ONTAP 9 Disks and Aggregates Power Guide

ONTAP 9 Disks and Aggregates Power Guide
ONTAP® 9
Disks and Aggregates Power Guide
June 2017 | 215-11204-D0
doccomments@netapp.com
Updated for ONTAP 9.2
Table of Contents | 3
Contents
Deciding whether to use this guide ............................................................. 6
Aggregate creation workflow ...................................................................... 7
Deciding which aggregate creation method to use ...................................................... 7
Creating aggregates with auto-provision ..................................................................... 8
Default RAID policies for aggregates ......................................................................... 9
How to determine the number of disks or disk partitions required for an
aggregate ................................................................................................................ 9
Creating aggregates manually ................................................................................... 10
Aggregate expansion workflow ................................................................. 12
Adding disks to a node .............................................................................................. 13
Manually assigning disk ownership .......................................................................... 13
Expanding aggregates ................................................................................................ 14
Managing aggregates ................................................................................. 17
RAID protection levels for disks ............................................................................... 17
How to determine the number of disks or disk partitions required for an
aggregate .............................................................................................................. 17
Correcting misaligned spare partitions ...................................................................... 18
Determining drive and RAID group information for an aggregate ........................... 19
Relocating aggregate ownership within an HA pair ................................................. 20
Relocating aggregate ownership ................................................................... 20
Commands for aggregate relocation .............................................................. 22
Assigning aggregates to SVMs ................................................................................. 22
How to determine space usage in an aggregate ......................................................... 23
Determining which volumes reside on an aggregate ................................................. 24
How you can determine and control a volume's space usage in the aggregate ......... 24
Methods to create space in an aggregate ................................................................... 25
Commands for managing aggregates ........................................................................ 26
Working with Flash Pool aggregates ........................................................ 27
Flash Pool caching policies and SSD partitioning .................................................... 27
How Flash Pool aggregate caching policies work ......................................... 27
How Flash Pool SSD partitioning works for Flash Pool aggregates using
storage pools ............................................................................................ 27
Determining Flash Pool candidacy and optimal cache size ...................................... 29
Creating a Flash Pool aggregate using physical SSDs .............................................. 31
Creating a Flash Pool aggregate using SSD storage pools ........................................ 32
Determining whether a Flash Pool aggregate is using an SSD storage
pool .......................................................................................................... 32
Creating an SSD storage pool ....................................................................... 32
Creating a Flash Pool aggregate using SSD storage pool allocation units .... 33
Determining the impact to cache size of adding SSDs to an SSD storage
pool .......................................................................................................... 34
4 | Disks and Aggregates Power Guide
Adding SSDs to an SSD storage pool ........................................................... 35
Commands for managing SSD storage pools ................................................ 35
Determining whether to modify the caching policy of Flash Pool aggregates ......... 36
Modifying caching policies of Flash Pool aggregates ................................... 36
Setting the cache-retention policy for Flash Pool aggregates ....................... 37
Managing storage tiers by using FabricPool ............................................ 38
Benefits of storage tiers by using FabricPool ............................................................ 38
Considerations and requirements for using FabricPool ............................................ 38
FabricPool management workflow ............................................................................ 40
Configuring FabricPool ............................................................................................. 40
Preparing for FabricPool configuration ......................................................... 41
Setting up an aggregate to use FabricPool .................................................... 42
Adding volumes to FabricPool as needed ..................................................... 43
Monitoring the space utilization for FabricPool ....................................................... 44
Modifying the tiering policy of a volume for FabricPool ......................................... 46
Commands for managing aggregates with FabricPool .............................................. 46
Managing disks ........................................................................................... 48
When you need to update the Disk Qualification Package .......................................
How hot spare disks work .........................................................................................
How low spare warnings can help you manage your spare disks .............................
Displaying disk and partition ownership ...................................................................
Manually assigning ownership of partitioned disks ..................................................
Root-data partitioning ...................................................................................
Root-data-data partitioning ...........................................................................
Additional root-data partitioning management options ............................................
Configuring autoassignment of disk ownership ........................................................
Which disk autoassignment policy to use .....................................................
Removing a failed disk ..............................................................................................
Removing ownership from a disk .............................................................................
Sanitizing a disk ........................................................................................................
Setting up an active-passive configuration on nodes using root-data partitioning ....
Commands for managing disks .................................................................................
Commands for displaying space usage information .................................................
Commands for displaying information about storage shelves ..................................
48
48
48
49
49
50
50
51
51
52
53
53
54
56
58
59
60
Managing RAID groups ............................................................................. 61
Converting from RAID-DP to RAID-TEC ...............................................................
Converting RAID-TEC to RAID-DP ........................................................................
Considerations for sizing RAID groups ....................................................................
Customizing the size of your RAID groups ..............................................................
61
61
62
62
Appendix: Mirrored and unmirrored aggregates ................................... 64
How unmirrored aggregates work ............................................................................. 64
How mirrored aggregates work ................................................................................. 65
Where to find additional information ....................................................... 67
Copyright information ............................................................................... 68
Trademark information ............................................................................. 69
Table of Contents | 5
How to send comments about documentation and receive update
notifications ............................................................................................ 70
Index ............................................................................................................. 71
6
Deciding whether to use the Disks and
Aggregates Power Guide
This guide describes how to manage ONTAP physical storage. It shows you how to create, expand,
and manage aggregates, how to work with Flash Pool aggregates, how to manage disks, and how to
manage RAID policies.
You should use this guide under the following circumstances:
•
You want to use the command-line interface (CLI), not OnCommand System Manager or an
automated scripting tool.
•
You want to use best practices, not explore every available option.
•
You do not have a MetroCluster configuration.
If you want to use OnCommand System Manager to manage disks and aggregates, you should
choose the following documentation:
•
Cluster management using System Manager
If you require additional configuration or conceptual information, you should choose among the
following documentation:
•
Conceptual background for disk and aggregate management
ONTAP concepts
•
FlexVol volumes, FlexClone technology, and storage efficiency features
Logical storage management
•
•
NAS file access
◦
NFS management
◦
CIFS management
SAN host provisioning
◦
•
•
SAN administration
MetroCluster documentation
◦
Fabric-attached MetroCluster installation and configuration
◦
Stretch MetroCluster installation and configuration
Command reference
ONTAP 9 commands
•
Automation of management tasks
NetApp Documentation: OnCommand Workflow Automation (current releases)
7
Aggregate creation workflow
Creating aggregates provides storage to volumes on your system. Beginning in ONTAP 9.2, you can
let ONTAP recommend aggregate configurations for your system (auto-provision). If the autoprovision method is not available or appropriate in your environment, you can configure aggregates
manually.
Deciding which aggregate creation method to use
Although aggregate creation with auto-provision is a best practice in ONTAP 9.2 and later, you must
determine whether it is supported in your environment. If it is not, you must make decisions about
RAID policy and disk configuration, and then create the aggregates manually.
When you create an aggregate using the storage aggregate auto-provision command,
ONTAP analyzes available spare disks in the cluster and generates a recommendation about how
spare disks should be used to create aggregates according to best practices. ONTAP displays the
summary of recommended aggregates including their names and usable size, and then prompts you to
decide whether the aggregates should be created as recommended.
In many cases, the recommended aggregate layout in the auto-provision display will be optimal for
your environment. However, if your cluster is running ONTAP 9.1 or earlier, or your environment
includes the following configurations, you must use the manual aggregate configuration method.
•
Aggregates using third-party array LUNs
•
Virtual disks with ONTAP Cloud or ONTAP Select
•
MetroCluster
•
SyncMirror
•
MSATA disks
•
FlashPool aggregates
•
Multiple disk types or sizes are connected to the node
In addition, if any of the following disk conditions are present, they must be addressed before using
the auto-provision method:
8 | Disks and Aggregates Power Guide
•
Missing disks
•
Fluctuation in spare disk numbers
•
Unassigned disks
•
Non-zeroed spares
•
Disks undergoing maintenance testing
The storage aggregate auto-provision man page contains more information about these
requirements.
Related information
ONTAP 9 commands
Creating aggregates with auto-provision
If the auto-provision method is appropriate in your environment, you run the storage aggregate
auto-provision to generate aggregate layout recommendations. You can then create aggregates
after reviewing and approving ONTAP recommendations.
Before you begin
ONTAP 9.2 or later must be running on your cluster.
About this task
The default summary generated with the storage aggregate auto-provision command lists
the recommended aggregates to be created, including names and usable size. You can view the list
and determine whether you want to create the recommended aggregates when prompted.
You can also display a detailed summary by using the -verbose option, which displays the
following reports:
•
Per node summary of new aggregates to create, discovered spares, and remaining spare disks and
partitions after aggregate creation
•
New data aggregates to create with counts of disks and partitions to be used
•
RAID group layout showing how spare disks and partitions will be used in new data aggregates to
be created
•
Details about spare disks and partitions remaining after aggregate creation
If you are familiar with the auto-provision method and your environment is correctly prepared, you
can use the -skip-confirmation option to create the recommended aggregate without display and
confirmation. The storage aggregate auto-provision command is not affected by the CLI
session -confirmations setting.
The storage aggregate auto-provision man page contains more information about the
aggregate layout recommendations.
Steps
1. Run the storage aggregate auto-provision command with the desired display options.
•
no options: Display standard summary
•
-verbose option: Display detailed summary
Aggregate creation workflow | 9
•
-skip-confirmation option: Create recommended aggregates without display or
confirmation
2. After reviewing the display of recommended aggregates, respond to the prompt to create the
recommended aggregates.
Example
Do you want to create recommended aggregates? {y|n}:y
Info: Creating node1_SSD_1 ...
Creating node2_SSD_1 ...
Related information
ONTAP 9 commands
Default RAID policies for aggregates
Either RAID-DP or RAID-TEC is the default RAID policy for all new aggregates. The RAID policy
determines the parity protection you have in the event of a disk failure.
RAID-DP provides double-parity protection in the event of a single or double disk failure. RAID-DP
is the default RAID policy for the following aggregate types:
•
All flash aggregates
•
Flash Pool aggregates
•
Performance hard disk drive (HDD) aggregates
Beginning with ONTAP 9.0, a new RAID policy called RAID-TEC is available. RAID-TEC is
supported on all disk types and all platforms, including All Flash FAS. Aggregates that contain larger
disks have a higher possibility of concurrent disk failures. RAID-TEC helps to mitigate this risk by
providing triple-parity protection so that your data can survive up to three simultaneous disk failures.
RAID-TEC is the default RAID policy for capacity HDD aggregates with disks that are 6 TB or
larger.
How to determine the number of disks or disk partitions
required for an aggregate
You must have enough disks or disk partitions in your aggregate to meet system and business
requirements. You should also have the recommended number of hot spare disks or hot spare disk
partitions to minimize the potential of data loss.
Root-data partitioning is enabled by default on certain configurations. Systems with root-data
partitioning enabled use disk partitions to create aggregates. Systems that do not have root-data
partitioning enabled use unpartitioned disks.
You must have enough disks or disk partitions to meet the minimum number required for your RAID
policy and enough to meet your minimum capacity requirements.
Note: In ONTAP, the usable space of the drive is less than the physical capacity of the drive. You
can find the usable space of a specific drive and the minimum number of disks or disk partitions
required for each RAID policy in Hardware Universe. You can also use the storage aggregate
show-spare-disks command to find the usable space of a specific disk.
10 | Disks and Aggregates Power Guide
In addition to the number of disks or disk partitions necessary to create your RAID group and meet
your capacity requirements, you should also have the minimum number of hot spare disks or hot
spare disk partitions recommended for your aggregate:
•
For all flash aggregates, you should have a minimum of one hot spare disk or disk partition.
•
For non-flash homogenous aggregates, you should have a minimum of two hot spare disks or disk
partitions.
•
For Flash Pool aggregates, you should have a minimum of two hot spare disks or disk partitions
for each disk type.
•
To support the use of the Maintenance Center and to avoid issues caused by multiple concurrent
disk failures, you should have a minimum of four hot spares in multi-disk carriers.
Related information
NetApp Hardware Universe
NetApp Technical Report 3838: Storage Subsystem Configuration Guide
Creating aggregates manually
Before you create aggregates manually, you should review disk configuration options and simulate
creation. Then you can issue the storage aggregate create and verify the results.
Before you begin
You must have determined the number of disks and the number of hot spare disks you need in the
aggregate.
About this task
If root-data-data partitioning is enabled and you have 24 solid state drives (SSDs) or fewer in your
configuration, it is recommended that your data partitions be assigned to different nodes.
The procedure for creating aggregates on systems with root-data partitioning and root-data-data
partitioning enabled is the same as the procedure for creating aggregates on systems using
unpartitioned disks. If root-data partitioning is enabled on your system, you should use the number of
disk partitions for the -diskcount option. For root-data-data partitioning, the -diskcount option
specifies the count of disks to use.
Note: When creating multiple aggregates for use with FlexGroups, aggregates should be as close
in size as possible.
The storage aggregate create man page contains more information about aggregate creation
options and requirements.
Steps
1. View the list of spare disk partitions to verify that you have enough to create your aggregate:
storage aggregate show-spare-disks -original-owner node_name
Data partitions are displayed under Local Data Usable. A root partition cannot be used as a
spare.
2. Simulate the creation of the aggregate:
storage aggregate create -aggregate aggregate_name -node node_name raidtype raid_dp -diskcount number_of_disks_or_partitions -simulate true
Aggregate creation workflow | 11
3. If any warnings are displayed from the simulated command, adjust the command and repeat the
simulation.
4. Create the aggregate:
storage aggregate create -aggregate aggr_name -node node_name -raidtype
raid_dp -diskcount number_of_disks_or_partitions
5. Display the aggregate to verify that it was created:
storage aggregate show-status aggregate_name
Related information
ONTAP 9 commands
12
Aggregate expansion workflow
Expanding an aggregate involves identifying the aggregate to expand, determining how much new
storage is needed, installing new disks, assigning disk ownership, and creating new a RAID group if
needed.
Aggregate expansion workflow | 13
Adding disks to a node
You add disks to a node to increase the number of hot spares, to add space to an aggregate, or to
replace disks.
Before you begin
You must have confirmed that your platform model supports the type of disk you want to add.
Steps
1. Check the NetApp Support Site for newer disk and shelf firmware and Disk Qualification
Package files.
If your node does not have the latest versions, you must update them before installing the new
disk.
2. Install the disks according to the hardware guide for your disk shelf or the hardware and service
guide for your platform.
The new disks are not recognized until they are assigned to a node and pool. You can assign the
new disks manually, or you can wait for Data ONTAP to automatically assign the new disks if
your node follows the rules for disk autoassignment.
3. After the new disks have all been recognized, verify their addition and their ownership
information:
storage aggregate show-spare-disks
You should see the new disks, owned by the correct node and in the correct pool.
4. Optional: Zero the newly added disks:
storage disk zerospares
Disks that have been used previously in a Data ONTAP aggregate must be zeroed before they can
be added to another aggregate. Zeroing the disks now can prevent delays in case you need to
quickly increase the size of an aggregate. The disk zeroing command runs in the background and
can take hours to complete, depending on the size of the non-zeroed disks in the node.
Result
The new disks are ready to be added to an aggregate, used to replace an existing disk, or placed onto
the list of hot spares.
Related concepts
When you need to update the Disk Qualification Package on page 48
Manually assigning disk ownership
Disks must be owned by a node before they can be used in an aggregate. If your cluster is not
configured to use automatic disk ownership assignment, you must assign ownership manually. You
cannot reassign ownership of a disk that is in use in an aggregate.
Steps
1. Display all unowned disks:
storage disk show -container-type unassigned
14 | Disks and Aggregates Power Guide
2. Assign each disk:
storage disk assign -disk disk_name -owner owner_name
You can use the wildcard character to assign more than one disk at once. If you are reassigning a
spare disk that is already owned by a different node, you must use the -force option
Expanding aggregates
You can add disks to an aggregate so that it can provide more storage to its associated volumes. The
procedure for adding partitioned disks to an aggregate is similar to the procedure for adding
unpartitioned disks.
Before you begin
You must know what the RAID group size is for the aggregate you are adding the storage to.
About this task
When you expand an aggregate, you should be aware of whether you are adding partition or
unpartitioned disks to the aggregate. When you add unpartitioned drives to an existing aggregate, the
size of the existing RAID groups is inherited by the new RAID group, which can affect the number
of parity disks required. If an unpartitioned disk is added to a RAID group composed of partitioned
disks, the new disk is partitioned, leaving an unused spare partition.
When you provision partitions, you must ensure that you do not leave the node without a drive with
both partitions as spare. If you do, and the node experiences a controller disruption, valuable
information about the problem (the core file) might not be available to provide to the technical
support.
Steps
1. Show the available spare storage on the system that owns the aggregate:
storage aggregate show-spare-disks -original-owner node_name
You can use the -is-disk-shared parameter to show only partitioned drives or only
unpartitioned drives.
Example
cl1-s2::> storage aggregate show-spare-disks -original-owner cl1-s2 -is-disk-shared true
Original Owner: cl1-s2
Pool0
Shared HDD Spares
Local
Local
Data
Root Physical
Disk
Type
RPM Checksum
Usable
Usable
Size Status
--------------------------- ----- ------ -------------- -------- -------- -------- -------1.0.1
BSAS
7200 block
753.8GB 73.89GB 828.0GB zeroed
1.0.2
BSAS
7200 block
753.8GB
0B 828.0GB zeroed
1.0.3
BSAS
7200 block
753.8GB
0B 828.0GB zeroed
1.0.4
BSAS
7200 block
753.8GB
0B 828.0GB zeroed
1.0.8
BSAS
7200 block
753.8GB
0B 828.0GB zeroed
1.0.9
BSAS
7200 block
753.8GB
0B 828.0GB zeroed
1.0.10
BSAS
7200 block
0B 73.89GB 828.0GB zeroed
2 entries were displayed.
2. Show the current RAID groups for the aggregate:
storage aggregate show-status aggr_name
Example
cl1-s2::> storage aggregate show-status -aggregate data_1
Owner Node: cl1-s2
Aggregate: data_1 (online, raid_dp) (block checksums)
Plex: /data_1/plex0 (online, normal, active, pool0)
Aggregate expansion workflow | 15
RAID Group /data_1/plex0/rg0 (normal, block checksums)
Usable Physical
Position Disk
Pool Type
RPM
Size
Size Status
-------- --------------------------- ---- ----- ------ -------- -------- ---------shared
1.0.10
0
BSAS
7200 753.8GB 828.0GB (normal)
shared
1.0.5
0
BSAS
7200 753.8GB 828.0GB (normal)
shared
1.0.6
0
BSAS
7200 753.8GB 828.0GB (normal)
shared
1.0.11
0
BSAS
7200 753.8GB 828.0GB (normal)
shared
1.0.0
0
BSAS
7200 753.8GB 828.0GB (normal)
5 entries were displayed.
3. Simulate adding the storage to the aggregate:
storage aggregate add-disks -aggregate aggr_name -diskcount
number_of_disks_or_partitions -simulate true
You can see the result of the storage addition without actually provisioning any storage. If any
warnings are displayed from the simulated command, you can adjust the command and repeat the
simulation.
Example
cl1-s2::> storage aggregate add-disks data_1 -diskcount 5 -simulate true
Addition of disks would succeed for aggregate "data_1" on node "cl1-s2". The
following disks would be used to add to the aggregate: 1.0.2, 1.0.3, 1.0.4, 1.0.8, 1.0.9.
4. Add the storage to the aggregate:
storage aggregate add-disks -aggregate aggr_name -raidgroup new diskcount number_of_disks_or_partitions
When creating a Flash Pool aggregate, if you are adding disks with a different checksum than the
aggregate, or if you are adding disks to a mixed checksum aggregate, you must use the checksumstyle parameter.
If you are adding disks to a Flash Pool aggregate, you must use the -disktype parameter to
specify the disk type.
You can use the -disksize parameter to specify a size of the disks to add. Only disks with
approximately the specified size are selected for addition to the aggregate.
Example
cl1-s2::> storage aggregate add-disks -aggregate data_1 -raidgroup new -diskcount 5
5. Verify that the storage was added successfully:
storage aggregate show-status -aggregate aggr_name
Example
cl1-s2::> storage aggregate show-status -aggregate data_1
Owner Node: cl1-s2
Aggregate: data_1 (online, raid_dp) (block checksums)
Plex: /data_1/plex0 (online, normal, active, pool0)
RAID Group /data_1/plex0/rg0 (normal, block checksums)
Usable Physical
Position Disk
Pool Type
RPM
Size
Size Status
-------- --------------------------- ---- ----- ------ -------- -------- ---------shared
1.0.10
0
BSAS
7200 753.8GB 828.0GB (normal)
shared
1.0.5
0
BSAS
7200 753.8GB 828.0GB (normal)
shared
1.0.6
0
BSAS
7200 753.8GB 828.0GB (normal)
shared
1.0.11
0
BSAS
7200 753.8GB 828.0GB (normal)
shared
1.0.0
0
BSAS
7200 753.8GB 828.0GB (normal)
shared
1.0.2
0
BSAS
7200 753.8GB 828.0GB (normal)
shared
1.0.3
0
BSAS
7200 753.8GB 828.0GB (normal)
shared
1.0.4
0
BSAS
7200 753.8GB 828.0GB (normal)
shared
1.0.8
0
BSAS
7200 753.8GB 828.0GB (normal)
shared
1.0.9
0
BSAS
7200 753.8GB 828.0GB (normal)
10 entries were displayed.
6. Verify that the node still has at least one drive with both the root partition and the data partition as
spare:
storage aggregate show-spare-disks -original-owner node_name
16 | Disks and Aggregates Power Guide
Example
cl1-s2::> storage aggregate show-spare-disks -original-owner cl1-s2 -is-disk-shared true
Original Owner: cl1-s2
Pool0
Shared HDD Spares
Local
Local
Data
Root Physical
Disk
Type
RPM Checksum
Usable
Usable
Size Status
--------------------------- ----- ------ -------------- -------- -------- -------- -------1.0.1
BSAS
7200 block
753.8GB 73.89GB 828.0GB zeroed
1.0.10
BSAS
7200 block
0B 73.89GB 828.0GB zeroed
2 entries were displayed.
17
Managing aggregates
You create and manage your aggregates so that they can provide storage to their associated volumes.
RAID protection levels for disks
ONTAP supports three levels of RAID protection for aggregates. Your level of RAID protection
determines the number of parity disks available for data recovery in the event of disk failures.
With RAID protection, if there is a data disk failure in a RAID group, ONTAP can replace the failed
disk with a spare disk and use parity data to reconstruct the data of the failed disk.
•
RAID4
With RAID4 protection, ONTAP can use one spare disk to replace and reconstruct the data from
one failed disk within the RAID group.
•
RAID-DP
With RAID-DP protection, ONTAP can use up to two spare disks to replace and reconstruct the
data from up to two simultaneously failed disks within the RAID group.
•
RAID-TEC
With RAID-TEC protection, ONTAP can use up to three spare disks to replace and reconstruct
the data from up to three simultaneously failed disks within the RAID group.
Related information
NetApp Technical Report 3437: Storage Subsystem Resiliency Guide
How to determine the number of disks or disk partitions
required for an aggregate
You must have enough disks or disk partitions in your aggregate to meet system and business
requirements. You should also have the recommended number of hot spare disks or hot spare disk
partitions to minimize the potential of data loss.
Root-data partitioning is enabled by default on certain configurations. Systems with root-data
partitioning enabled use disk partitions to create aggregates. Systems that do not have root-data
partitioning enabled use unpartitioned disks.
You must have enough disks or disk partitions to meet the minimum number required for your RAID
policy and enough to meet your minimum capacity requirements.
Note: In ONTAP, the usable space of the drive is less than the physical capacity of the drive. You
can find the usable space of a specific drive and the minimum number of disks or disk partitions
required for each RAID policy in Hardware Universe. You can also use the storage aggregate
show-spare-disks command to find the usable space of a specific disk.
In addition to the number of disks or disk partitions necessary to create your RAID group and meet
your capacity requirements, you should also have the minimum number of hot spare disks or hot
spare disk partitions recommended for your aggregate:
•
For all flash aggregates, you should have a minimum of one hot spare disk or disk partition.
•
For non-flash homogenous aggregates, you should have a minimum of two hot spare disks or disk
partitions.
18 | Disks and Aggregates Power Guide
•
For Flash Pool aggregates, you should have a minimum of two hot spare disks or disk partitions
for each disk type.
•
To support the use of the Maintenance Center and to avoid issues caused by multiple concurrent
disk failures, you should have a minimum of four hot spares in multi-disk carriers.
Related information
NetApp Hardware Universe
NetApp Technical Report 3838: Storage Subsystem Configuration Guide
Correcting misaligned spare partitions
When you add partitioned disks to an aggregate, you must leave a disk with both the root and data
partition available as spare for every node. If you do not and your node experiences a disruption, Data
ONTAP might not be able to create a core file.
Before you begin
You must have both a spare data partition and a spare root partition on the same type of disk owned
by the same node.
Steps
1. Display the spare partitions for the node:
storage aggregate show-spare-disks -original-owner node_name
Note which disk has a spare data partition (spare_data) and which disk has a spare root partition
(spare_root). The spare partition will show a non-zero value under the Local Data Usable or
Local Root Usable column.
2. Replace the disk with a spare data partition with the disk with the spare root partition:
storage disk replace -disk spare_data -replacement spare_root -action
start
You can copy the data in either direction; however, copying the root partition takes less time to
complete.
3. Monitor the progress of the disk replacement:
storage aggregate show-status -aggregate aggr_name
4. After the replacement operation is complete, display the spares again to confirm that you have a
full spare disk:
storage aggregate show-spare-disks -original-owner node_name
You should see a spare disk with usable space under both Local Data Usable and Local
Root Usable.
Example
You display your spare partitions for node c1-01 and see that your spare partitions are not
aligned:
c1::> storage aggregate show-spare-disks -original-owner c1-01
Original Owner: c1-01
Pool0
Shared HDD Spares
Disk
Type
RPM Checksum
Local
Data
Usable
Local
Root Physical
Usable
Size
Managing aggregates | 19
--------------------------- ----- ------ -------------- -------- -------- -------1.0.1
BSAS
7200 block
753.8GB
0B 828.0GB
1.0.10
BSAS
7200 block
0B 73.89GB 828.0GB
You start the disk replacement job:
c1::> storage disk replace -disk 1.0.1 -replacement 1.0.10 -action start
While you are waiting for the replacement operation to finish, you display the progress of the
operation:
c1::> storage aggregate show-status -aggregate aggr0_1
Owner Node: c1-01
Aggregate: aggr0_1 (online, raid_dp) (block checksums)
Plex: /aggr0_1/plex0 (online, normal, active, pool0)
RAID Group /aggr0_1/plex0/rg0 (normal, block checksums)
Position
-------shared
progress)
shared
shared
shared
shared
shared
Usable Physical
Disk
Pool Type
RPM
Size
Size Status
--------------------------- ---- ----- ------ -------- -------- ---------1.0.1
0
BSAS
7200 73.89GB 828.0GB (replacing, copy in
1.0.10
1.0.0
1.0.11
1.0.6
1.0.5
0
0
0
0
0
BSAS
BSAS
BSAS
BSAS
BSAS
7200
7200
7200
7200
7200
73.89GB
73.89GB
73.89GB
73.89GB
73.89GB
828.0GB
828.0GB
828.0GB
828.0GB
828.0GB
(copy 63% completed)
(normal)
(normal)
(normal)
(normal)
After the replacement operation is complete, you confirm that you have a full spare disk:
ie2220::> storage aggregate show-spare-disks -original-owner c1-01
Original Owner: c1-01
Pool0
Shared HDD Spares
Local
Local
Data
Root Physical
Disk
Type
RPM Checksum
Usable
Usable
Size
--------------------------- ----- ------ -------------- -------- -------- -------1.0.1
BSAS
7200 block
753.8GB 73.89GB 828.0GB
Determining drive and RAID group information for an
aggregate
Some aggregate administration tasks require that you know what types of drives compose the
aggregate, their size, checksum, and status, whether they are shared with other aggregates, and the
size and composition of the RAID groups.
Step
1. Show the drives for the aggregate, by RAID group:
storage aggregate show-status aggr_name
The drives are displayed for each RAID group in the aggregate.
You can see the RAID type of the drive (data, parity, dparity) in the Position column. If the
Position column displays shared, then the drive is shared: if it is an HDD, it is a partitioned
disk; if it is an SSD, it is part of a storage pool.
Example: A Flash Pool aggregate using an SSD storage pool and data partitions
cluster1::> storage aggregate show-status nodeA_fp_1
Owner Node: cluster1-a
Aggregate: nodeA_fp_1 (online, mixed_raid_type, hybrid) (block checksums)
Plex: /nodeA_fp_1/plex0 (online, normal, active, pool0)
RAID Group /nodeA_fp_1/plex0/rg0 (normal, block checksums, raid_dp)
Usable Physical
Position Disk
Pool Type
RPM
Size
Size Status
-------- --------------------------- ---- ----- ------ -------- -------- ------shared
2.0.1
0
SAS
10000 472.9GB 547.1GB (normal)
20 | Disks and Aggregates Power Guide
shared
shared
shared
shared
shared
2.0.3
2.0.5
2.0.7
2.0.9
2.0.11
0
0
0
0
0
SAS
SAS
SAS
SAS
SAS
10000
10000
10000
10000
10000
472.9GB
472.9GB
472.9GB
472.9GB
472.9GB
547.1GB
547.1GB
547.1GB
547.1GB
547.1GB
(normal)
(normal)
(normal)
(normal)
(normal)
RAID Group /nodeA_flashpool_1/plex0/rg1 (normal, block checksums, raid4) (Storage
Pool: SmallSP)
Usable Physical
Position Disk
Pool Type
RPM
Size
Size Status
-------- --------------------------- ---- ----- ------ -------- -------- ------shared
2.0.13
0
SSD
- 186.2GB 745.2GB (normal)
shared
2.0.12
0
SSD
- 186.2GB 745.2GB (normal)
8 entries were displayed.
Relocating aggregate ownership within an HA pair
You can change the ownership of aggregates among the nodes in an HA pair without interrupting
service from the aggregates.
Both nodes in an HA pair are physically connected to each other's disks or array LUNs. Each disk or
array LUN is owned by one of the nodes. Although ownership of disks temporarily changes when a
takeover occurs, the aggregate relocation operations either permanently (for example, if done for load
balancing) or temporarily (for example, if done as part of takeover) change the ownership of all disks
or array LUNs within an aggregate from one node to the other. The ownership changes without any
data-copy processes or physical movement of the disks or array LUNs.
Relocating aggregate ownership
You can change the ownership of an aggregate only between the nodes within an HA pair.
About this task
•
Because volume count limits are validated programmatically during aggregate relocation
operations, it is not necessary to check for this manually.
If the volume count exceeds the supported limit, the aggregate relocation operation fails with a
relevant error message.
•
You should not initiate aggregate relocation when system-level operations are in progress on
either the source or the destination node; likewise, you should not start these operations during
the aggregate relocation.
These operations can include the following:
•
◦
Takeover
◦
Giveback
◦
Shutdown
◦
Another aggregate relocation operation
◦
Disk ownership changes
◦
Aggregate or volume configuration operations
◦
Storage controller replacement
◦
Data ONTAP upgrade
◦
Data ONTAP revert
If you have a MetroCluster configuration, you should not initiate aggregate relocation while
disaster recovery operations (switchover, healing, or switchback) are in progress.
Managing aggregates | 21
•
If you have a MetroCluster configuration and initiate aggregate relocation on a switched-over
aggregate, the operation might fail because it exceeds the DR partner's volume limit count.
•
You should not initiate aggregate relocation on aggregates that are corrupt or undergoing
maintenance.
•
If the source node is used by an Infinite Volume with SnapDiff enabled, you must perform
additional steps before initiating the aggregate relocation and then perform the relocation in a
specific manner.
You must ensure that the destination node has a namespace mirror constituent and make decisions
about relocating aggregates that include namespace constituents.
Infinite volumes management
•
Before initiating the aggregate relocation, you should save any core dumps on the source and
destination nodes.
Steps
1. View the aggregates on the node to confirm which aggregates to move and ensure they are online
and in good condition:
storage aggregate show -node source-node
Example
The following command shows six aggregates on the four nodes in the cluster. All aggregates are
online. Node1 and Node3 form an HA pair and Node2 and Node4 form an HA pair.
cluster::> storage aggregate show
Aggregate
Size Available Used% State
#Vols Nodes RAID Status
--------- -------- --------- ----- ------- ------ ------ ----------aggr_0
239.0GB
11.13GB
95% online
1 node1 raid_dp,
normal
aggr_1
239.0GB
11.13GB
95% online
1 node1 raid_dp,
normal
aggr_2
239.0GB
11.13GB
95% online
1 node2 raid_dp,
normal
aggr_3
239.0GB
11.13GB
95% online
1 node2 raid_dp,
normal
aggr_4
239.0GB
238.9GB
0% online
5 node3 raid_dp,
normal
aggr_5
239.0GB
239.0GB
0% online
4 node4 raid_dp,
normal
6 entries were displayed.
2. Issue the command to start the aggregate relocation:
storage aggregate relocation start -aggregate-list aggregate-1,
aggregate-2... -node source-node -destination destination-node
The following command moves the aggregates aggr_1 and aggr_2 from Node1 to Node3. Node3
is Node1's HA partner. The aggregates can be moved only within the HA pair.
cluster::> storage aggregate relocation start -aggregate-list aggr_1,
aggr_2 -node node1 -destination node3
Run the storage aggregate relocation show command to check relocation
status.
node1::storage aggregate>
3. Monitor the progress of the aggregate relocation with the storage aggregate relocation
show command:
storage aggregate relocation show -node source-node
22 | Disks and Aggregates Power Guide
Example
The following command shows the progress of the aggregates that are being moved to Node3:
cluster::> storage aggregate relocation show -node node1
Source Aggregate
Destination
Relocation Status
------ ----------- ------------- -----------------------node1
aggr_1
node3
In progress, module: wafl
aggr_2
node3
Not attempted yet
2 entries were displayed.
node1::storage aggregate>
When the relocation is complete, the output of this command shows each aggregate with a
relocation status of Done.
Commands for aggregate relocation
There are specific Data ONTAP commands for relocating aggregate ownership within an HA pair.
If you want to...
Use this command...
Start the aggregate
relocation process
storage aggregate
relocation start
Monitor the aggregate
relocation process
storage aggregate
relocation show
For more information...
Related information
ONTAP 9 commands
Assigning aggregates to SVMs
If you assign one or more aggregates to a Storage Virtual Machine (SVM, formerly known as
Vserver), then you can use only those aggregates to contain volumes for that SVM. Assigning
aggregates to your SVMs is particularly important in a multi-tenancy environment or when you use
Infinite Volumes.
Before you begin
The SVM and the aggregates you want to assign to that SVM must already exist.
About this task
Assigning aggregates to your SVMs helps you keep your SVMs isolated from each other; this is
especially important in a multi-tenancy environment. If you use Infinite Volumes, or plan to use them
in the future, you must assign aggregates to your SVMs to keep your Infinite Volumes from
impacting each other and any FlexVol volumes in your cluster.
Steps
1. Check the list of aggregates already assigned to the SVM:
vserver show -fields aggr-list
The aggregates currently assigned to the SVM are displayed. If there are no aggregates assigned,
“-” is displayed.
2. Add or remove assigned aggregates, depending on your requirements:
Managing aggregates | 23
If you want to...
Use this command...
Assign additional aggregates
vserver add-aggregates
Unassign aggregates
vserver remove-aggregates
The listed aggregates are assigned to or removed from the SVM. If the SVM already has volumes
that use an aggregate that is not assigned to the SVM, a warning message is displayed, but the
command is completed successfully. Any aggregates that were already assigned to the SVM and
that were not named in the command are unaffected.
Example
In the following example, the aggregates aggr1 and aggr2 are assigned to SVM svm1:
vserver add-aggregates -vserver svm1 -aggregates aggr1,aggr2
How to determine space usage in an aggregate
You can view space usage by all volumes in one or more aggregates with the aggregate showspace command. This helps you see which volumes are consuming the most space in their
containing aggregates so that you can take actions to free more space.
The used space in an aggregate is directly affected by the space used in the FlexVol volumes it
contains. Measures that you take to increase space in a volume also affect space in the aggregate.
The following rows are included in the aggregate show-space command output:
•
Volume Footprints
The total of all volume footprints within the aggregate. It includes all of the space that is used or
reserved by all data and metadata of all volumes in the containing aggregate.
•
Aggregate Metadata
The total file system metadata required by the aggregate, such as allocation bitmaps and inode
files.
•
Snapshot Reserve
The amount of space reserved for aggregate Snapshot copies, based on volume size. It is
considered used space and is not available to volume or aggregate data or metadata.
•
Snapshot Reserve Unusable
The amount of space originally allocated for aggregate Snapshot reserve that is unavailable for
aggregate Snapshot copies because it is being used by volumes associated with the aggregate. Can
occur only for aggregates with a non-zero aggregate Snapshot reserve.
•
Total Used
The sum of all space used or reserved in the aggregate by volumes, metadata, or Snapshot copies.
•
Total Physical Used
The amount of space being used for data now (rather than being reserved for future use). Includes
space used by aggregate Snapshot copies.
The following example shows the aggregate show-space command output for an aggregate
whose Snapshot reserve is 5%. If the Snapshot reserve was 0, the row would not be displayed.
cluster1::> storage aggregate show-space
Aggregate : wqa_gx106_aggr1
Feature
--------------------------------
Used
----------
Used%
------
24 | Disks and Aggregates Power Guide
Volume Footprints
Aggregate Metadata
Snapshot Reserve
101.0MB
300KB
5.98GB
0%
0%
5%
Total Used
Total Physical Used
6.07GB
34.82KB
5%
0%
Determining which volumes reside on an aggregate
You might need to determine which FlexVol volumes or Infinite Volume constituents reside on an
aggregate before performing operations on the aggregate, such as relocating it or taking it offline.
About this task
Infinite Volume constituents are somewhat similar to FlexVol volumes, but you usually do not
manage them directly. For more information about Infinite Volumes and constituents, see the
Clustered Data ONTAP Infinite Volumes Management Guide.
Step
1. Enter the appropriate command, depending on whether your system has Infinite Volumes:
If your system...
Then use this command...
Does not have Infinite
Volumes
volume show -aggregate aggregate_name
Has Infinite Volumes
volume show -is-constituent * -aggregate
aggregate_name
All volumes (and, if you have Infinite Volumes, constituents) that reside on the specified
aggregate are displayed.
How you can determine and control a volume's space usage
in the aggregate
You can determine which FlexVol volumes are using the most space in the aggregate and specifically
which features within the volume. The volume show-footprint command provides information
about a volume's footprint, or its space usage within the containing aggregate.
The volume show-footprint command shows details about the space usage of each volume in an
aggregate, including offline volumes. This command bridges the gap between the output of the
volume show-space and aggregate show-space commands. All percentages are calculated as
a percent of aggregate size.
The following example shows the volume show-footprint command output for a volume called
testvol:
cluster1::> volume show-footprint testvol
Vserver : thevs
Volume : testvol
Feature
-------------------------------Volume Data Footprint
Volume Guarantee
Used
---------120.6MB
1.88GB
Used%
----4%
71%
Managing aggregates | 25
Flexible Volume Metadata
Delayed Frees
Total Footprint
11.38MB
1.36MB
2.01GB
0%
0%
76%
The following table explains some of the key rows of the output of the volume show-footprint
command and what you can do to try to decrease space usage by that feature:
Row/feature
name
Description/contents of row
Some ways to decrease
Volume Data
Footprint
The total amount of space used in the
containing aggregate by a volume's data
in the active file system and the space
used by the volume's Snapshot copies.
This row does not include reserved
space.
•
Deleting data from the volume.
•
Deleting Snapshot copies from
the volume.
Volume
Guarantee
The amount of space reserved by the
volume in the aggregate for future
writes. The amount of space reserved
depends on the guarantee type of the
volume.
Changing the type of guarantee for
the volume to none.
Flexible
Volume
Metadata
The total amount of space used in the
No direct method to control.
aggregate by the volume's metadata files.
Delayed
Frees
Blocks that ONTAP used for
performance and cannot be immediately
freed.
For SnapMirror destinations, this row
has a value of 0 and is not displayed.
No direct method to control.
File
Operation
Metadata
The total amount of space reserved for
file operation metadata.
No direct method to control.
Total
Footprint
The total amount of space that the
volume uses in the aggregate. It is the
sum of all of the rows.
Any of the methods used to
decrease space used by a volume.
Related information
NetApp Technical Report 3483: Thin Provisioning in a NetApp SAN or IP SAN Enterprise
Environment
NetApp Technical Report 3965: NetApp Thin Provisioning Deployment and Implementation
Guide Data ONTAP 8.1 (7-Mode)
Methods to create space in an aggregate
If an aggregate runs out of free space, various problems can result that range from loss of data to
disabling a volume's guarantee. There are multiple ways to make more space in an aggregate.
All of the methods have various consequences. Prior to taking any action, you should read the
relevant section in the documentation.
The following are some common ways to make space in an aggregate, in order of least to most
consequences:
26 | Disks and Aggregates Power Guide
•
Add disks to the aggregate.
•
Move some volumes to another aggregate with available space.
•
Shrink the size of volume-guaranteed volumes in the aggregate.
You can do this manually or with the autoshrink option of the autosize capability.
•
Change volume guarantee types to none on volumes that are using large amounts of space (large
volume-guaranteed volumes with large reserved files) so that the volumes take up less space in
the aggregate.
A volume with a guarantee type of none has a smaller footprint in the aggregate than a volume
with a guarantee type of volume.
•
Delete unneeded volume Snapshot copies if the volume's guarantee type is none.
•
Delete unneeded volumes.
•
Enable space-saving features, such as deduplication or compression.
•
(Temporarily) disable features that are using a large amount of metadata .
Commands for managing aggregates
You use the storage aggregate command to manage your aggregates.
If you want to...
Use this command...
Display the size of the cache for all Flash Pool
aggregates
storage aggregate show -fields
hybrid-cache-size-total -hybridcache-size-total >0
Display disk information and status for an
aggregate
storage aggregate show-status
Display spare disks by node
storage aggregate show-spare-disks
Display the root aggregates in the cluster
storage aggregate show -has-mroot
true
Display basic information and status for
aggregates
storage aggregate show
Display the type of storage used in an aggregate
storage aggregate show -fields
storage-type
Bring an aggregate online
storage aggregate online
Delete an aggregate
storage aggregate delete
Put an aggregate into the restricted state
storage aggregate restrict
Rename an aggregate
storage aggregate rename
Take an aggregate offline
storage aggregate offline
Change the RAID type for an aggregate
storage aggregate modify -raidtype
Related information
ONTAP 9 commands
27
Working with Flash Pool aggregates
You configure a Flash Pool aggregate by adding SSD RAID groups to an existing HDD aggregate.
The SSD RAID groups can be composed of physical SSDs or allocation units from SSD storage
pools.
Flash Pool caching policies and SSD partitioning
Caching policies for the volumes in a Flash Pool aggregate let you deploy flash as high performance
cache for your working data set while using lower-cost HDDs for less frequently accessed data. If
you are providing cache to two or more Flash Pool aggregates, you should use Flash Pool SSD
partitioning to share SSDs across the aggregates in the Flash Pool.
How Flash Pool aggregate caching policies work
Caching policies are applied to volumes that reside in Flash Pool aggregates. You should understand
how caching policies work before changing them.
In most cases, the default caching policy of auto is the best caching policy to use. The caching
policy should be changed only if a different policy provides better performance for your workload.
Configuring the wrong caching policy can severely degrade volume performance; the performance
degradation could increase gradually over time.
Caching policies combine a read caching policy and a write caching policy. The policy name
concatenates the names of the read caching policy and the write caching policy, separated by a
hyphen. If there is no hyphen in the policy name, the write caching policy is “none”, except for the
auto policy.
Read caching policies optimize for future read performance by placing a copy of the data in the cache
in addition to the stored data on HDDs. For read caching policies that insert data into the cache for
write operations, the cache operates as a write-through cache.
Data inserted into the cache by using the write caching policy exists only in cache; there is no copy in
HDDs. Flash Pool cache is RAID protected. Enabling write caching makes data from write
operations available for reads from cache immediately, while deferring writing the data to HDDs
until it ages out of the cache.
You can change the caching policy for a volume that resides on a Flash Pool aggregate by using the caching-policy parameter with the volume create command. When you create a volume on a
Flash Pool aggregate, by default, the auto caching policy is assigned to the volume.
If you move a volume from a Flash Pool aggregate to a single-tier aggregate, it loses its caching
policy; if you later move it back to a Flash Pool aggregate, it is assigned the default caching policy of
auto. If you move a volume between two Flash Pool aggregates, the caching policy is preserved.
How Flash Pool SSD partitioning works for Flash Pool aggregates using
storage pools
If you are providing cache to two or more Flash Pool aggregates, you should use Flash Pool SolidState Drive (SSD) partitioning. Flash Pool SSD partitioning allows SSDs to be shared by all the
aggregates using the Flash Pool. This spreads the cost of parity over multiple aggregates, increases
SSD cache allocation flexibility, and maximizes SSD performance.
For an SSD to be used in a Flash Pool aggregate, the SSD must be placed in a storage pool. You
cannot use SSDs that have been partitioned for root-data partitioning in a storage pool. After the SSD
is placed in the storage pool, the SSD can no longer be managed as a stand-alone disk and cannot be
28 | Disks and Aggregates Power Guide
removed from the storage pool unless you destroy the aggregates associated with the Flash Pool and
you destroy the storage pool.
SSD storage pools are divided into four equal allocation units. SSDs added to the storage pool are
divided into four partitions and one partition is assigned to each of the four allocation units. The
SSDs in the storage pool must be owned by the same HA pair. By default, two allocation units are
assigned to each node in the HA pair. Allocation units must be owned by the node that owns the
aggregate it is serving. If more Flash cache is required for aggregates on one of the nodes, the default
number of allocation units can be shifted to decrease the number on one node and increase the
number on the partner node.
You can use only one spare SSD for a storage pool. If the storage pool provides allocation units to
Flash Pool aggregates owned by both nodes in the HA pair, then the spare SSD can be owned by
either node. However, if the storage pool provides allocation units only to Flash Pool aggregates
owned by one of the nodes in the HA pair, then the SSD spare must be owned by that same node.
The following illustration is an example of Flash Pool SSD partitioning. The SSD storage pool
provides cache to two Flash Pool aggregates:
Storage pool SP1 is composed of five SSDs and a hot spare SSD. Two of the storage pool's allocation
units are allocated to Flash Pool FP1, and two are allocated to Flash Pool FP2. FP1 has a cache RAID
type of RAID4. Therefore, the allocation units provided to FP1 contain only one partition designated
for parity. FP2 has a cache RAID type of RAID-DP. Therefore, the allocation units provided to FP2
include a parity partition and a double-parity partition.
In this example, two allocation units are allocated to each Flash Pool aggregate. However, if one
Flash Pool aggregate required a larger cache, you could allocate three of the allocation units to that
Flash Pool aggregate, and only one to the other.
Working with Flash Pool aggregates | 29
Determining Flash Pool candidacy and optimal cache size
Before converting an existing aggregate to a Flash Pool aggregate, you can determine whether the
aggregate is I/O bound, and what would be the best Flash Pool cache size for your workload and
budget. You can also check whether the cache of an existing Flash Pool aggregate is sized correctly.
Before you begin
You should know approximately when the aggregate you are analyzing experiences its peak load.
Steps
1. Enter advanced mode:
set advanced
2. If you need to determine whether an existing aggregate would be a good candidate for conversion
to a Flash Pool aggregate, determine how busy the disks in the aggregate are during a period of
peak load, and how that is affecting latency:
statistics show-periodic -object disk:raid_group -instance
raid_group_name -counter disk_busy|user_read_latency -interval 1 iterations 60
You can decide whether reducing latency by adding Flash Pool cache makes sense for this
aggregate.
Example
The following command shows the statistics for the first RAID group of the aggregate “aggr1”:
statistics show-periodic -object disk:raid_group -instance /aggr1/
plex0/rg0 -counter disk_busy|user_read_latency -interval 1 -iterations
60
3. Start Automated Workload Analyzer (AWA):
system node run -node node_name wafl awa start aggr_name
AWA begins collecting workload data for the volumes associated with the specified aggregate.
4. Exit advanced mode:
set admin
Allow AWA to run until one or more intervals of peak load have occurred. AWA collects
workload statistics for the volumes associated with the specified aggregate, and analyzes data for
up to one rolling week in duration. Running AWA for more than one week will report only on
data collected from the most recent week. Cache size estimates are based on the highest loads
seen during the data collection period; the load does not need to be high for the entire data
collection period.
5. Enter advanced mode:
set advanced
6. Display the workload analysis:
system node run -node node_name wafl awa print
You can use the -t option to show information about the volumes in the aggregate that are the
best candidates for being on a Flash Pool aggregate.
AWA displays the workload statistics and optimal Flash Pool cache size.
30 | Disks and Aggregates Power Guide
7. Stop AWA:
system node run -node node_name wafl awa stop
All workload data is flushed and is no longer available for analysis.
8. Exit advanced mode:
set admin
Example
In the following example, AWA was run on aggregate “aggr1”. Here is the output of the awa
print command after AWA had been running for about 3 days (442 10-minute intervals):
### FP AWA Stats ###
Host lada66a
Memory 93788 MB
ONTAP Version NetApp Release
R8_3_1x_awa_2809198_1504220853: Tue Apr 21 18:35:12 PDT 2015
Basic Information
Aggregate
Current-time
Start-time
Total runtime (sec)
Interval length (sec)
Total intervals
In-core Intervals
lada66a_aggr1
Thu Apr 23 16:42:17 PDT 2015
Thu Apr 23 08:03:51 PDT 2015
31103
600
54
1024
Summary of the past 20 intervals
Read Throughput (MB/s):
Write Throughput (MB/s):
Cacheable Read (%):
Cacheable Write (%):
Max Projected Cache Size (GiB):
max
-----------181.772
550.611
12
30
787.077
Summary Cache Hit Rate vs. Cache Size
Referenced Cache Size (GiB): 787.077
Referenced Interval: ID 53 starting at Thu Apr 23 16:33:07 PDT 2015
Size
20%
40%
60%
80%
100%
Read Hit (%)
9
20
28
32
35
Write Hit (%)
17
21
23
25
30
The results provide the following pieces of information:
•
Read Throughput and Write Throughput
The throughput measurements can help you identify an aggregate that is receiving a higher
amount of traffic. Note that these numbers do not indicate whether that aggregate is I/O
bound.
•
Max Projected Cache Size
The size at which the SSD cache would hold every eligible data block that was requested
from disk during the AWA run. Note that this does not guarantee a hit for all future I/O
operations, because they might request data that is not in the cache. However, if the
workload during the AWA run was a typical one, and if your budget allows for it, this
would be an ideal size for your Flash Pool cache.
•
Projected Read Offload and Projected Write Offload
The approximate percentages of read and write operations that would have been handled by
a Flash Pool cache of the optimal size rather than going to disk (projected cache hit rate).
Working with Flash Pool aggregates | 31
Note that this number is related to the performance increase you would see by converting
the aggregate to a Flash Pool aggregate, but not an exact prediction.
•
Summary Cache Hit Rate vs. Cache Size
This table can help you predict the performance impact of decreasing the size of the SSD
cache from Max Projected Cache Size. These values are highly impacted by your
workload. Depending on whether data that was aged out of the cache was ever accessed
again, the impact of decreasing the size of the cache might be large or almost nonexistent.
You can use this table to find the right balance between cost and performance for your
workload and budget.
Creating a Flash Pool aggregate using physical SSDs
You create a Flash Pool aggregate by enabling the feature on an existing aggregate composed of
HDD RAID groups, and then adding one or more SSD RAID groups to that aggregate. This results in
two sets of RAID groups for that aggregate: SSD RAID groups (the SSD cache) and HDD RAID
groups.
Before you begin
•
You must have identified a valid aggregate composed of HDDs to convert to a Flash Pool
aggregate.
•
You must have determined write-caching eligibility of the volumes associated with the aggregate,
and completed any required steps to resolve eligibility issues.
•
You must have determined the SSDs you will be adding, and these SSDs must be owned by the
node on which you are creating the Flash Pool aggregate.
•
You must have determined the checksum types of both the SSDs you are adding and the HDDs
already in the aggregate.
•
You must have determined the number of SSDs you are adding and the optimal RAID group size
for the SSD RAID groups.
Using fewer RAID groups in the SSD cache reduces the number of parity disks required, but
larger RAID groups require RAID-DP.
•
You must have determined the RAID level you want to use for the SSD cache.
•
You must have determined the maximum cache size for your system and determined that adding
SSD cache to your aggregate will not cause you to exceed it.
•
You must have familiarized yourself with the configuration requirements for Flash Pool
aggregates.
About this task
After you add an SSD cache to an aggregate to create a Flash Pool aggregate, you cannot remove the
SSD cache to convert the aggregate back to its original configuration.
By default, the RAID level of the SSD cache is the same as the RAID level of the HDD RAID
groups. You can override this default selection by specifying the raidtype option when you add the
first SSD RAID groups.
Steps
1. Mark the aggregate as eligible to become a Flash Pool aggregate:
storage aggregate modify -aggregate aggr_name -hybrid-enabled true
32 | Disks and Aggregates Power Guide
If this step does not succeed, determine write-caching eligibility for the target aggregate.
2. Add the SSDs to the aggregate by using the storage aggregate add command.
You can specify the SSDs by ID or by using the diskcount and disktype parameters.
If the HDDs and the SSDs do not have the same checksum type, or if the aggregate is a mixedchecksum aggregate, then you must use the checksumstyle parameter to specify the checksum
type of the disks you are adding to the aggregate.
You can specify a different RAID type for the SSD cache by using the raidtype parameter.
If you want the cache RAID group size to be different from the default for the RAID type you are
using, you should change it now, by using the -cache-raid-group-size parameter.
Creating a Flash Pool aggregate using SSD storage pools
You can configure a Flash Pool aggregate by adding one or more allocation units from an SSD
storage pool to an existing HDD aggregate.
Related concepts
How Flash Pool SSD partitioning works for Flash Pool aggregates using storage pools on page 27
Determining whether a Flash Pool aggregate is using an SSD storage pool
You manage Flash Pool aggregates differently when they use SSD storage pools to provide their
cache than when they use discrete SSDs.
Step
1. Display the aggregate's drives by RAID group:
storage aggregate show-status aggr_name
If the aggregate is using one or more SSD storage pools, the value for the Position column for
the SSD RAID groups is displayed as Shared, and the name of the storage pool is displayed next
to the RAID group name.
Creating an SSD storage pool
You can create solid state drive (SSD) storage pools to provide SSD cache for two to four Flash Pool
aggregates.
About this task
•
You must supply a disk list when creating or adding disks to a storage pool.
Storage pools do not support a diskcount parameter.
•
The SSDs used in the storage pool should be the same size.
Steps
1. Determine the names of the available spare SSDs:
storage aggregate show-spare-disks -disk-type SSD
The SSDs used in a storage pool can be owned by either node of an HA pair.
2. Create the storage pool:
storage pool create -storage-pool sp_name -disk-list disk1,disk2,...
Working with Flash Pool aggregates | 33
3. Optional: Verify the newly created storage pool:
storage pool show -storage-pool sp_name
Result
After the SSDs are placed into the storage pool, they no longer appear as spares on the cluster, even
though the storage provided by the storage pool has not yet been allocated to any Flash Pool caches.
You cannot add SSDs to a RAID group as discrete drives; their storage can be provisioned only by
using the allocation units of the storage pool to which they belong.
Creating a Flash Pool aggregate using SSD storage pool allocation units
You can configure a Flash Pool aggregate by adding one or more allocation units from an SSD
storage pool to an existing HDD aggregate.
Before you begin
•
You must have identified a valid aggregate composed of HDDs to convert to a Flash Pool
aggregate.
•
You must have determined write-caching eligibility of the volumes associated with the aggregate,
and completed any required steps to resolve eligibility issues.
•
You must have created an SSD storage pool to provide the SSD cache to this Flash Pool
aggregate.
Any allocation unit from the storage pool that you want to use must be owned by the same node
that owns the Flash Pool aggregate.
•
You must have determined how much cache you want to add to the aggregate.
You add cache to the aggregate by allocation units. You can increase the size of the allocation
units later by adding SSDs to the storage pool if there is room.
•
You must have determined the RAID type you want to use for the SSD cache.
After you add a cache to the aggregate from SSD storage pools, you cannot change the RAID
type of the cache RAID groups.
•
You must have determined the maximum cache size for your system and determined that adding
SSD cache to your aggregate will not cause you to exceed it.
You can see the amount of cache that will be added to the total cache size by using the storage
pool show command.
•
You must have familiarized yourself with the configuration requirements for Flash Pool
aggregates.
About this task
If you want the RAID type of the cache to different from that of the HDD RAID groups, you must
specify the cache RAID type when you add the SSD capacity. After you add the SSD capacity to the
aggregate, you can no longer change the RAID type of the cache.
After you add an SSD cache to an aggregate to create a Flash Pool aggregate, you cannot remove the
SSD cache to convert the aggregate back to its original configuration.
Steps
1. Mark the aggregate as eligible to become a Flash Pool aggregate:
storage aggregate modify -aggregate aggr_name -hybrid-enabled true
If this step does not succeed, determine write-caching eligibility for the target aggregate.
34 | Disks and Aggregates Power Guide
2. Show the available SSD storage pool allocation units:
storage pool show-available-capacity
3. Add the SSD capacity to the aggregate:
storage aggregate add aggr_name -storage-pool sp_name -allocation-units
number_of_units
If you want the RAID type of the cache to be different from that of the HDD RAID groups, you
must change it when you enter this command by using the raidtype parameter.
You do not need to specify a new RAID group; Data ONTAP automatically puts the SSD cache
into separate RAID groups from the HDD RAID groups.
You cannot set the RAID group size of the cache; it is determined by the number of SSDs in the
storage pool.
The cache is added to the aggregate and the aggregate is now a Flash Pool aggregate. Each
allocation unit added to the aggregate becomes its own RAID group.
4. Optional: Confirm the presence and size of the SSD cache:
storage aggregate show aggr_name
The size of the cache is listed under Total Hybrid Cache Size.
Related concepts
How Flash Pool SSD partitioning works for Flash Pool aggregates using storage pools on page 27
Related information
NetApp Technical Report 4070: Flash Pool Design and Implementation Guide
Determining the impact to cache size of adding SSDs to an SSD storage
pool
If adding SSDs to a storage pool causes your platform model's cache limit to be exceeded, Data
ONTAP does not allocate the newly added capacity to any Flash Pool aggregates. This can result in
some or all of the newly added capacity being unavailable for use.
About this task
When you add SSDs to an SSD storage pool that has allocation units already allocated to Flash Pool
aggregates, you increase the cache size of each of those aggregates and the total cache on the system.
If none of the storage pool's allocation units have been allocated, adding SSDs to that storage pool
does not affect the SSD cache size until one or more allocation units are allocated to a cache.
Steps
1. Determine the usable size of the SSDs you are adding to the storage pool:
storage disk show disk_name -fields usable-size
2. Determine how many allocation units remain unallocated for the storage pool:
storage pool show-available-capacity sp_name
All unallocated allocation units in the storage pool are displayed.
3. Calculate the amount of cache that will be added by applying the following formula:
( 4 – number of unallocated allocation units) × 25% × usable size × number of SSDs
Working with Flash Pool aggregates | 35
Adding SSDs to an SSD storage pool
When you add solid state drives (SSDs) to an SSD storage pool, you increase the storage pool's
physical and usable sizes and allocation unit size. The larger allocation unit size also affects
allocation units that have already been allocated to Flash Pool aggregates.
Before you begin
You must have determined that this operation will not cause you to exceed the cache limit for your
HA pair. Data ONTAP does not prevent you from exceeding the cache limit when you add SSDs to
an SSD storage pool, and doing so can render the newly added storage capacity unavailable for use.
About this task
When you add SSDs to an existing SSD storage pool, the SSDs must be owned by one node or the
other of the same HA pair that already owned the existing SSDs in the storage pool. You can add
SSDs that are owned by either node of the HA pair.
The SSD you add to the storage pool must be the same size as disk currently used in the storage pool.
Steps
1. Optional: View the current allocation unit size and available storage for the storage pool:
storage pool show -instance sp_name
2. Find available SSDs:
storage disk show -container-type spare -type SSD
3. Add the SSDs to the storage pool:
storage pool add -storage-pool sp_name -disk-list disk1,disk2…
The system displays which Flash Pool aggregates will have their size increased by this operation
and by how much, and prompts you to confirm the operation.
Commands for managing SSD storage pools
Data ONTAP provides the storage pool command for managing SSD storage pools.
If you want to...
Use this command...
Display how much storage a storage pool is
providing to which aggregates
storage pool show-aggregate
Display how much cache would be added to the
overall cache capacity for both RAID types
(allocation unit data size)
storage pool show -instance
Display the disks in a storage pool
storage pool show-disks
Display the unallocated allocation units for a
storage pool
storage pool show-availablecapacity
Change the ownership of one or more allocation
units of a storage pool from one HA partner to
the other
storage pool reassign
Related information
ONTAP 9 commands
36 | Disks and Aggregates Power Guide
Determining whether to modify the caching policy of Flash
Pool aggregates
Beginning with ONTAP 9.0, you can assign cache-retention policies to volumes in Flash Pool
aggregates to determine how long the volume data remains in the Flash Pool cache. However, in
some cases changing the cache-retention policy might not impact the amount of time the volume's
data remains in the cache.
About this task
If your data meets any of the following conditions, changing your cache-retention policy might not
have an impact:
•
Your workload is sequential.
•
Your workload does not reread the random blocks cached in the solid state drives (SSDs).
•
The cache size of the volume is too small.
The following steps check for these conditions. The task must be done in advanced privilege mode.
Steps
1. stats start
2. Determine the workload pattern of the volume:
statistics show -object workload_volume -instance volume-workload counters sequential_reads
3. Determine the hit rate of the volume:
statistics show -object wafl_hya_vvol -instance volume -counter
read_ops_replaced_pwercent|wc_write_blks_overwritten_percent
4. Determine the Cacheable Read and Project Cache Alloc of the volume:
wafl awa start aggr_name
5. Compare the volume's hit rate to the Cacheable Read.
If the hit rate of the volume is greater than the Cacheable Read, then your workload does not
reread random blocks cached in the SSDs.
6. Compare the volume's current cache size to the Project Cache Alloc.
If the current cache size of the volume is greater than the Project Cache Alloc, then the size
of your volume cache is too small.
Modifying caching policies of Flash Pool aggregates
You should modify the caching policy of a volume only if a different caching policy is expected to
provide better performance. You can modify the caching policy of a volume on a Flash Pool
aggregate.
Before you begin
You must determine whether you want to modify your caching policy.
Working with Flash Pool aggregates | 37
About this task
In most cases, the default caching policy of auto is the best caching policy that you can use. The
caching policy should be changed only if a different policy provides better performance for your
workload. Configuring the wrong caching policy can severely degrade volume performance; the
performance degradation could increase gradually over time. You should use caution when modifying
caching policies. If you experience performance issues with a volume for which the caching policy
has been changed, you should return the caching policy to auto.
Step
1. Modify the volume's caching policy:
volume modify -volume volume_name -caching-policy policy_name
Example
The following example modifies the caching policy of a volume named “vol2” to the policy
none:
volume modify -volume vol2 -caching-policy none
Related tasks
Determining whether to modify the caching policy of Flash Pool aggregates on page 36
Setting the cache-retention policy for Flash Pool aggregates
Beginning with ONTAP 9.0, you can assign cache-retention policies to volumes in Flash Pool
aggregates. Data in volumes with a high cache-retention policy remains in cache longer and data in
volumes with a low cache-retention policy is removed sooner. This increases performance of your
critical workloads by making high priority information accessible at a faster rate for a longer period
of time.
Before you begin
You should know whether your system has any conditions that might prevent the cache-retention
policy from having an impact on how long your data remains in cache.
About this task
The task must be done in advanced privilege mode.
Steps
1. Verify the volume's cache-retention policy:
By default the cache retention policy is normal.
2. Set the cache-retention policy:
priority hybrid-cache set volume_name read-cache=read_cache_value writecache=write_cache_value cache-retention-priority=cache_retention_policy
Set cache_retention_policy to high for data that you want to remain in cache longer. Set
cache_retention_policy to low for data that you want to remove from cache sooner.
3. Verify that the volume's cache-retention policy is changed to the option you selected.
38
Managing storage tiers by using FabricPool
Storing data in tiers can enhance the efficiency of your storage system. You manage storage tiers by
using FabricPool. It stores data in a tier based on whether the data is frequently accessed.
Benefits of storage tiers by using FabricPool
Configuring an aggregate to use FabricPool enables you to use storage tiers. You can efficiently
balance the performance and cost of your storage system, monitor and optimize the space utilization,
and perform policy-based data movement between storage tiers.
•
•
You can optimize storage performance and reduce storage cost by storing data in a tier based on
whether the data is frequently accessed.
◦
Frequently accessed (“hot”) data is stored in the performance tier.
The performance tier uses high-performance primary storage, such as an all flash (all SSD)
aggregate.
◦
Infrequently access (“cold”) data is stored in the capacity tier.
The capacity tier uses an object store that is less costly and does not require high performance.
You have the flexibility in specifying the tier in which data should be stored.
You can specify one of the following tiering policy options at the volume level. The options
enable you to efficiently move data across tiers as data becomes hot or cold:
◦
The snapshot-only tiering policy (the default) moves user data of the volume Snapshot
copies that are not associated with the active file system to the capacity tier.
◦
The none tiering policy keeps data of a volume in the performance tier, preventing it from
being moved to the capacity tier.
◦
The backup tiering policy enables newly transferred data of a data protection volume to start
in the capacity tier.
•
You can monitor the space utilization.
ONTAP displays information about space utilization in a FabricPool-enabled aggregate. The
information helps you determine whether you need to modify the tiering policy or increase the
storage space of the capacity tier.
•
You can reduce the on-premise footprint of the storage system.
You save physical space when you use a cloud-based object store for the capacity tier.
Considerations and requirements for using FabricPool
Before configuring an aggregate to use FabricPool, you should familiarize yourself with a few
considerations and requirements.
•
You must be running ONTAP 9.2 or later.
•
You can use only all flash (all SSD) aggregates for FabricPool.
FabricPool does not support Flash Pool aggregates (which use both SSDs and HDDs) or HDD
aggregates.
•
FabricPool supports Amazon Web Services Simple Storage Service (AWS S3) and NetApp
StorageGRID Webscale as object store types.
The minimum supported version for StorageGRID Webscale is 10.3.
Managing storage tiers by using FabricPool | 39
•
The object store “bucket” (container) you plan to use must have already been set up, must have at
least 10 Gb of storage space, and must not be renamed.
•
You can attach only a single object store bucket to an aggregate.
However, an object store bucket can be attached to multiple aggregates in the cluster.
•
If you use AWS S3 with FabricPool, you might need a FabricPool license.
All Flash FAS (AFF) systems come with 10 TB of free capacity for using AWS S3 with
FabricPool. If you need additional capacity on an AFF system, or if you use AWS S3 on a nonAFF system, you need a FabricPool license.
Using NetApp StorageGRID Webscale with FabricPool does not require a license.
•
If you are using AWS S3 with FabricPool, the LIF that ONTAP uses to connect with the AWS S3
object server must be on a 10 Gbps port.
•
If you are using StorageGRID Webscale with FabricPool, you need to install a CA certificate for
StorageGRID Webscale.
•
HA pairs that use FabricPool require intercluster LIFs to communicate with the object store.
•
You cannot detach an object store bucket from the FabricPool configuration after it is attached.
•
FabricPool currently does not support the following functionality or features:
◦
7-Mode data transition using the ONTAP CLI commands or the 7-Mode Transition Tool
◦
FlexArray Virtualization
◦
FlexGroup volumes
You cannot use an aggregate that contains any constituents of a FlexGroup volume with
FabricPool. Likewise, you cannot create a FlexGroup volume in a FabricPool-enabled
aggregate or move it to a FabricPool-enabled aggregate.
◦
Infinite Volumes
◦
MetroCluster configurations
You cannot use FabricPool with a MetroCluster configuration, either as a mirrored or an
unmirrored aggregate.
◦
ONTAP Select
◦
RAID SyncMirror
◦
SnapLock volumes
◦
SVM disaster recovery (DR)
You cannot set up SVM DR if the SVM contains any volumes that reside in a FabricPoolenabled aggregate. Likewise, if an SVM already has SVM DR enabled, you cannot create a
volume on a FabricPool-enabled aggregate for that SVM or move a volume of that SVM to a
FabricPool-enabled aggregate.
◦
Tape backup using SMTape, NDMP, or a dump backup
◦
The Auto Balance functionality
Related information
NetApp Technical Report 4598: FabricPool Best Practices in ONTAP 9
40 | Disks and Aggregates Power Guide
FabricPool management workflow
You can use the FabricPool workflow diagram to help you plan the configuration and management
tasks.
Configuring FabricPool
Configuring FabricPool helps you manage which storage tier (the local performance tier or the
external capacity tier) data should be stored based on whether the data is frequently accessed.
Steps
1. Preparing for FabricPool configuration on page 41
The preparation required for FabricPool configuration depends on the object store you use as the
capacity tier.
2. Setting up an aggregate to use FabricPool on page 42
You set up an aggregate to use FabricPool by first specifying the configuration information of the
object store you plan to use as the capacity tier. Then you attach the object store to an all flash (all
SSD) aggregate.
3. Adding volumes to FabricPool as needed on page 43
You can add volumes to FabricPool by creating new volumes directly in the FabricPool-enabled
aggregate or by moving existing volumes from another aggregate to the FabricPool-enabled
aggregate.
Related concepts
Considerations and requirements for using FabricPool on page 38
FabricPool management workflow on page 40
Managing storage tiers by using FabricPool | 41
Preparing for FabricPool configuration
The preparation required for FabricPool configuration depends on the object store you use as the
capacity tier.
Choices
• Installing a FabricPool license if required for AWS S3 on page 41
All Flash FAS (AFF) systems come with 10 TB of free capacity for using AWS S3 with
FabricPool. If you need additional capacity on an AFF system, or if you plan to use AWS S3 with
a non-AFF system, you need a FabricPool license.
• Installing a CA certificate if you use StorageGRID Webscale on page 42
For ONTAP to authenticate with StorageGRID Webscale as the object store for FabricPool, you
must install a StorageGRID Webscale CA certificate on the cluster.
Installing a FabricPool license if required for AWS S3
All Flash FAS (AFF) systems come with 10 TB of free capacity for using AWS S3 with FabricPool.
If you need additional capacity on an AFF system, or if you plan to use AWS S3 with a non-AFF
system, you need a FabricPool license.
About this task
The FabricPool license is a cluster-wide license. It includes an entitled usage limit that you purchase
for the AWS S3 capacity tier that is associated with FabricPool in the cluster. The usage across the
cluster must not exceed the capacity of the entitled usage limit. If you need to increase the usage limit
of the license, you should contact your sales representative.
A license is not required if you use NetApp StorageGRID Webscale for the capacity tier.
This task is supported only by uploading the license file to the cluster using OnCommand System
Manager.
Steps
1. Download the NetApp License File (NLF) for the FabricPool license from the NetApp Support
Site.
NetApp Support
2. Use OnCommand System Manager to upload the FabricPool license to the cluster:
a. Click the Configurations tab.
b. In the Cluster Settings pane, click Licenses.
c. In the Packages window, click Add.
d. In the Add License Packages dialog box, click Choose Files to select the NLF you
downloaded, and click Add to upload the file to the cluster.
Related information
NetApp KB Article 000032437: ONTAP FabricPool Licensing Overview
NetApp Software License Search
42 | Disks and Aggregates Power Guide
Installing a CA certificate if you use StorageGRID Webscale
For ONTAP to authenticate with StorageGRID Webscale as the object store for FabricPool, you must
install a StorageGRID Webscale CA certificate on the cluster.
Before you begin
The fully qualified domain name (FQDN) and the custom common name on the StorageGRID
Webscale CA certificate must match.
Steps
1. Follow the StorageGRID Webscale documentation to copy the StorageGRID Webscale system's
CA certificate by using the Grid Management Interface.
StorageGRID Webscale 10.4 Administrator Guide
2. Use the security certificate install command with the -type server-ca parameter
to install the copied StorageGRID Webscale CA certificate on to the cluster.
Setting up an aggregate to use FabricPool
You set up an aggregate to use FabricPool by first specifying the configuration information of the
object store you plan to use as the capacity tier. Then you attach the object store to an all flash (all
SSD) aggregate.
Before you begin
When you use the ONTAP CLI to set up an aggregate for FabricPool, the aggregate must already
exist.
Note: Using OnCommand System Manager enables you to create an aggregate and set it up to use
FabricPool at the same time.
Steps
1. Use the storage aggregate object-store config create command to specify
information about the object store you want to use as the capacity tier.
•
The storage aggregate object-store config create command fails if ONTAP
cannot access the object store with the provided information.
•
If the object store password is changed, you should update the corresponding password stored
in ONTAP immediately.
Doing so ensures that ONTAP can access the data in the object store without interruption.
The -secret-password parameter of the storage aggregate object-store config
modify command enables you to modify an object store password.
Example
cluster-1::> storage aggregate object-store config create
-object-store-name Amazon01B1 -provider-type S3 -server amazonS3
-ssl-enabled false -container-name bucket_01
-access-key amazonKey -secret-password password1
2. Use the storage aggregate object-store config show command to display the object
store configuration information.
3. Use the storage aggregate object-store attach command to attach the object store to
an all flash aggregate.
Managing storage tiers by using FabricPool | 43
If the aggregate contains existing volumes, the volumes are assigned the default snapshot-only
tiering policy for FabricPool.
Example
cluster1::> storage aggregate object-store attach -aggregate myaggr
-object-store-name Amazon01B1
4. Use the storage aggregate object-store show command to display the object store
information and verify that the attached object store is available.
Example
cluster1::> storage aggregate object-store show
Aggregate
--------myaggr
Object Store Name
----------------Amazon01B1
Availability State
-----------------available
Related tasks
Creating aggregates manually on page 10
Adding volumes to FabricPool as needed
You can add volumes to FabricPool by creating new volumes directly in the FabricPool-enabled
aggregate or by moving existing volumes from another aggregate to the FabricPool-enabled
aggregate.
Choices
• Creating a volume for FabricPool on page 43
When you create a volume for FabricPool, you have the option to specify a tiering policy. If no
tiering policy is specified, the created volume uses the default snapshot-only tiering policy.
• Moving a volume to FabricPool on page 44
When you move a volume to FabricPool, you have the option to specify or change the tiering
policy for the volume with the move.
Creating a volume for FabricPool
When you create a volume for FabricPool, you have the option to specify a tiering policy. If no
tiering policy is specified, the created volume uses the default snapshot-only tiering policy.
Step
1. Create a new volume for FabricPool by using the volume create command.
The -tiering-policy optional parameter enables you to specify the tiering policy for the
volume.
Example
The following example creates a volume called “myvol1” in a FabricPool-enabled aggregate
called “myFabricPool”. The tiering policy is explicitly set to none to keep the volume in the
performance tier:
cluster1::> volume create -vserver myVS -aggregate myFabricPool
-volume myvol1 -tiering-policy none
44 | Disks and Aggregates Power Guide
Moving a volume to FabricPool
When you move a volume to FabricPool, you have the option to specify or change the tiering policy
for the volume with the move.
About this task
A volume retains its tiering policy when it is moved in and out of a FabricPool-enabled aggregate.
However, the tiering policy takes effect only when the volume is in a FabricPool-enabled aggregate.
Even if a volume has never been used with FabricPool, the volume show command displays the
snapshot-only tiering policy for the volume.
Step
1. Use the volume move start command to move a volume to FabricPool.
The -tiering-policy optional parameter enables you to specify the tiering policy for the
volume.
Example
The following example moves a volume named “myvol2” of the “vs1” SVM to a FabricPoolenabled aggregate named “dest_FabricPool”. The volume is explicitly set to use the none tiering
policy:
cluster1::> volume move start -vserver vs1 -volume myvol2
-destination-aggregate dest_FabricPool -tiering-policy none
Monitoring the space utilization for FabricPool
You need to know how much data is stored in the performance and capacity tiers for FabricPool. That
information helps you determine whether you need to change the tiering policy of a volume, increase
the FabricPool licensed usage limit, or increase the storage space of the capacity tier.
Steps
1. Monitor the space utilization for FabricPool-enabled aggregates by using one of the following
commands to display the information:
If you want to display...
Then use this command...
The used size of the capacity
tier in an aggregate
storage aggregate show with the -instance parameter
Details of space utilization
within an aggregate,
including the object store's
referenced capacity
storage aggregate show-space with the -instance
parameter
Space utilization of the object
stores that are attached to the
aggregates, including how
much license space is being
used
storage aggregate object-store show-space
A list of volumes in an
aggregate and the footprints
of their data and metadata
volume show-footprint
Managing storage tiers by using FabricPool | 45
In addition to using CLI commands, you can use OnCommand Unified Manager or OnCommand
System Manager to monitor the space utilization.
Example
The following example shows ways of displaying space utilization and related information for
FabricPool:
cluster1::> storage aggregate show-space -instance
Aggregate:
...
Aggregate Display Name:
...
Object Store Referenced Capacity Percentage:
Object Store Metadata:
Object Store Metadata Percent:
Total Unreclaimed Space:
Object Store Unreclaimed Space Percentage:
Object Store Size:
MyFabricPool
MyFabricPool
-
cluster1::> storage aggregate show -instance
Aggregate: MyFabricPool
...
Composite: true
Capacity Tier Used Size:
...
cluster1::> volume show-footprint
Vserver : vs1
Volume : rootvol
Feature
-------------------------------Volume Footprint
Volume Guarantee
Flexible Volume Metadata
Delayed Frees
Total Footprint
Used
Used%
---------- ----KB
%
MB
%
KB
%
KB
%
MB
%
Vserver : vs1
Volume : vol
Feature
-------------------------------Volume Footprint
Footprint in Performance Tier
Footprint in Amazon01
Flexible Volume Metadata
Delayed Frees
Total Footprint
...
Used
Used%
---------- ----KB
%
KB
%
KB
%
MB
%
KB
%
MB
%
2. Take one of the following actions as needed:
If you want to...
Then...
Change the tiering policy of a
volume
Follow the procedure in Modifying the tiering policy of a volume for
FabricPool on page 46.
Increase the FabricPool
licensed usage limit
Contact your NetApp or partner sales representative.
Increase the storage space of
the capacity tier
Contact the provider of the object store that you use for the capacity tier.
NetApp Support
46 | Disks and Aggregates Power Guide
Modifying the tiering policy of a volume for FabricPool
You can change the tiering policy to control whether data of a volume is moved to the capacity tier
when it becomes inactive (cold).
About this task
Changing the tiering policy of a volume changes only the subsequent tiering behavior for the volume.
It does not retroactively move data to the capacity tier.
Step
1. Use the volume modify command with the -tiering-policy parameter to specify the tiering
policy that you want the volume to use:
If you want to...
Then use this tiering policy...
Enable user data of the
volume Snapshot copies that
are not associated with the
active file system to be
moved to the capacity tier
snapshot-only (default)
Prevent volume blocks from
being moved to the capacity
tier
none
Enable all transferred user
data blocks of a data
protection volume to start in
the capacity tier
backup
Example of modifying the tiering policy of a volume for FabricPool
The following example changes the tiering policy of the volume “myvol” in the SVM “vs1” to
none. The tiering policy keeps the volume in the performance tier:
cluster1::> volume modify -vserver vs1 -volume myvol
-tiering-policy none
Commands for managing aggregates with FabricPool
You use the storage aggregate object-store commands to manage aggregates with
FabricPool.
If you want to…
Use this command:
Define the configuration for an object store so
that ONTAP can access it
storage aggregate object-store
config create
Modify object store configuration attributes
storage aggregate object-store
config modify
Rename an existing object store configuration
storage aggregate object-store
config rename
Managing storage tiers by using FabricPool | 47
If you want to…
Use this command:
Delete the configuration of an object store
storage aggregate object-store
config delete
Display a list of object store configurations
storage aggregate object-store
config show
Attach an object store to an aggregate for using
FabricPool
storage aggregate object-store
attach
Display details of the object stores that are
attached to FabricPool-enabled aggregates
storage aggregate object-store show
Display space utilization of the object stores
that are attached to FabricPool-enabled
aggregates
storage aggregate object-store
show-space
48
Managing disks
You can perform various tasks to manage your disks, including removing a failed disk, removing data
from a disk, and removing ownership of a disk. There are also tasks you can perform related to
managing disks using root-data partitioning and related to self-encrypting disks.
When you need to update the Disk Qualification Package
The Disk Qualification Package (DQP) adds full support for newly qualified drives. Before you
update drive firmware or add new drive types or sizes to a cluster, you must update the DQP. A best
practice is to also update the DQP regularly; for example, every quarter or semi-annually.
You need to download and install the DQP in the following situations:
•
Whenever you add a new drive type or size to the node
For example, if you already have 1-TB drives and add 2-TB drives, you need to check for the
latest DQP update.
•
Whenever you update the disk firmware
•
Whenever newer disk firmware or DQP files are available
•
Whenever you upgrade to a new version of ONTAP.
The DQP is not updated as part of an ONTAP upgrade.
Related information
NetApp Downloads: Disk Qualification Package
NetApp Downloads: Disk Drive and Firmware
How hot spare disks work
A hot spare disk is a disk that is assigned to a storage system and is ready for use, but is not in use by
a RAID group and does not hold any data.
If a disk failure occurs within a RAID group, the hot spare disk is automatically assigned to the
RAID group to replace the failed disks. The data of the failed disk is reconstructed on the hot spare
replacement disk in the background from the RAID parity disk. The reconstruction activity is logged
in the /etc/message file and an AutoSupport message is sent.
If the available hot spare disk is not the same size as the failed disk, a disk of the next larger size is
chosen and then downsized to match the size of the disk that it is replacing.
How low spare warnings can help you manage your spare
disks
By default, warnings are issued to the console and logs if you have fewer than one hot spare drive
that matches the attributes of each drive in your storage system. You can change the threshold value
for these warning messages to ensure that your system adheres to best practices.
You should set the min_spare_count RAID option to 2 to ensure that you always have the
minimum recommended number of spare disks.
Managing disks | 49
Displaying disk and partition ownership
You can view disk ownership to determine which node controls the storage. Beginning with Data
ONTAP 8.3, you can also view the partition ownership on systems that use shared disks.
Steps
1. Display the ownership of physical disks using the storage disk show -ownership
command:
Example
cluster::> storage disk show -ownership
Disk
Aggregate Home
Owner
DR Home
DR Home ID Reserver
Pool
-------- --------- -------- -------- ------------------ ----------- -----1.0.0
aggr0_2
node2
node2
2014941509 Pool0
1.0.1
aggr0_2
node2
node2
2014941509 Pool0
1.0.2
aggr0_1
node1
node1
2014941219 Pool0
1.0.3
node1
node1
2014941219 Pool0
...
Home ID
Owner ID
---------- ----------2014941509 2014941509
2014941509 2014941509
2014941219 2014941219
2014941219 2014941219
2. If you have a system that uses shared disks, display the partition ownership using the storage
disk show -partition-ownership command:
Example
cluster::> storage disk show -partition-ownership
Root
Container Container
Disk
Aggregate Root Owner Owner ID
Data Owner
Owner
Owner ID
-------- --------- ----------- ----------- -------------------- ----------1.0.0
node1
1886742616 node1
node1
1886742616
1.0.1
node1
1886742616 node1
node1
1886742616
1.0.2
node2
1886742657 node2
node2
1886742657
1.0.3
node2
1886742657 node2
node2
1886742657
...
Data
Owner ID
----------1886742616
1886742616
1886742657
1886742657
Manually assigning ownership of partitioned disks
For partitioned disks, there are three different entities for ownership: the container disk, the data
partition, and the root partition. You can set the ownership of the container disk or the partitions
manually or by using auto-assignment—just as you do for unpartitioned disks. If a container disk
fails in a half-populated shelf and is replaced, ONTAP will not auto-assign ownership. In this case,
any assignment of new disks will need to be done manually. To make auto-assign work on halfpopulated shelves, place disks equally on lower half and 6 on far right bays to begin with. That is, 6
disks from bays 0-5 and 6 disks from bays 18-23. After the container disk is assigned in an ADP-
50 | Disks and Aggregates Power Guide
configured system, ONTAP's software will handle any partitioning and partition assignments that are
required, without user intervention.
Root-data partitioning
About this task
For root-data partitioning you can think of the three owned entities (the container disk and the two
partitions) as being collectively owned by the HA pair. The container disk and the two partitions do
not all need to be owned by the same node in the HA pair as long as they are all owned by one of the
nodes in the HA pair. However, when you use a partition in an aggregate, it must be owned by the
same node that owns the aggregate.
Steps
1. Display the current ownership for the partitioned disk:
storage disk show -disk disk_name -partition-ownership
2. Enter the appropriate command, depending on which ownership entity you want to assign
ownership for:
If you want to assign
ownership for the...
Use this command...
Container disk
storage disk assign -disk disk_name -owner
owner_name
Data partition
storage disk assign -disk disk_name -owner
owner_name -data true
Root partition
storage disk assign -disk disk_name -owner
owner_name -root true
If any of the ownership entities are already owned, then you must include the -force option.
Root-data-data partitioning
About this task
For root-data-data partitioning there are four owned entities (the container disk and the three
partitions) collectively owned by the HA pair. Root-data-data partitioning creates one small partition
as the root partition and two larger, equally sized partitions for data.
Parameters must be used in the disk assign command to assign the proper partition of a root-datadata partitioned disk. You cannot use these parameters with disks that are part of a storage pool. The
default value is false.
•
The [-data1 [true]] parameter assigns the data1 partition of a root-data1-data2 partitioned
disk.
•
The [-data2 [true]] parameter assigns the data2 partition of a root-data1-data2 partitioned
disk.
Steps
1. Display the current ownership for the partitioned disk:
storage disk show -disk disk_name -partition-ownership
2. Enter the appropriate command, depending on which ownership entity you want to assign
ownership for:
Managing disks | 51
If you want to assign
ownership for the...
Use this command...
Container disk
storage disk assign -disk disk_name -owner
owner_name
Data1 partition
storage disk assign -disk disk_name -owner
owner_name -data1 true
Data2 partition
storage disk assign -disk disk_name -owner
owner_name -data2 true
Root partition
storage disk assign -disk disk_name -owner
owner_name -root true
If any of the ownership entities are already owned, then you must include the -force option.
Additional root-data partitioning management options
Beginning with ONTAP 9, a new root-data partitioning option is available from the Boot Menu that
provides additional management features for disks that are configured for root-data partitioning.
The following management features are available under the Boot Menu Option 9.
•
Unpartition all disks and remove their ownership information
This option is useful if your system is configured for root-data partitioning and you need to
reinitialize it with a different configuration.
•
Clean configuration and initialize system with partitioned disks
This option is useful for the following:
•
◦
Your system is not configured for root-data partitioning and you would like to configure it for
root-data partitioning
◦
Your system is incorrectly configured for root-data partitioning and you need to correct it
◦
You have an AFF platform or a FAS platform with only SSDs attached that is configured for
the previous version of root-data partitioning and you want to upgrade it to the newer version
of root-data partitioning to gain increased storage efficiency
Clean configuration and initialize system with whole disks
This option is useful if you need to:
◦
Unpartition existing partitions
◦
Remove local disk ownership
◦
Reinitialize your system with whole disks using RAID-DP
Configuring autoassignment of disk ownership
You can configure ONTAP to automatically assign disk ownership according to a disk's stack, shelf,
or bay. If configured, automatic disk ownership assignments occur 10 minutes after system
initialization and every five minutes during normal system operation.
Before you begin
•
Your system must adhere to the requirements for automatic disk ownership.
52 | Disks and Aggregates Power Guide
•
If you have multiple stacks or shelves that must have different ownership, one disk must have
been manually assigned on each stack or shelf so that automatic ownership assignment works on
each stack or shelf.
About this task
The behavior of the default autoassignment policy depends on the system model. For entry level
models, the default policy is equivalent to the bay policy. For all other systems, it is equivalent to
the stack policy.
Steps
1. Configure automatic disk assignment:
storage disk option modify -autoassign-policy autoassign_policy
•
Use stack as the autoassign_policy to configure automatic ownership at the stack or
loop level.
•
Use shelf as the autoassign_policy to configure automatic ownership at the shelf level.
•
Use bay as the autoassign_policy to configure automatic ownership at the bay level.
2. Verify the automatic assignment settings for the disks:
storage disk option show
Example
cluster1::> storage disk option show
Node
BKg. FW. Upd.
Auto Copy
Auto Assign
Auto
Assign
Policy
------------cluster1-1
cluster1-2
------------on
on
-----------on
on
------------on
on
-------default
default
Which disk autoassignment policy to use
You can typically use the default autoassignment policy, which is equivalent to the stack policy for
most systems, and to the bay policy for entry level systems (FAS2xxx). However, for some
configurations, you might need to change the autoassignment policy.
Use the appropriate autoassignment, based on your configuration:
If you are using...
Then use the autoassignment policy value
of...
Stand-alone entry level system
stack
Entry level systems in an HA configuration with bay
a single, shared shelf
Entry level systems in an HA configuration with shelf
one stack of two or more shelves
MetroCluster configurations with one stack per
node, two or more shelves
shelf
All other configurations
stack
Managing disks | 53
Removing a failed disk
A disk that is completely failed is no longer counted by Data ONTAP as a usable disk, and you can
immediately disconnect the disk from the disk shelf. However, you should leave a partially failed
disk connected long enough for the Rapid RAID Recovery process to complete.
About this task
If you are removing a disk because it has failed or because it is producing excessive error messages,
you should not use the disk again in this or any other storage system.
Steps
1. Find the disk ID of the failed disk by entering the following command:
storage disk show -broken
If the disk does not appear in the list of failed disks, it might be partially failed, with a Rapid
RAID Recovery in process. In this case, you should wait until the disk is present in the list of
failed disks (which means that the Rapid RAID Recovery process is complete) before removing
the disk.
2. Determine the physical location of the disk you want to remove by entering the following
command:
storage disk set-led -disk disk_name 2
The fault LED on the face of the disk is lit for 2 minutes.
3. Remove the disk from the disk shelf, following the instructions in the hardware guide for your
disk shelf model.
Removing ownership from a disk
Data ONTAP writes disk ownership information to the disk. Before you remove a spare disk or its
shelf from a node, you should remove its ownership information so that it can be properly integrated
into another node.
Before you begin
The disk you want to remove ownership from must meet the following requirements:
•
It must be a spare disk.
You cannot remove ownership from a disk that is being used in an aggregate.
•
It cannot be in the maintenance center.
•
It cannot be undergoing sanitization.
•
It cannot be failed.
It is not necessary to remove ownership from a failed disk.
About this task
If you have automatic disk assignment enabled, Data ONTAP could automatically reassign
ownership before you remove the disk from the node. For this reason, you disable automatic
ownership assignment until the disk is removed, and then reenable it.
54 | Disks and Aggregates Power Guide
Steps
1. If disk ownership automatic assignment is on, turn it off:
storage disk option modify -node node_name -autoassign off
2. If needed, repeat the previous step for the node's HA partner.
3. Remove the software ownership information from the disk:
storage disk removeowner disk_name
To remove ownership information from multiple disks, use a comma-separated list:
Example
storage disk removeowner sys1:0a.23,sys1:0a.24,sys1:0a.25
4. If the disk is partitioned for root-data partitioning, remove ownership from the partitions by
entering both of the following commands:
storage disk removeowner disk_name -root true
storage disk removeowner disk_name -data true
Both partitions are no longer owned by any node.
5. If you turned off disk ownership automatic assignment previously, turn it on after the disk has
been removed or reassigned:
storage disk option modify -node node_name -autoassign on
6. If needed, repeat the previous step for the node's HA partner.
Sanitizing a disk
Disk sanitization enables you to remove data from a disk or set of disks so that the data can never be
recovered.
Before you begin
•
The disk must be a spare, and must be owned by a node but not used in an aggregate.
If the disk is partitioned, neither partition can be used in an aggregate.
•
The disk cannot be a self-encrypting disk (SEDs).
You must use the storage encryption disk sanitize command to sanitize an SED.
Encryption of data at rest
•
The disk cannot be part of a storage pool.
About this task
When disk sanitization is enabled, it disables some Data ONTAP commands. After disk sanitization
is enabled on a node, it cannot be disabled.
Steps
1. Enter the nodeshell for the node that owns the disks you want to sanitize:
system node run -node node_name
2. Enable disk sanitization:
options licensed_feature.disk_sanitization.enable on
Managing disks | 55
You are asked to confirm the command because it is irreversible.
3. If the disks you want to sanitize are partitioned, unpartition each disk:
disk unpartition disk_name
4. Sanitize the specified disks:
disk sanitize start [-p pattern1|-r [-p pattern2|-r [-p pattern3|-r]]]
[-c cycle_count] disk_list
Attention: Do not turn off power to the node, disrupt the storage connectivity, or remove target
disks while sanitizing. If sanitizing is interrupted during the formatting phase, the formatting
phase must be restarted and allowed to finish before the disks are sanitized and ready to be
returned to the spare pool.
If you need to abort the sanitization process, you can do so by using the disk sanitize
abort command. If the specified disks are undergoing the formatting phase of sanitization, the
abort does not occur until the phase is complete.
-p pattern1 -p pattern2 -p pattern3 specifies a cycle of one to three user-defined hex byte
overwrite patterns that can be applied in succession to the disks being sanitized. The default
pattern is three passes, using 0x55 for the first pass, 0xaa for the second pass, and 0x3c for the
third pass.
-r replaces a patterned overwrite with a random overwrite for any or all of the passes.
-c cycle_count specifies the number of times that the specified overwrite patterns are applied.
The default value is one cycle. The maximum value is seven cycles.
disk_list specifies a space-separated list of the IDs of the spare disks to be sanitized.
5. If you want to check the status of the disk sanitization process:
disk sanitize status [disk_list]
6. After the sanitization process is complete, return the disks to spare status by entering the
following command for each disk:
disk sanitize release disk_name
7. Return to the clustered Data ONTAP CLI:
exit
8. Determine whether all of the disks were returned to spare status:
storage aggregate show-spare-disks
If...
Then...
All of the sanitized disks are
listed as spares
You are done. The disks are sanitized and in spare status.
56 | Disks and Aggregates Power Guide
If...
Then...
Some of the sanitized disks
are not listed as spares
Complete the following steps:
a.
Enter advanced privilege mode:
set -privilege advanced
b.
Assign the unassigned sanitized disks to the appropriate node by
entering the following command for each disk:
storage disk assign -disk disk_name -owner
node_name
c.
Return the disks to spare status by entering the following command
for each disk:
storage disk unfail -disk disk_name -s -q
d.
Return to administrative mode:
set -privilege admin
Result
The specified disks are sanitized and designated as hot spares. The serial numbers of the sanitized
disks are written to /etc/log/sanitized_disks.
Setting up an active-passive configuration on nodes using
root-data partitioning
When an HA pair is configured to use root-data partitioning by the factory, ownership of the data
partitions is split between both nodes in the pair, for use in an active-active configuration. If you want
to use the HA pair in an active-passive configuration, you must update partition ownership before
creating your data aggregate.
Before you begin
•
You should have decided which node will be the active node and which node will be the passive
node.
•
Storage failover must be configured on the HA pair.
About this task
This task is performed on two nodes: Node A and Node B.
All commands are input at the clustershell.
This procedure is designed for nodes for which no data aggregate has been created from the
partitioned disks.
Steps
1. View the current ownership of the data partitions:
storage aggregate show-spare-disks
Example
You can see that half of the data partitions are owned by one node and half are owned by the other
node. All of the data partitions should be spare.
Managing disks | 57
cluster1::> storage aggregate show-spare-disks
Original Owner: cluster1-01
Pool0
Partitioned Spares
Disk
--------------------------1.0.0
1.0.1
1.0.5
1.0.6
1.0.10
1.0.11
Local
Local
Data
Root Physical
Type
RPM Checksum
Usable
Usable
Size
----- ------ -------------- -------- -------- -------BSAS
7200 block
753.8GB
0B 828.0GB
BSAS
7200 block
753.8GB 73.89GB 828.0GB
BSAS
7200 block
753.8GB
0B 828.0GB
BSAS
7200 block
753.8GB
0B 828.0GB
BSAS
7200 block
753.8GB
0B 828.0GB
BSAS
7200 block
753.8GB
0B 828.0GB
Original Owner: cluster1-02
Pool0
Partitioned Spares
Disk
--------------------------1.0.2
1.0.3
1.0.4
1.0.7
1.0.8
1.0.9
12 entries were displayed.
Local
Local
Data
Root Physical
Type
RPM Checksum
Usable
Usable
Size
----- ------ -------------- -------- -------- -------BSAS
7200 block
753.8GB
0B 828.0GB
BSAS
7200 block
753.8GB
0B 828.0GB
BSAS
7200 block
753.8GB
0B 828.0GB
BSAS
7200 block
753.8GB
0B 828.0GB
BSAS
7200 block
753.8GB 73.89GB 828.0GB
BSAS
7200 block
753.8GB
0B 828.0GB
2. Enter the advanced privilege level:
set advanced
3. For each data partition owned by the node that will be the passive node, assign it to the active
node:
storage disk assign -force -data true -owner active_node_name -disk
disk_name
You do not need to include the partition as part of the disk name.
Example
You would enter a command similar to the following example for each data partition you need to
reassign:
storage disk assign -force -data true -owner cluster1-01 -disk 1.0.3
4. Confirm that all of the partitions are assigned to the active node.
Example
cluster1::*> storage aggregate show-spare-disks
Original Owner: cluster1-01
Pool0
Partitioned Spares
Disk
--------------------------1.0.0
1.0.1
1.0.2
1.0.3
1.0.4
1.0.5
1.0.6
1.0.7
1.0.8
1.0.9
1.0.10
1.0.11
Local
Local
Data
Root Physical
Type
RPM Checksum
Usable
Usable
Size
----- ------ -------------- -------- -------- -------BSAS
7200 block
753.8GB
0B 828.0GB
BSAS
7200 block
753.8GB 73.89GB 828.0GB
BSAS
7200 block
753.8GB
0B 828.0GB
BSAS
7200 block
753.8GB
0B 828.0GB
BSAS
7200 block
753.8GB
0B 828.0GB
BSAS
7200 block
753.8GB
0B 828.0GB
BSAS
7200 block
753.8GB
0B 828.0GB
BSAS
7200 block
753.8GB
0B 828.0GB
BSAS
7200 block
753.8GB
0B 828.0GB
BSAS
7200 block
753.8GB
0B 828.0GB
BSAS
7200 block
753.8GB
0B 828.0GB
BSAS
7200 block
753.8GB
0B 828.0GB
Original Owner: cluster1-02
Pool0
Partitioned Spares
Local
Local
Data
Root Physical
Disk
Type
RPM Checksum
Usable
Usable
Size
--------------------------- ----- ------ -------------- -------- -------- -------1.0.8
BSAS
7200 block
0B 73.89GB 828.0GB
13 entries were displayed.
58 | Disks and Aggregates Power Guide
Note that cluster1-02 still owns a spare root partition.
5. Return to administrative privilege:
set admin
6. Create your data aggregate, leaving at least one data partition as spare:
storage aggregate create new_aggr_name -diskcount number_of_partitions node active_node_name
The data aggregate is created and is owned by the active node.
Commands for managing disks
You can use the storage disk and storage aggregate commands to manage your disks.
If you want to...
Use this command...
Display a list of spare disks, including
partitioned disks, by owner
storage aggregate show-spare-disks
Display the disk RAID type, current usage, and
RAID group by aggregate
storage aggregate show-status
Display the RAID type, current usage,
aggregate, and RAID group, including spares,
for physical disks
storage disk show -raid
Display a list of failed disks
storage disk show -broken
Display the pre-cluster (nodescope) drive name
for a disk
storage disk show -primary-paths
Illuminate the LED for a particular disk or shelf
storage disk set-led
Display the checksum type for a specific disk
storage disk show -fields checksumcompatibility
Display the checksum type for all spare disks
storage disk show -fields checksumcompatibility -container-type spare
Display disk connectivity and placement
information
storage disk show -fields
disk,primary-port,secondaryname,secondary-port,shelf,bay
Display the pre-cluster disk names for specific
disks
storage disk show -disk -fields
diskpathnames
Display the list of disks in the maintenance
center
storage disk show -maintenance
Display SSD wear life
storage disk show -ssd-wear
Unpartition a disk
system node run -node local command disk unpartition
Zero all non-zeroed disks
storage disk zerospares
Stop an ongoing sanitization process on one or
more specified disks
disk sanitize abort disk_list
Display storage encryption disk information
storage encryption disk show
(advanced)
Managing disks | 59
If you want to...
Use this command...
Retrieve authentication keys from all linked key
management servers
security key-manager restore
Related information
ONTAP 9 commands
Commands for displaying space usage information
You use the storage aggregate and volume commands to see how space is being used in your
aggregates and volumes and their Snapshot copies.
To display information
about...
Use this command...
Aggregates, including
details about used and
available space
percentages, Snapshot
reserve size, and other
space usage information
storage aggregate
show
How disks and RAID
groups are used in an
aggregate, and RAID
status
storage aggregate
show-status
The amount of disk space
that would be reclaimed if
you deleted a specific
Snapshot copy
volume snapshot
computereclaimable(advanced)
The amount of space used
by a volume
volume show -fields
size,used,available
,percent-used
storage aggregate
show-space -fields
snap-sizetotal,usedincluding-snapshotreserve
volume show-space
The amount of space used
by a volume in the
containing aggregate
Related information
ONTAP 9 commands
volume showfootprint
For more information...
60 | Disks and Aggregates Power Guide
Commands for displaying information about storage
shelves
You use the storage shelf show command to display configuration and error information for
your disk shelves.
If you want to display...
Use this command...
General information about shelf configuration
and hardware status
storage shelf show
Detailed information for a specific shelf,
including stack ID
storage shelf show -shelf
Unresolved, customer actionable, errors by shelf storage shelf show -errors
Bay information
storage shelf show -bay
Connectivity information
storage shelf show -connectivity
Cooling information, including temperature
sensors and cooling fans
storage shelf show -cooling
Information about I/O modules
storage shelf show -module
Port information
storage shelf show -port
Power information, including PSUs (power
supply units), current sensors, and voltage
sensors
storage shelf show -power
Related information
ONTAP 9 commands
61
Managing RAID groups
You can convert from RAID-DP to RAID-TEC for triple-parity protection, or from RAID-TEC to
RAID-DP when a smaller aggregate no longer needs triple-parity protection. You can also customize
the size of your RAID groups.
Converting from RAID-DP to RAID-TEC
If you want the added protection of triple-parity, you can convert from RAID-DP to RAID-TEC.
RAID-TEC is recommended if the size of the disks used in your aggregate is greater than 4 TiB.
Before you begin
The aggregate that is to be converted must have a minimum of six disks.
About this task
Hard disk drive (HDD) aggregates can be converted from RAID-DP to RAID-TEC. This includes
HDD tiers in Flash Pool aggregates.
Steps
1. Verify that the aggregate is online and has a minimum of six disks:
storage aggregate show-status -aggregate aggregate_name
2. Convert the aggregate from RAID-DP to RAID-TEC:
storage aggregate modify -aggregate aggregate_name -raidtype raid_tec
3. Verify that the aggregate RAID policy is RAID-TEC:
storage aggregate show aggregate_name
Converting RAID-TEC to RAID-DP
If you reduce the size of your aggregate and no longer need triple parity, you can convert your RAID
policy from RAID-TEC to RAID-DP and reduce the number of disks you need for RAID parity.
About this task
The maximum RAID group size for RAID-TEC is larger than the maximum RAID group size for
RAID-DP. If the largest RAID-TEC group size is not within the RAID-DP limits, you cannot convert
to RAID-DP.
Steps
1. Verify that the aggregate is online and has a minium of six disks:
storage aggregate show-status -aggregate aggregate_name
2. Convert the aggregate from RAID-TEC to RAID-DP:
storage aggregate modify -aggregate aggregate_name -raidtype raid_dp
3. Verify that the aggregate RAID policy is RAID-DP:
storage aggregate show aggregate_name
62 | Disks and Aggregates Power Guide
Considerations for sizing RAID groups
Configuring an optimum RAID group size requires a trade-off of factors. You must decide which
factors—speed of RAID rebuild, assurance against risk of data loss due to drive failure, optimizing
I/O performance, and maximizing data storage space—are most important for the aggregate that you
are configuring.
When you create larger RAID groups, you maximize the space available for data storage for the same
amount of storage used for parity (also known as the “parity tax”). On the other hand, when a disk
fails in a larger RAID group, reconstruction time is increased, impacting performance for a longer
period of time. In addition, having more disks in a RAID group increases the probability of a
multiple disk failure within the same RAID group.
HDD or array LUN RAID groups
You should follow these guidelines when sizing your RAID groups composed of HDDs or array
LUNs:
•
All RAID groups in an aggregate should have a similar number of disks.
The RAID groups do not have to be exactly the same size, but you should avoid having any RAID
group that is less than one half the size of other RAID groups in the same aggregate when
possible.
•
The recommended range of RAID group size is between 12 and 20.
The reliability of performance disks can support a RAID group size of up to 28, if needed.
•
If you can satisfy the first two guidelines with multiple RAID group sizes, you should choose the
larger size.
SSD RAID groups in Flash Pool aggregates
The SSD RAID group size can be different from the RAID group size for the HDD RAID groups in a
Flash Pool aggregate. Usually, you should ensure that you have only one SSD RAID group for a
Flash Pool aggregate, to minimize the number of SSDs required for parity.
SSD RAID groups in SSD aggregates
You should follow these guidelines when sizing your RAID groups composed of SSDs:
•
All RAID groups in an aggregate should have a similar number of drives.
The RAID groups do not have to be exactly the same size, but you should avoid having any RAID
group that is less than one half the size of other RAID groups in the same aggregate when
possible.
•
For RAID-DP, the recommended range of RAID group size is between 20 and 28.
Customizing the size of your RAID groups
You can customize the size of your RAID groups to ensure that your RAID group sizes are
appropriate for the amount of storage you plan to include for an aggregate.
About this task
For standard aggregates, you change the size of RAID groups on a per-aggregate basis. For Flash
Pool aggregates, you can change the RAID group size for the SSD RAID groups and the HDD RAID
groups independently.
Managing RAID groups | 63
The following list outlines some facts about changing the RAID group size:
•
By default, if the number of disks or array LUNs in the most recently created RAID group is less
than the new RAID group size, disks or array LUNs will be added to the most recently created
RAID group until it reaches the new size.
•
All other existing RAID groups in that aggregate remain the same size, unless you explicitly add
disks to them.
•
You can never cause a RAID group to become larger than the current maximum RAID group size
for the aggregate.
•
You cannot decrease the size of already created RAID groups.
•
The new size applies to all RAID groups in that aggregate (or, in the case of a Flash Pool
aggregate, all RAID groups for the affected RAID group type—SSD or HDD).
Step
1. Use the applicable command:
If you want to...
Enter the following command...
Change the maximum RAID
group size for the SSD RAID
groups of a Flash Pool
aggregate
storage aggregate modify -aggregate aggr_name cache-raid-group-size size
Change the maximum size of
any other RAID groups
storage aggregate modify -aggregate aggr_name maxraidsize size
Examples
The following command changes the maximum RAID group size of the aggregate n1_a4 to 20
disks or array LUNs:
storage aggregate modify -aggregate n1_a4 -maxraidsize 20
The following command changes the maximum RAID group size of the SSD cache RAID
groups of the Flash Pool aggregate n1_cache_a2 to 24:
storage aggregate modify -aggregate n1_cache_a2 -cache-raid-group-size
24
Related concepts
Considerations for sizing RAID groups on page 62
64
Appendix: Mirrored and unmirrored aggregates
You can use an optional feature called SyncMirror to synchronously mirror aggregate data in copies,
or plexes, stored in different RAID groups. Plexes ensure against data loss if more disks fail than the
RAID type protects against, or if there is a loss of connectivity to RAID group disks.
How unmirrored aggregates work
Unless you are using SyncMirror, all of your aggregates are unmirrored. Unmirrored aggregates have
only one plex (copy of their data), which contains all of the RAID groups belonging to that
aggregate.
The following diagram shows an unmirrored aggregate composed of disks, with its one plex. The
aggregate has four RAID groups: rg0, rg1, rg2, and rg3. Each RAID group has 6 data disks, one
parity disk, and one dparity (double parity) disk. All disks used by the aggregate come from the same
pool, pool0.
Aggregate
Plex0 (pool0)
rg0
rg1
rg2
rg3
pool0
Legend
Spare disk
Data disk
Parity disk
dParity disk
RAID group
The following diagram shows an unmirrored aggregate with array LUNs, with its one plex. It has two
RAID groups, rg0 and rg1. All array LUNs used by the aggregate come from the same pool, pool0.
Appendix: Mirrored and unmirrored aggregates | 65
Aggregate
Plex0 (pool0)
rg0
rg1
Legend
array LUN in the aggregate
Data ONTAP RAID group
How mirrored aggregates work
Mirrored aggregates have two plexes (copies of their data), which use the SyncMirror functionality to
duplicate the data to provide redundancy.
When a mirrored aggregate is created (or when a second plex is added to an existing unmirrored
aggregate), Data ONTAP copies the data in the original plex (plex0) to the new plex (plex1). The
plexes are physically separated (each plex has its own RAID groups and its own pool), and the plexes
are updated simultaneously. This provides added protection against data loss if more disks fail than
the RAID level of the aggregate protects against or there is a loss of connectivity, because the
unaffected plex continues to serve data while you fix the cause of the failure. After the plex that had a
problem is fixed, the two plexes resynchronize and reestablish the mirror relationship.
The disks and array LUNs on the system are divided into two pools: pool0 and pool1. Plex0 gets its
storage from pool0 and plex1 gets its storage from pool1.
The following diagram shows an aggregate composed of disks with SyncMirror enabled and
implemented. A second plex has been created for the aggregate, plex1. The data in plex1 is a copy of
the data in plex0, and the RAID groups are also identical. The 32 spare disks are allocated to pool0 or
pool1, 16 disks for each pool.
66 | Disks and Aggregates Power Guide
Aggregate
Plex0 (pool0)
Plex1 (pool1)
rg0
rg1
rg2
rg3
rg0
rg1
rg2
rg3
pool0
Legend
pool1
Spare disk
Data disk
Parity disk
dParity disk
RAID group
The following diagram shows an aggregate composed of array LUNs with SyncMirror enabled and
implemented. A second plex has been created for the aggregate, plex1. Plex1 is a copy of plex0, and
the RAID groups are also identical.
Aggregate
Plex0 (pool0)
rg0
rg1
Plex1 (pool1)
rg0
rg1
array LUN in the aggregate
Data ONTAP RAID group
67
Where to find additional information
After you have setup the disks and aggregates for your storage system, you can perform additional
tasks such as setting up volumes to contain your data.
•
ONTAP 9 commands
Describe commands for creating and managing aggregates in reference format.
•
Logical storage management
Describes how to manage logical storage resources in clusters, including FlexVol volumes,
FlexClone volumes, FlexCache volumes, files, and LUNs.
•
SAN administration
Describes how to configure and manage iSCSI, FCoE, and FC protocols including configuration
of LUNs, igroups and targets.
•
NetApp Technical Report 3483: Thin Provisioning in a NetApp SAN or IP SAN Enterprise
Environment
Describes thin provisioning in a SAN or IP SAN enterprise environment.
.
68
Copyright information
Copyright © 1994–2017 NetApp, Inc. All rights reserved. Printed in the U.S.
No part of this document covered by copyright may be reproduced in any form or by any means—
graphic, electronic, or mechanical, including photocopying, recording, taping, or storage in an
electronic retrieval system—without prior written permission of the copyright owner.
Software derived from copyrighted NetApp material is subject to the following license and
disclaimer:
THIS SOFTWARE IS PROVIDED BY NETAPP "AS IS" AND WITHOUT ANY EXPRESS OR
IMPLIED WARRANTIES, INCLUDING, BUT NOT LIMITED TO, THE IMPLIED
WARRANTIES OF MERCHANTABILITY AND FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR PURPOSE,
WHICH ARE HEREBY DISCLAIMED. IN NO EVENT SHALL NETAPP BE LIABLE FOR ANY
DIRECT, INDIRECT, INCIDENTAL, SPECIAL, EXEMPLARY, OR CONSEQUENTIAL
DAMAGES (INCLUDING, BUT NOT LIMITED TO, PROCUREMENT OF SUBSTITUTE
GOODS OR SERVICES; LOSS OF USE, DATA, OR PROFITS; OR BUSINESS INTERRUPTION)
HOWEVER CAUSED AND ON ANY THEORY OF LIABILITY, WHETHER IN CONTRACT,
STRICT LIABILITY, OR TORT (INCLUDING NEGLIGENCE OR OTHERWISE) ARISING IN
ANY WAY OUT OF THE USE OF THIS SOFTWARE, EVEN IF ADVISED OF THE
POSSIBILITY OF SUCH DAMAGE.
NetApp reserves the right to change any products described herein at any time, and without notice.
NetApp assumes no responsibility or liability arising from the use of products described herein,
except as expressly agreed to in writing by NetApp. The use or purchase of this product does not
convey a license under any patent rights, trademark rights, or any other intellectual property rights of
NetApp.
The product described in this manual may be protected by one or more U.S. patents, foreign patents,
or pending applications.
RESTRICTED RIGHTS LEGEND: Use, duplication, or disclosure by the government is subject to
restrictions as set forth in subparagraph (c)(1)(ii) of the Rights in Technical Data and Computer
Software clause at DFARS 252.277-7103 (October 1988) and FAR 52-227-19 (June 1987).
69
Trademark information
Active IQ, AltaVault, Arch Design, ASUP, AutoSupport, Campaign Express, Clustered Data ONTAP,
Customer Fitness, Data ONTAP, DataMotion, Element, Fitness, Flash Accel, Flash Cache, Flash
Pool, FlexArray, FlexCache, FlexClone, FlexPod, FlexScale, FlexShare, FlexVol, FPolicy, Fueled by
SolidFire, GetSuccessful, Helix Design, LockVault, Manage ONTAP, MetroCluster, MultiStore,
NetApp, NetApp Insight, OnCommand, ONTAP, ONTAPI, RAID DP, RAID-TEC, SANscreen,
SANshare, SANtricity, SecureShare, Simplicity, Simulate ONTAP, Snap Creator, SnapCenter,
SnapCopy, SnapDrive, SnapIntegrator, SnapLock, SnapManager, SnapMirror, SnapMover,
SnapProtect, SnapRestore, Snapshot, SnapValidator, SnapVault, SolidFire, SolidFire Helix,
StorageGRID, SyncMirror, Tech OnTap, Unbound Cloud, and WAFL and other names are
trademarks or registered trademarks of NetApp, Inc., in the United States, and/or other countries. All
other brands or products are trademarks or registered trademarks of their respective holders and
should be treated as such. A current list of NetApp trademarks is available on the web.
http://www.netapp.com/us/legal/netapptmlist.aspx
70
How to send comments about documentation and
receive update notifications
You can help us to improve the quality of our documentation by sending us your feedback. You can
receive automatic notification when production-level (GA/FCS) documentation is initially released or
important changes are made to existing production-level documents.
If you have suggestions for improving this document, send us your comments by email.
doccomments@netapp.com
To help us direct your comments to the correct division, include in the subject line the product name,
version, and operating system.
If you want to be notified automatically when production-level documentation is released or
important changes are made to existing production-level documents, follow Twitter account
@NetAppDoc.
You can also contact us in the following ways:
•
NetApp, Inc., 495 East Java Drive, Sunnyvale, CA 94089 U.S.
•
Telephone: +1 (408) 822-6000
•
Fax: +1 (408) 822-4501
•
Support telephone: +1 (888) 463-8277
Index | 71
Index
A
about this guide
deciding whether to use the Disks and Aggregates
Power Guide 6
active-passive configurations
setting up with root-data partitioning 56
additional information
where to find 67
aggregate creation
deciding which method to use 7
workflow 7
aggregate expansion
workflow 12
aggregate relocation
commands for 22
aggregate show-space command
how to determine aggregate space usage by using 23
aggregates
adding volumes to FabricPool as needed 43
assigning to SVMs 22
changing size of RAID groups for 62
commands for displaying space usage information
59
commands for managing 26
considerations for sizing RAID groups 62
creating Flash Pool 31
creating Flash Pool using SSD storage pools 33
creating manually 10
creating with auto-provision 8
default RAID policies for 9
determining candidacy and optimal cache size for
Flash Pool 29
determining drive information for 19
determining RAID group information for 19
determining which volumes reside on 24
expanding 14
expansion workflow 12
Flash Pool, determining whether using a storage pool
32
how to determine and control volume space usage in
24
how to determine space usage in 23
how to determine the number of disks required for 9,
17
introduction to managing 17
introduction to relocating ownership within an HA
pair 20
managing storage tiers by using FabricPool,
introduction 38
methods of creating space in 25
mirrored, explained 65
moving a volume to FabricPool 44
ownership change 20
relocation of 20
requirements for using the Disks and Aggregates
Power Guide 6
unmirrored, explained 64
where to find additional information about 67
aggregates, Flash Pool
creating SSD storage pools for 32
determining whether to modify caching policy of 36
how caching policies work 27
modifying caching polices of 36
setting cache-retention policy for 37
aggregates, Flash Pool using storage pools
how Flash Pool SSD partitioning works for 27
all flash aggregates
how to determine the number of disks required for 9,
17
setting up an aggregate to use FabricPool 42
array LUNs
considerations for sizing RAID groups for 62
assigning ownership
manually for partitioned disks 49
manually for unpartitioned disks 13
auto-provision
creating aggregates with 8
autoassignment, of disk ownership
configuring 51
Automated Workload Analyzer
determining Flash Pool optimal cache size by using
29
automatic ownership assignment
which policy to use for disks 52
AWA
determining Flash Pool optimal cache size by using
29
C
CA certificates
installing if you use StorageGRID Webscale 42
cache size
determining impact to, when adding SSDs to storage
pool 34
determining optimal for Flash Pool aggregates 29
cache-retention policies
setting for Flash Pool aggregates 37
caching policies
determining whether to modify for Flash Pool
aggregates 36
how they work for Flash Pool aggregates 27
modifying, of Flash Pool aggregates 36
capacity HDD aggregates
how to determine the number of disks required for 9,
17
certificates
CA, installing if you use StorageGRID Webscale 42
changing
RAID group size 62
commands
aggregate management, list of 26
disk management, list of 58
for displaying aggregate space usage information 59
for displaying FlexVol volume space usage
information 59
for displaying information about storage shelves 60
72 | Disks and Aggregates Power Guide
for managing aggregates with FabricPool 46
SSD storage pool management, list of 35
storage aggregate 26, 58, 59
storage disk 58
storage pool 35
storage pool management, list of 35
storage shelves, displaying information about 60
volume show-footprint 59
volume show-space 59
volume snapshot 59
comments
how to send feedback about documentation 70
configuring
autoassignment of disk ownership 51
considerations
and requirements for using FabricPool 38
constituents
determining which ones reside on an aggregate 24
converting
RAID-DP to RAID-TEC 61
RAID-TEC to RAID-DP 61
creating
aggregates manually 10
Flash Pool aggregates 31
Flash Pool aggregates using SSD storage pools 33
creating aggregates
workflow 7
requirements for using 6
disks, hot spares
how they work 48
disks, partitioned
manually assigning ownership for 49
disks, unpartitioned
manually assigning ownership for 13
documentation
how to receive automatic notification of changes to
D
FabricPools
adding volumes as needed to 43
benefits of storage tiers by using 38
commands for managing aggregates with 46
configuration and management workflow diagram 40
configuring 40
considerations and requirements for using 38
creating a volume in 43
installing a CA certificate if you use StorageGRID
Webscale 42
installing a license if required 41
managing storage tiers by using, introduction 38
modifying the tiering policy of a volume for 46
monitoring the space utilization for 44
moving a volume to 44
preparing for configuration 41
setting up an aggregate to use 42
failed disks
removing 53
feedback
how to send comments about documentation 70
Flash Pool aggregates
creating 31
creating SSD storage pools for 32
creating using SSD storage pools 33
determining candidacy and optimal cache size for 29
determining whether to modify caching policy of 36
determining whether using a storage pool 32
how caching policies work 27
how to determine the number of disks required for 9,
data
using sanitization to remove from disks 54
deciding which method to use
aggregate creation 7
determining
whether to modify caching policy of Flash Pool
aggregates 36
disk ownership
configuring autoassignment of 51
Disk Qualification Package
when you need to update 48
disk shelves
commands for displaying information about 60
disks
adding to a node 13
commands for managing 58
determining information about, for aggregates 19
how low spare warnings can help you manage spare
48
how to determine the number required for an
aggregate 9, 17
overview of managing 48
RAID protection levels for 17
removing data from using disk sanitization 54
removing failed 53
removing ownership from 53
requirements for using the Disks and Aggregates
Power Guide 6
viewing ownership for 49
when you need to update the Disk Qualification
Package for 48
which autoassignment policy to use for 52
Disks and Aggregates Power Guide
70
how to send feedback about 70
where to find additional information 67
DQP
Disk Qualification Package 48
drives
considerations for sizing RAID groups for 62
how low spare warnings can help you manage spare
48
E
expanding
aggregates 14
expanding aggregates
workflow 12
F
17
modifying caching polices of 36
setting the cache-retention policy for 37
Flash Pool aggregates using storage pools
Index | 73
how Flash Pool SSD partitioning works for 27
Flash Pool SSD partitioning
how it works for Flash Pool aggregates using storage
pools 27
FlexVol volumes
commands for displaying space usage information
59
determining which ones reside on an aggregate 24
how to determine and control space usage in
aggregates 24
H
HA pairs
introduction to relocating aggregate ownership
within 20
HDD RAID groups
sizing considerations for 62
hot spare disks
how they work 48
I
Infinite Volumes
determining which constituents reside on an
aggregate 24
how to determine and control space usage for
constituents in aggregates 24
information
how to send feedback about improving
documentation 70
L
licenses
installing a FabricPool if required 41
low spare warnings
how they can help you manage spare drives 48
M
managing
disks, overview of 48
root-data partitions 51
mirrored aggregates
explained 65
modifying
caching policies of Flash Pool aggregates 36
N
nodes
adding disks to 13
introduction to relocating aggregate ownership
within an HA pair 20
O
overviews
of managing disks 48
ownership
displaying disk ownership 49
displaying partition 49
manually assigning for unpartitioned disks 13
removing from disks 53
ownership, aggregate
introduction to relocating within an HA pair 20
ownership, disk
configuring autoassignment of 51
manually assigning for partitioned disks 49
P
parity disks
how to determine the number required for an
aggregate 9, 17
partitioned disks
manually assigning ownership for 49
partitioning
setting up active-passive configuration on node using
root-data 56
partitioning, Flash Pool SSD
how it works for Flash Pool aggregates using storage
pools 27
partitions
correcting misaligned spare 18
viewing ownership for 49
performance HDD aggregates
how to determine the number of disks required for 9,
17
plexes
mirrored aggregate, explained 65
policies
modifying caching of Flash Pool aggregates 36
policies, cache-retention
setting for Flash Pool aggregates 37
policies, caching
how they work for Flash Pool aggregates 27
policies, disk autoassignment
which to use for disks 52
policies, tiering
creating a volume in the FabricPool 43
pools, SSD storage
adding SSDs to 35
creating 32
power guides
aggregate creation workflow 7
aggregate expansion workflow 12
requirements for using the Disks and Aggregates
Power Guide 6
protection levels, RAID
for disks 17
R
RAID
protection levels for disks 17
RAID groups
changing size of 62
determining information about, for aggregates 19
sizing considerations for 62
RAID policies
default for aggregates 9
74 | Disks and Aggregates Power Guide
RAID-DP
converting to RAID-TEC 61
converting to, from RAID-TEC 61
RAID-TEC
converting to RAID-DP 61
converting to, from RAID-DP 61
relocating
aggregate ownership within an HA pair, introduction
to 20
relocation
aggregate ownership 20
of aggregates 20
removing
data from disk, using disk sanitization 54
failed disks 53
requirements
and considerations for using FabricPool 38
root-data partitioning
additional management options 51
correcting misaligned spare partitions for 18
setting up active-passive configuration on node using
56
S
sanitization
using to remove data from disks 54
setting
cache-retention policy for Flash Pool aggregates 37
shelves
commands for displaying information about 60
sizing
RAID groups, considerations for 62
Snapshot reserve
commands for displaying size of 59
space
commands for displaying usage information 59
methods of creating in an aggregate 25
space usage
how to determine and control volume, in aggregates
24
how to determine in an aggregate 23
space utilization
monitoring for FabricPool 44
spare disks
how low spare warnings can help you manage 48
how to determine the number required for an
aggregate 9, 17
removing ownership from 53
spare partitions
correcting misaligned 18
SSD storage pools
commands for managing 35
creating 32
creating Flash Pool aggregates using 33
how Flash Pool SSD partitioning works for Flash
Pool aggregates using 27
SSDs
adding to SSD storage pools 35
changing size of RAID groups for 62
determining impact to cache size of adding to
storage pool 34
sizing considerations for RAID groups 62
storage pools, determining when used by a Flash
Pool aggregate 32
storage aggregate commands
for displaying space information 59
for managing aggregates 26
for managing disks 58
storage disk commands
for managing disks 58
storage pools
commands for managing 35
creating Flash Pool aggregates using SSD 33
determining impact to cache size of adding SSDs to
34
determining when used by a Flash Pool aggregate 32
storage pools, SSD
adding SSDs to 35
creating 32
how Flash Pool SSD partitioning works for Flash
Pool aggregates using 27
storage shelves
commands for displaying information about 60
storage tiers
benefits by using FabricPool 38
managing by using FabricPool, introduction 38
StorageGRID Webscale
installing a CA certificate if you use 42
suggestions
how to send feedback about documentation 70
SVMs
assigning aggregates to 22
T
tiering policies
creating a volume in the FabricPool 43
modifying for a volume for FabricPool 46
Twitter
how to receive automatic notification of
documentation changes 70
U
unmirrored aggregates
explained 64
unpartitioned disks
manually assigning ownership for 13
used space
how to determine and control in aggregates, by
volume 24
how to determine in aggregate 23
V
volume command
for displaying space information 59
volume show-footprint command
understanding output 24
volumes
adding to FabricPool as needed 43
creating in the FabricPool 43
determining which ones reside on an aggregate 24
Index | 75
how caching policies work for Flash Pool aggregates
27
how to determine space usage of, in aggregates 24
modifying the tiering policy for FabricPool 46
moving to FabricPool 44
where to find additional information about 67
Vservers
See SVMs
W
workflows
aggregate creation 7
aggregate expansion 12
Was this manual useful for you? yes no
Thank you for your participation!

* Your assessment is very important for improving the work of artificial intelligence, which forms the content of this project

Download PDF

advertising