Pynq - Read the Docs

Pynq - Read the Docs
Python productivity for Zynq (Pynq)
Documentation
Release 1.01
Xilinx
February 17, 2017
Contents
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2
PYNQ Introduction
2.1 Project Goals . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
2.2 Summary . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
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3
Jupyter Notebook Introduction
3.1 Acknowledgements . . . . .
3.2 Introduction . . . . . . . . .
3.3 Notebook documents . . . . .
3.4 Notebook Basics . . . . . . .
3.5 Overview of the Notebook UI
3.6 Running Code . . . . . . . .
3.7 Markdown . . . . . . . . . .
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4
Cortex-A9 programming in Python
4.1 The factors and primes example . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
4.2 More intensive calculations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
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5
Programming PYNQ-Z1’s onboard peripherals
5.1 LEDs, switches and buttons . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
5.2 Peripheral Example . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
5.3 Controlling a single LED . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
5.4 Example: Controlling all the LEDs, switches and buttons .
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32
Introduction to Overlays
6.1 Overlay Concept . .
6.2 Base Overlay . . . .
6.3 Pmod Peripherals . .
6.4 Arduino Peripherals
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35
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6
7
Getting Started
1.1 Video Guide . . . .
1.2 Prerequisites . . . .
1.3 Setup the PYNQ-Z1
1.4 Connect to Jupyter .
1.5 Using PYNQ . . . .
1.6 Update PYNQ . . .
1.7 Troubleshooting . .
IO Processor Architecture
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43
i
7.1
7.2
8
9
Pmod IOP . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Arduino IOP . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
IO Processors: Writing Your Own Software
8.1 IO Processors . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
8.2 Software requirements . . . . . . . . . .
8.3 Compiling projects . . . . . . . . . . . .
8.4 IOP Memory . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
8.5 Controlling the Pmod IOP Switch . . . .
8.6 Running code on different IOPs . . . . .
8.7 IOP Application Example . . . . . . . .
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55
Using Peripherals with the Base overlay
9.1 Base overlay . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
9.2 Using Pmods with an overlay . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
9.3 Example: Using the OLED and the Ambient Light Sensor (ALS) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
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10 Video using the Base Overlay
10.1 Video IO . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
10.2 The HDMI video capture controller . .
10.3 Starting and stopping the controller . .
10.4 Readback from the controller . . . . .
10.5 HDMI Frame list . . . . . . . . . . . .
10.6 Frame Lists . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
10.7 The HDMI out controller . . . . . . . .
10.8 Input/Output Frame Lists . . . . . . .
10.9 Streaming from HDMI Input to Output
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11 Audio using the Base Overlay
11.1 Audio IP in base overlay . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
11.2 Using the MIC . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
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12 Creating Overlays
12.1 Introduction . . . . . .
12.2 Vivado design . . . . .
12.3 Existing Overlays . . .
12.4 Interfacing to an overlay
12.5 Packaging overlays . . .
12.6 Using Overlays . . . . .
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13 pynq Package
13.1 Python pynq Package Structure
13.2 board . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
13.3 iop . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
13.4 bitstream . . . . . . . . . . . .
13.5 drivers . . . . . . . . . . . . .
13.6 tests . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
13.7 documentation . . . . . . . . .
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14 Verification
14.1 Running Tests . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
14.2 Writing Tests . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
14.3 Miscellaneous Test Setup . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
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15 pynq package reference
89
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15.1 Subpackages . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 89
15.2 Submodules . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 144
16 Frequently Asked Questions (FAQs)
155
16.1 Connecting to the board . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 155
16.2 Board/Jupyter settings . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 157
16.3 General Questions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 159
17 Glossary
161
17.1 A-G . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 161
17.2 H-R . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 161
17.3 S-Z . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 162
18 Useful Reference Links
18.1 Git . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
18.2 Jupyter . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
18.3 PUTTY (terminal emulation software)
18.4 Pynq Technical support . . . . . . . .
18.5 Python built-in functions . . . . . . . .
18.6 Python training . . . . . . . . . . . . .
18.7 reStructuredText . . . . . . . . . . . .
18.8 Sphinx . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
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19 Appendix
167
19.1 Technology Backgrounder . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 167
19.2 Writing the SD card image . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 168
19.3 Assign your laptop/PC a static IP address . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 170
20 Documentation Changelog
173
20.1 Version 1.01 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 173
21 Indices and tables
175
Python Module Index
177
iii
iv
CHAPTER 1
Getting Started
Table of Contents
• Getting Started
– Video Guide
– Prerequisites
– Setup the PYNQ-Z1
– Connect to Jupyter
– Using PYNQ
– Update PYNQ
– Troubleshooting
This guide will show you how to setup your computer and PYNQ-Z1 board to get started using PYNQ. Any issues
can be posted to the PYNQ support forum.
Video Guide
You can watch the getting started video guide, or follow the instructions below.
Prerequisites
• PYNQ-Z1 board
• Computer with compatible browser (Supported Browsers)
• Ethernet cable
• Micro USB cable
• Micro-SD card with preloaded image, or blank card (Minimum 8GB recommended)
Get the image and prepare the Micro-SD Card
Preloaded Micro SD cards are available from Digilent. If you already have a Micro SD card preloaded with the
PYNQ-Z1 image, you can skip this step.
To make your own PYNQ Micro-SD card:
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• Download and the PYNQ-Z1 image and unzip
• Write the image to a blank Micro SD card (minimum 8GB recommended)
– Windows: Use win32DiskImager
– Linux/MacOS: Use the built in dd command*
* For detailed instructions for writing the SD card using different operating systems, see the Appendix: Writing the
SD card image.
Setup the PYNQ-Z1
1. Set the boot jumper (labelled JP4 on the board) to the SD position by placing the jumper over the top two pins
of JP4 as shown in the image. (This sets the board to boot from the Micro-SD card)
2. To power the PYNQ-Z1 from the micro USB cable, set the power jumper (JP5) to the USB position by placing
the jumper over the top two pins of JP5 as shown in the image. (Set the jumper to REG to use an external power
regulator)
3. Insert the Micro SD card loaded with the PYNQ-Z1 image into the board. (The Micro SD slot is underneath the
board)
4. Connect the USB cable to your PC/Laptop, and to the PROG/UART (J14) on the board
5. Connect the Ethernet cable into your board and see the step below for connecting to a computer or network
6. The last step is to power on the board. You should follow the steps below to connect to the board before powering
on.
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Ethernet connection to the board
You can connect the Ethernet port of the PYNQ-Z1 Ethernet in the following ways:
• To a router or switch on the same network as your computer
• Directly to an Ethernet port on your computer
If available, you should connect your board to a network with Ethernet access. This will allow you to update your
board and install new packages.
Connect to a network
If you connect to a network with a DHCP server, your board will automatically get an IP address. You must make sure
you have permission to connect a device to your network, otherwise the board may not connect properly.
Router/Network switch (DHCP)
1. Connect to Ethernet port on router/switch
2. Browse to http://pynq:9090
3. Optional: Change hostname (if more than one board on network)*
4. Optional: Configure proxy*
* This can be done after the board is powered on. See below for instructions
The default hostname is pynq. If there is another device on the network with this hostname, you will need to change
the hostname of your board before you connect it to the network. If you are not sure if there are other boards on the
network, you should check if the pynq hostname is already in use before connecting a new board. One way to check
this is by pinging pynq from a command prompt:
ping pynq
If you get a response from ping, this means there is already another device on the network with this hostname.
You can use a USB terminal connection to change the hostname before you connect your board to the network. If you
are using a shared network, you should change the default hostname of the board in case other boards are connected
to the network later.
You can also use the terminal to configure proxy settings, or to configure any other board settings. See below for detail
on how to connect a terminal.
Connect directly to your computer
You will need to have an Ethernet port available on your computer, and you will need to have permimssions to
configure your network interface. With a direct connection, you will be able to use PYNQ, but unless you can bridge
the Ethernet connection to the board to an Internet connection on your computer, your board will not have Internet
access. You will be unable to update or load new packages without Internet access.
1.3. Setup the PYNQ-Z1
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Direct Connection to your computer (Static IP)
1. Configure your computer with a Static IP*
2. Connect directly to your computer’s Ethernet port
3. Browse to http://192.168.2.99:9090
* See Appendix: Assign your PC/Laptop a static IP address
Powering on
As indicated in step 6 in the diagram above, slide the power switch to the ON position to Turn On the board. A Red
LED will come on immediately to confirm that the board is powered on. After a few seconds, a Yellow/Green LED
(LD12/DONE) will light up to show that the Zynq® device is operational.
After about 30 seconds you should see two blue LEDs and four yellow/green flash simultaneously. The blue LEDS
will then go off while the yellow/green LEDS remain on. At this point the system is now booted and ready for use.
Connect to Jupyter
• Open a web browser and go to http://pynq:9090 (network) http://192.168.2.99:9090 (direct connection)
• The Jupyter username is xilinx and the password is also xilinx
The default hostname is pynq and the default static IP address is 192.168.2.99. If you changed the hostname or
static IP of the board, you will need to change the address you browse to.
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The first time you connect, it may take a few seconds for your computer to resolve the hostname/IP address.
Change hostname
If you are on a network where other pynq boards may be connected, you should change your hostname immediately.
This is a common requirement in a work or university environment.
A terminal is available inside Jupyter. In the Jupyter portal home area, select New >> terminal.
This will open a terminal inside the browser as root.
Next enter and execute the following command. (Note that you should replace NEW_HOST_NAME with the hostname you want for your board.)
sudo /home/xilinx/scripts/hostname.sh NEW_HOST_NAME
Follow the instructions to reboot the board.
sudo shutdown -r now
When the board reboots, reconnect using the new hostname. e.g. http://pynq_cmc:9090
If you can’t connect to your board, see the step below to open a terminal using the micro USB cable.
Connect to the PYNQ-Z1 board with a terminal connection over USB
If you need to change settings on the board but you can’t access the terminal from Jupyter, you can connect a terminal
over the micro USB cable that is already connected to the board. You can also use this terminal to check the network
connection of the board. You will need to have terminal emulator software installed on your computer. PuTTY is
available for free on Windows. To open a terminal, you will need to know the COM port for the board.
On Windows, you can find this in the Windows Device Manager in the control panel.
• Open the Device Manager, expand Ports
• Find the COM port for the USB Serial Port. e.g. COM5
1.4. Connect to Jupyter
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Once you have the COM port, open PuTTY and use the following settings:
• Select serial
• Enter the COM port number
• Enter the baud rate
• Click Open
Hit Enter in the terminal window to make sure you can see the command prompt:
xilinnx@pynq:/home/xilinx#
Full terminal Settings:
• 115200 baud
• 8 data bits
• 1 stop bit
• No Parity
• No Flow Control
You can then run the same commands listed above to change the hostname, or configure a proxy.
You can also check the hostname of the board by running the hostname command:
hostname
You can also check the IP address of the board using ifconfig:
ifconfig
Configure proxy
If your board is connected to a network that uses a proxy, you need to set the proxy variables on the board. Open a terminal as above and enter the following where you should replace “my_http_proxy:8080” and “my_https_proxy:8080”
with your settings.
set http_proxy=my_http_proxy:8080
set https_proxy=my_https_proxy:8080
Using PYNQ
Getting started notebooks
A Jupyter notebook can be saved as html webpages. Some of this documentation has been generated directly from
Jupyter notebooks.
You can view the documentation as a webpage, or if you have a board running PYNQ, you can view and run the
notebook documentation interactively. The documentation available as notebooks can be found in the Getting_Started
folder in the Jupyter home area.
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There are also a number of example notebooks available showing how to use various peripherals with the board.
When you open a notebook and make any changes, or execute cells, the notebook document will be modified. It is
recommended that you “Save a copy” when you open a new notebook. If you want to restore the original versions,
1.5. Using PYNQ
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you can download all the example notebooks from the PYNQ GitHub page .
Accessing files on the board
Samba, a file sharing service, is running on the board. The home area on the board can be accessed as a network drive,
and you can transfer files to and from the board.
In Windows, to access the PYNQ home area you can go to:
\\pynq\xilinx
or
\\192.168.2.99\xilinx
Or in Linux:
smb://pynq/xilinx
or
smb://192.168.2.99/xilinx
Remember to change the hostname/IP address if necessary.
The Samba username:password is xilinx:xilinx
Update PYNQ
You can update the pynq package by executing the script:
/home/xilinx/scripts/update_pynq.sh
This will check the pynq GitHub, download and install the latest release.
Updating will overwrite the introductory and example notebooks. You should make sure you take a backup of this,
and any code you added to the pynq python directory.
Troubleshooting
If you are having problems, please see the Frequently asked questions or go the PYNQ support forum
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CHAPTER 2
PYNQ Introduction
Table of Contents
• PYNQ Introduction
– Project Goals
– Summary
Project Goals
Xilinx® makes Zynq® devices, a class of All Programmable Systems on Chip (APSoC) which integrates a multi-core
processor (Dual-core ARM® Cortex®-A9) and a Field Programmable Gate Array (FPGA) into a single integrated
circuit. FPGA, or programmable logic, and microprocessors are complementary technologies for embedded systems.
Each meets distinct requirements for embedded systems that the other cannot perform as well.
The main goal of PYNQ, Python Productivity for Zynq, is to make it easier for designers of embedded systems to
exploit the unique benefits of APSoCs in their applications. Specifically, PYNQ enables architects, engineers and
programmers who design embedded systems to use Zynq APSoCs, without having to use ASIC-style design tools to
design programmable logic circuits.
PYNQ achieves this goal in three main ways:
• Programmable logic circuits are presented as hardware libraries called overlays. These overlays are analogous
to software libraries. A software engineer can select the overlay that best matches their application. The overlay
can be accessed through an application programming interface (API). Creating a new overlay still requires
engineers with expertise in designing programmable logic circuits. The key difference however, is the build
once, re-use many times paradigm. Overlays, like software libraries, are designed to be configurable and re-used
as often as possible in many different applications.
Note: This is a familiar approach that borrows from best-practice in the software community. Every day, the Linux
kernel is used by hundreds of thousands of embedded designers. The kernel is developed and maintained by fewer
than one thousand, high-skilled, software architects and engineers. The extensive re-use of the work of a relatively
small number of very talented engineers enables many more software engineers to work at higher levels of abstraction.
Hardware libraries or overlays are inspired by the success of the Linux kernel model in abstracting so many of the
details of low-level, hardware-dependent software.
• PYNQ uses Python for programming both the embedded processors and the overlays. Python is a “productivitylevel” language. To date, C or C++ are the most common, embedded programming languages. In contrast,
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Python raises the level of programming abstraction and programmer productivity. These are not mutuallyexclusive choices, however. PYNQ uses CPython which is written in C, and integrates thousands of C libraries
and can be extended with optimized code written in C. Wherever practical, the more productive Python environment should be used, and whenever efficiency dictates, lower-level C code can be used.
• PYNQ is an open-source project that aims to work on any computing platform and operating system. This goal
is achieved by adopting a web-based architecture, which is also browser agnostic. We incorporate the opensource Jupyter notebook infrastructure to run an Interactive Python (IPython) kernel and a web server directly
on the ARM Cortex A9 of the Zynq device. The web server brokers access to the kernel via a suite of browserbased tools that provide a dashboard, bash terminal, code editors and Jupyter notebooks. The browser tools are
implemented with a combination of JavaScript, HTML and CSS and run on any modern browser.
Summary
PYNQ is the first project to combine the following elements to simplify and improve APSoC design:
1. A high-level productivity language (Python in this case)
2. FPGA overlays with extensive APIs exposed as Python libraries
3. A web-based architecture served from the embedded processors, and
4. The Jupyter Notebook framework deployed in an embedded context
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CHAPTER 3
Jupyter Notebook Introduction
Acknowledgements
The material in this tutorial is specific to Pynq. Wherever possible, however, it re-uses generic documentation describing Jupyter notebooks. In particular, we have re-used content from the following example notebooks:
1. What is the Jupyter Notebook?
2. Notebook Basics
3. Running Code
4. Markdown Cells
The original notebooks and further example notebooks are available at Jupyter documentation
Introduction
If you are reading this documentation from the webpage, you should note that the webpage is a static html version
of the notebook from which it was generated. If the Pynq platform is available, you can open this notebook from the
Getting_Started folder in the Pynq portal.
The Jupyter Notebook is an interactive computing environment that enables users to author notebook documents
that include: - Live code - Interactive widgets - Plots - Narrative text - Equations - Images - Video
These documents provide a complete and self-contained record of a computation that can be converted to
various formats and shared with others using email, Dropbox, version control systems (like git/GitHub) or
nbviewer.jupyter.org.
Components
The Jupyter Notebook combines three components:
• The notebook web application: An interactive web application for writing and running code interactively and
authoring notebook documents.
• Kernels: Separate processes started by the notebook web application that runs users’ code in a given language
and returns output back to the notebook web application. The kernel also handles things like computations for
interactive widgets, tab completion and introspection.
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• Notebook documents: Self-contained documents that contain a representation of all content in the notebook
web application, including inputs and outputs of the computations, narrative text, equations, images, and rich
media representations of objects. Each notebook document has its own kernel.
Notebook web application
The notebook web application enables users to:
• Edit code in the browser, with automatic syntax highlighting, indentation, and tab completion/introspection.
• Run code from the browser, with the results of computations attached to the code which generated them.
• See the results of computations with rich media representations, such as HTML, LaTeX, PNG, SVG, PDF,
etc.
• Create and use interactive JavaScript widgets, which bind interactive user interface controls and visualizations
to reactive kernel side computations.
• Author narrative text using the Markdown markup language.
• Build hierarchical documents that are organized into sections with different levels of headings.
• Include mathematical equations using LaTeX syntax in Markdown, which are rendered in-browser by MathJax.
Kernels
The Notebook supports a range of different programming languages. For each notebook that a user opens, the web
application starts a kernel that runs the code for that notebook. Each kernel is capable of running code in a single
programming language. There are kernels available in the following languages:
• Python(https://github.com/ipython/ipython)
• Julia (https://github.com/JuliaLang/IJulia.jl)
• R (https://github.com/takluyver/IRkernel)
• Ruby (https://github.com/minrk/iruby)
• Haskell (https://github.com/gibiansky/IHaskell)
• Scala (https://github.com/Bridgewater/scala-notebook)
• node.js (https://gist.github.com/Carreau/4279371)
• Go (https://github.com/takluyver/igo)
The default kernel runs Python code which is the language Pynq is based on.
Kernels communicate with the notebook web application and web browser using a JSON over ZeroMQ/WebSockets
message protocol that is described here. Most users don’t need to know about these details, but it helps to understand
that “kernels run code.”
Notebook documents
Notebook documents contain the inputs and outputs of an interactive session as well as narrative text that accompanies the code but is not meant for execution. Rich output generated by running code, including HTML, images,
video, and plots, is embedded in the notebook, which makes it a complete and self-contained record of a computation.
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When you run the notebook web application on your computer, notebook documents are just files on your local
filesystem with a ‘‘.ipynb‘‘ extension. This allows you to use familiar workflows for organizing your notebooks into
folders and sharing them with others.
Notebooks consist of a linear sequence of cells. There are four basic cell types:
• Code cells: Input and output of live code that is run in the kernel
• Markdown cells: Narrative text with embedded LaTeX equations
• Heading cells: Deprecated. Headings are supported in Markdown cells
• Raw cells: Unformatted text that is included, without modification, when notebooks are converted to different
formats using nbconvert
Internally, notebook documents are JSON data with binary values base64 encoded. This allows them to be read and
manipulated programmatically by any programming language. Because JSON is a text format, notebook documents
are version control friendly.
Notebooks can be exported to different static formats including HTML, reStructeredText, LaTeX, PDF, and slide
shows (reveal.js) using Jupyter’s nbconvert utility. Some of documentation for Pynq, including this page, was
written in a Notebook and converted to html for hosting on the project’s documentation website.
Furthermore, any notebook document available from a public URL or on GitHub can be shared via nbviewer. This
service loads the notebook document from the URL and renders it as a static web page. The resulting web page may
thus be shared with others without their needing to install the Jupyter Notebook.
GitHub also renders notebooks, so any Notebook added to GitHub can be viewed as intended.
Notebook Basics
The Notebook dashboard
The Notebook server runs on the ARM® processor of the PYNQ-Z1. You can open the notebook dashboard by
navigating to pynq:9090 when your board is connected to the network. The dashboard serves as a home page for
notebooks. Its main purpose is to display the notebooks and files in the current directory. For example, here is a
screenshot of the dashboard page for the Examples directory in the Jupyter repository:
The top of the notebook list displays clickable breadcrumbs of the current directory. By clicking on these breadcrumbs
or on sub-directories in the notebook list, you can navigate your filesystem.
To create a new notebook, click on the “New” button at the top of the list and select a kernel from the dropdown (as
seen below).
Notebooks and files can be uploaded to the current directory by dragging a notebook file onto the notebook list or by
the “click here” text above the list.
The notebook list shows green “Running” text and a green notebook icon next to running notebooks (as seen below).
Notebooks remain running until you explicitly shut them down; closing the notebook’s page is not sufficient.
To shutdown, delete, duplicate, or rename a notebook check the checkbox next to it and an array of controls will appear
at the top of the notebook list (as seen below). You can also use the same operations on directories and files when
applicable.
To see all of your running notebooks along with their directories, click on the “Running” tab:
This view provides a convenient way to track notebooks that you start as you navigate the filesystem in a long running
notebook server.
3.4. Notebook Basics
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3.4. Notebook Basics
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Overview of the Notebook UI
If you create a new notebook or open an existing one, you will be taken to the notebook user interface (UI). This UI
allows you to run code and author notebook documents interactively. The notebook UI has the following main areas:
• Menu
• Toolbar
• Notebook area and cells
The notebook has an interactive tour of these elements that can be started in the “Help:User Interface Tour” menu
item.
Modal editor
The Jupyter Notebook has a modal user interface which means that the keyboard does different things depending on
which mode the Notebook is in. There are two modes: edit mode and command mode.
Edit mode
Edit mode is indicated by a green cell border and a prompt showing in the editor area:
When a cell is in edit mode, you can type into the cell, like a normal text editor.
Enter edit mode by pressing Enter or using the mouse to click on a cell’s editor area.
Command mode
Command mode is indicated by a grey cell border with a blue left margin:
When you are in command mode, you are able to edit the notebook as a whole, but not type into individual cells. Most
importantly, in command mode, the keyboard is mapped to a set of shortcuts that let you perform notebook and cell
actions efficiently. For example, if you are in command mode and you press c, you will copy the current cell - no
modifier is needed.
Don’t try to type into a cell in command mode; unexpected things will happen!
Enter command mode by pressing Esc or using the mouse to click outside a cell’s editor area.
Mouse navigation
All navigation and actions in the Notebook are available using the mouse through the menubar and toolbar, both of
which are above the main Notebook area:
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Cells can be selected by clicking on them with the mouse. The currently selected cell gets a grey or green border
depending on whether the notebook is in edit or command mode. If you click inside a cell’s editor area, you will enter
edit mode. If you click on the prompt or output area of a cell you will enter command mode.
If you are running this notebook in a live session on the PYNQ-Z1, try selecting different cells and going between edit
and command mode. Try typing into a cell.
If you want to run the code in a cell, you would select it and click the play button in the toolbar, the “Cell:Run” menu
item, or type Ctrl + Enter. Similarly, to copy a cell you would select it and click the copy button in the toolbar or the
“Edit:Copy” menu item. Ctrl + C, V are also supported.
Markdown and heading cells have one other state that can be modified with the mouse. These cells can either be
rendered or unrendered. When they are rendered, you will see a nice formatted representation of the cell’s contents.
When they are unrendered, you will see the raw text source of the cell. To render the selected cell with the mouse, and
execute it. (Click the play button in the toolbar or the “Cell:Run” menu item, or type Ctrl + Enter. To unrender the
selected cell, double click on the cell.
Keyboard Navigation
There are two different sets of keyboard shortcuts: one set that is active in edit mode and another in command mode.
The most important keyboard shortcuts are Enter, which enters edit mode, and Esc, which enters command mode.
In edit mode, most of the keyboard is dedicated to typing into the cell’s editor. Thus, in edit mode there are relatively
few shortcuts. In command mode, the entire keyboard is available for shortcuts, so there are many more. The Help>‘‘Keyboard Shortcuts‘‘ dialog lists the available shortcuts.
Some of the most useful shortcuts are:
1. Basic navigation: enter, shift-enter, up/k, down/j
2. Saving the notebook: s
3. Change Cell types: y, m, 1-6, t
4. Cell creation: a, b
5. Cell editing: x, c, v, d, z
6. Kernel operations: i, 0 (press twice)
Running Code
First and foremost, the Jupyter Notebook is an interactive environment for writing and running code. The notebook
is capable of running code in a wide range of languages. However, each notebook is associated with a single kernel.
Pynq, and this notebook is associated with the IPython kernel, which runs Python code.
Code cells allow you to enter and run code
Run a code cell using Shift-Enter or pressing the play button in the toolbar above. The button displays run cell,
select below when you hover over it.
3.6. Running Code
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In [1]: a = 10
In [ ]: print(a)
10
There are two other keyboard shortcuts for running code:
• Alt-Enter runs the current cell and inserts a new one below.
• Ctrl-Enter run the current cell and enters command mode.
Managing the Kernel
Code is run in a separate process called the Kernel. The Kernel can be interrupted or restarted. Try running the
following cell and then hit the stop button in the toolbar above. The button displays interrupt kernel when you hover
over it.
In [ ]: import time
time.sleep(10)
Cell menu
The “Cell” menu has a number of menu items for running code in different ways. These includes:
• Run and Select Below
• Run and Insert Below
• Run All
• Run All Above
• Run All Below
Restarting the kernels
The kernel maintains the state of a notebook’s computations. You can reset this state by restarting the kernel. This is
done from the menu bar, or by clicking on the corresponding button in the toolbar.
sys.stdout
The stdout and stderr streams are displayed as text in the output area.
In [ ]: print("Hello from Pynq!")
Output is asynchronous
All output is displayed asynchronously as it is generated in the Kernel. If you execute the next cell, you will see the
output one piece at a time, not all at the end.
In [ ]: import time, sys
for i in range(8):
print(i)
time.sleep(0.5)
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Large outputs
To better handle large outputs, the output area can be collapsed. Run the following cell and then single- or doubleclick on the active area to the left of the output:
In [ ]: for i in range(50):
print(i)
Markdown
Text can be added to Jupyter Notebooks using Markdown cells. Markdown is a popular markup language that is a
superset of HTML. Its specification can be found here:
http://daringfireball.net/projects/markdown/
Markdown basics
You can make text italic or bold.
You can build nested itemized or enumerated lists:
• One
– Sublist
* This
• Sublist - That - The other thing
• Two
• Sublist
• Three
• Sublist
Now another list:
1. Here we go
(a) Sublist
(b) Sublist
2. There we go
3. Now this
You can add horizontal rules:
Here is a blockquote:
Beautiful is better than ugly. Explicit is better than implicit. Simple is better than complex. Complex
is better than complicated. Flat is better than nested. Sparse is better than dense. Readability counts.
Special cases aren’t special enough to break the rules. Although practicality beats purity. Errors should
never pass silently. Unless explicitly silenced. In the face of ambiguity, refuse the temptation to guess.
There should be one– and preferably only one –obvious way to do it. Although that way may not be
obvious at first unless you’re Dutch. Now is better than never. Although never is often better than right
3.7. Markdown
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now. If the implementation is hard to explain, it’s a bad idea. If the implementation is easy to explain, it
may be a good idea. Namespaces are one honking great idea – let’s do more of those!
And shorthand for links:
Jupyter’s website
Headings
You can add headings by starting a line with one (or multiple) # followed by a space, as in the following example:
# Heading 1
# Heading 2
## Heading 2.1
## Heading 2.2
Embedded code
You can embed code meant for illustration instead of execution in Python:
def f(x):
"""a docstring"""
return x**2
or other languages:
if (i=0; i<n; i++) {
printf("hello %d\n", i);
x += 4;
}
LaTeX equations
Courtesy of MathJax, you can include mathematical expressions both inline: 𝑒𝑖𝜋 + 1 = 0 and displayed:
∞
∑︁
1 𝑖
𝑥
𝑒 =
𝑖!
𝑖=0
𝑥
𝐼𝑛𝑙𝑖𝑛𝑒𝑒𝑥𝑝𝑟𝑒𝑠𝑠𝑖𝑜𝑛𝑠𝑐𝑎𝑛𝑏𝑒𝑎𝑑𝑑𝑒𝑑𝑏𝑦𝑠𝑢𝑟𝑟𝑜𝑢𝑛𝑑𝑖𝑛𝑔𝑡ℎ𝑒𝑙𝑎𝑡𝑒𝑥𝑐𝑜𝑑𝑒𝑤𝑖𝑡ℎ
$:
$e^{i\pi} + 1 = 0$
Expressions on their own line are surrounded by $$:
$$e^x=\sum_{i=0}^\infty \frac{1}{i!}x^i$$
GitHub flavored markdown
The Notebook webapp supports Github flavored markdown meaning that you can use triple backticks for code blocks:
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<pre>
```python
print "Hello World"
```
</pre>
<pre>
```javascript
console.log("Hello World")
```
</pre>
Gives:
print "Hello World"
console.log("Hello World")
And a table like this:
<pre>
```
| This | is
|
|------|------|
|
a | table|
```
</pre>
A nice HTML Table:
This
a
is
table
General HTML
Because Markdown is a superset of HTML you can even add things like HTML tables:
Header 1
Header 2
row 1, cell 1
row 1, cell 2
row 2, cell 1
row 2, cell 2
Local files
If you have local files in your Notebook directory, you can refer to these files in Markdown cells directly:
[subdirectory/]<filename>
3.7. Markdown
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Security of local files
Note that this means that the Jupyter notebook server also acts as a generic file server for files inside the same tree
as your notebooks. Access is not granted outside the notebook folder so you have strict control over what files are
visible, but for this reason it is highly recommended that you do not run the notebook server with a notebook directory
at a high level in your filesystem (e.g. your home directory).
When you run the notebook in a password-protected manner, local file access is restricted to authenticated users unless
read-only views are active.
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CHAPTER 4
Cortex-A9 programming in Python
We show here an example of how to run Python with Pynq. Python is running exclusively on the ARM Cortex-A9
processor. This example, which is based on calculating the factors and primes of integer numbers, give us a sense of
the performance available when running on a 650MHz ARM Cortex-A9 dual core processor running Linux.
The factors and primes example
Code is provided in the cell below for a function to calculate factors and primes. It contains some sample functions
to calculate the factors and primes of integers. We will use three functions from the factors_and_primes module to
demonstrate Python programming.
In [1]: """Factors-and-primes functions.
Find factors or primes of integers, int ranges and int lists
and sets of integers with most factors in a given integer interval
"""
from pprint import pprint
def factorize(n):
"""Calculate all factors of integer n.
Parameters
---------n : int
integer to factorize.
Returns
------list
A sorted set of integer factors of n.
"""
factors = []
if isinstance(n, int) and n > 0:
if n == 1:
factors.append(n)
return factors
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else:
for x in range(1, int(n**0.5)+1):
if n % x == 0:
factors.append(x)
factors.append(n//x)
return sorted(set(factors))
else:
print('factorize ONLY computes with one integer argument > 0')
def primes_between(interval_min, interval_max):
"""Find all primes in the interval.
The interval is defined by interval_min and interval_max.
Parameters
---------interval_min : int
Start of the integer range.
interval_max : int
End of the integer range.
Returns
------list
A sorted set of integer primes in original range.
"""
primes = []
if (isinstance(interval_min, int) and interval_min > 0 and
isinstance(interval_max, int) and interval_max > interval_min):
if interval_min == 1:
primes = [1]
for i in range(interval_min, interval_max):
if len(factorize(i)) == 2:
primes.append(i)
return sorted(primes)
else:
print('primes_between ONLY computes over the specified range.')
def primes_in(integer_list):
"""Calculate all unique prime numbers.
Calculate the prime numbers in a list of integers.
Parameters
---------integer_list : list
A list of integers to test for primality.
Returns
------list
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A sorted set of integer primes from original list.
"""
primes = []
try:
for i in (integer_list):
if len(factorize(i)) == 2:
primes.append(i)
return sorted(set(primes))
except TypeError:
print('primes_in ONLY computes over lists of integers.')
def get_ints_with_most_factors(interval_min, interval_max):
"""Finds the integers with the most factors.
Find the integer or integers with the most factors in a given
integer range.
The returned result is a list of tuples, where each tuple is:
[no_with_most_factors (int), no_of_factors (int),
factors (int list)].
Parameters
---------interval_min : int
Start of the integer range.
interval_max : int
End of the integer range.
Returns
------list
A list of tuples showing the results.
"""
max_no_of_factors = 1
all_ints_with_most_factors = []
#: Find the lowest number with most factors between i_min and i_max
if interval_check(interval_min, interval_max):
for i in range(interval_min, interval_max):
factors_of_i = factorize(i)
no_of_factors = len(factors_of_i)
if no_of_factors > max_no_of_factors:
max_no_of_factors = no_of_factors
results = (i, max_no_of_factors, factors_of_i,\
primes_in(factors_of_i))
all_ints_with_most_factors.append(results)
#: Find any larger numbers with an equal number of factors
for i in range(all_ints_with_most_factors[0][0]+1, interval_max):
factors_of_i = factorize(i)
no_of_factors = len(factors_of_i)
4.1. The factors and primes example
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if no_of_factors == max_no_of_factors:
results = (i, max_no_of_factors, factors_of_i, \
primes_in(factors_of_i))
all_ints_with_most_factors.append(results)
return all_ints_with_most_factors
else:
print_error_msg()
def print_ints_with_most_factors(interval_min, interval_max):
"""Reports integers with most factors in a given integer range.
The
1.
2.
3.
4.
results can consist of the following:
All the integers with the most factors
The number of factors
The actual factors of each of the integers
Any prime numbers in the list of factors
Parameters
---------interval_min : int
Start of the integer range.
interval_max : int
End of the integer range.
Returns
------list
A list of tuples showing the integers and factors.
"""
if interval_check(interval_min, interval_max):
print('\nBetween {} and {} the number/s with the most factors:\n'.
format(interval_min, interval_max))
for results in (get_ints_with_most_factors(
interval_min, interval_max)):
print('{} ... with the following {} factors:'
.format(results[0], results[1]))
pprint(results[2])
print('The prime number factors of {} are:'
.format(results[0]))
pprint(results[3])
else:
print_error_msg()
def interval_check(interval_min, interval_max):
"""Check type and range of integer interval.
Parameters
---------interval_min : int
Start of the integer range.
interval_max : int
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End of the integer range.
Returns
------None
"""
if (isinstance(interval_min, int) and interval_min > 0 and
isinstance(interval_max, int) and interval_max > interval_min):
return True
else:
return False
def print_error_msg():
"""Print invalid integer interval error message.
Returns
------None
"""
print('ints_with_most_factors ONLY computes over integer intervals where'
' interval_min <= int_with_most_factors < interval_max and'
' interval_min >= 1')
Next we will call the factorize() function to calculate the factors of an integer.
In [2]: factorize(1066)
Out[2]: [1, 2, 13, 26, 41, 82, 533, 1066]
The primes_between() function can tell us how many prime numbers there are in an integer range. Let’s try it for the
interval 1 through 1066. We can also use one of Python’s built-in methods len() to count them all.
In [3]: len(primes_between(1, 1066))
Out[3]: 180
Additionally, we can combine len() with another built-in method, sum(), to calculate the average of the 180 prime
numbers.
In [4]: primes_1066 = primes_between(1, 1066)
primes_1066_average = sum(primes_1066) / len(primes_1066)
primes_1066_average
Out[4]: 486.2055555555556
This result makes sense intuitively because prime numbers are known to become less frequent for larger number
intervals. These examples demonstrate how Python treats functions as first-class objects so that functions may be
passed as parameters to other functions. This is a key property of functional programming and demonstrates the power
of Python.
In the next code snippet, we can use list comprehensions (a ‘Pythonic’ form of the map-filter-reduce template) to
‘mine’ the factors of 1066 to find those factors that end in the digit ‘3’.
In [5]: primes_1066_ends3 = [x for x in primes_between(1, 1066) if str(x).endswith('3')]
primes_1066_ends3
Out[5]: [3,
13,
4.1. The factors and primes example
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23,
43,
53,
73,
83,
103,
113,
163,
173,
193,
223,
233,
263,
283,
293,
313,
353,
373,
383,
433,
443,
463,
503,
523,
563,
593,
613,
643,
653,
673,
683,
733,
743,
773,
823,
853,
863,
883,
953,
983,
1013,
1033,
1063]
This code tells Python to first convert each prime between 1 and 1066 to a string and then to return those numbers
whose string representation end with the number ‘3’. It uses the built-in str() and endswith() methods to test each
prime for inclusion in the list.
And because we really want to know what fraction of the 180 primes of 1066 end in a ‘3’, we can calculate ...
In [6]: len(primes_1066_ends3) / len(primes_1066)
Out[6]: 0.25
These examples demonstrate how Python is a modern, multi-paradigmatic language. More simply, it continually
integrates the best features of other leading languages, including functional programming constructs. Consider how
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many lines of code you would need to implement the list comprehension above in C and you get an appreciation
of the power of productivity-layer languages. Higher levels of programming abstraction really do result in higher
programmer productivity!
More intensive calculations
To stress the ARM processor a little more, we will run a script to determine the integer number, or numbers, that have
the most factors between 1 and 1066, using the print_ints_with_most_factors() function from the factors_and_primes
module.
In [7]: print_ints_with_most_factors(1, 1066)
Between 1 and 1066 the number/s with the most factors:
840 ... with the following 32 factors:
[1,
2,
3,
4,
5,
6,
7,
8,
10,
12,
14,
15,
20,
21,
24,
28,
30,
35,
40,
42,
56,
60,
70,
84,
105,
120,
140,
168,
210,
280,
420,
840]
The prime number factors of 840 are:
[2, 3, 5, 7]
The ARM processor remains quite responsive. Running this for much larger numbers, say 50,000, will demonstrate
noticeably slower responses as we would expect.
4.2. More intensive calculations
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CHAPTER 5
Programming PYNQ-Z1’s onboard peripherals
LEDs, switches and buttons
PYNQ-Z1 has the following on-board LEDs, pushbuttons and switches:
• 4 monochrome LEDs (LD3-LD0)
• 4 push-button switches (BTN3-BTN0)
• 2 RGB LEDs (LD5-LD4)
• 2 Slide-switches (SW1-SW0)
The peripherals are highlighted in the image below.
All of these peripherals are connected to programmable logic. This means controllers must be implemented in an
overlay before these peripherals can be used. The base overlay contains controllers for all of these peripherals.
Note that there are additional push-buttons and LEDs on the board (e.g. power LED, reset button). They are not user
accessible, and are not highlighted in the figure.
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Peripheral Example
Using the base overlay, each of the highlighted devices can be controlled using their corresponding pynq classes.
To demonstrate this, we will first download the base overlay to ensure it is loaded, and then import the LED, RGBLED,
Switch and Button classes from the module pynq.board.
In [1]: from
from
from
from
from
pynq import Overlay
pynq.board import LED
pynq.board import RGBLED
pynq.board import Switch
pynq.board import Button
Overlay("base.bit").download()
Controlling a single LED
Now we can instantiate objects of each of these classes and use their methods to manipulate the corresponding peripherals. Let’s start by instantiating a single LED and turning it on and off.
In [2]: led0 = LED(0)
In [3]: led0.on()
Check the board and confirm the LD0 is ON
In [4]: led0.off()
Let’s then toggle led0 using the sleep() method to see the LED flashing.
In [5]: import time
from pynq.board import LED
from pynq.board import Button
led0 = LED(0)
for i in range(20):
led0.toggle()
time.sleep(.1)
Example: Controlling all the LEDs, switches and buttons
The example below creates 3 separate lists, called leds, switches and buttons.
In [6]: MAX_LEDS = 4
MAX_SWITCHES = 2
MAX_BUTTONS = 4
leds = [0] * MAX_LEDS
switches = [0] * MAX_SWITCHES
buttons = [0] * MAX_BUTTONS
for i in range(MAX_LEDS):
leds[i] = LED(i)
for i in range(MAX_SWITCHES):
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switches[i] = Switch(i)
for i in range(MAX_BUTTONS):
buttons[i] = Button(i)
It will be useful to be able to turn off selected LEDs so we will create a helper function to do that. It either clears the
LEDs whose numbers we list in the parameter, or by default clears LD3-LD0.
In [7]: # Helper function to clear LEDs
def clear_LEDs(LED_nos=list(range(MAX_LEDS))):
"""Clear LEDS LD3-0 or the LEDs whose numbers appear in the list"""
for i in LED_nos:
leds[i].off()
clear_LEDs()
First, all LEDs are set to off. Then each switch is read, and if in the on position, the corresponding led is turned on.
You can execute this cell a few times, changing the position of the switches on the board.
• LEDs start in the off state
• If SW0 is on, LD2 and LD0 will be on
• If SW1 is on, LD3 and LD1 will be on
In [8]: clear_LEDs()
for i in range(MAX_LEDS):
if switches[i%2].read():
leds[i].on()
else:
leds[i].off()
The last example toggles an led (on or off) if its corresponding push button is pressed for so long as SW0 is switched
on.
To end the program, slide SW0 to the off position.
In [9]: import time
clear_LEDs()
while switches[0].read():
for i in range(MAX_LEDS):
if buttons[i].read():
leds[i].toggle()
time.sleep(.1)
clear_LEDs()
5.4. Example: Controlling all the LEDs, switches and buttons
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CHAPTER 6
Introduction to Overlays
Overlay Concept
The Xilinx® Zynq® All Programmable device is an SOC based on a dual-core ARM® Cortex®-A9 processor (referred
to as the Processing System or PS), which also includes FPGA fabric (referred to as Programmable Logic or PL). The
ARM SoC subsystem also includes a number of dedicated peripherals (memory controllers, USB, Uart, IIC, SPI etc).
The FPGA fabric is reconfigurable, and can be used to implement high performance functions in hardware. However,
FPGA design is a specialized task which requires deep hardware engineering knowledge and expertise. Overlays, or
hardware libraries, are programmable/configurable FPGA designs that extend the user application from the Processing
System of the Zynq into the Programmable Logic. This allows software programmers to take advantage of the FPGA
fabric to accelerate an application, or to use an overlay to customize the hardware platform for a particular application.
For example, image processing is a typical application where the FPGAs can provide acceleration. A software programmer can use a hardware library to run some of the image processing functions (e.g. edge detect, thresholding
etc.) on the FPGA fabric. Hardware libraries can be loaded to the FPGA dynamically, as required, just like a software
library. Using Pynq, separate image processing functions could be implemented in different overlays and loaded from
Python on demand.
To give another example, the PYNQ-Z1 has more pins/interfaces available than a typical embedded platform, and
can implement multiple custom processors in the Programmable logic. Multiple sensor and actuator controllers, and
multiple heterogeneous custom processors (real-time or non real-time), could be implemented in hardware in the new
overlay, and connected to the available pins. A software programmer could use the controllers and processors in the
overlay through a Pynq API.
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Base Overlay
The base overlay is a precompiled FPGA design that can be downloaded to the Programmable Logic. It is the default
overlay included with the PYNQ-Z1 image, and is automatically loaded when the system boots.
This overlay customizes the Programmable Logic to connect HDMI In and Out controllers, an audio controller (Mic
In and Audio Out), and the Pmod and Arduino interfaces (through the IO Processors) to the PS. This allows the
peripherals to be used from the Pynq environment. There is also a tracebuffer connected to the Pmod, and Arduino
interfaces to allow for hardware debug. The user buttons, switches and LEDs are also connected to the PS in the base
overlay.
The Pmod and Arduino interfaces have special custom IO Processors that allow a range of peripherals with different
IO standards to be connected to the system. This allows a software programmer to use a wide range of peripherals
with different interfaces and protocols without needing to create a new FPGA design for each peripheral or set of
peripherals.
Pmod Peripherals
A Pmod interface is a 12-pin connector that can be used to connect peripherals. A range of Pmod peripherals are
available from Digilent and third parties. Typical Pmod peripherals include sensors (voltage, light, temperature),
communication interfaces (Ethernet, serial, wifi, bluetooth), and input and output interfaces (buttons, switches, LEDs).
There are two Pmod connectors on PYNQ-Z1.
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Pmod Port
Each Pmod connector has 12 pins: 2 rows of 6 pins, where each row has 3.3V (VCC), ground (GND) and 4 data
pins. This gives 8 data pins in total. Pmod data pins are labelled 0-7 in the image below. The pin number needs to be
specified in Python when creating a new instance of a peripheral connected to a port.
Pmods come in different configurations depending on the number of data pins required. e.g. Full single row: 1x6 pins;
full double row: 2x6 pins; and partially populated: 2x4 pins.
6.3. Pmod Peripherals
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Pmods that use both rows (e.g. 2x4 pins, 2x6 pins), should usually be aligned to the left of the connector (to align with
VCC and GND).
Pmod peripherals with only a single row of pins can be physically plugged into the top row or the bottom row of a
Pmod port (again, aligned to VCC/GND). However, if you are using an existing driver/overlay, you will need to check
which pins/rows are supported for a given overlay, as not all options may be implemented. e.g. the Pmod ALS is
currently only supported on the top row of a Pmod port, not the bottom row.
Supported Peripherals
A number of peripherals are supported:
• Pmods can be plugged directly into the Pmod port.
• Grove peripherals can be connected to the Pmod port through a PYNQ Grove Adapter.
• Other peripherals can be wired to a Pmod port.
PYNQ Grove Adapter
A Grove connector has four pins, VCC and GND, and two data pins.
The PYNQ Grove Adapter has four connectors (G1 - G4), allowing four Grove devices to be connected to one Pmod
port.
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All pins operate at 3.3V. Due to different pull-up/pull-down I/O requirements for different peripherals (e.g. IIC requires
pull-up, and SPI requires pull-down), Grove peripherals must be plugged into the appropriate connector.
G1 and G2 pins are connected to pins with pull-down resistors, and G3 and G4 are connected to pins with pull-up
resistors (IIC), as indicated in the image.
Pmods already take this pull up/down convention into account in their pin layout, so no special attention is required to
connect Pmods.
Arduino Peripherals
There is one Arduino connector on the board and can be used to connect to arduino compatible shields.
6.4. Arduino Peripherals
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Arduino Connector
Each Arduino connector has 6 analog pins (A0 - A5), 14 multi-purpose Digital pins (D0 - D13), 2 dedicated I2C pins
(SCL, SDA), and 4 dedicated SPI pins.
Supported Peripherals
Most Arduino compatible shields can be used with the PYNQ-Z1 board. However, the PYNQ-Z1 board has a limited
analog range, so not all Arduino analog shields are supported.
PYNQ Shield
As mentioned previously, each Grove connector has 4 pins. The PYNQ Shield has 12 Grove connectors for digital IO
(I2C, UART, G1 - G7) and 4 Grove connectors for analog IO (A1 - A4).
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With the PYNQ shield jumper (JP1) set to 3.3V (as in the figure), all the pins operate at 3.3V.
6.4. Arduino Peripherals
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Chapter 6. Introduction to Overlays
CHAPTER 7
IO Processor Architecture
For overlays to be useful, they must provide sufficient functionality, while also providing flexibility to suit a wide
range of applications. Flexibility in the base overlay is demonstrated through the use of IO Processors (IOPs).
An IO Processor is implemented in the programmable logic and connects to and controls an external port on the board.
There are two types of IOP: Pmod IOP and Arduino IOP.
Each IOP contains a MicroBlaze processor, a configurable switch, peripherals, and memory for the MicroBlaze instruction and data memory. The memory is dual-ported, with one port connected to the MicroBlaze, and the other
connected to the ARM® Cortex®-A9 processor. This allows the ARM processor to access the MicroBlaze memory
and dynamically write a new program to the MicroBlaze instruction area. The data area of the memory can be used
for communication and data exchanges between the ARM processor and the IOP(s). e.g. a simple mailbox.
In the base overlay, two IOPs control each of the two Pmod interfaces, and another IOP controls the Arduino interface.
Inside the IOP are dedicated peripherals; timers, UART, IIC, SPI, GPIO, and a configurable switch. (Not all peripherals
are available in the Pmod IOP.) IIC and SPI are standard interfaces used by many of the available Pmod, Grove and
other peripherals. GPIO can be used to connect to custom interfaces or used as simple inputs and outputs. When
a Pmod, Arduino shield, or other peripheral is plugged in to a port, the configurable switch allows the signals to be
routed dynamically to the required dedicated interface. This is how the IOP provides flexibility and allows peripherals
with different pin connections and protocols to be used on the same port.
Pmod IOP
Two Pmod IOPs are included in the base overlay to control each of the two Pmod interfaces on the board.
As indicated in the diagram, the Pmod IOP has a MicroBlaze, a configurable switch, and the following peripherals:
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• I2C
• SPI
• GPIO blocks
• Timer
Pmod IOP configurable switch
The MicroBlaze, inside the IOP, can configure the switch by writing to the configuration registers of the switch. This
would be done by the MicroBlaze application.
For the Pmod IOP switch, each individual pin can be configured by writing a 4-bit value to the corresponding place in
the IO switch configuration registers.
The following function, part of the Pmod IO switch driver, can be used to configure the switch.
void config_pmod_switch();
Switch mappings used for IO switch configuration:
For example:
config_pmod_switch(SS,MOSI,GPIO_2,SPICLK,GPIO_4,GPIO_5,GPIO_6,GPIO_7);
This would connect a SPI interface: * Pin 1: SS * Pin 2: MOSI * Pin 4: SPICLK
and the remaining pins to their corresponding GPIO (which could be left unused in the MicroBlaze application).
From Python all the constants and addresses for the IOP can be found in:
<GitHub Repository>/python/pynq/iop/iop_const.py
pmod.h and pmod.c are part of the Pmod IO switch driver, and contain an API, addresses, and constant definitions
that can be used to write code for an IOP.
<GitHub Repository>/Pynq-Z1/vivado/ip/pmod_io_switch_1.0/
drivers/pmod_io_switch_v1_0/src/
\
This code is automatically compiled into the Board Support Package (BSP). Any application linking to the BSP can
use this library by including the header file:
#include "pmod_io_switch.h"
Arduino IOP
Similar to the Pmod IOP, an Arduino IOP is available to control the Arduino interface. The Arduino IOP is similar
to the PMOD IOP, but has some additional internal peripherals (extra timers, an extra I2c, and SPI, a UART, and an
XADC). The configurable switch is also different to the Pmod switch.
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As indicated in the diagram, the Arduino IOP has a MicroBlaze, a configurable switch, and the following peripherals:
• 2x I2C
• 2x SPI
• 1x UART
• 3x GPIO blocks
• 1x XADC
• 1 Interrupt controller (32 channels)
The interrupt controller can be connected to all the analog and digital pins, and each of the 6 timers, the I2Cs, the
SPIs, the XADC, and UART. This means an external pin on the shield interface can trigger an interrupt. An internal
peripheral can also trigger an interrupt.
Arduino shields have fixed possible configurations. According to the Arduino specification, the analog pins can be
used as analgo, or digital I/O.
Other peripherals can be connected as indicated in the table.
Peripheral
UART
I2C
SPI*
PWM
Timer
Pins
D0, D1
A4, A5
D10 - D13
D3, D5, D6, D9, D10, D11
D3 - D6 and D8 - D11
* There are also dedicated pins for a separate SPI.
For example, a shield with a UART and 5 Digital IO can connect the UART to pins D0, D1, and the Digital IO can be
connected to pins D2 - D6.
While there is support for analog inputs via the internal XADC, this only allows inputs of 0-1V. The Arduino supports
0-5V analog inputs which are not supported on the PYNQ-Z1.
Arduino IOP configurable Switch
The switch can be configured by writing to its configuration registers.
The dedicated SPI pins are always connected to one of the SPI controllers.
7.2. Arduino IOP
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The analog and digital pins can be configured by writing a 4-bit value to the corresponding place in the IO switch
configuration registers, similar to the Pmod switch.
The following function, part of the Arduino IO switch driver, can be used to configure the switch.
void config_arduino_switch();
Switch mappings used for IO switch configuration:
Pin
A/D IO
A_INT
Interrupt
A0
A1
A2
A3
A4
A5
D0
D1
D2
D3
A_GPIO
A_GPIO
A_GPIO
A_GPIO
A_GPIO
A_GPIO
D_GPIO
D_GPIO
D_GPIO
D_GPIO
A_INT
A_INT
A_INT
A_INT
A_INT
A_INT
D4
D_GPIO
D_INT
D5
D_GPIO
D_INT
D6
D_GPIO
D_INT
D7
D8
D_GPIO
D_GPIO
D_INT
D_INT
D9
D_GPIO
D_INT
D10 D_GPIO
D_INT
D11 D_GPIO
D_INT
D12 D_GPIO
D13 D_GPIO
D_INT
D_INT
UART
PWM
Timer
SPI
IIC
InputCapture
IIC
IIC
D_INT
D_INT
D_INT
D_INT
D_UART
D_UART
D_PWM0 D_TIMER
Timer0
D_TIMER
Timer0_6
D_PWM1 D_TIMER
Timer1
D_PWM2 D_TIMER
Timer2
IC Timer0
D_TIMER
Timer1_7
D_PWM3 D_TIMER
Timer3
D_PWM4 D_TIMER
Timer4
D_PWM5 D_TIMER
Timer5
Input
Capture
IC Timer3
IC Timer1
IC Timer2
D_SS
IC Timer4
D_MOSI
IC Timer5
D_MISO
D_SPICLK
For example, to connect the UART to D0 and D1, write D_UART to the configuration register for D0 and D1.
config_arduino_switch(A_GPIO,
D_UART,
D_GPIO,
D_GPIO,
A_GPIO,
D_UART,
D_GPIO,
D_GPIO,
A_GPIO,
D_GPIO,
D_GPIO,
D_GPIO,
A_GPIO, A_GPIO, A_GPIO,
D_GPIO, D_GPIO,
D_GPIO,
D_GPIO);
From Python all the constants and addresses for the IOP can be found in:
<Pynq GitHub Repository>/python/pynq/iop/iop_const.py
arduino.h and arduino.c are part of the Arduino IO switch driver, and contain an API, addresses, and constant
definitions that can be used to write code for an IOP.
<GitHub Repository>/Pynq-Z1/vivado/ip/arduino_io_switch_1.0/
drivers/arduino_io_switch_v1_0/src/
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This code this automatically compiled into the Board Support Package (BSP). Any application linking to the BSP can
use this library by including the header file:
#include "arduino_io_switch.h"
7.2. Arduino IOP
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CHAPTER 8
IO Processors: Writing Your Own Software
There are a number of steps required before you can start writing your own software for an IOP (IO Processor). This
document will describe the IOP architecture, and how to set up and build the required software projects to allow you
to write your own application for the MicroBlaze inside an IOP. Xilinx® SDK projects can be created manually using
the SDK GUI, or software can be built using a Makefile flow.
IO Processors
As seen previously, an IOP can be used as a flexible controller for different types of external peripherals. The ARM®
Cortex®-A9 is an application processor, which runs Pynq and Jupyter notebook on a Linux OS. This scenario is not
well suited to real-time applications, which is a common requirement for an embedded systems. In the base overlay
there are three IOPs. As well as acting as a flexible controller, an IOP can be used as dedicated real-time controller.
IOPs can also be used standalone to offload some processing from the main processor. However, note that the MicroBlaze processor inside an IOP in the base overlay is running at 100 MHz, compared to the Dual-Core ARM Cortex-A9
running at 650 MHz. The clock speed, and different processor architectures and features should be taken into account
when offloading pure application code. e.g. Vector processing on the ARM Cortex-A9 Neon processing unit will be
much more efficient than running on the MicroBlaze. The MicroBlaze is most appropriate for low-level, background,
or real-time applications.
There are two types of IOP, a Pmod IOP and an Arduino IOP.
Previous sections showed the similarities between the Pmod IOP and Arduino IOP. Each IOP contains a Xilinx MicroBlaze processor, a Debug module, and one or more of the following functional units and interface peripherals:
• AXI Timer
• AXI IIC
• AXI SPI
• AXI GPIO
The Arduino also includes a UART, and XADC.
The interface peripherals are connected to a Configurable Switch. The switch is different for the Pmod and the Arduino
IOPs. The Pmod configurable switch connects to a Pmod port, and the Arduino configurable switch connects to an
Arduino interface connector.
Pmod IOP:
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The IOP’s configurable switch can be used to route signals between the physical interface, and the available internal
peripherals in the IOP sub-system.
Software requirements
A MicroBlaze cross-compiler is required to build software for the MicroBlaze inside an IOP. Xilinx SDK contains
the MicroBlaze cross-compiler and was used to build all Pmod device drivers released with Pynq and is available for
free. It should be noted that Pynq ships with precompiled IOP executables to support various peripherals (see Pynq
Modules), but that full source code is available from the project GitHub. Xilinx software is only needed if you intend
to build your own IOP applications/peripheral drivers. A free, fully functional, version of the Xilinx tools is available
for Pynq if required (see the free Xilinx Vivado WebPack for more details).
The current Pynq release is built using Vivado and SDK 2016.1. it is recommended to use the same version to rebuild
existing Vivado and SDK projects. If you only intend to build software, you will only need to install SDK. The full
Vivado and SDK installation is only required to design new overlays.
Download Xilinx Vivado and SDK 2016.1
You can use the Vivado HLx Web Install Client and select SDK and/or Vivado during the installation.
Pynq also support building of bitstreams from SDSoC. SDSoC is currently a separate download and installation from
the main Vivado/SDK software.
Compiling projects
Software executables run on the MicroBlaze inside the IOP. Code for the MicroBlaze can be written in C or C++ and
compiled using the Xilinx SDK (Software Development Kit).
You can pull or clone the Pynq GitHub repository, and all the driver source and project files can be found in <GitHub
Repository>\Pynq-Z1\sdk, (Where <GitHub Repository> is the location of the PYNQ repository).
These projects are considered SDK Application projects and contain the top level application. Each SDK project requires a BSP project (Board Support Package), and a hardware platform project. See below for more details. Software
libraries are included in a Board Support Package (BSP) project, and the BSP is linked to from the application project.
All Application projects can be compiled from the command line using Makefiles, or imported into the SDK GUI.
You can also use existing projects as a starting point to create your own project.
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HDF file
Before an Application project and BSP can be created or compiled in SDK, a Hardware Platform project is required.
A Hardware Platform defines the peripherals in the IOP subsystem, and the memory map of the system, and is used
by the BSP to build software libraries to support the underlying hardware.
A Hardware Description File (.hdf), created by Vivado, is used to create the Hardware Platfrom project in SDK.
A precompiled .hdf file is provided, so it is not necessary to run Vivado to generate a .hdf file:
<GitHub Repository>/Pynq-Z1/sdk/
Board Support Package
The BSP (Board Support Package) contains software libraries and drivers to support the underlying peripherals in the
system.
A BSP must be linked to a Hardware Platform, as this is where the peripherals in the system are defined. An Application Project is then linked to a BSP, and can use the libraries available in the BSP.
Building the projects
A Makefile to automatically create and build the Hardware Platform and the BSP can be found in the same location as
the .hdf file.
<GitHub Repository>/Pynq-Z1/sdk/makefile
Application projects for peripherals that ship with Pynq (e.g. Pmods and Grove peripherals) can also be found in the
same location. Each project is contained in a separate folder.
The Makefile uses the .hdf file to create the Hardware Platform. The BSP can then be created. The application projects
will also be compiled automatically as part of this process.
The Makefile requires SDK to be installed, and can be run from Windows, or Linux.
To run make from Windows, open SDK, and choose a temporary workspace (make sure this path is external to the
downloaded GitHub repository). From the Xilinx Tools menu, select Launch Shell
In Linux, open a terminal, and source the SDK tools.
From either the Windows Shell, or the Linux terminal, navigate to the sdk folder in your local copy of the GitHub
repository:
cd to <GitHub Repository>/Pynq-Z1/sdk and run make
8.3. Compiling projects
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This will create the Hardware Platform Project (hw_def ), and the Board Support Package (bsp), and then link and
build all the application projects.
If you examine the Makefile, you can see how the MBBINS variable at the top of the makefile is used to compile the
application projects. If you want to add your own custom project to the build process, you need to add the project
name to the MBBINS variable, and save the project in the same location as the other application projects.
Individual projects can be built by navigating to the <project directory>/Debug and running make.
Binary files
Compiling code produces an executable file (.elf) which needs to be converted to binary format (.bin) to be downloaded
to, and run on, an IOP.
A .bin file can be generated from a .elf by running the following command from the SDK shell:
mb-objcopy -O binary <inputfile>.elf <outputfile>.bin
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This is done automatically by the makefile for the existing application projects. The makefile will also copy all .bin
files into the <GitHub Repository>/Pynq-Z1/sdk/bin folder.
Creating your own Application project
Using the Makefile flow, you can use an existing project as a starting point for your own project.
Copy and rename the project, and modify or replace the .c file in the src/ with your C code. The generated .bin file
will have the same base name as your C file.
e.g. if your C code is my_peripheral.c, the generated .elf and .bin will be my_peripheral.elf and my_peripheral.bin.
We encourage the following naming convention for applications <pmod|grove|arduino>_<peripheral>
You will need to update references from the old project name to your new project name in <project
directory>/Debug/makefile and <project directory>/Debug/src/subdir.mk
If you want your project to build in the main Makefile, you should also append the .bin name of your project to the
MBBINS variable at the top of the makefile.
If you are using the SDK GUI, you can import the Hardware Platform, BSP, and any application projects into your
SDK workspace.
The SDK GUI can be used to build and debug your code.
IOP Memory
The IOP instruction and data memory is implemented in a dual port Block RAM, with one port connected to the IOP,
and the other to the ARM processor. This allows an executable binary file to be written from the ARM (i.e. the Pynq
environment) to the IOP instruction memory. The IOP can also be reset from Pynq, allowing the IOP to start executing
the new program. The IOP data memory is also used as a mailbox for communication and data exchanges between the
Pynq environment and the IOP.
8.4. IOP Memory
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Memory map
The IOP memory is 64KB of shared data and instruction memory. Instruction memory for the IOP starts at address
0x0. Pynq and the application running on the IOP can write to anywhere in the shared memory space (although care
should be taken not to write to the instruction memory unintentionally as this will corrupt the running application).
When building the MicroBlaze project, the compiler will only ensure that the application and allocated stack and heap
fit into the BRAM. For communication between the ARM and the MicroBlaze, a part of the shared memory space
must also be reserved within the MicroBlaze address space.
There is no memory management in the IOP. You must ensure the application, including stack and heap, do not
overflow into the defined data area. Remember that declaring a stack and heap size only allocates space to the stack
and heap. No boundary is created, so if sufficient space was not allocated, the stack and heap may overflow.
If you need to modify the stack and heap for an application, the linker script can be found in the <project>/src/
directory.
It is recommended to follow the convention for data communication between the two processors via MAILBOX. These
MAILBOX values are defined in the header file.
Instruction and data memory start
Instruction and data memory size
Shared mailbox memory start
Shared mailbox memory size
Shared mailbox Command Address
0x0
0xf000
0xf000
0x1000
0xfffc
The following example explains how Python could initiate a read from a peripheral connected to an IOP.
1. Python writes a read command (e.g. 0x3) to the mailbox command address (0xfffc).
2. MicroBlaze application checks the command address, and reads and decodes the command.
3. MicroBlaze performs a read from the peripheral and places the data at the mailbox base address (0xf000).
4. MicroBlaze writes 0x0 to the mailbox command address (0xfffc) to confirm transaction is complete.
5. Python checks the command address (0xfffc), and sees that the MicroBlaze has written 0x0, indicating the read
is complete, and data is available.
6. Python reads the data in the mailbox base address (0xf000), completing the read.
Controlling the Pmod IOP Switch
There are 8 data pins on a Pmod port, that can be connected to any of 16 internal peripheral pins (8x GPIO, 2x SPI, 4x
IIC, 2x Timer).
Each pin can be configured by writing a 4 bit value to the corresponding place in the IOP Switch configuration register.
The following function, part of the provided pmod_io_switch_v1_0 driver (pmod.h) can be used to configure the
switch.
void config_pmod_switch(char pin0, char pin1, char pin2, char pin3, char pin4, \
char pin5, char pin6, char pin7);
While each parameter is a “char” only the lower 4-bits are currently used to configure each pin.
Switch mappings used for IOP Switch configuration:
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Pin
GPIO_0
GPIO_1
GPIO_2
GPIO_3
GPIO_4
GPIO_5
GPIO_6
GPIO_7
SCL
SDA
SPICLK
MISO
MOSI
SS
PWM
TIMER
Value
0x0
0x1
0x2
0x3
0x4
0x5
0x6
0x7
0x8
0x9
0xa
0xb
0xc
0xd
0xe
0xf
For example, to connect the physical pins GPIO 0-7 to the internal GPIO_0 - GPIO_7:
config_pmod_switch(GPIO_0, GPIO_1, GPIO_2, GPIO_3, GPIO_4, \
GPIO_5, GPIO_6, GPIO_7);
From Python all the constants and addresses for the IOP can be found in:
<GitHub Repository>/python/pynq/iop/iop_const.py
Note that if two or more pins are connected to the same signal, the pins are OR’d together internally. This is not
recommended and should not be done unintentionally.
Any application that uses the Pmod driver should also call pmod_init() at the beginning of the application.
Running code on different IOPs
The shared memory is the only connection between the ARM and the IOPs in the base overlay. The shared memory
of a MicroBlaze is mapped to the ARM address space. Some example mappings are shown below to highlight the
address translation between MicroBlaze and ARM’s memory spaces.
IOP Base Address
0x4000_0000
0x4200_0000
0x4400_0000
MicroBlaze Address Space
0x0000_0000 - 0x0000_ffff
0x0000_0000 - 0x0000_ffff
0x0000_0000 - 0x0000_ffff
ARM Equivalent Address Space
0x4000_0000 - 0x4000_ffff
0x4200_0000 - 0x4200_ffff
0x4400_0000 - 0x4400_ffff
Note that each MicroBlaze has the same range for its address space. However, the location of each IOPs address space
in the ARM memory map is different for each IOP. As the address space is the same for each IOP, any binary compiled
for one Pmod IOP will work on another Pmod IOP.
e.g. if IOP1 exists at 0x4000_0000, and IOP2 (a second instance of an IOP) exists at 0x4200_0000, the same binary
can run on IOP1 by writing the binary from python to the 0x4000_0000 address space, and on IOP2 by writing to the
0x4200_0000.
IOP Application Example
Taking Pmod ALS as an example IOP driver (used to control the PMOD light sensor), first open the pmod_als.c file:
8.6. Running code on different IOPs
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<GitHub Repository>/Pynq-Z1/sdk/pmod_als/src/pmod_als.c
Note that the pmod.h header file is included.
Some COMMANDS are defined by the user. These values can be chosen to be any value, but must correspond with the
Python part of the driver.
By convention, 0x0 is reserved for no command/idle/acknowledge, and IOP commands can be any non-zero value.
The ALS peripheral has as SPI interface. Note the user defined function get_sample() which calls an SPI function
spi_transfer() call defined in pmod.h.
In main() notice config_pmod_switch() is called to initialize the switch with a static configuration. This
means that if you want to use this code with a different pin configuration, the C code must be modified and recompiled.
Next, the while(1) loop is entered. In this loop the IOP continually checks the MAILBOX_CMD_ADDR for a nonzero command. Once a command is received from Python, the command is decoded, and executed.
Taking the first case, reading a single value:
case READ_SINGLE_VALUE:
MAILBOX_DATA(0) = get_sample();
MAILBOX_CMD_ADDR = 0x0;
get_sample() is called and a value returned to the first position (0) of the MAILBOX_DATA.
MAILBOX_CMD_ADDR is reset to zero to acknowledge to the ARM processor that the operation is complete and data
is available in the mailbox.
Examine Python Code
With the IOP Driver written, the Python class can be built that will communicate with that IOP.
<GitHub Repository>/python/pynq/iop/pmod_als.py
First the MMIO, request_iop, iop_const, PMODA and PMODB are imported.
import time
from pynq import MMIO
from pynq.iop import request_iop
from pynq.iop import iop_const
from pynq.iop import PMODA
from pynq.iop import PMODB
ALS_PROGRAM = "pmod_als.bin"
The MicroBlaze binary for the IOP is also declared. This is the application executable, and will be loaded into the IOP
instruction memory.
The ALS class and an initialization method are defined:
class Pmod_ALS(object):
def __init__(self, if_id):
The initialization function for the module requires an IOP index. For Grove peripherals and the StickIt connector, the
StickIt port number can also be used for initialization. The __init__ is called when a module is instantiated. e.g.
from Python:
from pynq.pmods import Pmod_ALS
als = Pmod_ALS(PMODB)
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Looking further into the initialization method, the _iop.request_iop() call instantiates an instance of an IOP
on the specified pmod_id and loads the MicroBlaze executable (ALS_PROGRAM) into the instruction memory of the
appropriate MicroBlaze.
self.iop = request_iop(if_id, PMOD_ALS_PROGRAM)
An MMIO class is also instantiated to enable read and write to the shared memory.
self.mmio = self.iop.mmio
Finally, the iop.start() call pulls the IOP out of reset. After this, the IOP will be running the als.bin executable.
self.iop.start()
Example of Python Class Runtime Methods
The read method in the Pmod_ALS class will simply read an ALS sample and return that value to the caller. The
following steps demonstrate a Python to MicroBlaze read transaction specfic to the ALS class.
def read(self):
First, the command is written to the MicroBlaze shared memory using mmio.write(). In this case the value 0x3
represents a read command. This value is user defined in the Python code, and must match the value the C program
running on the IOP expects for the same function.
self.mmio.write(iop_const.MAILBOX_OFFSET+
iop_const.MAILBOX_PY2IOP_CMD_OFFSET, 3)
When the IOP is finished, it will write 0x0 to the command area. The Python code now uses mmio.read() to check
if the command is still pending (in this case, when the 0x3 value is still present at the CMD_OFFSET). While the
command is pending, the Python class blocks.
while (self.mmio.read(iop_const.MAILBOX_OFFSET+
iop_const.MAILBOX_PY2IOP_CMD_OFFSET) == 3):
pass
Once the command is no longer 0x3, i.e. the acknowledge has been received, the result is read from the DATA area of
the shared memory MAILBOX_OFFSET using mmio.read().
return self.mmio.read(iop_const.MAILBOX_OFFSET)
Notice the iop_const values are used in these function calls, values that are predefined in iop_const.py.
8.7. IOP Application Example
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CHAPTER 9
Using Peripherals with the Base overlay
Base overlay
The PYNQ-Z1 has 2 Pmod connectors. PMODA and PMODB as indicated below are connected to the FPGA fabric.
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Using Pmods with an overlay
To use a peripheral two software components are required; a driver application written in C for the IOP, and a Python
module. These components are provided as part of the Pynq package for supported peripherals. See the IO Processors:
Writing your own software section of the documentation for writing drivers for your own peripherals.
The Python module instantiates the peripheral, and loads the driver application to the appropriate IOP. The IOP will
also be reset and start executing the new application.
The Python module will send commands which the IOP will interpret and execute. The Python module may also send
the data if necessary. The IOP will read from and write data into the shared memory area.
Example: Using the OLED and the Ambient Light Sensor (ALS)
This examples requires the PmodOLED (OLED), and PmodALS (Ambient Light Sensor). Plug the PmodALS into
PMODA, and PmodOLED into the top row of PMODB. (Currently, the PmodALS can only be used in the top row of
a Pmod port.)
OLED displaying light reading from ambient light sensor:
Execute the next cell to load the FPGA fabric with the desired overlay, and then import the OLED module and
instantiate it on PMODB:
In [1]: from pynq import Overlay
from pynq.iop import Pmod_OLED
from pynq.iop import PMODB
ol = Overlay("base.bit")
ol.download()
oled = Pmod_OLED(PMODB)
Try writing a message to the OLED.
In [2]: oled.write("Hello World")
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In [3]: oled.clear()
Import the ALS library, create an instance of the ALS Pmod, and read the value from the sensor.
In [4]: from pynq.iop import Pmod_ALS
from pynq.iop import PMODA
als = Pmod_ALS(PMODA)
als.read()
Write the value from the ALS to the OLED. The ALS sensor returns an 8-bit value.
• 0 : Darkest
• 255 : Brightest
In [5]: oled.write("Light value : " + str(als.read()))
In [6]: import time
from pynq.iop import Pmod_ALS
from pynq.iop import PMODA
als = Pmod_ALS(PMODA)
als.set_log_interval_ms(100)
als.start_log()
time.sleep(1)
als.stop_log()
als.get_log()
For information on other supported peripherals and their API, see the pynq.iop package section of the documentation.
9.3. Example: Using the OLED and the Ambient Light Sensor (ALS)
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CHAPTER 10
Video using the Base Overlay
The PYNQ-Z1 board contains a HDMI input port, and a HDMI output port connected to the FPGA fabric of the
Zynq® chip. This means to use the HDMI ports, HDMI controllers must be included in a hardware library or overlay.
The base overlay contains a HDMI input controller, and a HDMI Output controller, both connected to their corresponding HDMI ports. A frame can be captured from the HDMI input, and streamed into DDR memory. The frames
in DDR memory, can be accessed from Python.
A framebuffer can be shared between HDMI in and HDMI out to enable streaming.
Video IO
The overlay contains two video controllers, HDMI in and out. Both interfaces can be controlled independently, or
used in combination to capture an image from the HDMI, process it, and display it on the HDMI out.
There is also a USB controller connected to the Zynq PS. A webcam can also be used to capture images, or video
input, that can be processed and displayed on the HDMI out.
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The HDMI video capture controller
To use the HDMI in controller, connect the on-board HDMI In port to a valid video source. E.g. your laptop can be
used if it has HDMI out. Any HDMI video source can be used up to 1080p.
To use the HDMI in, ensure you have connected a valid HDMI source and execute the next cell. If a valid HDMI
source is not detected, the HDMI in controller will timeout with an error.
In [1]: from pynq import Overlay
from pynq.drivers.video import HDMI
# Download bitstream
Overlay("base.bit").download()
# Initialize HDMI as an input device
hdmi_in = HDMI('in')
The HDMI() argument ‘in’ indicates that the object is in capture mode.
When a valid video input source is connected, the controller should recognize it and start automatically. If a HDMI
source is not connected, the code will time-out with an error.
Starting and stopping the controller
You can manually start/stop the controller
In [2]: hdmi_in.start()
In [3]: hdmi_in.stop()
Readback from the controller
To check the state of the controller:
In [4]: state = hdmi_in.state()
print(state)
2
The state is returned as an integer value, with one of three possible values:
• 0 if disconnected
• 1 if streaming
• 2 if paused
You can also check the width and height of the input source (assuming a source is connected):
In [5]: hdmi_in.start()
width = hdmi_in.frame_width()
height = hdmi_in.frame_height()
print('HDMI is capturing a video source of resolution {}x{}'\
.format(width,height))
HDMI is capturing a video source of resolution 1920x1080
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HDMI Frame list
The HDMI object holds a frame list, that can contain up to 3 frames, and is where the controller stores the captured
frames. At the object instantiation, the current frame is the one at index 0. You can check at any time which frame
index is active:
In [6]: hdmi_in.frame_index()
Out[6]: 0
The frame_index() method can also be used to set a new index, if you specify an argument with the method call.
For instance:
In [7]: index = hdmi_in.frame_index()
hdmi_in.frame_index(index + 1)
This will set the current frame index to the next in the sequence. Note that, if index is 2 (the last frame in the list),
(index+1) will cause an exception.
If you want to set the next frame in the sequence, use:
In [8]: hdmi_in.frame_index_next()
Out[8]: 2
This will loop through the frame list and it will also return the new index as an integer.
Access the current frame
There are two ways to access pixel data: hdmi.frame() and hdmi.frame_raw().
In [9]: from IPython.display import Image
frame = hdmi_in.frame()
orig_img_path = '/home/xilinx/jupyter_notebooks/Getting_Started/images/hdmi_in_fram
frame.save_as_jpeg(orig_img_path)
Image(filename=orig_img_path)
10.5. HDMI Frame list
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This will dump the frame as a list _frame[height, width][rgb]. Where rgb is a tuple (r,g,b). If you
want to modify the green component of a pixel, you can do it as shown below. In the example, the top left quarter of
the image will have the green component increased.
In [10]: for x in range(int(width/2)):
for y in range(int(height/2)):
(red,green,blue) = frame[x,y]
green = green*2
if(green>255):
green = 255
frame[x,y] = (red, green, blue)
new_img_path = '/home/xilinx/jupyter_notebooks/Getting_Started/images/hdmi_in_fram
frame.save_as_jpeg(new_img_path)
Image(filename=new_img_path)
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This frame() method is a simple way to capture pixel data, but processing it in Python will be slow. If you want to
dump a frame at a specific index, just pass the index as an argument of the frame() method:
In [11]: # dumping frame at index 2
frame = hdmi_in.frame(2)
If higher performance is required, the frame_raw() method can be used:
In [12]: # dumping frame at current index
frame_raw = hdmi_in.frame_raw()
# dumping frame at index 2
frame_raw = hdmi_in.frame_raw(2)
This method will return a fast memory dump of the internal frame list, as a mono-dimensional list of dimension
frame[1920*1080*3] (This array is of fixed size regardless of the input source resolution). 1920x1080 is the
maximum supported frame dimension and 3 separate values for each pixel (Blue, Green, Red).
When the resolution is less than 1920x1080, the user must manually extract the correct pixel data.
For example, if the resolution of the video input source is 800x600, meaningful values will only be in the range
frame_raw[1920*i*3] to frame_raw[(1920*i + 799)*3] for each i (rows) from 0 to 599. Any other
position outside of this range will contain invalid data.
In [13]: # printing the green component of pixel (0,0)
print(frame_raw[1])
# printing the blue component of pixel (1,399)
print(frame_raw[1920 + 399 + 0])
# printing the red component of the last pixel (599,799)
print(frame_raw[1920*599 + 799 + 2])
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Frame Lists
To draw or display smooth animations/video, note the following:
Draw a new frame to a frame location not currently in use (an index different to the current hdmi.frame_index())
. Once finished writing the new frame, change the current frame index to the new frame index.
The HDMI out controller
Using the HDMI output is similar to using the HDMI input. Connect the HDMI OUT port to a monitor, or other
display device.
To instantiate the HDMI controller:
In [14]: from pynq.drivers import HDMI
hdmi_out = HDMI('out')
For the HDMI controller, you have to start/stop the device explicitly:
In [15]: hdmi_out.start()
In [16]: hdmi_out.stop()
To check the state of the controller:
In [17]: state = hdmi_out.state()
print(state)
0
The state is returned as an integer value, with 2 possible values:
• 0 if stopped
• 1 if running
After initialization, the display resolution is set at the lowest level: 640x480 at 60Hz.
To check the current resolution:
In [18]: print(hdmi_out.mode())
640x480@60Hz
This will print the current mode as a string. To change the mode, insert a valid index as an argument when calling
mode():
In [19]: hdmi_out.mode(4)
Out[19]: '1920x1080@60Hz'
Valid resolutions are:
• 0 : 640x480, 60Hz
• 1 : 800x600, 60Hz
• 2 : 1280x720, 60Hz
• 3 : 1280x1024, 60Hz
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• 4 : 1920x1080, 60Hz
Input/Output Frame Lists
To draw or display smooth animations/video, note the following:
Draw a new frame to a frame location not currently in use (an index different to the current hdmi.frame_index())
. Once finished writing the new frame, change the current frame index to the new frame index.
Streaming from HDMI Input to Output
To use the HDMI input and output to capture and display an image, make both the HDMI input and output share the
same frame list. The frame list in both cases can be accessed. You can make the two object share the same frame list
by a frame list as an argument to the second object’s constructor.
In [20]: from pynq.drivers.video import HDMI
hdmi_in = HDMI('in')
hdmi_out = HDMI('out', frame_list=hdmi_in.frame_list)
hdmi_out.mode(4)
Out[20]: '1920x1080@60Hz'
To start the controllers:
In [21]: hdmi_out.start()
hdmi_in.start()
The last step is always to stop the controllers and delete HDMI objects.
In [22]: hdmi_out.stop()
hdmi_in.stop()
del hdmi_out
del hdmi_in
10.8. Input/Output Frame Lists
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CHAPTER 11
Audio using the Base Overlay
The PYNQ-Z1 board contains an integrated MIC, and line out connected to a 3.5mm jack. Both these interfaces are
connected to the FPGA fabric of the Zynq® chip. The Microphone has a PDM interface, and the line out is a PWM
driven mono output.
It is possible to play back audio from the board in a notebook, and to capture audio from other interfaces like HDMI,
or a USB audio capture device. This notebook will only consider the MIC and line out interfaces on the board.
The Microphone is integrated onto the board, as indicated in the image below. The MIC hole should not be covered
when capturing audio.
Audio IP in base overlay
To use audio on the PYNQ-Z1, audio controllers must be included in a hardware library or overlay. The base overlay
contains a the PDM capture and PWM driver for the two audio interfaces as indicated in the image below:
The Audio IP in the base overlay consists of a PDM block to interface the MIC, and an Audio Direct IP block to drive
the line out (PWM). There are three multiplexors. This allows the line out to be driven from the PS, or the MIC can
be streamed directly to the output. The line out can also be disabled.
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Using the MIC
To use the MIC, first create an instance of the Audio class. The audio class can be used to access both the MIC and
the line out.
In [1]: from pynq.drivers import Audio
audio = Audio()
Capture audio
Capture a 4 second sample from the microphone, and save the raw pdm file to disk:
In [2]: # Record a sample
audio.record(4)
# Save recorded sample
audio.save("Recording_1.pdm")
Playback on the board
Connect headphones, or speakers to the 3.5mm line out and playback the captured audio:
In [3]: # Play recorded sample
audio.play()
You can also playback from a pre-recorded pdm file
In [4]: # Load a sample
audio.load("/home/xilinx/pynq/drivers/tests/pynq_welcome.pdm")
# Play loaded sample
audio.play()
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CHAPTER 12
Creating Overlays
Table of Contents
• Creating Overlays
– Introduction
– Vivado design
– Existing Overlays
– Interfacing to an overlay
– Packaging overlays
– Using Overlays
Introduction
As described in the PYNQ introduction, overlays are analogous to software libraries. A programmer can download
overlays into the Zynq® PL at runtime to provide functionality required by the software application.
An Overlay is a class of Programmable Logic design. Programmable Logic designs are usually highly optimized for a
specific task. Overlays however, are designed to be configurable, and reusable for broad set of applications. A PYNQ
overlay will have a Python interface, allowing a software programmer to use it like any other Python package.
A programmer can use an overlay, but will not usually create the overlays, as this is a specialised task for a hardware
designer.
This section will give an overview of the process of creating an overlay and integrating it into PYNQ, but will not
cover the hardware design process in detail.
Vivado design
An overlay consists of two main parts; the Programmable Logic (PL) design, and the Python API.
Xilinx® Vivado software is used to create the PL design. This will generate a bitstream or binary file (.bit file) that is
used to program the Zynq PL.
The free webpack version of Vivado can be used with the PYNQ-Z1 board to create overlays.
https://www.xilinx.com/products/design-tools/vivado/vivado-webpack.html
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There are some differences between the standard Zynq design process, and designing overlays for PYNQ. A Vivado
project for a Zynq design consists of two parts; the PL design, and the PS configuration settings. The PS configuration
includes settings for system clocks, including the clocks used in the PL.
The PYNQ image which is used to boot the board configures the Zynq PS at boot time. Overlays are downloaded as
required by the programmer, and will not reconfigure the Zynq PS. This means that overlay designers should ensure
the PS settings in their Vivado project match the PYNQ image settings.
The following settings should be used for a new Vivado overlay project:
Vivado Project settings:
• Target device: xc7z020clg400-1
PL clock configuration:
• FCLK_CLK0: 100.00MHz
• FCLK_CLK1: 142.86MHz
• FCLK_CLK2: 200.00MHz
• FCLK_CLK3: 166.67MHz
The PYNQ-Z1 Master XDC (I/O constraints) are available at the Digilent PYNQ-Z1 resource site:
https://reference.digilentinc.com/reference/programmable-logic/pynq-z1/start
It is recommended to start with an existing overlay design to ensure the PS settings are correct. The source files for
the base overlay can be found in the pynq GitHub, and the project can be rebuilt using the makefile available here:
<GitHub repository>/Pynq-Z1/vivado/base
Block Diagram Tcl
The tcl for the Vivado block diagram should also be exported with the bitstream. This allows information about the
overlay to be parsed into Python (e.g. list of IPs in the overlay). See the next section for details on how to query the
tcl file.
You can use a custom tcl file to build your project, or block diagram, but custom tcl files may not be parsed correctly.
You should use Vivado to export the tcl for the block diagram. This should ensure it can be parsed correctly in Python.
To generate the tcl for the Block Diagram from the Vivado GUI:
• Click File > Export > Block Design
Or, run the following in the tcl console:
write_bd_tcl
The tcl filename should match the .bit filename. E.g. my_overlay.bit and my_overlay.tcl
The tcl is parsed when the overlay is instantiated (not when it is downloaded).
from pynq import Overlay
ol = Overlay("base.bit") # tcl is parsed here
An error will be displayed if a tcl is not available when attempting to download an overlay, or if the tcl filename does
not match the .bit file name.
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ip_dict
The Overlay package generates a dictionary called ip_dict containing the names of IP in a specific overlay (e.g.
base.bit). The dictionary can be used to reference an IP by name in your Python code, rather than by a hard coded
address. It can also check the IP available in an overlay.
To show the IP dictionary of the overlay, run the following:
from pynq import Overlay
OL = Overlay("base.bit")
OL.ip_dict
Each entry in this IP dictionary that is returned is a key-value pair.
E.g.:
’SEG_mb_bram_ctrl_1_Mem0’:
[’0x40000000’, ’0x10000’, None]
Note, this parses the tcl file that was exported with the bitstream. It does not do check the overlay currently running in
the PL.
The key of the entry is the IP instance name; all the IP instance names are parsed from the *.tcl file (e.g. base.tcl) in
the address segment section. The value of the entry is a list of 3 items:
• The first item shows the base address of the addressable IP (hex).
• The second item shows the address range in bytes (hex).
• The third item records the state associated with the IP. It is None by default, but can be user defined.
Similarly, the PL package can be used to find the addressable IPs currently in the programmable logic:
from pynq import PL
PL.ip_dict
Existing Overlays
The base overlay is included in the Pynq repository and can be found here:
<GitHub repository>/Pynq-Z1/vivado/base
A makefile exists in each folder that can be used to rebuild the Vivado project and generate the bitstream for the
overlay. The bitstream and tcl for the overlay are available on the board (base.bit is loaded by default when the board
boots), and in the project repository:
<GitHub Repository>/Pynq-Z1/bitstream/
Vivado must be installed to design and build overlays. Building an existing overlay design allows the project to be
opened in Vivado and examined, or modified to create a new overlay.
12.3. Existing Overlays
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Interfacing to an overlay
MMIO
PYNQ includes the MMIO Python class to simplify communication between the Zynq PS and PL. Once the overlay
has been created, and the memory map is known, the MMIO can be used to access memory mapped locations in the
PL.
The Python code for the MMIO can be viewed here:
<GitHub Repository>/python/pynq/mmio.py
The MMIO class can access an area of memory in the PL by specifying the start address, and the range. E.g.
The following code allows access to memory mapped locations in the PL from 0x40000000 to 0x40010000
(SEG_mb_bram_ctrl_1_Mem0):
from pynq import MMIO
# an IP is located at 0x40000000
myip = MMIO(0x40000000,0x10000)
# Read from the IP at offset 0
myip.read(0)
In the example above, any accesses outside the address range 0x10000 (65535 bytes) will cause an exception in the
MMIO package. The designer must also be careful to ensure that addresses accessed by the MMIO have something
mapped in the PL. Remember that custom peripherals exist in the address space, and even if and address range is
mapped by the MMIO, there may not be anything connected to specific addresses, or they may be read only or write
only. Invalid accesses to the PL will cause system errors and will likely crash a Jupyter kernel.
When creating the python driver for a new hardware function, the MMIO can be wrapped inside a Python module.
Zynq GPIOs
GPIO between the Zynq PS and PL can be used by Python code as a control interface to overlays. The information
about a GPIO is kept in the GPIO dictionary of an overlay, similar to the ip_dict discussed above.
The following code can be used to get the dictionary for a bitstream:
from pynq import Overlay
ol = Overlay("base.bit")
ol.gpio_dict
A GPIO dictionary entry is a key, value pair, where value is a list of two items. An example of the entry in a GPIO
dictionary:
’mb_1_reset/Din’:
[0, None]
The key is the GPIO instance name (mb_1_reset/Din). GPIO instance names are read and parsed from the Vivado *.tcl
file (e.g. base.tcl).
The value is a list of 2 items:
• The first item shows the index of the GPIO (0).
• The second item (None) shows the state of the GPIO. It is None by default, but can be user defined.
The following code can be used to get the dictionary for GPIO currently in the FPGA fabric:
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from pynq import PL
pl = PL
pl.gpio_dict
CFFI
CFFI (C Foreign Function Interface) provides a simple way to interface with C code from Python. The CFFI package
is preinstalled in the PYNQ image. It supports an inline ABI (Application Binary Interface) compatibility mode, which
allows you to dynamically load and run functions from executable modules, and an API mode, which allows you to
build C extension modules.
The following example taken from http://docs.python-guide.org/en/latest/scenarios/clibs/ shows the ABI inline mode,
calling the C function strlen() in from Python
C function prototype:
size_t strlen(const char*);
The C function prototype is passed to cdef(), and can be called using clib.
from cffi import FFI
ffi = FFI()
ffi.cdef("size_t strlen(const char*);")
clib = ffi.dlopen(None)
length = clib.strlen(b"String to be evaluated.")
print("{}".format(length))
C functions inside a shared library can be called from Python using the C Foreign Function Interface (CFFI). The
shared library can be compiled online using the CFFI from Python, or it can be compiled offline.
For more information on CFFI and shared libraries refer to:
http://cffi.readthedocs.io/en/latest/overview.html
http://www.tldp.org/HOWTO/Program-Library-HOWTO/shared-libraries.html
To see examples in PYNQ on how to use CFFI, refer to the CMA class or the Audio class, both located:
<GitHub Repository>/pynq/drivers
Packaging overlays
An overlay, tcl, and Python can be placed anywhere in the filesystem, but this is not good practice.
The default location for the base PYNQ overlay and tcl is :
<GitHub Repository>/Pynq-Z1/bitstream
The PYNQ Python can be found here:
<GitHub Repository>/python/pynq
You can fork PYNQ from github, and add Python code to the PYNQ package. However, for custom overlays, you can
create your own repository and package it to allow other users to install your overlay using pip.
There are different ways to package a project for installation with pip. One example is provided below.
See pip install for more details, and more packaging options. https://pip.pypa.io/en/stable/reference/pip_install
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Example
The following example assume an overlay that exists in the root of a GitHub repository.
Assume the repository has the following structure:
• notebook/
– new_overlay.ipynb
• new_overlay/
– new_overlay.bit
– new_overlay.tcl
– __init.py
– new_overlay.py
• readme.md
• license
Add a setup.py to the root of your repository. This file will imports the necessary packages, and specifies some setup
instructions for your package including the package name, version, url, and files to include.
Example setup.py :
from setuptools import setup, find_packages
import subprocess
import sys
import shutil
import new_overlay
setup(
name = "new_overlay",
version = new_overlay.__version__,
url = 'https://github.com/your_github/new_overlay',
license = 'All rights reserved.',
author = "Your Name",
author_email = "your@email.com",
packages = ['new_overlay'],
package_data = {
'' : ['*.bit','*.tcl','*.py','*.so'],
},
description = "New custom overlay for PYNQ-Z1"
)
package_data specifies which files will be installed as part of the package.
From a terminal, the new package can be installed by running:
sudo pip install --upgrade 'git+https://github.com/your_github/new_overlay'
Using Overlays
The PL can be dynamically reconfigured with new overlays as the system is running.
Loading overlays can be done in Python using the Overlay class:
<GitHub Repository>/python/pynq/pl.py
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The bitstream can then be downloaded from Python:
from pynq import Overlay
ol = Overlay("base.bit")
ol.download()
12.6. Using Overlays
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CHAPTER 13
pynq Package
This section describes the pynq package for the PYNQ-Z1 platform.
After powering the board with the Micro SD card in place, the board will boot into Linux. Python3 is installed with
Jupyter Notebook support. The Python package pynq allows users to access overlays from Python.
Some preinstalled features of this Linux image include:
• Networking is enabled, and the board will attempt to get an IP address from a DHCP server on the network. If
a DHCP server is not found, the board will fallback and assign itself a static IP of 192.168.2.99 by default. This
default IP address can be changed.
• Samba, a file sharing service, is enabled. This means that the linux home area can be accessed from a Windows
machine by navigating to or mapping \\pynq\xilinx (Windows) or smb:pynq/xilinx (Mac/Linux) .
The samba username:password is xilinx:xilinx. Files can be copied to and from the board, and the
Pynq source code, and notebooks can be accessed and modified using your preferred editors on your host PC.
• A Jupyter Notebook server is initialized on port 9090 and automatically starts after boot.
• The base overlay is preloaded in the FPGA fabric.
Python pynq Package Structure
All Pynq code is contained in the pynq Python package and is can be found on the board at /home/xilinx/pynq.
This package is derived from the Github repository and the latest version can always be installed from <GitHub
repository>/python/pynq.
Pynq contains four main subpackages: board, iop, drivers, and bitstream; a tests subpackage is available
for testing the user subpackages. Each of the five subpackages are described below.
To learn more about Python package structures, please refer to the official python documentation.
board
This folder contains libraries or python packages for peripherals available on the PYNQ-Z1 board: button, switch,
rgbled and led. For example the following code will turn on one of PYNQ-Z1’s LEDs:
from pynq.board import LED
led = LED(0)
led.on()
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iop
This folder contains libraries for the following Pmod devices Pmod_ADC, Pmod_ALS, Pmod_DAC, Pmod_DPOT‘,
Pmod_LED8, Pmod_OLED, Pmod_PWM, Pmod_TIMER, and Pmod_TMP2.
The following Grove peripherals are also supported: Grove ADC, Grove Buzzer, Grove IMU, Grove LED
bar, Grove Light Sensor, Grove OLED, Grove PIR, Grove Temperature Sensor.
Arduino_Analog, and Arduino_IO are provided for interfacing to the arduino interface.
In addition, Pmod_IO, Pmod_IIC and DevMode are developer classes allowing direct low level access to I/O
controllers.
There is also an additional module named _iop.py; this module acts like a wrapper to allow all the Pmod classes
to interface with the MicroBlaze inside an IOP. The _IOP class prevents multiple device instantiations on the same
Pmod at the same time. (i.e. This prevents the user assigning more devices to a port than can be physically connected.)
_IOP uses the overlay class to track each IOP’s status.
Note: _iop.py is an internal module, not intended to be instantiated directly use. In Python, there is no concept of
_public_ and _private_; we use _ as a prefix to indicate internal definitions, variables, functions, and packages.
For example, the following code will instantiate and write to the Pmod_OLED attached on PMODA.
from pynq import Overlay
from pynq.iop import Pmod_OLED
from pynq.iop.iop_const import PMODA
ol = Overlay("base.bit")
ol.download()
pmod_oled = Pmod_OLED(PMODA)
pmod_oled.clear()
pmod_oled.write('Welcome to the\nPynq-Z1 board!')
bitstream
This folder contains the base.bit and the base.tcl. The base.bit is the precompiled overlay and base.tcl provides the
information of the hardware it is built from.
drivers
This folder contains various classes to support audio, video, DMA, and Trace_Buffer.
tests
This folder includes a tests package for use with all other pynq subpackages. All testing is done using pytest. Please
see The Verification Section to learn more about Pynq’s use of pytest to do automated testing.
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Note: The tests folders in board, iop, drivers, and others rely on the functions implemented in the test
folders of the pynq package. This common practice in Python where each subpackage has its own tests. This
practice can keep the source code modular and self-contained.
documentation
To find documentation for each module, see the Pynq Package for documentation built from the actual Python source
code.
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CHAPTER 14
Verification
Table of Contents
• Verification
– Running Tests
– Writing Tests
– Miscellaneous Test Setup
This section documents the test infrastructure supplied with the pynq package. It is organized as follows:
• Running Tests : describes how to run the pytest.
• Writing Tests : explains how to write tests.
• Miscellaneous : covers additional information relating to tests.
Running Tests
The pynq package provides tests for most python modules.
To run all the tests together, pytest can be run in a Linux terminal on the board. All the tests will be automatically
collected in the current directory and child directories.
Note: The pytests have to be run as root
cd /usr/local/lib/python3.4/dist-packages/pynq
sudo py.test -vsrw
For a complete list of pytest options, please refer to Usage and Invocations - Pytest.
Collection Phase
During this phase, the pytest will collect all the test modules in the current directory and all of its child directories.
The user will be asked if a Pmod is connected, and to which port it is connected.
For example:
Is LED8 attached to the board? ([yes]/no)>>> yes
Type in the Pmod ID of the LED8 (1 ~ 2):
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For the answer to the first question, “yes”, “YES”, “Yes”, “y”, and “Y” are acceptable; the same applies for “no” as an
answer. You can also press Enter; this is equivalent to “yes”.
Type 1 (for PMODA) or 2 (for PMODB).
Answering “No” will skip the corresponding test(s) during the testing phase.
Testing Phase
The test suite will guide the user through all the tests implemented in the pynq package. As part of the tests, the user
will be prompted for confirmation that the tests have passed, for example:
test_led0 ...
Onboard LED 0 on? ([yes]/no)>>>
Again press “Enter”, or type “yes”, “no” etc.
At the end of the testing phase, a summary will be given to show users how many tests are passed / skipped / failed.
Writing Tests
This section follows the guide available on Pytest Usages and Examples. You can write a test class with assertions on
inputs and outputs to allow automatic testing. The names of the test modules must start with test_; all the methods for
tests in any test module must also begin with test_. One reason to enforce this is to ensure the tests will be collected
properly. See the Full pytest documentation for more details.
Step 1
First of all, the pytest package has to be imported:
import pytest
Step 2
Decorators can be specified directly above the methods. For example, you can specify (1) the order of this test in
the entire pytest process, and (2) the condition to skip the corresponding test. More information on decorators can be
found in Marking test functions with attributes - Pytest.
@pytest.mark.run(order=26)
@pytest.mark.skipif(not flag, reason="need both ADC and DAC attached")
Step 3
Directly below decorators, you can write some assertions/tests. See the example below:
@pytest.mark.run(order=26)
@pytest.mark.skipif(not flag, reason="need both ADC and DAC attached")
def test_loop_single():
"""Test for writing a single value via the loop.
First check whether read() correctly returns a string. Then ask the users
to write a voltage on the DAC, read from the ADC, and compares the two
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voltages.
The exception is raised when the difference is more than 10% and more than
0.1V.
Note
---Users can use a straight cable (instead of wires) to do this test.
For the 6-pin DAC Pmod, it has to be plugged into the upper row of the
Pmod interface.
"""
global dac,adc
dac = Pmod_DAC(dac_id)
adc = Pmod_ADC(adc_id)
value = float(input("\nInsert a voltage in the range of [0.00, 2.00]: "))
assert value<=2.00, 'Input voltage should not be higher than 2.00V.'
assert value>=0.00, 'Input voltage should not be lower than 0.00V.'
dac.write(value)
sleep(0.05)
assert round(abs(value-adc.read()[0]),2)<max(0.1, 0.1*value), \
'Read value != write value.'
Note the assert statements specify the desired condition, and raise exceptions whenever that condition is not met. A
customized exception message can be attached at the end of the assert methods, as shown in the example above.
Miscellaneous Test Setup
ADC Jumper
In our tests and demos, we have used a Pmod ADC. In order to make it work properly with the testing environment,
you need to set a jumper JP1 to REF on the Pmod ADC. This will allow the ADC to use the correct reference voltage.
Cable Type
Two types of cables can be used with the tests in the pynq package, a “straight” cable, and a “loopback” cable:
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• Straight cable (upper one in the image): The internal wires between the two ends are straight. This cable is
intended for use as an extension cable.
• Loopback cable (lower one in the image, with red ribbon): The internal wires are twisted. This cable is intended
for testing.
There are marks on the connectors at each end of the cable to indicate the orientation and wiring of the cable.
Note: You must not short VCC and GND as it may damage the board. It is good practice to align the pins with the
dot marks to VCC of the Pmod interfaces.
Note: For testing, there is only one connection type (mapping) allowed for each cable type. Otherwise VCC and
GND could be shorted, damaging the board.
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pynq package reference
Subpackages
pynq.board package
Submodules
pynq.board.button module
class pynq.board.button.Button(index)
Bases: object
This class controls the onboard push-buttons.
index
int
Index of the push-buttons, starting from 0.
read()
Read the current value of the button.
Returns Either 1 if the button is pressed or 0 otherwise
Return type int
pynq.board.led module
class pynq.board.led.LED(index)
Bases: object
This class controls the onboard LEDs.
index
int
The index of the onboard LED, starting from 0.
off()
Turn off a single LED.
Parameters None –
Returns
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Return type None
on()
Turn on a single LED.
Parameters None –
Returns
Return type None
read()
Retrieve the LED state.
Returns Either 0 if the LED is off or 1 if the LED is on.
Return type int
toggle()
Flip the state of a single LED.
If the LED is on, it will be turned off. If the LED is off, it will be turned on.
Parameters None –
Returns
Return type None
write(value)
Set the LED state according to the input value.
Parameters value (int) – This parameter can be either 0 (off) or 1 (on).
Raises ValueError – If the value parameter is not 0 or 1.
pynq.board.switch module
class pynq.board.switch.Switch(index)
Bases: object
This class controls the onboard switches.
index
int
Index of the onboard switches, starting from 0.
read()
Read the current value of the switch.
Returns Either 0 if the switch is off or 1 if the switch is on
Return type int
pynq.board.rgbled module
class pynq.board.rgbled.RGBLED(index)
Bases: object
This class controls the onboard RGB LEDs.
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index
int
The index of the RGB LED, from 4 (LD4) to 5 (LD5).
_mmio
MMIO
Shared memory map for the RGBLED GPIO controller.
_rgbleds_val
int
Global value of the RGBLED GPIO pins.
off()
Turn off a single RGBLED.
Parameters None –
Returns
Return type None
on(color)
Turn on a single RGB LED with a color value (see color constants).
Parameters color (int) – Color of RGB specified by a 3-bit RGB integer value.
Returns
Return type None
read()
Retrieve the RGBLED state.
Returns The color value stored in the RGBLED.
Return type int
write(color)
Set the RGBLED state according to the input value.
Parameters color (int) – Color of RGB specified by a 3-bit RGB integer value.
Returns
Return type None
pynq.board.rgbled.RGBLEDS_START_INDEX = 4
Reference Color Values for RGB LED
pynq.iop package
Submodules
pynq.iop.arduino_analog module
class pynq.iop.arduino_analog.Arduino_Analog(if_id, gr_pin)
Bases: object
This class controls the Arduino Analog.
XADC is an internal analog controller in the hardware. This class provides API to do analog reads from IOP.
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iop
_IOP
I/O processor instance used by Arduino_Analog class.
mmio
MMIO
Memory-mapped I/O instance to read and write instructions and data.
log_running
int
The state of the log (0: stopped, 1: started).
log_interval_ms
int
Time in milliseconds between samples on the same channel.
gr_pin
list
A list of analog pins getting sampled.
num_channels
int
The number of channels sampled.
get_log()
Return list of logged samples.
Parameters None –
Returns List of valid voltage samples (floats) from the ADC sensor.
Return type list
get_log_raw()
Return list of logged raw samples.
Parameters None –
Returns List of valid raw samples from the analog device.
Return type list
read()
Read the voltage value from the analog peripheral.
Parameters None –
Returns The float values after translation.
Return type list
read_raw()
Read the analog raw value from the analog peripheral.
Parameters None –
Returns The raw values from the analog device.
Return type list
reset()
Resets the system monitor for analog devices.
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Parameters None –
Returns
Return type None
set_log_interval_ms(log_interval_ms)
Set the length of the log for the analog peripheral.
This method can set the time interval between two samples, so that users can read out multiple values in a
single log.
Parameters log_interval_ms (int) – The time between two samples in milliseconds, for
logging only.
Returns
Return type None
start_log()
Start recording multiple voltage values (float) in a log.
This method will first call set_log_interval_ms() before writting to the MMIO.
Parameters None –
Returns
Return type None
start_log_raw()
Start recording raw data in a log.
This method will first call set_log_interval_ms() before writting to the MMIO.
Parameters None –
Returns
Return type None
stop_log()
Stop recording the voltage values in the log.
This can be done by calling the stop_log_raw() method.
Parameters None –
Returns
Return type None
stop_log_raw()
Stop recording the raw values in the log.
Simply write 0xC to the MMIO to stop the log.
Parameters None –
Returns
Return type None
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pynq.iop.arduino_io module
class pynq.iop.arduino_io.Arduino_IO(if_id, index, direction)
Bases: object
This class controls the Arduino IO pins as inputs or outputs.
Note: The parameter ‘direction’ determines whether the instance is input/output: ‘in’ : receiving input from
offchip to onchip. ‘out’ : sending output from onchip to offchip.
Note: The index of the Arduino pins: upper row, from right to left: {0, 1, ..., 13}. (D0 - D13) lower row, from
left to right: {14, 15,..., 19}. (A0 - A5)
iop
_IOP
The _IOP object returned from the DevMode.
index
int
The index of the Arduino pin, from 0 to 19.
direction
str
Input ‘in’ or output ‘out’.
read()
Receive the value from the offboard Arduino IO device.
Note: Only use this function when direction is ‘in’.
Parameters None –
Returns The data (0 or 1) on the specified Arduino IO pin.
Return type int
write(value)
Send the value to the offboard Arduino IO device.
Note: Only use this function when direction is ‘out’.
Parameters value (int) – The value to be written to the Arduino IO device.
Returns
Return type None
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pynq.iop.devmode module
class pynq.iop.devmode.DevMode(if_id, switch_config)
Bases: object
Control an IO processor running the developer mode program.
This class will wait for Python to send commands to Pmod / Arduino IO, IIC, or SPI.
if_id
int
The interface ID (1,2,3) corresponding to (PMODA,PMODB,ARDUINO).
iop
_IOP
IO processor instance used by DevMode.
iop_switch_config
list
IO processor switch configuration (8 or 19 integers).
mmio
MMIO
Memory-mapped IO instance to read and write instructions and data.
get_cmd_word(cmd, dWidth, dLength)
Build the command word.
Note: The returned command word has the following format: Bit [0] : valid bit. Bit [2:1] : command data
width. Bit [3] : command type (read or write). Bit [15:8] : command burst length. Bit [31:16] : unused.
Parameters
• cmd (int) – Either 1 (read IOP register) or 0 (write IOP register).
• dWidth (int) – Command data width.
• dLength (int) – Command burst length (currently only supporting dLength 1).
Returns The command word following a specific format.
Return type int
is_cmd_mailbox_idle()
Check whether the IOP command mailbox is idle.
Parameters None –
Returns True if IOP command mailbox idle.
Return type bool
load_switch_config(config=None)
Load the IO processor’s switch configuration.
This method will update switch config.
Parameters config (list) – A switch configuration list of integers.
Raises TypeError – If the config argument is not of the correct type.
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read_cmd(address, dWidth=4, dLength=1, timeout=10)
Send a read command to the mailbox.
Parameters
• address (int) – The address tied to IO processor’s memory map.
• dWidth (int) – Command data width.
• dLength (int) – Command burst length (currently only supporting dLength 1).
• timeout (int) – Time in milliseconds before function exits with warning.
Returns A list of data returned by MMIO read.
Return type list
start()
Start the IO Processor.
The IOP instance will start automatically after instantiation.
This method will: 1. zero out mailbox CMD register; 2. load switch config; 3. set IOP status as “RUNNING”.
status()
Returns the status of the IO processor.
Parameters None –
Returns The IOP status (“IDLE”, “RUNNING”, or “STOPPED”).
Return type str
stop()
Put the IO Processor into Reset.
This method will set IOP status as “STOPPED”.
write_cmd(address, data, dWidth=4, dLength=1, timeout=10)
Send a write command to the mailbox.
Parameters
• address (int) – The address tied to IO processor’s memory map.
• data (int) – 32-bit value to be written (None for read).
• dWidth (int) – Command data width.
• dLength (int) – Command burst length (currently only supporting dLength 1).
• timeout (int) – Time in milliseconds before function exits with warning.
Returns
Return type None
pynq.iop.grove_adc module
class pynq.iop.grove_adc.Grove_ADC(if_id, gr_pin)
Bases: object
This class controls the Grove IIC ADC.
Grove ADC is a 12-bit precision ADC module based on ADC121C021. Hardware version: v1.2.
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iop
_IOP
I/O processor instance used by Grove_ADC.
mmio
MMIO
Memory-mapped I/O instance to read and write instructions and data.
log_running
int
The state of the log (0: stopped, 1: started).
log_interval_ms
int
Time in milliseconds between sampled reads of the Grove_ADC sensor.
get_log()
Return list of logged samples.
Parameters None –
Returns List of valid voltage samples (floats) from the ADC sensor.
Return type list
get_log_raw()
Return list of logged raw samples.
Parameters None –
Returns List of valid raw samples from the ADC sensor.
Return type list
read()
Read the ADC voltage from the Grove ADC peripheral.
Parameters None –
Returns The float value after translation.
Return type float
read_raw()
Read the ADC raw value from the Grove ADC peripheral.
Parameters None –
Returns The raw value from the sensor.
Return type int
reset()
Resets/initializes the ADC.
Parameters None –
Returns
Return type None
set_log_interval_ms(log_interval_ms)
Set the length of the log for the Grove_ADC peripheral.
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This method can set the time interval between two samples, so that users can read out multiple values in a
single log.
Parameters log_interval_ms (int) – The time between two samples in milliseconds, for
logging only.
Returns
Return type None
start_log()
Start recording multiple voltage values (float) in a log.
This method will first call set_log_interval_ms() before writting to the MMIO.
Parameters None –
Returns
Return type None
start_log_raw()
Start recording raw data in a log.
This method will first call set_log_interval_ms() before writting to the MMIO.
Parameters None –
Returns
Return type None
stop_log()
Stop recording the voltage values in the log.
This can be done by calling the stop_log_raw() method.
Parameters None –
Returns
Return type None
stop_log_raw()
Stop recording the raw values in the log.
Simply write 0xC to the MMIO to stop the log.
Parameters None –
Returns
Return type None
pynq.iop.grove_buzzer module
class pynq.iop.grove_buzzer.Grove_Buzzer(if_id, gr_pin)
Bases: object
This class controls the Grove Buzzer.
The grove buzzer module has a piezo buzzer as the main component. The piezo can be connected to digital
outputs, and will emit a tone when the output is HIGH. Alternatively, it can be connected to an analog pulsewidth modulation output to generate various tones and effects. Hardware version: v1.2.
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iop
_IOP
I/O processor instance used by Grove Buzzer.
mmio
MMIO
Memory-mapped I/O instance to read and write instructions and data.
log_interval_ms
int
Time in milliseconds between sampled reads of the GROVE_BUZZER sensor.
play_melody()
Play a melody.
Parameters None –
Returns
Return type None
play_tone(tone_period, num_cycles)
Play a single tone with tone_period for num_cycles
Parameters
• tone_period (int) – The period of the tone in microsecond.
• num_cycles (int) – The number of cycles for the tone to be played.
Returns
Return type None
pynq.iop.grove_color module
class pynq.iop.grove_color.Grove_Color(if_id, gr_pin)
Bases: object
This class controls the Grove IIC Color sensor.
Grove Color sensor based on the TCS3414CS. Hardware version: v1.3.
iop
_IOP
I/O processor instance used by Grove_Color.
mmio
MMIO
Memory-mapped I/O instance to read and write instructions and data.
log_running
int
The state of the log (0: stopped, 1: started).
read()
Read the color values from the Grove Color peripheral.
Parameters None –
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Returns A tuple containing 4 integer values: Red, Green, Blu and Clear. Clear represents the
value of the sensor without color filters applied.
Return type tuple
pynq.iop.grove_dlight module
class pynq.iop.grove_dlight.Grove_DLight(if_id, gr_pin)
Bases: object
This class controls the Grove IIC Color sensor.
Grove Color sensor based on the TCS3414CS. Hardware version: v1.3.
iop
_IOP
I/O processor instance used by Grove_Color.
mmio
MMIO
Memory-mapped I/O instance to read and write instructions and data.
log_running
int
The state of the log (0: stopped, 1: started).
read_lux()
Read the computed lux value of the sensor.
Parameters None –
Returns An integer value
Return type tuple
read_raw_light()
Read the visible and IR channel values from the Grove Digital light peripheral.
Parameters None –
Returns A tuple containing 2 integer values ch0 (visible) and ch1 (IR)
Return type tuple
pynq.iop.grove_ear_hr module
class pynq.iop.grove_ear_hr.Grove_EarHR(if_id, gr_pin)
Bases: object
This class controls the Grove ear clip heart rate sensor. Sensor model: MED03212P.
iop
_IOP
I/O processor instance used by Grove_FingerHR.
mmio
MMIO
Memory-mapped I/O instance to read and write instructions and data.
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read()
Read the heart rate from the sensor
Parameters None –
Returns A float representing the heart rate as beats per minute
Return type float
read_raw()
Read the number of heart beats read by the sensor since its initialization together with the time in milliseconds between the latest two heart beats.
Parameters None –
Returns A tuple of the form (beats, deltaT) where beats is the number of beats read since the
sensor initialization and deltaT is the time difference in ms between the latest two heart beats.
Return type tuple
signal_pin = None
Write signal pinconfig
pynq.iop.grove_finger_hr module
class pynq.iop.grove_finger_hr.Grove_FingerHR(pmod_id, gr_id)
Bases: object
This class controls the Grove finger clip heart rate sensor.
Grove Finger sensor based on the TCS3414CS. Hardware version: v1.3.
iop
_IOP
I/O processor instance used by Grove_FingerHR.
mmio
MMIO
Memory-mapped I/O instance to read and write instructions and data.
log_running
int
The state of the log (0: stopped, 1: started).
get_log()
Return list of logged samples.
Parameters None –
Returns List of integers containing the heart rate.
Return type list
read()
Read the heart rate value from the Grove Finger HR peripheral.
Parameters None –
Returns A integer representing the heart rate frequency
Return type tuple
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start_log(log_interval_ms=100)
Start recording multiple heart rate values in a log.
This method will first call set the log interval before writing to the MMIO.
Parameters log_interval_ms (int) – The time between two samples in milliseconds.
Returns
Return type None
stop_log()
Stop recording the values in the log.
Simply write 0xC to the MMIO to stop the log.
Parameters None –
Returns
Return type None
pynq.iop.grove_haptic_motor module
class pynq.iop.grove_haptic_motor.Grove_Haptic_Motor(if_id, gr_pin)
Bases: object
This class controls the Grove Haptic Motor based on the DRV2605L. Hardware version v0.9.
iop
_IOP
I/O processor instance used by Grove_Haptic_Motor.
mmio
MMIO
Memory-mapped I/O instance to read and write instructions and data.
is_playing()
Check if a vibration effect is running on the Grove Haptic Motor.
Parameters None –
Returns True if a vibration effect is playing, false otherwise
Return type bool
play(effect)
Play a vibration effect on the Grove Haptic Motor peripheral.
Valid effect identifiers are in the range [1, 127]
Parameters effect – An integer that specifies the effect identifier
Returns
Return type None
play_sequence(sequence)
Play a sequence of effects possibly separated by pauses.
At most 8 effects / pauses can be specified at a time. Pauses are defined using negative integer values in
the range [-1, -127] that correspond to a pause length in the range [10, 1270] ms
Valid effect identifiers are in the range [1, 127]
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As an example, in the following sequence example: [4,-20,5] effect 4 is played and after a pause of 200
ms effect 5 is played
Parameters sequence – A list of at most 8 integer values that specifies effect identifiers and
pauses
Returns
Return type None
stop()
Stop an effect or a sequence on the Grove Haptic Motor peripheral.
Parameters None –
Returns
Return type None
pynq.iop.grove_imu module
class pynq.iop.grove_imu.Grove_IMU(if_id, gr_pin)
Bases: object
This class controls the Grove IIC IMU.
Grove IMU 10DOF is a combination of grove IMU 9DOF (MPU9250) and grove barometer sensor (BMP180).
MPU-9250 is a 9-axis motion tracking device that combines a 3-axis gyroscope, 3-axis accelerometer, 3-axis
magnetometer and a Digital Motion Processor (DMP). BMP180 is a high precision, low power digital pressure
sensor. Hardware version: v1.1.
iop
_IOP
I/O processor instance used by Grove_IMU.
mmio
MMIO
Memory-mapped I/O instance to read and write instructions and data.
get_accl()
Get the data from the accelerometer.
Parameters None –
Returns A list of the acceleration data along X-axis, Y-axis, and Z-axis.
Return type list
get_altitude()
Get the current altitude.
Parameters None –
Returns The altitude value.
Return type float
get_atm()
Get the current pressure in relative atmosphere.
Parameters None –
Returns The related atmosphere.
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Return type float
get_compass()
Get the data from the magnetometer.
Parameters None –
Returns A list of the compass data along X-axis, Y-axis, and Z-axis.
Return type list
get_gyro()
Get the data from the gyroscope.
Parameters None –
Returns A list of the gyro data along X-axis, Y-axis, and Z-axis.
Return type list
get_heading()
Get the value of the heading.
Parameters None –
Returns The angle deviated from the X-axis, toward the positive Y-axis.
Return type float
get_pressure()
Get the current pressure in Pa.
Parameters None –
Returns The pressure value.
Return type float
get_temperature()
Get the current temperature in degree C.
Parameters None –
Returns The temperature value.
Return type float
get_tiltheading()
Get the value of the tilt heading.
Parameters None –
Returns The tilt heading value.
Return type float
reset()
Reset all the sensors on the grove IMU.
Parameters None –
Returns
Return type None
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pynq.iop.grove_ledbar module
class pynq.iop.grove_ledbar.Grove_LEDbar(if_id, gr_pin)
Bases: object
This class controls the Grove LED BAR.
Grove LED Bar is comprised of a 10 segment LED gauge bar and an MY9221 LED controlling chip. Model:
LED05031P. Hardware version: v2.0.
iop
_IOP
I/O processor instance used by Grove_LEDbar.
mmio
MMIO
Memory-mapped I/O instance to read and write instructions and data.
read()
Reads the current status of LEDbar.
Reads the current status of LEDbar and returns a 10-bit binary string. Each bit position corresponds to a
LED position in the LEDbar, and bit value corresponds to the LED state.
Red LED corresponds to the LSB, while green LED corresponds to the MSB.
Parameters None –
Returns String of 10 binary bits.
Return type str
reset()
Resets the LEDbar.
Clears the LEDbar, sets all LEDs to OFF state.
Parameters None –
Returns
Return type None
write_binary(data_in)
Set individual LEDs in the LEDbar based on 10 bit binary input.
Each bit in the 10-bit data_in points to a LED position on the LEDbar. Red LED corresponds to the LSB,
while green LED corresponds to the MSB.
Parameters data_in (int) – 10 LSBs of this parameter control the LEDbar.
Returns
Return type None
write_brightness(data_in, brightness=[170, 170, 170, 170, 170, 170, 170, 170, 170, 170])
Set individual LEDs with 3 level brightness control.
Each bit in the 10-bit data_in points to a LED position on the LEDbar. Red LED corresponds to the LSB,
while green LED corresponds to the MSB.
Brightness of each LED is controlled by the brightness parameter. There are 3 perceivable levels of brightness: 0xFF : HIGH 0xAA : MED 0x01 : LOW
Parameters
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• data_in (int) – 10 LSBs of this parameter control the LEDbar.
• brightness (list) – Each List element controls a single LED.
Returns
Return type None
write_level(level, bright_level, green_to_red)
Set the level to which the leds are to be lit in levels 1 - 10.
Level can be set in both directions. set_level operates by setting all LEDs to the same brightness level.
There are 4 preset brightness levels: bright_level = 0: off bright_level = 1: low bright_level = 2: medium
bright_level = 3: maximum
green_to_red indicates the direction, either from red to green when it is 0, or green to red when it is 1.
Parameters
• level (int) – 10 levels exist, where 1 is minimum and 10 is maximum.
• bright_level (int) – Controls brightness of all LEDs in the LEDbar, from 0 to 3.
• green_to_red (int) – Sets the direction of the sequence.
Returns
Return type None
pynq.iop.grove_light module
class pynq.iop.grove_light.Grove_Light(if_id, gr_pin)
Bases: pynq.iop.grove_adc.Grove_ADC
This class controls the grove light sensor.
This class inherits from the Grove_ADC class. To use this module, grove ADC has to be used as a bridge. The
light sensor incorporates a Light Dependent Resistor (LDR) GL5528. Hardware version: v1.1.
iop
_IOP
I/O processor instance used by Grove ADC.
mmio
MMIO
Memory-mapped I/O instance to read and write instructions and data.
log_running
int
The state of the log (0: stopped, 1: started).
log_interval_ms
int
Time in milliseconds between sampled reads of the Grove ADC sensor.
get_log()
Return list of logged light sensor resistances.
Parameters None –
Returns List of valid light sensor resistances.
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Return type list
read()
Read the light sensor resistance in from the light sensor.
This method overrides the definition in Grove_ADC.
Parameters None –
Returns The light reading in terms of the sensor resistance.
Return type float
start_log()
Start recording the light sensor resistance in a log.
This method will call the start_log_raw() in the parent class.
Parameters None –
Returns
Return type None
stop_log()
Stop recording light values in a log.
This method will call the stop_log_raw() in the parent class.
Parameters None –
Returns
Return type None
pynq.iop.grove_oled module
class pynq.iop.grove_oled.Grove_OLED(if_id, gr_pin)
Bases: object
This class controls the Grove IIC OLED.
Grove LED 128×64 Display module is an OLED monochrome 128×64 matrix display module. Model:
OLE35046P. Hardware version: v1.1.
iop
_IOP
I/O processor instance used by Grove_OLED.
mmio
MMIO
Memory-mapped I/O instance to read and write instructions and data.
clear()
Clear the OLED screen.
This is done by writing empty strings into the OLED in Microblaze.
Parameters None –
Returns
Return type None
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set_contrast(brightness)
Set the contrast level for the OLED display.
The contrast level is in [0, 255].
Parameters brightness (int) – The brightness of the display.
Returns
Return type None
set_horizontal_mode()
Set the display mode to horizontal.
Parameters None –
Returns
Return type None
set_inverse_mode()
Set the display mode to inverse.
Parameters None –
Returns
Return type None
set_normal_mode()
Set the display mode to normal.
Parameters None –
Returns
Return type None
set_page_mode()
Set the display mode to paged.
Parameters None –
Returns
Return type None
set_position(row, column)
Set the position of the display.
The position is indicated by (row, column).
Parameters
• row (int) – The row number to start the display.
• column (int) – The column number to start the display.
Returns
Return type None
write(text)
Write a new text string on the OLED.
Clear the screen first to correctly show the new text.
Parameters text (str) – The text string to be displayed on the OLED screen.
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Returns
Return type None
pynq.iop.grove_pir module
class pynq.iop.grove_pir.Grove_PIR
Bases: object
This class controls the PIR motion sensor.
The grove PIR motion sensor is attached to a Pmod or an Arduino interface. Hardware version: v1.2.
pir_iop
object
The Pmod IO or Arduino IO object.
static __new__(if_id, gr_pin)
Return a new instance of a PIR object.
Parameters
• if_id (int) – IOP ID (1, 2, 3) corresponding to (PMODA, PMODB, ARDUINO).
• gr_pin (list) – A group of pins on stickit connector or arduino shield.
read()
Receive the value from the PIR sensor.
Returns 0 when there is no motion, and returns 1 otherwise.
Parameters None –
Returns The data (0 or 1) read from the PIR sensor.
Return type int
pynq.iop.grove_th02 module
class pynq.iop.grove_th02.Grove_TH02(if_id, gr_pin)
Bases: object
This class controls the Grove I2C Temperature and Humidity sensor.
Tempterature&humidity sensor (high-accuracy & mini). Hardware version: v1.0.
iop
_IOP
I/O processor instance used by Grove_TH02.
mmio
MMIO
Memory-mapped I/O instance to read and write instructions and data.
log_running
int
The state of the log (0: stopped, 1: started).
get_log()
Return list of logged samples.
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Parameters None –
Returns List of tuples containing (temperature, humidity)
Return type list
read()
Read the temperature and humidity values from the TH02 peripheral.
Parameters None –
Returns tuple containing (temperature, humidity)
Return type tuple
start_log(log_interval_ms=100)
Start recording multiple heart rate values in a log.
This method will first call set the log interval before writting to the MMIO.
Parameters log_interval_ms (int) – The time between two samples in milliseconds.
Returns
Return type None
stop_log()
Stop recording the values in the log.
Simply write 0xC to the MMIO to stop the log.
Parameters None –
Returns
Return type None
pynq.iop.grove_tmp module
class pynq.iop.grove_tmp.Grove_TMP(if_id, gr_pin, version=’v1.2’)
Bases: pynq.iop.grove_adc.Grove_ADC
This class controls the grove temperature sensor.
This class inherits from the Grove_ADC class. To use this module, grove ADC has to be used as a bridge. The
temperature sensor uses a thermistor to detect the ambient temperature. Hardware version: v1.2.
iop
_IOP
I/O processor instance used by Grove ADC.
mmio
MMIO
Memory-mapped I/O instance to read and write instructions and data.
log_running
int
The state of the log (0: stopped, 1: started).
log_interval_ms
int
Time in milliseconds between sampled reads of the Grove ADC sensor.
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bValue
int
The thermistor constant.
get_log()
Return list of logged temperature samples.
Parameters None –
Returns List of valid temperature readings from the temperature sensor.
Return type list
read()
Read temperature values in Celsius from temperature sensor.
This method overrides the definition in Grove_ADC.
Parameters None –
Returns The temperature reading in Celsius.
Return type float
start_log()
Start recording temperature in a log.
This method will call the start_log_raw() in the parent class.
Parameters None –
Returns
Return type None
stop_log()
Stop recording temperature in a log.
This method will call the stop_log_raw() in the parent class.
Parameters None –
Returns
Return type None
pynq.iop.iop module
pynq.iop.iop.request_iop(iop_id, mb_program)
This is the interface to request an I/O Processor.
It looks for active instances on the same IOP ID, and prevents users from instantiating different types of IOPs
on the same interface. Users are notified with an exception if the selected interface is already hooked to another
type of IOP, to prevent unwanted behavior.
Two cases: 1. No previous IOP in the system with the same ID, or users want to request another instance with
the same program. Do not raises an exception. 2. There is A previous IOP in the system with the same ID.
Users want to request another instance with a different program. Raises an exception.
Note: When an IOP is already in the system with the same IOP ID, users are in danger of losing the old
instances associated with this IOP.
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For bitstream base.bit, the IOP IDs are {1, 2, 3} <=> {PMODA, PMODB, arduino interface}. For different
bitstreams, this mapping can be different.
Parameters
• iop_id (int) – IOP ID (1, 2, 3) corresponding to (PMODA, PMODB, ARDUINO).
• mb_program (str) – Program to be loaded on the IOP.
Returns An _IOP object with the updated Microblaze program.
Return type _IOP
Raises
• ValueError – When the IOP name or the GPIO name cannot be found in the PL.
• LookupError – When another IOP is in the system with the same IOP ID.
pynq.iop.iop_const module
pynq.iop.pmod_adc module
class pynq.iop.pmod_adc.Pmod_ADC(if_id)
Bases: object
This class controls an Analog to Digital Converter Pmod.
The Pmod AD2 (PB 200-217) is an analog-to-digital converter powered by AD7991. Users may configure up
to 4 conversion channels at 12 bits of resolution.
iop
_IOP
I/O processor instance used by the ADC
mmio
MMIO
Memory-mapped I/O instance to read and write instructions and data.
log_running
int
The state of the log (0: stopped, 1: started).
get_log()
Get the log of voltage values.
First stop the log before getting the log.
Parameters None –
Returns List of voltage samples from the ADC.
Return type list
get_log_raw()
Get the log of raw values.
First stop the log before getting the log.
Parameters None –
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Returns List of raw samples from the ADC.
Return type list
read(ch1=1, ch2=0, ch3=0)
Get the voltage from the Pmod ADC.
When ch1, ch2, and ch3 values are 1 then the corresponding channel is included.
For each channel selected, this method reads and returns one sample.
Note: The 4th channel is not available due to the jumper setting on ADC.
Note: This method reads the voltage values from ADC.
Parameters
• ch1 (int) – 1 means include channel 1, 0 means do not include.
• ch2 (int) – 1 means include channel 2, 0 means do not include.
• ch3 (int) – 1 means include channel 3, 0 means do not include.
Returns The voltage values read from the 3 channels of the Pmod ADC.
Return type list
read_raw(ch1=1, ch2=0, ch3=0)
Get the raw value from the Pmod ADC.
When ch1, ch2, and ch3 values are 1 then the corresponding channel is included.
For each channel selected, this method reads and returns one sample.
Note: The 4th channel is not available due to the jumper (JP1) setting on ADC.
Note: This method reads the raw value from ADC.
Parameters
• ch1 (int) – 1 means include channel 1, 0 means do not include.
• ch2 (int) – 1 means include channel 2, 0 means do not include.
• ch3 (int) – 1 means include channel 3, 0 means do not include.
Returns The raw values read from the 3 channels of the Pmod ADC.
Return type list
reset()
Reset the Pmod ADC.
Parameters None –
Returns
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Return type None
start_log(ch1=1, ch2=0, ch3=0, log_interval_us=100)
Start the log of voltage values with the interval specified.
This parameter log_interval_us can set the time interval between two samples, so that users can read out
multiple values in a single log.
Parameters
• ch1 (int) – 1 means include channel 1, 0 means do not include.
• ch2 (int) – 1 means include channel 2, 0 means do not include.
• ch3 (int) – 1 means include channel 3, 0 means do not include.
• log_interval_us (int) – The length of the log in milliseconds, for debug only.
Returns
Return type None
start_log_raw(ch1=1, ch2=0, ch3=0, log_interval_us=100)
Start the log of raw values with the interval specified.
This parameter log_interval_us can set the time interval between two samples, so that users can read out
multiple values in a single log.
Parameters
• ch1 (int) – 1 means include channel 1, 0 means do not include.
• ch2 (int) – 1 means include channel 2, 0 means do not include.
• ch3 (int) – 1 means include channel 3, 0 means do not include.
• log_interval_us (int) – The length of the log in milliseconds, for debug only.
Returns
Return type None
stop_log()
Stop the log of voltage values.
This is done by sending the reset command to IOP. There is no need to wait for the IOP.
Parameters None –
Returns
Return type None
stop_log_raw()
Stop the log of raw values.
This is done by sending the reset command to IOP. There is no need to wait for the IOP.
Parameters None –
Returns
Return type None
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pynq.iop.pmod_als module
class pynq.iop.pmod_als.Pmod_ALS(if_id)
Bases: object
This class controls a light sensor Pmod.
The Digilent Pmod ALS demonstrates light-to-digital sensing through a single ambient light sensor. This is
based on an ADC081S021 analog-to-digital converter and a TEMT6000X01 ambient light sensor.
iop
_IOP
I/O processor instance used by ALS
mmio
MMIO
Memory-mapped I/O instance to read and write instructions and data.
log_interval_ms
int
Time in milliseconds between sampled reads of the ALS sensor
get_log()
Return list of logged samples.
Parameters None –
Returns
Return type List of valid samples from the ALS sensor [0-255]
read()
Read current light value measured by the ALS Pmod.
Parameters None –
Returns The current sensor value.
Return type int
set_log_interval_ms(log_interval_ms)
Set the length of the log in the ALS Pmod.
This method can set the length of the log, so that users can read out multiple values in a single log.
Parameters log_interval_ms (int) – The length of the log in milliseconds, for debug
only.
Returns
Return type None
start_log()
Start recording multiple values in a log.
This method will first call set_log_interval_ms() before writting to the MMIO.
Parameters None –
Returns
Return type None
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stop_log()
Stop recording multiple values in a log.
Simply write to the MMIO to stop the log.
Parameters None –
Returns
Return type None
pynq.iop.pmod_cable module
class pynq.iop.pmod_cable.Pmod_Cable(if_id, index, direction, cable)
Bases: pynq.iop.pmod_io.Pmod_IO
This class can be used for a cable connecting Pmod interfaces.
This class inherits from the Pmod IO class.
Note: When 2 Pmods are connected using a cable, the parameter ‘cable’ decides whether the cable is a
‘loopback’ or ‘straight’ cable. The default is a straight cable (no internal wire twisting). For pin mapping,
please check the Pmod IO class.
iop
_IOP
The _IOP object returned from the DevMode.
index
int
The index of the Pmod pin, from 0 to 7.
direction
str
Input ‘in’ or output ‘out’.
cable
str
Either ‘straight’ or ‘loopback’.
read()
Receive the value from the Pmod cable.
This class overrides the read() method in the Pmod IO class.
Note: Only use this function when direction = ‘in’.
When two Pmods are connected on the same board, for any received raw value, a “straignt” cable flips the
upper 4 pins and the lower 4 pins: A Pmod interface <=> Another Pmod interface {vdd,gnd,3,2,1,0} <=>
{vdd,gnd,7,6,5,4} {vdd,gnd,7,6,5,4} <=> {vdd,gnd,3,2,1,0}
A “loop-back” cable satisfies the following mapping between two Pmods: A Pmod interface <=> Another
Pmod interface {vdd,gnd,3,2,1,0} <=> {vdd,gnd,3,2,1,0} {vdd,gnd,7,6,5,4} <=> {vdd,gnd,7,6,5,4}
Parameters None –
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Returns The data (0 or 1) on the specified Pmod IO pin.
Return type int
set_cable(cable)
Set the type for the cable.
Note: The default cable type is ‘straight’. Only straight cable or loop-back cable can be recognized.
Parameters cable (str) – Either ‘straight’ or ‘loopback’.
Returns
Return type None
pynq.iop.pmod_dac module
class pynq.iop.pmod_dac.Pmod_DAC(if_id, value=None)
Bases: object
This class controls a Digital to Analog Converter Pmod.
The Pmod DA4 (PB 200-245) is an 8 channel 12-bit digital-to-analog converter run via AD5628.
iop
_IOP
I/O processor instance used by the DAC
mmio
MMIO
Memory-mapped I/O instance to read and write instructions and data.
write(value)
Write a floating point number onto the DAC Pmod.
Note: User is not allowed to use a number outside of the range [0.00, 2.00] as the input value.
Parameters value (float) – The value to be written to the DAC Pmod
Returns
Return type None
pynq.iop.pmod_dpot module
class pynq.iop.pmod_dpot.Pmod_DPOT(if_id)
Bases: object
This class controls a digital potentiometer Pmod.
The Pmod DPOT (PB 200-239) is a digital potentiometer powered by the AD5160. Users may set a desired
resistance between 60 ~ 10k ohms.
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iop
_IOP
I/O processor instance used by DPOT
mmio
MMIO
Memory-mapped I/O instance to read and write instructions and data.
write(val, step=0, log_ms=0)
Write the value into the DPOT.
This method will write the parameters “value”, “step”, and “log_ms” all together into the DPOT Pmod.
The parameter “log_ms” is only used for debug; users can ignore this parameter.
Parameters
• val (int) – The initial value to start, in [0, 255].
• step (int) – The number of steps when ramping up to the final value.
• log_ms (int) – The length of the log in milliseconds, for debug only.
Returns
Return type None
pynq.iop.pmod_iic module
class pynq.iop.pmod_iic.Pmod_IIC(if_id, scl_pin, sda_pin, iic_addr)
Bases: object
This class controls the Pmod IIC pins.
Note: The index of the Pmod pins: upper row, from left to right: {vdd,gnd,3,2,1,0}. lower row, from left to
right: {vdd,gnd,7,6,5,4}.
iop
_IOP
The _IOP object returned from the DevMode.
scl_pin
int
The SCL pin number.
sda_pin
int
The SDA pin number.
iic_addr
int
The IIC device address.
sr_addr
int
The IIC device SR address (base address + 0x104).
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dtr_addr
int
The IIC device DTR address (base address + 0x108).
cr_addr
int
The IIC device CR address (base address + 0x100).
rfd_addr
int
The IIC device RFD address (base address + 0x120).
drr_addr
int
The IIC device DRR address (base address + 0x10C).
receive(num_bytes)
This method receives IIC bytes from the device.
Parameters num_bytes (int) – Number of bytes to be received from the device.
Returns iic_bytes – A list of 8-bit bytes received from the driver.
Return type list
Raises RuntimeError – Timeout when waiting for the RX FIFO to fill.
send(iic_bytes)
This method sends the command or data to the driver.
Parameters iic_bytes (list) – A list of 8-bit bytes to be sent to the driver.
Returns
Return type None
Raises RuntimeError – Timeout when waiting for the FIFO to be empty.
pynq.iop.pmod_io module
class pynq.iop.pmod_io.Pmod_IO(if_id, index, direction)
Bases: object
This class controls the Pmod IO pins as inputs or outputs.
Note: The parameter ‘direction’ determines whether the instance is input/output: ‘in’ : receiving input from
offchip to onchip. ‘out’ : sending output from onchip to offchip. The index of the Pmod pins: upper row, from
left to right: {vdd,gnd,3,2,1,0}. lower row, from left to right: {vdd,gnd,7,6,5,4}.
iop
_IOP
The _IOP object returned from the DevMode.
index
int
The index of the Pmod pin, from 0 to 7.
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direction
str
Input ‘in’ or output ‘out’.
read()
Receive the value from the offboard Pmod IO device.
Note: Only use this function when direction is ‘in’.
Parameters None –
Returns The data (0 or 1) on the specified Pmod IO pin.
Return type int
write(value)
Send the value to the offboard Pmod IO device.
Note: Only use this function when direction is ‘out’.
Parameters value (int) – The value to be written to the Pmod IO device.
Returns
Return type None
pynq.iop.pmod_led8 module
class pynq.iop.pmod_led8.Pmod_LED8(if_id, index)
Bases: object
This class controls a single LED on the LED8 Pmod.
The Pmod LED8 (PB 200-163) has eight high-brightness LEDs. Each LED can be individually illuminated
from a logic high signal.
iop
_IOP
I/O processor instance used by LED8.
index
int
Index of the pin on LED8, from 0 to 7.
off()
Turn off a single LED.
Parameters None –
Returns
Return type None
on()
Turn on a single LED.
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Parameters None –
Returns
Return type None
read()
Retrieve the LED state.
Parameters None –
Returns The data (0 or 1) read out from the selected pin.
Return type int
toggle()
Flip the bit of a single LED.
Note: The LED will be turned off if it is on. Similarly, it will be turned on if it is off.
Parameters None –
Returns
Return type None
write(value)
Set the LED state according to the input value
Note: This method does not take into account the current LED state.
Parameters value (int) – Turn on the LED if value is 1; turn it off if value is 0.
Returns
Return type None
pynq.iop.pmod_oled module
class pynq.iop.pmod_oled.Pmod_OLED(if_id, text=None)
Bases: object
This class controls an OLED Pmod.
The Pmod OLED (PB 200-222) is 128x32 pixel monochrome organic LED (OLED) panel powered by the
Solomon Systech SSD1306.
iop
_IOP
I/O processor instance used by the OLED
mmio
MMIO
Memory-mapped I/O instance to read and write instructions and data.
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clear()
Clear the OLED screen.
This is done by sending the clear command to the IOP.
Parameters None –
Returns
Return type None
draw_line(x1, y1, x2, y2)
Draw a straight line on the OLED.
Parameters
• x1 (int) – The x-position of the starting point.
• y1 (int) – The y-position of the starting point.
• x2 (int) – The x-position of the ending point.
• y2 (int) – The y-position of the ending point.
Returns
Return type None
draw_rect(x1, y1, x2, y2)
Draw a rectangle on the OLED.
Parameters
• x1 (int) – The x-position of the starting point.
• y1 (int) – The y-position of the starting point.
• x2 (int) – The x-position of the ending point.
• y2 (int) – The y-position of the ending point.
Returns
Return type None
write(text, x=0, y=0)
Write a new text string on the OLED.
Parameters
• text (str) – The text string to be displayed on the OLED screen.
• x (int) – The x-position of the display.
• y (int) – The y-position of the display.
Returns
Return type None
pynq.iop.pmod_pwm module
class pynq.iop.pmod_pwm.Pmod_PWM(if_id, index)
Bases: object
This class uses the PWM of the IOP.
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iop
_IOP
I/O processor instance used by Pmod_PWM.
mmio
MMIO
Memory-mapped I/O instance to read and write instructions and data.
generate(period, duty_cycle)
Generate pwm signal with desired period and percent duty cycle.
Parameters
• period (int) – The period of the tone (us), between 1 and 65536.
• duty_cycle (int) – The duty cycle in percentage.
Returns
Return type None
stop()
Stops PWM generation.
Parameters None –
Returns
Return type None
pynq.iop.pmod_tc1 module
class pynq.iop.pmod_tc1.Pmod_TC1(if_id)
Bases: object
This class controls a thermocouple Pmod.
The Digilent PmodTC1 is a cold-junction thermocouple-to-digital converter module designed for a classic KType thermocouple wire. With Maxim Integrated’s MAX31855, this module reports the measured temperature
in 14-bits with 0.25 degC resolution.
iop
_IOP
I/O processor instance used by TC1
mmio
MMIO
Memory-mapped I/O instance to read and write instructions and data.
log_interval_ms
int
Time in milliseconds between sampled reads of the TC1 sensor
get_log()
Return list of logged samples.
Parameters None –
Returns
Return type List of valid samples from the TC1 sensor
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read()
Read full 32-bit register of TC1 Pmod.
Parameters None –
Returns The current register contents.
Return type u32
reg_to_alarms(reg_val)
Extracts Alarm flags from 32-bit register value.
Parameters u32 – 32-bit TC1 register value
Returns The alarm flags from the TC1. bit 0 = 1 if thermocouple connection is open-circuit bit 1
= 1 if thermocouple connection is shorted to generated bit 2 = 1 if thermocouple connection
is shorted to VCC bit 16 = 1 if any if bits 0-2 are 1
Return type u32
reg_to_ref(reg_val)
Extracts Ref Junction temperature from 32-bit register value.
Parameters u32 – 32-bit TC1 register value
Returns The reference junction temperature in degC.
Return type float
reg_to_tc(reg_val)
Extracts Thermocouple temperature from 32-bit register value.
Parameters u32 – 32-bit TC1 register value
Returns The thermocouple temperature in degC.
Return type float
set_log_interval_ms(log_interval_ms)
Set the length of the log in the TC1 Pmod.
This method can set the length of the log, so that users can read out multiple values in a single log.
Parameters log_interval_ms (int) – The length of the log in milliseconds, for debug
only.
Returns
Return type None
start_log()
Start recording multiple values in a log.
This method will first call set_log_interval_ms() before writting to the MMIO.
Parameters None –
Returns
Return type None
stop_log()
Stop recording multiple values in a log.
Simply write to the MMIO to stop the log.
Parameters None –
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Returns
Return type None
pynq.iop.pmod_timer module
class pynq.iop.pmod_timer.Pmod_Timer(if_id, index)
Bases: object
This class uses the timer’s capture and generation capabilities.
iop
_IOP
I/O processor instance used by Pmod_Timer.
mmio
MMIO
Memory-mapped I/O instance to read and write instructions and data.
clk
int
The clock period of the IOP in ns.
event_count(period)
Count the number of rising edges detected in (period) clocks.
Parameters period (int) – The period of the generated signals.
Returns The number of events detected.
Return type int
event_detected(period)
Detect a rising edge or high-level in (period) clocks.
Parameters period (int) – The period of the generated signals.
Returns 1 if any event is detected, and 0 if no event is detected.
Return type int
generate_pulse(period, times=0)
Generate pulses every (period) clocks for a number of times.
The default is to generate pulses every (period) IOP clocks forever until stopped. The pulse width is equal
to the IOP clock period.
Parameters
• period (int) – The period of the generated signals.
• times (int) – The number of times for which the pulses are generated.
Returns
Return type None
get_period_ns()
Measure the period between two successive rising edges.
Parameters None –
Returns Measured period in ns.
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Return type int
stop()
This method stops the timer.
Parameters None –
Returns
Return type None
pynq.iop.pmod_tmp2 module
class pynq.iop.pmod_tmp2.Pmod_TMP2(if_id)
Bases: object
This class controls a temperature sensor Pmod.
The Pmod TMP2 (PB 200-221) is an ambient temperature sensor powered by ADT7420.
iop
_IOP
I/O processor instance used by TMP2.
mmio
MMIO
Memory-mapped I/O instance to read and write instructions and data.
log_interval_ms
int
Time in milliseconds between sampled reads of the TMP2 sensor.
get_log()
Return list of logged samples.
Parameters None –
Returns
Return type List of valid samples from the temperature sensor in Celsius.
read()
Read current temperature value measured by the Pmod TMP2.
Parameters None –
Returns The current sensor value.
Return type float
set_log_interval_ms(log_interval_ms)
Set the sampling interval for the Pmod TMP2.
Parameters log_interval_ms (int) – Time in milliseconds between sampled reads of the
TMP2 sensor
Returns
Return type None
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start_log()
Start recording multiple values in a log.
This method will first call set_log_interval_ms() before writting to the MMIO.
Parameters None –
Returns
Return type None
stop_log()
Stop recording multiple values in a log.
Simply write to the MMIO to stop the log.
Parameters None –
Returns
Return type None
pynq.drivers package
Submodules
pynq.drivers.audio module
class pynq.drivers.audio.Audio
Bases: object
Class to interact with audio controller.
Each audio sample is a 32-bit integer. The audio controller supports only mono mode, and uses pulse density
modulation (PDM).
base_addr
int
The base address of the audio controller (e.g. 0x43C0000).
length
int
Length of audio controller address space (e.g. 0x10000).
buffer
numpy.ndarray
The numpy array to store the audio.
sample_rate
int
Sample rate of the current buffer content.
sample_len
int
Sample length of the current buffer content.
bypass_start()
Stream audio controller input directly to output.
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Parameters None –
Returns
Return type None
bypass_stop()
Stop streaming input to output directly.
Parameters None –
Returns
Return type None
info(file)
Prints information about pdm files.
The information includes name, channels, samples, frames, etc.
Note: The file will be searched in the specified path, or in the working directory in case the path does not
exist.
Parameters file (string) – File name, with a default extension of pdm.
Returns
Return type None
load(file)
Loads file into internal audio buffer.
The recorded file is of format *.pdm.
Note: The file will be searched in the specified path, or in the working directory in case the path does not
exist.
Parameters file (string) – File name, with a default extension of pdm.
Returns
Return type None
play()
Play audio buffer via audio jack.
Parameters None –
Returns
Return type None
record(seconds)
Record data from audio controller to audio buffer.
The sample rate per word is 192000Hz.
Parameters seconds (float) – The number of seconds to be recorded.
Returns
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Return type None
save(file)
Save audio buffer content to a file.
The recorded file is of format *.pdm.
Note: The saved file will be put into the specified path, or in the working directory in case the path does
not exist.
Parameters file (string) – File name, with a default extension of pdm.
Returns
Return type None
pynq.drivers.dma module
class pynq.drivers.dma.DMA(address, direction=1, attr_dict=None)
Bases: object
Python class which controls DMA.
This is a generic DMA class that can be used to access main memory.
The DMA direction can be:
(0)‘DMA_TO_DEV‘ : DMA sends data to PL.
(1)‘DMA_FROM_DEV‘ : DMA receives data from PL.
(3)‘DMA_BIDIRECTIONAL‘ : DMA can send/receive data from PL.
buf
cffi.FFI.CData
A pointer to physically contiguous buffer.
bufLength
int
Length of internal buffer in bytes.
phyAddress
int
Physical address of the DMA device.
DMAengine
cdata ‘XAxiDma *’
DMA engine instance defined in C. Not to be directly modified.
DMAinstance
cdata ‘XAxiDma_Config *’
DMA configuration instance struct. Not to be directly modified.
direction
int
The direction indicating whether DMA sends/receives data from PL.
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Configuration
dict
Current DMAinstance configuration values.
__del__()
Destructor for DMA object.
Frees the internal buffer and Resets the DMA.
Parameters None –
Returns
Return type None
configure(attr_dict=None)
Reconfigure and Reinitialize the DMA IP.
Uses a user provided dict to reinitialize the DMA. This method also frees the internal buffer associated
with current object.
The keys in attr_dict should exactly match the ones used in default config. All the keys are not required.
The default configuration is defined in dma.DefaultConfig dict. Users can reinitialize the DMA with new
configuratiuon after creating the object.
Parameters attr_dict (dict) – A dictionary specifying DMA configuration values.
Returns
Return type None
create_buf(num_bytes, cacheable=0)
Allocate physically contiguous memory buffer.
Allocates/Reallocates buffer needed for DMA operations.
Possible values for parameter cacheable are:
1: the memory buffer is cacheable.
0: the memory buffer is non-cacheable.
Note: This buffer is allocated inside the kernel space using xlnk driver. The maximum allocatable memory
is defined at kernel build time using the CMA memory parameters. For Pynq-Z1 kernel, it is specified as
128MB.
Parameters
• num_bytes (int) – Length of the allocated array in bytes.
• cacheable (int) – Indicating whether or not the memory buffer is cacheable
Returns
Return type None
free_buf()
Free the memory buffer associated with this object.
Use this to free a previously allocated memory buffer. This is specially useful for reallocations.
Parameters None –
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Returns
Return type None
get_buf(width=32)
Get a CFFI pointer to object’s internal buffer.
This can be accessed like a regular array in python. The width can be either 32 or 64.
Parameters width (int) – The data width in the buffer.
Returns An CFFI object which can be accessed similar to arrays in C.
Return type cffi.FFI.CData
transfer(num_bytes, direction=1)
Transfer data using DMA (Non-blocking).
Used to initiate transfer of data between a physically contiguous buffer and PL. The buffer should be
allocated using create_buf before this call.
The num_bytes should be less than buffer size and DMA_TRANSFER_LIMIT_BYTES.
Possible values for direction are:
(0)‘DMA_TO_DEV‘ : DMA sends data to PL.
(1)‘DMA_FROM_DEV‘ : DMA receives data from PL.
Parameters
• num_bytes (int) – Number of bytes to transfer.
• direction (int) – Direction in which DMA transfers data.
Returns
Return type None
wait(wait_timeout=10)
Block till DMA is busy or a timeout occurs.
Default value of timeout is 10 seconds.
Parameters wait_timeout (int) – Time to wait in seconds before timing out wait operation.
Returns
Return type None
class pynq.drivers.dma.timeout(seconds=1, error_message=’Timeout’)
Bases: object
Internal timeout functions.
This class is only used internally.
handle_timeout(signum, frame)
pynq.drivers.trace_buffer module
class pynq.drivers.trace_buffer.Trace_Buffer(if_id, protocol, trace=None, data=None, samplerate=500000)
Bases: object
Class for the trace buffer, leveraging the sigrok libraries.
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This trace buffer class gets the traces from DMA and processes it using the sigrok commands.
Note: The sigrok-cli library has to be installed before using this class.
protocol
str
The protocol the sigrok decoder are using.
trace_csv
str
The absolute path of the trace file *.csv.
trace_sr
str
The absolute path of the trace file *.sr, translated from *.csv.
trace_pd
str
The absolute path of the decoded file by sigrok.
probes
list
The list of probes used for the trace.
dma
DMA
The DMA object associated with the trace buffer.
ctrl
MMIO
The MMIO class used to control the DMA.
samplerate
int
The samplerate of the traces.
data
cffi.FFI.CData
The pointer to the starting address of the trace data.
__del__()
Destructor for trace buffer object.
Parameters None –
Returns
Return type None
csv2sr()
Translate the *.csv file to *.sr file.
The translated *.sr files can be directly used in PulseView to show the waveform.
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Note: This method also modifies the input *.csv file (the comment header, usually 3 lines, will be removed).
Parameters None –
Returns
Return type None
decode(decoded_file, options=’‘)
Decode and record the trace based on the protocol specified.
The decoded_file contains the name of the output file.
The option specifies additional options to be passed to sigrok-cli. For example, users can use option=’:wordsize=9:cpol=1:cpha=0’ to add these options for the SPI decoder.
The decoder will also ignore the pin collected but not required for decoding.
Note: The output file will have *.pd extension.
Note: The decoded file will be put into the specified path, or in the working directory in case the path
does not exist.
Parameters
• decoded_file (str) – The name of the file recording the outputs.
• options (str) – Additional options to be passed to sigrok-cli.
Returns
Return type None
display(start_pos, stop_pos)
Draw digital waveforms in ipython notebook.
It utilises the wavedrom java script library, documentation for which can be found here:
https://code.google.com/p/wavedrom/.
Note: Only use this method in Jupyter notebook.
Note: WaveDrom.js and WaveDromSkin.js are required under the subdirectory js.
Example of the data format to draw waveform:
>>> data = {'signal': [
{‘name’: ‘clk’, ‘wave’: ‘p.....|...’},
{‘name’: ‘dat’, ‘wave’: ‘x.345x|=.x’, ‘data’: [’D’,’A’,’T’,’A’]},
{‘name’: ‘req’, ‘wave’: ‘0.1..0|1.0’},
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{},
{‘name’: ‘ack’, ‘wave’: ‘1.....|01.’}
]}
Parameters
• start_pos (int) – The starting sample number (relative to the trace).
• stop_pos (int) – The stopping sample number (relative to the trace).
Returns
Return type None
parse(parsed, start=0, stop=524288, mask=18446744073709551615, tri_sel=[], tri_0=[], tri_1=[])
Parse the input data and generate a *.csv file.
This method can be used along with the DMA. The input data is assumed to be 64-bit. The generated *.csv
file can be then used as the trace file.
To extract certain bits from the 64-bit data, use the parameter mask.
Note: The probe pins selected by mask does not include any tristate probe.
To specify a set of tristate probe pins, e.g., users can set tri_sel = [0x0000000000000004], tri_0 =
[0x0000000000000010], and tri_1 = [0x0000000000000100]. In this example, the 3rd probe from the
LSB is the selection probe; the 5th probe is selected if selection probe is 0, otherwise the 9th probe is
selected. There can be multiple sets of tristate probe pins.
Note: The parsed file will be put into the specified path, or in the working directory in case the path does
not exist.
Parameters
• parsed (str) – The file name of the parsed output.
• start (int) – The first 64-bit sample of the trace.
• stop (int) – The last 64-bit sample of the trace.
• mask (int) – A 64-bit mask to be applied to the 64-bit samples.
• tri_sel (list) – The list of tristate selection probe pins.
• tri_0 (list) – The list of probe pins selected when the selection probe is 0.
• tri_1 (list) – The list probe pins selected when the selection probe is 1.
Returns
Return type None
set_metadata(probes)
Set metadata for the trace.
A *.sr file directly generated from *.csv will not have any metadata. This method helps to set the sample
rate, probe names, etc.
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The list probes depends on the protocol. For instance, the I2C protocol requires a list of [’SDA’,’SCL’].
Parameters probes (list) – A list of probe names.
Returns
Return type None
show()
Show information about the specified protocol.
Parameters None –
Returns
Return type None
sr2csv()
Translate the *.sr file to *.csv file.
The translated *.csv files can be used for interactive plotting. It is human readable.
Note: This method also removes the redundant header that is generated by sigrok.
Parameters None –
Returns
Return type None
start(timeout=10)
Start the DMA to capture the traces.
Parameters timeout (int) – The time in number of milliseconds to wait for DMA to be idle.
Returns
Return type None
stop()
Stop the DMA after capture is done.
Note: There is an internal timeout mechanism in the DMA class.
Parameters None –
Returns
Return type None
pynq.drivers.usb_wifi module
class pynq.drivers.usb_wifi.Usb_Wifi
Bases: object
This class controls the usb dongle wifi connection.
The board is compatible with RALink RT5370 devices.
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Note: Administrator rights are necessary to create network interface file
wifi_port
str
string identifier of the wireless network device
connect(ssid, password)
This function kills the wireless connection and connect to a new one using network ssid and WPA
passphrase. Wrong ssid or passphrase reject the connection
Parameters
• ssid (str) – String unique identifier of the wireless network
• password (str) – String WPA passphrase necessary to access the network
gen_network_file(ssid, password)
This function generate the network authentication file from network SSID and WPA passphrase
Parameters
• ssid (str) – String unique identifier of the wireless network
• password (str) – String WPA passphrase necessary to access the network
reset()
This function shutdown the network connection and delete the interface file
pynq.drivers.video module
class pynq.drivers.video.Frame(width, height, frame=None)
Bases: object
This class exposes the bytearray of the video frame buffer.
Note: The maximum frame width is 1920, while the maximum frame height is 1080.
frame
bytearray
The bytearray of the video frame buffer.
width
int
The width of a frame.
height
int
The height of a frame.
__del__()
Delete the frame buffer.
Delete the frame buffer and free the memory only if the frame buffer is not empty.
Parameters None –
Returns
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Return type None
__getitem__(pixel)
Get one pixel in a frame.
The pixel is accessed in the following way: frame[x, y] to get the tuple (r,g,b)
or frame[x, y][rgb] to access a specific color.
Examples
Get the three component of pixel (48,32) as a tuple, assuming the object is called frame:
>>> frame[48,32]
(128,64,12)
Access the green component of pixel (48,32):
>>> frame[48,32][1]
64
Note: The original frame stores pixels as (b,g,r). Hence, to return a tuple (r,g,b), we need to return
(self.frame[offset+2], self.frame[offset+1], self.frame[offset]).
Parameters pixel (list) – A pixel (r,g,b) of a frame.
Returns A list of the current values (r,g,b) of the pixel.
Return type list
__setitem__(pixel, value)
Set one pixel in a frame.
The pixel is accessed in the following way: frame[x, y] = (r,g,b) to set the entire tuple
or frame[x, y][rgb] = value to set a specific color.
Examples
Set pixel (0,0), assuming the object is called frame:
>>> frame[0,0] = (255,255,255)
Set the blue component of pixel (0,0) to be 128
>>> frame[0,0][2] = 128
Note: The original frame stores pixels as (b,g,r).
Parameters
• pixel (list) – A pixel (r,g,b) of a frame.
• value (list) – A list of the values (r,g,b) to be set for the pixel.
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Returns
Return type None
save_as_jpeg(path)
Save a video frame to a JPEG image.
Note: The JPEG filename must be included in the path.
Parameters path (str) – The path where the JPEG will be saved.
Returns
Return type None
static save_raw_as_jpeg(path, frame_raw, width, height)
Save a video frame (in bytearray) to a JPEG image.
Note: This is a static method of the class.
Parameters
• path (str) – The path where the JPEG will be saved.
• frame_raw (bytearray) – The video frame to be saved.
• width (int) – The width of the frame.
• height (int) – The height of the frame.
Returns
Return type None
class pynq.drivers.video.HDMI(direction, video_mode=0, init_timeout=10, frame_list=None)
Bases: object
Class for an HDMI controller.
The frame buffer in an HDMI object can be shared among different objects. e.g., HDMI in and HDMI out
objects can use the same frame buffer.
Note: HDMI supports direction ‘in’ and ‘out’.
Examples
>>> hdmi = HDMI('in')
>>> hdmi = HDMI('out')
direction
str
Can be ‘in’ for HDMI IN or ‘out’ for HDMI OUT.
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frame_list
_framebuffer
A frame buffer storing at most 3 frames.
VMODE_1024x768 = 2
VMODE_1280x1024 = 3
VMODE_1920x1080 = 4
VMODE_640x480 = 0
VMODE_800x600 = 1
__del__()
Delete the HDMI object.
Stop the video controller first to avoid odd behaviors of the DMA.
Parameters None –
Returns
Return type None
frame = None
Wraps the raw version using the Frame object.
Use frame([index]) to read the frame more easily.
Parameters index (int, optional) – Index of the frames, from 0 to 2.
Returns A Frame object with accessible pixels.
Return type Frame
frame_addr = None
Get the current frame address.
Parameters i (int, optional) – Index of the current frame buffer.
Returns Address of the frame, thus current frame buffer.
Return type int
frame_height = None
Get the current frame height.
Parameters None –
Returns The height of the frame.
Return type int
frame_index = None
Get the frame index.
Use frame_index([new_frame_index]) to access the frame index. If new_frame_index is not specified, get
the current frame index. If new_frame_index is specified, set the current frame to the new index.
Parameters new_frame_index (int, optional) – Index of the frames, from 0 to 2.
Returns The index of the active frame.
Return type int
frame_index_next = None
Change the frame index to the next one.
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Parameters None –
Returns The index of the active frame.
Return type int
frame_phyaddr = None
Get the current physical frame address.
Parameters i (int, optional) – Index of the current frame buffer.
Returns Physical address of the frame, thus current frame buffer.
Return type int
frame_raw = None
Get the frame as a bytearray.
User may use frame([index]) to access the frame, which may introduce some overhead in rare cases. The
method frame_raw([i]) is faster, but the parameter i has to be calculated manually.
Parameters i (int, optional) – A location in the bytearray.
Returns The frame in its raw bytearray form.
Return type bytearray
frame_width = None
Get the current frame width.
Parameters None –
Returns The width of the frame.
Return type int
mode = None
Change the resolution of the display.
Users can use mode(new_mode) to change the resolution. Specifically, with new_mode to be:
0 : ‘640x480@60Hz‘
1 : ‘800x600@60Hz‘
2 : ‘1280x720@60Hz‘
3 : ‘1280x1024@60Hz‘
4 : ‘1920x1080@60Hz‘
If new_mode is not specified, return the current mode.
Parameters new_mode (int) – A mode index from 0 to 4.
Returns The resolution of the display.
Return type str
Raises ValueError – If new_mode is out of range.
start(timeout=20)
Start the video controller.
Parameters None –
Returns
Return type None
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state = None
Get the state of the device as an integer value.
Parameters None –
Returns The state 0 (DISCONNECTED), or 1 (STREAMING), or 2 (PAUSED).
Return type int
stop = None
Stop the video controller.
Parameters None –
Returns
Return type None
pynq.drivers.xlnk module
pynq.drivers.xlnk.sig_handler(signum, frame)
class pynq.drivers.xlnk.xlnk
Bases: object
Class to enable CMA memory management.
The CMA state maintained by this class is local to the application except for the CMA Memory Available
attribute which is global across all the applications.
bufmap
dict
Mapping of allocated memory to the buffer sizes in bytes.
__del__()
Destructor for the current xlnk object.
Frees up all the memory which was allocated through current object.
Parameters None –
Returns
Return type None
cma_alloc(length, cacheable=0, data_type=’void’)
Allocate physically contiguous memory buffer.
Allocates a new buffer and adds it to bufmap.
Possible values for parameter cacheable are:
1: the memory buffer is cacheable.
0: the memory buffer is non-cacheable.
Examples
memmanager = xlnk.xlnk()
# Allocate 10 void * memory locations.
m1 = memmanager.cma_alloc(10)
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# Allocate 10 float * memory locations.
m2 = memmanager.cma_alloc(10, data_type = “float”)
Notes
1. Total size of buffer is automatically calculated as size = length * sizeof(data_type)
2. This buffer is allocated inside the kernel space using xlnk driver. The maximum allocatable memory
is defined at kernel build time using the CMA memory parameters. For Pynq-Z1 kernel, it is specified as
128MB.
The unit of length depends upon the data_type argument.
Parameters
• length (int) – Length of the allocated buffer. Default unit is bytes.
• cacheable (int) – Indicating whether or not the memory buffer is cacheable.
• data_type (str) – CData type of the allocated buffer. Should be a valid C-Type.
Returns An CFFI object which can be accessed similar to arrays.
Return type cffi.FFI.CData
static cma_cast(data, data_type=’void’)
Cast underlying buffer to a specific C-Type.
Input buffer should be a valid object which was allocated through cma_alloc or a CFFI pointer to a memory
buffer. Handy for changing void buffers to user defined buffers.
Parameters
• data (cffi.FFI.CData) – A valid buffer pointer allocated via cma_alloc.
• data_type (str) – New data type of the underlying buffer.
Returns Pointer to buffer with specified data type.
Return type cffi.FFI.CData
cma_free(buf )
Free a previously allocated buffer.
Input buffer should be a valid object which was allocated through cma_alloc or a CFFI pointer to a memory
buffer.
Parameters buf (cffi.FFI.CData) – A valid buffer pointer allocated via cma_alloc.
Returns
Return type None
cma_get_buffer(buf, length)
Get a buffer object.
Used to get an object which supports python buffer interface. The return value thus, can be cast to objects
like bytearray, memoryview etc.
Parameters
• buf (cffi.FFI.CData) – A valid buffer object which was allocated through
cma_alloc.
• len (int) – Length of buffer in Bytes.
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Returns A CFFI object which supports buffer interface.
Return type cffi.FFI.CData
cma_get_phy_addr(buf_ptr)
Get the physical address of a buffer.
Used to get the physical address of a memory buffer allocated with cma_alloc. The return value can be
used to access the buffer from the programmable logic.
Parameters buf_ptr (cffi.FFI.CData) – A void pointer pointing to the memory buffer.
Returns The physical address of the memory buffer.
Return type int
static cma_memcopy(dest, src, nbytes)
High speed memcopy between buffers.
Used to perform a byte level copy of data from source buffer to the destination buffer.
Parameters
• dest (cffi.FFI.CData) – Destination buffer object which was allocated through
cma_alloc.
• src (cffi.FFI.CData) – Source buffer object which was allocated through
cma_alloc.
• nbytes (int) – Number of bytes to copy.
Returns
Return type None
cma_stats()
Get current CMA memory Stats.
CMA Memory Available : Systemwide CMA memory availability.
CMA Memory Usage : CMA memory used by current object.
Buffer Count : Buffers allocated by current object.
Parameters None –
Returns Dictionary of current stats.
Return type dict
xlnk_reset()
Systemwide Xlnk Reset.
Notes
This method resets all the CMA buffers allocated across the system.
Parameters None –
Returns
Return type None
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Submodules
pynq.general_const module
pynq.gpio module
class pynq.gpio.GPIO(gpio_index, direction)
Bases: object
Class to wrap Linux’s GPIO Sysfs API.
This GPIO class does not handle PL I/O.
index
int
The index of the GPIO, starting from the GPIO base.
direction
str
Input/output direction of the GPIO.
path
str
The path of the GPIO device in the linux system.
__del__()
Delete a GPIO object.
Parameters None –
Returns
Return type None
static get_gpio_base()
This method returns the GPIO base using Linux’s GPIO Sysfs API.
This is a static method. To use:
>>> from pynq import GPIO
>>> gpio = GPIO.get_gpio_base()
Note: For path ‘/sys/class/gpio/gpiochip138/’, this method returns 138.
Parameters None –
Returns The GPIO index of the base.
Return type int
static get_gpio_pin(gpio_user_index)
This method returns a GPIO instance for PS GPIO pins.
Users only need to specify an index starting from 0; this static method will map this index to the correct
Linux GPIO pin number.
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Note: The GPIO pin number can be calculated using: GPIO pin number = GPIO base + GPIO offset +
user index e.g. The GPIO base is 138, and pin 54 is the base GPIO offset. Then the Linux GPIO pin would
be (138 + 54 + 0) = 192.
Parameters gpio_user_index (int) – The index specified by users, starting from 0.
Returns The Linux Sysfs GPIO pin number.
Return type int
read()
The method to read a value from the GPIO.
Parameters None –
Returns An integer read from the GPIO
Return type int
write(value)
The method to write a value into the GPIO.
Parameters value (int) – An integer value, either 0 or 1
Returns
Return type None
pynq.mmio module
class pynq.mmio.MMIO(base_addr, length=4, debug=False)
Bases: object
This class exposes API for MMIO read and write.
virt_base
int
The address of the page for the MMIO base address.
virt_offset
int
The offset of the MMIO base address from the virt_base.
base_addr
int
The base address, not necessarily page aligned.
length
int
The length in bytes of the address range.
debug
bool
Turn on debug mode if it is True.
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mmap_file
file
Underlying file object for MMIO mapping
mem
mmap
An mmap object created when mapping files to memory.
array
numpy.ndarray
A numpy view of the mapped range for efficient assignment
__del__()
Destructor to ensure mmap file is closed
read(offset=0, length=4)
The method to read data from MMIO.
Parameters
• offset (int) – The read offset from the MMIO base address.
• length (int) – The length of the data in bytes.
Returns A list of data read out from MMIO
Return type list
write(offset, data)
The method to write data to MMIO.
Parameters
• offset (int) – The write offset from the MMIO base address.
• data (int / bytes) – The integer(s) to be written into MMIO.
Returns
Return type None
pynq.pl module
class pynq.pl.Bitstream(bitfile_name)
Bases: pynq.pl.PL
This class instantiates a programmable logic bitstream.
bitfile_name
str
The absolute path of the bitstream.
timestamp
str
Timestamp when loading the bitstream. Format: year, month, day, hour, minute, second, microsecond
download()
The method to download the bitstream onto PL.
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Note: The class variables held by the singleton PL will also be updated.
Parameters None –
Returns
Return type None
class pynq.pl.Overlay(bitfile_name)
Bases: pynq.pl.PL
This class keeps track of a single bitstream’s state and contents.
The overlay class holds the state of the bitstream and enables run-time protection of bindlings. Our definition of
overlay is: “post-bitstream configurable design”. Hence, this class must expose configurability through content
discovery and runtime protection.
The IP dictionary stores the following information: 1. name (str), the key of an entry. 2. address (str), the base
address of the IP. 3. range (str), the address range of the IP. 4. state (str), the state information about the IP.
The PS GPIO dictionary stores the following information: 1. name (str), the key of an entry. 2. pin (int), the
user index of the GPIO, starting from 0. 3. state (str), the state information about the GPIO.
bitfile_name
str
The absolute path of the bitstream.
bitstream
Bitstream
The corresponding bitstream object.
ip_dict
dict
The addressable IP instances on the overlay.
gpio_dict
dict
The dictionary storing the PS GPIO pins.
download()
The method to download a bitstream onto PL.
Note: After the bitstream has been downloaded, the “timestamp” in PL will be updated. In addition, both
of the IP and GPIO dictionaries on PL will be reset automatically.
Parameters None –
Returns
Return type None
get_gpio_state(gpio_name)
This method returns the state of the GPIO.
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Note: The PS GPIO dictionary stores the following information: 1. name (str), the key of an entry. 2. pin
(int), the user index of the GPIO, starting from 0. 3. state (str), the state information about the GPIO.
Parameters gpio_name (str) – The name of the PS GPIO pin.
Returns The state information about the GPIO.
Return type str
get_gpio_user_ix(gpio_name)
This method returns the user index of the GPIO.
Note: The PS GPIO dictionary stores the following information: 1. name (str), the key of an entry. 2. pin
(int), the user index of the GPIO, starting from 0. 3. state (str), the state information about the GPIO.
Parameters gpio_name (str) – The name of the PS GPIO pin.
Returns The user index of the GPIO, starting from 0.
Return type int
get_ip_addr_base(ip_name)
This method returns the base address of an IP in this overlay.
Note: The IP dictionary stores the following information: 1. name (str), the key of an entry. 2. address
(str), the base address of the IP. 3. range (str), the address range of the IP. 4. state (str), the state information
about the IP.
Parameters ip_name (str) – The name of the addressable IP.
Returns The base address in hex format.
Return type str
get_ip_addr_range(ip_name)
This method returns an IP’s address range in this overlay.
Note: The IP dictionary stores the following information: 1. name (str), the key of an entry. 2. address
(str), the base address of the IP. 3. range (str), the address range of the IP. 4. state (str), the state information
about the IP.
Parameters ip_name (str) – The name of the addressable IP.
Returns The address range in hex format.
Return type str
get_ip_state(ip_name)
This method returns the state of an addressable IP.
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Note: The IP dictionary stores the following information: 1. name (str), the key of an entry. 2. address
(str), the base address of the IP. 3. range (str), the address range of the IP. 4. state (str), the state information
about the IP.
Parameters ip_name (str) – The name of the addressable IP.
Returns The state of the addressable IP.
Return type str
get_timestamp()
This method returns the timestamp of the bitstream.
The timestamp will be empty string until the bitstream is downloaded.
Parameters None –
Returns The timestamp when the bitstream is downloaded.
Return type str
is_loaded()
This method checks whether a bitstream is loaded.
This method returns true if the loaded PL bitstream is same as this Overlay’s member bitstream.
Parameters None –
Returns True if bitstream is loaded.
Return type bool
load_ip_data(ip_name, data)
This method loads the data to the addressable IP.
Calls the method in the super class to load the data. This method can be used to program the IP. For
example, users can use this method to load the program to the Microblaze processors on PL.
Note: The data is assumed to be in binary format (.bin). The data name will be stored as a state information
in the IP dictionary.
Parameters
• ip_name (str) – The name of the addressable IP.
• data (str) – The absolute path of the data to be loaded.
Returns
Return type None
reset()
This function resets the IP and GPIO dictionaries of the overlay.
Note: This function should be used with caution. If the overlay is loaded, it also resets the IP and GPIO
dictionaries in the PL.
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Parameters None –
Returns
Return type None
reset_gpio_dict()
This function resets the entire GPIO dictionary of the overlay.
Note: This function should be used with caution since it resets the GPIO dictionary. If the overlay is
loaded, it also resets the GPIO dictionary in the PL.
Parameters None –
Returns
Return type None
reset_ip_dict()
This function resets the entire IP dictionary of the overlay.
This function is usually called before instantiating new objects on the same overlay. In that case, the GPIO
dictionary does not have to be reset.
Note: This function should be used with caution since it resets the IP dictionary; the state information
will be lost. If the overlay is loaded, it also resets the IP dictionary in the PL.
Parameters None –
Returns
Return type None
class pynq.pl.PL
Bases: object
Serves as a singleton for “Overlay” and “Bitstream” classes.
The IP dictionary stores the following information: 1. name (str), the key of an IP entry. 2. address (str), the
base address of the IP. 3. range (str), the address range of the IP. 4. state (str), the state information about the IP.
The PS GPIO dictionary stores the following information: 1. name (str), the key of an IP entry. 2. pin (int), the
PS GPIO index, starting from 0. 3. state (str), the state information about the GPIO.
The timestamp uses the following format: year, month, day, hour, minute, second, microsecond
bitfile_name
str
The absolute path of the bitstream currently on PL.
timestamp
str
Bitstream download timestamp.
ip_dict
dict
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The dictionary storing addressable IP instances; can be empty.
gpio_dict
dict
The dictionary storing the PS GPIO pins.
classmethod get_gpio_names(gpio_kwd=None)
This method returns PS GPIO accessible IP.
This method returns the information about the current overlay loaded. If the gpio_kwd is not specified,
this method returns the entire list; otherwise it returns the GPIO instance names containing the gpio_kwd.
Note: The PS GPIO dictionary stores the following information: 1. name (str), the key of an entry. 2. pin
(int), the user index of the GPIO, starting from 0. 3. state (str), the state information about the GPIO.
Parameters gpio_kwd (str) – The input keyword to search for in the overlay.
Returns A list of the GPIO instance names containing the gpio_kwd.
Return type list
classmethod get_gpio_state(gpio_name)
This method returns the state for a GPIO.
Note: The PS GPIO dictionary stores the following information: 1. name (str), the key of an entry. 2. pin
(int), the user index of the GPIO, starting from 0. 3. state (str), the state information about the GPIO.
Parameters gpio_name (str) – The name of the PS GPIO pin.
Returns The state of the GPIO pin.
Return type str
classmethod get_gpio_user_ix(gpio_name)
This method returns the PS GPIO index for an IP.
Note: The PS GPIO dictionary stores the following information: 1. name (str), the key of an entry. 2. pin
(int), the user index of the GPIO, starting from 0. 3. state (str), the state information about the GPIO.
Parameters gpio_name (str) – The name of the PS GPIO pin.
Returns The user index of the GPIO, starting from 0.
Return type int
classmethod get_ip_addr_base(ip_name)
This method returns the base address for an IP in the PL.
Note: The IP dictionary stores the following information: 1. name (str), the key of an entry. 2. address
(str), the base address of the IP. 3. range (str), the address range of the IP. 4. state (str), the state information
about the IP.
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Parameters ip_name (str) – The name of the addressable IP.
Returns The base address in hex format.
Return type str
classmethod get_ip_addr_range(ip_name)
This method returns the address range for an IP in the PL.
Note: The IP dictionary stores the following information: 1. name (str), the key of an entry. 2. address
(str), the base address of the IP. 3. range (str), the address range of the IP. 4. state (str), the state information
about the IP.
Parameters ip_name (str) – The name of the addressable IP.
Returns The address range in hex format.
Return type str
classmethod get_ip_names(ip_kwd=None)
This method returns the IP names in the PL.
This method returns information about the current overlay loaded. If the ip_kwd is not specified, this
method returns the entire list; otherwise it returns the IP names containing the ip_kwd.
Note: The IP dictionary stores the following information: 1. name (str), the key of an entry. 2. address
(str), the base address of the IP. 3. range (str), the address range of the IP. 4. state (str), the state information
about the IP.
Parameters ip_kwd (str) – The input keyword to search for in the overlay.
Returns A list of the addressable IPs containing the ip_kwd.
Return type list
classmethod get_ip_state(ip_name)
This method returns the state about an addressable IP.
Returns information about a currently loaded IP. This general purpose state’s meaning is defined by the
loaded Overlay. E.g., can specify what program is running on a soft processor.
Note: The IP dictionary stores the following information: 1. name (str), the key of an entry. 2. address
(str), the base address of the IP. 3. range (str), the address range of the IP. 4. state (str), the state information
about the IP.
Parameters ip_name (str) – The name of the addressable IP.
Returns The state of the addressable IP.
Return type str
classmethod load_ip_data(ip_name, data)
This method writes data to the addressable IP.
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Note: The data is assumed to be in binary format (.bin). The data name will be stored as a state information
in the IP dictionary.
Parameters
• ip_name (str) – The name of the addressable IP.
• data (str) – The absolute path of the data to be loaded.
Returns
Return type None
classmethod reset()
Reset both the IP and GPIO dictionaries.
Parameters None –
Returns
Return type None
classmethod reset_gpio_dict()
Reset the GPIO dictionary.
This method must be called after a bitstream download. 1. In case there is a *.tcl file, this method will set
the GPIO dictionary to what is provided by the tcl file. 2. In case there is no *.tcl file, this method will
simply clear the state information stored in the GPIO dictionary.
Parameters None –
Returns
Return type None
classmethod reset_ip_dict()
Reset the IP dictionary.
This method must be called after a bitstream download. 1. In case there is a *.tcl file, this method will set
the IP dictionary to what is provided by the tcl file. 2. In case there is no *.tcl file, this method will simply
clear the state information stored in the IP dictionary.
Parameters None –
Returns
Return type None
class pynq.pl.PL_Meta
Bases: type
This method is the meta class for the PL.
This is not a class for users. Hence there is no attribute or method exposed to users.
bitfile_name
The getter for the attribute bitfile_name.
Parameters None –
Returns The absolute path of the bitstream currently on PL.
Return type str
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gpio_dict
The getter for the attribute gpio_dict.
Parameters None –
Returns The dictionary storing the PS GPIO pins.
Return type dict
ip_dict
The getter for the attribute ip_dict.
Parameters None –
Returns The dictionary storing addressable IP instances; can be empty.
Return type dict
timestamp
The getter for the attribute timestamp.
Parameters None –
Returns Bitstream download timestamp.
Return type str
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Frequently Asked Questions (FAQs)
Connecting to the board
I can’t connect to my board
1. Check the board is powered on (Red LED LD13) and that the bitstream has been loaded (Green “DONE” LED
LD12)
2. Your board and PC/laptop must be on the same network, or have a direct network connection. Check that you
can ping the board (hostname, or IP address) from a command prompt or terminal on your host PC
>ping pynq
or
>ping 192.168.2.99
(The default IP address of the board is : 192.168.2.99)
3. Log on to the board through a terminal, and check the system is running. i.e. that the Linux shell is accessible.
See below for details on logging on with a terminal.
4. From a terminal, check you can ping the board from your host PC, and also ping your host PC from the board
If you can’t ping the board, or the host PC, check your network settings.
• You must ensure board your PC and board are connected to the same network, and have IP addresses in
the same range. If your network cables is connected directly to your PC/laptop and board, you may need
to set a static IP address for your PC/laptop manually. See the Appendix: Assign your PC/Laptop a static
ip address
• If you have a proxy setup, you may need to add a rule to bypass the board hostname/ip address.
• If you are using a docking station, when your laptop is docked, the Ethernet port on the PC may be disabled.
My board is not powering on (No Red LED)
The board can be powered by USB cable, or power adapter (7 - 15V V 2.1mm centre-positive barrel jack). Make sure
Jumper JP5 is set to USB or REG (for power adapter). If powering the board via USB, make sure the USB port is fully
powered. Laptops in low power mode may reduce the available power to a USB port.
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The bitstream is not loading (No Green LED)
• Check the Micro-SD card is inserted correctly (the socket is spring loaded, so push it in until you feel it click
into place).
• Check jumper JP4 is set to SD (board boots from Micro SD card).
• Connect a terminal and verify that the Linux boot starts.
If the Linux boot does not start, or fails, you may need to flash the Micro SD card with the PYNQ-Z1 image.
The hostname of the board is not resolving/not found
It may take the hostname (pynq) some time to resolve on your network. If you know the IP address of the board, it
may be faster to use the IP address to navigate to the Jupyter portal instead of the hostname.
e.g. In your browser, go to:
http://192.168.2.99:9090
You need to know the IP address of the board first. You can find the IP by connecting a terminal to the board. You can
run ifconfig in the Linux shell on the board to check the network settings. Check the settings for eth0 and look for an
IP address.
I don’t have an Ethernet port on my PC/Laptop
If you don’t have an Ethernet port, you can get a USB to Ethernet adapter.
If you have a wireless router with Ethernet ports (LAN), you can connect your PYNQ-Z1 board to an Ethernet port on
your router, and connect to it from your PC using WiFi. (You may need to change settings on your Router to enable
the Wireless network to communicate with your LAN - check your equipment documentation for details.)
You can also connect a WiFi dongle to the board, and set up the board to connect to the wireless network. Your host
PC can then connect to the same wireless network to connect to the board.
How do I setup my computer to connect to the board?
If you are connecting your board to your network (i.e. you have plugged the Ethernet cable into the board, and the other
end into a network switch, or home router), then you should not need to setup anything on your computer. Usually,
both your computer, and board will be assigned an IP address automatically, and they will be able to communicate
with each other.
If you connect your board directly to your computer with an ethernet cable, then you need to make sure that they have
IP addresses in the same range. The board will assign itself a static IP address (by default 192.168.2.99), and you
will need to assign a static IP address in the same range to the computer. This allows your computer and board to
communicate to each other over the Ethernet cable.
See the Appendix: Assign your PC/Laptop a static ip address
I can’t connect to the Jupyter portal
My Board is powered on, and I see the Red and Green LEDs, but I can’t connect to the Jupyter Portal, or see the
Samba shared drive:
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By default, the board has DHCP enabled. If you plug the board into a home router, or network switch connected to
your network, it should be allocated an IP address automatically. If not, it should fall back to a static IP address of
192.168.2.99
If you plug the Ethernet cable directly to your computer, you will need to configure your network card to have an IP
in the same address range. e.g. 192.168.2.1
My board is connected, and I have verified the IP addresses on the board and my network interface, but I cannot
connect to the board.
VPN
If your PC/laptop is connected to a VPN, and your board is not on the same VPN network, this will block access to
local IP addresses. You need to disable the VPN, or set it to bypass the board address.
Proxy
If your board is connected to a network that uses a proxy, you need to set the proxy variables on the board
set http_proxy=my_http_proxy:8080
set https_proxy=my_https_proxy:8080
How do I connect to the board using a terminal?
To do this, you need to connect to the board using a terminal.
To connect a terminal: Connect a Micro USB cable to the board and your PC/Laptop, and use a terminal emulator
(puTTY, TeraTerm etc) to connect to the board.
Terminal Settings:
• 115200 baud
• 8 data bits
• 1 stop bit
• No Parity
• No Flow Control
Once you connect to the board, you can configure the network interface in Linux
Board/Jupyter settings
How do I modify the board settings?
Linux is installed on the board. Connect to the board using a terminal, and change the settings as you would for any
other Linux machine.
How do I find the IP address of the board?
Connect to the board using a terminal (see above) and type ‘hostname -I’ to find the IP address for the eth0 Ethernet
adapter or the WiFi dongle.
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How do I set/change the static IP address on the board?
The Static IP address is set in /etc/dhcp/dhclient.conf - you can modify the board’s static IP here.
How do I find my hostname?
Connect to the board using a terminal and run hostname
How do I change the hostname?
If you have multiple boards on the same network, you should give them different host names. You can run the following
script to change the hostname:
sudo /home/xilinx/scripts/hostname.sh NEW_HOST_NAME
What is the user account and password?
Username and password for all Linux, jupyter and samba logins are: xilinx/xilinx
I can’t log in to the Jupyter portal with Safari on Mac OS
This is a known issue with Safari and is related to Safari not authenticating the Jupyter password properly. To
workaround, you can use another browser, or disable the password
How do I enable/disable the Jupyter notebook password
The Jupyter configuration file can be found at
/root/.jupyter/jupyter_notebook_config.py
You can add or comment out the c.NotebookApp.password to bypass the password authentication when connecting to
the Jupyter Portal.
c.NotebookApp.password =u'sha1:6c2164fc2b22:ed55ecf07fc0f985ab46561483c0e888e8964ae6'
How do I change the Jupyter notebook password
A hashed password is saved in the Jupyter Notebook configuration file.
/root/.jupyter/jupyter_notebook_config.py
You can create a hashed password using the function IPython.lib.passwd():
from IPython.lib import passwd
password = passwd("secret")
6c2164fc2b22:ed55ecf07fc0f985ab46561483c0e888e8964ae6
You can then add or modify the line in the jupyter_notebook_config.py file
c.NotebookApp.password =u'sha1:6c2164fc2b22:ed55ecf07fc0f985ab46561483c0e888e8964ae6'
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General Questions
Does Pynq support Python 2.7?
Python 2.7 is loaded on Zynq® and Python 2.7 scripts can be executed. Pynq, however, is based on Python 3.4. No
attempts have been made to ensure backward compatibility with Python 2.7.
Where can I get the PYNQ-Z1 image?
You can Download the PYNQ-Z1 image here
How do I write the Micro SD card image
You can find instructions in the Appendix: Writing the SD card image
What type of Micro SD card do I need?
We recommend you use a card at least 8GB in size and at least class 4 speed rating.
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CHAPTER 17
Glossary
Table of Contents
• Glossary
– A-G
– H-R
– S-Z
A-G
APSOC All Programmable System on Chip
BSP A board support package (BSP) is a collection of low-level libraries and drivers. The Xilinx®
software development Kit (SDK) uses a BSP to form the lowest layer of your application software
stack. Software applications must link against or run on top of a given software platform using the
APIs that it provides. Therefore, before you can create and use software applications in SDK, you
must create a board support package
FPGA Field Programmable Gate Arrays (FPGAs) are semiconductor devices that are based around a
matrix of configurable logic blocks (CLBs) connected via programmable interconnects. FPGAs can
be reprogrammed to desired application or functionality requirements after manufacturing. This feature distinguishes FPGAs from Application Specific Integrated Circuits (ASICs), which are custom
manufactured for specific design tasks.
H-R
Hardware Platform An SDK project
HDF Hardware Definition File (.hdf). This file is created by Vivado and contains information about a
processor system in an FPGA overlay. The HDF specifies the peripherals that exist in the system,
and the memory map. This is used by the BSP to build software libraries to support the available
peripherals.
I2C See IIC
IIC Inter-Integrated Circuit; multi-master, multi-slave, single-ended, serial computer bus protocol
IOPs Input/Output Processors
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Jupyter (Notebooks) Jupyter is an open source project consisting of an interactive, web application that
allows users to create and share notebook documents that contain live code and the full range of
rich media supported by modern browsers. These include text, images, videos, LaTeX-styled equations, and interactive widgets. The Jupyter framework is used as a front-end to over 40 different
programming languages. It originated from the interactive data science and scientific computing
communities. Its uses include: data cleaning and transformation, numerical simulation, statistical
modelling, machine learning and much more.
MicroBlaze MicroBlaze is a soft microprocessor core designed for Xilinx FPGAs. As a soft-core processor, MicroBlaze is implemented entirely in the general-purpose memory and logic fabric of an
FPGA.
Pmod Interface The Pmod or Peripheral Module interface is used to connect low frequency, low I/O
pin count peripheral modules to host controller boards.accessory boards to add functionality to the
platform. e.g. ADC, DAC, I/O interfaces, sensors etc.
(Micro) SD Secure Digital (Memory Card standard)
readthedocs.org readthedocs.org is a popular website that hosts the documentation for open source
projects at no cost. readthedocs.org uses Sphinx document generation tools to automatically generate both the website and PDF versions of project documentation from a GitHub repository when
new updates are pushed to that site.
REPL A read–eval–print loop (REPL), also known as an interactive toplevel or language shell, is a simple, interactive computer programming environment that takes single user inputs (i.e. single expressions), evaluates them, and returns the result to the user; a program written in a REPL environment
is executed piecewise. The term is most usually used to refer to programming interfaces similar to
the classic Lisp machine interactive environment. Common examples include command line shells
and similar environments for programming languages, and is particularly characteristic of scripting
languages wikipedia
reST Restructured text is a markup language used extensively with the Sphinx document generator
S-Z
SDK Xilinx SDK - Software Development Kit. Software development environment including crosscompiles for ARM®, and MicroBlaze processors. Also includes debug, and profiling tools. Required to build software for a MicroBlaze processor inside an IOP.
SOC System On Chip
Sphinx A document generator written in Python and used extensively to document Python and other
coding projects
SPI Serial Peripheral Interface; synchronous serial communication interface specification
UART Universal asynchronous receiver/transmitter; Serial communication protocol
Vivado Vivado Design Suite is a suite of computer-aided design tools provided by Xilinx for creating
FPGA designs. It is used to design and implement the overlays used in Pynq.
XADC An XADC is a hard IP block that consists of dual 12-bit, 1 Mega sample per second (MSPS),
analog-to-digital converters and on-chip sensors which are integrated into Xilinx 7 series FPGA
devices
Zynq® Zynq-7000 All Programmable SoC (APSoC) devices integrate the software programmability of
an ARM®-based processor with the hardware programmability of an FPGA, enabling key analytics
and hardware acceleration while integrating CPU, DSP, ASSP, and mixed signal functionality on a
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single device. Zynq-7000 AP SoCs infuse customizable intelligence into today’s embedded systems
to suit your unique application requirements
Zynq PL Programmable Logic - FPGA fabric
Zynq PS Processing System - SOC processing subsystem built around dual-core, ARM Cortex-A9 processor
17.3. S-Z
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CHAPTER 18
Useful Reference Links
Table of Contents
• Useful Reference Links
– Git
– Jupyter
– PUTTY (terminal emulation software)
– Pynq Technical support
– Python built-in functions
– Python training
– reStructuredText
– Sphinx
Git
• Interactive introduction to Git
• Extensive set of tutorials on Git
• Free PDF copy of The Pro Git book by Scott Chacon and Ben Straub
Jupyter
• Jupyter Project
• Try Jupyter in your browser
PUTTY (terminal emulation software)
• PUTTY download page
Pynq Technical support
• Pynq Technical support
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Python built-in functions
• C Python native functions
Python training
• The Python Tutorial from the Python development team
• Google Python training including videos
• Python Tutor including visualization of Python program execution
• 20 Best Free Tutorials to Learn Python as of 9 Oct 2015
reStructuredText
• reStructuredText docs
• reStructuredText Primer
• Online reStructuredText editor
Sphinx
• The official Sphinx docs
• Online reST and Sphinx editor with rendering
• A useful Sphinx cheat sheet
• Jupyter Notebook Tools for Sphinx
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CHAPTER 19
Appendix
Table of Contents
• Appendix
– Technology Backgrounder
– Writing the SD card image
– Assign your laptop/PC a static IP address
Technology Backgrounder
Overlays and Design Re-use
The ‘magic’ of mapping an application to an APSoC, without designing custom hardware, is achieved by using FPGA
overlays. FPGA overlays are FPGA designs that are both highly configurable and highly optimized for a given domain.
The availability of a suitable overlay removes the need for a software designer to develop a new bitstream. Software
and system designers can customize the functionality of an existing overlay in software once the API for the overlay
bitstream is available.
An FPGA overlay is a domain-specific FPGA design that has been created to be highly configurable so that it can be
used in as many different applications as possible. It has been crafted to maximize post-bitstream programmability
which is exposed via its API. The API provides a new entry-point for application-focused software and systems
engineers to exploit APSoCs in their solutions. With an API they only have to write software to program configure the
functions of an overlay for their applications.
By analogy with the Linux kernel and device drivers, FPGA overlays are designed by relatively few engineers so
that they can be re-used by many others. In this way, a relatively small number of overlay designers can support a
much larger community of APSoC designers. Overlays exist to promote re-use. Like kernels and device drivers, these
hardware-level artifacts are not static, but evolve and improve over time.
Characteristics of Good Overlays
Creating one FPGA design and its corresponding API to serve the needs of many applications in a given domain is
what defines a successful overlay. This, one-to-many relationship between the overlay and its users, is different from
the more common one-to-one mapping between a bitstream and its application.
Consider the example of an overlay created for controlling drones. Instead of creating a design that is optimized
for controlling just a single type of drone, the hardware architects recognize the many common requirements shared
by different drone controllers. They create a design for controlling drones that is a flexible enough to be used with
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several different drones. In effect, they create a drone-control overlay. They expose, to the users of their bitstream,
an API through which the users can determine in software the parameters critical to their application. For example, a
drone control overlay might support up to eight, pulse-width-modulated (PWM) motor control circuits. The software
programmer can determine how many of the control circuits to enable and how to tune the individual motor control
parameters to the needs of his particular drone.
The design of a good overlay shares many common elements with the design of a class in object-oriented software.
Determining the fundamental data structure, the private methods and the public interface are common requirements.
The quality of the class is determined both by its overall usefulness and the coherency of the API it exposes. Wellengineered classes and overlays are inherently useful and are easy to learn and deploy.
Pynq adopts a holistic approach by considering equally the design of the overlays, the APIs exported by the overlays,
and how well these APIs interact with new and existing Python design patterns and idioms to simplify and improve
the APSoC design process. One of the key challenges is to identify and refine good abstractions. The goal is to
find abstractions that improve design coherency by exposing commonality, even among loosely-related tasks. As new
overlays and APIs are published, we expect that the open-source software community will further improve and extend
them in new and unexpected ways.
Note that FPGA overlays are not a novel concept. They have been studied for over a decade and many academic
papers have been published on the topic.
The Case for Productivity-layer Languages
Successive generations of All Programmable Systems on Chip embed more processors and greater processing power.
As larger applications are integrated into APSoCs, the embedded code increases also. Embedded code that is speed
or size critical, will continue to be written in C/C++. These ‘efficiency-layer or systems languages’ are needed to
write fast, low-level drivers, for example. However, the proportion of embedded code that is neither speed-critical or
size-critical, is increasing more rapidly. We refer to this braod class of code as embedded applications code.
Programming embedded applications code in higher-level, ‘productivity-layer languages’ makes good sense. It simply extends the generally-accepted best-practice of always programming at the highest possible level of abstraction.
Python is currently a premier productivity-layer language. It is now available in different variants for a range of embedded systems, hence its adoption in Pynq. Pynq runs CPython on Linux on the ARM® processors in Zynq® devices.
To further increase productivity and portability, Pynq uses the Jupyter Notebook, an open-source web framework to
rapidly develop systems, document their behavior and disseminate the results.
Writing the SD card image
Windows
• Insert the Micro SD card into your SD card reader and check which drive letter was assigned. You can find this
by opening Computer/My Computer in Windows Explorer.
• Download the Win32DiskImager utility from the Sourceforge Project page
• Extract the Win32DiskImager executable from the zip file and run the Win32DiskImager utility as administrator.
(Right-click on the file, and select Run as administrator.)
• Select the PYNQ-Z1 image file (.img).
• Select the drive letter of the SD card. Be careful to select the correct drive. If you select the wrong drive you
can overwrite data on that drive. This could be another USB stick, or memory card connected to your computer,
or your computer’s hard disk.
• Click Write and wait for the write to complete.
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MAC
On Mac OS, you can use dd, or the graphical tool ImageWriter to write to your Micro SD card.
• First open a termianl and unzip the image:
unzip pynq_z1_image_2016_09_14.zip -d ./
ImageWriter
Note the Micro SD card must be formatted as FAT32.
• Insert the Micro SD card into your SD card reader
• From the Apple menu, choose “About This Mac”, then click on “More info...”; if you are using Mac OS X
10.8.x Mountain Lion or newer, then click on “System Report”.
• Click on “USB” (or “Card Reader” if using a built-in SD card reader) then search for your SD card in the upperright section of the window. Click on it, then search for the BSD name in the lower-right section; it will look
something like diskn where n is a number (for example, disk4). Make sure you take a note of this number.
• Unmount the partition so that you will be allowed to overwrite the disk. To do this, open Disk Utility and
unmount it; do not eject it, or you will have to reconnect it. Note that on Mac OS X 10.8.x Mountain Lion,
“Verify Disk” (before unmounting) will display the BSD name as /dev/disk1s1 or similar, allowing you to skip
the previous two steps.
• From the terminal, run the following command:
sudo dd bs=1m if=path_of_your_image.img of=/dev/rdiskn
Remember to replace n with the number that you noted before!
If this command fails, try using disk instead of rdisk:
sudo dd bs=1m if=path_of_your_image.img of=/dev/diskn
Wait for the card to be written. This may take some time.
Command Line
• Open a terminal, then run:
diskutil list
• Identify the disk (not partition) of your SD card e.g. disk4, not disk4s1.
• Unmount your SD card by using the disk identifier, to prepare for copying data to it:
diskutil unmountDisk /dev/disk<disk# from diskutil>
where disk is your BSD name e.g. diskutil unmountDisk /dev/disk4
• Copy the data to your SD card:
sudo dd bs=1m if=image.img of=/dev/rdisk<disk# from diskutil>
where disk is your BSD name e.g.
of=/dev/rdisk4
sudo dd bs=1m if=pynq_z1_image_2016_09_07.img
This may result in a dd: invalid number ‘1m’ error if you have GNU coreutils installed. In that case, you need to use
a block size of 1M in the bs= section, as follows:
19.2. Writing the SD card image
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sudo dd bs=1M if=image.img of=/dev/rdisk<disk# from diskutil>
Wait for the card to be written. This may take some time. You can check the progress by sending a SIGINFO signal
(press Ctrl+T).
If this command still fails, try using disk instead of rdisk, for example:
sudo dd bs=1m if=pynq_z1_image_2016_09_07.img of=/dev/disk4
Linux
dd
Please note the dd tool can overwrite any partition on your machine. Please be careful when specifying the drive in
the instructions below. If you select the wrong drive, you could lose data from, or delete your primary Linux partition.
• Run df -h to see what devices are currently mounted.
• Insert the Micro SD card into your SD card reader
• Run df -h again.
The new device that has appeared is your Micro SD card. The left column gives the device name; it will be listed
as something like /dev/mmcblk0p1 or /dev/sdd1. The last part (p1 or 1 respectively) is the partition number but you
want to write to the whole SD card, not just one partition. You need to remove that part from the name. e.g. Use
/dev/mmcblk0 or /dev/sdd as the device name for the whole SD card.
Now that you’ve noted what the device name is, you need to unmount it so that files can’t be read or written to the SD
card while you are copying over the SD image.
• Run umount /dev/sdd1, replacing sdd1 with whatever your SD card’s device name is (including the partition
number).
If your SD card shows up more than once in the output of df due to having multiple partitions on the SD card, you
should unmount all of these partitions.
• In the terminal, write the image to the card with the command below, making sure you replace the input file if=
argument with the path to your .img file, and the /dev/sdd in the output file of= argument with the right device
name. This is very important, as you will lose all data on the hard drive if you provide the wrong device name.
Make sure the device name is the name of the whole Micro SD card as described above, not just a partition of
it; for example, sdd, not sdds1, and mmcblk0, not mmcblk0p1.
sudo dd bs=4M if=pynq_z1_image_2016_09_07.img of=/dev/sdd
Please note that block size set to 4M will work most of the time; if not, please try 1M, although this will take considerably longer.
The dd command does not give any information of its progress and so may appear to have frozen; it could take a few
minutes to finish writing to the card.
Instead of dd you can use dcfldd; it will give a progress report about how much has been written.
Assign your laptop/PC a static IP address
Instructions may vary slightly depending on the version of operating system you have. You can also search on google
for instructions on how to change your network settings.
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You need to set the IP address of your laptop/pc to be in the same range as the board. e.g. if the board is 192.168.2.99,
the laptop/PC can be 192.168.2.x where x is 0-255 (excluding 99, as this is already taken by the board).
You should record your original settings, in case you need to revert to them when finished using PYNQ.
Windows
• Go to Control Panel -> Network and Internet -> Network Connections
• Find your Ethernet network interface, usually Local Area Connection
• Double click on the network interface to open it, and click on Properties
• Select Internet Protocol Version 4 (TCP/IPv4) and click Properties
• Select Use the following IP address
• Set the Ip address to 192.168.2.1 (or any other address in the same range as the board)
• Set the subnet mask to 255.255.255.0 and click OK
Mac OS
OS X
• Open System Preferences then open Network
• Click on the connection you want to set manually, usually Ethernet
• From the Configure IPv4 drop down choose Manually
• Set the IP address to 192.168.2.1 (or any other address in the same range as the board)
• Set the subnet mask to 255.255.255.0 and click OK
The other settings can be left blank.
Linux
• Edit this file (replace gedit with your preferred text editor):
sudo gedit /etc/network/interfaces
The file usually looks like this:
auto lo eth0
iface lo inet loopback
iface eth0 inet dynamic
• Make the following change to set the eth0 interface to the static IP address 192.168.2.1
iface eth0 inet static
address 192.168.2.1
netmask 255.255.255.0
Your file should look like this:
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auto lo eth0
iface lo inet loopback
iface eth0 inet static
address 192.168.2.1
netmask 255.255.255.0
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CHAPTER 20
Documentation Changelog
Table of Contents
• Documentation Changelog
– Version 1.01
Version 1.01
16 Dec 2016
• Added new iop modules to docs
– Arduino Grove Color
– Arduino Grove DLight
– Arduino Grove Ear HR
– Arduino Grove Finger HR
– Arduino Grove Haptic motor
– Arduino Grove TH02
– Pmod Color
– Pmod DLight
– Pmod Ear HR
– Pmod Finger HR
– Pmod Haptic motor
– Pmod TH02
• Added USB WiFI driver
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CHAPTER 21
Indices and tables
• genindex
• modindex
• search
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Python Module Index
p
pynq.board.button, 89
pynq.board.led, 89
pynq.board.rgbled, 90
pynq.board.switch, 90
pynq.drivers.audio, 127
pynq.drivers.dma, 129
pynq.drivers.trace_buffer, 131
pynq.drivers.usb_wifi, 135
pynq.drivers.video, 136
pynq.drivers.xlnk, 141
pynq.general_const, 144
pynq.gpio, 144
pynq.iop.arduino_analog, 91
pynq.iop.arduino_io, 94
pynq.iop.devmode, 95
pynq.iop.grove_adc, 96
pynq.iop.grove_buzzer, 98
pynq.iop.grove_color, 99
pynq.iop.grove_dlight, 100
pynq.iop.grove_ear_hr, 100
pynq.iop.grove_finger_hr, 101
pynq.iop.grove_haptic_motor, 102
pynq.iop.grove_imu, 103
pynq.iop.grove_ledbar, 105
pynq.iop.grove_light, 106
pynq.iop.grove_oled, 107
pynq.iop.grove_pir, 109
pynq.iop.grove_th02, 109
pynq.iop.grove_tmp, 110
pynq.iop.iop, 111
pynq.iop.iop_const, 112
pynq.iop.pmod_adc, 112
pynq.iop.pmod_als, 115
pynq.iop.pmod_cable, 116
pynq.iop.pmod_dac, 117
pynq.iop.pmod_dpot, 117
pynq.iop.pmod_iic, 118
pynq.iop.pmod_io, 119
pynq.iop.pmod_led8, 120
pynq.iop.pmod_oled, 121
pynq.iop.pmod_pwm, 122
pynq.iop.pmod_tc1, 123
pynq.iop.pmod_timer, 125
pynq.iop.pmod_tmp2, 126
pynq.mmio, 145
pynq.pl, 146
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Python Module Index
Index
Symbols
C
__del__() (pynq.drivers.dma.DMA method), 130
__del__()
(pynq.drivers.trace_buffer.Trace_Buffer
method), 132
__del__() (pynq.drivers.video.Frame method), 136
__del__() (pynq.drivers.video.HDMI method), 139
__del__() (pynq.drivers.xlnk.xlnk method), 141
__del__() (pynq.gpio.GPIO method), 144
__del__() (pynq.mmio.MMIO method), 146
__getitem__() (pynq.drivers.video.Frame method), 137
__new__()
(pynq.iop.grove_pir.Grove_PIR
static
method), 109
__setitem__() (pynq.drivers.video.Frame method), 137
_mmio (pynq.board.rgbled.RGBLED attribute), 91
_rgbleds_val (pynq.board.rgbled.RGBLED attribute), 91
cable (pynq.iop.pmod_cable.Pmod_Cable attribute), 116
clear() (pynq.iop.grove_oled.Grove_OLED method), 107
clear() (pynq.iop.pmod_oled.Pmod_OLED method), 121
clk (pynq.iop.pmod_timer.Pmod_Timer attribute), 125
cma_alloc() (pynq.drivers.xlnk.xlnk method), 141
cma_cast() (pynq.drivers.xlnk.xlnk static method), 142
cma_free() (pynq.drivers.xlnk.xlnk method), 142
cma_get_buffer() (pynq.drivers.xlnk.xlnk method), 142
cma_get_phy_addr() (pynq.drivers.xlnk.xlnk method),
143
cma_memcopy() (pynq.drivers.xlnk.xlnk static method),
143
cma_stats() (pynq.drivers.xlnk.xlnk method), 143
Configuration (pynq.drivers.dma.DMA attribute), 129
configure() (pynq.drivers.dma.DMA method), 130
connect() (pynq.drivers.usb_wifi.Usb_Wifi method), 136
cr_addr (pynq.iop.pmod_iic.Pmod_IIC attribute), 119
create_buf() (pynq.drivers.dma.DMA method), 130
csv2sr()
(pynq.drivers.trace_buffer.Trace_Buffer
method), 132
ctrl (pynq.drivers.trace_buffer.Trace_Buffer attribute),
132
A
Arduino_Analog (class in pynq.iop.arduino_analog), 91
Arduino_IO (class in pynq.iop.arduino_io), 94
array (pynq.mmio.MMIO attribute), 146
Audio (class in pynq.drivers.audio), 127
B
base_addr (pynq.drivers.audio.Audio attribute), 127
base_addr (pynq.mmio.MMIO attribute), 145
bitfile_name (pynq.pl.Bitstream attribute), 146
bitfile_name (pynq.pl.Overlay attribute), 147
bitfile_name (pynq.pl.PL attribute), 150
bitfile_name (pynq.pl.PL_Meta attribute), 153
Bitstream (class in pynq.pl), 146
bitstream (pynq.pl.Overlay attribute), 147
buf (pynq.drivers.dma.DMA attribute), 129
buffer (pynq.drivers.audio.Audio attribute), 127
bufLength (pynq.drivers.dma.DMA attribute), 129
bufmap (pynq.drivers.xlnk.xlnk attribute), 141
Button (class in pynq.board.button), 89
bValue (pynq.iop.grove_tmp.Grove_TMP attribute), 110
bypass_start() (pynq.drivers.audio.Audio method), 127
bypass_stop() (pynq.drivers.audio.Audio method), 128
D
data (pynq.drivers.trace_buffer.Trace_Buffer attribute),
132
debug (pynq.mmio.MMIO attribute), 145
decode()
(pynq.drivers.trace_buffer.Trace_Buffer
method), 133
DevMode (class in pynq.iop.devmode), 95
direction (pynq.drivers.dma.DMA attribute), 129
direction (pynq.drivers.video.HDMI attribute), 138
direction (pynq.gpio.GPIO attribute), 144
direction (pynq.iop.arduino_io.Arduino_IO attribute), 94
direction (pynq.iop.pmod_cable.Pmod_Cable attribute),
116
direction (pynq.iop.pmod_io.Pmod_IO attribute), 119
display()
(pynq.drivers.trace_buffer.Trace_Buffer
method), 133
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DMA (class in pynq.drivers.dma), 129
dma (pynq.drivers.trace_buffer.Trace_Buffer attribute),
132
DMAengine (pynq.drivers.dma.DMA attribute), 129
DMAinstance (pynq.drivers.dma.DMA attribute), 129
download() (pynq.pl.Bitstream method), 146
download() (pynq.pl.Overlay method), 147
draw_line() (pynq.iop.pmod_oled.Pmod_OLED method),
122
draw_rect() (pynq.iop.pmod_oled.Pmod_OLED method),
122
drr_addr (pynq.iop.pmod_iic.Pmod_IIC attribute), 119
dtr_addr (pynq.iop.pmod_iic.Pmod_IIC attribute), 118
E
event_count()
(pynq.iop.pmod_timer.Pmod_Timer
method), 125
event_detected()
(pynq.iop.pmod_timer.Pmod_Timer
method), 125
F
Frame (class in pynq.drivers.video), 136
frame (pynq.drivers.video.Frame attribute), 136
frame (pynq.drivers.video.HDMI attribute), 139
frame_addr (pynq.drivers.video.HDMI attribute), 139
frame_height (pynq.drivers.video.HDMI attribute), 139
frame_index (pynq.drivers.video.HDMI attribute), 139
frame_index_next (pynq.drivers.video.HDMI attribute),
139
frame_list (pynq.drivers.video.HDMI attribute), 138
frame_phyaddr (pynq.drivers.video.HDMI attribute), 140
frame_raw (pynq.drivers.video.HDMI attribute), 140
frame_width (pynq.drivers.video.HDMI attribute), 140
free_buf() (pynq.drivers.dma.DMA method), 130
G
gen_network_file()
(pynq.drivers.usb_wifi.Usb_Wifi
method), 136
generate() (pynq.iop.pmod_pwm.Pmod_PWM method),
123
generate_pulse()
(pynq.iop.pmod_timer.Pmod_Timer
method), 125
get_accl() (pynq.iop.grove_imu.Grove_IMU method),
103
get_altitude() (pynq.iop.grove_imu.Grove_IMU method),
103
get_atm() (pynq.iop.grove_imu.Grove_IMU method),
103
get_buf() (pynq.drivers.dma.DMA method), 131
get_cmd_word() (pynq.iop.devmode.DevMode method),
95
get_compass()
(pynq.iop.grove_imu.Grove_IMU
method), 104
get_gpio_base() (pynq.gpio.GPIO static method), 144
180
get_gpio_names() (pynq.pl.PL class method), 151
get_gpio_pin() (pynq.gpio.GPIO static method), 144
get_gpio_state() (pynq.pl.Overlay method), 147
get_gpio_state() (pynq.pl.PL class method), 151
get_gpio_user_ix() (pynq.pl.Overlay method), 148
get_gpio_user_ix() (pynq.pl.PL class method), 151
get_gyro() (pynq.iop.grove_imu.Grove_IMU method),
104
get_heading()
(pynq.iop.grove_imu.Grove_IMU
method), 104
get_ip_addr_base() (pynq.pl.Overlay method), 148
get_ip_addr_base() (pynq.pl.PL class method), 151
get_ip_addr_range() (pynq.pl.Overlay method), 148
get_ip_addr_range() (pynq.pl.PL class method), 152
get_ip_names() (pynq.pl.PL class method), 152
get_ip_state() (pynq.pl.Overlay method), 148
get_ip_state() (pynq.pl.PL class method), 152
get_log()
(pynq.iop.arduino_analog.Arduino_Analog
method), 92
get_log() (pynq.iop.grove_adc.Grove_ADC method), 97
get_log()
(pynq.iop.grove_finger_hr.Grove_FingerHR
method), 101
get_log() (pynq.iop.grove_light.Grove_Light method),
106
get_log() (pynq.iop.grove_th02.Grove_TH02 method),
109
get_log() (pynq.iop.grove_tmp.Grove_TMP method),
111
get_log() (pynq.iop.pmod_adc.Pmod_ADC method), 112
get_log() (pynq.iop.pmod_als.Pmod_ALS method), 115
get_log() (pynq.iop.pmod_tc1.Pmod_TC1 method), 123
get_log() (pynq.iop.pmod_tmp2.Pmod_TMP2 method),
126
get_log_raw() (pynq.iop.arduino_analog.Arduino_Analog
method), 92
get_log_raw()
(pynq.iop.grove_adc.Grove_ADC
method), 97
get_log_raw()
(pynq.iop.pmod_adc.Pmod_ADC
method), 112
get_period_ns()
(pynq.iop.pmod_timer.Pmod_Timer
method), 125
get_pressure()
(pynq.iop.grove_imu.Grove_IMU
method), 104
get_temperature()
(pynq.iop.grove_imu.Grove_IMU
method), 104
get_tiltheading()
(pynq.iop.grove_imu.Grove_IMU
method), 104
get_timestamp() (pynq.pl.Overlay method), 149
GPIO (class in pynq.gpio), 144
gpio_dict (pynq.pl.Overlay attribute), 147
gpio_dict (pynq.pl.PL attribute), 151
gpio_dict (pynq.pl.PL_Meta attribute), 153
gr_pin
(pynq.iop.arduino_analog.Arduino_Analog
attribute), 92
Index
Python productivity for Zynq (Pynq) Documentation, Release 1.01
Grove_ADC (class in pynq.iop.grove_adc), 96
Grove_Buzzer (class in pynq.iop.grove_buzzer), 98
Grove_Color (class in pynq.iop.grove_color), 99
Grove_DLight (class in pynq.iop.grove_dlight), 100
Grove_EarHR (class in pynq.iop.grove_ear_hr), 100
Grove_FingerHR (class in pynq.iop.grove_finger_hr),
101
Grove_Haptic_Motor
(class
in
pynq.iop.grove_haptic_motor), 102
Grove_IMU (class in pynq.iop.grove_imu), 103
Grove_LEDbar (class in pynq.iop.grove_ledbar), 105
Grove_Light (class in pynq.iop.grove_light), 106
Grove_OLED (class in pynq.iop.grove_oled), 107
Grove_PIR (class in pynq.iop.grove_pir), 109
Grove_TH02 (class in pynq.iop.grove_th02), 109
Grove_TMP (class in pynq.iop.grove_tmp), 110
iop (pynq.iop.grove_th02.Grove_TH02 attribute), 109
iop (pynq.iop.grove_tmp.Grove_TMP attribute), 110
iop (pynq.iop.pmod_adc.Pmod_ADC attribute), 112
iop (pynq.iop.pmod_als.Pmod_ALS attribute), 115
iop (pynq.iop.pmod_cable.Pmod_Cable attribute), 116
iop (pynq.iop.pmod_dac.Pmod_DAC attribute), 117
iop (pynq.iop.pmod_dpot.Pmod_DPOT attribute), 117
iop (pynq.iop.pmod_iic.Pmod_IIC attribute), 118
iop (pynq.iop.pmod_io.Pmod_IO attribute), 119
iop (pynq.iop.pmod_led8.Pmod_LED8 attribute), 120
iop (pynq.iop.pmod_oled.Pmod_OLED attribute), 121
iop (pynq.iop.pmod_pwm.Pmod_PWM attribute), 122
iop (pynq.iop.pmod_tc1.Pmod_TC1 attribute), 123
iop (pynq.iop.pmod_timer.Pmod_Timer attribute), 125
iop (pynq.iop.pmod_tmp2.Pmod_TMP2 attribute), 126
iop_switch_config (pynq.iop.devmode.DevMode attribute), 95
H
ip_dict (pynq.pl.Overlay attribute), 147
handle_timeout() (pynq.drivers.dma.timeout method), ip_dict (pynq.pl.PL attribute), 150
ip_dict (pynq.pl.PL_Meta attribute), 154
131
is_cmd_mailbox_idle()
(pynq.iop.devmode.DevMode
HDMI (class in pynq.drivers.video), 138
method), 95
height (pynq.drivers.video.Frame attribute), 136
is_loaded() (pynq.pl.Overlay method), 149
is_playing() (pynq.iop.grove_haptic_motor.Grove_Haptic_Motor
I
method), 102
if_id (pynq.iop.devmode.DevMode attribute), 95
iic_addr (pynq.iop.pmod_iic.Pmod_IIC attribute), 118
L
index (pynq.board.button.Button attribute), 89
LED (class in pynq.board.led), 89
index (pynq.board.led.LED attribute), 89
length (pynq.drivers.audio.Audio attribute), 127
index (pynq.board.rgbled.RGBLED attribute), 90
length (pynq.mmio.MMIO attribute), 145
index (pynq.board.switch.Switch attribute), 90
load() (pynq.drivers.audio.Audio method), 128
index (pynq.gpio.GPIO attribute), 144
load_ip_data() (pynq.pl.Overlay method), 149
index (pynq.iop.arduino_io.Arduino_IO attribute), 94
index (pynq.iop.pmod_cable.Pmod_Cable attribute), 116 load_ip_data() (pynq.pl.PL class method), 152
load_switch_config()
(pynq.iop.devmode.DevMode
index (pynq.iop.pmod_io.Pmod_IO attribute), 119
method),
95
index (pynq.iop.pmod_led8.Pmod_LED8 attribute), 120
log_interval_ms (pynq.iop.arduino_analog.Arduino_Analog
info() (pynq.drivers.audio.Audio method), 128
attribute), 92
iop (pynq.iop.arduino_analog.Arduino_Analog attribute),
log_interval_ms
(pynq.iop.grove_adc.Grove_ADC
91
attribute),
97
iop (pynq.iop.arduino_io.Arduino_IO attribute), 94
log_interval_ms (pynq.iop.grove_buzzer.Grove_Buzzer
iop (pynq.iop.devmode.DevMode attribute), 95
attribute), 99
iop (pynq.iop.grove_adc.Grove_ADC attribute), 96
log_interval_ms
(pynq.iop.grove_light.Grove_Light atiop (pynq.iop.grove_buzzer.Grove_Buzzer attribute), 98
tribute),
106
iop (pynq.iop.grove_color.Grove_Color attribute), 99
log_interval_ms
(pynq.iop.grove_tmp.Grove_TMP
atiop (pynq.iop.grove_dlight.Grove_DLight attribute), 100
tribute),
110
iop (pynq.iop.grove_ear_hr.Grove_EarHR attribute), 100
iop (pynq.iop.grove_finger_hr.Grove_FingerHR at- log_interval_ms (pynq.iop.pmod_als.Pmod_ALS attribute), 115
tribute), 101
log_interval_ms
(pynq.iop.pmod_tc1.Pmod_TC1 atiop (pynq.iop.grove_haptic_motor.Grove_Haptic_Motor
tribute),
123
attribute), 102
log_interval_ms (pynq.iop.pmod_tmp2.Pmod_TMP2 atiop (pynq.iop.grove_imu.Grove_IMU attribute), 103
tribute), 126
iop (pynq.iop.grove_ledbar.Grove_LEDbar attribute),
log_running
(pynq.iop.arduino_analog.Arduino_Analog
105
attribute),
92
iop (pynq.iop.grove_light.Grove_Light attribute), 106
iop (pynq.iop.grove_oled.Grove_OLED attribute), 107
Index
181
Python productivity for Zynq (Pynq) Documentation, Release 1.01
log_running (pynq.iop.grove_adc.Grove_ADC attribute),
97
log_running (pynq.iop.grove_color.Grove_Color attribute), 99
log_running (pynq.iop.grove_dlight.Grove_DLight attribute), 100
log_running (pynq.iop.grove_finger_hr.Grove_FingerHR
attribute), 101
log_running (pynq.iop.grove_light.Grove_Light attribute), 106
log_running (pynq.iop.grove_th02.Grove_TH02 attribute), 109
log_running (pynq.iop.grove_tmp.Grove_TMP attribute),
110
log_running (pynq.iop.pmod_adc.Pmod_ADC attribute),
112
M
mem (pynq.mmio.MMIO attribute), 146
mmap_file (pynq.mmio.MMIO attribute), 145
MMIO (class in pynq.mmio), 145
mmio (pynq.iop.arduino_analog.Arduino_Analog attribute), 92
mmio (pynq.iop.devmode.DevMode attribute), 95
mmio (pynq.iop.grove_adc.Grove_ADC attribute), 97
mmio (pynq.iop.grove_buzzer.Grove_Buzzer attribute),
99
mmio (pynq.iop.grove_color.Grove_Color attribute), 99
mmio (pynq.iop.grove_dlight.Grove_DLight attribute),
100
mmio (pynq.iop.grove_ear_hr.Grove_EarHR attribute),
100
mmio
(pynq.iop.grove_finger_hr.Grove_FingerHR
attribute), 101
mmio (pynq.iop.grove_haptic_motor.Grove_Haptic_Motor
attribute), 102
mmio (pynq.iop.grove_imu.Grove_IMU attribute), 103
mmio (pynq.iop.grove_ledbar.Grove_LEDbar attribute),
105
mmio (pynq.iop.grove_light.Grove_Light attribute), 106
mmio (pynq.iop.grove_oled.Grove_OLED attribute), 107
mmio (pynq.iop.grove_th02.Grove_TH02 attribute), 109
mmio (pynq.iop.grove_tmp.Grove_TMP attribute), 110
mmio (pynq.iop.pmod_adc.Pmod_ADC attribute), 112
mmio (pynq.iop.pmod_als.Pmod_ALS attribute), 115
mmio (pynq.iop.pmod_dac.Pmod_DAC attribute), 117
mmio (pynq.iop.pmod_dpot.Pmod_DPOT attribute), 118
mmio (pynq.iop.pmod_oled.Pmod_OLED attribute), 121
mmio (pynq.iop.pmod_pwm.Pmod_PWM attribute), 123
mmio (pynq.iop.pmod_tc1.Pmod_TC1 attribute), 123
mmio (pynq.iop.pmod_timer.Pmod_Timer attribute), 125
mmio (pynq.iop.pmod_tmp2.Pmod_TMP2 attribute), 126
mode (pynq.drivers.video.HDMI attribute), 140
182
N
num_channels (pynq.iop.arduino_analog.Arduino_Analog
attribute), 92
O
off() (pynq.board.led.LED method), 89
off() (pynq.board.rgbled.RGBLED method), 91
off() (pynq.iop.pmod_led8.Pmod_LED8 method), 120
on() (pynq.board.led.LED method), 90
on() (pynq.board.rgbled.RGBLED method), 91
on() (pynq.iop.pmod_led8.Pmod_LED8 method), 120
Overlay (class in pynq.pl), 147
P
parse() (pynq.drivers.trace_buffer.Trace_Buffer method),
134
path (pynq.gpio.GPIO attribute), 144
phyAddress (pynq.drivers.dma.DMA attribute), 129
pir_iop (pynq.iop.grove_pir.Grove_PIR attribute), 109
PL (class in pynq.pl), 150
PL_Meta (class in pynq.pl), 153
play() (pynq.drivers.audio.Audio method), 128
play() (pynq.iop.grove_haptic_motor.Grove_Haptic_Motor
method), 102
play_melody()
(pynq.iop.grove_buzzer.Grove_Buzzer
method), 99
play_sequence() (pynq.iop.grove_haptic_motor.Grove_Haptic_Motor
method), 102
play_tone()
(pynq.iop.grove_buzzer.Grove_Buzzer
method), 99
Pmod_ADC (class in pynq.iop.pmod_adc), 112
Pmod_ALS (class in pynq.iop.pmod_als), 115
Pmod_Cable (class in pynq.iop.pmod_cable), 116
Pmod_DAC (class in pynq.iop.pmod_dac), 117
Pmod_DPOT (class in pynq.iop.pmod_dpot), 117
Pmod_IIC (class in pynq.iop.pmod_iic), 118
Pmod_IO (class in pynq.iop.pmod_io), 119
Pmod_LED8 (class in pynq.iop.pmod_led8), 120
Pmod_OLED (class in pynq.iop.pmod_oled), 121
Pmod_PWM (class in pynq.iop.pmod_pwm), 122
Pmod_TC1 (class in pynq.iop.pmod_tc1), 123
Pmod_Timer (class in pynq.iop.pmod_timer), 125
Pmod_TMP2 (class in pynq.iop.pmod_tmp2), 126
probes (pynq.drivers.trace_buffer.Trace_Buffer attribute),
132
protocol (pynq.drivers.trace_buffer.Trace_Buffer attribute), 132
pynq.board.button (module), 89
pynq.board.led (module), 89
pynq.board.rgbled (module), 90
pynq.board.switch (module), 90
pynq.drivers.audio (module), 127
pynq.drivers.dma (module), 129
Index
Python productivity for Zynq (Pynq) Documentation, Release 1.01
pynq.drivers.trace_buffer (module), 131
pynq.drivers.usb_wifi (module), 135
pynq.drivers.video (module), 136
pynq.drivers.xlnk (module), 141
pynq.general_const (module), 144
pynq.gpio (module), 144
pynq.iop.arduino_analog (module), 91
pynq.iop.arduino_io (module), 94
pynq.iop.devmode (module), 95
pynq.iop.grove_adc (module), 96
pynq.iop.grove_buzzer (module), 98
pynq.iop.grove_color (module), 99
pynq.iop.grove_dlight (module), 100
pynq.iop.grove_ear_hr (module), 100
pynq.iop.grove_finger_hr (module), 101
pynq.iop.grove_haptic_motor (module), 102
pynq.iop.grove_imu (module), 103
pynq.iop.grove_ledbar (module), 105
pynq.iop.grove_light (module), 106
pynq.iop.grove_oled (module), 107
pynq.iop.grove_pir (module), 109
pynq.iop.grove_th02 (module), 109
pynq.iop.grove_tmp (module), 110
pynq.iop.iop (module), 111
pynq.iop.iop_const (module), 112
pynq.iop.pmod_adc (module), 112
pynq.iop.pmod_als (module), 115
pynq.iop.pmod_cable (module), 116
pynq.iop.pmod_dac (module), 117
pynq.iop.pmod_dpot (module), 117
pynq.iop.pmod_iic (module), 118
pynq.iop.pmod_io (module), 119
pynq.iop.pmod_led8 (module), 120
pynq.iop.pmod_oled (module), 121
pynq.iop.pmod_pwm (module), 122
pynq.iop.pmod_tc1 (module), 123
pynq.iop.pmod_timer (module), 125
pynq.iop.pmod_tmp2 (module), 126
pynq.mmio (module), 145
pynq.pl (module), 146
(pynq.iop.grove_finger_hr.Grove_FingerHR
method), 101
read() (pynq.iop.grove_ledbar.Grove_LEDbar method),
105
read() (pynq.iop.grove_light.Grove_Light method), 107
read() (pynq.iop.grove_pir.Grove_PIR method), 109
read() (pynq.iop.grove_th02.Grove_TH02 method), 110
read() (pynq.iop.grove_tmp.Grove_TMP method), 111
read() (pynq.iop.pmod_adc.Pmod_ADC method), 113
read() (pynq.iop.pmod_als.Pmod_ALS method), 115
read() (pynq.iop.pmod_cable.Pmod_Cable method), 116
read() (pynq.iop.pmod_io.Pmod_IO method), 120
read() (pynq.iop.pmod_led8.Pmod_LED8 method), 121
read() (pynq.iop.pmod_tc1.Pmod_TC1 method), 124
read() (pynq.iop.pmod_tmp2.Pmod_TMP2 method), 126
read() (pynq.mmio.MMIO method), 146
read_cmd() (pynq.iop.devmode.DevMode method), 95
read_lux()
(pynq.iop.grove_dlight.Grove_DLight
method), 100
read_raw() (pynq.iop.arduino_analog.Arduino_Analog
method), 92
read_raw() (pynq.iop.grove_adc.Grove_ADC method),
97
read_raw()
(pynq.iop.grove_ear_hr.Grove_EarHR
method), 101
read_raw() (pynq.iop.pmod_adc.Pmod_ADC method),
113
read_raw_light() (pynq.iop.grove_dlight.Grove_DLight
method), 100
receive() (pynq.iop.pmod_iic.Pmod_IIC method), 119
record() (pynq.drivers.audio.Audio method), 128
reg_to_alarms()
(pynq.iop.pmod_tc1.Pmod_TC1
method), 124
reg_to_ref() (pynq.iop.pmod_tc1.Pmod_TC1 method),
124
reg_to_tc() (pynq.iop.pmod_tc1.Pmod_TC1 method),
124
request_iop() (in module pynq.iop.iop), 111
reset() (pynq.drivers.usb_wifi.Usb_Wifi method), 136
reset()
(pynq.iop.arduino_analog.Arduino_Analog
method), 92
R
reset() (pynq.iop.grove_adc.Grove_ADC method), 97
reset() (pynq.iop.grove_imu.Grove_IMU method), 104
read() (pynq.board.button.Button method), 89
reset() (pynq.iop.grove_ledbar.Grove_LEDbar method),
read() (pynq.board.led.LED method), 90
105
read() (pynq.board.rgbled.RGBLED method), 91
reset()
(pynq.iop.pmod_adc.Pmod_ADC
method), 113
read() (pynq.board.switch.Switch method), 90
reset()
(pynq.pl.Overlay
method),
149
read() (pynq.gpio.GPIO method), 145
read()
(pynq.iop.arduino_analog.Arduino_Analog reset() (pynq.pl.PL class method), 153
reset_gpio_dict() (pynq.pl.Overlay method), 150
method), 92
reset_gpio_dict() (pynq.pl.PL class method), 153
read() (pynq.iop.arduino_io.Arduino_IO method), 94
reset_ip_dict() (pynq.pl.Overlay method), 150
read() (pynq.iop.grove_adc.Grove_ADC method), 97
reset_ip_dict() (pynq.pl.PL class method), 153
read() (pynq.iop.grove_color.Grove_Color method), 99
read() (pynq.iop.grove_ear_hr.Grove_EarHR method), rfd_addr (pynq.iop.pmod_iic.Pmod_IIC attribute), 119
RGBLED (class in pynq.board.rgbled), 90
100
Index
read()
183
Python productivity for Zynq (Pynq) Documentation, Release 1.01
RGBLEDS_START_INDEX
pynq.board.rgbled), 91
module start_log() (pynq.iop.arduino_analog.Arduino_Analog
method), 93
start_log() (pynq.iop.grove_adc.Grove_ADC method), 98
S
start_log() (pynq.iop.grove_finger_hr.Grove_FingerHR
method), 101
sample_len (pynq.drivers.audio.Audio attribute), 127
start_log()
(pynq.iop.grove_light.Grove_Light method),
sample_rate (pynq.drivers.audio.Audio attribute), 127
107
samplerate (pynq.drivers.trace_buffer.Trace_Buffer atstart_log() (pynq.iop.grove_th02.Grove_TH02 method),
tribute), 132
110
save() (pynq.drivers.audio.Audio method), 129
start_log()
(pynq.iop.grove_tmp.Grove_TMP method),
save_as_jpeg() (pynq.drivers.video.Frame method), 138
111
save_raw_as_jpeg() (pynq.drivers.video.Frame static
start_log() (pynq.iop.pmod_adc.Pmod_ADC method),
method), 138
114
scl_pin (pynq.iop.pmod_iic.Pmod_IIC attribute), 118
start_log() (pynq.iop.pmod_als.Pmod_ALS method), 115
sda_pin (pynq.iop.pmod_iic.Pmod_IIC attribute), 118
start_log() (pynq.iop.pmod_tc1.Pmod_TC1 method), 124
send() (pynq.iop.pmod_iic.Pmod_IIC method), 119
set_cable() (pynq.iop.pmod_cable.Pmod_Cable method), start_log() (pynq.iop.pmod_tmp2.Pmod_TMP2 method),
126
117
set_contrast()
(pynq.iop.grove_oled.Grove_OLED start_log_raw() (pynq.iop.arduino_analog.Arduino_Analog
method), 93
method), 107
(pynq.iop.grove_adc.Grove_ADC
set_horizontal_mode() (pynq.iop.grove_oled.Grove_OLED start_log_raw()
method), 98
method), 108
(pynq.iop.pmod_adc.Pmod_ADC
set_inverse_mode() (pynq.iop.grove_oled.Grove_OLED start_log_raw()
method), 114
method), 108
state (pynq.drivers.video.HDMI attribute), 140
set_log_interval_ms() (pynq.iop.arduino_analog.Arduino_Analog
status() (pynq.iop.devmode.DevMode method), 96
method), 93
set_log_interval_ms() (pynq.iop.grove_adc.Grove_ADC stop (pynq.drivers.video.HDMI attribute), 141
stop() (pynq.drivers.trace_buffer.Trace_Buffer method),
method), 97
135
set_log_interval_ms() (pynq.iop.pmod_als.Pmod_ALS
stop() (pynq.iop.devmode.DevMode method), 96
method), 115
set_log_interval_ms() (pynq.iop.pmod_tc1.Pmod_TC1 stop() (pynq.iop.grove_haptic_motor.Grove_Haptic_Motor
method), 103
method), 124
set_log_interval_ms() (pynq.iop.pmod_tmp2.Pmod_TMP2 stop() (pynq.iop.pmod_pwm.Pmod_PWM method), 123
stop() (pynq.iop.pmod_timer.Pmod_Timer method), 126
method), 126
(pynq.iop.arduino_analog.Arduino_Analog
set_metadata() (pynq.drivers.trace_buffer.Trace_Buffer stop_log()
method), 93
method), 134
set_normal_mode() (pynq.iop.grove_oled.Grove_OLED stop_log() (pynq.iop.grove_adc.Grove_ADC method), 98
stop_log() (pynq.iop.grove_finger_hr.Grove_FingerHR
method), 108
method), 102
set_page_mode()
(pynq.iop.grove_oled.Grove_OLED
stop_log() (pynq.iop.grove_light.Grove_Light method),
method), 108
107
set_position()
(pynq.iop.grove_oled.Grove_OLED
stop_log() (pynq.iop.grove_th02.Grove_TH02 method),
method), 108
110
show() (pynq.drivers.trace_buffer.Trace_Buffer method),
stop_log() (pynq.iop.grove_tmp.Grove_TMP method),
135
111
sig_handler() (in module pynq.drivers.xlnk), 141
signal_pin (pynq.iop.grove_ear_hr.Grove_EarHR at- stop_log() (pynq.iop.pmod_adc.Pmod_ADC method),
114
tribute), 101
stop_log()
(pynq.iop.pmod_als.Pmod_ALS method), 115
sr2csv()
(pynq.drivers.trace_buffer.Trace_Buffer
stop_log()
(pynq.iop.pmod_tc1.Pmod_TC1 method), 124
method), 135
stop_log()
(pynq.iop.pmod_tmp2.Pmod_TMP2 method),
sr_addr (pynq.iop.pmod_iic.Pmod_IIC attribute), 118
127
start() (pynq.drivers.trace_buffer.Trace_Buffer method),
stop_log_raw() (pynq.iop.arduino_analog.Arduino_Analog
135
method), 93
start() (pynq.drivers.video.HDMI method), 140
stop_log_raw()
(pynq.iop.grove_adc.Grove_ADC
start() (pynq.iop.devmode.DevMode method), 96
method), 98
184
(in
Index
Python productivity for Zynq (Pynq) Documentation, Release 1.01
stop_log_raw()
(pynq.iop.pmod_adc.Pmod_ADC write_brightness() (pynq.iop.grove_ledbar.Grove_LEDbar
method), 114
method), 105
Switch (class in pynq.board.switch), 90
write_cmd() (pynq.iop.devmode.DevMode method), 96
write_level()
(pynq.iop.grove_ledbar.Grove_LEDbar
T
method), 106
timeout (class in pynq.drivers.dma), 131
X
timestamp (pynq.pl.Bitstream attribute), 146
timestamp (pynq.pl.PL attribute), 150
xlnk (class in pynq.drivers.xlnk), 141
timestamp (pynq.pl.PL_Meta attribute), 154
xlnk_reset() (pynq.drivers.xlnk.xlnk method), 143
toggle() (pynq.board.led.LED method), 90
toggle() (pynq.iop.pmod_led8.Pmod_LED8 method), 121
Trace_Buffer (class in pynq.drivers.trace_buffer), 131
trace_csv (pynq.drivers.trace_buffer.Trace_Buffer attribute), 132
trace_pd (pynq.drivers.trace_buffer.Trace_Buffer attribute), 132
trace_sr (pynq.drivers.trace_buffer.Trace_Buffer attribute), 132
transfer() (pynq.drivers.dma.DMA method), 131
U
Usb_Wifi (class in pynq.drivers.usb_wifi), 135
V
virt_base (pynq.mmio.MMIO attribute), 145
virt_offset (pynq.mmio.MMIO attribute), 145
VMODE_1024x768
(pynq.drivers.video.HDMI
attribute), 139
VMODE_1280x1024 (pynq.drivers.video.HDMI attribute), 139
VMODE_1920x1080 (pynq.drivers.video.HDMI attribute), 139
VMODE_640x480 (pynq.drivers.video.HDMI attribute),
139
VMODE_800x600 (pynq.drivers.video.HDMI attribute),
139
W
wait() (pynq.drivers.dma.DMA method), 131
width (pynq.drivers.video.Frame attribute), 136
wifi_port (pynq.drivers.usb_wifi.Usb_Wifi attribute), 136
write() (pynq.board.led.LED method), 90
write() (pynq.board.rgbled.RGBLED method), 91
write() (pynq.gpio.GPIO method), 145
write() (pynq.iop.arduino_io.Arduino_IO method), 94
write() (pynq.iop.grove_oled.Grove_OLED method), 108
write() (pynq.iop.pmod_dac.Pmod_DAC method), 117
write() (pynq.iop.pmod_dpot.Pmod_DPOT method), 118
write() (pynq.iop.pmod_io.Pmod_IO method), 120
write() (pynq.iop.pmod_led8.Pmod_LED8 method), 121
write() (pynq.iop.pmod_oled.Pmod_OLED method), 122
write() (pynq.mmio.MMIO method), 146
write_binary() (pynq.iop.grove_ledbar.Grove_LEDbar
method), 105
Index
185
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