TOP, The Output Processor

TOP, The Output Processor
TOP
The Output Processor
User's Guide
Version 2.10.41
December 1995

Legal Notice
Copyright  1994 Electrotek Concepts, Inc.
Information contained in this document is subject to change without
notice. The software described in this document is furnished under a
nondisclosure agreement. No part of this document may be reproduced,
transmitted, transcribed, translated, or stored in a retrieval system in any
form.
Printed in the United States of America.
TOP, The Output Processor and SuperHarm are registered trademarks
of Electrotek Concepts, Inc. No investigation has been made of
trademark rights to any term used in this document. Known trademarks
are acknowledged below.
V-HARM is a registered trademark of Cooper Power Systems, Inc.
Microsoft and Windows are registered trademarks of Microsoft
Corporation. IBM is a trademark of International Business Machines
Corporation. In this document, DOS and OS/2 refer to both the
Microsoft and IBM versions of these operating systems.
Credits
Program Author:
Erich W. Gunther
Users Guide Authors:
Afroz Khan
Rory Dwyer
Tom Grebe
Erich W. Gunther
Abstract
Visualization of simulation results from time and
frequency domain programs and measurement data from
a variety of monitoring systems is now available in a
personal computer-based (PC), graphical user interface
(GUI).
Waveform and tabular data from multiple
simulation programs and monitoring devices can be
displayed simultaneously. Post processing of simulation
and measurement data using commonly needed
mathematical/statistical functions allows engineers to
easily integrate, compare, and visualize power system
data from several different sources. This User's Guide
describes the Windows based output processor - TOP.
Electrotek Support
TOP, The Output Processor is supported by Electrotek
Concepts, Inc.
Today, Electrotek works with a nationwide pool of clients
including electric utilities, equipment vendors, and
research organizations bringing together the expertise
necessary to assess the requirements for integrating new
concepts and technologies into the electric power system.
Electrotek has the capabilities required for specialized
engineering consulting services, equipment design and
procurement, and implementation of software and
hardware systems to meet electric utility industry needs.
For TOP Support, Contact:
Electrotek Concepts, Inc.
10305 Dutchtown Road, Suite 103
Knoxville, TN 37932
(800) 554-4767 or (615) 675-1500
Fax (615) 966-5497
480 San Antonio Road, Suite 200
Mountain View, CA 94040
(415) 941-2986
Fax (415) 941-7092
I N T R O D U C T I O N ................................................................................i-1
Getting Started............................................................................................. i-1
What is TOP?............................................................................................ i-3
TOP's Data Capabilities........................................................................... i-3
Data Management Capability ............................................................. i-4
Data Display Capability ...................................................................... i-4
Data Processing Capability ................................................................. i-5
Data Formatting Capability ................................................................ i-6
Data Sharing Capability ..................................................................... i-7
What Programs / Monitors Work With TOP? ......................................... i-7
How to Use This Manual ......................................................................... i-7
Introduction.......................................................................................... i-7
Using TOP ............................................................................................ i-7
Stack Management .............................................................................. i-7
Working with Graphs .......................................................................... i-8
Working with Tables............................................................................ i-8
Common Procedures ............................................................................ i-8
Installing the Software ............................................................................ i-9
Running SETUP .................................................................................. i-9
Using Microsoft Windows ...................................................................... i-10
Quick Tour.............................................................................................. I-16
C H A P T E R 1 ............................................................................................ 1-1
Using TOP ................................................................................................... 1-1
Starting the TOP Program ..................................................................... 1-3
Setting Display Preferences ................................................................... 1-4
The Status Line................................................................................... 1-5
The Ribbon .......................................................................................... 1-6
Modifying the Preferences.................................................................. 1-6
Creating Graphs and Tables .................................................................. 1-7
Opening a Data File............................................................................ 1-7
Loading Data onto the Stack.............................................................. 1-8
Discarding Data From the Stack ....................................................... 1-9
Creating a “Quick” Graph ................................................................ 1-10
Utilizing a TOP Table....................................................................... 1-12
Printing.................................................................................................. 1-14
Printer Set Up................................................................................... 1-14
Page Layout....................................................................................... 1-15
Printing TOP Displays ..................................................................... 1-15
Using the Help System ......................................................................... 1-16
Using TOP with other Applications ..................................................... 1-17
Copying to the Window’s Clipboard ................................................. 1-17
Clearing the Clipboard ..................................................................... 1-18
Pasting Data from the Clipboard ..................................................... 1-18
Exporting to a Disk File ................................................................... 1-18
Using TOP Utilities............................................................................... 1-20
Building an EMTP SOS File ............................................................ 1-21
Starting a Word Processor................................................................ 1-22
Starting a Spreadsheet..................................................................... 1-22
Starting a Calculator ........................................................................ 1-23
Viewing a Text File........................................................................... 1-23
C H A P T E R 2 ............................................................................................ 2-1
Stack Management...................................................................................... 2-1
What is the Stack? .................................................................................. 2-3
Stack Object Identifiers .......................................................................... 2-4
Raw Objects (loaded directly from output files) ................................ 2-5
Derived Objects (produced by TOPCalc)............................................ 2-5
Modifying Stack Objects ......................................................................... 2-5
Base Quantities Option ...................................................................... 2-5
Units Option........................................................................................ 2-6
Using TOPCalc........................................................................................ 2-7
The Procedure ................................................................................... 2-10
Single Argument Operations............................................................ 2-11
Fourier Transforms........................................................................... 2-13
Statistical Functions......................................................................... 2-18
Mixed Argument Operations............................................................ 2-19
C H A P T E R 3 ............................................................................................ 3-1
Working With Graphs ................................................................................. 3-1
Background ............................................................................................. 3-3
Using New Graph.................................................................................... 3-4
Frame Management................................................................................ 3-5
Formatting Top Graphs .......................................................................... 3-6
Graph Scaling ..................................................................................... 3-6
Zooming with the Mouse .................................................................... 3-9
Grid Options...................................................................................... 3-10
Label Options .................................................................................... 3-11
Graph Annotation ............................................................................. 3-12
Data Block ......................................................................................... 3-14
Graph Legend ................................................................................... 3-15
Graphical Animation ........................................................................ 3-17
C H A P T E R 4 ............................................................................................ 4-1
Working with Tables ................................................................................... 4-1
What Types of Tables are Available? ..................................................... 4-3
Using Tables............................................................................................ 4-4
Editing Tables ..................................................................................... 4-4
Creating a Table...................................................................................... 4-6
Curve Minimum and Maximum ............................................................. 4-8
Waveform Summary ........................................................................... 4-9
Waveform Data Points...................................................................... 4-10
Frequency Domain Data................................................................... 4-11
Harmonic Summary Table ............................................................... 4-12
Magnitude vs. Switch Operation...................................................... 4-13
IEEE 519 Current Limits ................................................................. 4-14
C H A P T E R 5 ............................................................................................ 5-1
Common Procedures.................................................................................... 5-1
Graphical Manipulations........................................................................ 5-3
Multiple Graphs in a Single Frame ................................................... 5-3
Multiple Graphs in the Same Window .............................................. 5-4
Base Quantities Example ..................................................................... 5-12
Harmonic (H pu) to Hertz (Hz) ....................................................... 5-12
Per-Unitizing..................................................................................... 5-14
TOP Calc Examples .............................................................................. 5-18
Spectrum to Waveform ..................................................................... 5-18
Waveform to Spectrum ..................................................................... 5-21
Line-Ground to Line-Line................................................................. 5-26
Energy Calculation ........................................................................... 5-28
New Graph Features............................................................................. 5-30
RX Locus Plots .................................................................................. 5-30
A P P E N D I X A ......................................................................................... A-1
TOP Data Filters .........................................................................................A-1
COMTRADE Objects ..........................................................................A-3
EMTP Objects .....................................................................................A-5
HarmFlo Objects .................................................................................A-7
SuperHarm Objects ............................................................................A-8
V-HARM Objects...............................................................................A-12
Dranetz Objects.................................................................................A-13
PQNode Objects ................................................................................A-15
Square D Objects ..............................................................................A-16
INTRODUCTION
Getting Started
This introduction serves as a starting point for those users who are not
familiar with TOP, The Output Processor (hereafter referred to as
TOP). The following sections provide an overview of the program
including the powerful main features which comprise TOP and how to
run them in coordination with other Windows Applications.
This chapter also describes in a step by step procedure, how to setup
TOP to run, including hardware and software requirements. For
those users ready to start using TOP immediately, the final section in
this introduction is a quick tour of the program highlighting the
necessities as well as the most common applications for TOP.
In This Chapter
♦
♦
♦
♦

What is TOP?
TOP’s Program Structure
TOP’s Data Capabilities
What Programs/Monitors
Work with TOP?
TOP, The Output Processer is a registered trademark of Electrotek Concepts, Inc.
♦
♦
♦
♦
How to Use this Manual
Installing the Software
Using Microsoft Windows
Quick Tour
i-2
Electrotek Concepts, Inc.
TOP User’s Guide
Getting Started
i-3
Electrotek Concepts, Inc.
i-4
TOP User’s Guide
What is TOP?
TOP is an acronym for “The Output Processor” and is responsible for
the visualization of data from time and frequency domain solvers and
monitoring systems. The Microsoft Windows operating environment
was chosen for TOP due to its popularity, GUI, multitasking ability,
ease of use, and inherent capability to facilitate data sharing between
applications.
TOP supports many different data formats including:
Ø
Ø
Ø
Ø
Ø
Ø
Ø
COMTRADE (IEEE Std C37.111-1991)
EPRI/DCG EMTP for OS/2 and Windows
ATP (Alternative Transients Program)
HARMFLO for Windows
SuperHarm (HarmFlo+ Workstation)
V-HARM
Specific Measuring Devices
TOP has been designed using an open architecture to accommodate
additional data input filters. The Windows Dynamic Link Library
(DLL) mechanism allows a third party to write a module that
translates data from a specific format into the format required by
TOP. TOP requires a 80386, 80486 or Pentium based personal
computer using Microsoft Windows version 3.1 or greater.
TOP's Data Capabilities
This section will provide a detailed account of TOP’s main
methodology towards data handling.
The following processing
capabilities will be introduced:
Ø
Ø
Ø
Ø
Ø
Data Management
Data Display
Data Processing
Data Formatting
Data Sharing
These capabilities will be discussed in detail in Chapters 1 - 4.
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Getting Started
i-5
Data Management Capability
TOP uses a method of data management called the stack to simplify
handling of data from various sources. The stack holds the data
selected by the user from each source file. This process is analogous to
selecting a file folder from a file cabinet, selecting specific papers in
the file that are of interest, and piling them in a stack on your desk.
The stack concept is described in Chapter 2 and is summarized as:
1. The user selects the file that contains the data to be displayed.
2. TOP then provides a dialog box which displays all of the quantities
available in the current file.
3. The user selects the items of interest which TOP loads into
memory. The user may reactivate the dialog box at any time and
load more data objects onto the stack. The user may also select
another file at any time and load data from that file onto the stack.
The result is a stack of data objects of different types and origins
that are available for display.
Data Display Capability
TOP provides a variety of ways to visualize the data of interest in the
form of tables and graphs. Display options include:
Ø Waveform and Spectrum Plots
Ø Frequency Response Plots
Ø Summary Tables
Ø
Ø
Ø
Ø
Waveform Summary and Data Points
Frequency Domain Data
Harmonic Summary Data
Magnitude vs. Switch Operation
IEEE 519 Current Limits
Summary Bar/Column Charts
Cumulative Probability Charts
Probability Density Charts
Graphical Animation
TOP utilizes Microsoft's Multiple Document Interface (MDI) standard
to allow a user to view several different plots in multiple windows
simultaneously. The user can move, size, and arrange the windows on
the screen as desired. Any window can be printed with a simple menu
option. In addition, TOP does not need to be updated every time a
new hardcopy device is installed. This is due to the fact that
printer/plotter support is provided through the Windows environment.
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TOP User’s Guide
TOP uses windows and frames to display selected data. Frames
include multiple sets of axes in one window. One advantage of this
option is that measured and simulated data can be displayed in the
same window.
For printing, each window corresponds to a
(printed/plotted) page.
Data Processing Capability
A very useful post processing feature in TOP is called TOPCalc. This
feature allows a user to perform mathematical operations on the
various data objects supported by the program. Operations include:
Ø
Ø
Ø
Ø
Ø
Ø
Ø
Ø
Ø
Ø
Addition, subtraction, multiplication, division
Inversion, negate, absolute value
Fast & discrete Fourier transformers (FFT, DFT)
Inverse transform (IDFT)
Power, energy and I2T
Integration, square, square root
X-Y combine
Filter (high, low pass), time shift
V, I, and power dB ratio
Cumulative probability, probability distribution
This facility provides a means for creating new stack objects by
specifying mathematical operations to be performed on existing
objects. Objects derived through TOPCalc are identical to raw data
loaded from input files and can be used as arguments for subsequent
TOPCalc operations.
TOPCalc requires one or two arguments,
depending on the operation selected. Argument #1 is always a stack
object. Argument #2, if required, is usually an object, but may be a
constant. Simple single argument operations include invert (1/X),
negate (-X), square (X2), square root (√X), and absolute value (|X|).
Mixed
argument
operations
include
addition,
subtraction,
multiplication, division, power, energy, dB ratio, and X-Y combine. In
addition, TOPCalc includes several sophisticated mathematical
operations. The filter operation provides high pass, low pass, band
pass, and band reject options. The FFT operation performs a Fast
Fourier Transform on the desired waveform. The FFT operation
includes both single and sliding options as well as control over the
weighting function window. The sliding FFT option is used to produce
a trend object of a single harmonic vs. time.
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Getting Started
i-7
Data Formatting Capability
TOP provides the capability to format the data display based on user
preferences. Functions under user control include:
Ø
Ø
Ø
Ø
Ø
Base quantities (per unitizing)
Units (axis labels and multipliers i.e. kA)
Data, comment, and annotation blocks
Display colors
Axis scaling, grid lines, labels
The Set Per-Unit Base Quantities option allows the user to control
scaling for each stack object individually. This command may seem
redundant, given that TOPCalc allows division by a constant; however,
the effect is not the same because TOPCalc creates a new object while
base quantities acts directly upon the selected object. This feature is
useful for displaying measured and simulated data on the same axis.
Another TOP function available to the user is the units command.
This option is used when the user needs to assign a different set of
units to the displayed object. Although TOP automatically assigns
units to the X and Y variables of an object when it is created (load from
input file), there are instances when the user will need to change the
values. An example of this is energy in an EMTP PL4 file. Due the
structure of an EMTP output file, TOP assumes that the object is a
current and the user must change the Y axis display from “Current” to
When TOP loads a stack object it prepares information for a data
block. The contents of the data block varies depending on the object
and input file type. As an example, the data block for a simulated dc
drive harmonic spectrum would include the following information:
Freq:
Fund:
THD:
RMSh:
RMS:
ASUM:
TIF:
60
293.9
35.2
103.5
311.6
455.1
353.1
(fundamental freq)
(fundamental value)
(harmonic distortion)
(harmonic rms)
(total rms)
(arithmetic sum)
(telephone influence)
TOP also provides the user with the flexibility to control the display
colors, X and Y axis zooming (keyboard or mouse controlled), tick
marks and grid lines, and axis labels.
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TOP User’s Guide
Data Sharing Capability
The data being visualized in a window can be exported to a variety of
other file formats, including:
Ø Windows Metafile (.WMF)
Ø Comma Separated Variable (.CSV)
Ø IEEE COMTRADE (.CFG)
In addition, the Windows Clipboard can be used to transfer formatted
graphs to many other Windows applications.
What Programs / Monitors Work With TOP?
Small auxiliary programs, called data filters, allow TOP to read
various output files created by a number of simulation programs and
monitoring devices. Which data filters are included with your version
of TOP depends on the filter option(s) that you purchased with the
program.
If your version of TOP is unable to read files from a program that it
should be able to support, check your TOP directory for the
appropriate data filter. The data files can be found in the TOP
program directory with the .TDF (TOP Data File) extension.
How to Use This Manual
This User's Guide is divided into the following parts:
Introduction
This chapter contains an overview of the program. A “quick tour” is
included for users who want to get started with TOP right away.
Using TOP
This chapter contains information pertaining to the usage and
configuration of the program.
Stack Management
This chapter discusses how to open simulation and measurement
program output files, and how to retrieve quantities of interest from
them. It also covers how to per unitize quantities, and how to create
new quantities with TOPCalc. All TOP users, beginning or advanced,
need to understand stack management operations - read this
Electrotek Concepts, Inc.
Getting Started
i-9
chapter in detail. A detailed section on the data filters available is
included here.
Working with Graphs
This chapter explains the various types of TOP displays, how to create
them, and how to manipulate them. Beginners should become
comfortable with the Quick Graph option before moving on to the more
advanced options.
Working with Tables
Tabulating harmonic summaries, frequency scans, transient peak
magnitudes and other data is covered in this chapter. Like the
advanced graphing options, new users can defer this topic.
Common Procedures
This chapter outlines in a step by step procedure common applications
performed in TOP. This includes applications in TOP Calc as well as
using the New Graph feature.
Electrotek Concepts, Inc.
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TOP User’s Guide
Installing the Software
Before you install TOP, insure that you have the proper equipment
and system software. TOP is a Windows protected-mode application.
This requires Microsoft Windows version 3.1 or later, 80386, 80486, or
Pentium based machine. 80386 based machines must have a numeric
coprocessor (80387 or equivalent).
Your machine should be equipped with at least 4 Mbytes of memory.
Depending on how you use Windows, additional memory may be
required to achieve optimum performance. Your graphics adapter,
printer, and pointing device (mouse) should be Windows compatible.
The full installation (including benchmark cases) of TOP will take
approximately 5 Mbytes of hard disk space.
Running SETUP
The following steps should be followed to install TOP:
1. Place the TOP setup disk #1 in one of your machine's floppy drives
(the following steps assume A drive).
2. Start Windows, if not already running, and open the Windows
Program Manager File Menu.
3. Select Run, then type A:\SETUP. When prompted, select the
Continue button to begin the installation.
4. The Setup program prompts you to specify the drive and directory
in which to install TOP. The default is C:\ETKPROG\TOP. Select
OK to continue the installation.
5. When prompted, replace Setup disk #1 with disk #2.
6. This version of TOP installs all filters when the program is first
installed. There is no need to install any additional files.
7. The Setup program will create a new program group
Tools) containing the TOP icon.
Electrotek Concepts, Inc.
(Simulation
Getting Started
i - 11
Using Microsoft Windows
The following section provides an overview on the types of commands
available with the Windows workstation and how they can be applied
to TOP. The different areas of features illustrated are:
Ø Menu Commands
Ø Dialog Box Commands
Ø Display Window Commands
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TOP User’s Guide
Operation
Menu Commands
Open a menu
menu
bar
Choose an item from a menu
Click the title on the
menu bar. To click
an object means to
point to the object
using the mouse, then
rapidly press and
release the left mouse
button.
Press and hold the Alt
key, then press the
letter
that
is
underlined in the
title. For example,
press Alt+F to open
the File menu.
Click the item.
Use the ↓ key to move
to the item, then press
Enter↵.
The three dots after
Preferences indicate
that more data is
needed. If you select
the item, TOP will
display a dialog box so
that you can enter the
required information.
Or
Press the key for the
underlined letter in the
item name.
For
example, press C for
Copy.
Dialog Box Commands
A Typical
Dialog Box
L is t
Box
R a d io
B u tto n s
Text
Boxes
B u tto n s
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Getting Started
i - 13
Operation
Dialog Box Commands, continued
Select a Button
Click the button
F ramed Button
Press Tab/Shift+Tab to
select (button becomes
framed), then press
Enter↵.
Or
Press the key for the
underlined letter in the
button name, if any.
Select/unselect an item in a list box
Click the item to select
(becomes highlighted);
click highlighted item
to unselect.
The list box may or
may not allow more
than one item to be
selected.
Select a radio button
Set or clear a check box
·
Press Tab/Shift+Tab
to move to the list.
Or
Press the key for the
underlined letter in
the check box name.
·
Use ↑↓ keys to move
to desired item.
·
Press spacebar
select/unselect.
to
Click button to select
Click another button to
unselect. (Radio button
options are mutually
exclusive - only one
button can be selected.)
·
Press Tab/Shift+Tab
to move to the group.
Click the box to set
(check)
or
clear
(uncheck).
·
Use ↑↓ keys to move
to the desired button.
Or
Press the key for the
underlined letter in the
button name.
·
·
Press Tab/Shift+Tab
to move to the group.
Use ↑↓ keys to move
to the check box.
Press spacebar to set
or clear.
Or
Press the key for the
underlined letter in the
check box name.
·
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TOP User’s Guide
Operation
Dialog Box Commands, continued
Enter data in text box
·
Click box.
·
Type/edit data.
·
·
·
Press Tab/Shift+Tab
to move to group
containing text box.
Use ↑↓ keys to move
to text box.
Type/edit data.
Or
Press the key for the
underlined letter in the
text box name.
Click text box to enter
data or click ↓ to open
list box.
Use a combination
text/drop-down list box
Select Files of Type:
Press Tab/Shift+Tab
to move to text box.
· Type/edit data.
Or
·
·
Press Alt+↓ to open
list box.
·
Press Alt+↓/Alt+↑ to
move to item in list.
Press spacebar to
select/unselect.
SuperHarm Output
·
Display Window Commands
Open the Control menu
Control menu button
Move a window
Click the control menu
button.
Press Alt+Hyphen.
Drag the window title
bar. To drag an object
means to point to the
object, press and hold
the left button, point to
the desired location,
then release the button.
·
Open Control menu.
·
Select Move. (Cursor
changes to fourheaded arrow.)
·
·
Electrotek Concepts, Inc.
Use ← ↑ → ↓ keys to
move window.
Press
Enter↵
to
confirm or Esc to
cancel.
Getting Started
i - 15
Operation
Display Window Commands, continued
Drag side frame to
change width. Drag
top/bottom frame to
change height. Drag
corner to change width
and height in same
proportion.
Change window size
·
·
·
·
·
Click Maximize button
Maximize a window
·
·
Maximize button
Return maximized window to original size
Click Restore button.
·
·
TOP's control menu button
Display window's control menu button
Click the appropriate
arrow to scroll up,
down or across.
·
Scroll
Bars
·
Scroll Up Button
Scroll Box ("Thumb")
Scroll Down Button
Open Control menu.
Select Maximize.
Open Control menu.
Select Restore.
Note: When a display
window is maximized,
its control menu button
is located underneath
the TOP control menu
button,
as
shown.
Select the lower button.
Restore
Button
Scroll through a table
Open Control menu.
Select Size. (Cursor
changes to fourheaded arrow.)
Use ← ↑ → ↓ keys to
select frame. (Cursor
changes
to
twoheaded arrow.)
Use ← ↑ → ↓ keys to
move frame.
Press Enter↵, or
cancel with Esc.
Click Scroll Up,
Scroll Down, Scroll
Left, or Scroll Right
button to move a line
or column at a time.
To scroll several lines
or columns at once,
drag the appropriate
thumb, or click the
appropriate scroll bar
between the thumb
and the button of the
desired direction.
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TOP User’s Guide
Operation
Display Window Commands, continued
Minimize a window (to an icon)
Click Minimize button.
·
Open Control menu.
·
Select Minimize.
Double-click
desired
icon. (To double click
an object means to
point to the object then
click the left button
twice
in
rapid
succession.)
·
Use Ctrl+Tab to move
to desired icon.
·
Open Control menu.
·
Select Restore.
Click on an exposed
part of window. If no
part of window is
visible, use procedure
described for keyboard.
·
Open Window menu
·
Select title of window
Minimize button
Restore an icon to window
Make a window the active window*
DERIVED>
BUSB(Type 1)
* Although many windows can be displayed on the desktop, only one can receive commands - the
active window. The active window is recognized on the desktop by its highlighted title bar, and in
the Window menu by a check mark beside the widow title.
Organize windows on the desktop
Close a window
Control menu button
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·
Open Window menu.
·
Select Cascade (windows overlap) or Tile.
Double-click
menu button.
Control
·
Open Control menu.
·
Select Close.
Getting Started
i - 17
Quick Tour
The remainder of this introduction is a “quick” overview of the
fundamentals necessary to begin using TOP now. The following
features are briefly introduced.
Ø Starting TOP
Ø Opening an Output File
Ø Placing Objects on the Stack
Ø Using TOPCalc
Ø Creating a Graph
Ø Getting Help
Ø Printing
Ø Closing TOP
More advanced features and details for each of the above subjects can
be seen in the following chapters.
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TOP User’s Guide
Starting TOP
If the TOP icon is visible on the Program Manager desktop. (Arrangement varies; an
example of the desktop is shown below.)
•
Double-click the TOP icon. You can also start TOP from the programs that
support TOP directly (HarmFlo+ and the EMTP for Windows workstation). Start
the workstation by double-clicking its icon, then double-click the TOP icon in the
workstation window.
If the TOP icon is not visible on the Program Manager desktop:
•
Use the keyboard procedure on the following page.
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Getting Started
i - 19
Starting TOP, cont.
·
Open the Program Manager File menu
·
Select Run. You are prompted for a program name:
·
Type the full path name for TOP.EXE. (It is not necessary to include the EXE
extension.) Unless you specified otherwise when installing the EMTP for
Windows or HarmFlo+ workstation, the path will be c:\etkprog\top\top.exe.
·
Select the OK button.
Opening an Output File
·
Open the File menu.
·
Select Open. The following dialog box is displayed:
Use the List Files of Type list box to select IEEE COMTRADE CFG Files
·
Use the Drives and Directories list boxes to select the top\examples subdirectory
under the etkprog directory.
·
In the list box under the File Name text box, double-click fdr25kv.cfg. If you do
not have a mouse, select this file in the list box, or type the file name in the text
box; then select OK.
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TOP User’s Guide
Placing Objects On The Stack
Now that the output file has been opened, you can retrieve node voltages, branch
currents, and other quantities contained in the file. Quantities that you select are
placed in a holding queue called the stack.
Quantities that are obtained directly from an output file are called raw objects, as
distinguished from derived objects, which we will discuss in the next step.
After selecting OK in the File Open dialog box, TOP immediately displays the
Stack Load dialog box. As illustrated below, each simulation and measurement
program supported by TOP has its own Stack Load dialog box.:
IEEE COMTRADE Dialog Box
·
Select desired quantities from the Quantities list box.
·
Select OK.
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Getting Started
i - 21
Using TOP Calc
TOP Calc allows you to derive new stack objects by specifying mathematical
operations to be performed on existing stack objects.
Example 1
Given: Measurements of Phase A and Phase B voltages.
Find:
Phase C voltage by adding the Phase A and Phase B voltage
waveforms and then negating the result.
·
Open the Stack menu.
·
Select TOP Calc. The following dialog box is displayed:
·
Select 1_A (WAVE) (phase A Voltage) as Argument #1
·
Select the Curve option in the upper right corner of the TOPCalc dialog box.
·
Select 3_A (WAVE) (phase B Voltage) as Argument #2
·
Select Add in the Operations list box.
·
Select the Do button to create the new object.
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TOP User’s Guide
Using TOP Calc, cont.
Note: The new object is distinguished from the other objects in the list by the
DERIVED tag in its name
·
Rename the DERIVED solution to a unique name at the Name fields. (PhaseC)
·
Select Negate in the Operations list box.
·
Select the Do button to create the new object.
·
Select the Exit button to exit the dialog box.
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Getting Started
i - 23
Creating a Graph
In this step, we will display a plot of our derived object.
·
Open the Graph menu.
·
Select Quick Graph. The following dialog box is displayed:
·
Select the derived object, (1_A)(PhaseC) in the list box as well as the Phase A
(1_A) and Phase B(3_A) waveforms.
·
Select OK.
TOP opens a display window and creates the graph with all three phases overlaid.
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TOP User’s Guide
Getting Help
TOP supports the standard Windows help facility. There are two ways to get help.
If a menu or dialog box is open:
·
Press F1. This opens the help index to the section covering the open menu or
dialog box.
Otherwise:
·
Select the Help button on the ribbon:
Help, Index
Button
or
·
Open the Help menu.
·
Select the desired topic.
To exit the help system, use the procedure described below for closing TOP.
·
Press F1.
·
Use Tab/Shift+Tab to select the desired topic, then press Enter↵.
To exit the help system, use the procedure described below for closing TOP.
Printing
There are several ways of printing TOP displays. The method shown here is the
easiest - direct printing of a single display window.
·
Open the File menu.
·
Select Print Active.
Closing TOP
·
Double click the Control menu button, or
·
Open the Control menu and select Close, or
·
Open the File menu and select Exit.
·
Press Alt+F4, or
·
Press Alt+Spacebar to open the Control menu, then select Close, or
·
Open the File menu and select Exit.
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Getting Started
i - 25
Electrotek Concepts, Inc.
CHAPTER 1
Using TOP
This chapter describes the main features available in TOP and how to
run them under Windows, including how to tailor the display setups
for individual needs. Commonly utilized features such as printing,
creating graphical outputs and TOP’s expanded Help System are
discussed in detail.
TOP’s utilities are introduced in detail at the end of this chapter. This
consists of; Building an EMTP SOS file, Starting a Calculator,
Starting a Word Processor, Starting a Spreadsheet, and Viewing a
Text File.
In This Chapter
♦ Starting the TOP Program
♦ Setting the Display
Preferences
♦ Creating Graphs and Tables
♦ Printing with TOP
♦ Using the Help System
♦ Using TOP with other
Applications
♦ Using TOP Utilities
1-2
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TOP User’s Guide
Using TOP
1-3
Starting the TOP Program
TOP
The TOP program is started by double clicking on the TOP icon or the
TOP.EXE program listed in the Windows File Manager program.
Figure 1.1 illustrates the most common method (icon) for starting
TOP.
Figure 1.1 - The TOP Program Icon
The required information for creating a TOP icon is provided in the
figure below. The illustrated dialog box is obtained by selecting the
File, New..., Program Item option from the Windows Program
Manager. The entire path name (i.e. D:\ETKPROG\TOP\) should be
included in the command line.
Figure 1.2 - Creating the TOP Icon
The TOP installation program will install the software and create the
necessary program group (Simulation Tools) and icon.
Now that we have successfully installed TOP onto our Windows
Workstation we can activate the program by double clicking on the
TOP icon or single clicking on it and hitting the enter key.
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TOP User’s Guide
Figure 1.3 - TOP's Startup Window
Upon activation of the program, the above screen appears. The About
TOP. . . box (Figure 1.3) will remain on the screen for approximately 5
seconds, or until the Continue button is selected.
Users wanting to contact Electrotek for TOP support should record the
information provided in the About box. Important information
includes the version number, date and registration information.
Setting Display Preferences
The user may alter many of the standard options associated with
program use. This is accomplished by selecting Edit, Preferences...
from the TOP menu.
Figure 1.4A
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Using TOP
1-5
The Preferences dialog box, illustrated in Figure 1.4B, will then
appear.
Figure 1.4B - TOP's Preferences Dialog Box
Options available in the Preferences dialog box include the status
line, ribbon, initial data, comment and legend block status, path
information for a word processor and spreadsheet, and default plot
colors.
The Status Line
The show status lines option allows the determination of the state of
the two TOP status lines. The status line above the ribbon (refer to
Figure 1.3) shows the current data directory,
and the status line at the bottom of the TOP window provides
information pertaining to the state of the program. It is recommended
that the user always display the status lines.
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TOP User’s Guide
The Ribbon
The ribbon
is a set
of buttons which appear under the TOP menu bar. These buttons
provide a shortcut method for accessing the most commonly used TOP
functions (you must have a mouse to use the ribbon). The following
table summarizes the functions of each of the ribbon buttons.
Table 1.1 - TOP's Ribbon Buttons
Function
Function
File, Open
File, Print Active
Edit, Copy
Stack, Load
Stack, Discard
Stack, TOPCalc
Graph, Quick Graph
Graph, Scale, Previous
Graph, Scale, Auto
Scale
Graph, Animate
Table, Select
File, Utilities, Start a Word
Processor
File, Utilities, Start a
Spreadsheet
File, Utilities, Start a
Calculator
Help, Index
Modifying the Preferences
The procedure for modifying the program preferences include:
1. Open the Edit menu
2. Select Preferences... (dialog box in Figure 1.4 will appear)
3. Set or clear the Status Lines and Ribbon check boxes.
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Using TOP
1-7
4. Set or clear the Use Line Styles check box. This option defines
whether the legend block should distinguish between several plots
by color or different lines styles. See page 3-17 for a description.
5. Set or clear the Data Block Initially On check box. See page 3-15 for
a description of the data block.
6. Set or clear the Comment Block Initially On check box. Comment
blocks, also called annotations, are discussed on page 3-12 and 314.
7. Set or clear the Legend Initially On check box. Legend blocks are
discussed on page 3-16 and 3-18.
8. The ribbon provides quick access to your word processor and
spreadsheet programs. TOP assumes that:
•
Your word processor is Microsoft Word for Windows, and is
located in directory c:\winword.
•
Your spreadsheet program is Microsoft Excel, and is located in
directory c:\excel.
If one of these assumptions is wrong, make the correction in the
appropriate Path Options text box.
9. If desired, you can change the colors of plot components such as
curves, background, title, and so on. To make a change, select the
desired component in the Default Plot Colors list box, then select
the Change button. A new dialog box will appear, allowing you to
select a color. To all components to their default colors, select the
Defaults button.
10. Select OK to keep the changes that you have made, or Cancel to
abort. TOP will remember these preferences, even if the program
is shut down and restarted.
Creating Graphs and Tables
Opening a Data File
The File, Open... menu option is used to open a data file. The Open
dialog box, illustrated in Figure 1.5, is displayed, prompting the user
to select a file type and name.
File
Open
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TOP User’s Guide
Figure 1.5 - TOP's Open (File) Dialog Box
The following steps summarize the file selection procedure:
1. Change to the desired drive by selecting the drive letter in the
Drives drop-down list box, or by selecting the letter, then selecting
OK.
2. Change to the desired directory by double clicking the directory in
the Directories list box, or by selecting the directory, then selecting
OK.
3. Select the desired output format in the List Files of Type dropdown list box.
4. The File Name list box indicates all files in the current directory
that have the file extension that TOP assumes for the selected
format. Double click the desired entry in the list box to open the
file. Or select the entry, then select OK.
Loading Data onto the Stack
After a data file is opened, TOP automatically displays the “stack
load” dialog box.
The Select Quantities to be Processed dialog
box, illustrated in Figure 1.6, is displayed, prompting the user to select
objects to be loaded. It should be noted that different types of data
formats have different dialog boxes for loading data initially on the
stack. This is discussed in detail in Chapter 2. Figure 1.6 illustrates
the dialog box for initially loading IEEE COMTRADE CFG files.
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Using TOP
1-9
Figure 1.6 - TOP's Dialog Box for loading IEEE COMTRADE data
objects
The Stack, Load... menu option button on the ribbon can also be used
to access data objects after they have been opened. This feature is
useful if additional items need to be added to the stack.
Load
Stack
Discarding Data From the Stack
Once quantities have been loaded on the stack, one can discard/delete
them at any point. This can be accomplished by going into the Stack
menu option and selecting Discard or by simply pressing the Stack,
Discard... button on the ribbon.
Stack
Discard
Button
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TOP User’s Guide
The Select Quantities to be Discarded dialog box, illustrated in
Figure 1.7, is then displayed, prompting the user to select objects to be
deleted.
Figure 1.7
TOP will not allow you to load a quantity of the same name onto the
stack. Therefore, it is necessary to rename the quantity or simply
discard the previous object before loading the new one.
Remember: Deleting an object will cause any window containing the
object to be closed. This may not be your intention if the window
contains other objects that are not being deleted, so be careful when
using this command.
Creating a “Quick” Graph
Once the output file has been opened, and the desired quantities
loaded on the stack, we can display a plot. To obtain a “quick” graph,
the following procedure should be followed:
1.
a. Open the Graph option from the TOP menu
b. Select Quick Graph...
or:
1. Select the “Quick Graph” button on the ribbon.
Quick
Graph
Butto
n
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Once the Quick Graph... option is selected the following dialog box is
displayed:
Figure 1.8
2. Select one or more stack objects from the list box.
3. If you selected more than one object in step 3, select one of the
following radio buttons:
•
Normal to place all selected objects in a single window with a
single frame (Figure 3.3).
•
Auto Create Windows to place each object in a separate window
(Figure 3.2)
•
Auto Create Frames to place each object in a separate frame in
a single window (Figure 3.4).
•
Multi-Page Window to place all selected objects in a single
window with only one shown at a time. You page through each
using a scroll bar.
4. If you selected Auto Create Frames in step 3, enter the number of
frames Across and Down the window in the text boxes located in
the lower right corner of the dialog box. (It should be noted that
this option calculates a default value of Across and Down based on
the number of items selected.)
5. Select OK to create the graph window(s) or Cancel to abort.
Windows created with Quick Graph use a Cartesian grid with linear
scaling. The axes will be scaled such that the all data points are
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TOP User’s Guide
displayed. All this can be changed with TOP's scaling options (see
Chapter 3)
Figure 1.9 indicates the display window immediately opened by TOP
if OK was selected for a single plot.
Figure 1.9 - Example of Display Window for Graph
Chapter 3 “ Working with Graphs” provides a detailed outline of the
flexible options available in tailoring graphs for specific purposes as
well as the Graph, New Graph... option.
Utilizing a TOP Table
The following procedure illustrates the process involved in creating
tables in TOP.
1. Select the Table, Select... option from the TOP menu.
or:
1. Select the “Table” button on the ribbon.
Select
Table
Once the Table, Select... option is selected the following dialog box is
displayed:
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Using TOP
1 - 13
Figure 1.10
2. Select the Table Type from the drop-down list box. In this case the
Frequency Domain Data.
3. TOP lists the Stack Objects that are compatible with the table
type. Select one or more objects from the list box.
4. Select OK to create the table, or Cancel.
TOP immediately opens a display window and creates the following
table in Figure1.11:
Figure 1.11 Frequency Domain Data Table
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TOP User’s Guide
TOP includes several different types of tables to examine quantities of
interest. The tables provided in TOP are discussed in detail in
Chapter 4 “Working with Tables”.
Printing
This section explains the procedures for producing a hardcopy of
TOP's graphs and tables. Most of the commands discussed in this
chapter affect the active display window. Read pages I-11 to I-15 if
you are not familiar with this term or TOP's window management
commands.
Printer Set Up
This option allows you to select the target printer, and to change
printer settings such as paper size and orientation.
1. Open the File menu.
2. Select Printer Setup. The following dialog box is displayed:
Figure 1.12
3. Use the Printer radio buttons to accept or override the default
printer (set by Windows Control Panel). If you select the Specific
Printer button, use the drop-down list box to select the desired
printer.
4. Select page orientation with the Portrait and Landscape radio
buttons.
5. Select Paper Size from the drop-down list box.
available depend on the printer selected.
The choices
6. Select Paper Source from the drop-down list box.
available depend on the printer selected.
The choices
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Using TOP
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7. Additional printer configuration features may be accessed through
the Options button. Options are controlled by the Windows driver
corresponding to the printer that you select. Refer to your Windows
Users Manual and system documentation for additional
information. The Options button is grayed if the printer driver
does not support additional configuration features.
8. Select OK or Cancel.
Page Layout
This command is used to specify the title and margins used for
printing the active window; no other windows are changed. Settings
remain in effect for all subsequent printings of that window. TOP
may adjust the margins specified in this command in order to
maintain the correct aspect ratio in the printed window.
1. Open the File menu.
2. Select Page Setup.
3. The default margins are shown below.
margins in decimal fractions of an inch.
If desired, enter new
Figure 1.13
Printing TOP Displays
If the target window is a graph, the image shown in the window when
it is maximized is printed on a single page. Tabular windows may
require multiple pages.
To print the active widow:
Select the Print Active button on the ribbon:
Print
Active
Button
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TOP User’s Guide
or
1. Open the File menu.
2. Select Print Active.
To print an inactive window, or several windows at once:
1. Open the File menu.
2. Select Print. The following dialog box is displayed:
Figure 1.14
3. Select one or more windows from the list box.
4. Use the All and None buttons to select/unselect all windows in the
list.
5. Select OK or Cancel.
At this point, Windows takes control of the print job, and will display a
dialog box asking for a page range to print, whether the output should
be sent to the printer or to a file, etc. Refer to your Windows
documentation for information on these options.
Using the Help System
The Help system in TOP can be prompted from the menu or the
ribbon.
To activate the system from the menu, the Help, Index... topic should
be selected.
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Using TOP
1 - 17
To accomplish this from the ribbon bar, the Help button, indicated
below, should be selected.
Help
Button
For those user’s not familiar with Help systems, the Help, Using
Help... menu option provides a thorough introduction.
Using TOP with other Applications
Copying to the Window’s Clipboard
This chapter explains the procedures for copying TOP's graphs and
tables to another application, and for pasting data from another
application into TOP. The commands discussed in this chapter affect
the active display window; review pages I-11 to I-15 if you are not
familiar with this term or TOP's window management commands.
TOP's export commands provide tremendous flexibility in customizing
the program's output. You can use these commands to:
•
Include TOP plots or tables directly into a report by exporting to a
word processing program.
•
Annotate a graph by exporting it to a graphical design, drawing, or
spreadsheet program.
•
Create special types of graphs by exporting a table to a
spreadsheet, and then using the spreadsheet's charting commands.
TOP provides two types of export:
•
To the clipboard. This is the standard way to transfer data
between two Windows applications. After placing the data on the
clipboard in TOP, you can switch to the target application and
retrieve the data using its Paste command.
•
To a file. This method is used to transfer data to a Windows or a
non-Windows application. You can export to one of several
standard file formats.
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TOP User’s Guide
Copying the active window
Press Ctl+Ins, or
1. Open the Edit menu.
2. Select Copy.
Clearing the Clipboard
The Edit Copy command causes data currently on the clipboard to be
overwritten (erased) by the contents of the active TOP window. To
manually erase the contents of the clipboard:
Press Del, or
1. Open the Edit menu.
2. Select Clear.
Pasting Data from the Clipboard
This option allows you to create objects directly from data on the
clipboard, bypassing the File Open and Stack Load procedures
described earlier. The application that places the data on the
clipboard must use the appropriate format.
1. Open the Edit menu.
2. Select Paste Stack.
Exporting to a Disk File
The active TOP display window can be saved to disk in one of the
following formats:
Tables:
•
ASCII text [TXT]
•
Comma separated values [CSV]
•
Microsoft Excel Spreadsheet [XLS]
•
IEEE COMTRADE format [CFG]
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Using TOP
1 - 19
Graphs:
•
Windows Metafile (WMF)
•
Can also be exported as a table using one of the formats listed
above. Table columns are: baseline, magnitude, phase angle, real
component, and imaginary component.
(See page 3-2 for a
description of these quantities.)
To export the active window:
1. Open the File menu.
2. Select Save As. The following dialog box appears:
Figure 1.15
3. Select the desired format using the Save File as Type list box.
4. The export file will be placed in the drive and directory shown on
the upper left corner of the dialog box. Use the Files/Directories
list box to change this path. To change the drive, double click the
appropriate letter (e.g. [-a-]). If you do not have mouse, select the
letter and then select OK. Follow the same procedure to change the
directory. (Selecting the entry [..] moves the current directory up
one level.)
5. The appropriate file extension appears in File Name text box.
Replace the asterisk (*) with a legal DOS file root name (eight
alphanumeric characters or less. Certain special characters, such
as $, %, &, and ! are allowed.)
6. Select OK to create the export file, or Cancel to Abort.
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TOP User’s Guide
Using TOP Utilities
The procedure to access the utility features in TOP are described in
the following sections for each of the five options available.
Ø Building an EMTP SOS File
Ø Starting a Word Processor
Ø Starting a Spreadsheet
Ø Starting a Calculator
Ø Viewing a Text File
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Building an EMTP SOS File
This utility allows the combination of multiple Statistics Output files
generated by the EMTP to create a “Statistics Output Salvage” file. To
use this utility,
1. Open the File... menu
2. Select Utilities, Build a SOS File.
The OPEN dialog box illustrated below will appear and ask for the
EMTP st9lg* data file with the required extension of DAT.
Figure 1.16
After selecting the appropriate .DAT file the SAVE AS dialog box will
appear asking for the name of the generated SOS file. The extension
for this file must be SOS.
Figure 1.17
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TOP User’s Guide
Starting a Word Processor
Two methods are described below for starting a word processor while
still in the TOP program.
1. Open the File menu.
2. Select Utilities . . . Start Word Processor
or:
1. Select the Word Button indicated below on the ribbon.
Select
Word
Both of these methods use the path specified in the Edit, Preferences...
dialog box to find the word processor of the users choice. (See Figure
1.4)
Starting a Spreadsheet
Starting a spreadsheet from TOP is similar to starting a word
processor. There are two ways of accomplishing this.
1. Open the File menu.
2. Select Utilities . . . Start Spreadsheet
or:
1. Select the Excel Button indicated below on the ribbon.
Select
Excel
Button
As discussed earlier, to specify the desired path for the spreadsheet of
the users choice simply select Edit, Preferences... from the TOP menu.
(See Figure 1.4)
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Using TOP
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Starting a Calculator
Another utility option available in TOP is to start a calculator from
the program. This can be achieved by simply selecting the button
indicated below on the ribbon.
Start
Calculat
Button
Upon activating this, the Windows Calculator program is started.
Viewing a Text File
A text file can be viewed in TOP in the following manner:
1. Open the File menu option.
2. Select Open...
The dialog box in Figure 1.18 is then displayed:
Figure 1.18
3. In the List Files of Type dropbox, the View ASCII File option lists
all the files including text files.
4. Upon selection of the text file click the OK radio button or press
enter on the keyboard. (To get out of the dialog box with no
selection simply click Cancel)
TOP will then bring up the file to be viewed.
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TOP User’s Guide
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Electrotek Concepts, Inc.
CHAPTER 2
Stack Management
This chapter describes the process for opening simulation and
measurement program output files, and how to retrieve quantities of
interest from them by appropriate stack management. It also provides
an introduction into the usage of the tools available. For users familiar
with TOP, this chapter includes valuable features about the expanded
TOP data filters.
In This Chapter
♦ What is the Stack?
♦ Stack Object Identifiers
♦ Modifying Stack Objects
♦ Using TOPCalc
2-2
TOP User’s Guide
Stack Management
2-3
What is the Stack?
One feature of TOP that sets it apart from other programs is its ability
to work with any number of objects (node voltages, branch currents,
measurement data, etc.) at the same time. Moreover, it is an
interactive program, which means that you do not need to know what
type of output you want before you start the process of opening files
and manipulating data.
In order to provide this flexibility, yet keep the program easy to use,
TOP employs a holding queue for objects, called the stack. In Figure
2.1, output files from monitoring equipment are shown as decks of
cards, each card representing an object. TOP allows stack objects,
from each of the formats supported, to exist simultaneously.
Measuring
Equipment
V -HARM,
HARMFLO
for W indows
SuperHarm
TOPCalc
z
∞
i ( t )dt
0
Others:
COMTRADE
A scii CSV
E M T P /A T P
Graphs
Tables
Stack
Figure 2.1 - TOP's Stack Concept
The process of manipulating stack objects from start to finish is
illustrated in Figure 2.2. The ring of arrows shows the process
conceptually. However, TOP does not impose this rigid sequence, and
as you become comfortable with stack operations, you will find yourself
skipping and repeating steps. This “random access” approach to
working the stack is represented by the set of radial arrows in the
figure.
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TOP User’s Guide
Load
Per unitize
Objects
Objects
on Stack
Create New
Objects with
Open an
Top Calc
Output
File
Create
Graphs/Tables
Discard
Objects
Print/Export
Graphs/Tables
Figure 2.2
Stack Object Identifiers
Names given to stack objects consist of six fields, each field enclosed in
parenthesis. These fields are:
Name1
Name2
Qualifier1 Qualifier2
Origin
Type
Thus, the information contained in the first four fields depends on
where the object came from. The fifth and sixth fields, on the other
hand, are the same for all objects. Origin is the name of the output file
from which the object was loaded, or “DERIVED” if the object was
created with TOPCalc, or “CLIP” if the object was copied from the
Windows clipboard. The Type field contains one of the following
keywords:
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Stack Management
2-5
Raw Objects (loaded directly from output files)
•
SCAN -
Frequency scan from HarmFlo, SuperHarm or V-HARM.
(EMTP frequency scans use the WAVE keyword.)
•
SPEC -
Harmonic spectrum from SuperHarm and V-HARM.
•
STAT -
EMTP SOS file (statistical) data.
•
TRND -
RMS steady state trend data and RMS disturbances from
measuring devices.
•
WAVE -
Waveform data (waveform, spectrum, or frequency scan).
Derived Objects (produced by TOPCalc)
-
Histogram.
•
HIST
•
PROB -
Cumulative probability curve.
•
SCAN -
Frequency scan.
•
SPEC -
Harmonic spectrum.
•
TRND -
Sliding FFT, RMS trend or disturbance.
•
WAVE -
Waveform. (May be a spectrum or frequency scan if the
object was derived from an EMTP spectrum or frequency
scan.)
Modifying Stack Objects
Base Quantities Option
The Stack Base Quantities command is used to per unitize objects on
the stack. This command may seem redundant, given that TOPCalc
allows you to multiply an object by a constant, but the effect is not
quite the same. TOPCalc creates a new object, leaving the original
object unchanged. On the other hand, when you per unitize (or undo a
per unitization) with this command, all windows containing the object
are changed.
1. Open the Stack menu.
2. Select Base Quantities. The following dialog box appears:
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TOP User’s Guide
Figure 2.3
3. Select one or more objects to per unitize on a common base.
4. Select the scale to per unitize from the list box: X Axis or Y Axis.
5. Enter a Base Value. If desired, you can adjust this value by
selecting the sqrt(2) or sqrt(2)/sqrt(3) radio buttons. For example,
the objects selected in Figure 2.3 are line-to-neutral voltages on a
480 V RMS system. To per unitize these voltages on peak
line-to-neutral voltage, the base value should be:
Vbase =
2 ⋅
480
3
= 3919184
.
You can enter this value, or you can enter 480 and select the
sqrt(2)/sqrt(3) radio button.
6. Set the Per Unitize check box to per unitize the selected objects, or
clear the check box to undo the per unitization..
7. Select Update to update the selected objects.
8. Repeat steps 3-7 as often as desired. Select Exit when done.
Units Option
TOP automatically assigns units to the X and Y variables of an object
when it is created. However, TOP must assume units if the object
comes from an output file that doesn't identify them. Use this option
to enter the correct units if the assumed units are wrong. This option
also provides a way to specify a more aesthetically pleasing unit replacing volts with kilovolts. for example.
1. Open the Stack menu.
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2. Select Units. The following dialog box appears:
Figure 2-4
3. Select one or more objects from the list box.
4. Select the unit to change - X Axis, Y Axis Magnitude, or Y Axis Angle.
5. TOP highlights the current Unit Name for the selected unit in the
list box. Select a different name, if desired.
6. If desired, select a Prefix to apply to the unit. For example, if the
unit is Volts, selecting the kilo radio button replace V labels with
kV. TOP scales voltage magnitudes appropriately.
7. Select the Update button to implement the changes made in steps 5
and 6. This causes all windows containing the selected objects to be
updated.
8. Repeat steps 3 - 7 as often as desired, then select Exit to erase the
dialog box.
Using TOPCalc
This facility provides a means for creating new stack objects by
specifying mathematical operations to be performed on existing
objects. Objects derived through TopCalc are treated no differently
than raw objects loaded from output files. They can, for example, be
used as arguments in subsequent TopCalc operations.
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TOP User’s Guide
TopCalc requires single or dual arguments, depending on the operation
selected. Argument #1 is always a stack object. Argument #2, if
required, is usually a stack object, but may be a constant. (See Mixed
Argument Operations, below.)
If Argument #2 is a stack object, it must be the same type as Argument
#1 - you can't, for example, add a WAVE and a SPEC. Unless stated
otherwise, the new object is of the same type as the argument(s) that
were used to create it. Table 2.1 indicates the operations available in
TOP as well as the compatible argument types. Most operations can
accept arguments of type SCAN, SPEC, TRND, STAT or WAVE;
exceptions are noted in the table. The table also relates whether the
operation requires single or dual arguments. Dual arguments would
mean Argument#1 as a stack object and Argument #2 as a constant or
another stack object. Each of these TOP Calc operations will be
discussed in further detail in the following pages.
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TOP Calc
Operation
Add
Subtract
Multiply
Divide
Negate
Invert
FFT
DFT
IDFT
Power
Energy
I2T
X-Y Combine
Square
Square Root
Abs Value
V,I dB Ratio
Pwr dB Ratio
Integrate
Cum Prob
Prob Dist
Filter
Time Shift
2-9
Table 2.1 TOPCalc Operations
Single
Dual
Acceptable Raw Objects
WAV
SPEC
TRND SCAN STAT
Arg.
Arg.
E
4
4
4
4
4
4
4
4
4
4
4
4
4
4
4
4
4
4
4
4
4
4
4
4
4
4
4
4
4
4
4
4
4
4
4
4
4
4
4
4
4
4
4
4
4
4
4
4
4
4
4
4
4
4
4
4
4
4
4
4
4
4
4
4
4
4
4
4
4
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TOP User’s Guide
The Procedure
1. Select the TOPCalc button on the ribbon:
TOP
Calc
or:
a. Open the Stack menu.
b. Select TOPCalc.
The following dialog box appears:
Figure 2.5
2. Select Stack Argument #1 from the list box.
3. Select the Operation from the list box.
4. If appropriate select the Options button to set parameters for this
operation. Values that you enter will remain in effect until you exit
TOP Calc. It should be noted that only six TOPCalc functions
allows the ability to set parameters; FFT, DFT, IFT, Prob Dist, Filter
and Time Shift.
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2-11
If the selected operation is a single argument, go to step 6.
5. If argument #2 is a constant, select the Constant radio button
(upper right corner of the dialog box), and type the value in the text
box below the radio button.
If argument #2 is a stack object, select the Curve radio button. This
causes TOP to fill the Stack Argument #2 list box. Select the
desired object from the list.
6. Enter the Name fields for the new object in the text boxes at the
bottom of the dialog box.
7. Select the Do button to create the new object.
8. Repeat steps 2 -7 as often as desired to derive more objects.
the Exit button when done.
Select
Single Argument Operations
The following operations all require single arguments.
compatible with arguments of all type excluding STAT.
Invert ( 1 X )
These are
Negate(−X )
Abs Value( X )
The functions below are compatible with only arguments of the type
WAVE.
2
Square ( X )
Square Root ( X )
I Squared T
These are functions of time and therefore can be applied only to WAVE
objects.
Filter
This function allows the addition of a filter in series to the argument.
The compatible argument for this function is of the type WAVE. Figure
2.6 illustrates the dialog box prompted by the Options button for this
operation.
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TOP User’s Guide
Figure 2.6
Filter Type allows the selection of the filter desired. F1: and F2:
indicate the beginning and ending 3 dB frequencies. The Sections:
input box allows the user to enter the number of filter sections desired
in series (N sections translates to 2N poles). The default for this is 3.
The digital filter functions used produce Butterworth-type filters, i.e.,
filters with smooth, ripple-free power gain characteristics. The filters
implemented in TOP are taken from Digital Signal Analysis by
Samuel D. Stearnd, Chapter 12 and Appendix C (Hayden Book
Company, 1975, ISBN 0-8104-5828-4). Each filter is actually executed
twice - once in normal forward time order, and then a second time in
reverse time order. This results in an overall transfer function with
zero phase shift. The reader is referred to Chapter 9 of the above
referenced book for details on the Linear Phase Shift Theorem.
Time Shift
This function simply allows the shifting of a parameter based on time.
The only compatible argument type for this operation is WAVE. The
dialog box in Figure 2.7 is prompted by the Options radio button upon
selection. This allows the user to input the time the waveform should
be shifted by.
Figure 2.7
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Fourier Transforms
The FFT (Fast Fourier Transform) and DFT (Discrete Fourier
Transform) operations require a single argument, which must be a
WAVE. The new object is of type SPEC. The IDFT operation (inverse
discrete Fourier transform) requires a single argument, which must be
a SPEC. The new object is of type WAVE. FFT, DFT and IDFT have
variable parameters. This will be discussed for each operation in the
following sections. Refer to Chapter 5 for step by step examples on
applying these functions.
FFT
The FFT function prompts the dialog box in Figure 2.8 when Options
is selected from TOPCalc. Each of the selections available in this box
will be discussed below.
Figure 2.8
Single FFT Type
The single FFT produces a SPEC object, calculated from Starting Time,
Fundamental Frequency, and Number of Cycles. Figure 2.9 shows
how an object created with this operation appears when plotted with
Quick Graph:
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6PULSE>6P-DRV(ALL)
400
300
200
Current (A)
100
0
60.0 120.0 180.0 240.0 300.0 360.0 420.0 480.0 540.0 600.0 660.0 720.0 780.0 840.0 900.0
Frequency (Hz)
Figure 2.9
As shown in Figure 2.8, TOP assumes that the FFT is to be taken over
one 60 Hz cycle starting at 0.0 seconds. You will need to override these
values if the fundamental frequency is not 60 Hz, or if the waveform is
not in steady state at time zero.
Figure 2.10
Figure 2.10 shows a case where this is necessary. This is an EMTP
simulation of the current supplied by a PWM adjustable speed drive to
a three-phase induction motor at 45 Hz. There is no stored energy in
the circuit at the start of the simulation, producing a large initial
current surge. In this case, the FFT should be taken over one 45 Hz
cycle as far forward in time as possible, to allow the transient current
to decay.
If you can't specify the fundamental frequency precisely (e.g.,
measurements of an adjustable speed drive), then the FFT window will
not capture an integer number of fundamental frequency cycles, and
the end of the window will contain a truncated cycle. Increasing the
size of the window reduces error due to this “end effect.” The number
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of cycles required to yield acceptable accuracy can be reduced by
multiplying the waveform by a weighting function before taking the
FFT. The weighting function is bell shaped, thus the multiplication
reduces end effect. You can select one of four weighting functions with
the Window radio buttons:
•
Rectangular
Hanning
Welsh
•
Bartlett
•
•
The default radio button - Rectangular - corresponds to a
multiplication by unity; in other words, no weighting is used. The art
of applying weighting functions is well beyond the scope of this
manual, and we refer you to a text on digital signal processing for
further information on this subject.
Sliding FFT Type
The Sliding radio button is used to produce a TRND object of a single
harmonic vs. time. Figure 2.11 shows such an object plotted with
Quick Graph:
Third Harmonic Line Current
12
10
8
6
Current (A)
4
2
0
100
200
300
400
500
Time (mS)
Figure 2.11
To use this option, specify the Fundamental Frequency and the
Harmonic number to trend (an integer). The trend is produced by
computing an FFT every Step seconds over Number of Cycles from
Starting Time. For example, if the fundamental frequency is 60 Hz
and the time step is 0.0016667 seconds, 10 FFT computations are
required per cycle. Thus, TOP may take several minutes to produce a
sliding FFT object. Smoother trend plots can be obtained by applying a
weighting function, as discussed above.
You can also trend the RMS value, Peak value, Crest Factor, or Form
Factor using the sliding FFT. This is done by specifying one of the
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TOP User’s Guide
following keywords in the harmonic number windows instead of an
integer - rms, peak, ff, or cf.
DFT
The discrete Fourier transform, like the FFT, is used to generate a
spectrum from a waveform. The dialog box below is prompted in
TOPCalc by first selecting the DFT operation and then Options.
Figure 2.12
Similar to the FFT function, you can select one of four weighting
functions with the Window radio buttons:
•
•
•
•
Rectangular
Hanning
Welsh
Bartlett
The other options available in this parameters dialog box are similar to
those discussed in the previous section for FFT. The primary difference
between the FFT and the DFT is that the DFT is slower yet you can
operate on any number of points by specifying the frequencies you
want as outputs.
IDFT
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The inverse discrete Fourier transform is used to generate a waveform
from a spectrum object. To do this, TOP needs to know if the phase
angle spectrum is based on a sine reference or a cosine reference.
The default selection, Sin Series, will correctly display HarmFlo,
SuperHarm, and V-Harm data generated using analytic harmonic
source models such as CONVERTER (SuperHarm, V-Harm). You will
need to use Cos Series if you used arbitrary harmonic sources such as
ISOURCE (SuperHarm) or HARMC (V-Harm), and the phase angles
that you entered were based on a cosine series. At times it may be
necessary to attempt both series options and then view the derived
solution for verification.
The second option tells TOP the number of Cycles that should be
calculated for derived waveforms. Figure 2.13 indicates this dialog
box.
Figure 2.13
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TOP User’s Guide
Statistical Functions
There are two Statistical Functions available, Cum Prob and Prob Dist
operations. These functions can be applied only to STAT objects. It
should be noted that before applying any of these statistical operations
the object needs to be per-unitized to an appropriate base quantity.
Cum Prob
This function takes a statistics case stack item and creates a
cumulative probability curve and puts in on the stack. Cum Prob
(cumulative probability) produces an object of type PROB.
Prob Dist
This function takes a statistics case stack item as its argument and
creates a probability distribution histogram curve and puts in on the
stack. Prob Dist (probability distribution) produces an object of type
HIST. Figure 2.14 is the dialog box prompted by selecting the Prob
Dist operation in TOPCalc and then the Options button.
Figure 2.14
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Mixed Argument Operations
Add, Subtract, Multiply, & Divide
Add, Subtract, Multiply, and Divide all take two arguments. The second
argument may be a constant as well as a stack object. These
operations can be used on all object types, excluding STAT.
Integrate
Integration can be applied to WAVE objects (integration with respect to
time).
Power and Energy
Both of these operations requires one voltage argument and one
current argument. Power will calculate the instantaneous power and
energy will calculate the integral of the product of voltage and current.
These functions are compatible with arguments of the type WAVE. A
common procedure for utilizing the energy operation is described in
Chapter 5.
dB Ratios
Two operations are provided, one for voltages and currents, the other
for powers. These operations are defined as follows:
V, I dB ratio:
 Arg # 2 
20 ⋅ Log

 Arg #1 
 Arg # 2 
10 ⋅ Log

Pwr dB ratio:
 Arg #1 
These are only compatible with arguments of the type WAVE and
SPEC. The new object is the same as the initial object type.
X-Y Combine
This operation plots the Y values of the first argument against the Y
values of the second argument. (Argument #2 values become the X
values for the new object.) The argument can only be of the type
WAVE.
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CHAPTER 3
Working With Graphs
TOP provides a wide variety of graph styles and options. This chapter
covers New Graph, and options for formatting such as labeling,
changing the grid and scale, and so on. It does not cover graph window
operations, such as sizing, arranging and closing. These are standard
Windows commands, and are described in the Introduction.
In This Chapter
♦ Background
♦ Using New Graph
♦ Frame Management
♦ Formatting TOP Graphs
3-2
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TOP User’s Guide
Working with Graphs
3-3
Background
We have mentioned that Quick Graph is the easiest method to create a
plot in Chapter 1, while the more complicated New Graph option offers
more flexibility in creating different kinds of plots. So, what do you
give up by using Quick Graph?
Quick Graph plots must be magnitude verses baseline. Before
defining what this means, we must explain how TOP stores an object.
To the program, any object is simply a set of ordered pairs of some
complex quantity verses a baseline quantity. The baseline quantity is
percent for HIST and PROB objects, frequency for SCAN and SPEC
objects, and time for TRND and WAVE objects.
The complex quantity in each ordered pair can be anything - voltage,
current, power, impedance, EMTP TACS quantities, etc. The quantity
may not actually be complex; TOP just assumes that it is. For
example, an EMTP voltage waveform is a real valued function of time.
However, TOP stores it as a phasor function of time, with the
imaginary values set to zero.
Now, suppose you wish to plot a SuperHarm impedance scan. Quick
Graph will plot magnitude verses baseline - in this case, |Z| vs.
frequency f. If you wish to plot anything else - f vs. |Z|, phase angle
vs. f, Im(Z) vs. Re (Z) (i.e., R-X locus), etc. - you must use New Graph.
Any object, with the exception of STAT can be plotted. This object
contains magnitudes of any number of voltages, currents, etc., and are
suitable only for tables. (HIST and PROB objects, which are derived
from STAT objects, can be graphed.)
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TOP User’s Guide
Using New Graph
1. Open the Graph menu.
2. Select New Graph.The following dialog box appears:
Figure 3.1
3. Select an object from the stack list box.
4. Select the X Axis and Y Axis variables for the plot. The choices are:
Baseline
•
Magnitude
•
Phase (Angle)
•
Real
•
Imaginary
5. Set the appropriate Logarithmic check boxes to apply log scaling to
the X and/or Y axes.
6. If desired, set the Polar Grid check box. (See page 3-8 for more
information on polar grids.)
7. Select OK to create the graph window, or Cancel to abort.
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Frame Management
TOP allows the viewing of graphs in several ways tailored specifically
by the user. This is all manipulated by proper management. Figure
3.2 illustrates the capability of plotting one object per window.
Plotting
One Object
Per Window
Figure 3.2
TOP also allows you to place any number of objects in the same
window. The curves can be superimposed on the same axes, as shown
in Figure 3.3, or they can be plotted on individual axes, as illustrated
in Figure 3.4.
Plots with individual axes are called frames. Graph options
generally affect only the active frame, which is displayed with
a square in each corner. (Note the lower right frame in Figure
3.4). Click anywhere inside a frame with the mouse to make it
the active frame.
Superimposing
Several Objects
on One Set of
Axes
Figure 3.3
In order to superimpose more than one object on the same set of axes,
the objects must be of the same type. As shown in Figure 3.4, this
restriction doesn't apply to multi-frame windows.
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TOP User’s Guide
Using One
Object per
Frame
A c tiv e
F ram e
Handles
Figure 3.4
Plots can also be plotted in a Multi Page window. As shown in Figure
3.5, this option allows multiple graphs to be scrolled through with the
scroll bar. This option can be selected from the Quick Graph dialog
box.
Arrows to
scroll up or
down.
Scrolling
Through Plots
with Multi
Page Window
Option
Figure 3.5
Formatting Top Graphs
The following graph options are available in TOP:
•
Scale - used to set axis minimum, maximum, and increment
values, to select linear or logarithmic scaling, and to show or hide a
polar grid.
•
Grid - used to show or hide grid lines and axis tick marks.
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3-7
•
Label - used to specify a plot and axis titles.
•
Annotate - used to place a label of up to 5 lines on the graph.
•
Data Block - used to show or hide an overlay containing summary
data for the graphed object.
•
Legend - used to clarify more than one plot on the same graph by
creating a legend.
•
Animate - used to toggle between two plots on the same graph.
These options can be applied to any graph window, regardless of how
the window was created - Quick Graph or New Graph. They affect the
active window (see pages1-17 to 1-21). If the active window contains
more than one frame, graph options affect the active frame (see Figure
3.4).
Graph Scaling
You will use this option most often to set the minimum and maximum
values of the X and Y axes. Changing these parameters allows you to
zoom in to cover a smaller area of the plot in greater detail, zoom out to
cover a larger area in less detail, or move different regions of the plot
into the window. (Zooming in can also be done with the mouse. See
page 3-10.)
Double click anywhere in shaded region
to a c c e s s S c a l e dialog box
Major unit
Spacing of numerical labels
and major gridl ines (if any)
M in o r u n it
Spacing of tick marks (if any)
and minor grid lines (if any)
Figure 3.6
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TOP User’s Guide
The scaling option also allows you to specify a major unit and minor
unit for each axis. As shown in Figure 3.6, the major unit controls
spacing of the major grid lines and the numerical labels along the axis.
The minor unit controls the spacing of the minor grid lines and the
axis tick marks. (Whether or not grid lines or tick marks are displayed
is controlled through the Grid option. See page 3-11.).
1. Double click anywhere in the region shown in Figure 3.6,
or
1. a. Open the Graph menu.
b. Select Scale.
c. Select Change.
The following dialog box appears:
Figure 3.7
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2. Enter the Minimum and Maximum value for each axis in the
appropriate text boxes.
3. Enter numerical label and major grid line spacing in the Major
Units text boxes.
4. Enter tick mark and minor grid line spacing in the Minor Units text
boxes.
To allow TOP to automatically calculate
the default value for any of the above
parameters, set the Auto check box,
located to the right of the appropriate text
box.
Auto
Check
5. Set the appropriate Symmetry check box to force the minimum and
maximum values to be equal and opposite. To use this feature,
either the axis minimum Auto check box, axis maximum Auto
check box or both, must be set. If both check boxes are cleared,
then TOP is not allowed to select either the axis minimum or
maximum value, and therefore cannot force symmetry.
6. Set the appropriate Force Zero check box to force zero to be located
somewhere along the axis. Forcing zero, like forcing symmetry,
requires that either the axis minimum Auto check box, axis
maximum Auto check box, or both, be set.
7. To apply logarithmic scaling to an axis, set the appropriate Log
check box. Clear the check box to restore linear scaling.
8. Set the Polar Scales check box to overlay the plot with a polar grid.
The X and Y axes are still displayed, and all axis options remain
with respect to the these axes.
9. Select OK or Cancel.
The Graph, Scale... feature has two more options aside from Change.
These are; Previous and Auto. These features can be prompted on the
TOP menu as well as on the ribbon bar.
Previous sets the plot to the scaling from the previous set graph.
Auto allows TOP to set the scales automatically.
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Zooming with the Mouse
To zoom in on a portion of a graph, visualize a rectangle containing the
portion of the graph that you wish to enlarge. Position the mouse
cursor (arrow) to any corner of this rectangle. Press and hold the
right button. Drag the mouse to the diagonally opposite corner of the
imaginary rectangle, then release the button.
CAPMAG>
480A(Type 1)
1000
800
600
400
200
0
Voltage (V)
-200
-400
CAPMAG>
-600
480A(Type 1)
800
-800
600
-1000
0
20
40
60
80
100
400
Time (mS)
200
0
Voltage (V)
-200
-400
-600
10.0
20.0
30.0
40.0
50.0
Time (mS)
Figure 3.8
Grid Options
The Grid dialog box is used to show or hide grid lines and axis tick
marks. As shown in Figure 3.9, tick marks and grid lines are
classified as major or minor, depending on whether they are drawn at
or between numerical labels on the axis. See page 3-8 for information
on controlling grid and axis tick mark spacing.
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3-11
Double click X or Y axes
to a c c e s s G rid dialog box
M inor tick marks and
grid lines are drawn between
numerical labels
M a jo r tick marks and
gridl ines are drawn at
numerical labels
Figure 3.9
1. Double click either axis, or:
a. Open the Graph menu.
b. Select Grid.
The following dialog box appears:
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TOP User’s Guide
Figure 3.10
2. Set or clear the appropriate check boxes to show/hide grid lines and
axis tick marks.
3. Specify the desired tick mark style - Outside the axis, Inside the
axis, or Cross the axis - by selecting the appropriate radio button.
4. Select OK or Cancel.
Label Options
The dialog box shown in Figure 3.12 allows you to specify titles for the
graph, and the X and Y axes.
D o u b le c lick the G raph,
X a x is, or Y a x is title to
a c c e s s the L a b e l dialog box
Figure 3.11
1. Double click the graph title or either axis title,
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or:
a. Open the Graph menu.
b. Select Label.
The following dialog box appears:
Figure 3.12
2. Enter titles in the appropriate text boxes.
3. Select OK or Cancel.
Graph Annotation
This option allows you to place an annotation of up to five lines on the
graph. As with the data block, the annotation may or may not be
displayed when the graph is created, depending on the Edit
Preferences settings. If the annotation is created automatically, TOP
uses whatever label is supplied in the output file for the object. For
example, the default annotation for a SuperHarm object is copied from
the TITLE directive. On the other hand, there is no equivalent to
TITLE in EMTP; therefore there is no default annotation for an EMTP
object.
When created, the annotation is initially displayed in the upper left
corner of the graph, but can be dragged to a different location with the
mouse.
To Edit, Hide, or Show an Annotation
1. Open the Graph menu.
2. Select Annotate. The following dialog box appears:
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TOP User’s Guide
Figure 3.13
3. Enter text for Line 1 through Line 5.
4. Set or clear the Visible check box.
5. Select OK or Cancel.
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Data Block
The data block lists all summary quantities computed for the first
object in the graph.
D o u b le click anywhere inside
the data block to access
the D a t a B l o c k dialog box
Min:0.56708
Max:8.61555
Figure 3.14
To Show or Hide the Data Block:
TOP may or may not display the data block when a graph is created
(See the Edit Preferences option, page 1-4.) However, you can show or
hide the block at any time.
1. If the data block is displayed, double click anywhere inside the
block, or:
a. Open the Graph menu.
b. Select Data Block.
This dialog box appears:
Figure 3.15
2. Set or clear the Visible check box.
3. Select OK or Cancel.
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TOP User’s Guide
To Move the Data Block:
The data block is initially displayed in the upper right corner of the
graph. To move it, press the left mouse button and drag to the desired
location.
Graph Legend
This option allows the placing of a legend for up to five plots on the
same graph. The legend may or may not be displayed when the graph
is created, depending on the Edit Preferences settings. Figure 3.16
illustrates the Edit Preferences dialog box indicating the default
selections.
Figure 3.16
The default settings in the General Options: list sets the Legend
Initially On feature checked and the Use Line Styles off. The Use Line
Styles option defines whether the legend should define the plots by
color or line styles. If this feature is not checked (the default setting)
then each individual plot on the same graph is plotted and defined by
line color. For hard copy purposes this feature should be checked.
If the legend is created automatically, TOP uses whatever label is
supplied in the output file for the object. When created, the legend is
initially displayed in the lower left corner of the graph, but can be
dragged to a different location with the mouse. Figure 3.17 illustrates
the legend option with the Use Line Styles feature on.
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Figure 3.17
To edit, or hide the legend the following can be done:
1. If the legend block is displayed, double click anywhere inside the
block, or:
a. Open the Graph menu.
b. Select Legend.
The following dialog box is prompted:
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TOP User’s Guide
2. Set or clear the Visible check box.
2. Edit the lines as desired.
4. Select OK or Cancel.
It should be noted that more than five plots can be viewed on the
graph with a legend, however only the first five can be edited.
Graphical Animation
At times it is preferable to view several plots on the same graph. To
allow ease in readability the Graphical Animation feature can be
utilized. This toggles between each plot on the same graph. To set
this feature;
1. Select Graph on the TOP menu
2. Select Animate.
or;
1. Select the Graph, Animate... button on the ribbon bar.
Graph,
Annimate
Button
Electrotek Concepts, Inc
CHAPTER 4
Working with Tables
Creating a table is less complicated than creating a graph; there
are only so many ways to view a list of numbers, after all.
Moreover, the concept of table creation is identical to that of
graphs. Thus, you will find working with tables very easy. This
chapter will go over the different types of tables available in
TOP and how to format them accordingly.
In This Chapter
♦ What Types of Tables are
Available
♦ Using Tables
♦ Creating a Table
4-2
Electrotek Concepts, Inc.
TOP User’s Guide
Working with Tables
4-3
What Types of Tables are Available?
The following object types can be output as tables or graphs.
Curve Data
•
Waveform Data Points (WAVE, TRND)
•
Frequency Domain Data (SCAN, SPEC)
•
Cumulative Probability (PROB)
•
Probability Density (HIST)
•
Raw statistical data (STAT)
Table 4.1 indicates the Tables available in TOP along with the
objects supported and the quantities obtained.
Table 4.1 - Tables Supported In TOP
Objects
Summary Table
Summary Quantities
Supported
Curve Minimum
and Maximum
WAVE
SPEC
SCAN
PROB
HIST
Min, Max, Abs Max, Avg
Waveform
Summary
WAVE
Min, Max, Avg, Abs, RMS,
CF, FF
Time
Domain
Data Points
WAVE
PROB
HIST
Time, Value
Frequency
Points
SPEC
SCAN
Freq, Magnitude, Angle
Harmonic
Summary Data
SPEC
Freq, Fund, %THD, %RMS,
%ASum, RMSh, RMS, ASum,
TIF, IT, H3 - H25
Magnitude
vs.
Switch Operation
STAT
Switch,TimeClosed1,
TimeClosed2, TimeClosed3
IEEE 519
Current Limits
SPEC
Summary Table, Detail Table
Data
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4-4
TOP User’s Guide
Using Tables
The tables discussed in the previous section can be easy
manipulated. These tables, which list curve data points, are
useful for exporting raw data to other applications. For
example, suppose you want to manipulate a waveform plot in
some way that can't be done in TOP. One solution is to use a
spreadsheet program to produce the graph. The spreadsheet
will require a table of waveform data points, which can be
transferred from TOP via the clipboard.
This can be easily performed by following the procedure below:
1. Create desired table.
2. Open Edit, Copy. . . from the TOP menu bar.
3. Select the spreadsheet or word processor desired on the
ribbon bar.
4. Once the desired application is opened, select Edit, Paste
from the applications tool bar. This imports the table from
TOP to the selected application.
For more information on copying and pasting objects from the
clipboard, see page 1-17 in Chapter 1.
Another method of manipulating the data obtained in creating
tables is to save the table in a file. This can be done by simply
using File, Save As .
Editing Tables
Figure 4.1 illustrates one of the tables created in TOP. Note
that the table has column and row identifiers similiar to
spreadsheets. Column and row resizing can be done directly in
TOP. This is accomplished in the following procedure:
1. Set the cursor of the mouse directly between the two columns
or rows to be resized.
2. Click and hold the left button on the mouse.
3. Drag to obtain the desired size and then release.
Electrotek Concepts, Inc.
Working with Tables
4-5
Set cursor here
for column resizing.
Scroll Bar
to view
entire table.
Figure 4.1 Example of Table in TOP
The above figure illustrates the methods available in TOP to
view and edit tables. For more detailed editing, the table can
be easily pasted in a spreadsheet program. The scroll bar is
included in the table window when the quantities displayed do
not fit in the initial window settings. The window can be resized by expanding with the mouse.
Electrotek Concepts, Inc.
4-6
TOP User’s Guide
Creating a Table
Select Table
Chapter 1 introduced how to create a table in TOP by selecting
the Table, Select... option on the TOP menu or the ribbon bar.
The following sections will provide a detailed illustration on
each of the tables listed in Table 4.1.
Before proceeding to the tables, it is necessary to be familiar
with some of the derived quantities. Tables 4.2 and 4.3 indicate
the mathematical expressions utilized to calculate some of the
obtained values in the following tables. Note that in spectral
calculations, TOP assumes that the fundamental frequency is
the lowest frequency component in the spectrum.
Table 4.2
Quantity
Abs
Definition
XAbs = Max XMax , XMin
c
Maximum Absolute Value
ASum = ∑ Xpeakf
ASum
Arithmetic Sum
f
Avg
XAvg =
Average Value
CF
CF =
FF =
z
1T
X( t ) dt
T0
Max X( t ) 1cycle
X RMSfund
Crest Factor
FF
XRMS
=
X Avg
Form Factor
Freq
Fund
1T
X( t ) dt
T0
XRMSfund
Fundamental Magnitude
IT
IT= TIF ⋅ X RMS
IT Product
bg
bg
f ≤
X Max = Max X
X Min = Min X
Maximum & Minimum Values
Electrotek Concepts, Inc.
z
z
1T
X( t ) 2dt
T0
f min
Fundamental Frequency
Max
Min
h
f ≤ f max, SCAN
t min ≤ t ≤ t max, TRND
1 cycle,
WAVE
min
Working with Tables
4-7
Table 4.3
Quantity
Definition
∑X
RMS
2
RMS f
, SPECT
f
X RMS =
z
T
1
X( t ) 2dt , WAVE
T0
Root Mean Square Value
RMSh
X RMS h =
f
RMS Value of Harmonics
THD
THD =
Total Harmonic Distortion
>
∑X
2
RMS f
fund
X RMS h
X RMS fund
XWg
∑b
W from table
2
f
TIF
TIF =
f
f
,
X RMS
Telephone Influence Factor
(f = 60 ⋅ h)
h
W
h
W
h
W
h
W
1
0.5
17
5,100
31
7,820
50
9,670
3
30
18
5,400
33
8,330
53
8,740
5
225
19
5,630
35
8,830
55
8,090
6
400
21
6,050
36
9,080
59
6,730
7
650
23
6,370
37
9,330
61
6,130
9
1,320
24
6,650
39
9,840
65
4,400
11
2,260
25
6,680
41
10,340
67
3,700
12
2,760
27
6,970
43
10,600
71
2,750
13
3,360
29
7,320
47
10,210
73
2,190
15
4,350
30
7,570
49
9,820
83.3
840
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4-8
TOP User’s Guide
Curve Minimum and Maximum
The Curve Minimum and Maximum table creates the following
values:
Min
Max
Abs
Max
Avg
minimum Value
maximum Value
maximum Absolute
Value
average Value
The compatible objects are WAVE, PROB and HIST. Figure 4.2
illustrates selection of this table in the dialog box prompted by
Table, Select.
Figure 4.2
Figure 4.3 illustrates the created table.
Figure 4.3
Electrotek Concepts, Inc.
Working with Tables
4-9
Waveform Summary
The Waveform Summary table is accessible for any object in a
raw object form of WAVE. Chapter 2 provides a list of what types
of data files this includes. The obtained values for this table are:
Min
Max
Abs
Max
Avg
RMS
CF
FF
minimum Value
maximum Value
maximum Absolute
Value
average Value
root Mean Square
Value
crest Factor
form Factor
Figure 4.4 illustrates this table as created in TOP.
Figure 4.4
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4 - 10
TOP User’s Guide
Waveform Data Points
This table provides the data points of selected waveforms and
plots. Any object in a raw form of WAVE can be used to create
this table.
Value
Nam
e
Time
Figure 4.5
The obtained quantities are described as:
Time
Value
Electrotek Concepts, Inc.
time in seconds
magnitude at corresponding time
Working with Tables
4 - 11
Frequency Domain Data
The Frequency Domain Data Table provides the frequency,
magnitude and angle for each point in any raw object file in a
SPEC format.
Frequency
Magnitude
Angle
frequency in per unit
corresponding magnitude
corresponding angle
Figure 4.6 illustrates this table as prompted in TOP.
Figure 4.6
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4 - 12
TOP User’s Guide
Harmonic Summary Table
Raw data files in a SPEC or SCAN format can be used to create a
Harmonic Summary Table. The obtained values from this table
are:
Frequency
Fundamental
%THD
%RMS
%ASum
RMSh
RMS
ASum
TIF
IT
H3-H25
fundamental frequency
magnitude at fundamental frequency
% of total harmonic distortion
% of root mean square value
% arithmetic sum
root mean square value of harmonic content
root mean square value
arithmetic sum
telephone interference factor (normalized with
voltage)
current telephone interference factor (normalized with
current)
magnitude content in each odd harmonic.
Figure 4.7 illustrates this table, as created in TOP. At the top
left corner of this table is the following box:
If this box is checked then the harmonic magnitude content for
each of the odd harmonics will be in percent content based on the
fundamental.
Check this
box to view
the
harmonics in
percent.
Figure 4.7 - Harmonic Summary Table
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Working with Tables
4 - 13
Magnitude vs. Switch Operation
This table can be created in TOP from any raw object file in the
STAT format.
Figure 4.8 illustrates the selection of the
Magnitude vs. Switch Operation table and the compatible files
from the Table, Select... prompt.
Figure 4.8
Figure 4.9 illustrates this table as created in TOP. The values
given in this table give the magnitudes at the switches in a file at
the time of closing.
Figure 4.9
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4 - 14
TOP User’s Guide
IEEE 519 Current Limits
This table provides a check of spectral data with the IEEE 519
Current Standards. The raw data object files should be of the
SPEC format. Figure 4.10 illustrates an example of this table as
prompted in TOP.
Figure 4.10
Unlike the previous tables discussed, the IEEE 519 Current
Limits Table requires user inputs for cells B1 to B3. Cell B1 is
the Point of Common Coupling kV, PCC kV. In the above
example, this was 12.5kV. Cell B2 is the PCC Short Circuit
MVA, this was chosen as 200 MVA. Finally, cell B3 is the Avg.
Max Demand kVA. For the above situation this was 500 kVA.
Upon input of these critical values depicting the system, the
Summary and Detail Tables are completed as necessary. In this
example the currents calculated are within IEEE 519 limits.
F
TOP will remember the last user inputs into the table, even if the
program is shut down and restarted. Therefore, it is necessary to
remember to update these parameters accordingly.
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Working with Tables
4 - 15
This Page Intentionally Left Blank
Electrotek Concepts, Inc.
CHAPTER 5
Common Procedures
This chapter gives a detailed explanation on how to accomplish specific
procedures in TOP. For both new and familiar users, this chapter
provides a step by step process for common operations incorporating
the features discussed in the previous chapters.
In This Chapter
♦ Graphical Manipulations
♦ Base Quantities
♦ TOP Calc Examples
♦ New Graph Features
5-2
Electrotek Concepts, Inc.
TOP User’s Guide
Common Procedures
5-3
Graphical Manipulations
Multiple Graphs in a Single Frame
TOP allows the viewing of multiple stack objects in several different
ways. It gives the user the opportunity to view quantities for specific
applications. This is demonstrated in the following process.
Given the three phase voltage waveforms from a PASS object file the
waveforms can be graphed with all three phases overlaid.
1. Select Quick Graph . . . to obtain the dialog box below.
Figure 5.1
2. Select the three phases to be plotted and the Normal option.
3. Click OK.
Figure 5.2 below is then obtained with all three phases overlaid.
Electrotek Concepts, Inc.
5-4
TOP User’s Guide
Figure 5.2
Multiple Graphs in the Same Window
At times it becomes beneficial to view multiple graphs in the same
window, however in different frames. The following procedure will
illustrate this.
Given three voltage waveforms with their corresponding spectrums, a
single window will be created that contains the voltage waveforms on
the top of the page and the harmonic spectrums on the bottom. The
spectrums will be scaled so that the highest harmonic fills the vertical
dimension.
1. Open Graph, QuickGraph... and select the six quantities to be
graphed.
Figure 5.3
Electrotek Concepts, Inc.
Common Procedures
5-5
2. Select Auto Create Frames
3. Set Across to 3 and Down to 2.
4. Select OK or Cancel to abort. If OK was selected then the following
figure is produced.
Double Click
at either
axis to rescale.
Figure 5.4
It can be seen in the above figure that the spectrums graphed in Quick
Graph need to be re-scaled to accurately see the harmonic content.
Two methods can be utilized to prompt the Graph Scale dialog box in
Figure 5.2 to scale the spectrums so that the highest harmonic fills the
horizontal axis.
1. Double click at either axis of the spectrum.
Or;
1. Select the spectrum by clicking once anywhere in the frame.
2. Select Graph, Scale...
Electrotek Concepts, Inc.
5-6
TOP User’s Guide
Figure 5.5
Using the above dialog box each spectrum can be re-scaled to the
desired settings for clarity. After setting the appropriate scales the
new figure is illustrated below.
Figure 5.6
It should be noted that the frames are graphed in the order depicted in
the stack. In the above example we were able to obtain the desired
graphical representation without any further manipulations. The
following example will illustrate a situation where this is not so by
graphing the voltage waveforms on the left and the corresponding
spectrums on the right.
Electrotek Concepts, Inc.
Common Procedures
5-7
Repeat steps 1 and 2 as in the previous example.
3. Set Across to 2 and Down to 3.
Figure 5.7
4. Select OK or Cancel to abort. If OK was selected then the following
figure is produced.
Figure 5.8
Electrotek Concepts, Inc.
5-8
TOP User’s Guide
Note the order automatically assigned to accomplish this. To change
this to the desired graphical manner the Stack Items In Frame option
should be used. This can be prompted by two different methods.
1. Double click anywhere in the frame of the spectrum.
Or;
1. Select the spectrum by clicking once anywhere in the frame.
2. Select Stack Items in Frame...
This option allows the addition or removal of quantities in a frame.
The dialog box for this can be seen in the below figure.
Figure 5.9
For this procedure, this option will be used to adjust the quantities to
obtain the desired format. This will be accomplished by deleting the
previous quantity and adding the desired one.
1. Select the existing item from the Current Items list and then select
the Delete radio button.
2. From the Curve Stack select the new item and then click the Add
radio button.
3. Select the Ok button or the Cancel button to abort.
Upon the completion of this as well as the re-scaling of the harmonic
spectrum, the figure below is then obtained.
Electrotek Concepts, Inc.
Common Procedures
5-9
Figure 5.10
This may seem like a round about method to accomplish this. Another
method would be to manipulate the stack originally to depict the
desired format for display.
To illustrate this we will use the same example as above.
The waveforms for the previous example were obtained by doing an
IDFT on the simulated spectrums in TOPCalc. When TOPCalc
produces the DERIVED waveform it adds it to the stack in an
alphabetical manner using the first field of the first stack item as the
initial start. Before performing the IDFT operation on the selected
item, it should be renamed to fit in the desired position in the stack
list.
Figure 5.11 illustrates the TOPCalc dialog box indicating all the
renamed fields for the waveforms. Note that the first field for the
waveforms are the same as the first field for the initial spectrum,
120_A. The second field for the derived waveforms remained blank,
The third field was changed to the original name of the item. This
naming convention was utilized strictly for obtaining the desired stack
position for graphical purposes.
Electrotek Concepts, Inc.
5 - 10
TOP User’s Guide
Figure 5.11
After exiting the TOPCalc dialog box, Graph, Quick Graph was
selected to plot the quantities. Figure 5.12 indicates the dialog box.
Once again, the Auto Create Frames option was selected with 2 across
and 3 down.
Figure 5.12
The resulting graph is in Figure 5.13.
Electrotek Concepts, Inc.
Common Procedures
5 - 11
Figure 5.13
Electrotek Concepts, Inc.
5 - 12
TOP User’s Guide
Base Quantities Example
Harmonic (H pu) to Hertz (Hz)
The following example demonstrates a frequently used operation of
converting the X-Axis units from Harmonic to Hertz.
Given a frequency scan produced from SuperHarm named
44kvbus(SCAN1), the Graph, QuickGraph option produces the graph
below.
Figure 5.14
The X-Axis units are in frequency per unit (60Hz harmonic). To
change this to frequency in Hertz the following procedure should be
performed.
1. Select from the TOP menu bar, Stack, Base Quantities . . .
Electrotek Concepts, Inc.
Common Procedures
5 - 13
2. Upon selection, the following dialog box appears:
Need to
change base
value to 1
from 60.
60
Figure 5.15
3. The desired stack item, 44kvbus(SCAN1) should be selected from
the Curve Stack list.
4. The Per Unitize Box should be checked and the axis desired should
be selected. In this case the X-Axis units are being changed.
5. The Base Value is currently shown as the value of 60. To change to
frequency in Hertz the Per Unitize check box should be turned off.
6. Upon completion of the desired activities the Update radio button
or the Exit button should be selected. If the Update button was
selected, the graph below is then obtained, with the X-Axis units in
frequency (Hz).
Electrotek Concepts, Inc.
5 - 14
TOP User’s Guide
Figure 5.16
NOTE:
@
The label for the X Axis remains to be Frequency (H pu). To
change this to Frequency (Hz) the following needs to be done.
1. Select from the TOP menu bar Graph, Label. The following dialog
box appears. After creating all the desired labels, select any one of
the three radio buttons.
Figure 5.17
Per-Unitizing
The following procedure will illustrate how to per-unitize and plot two
voltage transients of differing voltage magnitudes on a single graph.
Given the capacitor switching transient from the IEEE COMTRADE
data file, the resulting waveforms are 480A(480V) and SRCA(34.5kV).
To view these waveforms, QuickGraph can be utilized. The figure
below illustrates the dialog box with both of the desired quantities
selected as well as the Auto Create Frames option.
Electrotek Concepts, Inc.
Common Procedures
5 - 15
Figure 5.18
The resulting waveforms can be seen below. To view these waveforms
on the same graph against each other they would need to be perunitized. The procedure to accomplish this is outlined below.
Figure 5.19
1. Select Stack, Base Quantities . . . to obtain the dialog box. Click
the first quantity to be per-unitized, 480A.
2. Select the Per Unitize option and then the desired axis to be
changed. In this case, the Y-Axis Mag.
Electrotek Concepts, Inc.
5 - 16
TOP User’s Guide
Figure 5.20
3. Enter a Base Value. For this example the objects selected are lineneutral voltages on a RMS system. To per unitize these voltages on
peak line-neutral voltage, the base value should be:
Vbase =
2 ⋅
480
3
= 3919184
.
or,
Enter the voltage 480 and the sqrt(2)/sqrt(3) radio button, as done
in the previous figure.
4. Select the Update button to update the selected objects.
5. Repeat steps 1-4 for the next stack object, SRCA.
Note: However, in step 3 enter the voltage 34500 and the
sqrt(2)/sqrt(3) radio button. This is shown in Figure 5.11.
Electrotek Concepts, Inc.
Common Procedures
5 - 17
Figure 5.21
To plot both the waveforms on the same graph select Graph,
QuickGraph . . . and then the stack objects, 480A and SRCA. This
time, the Normal option can be selected. The result is Figure 5.22.
Figure 5.22
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5 - 18
TOP User’s Guide
TOP Calc Examples
♦
♦
♦
♦
Spectrum to Waveform
Waveform to Spectrum
Line-Ground to Line-Line Calculation
Energy Calculation
Spectrum to Waveform
By utilizing the TOPCalc feature, one can easily calculate and display
the corresponding waveform given a harmonic spectrum. This will be
seen in the following example.
The current harmonic spectrum produced by SuperHarm for a switch
mode power supply can be seen below in Figure 5.23.
Figure 5.23
The following procedure outlines the process for obtaining the
corresponding waveform.
1. Select Stack, TOPCalc . . . (see chapter 2, page 2-8 ) Upon selection
the dialog box seen below is prompted.
Electrotek Concepts, Inc.
Common Procedures
5 - 19
In this case a
single
argument will
be utilized.
Remember that the
IDFT operation can
only be performed
on objects of the
type SPEC.
Figure 5.24
2. Select the desired stack argument, SMPS1.
3. Select the IDFT operation. To obtain a waveform from a spectrum
this calculation needs to be performed.
4. The Do radio button should be clicked after the appropriate
operation is selected.
5. Use the Quick Graph option to display the waveform. (Figure 5.25)
Figure 5.25
The above figure was calculated on the default selection, Sin Series.
To see the corresponding waveform for the cosine series the following
procedure should be performed.
Steps 1 - 3 should be followed as indicated above.
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5 - 20
TOP User’s Guide
4. Select the Options radio button. Figure 5.26 illustrates the dialog
box obtained upon selection.
Figure 5.26
5. Select the Cosine Series.
6. Use the Quick Graph Option to obtain the waveform in Figure 5.27.
Figure 5.27
As illustrated in this example, the default selection, Sin Series will not
always correctly display the generated spectrum. It may become
necessary to attempt both options and then view the derived
waveforms for verification.
Electrotek Concepts, Inc.
Common Procedures
5 - 21
Waveform to Spectrum
Example 1 - Oscillating Frequency Determination
A common procedure of determining the oscillating frequency for a
switching transient will be illustrated.
Given a single phase capacitor switching transient waveform from an
IEEE COMTRADE file the waveform in Figure 5.28 is seen. To
determine the oscillating frequency the following should be performed.
Figure 5.28
1. Select Stack, TOP Calc . . . and the quantity of interest, 1_A 480A.
To go from a waveform to a spectrum a FFT or DFT needs to
performed. In this case a Fast Fourier Transform (FFT) operation
will be applied.
2. Select FFT from the Operations list box.
3. Select the Options radio button.
The Fourier Transform
Parameters dialog box in Figure 5.29 appears.
4. Retain the default settings indicated in Figure 5.29 for FFT Type
and Window. Select the Starting Time in the FFT Parameters
section to be that at which the capacitor switching oscillating
transient commences.
As seen in Figure 5.28. this was at
approximately 15ms. To obtain a better frequency resolution the
Number of Cycles need to be set to 5.
5. Select the OK radio button or Cancel to erase all settings.
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5 - 22
TOP User’s Guide
6. Select the Do radio button to perform the calculation.
Figure 5.29
TOP creates a file with the same name as the stack object except this
time it changes the Origin field to DERIVED and the Type field to
SPEC.
7. After all calculations have been performed select the Exit button.
Figure 5.14 illustrates the spectrum obtained with Quick Graph. To
accurately see where the peak harmonic is the area indicated below is
zoomed with the mouse.
Figure 5.30
Electrotek Concepts, Inc.
Common Procedures
5 - 23
It can be seen in Figure 5.30 that there are two primary resonances for
this switching transient. These peaks lie close to the 9th harmonic
(540Hz) and the 12th harmonic (720Hz).
To return from the zoomed spectrum to the previous spectrum simply
select Graph, Scale. . . Previous from the TOP menu or the icon in the
ribbon bar.
Figure 5.31
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5 - 24
TOP User’s Guide
Example 2 - Total Harmonic Distortion determination
This procedure will illustrate the process of going from waveform to
spectrum to determine the total harmonic distortion.
Given the steady state voltage for phase A from PASS the following
waveform is seen using QuickGraph.
Figure 5.33
As seen in Example 1, to obtain the harmonic spectrum for this
waveform a Fast Fourier Transform needs to be performed.
1. Select Stack, TOPCalc... From the dialog box below, select the
phase A voltage waveform.
Figure 5.34
Electrotek Concepts, Inc.
Common Procedures
5 - 25
2. Select the FFT Operation.
3. Select the Do radio button. TOP renames the quantity with the
name field DERIVED.
The following spectrum is then obtained using Quick Graph.
Figure 5.35
TOP automatically calculates in the data block the Total Harmonic
Distortion for spectrums. This is seen to be 2.3%.
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5 - 26
TOP User’s Guide
Line-Ground to Line-Line
This example will illustrate the common procedure involved in the
calculation of the phase A to phase B line-line voltage.
Figure 5.35 is a steady state voltage waveform for phase A and phase
B overlaid in Quick Graph from an IEEE COMTRADE data file.
Figure 5.35
1. Select Stack, TOP Calc . . . to obtain the dialog box in Figure 5.36.
It is
necessary
to select
this if both
the
arguments
are curves.
Figure 5.36
Electrotek Concepts, Inc.
Common Procedures
5 - 27
2. Select Curve in the upper right corner of the dialog box.
3. Select Argument #1 as the phase A voltage and Argument #2 as the
phase B voltage.
4. Select Subtract in the Options box.
5. Click the Do button and then the Exit button.
We are now ready to view our results. Figure 5.37 illustrates the
resulting phase A to phase B line to line voltage.
Figure 5.37
Electrotek Concepts, Inc.
5 - 28
TOP User’s Guide
Energy Calculation
Given a voltage and current waveform where the current is the current
in a surge arrester, the accumulated energy can be determined
utilizing TOPCalc. The procedure is described below:
1. After loading the desired quantities on the stack, Figure 5.38
indicates the TOP Calc dialog box.
Figure 5.38
2. In this example Argument #1 was selected to be the voltage and
Argument #2 the current in the arrester. It should be noted that it
could have been selected the other way as well.
3. Select the Energy function from the Operations: list box.
4. The third field in the Name: identifier is typed as Energy. This is
done strictly for labeling purposes and is not necessary.
5. Select the Do button to perform the operation and save it under the
specified name at the bottom of the dialog box.
We can now view the derived waveform. Select Graph, Quick Graph to
obtain the dialog box in Figure 5.39. The calculated object can be seen
in the Stack Objects list with the expected DERIVED field name as
well as the user assigned name of Energy.
Electrotek Concepts, Inc.
Common Procedures
5 - 29
Figure 5.39
The energy seen in the arrester during the transient can be seen below
in Figure 5.40.
Figure 5.40
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5 - 30
TOP User’s Guide
New Graph Features
RX Locus Plots
The RX Locus plot is frequently used to establish the impedance
bounds utilized in filter design. This section will provide an example
on how TOP allows the creation of resistive versus reactive impedance
plots to better visualize the complex impedance.
Given a frequency scan created by SuperHarm, we can easily create
the RX Locus plot.
1. Select Graph. . . New Graph to obtain the dialog box.
Figure 5.41
2. Select the stack object.
3. Select the Use Polar Grid option
4. Set the X Axis and Y Axis to the desired quantities. In this
situation the X Axis is set to Real, and the Y Axis is set to
Imaginary.
5. Click OK or Cancel, to abort the graph.
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Common Procedures
5 - 31
The resulting RX Locus plot can be seen in Figure 5.42.
Figure 5.42
Note: Resonance occurs where the locus crosses the R axis. A crossing
that is concave to the left generally indicates a parallel
resonance (high impedance). A crossing that is concave to the
right indicates a series resonance.
Power systems usually have looping characteristics indicating a
mixture of series and parallel resonance phenomena.
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TOP User’s Guide
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Electrotek Concepts, Inc.
APPENDIX A
TOP Data Filters
TOP has the ability of interacting with several different types of
data files. Each of the available data filters will be discussed in
detail in the following sections.
This version of TOP contains all the data filters which are
available at this time. Electrotek will continue to develop
additional filters as the need is requested. Please check the
errata sheet for a list of filters available on this disk.
A-2
Electrotek Concepts, Inc.
TOP User’s Guide
TOP Data Filters
A-3
COMTRADE1 Objects
This data filter automatically comes with the TOP program.
The COMTRADE data object consists of three files; HDR, CFG
and DAT. The *.HDR file (header file) is intended to be printed
and read by the user. The *.CFG (configuration file) is needed
to properly interpret the transient data, *.DAT file. Finally, the
*.DAT file (data file) contains the value of each sample of each
input channel. Upon loading an IEEE COMTRADE data object,
only the *.CFG file needs to be opened. The *.HDR and *.DAT
can only be viewed or printed in TOP as an ASCII file.
1. Select one or more objects in each list box. The All and None
buttons under each list box allow you to select or unselect all
objects in the list box at once.
IEEE STD C37.111 - 1991”IEEE Standard Common Format for Transient
Data Exchange (COMTRADE) for Power Systems” issued by the Power
Systems Relaying Committee out of the Power Engineering Society.
1
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TOP User’s Guide
The All and None buttons under a list box indicates that
multiple selections are allowed. List boxes without these
buttons usually permit only one item to be selected.
2. Select the OK button to load the selected objects, or Cancel to
quit the operation.
If the COMTRADE data files are produced by anything other
than TOP then the following name configuration is assigned.
Name1
Channel ID underscore (_) and Phase ID
Name2
Name channel was given.
Qualifier1
Circuit ID or name
Qualifier2
Units Specified
If the data files were exported using TOP (see page 1-17) than
the COMTRADE data filter tries to restore the original TOP
stack name.
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TOP Data Filters
A-5
EMTP Objects
TOP allows EMTP objects with the extensions SOS, PL4 and
OUT to be opened. Upon opening the EMTP OUT file, TOP
brings up the text output file. There is no dialog box associated
with this. The dialog box used for SOS and PL4 files are shown
below: TOP uses slightly different dialog boxes for each of these
files.
TOP sorts the objects according to the EMTP-assigned type and
displays them in the three list boxes shown above. The name
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A-6
TOP User’s Guide
TOP assigns to EMTP objects can be seen in the description
below:
As an example, an EMTP plot file called SYS.PL4 contains a
voltage waveform across a branch connected between two nodes
called BUS1 and BUS2. TOP would label this object as:
Name1
(BUS1)
Name2
(BUS2)
Qualifier1
(TYPE 8)
Qualifier2
Origin
(SYS)
Name1
Name of “from” node
Name2
Name of “to” node
Qualifier1
Type identifier given by the EMTP
Qualifier2
This field is not used.
Electrotek Concepts, Inc.
Type
(WAVE)
TOP Data Filters
A-7
HarmFlo2 Objects
TOP allows the viewing and solving of HarmFlo objects with
the extensions of HFW, HFS, HFZ and HFO. These ASCII text
files are used to obtain harmonic load flow solutions. Although
not much graphical interactive capability is featured with the
results, this provides an excellent source for comparisons with
other solved values. Upon the opening of HarmFlo object files,
TOP brings up the text file with the solution, therefore, there is
no dialog box.
Available from EPRI: publication number EL-4920-CCCM, project number
2444-1 “HARMFLOW Code: Version 5.0 User’s Guide”
2
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A-8
TOP User’s Guide
SuperHarm Objects
Source Groups
SuperHarm provides an option that allows you to specify a
source group - a set of one or more harmonic sources that should
always be applied to the system together. When source groups
are used, SuperHarm calculates a solution for the system with
each group applied in turn.
In TOP, when you load a SuperHarm object, you also select one
or more source groups for that object. TOP adds the solution for
each of the selected groups to obtain the total solution for the
object.
As an example of source groups,
suppose that SuperHarm is used to
model a system of four adjustable
speed drives. The process is such that
the “A” and “B” drives within a group
must operate together, but the two
groups may operate individually or
simultaneously.
The Procedure
Electrotek Concepts, Inc.
NONLINEARLOAD
Models
1a
CONVERTER
Models
Group 1
1b
Process
2a
Group 2
2b
TOP Data Filters
A-9
1. Node voltages and device currents are displayed in separate
list boxes. Select the desired items from each box. (Device
current labels use the device name and the name of the
terminal node, separated by a dot.) The All and None
buttons under each list box select and unselect all quantities
in the list. The All and None buttons in the lower left corner
of the dialog box select/unselect all voltages and currents.
2. If sources are grouped in the SuperHarm data file, select one
or more groups in the Source list box. The All button selects
all groups. The Base button selects the first group in the list
box. If sources are not grouped, the list box contains a single
entry - ALL.
3. If you are using source groups and have selected more than
one group in step 2, select the desired Source Option radio
button.
Load Individual: TOP loads a solution for one group at a
time. Suppose, for example, that you have selected only one
quantity in step 1 - a node voltage called NODE1. If you
select two source groups in step 2 - GROUP1 and GROUP2 then selecting Load Individual will create the following
objects:
Name1
Name2
Qualifier1
Qualifier2
(NODE1)
(GROUP1)
( BASE )
(NODE1)
(GROUP2)
( BASE )
The first object is the NODE1 voltage with the GROUP1
solution, the second is the NODE1 voltage with GROUP2
solution.
Load Sum: TOP calculates each voltage or current through
strict linear superposition using the source groups selected in
step 2. For each node voltage or device current X, the value
at each harmonic frequency is calculated as:
X=
Group N
∑X
G
G = Group 1
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A - 10
TOP User’s Guide
If Load Sum were selected instead of Load Individual in
the example given above, only one stack object would be
created:
Name1
Name2
(NODE1)
Qualifier1
Qualifier2
(SUM###) ( BASE )
where ### is a number assigned by TOP to help you keep
track of which sources are applied to which objects.
Load RSS: This RSS (Root Squared Sum) method uses a
modified linear superposition technique.
It may be
appropriate for cases where strict linear superposition is too
conservative.
X=
Group N
∑X
2
G
G = Group 1
If Load RSS were selected instead of Load Individual in
the example given above, only one stack object would be
created:
Name1
(NODE1
)
Name2
Qualifier1 Qualifier2
(RSS###) ( BASE )
where ### is a number assigned by TOP to help you keep
track of which sources are applied to which objects.
4. If desired, you can specify a fundamental frequency
component for the selected objects with the Fundamental
Mode radio buttons. Select the Replace Calculated button to
override the values calculated from the SuperHarm data. If
no fundamentals were specified to begin with - that is, the
data file contains no fundamental frequency sources - use the
Specify Values button. If you select either of these buttons,
enter the magnitude, phase angle, and frequency of the
fundamental in the Mag, Ang, and Freq text boxes,
respectively.
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TOP Data Filters
A - 11
The default button, Use Calculated, tells TOP to use
fundamental values from the SuperHarm output file. If this
button is selected, the magnitude, phase angle, and
frequency text boxes should be left blank.
5. The Variants list box is not used in the current version of
the program.
6. Select OK or Cancel.
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A - 12
TOP User’s Guide
V-HARM Objects
The procedure for loading V-Harm objects is similar to that for
loading SuperHarm objects. There are two differences:
•
V-Harm does not use source groups. In effect, TOP treats a
V-Harm source as a group of one source. With this in mind,
all comments made above concerning SuperHarm apply to VHarm as well.
•
The V-Harm Stack Load dialog box has a check box called
Harmonic Mode Solution.
This check box is required
because TOP can't distinguish between V-Harm frequency
scans and spectra. Unless the check box is set, TOP assumes
that the objects being loaded are frequency scans.
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TOP Data Filters
A - 13
Dranetz Objects
Before opening a Dranetz file in TOP, it is necessary to run the
ASCII 65X.EXE converter. After running this, the file must be
saved with a .DRZ extension. If this is not done TOP will not
open the file.
In TOP, when you load a Dranetz object with the .DRZ
extension, the number of snapshot events are first counted. The
following dialog box appears after all the events are counted.
Figure 2.16
Currently TOP will only allow WAVE, IMPULSES and RMS
Trends to be loaded on the stack for a Dranetz object file. The
loading procedure is the same as noted before. The name
assigned to this type of object file is explained in the example
below.
Given an object file called DRANZ.DRZ with an impulse
snapshot taken on channel B on July 16, 1993 at 2:58:22 pm the
following name is assigned:
Name1
(34_B)
Name1
Name2
Qualifier1 Qualifier2
Origin
(IMPULSE) (07/16/93) (14:58:22) (DERIVED)
Type
(WAVE)
Event ID and Channel
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TOP User’s Guide
Name2
Label of the graph, either IMPULSE or WAVE,
given by TOP.
Qualifier1,2 Date and Time of when the snapshot was taken by
Dranetz.
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TOP Data Filters
A - 15
PQNode Objects
There is no dialog box for PQNode CSV files, as they contain
only one object. When a CSV file is opened, TOP assigns a
name to the object and then loads the object on the stack
automatically. Loading a Cold Load Pickup or RMS disturbance
will create two objects - a WAVE and a TRND.As an example, a
PQNode plot file called WAVE1.CSV contains the waveforms of
all phase voltages and currents for October 1, 1993 at 4:22:39 for
node 1590. TOP would label the current for phase A as:
Name1
(1590)
Name2
(IA_WF)
Qualifier1
(10/01/93)
Qualifier2
(04:22:39)
Origin
(WAVE1)
Type
(WAVE)
IA - Phase A Current
WF - Waveform
Name1
Eight characters from the title of the PQNode plot.
Name2
phase voltage or current _ type of plot (defined
below)
WF
RD
TD
WV
IM
CL
Wave Fault Disturbance
RMS Variation
Trend
Waveform Capture
Impulse
Cold Load Pickup
Qualifier1,2 Date and Time of when the snapshot was recorded
by the PQNode.
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TOP User’s Guide
Square D Objects
Copy the file dadisp.tfl into the same directory as the TOP
program.
After clicking on the TOP icon, select File Open from the menu
bar. Make sure you select Square D DADISP from the list of file
types or the file will not be read properly.
The Square D filter automatically loads the files to the stack.
Once the file is opened you are ready to graph the files using
Quick Graph.
VASAG>B_AMPS-AMPS(10-20-93)(12:49:38)
600
400
Square D DADisp Exported Data
_LAB2350_WF
CM Label: TEST
CM Name: 462-2350-40
200
Max: 459.615
Min: -441.819
CM Avg:
Type:168.57
1505
Abs: 459.615
RMS: 196.794
CF : 2.33551
FF : 1.16743
0
Current (A)
-200
-400
-600
VASAG>B_AMPS-AMPS(10-20-93)(12:49:38)
VASAG>C_AMPS-AMPS(10-20-93)(12:49:38)
0
50
100
Time (mS)
Electrotek Concepts, Inc.
150
200
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