Testing the Physical Layer for EtherNet/IP

Testing the Physical Layer for EtherNet/IP
NI03
Testing the Physical Layer
for EtherNet/IP
Common Network
Infrastructure Assets
Enterprise IT Network
Engineers
Distributed and handheld
LAN and WAN test and
analysis solutions
Datacom Installers
Control & Automation
Engineers
Copper and fiber cable
certification and
troubleshooting
Communication networks
testing
Networks solutions from
deployment,
to troubleshooting,
testing, verification
2
Will Your Network Perform?
The Physical Layer is much more than cable .. 3 keys to
succeed
• Vision: Clear understanding of importance of physical
infrastructure
• Strategy: Understand best practices and pitfalls to avoid
• Execution: Implement and certify robust solutions for each
level of the architecture
Vision
Strategy
Execution
3
Real World Example
4
Real World Example
5
Real World Example
6
What is important?
Troubleshoot copper,
fiber and wireless LANs
• Verify the quality of new and
migratory copper and fiber links
• Provide advanced diagnostics to
pinpoint faults of network failure
• Detect and solve security,
coverage, and interference
problems on WiFi
Solve a wide range of physical and network layer problems fast

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Guarantee network performance in new and existing networks
Measure end-to-end industrial Ethernet performance
Monitor plant-wide/site-wide network performance
Provide 100% capture with instant identification of server vs. network problems
Proper cabling + error free network communications = Healthy Network
7
Installation Challenges

The cabling plant is the foundation of the network
 Cat 5e/6 UTP for horizontal applications
 Optical fiber for vertical and backbone applications


A damaged cable, jack or patch cable can cause network
outages and prevent network access
Poorly organized cabling can slow troubleshooting efforts
8
Cabling Infrastructure Tools
Copper Certification Testing & Troubleshooting
Used by cabling contractors and installers
 Certify each copper link at installation
 Quickly test to performance standards and document work
 Qualify cabling performance & easily locate faults, opens & mis-wires
Fiber Certification Testing & Troubleshooting
Used by fiber installers and network technicians
 Certify each fiber link at installation and during unified migrations
 Quickly test to basic/extended performance standards
 Verify the quality of new fiber links with graphical traces
 Troubleshoot quickly to distance to failures and reflectance, such as breaks & faults
Network Installation Tools
Used by cabling installers and technicians
 Installation tools to cut, strip and terminate copper connections.
 Ergonomic and rugged for long life
9
Test Configurations
• Perform channel testing with user cords connected
– Performance specified for an application; transmission
medium between transmitter and receiver
– Channel performance for installed cabling
– Maintenance testing of “end-to-end” cabling of an active
network
• Perform permanent link testing of “installed cabling”
– Specify Permanent Link performance for installed cabling
– Installation certification and Warranty service
• Perform patch cord Testing
– The test limits are significantly more stricter for patch cord
testing than channel testing.
• For ring and linear topology today use channel testing
Compliant Permanent Link + Compliant Patch Cords =
Compliant Channel
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Verification
A verification tester performs
a simple Wire Map test
checking for continuity and
length.
The MicroScanner 2 will give
the distance to an open or
short.
Links looks good……….
11
Qualification
A qualification tester will apply
frequency signals and test
against the standards for:
 10BASE-T
 100BASE-TX
 1000BASE-T
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Qualification
A qualification tester will apply
frequency signals and test
against the standards for:
 10BASE-T
 100BASE-TX
 1000BASE-T
Let’s dig in and see where the
failure is…….
13
Qualification
With Signal Performance
highlighted, we’ll press
the ENTER key…….
14
Qualification
Looks like we need to
check at approx 16 ft
15
Copper Cable Certification
Channel
Permanent Link
Copper Cable Certification
Copper Cable Certification
18
Anticipating tomorrow’s requirements
Shield integrity
TCL, TCTL, ELTCTL, CDNEXT,
CMRL balance measurements:
• Shield continuity historically is a DC
measurement.
• Specified in ANSI/TIA-568-C.2 & TSBs.
• The DSX-5000 reports distance to shield integrity • Specified in ISO/IEC 11801:2010
issues using a patented AC measurement
• Important for successful
technique.
10GBASE-T.
• Addresses the issue that
grounded racks in a data center
will show the shield connected,
even when it isn’t.
Resistance Unbalance:
• Specified in IEEE 802.3af and IEEE
802.3at.
• Specified in ANSI/TIA-568-C.2.
• Specified in ISO/IEC 11801:2010.
• Important for successful
PoE operation.
Simply passing Category 5E, 6 or 6A does not insure 10GBASE-T
or PoE support!
Shield Test passed but EMI on the
cable?
Shield integrity
 Shield continuity historically is a DC
measurement.
 Properly grounded racks “trick” the
tester into reporting good shield
continuity (even the DTX-1800).
 The DSX-5000 reports distance to
shield integrity issues using a
patented AC measurement
technique.
20
Link Passes certification but POE
is broken?
New Measurement: Resistance
Unbalance
• Specified in IEEE 802.3af and
IEEE 802.3at.
• Specified in ANSI/TIA-568-C.2.
• Specified in ISO/IEC
11801:2010.
• Important for successful PoE
operation.
- Security Cameras
- Wireless access points
- VoIP phones
21
Balance (TCL and TCTL)
•
•
Balance is critical for successful
transmission
Impedance of pairs relative to a
common ground
•
Defined in ANSI/TIA-568-C.2
– Channel limits only for TCL and
ELTCTL
– Not a requirement in ANSI/TIA-1152
field testing
•
Defined in ISO/IEC 11801:2010
– Channel limits only for TCL and
ELTCTL
– Not a requirement in IEC 61935-1
Ed.4 (draft) field testing
•
Industrial Ethernet group very
interested
© 2014 Fluke Corporation.
All rights reserved.
High TCL and ELTCTL values
correspond to better noise immunity and
lower emissions
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New Tester VERSIV DSX-5000
 Replaces the DTX-1800
 Faster test time (2X
DTX for cat 6A)
 New “laboratory”
Measurements
23
Fiber Testing
24
Cabling Infrastructure Tools
Copper Certification Testing & Troubleshooting
Used by cabling contractors and installers
 Certify each copper link at installation
 Quickly test to performance standards and document work
 Qualify cabling performance & easily locate faults, opens & mis-wires
Fiber Certification Testing & Troubleshooting
Used by fiber installers and network technicians
 Certify each fiber link at installation and during unified migrations
 Quickly test to basic/extended performance standards
 Verify the quality of new fiber links with graphical traces
 Troubleshoot quickly to distance to failures and reflectance, such as breaks & faults
Network Installation Tools
Used by cabling installers and technicians
 Installation tools to cut, strip and terminate copper connections.
 Ergonomic and rugged for long life
25
Factors Affecting Optical Fiber
Performance
• Signal strength (measurement of link loss)
– The signal must have a minimum strength to be
detected and decoded by receiver
– For optical signaling, the receiver must be able to
distinguish a “lights on” from a “light off” symbol
– “Applications” specify Channel Loss
• Disturbances to signal transmission
– Signal dispersion
• Dispersion characteristics determine the distance over
which a specific data rate can be supported
• Major cause of Inter Symbol Interference (ISI)
– Reflections (Return Loss)
• Reflections contribute to ISI
26
Sources of Signal Loss
• Intrinsic loss of the fiber optic cable
– Defined by physics and manufacturing process
• Raleigh Scattering
• Water Peak Absorption (except for zero water peak fiber)
– Increases with distance (length of link)
– Affected by bends
• Connections
– Mechanical:
• Core alignment, dirt on end face, reflections due to air gap
– Fusion splices: core alignment
– Numerical Aperture Mismatch in Multimode Fibers
Problem #1: Dirt on end-face of fiber
27
#1 Problem: Dirt(!)
• Contaminated connector end-faces: Leading
cause of fiber link failures
• Particles of dust and debris trapped between
fiber end-faces cause signal loss, back
reflection, and damaged equipment
28
Losses From Dirty Connections
Good Connector
Fingerprint
on Connector
Dirty Connector
Real images as captured from the Fluke FT-300 Fiber Inspector™
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FI-7000 FiberInspector Pro
•
2-second automated PASS/FAIL
certification of fiber end-faces
•
Graphical indication of problem areas
due to contamination, pits, chips, and
scratches
•
Certify to industry standards
– IEC 61300-3-35
•
Eliminate human subjectivity from
end-face measurements
•
Save end-face views during
certification process
How Automated Analysis Works
Fiberoptic cleaning kits
32
Smart Testing & Troubleshooting
• Eliminate common problems with good
practices during installation and
maintenance
– Verify continuity, polarity, adequate end-face
condition with basic tools to ensure best termination
and installation practices
• Perform complete cable certification per TIA
568C
– Basic certification (Tier 1): Length/Loss
– Extended certification (Tier 2): OTDR trace analysis
33
Two-Tier Testing
• Tier 1: OLTS (Optical Loss Test Set)



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Conforms to TIA-526-14A and TIA-526-7
Most closely simulates system
Measures the total loss of a fiber channel
Verify polarity using OLTS or VFL
 Tier 2: OTDR Trace
 Can show segment lengths, connector locations & losses, and losses
not at a connector
 Provides evidence that cable is installed without degrading events
(e.g., bends, connection, splice)
 Can do single-ended testing
34
Multimode Performance at 850 nm
Fiber Type
Core size
(μm)
Bandwidth 1000BASE-SX
MHz•Km
10GBASE-SR
40GBASE-SR4
100GBASE-SR10
Length
(m)
Loss
(dB)
Length
(m)
Loss
(dB)
Length
(m)
Loss
(dB)
OM1
62.5
200
275
2.3
33
2.4
-
-
OM2
50
500
550
3.6
82
2.3
-
-
OM3
50
2000
1000
3.6
300
2.6
100
1.9
OM4
50
4700
1040
3.6
550
2.6
150
1.5
Note: 40GBASE-SR4 and 100GBASE-SR10 require parallel
optical channels
Fiber Loss Measurement – Principle
Difference in two power measurements
1. Reference
level: light energy arriving at detector
Test Reference Cord
Detector
Source
-20 dBm
2. Loss measurement: light energy arriving at
Fiber Optic
detector
Link-under-test
Source
Test Reference
Cord
Adapter
Additional Test
Reference Cord
Detector
Adapter
-24.2 dBm
3. Loss: difference between the two measurements
Loss = 4.2 dB
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Loss Testing with VERSIV
CertiFiber Pro
No More Mistakes with the
Reference Wizard
• Shows you how to set a fiber
reference.
• Verifies the test reference
cords.
• Saves the test reference
cords verification.
• Critical for confirming the
accuracy of loss measurements
OTDR Analysis with VERSIV
OptiFiber Pro
Reflection
Backscatter
38
OTDR Analysis Reflective Event
Connector
39
OTDR Analysis Loss Event
Non-reflective event
Splice or severe bend
40
OptiFiber Pro OTDR Event Map
Easy to understand map of the
physical infrastructure
Icons represent events.
Passing reflective event
Failing reflective event
Hidden reflective event
Passing loss event
Failing loss event
Hidden event’s loss is added
to previous event’s loss
Network Troubleshooting
 Switch Issues


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
Port Problems
Authentication
Cable Faults
VLAN Validation
 Device Issues

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DHCP Problems
Availability
Cable Faults
Multicast Traffic
Device Discovery
Upstream Fault
43
Real World Example
ACME CL1
VIP=192.168.15.147
SQL=192.168.15.148
192.168.15.139
192.168.15.140
ACME WEB-Portal
VIP=192.168.15.19
192.168.16.11
192.168.16.12
Windows Svcs
TCP 445
Web Portal NAT
192.168.16.71
TCP 443
IntAuth
Public Web
TCP 443
Web URL (Agg)
TCP 8080
Database
TCP 2255
192.168.16.0
/26
ACME DB-VIP Server aggregation
ACME CL2
VIP=192.168.15.149
SQL=192.168.15.150
192.168.15.142
192.168.15.143
Database
TCP 1876
Database
TCP 1732
192.168.15.128
/26
DC
192.168.3.51
LB .
Router
LB .
ACME APP3
172.27.15.90
LB .
LB .
ACME App
TCP 5000-5100
192.168.14.11
ACME WEB-VIP-ACE
192.168.14.192 192.168.15.0
/26
/26
192.168.15.11
192.168.15.12
192.168.15.13
192.168.15.14
192.168.15.15
192.168.15.16
192.168.15.17
192.168.15.18
ACME APP2
ACME App
Server aggregation
192.168.14.20
192.168.14.21
192.168.14.22
192.168.14.23
192.168.14.24
192.168.14.25
192.168.14.26
192.168.14.27
ACME WEB/Inside
Web Inside
Client Aggregation
Web Outside Server
Aggregation
ACME WEB/Outside
Windows Svcs
TCP 135
192.168.15.75
192.168.15.76
192.168.15.77
192.168.15.78
192.168.15.79
192.168.15.80
192.168.15.81
192.168.15.82
VIP = outside VLAN query
SQL = server to server query
Windows Svcs
TCP 135
ACME APP1
192.168.15.84
192.168.15.85
ACME App
TCP 5000-5100
ACME CL3
VIP=192.168.15.151
SQL=192.168.15.152
192.168.15.145
192.168.15.146
Mainframe
TCP 3040
192.168.160.102
Mainframe
TCP 1414, 1515, 1815
192.168.160.102
Windows Svcs
TCP 445
192.168.15.64
/26
ACME MainFrame
.192.16815.87
192.168.15.88
* local VLAN traffic
to APP servers
IBM Host
* GW connection to
IBM Host using
SCON
44
Authentication
TCP 88
The Network is Slow
Top hosts,
conversations,
protocols
Voice
Virus
Hacking
Multicast
DNS
Peer-to-peer
Worms
What’s really
happening on
my network?
45
Best Practices – Processes
Planning & Documenting
• Standards
• Documentation & baselines
• Have a documented plan - what, who, and how
Problem Prevention
• Prevent problems before they happen
• Do’s and Don’ts for end-users
• Testing and certification
Early Problem Detection
• Network monitoring
• Periodic audits (update baselines)
• Centralized help desk
Follow a troubleshooting methodology
46
Troubleshooting Methodology
Step 1 - Collect Information
Step 2 - Localize & Isolate the Problem
Step 3 - Correct the Problem
Step 4 - Verify Problem Resolution
Step 5 - Document What You Did
47
Network Solutions
Testing Considerations
Plant-wide/site-wide tools
(wired/wireless)
 Intuitive, integrated solutions for LANs
and WLANs
 Solve problems from application
performance to connectivity
Network monitoring
 Back-in-Time packet capture and
analysis
 Troubleshoot real-time
applications including voice/video
 Application Performance
Management
48
Installation Best Practices
Physical
Layer
49
Installation Best Practices
 Check for 802.3af PoE
 Check for duplex issues
due to auto-negotiation
configurations
Physical
Layer
Power &
Link
50
Installation Best Practices
 Some networks are
secured from
unauthorized access by
implementing MACbased security
 If applicable, verify network
access by spoofing a known
good MAC address
Physical
Layer
Power &
Link
Network
Access
51
Installation Best Practices
 Verify the availability of
key network services
 Services are listed for
each device
Physical
Layer
Power &
Link
Network
Access
Network
Services
52
Installation Best Practices
 Verify that devices are
correctly configured
 Addresses, switch
information, properties,
VLAN
 OneTouch AT’s
automated SNMP-based
discovery provides
vision into network and
device configurations
Physical
Layer
Power &
Link
Network
Access
Network
Services
Config
53
Installation Best Practices
 Monitor switch statistics
by slot and port
 Utilization, speed, errors,
trend interfaces for longterm view
Physical
Layer
Power &
Link
Network
Access
Network
Services
Config
Health
54
To Solve The Most Complex
Problems
 Capture Packets
 Single ended
 Inline with built in tap
 Copper or Fiber
 Aggregate, filter and slice
with 2G capture buffer
 Analyze on PC or OptiView with
ClearSight Analyzer Software
55
To Solve The Most Complex
Problems
Timing and errors are shown instantly
Typical Capture File
Wi-Fi Troubleshooting
 The 2.4GHz and 5GHz RF bands
represent the physical layer for
802.11 wireless LANs
 2.4GHz 802.11b/g/n
 5GHz 802.11a/n
 More than 802.11 devices occupy
these frequencies
Radar
Bluetooth
Other Wi-Fi Networks
 Bluetooth, analog video cameras,
cordless phones, microwave ovens,
motion sensors, florescent lights
 The RF environment for good Wi-Fi
performance
– Relatively free of interfering 802.11 and
non-802.11 devices
– Adequate signal strength over the target
coverage area
2.4/5 GHz
Cordless Phones
Microwave Ovens
58
Wi-Fi Troubleshooting
 802.11 Networks
 Verify SSID
 Verify AP’s
 Verify security, channel,
signal and noise
 Locate AP’s
 Connect to AP’s
59
Wi-Fi Troubleshooting


Wireless RF environment
is dynamic
Periodically perform a
site audit to confirm
coverage and health
60
Wi-Fi Troubleshooting



Wireless RF environment
is dynamic
Periodically perform a
site audit to confirm
coverage and health
RF interference degrades
wi-fi performance
 Use a spectrum
analyzer to do detect,
identify and locate
sources of non802.11 interference
61
Testing the Physical Layer for
EtherNet/IP
Vision
 Planning and installing physical
infrastructure based on standards, best
practices and reference architectures
will result in higher availability,
integrity and performance
 Need help? Leverage your partners:
 Rockwell Automation Network and
Security Services
 Panduit Certified Installers
 Fluke Networks’ training
Because Network
Infrastructure Matters!!
Strategy
Execution
62
Testing the Physical Layer for
EtherNet/IP
Vision
Strategy
Execution
 Planning and installing physical
infrastructure based on standards, best
practices and reference architectures
will result in higher availability,
integrity and performance
 Need help? Leverage your partners:
 Rockwell Automation Network and
Security Services
 Panduit Certified Installers
 Fluke Networks’ training
63
Additional Material
• Fluke Networks Websites
– www.flukenetworks.com
– www.flukenetworks.com\industrial
– www.flukenetworks.com\knowledgebase
64
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