VM1000 Pilot`s Guide

VM1000 Pilot`s Guide
Table of Contents
Copyrights and Trademarks .......................................................vii
LIMITED WARRANTY Aspen Avionics, Inc................................viii
Conventions....................................................................................xi
2.2.1.2. Left Knob Functions............................................................ 2-5
2.2.1.3. SYNC Function............................................................ 2-6
2.2.1.4. Using the Knobs (Example)............................................ 2-8
2.2.2. Navigation Source Select Buttons............................................. 2-8
2.2.2.1. CDI Nav Source Control.................................................... 2-9
2.2.2.2. Bearing Pointer Nav Source Control........................2-10
2.2.3. Hot Keys..................................................................................................2-11
2.2.4. Menu Key...............................................................................................2-13
2.2.4.1. Using the Menus................................................................2-13
2.2.4.2. Changing LCD Display Brightness............................2-16
2.2.5. Map Range Key...................................................................................2-17
2.2.6. REV button............................................................................................2-17
Covered Functionality......................................................................................................xi
Terminology...........................................................................................................................xi
Color Philosophy.............................................................................................................. xiii
Warnings, Cautions, and Notes...............................................................................xiv
Example Graphics.............................................................................................................xv
Pilot Familiarity....................................................................................................................xv
Chapter 1
Welcome & Introduction............................................................ 1-1
1.1. System Overview...................................................................................................1-4
1.1.1. EFD1000 Display Unit....................................................................... 1-5
1.1.2. Configuration Module (CM).......................................................... 1-6
1.1.3. Remote Sensor Module (RSM)..................................................... 1-6
1.1.4. Analog Converter Unit (ACU)....................................................... 1-7
Chapter 2
Controls and Display .................................................................. 2-1
2.3. Display........................................................................................................................2-18
2.3.1. Attitude Display..................................................................................2-20
2.3.1.1. Attitude Director Indicator (ADI)...............................2-22
2.3.1.2. Airspeed Tape and Bug...................................................2-23
2.3.1.3. Altitude Tape and Alerter...............................................2-24
2.3.1.4. Instrument Approach Indicators...............................2-25
2.3.2. Data Bar...................................................................................................2-26
2.3.3. Navigation Display............................................................................2-27
2.3.3.1. Horizontal Situation Indicator (HSI).........................2-29
2.1. Controls & Display Orientation . ...................................................................2-2
Compass Modes: 360º vs. ARC............................................................2-29
2.2. Controls........................................................................................................................2-4
2.2.1. Left and Right Knobs......................................................................... 2-4
2.2.1.1. Right Knob Functions........................................................ 2-5
Navigation Setting Information........................................................2-30
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Course Pointer and Deviation Indicator (CDI).............................2-30
Deviation Off Scale Indication...........................................................2-31
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Auto Course Select...................................................................................2-31
Ground Track Indicator..........................................................................2-32
2.3.3.2. Rate of Turn Indicator.......................................................2-32
2.3.3.3. Vertical Speed Indicator (VSI)......................................2-33
2.3.3.4. Bearing Pointers..................................................................2-33
2.3.3.5. Situational Awareness Map Display.........................2-34
Chapter 3
Flying the EFD1000 Pro PFD...................................................... 3-1
3.1. Quick Controls Overview..................................................................................3-3
3.2. Example Flight Scenario....................................................................................3-4
3.2.1. Pre-Departure........................................................................................ 3-5
3.2.2. Departure...............................................................................................3-14
3.2.3. En Route.................................................................................................3-16
3.2.4. Arrival and Approach to Landing............................................3-17
3.3. Conclusion..............................................................................................................3-20
Chapter 4
Reference Guide.......................................................................... 4-1
4.1. Attitude Display......................................................................................................4-2
4.1.1. Attitude Indicator................................................................................ 4-2
4.1.1.1. Roll Scale................................................................................... 4-3
4.1.1.2. Slip/Skid Indicator................................................................ 4-3
4.1.1.3. Pitch Scale................................................................................. 4-3
4.1.1.4. Flight Director......................................................................... 4-3
4.1.1.5. Degraded Attitude Heading
Reference System (AHRS) Performance.................................. 4-4
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4.1.2. Airspeed Indicator................................................................... 4-4
4.1.2.1. Selected Airspeed .............................................................. 4-6
4.1.2.2. Airspeed Display................................................................... 4-6
4.1.3. Altimeter................................................................................................... 4-8
4.1.3.1. Barometric Pressure Adjustment (BARO)............... 4-9
4.1.3.2. Selected Altitude................................................................4-11
4.1.3.3. Altitude Level-Off and Deviation Alert..................4-11
4.1.3.4. MINIMUMS Alert.................................................................4-12
4.1.3.5. Decision Height Annunciation...................................4-13
4.1.3.6. Altitude Display...................................................................4-14
4.2. Data Bar.....................................................................................................................4-15
4.2.1. True Airspeed.......................................................................................4-16
4.2.2. Ground Speed.....................................................................................4-16
4.2.3. Outside Air Temperature...............................................................4-16
4.2.4. Wind Speed, Direction, and Arrow..........................................4-17
4.2.5. Barometric Pressure Setting Display......................................4-17
4.3. Navigation Display.............................................................................................4-18
4.3.1. Compass ...............................................................................................4-19
4.3.1.1. 360° Compass Mode........................................................4-19
4.3.1.2. ARC Compass Mode.........................................................4-19
4.3.2. Course Pointer ...................................................................................4-22
4.3.3. TO/FROM Indicator...........................................................................4-23
4.3.4. Course Deviation Indicator and Scale...................................4-24
4.3.5. CDI Navigation Source...................................................................4-25
4.3.6. Auto Course ........................................................................................4-28
4.3.7. CDI Selected Course ......................................................................4-30
4.3.8. Bearing Pointer Source Selection . .........................................4-31
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4.3.9. Selected Heading and Heading Bug.....................................4-34 Chapter 6
4.3.10. Aircraft Heading Display.............................................................4-35 Emergency and Abnormal Procedures................................... 6-1
4.3.11. Rate of Turn Indicator...................................................................4-36
6.1. In Flight AHRS Reset.............................................................................................6-1
4.3.12. Basemap Underlays.......................................................................4-37
6.2. Pitot/Static System Blockage..........................................................................6-3
4.3.12.1. Basemap Display and Range....................................4-38
6.3. Loss of External Power........................................................................................6-4
4.3.12.2. Flight Plan............................................................................4-40
4.3.12.3. Basemap Data Source and Reversion..................4-40
6.4. Power Override........................................................................................................6-4
4.3.13. Track Indicator . ...............................................................................4-41
6.5. Abnormal Shutdown Procedure..................................................................6-6
4.4. Lateral and Vertical Deviation Indicator................................................4-41
6.6. Warning, Caution, and Advisory Summary............................................6-7
4.4.1. Lateral Deviation Indicator..........................................................4-42
Chapter 7
4.4.2. Vertical Deviation Indicator .......................................................4-43 Appendices................................................................................... 7-1
4.5. Vertical Speed Indicator..................................................................................4-43
4.6. Autopilot Integration........................................................................................4-45
4.6.1. GPS Steering (GPSS).........................................................................4-46
4.6.2. Flight Director.....................................................................................4-47
4.6.3. Typical Autopilot Operations......................................................4-48
7.1. Operating Limitations.........................................................................................7-1
5.1. Using the Menu System.....................................................................................5-1
7.2. Other Limitations...................................................................................................7-1
7.2.1. Airspeed Limitations.......................................................................... 7-2
7.2.2. Altitude Limitations........................................................................... 7-2
7.2.3. Weight & Center of Gravity Limits............................................. 7-2
7.2.4. RSM GPS Usage.................................................................................... 7-3
7.2.5. Geographic Limitation..................................................................... 7-3
7.2.6. Placards and Decals........................................................................... 7-3
5.2. Customizing the Map..........................................................................................5-6
7.3. Software Versions...................................................................................................7-4
5.3. Configuring V-speeds..........................................................................................5-8
7.4. Specifications............................................................................................................7-8
7.4.1. EFD1000 Display Assembly........................................................... 7-8
Chapter 5
Customizing the EFD1000 PFD................................................. 5-1
5.4. LCD Brightness Control...................................................................................5-13
7.5. Acronyms and Abbreviations.........................................................................7-9
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Page Table of Tasks
Chapter 2
Set Barometric Units of Measure...........................................................................4-9
Control Knob SYNC Function (Figure 2-3).......................................................2-6
Set The Barometric Pressure..................................................................................4-10
How to Set the Heading Bug (HDG)...................................................................2-8
Set Selected Altitude (Bug)....................................................................................4-11
Access and Navigate The Menus.......................................................................2-15
Display/Hide Minimums..........................................................................................4-12
Edit Main Menu Items...............................................................................................2-16
Set Altitude Minimum..............................................................................................4-13
Chapter 3
Hide/Display Altitude Tape....................................................................................4-14
Control Knobs (see 2.2.1 for detail)......................................................................3-3
Select ARC CDI/HSI Compass Mode................................................................4-20
Navigation Source Buttons (see 2.2.2 for detail)..........................................3-4
Select Compass Type.................................................................................................4-21
Hot Keys (see 2.2.3 for details).................................................................................3-4
Select The CDI Navigation Source.....................................................................4-26
Set the Barometric Pressure.....................................................................................3-7
Enable AUTOCRS..........................................................................................................4-28
Set the Heading Bug.....................................................................................................3-8
Disable AUTOCRS.........................................................................................................4-29
Select The CDI Navigation Source........................................................................3-9
Select CDI Course .......................................................................................................4-30
Select Bearing Pointer Nav Sources.....................................................................3-9
Select The Single-Line Bearing Pointer Source.........................................4-33
Select Map Level of Detail......................................................................................3-10
Select The Double-Line Bearing Pointer Source......................................4-33
Change The Basemap Range...............................................................................3-11
Heading Bug Set...........................................................................................................4-35
Set the Altitude Alerter.............................................................................................3-12
Display Basemap..........................................................................................................4-38
Set the Airspeed Bug.................................................................................................3-13
Set Basemap Range....................................................................................................4-39
Select a Compass Mode..........................................................................................3-17
Enable/Disable GPSS..................................................................................................4-47
Chapter 4
“HDG” Mode Operation – Heading Bug Steering....................................4-49
Set Selected Airspeed (Bug).....................................................................................4-6
“HDG” Mode Operation – GPS Steering (GPSS).........................................4-49
Hide/Display Airspeed Tape.....................................................................................4-7
“NAV” Mode Operation – VLOC Navigation.................................................4-49
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“NAV” Mode Operation – GPS Navigation....................................................4-50 Chapter 6
“APPR” Mode Operation – ILS Approach with
Vectors to Final . ...........................................................................................................4-50
Reset the AHRS.................................................................................................................6-2
“APPR” Mode Operation – GPS or GPS/RNAV
APV WAAS Approach ...............................................................................................4-51
To Override the Automatic Power Configuration.......................................6-4
GPS “APPR” Mode Operation – WAAS GPS
Underlay to ILS Approach Using Pilot Nav...................................................4-52
GPS “APPR” Mode Operation – WAAS GPS
Underlay to ILS Approach With ATC Vectors to Final.............................4-53
Chapter 5
When Pitot or Static Line is Blocked....................................................................6-3
View External Power Status......................................................................................6-5
View External Voltage Status....................................................................................6-5
View Internal Battery Status.....................................................................................6-5
Power Off Manually.......................................................................................................6-6
Power On Manually.......................................................................................................6-6
Set Map Symbol Display ...........................................................................................5-6 Chapter 7
ENABLE V-speed Textual Labels..........................................................................5-11
To View the Main Application Processor Software Version...................7-5
Set Textual V-speed Labels.....................................................................................5-12
To View the Input/Output Processor Software Version...........................7-5
Switch Brightness Mode..........................................................................................5-13
To View the Feature Load...........................................................................................7-5
Adjust Display Brightness Manually.................................................................5-13
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Copyrights and Trademarks
Copyright 2007-2008.
Aspen Avionics® is a registered trademark of Aspen Avionics, Inc.
Evolution™, EFD1000 Pro PFD™, EFD1000™, and the Aspen Avionics logo
are trademarks of Aspen Avionics, Inc. These trademarks may not be
used without the express permission of Aspen Avionics, Inc. All rights
reserved.
All other trademarks are the property of their respective companies.
No part of the Pilot’s Guide may be reproduced, copied, stored,
transmitted, or disseminated, for any reason, without the express
written permission of Aspen Avionics, Inc. Aspen Avionics hereby grants
permission to download a single copy, and any revision, of the Pilot’s
Guide onto a hard drive or other electronic storage medium for personal
use, provided that such electronic or printed copy of the Pilot’s Guide
or revision must contain the complete text of this copyright notice and
provided further that any unauthorized commercial distribution of the
Pilot’s Guide or revision hereto is strictly prohibited.
The FAA has approved the EFD1000 Pro PFD under the following TSOs:
This Pilot’s Guide provides information on the use and operation of
the Evolution Flight Display 1000 Pro Primary Flight Display (EFD1000
Pro PFD). This guide is current as of the Date Published. Specifications
and operational details are subject to change without notice when
using an earlier or later software version. Please visit the Aspen
Avionics web site for the most up-to-date Pilot’s Guide.
Installation of the EFD1000 Pro PFD in a type-certificated aircraft must
be performed in accordance with the Aspen Avionics EFD1000 Pro
PFD Installation Manual, document number A-01-126-00 Revision B.
Aspen Avionics, Inc.
5001 Indian School Road NE
Albuquerque, NM 87110
Phone: (505) 856-5034
Fax: (505) 314-5440
www.aspenavionics.com
Date Published: March 31, 2008
TSO-C2d, TSO-C3d, TSO-C4c, TSO-C6d, TSO-C8d, TSO-C10b, TSO-C106,
TSO-C113
The following certification levels also apply to this product:
Environmental Certification Level: RTCA DO-160E
Software Certification Level: RTCA DO-178B Level C
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LIMITED WARRANTY
Aspen Avionics, Inc.
1. YOUR WARRANTY. Aspen Avionics, Inc. (“Aspen”) warrants to you,
the original purchaser, that its Products (if purchased from an authorized
dealer) will comply with applicable specifications (as set forth in the
owner’s manual) in all material respects and will be free from material
defects in workmanship or materials for a period of twenty-four (24)
months beginning with the date that the aircraft in which the Product has
been installed has been returned to service following installation by an
Aspen authorized dealer (“Return to Service Date”). “Product” means new
end equipment or hardware items, replaceable units and components of
those units.
2. YOUR REMEDY. During the term of this warranty, Aspen will repair
or replace, at its discretion, without charge (see Section 13 below for
information on covered transportation costs), any Product that does
not comply with the warranty of Section 1 above (a “Nonconforming
Product”), so long as the warranty claim is timely submitted and the
procedures in Section 14 (below) are followed. Aspen warrants repaired
and/or replacement items only for the unexpired portion of the original
warranty period, or, if the warranty has expired, for six months from
Aspen’s shipment of the repaired or replacement Product.
3. CONDITIONS TO COVERAGE. Aspen’s obligation under this
warranty is conditioned on your fulfillment of the obligation to:
Page A.
Maintain records accurately reflecting operating time of and
maintenance performed on the Product,
B.
Furnish proof sufficient to establish that the item is a
Nonconforming Product, and
C.
Allow Aspen access to all relevant records in order to
substantiate your warranty claim.
4. EXCLUSIONS. The following are not covered by (and are expressly
excluded from) this warranty:
A.
Normal wear and tear and the need for regular overhaul and
maintenance,
B.
Exposure of the Product to temperature, environmental,
operating, or other conditions other than those prescribed in
the owner’s manual,
C.
Failure to install or operate the Product as prescribed in the
owner’s manual or as Aspen otherwise directs,
D. Alterations or repairs made by anyone other than Aspen or its
authorized service center,
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E.
Maintenance, repair, installation, handling, transportation,
storage, operation (including, without limitation, operation
of the product’s software or host medium), or use which
is improper or otherwise does not comply with Aspen’s
instructions as set forth in the owner’s manual,
F.
Accident, contamination, damage from a foreign object or
weather conditions, abuse, misuse, neglect, or negligence,
G. Exposure of the product or the product’s host medium to any
computer virus or other intentionally disruptive, destructive, or
disabling computer code, and
H. Any damage precipitated by failure of a product Aspen has
supplied that is not under warranty or by any product supplied
by someone else.
5. INVALIDATION OF WARRANTY. This warranty is void if the product
is altered or repair is attempted or made by anyone other than Aspen or
its authorized service center.
6. WARRANTY CARD. The Return to Service Date must be included
in an accurately completed Aspen warranty application form submitted
by the installing authorized dealer within 30 days of the Return to
Service Date. The warranty application must be signed by the authorized
repairman who certifies that the equipment has been safely and properly
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installed in accordance with all Aspen supplied technical information
and in accordance with all applicable FAA procedures and requirements.
The warranty application form must note the repairman’s FAA certificate
number to be valid. FAILURE TO COMPLETE AND RETURN THE WARRANTY
CARD MAY RESULT IN DENIAL OF WARRANTY CLAIMS. MAKING CERTAIN
THAT THE WARRANTY CARD IS COMPLETED, SIGNED, AND RETURNED IS
YOUR RESPONSIBILITY.
7. SOLE REMEDY. Aspen’s sole obligation, and your exclusive remedy
under this warranty, is limited to either the repair or replacement, at
Aspen’s option, of any Nonconforming Product as provided herein.
8. EXCLUSIVE WARRANTY. THIS WARRANTY IS EXCLUSIVE AND
IN LIEU OF ALL OTHER WARRANTIES. THE IMPLIED WARRANTY OF
MERCHANTABILITY AND IMPLIED WARRANTY OF FITNESS FOR A
PARTICULAR PURPOSE, AS WELL AS ALL OTHER IMPLIED WARRANTIES
(STATUTORY OR OTHERWISE) EXPIRE AT THE END OF THE WARRANTY
PERIOD PRESCRIBED IN SECTION 1.
Some States do not allow limitations on how long an implied warranty lasts,
so the above limitation may not apply to you.
9. INCIDENTAL DAMAGES.
ASPEN SHALL NOT UNDER ANY
CIRCUMSTANCES BE LIABLE FOR ANY SPECIAL, DIRECT, INDIRECT,
INCIDENTAL OR CONSEQUENTIAL LOSS OR DAMAGES OF ANY KIND
(INCLUDING WITHOUT LIMITATION: DAMAGES FOR LOSS OF PROFITS,
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Page xi
LOSS OF REVENUES, OR LOSS OF USE OR BUSINESS INTERRUPTION),
EVEN IF ASPEN HAS BEEN ADVISED OF THE POSSIBILITY OR CERTAINTY
OF THOSE DAMAGES OR IF ASPEN COULD HAVE REASONABLY FORESEEN
THOSE DAMAGES.
Some states do not allow the exclusion of incidental or consequential
damages, so the preceding limitations may not apply to you.
10. Limitation of Liability. ASPEN’S AGGREGATE LIABILITY
HEREUNDER, WHETHER BASED UPON CONTRACT, TORT (INCLUDING
NEGLIGENCE AND STRICT LIABILITY), INDEMNITY, OR OTHERWISE, WILL
NOT EXCEED THE PRICE PAID BY YOU FOR THE WARRANTED PRODUCT.
THE EXCLUSIONS OF TYPES OF DAMAGES CONTAINED HEREIN WILL BE
DEEMED INDEPENDENT OF, AND WILL SURVIVE, ANY FAILURE OF THE
ESSENTIAL PURPOSE OF ANY LIMITED REMEDY UNDER THE TERMS OF
ANY AGREEMENT.
11. Extension of Warranty. No extension of this warranty will
be binding upon Aspen unless set forth in writing and signed by Aspen’s
authorized representative.
12. Dealer Warranties. Any express or implied warranty or remedy
in addition to or different from those stated herein that is offered by a
dealer (“Dealer Warranty”) will be the sole responsibility of the dealer, who
will be solely responsible for all liability, loss, cost, damage, or expense
arising out of or in connection with any such Dealer Warranty. Although
Aspen provides training and assistance to dealers, it cannot control the
installation of its Products by its dealers, which are independent businesses
not owned or controlled by Aspen.
Page xii
13. TRANSPORTATION COSTS. Aspen will assume round trip
transportation costs for a Product determined by Aspen to be a
Nonconforming Product in an amount not to exceed normal (non
express) shipping charges within the continental United States. You
are responsible for all import/export fees, taxes, duties, customs,
documentation fees, clearance fees, and similar fees and charges.
You may contact Aspen to obtain a freight courier account number
for prepaid shipping of the return. If Aspen subsequently determines
that the Product is not a Nonconforming Product, that this warranty
is inapplicable, that the Product is out of warranty, that the defect or
malfunction is excluded from coverage, or that the warranty is invalid,
Aspen will invoice you for repair or replacement costs and the shipping
costs. Risk of loss or damage for any Product in transit will be borne by
the party initiating the transportation.
14. Warranty Procedure. If you require warranty service, you
may contact your local Aspen Authorized Dealer or you may contact
Aspen directly as described below. An original or copy of the sales
receipt from the original Aspen Authorized dealer will be required
to obtain any warranty service. You may contact Aspen for warranty
service directly by calling Aspen Customer Service at (505) 856-5034; by
writing to Aspen Customer Service Department, Aspen Avionics, Inc.,
5001 Indian School Road NE, Albuquerque, New Mexico, 87110; or by
visiting the Aspen Website at http://www.aspenavionics.com.
This warranty gives you specific legal rights, and you may also have other
rights which vary from State to State.
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Conventions
The following conventions, definitions, terminology, and colors are used
in this manual and on the EFD1000 PFD.
Covered Functionality
This guide covers all the functionality available in the EFD1000 Pro PFD.
Terminology
Figure 1 shows a typical EFD1000 Pro PFD display. This guide uses the terminology
listed in Table 1 when referring to specific parts of the EFD1000 Pro PFD. Chapter 4
provides an in-depth discussion and step-by-step instructions for all the available
functionality of the EFD1000 Pro PFD.
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Term
1
2
6
3
Example
1
Attitude Display
2
Data Bar
3
Navigation Display
4
Knobs
Left (CRS) Knob, Right (HDG) Knob
5
Buttons
Left Button, CDI Button, Right Button
6
Keys
REV Key, RNG Key, MENU Key, Bezel Key(s) (1-5)
Table 1 EFD1000 PFD Display, Knobs , Buttons, and Keys
5
4
Figure 1 EFD1000 PFD Display, Knobs , Buttons, and Keys
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Color Philosophy
Table 2 provides the operational philosophy of color usage on the EFD1000 PFD
display.
COLOR
RED
PURPOSE
Used to indicate flight envelope and system limits, and for warning
annunciations that require immediate pilot recognition, and which may
require immediate pilot correction or compensatory action.
AMBER
Used to indicate abnormal information sources, and for caution information
that requires immediate pilot awareness, and for which subsequent pilot
action may be required.
GREEN
Used for navigation information or mode data related to or provided by the
navigation source currently selected for display on the Course Deviation
Indicator (CDI) (i.e. navigation deviations, equipment operating state,
waypoint information).
CYAN
Used to indicate editable values that are not currently selected for editing,
and is also used for bearing pointer depictions.
MAGENTA
WHITE
BLUE
BROWN
NOTE
As the number of colors used on the
display is limited, to ensure adequate
color differentiation under all lighting
conditions, there are a few cases
where a given color is used in a slightly
different context than described in
Table 2.
Used for pilot-selectable references (bugs) enabled for editing, for depicting
the active GPS navigation leg on a moving map display, and for depicting the
flight director bar.
Used to show primary flight data (e.g. IAS, ALT, HDG), scales, etc.
Used to indicate the sky.
Used to indicate the ground.
Table 2 Color Guide
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Warnings, Cautions, and Notes
Where applicable warnings, cautions, and notes are given. Aspen Avionics uses the
following icons and definitions (Table 3).
Icon
Definition
Warning
Emphasizes a crucial operating or maintenance procedure, which, if not
strictly observed, could result in injury to, or death of, personnel or long
term health hazards.
Indicates a hazard which may require immediate corrective action.
Caution
Indicates an essential operating or maintenance procedure, which,
if not strictly observed, could result in damage to, or destruction of
equipment.
Indicates the possible need for future corrective action.
Note
Highlights an important operating or maintenance procedure,
condition, or statement.
Safe operation.
Table 3 Warning, Caution, and Note
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Example Graphics
Most of the example graphics and screen shots used throughout this Pilot’s Guide
& Reference are based on flying the ILS 16R instrument approach into Reno/Tahoe
International Airport (KRNO) in Reno, Nevada, USA. Those images with the airplane in
a right bank show the airplane completing the procedure turn in-bound to intercept
the Localizer, descending through 8,660 feet to the target altitude of 8,500 feet. The
other main group of images, showing the airplane straight and level, are earlier in the
approach, tracking outbound for the procedure turn.
Pilot Familiarity
While the EFD1000 is reasonably intuitive and easy to use, some familiarity with
Electronic Flight Instrument Systems (EFIS) and Horizontal Situation Indicators (HSI) is
required. Aspen Avionics strongly recommends that new users of the EFD1000 get
some dual instruction from an experienced instrument CFI, and spend some time
becoming familiar with the PFD in day VFR conditions with a safety pilot, before flying in
actual instrument meteorological conditions (IMC). To reduce pilot workload, the use of
autopilot (when available) is strongly encouraged.
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CHAPTER 1, WELCOME
Chapter 1
Welcome & Introduction
Welcome to Aspen Avionics’ Evolution Flight Display (EFD) system, the
most flexible, expandable, and upgradable Electronic Flight Instrument
System (EFIS) available for General Aviation aircraft. Designed to replace
traditional, mechanical primary flight instruments—in whole or in part,
all at once, or in phases. This modularity and upgradability allows the
system to grow with you and your airplane, over time and affordably.
The EFD system is built around the EFD1000 Display Unit, which replaces a vertical pair
of your six primary flight instruments. The EFD1000 has a bright, high-resolution, sixinch diagonal LCD display, and a number of knobs and buttons the pilot uses to control
the system. The three-inch diameter, four-inch deep can on the back of the display
slides into existing panel cutouts (where the top mechanical instrument used to be)
(Figure 1-1).
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Figure 1-1
EFD1000 PFD Display Unit
Page 1-1
CHAPTER 1, WELCOME
The center of the EFD system is the EFD1000 Primary Flight Display (PFD), which
replaces the traditional, mechanical Attitude Indicator (AI) and Directional Gyro (DG)
or Horizontal Situation Indicator (HSI) (Figure 1-2). The PFD is available in three
models—the Pilot, Pro and ATP—each with increasing levels of features and capabilities,
and each lower model is upgradable through software to the more capable models.
Figure 1-2 Single-tube EFD1000 PFD system
Add a second EFD1000 configured as a Multi-Function Display (MFD)
(Figure 1-3), replacing the altimeter and Vertical Speed Indicator (VSI), and you’ll
double the capabilities of your system, while also providing complete redundancy
and backup to your PFD. The EFD1000 MFD contains the same AHRS, ADC, and I/O
capabilities as the PFD for full redundancy, and can assume the role of PFD should
your main PFD ever fail.
Figure 1-3 Two-tube system: PFD & MFD
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CHAPTER 1, WELCOME
You can even add another MFD, replacing the Airspeed Indicator (ASI) and turn
coordinator, to round out a complete “six-pack” replacement and gain even more
capability and flexibility (Figure 1-4). When you are ready to upgrade, simply contact
an Aspen Avionics Authorized Dealer for more information.
Figure 1-4 Three-tube system: PFD & dual MFDs
This Pilot’s Guide covers the EFD1000 Pro PFD models. These systems are
powerfully flexible, and can be configured in a variety of ways, depending on the
other aircraft systems with which they are integrated.
NOTE
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EFD1000 PFD Pilot’s Guide
Please spend some time with your
avionics installer to understand
exactly how your PFD is installed
and configured in your particular
aircraft, to understand the features
and capabilities available to you, and
to understand how various aircraft
system failures and abnormalities
may affect your EFD1000 PFD.
Page 1-3
CHAPTER 1, WELCOME
1.1. System Overview
Pitot
The EFD1000 Pro PFD system typically consists of
four components:
1.
2.
3.
4.
EFD1000 Display Unit
Configuration Module (CM)
Remote Sensor Module (RSM)
Analog Converter Unit (ACU)
The ACU converts older analog signals and interfaces
to the industry-standard digital ARINC 429 interface,
which is the native language of the EFD1000. In
some installations, generally when the aircraft is not
equipped with an autopilot and has only digital GPS/
nav/comms, the ACU may be omitted.
Static
Existing Aircraft
Pitot Line
Aircraft Power
Configuration Module
Optional Tone Generator
Existing Aircraft
Static Line
EFD1000 PFD
(Primary Flight Display)
12C
SPI
RS-232
Remote
Sensor
Module
(RSM)
Discrete
Digital GPS/VLOC
Digital VLOC/GPS
Sources
The system architecture in (Figure 1-5) shows the
relationships of the PFD, RSM, Configuration Module
and ACU.
ARINC 429
Analog GPS/VLOC via ACU
Analog NAV Sources
Radar Altimeter
Analog
Converter Unit
(ACU)
Autopilot
Legacy GPS
RS-232
Figure 1-5 EFD 1000 System Architecture
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The EFD1000 system unit is a digital system that consists of a high resolution 6” diagonal
color LCD display, user controls, photocell, and Micro SD data card slot. The three-inch
diameter, four-inch deep can on the back of the display contains a non-removable
electronics module which includes:
•
•
•
A Sensor Board with solid-state Attitude and Heading Reference System
(AHRS) and digital Air Data Computer (ADC).
A Main Application Processor (MAP) board with Central Processing Unit (CPU),
graphics processor and system memory.
An Input-Output Processor (IOP) board for integrating communications with
other aircraft systems.
Also on the rear of the unit are (Figure 1-6):
•
•
•
•
Pitot & Static System Connections
44-pin D-Sub for Electrical Connections
Access Cover to Backup Battery
An access cover for removing and replacing the built-in backup battery.
Pneumatic connections to the aircraft’s pitot and static systems.
44-pin D-sub connector for electrical connections to the EFD1000.
A cooling fan, to cool the electronics and LCD backlights.
The PFD mounts to the front surface of most instrument panels.
Cooling Fan
Figure 1-6 PFD Rear Connections
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Page 1-5
CHAPTER 1, WELCOME
1.1.1. EFD1000 Display Unit
CHAPTER 1, WELCOME
1.1.2. Configuration Module (CM)
The Configuration Module contains an EEPROM device that retains system
configuration and calibration data and provides two primary functions:
•
•
Retains aircraft-specific configuration information, calibration data, and user
settings, allowing the PFD to be swapped for service purposes without reentering or re-calibrating the installation.
Contains a license key that configures the PFD software features.
The CM is typically attached to the wire bundle coming out of the D-sub connector on
the system unit.
1.1.3. Remote Sensor Module (RSM)
The Remote Sensor Module (RSM) is an integral part of the EFD1000 system, and works
together with the display unit sensors as part of the AHRS and ADC. The RSM looks and
mounts like a GPS antenna, and is mounted on the exterior of the fuselage, typically aft
of the cabin.
The RSM contains the following sub-systems:
•
•
•
•
3D magnetic flux (heading) sensors.
Orientation accelerometers.
Outside Air Temperature (OAT) sensor.
Emergency backup GPS engine and antenna.
The RSM communicates with the EFD1000 system unit via a digital cable connection.
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CHAPTER 1, WELCOME
1.1.4. Analog Converter Unit (ACU)
The Analog Converter Unit (ACU), included with most Pro PFD systems, enables the
all-digital EFD1000 system to interface to analog avionics when required. The ACU
concentrates multiple analog interfaces and converts them to the digital ARINC 429
buses supported by the PFD. Control parameters, such as desired heading, are also sent
from the PFD to the ACU for conversion to analog format for autopilot support. The ACU
is required when any of the following capabilities are required in a Pro PFD installation:
•
•
•
•
Interface to supported autopilots.
Interface to conventional VHF navigation radios.
Interface to legacy (non-ARINC 429) GPS navigators.
Interface to supported radar altimeter decision height annunciations.
If ARINC 429-based digital radios, such as the Garmin 400/500-series GPS/nav/comm
radios, are installed in the aircraft, and no other aircraft interfaces are desired, the ACU is
not required.
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CHAPTER 1, WELCOME
Page 1-8
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CHAPTER 2, CONTROLS AND DISPLAY
Chapter 2
Controls and Display
The EFD1000 Pro PFD is a flat-panel LCD primary flight instrument that
presents the pilot on a single display with all the information delivered
by the traditional six-pack of mechanical instruments: Airspeed, Attitude,
Altitude, Turn Coordinator, Heading Indicator (or HSI) and Vertical Speed
Indicator (VSI). Modern technology and standard EFIS symbology
enable the consolidation of all six instruments into a single display,
tightening the pilot’s instrument scan and reducing pilot workload.
The Pro PFD is a single vertical instrument that replaces the existing Attitude Indicator
and Heading Indicator/HSI. The display is divided into three parts: an upper Attitude
Display, a lower Navigation Display, and a Data Bar in the middle of the upper and lower
halves. The Attitude and Navigation displays are highly customizable — from strippeddown, minimalist presentations, to dense, information-rich displays — depending on
pilot preference and phase of flight.
This Chapter gives an overview of all the instruments, information, and controls of the
EFD1000 Pro PFD. The next two pages show and identify each element of the display
and each control with a Reference (Ref.) number and description. Throughout this
section, notes like “(Ref. 27)” refer to Table 2-1 and Figure 2-2. For more detailed
information on any specific part, see the Reference Guide, Chapter 4.
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Page 2-1
CHAPTER 2, CONTROLS AND DISPLAY
2.1. Controls & Display Orientation
CONTROLS
ATTITUDE DISPLAY
1
Reversion and Power Control
16
Attitude Display
2
Range Control
17
Aircraft Symbol
3
Menu Control
18
Single-Cue Flight Director (optional)
4
TPS Hot Key - Tapes On/Off
19
Roll Pointer
5
MIN Hot Key - Minimums On/Off
20
Slip/Skid Indicator
6
360/ARC Hot Key - HSI View
21
Altitude Tape
7
MAP Hot Key - Map Declutter Logic
22
Selected Altitude Field
8
GPSS Hot Key - GPS Steering On/Off
23
Altitude Alert
9
Right Control Knob
24
Altitude Drum/Pointer
10
Double-Line Bearing Pointer Source
Select
25
Altitude Bug
26
Decision Height Annunciation
11
CDI Source Select
27
Selected Minimums Field
12
Single-Line Bearing Pointer Source Select
28
MINIMUMS annunication
13
Left Control Knob
29
LDI Navigation Source Indication
14
Automatic Dimming Photocell
30
Airspeed Indicator Tape
15
Micro SD Card Slot
31
Selected Airspeed Field
32
Airspeed Bug
33
Airspeed Drum/Pointer
34
Vertical Deviation Indicator
35
Lateral Deviation Indicator
Figure 2-1 EFD1000 Actual Display
Page 2-2
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36
True Airspeed (TAS)
37
Barometric Pressure Setting Field
38
Wind Direction and Speed
39
Wind Direction Arrow
40
Outside Air Temperature (OAT)
41
Ground Speed (GS)
31
23
26
19
20
1
30
21
16
33
34
32
42
Navigation Display
55
Vertical Speed Tape
28
43
Ownship Symbol
56
Single-Line Bearing Pointer
44
Course Pointer
57
Single-Line Bearing Pointer Source
45
TO/FROM Indicator
58
Single-Line Source Info Block
46
Rate of Turn Indicator
59
Double-Line Bearing Pointer
47
Track Marker
60
Double-Line Bearing Pointer Source
48
Magnetic Heading
61
Double-Line Source Info Block
49
Selected Course (CRS) Field
62
CDI Navigation Source
50
Selected Heading Field
63
CDI Source Information Block
51
Heading Bug
64
Left Control Knob State
52
Course Deviation Scale
65
Right Control Knob State
53
Course Deviation Indicator
66
Hot Key Legend
54
Vertical Speed Digital Value
Table 2-1 EFD1000 Pro PFD Components
EFD1000 PFD Pilot’s Guide
35
40
49
63
25
27
29
36
41
2
24
17
18
NAVIGATION DISPLAY
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22
39
48
44
51
3
37
38
50
4
54
46
47
66
45
6
52
43
59
56
7
53
42
58
64
14
13
8
61
57
12
5
55
62
11
15
60
10
65
9
Figure 2-2 EFD1000 Display Elements
Page 2-3
CHAPTER 2, CONTROLS AND DISPLAY
DATABAR
CHAPTER 2, CONTROLS AND DISPLAY
2.2. Controls
The primary means for the pilot to control the EFD1000 are the two knobs and three
buttons at the bottom of the display. The knobs control setting CRS and HDG, and
additional bugs and altitude settings. The three buttons control selection of navigation
sources for the CDI and bearing pointers.
Additionally, five hot keys to the right of the Navigation Display toggle various features
on and off. The function of each is indicated by the label on the screen to the left of
each button. Three additional buttons above the hot keys control entering and exiting
the Menu system, setting the Map range, and reversion or manual power control.
2.2.1. Left and Right Knobs
The Left and Right Knobs are both of the push and rotate type. Pressing the knob
activates it for control, and subsequent presses cycle through its available control
functions in round-robin sequence.
Each knob has an inactive Home state, to which it returns automatically after 10
seconds of inactivity. The inactive state is designed to prevent inadvertent adjustment
of a setting. The Left Knob Home state is CRS, and the Right Knob Home state is HDG.
A single push of the knob activates the Home state (CRS or HDG) for editing.
To change an available setting, repeatedly press the appropriate knob until the desired
function appears in magenta above the knob (the setting you are changing will also
appear in magenta on the display). With a little practice, you’ll soon know exactly how
many presses it takes from the Home state to get to what you want to set.
Page 2-4
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NOTE
2.2.1.1. Right Knob Functions
The Right Knob Home state is Heading (HDG). The Right Knob is also used to set the
Altitude Alerter seleted altitude (ALT), barometric pressure (BARO) and instrument
approach minimums (MIN). Successive presses of the right knob will cycle through
HDG-ALT-BARO-MIN in round-robin sequence.
MIN will only be shown if the MIN
function is already active (the MIN
label by the second Hot Key (Ref. 5)
is shown in green, and the MIN value
is shown on the Attitude Display
(Ref. 27). If the MIN function is
inactive (label in gray), pressing the
MIN Hot Key will both activate the
function and immediately make it
available for setting.
From the inactive Home state (HDG shown in cyan above the right knob):
•
•
•
•
Press once to set the heading bug (HDG) (Refs. 50 and 51).
Press twice to set target altitude (ALT) (Refs. 22 and 25).
Press three times to set barometric pressure (BARO) (Ref. 37).
Press four times to set approach minimums (MIN) (Ref. 27).
2.2.1.2. Left Knob Functions
The Left Knob Home State is Course (CRS). The Left Knob is also used to set the
Airspeed Bug (IAS).
From the inactive Home state (CRS shown in cyan above the left knob):
•
•
Press once to set the course (CRS) (Refs. 44 and 49, and see note at right
about Auto Course).
Press twice to set the airspeed bug (IAS) (Refs. 31 and 32).
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EFD1000 PFD Pilot’s Guide
NOTE
When the CDI navigation source is
selected to a GPS receiver, and Auto
Course is enabled in the main menu
(see Section 4.3.6), the course is set
automatically by the GPS and is not
pilot-adjustable. This case will be
indicated by the CRS field and Knob
label being shown in Green with an
inverse “A”. In this case, pressing the
Left Knob will enable you to set only
the airspeed bug (IAS).
Page 2-5
CHAPTER 2, CONTROLS AND DISPLAY
When the function you want to set is shown in magenta, dial the knob left or right to
set the desired value, or press and hold the knob to synchronize (SYNC) the setting.
Once set, you can either press the knob again to advance to the next function you’d like
to set, or you can do nothing and in 10 seconds the knob will return to its home state
(CRS or HDG).
CHAPTER 2, CONTROLS AND DISPLAY
2.2.1.3. SYNC Function
Control Knob SYNC Function (Figure 2-3)
1.
1
6
2.
3.
2
Repeatedly press the control knob until the control knob label shows the
value you want to set in magenta.
Press and hold the control knob for approximately one (1) second to
synchronize the setting according to the rules shown in Table 2-2.
After 10 seconds of inaction, the knob reverts to its Home state (CRS or HDG),
and the labels and field are shown in cyan (inactive).
Right Knob
SYNC Action
7
8
3
1
ALT
Bug and alerter are set to the current altitude.
4
2
MIN
Set to the current altitude.
3
BARO
Set to 29.92 InHg or 1013 mB.
4
HDG
Set to the current heading.
5
5
Right Knob - Current Field Label
[HDG] (cyan indicates field is inactive)
Figure 2-3
Left and Right Knobs and
Corresponding Fields
Page 2-6
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CHAPTER 2, CONTROLS AND DISPLAY
Left Knob
SYNC Action
6
7
8
IAS
CRS
Set to the current Indicated Airspeed.
VOR navigation
Set to the reciprocal value of the current VOR
radial. The deviation bar centers with a “TO”
indication.
ILS navigation
Current aircraft heading.
GPS
Set to equal the bearing to the GPS active
waypoint. The deviation bar centers with a “TO”
indication. (AUTOCRS must be disabled.)
GPS
AUTOCRS enabled
No effect.
Left Knob - Current Field Label
[CRS] (cyan indicates field is inactive, green with inverse A indicates Auto Course is
enabled)
Table 2-2 Left and Right Knob Sync Description
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CHAPTER 2, CONTROLS AND DISPLAY
2.2.1.4. Using the Knobs (Example)
How to Set the Heading Bug (HDG)
1.
Figure 2-4
Activating the HDG field to edit
2.
3.
From the Home state (at least 10 seconds since last using the Right Knob),
press the right control knob once to select HDG for editing. The control knob
label (HDG), the Heading Bug, and the Selected Heading field will all turn
magenta (Figure 2-4).
Rotate the control knob to the desired heading value, shown both by the
position of the Heading Bug and the numeric value in the Selected Heading
field (Figure 2-5).
After 10 seconds of inaction, the knob reverts to its Home state (HDG),
and the Heading Bug and Selected Heading field value are shown in cyan
(inactive) (Figure 2-6).
2.2.2. Navigation Source Select Buttons
Figure 2-5
Editing the HDG field
The three buttons on the bottom of the EFD1000 PFD allow the pilot to select the
navigation source for the CDI and Bearing Pointers (Figure 2-7). See Section 4.3 for
detailed information on the CDI and Bearing Pointers.
Figure 2-7
CDI and Bearing Pointer Source Select Button
Figure 2-6
HDG field updated and inactive
Page 2-8
Single-Line
BP Source
CDI Nav Double-Line
Source
BP Source
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The center button of the three buttons between the control knobs at the bottom of
the EFD1000 Pro PFD (see Figure 2-7) is the CDI Nav Source Select Button. It selects
which of the available navigation sources will couple to the CDI, which in turn couples
to the autopilot (if available). Each press of the CDI Nav Source button selects the next
available nav source, cycling through all available sources in round-robin sequence. The
currently coupled CDI nav source is displayed directly above the CDI Nav Source Select
Button.
NOTE
The available nav sources are configured when the EFD1000 is installed (depending on
what is installed in the aircraft and connected to the EFD1000). The available nav source
choices are: GPS1, GPS2, VLOC1 and VLOC2.
If a nav source is configured to be available, but is not currently putting out valid
navigation data, its identifier will be shown with a red slash through it, and the CDI bar
will not be shown with the Course Pointer. The pilot will be able to select that invalid
source, but no navigation data will be provided.
When one or more of the connected nav sources is a combined GPS/Nav device (e.g.,
some of the Garmin 400/500-series), the list of nav sources available for selection will be
determined by the current CDI mode of that navigator.
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NOTE
When GPS is selected as the nav
source, but no active waypoint is
programmed in the GPS navigator,
that source will be shown as invalid,
until an active flight plan or direct-to
waypoint is programmed into the
GPS.
For example, with a Garmin GNS-430
installed as the #1 navigation source,
if “GPS” is shown immediately above
the CDI key on the GNS-430, then
the EFD1000 will show GPS1 as an
available nav source. If the pilot
presses the CDI key on the GNS-430
so that VLOC is now displayed on
the GNS-430, then the EFD1000 will
show VLOC1 as the available nav
source and GPS1 cannot be selected.
Page 2-9
CHAPTER 2, CONTROLS AND DISPLAY
2.2.2.1. CDI Nav Source Control
CHAPTER 2, CONTROLS AND DISPLAY
2.2.2.2. Bearing Pointer Nav Source Control
The two outer buttons between the control knobs are the Bearing Pointer Nav Source
Select Buttons (see Figure 2-7). The left-hand button controls BRG1 (the single-line
bearing pointer) and the right-hand button controls BRG2 (the double-line bearing
pointer), and each controls which nav source is coupled to that bearing pointer.
The bearing pointers act like a conventional RMI (Radio Magnetic Indicator): the needle
points to the station. Unlike a conventional RMI, EFD1000 bearing pointers can also
point to the active waypoint of a GPS navigator, whether that is a VOR, NDB, airport,
intersection, or missed approach point.
Each bearing pointer can be coupled to any of the available navigation sources: GPS1,
GPS2, VLOC1, or VLOC2 (depending on configuration), or to none. Each press of the
Bearing Pointer Nav Source Select Button selects the next available nav source, cycling
through all available nav sources and none, in round-robin sequence. The currently
coupled nav source is displayed directly above the Select Button; blank indicates that
no nav source is selected and the bearing pointer will not be displayed.
If the selected nav source is a valid choice, but no usable nav data is being received
(e.g., the VOR station is out of range), the bearing pointer will not be displayed, or the
VLOC is tuned to a localizer frequency.
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The five keys along the lower right of the EFD1000 PFD function as either single-action
Hot Keys for frequently used commands or as Menu selection keys when the Main
Menu has been activated (Figure 2-9, page 2-12).
Hot Key functions are accessible anytime, except when the Menu is active. Each Hot Key
provides instant access to the assigned command as listed in Table 2-3. Each press of
a Hot Key toggles between the settings that key controls. The TPS, MIN and GPSS Hot
Keys are either ON, with a green label, or OFF, with a gray label. The ARC/360 Hot Key
label indicates which compass mode is currently active on the Navigation Display.
CHAPTER 2, CONTROLS AND DISPLAY
2.2.3. Hot Keys
Figure 2-8
Invalid Hot Key Legend
The MAP Hot Key displays the GPS flight plan, legs, waypoints, and base map on the
Navigation Display, with one of four levels of declutter, and turns off the map. Pressing
the MAP key cycles through these available options. When the MAP is turned off, or is
unavailable, the label is gray.
When the function a Hot Key controls is unavailable or invalid, the label displays with a
vertical red line, as shown in Figure 2-8.
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Page 2-11
CHAPTER 2, CONTROLS AND DISPLAY
1
Figure 2-9 Hot Keys
2
3
4
HOT KEY
TPS
Displays or hides air data tapes
(airspeed and altitude)1 (see
Section 4.1).
TPS
Tapes displayed
TPS
Tapes hidden
2
MIN
Enables and displays, or disables
and hides, Minimums Alerter (see
Section 4.1.3.4).
MIN
Minimums displayed and
alerter enabled2
MIN
Minimums alerter disabled
Toggles between 360 and ARC
modes of Navigation Display (see
Section 4.3.1).
ARC
ARC Compass Mode
360
360° Compass Mode
MAP
High (see Figure 2-10)
MAP
Medium (see Figure 2-11)
3
ARC/
360
4
5
Figure 2-11
Map Level MEDIUM
Figure 2-12
Map Level LOW
Figure 2-13
Map Level FP ONLY
Figure 2-14
Map Level OFF
Page 2-12
OPTIONS
1
MAP
Figure 2-10
Map Level HIGH
DESCRIPTION
5
GPSS
Selects Map display and feature level3 MAP
(see Section 4.3.12.1).
MAP
Toggles between GPS Steering
(GPSS) Mode and HDG mode for
Autopilot/Flight Director4 (see
Section 4.6.1).
Low (see Figure 2-12)
Flight Plan Only (see Figure
2-13)
MAP
Off (see Figure 2-14)
GPSS
GPSS On
GPSS
GPSS Off, HDG mode active
Table 2-3 Hot Key Description
1. Available only in those installations where the original airspeed indicator and altimeter remain in their primary flight instrument positions.
2. When Minimums display and alerting is initially enabled, the minimums value is immediately selected for editing.
3. Flight plan legs and waypoints display available in all installations including a GPS navigator. Base map display of nearby
waypoints available with all ARINC 429 GPS navigators and some RS-232 GPS navigators.
4. GPSS available only with ARINC 429-based navigators.
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CHAPTER 2, CONTROLS AND DISPLAY
2.2.4. Menu Key
The MENU Key is used to access the EFD1000 PFD’s Menu system for changing options,
and also to change the EFD1000’s LCD brightness controls.
2.2.4.1. Using the Menus
Press the MENU Key to activate the Menu system (Ref. 3). The current Menu Page
Name displays in the lower center of the Navigation Display. Directly below the Menu
Page Name is a segmented menu page bar, giving a graphical representation of the
current page relative to the total number of menu pages. The current menu page
number displays in the lower right of the Navigation Display.
Figure 2-15
Menu Navigation Mode
Menu Page 1, General Settings, is the one most commonly used in flight. It enables
the pilot to enable or disable AUTO COURSE SELECT mode, to display or hide the Vspeeds on the airspeed tape, and to choose the type of CDI display for ARC mode. The
other menu pages are used for V-speed and map customization, for abnormal power
management, and for displaying product version information.
The Menu system operates either in Navigation or Edit mode, as indicated by the label
directly above the Right Knob. When the MENU key is first pressed, the Menu system is
in Navigation mode, indicated by the magenta label SEL PAGE directly above the Right
Knob (Figure 2-15). When in Navigation mode, rotating the Right Knob navigates
through the menu pages. Rotate the Right Knob clockwise to advance to the next
menu page. Rotate the Right Knob counterclockwise to return to previous menu page.
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CHAPTER 2, CONTROLS AND DISPLAY
Each Menu page displays up to five selectable options, each adjacent to one of the five
Hot Keys (which double as Menu Select keys in the menu system). After navigating
to the Menu Page containing the option you want to change, press the Menu Key
adjacent to that option label, which initiates the menu’s Edit mode. When the Menu
is in Edit mode, the label EDIT VALUE, displays above the Right Knob in magenta
(Figure 2‑16), and the label of the item selected for editing is also shown in magenta.
Rotate the Right Knob to change the value of the selected item. When done, either
select another displayed option to change , or push the Right Knob to exit Edit mode
and return to Navigation mode to select another menu page.
Figure 2-16
Menu Edit Mode
When you are finished changing menu options, press the MENU key again to exit the
menu system (Figure 2-17).
1
2
5
Figure 2-17 Menu
Page 2-14
4
3
1
Menu
2
Menu Page number and mode (Navigation mode shown)
3
Menu Page Name
4
Menu Page graphical bar
5
Brightness Control (see Section 2.2.4.2)
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The menu text will display in one of the four colors listed and described in Table 2-4.
WHITE
MAGENTA
GREEN
GRAY
Figure 2-18
Menu Text - Editable
DESCRIPTION
DISPLAY
Editable option
See Figure 2-18
Editable option enabled
See Figure 2-19
Non-Editable or “Status Only”
See Figure 2-20
Disabled
See Figure 2-21
Table 2-4 Menu Text
NOTE
CHAPTER 2, CONTROLS AND DISPLAY
DISPLAY
TEXT
These steps are provided as a basic overview. Each menu command is
covered in detail further in Chapter 5.
Figure 2-19
Menu Text - Enabled
Figure 2-20
Menu Text - Status Only
Figure 2-21
Menu Text - Disabled
Access and Navigate The Menus
1.
2.
3.
Push the MENU key. The Menu displays on the Navigation Display adjacent to
the Hot Keys (Figure (2-22).
Rotate the Right Knob to navigate through the different pages of the menu.
Rotating the Right Knob clockwise advances forward one menu page at a
time. Rotating the Right Knob counterclockwise advances backward one
menu page at a time.
When finished, press the MENU key to exit the Main Menu.
Figure 2-22
Menu Display
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CHAPTER 2, CONTROLS AND DISPLAY
NOTE
Upon reaching the end of a list of
editable menu options, continued
rotation of the knob shall result in
the continuous “wrapping” through
the available editable menu options.
Edit Main Menu Items
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
Access the Main Menu.
Navigate to the desired menu page.
Push the Menu Key of the desired option. The menu label turns magenta and
the EDIT VALUE label displays above the Right Knob (Figure 2-23).
Rotate the Right Knob to the desired value.
Push the Right Knob to return to menu navigation mode.
Push the MENU key to exit the Main Menu.
2.2.4.2. Changing LCD Display Brightness
When the MENU key is pressed and the menu system is active, the Left Knob can be
used to adjust the EFD1000 display brightness.
By default, the LCD brightness operates in AUTO mode, and is adjusted based on
photocell sensing of ambient lighting conditions. When the MENU is active and the
LCD is in AUTO, the word AUTO and a brightness level of 1-100 will be displayed in
green above the Left Knob.
To override the AUTO brightness setting, press the Left Knob once to switch into
Manual mode, and then rotate the Left Knob to set the brightness to the desired level.
To return to AUTO brightness control, press the Left Knob again.
Figure 2-23
EDIT VALUE Displays Above Right Knob
LCD MODE
DESCRIPTION
DISPLAY
Automatic
BRT AUTO
LCD backlight intensity is automatically adjusted
based on the current light conditions sensed by the
Automatic Dimming Photocell.
See Figure 2-24
Manual BRT
ADJUST
Allows the pilot to adjust the LCD backlight intensity
manually, from 1 (minimum) to 100 (maximum).
See Figure 2-25
Table 2-5 Brightness Control
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When the MAP is enabled, the RNG (Range) key is used to zoom in or out in scale to
display more or less of the map. Range can be adjusted from 2.5 to 200 nautical miles.
Press the top or (+) part of the RNG key to increase map range. Press the bottom or (–)
part of the RNG key to decrease map range.
2.2.6. REV button
NOTE
Pressing the Right Knob returns
to navigation mode and allows
selection of other menu options on
different pages. Pressing another
menu key on the current menu
page saves any changes made, and
activates the newly selected option
for editing.
In multi-tube EFD1000 systems, the red REV button activates Reversionary mode,
providing backup should one of the tubes fail. The REV button can also be used to
override automatic power control in abnormal or emergency situations. See Chapter 6
for more details.
Figure 2-24
Display Brightness in BRT AUTO Mode
Figure 2-25
Display Brightness in BRT ADJUST Mode
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CHAPTER 2, CONTROLS AND DISPLAY
2.2.5. Map Range Key
CHAPTER 2, CONTROLS AND DISPLAY
2.3. Display
1
2
The EFD1000 Pro PFD replaces the existing Attitude Indicator and HSI or DG in the
center of the primary flight instrument cluster. Like the instruments it replaces, the top
half presents an Attitude Display and the bottom half presents a Navigation Display
(Figure 2-26). Between the two halves is a Data Bar, which presents a dedicated
display of real-time winds and temperatures, as well as True Airspeed (TAS) and GPS
Ground Speed (GS).
1
Attitude Display
2
Databar
3
Navigation Display
3
Unlike the mechanical indicators it typically replaces, EFD1000 PFD can also display all
the data provided by the remaining four instruments in the “six pack” (airspeed, altitude,
turn and slip, and vertical speed), as well as much more. Concentrating all primary flight
information onto a single instrument directly in front of the pilot improves instrument
scan and reduces pilot workload, thereby enhancing safety, especially in busy phases
of flight. Additionally, analog backup primary instruments remain in the pilot’s primary
field of view, and should be included in the instrument scan to cross-check indications
of both the primary (EFIS) and backup (analog) instruments.
Figure 2-26 EFD1000 Pro PFD Display Areas
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CHAPTER 2, CONTROLS AND DISPLAY
The EFD1000 PFD generally follows standard display conventions for Electronic Flight
Instrument Systems (EFIS), so a pilot with some experience and familiarity with other
EFIS PFDs will usually transition quickly to using the EFD1000. Pilots for whom the
EFD1000 PFD is their first real exposure to EFIS and “glass cockpit” flying, however,
should get some in-flight transition training from a certified instrument flight instructor
(CFII) with EFIS experience. Pilots are also encouraged to study some of the excellent
publications now available to help the transition from analog to EFIS instrument flying,
including the FAA’s latest versions of the Instrument Flying Handbook.
This section gives an overview of the main display elements and features. For more
detail, see the Reference Guide, Chapter 4.
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CHAPTER 2, CONTROLS AND DISPLAY
2.3.1. Attitude Display
The Attitude Display includes an Attitude Director Indicator (ADI) with single-cue Flight
Director command V-bars (when connected to a compatible autopilot), an Airspeed
tape, an Altimeter tape, an Altitude Alerter (with separate minimums alerting), and
Instrument Approach indicators (Table 2-6 and Figure 2-27). For more details on
each, see the Reference Guide, Chapter 4.
The Airspeed and Altitude tapes are the most obvious differences from a mechanical
ADI. These tapes are common on most EFIS PFDs, and will be immediately familiar to
pilots with EFIS experience. Pilots without prior EFIS experience may need some time,
experience, and training to get comfortable using the Airspeed and Altimeter tapes as
their primary references.
In single-tube EFD1000 PFD installations, where the mechanical airspeed indicator
and altimeter remain in their original locations, transitioning pilots can use either their
familiar mechanical instruments or the PFD tapes for airspeed and altitude references.
Many pilots new to EFIS quickly find themselves relying on the tapes within just a
flight or two. If the tapes prove distracting at any time, however, the pilot can remove
them from the display by pressing the TPS Hot Key (Figure 2-2 No. 66, single-tube
installations only).
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16
Attitude Display/Attitude Director Indicator (ADI)
17
Aircraft Symbol
18
Single-Cue Flight Director (optional)
19
Roll Pointer
20
Slip/Skid Indicator
21
Altitude Tape
22
Selected Altitude Field
23
Altitude Alert
24
Altitude Drum/Pointer
25
Altitude Bug
26
Decision Height Annunciation
27
Selected Minimums Field
28
MINIMUMS annunication
29
LDI Navigation Source Indication
30
Airspeed Indicator Tape
31
Selected Airspeed Field
32
Airspeed Bug
33
Airspeed Drum/Pointer
34
Vertical Deviation Indicator
35
Lateral Deviation Indicator
26
23
19
20
30
22
21
16
33
18
24
17
34
16
28
20
27
25
35
Figure 2-27
Attitude Display Components
Table 2-6 Attitude Display Components
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CHAPTER 2, CONTROLS AND DISPLAY
31
ATTITUDE DISPLAY
CHAPTER 2, CONTROLS AND DISPLAY
2.3.1.1. Attitude Director Indicator (ADI)
Figure 2-28
Slip/Skid
The Attitude Director Indicator (ADI) features a conventional blue (sky) over brown
(ground) background, with a white horizon line dividing the two areas. A triangular
aircraft reference symbol (Ref. 17) is in a fixed position, and shows aircraft attitude
relative to the horizon.
The pitch scale (or ladder) indicates degrees of nose up (blue) or nose down (brown)
pitch relative to the apex of the aircraft symbol. Minor pitch marks are shown every
2.5º up to +/-20º of pitch, with major pitch marks every 10º up to +/-90º of pitch. The
distance between pitch marks is greater than on most mechanical attitude indicators,
making it easier for the pilot to fly more precise pitch attitudes.
Figure 2-29
Flight Director
At extreme pitch attitudes (above 50º nose up or below 30º nose down), red Unusual
Attitude Recovery chevrons appear, pointing towards the horizon. At extreme pitch
attitudes, some sky (blue) or ground (brown) will always be displayed to help maintain
situational awareness, even though the horizon line may be off-scale.
At the top of the ADI are the roll scale, roll pointer, and slip/skid indicator (Figure 2‑28).
The roll scale is indicated by tick marks at 10º, 20º, 30º, 45º, and 60º on both sides of the
zero roll inverted solid white triangle. The 45º marks are represented as hollow triangles.
Slip/skid is indicated by the lateral position of the white rectangle under the roll pointer.
One rectangle width is equivalent to one ball width of a conventional inclinometer.
When connected to a compatible autopilot system the EFD1000 will display a singlecue Flight Director (Figure 2-29). The Flight Director command bars visually represent
the lateral and vertical steering cues transmitted to the EFD by the autopilot. When the
FD output from the autopilot is unavailable or flagged invalid, the FD command bars
are removed from the display.
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CHAPTER 2, CONTROLS AND DISPLAY
2.3.1.2. Airspeed Tape and Bug
Airspeed is indicated by a moving airspeed tape against a fixed position airspeed
pointer, shown on the left-hand side of the Attitude Display (Figure 2-30). A digital,
rolling drum readout indicating airspeed values to the closest one knot or mile per
hour is provided adjacent to the fixed pointer. Tick marks are provided on the airspeed
tape every 10 knots (or mph, if so configured). Airspeeds will be displayed between
20 kts (23mph) to 450 kts (518mph). Outside of this range the airspeed value is dashed.
Color speed bands are displayed on the indicated airspeed tape, corresponding to the
colored arcs found on a traditional airspeed instrument.
Color speed markers are displayed on the indicated airspeed tape, corresponding to
the colored radial lines found on traditional airspeed instruments. All aircraft have a red
line for aircraft never-exceed speed (Vne). Multi-engine aircraft will usually also have
a lower red line for single-engine minimum control speed (Vmc), and a blue line for
single-engine best rate of climb speed (Vyse). If the aircraft manufacturer has published
an initial flap extension speed, a white triangle will be presented on the airspeed tape at
the speed corresponding to this limitation.
Figure 2-30
Airspeed Tape
Textual V-speed markers can also be shown on the airspeed tape (e.g., Vx, Vy, Va, etc.).
These are typically programmed at installation, and (if left unlocked during installation)
may also be programmed by the pilot. V-speed display can be enabled or disabled by
the pilot from Page 1 of the Main Menu (see Chapter 5).
The pilot can set a target airspeed using the left-hand control knob (see
Section 4.1.2.1). The target airspeed is shown on the Airspeed Tape in the form of
an Airspeed Bug (Figure 2-2, No. 32), and will also be displayed numerically above
the Airspeed Tape (Figure 2-2, No. 31). The bug and numerical value are for visual
reference only, to help the pilot maintain a target airspeed; there is no alerting for
deviations from the target.
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CHAPTER 2, CONTROLS AND DISPLAY
2.3.1.3. Altitude Tape and Alerter
Altitude is indicated by a moving altitude tape against a fixed position altitude
pointer (Figure 2-2, No. 24), shown on the right-hand side of the Attitude Display
(Figure 2‑31). A digital, rolling drum readout indicating altitude values to the closest
20 feet is provided adjacent to the fixed pointer. Minor tick marks are provided on the
tape at 20-foot intervals, and major tick marks are provided at 100-foot intervals. The
thousands and ten-thousands digits are larger than other digits on the tape. Negative
altitudes are indicated by a “-“ sign preceding the numerical altitude value in the drum.
The current altimeter barometric setting is shown just below the Altitude tape in the
Data Bar (Figure 2-2, No. 37), and can be adjusted using the Right Knob.
The Airspeed Tape also includes a built-in altitude alerter, which consists of an
Altitude Bug on the Airspeed Tape (Figure 2-2, No. 25), a Selected Altitude display
(Figure 2‑2, No. 22), a visual Altitude Alert (Figure 2-2, No. 23), and optionally, an
audio alert. For more information on using the Alerter see Chapter 3 and Chapter 4.
Figure 2-31
Altitude Tape
Page 2-24
The Vertical Speed Indicator (VSI) is shown on the Navigation Display (Figure 2-31 and
Figure 2-2, No. 55), to the right of the HSI.
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CHAPTER 2, CONTROLS AND DISPLAY
2.3.1.4. Instrument Approach Indicators
Additional indicators are shown or available on the Attitude Display when flying
certain types of instrument approaches. These enable the pilot to maintain a tighter
instrument scan on the ADI, reducing workload and improving safety (Figure 2‑32).
A Lateral Deviation Indicator (LDI, (Figure 2-2, No. 35)) is presented on the attitude
indicator whenever the pilot has coupled an ILS, LOC, LOC(BC), or a GPS in Approach
Mode to the HSI, and valid lateral guidance is being provided. The navigation source
coupled to the LDI is annunciated to the left of the LDI (Figure 2-2, No. 29).
A Vertical Deviation Indicator (VDI, (Figure 2-2, No. 34)) is presented on the attitude
indicator whenever the LDI is shown and valid vertical guidance is provided, such as
from an ILS or WAAS GPS.
Whenever the lateral or vertical deviation exceeds the maximum displayable range of
2.5 dots, the deviation diamond is rendered as a hollow, ghosted image pegged to the
corresponding side. As soon as the deviation comes into range, the diamond turns
solid green, making it easy to identify when the needle is alive.
Additionally, the pilot can pre-set the minimums (MIN) for the approach, which will be
displayed on the ADI (Figure 2-2, No. 28) until the pilot toggles off the display using
the MIN hot key. Once the MIN data field value is set to a Decision Altitude or Minimum
Descent Altitude, the EFD1000 PFD provides an alert when the aircraft reaches or
descends below this altitude.
If a Radar Altimeter is installed in the aircraft and connected to the EFD1000, a Decision
Height annunciation (Figure 2-2, No. 26) will be displayed when the aircraft descends
to or below the selected radar altitude (Figure 2-33).
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Figure 2-32
Instrument Approach Indications
Figure 2-33
Decision Height Annunciation
Page 2-25
CHAPTER 2, CONTROLS AND DISPLAY
2.3.2. Data Bar
NOTE
When the winds aloft are less than
10 knots, the wind data is dashed.
The Data Bar visually separates the upper and lower halves of the PFD display. When
available, True Airspeed (TAS), GPS Ground Speed (GS), Outside Air Temperature (OAT),
Wind Vector arrow, Wind Direction and Speed, and Barometric Pressure Setting data are
presented in the data bar (Table 2-7 and Figure 2-34).
When any of these values is unavailable or invalid, the corresponding data field is
dashed. A GPS navigator must be connected and providing valid ground speed and
track data to display GS and winds aloft data.
The Data Bar is discussed in detail in Section 4.2.
36
41
Figure 2-34
Databar Components
40
39
37
38
DATABAR
36
True Airspeed
37
Barometric Pressure Setting Field
38
Wind Direction and Speed
39
Wind Direction Arrow
40
Outside Air Temperature
41
Ground Speed
Table 2-7 Databar Components
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CHAPTER 2, CONTROLS AND DISPLAY
2.3.3. Navigation Display
The lower half of the EFD1000 PFD is the Navigation Display, which shows a wide range
of navigation information and flight data, including (Figure 2-35):
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
Horizontal Situation Indicator (HSI), with Course Pointer and Deviation
Indicator (CDI), and Heading Bug, offering both 360º and ARC mode views.
Digital readouts of current magnetic heading, selected heading (HDG), and
selected course (CRS).
Information about the currently selected navigation source, or active GPS
waypoint.
Ground Track indicator.
Vertical Speed Indicator (VSI) tape and digital rate value.
Rate of Turn indicator.
Dual bearing pointers (RMI).
Situational awareness Map display.
Identification of the navigation sources to which the Course Deviation
Indicator (CDI) and two bearing pointers are currently coupled.
GPS Annunciations (TERM, APPR, WPT and MSG).
Caution annunciations for abnormal GPS status.
When connected to a GPS navigator, basic mapping can also be displayed under the
HSI display, including GPS flight plan legs and waypoints, and (when connected to a
compatible GPS) nearby navigation data (airports, VORs, NDBs and intersections).
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NOTE
The Vertical Deviation Indicator
(VDI) and Lateral Deviation Indicator
(LDI) are part of the navigation
instruments but display on the
Attitude Display.
Page 2-27
CHAPTER 2, CONTROLS AND DISPLAY
49
63
48
44
51
50
46
47
NAVIGATION DISPLAY
54
66
55
45
52
43
59
56
53
42
58
64
61
57
Figure 2-35
Navigation Display Components
Page 2-28
62
60
65
42
Navigation Display
55
Vertical Speed Tape
43
Ownship Symbol
56
Single-Line Bearing Pointer
44
Course Pointer
57
Single-Line Bearing Pointer Source
45
TO/FROM Indicator
58
Single-Line Source Info Block
46
Rate of Turn Indicator
59
Double-Line Bearing Pointer
47
Track Marker
60
Double-Line Bearing Pointer Source
48
Magnetic Heading
61
Double-Line Source Info Block
49
Selected Course (CRS) Field
62
CDI Navigation Source
50
Selected Heading Field
63
CDI Source Information Block
51
Heading Bug
64
Left Control Knob State
52
Course Deviation Scale
65
Right Control Knob State
53
Course Deviation Indicator
66
Hot Key Legend
54
Vertical Speed Digital Value
Table 2-8 Navigation Display Components
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CHAPTER 2, CONTROLS AND DISPLAY
2.3.3.1. Horizontal Situation Indicator (HSI)
The traditional HSI is an instrument that combines a slaved magnetic Heading
Indicator overlaid with a rotating Course Pointer and Deviation Indicator (CDI). This
combination has also been called a pictorial navigation indicator, because it helps the
pilot better visualize the aircraft position relative to its desired course. The HSI is a vast
improvement over the older, separate Directional Gyro (DG) and OBS course deviation
indicator, because the compass heading is always correct (slaved to a remote magnetic
flux detector), and integration of the CDI onto the compass simplifies the instrument
scan and provides better situational awareness.
Pilots experienced with mechanical HSIs will find the 360º mode of the EFD1000
Navigation Display immediately familiar. In its basic form, it is just an electronic
representation of a mechanical HSI. Pilots transitioning from flying a DG and OBS
should get some dual instruction from a CFII on the differences in flying an HSI, because
some instrument flying techniques differ from what they may be used to.
Figure 2-36
ARC CDI Mode with Base Map
Compass Modes: 360º vs. ARC
The HSI on the EFD1000 can be presented in either a full 360º compass rose mode
(shown in Figure 2-35), or in a 100º ARC format (Figure 2-36). In 360 Mode, the HSI
resembles the mechanical instrument, with the ownship position in the center of the
display. ARC Mode provides an extended forward view with the ownship position at
the bottom of the display. The ARC mode is especially good for map displays. The
middle Hot Key is used to toggle the display between 360 and ARC modes, with the
current mode shown in green adjacent to the Hot Key.
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CHAPTER 2, CONTROLS AND DISPLAY
Navigation Setting Information
Figure 2-37
Magnetic Heading
Figure 2-38
Navigation Source Information Block
Regardless of compass mode setting, the current magnetic heading is always shown at
the top center of the Navigation Display (Figure 2-2, No. 48 and Figure 2-37). The
current setting of the HDG Bug (Figure 2-2, No. 50) is always shown to the right of the
ship’s heading, even if the HDG Bug itself may not be visible in ARC mode. Similarly,
the current Course setting (CRS) (Figure 2-2, No. 49) is always shown to the left of the
ship’s heading, whether or not the Course Pointer itself is visible in ARC mode.
A Navigation Source Information Block (Figure 2-2, No. 63 and Figure 2-38) is
presented in the upper left corner of the HSI display area. The Source Information Block
indicates the navigation source coupled to the CDI and its associated mode (e.g. VOR,
ILS, LOC, etc). Information is provided related to the coupled source, including, when
available, waypoint or navaid identifier or frequency, bearing and distance, and the
estimated time to the active waypoint.
Course Pointer and Deviation Indicator (CDI)
In the 360º compass mode, the Course Pointer and Deviation Indicator (CDI) resemble
those of a mechanical HSI, with an arrowhead pointing to the selected course, and a
movable center section indicating course deviation against a scale of two dots to either
side of the center. A TO/FROM indication is shown as a triangle above (TO) or below
(FROM) the end of the deviation bar.
Within the ARC mode, the pilot may select (via the Main Menu) between two different
formats of CDI presentation – ARC HSI mode and ARC CDI mode. The ARC HSI mode,
presents a full rotating Course Pointer with CDI, which resembles that used in the
HSI 360 Compass mode. The ARC CDI mode presents a short Course Pointer stub on
the compass arc, and a fixed CDI at the bottom of the display, similar to the LDI and
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CHAPTER 2, CONTROLS AND DISPLAY
resembling that used in contemporary GPS navigation displays. ARC CDI mode leaves
more open space for map presentation. A TO indication is shown to the left of the LDI,
while a FROM indication is shown to its right.
Figure 2-40
Off Scale ARC CDI
Deviation Off Scale Indication
Whenever the course deviation exceeds the maximum displayable range of 2.5 dots,
the CDI bar or deviation diamond is rendered as a hollow, ghosted image pegged to
the corresponding side (Figures 2-39 and 2-40). As soon as the deviation comes into
range, the CDI or diamond turns solid green, making it easy to identify when the needle
is alive.
Auto Course Select
When a GPS is selected as the CDI navigation source, the default setting of the EFD1000
is “Auto Course Select”, in which mode the GPS will automatically set the Course
Pointer to the current GPS course (CRS) value whenever the GPS sequences between
waypoints. This capability relieves the pilot from manually setting the course at each
waypoint transition along a GPS route. When Auto Course Select is active, the pilot
cannot adjust the CRS value.
Auto Course Select is indicated by an “A” on a green background, adjacent to both the
numerical CRS value and the “CRS” knob legend (Figures 2-41 and 2-42).
If the GPS navigator enters OBS, HOLD, or SUSPEND modes, Auto Course Select is
automatically disabled on the EFD1000 until the GPS resumes waypoint sequencing.
The pilot can also manually disable Auto Course Select from Page 1 of the Main Menu.
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Figure 2-39
Off Scale CDI
Figure 2-42
Auto Course Indication on
Left Control Knob State
Figure 2-41
Auto Course Indication on
CRS Field
Page 2-31
CHAPTER 2, CONTROLS AND DISPLAY
Ground Track Indicator
Figure 2-43
Current Heading
Whenever the EFD1000 is connected to a compatible GPS, a Ground Track Indicator is
displayed. Ground Track is shown as a blue diamond rendered on the compass scale
at the value that corresponds to the current aircraft track (Figure 2-2, No. 47 and
Figure 2-43).
When the blue track diamond is aligned with the Course Pointer, the aircraft is tracking
on or parallel to its desired track. To align the track diamond with the Course Pointer,
turn away from the direction in which the diamond is offset from the Course Pointer
(think of it as “pulling” the track diamond toward the Course Pointer).
Figure 2-44
Rate of Turn Indicator, Rate Shown >6º/second
2.3.3.2. Rate of Turn Indicator
A rate of turn indicator (Figure 2-2, No. 46) with a range of 0 to 6 degrees per second
is provided for both the 360 and ARC Compass modes. The indicator consists of a
curved white tape originating from the heading index mark and extending in the
direction of the turn along the outer curve of the compass card.
The rate of turn indicator features an outer thick white tick mark for a Standard Rate
turn, and an inner thin white tick mark for Half-Standard Rate turns. A Standard Rate,
two-minute turn equals 3 degrees per second. When the rate of turn exceeds 6 degrees
per second, an arrowhead is added to the end of the tape to show that the rate of turn
has exceeded the limits of the indicator (Figure 2-44).
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Whenever the vertical speed exceeds +/- 100 FPM, the vertical speed is indicated
by presenting a rising/sinking white vertical tape and associated scale markers
immediately to the right of the compass rose (Figure 2-2, No. 55 and Figure 2-45).
A numerical indication of current aircraft vertical speed is shown directly above the tape
(Figure 2-2, No. 54). Rates of up to ±2000 feet per minute (FPM) are indicated by the
tape, while the numerical value will display rates of up to ±9990 FPM. A triangle caps
the tape whenever rates exceed ±2000 FPM (Figure 2-46). The vertical speed data field
will be “dashed” whenever the vertical speed is 10,000 FPM or greater.
In the ARC compass mode, only the digital vertical speed value is presented.
Figure 2-46
VSI Tape Capped, Digital Value
Showing 2,100 FPM Climb
Figure 2-45
VSI Tape Showing
300 FPM Descent
2.3.3.4. Bearing Pointers
One or two bearing pointers that show the bearing to a VOR station or GPS
waypoint can be overlaid on the HSI (Figure 2-47). BRG#1 is a single needle
(Figure 2‑2, No. 56), and BRG#2 is the double needle (Figure 2-2, No. 59). Use the
Nav Source Select Buttons (Figure 2-2, No. 10 and No. 12) to select the nav source for
a Bearing Pointer, or select none (blank) to remove the Bearing Pointer from the display.
The head of the needle always points to the station or waypoint. When coupled to
a VOR source, the tail of the needle indicates the VOR radial on which the aircraft is
currently located. Bearing pointers are excellent tools for identifying crossing radials,
flying DME arcs, and for general situational awareness.
Bearing Pointers are only available in the 360 Compass mode. Any available navigation
source may be coupled to either bearing pointer. If coupled to a source that does not
provide angular bearing data, such as a localizer, the bearing pointer is not presented
and the source is flagged as invalid.
Each bearing pointer has an associated source information block that can display
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Figure 2-47
BRG#1 Set to VOR1 on 117.9;
BRG#2 Set to GPS2, SWR
Page 2-33
CHAPTER 2, CONTROLS AND DISPLAY
2.3.3.3. Vertical Speed Indicator (VSI)
CHAPTER 2, CONTROLS AND DISPLAY
information about the source of the bearing pointer data. Information that can be
displayed includes distance to station (if coupled to a GPS waypoint) and either the
station identifier or the tuned frequency for a VLOC radio. This information is only
presented when it is reported to the EFD1000 by the connected equipment, and thus is
not available in all installations.
2.3.3.5. Situational Awareness Map Display
When the EFD1000 is connected to a compatible GPS navigator, a base map can be
displayed underneath the HSI in either 360º or ARC modes. Most GPS put out data to
enable the EFD1000 to display the active GPS flight plan legs and waypoints. The active
GPS flight plan leg, waypoint, and its identifier are shown in magenta. Other waypoints
and legs are shown in white.
Some GPS navigators (typically those using the ARINC 429 data protocol, such as the
Garmin 400/500 series) additionally put out information on nearby nav data waypoints
(e.g., airports, VORs, NDBs and intersections), which can also be displayed on the
EFD1000 base map. These GPS can often also display curved flight paths, such as
course reversals and holding patterns.
The base map is always oriented with magnetic heading up and centered so that the
current aircraft position coincides with the aircraft ownship symbol. These base map
elements underlay all other instruments and annunciations in the Navigation Display.
The MAP hot key is used to cycle through four levels of map features display and to turn
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CHAPTER 2, CONTROLS AND DISPLAY
off the base map display. Each successive press of the MAP hot key selects the next
feature level or OFF.
The map display range is controlled by the Range Control toggle button
(Figure 2‑2, Ref. 2), enabling the pilot to zoom in or out on the map. Automatic
declutter logic changes the map features display depending on the selected map
range.
The current map settings (range and feature level) are shown in the lower left-hand
corner of the navigation display whenever the map is not OFF (Figure 2-48). The
current map range is displayed in nautical miles, measuring the distance from the
ownship symbol to the edge of the map display. The current map feature level is
indicated by one to four green trapezoids underneath the range value (one mark is
flight plan-only, while four marks is the highest map feature level).
Figure 2-48
Map in ARC Mode, 20nm Range at
Feature Level 3 (Medium)
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CHAPTER 2, CONTROLS AND DISPLAY
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CHAPTER 3, FLYING THE EFD1000 PRO PFD
Chapter 3
Flying the EFD1000 Pro PFD
This chapter provides an overview of flying the EFD1000 Pro PFD on
an IFR cross-country flight, explaining how to access and change the
necessary settings of the EFD1000 PFD (Table 3-1). Refer to Chapter 4
for detailed step-by-step instructions for all EFD1000 PFD functionality.
While you can jump right into using the EFD1000 Pro PFD with this chapter, it may be
helpful first to read Chapter 2 to become more familiar with the controls, operating
logic, and display elements of the PFD.
The EFD1000 Pro PFD is a powerful Electronic Flight Instrument System (EFIS), offering
the same capabilities and features found on larger glass cockpit systems in airliners,
business jets, and newer general aviation aircraft. It is capable of far more than the
analog instruments it typically replaces. It will take some time and experience to master
all of its advanced capabilities, especially if this is your first exposure to flying EFIS and
glass cockpits. Nonetheless, in its most basic configuration, the EFD1000 PFD will look
immediately familiar to anyone used to flying mechanical instruments, and its basic
operation is very similar and intuitive .
Before flying your new EFD1000 installation on an actual IFR flight, be sure first to spend
some time with your installer to understand exactly how your aircraft is configured,
and also to get some dual instruction and practice time in VFR conditions until you are
comfortable with how the EFD1000 performs and integrates with the other avionics in
your airplane.
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Page 3-1
CHAPTER 3, FLYING THE EFD1000 PRO PFD
FEATURE
1
12
2
10
4
9
5
6
7
8
Page 3-2
Figure 3-1
Basic EFD1000 Settings
FEATURE
SETTING
1
Selected
Altitude
Set as desired
7
GPS Steering
(GPSS) Hot Key
Enable/Disable
2
Basemap
Range Keys
Set as desired
8
Bearing
Pointers Nav
Source
Select as desired
3
Barometric
Pressure
Setting
Check and set
9
CDI Navigation
Source
Select as desired
4
Heading
Bug Value
Set as desired
10
Course Pointer
Value
Set as desired
5
Compass
Mode, 360°
or ARC
Set as desired
11
MINIMUMS
Setting
Set approach
minimums
6
Map
Settings
Hot Key
Set as desired
12
Selected
Airspeed
Set as desired
11
3
SETTING
Table 3-1 Basic EFD1000 Settings
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3.1. Quick Controls Overview
CHAPTER 3, FLYING THE EFD1000 PRO PFD
Chapter 2 explains the EFD1000 controls in detail. The following is a quick summary:
Control Knobs (see 2.2.1 for detail)
•
•
•
•
•
•
The Left and Right control knobs each has a Home state, to which it returns
after 10 seconds of inactivity. The left knob is the CRS knob, and the right
knob is the HDG knob.
The current function of each knob is shown by a legend on the screen
immediately above the knob. If the legend is shown in magenta, turning the
knob will change the value of the function shown. If the legend is shown in
cyan or green, turning the knob will have no effect.
From the Home state, pressing the knob once will enable the current function
to be set (legend color changes from cyan to magenta). Successive presses
of the knob will cycle through the functions that knob can control. When
the function you want to change is shown in magenta, turning the knob will
change the value.
The Left control knob sets the Course Pointer (CRS, except when Auto Course
Select is enabled) and Indicated Airspeed Bug (IAS).
The Right control knob sets Heading (HDG), Selected Altitude (ALT),
Barometric Pressure Setting (BARO), and Approach Minimums (MIN).
Pressing and holding a knob syncs the function shown to the current value.
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Page 3-3
Navigation Source Buttons (see 2.2.2 for detail)
CHAPTER 3, FLYING THE EFD1000 PRO PFD
•
•
•
Three buttons at the bottom of the display couple the available navigation
sources to the CDI and/or the bearing pointers.
The center button (Figure 2-2, Ref. 11) selects the nav source to couple to
the CDI and to drive the autopilot (if installed).
The outer two buttons (Figure 2-2, Refs. 10 and 12) select which nav source
couples to each of the two bearing pointers (or none to hide the bearing
pointers).
Hot Keys (see 2.2.3 for details)
•
•
•
NOTE
The tasks and procedures you will use
in your airplane will vary depending
on your aircraft and equipment, and
on how they are configured and
integrated with the EFD1000 in your
specific installation.
The five buttons on the lower right-hand side of the display are Hot Keys,
the function of which is shown by the legend on the screen immediately
adjacent to each button.
The current status of each Hot Key is shown by the legend, in GREEN if active
and in GRAY if inactive.
Each press of a Hot Key will either toggle its function on or off, or will cycle
among available settings.
3.2. Example Flight Scenario
This section will walk you through using the EFD1000 Pro PFD on an IFR flight from
Albuquerque International Sunport (KABQ) to Reno/Tahoe International Airport (KRNO),
flying Victor airways to the ILS16R approach into KRNO. This scenario uses one pilot’s
technique for setting up the navigation instruments, but there are many other valid
possibilities. Use whatever techniques work best for you.
Our aircraft for this flight is a Beech Bonanza A36TC, equipped with dual Garmin GNS430W WAAS GPS/nav/comms and the Bendix/King KFC-200 autopilot. The EFD1000 Pro
PFD is configured with Auto Course Select enabled, baro setting in inches, V-speed text
markers displayed, ARC compass mode in CDI, and the base map configured with its
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default settings.
CHAPTER 3, FLYING THE EFD1000 PRO PFD
The Garmin 430Ws are configured with ILS CDI Capture set to AUTO, meaning that
when an ILS approach is loaded and active in the GPS, and the aircraft is established
inbound to the FAF, the 430W will automatically switch its CDI output from GPS to the
VHF localizer frequency. The EFD1000 will follow this switch on its CDI Source Select,
automatically changing from GPS1 to VLOC1.
3.2.1. Pre-Departure
Once the pre-flight inspections and checklists are complete, and before starting
engines, turn the Battery Master ON.
NOTE
The EFD1000 is wired directly to the main battery bus in most
installations. Some installations may have an EFIS Master circuit breaker
switch on the main battery bus; in those cases there is no problem
leaving the EFIS Master on most of the time. The EFD1000 will not be
harmed by voltage variations during engine start.
When power is applied to the EFD1000, the bezel backlighting illuminates and
the annunciation “Initializing…” appears on the screen against a black background
(Figure 3‑2).
As the software initializes and the PFD warms up, the Attitude and Navigation Displays
will appear first (typically within 20-30 seconds), with red X’s showing for the airspeed
and altitude tapes (Figure 3-3). In a short while (from a few more seconds to a few
minutes, depending on how cold the aircraft is), the air data sensors will warm up to
operating temperature and the airspeed and altitude tapes will appear. At that point,
the EFD1000 is ready to go. The PFD will usually be ready by the time engines are
started or the After Start checklist is complete.
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EFD1000 PFD Pilot’s Guide
Figure 3-2
EFD1000 PFD Initializing
Figure 3-3
Initialization Complete,
Sensors Warming Up
Page 3-5
CHAPTER 3, FLYING THE EFD1000 PRO PFD
NOTE
After engine start, turn the Avionics Master ON. Until the navigation radios are
operational, the nav source annunciations on the EFD1000 will be shown with a red
line slashed through them (Figure 3-4), and the GPS1, GPS2 and INTEG cautions will
be annunciated on the left edge of the display (Figure 3-5 and 3-6). The CDI Source
Select will default to VLOC1. Once the nav radios have warmed up, the red slash will be
removed from the CDI Source annunciation.
Figure 3-4
CDI Source Slashed Invalid
Figure 3-6
GPS2 Shown Flagged
Start-up times for the EFD1000 are highly dependent on aircraft
temperature. In extremely cold weather, when the aircraft has gotten
cold soaked overnight, it may take several minutes (usually no more than
five) for the PFD to be fully operational. On the second or third flight
of the day, and/or on very hot days, the PFD may come up within 30
seconds or less.
Figure 3-5
GPS1 Shown Flagged
NOTE
GPS will not output valid navigation information until programmed
with an active flight plan or direct-to waypoint, and thus will be flagged
on the EFD1000 and cannot be selected as a CDI or Bearing Pointer
navigation source until they are programmed with an active waypoint.
Once the radios are available, we pick up the ATIS, and learn that the local altimeter
setting is 30.15, and that Runway 8 is in use for departures.
NOTE
Page 3-6
Whenever there is a new altimeter
setting, be certain to set both the
EFD1000 PFD and the mechanical
standby altimeter.
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First set the standby altimeter to 30.15, and then set the EFD1000 PFD baro setting.
Set the Barometric Pressure
2.
Press the Right Knob until BARO displays above the knob and the Barometric
Pressure field is enabled for editing, both rendered in magenta (Figure 3-7).
From the Home state, press the Right Knob 3 times to enable setting baro
pressure.
Rotate the Right Knob to change the value of the Barometric Pressure field.
Rotate clockwise to increase, or counterclockwise to decrease, the value.
Once the correct value is selected and after 10 seconds of inaction, the field is
disabled and the label and field are rendered in cyan (Figure 3-8).
CHAPTER 3, FLYING THE EFD1000 PRO PFD
1.
Figure 3-7
BARO Field Enabled
Figure 3-8
BARO Field Disabled
NOTE
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EFD1000 PFD Pilot’s Guide
The graphics used in this chapter
illustrate the features and tasks being
described, but do not necessarily
correspond to the values associated
with this example flight scenario.
Page 3-7
CHAPTER 3, FLYING THE EFD1000 PRO PFD
Next, since we’ll be departing from Runway 8, we set our Heading Bug to runway
heading, 080°.
Set the Heading Bug
1.
2.
Figure 3-9
Heading Field Enabled
Press the Right Knob until HDG displays above the knob and the HDG field
is enabled for editing, both rendered in magenta (Figure 3-9). The Heading
Bug will also be rendered in magenta, and a dashed magenta line will extend
from the ownship symbol to the Heading Bug to make it easier to see the
bug position.
Rotate the Right Knob to change the value of the Heading field. Rotate
clockwise to increase, or counterclockwise to decrease, the value. Once
the correct heading is selected and after 10 seconds of inaction, the field is
disabled and the label and field are rendered in cyan (Figure 3-10).
We call Clearance Delivery to pick up our IFR clearance. It is:
“Bonanza N66529 is cleared to the Reno/Tahoe Airport via the LARGO2 departure,
Zuni (ZUN) transition, then as filed. Maintain 7,000, expect 10,000 in five minutes.
Departure frequency is 127.4. Squawk 1234.”
Now we set up our avionics for an instrument departure. We set our transponder code
and comm radio frequencies. Then we enter our flight plan into GPS1, load the LARGO2
departure, crossfill into GPS2, and activate the flight plan.
The LARGO2 departure calls for vectors to our route. From past experience, we expect
to be vectored past ABQ VOR, and then given a vector to join the departure on the
ABQ-to-ZUN leg (a 255º course). While we’ll be navigating on GPS, for situational
awareness we tune those first two VOR fixes into our nav radios. We tune ABQ VOR
(113.2) into VLOC1 and ZUN VOR (113.4) into VLOC2.
Figure 3-10
Heading Field Disabled
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Select The CDI Navigation Source
•
Press the CDI Navigation Source Select button (Figure 3-11) until the desired
navigation source is shown above the button (e.g. GPS1, GPS2, VLOC1,
VLOC2).
Figure 3-11
CDI Navigation Source Selection Button
For a traditional RMI view, we could use our two Bearing Pointers to monitor our
passing ABQ VOR and then intercepting the course to ZUN. We’d use the left BRG#1
Bearing Pointer Source Select button to select VOR1 (ABQ), and use the right BRG#2
Bearing Pointer Source Select button to select VOR2 (ZUN).
Select Bearing Pointer Nav Sources
•
Press the BRG#1 (single-line) or BRG#2 (double-line) Bearing Pointer button
until the desired navigation source is shown above the button (Figure 3-12).
Figure 3-12
Bearing Pointer Nav Source Select Buttons
NOTE
When no source is selected, only the
bearing pointer icon displays above
the applicable button (Figure 3-13).
Figure 3-13 No Bearing Pointer Sources Selected
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CHAPTER 3, FLYING THE EFD1000 PRO PFD
On the EFD1000, use the CDI Source Select button to select GPS1. Because we have
enabled Auto Course Select, the Course Pointer automatically slews to 261º (the initial
course from the airport to the first fix on the LARGO2 departure, ABQ VOR).
CHAPTER 3, FLYING THE EFD1000 PRO PFD
For even better situational awareness, we choose to display the basemap of our flight
plan legs and waypoints. We press the MAP Hot Key to bring up the base map. We
use the Range Control buttons to select the 20 NM. range, which will give a good
perspective for intercepting our course to ZUN. Our initial flight plan leg, from the
airport to ABQ VOR is shown in magenta, with subsequent legs and waypoints shown
in white.
Select Map Level of Detail
•
NOTE
The icons and flight plan legs
rendered for each of the map display
levels (High, Medium, and Low) are
based on the selected map range.
Detailed information is provided, in
Section 5.2 of this guide. In addition,
some of the icons can be manually
reconfigured, as discussed in that
same section.
Push the MAP Hot Key (fourth hot key) to cycle through and select the
desired level of detail. Each time the hot key is pressed, the Map Display Level
changes to the next option (Figure 3-14).
Press the MAP
HOT KEY
The Feature Display
Level Icon Changes
Figure 3-14
Changing the Map
Display Level
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Change The Basemap Range
•
CHAPTER 3, FLYING THE EFD1000 PRO PFD
Press the Range key (Figure 3-15) UP (+) to increase the range, or
DOWN (-) to decrease the range, until the desired range is reached
(Figures 3‑16 and 3‑17).
Figure 3-15
Range Key
Figure 3-17
Current Range 10NM from
Ownship to Edge of Compass
Current Range
Ownship
Symbol
Figure 3-16
Current Range 200NM from
Ownship to Edge of Compass
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CHAPTER 3, FLYING THE EFD1000 PRO PFD
Next, we set our assigned initial altitude of 7,000 feet into the Altitude Alerter. We press
the Right Control Knob twice, changing the legend above the knob to ALT in magenta.
Then we turn the right knob to set 7,000 into the Selected Altitude Field. This will help
us capture and maintain our assigned altitude.
Figure 3-19
Altitude Field Enabled
NOTE
Figure 3-18
Altitude Bug Enabled
Setting the Altitude Alerter provides visual and aural cues to help the
pilot capture and maintain target altitudes. When set to a new altitude,
the Alerter will illuminate a yellow flag adjacent to the target altitude
display, and sound a one-second tone, 15 seconds (or 200 feet) before the
aircraft will reach the target altitude (based on current rate of climb or
descent). The yellow flag will go black upon attaining the target altitude.
Subsequently, if the aircraft deviates more than 200 feet above or below
the target altitude, the flag will again illuminate and another one-second
tone will sound to alert the pilot to the deviation.
Set the Altitude Alerter
1.
2.
Press the Right Knob until ALT displays above the Right Knob and the
Altitude numerical field and bug are enabled for editing, all three rendered in
magenta (Figures 3-18 and 3-19).
Rotate the Right Knob to change the value of the Altitude field. Rotate
clockwise to increase, or counterclockwise to decrease, the value. Once the
correct value is selected and after 10 seconds of inaction, the field is disabled
and the label, numerical field, and bug are rendered in cyan (Figure 3-20).
NOTE
Synchronizing the altitude sets the selected altitude to the current
altitude, see Section 2.2.1.3.
Figure 3-20
Altitude Bug Disabled
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Set the Airspeed Bug
1.
2.
Press the Left Knob until IAS displays above the Left Knob and the Selected
Airspeed field and bug are enabled for editing, all three rendered in magenta
(Figures 3-21 and 3-22).
Rotate the Left Knob to change the value of the Selected Airspeed field.
Rotate clockwise to increase, or counterclockwise to decrease, the value.
Once the correct value is selected and after 10 seconds of inaction, the field is
disabled and the label and field are rendered in cyan (Figure 3-23).
Figure 3-22
Selected Airspeed Bug Enabled
Figure 3-23
Selected Airspeed Field Disabled
NOTE
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EFD1000 PFD Pilot’s Guide
Figure 3-21
Selected Airspeed Field Enabled
Synchronizing the airspeed sets
the selected airspeed to the current
airspeed, see Section 4.1.2.2.
Page 3-13
CHAPTER 3, FLYING THE EFD1000 PRO PFD
Our normal climb speed is 120 KIAS, so we choose to set the airspeed bug as a
reminder. To do so, we press the Left Control Knob twice, until it shows IAS in magenta
above the knob. We turn the knob until 120 shows in the Selected Airspeed Field.
CHAPTER 3, FLYING THE EFD1000 PRO PFD
Figure 3-24
Flight Director V-bars
We plan to hand-fly the plane until reaching our final en route altitude of 10,000
feet. But we like the help the Flight Director gives us (Figure 3-24). So, as part of our
Before Takeoff set-up, we press the FD button on the autopilot mode selector, and the
magenta V-bars display on the EFD1000. As an easy way to give us guidance on the
takeoff, we press the Go Around button. This commands wings level and about a 10º
pitch-up attitude, which works well for our initial climb.
Now our avionics are all set, so we taxi out to the runway, do our run-up, and call tower,
ready for departure. As we taxi into position and hold on Runway 8, we verify that our
EFD1000 compass shows 080º, lined up with our pre-set heading bug. As tower clears
us for takeoff, it tells us to wait until reaching the end of the runway, and then to turn
left to heading 250º. We press the Right Control Knob once to activate HDG, and turn
the knob left to set the Heading Bug to 250.
3.2.2. Departure
As we start the takeoff roll, we note the airspeed on the EFD1000 comes alive at 20
KIAS. All indications are normal, so we continue the takeoff, rotate at 80 KIAS and fly the
Flight Director command bars at 10º pitch up with wings level. As we run out of usable
runway to land, we bring the gear up, and soon we’re over the end of the 13,800 foot
runway.
We engage HDG mode on the autopilot mode selector, and the FD commands a left
turn to our assigned 250º heading, which we already set with the Heading Bug. We
adjust our pitch attitude to maintain our target 120 KIAS climb speed as shown by the
bug on our airspeed tape, and sync the FD pitch to that attitude.
Figure 3-25
Altitude Alerter Flag Illuminated
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CHAPTER 3, FLYING THE EFD1000 PRO PFD
Soon we hear a one-second tone and see the yellow flag come on next to our Selected
Altitude at the top of the EFD1000 airspeed tape (Figure 3-25). This means we are
15 seconds away from reaching our assigned altitude. We begin to shallow our climb,
and level off at 7,000 feet, engaging ALT hold on the AP/FD mode selector. The yellow
Altitude Alert on the EFD1000 goes out as we capture and hold our altitude.
Around this time, on our 250º vector, we pass abeam ABQ VOR, which causes the GPS
to sequence to the next flight plan leg to ZUN VOR. The Course Pointer on the EFD1000
automatically swings left to the new course, 255º, and that leg on our base map turns
magenta.
Albuquerque Departure now tells us to fly heading 220º to join the LARGO2 departure,
and climb and maintain 10,000.
1.
2.
Press the Right Knob once to activate HDG, and turn it left to set the Heading
Bug to 220º.
Press the Right Knob again to activate ALT, and turn it right to set 10,000 in
the Selected Altitude field at the top of the airspeed tape.
Auto Course Select has already set our Course Pointer to the 255º course from ABQ to
ZUN on the LARGO2 departure, and a 220º heading sets us up for a nice intercept. We
disengage ALT hold on the Flight Director, set our cruise climb attitude, sync the V-bars
to that pitch, and initiate the climb from 7,000 to 10,000 feet, maintaining our target
airspeed of 120 KIAS by reference to the Airspeed Bug (Figure 3-26).
At about 9,700 feet, the Altitude Alerter tone sounds, and the yellow alert flag by the
Selected Altitude illuminates, telling us we are 15 seconds from reaching our assigned
10,000 feet. We begin our level-off, and upon reaching 10,000 feet, engage ALT hold on
the FD mode selector.
Figure 3-26
CDI Shown Hollow at Full-Scale Deflection
Departure calls again to hand us off to Albuquerque Center on 133.0. As we’re tuning
the radio, we hear an alert tone. A glance at the EFD1000 shows the Altitude Alerter
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CHAPTER 3, FLYING THE EFD1000 PRO PFD
flag flashing, our altitude at 10,200 and climbing, and our Flight Director V-bars
commanding pitch down. We quickly stop the climb, correct back down to our
assigned altitude of 10,000 and engage the autopilot before calling to check in with
Center.
3.2.3. En Route
Albuquerque Center gives us a new altimeter setting of 30.11. We set 30.11 on the
standby mechanical altimeter, and then on the EFD1000.
•
Figure 3-27
CDI Alive and Shown Solid
Soon, the CDI comes alive and attracts our attention as it changes from hollowed out
to solid and begins to move in towards the Course Pointer as we intercept our course.
We enable GPS Steering to complete the intercept and steer us along the airways all the
way to Reno (Figure 3-27).
1.
2.
3.
Figure 3-28
GPSS Enabled (legend in Green)
Page 3-16
Press the Right Knob three times to select BARO, shown in magenta above
the knob, and turn the knob left four clicks to set 30.11 on the meter.
Confirm the AP/FD mode selector is still in HDG mode.
Press the GPSS Hot Key, and verify its legend turns from gray to GREEN
(Figure 3‑28).
Verify that the Flight Director is giving proper steering cues to intercept and
track the course.
With GPS Steering (GPSS), a compatible GPS navigator (in this case, a Garmin 430W)
drives the autopilot directly, telling it how to bank to stay centered on course. GPSS
drives the autopilot far more accurately than the AP NAV mode, because the GPS always
knows the ground track and how to adjust to maintain that track, implicitly accounting
for changing wind conditions. The GPS also includes turn anticipation, enabling it to
roll out centered on the new course without overshooting. As we’ll soon see when
flying an instrument approach, GPSS with a WAAS GPS can even fly procedure turns and
holding patterns hands-off.
EFD1000 PFD Pilot’s Guide
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Now that we’re established at our final cruise altitude and in the en route phase of our
flight, we’ll switch to the ARC mode of the HSI, to maximize a forward view.
2.
Press the 360 Hot Key, and observe the HSI changes to its ARC view, and the
legend adjacent to the Hot Key changes to ARC in GREEN.
Adjust the map range to suit your preference.
Each HSI view (360 and ARC) retains
its own Range and Map Feature Level
settings when switching between the
two view modes.
Select a Compass Mode
•
Push the 360/ARC Hot Key (third Hot Key) to alternately select either the 360°
(Figure 3-29) or the ARC (Figure 3-30) compass display.
We set cruise power and lean the mixture. As the airplane stabilizes in cruise, we check
the Data Bar to monitor performance. True Airspeed (TAS) is close to book performance
for this altitude and power setting. OAT is close to ISA. Winds aloft are close to forecast,
about 30º off the nose at 15 knots, so we’ll expect to lose some ground speed due to a
stronger headwind component when we turn northwest toward Reno.
Figure 3-29
360° Compass Mode
Check TAS, GS, and winds and temperature aloft on the Data Bar (Figure 3-31).
Continuing en route, we monitor progress along our flight plan on the extended
forward view of ARC mode, watching as GPSS keeps us exactly centered on course
through numerous turns on the airways.
3.2.4. Arrival and Approach to Landing
As we near Reno, we prepare for our arrival. Within range, we pick up the ATIS and learn
that the ILS16R approach is in use. Our route along V105 brings us in to Mustang VOR
(FMG), which has a published transition to TAKLE, an Initial Approach Fix (IAF) for this
procedure. Because we’d like some practice with our new PFD, we’ll ask to fly the full
procedure with pilot nav.
Figure 3-30
ARC CDI Compass Mode
Figure 3-31 Data Bar
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Page 3-17
CHAPTER 3, FLYING THE EFD1000 PRO PFD
1.
NOTE
CHAPTER 3, FLYING THE EFD1000 PRO PFD
We load the KRNO ILS16R approach into the GPS, selecting TAKLE as our IAF. The ILS
frequency (110.9) is placed in the standby window of the 430W. Briefing the approach,
we note our Decision Altitude (DA) is 5,515 feet. We set our approach MINIMUMS on
the EFD1000 to 5,520 feet (MIN are set in increments of 10 feet, so we round up). And
we set our Selected Airspeed for the approach at 105 KIAS.
1.
2.
3.
4.
Figure 3-32
MIN Hot Key (shown disabled)
Press the MIN Hot Key (Figure 3-32). The MIN display appears on the lower
right-hand corner of the ADI in magenta (Figure 3-33), ready for setting, and
the MIN legend adjacent to the Hot Key changes from gray to magenta.
Turn the Right Knob to set 5,520 on the MIN display.
Press the Left knob twice to select IAS for editing.
Turn the Left knob to set 105 knots as our target airspeed.
We’re all set up for the approach. Nearing Mustang (FMG), Oakland Center hands us off
to Reno Approach, and we request own nav for the ILS16R. Approach gives us the new
altimeter setting of 30.08, clears us down to 9,000 feet, and after FMG direct TAKLE. We
initiate the descent, set 30.08 in the standby altimeter, and set the EFD1000:
1.
2.
3.
4.
Press the Right knob twice to select ALT for editing.
Turn the Right knob left to set 9,000 as our Selected Altitude.
Press the Right knob once more to select BARO for editing
Turn the Right knob left to set 30.08 as our baro setting.
Fifteen seconds before reaching 9,000 feet, the Altitude Alerter flag illuminates and the
alert tone sounds. We begin our level-off, and re-engage ALT hold on the autopilot
upon reaching 9,000 feet. We leave the autopilot in HDG mode, and continue with
GPSS enabled on the EFD1000.
Figure 3-33
MIN Display Selected for Editing
Page 3-18
Crossing FMG, the GPS sequences to TAKLE, our Course Pointer swings automatically
from 302º to 316º, and GPSS continues to steer us on course. We power back to slow
down. Reno Approach calls, reports us six miles from TAKLE and clears us for the ILS16R
approach, pilot nav.
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We activate the approach on the GPS, and move the ILS frequency into the active
window.
As GPSS completes the procedure turn and rolls out centered on our final approach
course of 164º, we change to APPR mode on the autopilot and begin a descent down
to 8,500 feet.
1.
2.
3.
Press the Right knob twice to select ALT for editing.
Turn the Right knob to set 8,500 as our Selected Altitude.
On reaching 8,500, re-engage ALT hold on the autopilot.
Along this intermediate segment of the approach, watch for the 430W to switch
automatically from GPS to VLOC output on its CDI.
•
Watch for the EFD1000 CDI Source Select field to change from GPS1 to
VLOC1.
Figure 3-34
ARC Mode Showing Procedure Turn, GPSS Enabled
This automatic switch from GPS to VLOC should occur 2–10 NM outside the Final
Approach Fix. If it has not occurred automatically by 2 NM outside the FAF, manually
press the CDI button on the 430W to make the switch to the ILS frequency.
As navigation switches to the ILS, the LDI and VDI (Figure 2-2, Refs. 34 and 35) will
appear on the Attitude Display.
1.
2.
The LDI Navigation Source Indication (Figure 2-2, Ref. 29) will show ILS if it is
receiving a valid glide slope signal, or LOC if it is not receiving the glide slope
(GS).
The CDI Source Information Block (Figure 2-2, Ref. 63) will also show ILS or
LOC.
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CHAPTER 3, FLYING THE EFD1000 PRO PFD
GPSS continues to steer the plane to the initial approach fix, TAKLE, and, crossing TAKLE,
turns us outbound on a 344º course for the procedure turn (Figure 3-34). We see the
procedure turn drawn on our base map ahead of us, and watch it turn magenta as GPSS
turns and flies the procedure turn for us, with no further pilot action required.
CHAPTER 3, FLYING THE EFD1000 PRO PFD
When the GS is full-scale deflection above us, the GS indicator on the VDI will show
as a hollow diamond at the top of the scale (Figure 3-35). When the GS comes alive,
the indicator will change to a solid green diamond and begin to move down the scale.
Just before intercepting the GS, drop the gear, and check for three green lights. On GS
intercept, verify that the autopilot switches to GS capture and begins to track down the
glide slope.
Figure 3-35
VDI Showing Glide Slope Full
Deflection High (Hollow Indicator)
Continue to monitor the approach, and verify that the autopilot is tracking both
localizer and glide slope. The weather is well above minimums and we intend to land
out of the approach, but will let the autopilot fly it down to minimums. On reaching
our pre-set minimums (5,520 feet),
•
•
The MINIMUMS alert displays below the Aircraft Reference Symbol on the ADI
(Figure 3-36).
The alert tone sounds three times.
We disconnect the autopilot and hand-fly the plane to landing, continuing to fly the
Flight Director and track the glide slope down to a smooth landing.
Figure 3-36
MINIMUMS Alert
3.3. Conclusion
The EFD1000 Pro PFD is a powerful addition to any cockpit, providing far more
capability, information and automation than the mechanical instruments it typically
replaces. While it is simple and intuitive enough to start using with only a short
orientation, fully understanding and exploiting all of its features requires some study
and experience.
Chapter 4 covers all of the EFD1000 Pro PFD’s features in detail. Chapter 5 explains
how to customize the PFD to suit your preferences. Chapter 6 addresses Emergency
and Abnormal procedures. Please read through all these chapters for a fuller
understanding of how to use your EFD1000.
Page 3-20
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Chapter 4
Reference Guide
The EFD1000 PFD system components include the EFD1000 PFD display head, a
Remote Sensor Module (RSM), a Configuration Module (CM), and the optional Analog
Converter Unit (ACU). Chapter 1, Welcome & Introduction, provides a detailed
discussion on the EFD1000 PFD system components.
NOTE
The optional ACU enables the
interface of the EFD1000 PFD system
with legacy panel-mounted GPS
navigators, VOR/Localizer radios,
and autopilots.
When interfaced with a compatible autopilot, the EFD1000 PFD system provides
heading and course datum information to the autopilot, which enables the autopilot
to follow the Course and Heading values set by the pilot on the EFD1000 PFD, in much
the same way as with a mechanical HSI. When interfaced with a compatible GPS, the
EFD1000 PFD can provide GPS Steering (GPSS) to an autopilot.
200A1234-01-REV AREV A
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EFD1000 PFD Pilot’s Guide
Page 4-1
CHAPTER 4, REFERENCE GUIDE
The EFD1000 PFD is a panel-mounted Electronic Flight Instrument
System (EFIS) that presents the pilot with displays of attitude, altitude,
indicated airspeed, heading, rate of turn, slip/skid, and navigation course
deviation information. The system also displays supplemental flight
data such as winds, TAS, OAT, etc., moving maps, pilot-selectable indices
(“bugs”), and various annunciations to increase situational awareness and
enhance flight safety. Moving map situational awareness information is
displayed when the unit is connected to compatible GPS equipment.
CHAPTER 4, REFERENCE GUIDE
8
4.1. Attitude Display
9
1
7
2
3
6
4
Figure 4-1
Attitude Indicator
5
4.1.1. Attitude Indicator
The Attitude Indicator consists of an aircraft reference symbol on a blue (sky) and brown
(ground) background. The white horizon line separates the sky from the ground and
extends to the edge of the display. The Roll Scale curves over the top of the Attitude
Indicator while the Pitch Scale extends vertically in the middle. The slip/skid rectangle is
directly underneath the roll pointer (Figure 4-1).
1
Sky
6
Flight Director
2
Aircraft Reference Symbol
7
Roll Scale
3
Horizon Line
8
Roll Pointer
4
Ground
9
Slip/Skid Indicator
5
Pitch Scale
The Attitude Indicator cannot be disabled by the pilot. The Aircraft Reference Symbol is
fixed relative to the Attitude Indicator and overlays all other Attitude Indicator symbols.
A pitch offset adjustment (+/- 10°) is provided to installers to compensate for variations
in installations and slight panel tilts.
Page 4-2
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A-01-184-00 REV A
4.1.1.1. Roll Scale
4.1.1.2. Slip/Skid Indicator
The Slip/Skid Indicator is the small white rectangle under the roll pointer. The Slip/
Skid Indicator moves left and right relative to the roll pointer in proportion to lateral
acceleration. The width of the rectangle is equivalent to the width of the ball in a
mechanical inclinometer.
Figure 4-2
Pitch Markings - Large Pitch Down
4.1.1.3. Pitch Scale
The pitch scale consists of minor pitch marks in 2.5º increments up to ±20º and
major pitch marks in 10º increments up to ±90º. Red chevrons appear for nose-up
pitch angles of 30º or more (Figure 4-2), and nose-down pitch angles of -25º or less
(Figure 4-3). The pitch chevrons aid the pilot in unusual attitude recovery.
NOTE
The range of movement of the background sky and ground boundaries are limited such
that some sky or ground is always visible.
4.1.1.4. Flight Director
Figure 4-3
Pitch Markings - Large Pitch Up
Refer to the autopilot’s AFMS for
information on the operation of the
flight director. The Flight Director is a
visual representation of the pitch and
roll commands from the autopilot.
The Flight Director’s pitch and bank
limits are based on the emulation
mode set at installation, and is limited
to +/- 45° roll and +/- 25° pitch.
When connected to a compatible autopilot and configured through an ACU during
installation, the EFD1000 PFD displays a single-cue (two-axis) flight director on the
Attitude Indicator (Figure 4-4). The pilot may follow the flight director’s pitch and roll
cues, even when the autopilot is not engaged, to remain on heading or altitude, climb
or descend, turn, or navigate along a programmed flight path.
Figure 4-4
Flight Director
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Page 4-3
CHAPTER 4, REFERENCE GUIDE
The Roll Scale is displayed at the top of the Attitude Indicator and is comprised of a
moving scale set against a fixed, white, triangle roll pointer. Tick marks are displayed at
0º, 10º, 20º, 30º, 45º and 60º of roll. The 45º marks are triangles.
4.1.1.5. Degraded Attitude Heading Reference System (AHRS) Performance
CHAPTER 4, REFERENCE GUIDE
1
See Chapter 6, Emergency Procedures.
4.1.2. Airspeed Indicator
2
8
3
7
4
6
Figure 4-5
Airspeed Indicator
5
Page 4-4
The airspeed indicator is comprised of a moving tape, airspeed bug, and numerical
airspeed value (drum). Textual V-speeds, color Speed Bands, and Speed Markers are also
rendered on the moving tape (Figure 4-5).
1
Selected Airspeed
2
Color Speed Bands
3
Initial Flap Extension Speed Marker
4
Textual V-speeds
5
Airspeed Tape
6
Speed Markers
7
Numerical Airspeed Value (drum)
8
Selected Airspeed Bug
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The numerical airspeed value is displayed in a rolling drum format in the center of the
airspeed tape with numbers moving downward as speed increases, and upward as
speed decreases. The display range of the indicated airspeed is 20 - 450 (knots or miles
per hour). The numerical airspeed value is displayed in red when Vne is exceeded or
when the airspeed drops below Vs0 during stalls or landing roll-outs (Figure 4-6).
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EFD1000 PFD Pilot’s Guide
Figure 4-6
Actual Airspeed Greater
Than the Vne
Page 4-5
CHAPTER 4, REFERENCE GUIDE
Indicated airspeed is displayed in knots or miles per hour, set at installation, with tick
marks rendered on the Airspeed tape every ten (10) units. Speed Bands and Speed
Markers are configured during installation and cannot be changed or removed by
the pilot. The textual V-speeds are pilot-configurable, and are discussed in Chapter 5,
Customizing the PFD. Although the pilot can set the selected airspeed (bug), there
is no visual or aural annunciation provided when the actual airspeed deviates from the
selected airspeed value.
4.1.2.1. Selected Airspeed
CHAPTER 4, REFERENCE GUIDE
The Selected Airspeed value (bug) is rendered on the Airspeed Tape numerically and
graphically. The numerical value is shown at the top of the Airspeed Tape. The bug is
displayed adjacent to the Airspeed Tape when the Selected Airspeed value is within the
visible range of the tape. The default value of the Selected Airspeed is 20 units, or the
value previously set. Synchronizing the IAS field sets the Selected Airspeed value to the
current indicated airspeed (Section 2.2.1.3). Setting the Selected Airspeed to a value
less than 20 disables the bug and dashes the Selected Airspeed display.
Set Selected Airspeed (Bug)
1.
2.
Figure 4-7
Airspeed Bug Selected to Edit
NOTE
Page 4-6
Figure 4-8
New Airspeed Selected
A typical installation sets the tapes
display to UNLOCKED, allowing the
pilot to display or hide the Airspeed
and Altitude tapes as desired. If the
Airspeed and Altitude Tapes were
LOCKED ON during installation, the
tapes will remain on. If the Airspeed
and Altitude Tapes were LOCKED OFF
during installation, the tapes will not
display.
Press the Left Knob until IAS displays above the Left Knob and the Selected
Airspeed field and bug are enabled for editing, all rendered in magenta
(Figure 4-7).
Rotate the Left Knob to change the value of the Selected Airspeed field.
Rotate clockwise to increase, or counterclockwise to decrease, the value.
Once the correct value is selected, and after 10 seconds of inaction, the field
is disabled and the label, field, and bug are rendered in cyan (Figure 4-8).
4.1.2.2. Airspeed Display
The airspeed tape can be turned off, at the pilot’s discretion, to facilitate screen
declutter. This setting will be retained when the EFD1000 PFD system is turned off and
then powered-on again.
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A-01-184-00 REV A
Hide/Display Airspeed Tape
•
Press the TPS Hot Key to alternately hide or display the Airspeed and Altitude
Tape (Figures 4-9 and 4-10).
CHAPTER 4, REFERENCE GUIDE
Figure 4-10
Airspeed Tape Disabled
NOTE
NOTE
Both the Airspeed and Altitude tape
are affected by this action.
When the Airspeed tape is disabled,
the numerical display of the
selected airspeed remains on.
Figure 4-9
TPS Hot Key
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EFD1000 PFD Pilot’s Guide
Page 4-7
4.1.3. Altimeter
1
CHAPTER 4, REFERENCE GUIDE
2
7
8
6
3
5
Figure 4-11 Altimeter
4
The altimeter is comprised of an altitude bug, a numerical altitude value (drum), a
moving tape, a MINIMUMS annunciation and adjustable value, a Decision Height (DH)
alert, and a visual/aural altitude alerter (Figure 4-11).
1
Altitude Alerter
5
MINIMUMS Adjustment
2
Selected Altitude
6
MINIMUMS Alert
3
Numerical Altitude Value
7
Altitude Bug
4
Altitude Tape
8
Decision Height Alert
The Altitude Tape range is from -1,600 to 51,000 feet. Major tick marks are provided
every 100 feet and minor tick marks every 20 feet. A barometric pressure adjustment is
provided to the pilot for display of altitude above mean sea level.
The numerical altitude value is displayed in a rolling drum format in the center of the
airspeed tape ,with numbers moving downward as the altitude increases and upward
as altitude decreases. The numerical altitude value shows the altitude to the nearest
20 feet.
If the altitude exceeds 51,000 feet, the numerical altitude value is dashed and the tape
is frozen at this limit. All altitude information is removed and replaced with a red “X” with
the textual annunciation of “ALT FAIL,” when altitude data is invalid (Figure 4-12).
Figure 4-12 Altitude Failure
Page 4-8
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4.1.3.1. Barometric Pressure Adjustment (BARO)
Figure 4-13
Baro Shown in Inches of Mercury
CHAPTER 4, REFERENCE GUIDE
Barometric pressure adjustment may be made in either inches of mercury (in)
(Figure 4-13) or millibars (mB) (Figure 4-14), as configured by the pilot. The
adjustment range is 28.10 – 30.99 inches Hg or 946 – 1049 mB. The Barometric pressure
default value and units of measure is 29.92 and inches Hg, or as previously set.
Figure 4-15
Menu, GENERAL
SETTINGS, Page 1 of 7
Figure 4-14
Baro Shown in Millibars
Set Barometric Units of Measure
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
Push the MENU key. The Menu displays on the Navigation Display.
Rotate the Right Knob counterclockwise until Page 1 of the Menu displays
(Figure 4-15).
Push the BARO Menu Key (Key 1). The menu label turns magenta and the
EDIT VALUE label displays above the Right Knob (Figure 4-16).
Rotate the Right Knob to select either IN or mB (Figure 4-17).
Push the MENU key to exit the Menu.
Figure 4-16
Editing BARO
Figure 4-17
BARO Set to mB (millibars)
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EFD1000 PFD Pilot’s Guide
Page 4-9
CHAPTER 4, REFERENCE GUIDE
NOTE
Adjust the EFD1000’s barometric
pressure whenever the mechanical
altimeter’s barometric pressure is
adjusted.
Set The Barometric Pressure
1.
2.
Press the Right Knob until BARO displays above the Right Knob and the
barometric pressure field is enabled for editing, both rendered in magenta
(Figure 4-18).
Rotate the Right Knob to change the value of the barometric pressure field.
Rotate clockwise to increase, or counterclockwise to decrease, the value.
Once the correct value is selected, and after 10 seconds of inaction, the field
is disabled and the label and field are rendered in cyan.
Figure 4-18 BARO Field Enabled
NOTE
Page 4-10
Since the altitude tape display is
limited to approximately 400 feet, the
altitude bug symbol only displays on
the altitude tape when the selected
altitude is within the visible range of
the current altitude.
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A-01-184-00 REV A
4.1.3.2. Selected Altitude
The Selected Altitude value is displayed at the top of the Altitude Tape. The Selected
Altitude range is 100 to 51,000 feet, in 20 foot increments. The default value for the
Selected Altitude value is 100 feet, or the previously set value. Additionally, an altitude
bug is displayed adjacent to the Altitude Tape and at the selected altitude, when within
the visible range of the current altitude.
Figure 4-20
Altitude Alert
1.
2.
Press the Right Knob until ALT displays above the Right Knob and the
Selected Altitude numerical field and bug are enabled for editing, all rendered
in magenta (Figure 4-19).
Rotate the Right Knob to change the value of the numerical Altitude field.
Rotate clockwise to increase, or counterclockwise to decrease, the value.
Once the correct value is selected, and after 10 seconds of inaction, the field
is disabled and the label, field, and bug are rendered in cyan.
4.1.3.3. Altitude Level-Off and Deviation Alert
The altitude level-off alert is ARMED and rendered on-screen as a yellow alert flag
next to the Selected Altitude value when the aircraft is within 15 seconds or 200 feet
(whichever is greater) of the selected altitude (Figure 4-20). If an optional Sonalert tone
generator device is installed, a one-second tone also sounds. Once the current altitude
is within ± 25 feet of the selected altitude, the alert flag extinguishes and the selected
altitude is CAPTURED (Figure 4-21).
CHAPTER 4, REFERENCE GUIDE
Figure 4-21
Selected Altitude Capture and
Aircraft Level-off
Set Selected Altitude (Bug)
Figure 4-19
Altitude Bug/Alerter Field Enabled
NOTE
Rotating the knob quickly will change
the altitude value in larger increments.
After reaching the selected altitude, if the aircraft’s current altitude differs from the
selected altitude by more than 200 feet, the yellow alert flag flashes. If an optional
Sonalert tone generator device is installed, a one-second tone also sounds.
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EFD1000 PFD Pilot’s Guide
Page 4-11
CHAPTER 4, REFERENCE GUIDE
NOTE
Pressing the MIN Hot Key turns on
the MINIMUMS display and enables
the MIN data field for editing. The
MIN label displays above the Right
Knob in Magenta and the MIN data
field’s numerical value is also rendered
in Magenta. See Step 2 of Set
Altitude Minimum.
4.1.3.4. MINIMUMS Alert
The EFD1000 PFD provides an adjustable MINIMUMS field to enhance situational
awareness during instrument approaches. Once the MIN data field value is set to a
Decision Height or Minimum Descent Altitude, the EFD1000 PFD provides an alert
when the aircraft descends below this altitude. To activate this feature, the pilot must
enable the MINIMUMS display and set the desired altitude via MIN data field value
adjustment.
Display/Hide Minimums
•
Press the MIN Hot Key to alternately hide or display the MINIMUMS display
(Figures 4-22 and 4-23).
Figure 4-23
Selected Minimums Enabled
Figure 4-22
MIN Hot Key – Selected
Minimums Disabled
Page 4-12
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The range for the MIN data field is 0 – 15,000 feet, in increments of 10 feet.
Synchronizing sets the MIN data field value to the current altitude (Section 2.2.1.3).
The default value is 100 feet or the previously set value.
1.
2.
Press the Right Knob until MIN displays above the Right Knob and
the MINIMUMS field is enabled for editing, both rendered in magenta
(Figure 4‑24).
Rotate the Right Knob to change the value of the MINIMUMS field. Rotate
clockwise to increase, or counterclockwise to decrease, the value. Once the
correct value is selected, and after 10 seconds of inaction, the field is disabled
(Figure 4-25).
Figure 4-24 MIN Field Enabled
If the aircraft’s altitude becomes lower than the MINIMUMS field’s setting, the
MINIMUMS annunciation displays below the Aircraft Reference Symbol and, if
configured, the Sonalert tone sounds three times (Figure 4-26). If the aircraft reaches
an altitude 100 feet greater than the MINIMUMS field setting, the MINIMUMS alert is
removed.
4.1.3.5. Decision Height Annunciation
If a radar altimeter is installed and connected to the EFD1000 PFD, a Decision Height
annunciation displays whenever the external input commands the DH annunciator ON.
The Decision Height alert is a fixed-position, yellow “DH,” displayed near the upper right
corner of the Attitude Indicator (Figure 4-27).
Figure 4-27
DH Alert Active
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Figure 4-25 New MIN Setting
Figure 4-26 Minimums Alert Active
EFD1000 PFD Pilot’s Guide
Page 4-13
CHAPTER 4, REFERENCE GUIDE
Set Altitude Minimum
CHAPTER 4, REFERENCE GUIDE
NOTE
NOTE
A typical installation sets the tapes
display to UNLOCKED, allowing the
pilot to display or hide the Airspeed
and Altitude tapes as desired. If the
Airspeed and Altitude Tapes were
LOCKED ON during installation, the
tapes will remain on. If the Airspeed
and Altitude Tapes were LOCKED OFF
during installation, the tapes will not
display.
4.1.3.6. Altitude Display
The altitude tape can be turned off, at the pilot’s discretion, to facilitate screen declutter.
Hide/Display Altitude Tape
•
Press the TPS Hot Key to alternately hide or display the Altitude and Airspeed
Tapes (Figures 4-28 and 4-29).
Both the Airspeed and Altitude tape
are affected by this action.
Figure 4-29 Altitude Tape Disabled
NOTE
When the Altitude tape is disabled,
the numerical display of the selected
altitude and altitude minimums
remain on. The decision height and
minimums annunciations operate as
configured.
Figure 4-28 TPS Hot Key
Page 4-14
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4.2. Data Bar
1
True Airspeed
5
Wind Direction Arrow
2
Barometric Pressure Setting
6
Outside Air Temperature
3
Wind Speed
7
GPS Ground Speed
4
Wind Direction
1
CHAPTER 4, REFERENCE GUIDE
The Data Bar presents True Airspeed (TAS), GPS Ground Speed (GS), Outside Air
Temperature (OAT), Wind Direction, Wind Speed, and Barometric Pressure Setting
as shown in Figure 4-30. The data bar is always present on the display. Invalid or
out‑of‑range Data Bar values are dashed.
2
Figure 4-30
Data Bar
7
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6
5
4
3
EFD1000 PFD Pilot’s Guide
Page 4-15
4.2.1. True Airspeed
CHAPTER 4, REFERENCE GUIDE
The True Airspeed (TAS) is displayed on the upper left of the Data Bar with a value
range of 20 – 999 knots or mph, using the same unit of measurement as the Airspeed
Indicator. The TAS is a correction of the IAS for nonstandard pressure and temperature.
4.2.2. Ground Speed
The Ground Speed (GS) is digitally displayed on the lower left corner of the Data Bar
with a value range of 5 – 999 knots or mph, using the same unit of measurement as the
Airspeed Indicator.
4.2.3. Outside Air Temperature
The Outside Air Temperature (OAT) is digitally displayed on the center of the Data Bar.
The temperature is obtained from the temperature sensor located in the RSM and
rendered in degrees Celsius (C) ranging from -99 – 999 degrees.
Page 4-16
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4.2.4. Wind Speed, Direction, and Arrow
NOTE
The Wind Speed has a range of 10 – 999 knots or mph, using the same unit of
measurement as the Airspeed Indicator.
The Wind Direction and Arrow (Figure 4-31) have a range of 001° – 360°, magnetic. The
arrow is displayed relative to the current direction of flight. For example, if the current
direction of flight is 090 and the wind is from 090, the arrow points straight down on
the display.
4.2.5. Barometric Pressure Setting Display
The Barometric Pressure field is digitally displayed on the upper right corner of the Data
Bar and is pilot-adjustable as discussed in Section 4.1.3.1. When the Altitude Tape is
disabled, the barometric pressure setting field remains visible. Section 4.1.3.1 provides
complete information and step-by-step instructions for setting the barometric pressure.
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EFD1000 PFD Pilot’s Guide
The wind computations require a GPSsupplied ground track and ground
speed to compute the wind direction
and speed. If a GPS is not connected
to the EFD1000 PFD or the data are
invalid, the wind direction and speed
are dashed and the wind direction
arrow is removed..
Figure 4-31
Wind Direction Arrow
Page 4-17
CHAPTER 4, REFERENCE GUIDE
The Wind Speed, Direction, and Direction Arrow are displayed in the lower right portion
of the Data Bar. If the data are out of range or invalid, the values are dashed and the
wind arrow is removed.
CHAPTER 4, REFERENCE GUIDE
4.3. Navigation Display
NOTE
1
The shape, location, and size of the
course pointer and deviation scale
and indicator depend on the compass
mode selected.
2
3
4
5
7
8
12
11
10
Figure 4-32
Horizontal Situation Indicator
Page 4-18
The Direction Indicator consists of a compass, numerical direction indication, heading
bug, aircraft track marker (when GPS ground track information is available), rate of turn
indicator, and an aircraft ownship symbol.
The CDI is comprised of a selected course pointer, deviation scale and indicator, TO/
FROM indicators, and selected navigation source label and information block.
6
13
The Horizontal Situation Indicator (HSI), on the Navigation Display of the EFD1000 PFD,
combines a Direction Indicator with a Course Deviation Indicator (CDI) (Figure 4‑32).
9
1
Navigation Source Info Block
8
Deviation Scale
2
Heading Bug
9
Aircraft Ownship Symbol
3
Direction Indication
10
Selected Navigation Source
4
Rate of Turn Indicator
11
Compass Scale
5
Selected Heading
12
Deviation Indicator
6
Selected Course Pointer
13
Track Marker
7
TO/FROM Indicators
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All instrument values on the HSI are displayed in degrees. The value range is from
001° ‑ 360°, always displayed in three digits, and utilizing leading zeros when applicable.
Magnetic North is numerically represented as 360°.
The EFD1000 PFD offers three compass modes: 360°, ARC HSI, and ARC CDI. The default
compass mode is 360°. The aircraft’s heading is always expressed as magnetic heading.
The magnetic headings inside of the compass scale drop the last zero for brevity (i.e.,
30°, 60°, 120°, 150°, 210°, 240°, 300°, and 330° are labeled 3, 6, 12, 15, 21, 24, 30, and 33,
respectively). The four cardinal compass headings are shown as letters (i.e., “N” for 360°,
“E” for 090°, “S” for 180°, and “W” for 270°).
CHAPTER 4, REFERENCE GUIDE
4.3.1. Compass
Figure 4-33
360° Compass Mode
4.3.1.1. 360° Compass Mode
The 360° Compass mode displays a full 360° compass rose with all other components
of the Direction Indicator. The 360° compass rose rotation centers on the aircraft
ownship symbol, so that the numerical direction indication corresponds to the current
aircraft heading (Figure 4-33).
4.3.1.2. ARC Compass Mode
Figure 4-34
ARC HSI Compass Mode
The two ARC Compass modes show an abbreviated, 100° arc compass scale. All other
elements of the Direction Indicator are presented. The ARC compass scale’s rotation
centers on the aircraft ownship symbol, so that the numerical direction indication
corresponds to the current aircraft heading. The default ARC Compass mode is ARC HSI.
The ARC HSI Compass mode presents a rotating CDI, similar to that used in the 360°
Compass mode (Figure 4-34).
Figure 4-35
ARC CDI Compass Mode
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EFD1000 PFD Pilot’s Guide
Page 4-19
The ARC CDI mode uses a fixed, non-rotating CDI indicator, resembling a contemporary
GPS navigation deviation display. The ARC CDI Compass mode is intended to maximize
the lower display area for basemap and flight plan data (Figure 4-35).
CHAPTER 4, REFERENCE GUIDE
Select ARC CDI/HSI Compass Mode
1.
2.
Figure 4-36
GENERAL SETTINGS, Page 1 of 7
3.
4.
5.
Push the MENU key. The Menu displays on the Navigation Display.
Rotate the Right Knob counterclockwise until Page 1 of the Menu displays
(Figure 4-36).
Push the ARC MODE Menu Key (Key 4). The menu label turns magenta and
the EDIT VALUE label displays above the Right Knob (Figure 4-37).
Rotate the Right Knob to select either HSI or CDI (Figure 4-38).
Push the MENU key to exit the Menu.
Figure 4-37
Editing ARC MODE
Figure 4-38
CDI ARC MODE Selected
Page 4-20
EFD1000 PFD Pilot’s Guide
A-01-184-00 REV A
Select Compass Type
•
Figure 4-40
ARC Compass Mode
Figure 4-39
360/ARC Hot Key
A-01-184-00 REV A
Figure 4-41
360˚ Compass Mode
EFD1000 PFD Pilot’s Guide
Page 4-21
CHAPTER 4, REFERENCE GUIDE
Push the 360/ARC Hot Key (Figure 4-39) to alternately select either the 360°
or ARC Compass. The Navigation Display changes and the Hot Key label
reflects the currently selected compass type (Figures 4-40 and 4-41).
4.3.2. Course Pointer
CHAPTER 4, REFERENCE GUIDE
For all compass modes, the arrowhead of the course pointer aligns with the
corresponding value on the compass scale regardless of the aircraft heading. The ARC
Compass HSI and CDI course pointers are different and described in Table 4-1.
Figure 4-42
Reduced Length Course Pointer
COMPASS
DESCRIPTION
ARC HSI
The course pointer length shortens as necessary when rotated to remain
within the display area (Figure 4-42).
ARC CDI
The course pointer is shown as a stub arrow or tail whenever the CRS value
or its reciprocal falls within the displayable range of the compass scale arc
(Figure 4-43 and 4-44).
Table 4-1 ARC Compass Pointer Display
Figure 4-43
Stub Course Arrowhead
Figure 4-44
Stub Course Tail
Page 4-22
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4.3.3. TO/FROM Indicator
COMPASS
DESCRIPTION
360°
The TO indicator is an arrowhead on the top half of the Selected Course
Pointer, oriented in the same direction as the course arrowhead (Figure 4‑45).
The FROM indicator is an arrowhead on the bottom half of the Selected
Course Pointer, oriented in the direction opposite to the course arrowhead
(Figure 4‑46).
ARC HSI
The TO indicator is shown as two arrowheads, one on each half of the Selected
Course Pointer, oriented in the same direction as the course arrowhead
(Figure 4-47). The FROM indicator is shown as two arrowheads, one on each
half of the Selected Course Pointer, oriented opposite to the direction of the
course arrowhead (Figure 4-48).
ARC CDI
The TO indication is shown as “TO” on the left side of the deviation scale
(Figure 4-49). The FROM indication is shown as “FROM” on the right of the
deviation scale (Figure 4-50).
Table 4-2 TO/FROM Indicator Description
Figure 4-45
360° TO Indication
Figure 4-46
360° FROM Indication
Figure 4-47
HSI TO Indication
Figure 4-48
HSI FROM Indication
Figure 4-49 CDI TO Indication
Figure 4-50 CDI FROM Indication
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CHAPTER 4, REFERENCE GUIDE
Each of the compass modes has a TO/FROM indicator. The TO/FROM indicator shows
whether the aircraft is heading toward a waypoint or radio navaid, or from a waypoint
or radio navaid. For each compass mode, the TO/FROM indication is slightly different,
as described in Table 4-2.
4.3.4. Course Deviation Indicator and Scale
CHAPTER 4, REFERENCE GUIDE
1
Selected course deviation is depicted by a Course Deviation Indicator and Scale.
Deviation is indicated by positioning the Course Deviation Indicator on the Scale
corresponding to the lateral deviation value.
2
Figure 4-51
Deviation Indicator, 360° and ARC HSI
The 360° and ARC HSI compass modes display the CDI as a green line centered on the
display and parallel with the course indicator. The scale is a set of four hollow, green
dots that are perpendicular to the CDI (Figure 4-51).
1
Course Deviation Indicator
2
Course Deviation Scale
The ARC CDI Compass mode’s CDI and Scale are located at the bottom of the lower
display. The indicator is a green diamond and the scale is a set of four hollow, white dots
with a white index mark at the center (Figure 4-52). When in the ARC CDI Compass
mode, on a Localizer Back Course approach, a “BC” label is presented to the left of the
scale and the indicator corrects for reverse sensing (Figure 4-53).
When the lateral deviation exceeds the maximum displayable range of 2.5
dots, the deviation bar or diamond, as applicable, becomes hollow and darker
(Figure 4‑54 and 4-55).
Figure 4-55
Exceeded Deviation, ARC CDI
Figure 4-53
Course Deviation Indicator, ARC CDI with Back Course
Figure 4-54
Exceeded Deviation, 360° and ARC HSI
Page 4-24
Figure 4-52
Course Deviation Indicator, ARC CDI
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4.3.5. CDI Navigation Source
INSTALLED NAVIGATION SOURCES
CDI
LABEL
NAV VHF Radio System
VLOC1
x
Dedicated
NAV VHF Radio System
VLOC2
x
Dedicated
Global Positioning System
GPS1
x
Dedicated
Global Positioning System
GPS2
x
Integrated
System 1
Integrated
System 2
GPS/VHF NAV Radio System
GPS1 or
GPS selected or
GPS/VHF NAV Radio System
VLOC1
VHF NAV selected
GPS/VHF NAV Radio System
GPS2 or
GPS selected or
GPS/VHF NAV Radio System
VLOC2
VHF NAV selected
When an integrated system is selected,
but not reporting its operating mode,
the label VLOC# displays.
Refer to the GPS or VHF NAV AFMS for
information on the operation of the
connected navigation equipment.
POSSIBLE
CONFIGURATION
Dedicated
For integrated systems, the CDI
navigation source label indicates the
current operating mode (“GPS” or
“VLOC”) of the GPS/VHF NAV system.
x
x
x
x
NOTE
x
x
x
There are many radio configurations
available. Your authorized Aspen
Avionics Dealer can tell you the
configuration used on your aircraft.
x
Table 4-3 Possible CDI Navigation Source Configuration
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EFD1000 PFD Pilot’s Guide
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CHAPTER 4, REFERENCE GUIDE
When the EFD1000 PFD powers up, the default CDI Navigation Source is the last
selected or the first configured navigation source, if no previous selection was made.
The pilot can select from any of the installed navigation sources, using the bottom
center button. The EFD1000 PFD supports navigation information display from VHF
Omni-directional Radio Range (VOR) navaids, Localizers (LOC), Glide Slope receivers
(GS), and Global Positioning Systems (GPS). There can be up to four dedicated, two
integrated, or a combination of one integrated and two dedicated navigation systems
installed (Table 4-3).
NOTE
Select The CDI Navigation Source
•
CHAPTER 4, REFERENCE GUIDE
3
Press the CDI Navigation Source Select button until the desired navigation
source is displayed above the button (e.g., GPS1, GPS2, VLOC1, VLOC2)
(Figure 4-56).
1
CDI Source Select Button
2
CDI Source Label
3
CDI Source Information Block
2
1
Figure 4-56
Navigation Source Information Block
1
1
2
CDI Source
Radio Mode
Information Block Label
GPS
3
VHF
4
Figure 4-57
CDI Navigation Source
Information Block
Page 4-26
Whenever the CDI navigation source navigation data is valid, a navigation information
block for the currently selected navigation source is shown in the upper left corner of
the lower display as described in Figure 4-57 and shown in Table 4‑4.
Table 4-4
VHF NAV Radio
GPS1 or GPS2
VOR
VOR1 or VOR2
Localizer
LOC1 or LOC2
Localizer Back
LOC1(BC) or
LOC2(BC22w)
ILS
ILS1 or ILS2
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A-01-184-00 REV A
Waypoint identifier or tuned frequency (when available)
3
Bearing (in degrees)/Distance (in Nautical Miles) to waypoint or
navaid (when available)
4
Estimated Time En route (Hours:Minutes)
When both the navigation source identifier and the tuned frequency of the associated
VHF NAV radio are available, only the source identifier information shall be displayed on
the second line of the information block.
When available, the bearing and distance to station is displayed on the third line of the
information block in the format dddº/nnnn or dddº/nn.n, where ddd is the bearing in
degrees and nnnn or nn.n is the distance in nautical miles (e.g. 360º/1103 or 322º/3.2
shown in Figure 4-58). The distance to waypoint is displayed as follows:
•
•
•
Figure 4-59
Invalid CDI Navigation
Source Label
Figure 4-58 No Course Deviation Bar or FROM/TO Info
Distance to waypoint < 100 NM, display is in tenths of a mile, i.e. ##.#.
Distance to waypoint is 100 - 9999 nm, display in whole miles, i.e. ####.
Distance to waypoint is > 9999 NM, display is dashed, i.e. ----.
When available, the estimated time en route information shall be displayed on the
fourth line of the information block in the format h:mm (where h is hours and mm is
minutes).
When CDI navigation source data is invalid or not available from a configured
navigation source, the HSI course deviation bar and the FROM/TO indication are
removed from the display (Figure 4-58). Additionally, the selected CDI Navigation
Source label is slashed with a red line (Figure 4-59).
When information for a configured and selected navigation source is not available or
invalid, the source information block is blank (Figure 4-60).
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EFD1000 PFD Pilot’s Guide
Figure 4-60 Blank Info Block Fields
Page 4-27
CHAPTER 4, REFERENCE GUIDE
2
CHAPTER 4, REFERENCE GUIDE
4.3.6. Auto Course
Figure 4-61
Menu, GENERAL
SETTINGS, Page 1 of 7
The pilot can either use the AUTOCRS or manually set a CRS value. By default, AUTOCRS
is enabled. When the selected CDI navigation source is a connected GPS receiver,
and AUTOCRS is enabled, CRS is not adjustable (current course value is automatically
slewed and controlled by the desired track from the GPS). When AUTOCRS is enabled,
the CDI navigation source is a GPS system, and that system is configured for automatic
waypoint sequencing (i.e., not OBS, HOLD or SUSPEND modes) then Auto Course Select
is active.
Enable AUTOCRS
1.
2.
3.
Figure 4-62
Editing AUTOCRS
4.
5.
Push the MENU Key. The Menu displays on the Navigation Display.
Rotate the Right Knob counterclockwise until Page 1 of the Menu displays
(Figure 4-61).
Push the AUTOCRS Menu Key (Key 3). The menu label turns magenta and the
EDIT VALUE label displays above the Right Knob (Figure 4-62).
Rotate the Right Knob to select ENABLE (Figure 4-63).
Push the MENU key to exit the Menu.
When AUTOCRS is enabled, the CRS value is set to the desired track output from the CDI
Navigation Source. The CRS value is shown in the upper left of the lower display area in
green under the CRS label. Additionally, an inverted green A is shown beside the CRS
label in the upper left of the lower display area and in the legend above the left knob.
This indicates that the course is being automatically adjusted (Figure 4-64).
Figure 4-63
AUTOCRS Enabled
Page 4-28
EFD1000 PFD Pilot’s Guide
A-01-184-00 REV A
Disable AUTOCRS
1.
2.
4.
5.
CHAPTER 4, REFERENCE GUIDE
3.
Push the MENU Key. The Menu displays on the Navigation Display.
Rotate the Right Knob counterclockwise until Page 1 of the Menu displays
(Figure 4-65).
Push the AUTOCRS Menu Key (Key 3). The menu label turns magenta and the
EDIT VALUE label displays above the Right Knob (Figure 4-66).
Rotate the Right Knob to select DISABLE (Figure 4-67).
Push the MENU key to exit the Menu.
Figure 4-64
AUTOCRS Enabled
Figure 4-65
Menu, GENERAL SETTINGS, Page 1 of 7
Figure 4-66
Editing AUTOCRS
Figure 4-67
AUTOCRS Disabled
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EFD1000 PFD Pilot’s Guide
Page 4-29
CHAPTER 4, REFERENCE GUIDE
4.3.7. CDI Selected Course
When the CDI source changes from a GPS source with AUTOCRS to another CDI source,
the CRS value reverts to the last set value. When the CDI source is set to a VHF receiver
operating in the VOR or Localizer modes, editing the CRS value adjusts the current
selected CRS value. When the CDI source is set to a GPS receiver, and AUTOCRS is
disabled, the CRS value may be adjusted.
Select CDI Course
1.
2.
Figure 4-68
CRS Field Enabled for Editing
Page 4-30
Press the Left Knob until CRS displays above the Left Knob and the Course
field is enabled for editing, both rendered in magenta (Figure 4‑68).
Rotate the Left Knob to change the value of the Course field. Rotate clockwise
to increase, or counterclockwise to decrease, the value. Once the CRS value
is set, and after 10 seconds of inaction, the CRS field is disabled and both the
label and field are rendered in cyan.
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4.3.8. Bearing Pointer Source Selection
Single-Line Bearing Pointer
Figure 4-69
Bearing Pointer
Description
Single-Line Bearing Pointer Source Information
2
Top Line
Distance (NM) to active waypoint
Bottom Line
Waypoint identifier, station identifier, or the tuned frequency of the
associated VHF NAV radio (when available)
3
Single-Line Bearing Pointer Legend Name
4
Double-Line Bearing Pointer
NOTE
6
6
Distance to waypoint < 100 NM,
display is in tenths of a mile, i.e. ##.#.
Distance to waypoint is > 9999 nm,
display is dashed, i.e. ----.
Top Line
Distance (NM) to active waypoint
Bottom Line
Waypoint identifier, station identifier, or the tuned frequency of the
associated VHF NAV radio (when available)
Double-Line Bearing Pointer Legend Name
A-01-184-00 REV A
3
Distance to waypoint is 100 - 9999
nm, display in whole miles, i.e. ####.
Double-Line Bearing Pointer Source Name
5
5
2
EFD1000 PFD Pilot’s Guide
NOTE
When both the station identifier and
the tuned frequency of the associated
VHF NAV radio are available, only the
station identifier information shall be
displayed on the second line of the
information block.
Page 4-31
CHAPTER 4, REFERENCE GUIDE
1
4
1
When the 360° Compass mode is selected, single- and double-line bearing pointers are
available (Figure 4-69). The bearing pointers are independent of the CDI and provide
supplemental navigation information by pointing to active GPS waypoints or navaids.
By default, the bearing pointers are off and not displayed.
CHAPTER 4, REFERENCE GUIDE
NOTE
A VOR that is tuned to a localizer
frequency shall be considered an
invalid bearing pointer source since
Localizer signals provide no bearing
information.
Figure 4-70
NO bearing pointers or
source information
The bearing pointers indicate only the bearing information provided by their selected
navigation sources. They resemble and perform like traditional Radio Magnetic
Indicator (RMI) needles. Each bearing pointer’s head and tail is aligned with the
corresponding bearing/radial value on the compass. The pilot can select a navigation
source for each of the bearing pointers from the same VOR and GPS sources available to
the CDI or simply turn the bearing pointer, source information, and source legend OFF.
Each bearing pointer is associated with a button, selected source name label, and
information block. The button immediately to the left of the CDI source selection
button is associated with and controls the Single-Line Bearing Pointer. Likewise, the
button immediately to the right of the CDI source selection button is associated with
and controls the Double-Line Bearing Pointer. The bearing pointers’ source names and
information blocks are shown directly above their respective buttons.
Unlike the CDI which can be adjusted by the pilot, no adjustments can be made to the
bearing pointers. When a VOR is selected as a bearing pointer source, the arrow of the
needle indicates the direction to the VOR navaid to which the receiver is tuned. The
position of the bearing pointer tail, with respect to the compass, indicates the aircraft’s
current position on the VOR radial. When a GPS source is selected, the bearing pointer
indicates the bearing to the active waypoint.
When the bearing pointer source data is not available or invalid, the bearing pointer
and source information are removed (Figure 4-70) and the bearing pointer source
legend is slashed with a red line (Figure 4-71).
When a bearing pointer is turned OFF, the legend shows the bearing pointer icon, but
the selected source, the source information field, and the bearing pointer are removed
(Figure 4-72).
Figure 4-71
Invalid Bearing Pointer
Source Data Label
Page 4-32
Figure 4-72
Bearing Pointers OFF
EFD1000 PFD Pilot’s Guide
A-01-184-00 REV A
Select The Single-Line Bearing Pointer Source
•
CHAPTER 4, REFERENCE GUIDE
Press the Single-Line Bearing Pointer button (lower left button, Figure 4‑73)
until the desired navigation source displays above the Single-Line Bearing
Pointer button.
Select The Double-Line Bearing Pointer Source
•
Press the Double-Line Bearing Pointer button (lower right button,
Figure 4‑74) until the desired navigation source displays above the DoubleLine Bearing Pointer button.
Figure 4-73 173
Single-Line Bearing Pointer and Button
Figure 4-74
Double-Line Bearing Pointer and Button
A-01-184-00 REV A
EFD1000 PFD Pilot’s Guide
Page 4-33
4.3.9. Selected Heading and Heading Bug
CHAPTER 4, REFERENCE GUIDE
The EFD1000 PFD offers a pilot-selectable heading bug. The heading bug symbol is
positioned on the compass scale according to the heading bug value (HDG) selected
by the pilot (Figure 4-75).
When the selected HDG value is outside the visible compass scale range, in ARC
Compass mode, only a portion of the heading bug is shown at the edge of the
compass arc, closest to the HDG value (Figure 4-76).
Figure 4-75
Selected Heading Bug
and Numerical Display
Figure 4-76
Selected Heading Bug
Outside of ARC Range
Page 4-34
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A-01-184-00 REV A
When selected for editing, the heading bug and the HDG value are shown in magenta.
Additionally, a dashed magenta line extends from the ownship symbol to the heading
bug, corresponding to the selected HDG value. When heading bug is SYNCed, the HDG
value is set to the current heading.
1.
2.
Press the Right Knob until HDG displays above the Right Knob and the
Heading field is enabled for editing, both rendered in magenta
(Figure 4-77).
Rotate the Right Knob to change the value of the Heading field. Rotate
clockwise to increase, or counterclockwise to decrease, the value. Once the
HDG value is set, and after 10 seconds of inaction, the HDG field is disabled
and both the label and field are displayed in cyan.
4.3.10. Aircraft Heading Display
Figure 4-78
Direction of Flight
Numerical Display
CHAPTER 4, REFERENCE GUIDE
Heading Bug Set
Figure 4-77
Heading Selected to Edit
The aircraft heading is displayed in degrees magnetic (Figure 4-78).
If the aircraft’s heading is unavailable or invalid, all heading and navigation information,
including the CDI and bearing pointers (if previously displayed), is removed and
replaced with a single red “X” covering the entire lower display area, along with the
annunciation, DIRECTION INDICATOR FAIL (Figure 4-79).
Figure 4-79
Direction Indicator Fail
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Page 4-35
CHAPTER 4, REFERENCE GUIDE
4.3.11. Rate of Turn Indicator
Figure 4-80
Rate of Turn Indicator (360° Compass Mode)
The Rate of Turn Indicator consists of a curved white line originating from the
corresponding side of the aircraft heading (i.e., a left turn indication starts on the left
side of the index mark), and extends in the direction of the turn along the outer radius
of the compass scale. The turn rate indication is provided for every compass mode, 360°
(Figure 4-80) and ARC (Figure 4-81).
The Rate of Turn Indicator features tick marks for full and half-standard rates of turn (a
standard rate of turn = 3° per second) in both directions.
Figure 4-81
Rate of Turn Indicator (ARC Compass Mode)
NOTE
Page 4-36
The Rate of Turn Indicator has a range of 0° – 6° per second. When the turn rate exceeds
6° per second, an arrowhead is added to the end of the tape to show that the rate of
turn has exceeded the limits of the instrument.
All map and flight plan elements are
received from the GPS and are only
available from compatible GPSs (e.g.,
GNS 430, GNS 530).
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4.3.12. Basemap Underlays
1
Basemap Symbols
2
Aircraft Ownship Symbol
3
Basemap Feature Display Level
4
Basemap Range
1
4
3
2
Figure 4-82 Basemap (ARC Compass Mode Shown)
NOTE
A VORTAC is shown as a combined
VOR and DME symbol. A TACAN is
rendered as a DME symbol.
When enabled, the basemap underlies all other instruments and annunciations in the
lower half of the display. The GPS flight plan is rendered in either straight or curved
lines, as supported by the configured GPS navigator. The displayed symbol set includes
active waypoints, active flight plan leg, flight plan waypoints, flight plan legs, airports,
VORs, VORTACSs, TACANs, DMEs, intersections, and NDBs, and are layered accordingly
(Figure 4‑83). There are five feature display levels and eleven range levels that
determine which symbols and how their identifiers are displayed.
Figure 4-83
Basemap Symbol Set
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EFD1000 PFD Pilot’s Guide
Page 4-37
CHAPTER 4, REFERENCE GUIDE
The basemap is comprised of symbols depicting the location of flight plan waypoints
and legs, airports, VORs, DMEs, NDBs, and intersections. The map is always oriented with
magnetic heading up and centered so that the current aircraft position coincides with
the aircraft ownship symbol. The current basemap feature display level and map range
is shown on the left side of the lower display (Figure 4-82).
CHAPTER 4, REFERENCE GUIDE
NOTE
If connected to a GPS system that does
not provide compatible Basemap
data, then only OFF and FP ONLY
display levels are available.
4.3.12.1. Basemap Display and Range
To turn the basemap on or off, the pilot selects one of the feature display levels as
described in Section 5.2. The default feature display level is HIGH. The map range
displays so that the outside radius of the compass represents 2.5, 5, 10, 15, 20, 30, 40,
60, 80, 100, or 200 nautical miles from the aircraft ownship symbol. The default range is
15 NM. Both the feature display level and range are pilot-adjustable.
Display Basemap
•
Push the MAP Hot Key (Figure 4-84) to cycle through and select the desired
feature display level (Figure 4-85).
Figure 4-85
New Map Display Level
Figure 4-84
MAP Hot Key
Page 4-38
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Set Basemap Range
•
Press the Range Up (+) or the Range Down (-) Key (Figure 4-86) until the
desired range is displayed (Figure 4-87).
NOTE
Based on the map symbol level and
range settings, flight plan waypoints
may not be displayed
Figure 4-87
New Map Range
Figure 4-86
Map Range Keys
A-01-184-00 REV A
EFD1000 PFD Pilot’s Guide
Page 4-39
CHAPTER 4, REFERENCE GUIDE
NOTE
The map range increases or decreases
one increment each time the +/button is pressed. To continuously
increase/decrease the range, press and
hold either button for more than a
half second.
CHAPTER 4, REFERENCE GUIDE
4.3.12.2. Flight Plan
Figure 4-88 GPS1 Failure, Reversionary Navigation
When a flight plan is provided by a configured GPS, the basemap shows flight plan
waypoints and legs. The active leg and waypoint and associated identifier are displayed
in magenta. Other waypoints and legs are white. Straight and curved flight plan details
are rotated within the basemap display to maintain their correct compass orientations
at all times.
4.3.12.3. Basemap Data Source and Reversion
Figure 4-89 GPS1 Failure, Reversionary Navigation
When configured with compatible GPS equipment, aircraft position, flight plan, and
basemap data are provided by the selected GPS navigation source (either GPS1 or
GPS2).
If the aircraft GPS position data is no longer available or becomes invalid:
NOTE
The RSM GPS ENABLED / DISABLED
settings are retained following a
power cycle of the unit, defaulting to
“ENABLE” if not previously set.
The RSM GPS usage settings are
retained following a power cycle of
the unit, defaulting to “EMER ONLY” if
not previously set.
Figure 4-90 Invalid or Failed
GPS Annunciations
Page 4-40
•
•
•
The associated flight plan and basemap data are retained and displayed.
The flight plan and waypoints become inactive and are displayed in white.
The aircraft position is provided by:
1.
Another configured GPS source if providing valid position data. In
this case, a GPS# REVERSION annunciation is shown above the CDI
navigation source select legend (Figure 4-88) (“#” indicates the
configured GPS source that is now providing the aircraft’s position, either
1 or 2).
2.
The RSM GPS, if enabled, and position data are available. In this case, a
RSM GPS REVERSION EMER USE ONLY annunciation is shown above the
CDI navigation source select legend (Figure 4-89).
When a GPS source’s position data are invalid or no longer available, an amber
annunciation, GPS1, GPS2, or RSM GPS, is shown to the left of the lower display to
indicate which has failed (Figure 4-90).
EFD1000 PFD Pilot’s Guide
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4.3.13. Track Indicator
Figure 4-91
ARC Compass Mode, Ground
Track Marker
4.4. Lateral and Vertical Deviation Indicator
Figure 4-92
360° Compass Mode, Ground
Track Marker
In addition to the CDI in the lower display, separate displays of lateral and vertical
deviation information are shown in the upper display area during instrument
approaches. A Lateral Deviation Indicator (LDI) and a Vertical Deviation Indicator (VDI)
(Figure 4-93) will automatically appear, depending on the operating mode of the
selected navigation sensor and the validity of the associated signal, described below.
1
Vertical Deviation Indicator (VDI)
2
Lateral Deviation Indicator (LDI)
3
LDI Source Indicator
1
3
2
Figure 4-93
Lateral and Vertical Deviation Indicators
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CHAPTER 4, REFERENCE GUIDE
When configured with a GPS that provides ground track data, a blue track indicator
diamond is displayed on the compass scale to indicate the aircraft’s ground track.
This indicator may be used to compensate for wind drift during flight (Figures 4-91
and 4-92). The track marker is removed from the display when ground track data is
unavailable or invalid.
4.4.1. Lateral Deviation Indicator
CHAPTER 4, REFERENCE GUIDE
The LDI automatically displays when:
•
Figure 4-94
Lateral Deviation Indicator Exceed
Or
•
Figure 4-95 LDI
Source Invalid
The active navigation source is a GPS radio and the GPS is in approach
mode and valid.
The active navigation source is a VHF navigation radio and a valid LOC,
LOC(BC), or ILS signal is received.
When the LOC(BC) mode is active, deviation indications (corrected for reverse sensing)
are displayed. The deviation shown on the LDI directly corresponds to the deviation
indicated on the CDI in the lower display. When the lateral deviation exceeds the
displayable range of 2.5 dots, the course deviation diamond becomes dim and hollow,
and is “parked” at the extreme edge of the LDI scale (Figure 4-94).
When the LDI navigation source is invalid or is no longer available, the LDI course
deviation indicator symbol is removed from view and the navigation source legend is
slashed by a red horizontal line (Figure 4-95).
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4.4.2. Vertical Deviation Indicator
Figure 4-96
Vertical Deviation
Indicator Exceed
4.5. Vertical Speed Indicator
When the 360° compass is used, the Vertical Speed Indicator (VSI) is rendered, on the
right side of the Navigation Display, showing a digital and graphical representation of
vertical speed. The VSI indicates non-barometric change in pressure altitude over time.
The graphical display is a white vertical tape, with the numerical value at the top of the
VSI tape (Figure 4-97). In either Arc Compass mode, only the numerical value is shown.
The VSI tape displays rates of ±2,000 FPM while the numerical value displays rates up
to ±9,990 FPM. When vertical speed exceeds ±2,000 FPM, a triangle caps the tape
(Figure 4-98).
Figure 4-97
Vertical Speed Indicator
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EFD1000 PFD Pilot’s Guide
Figure 4-98
VSI Tape Off-Scale
Marker
Page 4-43
CHAPTER 4, REFERENCE GUIDE
The Vertical Deviation Indicator (VDI) is enabled on the attitude indicator when the
active navigation source is a VHF navigation radio, the ILS mode is active, and a valid
localizer signal is being received. The VDI is also displayed for a GPS, supplying valid
vertical deviation data, when in the approach mode. When the vertical deviation
exceeds the displayable range of 2.5 dots, the course deviation diamond becomes dim
and hollow, and is “parked” at the extreme edge of the VDI scale (Figure 4-96).
CHAPTER 4, REFERENCE GUIDE
The VSI tape is nonlinear, giving more display area to the 0 to ± 1,000 FPM range than
to the ±1,000 to ±2,000 FPM range. Tick marks are presented only in the direction of the
climb or descent to provide visual cues for trends. The VSI numerical value, tape, and
scale markers are only shown if the aircraft is climbing or descending more than ±100
FPM. During level flight in calm air conditions, the tape, scale, scale markers, and zero
reference line are removed from the display. The numerical value field is always enabled
and shows dashes when vertical rates are out of range. If vertical speed is invalid,
the tape and digital display are replaced with a red “X”, and the annunciation, VSI FAIL
(Figure 4-99).
Figure 4 -99
Vertical Speed Indicator Fail – Direction
Indicator 360° Compass Mode
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4.6. Autopilot Integration
NOTE
Refer to the autopilot AFMS for
information on the operation of the
autopilot or flight director.
When connected to an autopilot system that includes Nav or Approach couplers, the
EFD also acts as the navigation source selector switch to the autopilot. This assures
that the navigation information presented on the EFD1000 is the same as that being
provided to the autopilot. This arrangement also eliminates the need for external
autopilot navigation source selector switches and relays that were previously used
to select which navigation radio would be connected to the autopilot. Selection of
autopilot modes and mode control is unaffected by installation of the EFD1000 system.
The EFD1000 does not currently provide vertical coupling to barometric references such
as altitude hold, vertical speed, or altitude capture.
See the upcoming Section 4.6.3 Typical Autopilot Operation for additional details
on EFD1000 operation with the autopilot systems during typical aircraft operations,
such as VOR/ILS/GPS approaches.
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Page 4-45
CHAPTER 4, REFERENCE GUIDE
The EFD1000 can connect with many different legacy autopilot systems that are
typically found in general aviation aircraft. The EFD1000 emulates the HSI and/or
Flight Director (FD) indicator with which the autopilot was originally certified.
Autopilot integration is limited to heading and navigation modes, including vertical
approach modes.
CHAPTER 4, REFERENCE GUIDE
NOTE
NOTE
Refer to the Aircraft Flight Manual
Supplement for your GPS system for
information about GPSS steering
commands that may be output by
that system.
When GPSS is selected on the
EFD1000, the autopilot must be in
Heading mode to follow the GPSS
command. The GPSS feature requires
installation of the optional ACU.
4.6.1. GPS Steering (GPSS)
GPS Steering represents a modernized approach to flying between flight plan
waypoints, and offers many advantages of over traditional methods of flying direct
course lines between waypoints.
With traditional point-to-point navigation, the autopilot is provided with desired course
and cross-tack deviation information associated with the current flight leg. From there,
it will maneuver the aircraft to center the needle and track the desired course. The
autopilot does not anticipate upcoming course changes, nor can it fly curved flight
paths without pilot assistance, and it has to recompute wind corrections following each
course change. Upon reaching a waypoint, the pilot must set the course for the next
leg (unless Auto Course Select is enabled, see Section 4.3.6), and the autopilot will
then intercept and track that leg. In this type of operation, the CDI must always be set
to the current desired navigation course.
With GPS Steering, the EFD1000 can unlock the GPS Steering capability already available
in many models of General Aviation GPS computers. In GPS systems with this capability,
the GPS continually computes the desired bank angle to track the GPS flight plan, and
outputs that information over an ARINC 429 data bus. The GPS Steering command
includes anticipation of upcoming turns; this includes the turn rate and turn initiation
point required to roll out centered on the next leg, with the deviation needle centered.
Some GPS systems, such as the Garmin 4xx/5xxW series of WAAS navigators, even
provide GPS Steering commands for complex procedures, such as DME arcs, holding
patterns, procedure turns, etc., allowing the autopilot to fly these maneuvers without
pilot input. Check with your GPS manufacturer to see if your GPS supports these
capabilities.
The EFD1000 translates GPS Steering commands received over an ARINC 429 bus into a
signal that is compatible with the autopilot Heading channel. Thus, by selecting GPSS
Page 4-46
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on the EFD1000 and the Heading mode of the autopilot, the autopilot is able to fly GPS
Steering commands.
CHAPTER 4, REFERENCE GUIDE
When GPSS is not selected, the autopilot will follow the heading bug value manually set
by the pilot.
If the connected GPS system does not provide the required roll steering command, the
GPSS legend adjacent to the GPSS Hot Key will be rendered in gray and it will not be
possible to enable GPSS operation via the Hot Key.
Enable/Disable GPSS
•
Press the GPSS Hot Key to alternately Enable or Disable GPS Steering
(Figure 4-100).
When GPSS is enabled, the GPSS legend adjacent to the GPSS Hot Key will be shown
in green, and when the autopilot is in HDG mode it will follow the steering commands
output by the GPS.
When GPSS is disabled, the GPSS legend adjacent to the GPSS Hot Key will be shown in
gray, and when the autopilot is in HDG mode it will track the heading selected by the
Heading Bug of the EFD1000.
Figure 4-100
GPSS Hot Key
4.6.2. Flight Director
When connected to a compatible autopilot system, the EFD1000 will display a
single‑cue Flight Director (FD). The flight director command bars visually represent
the lateral and vertical steering cues transmitted to the EFD by the autopilot. When
the FD output from the autopilot is unavailable or flagged invalid, the FD command
bars are removed from the display (Figure 4-101). To hand fly using the flight director,
maneuver the airplane to tuck the aircraft reference symbol into the flight director
V-bars.
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EFD1000 PFD Pilot’s Guide
Figure 4-101
Flight Director
Page 4-47
CHAPTER 4, REFERENCE GUIDE
NOTE
When GPSS is enabled on the
EFD1000, the HSI heading bug is not
coupled to the autopilot. To connect
the heading bug to the autopilot,
disable GPSS via the GPSS Hot Key.
4.6.3. Typical Autopilot Operations
Whenever the EFD1000 installed configuration includes connections to GPS, VLOC and
autopilot systems, the EFD1000 acts as a conduit of data between the navigation radios
and the autopilot system. This configuration enables any navigation sensor available for
display on the EFD system to be coupled to the autopilot.
NOTE
Refer to the autopilot system Aircraft Flight Manual Supplement and/or
POH for details regarding use and operation of the autopilot system.
Examples here are provided for reference only, based on operation of
the Bendix/King KFC-200 autopilot, and actual operation may vary
depending on the autopilot system installed in your aircraft.
NOTE
NOTE
Page 4-48
The autopilot must be in Heading
(HDG) Mode to receive GPSS signals
from the EFD1000.
It is your responsibility as Pilot in Command to ensure that you are
conversant with the operation of all installed equipment. Operation of
the EFD1000 system in IMC conditions should not be undertaken unless
you are proficient in its use and operation, as described herein.
When using an integrated VLOC/GPS
radio system, select the VLOC or GPS
portion of the integrated radio by
pressing the CDI source key on the
GPS select until the desired source
is indicated above the EFD1000 CDI
(Section 4.3.5) Source Select button.
EFD1000 PFD Pilot’s Guide
A-01-184-00 REV A
“HDG” Mode Operation – Heading Bug Steering
Set the heading bug on the EFD1000 to the desired heading (Section 4.3.9).
Verify that GPSS is not selected (GPSS Legend on Hot Keys shown in GRAY).
Select the autopilot’s HDG mode.
Engage the autopilot.
Verify that the autopilot turns the aircraft to the selected heading.
“HDG” Mode Operation – GPS Steering (GPSS)
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
Couple the EFD1000 CDI to a GPS sensor navigation source with an active
flight plan.
Enable GPSS by pressing the GPSS Hot Key so that GPSS is rendered in GREEN.
Select the autopilot’s HDG mode.
Engage the autopilot.
Verify that the autopilot turns the aircraft to follow the GPS flight plan.
“NAV” Mode Operation – VLOC Navigation
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
Using the CDI Nav Source Select button, couple a tuned/valid VLOC radio to
the CDI and set the desired course (Section 4.3.7).
Set the EFD1000 heading bug (Section 4.3.9) to a value that will intercept
the desired course.
Engage the autopilot in heading mode and verify that the aircraft turns to the
desired heading.
Arm NAV capture on the autopilot by selecting its NAV mode.
Monitor the CDI deflection and verify that, upon intercepting the desired
course, the autopilot switches to NAV capture, and turns to track the desired
course.
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EFD1000 PFD Pilot’s Guide
NOTE
Not all autopilots operate in
the manner described here for
intercepting courses. See the AFMS
for your autopilot installation to
understand how to adapt these
example procedures to your particular
autopilot.
Page 4-49
CHAPTER 4, REFERENCE GUIDE
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
“NAV” Mode Operation – GPS Navigation
1.
CHAPTER 4, REFERENCE GUIDE
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
With a valid flight plan programmed and active in the GPS, use the CDI Nav
Source Select button to couple the GPS to the CDI (Section 4.3.5).
If Auto Course Select is disabled, set the Course Pointer to the desired course
(4.3.7), or enable Auto Course Select (Section 4.3.6).
With GPSS disabled, set the EFD1000 heading bug (Section 4.3.9) to a value
that will intercept the active leg of the flight plan, or enable GPSS via the
GPSS Hot Key.
Engage the autopilot in HDG mode and verify that the aircraft turns to a
heading to intercept the active leg of the flight plan.
Arm the NAV mode of the autopilot by selecting its NAV mode.
Monitor the CDI deflection and verify that, upon intercepting the flight plan
leg, the autopilot switches to NAV Capture and turns to track the desired
course.
“APPR” Mode Operation – ILS Approach with Vectors to Final
1.
2.
3.
NOTE
Page 4-50
In order for the autopilot to couple
to vertical guidance on WAAS
approaches, most autopilots must first
be established on the final approach
course and in ALT hold mode at least
two miles outside the FAF. APPR must
be annunciated on the EFD1000 and
the GPS system.
4.
5.
6.
Using the CDI Nav Source Select button, couple a tuned/valid ILS radio
frequency to the CDI, and set the desired approach course (Section 4.3.7).
Set the EFD1000 heading bug to a value that will intercept the desired course,
or as instructed by ATC (Section 4.3.9).
Engage the autopilot in HDG and altitude hold (ALT) modes and verify that
the aircraft turns to the desired heading.
Once cleared for the ILS approach, arm the autopilot’s APPR mode.
Monitor the CDI localizer deflection and verify that, upon intercepting the
localizer, the autopilot switches to APPR capture, turns to track the localizer
course, and arms the glide slope (GS).
Monitor the autopilot localizer tracking performance. Upon intercepting the
glide slope, verify that the autopilot switches from GS arm to GS capture, and
initiates a descent to track the glide slope.
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“APPR” Mode Operation – GPS or GPS/RNAV APV WAAS Approach
1.
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EFD1000 PFD Pilot’s Guide
NOTE
WAAS GPS systems can provide vertical
guidance on several types of GPS/RNAV
instrument approaches. RNAV (GPS) APV
(Approaches with Vertical Guidance), such
as LPV and LNAV/VNAV approaches, often
have lower approach minima shown on
the approach plate, and aircraft equipped
with appropriate WAAS GPS systems may
use those lower minima.
Even with more traditional lateralguidance-only RNAV (GPS) approaches
— (LNAV) with step-down altitudes
— WAAS GPS systems may still provide
a pseudo-glide slope that enables a
continuous descent to the MDA (Minimum
Descent Altitude) and that will couple to
the autopilot GS.
All these types of approaches are set up
and flown the same way by the pilot
and autopilot, and operate much like an
ILS approach. The pilot must be aware
of the differences and which minima
may be used, however. Especially in
LNAV approaches with advisory vertical
guidance, the pilot is still responsible for
complying with all interim step-down
altitudes and with the MDA.
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CHAPTER 4, REFERENCE GUIDE
With a valid GPS approach programmed in the GPS, use the CDI Nav Source
Select button to couple the GPS to the CDI (Section 4.3.5).
2. If Auto Course Select is disabled, set the Course Pointer to the desired course
(Section 4.3.7), or enable Auto Course Select (Section 4.3.6).
3. With GPSS disabled, set the EFD1000 heading bug to a value that will
intercept the active leg of the flight plan (Section 4.3.9) or enable GPSS via
the GPSS Hot Key.
4. Once established inbound to the Final Approach Fix (FAF), engage the
autopilot’s NAV or APPR mode.
5. Engage the autopilot in HDG mode and verify that the aircraft turns to a
heading to intercept the active leg of the approach.
6. Monitor the CDI cross track deviation and verify that, upon intercepting the
active leg of the approach, the autopilot turns to track the GPS approach
guidance
THE FOLLOWING APPLIES FOR WAAS GPS/RNAV APV APPROACHES ONLY
7. Once cleared for the GPS/RNAV approach, arm the autopilot’s APPR mode.
8. Monitor the CDI lateral deviation and verify that, while tracking and/or
intercepting the final approach course and once the GPS APPR mode goes
active and vertical deviation is presented on the EFD1000’s VDI, the autopilot
arms the glide slope.
9. Most WAAS GPS will not arm or activate vertical guidance until the aircraft is
within two miles of the FAF (unlike an ILS where the VDI will display as soon as
the aircraft is established in-bound and a valid GS signal is being received). As
you approach the FAF, watch for the VDI to appear on the EFD1000’s Attitude
Display, indicating that the autopilot will likely couple to that glide slope.
9. Monitor the autopilot lateral approach course tracking. Upon intercepting
the WAAS glide slope, verify that the autopilot switches from glide slope ARM
to glide slope capture, and initiates a descent to track the WASS glide slope.
CHAPTER 4, REFERENCE GUIDE
NOTE
NOTE
The EFD1000 enables GPS APV
approaches (Approaches with Vertical
Guidance) by providing the autopilot
with GPS lateral and vertical deviation
signals that are identical to those
typically provided by an ILS radio. To
fly GPS APV approaches, configure
and operate the autopilot as you
would for an ILS approach.
Some IFR GPS systems include ILS
approaches in their procedures
database. GPS may be used to
navigate the initial segments of the
ILS approach, but the pilot must
switch to VLOC navigation outside the
FAF and before GS intercept.
Some integrated GPS/nav receivers
(like the Garmin 4xx/5xx series) can
be configured to do this switch
automatically, and the EFD1000
CDI Source will follow that switch
automatically. It is the pilot’s
responsibility to verify that the
EFD1000 CDI source is set to VLOC
before reaching either GS intercept or
the FAF.
Page 4-52
GPS “APPR” Mode Operation – WAAS GPS Underlay to ILS Approach
Using Pilot Nav
1.
With a valid ILS approach loaded and active in the GPS, use the CDI Nav
Source Select button to couple the GPS to the CDI (Section 4.3.9).
2. Verify that the correct ILS frequency is tuned.
3. When the active flight plan leg is in-bound to the Initial Approach Fix (IAF),
enable GPSS via the GPSS Hot Key.
4. Engage the autopilot in HDG mode, and verify that the aircraft turns to
intercept the course to the IAF.
5. Monitor the CDI and aircraft track to ensure the aircraft tracks in-bound to the
IAF, and then turns out-bound for the course reversal.
6. Using a WAAS GPS receive that provides guidance along curved flight paths,
the GPS will guide the aircraft through the course reversal and establish it inbound to the FAF without pilot intervention.
7. Once established inbound to the FAF, engage the autopilot’s APPR mode.
8. Couple the EFD1000 to the VLOC source tuned to the correct ILS frequency
using the CDI Source Select button (if not done automatically by the GPS/nav
receiver).
9. Monitor the CDI localizer deflection and verify that, upon intercepting the
localizer, the autopilot switches to APPR capture and arms the GS.
10. Monitor the autopilot localizer tracking performance. Upon intercepting the
GS, verify that the autopilot switches from GS ARM to GS capture and initiates
a descent to track the glide slope.
EFD1000 PFD Pilot’s Guide
A-01-184-00 REV A
GPS “APPR” Mode Operation – WAAS GPS Underlay to ILS Approach
With ATC Vectors to Final
1.
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EFD1000 PFD Pilot’s Guide
CHAPTER 4, REFERENCE GUIDE
With a valid ILS approach loaded and active in the GPS, use the CDI Nav
Source Select button to couple the GPS to the CDI (Section 4.3.5).
2. Verify that the correct ILS frequency is tuned.
3. Set the HDG Bug to the heading assigned by ATC (Section 4.3.9).
4. Disable GPSS via the GPSS Hot Key.
5. Engage the autopilot in HDG mode, and verify that the aircraft turns to the
selected HDG.
6. When cleared for the approach and given the final heading to intercept the
final approach course by ATC, arm the autopilot’s APPR mode.
7. Monitor the CDI and aircraft track to verify that the autopilot intercepts the
final approach course and begins to track inbound to the FAF.
8. Couple the EFD1000 to the VLOC source tuned to the correct ILS frequency
using the CDI Source Select button (if not done automatically by the GPS/nav
receiver).
9. Monitor the CDI localizer deflection and verify that, upon intercepting the
localizer, the autopilot switches to APPR capture and arms the GS.
10. Monitor the autopilot localizer tracking performance. Upon intercepting the
GS, verify that the autopilot switches from GS ARM to GS capture and initiates
a descent to track the glide slope.
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CHAPTER 4, REFERENCE GUIDE
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Chapter 5
Customizing the EFD1000 PFD
There are seven (7) Menu pages, each with up to five (5) menu options. The following
tables and figures provide a brief overview of each menu page.
KEY DESCRIPTION
OPTIONS
1
Barometer Setting Units
IN or mB
2
V-speed Textual Markers
Display
DISABLE or ENABLE
3
Auto Course Select
DISABLE or ENABLE
4
ARC Compass Mode
HSI or CDI
5
AHRS Reset
Action
1
2
3
4
5
Figure 5-1
Menu, Page 1
Table 5-1 Menu - GENERAL SETTINGS, Page 1 of 7
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Page 5-1
CHAPTER 5, CUSTOMIZING THE EFD1000 PFD
5.1. Using the Menu System
1
2
3
CHAPTER 5, CUSTOMIZING THE EFD1000 PFD
4
5
Figure 5-2
Menu, Page 2
KEY DESCRIPTION
OPTIONS
1
360° Flight Plan
OFF, AUTO or ON
2
360° Airports
OFF, AUTO or ON
3
360° NDB
OFF, AUTO or ON
4
360° VORs (High, Low and Terminal)
OFF, AUTO or ON
5
360° Intersections
OFF, AUTO or ON
Table 5-2 Menu - 360° MAP SETTINGS, Page 2 of 7
Page 5-2
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KEY DESCRIPTION
2
ARC Flight Plan
OFF, AUTO or ON
2
ARC Airports
OFF, AUTO or ON
3
ARC NDB
OFF, AUTO or ON
4
ARC VORs (High, Low and Terminal)
OFF, AUTO or ON
3
4
5
ARC Intersections
OFF, AUTO or ON
Figure 5-3
Menu, Page 3
Table 5-3 Menu - ARC MAP SETTINGS, Page 3 of 7
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Page 5-3
CHAPTER 5, CUSTOMIZING THE EFD1000 PFD
1
5
1
OPTIONS
CHAPTER 5, CUSTOMIZING THE EFD1000 PFD
NOTE
NOTE
For external/battery power control,
the legend of the current power
source is shown in green; pressing the
associated menu key will perform no
action. The legend of an available
power source is shown in white, and
pressing the associated menu key
changes input power to that power
source.
When V Speeds are LOCKED at
installation the legend and set Value
are rendered in gray. Setting any of
the above values to zero disables the
marker completely.
KEY DESCRIPTION
OPTIONS
1
Va
0 to 450 or LOCKED
2
Vbg
0 to 450 or LOCKED
3
Vref
0 to 450 or LOCKED
4
Vr
0 to 450 or LOCKED
5
Vx
0 to 450 or LOCKED
Table 5-4 Menu - VSPEEDS A, Page 4 of 7
1
1
2
2
3
3
KEY DESCRIPTION
OPTIONS
1
Vy
0 to 450 or LOCKED
2
Vlo
0 to 450 or LOCKED
3
Vle
0 to 450 or LOCKED
4
5
Figure 5-4
Menu, Page 4
Page 5-4
Figure 5-5
Menu, Page 5
Table 5-5 Menu – VSPEEDS B, Page 5 of 7
EFD1000 PFD Pilot’s Guide
A-01-184-00 REV A
KEY DESCRIPTION
Operating from or Switch to Battery Power. Green when current state
(Pushing key performs no action) White if selection is possible
Status or
Action
2
Operating from or Switch to External Power. Green when current state
(Pushing key performs no action) White if selection is possible
Status or
Action
3
Shut down
Action
4
External Power Source Voltage. Displays voltage level of input power
Status Only
Internal Battery Status. Displays internal battery % charge and
estimated operating time available, ##%/## MIN
2
3
4
5
Figure 5-6
Menu, Page 6
Status Only
1
Table 5-6 Menu – POWER SETTINGS, Page 6 of 7
KEY DESCRIPTION
2
OPTIONS
1
Main Application Processor Software versions
Status Only
2
Input Output Processor Software Version
Status Only
3
Feature Load
Status Only
Figure 5-7
Menu, Page 7
Table 5-7 Menu – SYSTEM STATUS, Page 7 of 7
A-01-184-00 REV A
3
EFD1000 PFD Pilot’s Guide
Page 5-5
CHAPTER 5, CUSTOMIZING THE EFD1000 PFD
1
5
1
OPTIONS
5.2. Customizing the Map
The pilot can customize the display setting for the map symbol levels HIGH, MEDIUM,
and LOW; choosing from:
CHAPTER 5, CUSTOMIZING THE EFD1000 PFD
ON
Display symbol is always on.
AUTO The selected display level and range, as described in Table 5-8, determine which map symbols are displayed. Symbol labels may also display adjacent to their associated symbol.
Figure 5-8
360° Compass Mode
Display Options
Figure 5-9
ARC Compass Mode
Display Options
OFF
Display symbol is always off.
Each compass mode has its own Menu page for Map Setting symbol display. Menu
Page 2 offers Map Setting options for the 360° Compass mode (Figure 5-8). Menu
Page 3 offers Map Setting options for the ARC Compass mode (Figure 5-9). The default
setting is AUTO. Complete information about the EFD1000 PFD Compass Mode options
are provided in Section 4.3.1.
Set Map Symbol Display
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
Figure 5-10
Editing 360° NDB
Display Option
Page 5-6
Figure 5-11
360° NDB Display Option
Set To OFF
Push the MENU key. The Menu displays on the Navigation Display.
Rotate the Right Knob to navigate to the appropriate Map Settings menu
page (either page 2 or 3).
Push the desired Map Symbol Menu Key. The menu label turns magenta and
the EDIT VALUE label displays above the Right Knob (Figure 5-10).
Rotate the Right Knob to the desired value (Figure 5-11).
Either select another Map Symbol Menu Key and edit another display option
or push the MENU key to exit the Menu.
EFD1000 PFD Pilot’s Guide
A-01-184-00 REV A
Table 5-8
Map Display Levels
LEVEL
DISPLAY
DESCRIPTION
OFF
Fixed
Figure 5-12 No Map
No symbols, legs, or waypoints - regardless of selected range - are
displayed. When selected, the map symbol level and range icons
display for two seconds and then are removed from view. The MAP
Hot Key legend displays in gray (Figure 5-17).
MEDIUM
Variable
LOW
Variable
FP ONLY
Fixed
Figure 5-13 High Map
Figure 5-14 Medium Map
Figure 5-15 Low Map
Range (NM)
2.5
5
10
15
20
30
40
60
80
100
200
Waypoints
D*
D*
D*
D*
D*
D*
D*
D
D
D
D
Airports
D*
D*
D*
D*
D*
D
D
D
D
D
NDBs
D*
D*
D*
D
D
D
D
VOR/DME - High
D*
D*
D*
D
D
D
D
D
D
D
D
VOR/DME - Low
D*
D*
D*
D
D
D
D
VOR/DME - Terminal
D*
D*
D*
D
D
D
Intersections
D*
D*
D*
D
Flight Plan Waypoints
D*
D*
D*
D*
D*
D*
D*
D
D
D
D
Airports
D*
D*
D*
D*
D*
D
D
D
D
D
VOR/DME - High
D*
D*
D*
D
D
D
D
D
D
D
D
VOR/DME - High
D*
D*
D*
D
D
D
D
Flight Plan Waypoints
D*
D*
D*
D*
D
D
D
D
D
D
D
Airports
D*
D*
D*
D*
D*
D
D
D
D
D
VOR/DME - High
D*
D*
D*
D
D
D
D
D
CHAPTER 5, CUSTOMIZING THE EFD1000 PFD
HIGH
Variable
Figure 5-17
Basemap “OFF” Hot Key Legend
Only Flight Plan Waypoints display.
Figure 5-16 Flight Plan Only Map
D – symbol displayed
D* - symbol displayed with identifier
A-01-184-00 REV A
EFD1000 PFD Pilot’s Guide
Page 5-7
5.3. Configuring V-speeds
CHAPTER 5, CUSTOMIZING THE EFD1000 PFD
V-speeds are used to designate different operating speeds of the aircraft and are
defined in Table 5-9.
Page 5-8
V-SPEED
DEFINITION
PRE-SET
BANDS
Vne
Never exceed
x
Vno
Maximum structural
cruising rate
x
Vfe
Maximum full flap
extension speed
x
Vso
Full flap stall
x
Va
Maneuvering at maximum
gross weight
x
Vbg
Best glide
x
Vr
Rotation speed
x
Vref
Approach speed
x
Vx
Best angle of climb
x
Vy
Best rate of climb
x
Vle
Maximum landing gear
extension speed
x
EFD1000 PFD Pilot’s Guide
ADJUSTABLE
TEXT LABELS
PRE-SET
MARKERS
x (Red Line)
A-01-184-00 REV A
DEFINITION
Vlo
Retract maximum landing
gear operation speed
Vmc
(Multi-engine planes)
Single engine minimum
control
Vyse
PRE-SET
BANDS
ADJUSTABLE
TEXT LABELS
PRE-SET
MARKERS
x
x
x (Red Line)
(Multi-engine planes)
Single engine minimum
control
x
(Multi-engine
planes) Single
engine best rate
of climb
Initial flap extension
x
NOTE
Table 5-9 EFD1000 PFD V-speed Definitions
A-01-184-00 REV A
EFD1000 PFD Pilot’s Guide
Setting the value of the white triangle,
Vyse, and Vmc markers to zero (0)
during installation, disables the
markers. Setting any of the adjustable
V-speed values to zero (0) disables the
applicable label.
Page 5-9
CHAPTER 5, CUSTOMIZING THE EFD1000 PFD
V-SPEED
CHAPTER 5, CUSTOMIZING THE EFD1000 PFD
The EFD1000 PFD uses colored speed bands, colored speed markers, and textual
labels to help the pilot recall V-speed settings and limits. The speed band markings are
determined by the Federal Regulations, and correspond to the aircraft limiting speeds
that are identified in the Aircraft Flight Manual. They have a range between two speeds,
that are pre-set at installation as outlined in Table 5-10 and shown in Figure 5-18.
Speed markers are also pre-set during installation, indicating aircraft specific speed
settings, where applicable. The textual V-speed labels are pilot adjustable.
Figure 5-18
Speed Bands
NOTE
Page 5-10
On aircraft without flaps the white
band is disabled, and the green band
is shown full width, as there isn’t an
applicable Flap Extend (Vfe) or Full
Flap Stall (Vso) speed. These two
speeds are set to the same speed
as the No Flap Stall (Vs) speed. This
gives the white band a value of zero,
effectively disabling it.
BAND COLOR
SPEED RANGE
Red Band (High
Speed)
Vne - top tape
Never Exceed
Yellow Band
Vno – Vne
Caution Range
Green Band
Vs – Vno
Normal Operating Range
White Band
Vso – Vfe
Flap Operating Range
Red Band (Low
Speed)
Bottom of tape – Vs0
Disabled on the ground and during takeoff
Table 5 -10 Speed Band Ranges
EFD1000 PFD Pilot’s Guide
A-01-184-00 REV A
On aircraft with flaps, setting the upper and lower thresholds of the white and/or yellow
bands to the same value disables the applicable band. When disabled, the band does
not display.
NOTE
ENABLE V-speed Textual Labels
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
Push the MENU key. The Menu displays on the Navigation Display.
Rotate the Right Knob counterclockwise until Page 1 of the Menu displays
(Figure 5-19).
Push the VSPEEDS Menu Key (Key 2). The menu label turns magenta and the
EDIT VALUE label displays above the Right Knob (Figure 5-20).
Rotate the Right Knob to select ENABLE. The textual V-speed labels are
enabled (Figure 5-21).
Push the MENU key to exit the Menu.
Figure 5-19
Menu, GENERAL SETTINGS, Page 1 of 7
Figure 5-20
Editing VSPEEDS
A-01-184-00 REV A
EFD1000 PFD Pilot’s Guide
Figure 5-21
VSPEEDS Enabled
Page 5-11
CHAPTER 5, CUSTOMIZING THE EFD1000 PFD
When using the V-speed textual markers, the pilot must first ENABLE the display of the
markers and then set values for each V-speed. The display setting is on page 1 and value
settings are on page 4 and 5 of the Menu. The value range for V-speed textual markers is
0 – 450 or LOCKED. The default setting is 0, unless previously set to another value. When
the value is 0 the V-speed is individually disabled and the marker is not rendered on
the Airspeed Tape. Once values are set, the pilot can choose to disable all the V-speed
textual markers to aid in screen declutter.
A typical installation sets the Airspeed
Textual Markers to UNLOCKED,
allowing the pilot to edit the indicated
V-speed labels. If the V-speed setting
was LOCKED during installation, no
editing is allowed.
Set Textual V-speed Labels
1.
2.
CHAPTER 5, CUSTOMIZING THE EFD1000 PFD
3.
Figure 5-22
Menu, VSPEEDS A, Page 4 of 7
4.
5.
Push the MENU key. The Menu displays on the Navigation Display.
Rotate the Right Knob to navigate to the appropriate V-speed Menu page
(either page 4 or 5) (Figure 5-22).
Push the appropriate V-speed Menu Key. The menu label turns magenta and
the EDIT VALUE label displays above the Right Knob (Figure 5-23).
Rotate the Right Knob to the desired value (Figure 5-24).
Either select another Menu Key and edit another V-speed or push the MENU
key to exit the Menu.
Figure 5-23
Editing Va V-speed
Figure 5-24
Va V-speed Set With New Value
Page 5-12
EFD1000 PFD Pilot’s Guide
A-01-184-00 REV A
5.4. LCD Brightness Control
LCD MODE
DESCRIPTION
AUTOMATIC
BRT AUTO
LCD backlight intensity is automatically adjusted based on the current light
conditions sensed by the Automatic Dimming Photocell (Figure 5-25).
MANUAL
BRT ADJUST
Allows the pilot to adjust the LCD backlight intensity manually
(Figure 5‑26).
Figure 5-25
Display Brightness in BRT AUTO Mode
Table 5-11 Brightness Control
Switch Brightness Mode
1.
2.
3.
Press the MENU key. The Menu displays.
Push the Left Knob to select the desired LCD Brightness Control mode, either
Automatic (BRT AUTO) (Figure 5-25), or Manual (BRT ADJUST)
(Figure 5-26).
Press the MENU key. The Menu shuts off.
Figure 5-26
Display Brightness in BRT ADJUST Mode
Adjust Display Brightness Manually
1.
2.
3.
Switch to manual LCD Brightness Control mode (BRT ADJUST)
(Figure 5-26).
Rotate the Left Knob clockwise to increase the LCD Brightness value or
counterclockwise to decrease the LCD Brightness value. The BRT value
changes accordingly.
Press the MENU key. The Menu shuts off and the selected brightness
value is retained.
A-01-184-00 REV A
EFD1000 PFD Pilot’s Guide
Page 5-13
CHAPTER 5, CUSTOMIZING THE EFD1000 PFD
The LCD brightness of the EFD1000 PFD operates in either of two modes, Automatic
or Manual (Figures 5-25 and 5-26). The LCD brightness range is displayed as a value
from 1 - 100, displayed above the Left Knob. Additionally, menu brightness can be
adjusted.
CHAPTER 5, CUSTOMIZING THE EFD1000 PFD
Page 5-14
EFD1000 PFD Pilot’s Guide
A-01-184-00 REV A
Chapter 6
Emergency and Abnormal Procedures
In the unlikely event the EFD1000 PFD determines a potential degradation of attitude
information, a warning annunciation, CROSS CHECK ATTITUDE, displays above the
aircraft reference symbol (Figure 6-1). If the attitude pitch or roll data become invalid, a
red “X” and the textual annunciation of “ATTITUDE FAIL” display on the Attitude Indicator
and all aircraft roll, pitch, and slip information is removed from the Attitude Indicator
display (Figure 6-2). Use alternate, mechanical, flight instruments and reset the AHRS
as soon as possible.
NOTE
Figure 6-1
Attitude Degraded Performance
When the EFD1000 AHRS is reset in flight, it performs an abbreviated
initialization.
During the initialization, the aircraft should not be subjected to excessive
turn rates. Typical in-flight initialization will take approximately 30
seconds, but can take longer if the reset is initiated while banked or
maneuvering.
The AHRS reset is considered complete when the EFD1000 attitude and
heading is once again displayed, stable, and correct with respect to the
horizon or standby indicator.
Figure 6-2 Attitude Failure
A-01-184-00 REV A
EFD1000 PFD Pilot’s Guide
Page 6-1
CHAPTER 6, EMERGENCY AND ABNORMAL PROCEDURES
6.1. In Flight AHRS Reset
Reset the AHRS
1.
2.
3.
CHAPTER 6, EMERGENCY AND ABNORMAL PROCEDURES
4.
5.
6.
Maintain straight and level flight.
Push the MENU key. The Menu displays on the Navigation Display.
Rotate the Right Knob counterclockwise until Page 1 of the Menu displays
(Figure 6-3).
Push the AHRS Menu Key (Key 5). A confirmation message displays,
prompting the user to confirm the reset request (Figure 6-4).
Push the AHRS Menu Key (Key 5) again to confirm the AHRS reset. The AHRS
reset is performed and the confirmation messages clears.
Push the MENU key to exit the Menu.
Figure 6-3 Menu, GENERAL SETTINGS,
Page 1 of 7
Figure 6-4 AHRS Reset Confirmation
Message
NOTE
Page 6-2
Pushing any other key, button, or knob
cancels the AHRS reset and clears the
confirmation message.
EFD1000 PFD Pilot’s Guide
A-01-184-00 REV A
6.2. Pitot/Static System Blockage
CHAPTER 6, EMERGENCY AND ABNORMAL PROCEDURES
A static line blockage will result in altitude remaining fixed and a zero vertical speed
despite aircraft pitch and/or power setting changes. In addition, IAS indications will
be incorrect if the static line is blocked. Errors will typically be noticed in the climb or
descent phase of flight. When descending, ambient pressure increases, which will result
in the indicated airspeed reading less than the actual airspeed. The opposite effect will
be observed in a climb.
A pitot line blockage will result in the airspeed indicator behaving like an altimeter
when the aircraft altitude changes, and it does not respond to airspeed changes.
When Pitot or Static Line is Blocked
1.
2.
Select an alternate static source.
Set Pitot Heat to ON.
CAUTION
Most light aircraft have only a single pitot and static port
available for flight instrument use. As such, the pitot and static
lines used by the EFD1000 system are shared with those lines used
by the standby airspeed indicator and altimeter. Should these
lines become blocked, such as might occur due to inadvertent
icing encounter, both the standby indicators and the EFD1000
indicators will display erroneous airspeed and/or altitude
information.
In the event of erroneous airspeed and altitude information at
the EFD1000, the EFD1000 Attitude Monitor will present a “CROSS
CHECK ATTITUDE” annunciation.
A-01-184-00 REV A
EFD1000 PFD Pilot’s Guide
Page 6-3
CHAPTER 6, EMERGENCY AND ABNORMAL PROCEDURES
WARNING
The EFD1000 PFD internal
battery will provide
approximately 30 minutes of
operation for the AHRS and
display following loss of aircraft
power. If aircraft power cannot
be restored, the pilot should
follow the electrical failure
checklist in the Aircraft
Flight Manual.
6.3. Loss of External Power
In the event that external power to the unit is degraded or fails, the EFD1000 will
automatically switch to its internal battery. When operating on internal battery, the
display backlight intensity is capped at a value of 70. An annunciation of this operating
state and the estimated battery charge remaining is displayed in the lower portion of
the attitude indicator (Figure 6-5).
CAUTION
Figure 6-5 PFD0190 Internal Battery
Operational
Figure 6-6 Menu, POWER
SETTINGS, Page 6 of 7, Key 1
This will be accompanied by an “ON BAT” annunciation.
The “ON BAT” annunciation should extinguish shortly after
the electric transient demand goes away. If the “ON BAT”
annunciation does not extinguish, then an external power source
failure has most likely occurred.
6.4. Power Override
To Override the Automatic Power Configuration
1.
2.
3.
4.
Page 6-4
During situations where a high electrical demand is placed on the
aircraft electrical system, electrical transients that cause aircraft
voltage to momentarily drop below 12.8V (14V Electrical System)
or 25.6V (28V Electrical System) will cause the EFD to automatically
switch to its internal battery.
Push the MENU Key. The Menu displays on the Navigation Display.
Rotate the Right Knob until Page 6 of the Menu displays.
The current power souce is listed at Key 1 (Figure 6-6), push Key 1 to
alternately switch between external power (EXT PWR) and the internal battery
(BATTERY).
Push the MENU key to exit the Menu.
EFD1000 PFD Pilot’s Guide
A-01-184-00 REV A
View External Power Status
1.
2.
3.
4.
Push the MENU Key. The Menu displays on the Navigation Display.
Rotate the Right Knob until Page 6 of the Menu displays.
The EXT PWR Menu Key (Key 2, Figure 6-7) displays whether the EFD1000 is
operating on external power (EXT PWR).
Push the MENU key to exit the Menu.
View External Voltage Status
4.
Push the MENU Key. The Menu displays on the Navigation Display.
Rotate the Right Knob until Page 6 of the Menu displays.
The EXT PWR Menu Key (Key 4, Figure 6-8) displays the external power
voltage.
Push the MENU key to exit the Menu.
CHAPTER 6, EMERGENCY AND ABNORMAL PROCEDURES
1.
2.
3.
Figure 6-7
Menu, POWER SETTINGS,
Page 6 of 7,
EXT PWR Menu Key (Key 2)
View Internal Battery Status
1.
2.
3.
4.
Push the MENU Key. The Menu displays on the Navigation Display.
Rotate the Right Knob until Page 6 of the Menu displays.
The BAT Menu Key (Key 5, Figure 6-9) displays the current battery status as a
percentage of charge and estimated operating time available (##%/## MIN).
Push the MENU key to exit the Menu.
NOTE
Figure 6-8
Menu, POWER SETTINGS,
Page 6 of 7,
EXT PWR Menu Key (Key 4)
When airborne, if the EFIS input voltage is below the 12.8V (14V Electrical
System) or 25.6V (28V Electrical System) automatic battery transition
threshold, and “EXT PWR” is selected, the EFD will automatically transition
back to its internal battery.
Figure 6-9
Menu, POWER SETTINGS,
Page 6 of 7,
BAT Menu Key (Key 5)
A-01-184-00 REV A
EFD1000 PFD Pilot’s Guide
Page 6-5
6.5. Abnormal Shutdown Procedure
CHAPTER 6, EMERGENCY AND ABNORMAL PROCEDURES
The EFD1000 PFD is typically powered through an EFIS Power Control switch that is
connected to the aircraft Battery bus. The system will power up, based on the position
of the EFIS Power Control switch or switch that controls power to the Battery bus.
Typically, when on the ground, powering up/down the aircraft simultaneously powers
on/off the EFD1000 PFD. If the EFD1000 PFD has been powered off and aircraft power
is available to the EFD1000 PFD, pressing the REV button momentarily will turn on the
EFD1000 PFD.
Power Off Manually
1.
2.
Pull the circuit breaker.
Press and hold the REV key until the EFD1000 PFD powers on.
1.
2.
3.
Press the MENU key. The Menu displays.
Rotate the Right Knob to display Page 6 of 7, POWER SETTINGS.
Press Menu Key 3, SHUT DOWN. The power down sequence initiates.
Or
Power On Manually
•
Page 6-6
Press and hold the REV key until the EFD1000 PFD powers on.
EFD1000 PFD Pilot’s Guide
A-01-184-00 REV A
6.6. Warning, Caution, and Advisory Summary
WARNINGS
ON BAT
Figure 6-10 WARNING On Battery
Red annunciation presented whenever the EFD1000 has determined that the
associated function is invalid or failed and should not be used. The data is
removed from the display and replaced by a red “X” over the affected display
feature.
Figure 6-11 WARNING Attitude Fail
Figure 6-12 WARNING Direction Indicator Fail
A-01-184-00 REV A
EFD1000 PFD Pilot’s Guide
Page 6-7
CHAPTER 6, EMERGENCY AND ABNORMAL PROCEDURES
Function FAIL (“X”)
Red annunciation presented whenever the EFD1000 is operating on the
internal battery. Will be accompanied by an indication of the estimated
battery life remaining.
CHAPTER 6, EMERGENCY AND ABNORMAL PROCEDURES
CAUTIONS
CROSS CHECK ATTITUDE
Figure 6-13
CAUTION Cross Check Attitude
Amber annunciation presented, centered in the upper half of
the attitude indicator, whenever the EFD1000 AHRS internal
integrity monitor determines that attitude is potentially
degraded. If a CROSS CHECK ATTITUDE annunciation is
provided, the pilot should cross check attitude, airspeed, and
altitude against the standby displays.
GPS1, GPS 2, and/or RSM
GPS
Figure 6-14
CAUTION GPS1, GPS 2, and/or
RSM GPS
Amber annunciation presented on the left edge of the display
to indicate when a configured GPS flight plan and mapping
data are invalid or not available.
RSM GPS REVERSION EMER
USE ONLY
Figure 6-15
CAUTION RSM GPS Reversion
Amber annunciation presented whenever the EFD1000 reverts
to RSM GPS data and indicates that the RSM GPS is the current
GPS source. RSM GPS usage is limited to EMER USE ONLY.
INTEG
Figure 6-16
CAUTION INTEG
Amber annunciation presented when the GPS source coupled
to the HSI “flags” the GPS integrity. See the GPS AFMS for more
information.
MINIMUMS
Figure 6-17
CAUTION Minimums
Amber annunciation presented whenever the aircraft is at
or below the MINIMUMS altitude set by the pilot. May be
accompanied by an optional one-second stuttered tone.
Page 6-8
EFD1000 PFD Pilot’s Guide
A-01-184-00 REV A
ADVISORY
Figure 6-18
ADVISORY Altitude Alerter
Amber flag presented to indicate the aircraft is reaching
(steady) or deviating (flashing) from the preselected altitude.
May be accompanied by an optional one-second steady tone.
DH Alert
Figure 6-18
ADVISORY Decision Height Alert
Yellow “DH” annunciation provided whenever a connected
radio altimeter indicates it has reached the altitude set by the
pilot. See the Radio Altimeter AFMS for more information.
GPS Annunciations:
APPR, WPT, MSG
Figure 6-18
ADVISORY GPS Annunciations
Green Annunciations associated with the GPS coupled to the
HSI. See the GPS AFMS for more information.
Figure 6-21
INVALID DATA Slashing Red Line
A horizontal or vertical red line through the source legend of
selected data indicates that the data are invalid or unavailable.
INVALID DATA
Slashing red line
A-01-184-00 REV A
EFD1000 PFD Pilot’s Guide
Page 6-9
CHAPTER 6, EMERGENCY AND ABNORMAL PROCEDURES
Altitude Alerter
CHAPTER 6, EMERGENCY AND ABNORMAL PROCEDURES
Page 6-10
EFD1000 PFD Pilot’s Guide
A-01-184-00 REV A
Chapter 7
Appendices
7.1. Operating Limitations
CHAPTER 7, APPENDICES
The Aspen EFD1000 PFD Airplane Flight Manual Supplement, A-01-175-00 Revision
A (or later FAA Approved revision, as shown in the table below) must be immediately
available to the flight crew when the EFD1000 PFD is being used to provide flight or
navigation information.
7.2. Other Limitations
Airspeed Range
Altitude Range
Vertical Speed
Range
A-01-184-00 REV A
Minimum displayed airspeed
20 KIAS
Maximum displayed airspeed
999 KIAS
Maximum approved operating
210 kts
Minimum displayed altitude
1,500 ft MSL
Maximum displayed altitude
60,000 ft MSL
Maximum displayed vertical speed rates (tape)
+/-2,000 fpm
Maximum displayed vertical speed rates (numerical
value)
+/- 9,990 fpm
EFD1000 PFD Pilot’s Guide
Page 7-1
CHAPTER 7, APPENDICES
Turn Rate
Maximum displayed turn rate
Barometric
Pressure
Correction Range
28.10” to 30.99” Hg (946 to 1049 mB)
Navigation
Operation north of 72° north latitude or south of 53° south latitude is
prohibited.
Weight and
Balance
See current approved Weight and Balance Data.
RSM GPS Usage
and Placards
The EFD1000 PFD RSM GPS is approved for emergency use only. When
the RSM GPS is enabled for emergency use only, the following placard
shall be installed on the instrument panel near the EFD1000 PFD:
4.5 °/second
“RSM GPS REVERSION
EMER USE ONLY”
Internal Battery
Maximum operating time while on internal battery
30 minutes
Table 7 1 Limitations
7.2.1. Airspeed Limitations
No Change
7.2.2. Altitude Limitations
No Change
7.2.3. Weight & Center of Gravity Limits
No Change
Page 7-2
EFD1000 PFD Pilot’s Guide
A-01-184-00 REV A
7.2.4. RSM GPS Usage
The EFD1000 RSM GPS is authorized for emergency use only. Position data from the
RSM GPS will ONLY be presented following the loss or failure of a certified external GPS
navigator. When the RSM GPS is in use, magnetic variation data used by the basemap is
not updated. This can result in misaligned basemap symbology whenever the external
GPS position source is lost and the aircraft travels far enough to produce a significant
change in the local magnetic variation.
CHAPTER 7, APPENDICES
7.2.5. Geographic Limitation
Like all compass systems, the magnetometer used in the EFD1000 system will
experience degraded performance in the vicinity of the magnetic poles. When the
earth’s magnetic field is no longer strong enough to provide reliable heading data,
the EFD1000 System will flag the magnetometer data as invalid, resulting in the
annunciated loss of heading and attitude.
Use of the EFD1000 system for IFR operations in the vicinity of the North or South
Magnetic Poles, based solely upon the attitude and heading data provided by the
EFD1000, is prohibited.
7.2.6. Placards and Decals
The following electronic placard is provided on the EFD1000 display whenever the RSM
GPS is providing position data for the basemap display:
“RSM GPS REVERSION
EMER USE ONLY”
A-01-184-00 REV A
EFD1000 PFD Pilot’s Guide
Page 7-3
7.3. Software Versions
CHAPTER 7, APPENDICES
The EFD1000 System must utilize the software versions listed below (or later FAAapproved versions). The system software version for the Main Application Processor
(MAP) and for the Input-Output Processor (IOP), both of which are contained within the
EFD display head, is displayed via the Menu SYSTEM STATUS page. The ACU software
version number is recorded on a software version label affixed to the ACU hardware.
SOFTWARE NAME
VERSION
AFM SUPPLEMENT
REVISION
A-02-127-1.0 EFD1000 Main Application
Processor (MAP) Software
Release 1.0
A-01-175-00 Revision A
A-02-147-1.0 EFD1000 Input / Output
Processor (IOP) Software
Release 1.0
A-01-175-00 Revision A
A-02-178-1.0 EFD1000 Analog Converter
Unit (ACU) Software
Release 1.0
A-01-175-00 Revision A
Table 7-2 Software Versions
Page 7-4
EFD1000 PFD Pilot’s Guide
A-01-184-00 REV A
To View the Main Application Processor Software Version
1.
2.
3.
4.
Push the MENU Key. The Menu displays on the Navigation Display.
Rotate the Right Knob until Page 7 of the Menu displays.
The MAP VER Menu Key (Key 1) displays the current Main Application
Processor Software Version (Figure 7-1).
Push the MENU key to exit the Menu.
Figure 7-1
Menu, SYSTEMS STATUS, Page 7of 7
To View the Input/Output Processor Software Version
4.
Push the MENU Key. The Menu displays on the Navigation Display.
Rotate the Right Knob until Page 7 of the Menu displays.
The IOP VER Menu Key (Key 2) displays the current Input/Output Processor
Software Version (Figure 7-2).
Push the MENU key to exit the Menu.
CHAPTER 7, APPENDICES
1.
2.
3.
Figure 7-2
Menu, SYSTEMS STATUS, Page 7of 7
To View the Feature Load
1.
2.
3.
4.
Push the MENU Key. The Menu displays on the Navigation Display.
Rotate the Right Knob until Page 7 of the Menu displays.
The FEATURES Menu Key (Key 3) displays the current Feature Load
(Figure 7‑3).
Push the MENU key to exit the Menu.
Figure 7-3
Menu, SYSTEMS STATUS, Page 7of 7
A-01-184-00 REV A
EFD1000 PFD Pilot’s Guide
Page 7-5
GENERAL SPECIFICATIONS:
Part Number
A-05-110-00
Width
3.50 in. (Measured at Bezel)
Height
7.00 in. (Measured at Bezel)
CHAPTER 7, APPENDICES
GENERAL SPECIFICATIONS:
Can Depth
4.15 in. (Rear of Bezel to Rear of Can)
Overall Depth
6.35 in. (Knob to Rear Pressure Fitting)
Weight
2.6 lbs (with Mounting Bracket)
Display Type
6.0 in. Diagonal TFT Active Matrix LCD (400x760)
Display Colors
32,768
Face
Anti-Reflective Coated Glass
Backlight
High Intensity White LED
Rotary Knobs
Optical Encoder with Momentary Push
Dimming
Manual & Automatic (Front Bezel Mounted
Sensor)
OPERATIONAL SPECIFICATIONS:
Page 7-6
Operating Temp
-20°C to +55°C
Storage Temp
-55°C to +85°C
Max Un-Pressurized Operating
35,000 ft
Max Pressurized Operating
55,000 ft
Cooling
Integral Fan
EFD1000 PFD Pilot’s Guide
A-01-184-00 REV A
Max Humidity
95% at 50°C
Input Voltage
+8 to +32 Volts DC
Max Current
2.4 Amps @ 28 Vdc
4.8 Amps @ 14 Vdc
I/O SPECIFICATIONS:
5 Low Speed
ARINC 429 Outputs
1 Low Speed
RS-232 Inputs
5
RS-232 Outputs
3
Pitot / Static
Quick Connect
CHAPTER 7, APPENDICES
ARINC 429 Inputs
CERTIFICATION SPECIFICATIONS:
Technical Standard Order
TSO-C2d, TSO-C3d, TSO-C4c, TSO-C6d, TSO-C8d,
TSO-C10b, TSO-C106, TSO-C113
Software
RTCA DO-178B Level C
Environmental
RTCA DO-160E
Categories
See Environmental Qualification Sheet
A-01-184-00 REV A
EFD1000 PFD Pilot’s Guide
Page 7-7
CHAPTER 7, APPENDICES
7.4. Specifications
Part Number
A-05-111-00
Width
2.65 in.
Length
4.40 in
Height
1.00 in.
Weight
0.2 lbs
Input Voltage
Provided by PFD
Max Current
Included in PFD Current
Environmental
RTCA DO-160E
Categories
See Environmental Qualification Sheet
7.4.1. EFD1000 Display Assembly
Page 7-8
Part Number
A-05-112-00
Width
5.75 in. (including mounting flange)
Length
4.30 in. (including connector)
Height
1.00 in.
Weight
1.60 in. (including mounting flange)
Input Voltage
+10 to +32 Volts DC
Max Current
0.5 Amps @ 28 Vdc
1.0 Amps @ 14 Vdc
Interfaces
ARINC-429 and RS-232
EFD1000 PFD Pilot’s Guide
A-01-184-00 REV A
7.5. Acronyms and Abbreviations
Analog to Digital
Alternating Current
Analog Converter Unit
Air Data Computer
Attitude Director Indicator
Airplane Flight Manual Supplement
Attitude Heading Reference System
Attitude Indicator
Autopilot
Approach
Partial heading arc format (100°)
Aeronautical Radio Inc.
Back Course
Bearing Pointer
Course Deviation Indicator
Code of Federal Regulations
Configuration Module
Course
Direct Current
Decision Height
Distance Measuring Equipment
Electrically Erasable Programmable Read-Only Memory
Evolution Flight Display
A-01-184-00 REV A
EFD1000 PFD Pilot’s Guide
CHAPTER 7, APPENDICES
A/D
AC
ACU
ADC
ADI
AFMS
AHRS
AI
AP or A/P
APPR
ARC
ARINC
BC
BP
CDI
CFR
CM
CRS
DC
DH
DME
EEPROM
EFD
Page 7-9
CHAPTER 7, APPENDICES
EFIS
FAF
FD
ft
GPS
GPSS
GS
HSI
Hz
IAF
IAS
IFR
ILS
IMC
IOP
KIAS
kts
lb
LCD
LDI
LOC
mA
MAP
MFD
Page 7-10
Electronic Flight Instrument System
Final Approach Fix
Flight Director
Feet
Global Positioning System
GPS Steering
Glide slope
Horizontal Situation Indicator
Hertz (frequency)
Initial Approach Fix
Indicated Air Speed
Instrument Fight Rules
Instrument Landing System
Instrument Meteorological Conditions
Input/Output Processor
Knots Indicated Air Speed
Knots
pound
Liquid Crystal Display
Lateral Deviation Indicator
Localizer
milliamp, 0.001 ampere
Main Application Processor
Multi-Function Display
EFD1000 PFD Pilot’s Guide
A-01-184-00 REV A
millisecond
Message
Mean Sea Level
Non-Directional Beacon
Nautical Miles
Outside Air Temperature
Omni-Bearing Selector
Primary Flight Display
Radio Magnetic Indicator
Remote Sensor Module
Roll Sum Steering
True Air Speed
Terminal Mode
volts, alternating current
volts, direct current
Vertical Deviation Indicator
Very High Frequency
VOR/Localizer
VHF Omni-directional Radio Range
Vertical Speed Indicator
WPT
Waypoint
A-01-184-00 REV A
CHAPTER 7, APPENDICES
ms
MSG
MSL
NDB
nm
OAT
OBS
PFD
RMI
RSM
RSS
TAS
TERM
Vac
Vdc
VDI
VHF
VLOC
VOR
VSI
EFD1000 PFD Pilot’s Guide
Page 7-11
CHAPTER 7, APPENDICES
Page 7-12
EFD1000 PFD Pilot’s Guide
A-01-184-00 REV A
Aspen Avionics, Inc.
5001 Indian School Road NE
Albuquerque, NM 87110
Phone: 888-99ASPEN (888-992-7736)
Phone, International: (505) 856-5034
Fax: (505) 314-5440
info@aspenavionics.com
www.aspenavionics.com
A-01-184-00 REV A
Printed in USA
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