SoundPlusŁ 24-Bit 96kHz Sampling CMOS Delta

SoundPlusŁ 24-Bit 96kHz Sampling CMOS Delta
®
PCM1716
49%
1
716
FPO
PCM
24-Bit, 96kHz Sampling
CMOS Delta-Sigma Stereo Audio
DIGITAL-TO-ANALOG CONVERTER
TM
FEATURES
DESCRIPTION
● ENHANCED MULTI-LEVEL DELTA-SIGMA DAC
● SAMPLING FREQUENCY (fs): 16kHz - 96kHz
● INPUT AUDIO DATA WORD:
16-, 20-, 24-Bit
● HIGH PERFORMANCE:
THD+N: –96dB
Dynamic Range: 106dB
SNR: 106dB
Analog Output Range: 0.62 x VCC (Vp-p)
● 8x OVERSAMPLING DIGITAL FILTER:
Stop Band Attenuation: –82dB
Passband Ripple: ±0.002dB
Slow Roll Off
● MULTI FUNCTIONS:
Digital De-emphasis
L/R Independent Digital Attenuation
Soft Mute
Zero Detect Mute
Zero Flag
Chip Select
Reversible Output Phase
● +5V SINGLE SUPPLY OPERATION
● SMALL 28-LEAD SSOP PACKAGE
The PCM1716 is designed for Mid to High grade
Digital Audio applications which achieve 96kHz sampling rates with 24-bit audio data. PCM1716 uses a
newly developed, enhanced multi-level delta-sigma
modulator architecture that improves audio dynamic
performance and reduces jitter sensitivity in actual
applications.
The internal digital filter operates at 8x over sampling
at a 96kHz sampling rate, with two kinds of roll-off
performances that can be selected: sharp roll-off, or
slow roll-off, as required for specific applications.
VCC2R
AGND2L
AGND2L
VCC2L
PCM1716 is suitable for Mid to High grade audio
applications such as CD, DVD-Audio, and Music
Instruments, since the device has superior audio
dynamic performance, 24-bit resolution and 96kHz
sampling.
BCKIN
LRCIN
DIN
Serial
Input
I/F
Low-pass
Filter
DAC
8X Oversampling
Digital Filter with
Function
Controller
Enhanced
Multi-level
Delta-Sigma
Modulator
Low-pass
Filter
DAC
ML/IIS
VOUTL
EXTL
VOUTR
EXTR
MC/DM1
MD/DM0
CS/IWO
MODE
Mode
Control
I/F
ZERO
SCK
BPZ-Cont.
Open Drain
MUTE
RST
Crystal/OSC
XTI
XTO
Power Supply
CLKO
VCC1 AGND1
VDD
DGND
International Airport Industrial Park • Mailing Address: PO Box 11400, Tucson, AZ 85734 • Street Address: 6730 S. Tucson Blvd., Tucson, AZ 85706 • Tel: (520) 746-1111 • Twx: 910-952-1111
Internet: http://www.burr-brown.com/ • FAXLine: (800) 548-6133 (US/Canada Only) • Cable: BBRCORP • Telex: 066-6491 • FAX: (520) 889-1510 • Immediate Product Info: (800) 548-6132
© 1997 Burr-Brown Corporation
SBAS080
PDS-1415C
Printed in U.S.A. August, 1998
SPECIFICATIONS
All specifications at +25°C, +VCC = +VDD = +5V, fS = 44.1kHz, and 24-bit input data, SYSCLK = 384fS, unless otherwise noted.
PCM1716
PARAMETER
CONDITIONS
MIN
RESOLUTION
TYP
MAX
24
DATA FORMAT
Audio Data Interface Format
Data Bit Length
Audio Data Format
Sampling Frequency (fS)
System Clock Frequency(1)
UNITS
Bits
Standard/I2S
16/20/24 Selectable
MSB First, 2’s Comp
16
96
kHz
256/384/512/768fS
DIGITAL INPUT/OUTPUT LOGIC LEVEL
Input Logic Level
VIH
VIL
Output Logic Level (CLKO) VOH
VOL
CLKO PERFORMANCE(2)
Output Rise Time
Output Fall Time
Output Duty Cycle
DYNAMIC PERFORMANCE(3) (24-Bit Data)
THD+N
VO = 0dB
VO = –60dB
Dynamic Range
Signal-to-Noise Ratio(4)
Channel Separation
DYNAMIC PERFORMANCE(3) (16-Bit Data)
THD+N
VO = 0dB
Dynamic Range
DC ACCURACY
Gain Error
Gain Mismatch: Channel-to-Channel
Bipolar Zero Error
ANALOG OUTPUT
Output Voltage
Center Voltage
Load Impedance
DIGITAL FILTER PERFORMANCE
Filter Characteristics 1
(Sharp Roll-Off)
Passband
Stopband
Passband Ripple
Stopband Attenuation
Filter Characteristics 2
(Slow Roll-Off)
Passband
Stopband
Passband Ripple
Stopband Attenuation
Delay Time
De-emphasis Error
INTERNAL ANALOG FILTER
–3dB Bandwidth
Passband Response
POWER SUPPLY REQUIREMENTS
Voltage Range
Supply Current: ICC +IDD
Power Dissipation
2.0
0.8
IOH = 2mA
IOL = 4mA
4.5
0.5
20 ~ 80% VDD, 10pF
80 ~ 20% VDD, 10pF
10pF Load
5.5
4
37
fS = 44.1kHz
fS = 96kHz
fS = 44.1kHz
–97
–94
–42
fS =44.1kHz EIAJ A-weighted
fS = 96kHz A-weighted
fS =44.1kHz EIAJ A-weighted
fS = 96kHz A-weighted
fS = 44.1kHz
fS = 96kHz
98
V
V
V
V
ns
ns
%
–90
dB
dB
dB
106
103
106
103
102
101
dB
dB
dB
dB
dB
dB
fS = 44.1kHz
fS = 96kHz
fS = 44.1kHz EIAJ A-weighted
fS = 96kHz A-weighted
–94
–92
98
97
dB
dB
dB
dB
VO = 0.5VCC at Bipolar Zero
±1.0
±1.0
±30
98
96
Full Scale (0dB)
±3.0
±3.0
±60
0.62 VCC
0.5 VCC
AC Load
Vp-p
V
kΩ
5
±0.002dB
–3dB
% of FSR
% of FSR
mV
0.454fS
0.490fS
0.546fS
Stop Band = 0.546fS
Stop Band = 0.567fS
±0.002
–75
–82
±0.002dB
–3dB
dB
dB
dB
0.274fS
0.454fS
0.732fS
Stopband = 0.732fS
±0.002
–82
30/fS
±0.1
100
–0.16
f = 20kHz
VDD, VCC
fS = 44.1kHz
fS = 96kHz
fS = 44.1kHz
fS = 96kHz
4.5
TEMPERATURE RANGE
Operation
Storage
–25
–55
5
32
45
160
225
dB
dB
sec
dB
kHz
dB
5.5
45
225
+85
+100
VDC
mA
mA
mW
mW
°C
°C
NOTES: (1) Refer section of system clock. (2) External buffer is recommended. (3) Dynamic performance specs are tested with 20kHz low pass filter and THD+N
specs are tested with 30kHz LPF, 400Hz HPF, Average Mode. (4) SNR is tested at internally infinity zero detection off.
®
PCM1716
2
PIN CONFIGURATION
LRCIN
PIN ASSIGNMENTS
1
28 ML/IIS
DIN
2
27 MC/DM1
BCKIN
3
26 MD/DM0
CLKO
4
25 MUTE
XTI
5
24 MODE
XTO
6
23 CS/IWO
DGND
7
VDD
8
22 RST
PCM1716E
VCC2R
21 ZERO
9
20 VCC2L
AGND2R 10
19
AGND2L
EXTR 11
18
EXTL
PIN
NAME
I/O
1
LRCIN
IN
DESCRIPTION
Left and Right Clock Input. This clock is equal to
the sampling rate - fS.(1)
2
DIN
IN
Serial Audio Data Input(1)
3
BCKIN
IN
Bit Clock Input for Serial Audio Data.(1)
4
CLKO
OUT
Buffered Output of Oscillator. Equivalent to
System Clock.
5
XTI
IN
6
XTO
OUT
Oscillator Input (External Clock Input)
7
DGND
—
Digital Ground
Digital Power +5V
Oscillator Output
8
VDD
—
9
VCC2R
—
Analog Power +5V
10
AGND2R
—
Analog Ground
11
EXTR
OUT
12
NC
—
13
VOUTR
OUT
14
AGND1
—
Analog Ground
Analog Power +5V
15
VCC1
—
16
VOUTL
OUT
NC
—
Rch, Common Pin of Analog Output Amp
No Connection
Rch, Analog Voltage Output of Audio Signal
Lch, Analog Voltage Output of Audio Signal
NC 12
17
NC
17
VOUTR 13
16
VOUTL
18
EXTL
OUT
19
AGND2L
—
AGND1 14
15
VCC1
20
VCC2L
—
21
ZERO
OUT
22
RST
IN
Reset. When this pin is low, the DF and
modulators are held in reset.(2)
23
CS/IWO
IN
Chip Select/Input Format Selection. When this
pin is low, the Mode Control is effective.(3)
24
MODE
IN
Mode Control Select. (H: Software, L: Hardware)(2)
PACKAGE INFORMATION
No Connection
Lch, Common Pin of Analog Output Amp
Analog Ground
Analog Power +5V
Zero Data Flag
MUTE
IN
Mute Control
PACKAGE
PACKAGE DRAWING
NUMBER(1)
25
PRODUCT
26
MD/DM0
IN
Mode Control, DATA/De-emphasis Selection 1(2)
PCM1716E
28-Pin SSOP
324
27
MC/DM1
IN
Mode Control, BCK/De-emphasis Selection 2(2)
28
ML/I2S
IN
Mode Control, WDCK/Input Format Selection(2)
NOTE: (1) For detailed drawing and dimension table, please see end of data
sheet, or Appendix C of Burr-Brown IC Data Book.
NOTES: (1) Pins 1, 2, 3; Schmitt Trigger input. (2) Pins 22, 24, 25, 26, 27,
28; Schmitt Trigger input with pull-up resister. (3) Pin 23; Schmitt Trigger
input with pull-down resister.
ABSOLUTE MAXIMUM RATINGS
Power Supply Voltage ...................................................................... +6.5V
+VCC to +VDD Difference ................................................................... ±0.1V
Input Logic Voltage .................................................. –0.3V to (VDD + 0.3V)
Input Current (except power supply) ............................................... ±10mA
Power Dissipation .......................................................................... 400mW
Operating Temperature Range ......................................... –25°C to +85°C
Storage Temperature ...................................................... –55°C to +125°C
Lead Temperature (soldering, 5s) ................................................. +260°C
ELECTROSTATIC
DISCHARGE SENSITIVITY
This integrated circuit can be damaged by ESD. Burr-Brown
recommends that all integrated circuits be handled with
appropriate precautions. Failure to observe proper handling
and installation procedures can cause damage.
ESD damage can range from subtle performance degradation
to complete device failure. Precision integrated circuits may
be more susceptible to damage because very small parametric
changes could cause the device not to meet its published
specifications.
The information provided herein is believed to be reliable; however, BURR-BROWN assumes no responsibility for inaccuracies or omissions. BURR-BROWN assumes
no responsibility for the use of this information, and all use of such information shall be entirely at the user’s own risk. Prices and specifications are subject to change
without notice. No patent rights or licenses to any of the circuits described herein are implied or granted to any third party. BURR-BROWN does not authorize or warrant
any BURR-BROWN product for use in life support devices and/or systems.
®
3
PCM1716
TYPICAL PERFORMANCE CURVES
All specifications at +25°C, +VCC = +VDD = +5V, fS = 44.1kHz, and 24-bit input data, SYSCLK = 384fS, unless otherwise noted.
THD+N vs LEVEL
(fS = 44.1kHz)
THD+N vs SAMPLING FREQUENCY
(VCC = VDD = 5V, 24-Bit)
–20
10
88
–30
256fs
97
–60
0.1
–70
0.010
–80
24-Bit
384fs
–90
–100
0.001
103
32
110
44.1
48
–60
96
–50
–40
–30
–20
–10
Sampling Frequency fS (kHz)
Amplitude (dB)
DYNAMIC RANGE vs SAMPLING FREQUENCY
(VCC = VDD = 5V, 24-Bit)
SNR vs SAMPLING FREQUENCY
(VCC = VDD = 5V, 24-Bit)
110
108
SNR (A-weighted) (dB)
Dynamic Range (A-weighted) (dB)
–50
16-Bit
106
256/384fS
104
102
100
0
108
106
256/384fS
104
102
100
32
–60
44.1
48
96
32
44.1
48
96
Sampling Frequency fS (kHz)
Sampling Frequency fS (kHz)
–60dB OUTPUT SPECTRUM
(f = 1kHz, fS = 44.1kHz, 16-Bit Data)
–60dB OUTPUT SPECTRUM
(f = 1kHz, fS = 44.1kHz, 24-Bit Data)
–60
–70
–80
–80
–90
–90
Amplitude (dB)
–70
–100
–110
–120
–100
–110
–120
–130
–130
–140
–140
–150
–150
20
2
4
6
8
10
12
14
16
18
20
20
Frequency (Hz)
4
6
8
10
12
Frequency (Hz)
®
PCM1716
2
4
14
16
18
20
THD+N (dB)
94
100
Amplitude (dB)
–40
1
THD+N (%)
THD+N at F/S (dB)
91
TYPICAL PERFORMANCE CURVES (CONT)
OVERALL FREQUENCY CHARACTERISTIC
(Sharp Roll-Off)
PASSBAND RIPPLE CHARACTERISTIC
(Sharp Roll-Off)
0
0.003
–20
0.002
Amplitude (dB)
Amplitude (dB)
–40
–60
–80
–100
0.001
0
–0.001
–120
–0.002
–140
–160
–0.003
0
0.5
1
1.5
2
2.5
3
3.5
4
0
0.1
0.2
0.3
0.4
Frequency (x fS)
Frequency (x fS)
OVERALL FREQUENCY CHARACTERISTIC
(Slow Roll-Off)
FREQUENCY CHARACTERISTIC
(Slow Roll-Off)
0.5
0
0
–2
–20
Amplitude (dB)
Amplitude (dB)
–4
–40
–60
–80
–6
–8
–10
–12
–14
–100
–16
–120
–140
–18
–20
0
0.5
1
1.5
2
2.5
3
3.5
0
4
0.1
0.2
Level (dB)
Level (dB)
DE-EMPHASIS FREQUENCY RESPONSE (fS = 32kHz)
0
–2
–4
–6
–8
–10
0
2
4
6
8
10
12
14
0
2
Level (dB)
Level (dB)
2
4
6
8
10
12
4
14
16
18
20
0
2
4
Level (dB)
Level (dB)
2
4
6
8
10
12
14
6
8
10
12
14
6
8
10
12
14
16
18
20
20
22
Frequency (kHz)
DE-EMPHASIS FREQUENCY RESPONSE (fS = 48kHz)
0
0.6
DE-EMPHASIS ERROR (fS = 44.1kHz)
0.5
0.3
0.1
–0.1
–0.3
–0.5
Frequency (kHz)
0
–2
–4
–6
–8
–10
0.5
Frequency (kHz)
DE-EMPHASIS FREQUENCY RESPONSE (fS = 44.1kHz)
0
0.4
DE-EMPHASIS ERROR (fS = 32kHz)
0.5
0.3
0.1
–0.1
–0.3
–0.5
Frequency (kHz)
0
–2
–4
–6
–8
–10
0.3
Frequency (x fS)
Frequency (x fS)
16
18
20
22
DE-EMPHASIS ERR0R (fS = 48kHz)
0.5
0.3
0.1
–0.1
–0.3
–0.5
0
Frequency (kHz)
2
4
6
8
10
12
14
16
18
Frequency (kHz)
®
5
PCM1716
SYSTEM CLOCK
Typical input system clock frequencies to the PCM1716 are
shown in Table I, also, external input clock timing requirements are shown in Figure 2.
The system clock for PCM1716 must be either 256fS, 384fS,
512fS or 768fS, where fS is the audio sampling frequency
(typically 32kHz, 44.1kHz, 48kHz, or 96kHz). But 768fS at
96kHz is not accepted.
The system clock can be either a crystal oscillator placed
between XTI (pin 5) and XTO (pin 6), or an external clock
input to XTI. If an external system clock is used, XTO is
open (floating). Figure 1 illustrates the typical system clock
connections.
tSCKH
“H”
2.0V
“L”
0.8V
XTI
tSCKL
PCM1716 has a system clock detection circuit which automatically senses if the system clock is operating at 256fS ~
768fS. The system clock should be synchronized with LRCIN
(pin 1) clock. LRCIN (left-right clock) operates at the sampling frequency fS. In the event these clocks are not synchronized, PCM1716 can compensate for the phase difference
internally. If the phase difference between left-right and
system clocks is greater than 6-bit clocks (BCKIN), the
synchronization is performed internally. While the synchronization is processing, the analog output is forced to a DC
level at bipolar zero. The synchronization typically occurs in
less than 1 cycle of LRCIN.
System Clock Pulse Width High tSCKIH : 7ns MIN
System Clock Pulse Width Low tSCKIL : 7ns MIN
FIGURE 2. XTI Clock Timing.
DATA INTERFACE FORMATS
Digital audio data is interfaced to PCM1716 on pins 1, 2,
and 3, LRCIN (left-right clock), DIN (data input) and
BCKIN (bit clock). PCM1716 can accept both standard, I2S,
and left justified data formats.
Figure 3 illustrates acceptable input data formats. Figure 4
shows required timing specification for digital audio data.
Externl Clock Input
Reset
System Clock
(256/384/
512/768fS)
4
CLKO
5
XTI
6
XTO
PCM1716 has both internal power-on reset circuit and the
RST pin (pin 22) which accepts an external forced reset by
RST = LOW. For internal power on reset, initialize (reset) is
done automatically at power on VDD >2.2V (typ). During
internal reset = LOW, the output of the DAC is invalid and
the analog outputs are forced to VCC /2. Figure 5 illustrates
the timing of the internal power on reset.
PCM1716
PCM1716 accepts an external forced reset when RST = L.
When RST = L, the output of the DAC is invalid and the
analog outputs are forced to VCC /2 after internal initialization
(1024 system clocks count after RST = H.) Figure 6 illustrates
the timing of the RST pin.
Crystal Resonator Oscillation
System Clock
Buffer Out
4
CLKO
5
XTI
6
XTO
Buffer
C1
C2
XTAL
Zero Out (pin 21)
If the input data is continuously zero for 65536 cycles of
BCK, an internal FET is switched to “ON”. The drain of the
internal FET is the zero-pin, it will enable “wired-or” with
external circuit. This zero detect function is available in both
software mode and hardware mode.
PCM1716
C1 C2 : 10pF ~ 30pF
FIGURE 1. System Clock Connection.
SYSTEM CLOCK FREQUENCY - MHz
SAMPLING RATE FREQUENCY (fS) - LRCIN
256fS
384fS
512fS
768fS
32kHz
8.1920
12.2880
16.3840
24.5760
44.1kHz
11.2896
16.9340
22.5792
33.8688(1)
48kHz
12.2880
18.4320
24.5760
36.8640(1)
24.5760
36.8640(1)
49.1520(1)
—
96kHz
NOTE: (1) The Internal Crystal oscillator frequency cannot be larger than 24.576MHz.
TABLE I. Typical System Clock Frequency.
®
PCM1716
6
1/fS
L_ch
R_ch
LRCIN (pin 1)
BCKIN (pin 3)
(1) 16-Bit Right Justified
DIN (pin 2)
14 15 16
1
2
MSB
(2) 20-Bit Right Justified
DIN (pin 2)
18 19 20
1
2
23 24
1
2
DIN (pin 2)
18
3
1
2
1
22
3
19 20
1
2
22
MSB
14
3
23 24
1
18
3
2
1
2
22
3
LSB
MSB
23 24
LSB
22
3
19 20
LSB
MSB
23 24
15 16
LSB
MSB
LSB
3
2
MSB
LSB
MSB
(4) 24-Bit Left Justified
15 16
LSB
MSB
(3) 24-Bit Right Justified
DIN (pin 2)
14
3
23 24
LSB
1/fS
L_ch
LRCIN (pin 1)
R_ch
BCKIN (pin 3)
(5) 16-Bit I2S
DIN (pin 2)
1
2
14
3
MSB
(6) 24-Bit I2S
DIN (pin 2)
1
2
15 16
1
2
LSB
3
MSB
22
3
MSB
23 24
1
LSB
2
14
15 16
1
2
1
2
LSB
3
MSB
22
23 24
LSB
FIGURE 3. Audio Data Input Formats.
LRCKIN
1.4V
tBCH
tBCL
tLB
BCKIN
1.4V
tBL
tBCY
1.4V
DIN
tDS
tDH
BCKIN Pulse Cycle Time
: tBCY
: 100ns (min)
BCKIN Pulse Width High
: tBCH
: 50ns (min)
BCKIN Pulse Width Low
: tBCL
: 50ns (min)
BCKIN Rising Edge to LRCIN Edge : tBL
: 30ns (min)
LRCIN Edge to BCKIN Rising Edge : tLB
: 30ns (min)
DIN Set-up Time
: tDS
: 30ns (min)
DIN Hold Time
: tDH
: 30ns (min)
FIGURE 4. Audio Data Input Timing Specification.
®
7
PCM1716
VCC = VDD
Reset
Reset Removal
Internal Reset
1024 system (= XTI) clocks
XTI Clock
FIGURE 5. Internal Power-On Reset Timing.
RST
tRST(1)
Reset
Reset Removal
Internal Reset
1024 system (XTI) clocks
XTI Clock
NOTE: (1) tRST = 20ns min.
FIGURE 6. External Forced Reset Timing.
FUNCTIONAL DESCRIPTION
PCM1716 has several built-in functions including digital
attenuation, digital de-emphasis, input data format selection,
and others. These functions are software controlled. PCM1716
can be operated in two different modes, software mode or
hardware mode. Software mode is a three-wire interface
using pin 28 (ML), 27 (MC), and 26 (MD).
PCM1716 can also be operated in hardware mode, where
static control signals are used on pin 28 (115, pin 27 (DM1),
pin 26 (DM0) and pin 23 (IWO).
This basic operation mode as software or hardware can be
selected by pin 24 (MODE) as shown in Table II.
FUNCTION
SOFTWARE
(Mode = H)
HARDWARE
(Mode = L)
Input Data Format Selection
O
O
Input Data Bit Selection
O
O
Input LRCIN Polarity Selection
O
X
De-emphasis Control
O
O
O
Mute
O
Attenuation
O
X
Infinity Zero Mute Control
O
X
DAC Operation Control
O
X
Slow Roll-Off Selection
O
X
Output Phase Selection
O
X
CLKO Output Selection
O
X
NOTE: O = Selectable, X: Not Selectable.
TABLE III. Mode Control, Selectable Functions.
MODE (pin 24) = H
Software Mode
MODE (pin 24) = L
Hardware Mode
HARDWARE MODE (MODE = L)
In hardware mode, the following function can be selected.
TABLE II. Mode Control.
De-emphasis control
De-emphasis control can be selected by DM1 (pin 27) and
DM0 (pin 26)
Table III indicates which functions are selectable within the
users chosen mode. All of the functions shown are selectable
within the software mode, but only de-emphasis control, soft
mute and input data format may be selected when using
PCM1716 in the hardware mode.
®
PCM1716
8
DM1 (Pin 27)
DM0 (Pin 26)
DE-EMPHASIS
L
L
H
H
L
H
L
H
OFF
48kHz
44.1kHz
32kHz
FUNCTION
Input Audio Data Format Selection
Standard Format
Left Justified
I2S Format
Input Audio Data Format
Input data format can be selected by I2S (pin 28) and IWO
(pin 23)
(Pin 28) IWO (Pin 23)
L
L
H
H
L
H
L
H
Standard Format
Input Audio Data Bit Selection
16-Bit
20-Bit
24-Bit
TABLE IV. De-emphasis Control.
I2S
DEFAULT MODE
Input LRCIN Polarity Selection
Lch/Rch = High/Low
Lch/Rch = Low/High
DATA FORMAT
16-Bit Data Word, Normal, Right Justified
20-Bit Data Word, Normal, Right Justified
16-Bit Data Word, I2S Format
24-Bit Data Word, I2S Format
TABLE V. Data Format Control.
SOFT MUTE
Soft Mute function can be controlled by MUTE (pin 25)
MUTE (Pin 25)
L
Mute ON
Mute OFF (Normal Operation)
Lch/Rch = High/Low
De-emphasis Control
OFF
Soft Mute Control
OFF
Attenuation Control
Lch, Rch Individually
Lch, Rch Common
0dB, Individual
Infinite Zero Mute Control
Not Operated
DAC Operation Control
Operated
Sampling Rate Selection for De-emphasis
Standard Frequency
44.1kHz
48kHz
32kHz
44.1kHz
Slow Roll-Off Selection
SOFT MUTE
H
16-Bit
Not Selected
(Sharp Roll-Off)
Output Phase Selection
Not Inverted
CLK0 Output Selection
Input Frequency
TABLE VI. Selectable Functions and Default.
PROGRAM REGISTER BIT MAPPING
SOFTWARE MODE (MODE = H)
PCM1716’s special functions at software mode is shown in
Table VI. These functions are controlled using a ML, MC,
MD serial control signal.
PCM1716’s special functions are controlled using four program registers which are 16 bits long. These registers are all
loaded using MD. After the 16 data bits are clocked in, ML
is used to latch in the data to the appropriate register. Table
VII shows the complete mapping of the four registers and
Figure 7 illustrates the serial interface timing.
MAPPING OF PROGRAM REGISTERS
B15
B14
B13
B12
B11
B10
B9
B8
B7
B6
B5
B4
B3
B2
B1
B0
MODE0
res
res
res
res
res
A1
A0
LDL
AL7
AL6
AL5
AL4
AL3
AL2
AL1
AL0
MODE1
res
res
res
res
res
A1
A0
LDR
AR7
AR6
AR5
AR4
AR3
AR2
AR1
AR0
MODE2
res
res
res
res
res
A1
A0
res
res
res
res
IW1
IW0
OPE
DEM
MUT
MODE3
res
res
res
res
res
A1
A0
IZD
SF1
SF0
CK0
REV
SR0
ATC
LRP
I2S
ML (pin 28)
MC (pin 27)
MD (pin 26)
B15 B14 B13 B12 B11 B10 B9 B8 B7 B6 B5 B4 B3 B2 B1 B0
FIGURE 7. Three-Wire Serial Interface.
®
9
PCM1716
REGISTER 2 (A1 = 1, A0 = 0)
REGISTER
NAME
BIT
NAME
Register 0
AL (7:0)
LDL
A (1:0)
res
DAC Attenuation Data for Lch
Attenuation Data Load Control for Lch
Register Address
Reserved, should be “L”
Register 1
AR (7:0)
LDR
A (1:0)
res
DAC Attenuation Data for Rch
Attenuation Data Load Control for Rch
Register Address
Reserved, should be “L”
Register 2
MUT
DEM
OPE
IW (1:0)
res
A (1:0)
res
Left and Right DACs Soft Mute Control
De-emphasis Control
Left and Right DACs Operation Control
Input Audio Data Bit and Format Select
Reserved
Register Address
Reserved, should be “L”
I2S
LRP
ATC
SRO
REV
CKO
SF (1:0)
IZD
A (1:0)
res
Audio Data Format Select
Polarity of LRCIN Select
Attenuator Control
Slow Roll-Off Select
Output Phase Select
CLKO Output Select
Sampling Rate Select
Internal Zero Detection Circuit Control
Register Address
Reserved, should be “L”
Register 3
DESCRIPTION
B0
MUT = L
Soft Mute OFF
MUT = H
Soft Mute ON
DEM (B1)
DEM = L
De-emphasis OFF
DEM = H
De-emphasis ON
OPE (B2)
OPE = L
Normal Operation
OPE = H
DAC Operation OFF
when OPE (B2) is “HIGH”, the output of the DAC will be
forced to bipolar zero, irrespective of any input data.
IWO (B3), IW1 (B4) and I2S (B0) of Register 3
These resisters, IWO, IW1, I2S determine the input data
word and input data format as shown below.
B7 B6 B5 B4 B3 B2 B1 B0
res res res res res A1 A0 LDL AL7 AL6 AL5 AL4 AL3 AL2 AL1 AL0
Register 0 is used to control left channel attenuation. Bits
0 - 7 (AL0 - AL7) are used to determine the attenuation
level. The level of attenuation is given by:
ATT = 0.5 x (data-255) (dB)
FFh = –0dB
FEh = –0.5dB
:
:
01h = –127.5dB
00h = – ∞ (= Mute)
IW1
IW0
I2S
Audio Interface
0
0
1
1
0
0
1
1
0
1
0
1
0
1
0
1
0
0
0
0
1
1
1
1
16-Bit Standard (Right-Justified)
20-Bit Standard (Right-Justified)
24-Bit Standard (Right-Justified)
24-Bit Left-Justified (MSB First)
16-Bit I2S
24-Bit I2S
Reserved
Reserved
REGISTER 3 (A1 = 1, A0 = 1)
ATTENUATION DATA LOAD CONTROL
Bit 8 (LDL) is used to control the loading of attenuation data
in B0:B7. When LDL is set to 0, attenuation data will be
loaded into AL0:AL7, but it will not affect the attenuation
level until LDL is set to 1. LDR in Register 1 has the same
function for right channel attenuation.
B15 B14 B13 B12 B11 B10 B9 B8
B7 B6 B5 B4 B3 B2 B1
B0
res res res res res A1 A0 IZD
SF1 SF0 CKO REV SRO ATC LRP I2S
REGISTER 3 (A1 = 1, A0 = 1)
Register 3 is used to control input data format and polarity,
attenuation channel control, system clock frequency, sampling frequency, infinite zero detection, output phase,
CLKO output, and slow roll-off.
Bit 8 is used to control the infinite zero detection function
(IZD).
REGISTER 1 (A1 = 0, A0 = 1)
B7 B6 B5 B4 B3 B2 B1 B0
When IZD is “LOW”, the zero detect circuit is off. Under
this condition, no automatic muting will occur if the input
is continuously zero. When IZD is “HIGH”, the zero detect
feature is enabled. If the input data is continuously zero for
65, 536 cycles of BCKIN, the output will be immediately
res res res res res A1 A0 LDR AR7 AR6 AR5 AR4 AR3 AR2 AR1 AR0
Register 1 is used to control right channel attenuation. As
in Register 1, bits 0 - 7 (AR0 - AR7) control the level of
attenuation.
®
PCM1716
res res res IW1 IWO OPE DEM MUTE
MUT (B0)
REGISTER 0 (A1 = 0, A0 = 0)
B15 B14 B13 B12 B11 B10 B9 B8
B7 B6 B5 B4 B3 B2 B1
res res res res res A1 A0 res
Register 2 is used to control soft mute, de-emphasis, operation enable, input resolution, and input audio data bit and
format.
TABLE VII. Register Functions
B15 B14 B13 B12 B11 B10 B9 B8
B15 B14 B13 B12 B11 B10 B9 B8
10
forced to a bipolar zero state (VCC / 2). The zero detection
feature is used to avoid noise which may occur when the
input is DC. When the output is forced to bipolar zero,
there may be an audible click. PCM1716 allows the zero
detect feature to be disabled so the user can implement an
external muting circuit.
SRO (B3) is roll-off performance of digital filter selection.
Sharp Roll-Off
SRO = H
Slow Roll-Off
ATC (B2) is used as an attenuation control. When bit 3 is
set HIGH, the attenuation data on Register 0 is used for
both channels, and the data in Register 1 is ignored. When
bit 3 is LOW, each channel has separate attenuation data.
IZD (B8)
B8 = L
B8 = H
SRO = L
Zero Detect Mute OFF
Zero Detect Mute ON
Bits 6 (SF0) and 7 (SF1) are used to select the sampling
frequency for De-emphasis.
SF1
SF0
Sampling Rate
0
0
1
1
0
1
0
1
Reserved
48kHz
44.1kHz
32kHz
Buffer Out of XTi Clock
CKO = H
Half (1/2) Frequency Out of XTi Clock
Ch Individual ATT Control
ATC = H
Common ATT Control
Bits 0 (I2S) and 1 (LRP) are used to control the input data
format. A “LOW” on bit 0 sets the format to (MSB-first,
right-justified Japanese format) and a “HIGH” sets the
format to I2S (Philips serial data protocol). Bit 1 (LRP) is
used to select the polarity of LRCIN (sample rate clock).
When bit 1 is “LOW”, left channel data is assumed when
LRCIN is in a “HIGH” phase and right channel data is
assumed when LRCIN is in a “LOW” phase. When bit 1 is
“HIGH”, the polarity assumption is reversed.
CKO (B5) is output frequency control at CLKO pin, can be
selected as Buffer (1/1) or half rate of input frequency
(1/2).
CKO = L
ATC = L
REF (B4) is output analog signal phase control.
REV = L
Normal Output
REV = H
Inverted Output
LRP = L
L
R
H/Lch
LRP = H
L
R
L/Lch
tMLL
tMHH
1.4V
ML
tMCH
tMCL
tMLS
tMLH
1.4V
MC
tMCY
LSB
MD
tMDS
tMDH
tCSML
1.4V
tMLCS
1.4V
CS
MC Pulse Cycle Time
: tMCY
: 100ns (min)
MC Pulse Width LOW
: tMCL
: 40ns (min)
MC Pulse Width HIGH
: tMCH
: 40ns (min)
MD Hold Time
: tMDH
: 40ns (min)
MD Set-up Time
: tMDS
: 40ns (min)
ML Low Level Time
: tMLL
: 40ns (min) + 1SYSCLK(1) (min)
ML High Level Time
: tMHH
: 40ns (min) + 1SYSCLK(1) (min)
ML Hold Time
: tMLH
: 40ns (min)
ML Set-up Time
: tMLS
: 40ns (min)
CS Low to ML Low Time(2)
: tCSML
: 10ns (min)
ML High to CS High Time(2)
: tMLCS
: 10ns (min)
NOTE: (1) System Clock Cycle. (2) CS Should be changed during ML = H.
FIGURE 8. Program Register Input Timing.
®
11
PCM1716
THEORY OF OPERATION
the advantage of stability and clock jitter sensitivity over the
typical one-bit (2 level) delta-sigma modulator.
The delta-sigma section of PCM1716 is based on a 8-level
amplitude quantizer and a 4th-order noise shaper. This
section converts the oversampled input data to 8-level deltasigma format.
The combined oversampling rate of the delta-sigma modulator and the internal 8-times interpolation filter is 64fS for
all system clock ratios (256/384/512/768fS).
The theoretical quantization noise performance of the
8-level delta-sigma modulator is shown in Figure 10. This
enhanced multi-level delta-sigma architecture also has advantages for input clock jitter sensitivity due to the multilevel quantizer, simulated jitter sensitivity is shown in
Figure 11.
This newly developed, “Enhanced Multi-level Delta-Sigma”
architecture achieves high-grade audio dynamic performance
and sound quality.
A block diagram of the 8-level delta-sigma modulator is
shown in Figure 9. This 8-level delta-sigma modulator has
–
+
Z–1
+
Z–1
+
Z–1
+
Z–1
+
+
8-Level Quantizer
FIGURE 9. 8-Level Delta-Sigma Modulator.
125
–20
120
–40
115
Dynamic Range (dB)
Amplitude (dB)
CLOCK JITTER
0
–60
–80
–100
–120
110
105
100
95
–140
90
–160
85
80
–180
0
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
0
8
200
300
FIGURE 11. Jitter Sensitivity.
FIGURE 10. Quantization Noise Spectrum.
®
PCM1716
100
Jitter (ps)
Frequency (fS)
12
400
500
600
APPLICATION
CONSIDERATIONS
BYPASSING POWER SUPPLIES
The power supplies should be bypassed as close as possible
to the unit. Refer to Figure 15 for optimal values of bypass
capacitors.
DELAY TIME
There is a finite delay time in delta-sigma converters. In A/D
converters, this is commonly referred to as latency. For a
delta-sigma D/A converter, delay time is determined by the
order number of the FIR filter stage, and the chosen sampling
rate. The following equation expresses the delay time of
PCM1716:
POWER SUPPLY
CONNECTIONS
PCM1716 has three power supply connections: digital (VDD),
and analog (VCC). Each connection also has a separate
ground. If the power supplies turn on at different times, there
is a possibility of a latch-up condition. To avoid this condition, it is recommended to have a common connection
between the digital and analog power supplies. If separate
supplies are used without a common connection, the delta
between the two supplies during ramp-up time must be less
than 0.1V.
An application circuit to avoid a latch-up condition is shown
in Figure 14.
TD = 30 x 1/fS
For fS = 44.1kHz, TD = 30/44.1kHz = 680µs
Applications using data from a disc or tape source, such as
CD audio, DVD audio, Video CD, DAT, Minidisc, etc.,
generally are not affected by delay time. For some professional applications such as broadcast audio for studios, it is
important for total delay time to be less than 2ms.
OUTPUT FILTERING
For testing purposes all dynamic tests are done on the
PCM1716 using a 20kHz low pass filter. This filter limits
the measured bandwidth for THD+N, etc. to 20kHz. Failure
to use such a filter will result in higher THD+N and lower
SNR and Dynamic Range readings than are found in the
specifications. The low pass filter removes out of band
noise. Although it is not audible, it may affect dynamic
specification numbers.
Digital
Power Supply
The performance of the internal low pass filter from DC to
40kHz is shown in Figure 12. The higher frequency roll-off
of the filter is shown in Figure 13. If the user’s application
has the PCM1716 driving a wideband amplifier, it is recommended to use an external low pass filter.
Analog
Power Supply
VDD
VCC
DGND
AGND
FIGURE 14. Latch-Up Prevention Circuit.
1
20
0
Level (dB)
Level (dB)
0.5
0
–20
–40
–60
–0.5
–80
–100
–1
1
10
100
1k
10k
100k
1
Log Frequency (Hz)
10
100
1k
10k
100k
1M
10M
Log Frequency (Hz)
FIGURE 13. Low Pass Filter Response.
FIGURE 12. Low Pass Filter Response.
®
13
PCM1716
PCM1716E
PCM
Audio Data
Input
XTI Buffer Out
or
1/2 Divided Out
SYSTEM CLOCK
(256/384/512/768fS)
to DGND of D. Source
C2
C4
C6
10µF
1
LRCIN
2
DIN
MC/DM1 27
3
BCKIN
MD/DM0 26
4
CLKO
MUTE 25
5
XTI
MODE 24
6
XTO
7
DGND
8
VDD
ZERO 21
9
VCC2R
VCC2L 20
ML/IIS 28
CS/IWO 23
RST 22
10 AGND2R
+
Mode
Control
External Reset
10kΩ
C3
AGND2L 19
11 EXTR
EXTL 18
12 NC
NC 17
13 VOUTR
VOUTL 16
14 AGND1
VCC1 15
+ C5
10µF
C1
+5V VCC
Post
Low-Pass
Filter
C1, C2 : 10µF + 0.1µF Ceramic
C3, C4 : 1µF ~ 10µF
Post
Low-Pass
Filter
Analog
Mute
Analog
Mute
Rch Audio Out
Lch Audio Out
FIGURE 15. Typical Circuit Connection Diagram.
®
PCM1716
14
External
Mute Control
PACKAGE OPTION ADDENDUM
www.ti.com
30-Mar-2005
PACKAGING INFORMATION
Orderable Device
Status (1)
Package
Type
Package
Drawing
Pins Package Eco Plan (2)
Qty
PCM1716E
ACTIVE
SSOP
DB
28
PCM1716E/2K
ACTIVE
SSOP
DB
28
47
Lead/Ball Finish
MSL Peak Temp (3)
Green (RoHS &
no Sb/Br)
CU NIPDAU
Level-1-260C-UNLIM
2000 Green (RoHS &
no Sb/Br)
CU NIPDAU
Level-1-260C-UNLIM
(1)
The marketing status values are defined as follows:
ACTIVE: Product device recommended for new designs.
LIFEBUY: TI has announced that the device will be discontinued, and a lifetime-buy period is in effect.
NRND: Not recommended for new designs. Device is in production to support existing customers, but TI does not recommend using this part in
a new design.
PREVIEW: Device has been announced but is not in production. Samples may or may not be available.
OBSOLETE: TI has discontinued the production of the device.
(2)
Eco Plan - The planned eco-friendly classification: Pb-Free (RoHS) or Green (RoHS & no Sb/Br) - please check
http://www.ti.com/productcontent for the latest availability information and additional product content details.
TBD: The Pb-Free/Green conversion plan has not been defined.
Pb-Free (RoHS): TI's terms "Lead-Free" or "Pb-Free" mean semiconductor products that are compatible with the current RoHS requirements
for all 6 substances, including the requirement that lead not exceed 0.1% by weight in homogeneous materials. Where designed to be soldered
at high temperatures, TI Pb-Free products are suitable for use in specified lead-free processes.
Green (RoHS & no Sb/Br): TI defines "Green" to mean Pb-Free (RoHS compatible), and free of Bromine (Br) and Antimony (Sb) based flame
retardants (Br or Sb do not exceed 0.1% by weight in homogeneous material)
(3)
MSL, Peak Temp. -- The Moisture Sensitivity Level rating according to the JEDEC industry standard classifications, and peak solder
temperature.
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Addendum-Page 1
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