FiberOptic_Layout 1

FiberOptic_Layout 1
Fiber Optics
Cable Construction
Connectors
Splice
Assemblies
Testing
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Fiber Optics: Fiber Cables
Fiber Optics
Fiber Optic use started in the early 1970’s. Corning Glass Works developed a fiber optic cable
with a loss of 20dB/km, today many fiber optics have extremely low loss- .5dB/km for SingleMode.
During the 1980’s telephone companies began to deploy fiber throughout their networks. By implementing a fiber network, telecom companies could future proof their systems backbone.
Fiber Optics is used in many applications such as: Telecommunication, High bandwidth Data,
Video signaling, long distant CCTV, Communication between fire alarm panels, and much more.
Fiber Optics- Advantages
• Maintaining signal integrity in high EMI/RFI applications
• Long distant installations
• Security Issues
• Future Proofing
• Greater amount of information carrying capacity (bandwidth)
• Easy installation - light weight, simplified termination
Fiber Optics- Disadvantages
• Expensive overall installation cost
• Can not carry electrical power
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Fiber Optics: Fiber Cables
Optical Fibers
A glass optical Fiber is made of three components:
1. Core - Light Carrier of the optical fiber. It is made
from a doped glass(Silica). The silica material of
the core allows the light signals to be carried
efficiently and effectively across the fiber.
Sizes of the Core:
• 8µm (8.3 or 9µm) Single Mode
• 50µm - MulitMode
• 62.5µm - MultiMode
µm - microns - 1000microns =1mm
2. Cladding - Surrounds the Cladding, it is also made
from a different type of silica. The glass of the
cladding is made to contain the light within the
core.
Sizes of the Cladding:
• 125µm
3. Plastic Coating - Surrounds the Cladding and acts as a protector for the glass. The coating is
implemented to protect the glass while it is shipped to the Fiber Optic Cable Manufacturers.
The Coating is normally clear (color), but for all Outdoor cables the coating is color coded to
help identify the individual fibers. The coating has to be removed to connect the fiber to a
connector or splice.
Sizes of the Coating:
• 250µm
Single-Mode Fibers - 8/125µm
Single mode or path of light from
a laser source.
Long Haul installations.
Multi-Mode Fibers- 50/125µm or 62.5/125µm
Multiple modes or paths of light from the
LED source.
Shorter Installation
Both Single-Mode and MultiMode will handle Audio,Video, and Data simultaneously.
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Fiber Optic Dispersion:
Single-Mode Fiber Cables
The Single-Mode core is 10th the size of a human hair. This fiber type uses a LASER to transmit
the signals. The fiber is designed as a step index, meaning that the core has only one refractive
index to carry the light signal. There is some dispersion over long distances. Chromatic dispersion is caused by the intense LASER filtering into the cladding causing pulse overlap and distorted signals.
Multi-Mode Fiber Cables
The Multi-Mode core is larger and can gather more light. This fiber uses an LED or VCSEL to transmit the light signals. A Multi-Mode core has a broader aperture over SingleMode fibers. A MultiMode fiber also has dispersions over longer distances. This dispersion is called Modal dispersion.
A Mulit-mode core is set up with multiple rings with different refractive index characteristics.
These rings allow the light to be traveled over longer distances without loss of continuity of light,
but these signals can become compromised if the distance is increased too much.
Refractive Index:
Air =
Normal Glass =
Cladding =
Core =
1
1.5
1.46
1.48
Meaning Light travels 186,000miles/second
Doped to contain the light
SingleMode - 1.47 to 1.48 different layers Mulit-Mode
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Operating Wavelengths:
There are Primarily three windows of opportunity to transmit light effectively and effectively
through an optical fiber. These specific wavelenths are in the infared region.
Visible light starts with Blue - approx. 400nm to Red 700nm. nm=nanometers.
850nm - 3-4dB of loss/km. The least expensive transmitting device. Found on lower speed,
shorter distant applications such as CCTV, Fire Alarm communication devices. ( LED)
Used with Mulit-Mode fibers
1300nm (1310nm) - 1-1.5dB of loss/km. The second window of opportunity. Used for higher
speed, longer distant Multi-mode applications. 1310nm is used for Single-Mode shorter distant
applications. LED or VCSEL.
1550nm - .5dB of loss/km. This is the second window of opportunity for SingleMode transmission. This wavelength is used for extremely long distant high bandwidth applications.
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Fiber Optic Cable Types
Indoor Fiber Optic Cables
Indoor fiber optic cables are designed to
either limit smoke vertically (Riser), or
limit smoke and flame vertically and
horizontally (Plenum). The cables are
constructed with 900µm buffer over the 250µm
coating to help facilitate a connector
Indoor/Outdoor Fiber Optic Cables
Indoor/Outdoor fiber optic cables are designed together limit smoke vertically (Riser), or limit smoke
and flame vertically and
horizontally (Plenum). The cables are
constructed with 900µm buffer to
help facilitate a connector. They also provide
water-blocking material.
Outdoor Fiber Optic Cables
Outdoor fiber cables are designed to withstand the
environmental elements. They are constructed
with 250µm buffers that ride loosely within a tube
that is filled with waterblocking gel. The Jacket is PE. A PE jacket can not
be brought indoors because of the flame and
smoke it produces when flame is set to it. A outdoor cable has a limit of 50ft. entering a building to
be terminated or spliced to a Indoor rated cable.
Direct Burial Outdoor cables include a armored
sheath for direct burial protection. A connector can
not be placed directly on an outdoor fiber because
of the 250µm buffer. A fan-out kit, or splice with a
pre-connected pigtail must be used.
Fan out Kits:
FI-1100 - 6 Fiber Kit
FI-1100
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Fiber Optic Connector Types
90% of the Market consists of ST, SC and LC Connector Types
ST - Straight Tip
• Used mostly in Security Applications (CCTV) because of the
design is similar to a BNC Coaxial connector
• Keyed locking bayonet style
• Loss- .5-1dB per connection
Offered in the OPTIMAX Connection Kit SUMMER 2012 BRILLIANCE
SC - Square or Subscriber
• Used mostly in Data Applications because of the design
is similar to a RJ45 modular plug.
• Push/Pull with floating ferrule - no disconnect
• Loss- .5-1dB per connection
Offered in the OPTIMAX Connection Kit and Brilliance Kit.
LC - Lucent or Little
• Used mostly in Data Applications because of the design
is similar to a RJ45 modular plug. SFF - Small Form Factor connector
• Push/Pull with clipping hood
• Loss- .5-1dB per connection
Offered in the OPTIMAX Connection Kit and Brilliance Kit
OTHER CONNECTORS:
FC - Floating - SFF Connector
MTRJ - Mechanical Transfer Registered Jack - SFF Connector
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Fiber Optic Connector Installation Kits
Optimax Kit - FI-3635
The Optimax Kit will connect ST, SC, and LC
Connector Types.
The Kit is a unique design that incorporates factor
polished fiber stub in a splice mechanism which
provides a fast, secure and reliable termination of
fiber optic cables.
The Optimax Connectors offer premium quality
ceramic ferrule with Physical Contact (PC) polish for
Mulit-Mode and Super Physical Contact (SPC) polish
for Single-Mode
The Optimax installation consists of:
1. Cleave the Fiber
2. Insert the fiber into the connector
3. Pull the release Pin to activate the mechanical
splice
4. Crimp the connector
Specifications: OPTIMAX
Interconnection compatibility
Field Assembly Time 900µm
Insertion Loss dB
Storage Temp.
Operating Temp.
Tensile Strength 900µm
LC/SC/ST
1 Min.
.3dB
-40˚F - 149˚F
32˚F -145˚F
3lbs.
Connectors are not reuseable after pin has
been released.
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Optimax Tools and Accessories
Catalog No.
Description
FI-3635
FI-3634
FI-3641
FI-8829
FI-8832
FI-8835
FI-8837
FI-1075
FI-1074
FI-0028
FI-0029
FI-1077
FI-1076
FI-1791
FI-1792
FI-1793
FI-1794
FI-1981
FI-1982
FI-1983
FI-1984
OPTIMAX Complete Kit
Installation Tool- ST
ST Compatible Crimp Tool
Fiber Cleaver
Microscope
ST 900um Connector - 62.5/125um
ST Universal connector- 62.5/125um
ST 900um Connector - 50/125um
ST Universal connector- 50/125um
SC Universal connector- 62.5/125um
SC 900um connector- 62.5/125um
SC 900um connector- 50/125um
SC Universal connector- 50/125um
ST Single-Mode 900um connector
SC Single-Mode 900um connector
ST- Accessory Kit For Jacketed Single-Mode
SC- Accessory Kit For Jacketed Single-Mode
LC 900um connector- 62.5/125um
LC 900um connector- 50/125um
LC 900um connector- Single-Mode
LC- Accessory Kit For Jacketed Single-Mode Fiber
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Optimax ST 900µm Installation
1. Assemble Connector boot to boot body.
Slide assembled boot onto cable
2. Strip 40mm (1.25”) of jacket and coating. Strip in 5mm (.250”) increments
3. Mark Fiber 9mm from the bare glass.
Clean the fiber.
4. Load the connector body into the
installation tool with release pin up. Keep
dust cap boots on.
5. Cleave the fiber at 7mm. Using tweezers, disgard
waste fiber into waste container.
6. Remove dust cap. Carefully insert bare fiber
into the stem of the connector until you feel
fbers making contact. Pen mark should be at the
edge of the stem.
7. Depress the installation tool plunger.
Ensure it hooks the release wire. Then release Pin
8. Crimp Using .068” Crimp Die
9. Slide boot onto connector body
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Fiber Optic Connector Installation Kits
Brilliance Field Kit - FI-4270
The Brilliance Field Kit will connect SC, and LC
Connector Types.
The Kit is a unique design that incorporates factor
polished fiber stub in a splice mechanism which
provides a fast, secure and reliable termination of
fiber optic cables.
The Brilliance Connectors offer premium quality
ceramic ferrule. The patent-pending design offers the
quickest termination in the industry (less than 30seconds).
The Brilliance connectors can be used up to 5-6 times.
The Optimax installation consists of:
1. Cleave the Fiber
2. Open connector cavity - activation tab
3. Insert the fiber into the connector
4. Release activation tab on the connector body.
FiberExpress Tools and Accessories
Specifications: Brilliance Connector
Interconnection compatibility
Field Assembly Time 900µm
Insertion Loss dB
Storage Temp.
Operating Temp.
Tensile Strength 900µm
LC/SC
30 sec.
.3dB
-40˚F - 140˚F
-40˚F -167˚F
1.12lbs.
Connectors are reusable up to 6 times.
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Cat.No.
Description
FI-4270
FiberExpress Field Installable Complete Kit
LC Connectors
LC - 900µm, Multimode Beige Connector, 62.5um
LC - 900µm, Multimode Black Connector, 50um
LC - 900µm, Multimode Aqua Connector, 50um
LC - 900µm, Single-mode Blue Connector, 8um
SC Connectors
SC - 900µm, Multimode Beige Connector, 62.5um
SC - 900µm, Multimode Black Connector, 50um
SC - 900µm, Multimode Aqua Connector, 50um
SC - 900µm, SINGLE-MODE Blue Connector, 8um
FI-4240
FI-4241
FI-4242
FI-4243
FI-4244
FI-4245
FI-4246
FI-4247
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Brilliance LC Installation
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Mechanical Splicing:
3M-2501 - Tool
3M-2529 - Mechanical Splice
.5-1dB loss/splice
1 Load the 3M-2529 into the 3M-2501 Installation Tool.
2. Strip fiber cables approx. 40mm (1.25”), be sure to remove the
jacket and the coating. Clean the bare fiber
Cleave the Fibers 12.5mm for indoor
3. Insert fibers in the mechanical splice. Once inserted gently
move the fibers back and forth to assure center placement.
Load the fibers into the holding brackets and put
equal bows to hold the fibrer in place
4. Rotate the lid down on the mechanical splice - until a click
Splice Tray: Mechanical Splice
Wall Mount Enclosures
FI-SPTRME
Fits into West Penn Wire Wall Mount Enclosures
FI-WM12 - 12 Port
FI-WM24 - 24 Port
FI-WM48 - 48 Port
FI-WM100 - 100 Port
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Fan-out Kit
Fan out kit is used to move a 250µm outdoor fiber to a
900µm fiber for connector assembly.
FI-1100 - 6 tube fan-out kit
FI-1101 - 12 tube fan-out kit
1 Strip the External Jacket away. (24-36 inches).
Strip the central tub away- expose individual 250µm Fibers
Trim away the kevlar
2. Take a towel or rag and remove the water-blocking gel.
Apply talc or baby powder and continue to remove gel.
3. Apply more powder to clean coated 250µm fibers.
4. Feed individual fibers into the color coded slots on the fiber
insertion bock.
5. Apply clamping hood to the central tube. Secure brackets using
needle nose pliers.
6. Place fiber insertion block into the clamping hood.
7. Apply the closure hood onto the clamping hood.
8. Optional - apply electrial tape around the fan-out kit and overall
jacket.
9. Cable is now prepared at 900µm to assemble a connector
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Fiber Optic Assemblies
Types: ST, SC, LC other MTRJ
Glass Types: SingleMode and Multi-Mode
Simplex or Duplex Design
ST Fiber Optic Assemblies
Catalog No.
Description
Simplex ST to ST
Replace xx with:3,6,10,15,30
Duplex ST to ST
Replace xx with:3,6,10,15,30
FI-X001-xx
FI-X002-xx
ST to SC Fiber Optic Assemblies
SC Fiber Optic Assemblies
Catalog No.
FI-X001-xxSC
FI-X002-xxSC
Catalog No.
Description
Simplex SC to SC
Replace xx with:3,6,10,15,30
Duplex SC to SC
Replace xx with:3,6,10,15,30
FI-X001-xxST/SC Simplex ST to SC Replace xx with:3,6,10,15,30
FI-X002-xxST/SC Duplex ST to SC Replace xx with:3,6,10,15,30
SC to LC Fiber Optic Assemblies
LC Fiber Optic Assemblies
Catalog No.
FI-X001-xxLC
FI-X002-xxLC
Description
Catalog No.
Description
Simplex LC to LC
Replace xx with:3,6,10,15,30
Duplex LC to LC
Replace xx with:3,6,10,15,30
Description
FI-X001-xxLC/SC Simplex SC to LC Replace xx with:3,6,10,15,30
FI-X002-xxLC/SC Duplex SC to LC Replace xx with:3,6,10,15,30
Fiber Optic Assembly Glass Size
Repace X
with:
Core
Glass Size
Description
1
50um
Standard 50micron Fiber optic glass type
Multi-Mode
2
62.5um
Standard 62.5micron fiber optic glass type
Multi-Mode
3
8um
8micron Single Mode fiber optic glass type
SingleMode
4
50um LOF
OM3 Laser Optimized 50micron
Multi-Mode
Replace xx with: 3, 6,10, 15, 30 Feet
FI-3002-15LC
SingleMode 15ft. LC to LC Assembly
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Testing Methods:
Continuity Check
Flashlight - to check Continuity
FI-5000
First test done to see if light is passing
through the connection points
Power Meter/Light Source
Checks fiber power budget reference
FI08513 - 850/1300/1550nm PM
FI-8513 - 850/1300nm LS
FI-1550 - 1550nm LS
This test provides information compared to an
optical power budget. If your power budget is for
example: 12dB and the reading is 11dB- this system will
operate. Checks total loss of the fiber link.
Optical Time Domain Reflectometer
OTDR
Sends a pulse down a line of fiber optic cable. It measures the reflections created by fiber loss, splices and
connectors. An OTDR will precisely indicate where a
problem is occuring.
Expensive equipment: WPW has access.
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