Shell Scripting - Burleson Consulting
Shell Scripting for the
Oracle Professional
Jon Emmons
Oracle Consultant
Author
Shell Scripting for the Oracle Professional
Jon Emmons
My Background
• Undergraduate Computer Science
coursework.
• Extensive experience in Solaris and Linux
system administration.
• Oracle Database Administration on
versions 8.0 through 10gR2.
• As a consultant I must build efficient, lowto no-maintenance scripts for a variaety of
purposes.
Shell Scripting for the Oracle Professional
Jon Emmons
Books by Jon Emmons
Oracle Shell Scripting: Linux &
Unix Programming for Oracle
On shelves this summer
Pre-order at rampant-books.com
Easy Linux Commands: Working
Examples of Linux Command Syntax
Available Today at Bookstores
and at rampant-books.com
Shell Scripting for the Oracle Professional
Jon Emmons
LifeAfterCoffee.com
Shell Scripting for the Oracle Professional
Jon Emmons
WARNING:
• There are no “one size fits all” solutions. You must
evaluate any techniques or solutions based on your
environments and goals
• Always test any solution in a non-production
environment before applying it to a production system.
• Make sure you completely understand new commands
and techniques before applying them in your
environment.
You have been warned!
Shell Scripting for the Oracle Professional
Jon Emmons
Topics
• When to script
• Scripting Basics
• The Oracle connection
• Some useful tricks
• Troubleshooting
• Some Scripts
Shell Scripting for the Oracle Professional
Jon Emmons
When to Script
Shell Scripting for the Oracle Professional
Jon Emmons
When To Scripts
Shell scripting can be applied to a wide
variety of system and database tasks.
Though called “scripting” this is
programming, but don’t let that scare you.
Be careful of script bloat. Be sensitive to
your coworkers and your possible
replacement.
Shell Scripting for the Oracle Professional
Jon Emmons
Repeated Tasks
Necessity is the mother of invention. The
first candidates for shell scripts will be
manual tasks which are done on a regular
basis.
• Backups
• Log monitoring
• Check disk space
Shell Scripting for the Oracle Professional
Jon Emmons
Occasional Tasks
Tasks which are performed rarely enough
that their method, or even their need may
be forgotten.
• Periodic business related reports
(monthly/quarterly/yearly)
• Offsite backups
• Purging old data
Shell Scripting for the Oracle Professional
Jon Emmons
Complex Manual Tasks
Some tasks must be performed manually
but may be aided by scripting.
• Checking for database locks
• Killing runaway processes
These tasks may evolve into repeated tasks
Shell Scripting for the Oracle Professional
Jon Emmons
Helper Scripts
Don’t ignore the usefulness of “helper”
scripts. Perhaps a system administrator
really does need to look over the log for a
system daily, but a script can help by
automatically sending it on to him!
Shell Scripting for the Oracle Professional
Jon Emmons
Special Tasks
These are tasks which would not be
possible without a programming language.
• Storing OS information (performance
stats, disk usage, etc.) into the database
• High frequency monitoring (several times
a day or more)
Shell Scripting for the Oracle Professional
Jon Emmons
Scripting Basics
Shell Scripting for the Oracle Professional
Jon Emmons
Before You Start Scripting
You will find shell scripting an iterative process, but it is
best to have a good idea of your goals when you start.
•
•
What are you trying to accomplish
What are the dependencies
– Which dependencies can we check first
– Which dependencies cannot be checked
•
•
How broad will the effects of this script be
What happens if any step fails
– Should the script continue or be halted
•
What results or output do we want from the script
– Who should be notified of the results and how
•
•
What cleanup should be done when the script is complete
What if two copies of the script get executed simultaneously
Shell Scripting for the Oracle Professional
Jon Emmons
Scripting Tools
Any plain text editor will work.
• vi (Command line UNIX)
• Notepad (Windows)
• TextEdit (Mac OSX)
• EditPlus (Windows, shareware, $30)
editplus.com
Shell Scripting for the Oracle Professional
Jon Emmons
The Shell
Shell scripting allows us to use commands
we already use at the command line.
This considerably eases the learning
curve.
We are familiar with the interactive mode of
the shell. Almost anything can be done in
a script which can be done at the
command line.
Shell Scripting for the Oracle Professional
Jon Emmons
Which Shell to Use
My preference is Bash (bash) because of its
ubiquity and compatibility with Bourne (sh).
Other common shells include:
• C shell (csh)
• Korn shell (ksh)
• Z Shell (zsh)
It is important to pick a shell and stick with it. The
differences between shells are often small but
infuriating.
Shell Scripting for the Oracle Professional
Jon Emmons
The Anatomy of a Command
grep –i localhost /etc/hosts
Command
Option
Arguments
Options change the behavior of a command
Arguments control what the command acts upon
Shell Scripting for the Oracle Professional
Jon Emmons
Variables
Variables are set using the = sign
ORACLE_SID=oss
Variables and their contents are case sensitive, so
the variable ORACLE_SID is different from the
variable oracle_sid.
Shell variables are un-typed and may contain
integers or text.
Numbers with a decimal point will be treated as
text. (e.g. 3.14)
Shell Scripting for the Oracle Professional
Jon Emmons
Variable Naming
• Variables should have meaningful names
• Variable names do not need to be short
• All UPPER CASE typically indicates an
environmental variable
• Local (script) variables are conventionally
all lowercase
• Underscores (_) are best for separating
words in variable names
Shell Scripting for the Oracle Professional
Jon Emmons
Variable Scope
• Variables will be available within the script
(or shell session) which sets them
• By exporting variables they can be made
available to subsequently called scripts.
This is why we typically perform an
export ORACLE_SID
after setting the variable.
Exporting is not necessary when variables
will only be used within the current script.
Shell Scripting for the Oracle Professional
Jon Emmons
Using Variables
The dollar sing ($) is used to retrieve the contents
of a variable.
$ echo $ORACLE_SID
oss
If you are trying to use a variable where it may be
surrounded by other letters you may need to
add curly braces {} around the name.
$ echo ${ORACLE_SID}_sid
oss_sid
Shell Scripting for the Oracle Professional
Jon Emmons
Comments and Whitespace
• Anything appearing after a pound symbol
(#) on a line will be ignored.
• Adding comments can aid troubleshooting
and future editing of the script.
• Blank lines are ignored when a script is
executed.
• Blank lines and other whitespace (tabs,
spaces) can be used to improve script
readability.
Shell Scripting for the Oracle Professional
Jon Emmons
A basic script
#!/bin/bash
echo "The current database is $ORACLE_SID"
echo "The current running processes for
$ORACLE_SID are"
ps –ef | grep $ORACLE_SID
Shell Scripting for the Oracle Professional
Jon Emmons
A basic script
#!/bin/bash
This first line indicates what
interpreter to use when running
this script
echo "The current database is $ORACLE_SID"
echo "The current running processes for
$ORACLE_SID are"
ps –ef | grep $ORACLE_SID
Shell Scripting for the Oracle Professional
Jon Emmons
A basic script
#!/bin/bash
echo "The current database is $ORACLE_SID"
echo "The current
$ORACLE_SID are"
Whitespace is used to
separate commands to
improve processes
readability.
running
for
ps –ef | grep $ORACLE_SID
Shell Scripting for the Oracle Professional
Jon Emmons
A basic script
#!/bin/bash
echo "The current database is $ORACLE_SID"
echo "The current running processes for
$ORACLE_SID are"
ps –ef | grep $ORACLE_SID
Shell Scripting for the Oracle Professional
Variables referenced here
must have already been
set and exported.
Jon Emmons
A basic script
#!/bin/bash
echo "The current database is $ORACLE_SID"
echo "The current running processes for
$ORACLE_SID are"
ps –ef | grep $ORACLE_SID
Note the variable being
used as an argument.
We'll see a lot of this.
Shell Scripting for the Oracle Professional
Jon Emmons
The Shebang (#!)
The "shebang" is a special comment. Since
it is a comment it will not be executed
when the script is run. Instead before the
script is run, the shell calling the script will
check for the #! pattern. If found it will
invoke the script using that interpreter.
If no #! is found most shells will use the
current shell to run the script.
Shell Scripting for the Oracle Professional
Jon Emmons
The Shebang (cont)
Since the shells are installed in different locations
on different systems you may have to alter the
#! line. For example, the bash shell may be in
/bin/bash, /usr/bin/bash or
/usr/local/bin/bash.
Setting the shell explicitly like this assures that the
script will be run with the same interpreter
regardless of who executes it (or what their
default shell may be.)
Shell Scripting for the Oracle Professional
Jon Emmons
Script Naming
Descriptive names are important.
• Use full words
• Separate words with underscores
• Avoid using spaces or other unusual characters
• There is no requirement for script names, but
typically they will end in .sh
Talk with others at your site who are doing shell
scripting and try to agree on a convention.
Shell Scripting for the Oracle Professional
Jon Emmons
Script Permissions
The execute permission must be turned on before
a script can be executed. It can be turned on
for the user (u), group (g) or all users (o) by
using the chmod command.
chmod ugo+x test_script.sh
If execute has not been granted you will get an
error like this:
-bash: ./test_script.sh: Permission denied
Shell Scripting for the Oracle Professional
Jon Emmons
status.sh
#!/bin/sh
# Show the user and host name
echo "Hello $USER!"
echo "Welcome to `hostname`"
echo "--- Current Disk Usage ---"
df -h
# On some systems the -h (human readable) option will not work with df
# In that case you can use the -k option to display output in killobytes
echo "--- Current uptime, users and load averages ---"
uptime
echo "--- Load average numbers represent the 1, 5 and 15 minute load
averages ---"
echo "--- Lower numbers are better for load averages ---"
# These are the first two things I check when I think there is a problem
# with a system, but I'm sure you can think of some other things to add
here
Shell Scripting for the Oracle Professional
Jon Emmons
status.sh
#!/bin/sh
This output will help
the user identify what
they are looking at.
# Show the user and host name
echo "Hello $USER!"
echo "Welcome to `hostname`"
echo "--- Current Disk Usage ---"
df -h
# On some systems the -h (human readable) option will not work with df
# In that case you can use the -k option to display output in killobytes
echo "--- Current uptime, users and load averages ---"
uptime
echo "--- Load average numbers represent This
the 1,
5 and 15
minute the
load
comment
explains
averages ---"
command
option
echo "--- Lower numbers are better for load
averages
---" used and
# These are the first two things I check how
when itImay
think
there
is a problem
need
to be
# with a system, but I'm sure you can think of some other things to add
changed on some systems.
here
Shell Scripting for the Oracle Professional
Jon Emmons
status.sh Usage
$ ./status.sh
Hello oracle!
Welcome to glonk
--- Current Disk Usage --Filesystem
Size Used Avail Use% Mounted on
/dev/mapper/VolGroup00-LogVol00
72G 6.5G
61G 10% /
/dev/hda1
99M 9.8M
84M 11% /boot
/dev/shm
252M
0 252M
0% /dev/shm
--- Current uptime, users and load averages --19:17:41 up 10 days, 6:02, 2 users, load average:
0.00, 0.02, 0.00
--- Load average numbers represent the 1, 5 and 15 minute
load averages ----- Lower numbers are better for load averages --This additional output provides
very useful information on the
Shell Scripting for the Oracle Professional results we're looking at.Jon Emmons
Basic Script Setup
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
Make a plan!
Create a new text file
Specify the interpreter to be used (#!)
Set variables using =
Retrieve variable contents using $
Add {} around variable name if necessary
Use comments (#) and whitespace (blank lines,
spaces and tabs) to improve readability
• Grant execute permissions to the appropriate
users with chmod
Shell Scripting for the Oracle Professional
Jon Emmons
Running Your Script
If the proper execute permissions have
been applied:
./test_script.sh
/home/oracle/test_script.sh
If . is in your $PATH variable
test_script.sh
Shell Scripting for the Oracle Professional
Jon Emmons
Keeping Your Scripts Organized
• Work with sysadmins and DBAs to come
up with a convention
• Development should be done in an area
away from production scripts
• Scripts for a specific database in
/u01/app/oracle/admin/sid/scripts
• Scripts used on multiple databases in
/u01/app/oracle/admin/common/scripts
Shell Scripting for the Oracle Professional
Jon Emmons
Break
Shell Scripting for the Oracle Professional
Jon Emmons
Decisions and Loops
Shell Scripting for the Oracle Professional
Jon Emmons
The if Statement
The simplest flow control statement is the
if statement.
$ age=29
$ if [ $age -lt 30 ]
> then
> echo "You're still under 30"
> fi
You're still under 30
Shell Scripting for the Oracle Professional
Jon Emmons
The if Statement
The simplest flow control statement is the
if statement.
$ age=29
$ if [ $age -lt 30 ]
Note that the end of an if
> then
statement is indicated by
> echo "You're still
under
30"
the keyword
fi
> fi
You're still under 30
Shell Scripting for the Oracle Professional
Jon Emmons
if, elseif and else
#!/bin/sh
age=39
if [ $age -lt 30 ]
then
echo "You're still under 30"
elif [ $age -ge 30 -a $age -le 40 ]
then
echo "You're in your 30s"
else
echo "You're 40 or over"
fi
Shell Scripting for the Oracle Professional
Jon Emmons
if, elseif and else
#!/bin/sh
Initially this condition is
age=39
checked and, if true, the code
if [ $age -lt 30 ]
in the then section executed
then
echo "You're still under 30"
elif [ $age -ge 30 -a $age -le 40 ]
then
echo "You're in your 30s"
else
echo "You're 40 or over"
fi
Shell Scripting for the Oracle Professional
Jon Emmons
if, elif and else
#!/bin/sh
age=39
if [ $age -lt 30 ]
then
echo "You're still under 30"
elif [ $age -ge 30 -a $age -le 40 ]
then
Only if the initial condition has
failed will30s"
the elif be
echo "You're in your
considered
else
echo "You're 40 or over"
fi
Shell Scripting for the Oracle Professional
Jon Emmons
if, elif and else
#!/bin/sh
age=39
if [ $age -lt 30 ]
then
echo "You're still under 30"
elif [ $age -ge 30 -a $age -le 40 ]
then
echo "You're in your 30s"
else
echo "You're 40 or over"
Finally if the if condition and
fi
all elif conditions have failed
Shell Scripting for the Oracle Professional
the else, if present, will be
executed
Jon Emmons
if, elif and else
• Conditional statements can compare numbers
or text
• An if statement will need to have a then and
an fi to indicate the end of the statement
• An if statement can have one or more elif
statements or may have none
• An if statement may have one else statement
but may have no else statement
• Only one section of code will be executed
Shell Scripting for the Oracle Professional
Jon Emmons
Mathematical Comparators
Shell Scripting for the Oracle Professional
Jon Emmons
String Comparators
Shell Scripting for the Oracle Professional
Jon Emmons
Comparing Strings
$ if [ $ORACLE_SID = "oss" ]
> then
> echo "Using the sid for the Oracle Shell
Scripting database"
> fi
Using the sid for the Oracle Shell Scripting
database
Shell Scripting for the Oracle Professional
Jon Emmons
Checking Variables
$ if [ $ORACLE_SID ]
> then
> echo "ORACLE_SID variable is set to $ORACLE_SID"
> fi
ORACLE_SID variable is set to oss
This statement checks to see if the variable
$ORACLE_SID has been set.
The statement will fail if the variable has not
been set, or if it is set to a null value.
Shell Scripting for the Oracle Professional
Jon Emmons
File Comparators
Shell Scripting for the Oracle Professional
Jon Emmons
Checking Files
$ if [ -e
$ORACLE_HOME/dbs/init$ORACLE_SID.ora ]
> then
> echo "An init file exists for the
database $ORACLE_SID"
> fi
An init file exists for the database oss
Shell Scripting for the Oracle Professional
Jon Emmons
Complex Comparisons
Shell Scripting for the Oracle Professional
Jon Emmons
Checking Multiple Files
$ if [ -e $ORACLE_HOME/dbs/init$ORACLE_SID.ora -a -e \
> $ORACLE_HOME/dbs/spfile$ORACLE_SID.ora ]
> then
> echo "We seem to have both an spfile and an init file"
> fi
We seem to have both an spfile and an init file
Shell Scripting for the Oracle Professional
Jon Emmons
Case Statement
#!/bin/sh
case $ORACLE_SID
in
oss)
echo "Using the sid for the Oracle Shell
Scripting database"
;;
db1)
echo "Using the default Oracle database"
;;
*)
echo "I don't have a description for this
database"
;;
esac
Shell Scripting for the Oracle Professional
Jon Emmons
Case Statement
#!/bin/sh
case $ORACLE_SID
in
The beginning of a case
oss)
statement is indicated by the
echo "Using the sid for case
the keyword.
OracleThe
Shell
end is
Scripting database"
indicated by case spelled
;;
backwards
db1)
echo "Using the default Oracle database"
;;
*)
echo "I don't have a description for this
database"
;;
esac
Shell Scripting for the Oracle Professional
Jon Emmons
Case Statement
#!/bin/sh
The input given at the
case $ORACLE_SID
beginning will be compared to
in
each value in the list
oss)
echo "Using the sid for the Oracle Shell
Scripting database"
;;
db1)
echo "Using the default Oracle database"
The asterisk is a
;;
wildcard and will
*)
match any string
echo "I don't have a description for this
database"
;;
The code to be executed for each option is
esac
terminated by a double semicolon.
Shell Scripting for the Oracle Professional
Jon Emmons
Case Statement
• The code following the first matching option will
be executed.
• If no match is found the script will continue on
after the esac statement without executing any
code.
• Some wildcards and regular expressions can be
used.
• A case could be rewritten as a series of elif
statements but a case is typically more easily
understood.
Shell Scripting for the Oracle Professional
Jon Emmons
The while Loop
The while loop will repeat a chunk of code as
long as the given condition is true.
#!/bin/sh
i=1
while [ $i -le 10 ]
do
echo "The current value of i is $i"
i=`expr $i + 1`
done
Shell Scripting for the Oracle Professional
Jon Emmons
The while Loop
#!/bin/sh
Make sure your loop variable is
initialized before the loop starts
i=1
while [ $i -le 10 ]
do
echo "The current value of i is $i"
i=`expr $i + 1`
done
Also makes sure that something will
eventually cause the while condition
to fail, otherwise you may end up in
an infinite loop!
Shell Scripting for the Oracle Professional
Jon Emmons
The for Loop
The for loop allows you to easily parse a set of values.
#!/bin/sh
count=0
for i in 2 4 6
do
echo "i is $i"
count=`expr $count + 1`
done
echo "The loop was executed $count times"
Shell Scripting for the Oracle Professional
Jon Emmons
The for Loop
#!/bin/sh
count=0
This for loop will be executed three
times, once with i=2, once with i=4
for i in 2 4 6
and once with i=6
do
echo "i is $i"
count=`expr $count + 1`
done
echo "The loop was executed $count
times"
Shell Scripting for the Oracle Professional
Jon Emmons
Breaking Out of the Current Loop
The break statement will cause the shell to stop executing the current loop
and continue on after its end.
#!/bin/sh
files=`ls`
count=0
for i in $files
do
count=`expr $count + 1`
if [ $count -gt 100 ]
then
echo "There are more than 100 files in the current
directory"
break
fi
done
Shell Scripting for the Oracle Professional
Jon Emmons
Prompting for User Input
For scripts which will be run interactively we
can prompt the user to give us input.
The read command can be used to set a
variable with a value read from user input.
#!/bin/sh
echo "Enter your name"
read name
echo "Hi $name. I hope you like this script"
Shell Scripting for the Oracle Professional
Jon Emmons
Prompting for User Input
$ ./welcome.sh
Enter your name
Jon
Hi Jon. I hope you like this script
Note that the text input will be displayed on the
screen. If you do not want the input displayed
(like when accepting a password) use the -s
option for the read command.
Shell Scripting for the Oracle Professional
Jon Emmons
Using Arguments
Accepting arguments to your script can allow you
to make a script more flexible.
The variables $1, $2, $3 etc. refer to the
arguments given in order.
The variable $@ refers to the complete string of
arguments.
The variable $# will give the number of arguments
given.
Shell Scripting for the Oracle Professional
Jon Emmons
Using Arguments
if [ $1 ]
then
ORACLE_SID=$1
ORAENV_ASK=NO
. oraenv
else
if [ ! $ORACLE_SID ]
then
echo "Error: No ORACLE_SID set or provided as
an argument"
exit 1
fi
fi
Shell Scripting for the Oracle Professional
Jon Emmons
Using Arguments
Check to see if an argument was given
if [ $1 ]
then
If it was, we will use it to set the
ORACLE_SID=$1
ORACLE_SID variable then
ORAENV_ASK=NO
execute oraenv
. oraenv
else
if [ ! $ORACLE_SID ]
then
echo "Error: No ORACLE_SID set or provided as
an argument"
exit 1
fi
fi
Shell Scripting for the Oracle Professional
Jon Emmons
The Oracle Connection
Shell Scripting for the Oracle Professional
Jon Emmons
Calling SQL Scripts
from Shell Scripts
• SQL*Plus can be called within shell
scripts like any other command.
• A username and password can be
provided to avoid being prompted for
them.
• A SQL script can be provided as an
argument.
• The -S option can be used to suppress
the SQL*Plus banner and prompts.
Shell Scripting for the Oracle Professional
Jon Emmons
Calling a SQL Script
#!/bin/sh
sqlplus -S system/manager @database_status.sql
This short script will allow you to easily execute a
SQL script with given permissions
Warning: Calling sqlplus in this manner may
expose your username and password to
others on the system!
Warning: Files which contain usernames
and passwords must be properly secured to
avoid exposing the passwords!
Shell Scripting for the Oracle Professional
Jon Emmons
Getting Past the
Password Problems
A combination of two methods can be used to get
around the password problems with the
previous method.
• Place the password in a variable so it will not
display in a process listing.
• Rather than placing the password in the shell
script store it in a separate, secure file.
Shell Scripting for the Oracle Professional
Jon Emmons
Placing the Password in a Variable
#!/bin/sh
system_pw=manager
sqlplus -S system/$system_pw @database_status.sql
When this command is running a process listing
(ps) will show the variable name ($system_pw)
instead of the password.
Shell Scripting for the Oracle Professional
Jon Emmons
Reading the Password from a
Secure File
#!/bin/sh
system_pw=`cat
/u01/app/oracle/admin/oss/pw/system.pw`
sqlplus -S system/$system_pw @database_status.sql
By reading the password from a text file the script
is no longer required to have the password
embedded in it.
This has the added advantage of providing a
single location where passwords can be
changed for all scripts at once.
Shell Scripting for the Oracle Professional
Jon Emmons
Securing the Password Files
In order to keep the passwords secure the files
which contain them should have as restrictive
permissions as possible. Using the chmod
command we can grant the owner (typically the
oracle user) read and write permissions and
revoke all permissions for other users.
chmod u=rw,g=,o=
/u01/app/oracle/admin/oss/pw/system.pw
Shell Scripting for the Oracle Professional
Jon Emmons
Using SQL Directly In Shell Scripts
By using file markers we can call SQL
directly from our shell scripts. This can
make scripts easier to move and maintain
as there is only one file to work with.
Shell Scripting for the Oracle Professional
Jon Emmons
#!/bin/sh
sqlplus -S system/manager << EOF
set pagesize 0 linesize 80 feedback off
SELECT 'The database ' || instance_name ||
' has been running since ' ||
to_char(startup_time, 'HH24:MI
MM/DD/YYYY')
FROM v\$instance;
SELECT 'There are ' || count(status) ||
' data files with a status of ' || status
FROM dba_data_files
GROUP BY status
ORDER BY status;
exit;
EOF
Shell Scripting for the Oracle Professional
Jon Emmons
Using File Markers
• The shell will interpret everything that follows
<< EOF as input to the sqlplus command until it
encounters another EOF on its own line.
• Multiple file markers can be used within the
same script but they will need to be unique!
Common file markers are EOF1, EOF2, etc. or
EOA, EOB, EOC etc.
• File markers do not have to be all upper-case
but it does make them easier to spot in a script.
• Be sure to provide appropriate commits!
Shell Scripting for the Oracle Professional
Jon Emmons
SQL Script Arguments
SQL scripts can accept arguments just like
shell scripts.
SQL script arguments are stored in the
variables &1, &2, etc.
SELECT username, account_status,
expiry_date
FROM dba_users WHERE
lower(username)=lower('&1');
Shell Scripting for the Oracle Professional
Jon Emmons
Shell Variables in Embedded SQL
When embedding SQL with file markers variables from the
shell script can be used inline.
#!/bin/sh
lookup=$1
sqlplus -S system/manager << EOF
SELECT username, account_status,
expiry_date
FROM dba_users WHERE
lower(username)=lower('$lookup');
exit;
EOF
Shell Scripting for the Oracle Professional
Jon Emmons
Getting Information Out of
SQL*Plus
The output of sqlplus can be sent to a file on the system
for further processing.
Output is redirected with the > symbol.
When redirecting both input and output things can get
confusing.
sqlplus -S "/ as sysdba" << EOF > $tempfile
It is easiest to look at this as two separate statements, the
redirection of input (<< EOF) and the redirection of the
output (> $tempfile).
Note that the output is being redirected to the file location
described by the tempfile variable.
Shell Scripting for the Oracle Professional
Jon Emmons
Getting Information Out of
SQL*Plus
#!/bin/bash
tempfile=/tmp/audit_locked_accounts_$ORACLE_SID.txt
# Start sqlplus and check for locked accounts
sqlplus -S "/ as sysdba" << EOF > $tempfile
set pagesize
select 'The following accounts were found to be unlocked and should not
be'
from dual;
define exit_status = 0
column xs new_value exit_status
select username, account_status, 1 as xs from dba_users
where account_status != 'LOCKED'
and username in ('HR', 'SCOTT', 'OUTLN', 'MDSYS', 'CTXSYS');
exit &exit_status
EOF
# If the exit status of sqlplus was not 0 then we will send an email
if [ $? != 0 ]
then
mail -s "Accounts Unlocked in $ORACLE_SID" oracle < $tempfile
fi
Shell Scripting for the Oracle Professional
Jon Emmons
Manipulating Other Commands
• These methods can also be applied with
RMAN for backup and recovery.
• File markers can be used to emulate user
input for many (but not all) commands.
Shell Scripting for the Oracle Professional
Jon Emmons
Break
Shell Scripting for the Oracle Professional
Jon Emmons
Some Useful Tricks
Shell Scripting for the Oracle Professional
Jon Emmons
Escape Character
The escape character will prevent the shell from
interpreting the following character as anything
other than text.
Backslash (\) is the escape character in the Bash
shell.
Escaping special characters (such as * ' $ ;
and space) can help you get the output you
want and to handle special characters in file
names.
$ echo "The escape character in Bash is \"\\\""
The escape character in Bash is "\"
Shell Scripting for the Oracle Professional
Jon Emmons
Single Quotes
Single quotes will cause all special
characters (except the single quote) to be
ignored.
$ echo 'In single quotes "double quotes",
$ and even ; are all safe'
In single quotes "double quotes", $ and
even ; are all safe
Shell Scripting for the Oracle Professional
Jon Emmons
Double Quotes
Double quotes will cause most special
characters to be ignored.
Variables and back quotes will be expanded
and backslashes are interpreted as an
escape character.
$ echo "In double quotes we can use
variables like $ORACLE_SID"
In double quotes we can use variables like
oss
Shell Scripting for the Oracle Professional
Jon Emmons
Back Quotes
Text between back quotes (`) is executed as a
command and its output substituted in its place.
This allows us to concatenate command results
with text.
$ echo "The current date and time is
`date`"
The current date and time is Sun May
23:19:55 EDT 2007
Shell Scripting for the Oracle Professional
6
Jon Emmons
Redirecting Output to a File
• Output from commands can easily be
sent to a file instead of the display with a
> or >>
• The > will replace the given file if it exists
but the >> will concatenate the output on
the end of the given file
• Both the standard output and the error
output can be redirected to a file
Shell Scripting for the Oracle Professional
Jon Emmons
Redirecting Standard Output
$ ls
log1.log log3.log myfile.txt
types_of_unix.txt
log2.log marx.txt output.txt
$ ls > listing.txt
$ more listing.txt
listing.txt
log1.log
log2.log
log3.log
marx.txt
myfile.txt
output.txt
sample.txt
test_script.sh
types_of_unix.txt
Shell Scripting for the Oracle Professional
sample.txt
test_script.sh
Jon Emmons
Redirecting Error Output
$ find ./ -name "*.txt" >
text_files.txt 2>errors.txt
While > or >> redirect standard output 2> or
2>> will redirect error output.
Standard or error output can be redirected
to /dev/null (2>/dev/null) to discard the
output
Shell Scripting for the Oracle Professional
Jon Emmons
Linking Output to Input
The pipe (|) can be used to link the output
of one command to the input of another.
$ ps -ef | grep oss
oracle
2684
1
oracle
2686
1
oracle
2688
1
oracle
2690
1
oracle
2692
1
oracle
2694
1
oracle
2696
1
oracle
2698
1
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
14:02
14:02
14:02
14:02
14:02
14:02
14:02
14:02
?
?
?
?
?
?
?
?
Shell Scripting for the Oracle Professional
00:00:00
00:00:00
00:00:00
00:00:02
00:00:03
00:00:01
00:00:06
00:00:00
ora_pmon_oss
ora_psp0_oss
ora_mman_oss
ora_dbw0_oss
ora_lgwr_oss
ora_ckpt_oss
ora_smon_oss
ora_reco_oss
Jon Emmons
Performing Math in the Shell
•
The expr command can be used to perform simple math in the
shell.
$ expr 2 + 7
9
$ expr 4 + 3 \* 3
13
$ expr 13 / 2
7
The asterisk is used for multiplication but must be escaped by a
backslash.
Results will be truncated to whole numbers.
Shell Scripting for the Oracle Professional
Jon Emmons
Sending Email
Sending email is simple!
Use -s to specify a subject line, give an
address as an argument (or list multiple
addresses in quotes and separated by
commas) and redirect a file into the
command.
mail -s "Alert log from $ORACLE_SID `hostname`"
oracle <
/u01/app/oracle/admin/$ORACLE_SID/bdump/alert_$ORA
CLE_SID.log
Shell Scripting for the Oracle Professional
Jon Emmons
Scheduling with Cron
Repeated tasks may be scheduled with the
crontab command.
crontab -e will edit the current user's crontab
with the default editor.
Comments can be put into the crontab with the #.
# Weekly full hot backup
00 03 * * 0
/u01/app/oracle/admin/common/scripts/hot_backup.sh
oss 0
Shell Scripting for the Oracle Professional
Jon Emmons
Crontab entries are executed when all the
specified time conditions are met.*
00 03 * * 0
/u01/app/oracle/admin/com…
This entry will be executed at 0 minutes
past the hour, the hour of 3(am), any day
of the month, any month of the year, but
only if it is Sunday.
Shell Scripting for the Oracle Professional
Jon Emmons
*On many platforms if the day of the week
and day of month/month of year are both
specified the job will be executed when
either condition is met.
So, the following job would run on the first
Sunday of the month on some platforms,
but on others would run every Sunday
and the 1st through 7th of each month.
00 03 1-7 * 0
/u01/app/oracle/admin/com…
Shell Scripting for the Oracle Professional
Jon Emmons
Scheduling One-time Tasks with at
Use at for one-time tasks which need to be run
off-hours or at a specific time.
at can easily schedule jobs to run at a specific
time today, tomorrow, or on a specified date
and time.
Just like with cron output from commands run with
at will be sent to the user via email. If you
would like an email when the job completes,
regardless of output just add the -m flag.
Shell Scripting for the Oracle Professional
Jon Emmons
Run an export at 11:30 pm today:
$ at 23:30
at>
/u01/app/oracle/admin/oss/scripts/full_exp
ort.sh
at> ctrl-d <EOT>
job 5 at 2007-01-21 23:30
Run an export at 11:00 am tomorrow and email me when
complete:
$ at -m 11:00 tomorrow
at>
/u01/app/oracle/admin/oss/scripts/full_exp
ort.sh
at> ctrl-d <EOT>
job 6 at 2007-01-22 11:00
Shell Scripting for the Oracle Professional
Jon Emmons
Managing at Jobs
The atq command will list jobs in the at queue.
$ atq
6
2007-01-22 11:00 a oracle
5
2007-01-21 23:30 a oracle
To remove a job use atrm with the job number
from the queue.
$ atrm 6
Shell Scripting for the Oracle Professional
Jon Emmons
Troubleshooting Tips
Shell Scripting for the Oracle Professional
Jon Emmons
Determining where a
failure is happening
Add lines like echo "Completed first for
loop" or echo "About to launch
sqlplus" to help pinpoint errors.
Echo count variables. echo "Loop
completed time $i"
When you're done with these markers simply
comment them out with a pound rather than
removing them. You might need them again.
Shell Scripting for the Oracle Professional
Jon Emmons
Debug Mode
Running a script in debug mode will print each line
of the shell script (including comments) before it
is executed.
Enable debug mode by adding -v after the
interpreter listing at the shebang.
#!/bin/sh –v
Leaving this mode on will generate a lot of output
and may expose passwords. Debug mode
should be enabled when needed and
immediately disabled when done.
Shell Scripting for the Oracle Professional
Jon Emmons
$ ./status.sh
#!/bin/bash -v
#
# status.sh script by Jon Emmons
# Published in Oracle Shell Scripting, Rampant
TechPress, 2007
#
# A simple script to provide some information about
the system
# Show the user and host name
echo "Hello $USER!"
Hello oracle!
echo "Welcome to `hostname`"
hostname
Welcome to glonk
echo "--- Current Disk Usage ---"
--- Current Disk Usage --df -h
Shell Scripting for the Oracle Professional
Jon Emmons
Show Commands After
Variable Substitution
Another option, -x, will show each command
once variables have been substituted in.
Debug output will appear with a + at the beginning
of each line.
This can help determine where problems are with
loops and if statements.
-vx can be specified if both debug modes are
desired
Again, this mode should only be enabled when
needed.
Shell Scripting for the Oracle Professional
Jon Emmons
$ ./status.sh
+ echo 'Hello oracle!'
Hello oracle!
++ hostname
+ echo 'Welcome to glonk'
Welcome to glonk
+ echo '--- Current Disk Usage ---'
--- Current Disk Usage --+ df -h
Filesystem
Size Used Avail Use% Mounted
on
/dev/mapper/VolGroup00-LogVol00
72G 6.6G
61G 10% /
/dev/hda1
99M 9.8M
84M 11% /boot
/dev/shm
252M
0 252M
0% /dev/shm
Shell Scripting for the Oracle Professional
Jon Emmons
Some Scripts
Shell Scripting for the Oracle Professional
Jon Emmons
Script Downloads
View scripts shown in this presentation at
http://www.lifeaftercoffee.com/presentation-scripts/
Password: luwak
Shell Scripting for the Oracle Professional
Jon Emmons
More Information
Oracle Shell Scripting: Linux &
UNIX Programming for Oracle
On shelves this summer.
Cover price $49.95
Buy for $34.95
Available at rampant-books.com
Get an extra %10 off with
coupon code thanks-gmoug
Shell Scripting for the Oracle Professional
Jon Emmons
More Information/Contact Me
www.lifeaftercoffee.com
Shell Scripting for the Oracle Professional
Jon Emmons
Thanks to…
• The Green Mountain Oracle User Group
– Take an extra 10% off at rampant-books.com
with coupon code thanks-gmoug
• Burleson Consulting
• Rampant TechPress
Shell Scripting for the Oracle Professional
Jon Emmons
Shell Scripting for the Oracle Professional
Jon Emmons
Was this manual useful for you? yes no
Thank you for your participation!

* Your assessment is very important for improving the work of artificial intelligence, which forms the content of this project

Download PDF

advertising