Keysight Vector Network Analyzer

Keysight Vector Network Analyzer
Keysight
Vector Network Analyzer
Calibration and Connector Care
Timothy Lee
Keysight Technologies Australia Pty Ltd
Application Engineer
Agenda
• Calibration
• Connector care
• E5080A New Product Introduction
Vector Network Analyzer
Calibration & Connector Care
Page
2
The Need For Calibration
– Why do we have to calibrate?
• It is impossible to make perfect hardware
• It would be extremely difficult and expensive to make
hardware good enough to entirely eliminate the need for
error correction
– How do we get accuracy?
• With vector-error-corrected calibration
• Not the same as the yearly instrument calibration
– What does calibration do for us?
• Removes the largest contributor to measurement
uncertainty: systematic errors
• Provides best picture of true performance of DUT
Systematic error
Vector Network Analyzer Calibration
& Connector Care
Page 3
Network Analyser – Errors
Types of Errors
Errors:
SYSTEMATIC
Measured Data
Unknown
Device
RANDOM
DRIFT
Systematic
-
Repeatable
Time variant
Drift
-
Remove by
calibration?
YES
Temperature
variation
Controllable
YES
Random
-
Unpredictable
Non-repeatable
NO
Vector Network Analyzer Calibration
& Connector Care
Page 4
NA – Calibration
Why calibrate?
0
Measuring filter insertion loss
CH1 S21 &M log MAG
CH2 MEM log MAG
Cor
1 dB/
1 dB/
2.0
REF 0 dB
REF 0 dB
data before 1-port
calibration
20
After two-port calibration
1.1
After response calibration
Cor
1.01
data after 1-port
calibration
60
1.001
x2 1
2
6000
MHz
Vector Network Analyzer Calibration
& Connector Care
12000
Page 5
VSWR
Uncorrected
Return Loss (dB)
40
NA – Errors : Correcting Measurement Error
2- Ports Devices : Full 2-ports Accuracy Enhancement
R
Crosstalk/
Isolation
A
Directivity
B
DUT
Frequency response
reflection tracking (A/R)
transmission tracking (B/R)
Source
Mismatch
Load
Mismatch
Six forward and six reverse error terms yield 12 error terms
for two-port devices
Vector Network Analyzer Calibration
& Connector Care
Page 6
NA – Calibration
Types of Error Correction
Response (Normalization)
Vector
Simple task
More steps
One cal standard needed : Open, Short or Thru
Requires to use standard for calibration : Open,
Short, Load and Thru
Measured data divided by stored(Initial) data
Able to remove systematic error
Less accurate
Accurate measurement
Does not require measurement of phase or vector
math
Calibrate for both phase and magnitude
Available in both vector and scalar analyzers
Cal kit must match cal kit standard definition in
analyzer
Vector Network Analyzer Calibration
& Connector Care
Page 7
What is Vector-Error Correction?
– Vector-error correction…
• Is a process for characterizing systematic error terms
• Measures known electrical standards
• Removes effects of error terms from subsequent
measurements
Errors
Measured
Actual
– Electrical standards…
• Can be mechanical or electronic
• Are often an open, short, load, and thru,
but can be arbitrary impedances as well
Vector Network Analyzer Calibration
& Connector Care
Page 8
NA – Calibration
Calibration Types
Uncorrected
Response
1 Port
Full 2 Port
Fast
Short standard yields
better response
Reflection measurement
Slowest
No errors removed
Removes errors:
Directivity
Source match
Reflection tracking
Removes errors:
Directivity
Source match
Reflection Tracking
Removes errors:
Directivity
Source, Load match
Reflection tracking
Transmission tracking
Crosstalk
Not accurate
Medium accuracy
High accuracy
Highest accuracy
SHORT
DUT
SHORT
SHORT
OPEN
OPEN
LOAD
LOAD
SHORT
OR
OPEN
OR
OPEN
LOAD
thru
Vector Network Analyzer Calibration
& Connector Care
thru
Page 9
ECal Introduction
Electronic Calibration
- Precision single connection from one to multiport calibration
- Using known electronic impedance standard
- Programmable and highly repeatable
impedance states.
- Transfer standard – based on the measurement
accuracy of the original calibration and test
setup used to measure the ECal impedance
standard.
- Internal thermal compensation to limit
performance variation due to temperature
changes.
Vector Network Analyzer Calibration
& Connector Care
Page 10
ECal – How it works? Two port
Two Port Err Correction
- Similar to one port calibration
- ECal provides known values of
impedance standards ( ,
, , )
- Network Analyzer provides raw
measured value ( , - TT and LM can be solved using
equation 2 & 3
Vector Network Analyzer Calibration
& Connector Care
Page 11
ECal - User Characterizations
ECal Characterization
1. Select adapters for
the module to match the
connector configuration
of the DUT.
2. Perform a calibration
using appropriate
mechanical standards.
3. Measure the ECal
module, including
adapters, as though it
were a DUT
4. VNA stores resulting
characterization data
inside the module.
Vector Network Analyzer Calibration
& Connector Care
Page 12
TRL Calibration
Introduction
Thru, Reflect, Line (TRL)
Transmission Line
-
TRL reference standard
Simplest elements to realize in many noncoaxial media
Impedance can be accurately determined –
physical dimension and material
Traditionally being used as standard
TRL was developed for
non-coaxial
microwave
measurements
-
-
-
Extremely accurate
Test fixture or wafer probing measurement
Need not be defined as completely and
accurately as SOLT
Modeled, not completely characterized
Quality and repeatability of TRL standard
relies on the characteristic impedance of a
short transmission line
THRU – connection of port 1 and 2 directly or
with a short length of transmission line
REFLECT – connect identical one port high
reflection coefficient devices (Short) at each
port
LINE – short length (different length
compared to THRU)
Vector Network Analyzer Calibration
& Connector Care
Page 13
TRL Calibration
Example : Microstrip test fixture
THRU
Reflection
LINE
Vector Network Analyzer Calibration
& Connector Care
Page 14
Connector Care
Rough Estimation of Connectors Cost
N Type
~$912.00
1.0mm
~$2584.00
Adapter 2.4mm
to 3.5mm
~$670.00
Type F 75Ohm
Cable
~$1520.00
2.4mm
~$805.00
Vector Network Analyzer Calibration
& Connector Care
Page 16
Connector Examples
Vector Network Analyzer Calibration
& Connector Care
Page 17
Connector Considerations
Repeatability
Allows user to
connect/disconnect
while maintaining
the performance
Measurement
Accuracy
Test result is
consistent and
repeatable
Quality
Type
Choose the right
connector to avoid
cascading of
different type of
connectors
Compatibility
Choose the right
connector for the
test frequency
range
Wear and Tear
Connectors are
consumable and
limited lifespan
Frequent use = high
wear and tear
Metrology
# Use
Instrument
Production (Field)
Vector Network Analyzer Calibration
& Connector Care
Page 18
Characteristic Impedance
Characteristic Impedance, D = Inner diameter of outer
conductor
Z0 =
 D 
ln 

εr  d 
60
d = Outer diameter of inner
conductor
d
E.g.
D = 7.0 mm ; d = 3.04 mm
Z 0 εr = 50 ohms
Vector Network Analyzer Calibration
& Connector Care
Page 19
D
Frequency Coverage
Formula
fmax(GHz) = approx. 120/D mm
7 mm = approx. 18 GHz
3.5 mm = 32 GHz
d
Ratio D/d constant
Depends strongly on dielectric
support and mating pin geometry
Vector Network Analyzer Calibration
& Connector Care
Page 20
D
Connector Summary
C o n n e c to r
T y p e F (7 5 )
B N C (5 0 &
SM C
T y p e N (5 0
A P C -7 o r 7
S M A (4 .1 4
3 .5 5 m m
75)
& 75)
mm
mm)
2 .9 2 m m o r " K "
2 .4 m m
2
1 .8 5 m m
1 .0 m m
2 ,3
1
2
3
1
M e t ro lo g y
In s t r u m e n t
P r o d u c t io n
C u t o f f F r e q (G H z )
Sexed
N
N
N
Y
Y
N
Y
N
N
Y
Y
Y
N
Y
Y
Y
N
Y
Y
Y
Y
1
2
7
18
18
22
34
Y
Y
Y
Y
N
Y
Y
P r e c is io n S lo t t e d
C o n n e c to r
N
N
N
Y
N
N
Y
N
Y
Y
44
Y
N
Y
Y
Y
52
Y
Y
N
N
Y
Y
Y
Y
70
110
Y
Y
N
N
C o m p a tib le w ith S M A a n d 3 . 5 m m C o n n e c t o r s
N o t C o m p a tib le w ith S M A , 3 .5 m m , o r 2 .9 2 m m C o n n e c to r s
1 . 8 5 m m IS C o m p a tib le w it h 2 .4 m m C o n n e c t o r
Vector Network Analyzer Calibration
& Connector Care
Page 21
What mates with what?
Connector Type
Frequency Range
Mates with
Notes
1.0mm
To 110GHz
1.0mm
Much smaller connector than
any of those below
1.85mm
To 70GHz
2.4mm
The outer thread size of 1.85
and 2.4 is bigger than SMA,
3.5 and 2.92
2.4mm
To 50GHz
1.85mm
1.85mm connector by Keysight
has groove in male nut and
female shoulder to distinguish
these 2 connector types
2.92mm
To 40GHz
3.5mm and SMA
These two connectors use the
same center pin
3.5mm
To 34GHz
2.92mm and SMA
SMA
To 24GHz
2.92mm and 3.5mm
Uses Teflon as dielectric
Vector Network Analyzer Calibration
& Connector Care
Page 22
Recommended Connection Steps
Steps
-
Inspect
Clean
Gauge (if necessary)
Connect
Disconnect
Protect (cap and store)
Vector Network Analyzer Calibration
& Connector Care
Page 23
Recommended Connection Steps – Do / Don’t
Do
Don’t
Handling / Storage
Keep connectors clean
Extend sleeve or connector nut(7mm)
Use plastic end-caps during storage
Touch mating surfaces
Set connectors contact-end down
Visual inspection
Inspect all connectors carefully before making
connection
Look for metal particles, scratches and dents
Use a damaged connector - ever
Connector cleaning
Try compressed air first
Use isopropyl alcohol
Clean connector threads
Use any abrasives
Get liquid into plastic support beads
Gauging connection
(If necessary)
Clean and zero the gauge before use
Use the correct gauge type
Use correct end of calibration block
Gauge all connectors before first use
Use an out-of-spec connector
Making connection
Align connectors carefully
Make preliminary connection lightly
Turn only the connector nut
Use a torque wrench for final connection
Apply bending force to connection
Over tighten preliminary connection
Twist or screw any connection
Vector Network Analyzer Calibration
Page 24
Tighten
torque wrench
“break
& Connectorpast
Care
point”
QUESTION?
Vector Network Analyzer Calibration
& Connector Care
Page 25
Introducing the next generation
ENA network analyzer E5080A,
9 kHz to 4.5 / 6.5 / 9 GHz
Timothy Lee
Keysight Technologies Australia Pty Ltd
Application Engineer
E5080A ENA Series Network Analyzer
The next-generation ENA offering the best-in-class performance
with modern GUI on the new common VNA platform
• 9 kHz to 4.5 / 6.5 / 9 GHz with bias-T
• 2 or 4-port
• Enhanced performance
Wider dynamic range (135 dB, spec)
Faster measurement speed (3 ms @ 201pts & 2-port cal)
• Expanded source range (-90 to +15 dBm, spec)
• Modern GUI with larger display
Vector Network Analyzer Calibration
& Connector Care
Page 27
Keysight’s
Bench-top VNA platform
PNA platform
New common VNA platform
( PNA based, with new GUI)
PNA-X
PNA
PNA-L
ENA platform
E5071C
4.5/6.5/8.5 GHz
14/20 GHz
E5072A
4.5/8.5 GHz
NEW
E5080A
1st version
4.5/6.5/9 GHz
The first shot of
Keysight’s new
common VNA platform
E5061B
1.5/3 GHz
E5063A
4.5/8.5/18 GHz
Vector Network Analyzer Calibration
& Connector Care
Page 28
E5080A product structure
E5080A
ENA Series network analyzer
Test set options
E5080A-245
E5080A-265
E5080A-295
E5080A-445
E5080A-465
E5080A-495
2-port test set, 9 kHz to 4.5 GHz with bias tees
2-port test set, 9 kHz to 6.5 GHz with bias tees
2-port test set, 9 kHz to 9 GHz with bias tees
4-port test set, 9 kHz to 4.5 GHz with bias tees
4-port test set, 9 kHz to 6.5 GHz with bias tees
4-port test set, 9 kHz to 9 GHz with bias tees
Software options
E5080A-009
E5080A-010
E5080A-790
Frequency offset mode #1
Time domain analysis
Measurement wizard assistant
Other options
High stability time base, Removable SSD, Keyboard, Mouse, Rack mount kits
#1. Provides basic FOM functions, SMC (Scalar Mixer Calibration), and VMC (Vector Mixer Characterization) macro.
Vector Network Analyzer Calibration &
Connector Care
Page 29
E5080A specs & features
E5080A
E5071C (4.5/6.5/8.5 GHz options)
Frequency
9 kHz to 4.5/6.5/9 GHz, with bias-T
9 kHz to 4.5/6.5/8.5 GHz, without bias-T
100 kHz to 4.5/6.5/8.5 GHz, with bias-T
Test port
2 or 4-port, 50 Ω
2 or 4-port, 50 Ω
Dynamic range
135 dB
123 dB
Trace noise
Stability
Meas. speed
(147 dB typ.)
(130 dB typ.)
(at 50 M to 6 GHz, 10 Hz IFBW)
(at 10 M to 6 GHz, 10 Hz IFBW)
0.0015 dBrms
0.003 dBrms
(at 10 M to 6 GHz, 10 kHz IFBW)
(at 10 M to 4.38 GHz, 70 kHz IFBW)
0.005 dB/deg.C
0.005 dB/deg.C
(at 9 k to 3 GHz)
(at 9 k to 3 GHz)
3 ms (sweep mode: AUTO #1 )
5 ms (sweep mode: swept, RF ranging fixed)
-90 to +15 dBm (typ. +17 dBm)
-55 to +10 dBm
(at 50 M to 6 GHz)
(at 9 k to 5 GHz)
Max 100,001
Max 20,001
(201 pts, 500 kHz IFBW,
200 MHz span, 2-port cal)
Source power
NOP
#1. Auto mode: automatically selects the faster mode from Stepped or Swept.
Vector Network Analyzer Calibration
& Connector Care
Page 30
E5080A specs & features
E5080A
E5071C (4.5/6.5/8.5 GHz options)
User interface
Modern GUI
Classic UI
Calibration capabilities
SOLT, TRL, Response, Enhanced resp.,
Source/receiver cal
SOLT, TRL, Response, Enhanced resp.,
Source/receiver cal
Various dialogs/wizards selectable
(Basic Cal, Smart Cal, Cal ALL, … etc)
Software options
Freq. offset mode, Time domain, MWA
Freq. offset mode, Time domain, MWA,
Enhanced time domain (option TDR)
Other major
software capabilities
Fixture simulator, Equation editor, cXL,
PMAR (power meter as receiver)
Fixture simulator, Equation editor, cXL,
External test set mode #1
Programming
Remote control with SCPI commands
( PNA-compatible commands)
Remote control with SCPI commands
Built-in VBA
Other hardware
capabilities
High stability oven(option) , Trig In/Out,
DC input ports
High stability oven(option) , Trig In/Out,
DC input ports, Probe power
Multiport test set
E5092A
E5092A, E5091A #2
Display
12.1 inch
10.4 inch
Box height
6U
5U
#1. Assigns 4 test ports as direct source/receiver ports, S, R, A, and B.
#2. Discontinued test set, EOS in December 2014.
Vector Network Analyzer Calibration
& Connector Care
Page 31
E5080A’s two major features over E5071C
Enhanced performance
•
Wider dynamic range
•
Faster speed
Improve test throughput.
Drive down cost of test.
Enhanced usability with new GUI
Improves efficiency & comfort
of measurements in R&D.
Vector Network Analyzer Calibration &
Page 32
Connector Care
Wider dynamic range
E5080A: 135 dB vs. E5071C: 123 dB (at IFBW=10 Hz, max source power)
Possible to use wider IFBW to achieve same dynamic range.
To measure DUT requiring 110 dB dynamic range…
E5080A : 0.17 sec
E5071C: 1.6 sec
(IFBW=10 kHz, Source=+15 dBm,
NOP=801, 2-port cal)
(IFBW=1 kHz, Source=+10 dBm,
NOP=801, 2-port cal)
-110 dB
10-times faster throughput
Vector Network Analyzer Calibration
& Connector Care
Page 33
Enhanced performance
Faster measurement speed
Example of automated mfg test of handset duplexer
Optimized segment sweep table for this DUT
Segment-1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
Stop [MHz]
2422
Span [MHz]
2372
NOP
476
Space
[MHz]
5.0
Sweep
mode
Swept
1
Start [MHz]
50
2
2427
2485
58
13
4.8
Stepped
3
4
2485.5
2570.5
2570
2620
84.5
49.5
170
100
0.5
0.5
Swept
Stepped
5
6
2620.5
2710.5
2710
2725
89.5
14.5
180
30
0.5
0.5
Swept
Stepped
7
2730
3800
1070
215
5.0
Swept
8
3810
7950
4140
415
10.0
Swept
•
80 dB dynamic range required.
•
Applicable power level is +5 dBm.
•
Use stepped sweep at segment-2, -4, and -6
to measure filter edges accurately.
Vector Network Analyzer Calibration
& Connector Care
Page 34
Enhanced performance
Faster measurement speed
Example of automated mfg test of handset duplexer
Speed benchmark test result
E5080A
IFBW
E5071C
Measurement cycle
time
Dynamic range
Dynamic range
(Source= +5 dBm)
Measurement cycle
time
70 kHz
88 ms
87 dB
96 ms
80 dB
100 kHz
73 ms
85 dB
82 ms
78 dB
300 kHz
54 ms
80 dB
77 ms
73 dB
(Source= +5 dBm)
Nearly 2-times faster throughput
NOTE:
• Dynamic range shown above is calculated from catalog spec at IFBW=10 Hz & source=max.
Vector Network Analyzer Calibration
& Connector Care
Page 35
Enhanced usability
Quickly making setups
Tabbed soft panel
Enables accessing your desired functions
within 2 steps.
Add or delete
traces & channels
with icons
Select tab,
and press desired
softkey.
Long press or right click
to show popup menus.
Vector Network Analyzer Calibration
& Connector Care
Page 36
Enhanced usability
Intuitively laying out traces & windows
Drag & drop traces with finger or mouse.
All traces plotted
in the same window
All traces moved to desired
windows.
Vector Network Analyzer Calibration &
Connector Care
Page 37
Enhanced usability
Easily making complicated setups with dialogs & wizards
Smart cal wizard
Quick Start dialog
SMC dialog
Vector Network Analyzer Calibration &
Connector Care
Page 38
Enhanced usability
Customizable UI
Register frequently-used softkeys
to Favorite menu.
Long press or right click
to register softkeys.
Add more icons on the tool
bars.
Vector Network Analyzer Calibration
& Connector Care
Page 39
E5080A’s other features inherited from PNA & E5071C
Inherited from PNA
Inherited from E5071C
Function
Features
Benefits
Source power cal
•
•
Faster power cal speed than E5071C.
Advanced techniques such as power cal using receivers.
Useful for amplifier tests.
PMAR
•
Plots power sensor’s measured data on the VNA trace.
Useful for amplifier & mixer tests.
Embedding/De-embedding usable in SMC mode.
External SG quickly sweepable with Trig In/Out.
Improve accuracy & speed of mixer tests.
(opt.009)
•
•
Equation editor
•
MATLAB® support
Enable more complicated
data processing.
Cal plane manager
•
•
Characterizes fixtures/adapters with O/S/L cal kits.
Other useful capabilities for modifying S2P data.
Improve accuracy at DUT planes.
Copy channel
•
Copy setups & user cal data to other channels
Useful for making multi-ch setups.
(power meter as receiver)
FOM / SMC
(equivalent to E5071C’s save/recall channel)
Segment sweep
•
IFBW & source level settable per segment & per port
Improves filter test throughput.
Multi-peak search
•
MKR search for multiple positive/negative peaks
Useful for antenna tests.
Limit test
•
Ripple/BW limit & Point limit
Useful for filter & antenna tests.
VMC
•
Measures mixer’s phase.
Enables deeper mixer characterization.
(opt.009)
(up-down conversion method)
Vector Network Analyzer Calibration &
Connector Care
Page 40
Summary
E5080A ENA Series Network Analyzer
9 kHz to 4.5 / 6.5 / 9 GHz
• Enhanced performance
• Enhanced usability
Vector Network Analyzer Calibration
& Connector Care
Page 41
QUESTION?
Vector Network Analyzer Calibration
& Connector Care
Page 42
FieldFox Measurement Tips
Timothy Lee
Keysight Technologies Australia Pty Ltd
Application Engineer
Agenda
• Burst RF transmitter test (WIMAX)
• TDMA signal – GSM
• Pulse radar measurement
• 75Ohm calibration – CAT/NA
Vector Network Analyzer
Calibration & Connector Care
Page
44
Burst RF Transmitter Test (WIMAX)
Tips
- Use Burst RF as trigger source
- Set trigger level
- Set frequency span bigger than
signal’s BW
- Use average
Vector Network Analyzer Calibration
& Connector Care
Page 45
TDMA Signal - GSM
Tips
- Use Burst RF as trigger source
- Set trigger level
- Set frequency span bigger than
signal’s BW
- Use average
Vector Network Analyzer Calibration
& Connector Care
Page 46
Pulse Radar measurement
Tips
- Use narrow RBW in frequency
domain
- Use Zero Span (0Hz) – time
domain
- Use wide RBW in time domain
- Change sweep time to zoom
in/out
Vector Network Analyzer Calibration
& Connector Care
Page 47
75 Ohm Calibration - CAT/NA
Tips
- Use low loss 50Ohm to 75Ohm
adaptor
- Change the system impedance
to 75Ohm
- Cal with 75Ohm load.
Vector Network Analyzer Calibration
& Connector Care
Page 48
Extended Range Transmission Analysis (ERTA)
ERTA Measurement setup
Long cable under test
Trigger in
Trigger out
Trigger out
Trigger in
Ethernet cable
Slave / source
• Master / slave architecture
• Trigger in /out keep both box in sync
• Master provide test configuration, data
transfer and final measurement
presentation
• Each box can be locked with GPS timing
to get better dynamic range and stability.
• Test / jumper cable loss can be
measured using VNA and recalled as
cable loss in ERTA mode
Master / receiver
Vector Network Analyzer Calibration
& Connector Care
Page 49
Extended Range Transmission Analysis (ERTA)
ERTA Measurement setup
Vector Network Analyzer Calibration
& Connector Care
Page 50
QUESTION?
Vector Network Analyzer Calibration
& Connector Care
Page 51
Was this manual useful for you? yes no
Thank you for your participation!

* Your assessment is very important for improving the work of artificial intelligence, which forms the content of this project

Download PDF

advertising