broadcast air-assisted sprayers
(LERAP)
BROADCAST
AIR-ASSISTED
SPRAYERS
A STEP-BY-STEP GUIDE TO REDUCING
AQUATIC BUFFER ZONES
E 2
EW M 0
N HE 20
C
S OM
FR
LOCAL ENVIRONMENT
RISK ASSESSMENT FOR PESTICIDES
LOCAL ENVIRONMENT RISK ASSESSMENT FOR PESTICIDES
A PRACTICAL GUIDE
This booklet applies to broadcast air-assisted sprayers only. Different rules
apply to horizontal boom sprayers. The booklet assumes that all necessary
planning for the crop, the spray operation and product selection has been done in
advance and that requirements of the Green Code are followed throughout.
The LERAP scheme applies only to reducing buffer zones laid down to protect
water. You cannot reduce buffer zones designed to safeguard hedges, field
margins etc under the LERAP scheme.
WHY IS A LERAP IMPORTANT?
Living Windbreaks
• IT ALLOWS YOU TO REDUCE PESTICIDE
You can include a living windbreak as a factor
BUFFER ZONES ACCORDING TO YOUR
LOCAL CIRCUMSTANCES
• IT HELPS PROTECT AQUATIC LIFE
FROM PESTICIDE CONTAMINATION
BY KEEPING PESTICIDE SPRAYS OUT
OF WATER
• THE APPROVAL OF SOME PRODUCTS
MAY DEPEND ON YOU FULLY
COMPLYING WITH THE LERAP SCHEME
in your LERAP assessment if it meets the
following conditions:
• It is formed from broad-leaved trees or
shrubs, not conifers. (Conifers may deflect
spray down onto the watercourse
behind them).
• It is managed to protect the crop from the
effects of wind or to minimise spray drift.
• It is at least 2 metres higher than the crop to
SCHEME OUTLINE
Pesticides
This scheme applies to all pesticides which
carry the requirement for a buffer zone to protect
water and which are applied with a broadcast
air-assisted sprayer. No compounds or groups
of compounds are excluded from the scheme
be sprayed.
• It extends for the full length of the boundary
between the treated crop and the
watercourse.
• It has no gaps over this length including
those resulting from systematic stripping of
lower branches.
• Leaves are visible over its entire length.
(in other words, unlike the ground crop sprayer
scheme, there is no Category A or B). Look at
the product label carefully – different products
carry different buffer zones.
1
A PRACTICAL GUIDE
Reduced Dose Rates
At Annex A is a guide to help users identify
equipment, and where appropriate, details of
Where a reduced dose rate is used in order to
the NPTC Certificates are given for each
reduce a buffer zone, this must be applied to the
sprayer type.
area within 50 metres of a watercourse and not
just the buffer zone. This is to ensure adequate
watercourse protection.
CROP TYPES COVERED
The scheme covers any crop to which
Wind Speed and Direction
Wind speed and direction have not been
included as LERAPs factors. They do, of course,
pesticides are applied using broadcast
air-assisted sprayers. All these crops are
treated alike.
influence the amount of spray drift. However,
they can vary over the time taken to plan and
carry out a spray operation and their inclusion in
the scheme would be impossible to enforce.
SITES OF SPECIAL SCIENTIFIC
INTEREST (SSSI)
Under the Countryside and Rights of Way Act
(2000) (England and Wales) it is an offence for
EQUIPMENT TYPES COVERED
BY THIS SCHEME
This scheme covers broadcast air-assisted
sprayers (any equipment which broadcasts
spray droplets, by means of an air stream
produced by forced air, which carry outwards
and upwards from the source of the spray).
The scheme does NOT cover horizontal boom
sprayers (equipment of the spray boom type
which applies pesticides via a boom operating
in a horizontal plane) which have their own
buffer zones and LERAP rules. Neither does it
cover sprayers such as tunnel sprayers, which
are neither broadcast air-assisted nor ground
crop sprayers. Where sprayers such as tunnel
sprayers are used to apply a pesticide for which
a buffer zone is set, this buffer zone has a
default of 5 metres which can not be reduced
following a LERAP assessment.
2
any person intentionally or recklessly to destroy
or damage an SSSI. Before using a pesticide
within an SSSI, you must consult the appropriate
conservation agency (contact details on the
back cover). In view of the sensitivity of such
sites, you should also consider the potential
impact of applying a pesticide next to an SSSI.
If you are not sure about the adequacy of the
LERAP or no spray zone to protect the site, you
should ask the appropriate conservation agency.
LOCAL ENVIRONMENT RISK ASSESSMENT FOR PESTICIDES
Step 1
THE FOUR STEPS
GATHER SOME INFORMATION:
If you choose a LERAP qualifying product,
Is the watercourse dry at the
time of spraying?
the following 4 steps will guide you in carrying
out a full LERAP and show you if and by how
much you can reduce the statutory pesticide
If a ditch is dry at the time of spraying, a 5-metre
buffer zone.
buffer zone applies which you can not reduce
further with a LERAP assessment.
You can not use the width of a watercourse as a
factor to reduce the pesticide buffer zone
because, as the watercourse widens, drift-fallout
levels do not decrease rapidly enough to reduce
the total amount of drift entering the water.
Will you be spraying near a
watercourse shielded by a living
windbreak?
You can reduce the buffer zone if the
watercourse is protected by a living windbreak
which satisfies those conditions on page 1.
What dose of pesticide will
you use?
You should always apply the lowest dose that is
appropriate to control the target weed, pest or
disease. Seek advice on this if necessary. If the
dose you intend to use is less than the
maximum permitted dose for a single
application then you may be able to reduce the
buffer zone. If unsure, seek advice on the most
appropriate dose to control the target weed,
pest or disease.
3
A PRACTICAL GUIDE
Calculate the dose you intend to use as a
percentage of the maximum permitted dose
shown on the label for your crop. For the
purposes of a LERAP: 0-25% is considered to
Will you use a sprayer that
qualifies as a ‘LERAP-Low Drift'
sprayer?
be 1/4 rate; 25.1-50% is considered to be 1/2
Manufacturers of broadcast air-assisted
rate; 50.1-75% is considered to be 3/4 rate and
sprayers can apply to have their equipment
75.1-100% is considered to be full rate.
officially graded for ‘LERAP-Low Drift’ status,
and grading is by star ratings. Equipment that
You can reduce the buffer zone if you reduce the
dose for all applications within 50 metres of a
watercourse. The minimum buffer zones
permitted on the basis of reduced doses
alone is 7 metres for all crops. When including
other reduction aspects e.g. reduced dose, lowdrift sprayers and living windbreaks, the
absolute minimum buffer zone is 5 metres.
If you use a reduced dose rate to reduce the
buffer zone you cannot repeat the application
within 48hrs.
3-star rating. You must use the equipment
according to the conditions applied to the
official grading, referring to the operating
instructions supplied with individual types of
equipment. Don’t forget to record the LERAPLow Drift star rating as part of your LERAP
record.
N.B. At the time of going to press, there is no
star rated spray equipment. If and when star
ratings are awarded, a list of spray equipment
If you are applying more than one product in a
that has achieved a star rating will be placed on
tank mix the product with the widest buffer zone
the Pesticides Safety Directorate‘s web page
requirement will determine the buffer zone for
(web address is on the back cover) and in the
the tank mix as a whole. You do not have to add
Pesticides Monitor.
the buffer zones of the individual products
together.
4
offers the greatest reduction in spray drift gets a
LOCAL ENVIRONMENT RISK ASSESSMENT FOR PESTICIDES
Step 2
1. Identify the appropriate table (1 or 2). This will
WORK OUT THE WIDTH OF
THE BUFFER ZONE
depend on whether you wish to an eligible living
windbreak to reduce the buffer zone.
Using the information from Step 1, you can now
work out what unsprayed buffer zone reduction
2. Read down the left-hand column of the table
may be allowed. If the watercourse is dry at the
to select the row that matches your sprayer type.
time of application, you can reduce the buffer
3. Read across the top row of the table, to select
zone to 5 metres. However, if you are using a
the column which matches the dose rate you
star-rated LERAP low-drift sprayer, appIying the
want to apply.
pesticide at less than the maximum permitted
rate or if there is an eligible living windbreak, you
4. The box at which the row and the column
will need to work out the minimum buffer zone.
intersect gives the amount (in metres) by which
In order to do this, you will now need to refer to
the buffer zone shown on the label may be
tables 1 and 2 (pages 5 and 6) as follows:
reduced. (because different products carry
different buffer zones for use with broadcast
air-assisted sprayers, it is not possible to show
the reduced buffer zone distance in the table.
Nor is it practicable to show ‘final distance’
tables owing to the number of products and
buffer zones.)
Table 1
Applied
Dose
Reduced dose WITHOUT windbreak
Full Rate
(75.1-100%)
3/4
Rate
(50,1-75%)
1/2
Rate
(25.1-50%)
1/4
Rate
(0-25%)
Sprayer
type
no
reduction
reduce buffer zone reduce buffer zone reduce buffer zone
by 3m
by 6m
by 12m
LERAP Low drift
1 star
reduce buffer zone
by 3m
reduce buffer zone reduce buffer zone reduce buffer zone
by 6m
by 9m
by 15m
LERAP Low drift
2 star
reduce buffer zone
by 6m
reduce buffer zone reduce buffer zone reduce buffer zone
by 9m
by 12m
by 18m
LERAP Low drift
3 star
reduce buffer zone
by 9m
reduce buffer zone reduce buffer zone reduce buffer zone
by 12m
by 15m
by 21m
Standard
5
A PRACTICAL GUIDE
5. Please note that there is a minimum
permitted buffer zone distance which cannot
be further reduced even if a smaller buffer
zone is suggested by using the tables below:
- the absolute minimum buffer zone is 5 metres.
This cannot be reduced further even if you use a
reduced dose, a LERAP low-drift star-rated
sprayer and an eligible living windbreak;
- if you only reduce the applied dose - and do
not use a LERAP low-drift star-rated sprayer or
an eligible living windbreak - the minimum buffer
zone is 7 metres.
Table 2
Applied
Dose
Reduced dose WITH windbreak
Full Rate
(75.1-100%)
3/4
Rate
(50,1-75%)
1/2
Rate
(25.1-50%)
1/4
Rate
(0-25%)
Sprayer
type
Standard
reduce buffer zone
by 6m
reduce buffer zone reduce buffer zone reduce buffer zone
by 9m
by 12m
by 18m
LERAP Low drift
1 star
reduce buffer zone
by 9m
reduce buffer zone reduce buffer zone reduce buffer zone
by 12m
by 15m
by 21m
LERAP Low drift
2 star
reduce buffer zone
by 12m
reduce buffer zone reduce buffer zone reduce buffer zone
by 15m
by 18m
by 24m
LERAP Low drift
3 star
reduce buffer zone
by 15m
reduce buffer zone reduce buffer zone reduce buffer zone
by 18m
by 21m
by 27m
At Annex B are two example tables showing the
actual buffer zones that can be applied when a
LERAP assessment is carried out for a product
with an 18-metre buffer zone.
6
LOCAL ENVIRONMENT RISK ASSESSMENT FOR PESTICIDES
Step 3
Record your LERAP decision
It is recognised that paperwork can be a burden.
However, you are legally required to keep spray
records, as set out in Part 4 of the Green Code.
You can, however, reduce the burden of
recording as follows:
• If the watercourse is a dry ditch, you may
• If you want to stick to the product label
buffer zone rather than using a LERAP to
reduce it, just make a single entry of this
decision in the spray records for that area.
• There is no laid-down record format, but your
record must include the information set out in
the example record sheet on page 9
use and record an unsprayed buffer zone
You should already be recording much of this
width of 5 metres for all pesticides covered
information as part of your standard operating
by the LERAP scheme regardless of the rating
procedures for applying pesticides, as
of the sprayer.
recommended in Part 4 of the Green Code.
• If using a tunnel sprayer, use and record
You must keep for inspection all records of
an unsprayed buffer zone width of 5
LERAPs conducted on your land for 3 years from
metres
the date of the spray operation. This is a legal
• If applying the same pesticide, at the same
dose rate, using the same equipment on
requirement (see Part 4 of the Green Code
'Record Keeping' for further details) .
subsequent sprays in the same area,
However should you decide to apply the
there is no need to recalculate the LERAP
pesticide, you are legally required to
but you must still record the spray
RECORD YOUR DECISION
operation and the LERAP decision.
7
A PRACTICAL GUIDE
Step 4
Carry out the spray operation.
Ensure that the spray operation is carried out
according to the results of your LERAP and that
the spray operator knows the width of the
unsprayed buffer zone to be used.
If a row is just inside the buffer zone you must
not spray it. Spray up to and including the
outermost row only. In other words, the distance
between the outermost row to be treated and
the top of the bank, must match the width of the
buffer zone.
You must switch off the sprayer output on the
watercourse side when treating the outermost
row to the buffer zone, to protect the
watercourse from spray drift fallout.
See Figure 1 below.
Figure 1 – Buffer zone measurement
Row nearest the edge of
the buffer zone is the
‘outermost row’
Living
windbreak
Example buffer zone
Measure from the top of the bank inwards.
Reduce the label buffer zone width by the distances
given in the tables, according to star rating, dose rate
and living windbreak.
8
LOCAL ENVIRONMENT RISK ASSESSMENT FOR PESTICIDES
Figure 2 – Example LERAP record
If you applied the buffer zone shown on the label, complete Section A only
Section A
Date
Field name or number
Crop to be treated
Reason
(name pest or disease)
Product(s) used
Weather conditions
Buffer zone shown
on the label
If you used a LERAP to reduce your pesticide buffer zone please complete
Section B as well.
Section B
Dose
Sprayer
Full
3/4
1/2
1/4
Standard
1-star
2-star
3-star
Living windbreak included
Yes
No
Width of buffer zone after LERAP
Date of LERAP
Name of person who
carried out LERAP
9
A PRACTICAL GUIDE
Annex A
Equipment included in the
term ‘broadcast air-assisted’
to which any stipulated
broadcast air assisted buffer
zone distance applies:
Air knife with sideways and upwards air
assistance
Uses a standard flat fan hydraulic nozzle and a
separate stream of air of low volume and
pressure.
NPTC Module PA3A
Examples: (not an exhaustive list)
Sprayer with air assistance where the
Standard axial flow sprayer
boom is designed to be used between the
Commonly referred to as ‘air blast’. Uses an
horizontal and the vertical planes
axial fan to produce a large volume of air at low
Conventional nozzles or other atomisers that
pressure to propel spray formed by standard
operate on a boom with air assistance along the
hydraulic nozzles.
length of the boom or at each nozzle. Similar to
NPTC Module PA3A
ground based sprayers, they can be included in
this scheme when operating in a non-horizontal
Cross flow sprayer
Uses a cross flow fan to produce a low-pressure
boom mode.
NPTC Module PA3B
air stream to project spray laterally from
standard hydraulic nozzles.
Hand held mistblowers
NPTC Module PA3A
Conventional nozzles or other atomisers
operating on a hand held sprayer that use air
Spinning disc or cage atomisers used with
sideways and upwards air assistance
assistance to project the spray to the target.
NPTC Module PA6
A CDA nozzle / assembly that is positioned in an
air stream. This produces an evenly sized spray
that is propelled by a simple fan.
NPTC Module PA3A
Air shear nozzle type with sideways and
upwards air assistance
Uses a fan (normally centrifugal) to produce a
high-pressure air stream of varying volumes.
Not included in ‘broadcast
air-assisted’ definitions, above,
but to which the vehicle
mounted/drawn buffer zone
default of 5 metres applies:
Tunnel sprayers
With or without air assistance.
This air stream is used to break up the spray
liquid into droplets and to project the spray to
Sprayers without air assistance where the
the target.
boom is designed be used between the
NPTC Module PA3A
horizontal and the vertical planes
When operating in non-horizontal boom mode.
NPTC Module PA3C
10
LOCAL ENVIRONMENT RISK ASSESSMENT FOR PESTICIDES
Annex B
Example 1: Buffer Zone reduction for
Unlike Tables 1 and 2, (which show how much
star-rated equipment for a product with
you can reduce buffer zones by), this table
an 18-metre buffer zone without windbreak
shows what you can reduce the 18-metre buffer
zone to.
Table 3
Buffer zone reduction WITHOUT windbreak
Applied Dose
3/4
1/2
1/4
Full Rate
(75.1-100%)
Rate
(50,1-75%)
Rate
(25.1-50%)
Rate
(0-25%)
Standard
18m
15m
12m
7m
LERAP Low drift
1 star
15m
12m
9m
5m
LERAP Low drift
2 star
12m
9m
6m
5m
LERAP Low drift
3 star
9m
6m
5m
5m
Sprayer type
Example 2: Buffer Zone reduction for
As with Table 3, this table shows what width you
star-rated equipment for a product with
can reduce your buffer zone to.
an 18-metre buffer zone with windbreak.
Table 4
Buffer zone reduction WITH windbreak
Applied Dose
3/4
1/2
1/4
Full Rate
(75.1-100%)
Rate
(50,1-75%)
Rate
(25.1-50%)
Rate
(0-25%)
Standard
12m
9m
6m
5m
LERAP Low drift
1 star
9m
6m
5m
5m
LERAP Low drift
2 star
6m
5m
5m
5m
LERAP Low drift
3 star
5m
5m
5m
5m
Application by
tunnel sprayer
5m
5m
5m
5m
Dry ditch connected
to river system
5m
5m
5m
5m
Sprayer type
11
A PRACTICAL GUIDE
Further Information & Contacts
Further Information
Title
Reference
Available From
Cost
Code of Practice for the Safe
PB 3528
DEFRA Publications
Free
Use of Pesticides on Farms and
ADMAIL 6000
Holdings (The Green Code)
London SW1A 2XX
Tel: 0645 556 000
Pesticides and Integrated Farming
PB 2489
The Pesticides Monitor
as above
Free
The Stationery Office
Annual Subscription £85.00
PO Box 29, Norwich NR3 1GN
Single Issue £7.95
Tel orders: 0870 600 5522
Fax orders: 0870 600 5533
Contacts
Sites of Special Scientific Interest (SSSIs)
The local offices of:
for England:
English Nature
for Scotland:
Scottish Natural Heritage
for Wales:
Countryside Council for Wales
for ASSIs in Northern Ireland:
The Environment and Heritage Service of the Department of the Environment
The Pesticides Safety Directorate, External relations Section
Mallard House, Kings Pool
3 Peasholme Green, York YO1 7PX
Tel: 01904 455775
Fax: 01904 455733
e-mail: p.s.d.information@psd.defra.gsi.gov.uk
web site: www.pesticides.gov.uk
12
Further copies of this booklet are available free from:
DEFRA Publications,
ADMAIL 6000, London SW1A 2XX
Tel: 08459 556000
Fax: 020 8957 5012
email: defra@iforcegroup.com
PB6533© Crown Copyright 2002
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