) excitation setting (II
channel option).
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CS1 – 5 Wire Carlson Meter
The 5-wire configuration allows the DT80 to perform a 4-wire measurement on each resistance. It can therefore fully
compensate for cable resistance, including unequal cable resistances. It does, however, require two analog input channels
per sensor.
Sometimes a sixth wire is included – an additional sense wire connected to the junction between the resistors. This can
either be ignored or it can be connected to the + input of channel 2 in place of the link shown.
WHT
RED
R1
GRN
R2
BLU
BLK
*+
-# 1
*+
-# 2
Figure 132: Wiring for 5-wire Carlson Sensor
To measure
Use the command
R1
R2
1R(4W,II)
2R(4W,II)
CS2 – 4 Wire Carlson Sensor
With a 4-wire configuration, the DT80 is able to compensate for cable resistance, provided that the resistance is equal for all
four wires. This is achieved by taking three separate resistance measurements (M1, M2 and M3) which include R1, R2 and
the cable resistance (Rc) in various combinations.
WHT
R1
RED
R2
GRN
BLK
*+
-#
Figure 133: Wiring for 4-wire Carlson Sensor
To measure
Use the command
M1 (R1 + R2 + 2Rc)
M2 (R1)
M3 (R1 + R2 + Rc)
1*R(II)
1R(4W,II)
1+R(II)
Using these three measurements and a little algebra we can eliminate Rc and calculate the actual resistance values:
R1  M 2
R2  2 M 3  M 1  M 2
For example, the following DT80 program will calculate the required resistances:
BEGIN
RA1M
1*R("M1",II,W)
1R("M2",4W,II,W)
1+R("M3",II,W)
CALC("R1~Ohm")=&M2
CALC("R2~Ohm")=2*&M3-&M1-&M2
END
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CS3 – 3 Wire Carlson Sensor
With this configuration the DT80 is not able to take three independent measurements, so automatic lead resistance
compensation is not possible.
This configuration will therefore require manual correction for cable resistance (Rc). This can be applied as the channel
factor (which, for resistance, is an offset adjustment in ohms). The Rc value may be supplied by the manufacturer, or it can
be measured manually (at a typical working temperature).
WHT
R1
GRN
R2
BLK
*+
-#
Figure 134: Wiring for 3-wire Carlson Sensor
To measure
Use the command
R1
R2
1R(4W,II,Rc)
1-R(II,Rc)
Calculating Temperature and Strain
 Temperature
The temperature is given by:
T  R1  R2   b a
where:

T is the temperature (°C)

R1 and R2 are the measured resistance values (Ω)

b is the temperature offset: total resistance at 0°C (Ω) (supplied by manufacturer)

a is the temperature factor: change in temperature per unit change in total resistance (°C/ Ω) (supplied by
manufacturer). In some cases different factors may be supplied for different temperature ranges, e.g. one for above
0°C and one for below.
This temperature can then be used to correct the stress or strain calculation.
Strain and Stress
In general terms, strain (or stress) is proportional to the change in the ratio R1/R2 relative to some base value, less a
correction for expansion due to temperature.
The precise form of the equation for calculating stress/strain will depend on the application and the actual data supplied by
the Carlson meter manufacturer. The formula will normally be similar to:
R

strain  G 1  Z   CT
 R2

where:

G is the calibration factor: change in indicated strain per unit change in resistance ratio (supplied by manufacturer).
This constant is typically specified as µε/0.01%, i.e. microstrain per 0.01% ratio change. For a stress meter the
calibration factor units will be different, e.g. kPa/0.01%.

R1 and R2 are the measured resistance values

Z is the "zero" resistance ratio. A value of "R1/R2 at 0°C" may be supplied by manufacturer, or an initial measurement
of R1/R2 can be made soon after installation, which will form the zero point for subsequent strain values.

C is the temperature correction factor: change in indicated strain per unit change in temperature (may be supplied by
manufacturer) This constant is typically specified as µε/°C, i.e. microstrain per °C.

T is the temperature, as calculated above.
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 Example
The following example shows how the DT80 might be used to calculate a strain value. It will most likely need to be adapted
to suit the type of sensor and the application. In this case a 5-wire sensor is used, with the manufacturer supplied parameters
as shown.
BEGIN
' Manufacturer data
' b = 68.22 ohm
' a = 4.86 degC/ohm
' G = 5.8962 ue/0.01%
' Z = 1.0137
' C = 10.56 ue/degC
RA12H
1R(ES5,4W)
measure R1, take 5 extra samples to reduce noise
2R(ES5,4W)
measure R2, take 5 extra samples to reduce noise
CALC("Temp~degC")=((&1R+&2R)-68.22)*4.86
calculate temperature if required
CALC("Strain~ue")= 58962*(&1R/&2R-1.0137)-10.56*Temp
calculate strain
END
So in this case if the measured resistances were R1=36.44 and R2=35.56 then the calculated temperature would be 18.4°C
and the strain +457 µε.
Analog Logic State Inputs
For reading logic states, the DT80's digital inputs (see Digital Channels (P314)) are the best option. If there are insufficient
digital inputs then the analog inputs can also function as digital inputs, using the AS channel type.
The AS channel type detects an input voltage relative to a threshold:

When the input is above the threshold, 1 is returned.

When the input is below the threshold, 0 is returned.
Any of the Voltage wiring configurations may be used.
The default threshold is 2500mV, but the channel factor can be used to set any value in mV.
Input attenuators are enabled by default for the AS channel type, allowing input voltages up to 30V.
For example:
1AS(1750)
configures analog channel 1 as an analog state input with a threshold of 1.75V.
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D WK 12V
1D 2D 3D 4D GND
D
5D 6D 7D 8D GND
1
3
1C 2C 3C 4C D
Tx Rx RTS CTS D
Z A Y B GND
2
4
1PE
2PE
RELAY
A B
GND
5
ANALOG
DIGITAL
Digital Channels
The DT80 provides:

4 bidirectional digital I/O channels (1D-4D) with open drain output driver and pull-up resistor (3 channels 1D-3D for
DT81/82E);

4 bidirectional digital I/O channels (5D-8D) with tri-stateable output driver and weak pull-down resistor (SDI-12
compatible) (1 channel 4D for DT81/82E, none for DT82I);

1 voltage free latching relay contact output (RELAY)

1 LED output (Attn)

4 hardware counter inputs (1C-4C) which can be used as independent counter channels or as two quadrature (phase
encoder) inputs (one only phase encoder input on DT81). Channels 1C and 2C are low threshold capable.
For detailed specifications, see Digital Inputs and Outputs (P360).
About the Digital I/O Channels
3V
47K
1..4D
In
47K
Out
33V
CPU
5..8D
510
510
In
200K
3.3nF
7.5V
Out
Enable
Figure 135 Digital Circuit (DT80 channel numbers shown)
Figure 135 shows a simplified circuit diagram for the DT80’s eight digital I/O channels. As can be seen, the channels can be
divided into two groups, 1D-4D and 5D-8D (1D-3D and 4D for DT81/82E). While these two groups have different hardware
characteristics (discussed below), all eight channels are accessed and used in much the same way.
Each of the digital channels is bidirectional; it can be used as either:

a digital input (for monitoring the state of a relay or logic signal), or

a digital output (for driving a relay or other control device)
Warning Beware of conflicts when using the DT80’s bi-directional digital channels (1D to 8D). For example, if a device such
as a PLC is actively driving one of these channels and you program the DT80 to also drive the same channel as an output
(for example, 1DSO=0), then a conflict exists. This has the potential to damage the digital channel or the driving source. We
recommend placing a series resistor between the digital channel and the signal source to limit the current that can be driven
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into the channel. When choosing the resistor’s value and power rating, be sure to consider the source’s output voltage, drive
current and operating frequency.
Digital Inputs
The DT80’s 8 digital I/O terminals (4 for DT81/82E) can be read individually, or can be read as 4 or 8 bit words.
The following channel types are used to read the states of digital inputs:
Channel Type
Valid Channel Numbers
Description
DS
1-8 (DT80/85)
1-4 (DT81/82)
1-5 (DT80/85)
1 (DT81/82)
Digital State: returns the state of digital input; 0=low, 1=high
DN
DB
1
Digital Nybble: returns the state of four consecutive digital inputs starting at the
specified input as a 4-bit number (0-15). The specified input will form the least
significant bit of the result.
Digital Byte: returns the state of all eight digital inputs as an 8-bit number (0-255).
Input 1D is the least significant bit.
For example, if channel 3DN returns the value 13 (binary 1101) then this indicates that input 3D (lsb) is high, 4D is low, 5D is
high and 6D (msb) is high
Channel Options
The following channel options are applicable to digital input channel types:

channel factor: for the multi-bit channel types (DN, DB), the channel factor is a bitmask which specifies which digital
inputs to read. The default values for DN and DB are 15 and 255 respectively (i.e. read all bits)
For example, 2DN(7) (bitmask = 0111 binary) will return the state of inputs 2D, 3D and 4D in bits 0 (lsb), 1 and 2
respectively. For input 5D the mask bit is zero so it is not read and bit 3 (msb) of the returned value will always be zero. 5D
can then be used as an output if desired, e.g.
2DN(7)
simultaneously read inputs 2D,3D,4D
drive 5D as an output
5DSO=1
Connecting to Digital Inputs
The two groups of digital input channels have different electrical characteristics. In particular:

Inputs 1D-4D (1D-3D for DT81/82E) include a 47k pull-up resistor. The default state (if nothing is connected) is
therefore high. This in turn means that channels 1..4DS will return 1 if the inputs are not connected.

Inputs 5D-8D (4D for DT81/82E, none for DT82I) include a 200k pull-down resistor. Their default state is therefore low
(0). So if all 8 inputs are disconnected then 1DB will return 15 (00001111).
Warning The DT80’s digital inputs are not reverse-polarity-protected. Therefore ensure signal polarity is correct — positive
to numbered terminals, negative to DGND terminals — before connecting signals to the DT80’s digital inputs.
Warning Do not apply more than 30Vdc to inputs 1D-4D (1D-3D for DT81/82E), and do not apply more than 20Vdc to inputs
5D-8D (4D for DT81/82E).
DI1 – Relay Inputs
Voltage-free relay contact closures can easily be detected on channels 1D-4D (1D-3D for DT81/82E) by wiring the relay
contacts between the input pin and DGND, as shown below.
Channels 5D-8D (4D for DT81/82E) are less suitable for relay contact inputs, but they can still be used, for example if the
contacts are wired between the input pin and an external 3-20V dc supply (or one of the DT85/DT80 Series 2's power
outputs, 12V or PWR OUT).
1D
D
GND
Figure 136: Wiring for reading contact closures on digital inputs
To measure
Use the command
state
1DS (0 = contacts closed, 1 = contacts open)
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DI2 – Logic Inputs
Actively driven logic signals can be directly connected to all input channels, provided that the input levels are within the
specified limits; see Input Characteristics (P361)
TTL
Output
(e.g. PLC)
1D
D
GND
Figure 137: Wiring for reading TTL level signals on digital inputs
To measure
Use the command
state
1DS (0 = low, 1 = high)
Other Considerations
 Scan Rate
The digital input channels are scanned at 17ms intervals (60Hz), while the DT80 is awake. This means that the minimum
input pulse width is 17ms – shorter pulses may not be recognised.
 Schedule Triggers
Digital input transitions can be used to trigger a report schedule, or a schedule can be configured to only run if a digital input
is in a particular state.
See Trigger on External Event (P48) for more details.
 Sleep Mode
Digital inputs are not scanned while the DT80 is asleep.
However, a high to low digital input transition can be used to wake the DT80 by connecting the digital input in parallel with the
WK (wake) terminal. The DT80 can then be programmed so that each time an external pulse occurs the DT80 will wake and
run an event triggered schedule.
For example, if digital input 4 is also wired to the WK terminal then a typical schedule definition might be:
RA4-E 1..3TT
Note that the digital input must stay low until the DT80 is fully awake. A short pulse (less than about 1-2 seconds) will still
wake the logger, but the DT80 may not "see" the high-to-low transition, in which case the edge-triggered schedule will not
run.
Digital Outputs
The DT80’s 8 digital I/O terminals (4 for DT81/82) can also be used as outputs, either individually, or as 4 or 8 bit words.
The following channel types are used to control the states of digital outputs:
Channel Type
Valid Channel Numbers
Description
DSO
1-8 (DT80/85)
1-4 (DT81/82)
1-5 (DT80/85)
1 (DT81/82)
1
1
1
Digital State Output: sets the state of digital output; 0=low, 1=high
DNO
DBO
RELAY
WARN
Digital Nybble Output: sets the state of four consecutive digital outputs starting at
the specified output.
Digital Byte Output: sets the state of all eight digital outputs.
Relay Output: sets the state of the latching RELAY output: 0=open, 1=closed
LED output: sets the state of the Attn LED: 0=off, 1=on
For example:
7DSO=1
5DNO=5
1DB=255
1RELAY=1
sets output 7D high
(binary 0101) sets 8D low, 7D high, 6D low and 5D high
(binary 11111111) sets all outputs high
closes RELAY output contacts
Channel Options
The following channel options are applicable to digital output channel types:

channel factor: for the multi-bit channel types (DN0, DB0), the channel factor is a bitmask which specifies which
digital outputs to alter. The default values for DN0 and DB0 are 15 and 255 respectively (i.e. set all bits)
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
channel factor: for the single-bit types (DSO, RELAY, WARN) the channel factor is a delay value (ms). The DT80
waits for the specified number of milliseconds after setting the output state. Default is 0, i.e. no delay. If the R option is
specified then the default and minimum delay setting is 10ms.

R (reset) After setting the output bit(s) to the specified state(s) and waiting for the delay time, the output(s) will then be
set to the opposite state. In other words a pulse will be generated.

PT (precise timing) – see Delay Accuracy (P320)
For example:
2DNO=1CV
will output the lower 4 bits of 1CV on outputs 5D, 4D, 3D and 2D (all other outputs wil be unchanged), while
2DNO(7)=1CV
(bitmask = 0111 binary) will output just the the lower 3 bits of 1CV on outputs 4D, 3D and 2D. For digital output 4D the mask
bit is 0 so its state will not be affected.
Digital Output Operation
All digital output channels are initialised to their default states on initial power-up or soft reset (INIT). Entering a new job
does not initialise the digital outputs.
A hard reset (power loss or HRESET) will also normally re-initialise the digital output states. This behaviour can, however, be
overridden by setting:
PROFILE STARTUP MAINTAIN_OUTPUTS=YES
in which case digital outputs 1..8DSO and 1RELAY will be restored to their previous states following a hard reset.
The default states are summarised below:
Channel
Default state
Comments
1..4DSO (DT80/82I/85)
1..3DSO (DT81/82E)
5..8DSO (DT80/85)
4DSO (DT81/82E)
1RELAY
1WARN
1
output pulled up (high), controlled load OFF
0
output driver disabled, pulled down (low)
0
0
contacts open
LED off
Note that if one of the digital outputs or the latching relay is being used to control power to a modem (see Powering the
DT80’s Modem (P195)) then that output will not be reset during a soft reset (INIT command).
A digital output command, e.g. 1DSO(20,R)=1 is processed as follows:
1.
First, the output (or outputs for DNO/DBO) is set to the specified state; if no state is specified (i.e. no =1 or =0 on the
end) then nothing is done.
2.
Then the DT80 waits for the specified delay, if any. If a state was specified and the R option was also specified then
the default delay is 10ms, otherwise 0ms.
3.
Then, if R is specified, the output(s) is/are inverted.
4.
Finally, the output value as at Step 2 is returned.
The current state of any digital output is thus returned when a digital output command is evaluated. For example, typing
2DSO will return the state to which the output was last set. This will not necessarily reflect the actual state of the 2D terminal
(use 2DS to read the actual state). And if 2DSO(R) is entered then the state of 2D will be inverted and the original state will
be returned.
Connecting to Digital Outputs
As noted above, the two groups of digital channels have different electrical characteristics. In particular:

Outputs 1D-4D (1D-3D for DT81/82E) use an open-drain FET output driver. This can sink up to 100mA @ 30Vdc so it
can drive a low voltage actuator or relay or LED directly. A 47k pull-up resistor (to approx. +4V) is also included,
allowing logic devices to be driven.

Outputs 5D-8D (4D for DT81/82E, none for DT82I) are not suitable for directly driving loads such as relays or LEDs.
Logic devices can however be driven. Note that each of these output drivers is tri-stateable.
When the open-drain outputs are used to directly drive loads, the load will be on when the output is in the low state. Thus if
a load was wired up to output 1D you would use 1DSO=0 to turn the load on and 1DSO=1 to turn it off.
The default state of the output drivers on second group of channels is disabled (tri-stated). This allows these channels to be
used as inputs.
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DO1 – Driving a Relay
Loads of up to 100mA @ 30V dc can be directly driven by the open-drain digital outputs 1D-4D (1D-3D for DT81/82E). Note
that inductive loads such as relays should include a reverse diode to limit transients, as shown below.
The power supply for the load can be an external supply, or you can use the power outputs provided on the DT85/DT80
Series 2 (12V or PWR OUT).
1D
+
D
GND
12V
DC
-
Figure 138: Wiring for driving an external relay
Action
Use the command
energise relay
de-energise relay
1DS0=0
1DSO=1
DO2 – Driving a LED
A LED indicator can also be directly driven by the open-drain digital outputs 1D-4D (1D-3D for DT81/82E).
The value of the current limiting resistor should be chosen to suit the supply voltage and LED characteristics. A value of 1kΩ
will set a LED current of about 10mA if a 12V supply is used.
1D
+
D
GND
12V
DC
-
Figure 139: Wiring for driving an external LED
Action
Use the command
turn LED on
turn LED off
1DS0=0
1DSO=1
DO3 – Logic Outputs
Any of the digital outputs (1D-8D) can be used to drive a TTL-compatible logic input, as shown below
(e.g. PLC)
TTL
Input
5D
D
GND
Figure 140: Wiring for driving external logic
Action
Use the command
set output high
set output low
5DS0=1
5DSO=0
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DO4 – Driving a Relay Using 5D-8D
The active-drive digital outputs 5D-8D (4D for DT81/82E) cannot directly drive loads such as relays.
However, an external transistor can be used to increase the current sink capacity so that a relay (or LED) can be controlled
by these outputs.
12V Relay
+
12V
DC
470
1N914
-
BC337
5D
D
GND
Figure 141: Wiring for driving an external relay using an external transistor
Action
Use the command
energise relay
de-energise relay
1DS0=1
1DSO=0
Note that the sense is opposite to that shown in DO1 – Driving a Relay (P318) – the DT80 output needs to be driven high in
order to turn on the NPN transistor shown.
DO5 – Latching Relay Output
The DT80’s latching relay output can be used to directly switch loads of up to 1A @ 30V, as shown below.
+
A
B RELAY
LOAD
12V
DC
-
Figure 142: Wiring for controlling a load using relay output
Action
Use the command
turn load on
turn load off
1RELAY=1
1RELAY=0
Other Considerations
 Reading Digital Outputs
If you read the value of a digital output channel, e.g. by entering 1DSO, then the value returned is the state to which the
output was last set. This will not necessarily be the same as the state returned by 1DS, which reflects the actual state on the
1D terminal.
If an open-drain output (1D-4D for DT80) is set high (e.g. 1DSO=1), the terminal is not driven by the DT80 and is free to be
pulled low by an external device. If this occurs then 1DSO will still return 1, but 1DS will return 0, the actual state of the input.
For the DT80's active-drive outputs (5D-8D for DT80), things are slightly more complicated due to the fact that the output has
three states: driving high, driving low, or disabled (tri-stated). The rule is that the output driver is switched on when the digital
output channel is set (e.g. 5DSO=0 or 5DSO=1) and it then stays on. If the digital input channel is subsequently read (e.g.
5DS), then the driver will be switched off (and it will stay off) to allow the terminal to be read as an input.
The active-drive outputs include a weak (200k) pull-down resistor. When the output driver is switched off, and in the absence
of any external device driving the terminal, it will therefore normally read low (i.e. 5DS will return 0). Note, however, that the
first time it is read after the output driver is switched off it may still read high (if the output had previously been set high), due
to capacitive effects.
For example,
6DSO(R,100)=1 6DS(W) DELAY=500 6DS
will output a 100ms positive going pulse on 6D, then tri-state the output, wait 500ms then read the state of 6D (which is
presumably now being driven by an external logic device).
 Sleep Mode
The states of all digital outputs are maintained while the DT80 is asleep. Note also that the RELAY output uses a latching
relay, so no extra current is required to hold it in the closed state.
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 Power Loss
If the DT80 loses all power then all outputs will revert to their default state, including the RELAY output. If the
MAINTAIN_OUTPUTS profile setting is enabled then the outputs will be restored to their former state when power is
restored.
 Alarm Digital Actions
One or two digital outputs can be configured to follow the state of an alarm. That is, when the alarm is inactive the output(s)
are in their default state (1 for 1..4DSO, 0 for 5..8DSO, 1RELAY and 1WARN) and when the alarm is active the output(s)
will be in their non-default state. Alarm Digital Action Channels (P80) for more information.
 Delay Accuracy
The actual pulse width generated by the Delay option for DSO will not necessarily be exactly as specified. For delays of 20ms
or less it will be close (within 1ms). For longer delays the resolution is +/- 16ms however it is guaranteed that the duration will
be at least the specified time.
The PT (precise timing) channel option may be specified to force a precise delay time, even if the duration is greater than
20ms. For example:
1DSO(PT,500,R)=0
will generate a 500ms +/- 1ms duration pulse. Note however that during this time all logger operations including
communications, display updates and sampling will be suspended.
Note Performing long delays using the Delay option is not recommended as it can prevent the timely evaluation of other
schedules. This is true regardless of whether the PT option is specified.
Counters – Low Speed
The digital input channels 1D-8D can also double as low speed counter inputs (up to 25Hz).
The C (counter) channel type returns the number of positive-going transitions seen on the specified digital input (1D-8D). For
example the channel 3C will return the number of pulses seen on digital input 3D.
The counter value is a signed 32-bit integer.
Any of the digital input wiring configurations can be used. That is, either contact closures or logic pulses can be counted.
Channel Options
The following channel options are applicable to low speed counters:

the channel factor specifies a counter "wrap value". The counter will reset to 0 (or "wrap around") when this value is
reached. For example, if 8 pulses are received on input 4D then channel 4C(3) will count in the sequence 1, 2, 0, 1,
2, 0, 1, 2 so after 8 pulses the value 2 will be returned.

R (reset): Counter will be cleared to 0 after returning its current value.
Using Low Speed Counters
 Scan Rate
The digital input channels are scanned at approx. 20ms intervals (50Hz). This means that for low speed counter channels:

the minimum input pulse width is 20ms – shorter pulses may not be recognised.

the maximum input count frequency, assuming a 50% duty cycle, is 25Hz.
Use the high-speed counter channels (P321) for higher count frequencies.
 Sleep Mode
Digital inputs are not scanned while the DT80 is asleep so any transitions which occur during sleep will not be counted. Use
the high-speed counter channels (P321) if you need the logger to continue to count pulses even while asleep.
 Schedule Triggers
Counter channels can be configured to trigger a schedule when the counter reaches its specified wrap value (at which point
it resets to 0). See Trigger on External Event (P48) for more details. For example,
RA2C(10) 1TK
will measure a temperature on every 10th pulse received on digital input 2D.
 Presetting Counters
The count value for a digital input channel can be preset using an expression, e.g.
RA1M 8C=1000
RB2S 8C
will reset the counter to 1000 once per minute. So if a 1Hz signal is now applied to input 8D you would expect the values
returned every 2s for channel 8C to follow a sequence similar to:
1000, 1002, 1004 ... 1056, 1058, 1000, 1002 ...
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 Setting Counter Wrap Value
Note that a counter’s wrap value (channel factor) is applied when the channel is defined (i.e. when the job is entered), not
when it is evaluated. Also, setting the wrap value has the side effect of resetting the count value to zero. This implies that:

a particular counter’s wrap value need only be specified once in the job. It does not need to be specified every time the
counter is evaluated.

If querying a counter using the immediate schedule (e.g. by periodically typing "1C"), do not specify a wrap value each
time. Each time you evaluate an immediate channel you are also defining it, so the counter value will always be
returned as zero if you specify a wrap value each time.
Counters – High Speed
The DT80 provides four dedicated counter inputs, labeled 1C-4C (7 counters 1C-7C on DT85/85L Series 3). These provide
for high speed pulse counting (100kHz typical) and can also function as phase encoder inputs.
The HSC (high speed counter) channel type is used to access these counters. For example, 2HSC will return the number of
positive transitions seen on the 2C counter input.
3V
47K
1HSC
47
Threshold
Comparator
Counter 1 Clock
47K
22nF
Quad. 1 Clock Up
3V
Quad. 1 Clock Down
Threshold
47K
2HSC
47
Comparator
Counter 2 Clock
47K
22nF
3V
CPU
47K
3HSC
Schmitt
Input
47
Counter 3 Clock
47K
22nF
Quad. 2 Clock Up
3V
Quad. 2 Clock Down
47K
4HSC
47
22nF
47K
Schmitt
Input
Counter 4 Clock
Figure 143 High Speed Counter Channels
Figure 143 shows a simplified circuit diagram for the DT80’s hardware counter inputs. As can be seen, the channels can be
divided into pairs of inputs, 1C-2C (counter channels 1HSC and 2HSC) and 3C-4C (3HSC and 4HSC); also 5C-6C on
DT85/85L Series 3. Each pair can be used as either:

two independent counter inputs, for pulse counting, or

a single phase encoder (quadrature) input, for use with position sensors that provide phase encoded outputs ("A" and
"B"). See Phase Encoders (P323)
Note that on the DT81, only the 3C-4C inputs can be used with a phase encoder.
Channel Options
The following channel options are applicable to high speed counters:

the channel factor specifies a counter "wrap value", as for the low speed counters. The counter will reset to 0 (or
"wrap around") when this value is reached.

R (reset): Counter will be cleared to 0 after returning its current value, as for the low speed counters.

LT (low threshold): This option is only applicable to counter inputs 1C and 2C (i.e. counter channels 1HSC and
2HSC). It selects low level input thresholds (“low” threshold 2mV and “high” threshold 7mV), as opposed to regular
(TTL-level) thresholds.
Connecting to Counter Inputs
Counter input channels 1C-2C and 3C-4C have different electrical characteristics. In particular:
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
Inputs 1C-2C include selectable TTL or low-level input thresholds. Low thresholds (selected by using the LT channel
option) allow direct connection to sensors whose output is only a few mV, e.g. inductive-pickup flow sensors.

Inputs 3C-4C (and 5C-7C) use a standard TTL level Schmitt trigger input.
 Relay Contact Inputs
Voltage-free relay or switch contact closures can be counted on high speed counter channels by wiring the relay contacts
between the input terminal and DGND in the same way as for a digital input.
All inputs include low-pass filtering to assist in "debouncing" mechanical switch or relay inputs. For voltage-free contact
inputs this limits the maximum count rate to approximately 500Hz.
 Logic Inputs
Logic outputs from external equipment may also be directly connected to a counter input in the same way as for a digital
input. For actively driven inputs such as these, the maximum count rate is typically around 100kHz.
Note, however, that the maximum count rate depends on the input amplitude. The following table indicates the typical
maximum count rates possible for various input levels:
Input level (V p-p)
Max count rate
10
5
3
1
25 kHz
80 kHz
150 kHz
250 kHz
 Low Level Inputs
Inductive pickup sensors such as flow meters often have an output pulse amplitude of only a few millivolts. These can,
however, be directly connected to inputs 1C or 2C. The LT channel option must be specified in order to set the DT80's input
threshold levels appropriately, e.g. 1HSC(LT).
Refer to the Specifications for more details on the counter input characteristics.
Special Count Modes
Counter input 3C (i.e. channel 3HSC) supports some special count modes. These are controlled by the P27 setting, as
follows:
Setting
Description
P27=0
P27=1
Normal (default setting) – 3HSC returns the number of pulses seen on the 3C input
Gated 32kHz – 3HSC increments at 32768Hz while input 3C is low. This can be used for
measuring pulse widths.
Gated 3C – 3HSC returns the number of pulses seen on input 3C while input 4C is low.
This can be used for measuring a short burst of pulses.
Fixed 1024Hz – 3HSC continuously increments at 1024Hz. This can be used for general
high resolution timing.
P27=2
P27=3
Counting While Asleep
The high-speed counter inputs continue to function while the DT80 is asleep.
However, it is important to note that each hardware counter is 16 bits wide. (Count values are maintained and returned as
32-bit values, but the physical hardware counters attached to inputs 1C-4C are 16-bit.) If more than 65536 pulses occur
while the DT80 is sleeping then the hardware counter will overflow, and this will cause an inaccurate count value to be
returned when the DT80 wakes.
It is therefore necessary to ensure that the DT80 is programmed to wake often enough to ensure that the hardware counters
can be read before they overflow.
For example, if the average counter input frequency is 100Hz then the DT80 must be programmed to wake at least every
65536/100 seconds (about every 10 minutes). This can be done by including a 10-minute schedule in the job, e.g.
RA10M 1HSC(W)
Most of the other comments made above regarding digital input counter channels apply equally to the high speed counter
channels. For example, HSC channels can be preset to a particular starting value (e.g. 2HSC=1CV*10), HSC channels can
trigger a schedule when they wrap, and so on.
Other Considerations
 Signal Edges
Counters increment on the rising edge of the count input signal.
For gated modes (P27=1 and P27=2), the gate signal is sampled on the falling edge of the count input signal.
 Schedule Triggers
High speed counter channels can be configured to trigger a schedule when the counter reaches its specified wrap value (at
which point it resets to 0). See Trigger on External Event (P48) for more details. For example,
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RA2HSC(100) 1TK
will measure a temperature on every 100th pulse received on counter input 2C.
 Presetting Counters
The count value for a high speed counter channel can be preset using an expression, e.g.
RA1M 1HSC=1000
RB2S 1HSC
will reset the counter to 1000 once per minute. So if a 1Hz signal is now applied to input 1C you would expect the values
returned every 2s for channel 1C to follow a sequence similar to:
1000, 1002, 1004 ... 1056, 1058, 1000, 1002 ...
 Setting Counter Wrap Value
Note that, as with low speed counters, a counter’s wrap value (channel factor) is applied when the channel is defined (i.e.
when the job is entered), not when it is evaluated. Also, setting the wrap value has the side effect of resetting the count value
to zero. As discussed earlier, this implies that the wrap value should therefore normally only be specified once for each
counter channel.
Phase Encoders
Not available on DT82E
A phase encoder is a device for measuring relative angular or linear position. As it rotates or moves, it outputs two streams
of pulses ("A" and "B") whose phase relationship (A leading or B leading) indicates the direction of travel.
The DT80’s PE channel type decodes these pulses and returns a signed position value in counts. The count may be positive
or negative depending on the direction of travel.
As mentioned in Counters – High Speed (P321), the DT80's four high speed counter inputs are set up in pairs: 1C/2C and
3C/4C; also 5C/6C on DT85/85L Series 3. Each pair can be used as either two independent counters, or a single phase
encoder input. (For DT81, only the 3C/4C pair can be used as a phase encoder input.)
Note that the "mode" of a counter channel pair (i.e. whether it operates as two counters or a single phase encoder channel)
is set when the channel is defined (i.e. when the job is entered), not when it is evaluated. This implies that a particular
counter input pair cannot be read as a phase encoder value at one point in a job, and as a pair of counters at another. In
other words, if your job defines a channel 1PE then it should not also define channels 1HSC or 2HSC, and vice versa.
The following table summarises the options for using phase encoder channels:
Model
Channel
"A" input
"B" input
Notes
DT80/82/85
1PE
2PE
3PE
1PE
1C
3C
5C
3C
2C
4C
6C
4C
Do not use 1HSC and 2HSC channels
Do not use 3HSC and 4HSC channels
Do not use 5HSC and 6HSC channels
Do not use 3HSC and 4HSC channels
DT85/85L-3
DT81
Channel Options
The following channel options are applicable to PE channel types:

the channel factor is not used for phase encoder channels.

R (reset): Position value will be cleared to 0 after returning its current value.
Phase Encoder Operation
The following diagram illustrates how the reported PE position values relate to the phase encoder pulses received on the
counter inputs. In particular, note that a pulse is counted on each edge of the A and B inputs. This is sometimes referred to
as "x4" mode, because if the encoder speed is such that it generates a 100Hz pulse train on its A and B outputs then the
DT80's position count will increment at 400Hz.
moving right (A leads B)
stopped
moving left (B leads A)
1C (A)
2C (B)
1PE
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
7
6
5
4
3
Figure 144: Relationship between phase encoder signals and reported position (1PE) value
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P1 – Phase Encoder Inputs
The following diagram shows the connection of a phase encoder to the counter inputs on a DT80 or DT85. (For DT81 you
would use the 3C and 4C inputs.)
Phase
Encoder
1C
1PE 2C
A
A
B
Figure 145: Wiring for reading a phase encoder (quadrature) signal
To measure
Use the command
position (in counts)
1PE
Other Considerations
 Sleep Mode
The high-speed counter inputs continue to function while the DT80 is asleep, so the phase encoder inputs will too.
As discussed in the High Speed Counter section (P322), it is important to ensure that the 16-bit hardware counters do not
overflow during sleep. The DT80 calculates the encoder position in software, by subtracting the count values read from the
"up" and "down" hardware counters. This means that incorrect readings will result if there are more than 65536 pulses in
either direction while the DT80 is asleep.
 Presetting Counters
The count value for a phase encoder channel can be preset using an expression, e.g.
RA3-E 1PE=0
will reset the encoder position to 0 when a button wired to digital input 3 is pressed.
Examples – Digital and Counters
 Pulse Train Output
The schedule command
RA2S 6DS0(500,R)=1
produces a pulse train from channel 6D which is HIGH for 0.5s and LOW for 1.5s.
 Sensor Power Control
In the schedule command
RA20M D T 4DSO(1000)=0 1..4V 4DSO=1
digital state output 4 controls a relay that switches the power supply to a group of sensors. Every 20 minutes the sensors are
powered up, the system waits one second while the sensors settle, the sensors are scanned, and the sensor power supply is
turned off again.
 Manual Control
The polled schedule (see Trigger on Poll Command (P50)) can also be used to switch digital state output channels. For
example, the command
RBX 3DSO(5500,R)=0
turns a load connected to channel 3D ON for 5.5 seconds when an XB poll command is received.
 Frequency Measurement
The R channel option can be used to measure the frequency of an input signal, e.g.
RA1S 1HSC(R,RS)
will return the frequency in Hz of an input signal on channel 1C, while
RA10S 1HSC(R,RS)
will do the same thing but resolve down to 0.1Hz.
The RS option divides the channel value (number of pulses) by the time since the last sample, yielding a frequency.
This technique can also be used for the digital input channels (1D-8D), e.g.
RA1S 7C(R,RS)
will return the frequency in Hz of an input signal on channel 7D, in the range 1-30Hz.
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SDI-12 Channel
Not available on DT82I
About SDI-12
SDI-12 is a serial communications protocol for interfacing multiple microprocessor based sensors to a data logger. SDI-12
uses a shared three-wire "bus" – 12V power, data (0-5V signaling levels) and ground – and operates at a data rate of 1200
baud.
Each sensor connected to an SDI-12 bus is configured with a unique address, which is a single numeric or alphabetic
character. The data logger specifies this address when it requests data from the sensor. This transmission will be received
by all sensors, but only the one with the matching address will respond. If two sensors have the same address then they will
both try to transmit at once, resulting in garbled communications.
The SDI-12 standard has undergone a number of revisions; at the time of writing the current version is 1.3. (1.0 was released
in 1988, 1.2 in 1996 and 1.3 in 2000.) Not all sensors support the latest version. The DT80 can determine which version of
the standard a given sensor supports, and act appropriately.
Each SDI-12 message sent by the data logger is a short (up to 5 characters) plain ASCII string, terminated by a ! character.
The response from the addressed sensor is also in ASCII format (up to 80 characters).
For more details see http://www.sdi-12.org.
SD1 – SDI-12 Sensor Inputs
The DT80's tri-stateable digital I/O channels (5D-8D on DT80, 4D on DT81/82E) can be used to control up to four SDI-12
buses. Up to ten SDI-12 sensors can be connected to each bus.
As shown below, an SDI-12 bus is connected to the DT80 as follows:

The SDI-12 DATA line connects to one of the digital I/O terminals 5D – 8D (4D for DT81/82E)

The SDI-12 GROUND line connects to the D GND terminal

The SDI-12 POWER line may be connected to the DT80's external power input terminal (+), or one of the power
outputs on the DT85/DT80 Series 2 (12V or PWR OUT), or a separate 9.6-16V DC supply.
When connecting a sensor to the DT80 for the first time, it's best to connect only that sensor, i.e. you should temporarily
disconnect any other sensors on the same SDI-12 bus. This ensures there will be no address conflicts
+
12V
DC
-
12V
SDI12
Data
Sensor
GND
D
GND
5D
6D
7D
8D
D
GND
Figure 146: Wiring for an SDI-12 sensor. Up to 10 sensors can be connected in parallel to each digital channel.
To measure
Use the command
register #1 on SDI-12 device #0
7SDI12
Testing and Configuring an SDI-12 Device
SDI-12 Address
The first task is to determine the address of the sensor. All SDI-12 sensors are able to be set to one of at least ten different
addresses. Depending on the sensor, this may be done by:

changing a hardware setting, e.g. DIP switches

sending an SDI-12 "change address" command (aAb!, where a is the current address and b is the new address)

connecting the sensor to a PC serial port and using configuration software supplied by the sensor manufacturer. You
may also need to use this configuration software to configure other aspects of the device – for example the device's
SDI-12 interface may be disabled by default, so you would need to enable it using the configuration software.
Consult the sensor's documentation to determine how to set its address. Note that all SDI-12 sensors are factory set to
address 0. If you are only connecting one sensor to the SDI-12 bus then you can leave it set to this value.
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Using SDI12SEND
The DT80's SDI12SEND command allows you to manually send SDI-12 commands to the sensor for testing and
configuration purposes. The format of this command is as follows:
SDI12SEND channel "string"
where:


channel is the digital I/O channel (5 – 8) (4 for DT81/82E)
string is a valid SDI-12 command string to send to the device. All commands start with the sensor address (0-9, A-Z or
a-z) and end with a ! character.
If there is a reply from the device then it will be displayed, assuming the /M (enable messages) and /h (free format) switches
are set.
For example, the aI! command (a = address) should result in the sensor returning an identification string, e.g.
SDI12SEND 5 "0I!"
5SDI12: 0I!012SENTEK
XEPI
1165FA14F000800
In this example a sensor with address 0 is connected to digital channel 5D. The output of the SDI12SEND command shows
the complete transaction: the first few characters (up to the !) are the command string that was sent, the rest are the
response from the sensor. In this case, the response indicates:

0 – the sensor's address

12 – the version of SDI-12 supported by the sensor (1.2)

SENTEK – the sensor manufacturer

XEPI – the model name

116 – the sensor firmware version

5FA14F000800 – other sensor details, e.g. serial number
If a valid response is not received, an error message will be displayed, e.g.:
SDI12SEND 5 "3I!"
5SDI12: 3I! *no response
In this case the command was sent to the address 3, which is the wrong address. This error may also indicate a wiring
problem, or perhaps the SDI-12 interface on the device has not been enabled.
Errors such as "*framing error", possibly in conjunction with a garbled looking message, generally indicate an address
conflict (more than one device with the same address is connected) although it may also indicate an electrical noise issue.
Reading Data from SDI-12 Devices
Measurement Modes
SDI-12 sensors can operate in one of two different modes:

Measure on demand is the traditional SDI-12 method, which all sensors support. The sensor is idle (typically in a low
power mode) until it is woken by the data logger sending it a measurement request. The sensor then takes the
measurement and then, possibly several seconds later, returns the data.

Continuous measurement is an alternative method, supported by some SDI-12 sensors. The sensor takes
measurements at regular intervals, then when the data logger requests data it immediately replies with the last
reading it took.
In Measure On Demand mode the DT80 must send a request then wait until the measurement is ready, which may be
immediate or it may take several seconds – depending on the sensor. During this time no other schedules will run, and no
commands will be executed (similar to a DELAY channel).
Measure On Demand mode is most suitable in applications where the sensor is being polled infrequently. This mode
minimises system power usage because the sensor only takes a measurement when it is requested to.
Continuous measurement mode is suited to applications where the logger needs to poll the sensor relatively often, or it is
running other schedules which should not be delayed. Note that the sensor may need to be sent some special commands
(either via SDI-12 or via a separate RS232 configuration interface) to enable continuous mode, set the measurement rate
and so on.
Check the sensor's documentation to see whether continuous measurement mode is supported. If it is, your first decision is
whether you want to use it.
Registers
Most SDI-12 devices can measure a number of different quantities. For example, a device might have 4 temperature sensors
plus 8 moisture sensors, i.e. it can measure 12 distinct quantities.
In DT80 parlance, each individual data item (quantity that can be measured) is termed a register. An SDI-12 device may
then divide its particular set of registers into a number of groups, or register sets. For example the abovementioned device
might define register set #2 as the 4 temperature sensors, and register set #3 as the 8 moisture sensors.
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The measurement process then proceeds as follows:
1.
The DT80 sends a request message (aCr!) to the SDI-12 device, specifying the register set (r) of interest – only one
register set can be requested at a time. (If r is 0 then it is omitted, i.e. aC! is sent.)
2.
The sensor will now measure and update all of the registers in the specified set.
3.
After the required time interval, the DT80 sends a second message (aD0!) to request the actual data values.
4.
The sensor replies immediately, sending some or all of the register values.
5.
If not all register values were sent, the DT80 may send further aDn! message(s) to request the remainder.
In Continuous Measurement mode the process is considerably simpler:
1.
The DT80 sends a message (aRr!) to request the most recent data values for register set r.
2.
The sensor replies immediately, sending all of the register values.
The SDI12 Channel Type
The DT80's SDI12 channel type allows you to read a data value from an SDI-12 device in much the same way as you
would read a voltage using the V channel type – without worrying about the technicalities of the SDI-12 protocol. There are
four of these channels available, 5..8SDI12, corresponding to the four SDI-12 compatible digital I/O channels (5D – 8D).
When an SDI12 channel is used, you need to specify additional information via channel options. The following channel
options apply:
Option
Function
AD"a"
Address: specifies the SDI-12 address of the sensor to read (0-9, A-Z or a-z). If not
specified, 0 is assumed. The quotation marks are optional for addresses 0-9.
Register: specifies the particular register to return. If the sensor defines more than one
register set then the hundreds digit specifies the register set. If the hundreds digit is zero or
not specified then the sensor's default register set (register set #0) is assumed.
The tens and units digits specify the register number within the register set: 1 for the first
data item in the set, 2 for the second, and so on.
If this option is not specified, 001 is assumed (which would be suitable for a sensor that
only returned one value)
Note that R2 is equivalent to R002 (not R200).
Continuous Measurement: If this option is present then the DT80 will use Continuous
Measurement Mode. The sensor is assumed to have been configured to take continuous
measurements.
Version: This option can be used to force the DT80 to only use commands supported by
SDI-12 Version n.n. Valid settings are VER10 (Version 1.0) through VER13 (Version 1.3).
This is normally only required if a sensor misrepresents the protocol version that it supports
in its response to the aI! command. See also Versions (P328).
Rnnn
CM
VERnn
Rnnn Settings
Some sample settings for the Rnnn channel option are shown below:
Option
Data Value (Register) to Read
(none)
First data value in default register set (register set #0)
First data value in default register set (register set #0)
19th data value in default register set (register set #0)
not valid
First data value in register set #1
44th data value in register set #3
R001 (or R1)
R019 (or R19)
R100
R101
R344
For example, suppose a particular SDI-12 device measures 9 different quantities in one go (i.e. it has 9 registers in its default
register set). These 9 values would then be returned to the data logger using an exchange of messages similar to the
following (underlined text is sent by the data logger, the remainder is returned by the sensor):
0D0!0+005.7541+068.0368+017.6721+054.3521+052.0475+016.2069+017.1182+016.8696
0D1!0+019.1727
These 9 register values can then be accessed using 5SDI12(R1) through 5SDI12(R9). So if you were interested in the
third value in the list you would use:
5SDI12(R3)
5SDI12 17.7
As can be seen, the third value returned by the sensor (+017.6721) is the return value of the channel.
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Example
 Measure on Demand
In this example, the documentation for a hypothetical SDI-12 weather station states: "Send the aC1! (or aM1!) command to
measure (1) internal temperature (degC), (2) external temperature, (3) humidity (%RH) and (4) pressure (hPa). Send the
aC2! (or aM2!) command to measure (1) wind speed (km/h), (2) max gust and (3) direction (degrees)." The device is
connected to the DT80 using digital I/O 7D, and has been configured with an SDI-12 address of 3.
In this case the device has two register sets (#1 and #2), one with four registers (measured quantities), one with three. The
following DT80 job will read and log external temperature, pressure and wind speed every two minutes:
BEGIN"CLOUDY"
RA2M 7SDI12(AD3,R102,"Ext temp~degC")
7SDI12(AD3,R104,"Pressure~hPa")
7SDI12(AD3,R201,"Wind speed~km/h")
LOGON
END
Note If your sensor supports both the aMn! and the newer aCn! SDI-12 commands (most modern sensors will) then be sure
to refer to the section on the aCn! command in the sensor documentation when determining which register numbers to use.
These two SDI-12 commands do much the same thing but the ordering of the returned data values may be different. The
DT80 always uses the aCn! command in preference to aMn!.
 Continuous Measurements
The weather station documentation goes on to say "To enable continuous measurement mode (sampling every t seconds),
use the aXC=t! command; to disable use aXCD!. [SDI-12 "X" commands are often used to implement device specific
functions such as this.] Use aR1! and aR2! to return the most recent values of int temp/ext temp/RH/pressure and wind
speed/gust/direction respectively."
The following job does the same thing as the previous example, but this time continuous measurement mode is used:
BEGIN"CLOUDY_CM"
SDI12SEND 7 "3XC=10!" ' enable continuous mode
RA2M 7SDI12(AD3,R102,CM,"Ext temp~degC")
7SDI12(AD3,R104,CM,"Pressure~hPa")
7SDI12(AD3,R201,CM,"Wind speed~km/h")
LOGON
END
Other Considerations
Execution Time
In Measure on Demand mode, SDI12 channels may take a significant amount of time to execute – often 10 seconds or
more, depending on the sensor. During this time no other schedules or commands are executed.
Note however that the DT80 will only request a measurement of a given register set once per schedule. So the following
schedule:
RA1M 5SDI12(R1) 5SDI12(R3) 5SDI12(R201) 5SDI12(R4)
would execute as follows:
1.
DT80 requests a measurement of register set #0 (0C!), then waits until it is ready.
2.
DT80 reads values for registers 1, 3 and 4, which are all part of register set #0. It will probably be given values for other
registers (e.g. register 2), which it will discard because they are not referenced in the job
3.
DT80 can now evaluate (i.e. return/log values for) the first two channels.
4.
DT80 requests a measurement of register set #2 (0C2!), then waits until it is ready.
5.
DT80 reads value for register 1 (in register set #2) and discards any other values that it receives.
6.
DT80 can now evaluate the last two channels.
Notice that the DT80 waits for the sensor on two occasions, once for each register set.
Versions
The DT80 automatically determines the version of the SDI-12 specification that a given sensor supports, and tailors the
types of messages it sends accordingly. For example:

Error check codes (CRCs) are used on data messages, but only if the sensor supports SDI-12 Version 1.3 or later.

Continuous Measurement mode is only available if the sensor supports SDI-12 Version 1.2 or later.
Unfortunately some sensors do not fully implement the SDI-12 version that they claim to support. In these situations the
VERnn option can be used to force the DT80 to assume a particular SDI-12 version.
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Troubleshooting
There are two main areas where difficulties may arise when setting up an SDI-12 system

the DT80 cannot communicate properly with the sensor

the sensor does not support the request you are making of it
These will be discussed in the sections below.
Diagnostic Messages
When troubleshooting an SDI-12 connection, it can often be helpful to see the actual SDI-12 messages. The DT80 provides
a special parameter setting for this purpose:
P56=2
If this parameter setting were used with the weather station example described above (Measure on Demand mode), you
might see something like:
7SDI12: [8] 3C1!300704
7SDI12: [25] 3D0!3+22.91+42.40+21.0+1013.9
Ext temp 42.4 degC
Pressure 1013.9 hPa
7SDI12: [8] 3C2!300603
7SDI12: [18] 3D0!3+4.29+31.43+012
Wind speed 4.3 km/h
which shows the measurement request message (3C1! or 3C2!) and response, followed by the data retrieval message
(3D0!) and response, for each register set.
Set P56=0 to turn off these messages.
Communications Problems
If the sensor does not reply at all to a request, the DT80 will output an error message, e.g.:
8SDI12(R3)
dataTaker 80 E80 - Serial device not responding (8SDI12:AD0:R3)
8SDI12 NotYetSet
Note also that the value returned by the channel is the special "NotYetSet" error value (see Data Errors (P382))
The main things to check here are:

cabling (Is the sensor powered?)

correct SDI12 channel number (In the above example the SDI-12 data wire should be connected to digital input 8D.)

correct SDI-12 address (In the above example the device should have been configured for address 0.)
This error message may also indicate an address conflict – a response was received from the sensor but it was garbled
because two or more sensors tried to both transmit at the same time, which will occur if they are both configured to use the
same address.
Try connecting only one sensor at a time and verifying the address of each sensor. For most sensors you can use the
following command:
SDI12SEND 8 "?!"
8SDI12: ?!1
In this case the sensor has responded, stating that it has been set to address 1.
Communications