INDUSTREX Films
TECHNICAL DATA / NON-DESTRUCTIVE TESTING
INDUSTREX Films
February 2016 TI-6K7080
Film Types and Features
Classification
Film
DR50
M100
MX125
T200
AA400
HS800
Features and Customer Product Specifications
•
•
•
•
Ultra-fine grain
High contrast and excellent sensitivity
For critical radiography, especially with high voltage x-rays and gamma rays
Excellent for use in multi-films techniques
• Ultra-fine grain
• Medium speed, very high contrast, high definition (excellent sensitivity)
• For critical radiography, such as weld inspection related to the nuclear industry
• Ultra-fine grain
• Medium speed, very high contrast, high definition
• For a wide range of critical radiography such as aeroengine, weld, fabrication,
investment castings and assemblies
• Ultra-fine grain
• Medium speed, high contrast
• For a wide range of critical radiography such as weld fabrication, investment
castings and assemblies
• For use in multiple film radiography and in single film
•
•
•
•
Fine grain
High speed, high contrast
Suitable for weld and casting inspection
Often used in multiple film techniques
• Medium grain
• High speed, high contrast with direct x-rays, with lead screens, with fluorescent
or with fluorometallic screens
• Suitable for low and high voltage equipment, and gamma sources
• For concrete and heavy construction, offshore pipeline, and thick wall casting
applications
INDUSTREX M43ic Processor,
INDUSTREX Single Part Developer
Replenisher,
8 minutes at 79 °F (26 °C)
ASTM E1815
EN ISO 11699–1
Special
C1
Class I
C2
Class I
C3
Class I
C4
Class II
C5
Class III
C6
Note: All INDUSTREX Films can be used with direct x-rays or with lead screens. High Speed HS800 can be used with direct x-rays, with lead screens, with
fluorescent, or with fluorometallic screens.
Thickness for all INDUSTREX Film
Base / Support
0.18 mm
7.08 mil
Emulsion
0.025 mm
1.00 mil
Overcoat
0.10 mm
0.40 mil
Total
0.21 mm
8.40 mil
© Carestream Health, Inc. 2016
Available Packaging Formats
Packaging formats are identified by a suffix after the film type ID. Use the following key to identify the package format, and find
detailed descriptions of each format below.
Package Format and Suffix
Sheet Film
Roll Film
Interleaved
5
Ready Pack
381
Non-Interleaved
1
Lead Pack
382
PbContactPak
7
NIF bulk roll
359
Ready Pack II Film
2
Note: All packaging formats are available for all INDUSTREX Films, excluding the HS800. HS800 NIF Bulk Rolls are available
in EAMER. The HS800 Pb ContactPak is available in APR.
PACKAGING FORMAT DESCRIPTIONS
Sheet Film—Interleaved (INT) (suffix 5)
Each film is supplied individually enclosed in a white folder for extra protection during handling procedures. For most sizes, the
unit pack is 100 sheets provided as 2 x 50 sheets. The film can be loaded into metal or plastic cassettes or into exposure holders,
with or without lead screens.
Sheet Film—Non-Interleaved (NIF) (suffix 1)
This form of packaging is generally supplied in packs of 100 sheets, and is for use when film is to be loaded into metal or plastic
cassettes, or exposure holders, with or without lead screens.
Sheet Film—Pb Contactpak (suffix 7)
This pack consists of a film sandwiched between two 27-micron thick lead screens sealed in a lighttight, water-resistant, flexible
package. A vacuum inside the pack provides superb film/screen contact. The package is laser-scored for easy opening. The film
type is identified on the package as well as embossed on the film itself. The package has a butt edge which is invaluable for accurate
positioning in difficult situations where the image needs to fall right up to the edge of the pack. Product in this packaging is clean
to use, is water and oil resistant and is available for exposure immediately.
Sheet Film—READY PACK II (suffix 2)
These films are individually vacuum sealed in lighttight, water-resistant, flexible packages. The package is laser-scored for easy
opening. The film type is identified on the package as well as embossed on the film itself. The package has a butt edge which is
invaluable for accurate positioning in difficult situations where the image needs to fall right up to the edge of the pack.
Roll Film—READY PACK (suffix 381)
The film is supplied in a long, lighttight roll sandwiched between two yellow-black paper polyethelene layers. The rolls are of
60- or 100-metre lengths in a variety of widths. The film is provided in a dispenser box and is cut to length by the user in a
darkroom.
Roll Film—LEAD PACK (suffix 382)
The film is supplied sandwiched between two 27-micron thick lead screens inside a long, lighttight paper and polyethelene sleeve.
The rolls are 100 metres long and are cut to length by the user in a darkroom.
Roll Film—NIF Bulk Roll (suffix 359)
The film is supplied on a cardboard core in rolls 150 metres long in three widths: 60 mm, 70 mm and 100 mm. The 70 mm is also
available in the 305 metre lengths. The film must be loaded into a cassette in a darkroom.
SAFELIGHT RECOMMENDATIONS
Use a red or dark red safelight filter (such as #1/Red, #2/Dark Red, or GBX-2/Red) in a suitable safelight lamp equipped with a
15-watt bulb. Keep the film at least 4 feet (1.2 metres) from the safelight. For HS800 film, limit safelight exposure time to a
maximum of 2 minutes.
Note: Other safelight filters that block radiation at 550 nm and shorter wavelengths are also suitable for use.
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2016-02-12 – TI-6K7080
STORAGE AND HANDLING
Always handle the film with care to avoid physical strains such as pressure, creasing, or buckling damage.
Very high-speed x-ray films, such as HS800 Film, are photosensitive to physical handling marks that occur prior to processing.
Pressure to the film's surface can cause minus density marks to develop, such as might result from kinking the film or pressure from
debris inside cassettes or screens. To avoid these types of handling artifacts, carry a single sheet of film, handling it carefully by the
two opposite corners. Alternatively, gently bend the film in half and grasp it with your thumb and middle finger and place your index
finger in between to keep the film surfaces separated. Keeping the long dimension parallel to the floor is easier.
It is important to realize that meeting the chemical and physical requirements do not ensure that records will not deteriorate. It is
essential to provide proper storage conditions. ASTM E1254 gives details of storage conditions. ISO 18911 and ISO 18902 give—
for processed films—recommended storage conditions and specifications for the respective enclosure materials.
Unexposed
50 to 75.2 F (10 to 24.0 C), 30 to 50 % RH. Properly shield from x-rays, gamma rays, or other penetrating radiation.
Exposed
Keep cool, dry, and properly shielded from penetrating radiation. Process as soon as possible after exposure.
Processed
60 to 80 F (15 to 27 C), 30 to 50 % RH.
RELATIVE EXPOSURE
EXPOSURE CONDITIONS: 8 mm Copper Filtration, HVL 3.5 mm Copper (220 kV), Lead screens
INDUSTREX Films
INDUSTREX Processor
INDUSTREX Chemicals
8 min 79F (26C)
*
DR50
7.2
M100
4.2
MX125
2.8
T200
1.7
AA400*
1.0
HS800
0.5
AA400 Film in 8 min 79F (26C) cycle is assigned a relative exposure of 1.
RELATIVE EXPOSURE FOR VARIOUS ENERGY LEVELS
In the Relative Exposure Factors table below, notice that for each exposure condition, the AA400 Film—in 8 minutes, 26 C
(79 F)—is assigned a relative exposure of 1.00.
INDUSTREX
Films
DR50
Relative Exposure for Various Energy Levels
ISO
120kV*
EN
220kV†
Iridium‡
Cobalt§
9.0
7.2
9.0
9.0
M100
4.1
4.2
5.4
6.3
MX125
2.9
2.8
3.1
3.3
T200
1.6
1.7
1.9
1.9
AA400
1.0
1.0
1.0
1.0
HS800
—
0.5
—
—
*
In accordance with ISO 7004 standard, without lead screens
In accordance with ISO 7004 standard - EN ISO 11699–1 Lead screens
‡ 8 mm Copper filtration. 100/200 microns lead screens
§ 100/200 microns lead screens
†
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3
Automatic Processing
RECOMMENDED CHEMICALS
INDUSTREX Single Part Developer Replenisher
INDUSTREX Single Part Developer Replenisher is a universal, single-part concentrate used to process all types of non-destructive
testing film. As its name implies, this is a single part liquid concentrate for easy mixing. It is compatible with existing automatic
processing cycles of 8 minutes and longer, and allows a shorter processing cycle (5 minutes) for all films.
The developer formula allows high photographic consistency and quality, and ensures an efficient use of the developer when using
a low replenishment rate and it also reduces any environmental impact. This developer reduces or minimizes operator maintenance
due to crystallization, silver deposits, or sludge.
Features:
• High chemical stability—includes consistent image quality over an extended period of time, improved resistance to aerial
oxidation, and low sludge formation
• Designed for use in both automatic and manual processing
• Reduced packaging, less solid waste
• Glutaraldehyde free
• Strengthened “activation power” which allows for fast processing and high productivity
• Outstanding image quality—cold (blue) image “tone” and low granularity
• Reduced environmental impact—lower COD and BOD5 (5-days Biochemical Oxygen Demand)
• Concentrated (single part) liquid developer provides ease of use
• Can be used in chemical auto-mixers
INDUSTREX LO Fixer and Replenisher
This fixer is recommended to process all types of industrial imaging film in automatic and manual processing cycles.
This fixer consists of a single part liquid—just add water to the proper dilution. For use, the concentrate must be diluted with water
according to the instructions provided below (see “Mixing Instructions.”)
Features:
• Low odor
• Improved archivability
• Reduced environmental impact—lower COD and BOD5 (5-days Biochemical Oxygen Demand)
• Concentrated (single part) liquid fixer provides ease of use
• Designed for use in both automatic and manual processing
• Can be used in chemical auto-mixers
Compatibility
INDUSTREX Single Part Developer Replenisher and INDUSTREX LO Fixer and Replenisher can be used with all INDUSTREX
Films.
Storing Solutions
To maintain product quality, these chemicals must be stored in the original package, at a temperature between 5 and 30C (41 to
86F). When stored in these conditions, the lifetime is two years from the date of manufacture.
Discard solutions if there is evidence of contamination, dirt, over-dilution, excessive evaporation, or crystallization.
Mixing Instructions
Notice: Observe precautionary information on product labels and on the Material Safety Data Sheets.
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2016-02-12 – TI-6K7080
INDUSTREX Single Part Developer Replenisher
INDUSTREX Single Part Developer Replenisher is supplied in a quantity to prepare 38 litres (2 x 19 litres) or 40 litres (2 x 20 litres)
of working solution, depending on geographic region, and consists of plastic containers of concentrated developer solution.
Mixing Developer Replenisher
Start with
Water at 10
- 30C (50
- 86F)
Add
Concentrate
(Number of
Bottles)
Fill to:
Stir
19 L
10 L
1
19 L
20 L
10 L
1
20 L
Stir for about 2
minutes until a
completely
homogeneous
solution is
obtained.
To Make
Working
Strength
Solution
To mix smaller quantities, use the following table and multiply as needed:
To Make 1 Litre Working Strength Developer Solution
Start with
Developer
Concentrate
Add Water at
10 - 30C (50 - 86F) to
Make 1 L
Stir
750 mL
Stir for about 2
minutes until a
completely
homogeneous
solution is obtained.
250 mL
Automixer Mixing
Remove the bottle caps (leaving seal intact) and place bottle in the automixer template. The automixer will add water to achieve the
proper volume or specific gravity (1.072), depending on the type/model of automixer.
INDUSTREX Single Part Developer Starter
The INDUSTREX Single Part Developer Starter is used with the INDUSTREX Single Part Developer Replenisher to prepare a
developer working-strength startup solution for automatic processing. The use of starter is not necessary for manual or tank
processing.
Add 31 mL of starter solution per 1 litre of the mixed INDUSTREX Single Part Developer Replenisher.
INDUSTREX LO Fixer and Replenisher
Start with
Water at 10
- 30C (50
- 86F)
Add
Concentrate
(Number of
Bottles),
Stirring
Constantly
Fill to:
Stir
19 L
10 L
1
19 L
20 L
10 L
1
20 L
Stir continuously
for about 2
minutes until a
completely
homogeneous
solution is
obtained.
To
Make
To mix smaller quantities, use the following table and multiply as needed:
TI-6K7080 – 2016-02-12
5
To Make 1 Litre Working Strength Fixer Solution
Start with
Fixer
Concentrate
Add Water at
10 - 30C
(50 - 86F) to
Make 1 L
19 L
200 mL
800 mL
20 L
250 mL
750 mL
Starting With
Package That
Makes
Stir
Stir for about 2
minutes until a
completely
homogeneous
solution is
obtained.
Automixer Mixing
Remove the bottle caps (leaving the seal intact) and place the bottles in the automixer template. The automixer will add water to
achieve the proper volume or a specific gravity (1.066 for 19 L mix, 1.084 for 20 L mix), depending on the type/model of the
automixer.
Film Characteristics (Sensitometric)
Exposure Conditions—200/220 kV, ISO/EN Conditions, INDUSTREX Chemicals, INDUSTREX M43ic Processor
Cycle
DR50
M100
Base +
Base +
Contrast†
Fog
Fog
MX125
Contrast†
T200
Base +
Base +
Contrast†
Fog
Fog
AA400
Contrast†
HS800
Base +
Base +
Contrast†
Contrast†
Fog
Fog
8 min
79 F (26 C)*
0.19
5.40
0.19
5.40
0.20
5.15
0.19
4.70
0.20
4.70
0.22
4.40
5 min
86 F (30 C)
0.20
5.55
0.19
5.25
0.20
5.05
0.20
4.70
0.20
4.65
0.23
4.30
† Contrast calculated between net densities of 1.5 and 3.5.
RECOMMENDED REPLENISHMENT RATES
The consistency of the radiographic quality is related to the accurate adjustment of the replenishment rate. Replenishment should
maintain the chemical equilibrium, replacing the components used by the film.
Replenishment Volume
Solution
*
per 35 x 43 cm
(14 x 17 inch) sheet
per m2
INDUSTREX
Developer Replenisher
or Single Part
Developer Replenisher
100 mL (3.38 oz)
665 mL
(22.48 oz)
INDUSTREX LO
Fixer and Replenisher
180 mL (6.08 oz)*
1200 mL
(40.57 oz)
For optimum archivability, a 10% increase in fixer replenishment rate may be desirable.
WASHING AND DRYING
Washing: Follow the processor manufacturer's recommendation for wash flow rate, or adjust flow to achieve the equivalent of the
wash tank capacity every five minutes, or twelve tank volumes per hour. Insufficient wash flow can adversely affect the life
expectancy of processed radiographs. Wash flow rate should be increased if chemical spot tests or other analytical methods reveal
a high level of retained chemicals in the processed film. For best results, the wash tank should be drained daily and left empty when
not in use.
Drying: Follow the processor manufacturer's recommendation for dryer settings. In general, the dryer should be set to a
temperature slightly above (3C/5F) the lowest temperature required to eliminate any signs of tackiness in films exiting the dryer.
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2016-02-12 – TI-6K7080
Manual Processing
To reach the desired density on a radiograph, many people use set exposure factors and then adjust development time—or “sight
develop”—to compensate for under- or overexposed images.
Today, you can eliminate that guesswork and get more consistent results by using INDUSTREX Films with our exclusive tabular
emulsion technology. The key is to use the correct exposure factors when you shoot the images. We provide convenient
INDUSTREX Film Exposure Calculators to help you determine the correct factors for each situation.
By removing the processing variable, you will get better consistency and higher productivity in the darkroom. Our films provide
stable contrast and a relatively stable speed over a wider range of developer temperatures—unlike older film technologies that have
highly variable speed, relative to developer temperature and immersion time.
When using an Ir-192 source, you can use the INDUSTREX Film Exposure Calculator to determine the correct exposure (based
upon density desired).
Then, follow these simple processing recommendations.
Timer and Thermometer
The timer and the thermometer are essential. They must be accurate and in good condition.
Film Handling
Do not bend the film. Handle the film only by the edges to avoid finger marks and abrasions when loading on hangers. Separate the
hangers in the solutions so that the films will not touch each other or the tank wall.
TI-6K7080 – 2016-02-12
7
RECOMMENDED CHEMICALS
Dilution
Concentrate
+ H2O
pH Working
Strength
Specific Gravity
Working
Strength
10.55
+/- 0.10
(25° C, 77° F)
1.078
+/- 0.005
(20° C, 68° F)
Replenishment
Rate
To Make Working Strength Solution
Developer
Use INDUSTREX Manual Developer
and INDUSTREX Manual Developer
Replenisher.
1L
665mL/m²
(e.g., 100 mL per
14 x 17 inch
sheet)
1+3
2 min
3L
4L
5-25 ºC
Stop Bath
Use INDUSTREX Manual Stop Bath.
This stop bath rapidly halts
development, preventing most
spotting and streaking and prolongs
the life of the fixing bath. This
odorless stop bath features an
indicator that changes color (from
orange-yellow to magenta-red) at pH
5.2 to alert the user of declining
activity, so that the solution can be
changed or additional concentrate
added.
No replenishment
required.
1L
Add water to
compensate for
carryover and
evaporation.
Change out the
solution when a
color change
occurs, or add
more concentrate.
1 + 19
2.20
+/- 0.10
(25° C, 77° F)
2 min
19 L
20 L
5-25 ºC
Fixer
1200mL/m²
(e.g., 180mL per
14 x 17 inch
sheet)
Use INDUSTREX Manual Fixer
and INDUSTREX Manual Fixer
Replenisher.
1L
5.80
+/- 0.10
(25° C, 77° F)
It may be
neccessary to
discard some
used solution
before adding the
proper volume of
replenisher.
1+3
1.095
+/- 0.005
(20° C, 68° F)
2 min
3L
4L
5-25 ºC
Final Rinse
No replenishment
required.
1L
Use INDUSTREX Manual Rinse
Solution. This solution is a wetting
agent that effectively reduces
water spots and drying marks.
Add water to
compensate for
carryover and
evaporation.
Change out the
solution when
other solutions
are changed.
1 + 19
2 min
19 L
20 L
5-25 ºC
H242_0038
Film Characteristics (Sensitometric)
Exposure Conditions—200/220 kV, lead screens, ISO/EN Conditions, INDUSTREX Single Part Developer Replenisher
Cycle
DR50*
M100*
MX125
T200*
AA400*
HS800
Base +
Base +
Base +
Base +
Base +
Base +
Contrast†
Contrast†
Contrast†
Contrast†
Contrast†
Contrast†
Fog
Fog
Fog
Fog
Fog
Fog
5 min
68 F (20 C)
3 min
75 F (24 C)
0.20
0.20
5.10
5.00
0.19
0.19
5.00
5.30
0.19
0.19
5.00
5.10
0.20
0.20
4.80
4.80
0.25
0.20
4.20
0.23
2.60
_
_
4.30
† Contrast calculated between net densities of 1.5 and 3.5.
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2016-02-12 – TI-6K7080
SPECIFIC GRAVITY
Measurement of SpG of freshly prepared processing solutions can reveal mixing errors, and can be easily accomplished with a
graduated cylinder and an appropriate hydrometer.
To measure specific gravity:
1. Fill a clean, dry 250 mL graduated cylinder to within 1 inch (2.5 cm) of the top with the solution you are measuring.
2. Adjust the solution to the proper temperature (25 °C, 77 °F). Note that proper solution temperature is very important.
3. Place the cylinder in a sink or tray to catch overflow.
4. Choose the correct hydrometer to match the approximate specific gravity of the solution.
5. Be sure that the hydrometer is clean and dry. Carefully lower the hydrometer into the solution in the cylinder. Let it bob up and
down slightly. When it stops, read the number at the top of the meniscus.
6. After making the measurement, discard the sample.
7. Rinse the hydrometer and graduated cylinder thoroughly with water.
H242_0036
TI-6K7080 – 2016-02-12
9
REPLENISHMENT RATES
Maintain the chemical activity and solution level in the tank by adding replenisher according to the instructions below:
Solution
Replenishment Volume
per 14 x 17 inch sheet
per m2
Developer
100 mL
665 mL
Fixer*
180 mL
1200 mL
*
For optimum archivability, a 10% increase in fixer replenishment rate may be desirable.
Stir solutions vigorously after each addition. Follow the manufacturer’s instructions for the specific developer replenisher and fixer
replenisher you are using.
Additionally:
• When removing films from a developer tank, DO NOT ALLOW THE EXCESS SOLUTION TO DRAIN BACK INTO THE
TANK. Normally this will carry out the proper amount of solution to permit correct replenishment.
• Use floating covers on the developer tanks to reduce oxidation and evaporation; store developer replenisher in a closed
container.
• Fill the developer and fixer tank to its original level each morning with developer or fixer replenisher solution (topping off).
• Discard solution after adding two tank volumes of replenisher to the tank, or at least once per month, and then refill with fresh
solution.
ENSURING PROCESS QUALITY
Residual Thiosulfate Test
Use a test kit to ensure good keeping characteristics for radiographs. A test such as the CARESTREAM X-Omat Hypo Test Kit
(CAT 196 5847) determines whether film has been adequately washed and provides an estimate of the archival life you can expect.
The kit comes complete with testing solution and a visual estimator.
Residual Silver Test Solution
An overworked fixing bath contains complex silver thiosulfate compounds that cannot be removed completely by washing. A
residual silver test solution provides a quick and accurate method for determining when a fixing bath should be discarded. Prepare
the test solution as follows:
Water
100 mL
Sodium Sulfide (Anhydrous)
2 grams
To Use: Store stock solution in a small stoppered bottle not more than 3 months. Dilute 1 part stock solution with 9 parts water.
(Replace the working solution weekly.) Place a drop of the test solution on the margin of the p16rocessed film. Remove solution
after 2 to 3 minutes. Any yellowing of the test area indicates the presence of silver. Refix the film in fresh fixer and rewash. The
yellow stain is permanent.
Fixer Test Solution
A fixer test solution is used to check the silver content of the fixer bath. Prepare the test solution as follows:
Water at 27 C (80 F)
750 mL
Potassium Iodide
190 grams
Water to make
1 litre
To 5 drops of the test solution, add 5 drops of the fixing bath and 5 drops of water. Discard the fixer if a yellow-white precipitate
forms instantly. (Any slight milkiness can be disregarded.)
You can also use silver estimating test papers to measure the silver content in your fixer. One supplier is USI International, Inc.
(www.silverprofit.com).
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2016-02-12 – TI-6K7080
DEVELOPER TIMES AND TEMPERATURES
Manual Processing Cycle
Time/Temperature
Developer
5 minutes - 20ºC (68ºF)
4 minutes - 22ºC 72ºF)*
3 minutes - 24ºC (75ºF)
2 minutes - 26ºC (79ºF)
Notes
Important: Agitate
15 seconds at immersion,
then intermittent - 5 seconds
every 30 seconds.
Use floating covers on the developer
tank to reduce oxidation and
evaporation; store developer
replenisher in a closed airtight
container.
Fill the developer tank to its original
level each day (topping off) with
developer replenisher solution.
Stop Bath
30 seconds
Important: PULL AND
PLUNGE FILM DIRECTLY
FROM DEVELOPER INTO
STOP BATH. DO NOT
ALLOW excess developer
to drain back into
developer tank. Continuous
moderate agitation.
Fixer
Wash
Rinse Solution
10 to 30 minutes in
running water
(8 volume changes per
hour)
3 to 6 minutes or twice
the time to clear film
30 seconds
Fill the fixer tank to its
original level each day
(topping off) with fixer
replenisher solution.
Fill the final rinse to its
original level each day
(topping off) with water.
Fill the Stop Bath to its
original level each day
(topping off) with water.
Stir solutions after each addition.
Discard solutions after adding two tank volumes of replenisher to the tank, or at least once per month, and then refill with fresh solution.
* Recommended
H242_0039
INDUSTREX Film Exposure Calculator
The INDUSTREX Film Exposure Calculator eliminates guesswork in determining the proper exposure and processing when using
an Ir-192 source. It provides the proper exposure for a given material thickness, distance, source strength, and development. Today,
many shots are lost due to sight adjustment of density during the development cycle, so we removed the development variable to
make your results more consistent. But again, getting the proper exposure is critical—so use the calculator for the correct factor for
your situation. Contact your CARESTREAM sales representative for availability. The INDUSTREX Film Exposure Calculator was
standardized with a development time of 4 minutes at 72 F.
TI-6K7080 – 2016-02-12
11
Your Step-by-Step Guide to Processing INDUSTREX Films
1. Stir Solutions
2. Check Temperature
22° C
(72° F)
1. Stir the developer and fixer to equalize their temperatures. Use separate paddles for each to avoid contamination.
2. Check the temperature of the solutions with an accurate thermometer, rinsing it off after checking each one. Adjust the
temperature as needed.
3. Load Film on Hanger
4. Immerse Film in Developer
4:00 minutes
3. Attach the film carefully to a proper-sized hanger. Attach the lower corners first. Avoid finger marks, scratches or bending.
4. Set a timer. 5 minutes at 68F (20C) is recommended; 4 minutes at 72F (22C) is recommended if using the INDUSTREX
Film Exposure Calculator.
5. Agitate Film
6. Immerse in Stop Bath
30
d
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2016-02-12 – TI-6K7080
5. Immediately after immersion in the developer, tap the hanger to dislodge air bubbles. Agitate for 5 seconds every
30 seconds.
6. Place the film in the stop bath for 30 seconds. Then agitate moderately, lift from the stop bath, and drain well.
7. Fix Adequately
3-6 minutes
8. Wash Completely
10-30
minutes
7. Immerse the film in the fixer for 3 to 6 minutes, agitating for 5 seconds very 30 seconds. Film should remain in fixer for
twice the time it takes to “clear” it (when the milky look disappears). Never fix film for less than 3 minutes.
8. Place the film hangers in a tank of running water for 10 to 30 minutes. Keep ample space between the hangers (water must
flow over the tops).
9. Final Rinse
10. Place in Dryer
30
9. If facilities permit, use a final rinse with a rinsing (wetting) agent to speed drying and prevent water marks. Immerse film for
about 30 seconds, and then drain for several seconds.
10. Dry the film at room temperature in a dust-free area or suitable drying cabinet. The temperature must not exceed 120F
(49C). When the film is dry, remove from hangers and insert into envelopes.
TI-6K7080 – 2016-02-12
13
Characteristic Curves
Characteristic Curves, Manual Processing
INDUSTREX M43IC processor
8min cycle, lead screen EN ISO 11699-1 exposures
7.00
Exposure: 200/220 kV X-rays
with Lead Screens
Process: Manual
AA400
7
T200
6,5
6.00
Densitometry: Diffuse Visual
5.00
DR50 Film:
MX125
6
M100
5 min 68F (20C)
DR50
5,5
M100 Film:
HS800
5
MX125 Film:
T200 Film:
DENSITY
4,5
density
4
AA400 Film:
4.00
HS800 Film:
3,5
3.00
3
2,5
2
2.00
1,5
1
0,5
1.00
0
1
10
100
Relative exposure
1000
10000
0.00
1
H242_0037
10
100
1000
10000
RELATIVE EXPOSURE
Additional Information on the INDUSTREX High-Speed HS800 Film
CARESTREAM INDUSTREX HS800 Film is the fastest and most versatile film for non-destructive testing. Now you can use one
film for any exposure method—direct, lead screen, fluorescent screen, or fluorometallic screen. Designed for any high-density
application where speed is an advantage, the HS800 Film is suitable for structural components such as bridges, concrete, or offshore pipelines.
When used with fluorescent or fluorometallic screens, the HS800 Film displays high contrast throughout an extended range of
optical densities, thus providing high sensitivity to flaw detection and wide exposure latitude.
HS800 Film incorporates patented tabular emulsion technology, which is just as effective in short automatic and manual
processing cycles. Processed HS800 Film was designed to have cold image tone on the view box and high gloss, resulting in better
perceived radiographs.
Intensifying Screens
Modern industrial x-ray films incorporate emulsions mostly sensitive in the blue region of the electromagnetic spectrum. Calcium
tungstate (CaWO4) was chosen as the luminescent material in intensifying screens because it emits light in the blue range with an
emission maximum at about 420nm. More recently, phosphors such as oxysulfides of the rare earth elements have been used to
produce ultra fast screens. Rare earth phosphors also emit light in the blue range to which the emulsion is mostly sensitive.
Fluorescent Screens
Fluorescent screens can sometimes be used with advantage for industrial radiography. The normal calcium tungstate type screens
will not reduce scatter, and the image quality of radiographs where the exposure has been made using these screens is not as good
as that obtainable with lead screen exposures. However, calcium tungstate screens permit a considerable reduction in exposure,
being most responsive to X-rays and intensifying by a factor of approximately 100 times. CaWO4 fluorescent screens are much
less responsive to gamma rays (approximately 20-40 times), and the inherent low contrast of gamma radiographs plus the
unsharpness caused by these screens will result in poor sensitivity and fault detection.
14
2016-02-12 – TI-6K7080
LANEX Fast Screens
LANEX Fast Screens have a thin clear overcoat to resist surface abrasion and have a backing layer to eliminate curl. They
incorporate as phosphor terbium-activated gadolinium oxysulfide, Gd2O2S:Tb, coated in a transparent binder. These screens,
incorporating a rare-earth phosphor from the lanthanide series, have significantly much higher X-ray absorption and X-ray energy
conversion than CaWO4 screens. Accordingly, LANEX Fast Screens permit a greater reduction in exposure than CaWO4 screens.
LANEX Fast Screens yield excellent images when used with HS800 Film.
LANEX Fast Screens will be provided in asymmetrical pairs. The phosphor coverage of the non-tube (back) screen is more than
twice that of the tube-side (front) screen. This allows for optimized light output from each of the screens during exposure.
Fluorometallic Screens
Fluorometallic screens combine the advantages of both fluorescent and lead screens. They consist of a CaWO4 layer combined with
a lead layer and will permit useful reductions in exposure—depending upon energy and exposure duration. Image definition is far
better than with ordinary fluorescent screens, and the higher contrast produced by the light image emitted helps improve sensitivity
of flaw detection.
Screen Care
The temperature encountered in most industrial radiography laboratories does not significantly affect screen emission. However, it
is noteworthy that screen emission increases as screen temperature is lowered.
Intensifying screens must be kept away from chemicals and other sources of contamination. Every effort should be made to avoid
soiling intensifying screens. Should they become dirty, they must be carefully cleaned according to the manufacturer's
recommendations.
Under normal use conditions, intensifying screens will deteriorate. The deterioration may occur from abrasion of the protective
overcoat or inadvertent physical damage to the surface. Certain chemical agents—such as non-approved screen cleaners, hand
lotions, topical medications, foodstuff, etc.—may also damage the screens. Some screen deterioration may result in artifacts on
processed radiographs. As a general rule, intensifying screens in cassettes should be replaced at least every 5 years.
When screens are replaced for normal wear and tear, the cassette should also be considered for replacement, installing new screens
in well worn cassettes may not improve image quality. All cassettes and screens should be inspected systematically for screen-film
contact, lighttight integrity (including hinges) and general condition. To inspect screens, make a uniform exposure on a film
sufficient to produce a density of 1.9 to 2.5. Examine the processed film for screen-related artifacts.
Experience indicates that best results are obtained by cleaning intensifying screens with an intensifying screen cleaner and antistatic
solution. Some screen-cleaning agents may leave residues which would seriously affect the emission of these screens and may affect
the photographic response of the film. The use of any cleaning agents other than those specifically suggested for cleaning
intensifying screens is not recommended.
Antistatic Treatment of Intensifying Screens
Intensifying screens and films are designed to minimize the sources of static marks on the processed radiograph. If static should
occur, CARESTREAM Screen Cleaner should be used. Apply the solution to the screens with a clean, lint free pad. Do not wipe
screens dry. Allow screens to air-dry completely before returning them to service.
Exposures with Fluorescent and Fluorometallic Screens
The reciprocity law is accurate for direct x-ray and lead screen exposures.
When determining exposure conditions for radiography without screens or with lead screens, relationships such as mA/time and the
inverse square law for time/distance calculations are such that a known change of mA or distance will result in a precise change of
time.
However, for exposures to the light emitted from fluorescent and fluorometallic screens, the reciprocity law fails to apply. Because
of this, it is not possible to give an intensification factor that applies to all exposure conditions.
Film Characteristics: Fluorescent or Fluorometallic Screens
EXPOSURE CONDITIONS: 80 kV, fluorescent or fluorometallic screens, INDUSTREX Single Part Developer Replenisher and
INDUSTREX LO Fixer and Replenisher, M43ic processor, 8 min 79F (26C) cycle.
TI-6K7080 – 2016-02-12
15
Film Characteristics (Sensitometric)
Screen
*
Base + Fog
Relative
Exposure
Contrast
Kyokko SMP 308
screens
0.22
1.8
4.1
Rennex screens
0.23
1*
4.1
LANEX Fast Screens
0.23
0.25
4.8
HS800 Film used in combination with Rennex screens is assigned a relative exposure of 1.
Spectral Sensitivity for the HS800 Film
2.0
LOG SENSITIVITY*
1.0
0.0
-1.0
Process: INDUSTREX
M43ic Processor, 8 min
79 F (26 C) cycle
Densitometry: Diffuse visual
Density: 1.0>D- min
-2.0
250
300
350 400
450
500
550
600
650 700
750
WAVELENGTH (nm)
2
TI2637C
*Sensitivity = reciprocal of exposure (erg/cm ) required
to produce specified density
Life Expectancy of Processed Industrial Radiographs
The life expectancy of processed industrial radiographs is highly dependent on their processing and storage conditions.
CARESTREAM cannot control customers’ processing and storage conditions and therefore does not guarantee any particular life
expectancy. The CARESTREAM "Limitation of Liability" is printed on every product label, and covers defective manufacturing
and packaging.
While CARESTREAM cannot promise a specific life expectancy for radiographs made using its INDUSTREX Film Products, we
can provide assistance to customers who wish to assess the long term keeping capability of their radiographs. In CARESTREAM
testing of INDUSTREX Film Products, films were processed in an INDUSTREX Film Processor Model 43ic, using INDUSTREX
Single Part Developer Replenisher and INDUSTREX LO Fixer and Replenisher. The process cycle was the standard 8-minute
cycle with a developer immersion time of 100 seconds at a temperature of 26 °C (79 °F), in accordance with the CARESTREAM
published processing recommendation. Under these conditions, all films (INDUSTREX HS800, AA400, T200, MX125, M100,
and DR50) showed less than 0.5 ug/cm2 of retained Thiosulfate, per ISO Standard 18917. Each sample was analyzed and results
were calculated using a carefully prepared calibration line. These data translate to a life expectancy of 500 years (LE500), per ISO
Standard 18901, when stored properly. The film storage environment should be limited to the range of 4.4 °C (40 °F) to 24 °C (75
°F) and 30 % to 60 % RH, per ASTM Standard E 1254.
CARESTREAM encourages customers to assess the life expectancy of radiographs made using their own INDUSTREX Film
Products, using the above referenced standards. We will be happy to assist if you should have any questions.
References:
1. ISO 18917—Determination of residual thiosulfate and other related chemicals in processed protographic materials—
Methods using iodine-amylose, methylene blue, and silver sulfide.
2. ISO 18901—Imaging Materials—Processed silver-gelatin type black-and-white films—Specifications for stability
3. ASTM E 1254—"Standard Guide for Storage of Radiographs and Unexposed Industrial Radiographic Films," ASTM
International.
16
2016-02-12 – TI-6K7080
INDUSTREX Films
NOTICE: While the sensitometric data in this publication are typical of production coatings, they do not represent
standards which must be met by CARESTREAM. Varying storage, exposure, and processing conditions will
affect results. The company reserves the right to change and improve product characteristics at any time.
INDUSTREX is a trademark of Carestream Health, Inc.
Created in the USA. • TI-6K7080.fm
© Carestream Health, Inc., 2016.
Carestream Health, Inc.
150 Verona Street
Rochester, NY 14608 USA
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