Supporting Participation in Typical Classroom Activities for Students

Supporting Participation in Typical Classroom Activities for Students
Georgia Project for Assistive Technology’s
web site at http://www.gpat.org (25 pages)
Supporting Participation in Typical Classroom Activities
for Students with Disabilities Through the Use of
Accommodations, Modifications, and
Assistive Technology Solutions
Students with disabilities often require accommodations, modifications, and assistive technology
solutions in order to participate in and benefit from the general education curriculum and the
individualized educational programs that are provided through special education programs. As a
result, general education teachers must work collaboratively with special education teachers, related
service providers such as speech-language pathologists, and parents to identify and implement
support strategies that are appropriate for students based on their unique needs. Appropriate support
strategies are identified and documented during the development and review of students’
Individualized Educational Progams (IEPs) and Section 504 Accommodation Plans. All educators
working with the students must work together to implement the support strategies and to monitor the
use of the strategies to determine effectiveness and make changes in the students’ intervention
programs.
The following document was developed by the Georgia Project for Assistive Technology (GPAT) to
provide information on support strategies including accommodations, modifications, and assistive
technology solutions that are used by students with disabilities to enhance their participation and
achievement in typical classroom activities. The support strategies are organized by type of disability
within each of the typical classroom activities. When reviewing these strategies, please keep in mind
that some students may benefit from strategies listed for another disability type. In addition, some
students exhibit multiple types of disabilities. Therefore, it will be necessary to refer to more than one
of the disability areas for strategies. For example, a student with a moderate intellectual disability
may exhibit a speech-language impairment and an orthopedic impairment. Therefore, it will be
necessary to review the strategies for moderate intellectual disability as well as speech-language
impairment and orthopedic impairment. Lastly, some students with disabilities such as autism,
significant developmental delay, and other health impairment demonstrate characteristics of one or
more of the types of disabilities included in the document. Subsequently, it is suggested that
strategies for different types of disabilities associated with difficulties that the student is demonstrating
be utilized as a resource for identifying appropriate accommodations, modifications, and assistive
technology solutions.
This document is available electronically on GPAT’s web site at http://www.gpat.org. In addition, a
comprehensive listing of assistive technology resources and vendors are also available on the
project’s web site. Handouts that contain directions for programming and using many of the assistive
technology hardware solutions referenced in this document are also available on the web site. In
February 2001, short video clips of assistive technology devices and clips of students using the
devices will also be available. For additional information about this document or additional resources,
please contact gpat@doe.k12.ga.us or call 404-362-2024.
Developed by the Georgia Project for Assistive Technology. Permission to copy is granted for non-commercial purposes if this
credit is retained. For additional information about this document, contact khartsel@doe.k12.ga.us
2
Quick Reference Guide for Typical Classroom Activities
Classroom Activities
Page Number
Accessing Information (Gathering Facts) on Instructional Topic
From Computer-based Software Applications and On-line Resources
3
Brainstorming Instructional Topics and Recording Facts
5
Class Discussion (Whole and Small Group)
7
Completing Self-Assessments
9
Completing Computer-based Writing Assignments
11
Completing Illustrations, Drawings, Diagrams, and Graphs
14
Completing Writing Assignments (Storyboards, Worksheets,
Sentences, Paragraphs) through Handwriting
16
Listening To-Books or Reference Materials Read Aloud by
Teacher or Peer To Obtain Information About an
Instructional Topic
19
Listening To-Viewing a Video or Whole Group Presentation
of a Software Application To Obtain Information About an
Instructional Topic
21
Reading Instructional Materials such as Textbooks,
Reference Books, and Other Instructional Materials
23
Developed by the Georgia Project for Assistive Technology. Permission to copy is granted for non-commercial purposes if this
credit is retained. For additional information about this document, contact khartsel@doe.k12.ga.us .
3
Accessing Information (Gathering Facts) on an Instructional Topic from
Computer-based Software Applications and On-line Resources
Typical Classroom Tasks:
Use an electronic atlas
Read electronic mail
Read/access information from electronic books
(small group and whole group)
Access information about instructional topic
from an Internet web site
Access information from instructional software
Types of StudentsBy Disability Area
Accommodations, Modifications, and Assistive Technology
Solutions
Autism
•
Deaf-Hard of Hearing
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
Emotional-Behavioral Disorders
•
Mild Intellectual Disabilities
•
•
•
•
•
•
Moderate Intellectual Disabilities
•
•
•
Other Health Impairments
•
Use accommodations, modifications, and assistive technology solutions
recommended for students in disability areas that are relevant to the
student’s area of difficulty
Position the student near the computer to maximize auditory access
Increase the volume on the computer’s sound system as appropriate
Use classroom or personal amplification device to amplify computer
auditory output following recommendation of an audiologist
Utilize software applications that provide strong visual information
Select and use software that pairs printed information with auditory
information
Use manual sign language or oral interpreter to provide information in
an accessible format
Use adaptive software to provide a visual display of information that is
typically presented auditorially
Provide preferential seating during whole group tasks to enhance
attention and support
Use positive verbal praise to reinforce appropriate behaviors
Re-direct inappropriate behaviors
Use picture symbols and graphics to illustrate key points presented
during whole group and small group discussion of information obtained
from the software application or web site
Use a peer or adult to read to text presented on the monitor to the
student during small group and individual work groups
Have a peer or adult verbally summarize information that is printed on
the computer monitor
Use a text reader to read text displayed on the monitor from software
applications and on web sites
Use picture symbols to illustrate key points presented during whole
group and small group discussion of information obtained from the
software application or web site
Provide a peer or adult to read information that is displayed on the
computer monitor
Summarize key points in language appropriate to the student’s
linguistic and cognitive levels
Use accommodations, modifications, and assistive technology solutions
recommended for students in disability areas that are relevant to the
student’s area of difficulty
Developed by the Georgia Project for Assistive Technology. Permission to copy is granted for non-commercial purposes if this
credit is retained. For additional information about this document, contact khartsel@doe.k12.ga.us .
4
Orthopedic Impairments
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
Severe-Profound Intellectual
Disabilities
•
•
•
•
Significant Developmental Delays
•
Specific Learning Disabilities
•
•
•
•
•
Speech-Language Impairments
•
•
•
Traumatic Brain Injury
•
Visual Impairments-Blind
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
Provide a peer to assist in accessing information through the computer
Use accessibility applications in the control panel of the computer’s
operating system to enhance access using the standard computer
keyboard
Provide adaptive pointing utensils such as a hand pointer or hand splint
to enable the student to activate keys on the computer keyboard
Provide an adaptation such as a keyguard to the standard computer
keyboard to enable the student to activate keys on the keyboard
Provide an alternative to the standard computer keyboard such as an
on-screen keyboard for young students, an enlarged keyboard for
students who need large keys on the computer keyboard or a minikeyboard for students who need a keyboard that is smaller than the
computer keyboard
Provide the student with a microswitch for scanning access as an
alternative to the standard computer keyboard
Provide the student with an alternative to the standard computer
keyboard such as a trackball, joy stick, or head mouse
Provide the student with a peer to assist in accessing information
through the computer
Use picture symbols to illustrate key points
Use object symbols to illustrate key points
Summarize key points in language appropriate to the student’s
linguistic and cognitive capabilities
Use accommodations, modifications, and assistive technology solutions
recommended for students in disability areas that are relevant to the
student’s area of difficulty
Provide a peer to assist in accessing text in computer based resource
applications
Summarize information for student in language appropriate to the
student’s linguistic and cognitive abilities
Provide the student with a talking hand held dictionary or spelling aid to
assist in identifying unknown words
Use a talking word processing application such as Write OutLoud (Don
Johnston) to read aloud text displayed on the monitor from software
applications and web sites
Use a text reader such as Willow Talk to read aloud text displayed on
the monitor from software applications or web sites
Provide peer or adult assistance with unfamiliar words and concepts
Provide the student with a talking hand held dictionary or spelling aid to
assist in identifying unknown words
Summarize information in language appropriate to the student’s
linguistic capabilities
Use accommodations, modifications, and assistive technology solutions
recommended for students in disability areas that are relevant to the
student’s area of difficulty
Position the computer monitor to maximize visual access and reduce
glare
Adjust the contrast on the monitor to maximize visual access
Use accessibility features within the computer’s software operating
system to enlarge text and graphics
Use a screen enlargement software application such as ZoomText to
enlarge text and graphics displayed on the computer monitor
Provide a peer to assist in reading text displayed on the computer
screen
Provide a text reader such as Willow Talk to read aloud text displayed
on the monitor from software applications and web sites
Provide a screen-text reading software application such as JAWS
(Henter Joyce) to read all text displayed on the monitor
Provide an appropriate means for recording-printing information and
facts obtained from the resources (Braille embosser)
Developed by the Georgia Project for Assistive Technology. Permission to copy is granted for non-commercial purposes if this
credit is retained. For additional information about this document, contact khartsel@doe.k12.ga.us .
5
Brainstorming an Instructional Topic and Recording Facts
(Wall Chart, Story Board, Note Worksheet, or Computer-based Software Application)
Typical Classroom Tasks:
Provide relevant facts on an instructional topic
obtained from a software application, Internet site,
or reference material
Record facts on instructional topic on wall
chart, story board, worksheet, or computer
word processing application
Provide facts to teacher or other students verbally
in small group and whole group discussion
Record notes from small group and whole
group brainstorming discussions
Types of StudentsBy Disability Area
Accommodations, Modifications, and Assistive Technology
Solutions
Autism
•
Deaf-Hard of Hearing
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
Emotional-Behavioral Disorders
•
Mild Intellectual Disabilities
•
•
•
Moderate Intellectual Disabilities
•
•
•
Other Health Impairments
•
•
Use accommodations, modifications, and assistive technology solutions
recommended for students in disability areas that are relevant to the
student’s area of difficulty
Pre-teach vocabulary and assist the student in formulating thoughts to
be expressed during the discussion
Provide preferential seating to enhance optimal auditory access of
class discussion
Encourage student to use personal hearing aids, if appropriate, in order
to listen to discussion-brainstorming
Provide assistive listening device (classroom or personal) to enhance
optimal auditory access of class discussion-brainstorming following
recommendation of an audiologist
Provide manual sign language or oral interpreter to provide information
to the student
Use picture symbols as appropriate to illustrate key points and enhance
comprehension
Encourage student participation in the discussion-brainstorming
through verbalization and/or sign language
Provide manual sign language or oral interpreter to interpret student’s
communication responses and initiations
Provide picture/word symbols to supplement student verbalizations and
sign language during discussion-brainstorming
Allow student to use augmentative communication device, if
appropriate, during discussion brainstorming
Provide positive verbal praise for on-task behavior, attention, and
participation
Re-direct inappropriate behaviors
Pre-teach vocabulary and assist the student in formulating thoughts to
be expressed during the discussion
Use picture symbols to illustrate key points in the discussion and on the
wall chart
Read aloud text that is written on the wall chart
Pre-teach vocabulary and assist the student in formulating thoughts to
be expressed during the discussion
Use picture symbols to illustrate key points in the discussion and on the
wall chart
Read aloud text that is written on wall chart
Use accommodations, modifications, and assistive technology solutions
recommended for students in disability areas that are relevant to the
student’s area of difficulty
Developed by the Georgia Project for Assistive Technology. Permission to copy is granted for non-commercial purposes if this
credit is retained. For additional information about this document, contact khartsel@doe.k12.ga.us .
6
Orthopedic Impairments
Severe-Profound Intellectual
Disabilities
•
•
•
Significant Developmental Delays
•
•
Specific Learning Disabilities
•
Speech-Language Impairments
•
•
•
•
•
Traumatic Brain Injury
•
Visual Impairments-Blind
•
•
•
•
Provide student with optimal seating system to enhance participation
Use picture symbols to illustrate key points in the discussion and on
wall chart
Use real object symbols to illustrate key points during the discussion
and brainstorming
Read aloud text that is written on the wall chart
Use accommodations, modifications, and assistive technology solutions
recommended for students in disability areas that are relevant to the
student’s area of difficulty
Use picture symbols to illustrate key points during discussion and
brainstorming and on the wall chart
Read aloud text that is recorded on the wall chart
Use picture symbols to illustrate key points during discussion and
brainstorming
Provide amplification system for students who have a low loudness
level
Provide picture symbols or a communication board to allow student to
express thoughts and information during brainstorming
Provide access to an augmentative communication device, if
appropriate, during discussion and brainstorming
Use accommodations, modifications, and assistive technology solutions
recommended for students in disability areas that are relevant to the
student’s area of difficulty
Provide student with optimal seating to view text and graphics recorded
on the wall chart
Position the wall chart in a location to reduce glare
Write in large print on the wall chart for students with low vision
Read aloud any text that is recorded on the wall chart
Developed by the Georgia Project for Assistive Technology. Permission to copy is granted for non-commercial purposes if this
credit is retained. For additional information about this document, contact khartsel@doe.k12.ga.us .
7
Class Discussion (Whole Group and Small Group)
Typical Classroom Tasks:
Respond to teacher and peer student questions
Provide information-share information with peers
and teacher
Label items related to the instructional topic
Summarize information in an instructional activity
Ask questions related to instructional topic
Make comments about instructional topic
Provide an oral report
Types of StudentsBy Disability Area
Accommodations, Modifications, and Assistive Technology
Solutions
Autism
•
Deaf-Hard of Hearing
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
Emotional-Behavioral Disorders
•
•
Mild Intellectual Disabilities
•
•
•
•
Moderate Intellectual Disabilities
•
•
•
Other Health Impairments
•
Orthopedic Impairments
•
•
Use accommodations, modifications, and assistive technology solutions
recommended for students in disability areas that are relevant to the
student’s area of difficulty
Provide preferential seating for the student to enhance access to
auditory information
Use picture symbol such as Boardmaker and Writing with Symbols
(Mayer Johnson) to illustrate key points
Use written language (words, sentences, etc.) to supplement spoken
language)
Use classroom or personal amplification device to amplify speaker’s
voice following recommendation from an audiologist
Use manual sign language or oral interpreter to interpret speaker’s
messages (ex: translate spoken language into manual sign language)
Use manual sign language or oral interpreter to interpret student’s
messages (ex: provide speech to supplement student’s manual signs)
Use voice recognition software applications such as the ICommunicator (Interactive Solutions) to translate spoken language into
computer-based text and manual sign language
Provide preferential seating during whole group discussion to enhance
attention and minimize distraction
Use positive verbal praise to reinforce student participation and
appropriate behaviors
Re-direct inappropriate behaviors
Encourage student participation in topics familiar to the student
Encourage the student to signal the teacher when he or she knows the
answer to questions so that the teacher may call on him or her
Pre-teach topic including vocabulary to provide student with necessary
information to participate in the discussion
Encourage student participation in topics familiar to the student
Encourage the student to signal the teacher when he or she knows the
answer to questions so that the teacher may call on him or her
Pre-teach topic including vocabulary to provide student with necessary
information to participate in the discussion
Use accommodations, modifications, and assistive technology solutions
recommended for students in disability areas that are relevant to the
student’s area of difficulty
Provide optimal seating and positioning to enhance student comfort
and participation
Provide student with adequate time to compose and produce response
Developed by the Georgia Project for Assistive Technology. Permission to copy is granted for non-commercial purposes if this
credit is retained. For additional information about this document, contact khartsel@doe.k12.ga.us .
8
Severe-Profound Intellectual
Disabilities
•
Significant Developmental Delays
•
•
Specific Learning Disabilities
•
•
Speech-Language Impairments
•
•
•
•
•
Traumatic Brain Injury
•
Visual Impairments-Blind
•
Provide the student with access to picture symbols such Boardmaker
(Mayer Johnson) to illustrate key points in the discussion
Provide the student with alternative learning activities as appropriate
Use accommodations, modifications, and assistive technology solutions
recommended for students in disability areas that are relevant to the
student’s area of difficulty
Pre-teach topic including vocabulary to provide student with necessary
information to participate in the discussion
Encourage the student to signal the teacher when he or she knows the
answer to questions so that the teacher may call on him or her
Create a communication environment where students feel comfortable
participating in the discussion or responding to questions
Provide the student with adequate time to compose and produce his or
her communication responses
Encourage the student to signal the teacher when he or she knows the
answer to questions so that the teacher may call on him or her
Provide the student with access to picture symbols such Boardmaker
(Mayer Johnson) to illustrate key points in the discussion
Provide the student with access to an augmentative communication
device, as appropriate, to meet his or her communication needs
Use accommodations, modifications, and assistive technology solutions
recommended for students in disability areas that are relevant to the
student’s area of difficulty
Provide the student with descriptive auditory feedback of any visuals
(pictures, wall charts, overheads) used in discussion
Developed by the Georgia Project for Assistive Technology. Permission to copy is granted for non-commercial purposes if this
credit is retained. For additional information about this document, contact khartsel@doe.k12.ga.us .
9
Completing Self-Assessments
Typical Classroom Tasks:
Read indicators of self assessment forms
Types of StudentsBy Disability Area
Accommodations, Modifications, and Assistive Technology
Solutions
Autism
•
Deaf-Hard of Hearing
•
•
•
Emotional-Behavioral Disorders
Mild Intellectual Disabilities
•
•
•
•
•
Moderate Intellectual Disabilities
•
•
Other Health Impairments
•
•
Orthopedic Impairments
•
•
•
Severe-Profound Intellectual
Disabilities
•
•
Significant Developmental Delays
Select-mark desired indicator on self assessment
forms
•
•
Use accommodations, modifications, and assistive technology solutions
recommended for students in disability areas that are relevant to the
student’s area of difficulty
Provide picture symbols (Boardmaker, Writing with Symbols) from
Mayer Johnson to supplement printed indicators on the selfassessment forms
Provide a manual sign language or oral interpreter to provide directions
Provide a manual sign language or oral interpreter to read (sign-speak)
the printed indicators on the self-assessment forms
Provide positive feedback for attention and on-task behaviors
Re-direct inappropriate behaviors
Provide picture symbols (Boardmaker, Writing with Symbols) from
Mayer Johnson to supplement printed indicators on the selfassessment forms
Allow a peer or an adult to read the indicators on the self-assessment
forms to the student
Provide the student with a computer-generated version of the form and
have the computer read the worksheet aloud to the student through the
use of a talking word processing application such as Write OutLoud
(Don Johnston)
Provide picture symbols (Boardmaker, Writing with Symbols) from
Mayer Johnson to supplement printed indicators on the selfassessment forms
Allow a peer or an adult to read the indicators on the self-assessment
forms to the student
Provide an alternative learning-assessment activity as appropriate
Use accommodations, modifications, and assistive technology solutions
recommended for students in disability areas that are relevant to the
student’s area of difficulty
Allow the student to use an adapted writing utensil, marker, or stamp to
mark the desired responses
Allow the student to dictate his responses to a peer or adult for the
purposes of marking the desired responses
Allow the student to complete a computer-generated version of the selfassessment forms using adaptive input devices and software as
appropriate
Provide picture symbols (Boardmaker, Writing with Symbols) from
Mayer Johnson to supplement printed indicators on the selfassessment forms
Modify the content-vocabulary of the self-assessment form to meet
individual student needs (linguistic and cognitive)
Provide an alternative learning-assessment activity as appropriate
Use accommodations, modifications, and assistive technology solutions
recommended for students in disability areas that are relevant to the
student’s area of difficulty
Developed by the Georgia Project for Assistive Technology. Permission to copy is granted for non-commercial purposes if this
credit is retained. For additional information about this document, contact khartsel@doe.k12.ga.us .
10
Specific Learning Disabilities
•
•
•
•
•
Traumatic Brain Injury
•
•
•
Visual Impairments-Blind
•
Speech-Language Impairments
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
Provide picture symbols (Boardmaker, Writing with Symbols) from
Mayer Johnson to supplement printed indicators on the selfassessment forms
Allow a peer or an adult to read the indicators on the self-assessment
forms to the student
Allow the student to dictate his responses to a peer or teacher as an
alternative to recording his responses
Allow the student to record responses to the indicators in the selfassessment on an audio-tape as an alternative to handwriting
Provide the student with a computer-based version of the form and
have the computer read the worksheet aloud to the student through the
use of a talking word processing application such as Write OutLoud
(Don Johnston)
Provide assistance with unfamiliar vocabulary
Repeat instructions as needed
Use accommodations, modifications, and assistive technology solutions
recommended for students in disability areas that are relevant to the
student’s area of difficulty
Provide an enlarged copy of the self-assessment forms for students
with low vision
Change the color of the paper on which the self-assessments are
displayed to reduce glare
Allow a peer or an adult to read the indicators on the self-assessment
forms to the student
Allow the student to dictate his responses to a peer or an adult
Allow the student to record his responses on an audio-tape as an
alternative to handwriting
Provide the student with the self-assessment forms in Braille as
appropriate
Provide the student with a computer-generated version of the form and
have the form enlarged to an appropriate font using a text enlargement
application such as ZoomText (Ai Squared)
Provide the student with a computer-based version of the form and
have the computer read the worksheet aloud to the student through the
use of a screen reading application such as JAWS (Henter-Joyce)
Developed by the Georgia Project for Assistive Technology. Permission to copy is granted for non-commercial purposes if this
credit is retained. For additional information about this document, contact khartsel@doe.k12.ga.us .
11
Completing Computer-based Writing Assignments
Typical Classroom Tasks:
Write a sentence, paragraph, or paper about an
instructional topic
Take notes (recording facts) from class
discussion
Write in a daily journal
Create charts including visual webs for writing
Edit writing samples
Illustrate a sentence about a topic
Publish writing samples using multi-media software
applications such as KidsWorks2 or Student
Writing Center
Compose electronic messages
Types of StudentsBy Disability Area
Accommodations, Modifications, and Assistive Technology
Solutions
Autism
•
Deaf-Hard of Hearing
•
•
•
Emotional-Behavioral Disorders
Mild Intellectual Disabilities
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
Moderate Intellectual Disabilities
•
•
•
•
Use accommodations, modifications, and assistive technology solutions
recommended for students in disability areas that are relevant to the
student’s area of difficulty
Provide the student with software applications such as Writing with
Symbols that pair picture symbols with printed words (Mayer Johnson)
Provide the student with access to a computer-based sign language
dictionary for looking up unfamiliar words
Provide the student with access to a standard word processing
application with a spell check and grammar check for the purposes of
producing and editing computer-based written communication
Provide the student with appropriate verbal feedback
Provide verbal reinforcement for attending and on-task behavior
Provide visual supports for appropriate behavior and sequencing
components of a task
Re-direct inappropriate behaviors
Provide the student with assistance from a peer
Provide the student with additional time to complete the writing tasks
Provide the student with access to a standard word processing
application with a spell check and grammar check for the purposes of
producing and editing computer-based written communication
Provide the student with access to a multi-media writing solution such
as Kids Works 2
Provide the student with a brainstorming and outlining tool such as
Inspiration (Inspiration Software) to assist in the pre-writing process
Provide the student with access to a talking word processing program
such as Write OutLoud (Don Johnston) and IntelliTalk 2 (IntelliTools) to
assist in producing and editing computer-based written communication
Provide the student with access to a word prediction program such as
Co:Writer (Don Johnston) to assist the student in producing computerbased written communication
Provide the student with picture symbols such as Boardmaker(Mayer
Johnson) to convey thoughts and ideas about an instructional topic
Provide the student with a software application such as Writing with
Symbols (Mayer Johnson) that pairs picture symbols with printed words
Provide the student with a printed model to copy from
Provide the student with access to a talking word processing program
such as Write OutLoud (Don Johnston) and IntelliTalk 2 (IntelliTools) to
assist in producing and editing computer-based written communication
Developed by the Georgia Project for Assistive Technology. Permission to copy is granted for non-commercial purposes if this
credit is retained. For additional information about this document, contact khartsel@doe.k12.ga.us .
12
Other Health Impairments
•
Orthopedic Impairments
•
•
•
•
Severe-Profound Intellectual
Disabilities
•
•
Significant Developmental Delays
•
Specific Learning Disabilities
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
Speech-Language Impairments
•
•
Use accommodations, modifications, and assistive technology solutions
recommended for students in disability areas that are relevant to the
student’s area of difficulty
Provide the student with access to a multi-media software application
such as KidsWorks 2
Provide the student with access to a standard word processing
application
Provide alternative access as needed:
o Use accessibility applications in the control panel of the
computer’s operating system to enhance access using the
standard computer keyboard
o Provide adaptive pointing utensils such as a hand pointer or
hand splint to enable the student to activate individual keys on
the computer keyboard
o Provide an adaptation such as a keyguard to the standard
computer keyboard to enable the student to activate individual
keys on the computer keyboard
o Provide an alternative to the standard computer keyboard
such as an on-screen keyboard for young students, an
enlarged keyboard for students who need large keys on the
computer keyboard or a mini-keyboard for students who need
a keyboard that is smaller than the computer keyboard
o Provide the student with a microswitch for scanning access as
an alternative to the standard computer keyboard and
o Provide the student with an alternative to the standard
computer keyboard such as a trackball, joy stick, or head
mouse
Provide the student with adaptive software as needed:
o Provide the student with access to a word prediction
application such as Co-Writer (Don Johnston) to enhance
input rate
o Provide the student with voice dictation software such as
Dragon Naturally Speaking for Teens (L&H) to enable the
student to speak text to be entered into the computer and
displayed on the computer screen
Provide the student with picture symbols such as Boardmaker(Mayer
Johnson) to convey thoughts and ideas about a particular instructional
topic
Provide an alternate learning activity to address individual goals and
objectives
Use accommodations, modifications, and assistive technology solutions
recommended for students in disability areas that are relevant to the
student’s area of difficulty
Provide the student with assistance from a peer
Provide the student with additional time to complete the writing tasks
Provide the student with access to a standard word processing
application with a spell check and grammar check for the purposes of
producing and editing computer-based written communication
Provide the student with access to a multi-media writing solution
Provide the student with a brainstorming and outlining tool such as
Inspiration (Inspiration Software) to assist in the pre-writing process
Provide the student with access to a talking word processing program
such as Write OutLoud (Don Johnston) and IntelliTalk 2 (IntelliTools) to
assist in producing and editing computer-based written communication
Provide the student with access to a word prediction program such as
Co:Writer (Don Johnston) to assist the student in producing computerbased written communication
Provide the student with teacher and peer assistance with unfamiliar
vocabulary
Provide the student with access to a standard word processing
application with a spell check and grammar check
Developed by the Georgia Project for Assistive Technology. Permission to copy is granted for non-commercial purposes if this
credit is retained. For additional information about this document, contact khartsel@doe.k12.ga.us .
13
Traumatic Brain Injury
•
Visual Impairments-Blind
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
Use accommodations, modifications, and assistive technology solutions
recommended for students in disability areas that are relevant to the
student’s area of difficulty
Provide bold key caps or labels for computer keys to enhance visual
access (LS&S)
Provide keys with tactile locator dots
Provide an enlarged keyboard such as IntelliKeys (IntelliTools) to
provide large sized letters on the keys
Provide for an alternative keyboard or input device such as the Braille
n’ Speak (Blazie Engineering) for Braille users
Provide speech feedback software such as Write OutLoud (Don
Johnston) for beginning writers to provide auditory feedback of keys
activated
Provide for a text reading application such as JAWS (Henter Joyce) to
read text displayed on the computer monitor
Provide for a text enlargement application such as ZoomText (Ai
Squared) to enlarge text displayed on the computer monitor
Provide for a printer that will print in scalable fonts or a Braille
embosser to print information in large print or Braille as appropriate
Developed by the Georgia Project for Assistive Technology. Permission to copy is granted for non-commercial purposes if this
credit is retained. For additional information about this document, contact khartsel@doe.k12.ga.us .
14
Completing Illustrations, Drawings, Diagrams, and Graphs
Typical Classroom Tasks:
Record information on a chart
Record information on a graph
Create-draw illustrations to supplement writing
Create diagrams to illustrate information
Types of StudentsBy Disability Area
Accommodations, Modifications, and Assistive Technology
Solutions
Autism
•
Deaf-Hard of Hearing
•
•
Emotional-Behavioral Disorders
Mild Intellectual Disabilities
•
•
•
•
•
Moderate Intellectual Disabilities
•
•
•
•
•
•
Other Health Impairments
Orthopedic Impairments
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
Severe-Profound Intellectual
Disabilities
•
•
•
•
•
Use accommodations, modifications, and assistive technology solutions
recommended for students in disability areas that are relevant to the
student’s area of difficulty
Provide manual sign language or oral interpreter to provide directions
to the student
Provide manual sign language or oral interpreter
communicate/translate student questions and comments to the teacher
Provide positive verbal praise for on-task behaviors and attention
Re-direct inappropriate behaviors
Provide peer and-or adult assistance as needed
Allow the student to work cooperatively with another student to
complete the task
Provide the student with picture symbols or photographs to use as a
guide for illustrating concepts
Provide the student with a sample graph
Provide peer and-or adult assistance as needed
Allow the student to work cooperatively with another student to
complete the task
Provide the student with picture symbols or photographs to use as a
guide for illustrating concepts
Provide the student with a sample or model graph to copy
Provide the student with pre-made copies of the Venn diagram to put
together with pictures and photographs as an alternative to printed
words
Provide alternative learning activities as appropriate
Use accommodations, modifications, and assistive technology solutions
recommended for students in disability areas that are relevant to the
student’s area of difficulty
Provide peer and-or teacher assistance as needed
Allow the student to work cooperatively with another student to
complete the task
Provide the student with optimal seating system to enhance comfort
and participation
Provide the student with alternative drawing utensils such as enlarged
markers, grips, hand splints
Provide the student with pre-made parts of the diagram or graph and
have them paste them on a sheet of paper
Use computer-based graphing and drawing applications for students
who are unable to use standard drawing utensils
Provide alternative activities as appropriate
Provide peer and-or teacher assistance as needed
Allow the student to work cooperatively with another student to
complete the task
Provide the student with pre-made parts of the diagram or graph and
have them paste them on a sheet of paper
Provide alternative learning activities as appropriate
Developed by the Georgia Project for Assistive Technology. Permission to copy is granted for non-commercial purposes if this
credit is retained. For additional information about this document, contact khartsel@doe.k12.ga.us .
15
Significant Developmental Delays
•
Specific Learning Disabilities
•
•
•
•
Speech-Language Impairments
Traumatic Brain Injury
Visual Impairments-Blind
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
Use accommodations, modifications, and assistive technology solutions
recommended for students in disability areas that are relevant to the
student’s area of difficulty
Provide peer and-or teacher assistance as needed
Allow the student to work cooperatively with another student to
complete the task
Provide the student with pre-made parts of the diagram or graph and
have them paste them on a sheet of paper
Use computer-based graphing and drawing applications for students
who are unable to use standard drawing utensils
Provide peer and-or adult assistance as needed
Provide verbal directions as needed
Use accommodations, modifications, and assistive technology solutions
recommended for students in disability areas that are relevant to the
student’s area of difficulty
Provide peer and-or teacher assistance as needed
Allow the student to work cooperatively with another student to
complete the task
Provide the student with pre-made parts of the diagram or graph and
have them paste them on a sheet of paper
Enlarge the graphs, drawings, worksheets, as needed to enhance
visual access
Provide tactile graphics as needed
o Use craft (puff) paint to outline graphics
o Use a tactile graphics enhance to produce tactile graphics
Provide Braille materials as appropriate
Use computer-based graphing and drawing applications with text
enlargement or screen reading applications for students as appropriate
Developed by the Georgia Project for Assistive Technology. Permission to copy is granted for non-commercial purposes if this
credit is retained. For additional information about this document, contact khartsel@doe.k12.ga.us .
16
Completing Writing Assignments (Worksheets, Tests, Writing Samples) Using Handwriting
Typical Classroom Tasks:
Complete printed worksheets by writing single
word, phrases, sentences, and-or paragraphs
Write sentences and paragraphs on a story board
Mark appropriate indicator on worksheet
Edit writing to identify and correct errors
Records notes from brainstorming, discussion, and
lecture
Write a letter or postcard
Types of StudentsBy Disability Area
Accommodations, Modifications, and Assistive Technology
Solutions
Autism
•
Deaf-Hard of Hearing
•
•
•
Emotional-Behavioral Disorders
•
Mild Intellectual Disabilities
•
•
•
•
•
•
Moderate Intellectual Disabilities
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
Other Health Impairments
•
Use accommodations, modifications, and assistive technology solutions
recommended for students in disability areas that are relevant to the
student’s area of difficulty
Provide instructions for completing writing assignments in an
accessible format (manual sign language, oral interpreter, etc.)
Provide student with picture symbols to supplement written words
(Boardmaker, Writing with Symbols)
Allow the student to use a computer with appropriate software and
hardware to produce written communication (See section on computer
generated written communication)
Provide positive verbal reinforcement for on-task behavior, attention,
and participation
Re-direct inappropriate behaviors
Provide the student with picture symbols to supplement written words
(Boardmaker, Writing with Symbols)
Provide the student with a written model to copy from
Allow the student to dictate his-her responses to a peer or teacher
Allow the student to record information on an audio-tape as an
alternative to writing
Allow the student to use a computer with appropriate software and
hardware to produce written communication (See section on computer
generated written communication)
Provide student with picture symbols from software applications such
as Boardmaker and Writing with Symbols (Mayer Johnson) to
supplement written words
Provide the student with a written model to copy from
Allow the student to dictate his-her responses to a peer or teacher
Allow the student to record information on an audio-tape as an
alternative to handwriting
Allow the student to use stamps, stickers, and picture symbols as
answers on worksheets
Allow the student to use a computer with appropriate software and
hardware to produce written communication (See section on computer
generated written communication)
Provide an alternative learning activity to address individual goals and
objectives
Use accommodations, modifications, and assistive technology solutions
recommended for students in disability areas that are relevant to the
student’s area of difficulty
Developed by the Georgia Project for Assistive Technology. Permission to copy is granted for non-commercial purposes if this
credit is retained. For additional information about this document, contact khartsel@doe.k12.ga.us .
17
Orthopedic Impairments
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
Severe-Profound Intellectual
Disabilities
•
•
•
•
Significant Developmental Delays
•
Specific Learning Disabilities
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
Provide the student with additional time to complete writing tasks
Decrease the length of the assignment (ex: have the student write
down key words instead of complete sentences)
Reduce the number of responses that the student is required to make
(ex: have the student do every other question instead of all of the
questions)
Alter the format of the required response (ex: multiple choice or fill-inthe-blank) as an alternative to longer responses
Provide the student with an adaptive writing utensil (pencil grip,
adapted pencil, large sized pencil)
Provide the student with an adapted stamp for marking answers on a
worksheet
Provide the student with a name stamp for recording his-her name on
papers
Provide the student with adapted paper (bold line, large spaces, graph
paper) for recording written responses
Enlarge worksheets and storyboards to provide the student with an
enlarged space for recording responses
Provide the student with a paper stabilizer (clip board) to stabilize paper
Allow the student to dictate his-her responses to a peer as an
alternative to handwriting
Allow the student to record his responses on an audio-tape as an
alternative to handwriting
Provide the student with a copy of a peer’s notes to support note-taking
Allow the student to type out responses on a portable word processor
such as the AlphaSmart (AlphaSmart) as an alternative to handwriting
Allow the student to use a computer with appropriate software and
hardware to produce written communication (See section on computer
generated written communication)
Provide the student with a stamp for recording his-her name on papers
Provide the student with an adapted stamp for marking answers on a
worksheet
Provide picture symbols Boardmaker or Writing with Symbols (Mayer
Johnson) to supplement printed words
Provide an alternative learning activity to address individual goals and
objectives
Use accommodations, modifications, and assistive technology solutions
recommended for students in disability areas that are relevant to the
student’s area of difficulty
Provide the student with adapted paper (bold line, large spaces, and
graph paper) to record responses
Allow the student to dictate to a peer or teacher
Allow the student to record responses on an audio-tape as an
alternative to handwriting
Provide a peer note taker to provide access to class notes
Allow the student to use an outlining –webbing strategy to assist the
student in organizing thoughts during the pre-writing process
Provide the student with a hand-held spell checker or dictionary
(Franklin Educational Systems) to assist in editing written
communication
Provide the student with a hand held dictionary or spell checker with
speech feedback (Franklin Educational Systems) to assist in editing
written communication
Allow a peer to assist the student in editing his-her handwritten
communication
Allow the student to use a portable word processor such as the
AlphaSmart (AlphaSmart) as an alternative to handwriting
Allow the student to use a computer with appropriate software and
hardware to produce written communication (See section on computer
generated written communication)
Developed by the Georgia Project for Assistive Technology. Permission to copy is granted for non-commercial purposes if this
credit is retained. For additional information about this document, contact khartsel@doe.k12.ga.us .
18
Speech-Language Impairments
•
•
•
•
•
Traumatic Brain Injury
•
Visual Impairments-Blind
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
Assist the student with unfamiliar vocabulary
Pre-teach content specific vocabulary as appropriate
Allow the student to use an outlining –webbing strategy to assist the
student in organizing thoughts during the pre-writing process
Provide a hand-held spell checker or dictionary with or without speech
feedback (Franklin Educational Systems) to assist in editing
handwritten communication
Allow the student to use a computer with appropriate software and
hardware to produce written communication (See section on computer
generated written communication)
Use accommodations, modifications, and assistive technology solutions
recommended for students in disability areas that are relevant to the
student’s area of difficulty
Provide the student with an adapted writing utensil such as a bold line
marker or a Slate and Stylus which is used for producing Braille
(American Printing House for the Blind)
Provide the student with adapted paper such as bold line or green line
for recording written responses
Provide the student with enlarged worksheets and tests for recording
written responses
Allow the student to dictate to a peer or teacher
Allow the student to record responses on an audio-tape as an
alternative to handwriting
Provide a peer note taker to provide access to class notes
Provide class notes in an alternative format such as large print or
Braille
Provide the student with a portable note-taking device such as a Type
and Speak or Braille n’ Speak (Blazie Engineering) as an alternative to
handwriting
Allow the student to use a computer with appropriate software and
hardware to produce written communication (See section on computer
generated written communication)
Developed by the Georgia Project for Assistive Technology. Permission to copy is granted for non-commercial purposes if this
credit is retained. For additional information about this document, contact khartsel@doe.k12.ga.us .
19
Listening To-Books or Reference Materials Read Aloud by Teacher or Peer
To Obtain Information About an Instructional Topic
Typical Classroom Tasks:
Listen to books and instructional materials read
aloud by teacher or peer
Listen to reference materials read aloud by
teacher or peer
Gather facts from information read aloud
Types of StudentsBy Disability Area
Accommodations, Modifications, and Assistive Technology
Solutions
Autism
•
Deaf-Hard of Hearing
•
•
•
•
•
Emotional-Behavioral Disorders
•
•
Other Health Impairments
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
Orthopedic Impairments
•
Severe-Profound Intellectual
Disabilities
•
•
•
•
•
Mild Intellectual Disabilities
Moderate Intellectual Disabilities
Significant Developmental Delays
Specific Learning Disabilities
Speech-Language Impairments
Traumatic Brain Injury
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
Use accommodations, modifications, and assistive technology solutions
recommended for students in disability areas that are relevant to the
student’s area of difficulty
Pre-teach relevant vocabulary to enhance comprehension
Provide preferential seating to enhance access to auditory information
Use picture symbols to enhance comprehension
Encourage student to use personal hearing aids, if appropriate
Provide assistive listening device (classroom or personal) following
recommendation of audiologist
Provide manual sign language or oral interpreter
Provide preferential seating to enhance optimal attention and decrease
distraction
Provide positive verbal reinforcement for on-task behavior
Pre-teach relevant vocabulary
Use picture symbols to enhance comprehension
Provide opportunity for student listen to book being read again
Pre-teach relevant vocabulary to enhance comprehension
Provide preferential seating to enhance attention and comprehension
Use picture symbols to enhance comprehension
Provide opportunities for student to listen to the book being read again
Use accommodations, modifications, and assistive technology solutions
recommended for students in disability areas that are relevant to the
student’s area of difficulty
Provide appropriate seating and positioning equipment to ensure a
stable and comfortable seating system
Pre-teach relevant vocabulary to enhance comprehension
Provide preferential seating to enhance attention and comprehension
Use picture symbols to enhance comprehension
Provide alternative learning activities as appropriate
Use accommodations, modifications, and assistive technology solutions
recommended for students in disability areas that are relevant to the
student’s area of difficulty
Pre-teach relevant vocabulary to enhance comprehension
Provide optimal seating to enhance access and comprehension
Use picture symbols to enhance comprehension
Provide opportunities for student to listen to book being read again
Pre-teach relevant vocabulary to enhance comprehension
Provide preferential seating to enhance attention and comprehension
Use picture symbols to enhance comprehension
Use accommodations, modifications, and assistive technology solutions
recommended for students in disability areas that are relevant to the
student’s area of difficulty
Developed by the Georgia Project for Assistive Technology. Permission to copy is granted for non-commercial purposes if this
credit is retained. For additional information about this document, contact khartsel@doe.k12.ga.us .
20
Visual Impairments-Blind
•
•
•
•
Provide optimal viewing to enhance visual access
Adjust lighting in classroom to reduce glare and enhance visual access
Provide enlarged monitor for viewing videotape
Describe video contents of video prior to and/or after videotape viewing
Developed by the Georgia Project for Assistive Technology. Permission to copy is granted for non-commercial purposes if this
credit is retained. For additional information about this document, contact khartsel@doe.k12.ga.us .
21
Listening To-Viewing a Video or Whole Group Presentation of a Software Application
To Obtain Information About an Instructional Topic
Typical Classroom Tasks:
Listen to-view video to obtain facts about an
instructional topic
Listen to-view whole group software presentation
to obtain facts about an instructional topic
Listen to class discussion to gather facts about an
instructional topic
Types of StudentsBy Disability Area
Accommodations, Modifications, and Assistive Technology
Solutions
Autism
•
Deaf-Hard of Hearing
•
•
•
•
•
Emotional-Behavioral Disorders
•
•
•
•
Other Health Impairments
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
Orthopedic Impairments
•
Severe-Profound Intellectual
Disabilities
•
•
•
•
•
Mild Intellectual Disabilities
Moderate Intellectual Disabilities
Significant Developmental Delays
Specific Learning Disabilities
Speech-Language Impairments
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
Use accommodations, modifications, and assistive technology solutions
recommended for students in disability areas that are relevant to the
student’s area of difficulty
Pre-teach relevant vocabulary to enhance comprehension
Provide preferential seating to enhance access to auditory information
Use picture symbols to enhance comprehension
Encourage student to use personal hearing aids, if appropriate
Provide assistive listening device (classroom or personal) following
recommendation of audiologist
Provide manual sign language or oral interpreter
Provide for closed captioning of videotape if available
Provide opportunity for student to view videotape additional times
Provide preferential seating to enhance optimal attention and decrease
distraction
Provide positive verbal reinforcement for on-task behavior
Pre-teach relevant vocabulary
Use picture symbols to enhance comprehension
Provide opportunity for student to view videotape additional times
Pre-teach relevant vocabulary to enhance comprehension
Provide preferential seating to enhance attention and comprehension
Use picture symbols to enhance comprehension
Provide opportunities for student to view videotape additional times
Use accommodations, modifications, and assistive technology solutions
recommended for students in disability areas that are relevant to the
student’s area of difficulty
Provide appropriate seating and positioning equipment to ensure a
stable and comfortable seating system
Pre-teach relevant vocabulary to enhance comprehension
Provide preferential seating to enhance attention and comprehension
Use picture symbols to enhance comprehension
Provide opportunities for student to view videotape additional times
Use accommodations, modifications, and assistive technology solutions
recommended for students in disability areas that are relevant to the
student’s area of difficulty
Pre-teach relevant vocabulary to enhance comprehension
Provide optimal seating to enhance access and comprehension
Use picture symbols to enhance comprehension
Provide opportunities for student to view videotape additional times
Pre-teach relevant vocabulary to enhance comprehension
Provide preferential seating to enhance attention and comprehension
Use picture symbols to enhance comprehension
Provide opportunities for student to view videotape additional times
Developed by the Georgia Project for Assistive Technology. Permission to copy is granted for non-commercial purposes if this
credit is retained. For additional information about this document, contact khartsel@doe.k12.ga.us .
22
Traumatic Brain Injury
•
Visual Impairments-Blind
•
•
•
•
Use accommodations, modifications, and assistive technology solutions
recommended for students in disability areas that are relevant to the
student’s area of difficulty
Provide optimal viewing to enhance visual access
Adjust lighting in classroom to reduce glare and enhance visual access
Provide enlarged monitor for viewing videotape
Describe video contents of video prior to and/or after videotape viewing
Developed by the Georgia Project for Assistive Technology. Permission to copy is granted for non-commercial purposes if this
credit is retained. For additional information about this document, contact khartsel@doe.k12.ga.us .
23
Reading Instructional Materials such as Textbooks, Reference Books,
and Other Instructional Materials
Typical Classroom Tasks:
Read instructional and reference books related to
instructional topic
Read student’s work samples to assist in editing
written communication
Read worksheets
Read related resource materials
Read text displayed on wall charts
Read text displayed on the board or on an
overhead
Types of StudentsBy Disability Area
Accommodations, Modifications, and Assistive Technology
Solutions
Autism
•
Deaf-Hard of Hearing
•
•
•
•
Emotional-Behavioral Disorders
Mild Intellectual Disabilities
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
Use accommodations, modifications, and assistive technology solutions
recommended for students in disability areas that are relevant to the
student’s area of difficulty
Provide peer and-or teacher assistance in identifying unfamiliar words
Provide picture symbols such as Boardmaker, Writing with Symbols
(Mayer Johnson) and HyperSign to supplement printed text
Provide a manual sign language interpreter to read-sign text to the
student as appropriate
Provide a computer-based manual sign language dictionary for the
student to look up unfamiliar words
Provide preferential seating to encourage attention
Use positive verbal praise to reinforce attention and participation
Re-direct inappropriate behaviors
Provide peer or adult assistance for unknown words
Provide peer or adult to read materials to the student
Provide the student with additional time to read the materials
Decrease the length of the reading assignment
Reduce the complexity of the text
Pre-teach new vocabulary and concepts
High-light key points and concepts
Provide the student with an adapted tape recorder-player (American
Printing House for the Blind) and a recorded version of the book for
auditory reading to supplement the printed text
Provide the student with a hand-held talking dictionary or spell checker
for identification of unfamiliar words
Provide the student with a portable reading aid such as a Quick Pen ()
for identification of unfamiliar words
Provide the student with an electronic version of the book for use with a
computer-based reading solution
o Use an electronic scanner to create an electronic version of
the text
o Import the text file into a talking word processing program
such as Write OutLoud (Don Johnston) or IntelliTalk 2
(IntelliTools) and have the computer read the text aloud to the
student with or without visual highlighting
o Import the text file into an advanced reading aid such as
Kurzweil 3000 (L&H) and have the computer read the text
aloud to the student with or without visual highlighting
Provide picture symbols such as Boardmaker and Writing with Symbols
(Mayer Johnson) to supplement printed words
Developed by the Georgia Project for Assistive Technology. Permission to copy is granted for non-commercial purposes if this
credit is retained. For additional information about this document, contact khartsel@doe.k12.ga.us .
24
Moderate Intellectual Disabilities
•
•
•
•
•
Other Health Impairments
Orthopedic Impairments
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
Severe-Profound Intellectual
Disabilities
Significant Developmental Delays
Specific Learning Disabilities
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
Provide peer or adult assistance for unknown words
Provide a peer or adult to read the materials to the student
Reduce the complexity of the text
Provide the student with a hand-held talking dictionary or spell checker
for identification of unfamiliar words
Provide the student with an adapted tape recorder-player (American
Printing House for the Blind) and a recorded version of the book for
auditory reading to supplement the printed text
Provide alternative learning activities as appropriate
Use accommodations, modifications, and assistive technology solutions
recommended for students in disability areas that are relevant to the
student’s area of difficulty
Enlarge print to accommodate visual perceptual difficulties
Highlight key points and concepts
Provide the student with a ruler or reading window to assist in visually
tracking and scanning text displayed on the page
Provide the student with a book holder to stabilize the book for access
Provide the student with an adapted tape recorder-player (American
Printing House for the Blind) and a recorded version of the book for
auditory reading to supplement the printed text
Provide the student with an electronic version of the book for use with a
computer-based reading solution
o Use an electronic scanner to create an electronic version of
the text
o Access electronic text versions of books from Internet sites
that provide electronic text files
o Import the text file into a talking word processing program
such as Write OutLoud (Don Johnston) or IntelliTalk 2
(IntelliTools) and have the computer read the text aloud to the
student with or without visual highlighting
o Import the text file into an advanced reading aid such as
Kurzweil 3000 (L&H) and have the computer read the text
aloud to the student with or without visual highlighting
Provide the students with picture symbols such as Boardmaker and
Writing with Symbols (Mayer Johnson) to supplement the printed text
Reduce the complexity of the reading materials
Provide an audio-taped version of the reading materials
Provide alternative learning activities
Use accommodations, modifications, and assistive technology solutions
recommended for students in disability areas that are relevant to the
student’s area of difficulty
Provide peer or adult assistance for unknown words
Provide peer or adult to read materials to the student
Provide the student with additional time to read the materials
Decrease the length of the reading assignment
Reduce the complexity of the text
Pre-teach new vocabulary and concepts
High-light key points and concepts
Provide the student with an adapted tape recorder-player (American
Printing House for the Blind) and a recorded version of the book for
auditory reading to supplement the printed text
Provide the student with a hand-held talking dictionary or spell checker
for identification of unfamiliar words
Provide the student with a portable reading aid such as a Quick Pen ()
for identification of unfamiliar words
Provide the student with an electronic version of the book for use with a
computer-based reading solution
o Use an electronic scanner to create an electronic version of
the text
o Import the text file into a talking word processing program
Developed by the Georgia Project for Assistive Technology. Permission to copy is granted for non-commercial purposes if this
credit is retained. For additional information about this document, contact khartsel@doe.k12.ga.us .
25
•
Speech-Language Impairments
•
•
•
•
Traumatic Brain Injury
•
Visual Impairments-Blind
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
such as Write OutLoud (Don Johnston) or IntelliTalk 2
(IntelliTools) and have the computer read the text aloud to the
student with or without visual highlighting
o Import the text file into an advanced reading aid such as
Kurzweil 3000 (L&H) and have the computer read the text
aloud to the student with or without visual highlighting
Provide picture symbols such as Boardmaker and Writing with Symbols
(Mayer Johnson) to supplement printed words
Pre-teach the vocabulary and new concepts to the student
Provide peer or adult assistance for unfamiliar words
Provide a hand-held talking dictionary or spell checker to assist in
identifying unfamiliar words
Have the student verbally summarize what he or she has read to
support comprehension
Use accommodations, modifications, and assistive technology solutions
recommended for students in disability areas that are relevant to the
student’s area of difficulty
Enlarge text to optimize visual access
Alter the color of the paper to minimize glare and enhance visual
access
Use highlighting to mark key points
Provide a peer or teacher to read the text to the student
Provide the student with an adapted tape recorder-player (American
Printing House for the Blind) and a recorded version of the book for
auditory reading to supplement the printed text
Provide the student with large print textbooks as an alternative to
standard print textbooks
Provide the student with access to a closed circuit television system for
enlargement of print materials
Provide the student with a Braille version of the print materials for
Braille readers
Provide the student with an electronic version of the book for use with a
computer-based reading solution
o Use an electronic scanner to create an electronic version of
the text
o For beginning readers, import the text file into a talking word
processing program such as Write OutLoud (Don Johnston) or
IntelliTalk 2 (IntelliTools) and have the computer read the text
aloud to the student with or without visual highlighting
o Import the text file into an advanced reading aid such as
Kurzweil 100 (L&H) and have the computer read the text aloud
to the student
o Use an advanced reading aid such as Kurzweil 1000 to
translate the text into electronic text for production
(embossing) of Braille copies
Developed by the Georgia Project for Assistive Technology. Permission to copy is granted for non-commercial purposes if this
credit is retained. For additional information about this document, contact khartsel@doe.k12.ga.us .
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