Using SigLab for Production Line Audio Test

Using SigLab for Production Line Audio Test
APPLICATION NOTE
Using SigLab for Production Line Audio Test
SigLab is ideal for characterizing audio components. Both its input and output subsystems
have low noise, low distortion and low cross talk. SigLab's measurement performance exceeds
the testing requirements of most any consumer audio device. Its three internal DSP processors
and its SCSI interface insures maximum measurement throughput. This note covers the use of
SigLab in making several common audio measurements.
Overview
The following are three typical audio
measurements on a stereo amplifier that will
be discussed.
•
•
•
channel to channel cross talk
harmonic distortion
signal to noise ratio
Other measurements that can be made with
SigLab include intermodulation distortion;
gain and phase response; and step response.
Measurement Goals
The objective of any automated test is to
rapidly determine the quality of a particular
product or subassembly. Overtesting as well
as undertesting is undesirable. In most
cases, test speed is as important a factor as
any. The goals of the following test scenario
are:
•
•
•
•
simple test adapter (no switches/relays)
all testing completed in under 1 second
amenable to full automation
test quality exceeds amplifier
requirements
SigLab's output generators can generate a 20
volt peak-peak signal behind a 50 ohm
impedance. If high sensitivity phono inputs
are being tested, an attenuator should be
used. If a source impedance of greater than
50 ohms is desired, simply add the required
resistance in series with the signal
conductor from SigLab's output.
SigLab's input subsystem is capable of
handling 20 volt peak-peak signals.
Therefore, for power amplifiers, a load
resistor plus an attenuator is required to
bring the maximum signal level within
SigLab's input range. To obtain the best
measurement dynamic range, the attenuator
should bring the maximum expected level
down to 5 to 7 volts peak.
SigLab
OK
47
Model
20-22
Power
On
8
+20dB
470
47
Tape/CD Input
Right
8
+20dB
470
Load Attenuator Circuit (LAC)
Tape/CD Input
Left
Amp Under Test
Test Setup
Figure 1 - Amplifier Test Setup
Interfacing the Amplifier to SigLab
The testing of an amplifier requires careful
attention to the source and load signal levels
and impedance characteristics. In addition
the load impedance must be capable of
dissipating the power generated by the
amplifier.
The amplifier under test (enclosed by the
broken line) and SigLab are connected by
cables, a combination load and an attenuator
circuit, the LAC as shown in Figure 1. The
input to the amplifier is connected directly
to the SigLab output channels providing a
50 ohm source impedance with no
attenuation.
Application Note 8.1 Using SigLab for Production Line Audio Test
11/12/96SLAP8_1
1
The attenuator on the amplifier's output was
chosen to be approximately 10:1 or 20 dB.
This is actually not optimal since, given the
maximum power output of the amplifier
under test, a 2:1 ratio would have been more
than sufficient to bring the signal levels
within SigLab's input range. However, the
10:1 allows an amplifier gain (between
CD/Tape input and the output) to be about
20 dB for the testing. The resulting
amplifier and LAC then have an overall gain
of about 0 dB. This allows the amplifier and
LAC to be replaced by two cables to
demonstrate the performance of SigLab
measuring an "ideal" amplifier with no
noise, distortion, or cross talk.
Magnitude
20
0
M
a 19
g
n
i 18
t
u
d 17
e
-5
-10
-15
-20
d 16
B
-25
Phase
15
P
h
a
s
e
d
e
g
r
e
e
s
-30
2
3
10
4
10
10
Hertz
Figure 2 - Frequency Response
It is interesting to note that even with the
controls set to the ostensibly flat position,
the magnitude and phase response are far
from flat. The amplifier gain was set to +20
dB at the low frequency end.
Control Settings
Table 1 summarizes the control settings on
the device under test. The actual device was
a Radio Shack STA-20 receiver. This note
focuses on testing the amplifier portion
only.
Control
Power
Tone
Balance
Loudness
Volume
Input Selector
Equalization
Setting
On
Centered
Centered
Off (out)
+20 dB gain
CD/Tape
Off
Table 1 - Control Settings
Baseline Measurements
Before designing the automated
measurement system, some measurements
were made on the amplifier.
Cross Talk
The network analyzer also was used to
measure channel-to-channel cross talk over
the 20 kHz range. The excitation was fed to
the left channel and the transfer function
was measured between the left and right
outputs. The transfer function provides an
easy and accurate way to get the cross talk
as a function of frequency. Figure 3 shows
the results of this measurement. At 1000 Hz
the left-to-right cross talk is about -54 dB
and at 10000 Hz it degrades to -34 dB.
For the crosstalk measurement, the
amplifier’s right channel must not receive
any input. As shown in Figure 1, this is
satisfied by driving it with SigLab’s channel
2 output set to zero amplitude, since
SigLab’s output impedance is low (50
ohms).
Right Out / Left Out
0
Frequency Response
-20
Frequency response is a typical
measurement made on amplifiers. The
network analyzer virtual instrument was
used to make the measurement shown in
Figure 2.
-40
V/V dB
-60
-80
10000
1000
Hz.
2
Application Note 8.1 Using SigLab for Production Line Audio Test
11/12/96 Slap8_1
Figure 3 - Cross Talk, Left Channel to Right
Several methods of implementing this
measurement are available. In this example,
results are only desired at 1 kHz and 10
kHz. Test time is minimized by setting up an
automated test to produce tones and make
measurements only at tone frequencies.
Right Out/Frequency
-30
-40
-50
-60
-70
dB (0dB=1 Volts rms)
-80
-90
-100
Harmonic Distortion
-110
Next, harmonic distortion was measured on
the right channel. The function generator
virtual instrument was used to provide a
1000 Hz sine wave to the amplifier. The
power spectrum (in dB Vrms) of the
amplifier output is shown in Figure 4.
Notice, the second harmonic is on the order
of 60 dB down from the fundamental. The
second harmonic dominates the total
harmonic distortion performance
measurement.
Right Out/Frequency
-120
0
5
10
KHz.
15
20
Figure 5 - Amplifier Noise Spectrum
To compute the signal to noise ratio, the
power in all the spectral lines, excluding dc,
is summed. The ratio of the noise power and
the amplifier’s maximum rated output
power is then computed and transformed to
a decibel representation. The computation
must also account for the attenuator in the
LAC.
20
0dB=1 Volts rms
10
dB
Automated Measurements
0
-10
-20
-30
-40
-50
-60
-70
-80
0
5
10
KHz.
15
20
Figure 4 - Harmonic Distortion
The SigLab-MATLAB combination is ideal
for measurement automation. SigLab has
automated versions of its virtual instruments
(See the Application Note entitled
Automating Measurements with SigLab) that
take the pain out of measurement
automation. When necessary, the
measurement conditions can also be
controlled from within MATLAB by using
calls to siglab.dll.
Noise
A Simple Amplifier Test GUI
Finally, the noise from the amplifier with no
input signal was measured. The results are
shown in Figure 5. Typically in most
amplifiers, the low frequency spectrum is
dominated by 1/f noise. Increased frequency
resolution would provide details of the low
frequency noise, but this is not really
necessary for computing a signal to noise
ratio from the data.
Figure 6 shows a simple application, written
in MATLAB, to test crosstalk, total
harmonic distortion and signal to noise
ratio.
Application Note 8.1 Using SigLab for Production Line Audio Test
11/12/96SLAP8_1
3
outputs were simply connected to the
SigLab inputs. Nothing else is changed.
These cables then became the amplifier
under test.
Figure 6 - Simple GUI for Automated
Amplifier Test.
The operator interface is simple, containing
only three push buttons and a text area to
display test results.
The Toggle Plots button turns graphs on for
debugging and demonstration; or off for
maximum throughput.
The Test Results
The printed results in Figure 6 agree with
the previous measurements. The test time
report is 0.94 seconds, which satisfies the
second goal of completing all tests under 1
second.
The "Golden Amplifier"
As previously mentioned, a 20 dB attenuator
makes it simple to analyze a “perfect”
amplifier. For this case, the actual amplifier
and LAC were removed and the SigLab
4
Figure 7 - Measurement Residuals
The results of these measurements are
shown in Figure 7. Note, the residual noise
and distortion levels due to SigLab are far
smaller (about 20 dB) than a typical real
audio amplifier.
The Measurement
Algorithms.
The following sections provide a description
and listings of the measurements and
calculations done in MATLAB to implement
the three tests. A description of the design
process is also provided.
Application Note 8.1 Using SigLab for Production Line Audio Test
11/12/96 Slap8_1
% cross talk code fragment from m-file at2.m
sine_freq = [1000,10000]; % use two tone option ....
rms_level = 0.6;
% excitation level
siglab('outlevel',1,1.414*rms_level,'offset',0); % set level, then the function
siglab('outsine',1,sine_freq(1),sine_freq(2),1); % two tones , same amplitude
siglab('outlevel',2,0,'offset',0); % shut down other generator
siglab('outsine',2,10);
% shut down other generator
% make a spectrum measurement using setup state in file xtlk.vsa
[AspecDat1,Fvec, WinPwrCor, ChanStat]=vsa_auto('meas2out','xtlk.vsa','new');
% compute cross talk at the two given frequencies...
df = Fvec(2)-Fvec(1);
index_1 = 1+sine_freq(1)/df;
index_2 = 1+sine_freq(2)/df;
xtlkl_r = 10*log10(AspecDat1([index_1,index_2],2)./AspecDat1([index_1,index_2],1));
siglab('outlevel',2,1.414*rms_level,'offset',0);
siglab('outsine',2,sine_freq(1),sine_freq(2),1); % two tones , same amplitude
siglab('outlevel',1,0,'offset',0); % shut down other generator
siglab('outsine',1,10);
% shut down other generator
% set gains to optimize R to L xtalk
siglab('inpgain',1,0.078,'ac');
siglab('inpgain',2,1.2,'ac');
% using the 'repeat' mode has two effects:
%
1) it saves some time since setup info is not resent
%
2) it does not overwrite the gain setting just set
[AspecDat2,Fvec, WinPwrCor, ChanStat]= vsa_auto('meas2out','xtlk.vsa','repeat');
xtlkr_l = 10*log10(AspecDat2([index_1,index_2],1)./AspecDat2([index_1,index_2],2));
Listing 1 - Cross Talk Measurement
Cross Talk
Listing 1 shows the details of the cross talk
measurement. First, the cross talk between
the left-to-the-right channel is measured.
The output generator connected to the left
channel is set to provide two tones at 1000
and 10000 Hz, while the other generator is
turned off. The spectrum of both the
amplifier left and right output channels is
measured. Ideally, there would be no output
on the right channel. The ratio of the left
channel to right channel power is computed
at the two tone frequencies and converted to
dB to produce the cross talk measurement.
the input subsystem gain settings. Those are
the only input parameters that need to be
changed. The "repeat" feature of the
vsa_auto.m allows a repetition of the
previous measurement without sending new
setup information to SigLab.
Next, SigLab's output channel settings are
reversed to measure the right to left
amplifier cross talk. A shortcut is utilized to
improve the measurement time — rather
than reset the entire SigLab front end, calls
are made directly to the siglab.dll to swap
Application Note 8.1 Using SigLab for Production Line Audio Test
11/12/96SLAP8_1
5
% Harmonic Distortion code fragment from at1.m
sine_freq = 1000;
rms_level = 0.707;
siglab ('outlevel,'1,1.414*rms_level,'offset',0);
siglab('outsine',1,sine_freq);
siglab('outlevel',2,0,'offset',0);
siglab('outsine',2,sine_freq);
% perform 2 separate measurements for THD since finite amplifier cross talk
% causes measurement variation which is a function of the relative
% (and arbitrary) phases of the sine excitations
[AspecDat1,Fvec,WinPwrCor, ChanStat]=vsa_auto('meas2out','hd12.vsa','new');
ovld_1 = ChanStat(1,ovld_i); % log overload info
df=Fvec(2)-Fvec(1);
i_fund
= 1+sine_freq/df;
i_second = 1+2*sine_freq/df;
% for THD, pick out only the harmonics.assume other noise picked up
% in noise measurements, attenuation factor does not matter here.
thd1_db = 10*log10(sum(AspecDat1(i_second:(i_fund-1):length(AspecDat1),1)),...
./AspecDat1(i_fund,1));
%the ATTEN variable is to the attenuator, use the LAC
pwr1_fund = (AspecDat1(i_fund,1)/Load_res)/(Atten^2);
siglab('outlevel',2,1.414*rms_level,'offset',0);
siglab('outlevel',1,0,'offset',0);
% note: although 2 Aspec measurements are being made, and only one used,
% it is faster to make the 2 measurements than it is to respec setup of 20-22
% therefore, the measurement defined by hd12.vsa is 'repeated'.
[AspecDat2,Fvec, WinPwrCor, ChanStat]=vsa_auto('meas2out','hd12.vsa','repeat');
ovld_2 = ChanStat(2,ovld_i); % log overload info
thd2_db = 10*log10(sum(AspecDat2(i_second:(i_fund-1):length(AspecDat2),2)),...
./AspecDat2(i_fund,2));
pwr2_fund = (AspecDat2(i_fund,2)/Load_res)/(Atten^2);
Listing 2 - Distortion Measurement
Harmonic Distortion
Due to the existence of amplifier cross talk,
the harmonic distortion measurement must
also be made separately for each channel.
Listing 2 shows the code fragment
implementing the distortion measurement.
SigLab’s output generator produces a single
sine wave at 1000 Hz at a specified
amplitude. Next, the power spectrum of the
amplifier output is measured. To compute
the total harmonic distortion, the power at
spectral components lying exactly on
harmonics is summed and then the ratio of
this harmonic power and the fundamental
power is taken. The results are expressed in
dB. The amplifier output power is also of
interest, and is computed from the power in
the fundamental tone. The LAC attenuation
factor and load resistor must be known to
make this calculation.
6
Again the vsa_auto.m repeat function is
used to measure the distortion of the right
channel to save measurement time. No
changes needed for the input setup, just the
output generator states are swapped.
Application Note 8.1 Using SigLab for Production Line Audio Test
11/12/96 Slap8_1
% Signal to Noise Ration measurement and calculation
% ********************************************************************
% amplifier and interface parameters
Pout_max
= 5; % 5 watts assumed max rms output
Load_res
= 8; % load resistance
Atten
= 47/(510+47); % attenuator after load resistor
% ***************************************************************
set(Hat2_([qpb_i,testpb_i]),'enable','off');
% disable quit,test pbs while test in
progress
% noise floor measurement
% set both siglab outputs to 0
sine_freq = 10;
rms_level = 0.0;
for i=1:2
siglab('outsine',i,sine_freq);
siglab('outlevel',i,1.414*rms_level,'offset',0);
end;
[AspecDat1,Fvec,WinPwrCor, ChanStat]=vsa_auto('meas2out','noise1.vsa','new');
% sum operator sums elements in columns. 1 column per channel
% ignore dc bias, remove by starting at element #2
noise_pwr = sum(AspecDat1(2:length(AspecDat1),:))/Load_res;
% be sure to include attenuation factor in the calculations
snr_db = 10*log10(Pout_max*noise_pwr.^(-1))+20*log10(Atten)
Listing 3 - Signal to Noise Ratio
Signal to Noise Ratio
Conclusion
First, the noise power output of the
amplifier is measured with no input signal.
Then the signal to noise ratio is computed
by taking the ratio of this power to the
maximum the amplifier can produce while
staying within its distortion specifications.
For this measurement both SigLab outputs
are turned off and the left and right channel
power spectrums are measured
simultaneously. The maximum amplifier
output, load resistor value, and attenuation
factor of the LAC must be known for this
calculation.
SigLab makes quick and accurate automated
measurements of key audio amplifier
parameters. A simple MATLAB GUI was
created to run the tests, display the results,
and track the measurement time. The results
can easily be compared to test limits for
sorting or go/no-go testing.
The SigLab-MATLAB combination is ideal
for production-oriented audio testing.
For more information contact:
Spectral Dynamics
1010 Timothy Drive
San Jose, CA 95133-1042
Phone: (408) 918-2577
Fax: (408) 918-2580
Email: siglabsupport@sd-star.com
www.spectraldynamics.com
© 1995-2002 Spectral Dynamics, Inc.
SigLab is a trademark of Spectral Dymanics, Inc. MATLAB is a registered trademark and Handle Graphics is a trademark of The
MathWorks, Incorporated. Other product and trade names are trademarks or registered trademarks of their respective holders.
Printed in U.S.A.
Was this manual useful for you? yes no
Thank you for your participation!

* Your assessment is very important for improving the work of artificial intelligence, which forms the content of this project

Download PDF

advertising