Variation of Light Intensity

```Variation of Light Intensity:
Measuring the Light Intensity of
Different Light Sources
(Teacher’s Guide)
For technical assistance,
call WARD’S at 1-800-962-2660
OVERVIEW
Students will measure the light intensity of different light sources using the Ward’s DataHub
light sensor. Based on the results, the students will proceed to relate each light source to its
corresponding light efficiency.
MATERIALS NEEDED
Ward’s DataHub
USB connector cable*
LED flashlight with batteries
Candle
Fluorescent light bulb
Matches
Lamp with an 11 watt bulb
* – The USB connector cable is not needed if you are using a Bluetooth enabled device.
NUMBER OF USES
This demonstration can be performed repeatedly.
Teacher’s Guide – Variation of Light Intensity
For technical assistance,
call WARD’S at 1-800-962-2660
FRAMEWORK FOR K-12 SCIENCE EDUCATION © 2012
Dimension 1
Science and Engineering
Practices
* The Dimension I practices listed below are called out as bold words throughout the activity.

Asking questions (for science) and defining
problems (for engineering)

Developing and using models

Constructing explanations (for science) and designing
solutions (for engineering)

Planning and carrying out investigations

Engaging in argument from evidence

Analyzing and interpreting data

Obtaining, evaluating, and communicating information
Use mathematics and computational thinking
Cross Cutting
Concepts
Dimension 2
Patterns
Energy and matter: Flows, cycles, and conservation
Cause and effect:
Mechanism and explanation
Structure and function

Scale, proportion, and quantity

Stability and change
Systems and system models
Discipline
Core Idea Focus
Core Concepts
Dimension 3
PS1: Matter and Its Interaction
PS1.A: Structure and Properties of Matter
PS3: Energy
Physical Science
PS3.A: Definitions of Energy
PS4: Waves and Their Applications in Technologies for Information
Transfer
NGSS
Standards
Middle School Standards Covered
High School Standards Covered
MS.PS-SPM: Structure and Properties of Matter
HS.PS-SPM: Structure and Properties of Matter
MS.PS-E: Energy
HS.PS-E: Energy
NATIONAL SCIENCE EDUCATION STANDARDS © 2002
Content Standards (K-12)

Systems, order, and organization
Evolution and equilibrium

Evidence, models, and explanation
Form and Function

Constancy, change, and measurement
Physical Science Standards Middle School
Physical Science Standards High School

Properties and Changes of Properties in Matter
Structure of Atoms
Motions and Forces

Transfer of Energy
Structure and Properties of Matter
Chemical Reactions
Motions and Forces
Conservation of Energy and Increase in Disorder


Interactions of Energy and Matter
Indicates Standards Covered in Activity
Teacher’s Guide – Variation of Light Intensity
For technical assistance,
call WARD’S at 1-800-962-2660
LEARNING OBJECTIVES
Core Objectives (National Standards):
•
Develop the ability to refine ill-defined questions and direct to phenomena that can be
described, explained, or predicted through scientific means.
•
Develop the ability to observe, measure accurately, identify and control variables.
•
Decide what evidence can be used to support or refute a hypothesis.
•
Gather, store, retrieve, and analyze data.
•
Become confident at communicating methods, instructions, observations, and results with
others.
Activity Objectives:
The purpose of this activity is to relate light intensity and light source efficiency to create a
hypothesis about the amount of light sent out by different light sources and proceed to test
it using the Ward’s DataHub light sensor.
Time Requirement:
45 - 60 minutes
Teacher’s Guide – Variation of Light Intensity
For technical assistance,
call WARD’S at 1-800-962-2660
VOCABULARY
Ambient Light: The soft indirect light that fills the volume of a room with illumination.
Candle: A cylinder or block of wax or tallow with a central wick that is lit to produce light as
it burns.
Fluorescent Lamp: A lamp consisting of a tube coated on the inside with a fluorescent
material. Mercury vapor in the tube, emits ultraviolet radiation that is converted to
visible radiation by the fluorescent material.
Incandescent: Emitting light as a result of being heated.
LED: Light-emitting diode, a semiconductor diode that glows when a voltage is applied.
Light Intensity: Candle power: luminous intensity measured in candelas.
Luminous Flux: The rate of flow of light energy.
Sunlight: Light from the Sun.
Watt: The SI unit of power, equivalent to one joule per second, corresponding to the rate of
energy in an electric circuit where the potential difference is one volt and the current,
one ampere.
Teacher’s Guide – Variation of Light Intensity
For technical assistance,
call WARD’S at 1-800-962-2660
INTRODUCTION
DID YOU KNOW?
Why is the sky blue? The
atmosphere scatters
differently. Those rays at the
shorter end of the spectrum,
or the blue rays, scatter more
than the longer wavelength
rays (red and orange colors).
However, we do see these
longer wavelengths at sunset
when the angle of the sun’s
light enters the atmosphere
just right. This is known as
Rayleigh scattering.
Have you ever experienced an electricity blackout when it is dark
outside? Usually people run to find candles and flashlights so they
can see something in the pitch-black. Even if we try to light the
room by placing several candles around, or use the most powerful
flashlight we have, it may still not be enough to brighten the room
as well as a light bulb could.
•
How should we place several candles in a room in order
to achieve the most light?
•
What do you think the efficiency of a light source
depends on?
Carry out the experiment with your class so that at the end, students
will be able to answer the following question:
•
How are the intensity and efficiency of a light source
related?
Teacher’s Guide – Variation of Light Intensity
For technical assistance,
call WARD’S at 1-800-962-2660
BACKGROUND
The luminous flux gives us an idea about the light intensity sent out
by light sources in all space dimensions, for example by a light bulb.
But when you consider a projector, it is clear that it lights only in one
direction: forward. That is why we need to know how the luminous
flux is distributed into every space dimension, using the definition of
light intensity.
DID YOU KNOW?
Opticks was written by
physicist Sir Isaac Newton
in 1704. It contained
experiments and the
deductions that Newton
covered all of the major
topics in what would be
considered today physical
optics. Newton first began
doing experiments regarding
light in the 17th century.
Light intensity (l) is defined as the “luminous flux that is emitted
per unit of solid angle (steradian) into a specific direction”. The
unit of measure is the lumen per steradian, or candla (cd). The
mathematical equation that defines light intensity is:
At this point, encourage students to formulate a hypothesis to test
as part of this activity. Students may find it helpful to formulate their
hypothesis as an answer to the following question:
•
If light intensity and light efficiency are related, how
would the efficiency vary depending on the light source?
Teacher’s Guide – Variation of Light Intensity
For technical assistance,
call WARD’S at 1-800-962-2660
CONNECTING THE WARD’S DATAHUB
TO A COMPUTER
If you are using a Bluetooth communication device:
Right-click on the Bluetooth icon in the lower right corner of the screen
and select the Ward’s DataHub you are using. The icon will change from
gray to blue, as shown at right, indicating that the Ward’s DataHub and the
computer are now connected via Bluetooth.
If you are using a USB communication device:
In order to use USB communication, connect the Ward’s DataHub and the
computer with the USB cable supplied. Click on the USB icon at the lower right
corner of the screen. This icon will change from gray to blue, as shown at right,
indicating that the Ward’s DataHub is connected to the computer via USB.
USING THE WARD’S DATAHUB
= Select key
= On/Off and Escape key
= Scroll key
To collect measurements with the Ward’s DataHub, it must first be configured as follows:
1. Turn on the Ward’s DataHub by
pressing the On/Off/Esc key.
8. Press the On/Off/Esc key to return
2. Go to setup by using the Scroll key;
then
then select Setup by pressing
the Select key.
10. Press the Scroll key until
“Manual” is highlighted,
4. If any sensor(s) appear on the screen,
press the key representing that
sensor to deactivate it. Once you
have a blank window, press the
Light Sensor key once.
11. Press the On/Off/Esc key three
operating screen.
then
then press the Select Key
then press the Select key.
then
then press the Select key.
5. Press the On/Off/Esc key once to
7. Press the Scroll key until
“Manual” is highlighted,
then
then press the Select Key.
3. Select the Set Sensors option by
pressing the Select key.
6. Press the Scroll key to highlight
the Sampling Rate and
9. Press the Scroll key to highlight
the Number of Samples and
then
x3
12. Press the Select key to
start measuring.
(You are collecting data when there
is an icon of a Runner in the upper
left hand corner of the screen.)
13. Once you have finished measuring,
stop the Ward’s DataHub by
pressing the Select key,
then
followed by the Scroll key.
Teacher’s Guide – Variation of Light Intensity
For technical assistance,
call WARD’S at 1-800-962-2660
ACTIVITY
1. Place the four different light sources approximately 30 cm away,
in the following order: candle, flashlight, lamp, and fluorescent
bulb. Darken the room, covering the windows and turning off
any artificial light sources.
DID YOU KNOW?
There are different colors
of light. This is because the
light waves have different
wavelengths. Red light has
the longest wavelength while
violet light has the shortest
wavelength.
2. To collect the data, place the DataHub light sensor approximately
10 cm away from the light source.
3. Push the
button on the DataHub.
4. Light the candle and observe how the measurements vary on the
DataHub screen.
5. Wait until the intensity value you are measuring stabilizes.
6. Take just one manual sample of the light intensity.
7. Once you have finished with the candle, extinguish it without
turning off the DataHub, and then turn on the LED flashlight.
Repeat steps 5 and 6.
8. Measure the light intensity of the lamp and the fluorescent bulb
as you did with the other light sources.
9. Uncover the windows, but do not turn on any lights in order to
measure the light intensity of the ambient light in the room.
Then measure the intensity of Sunlight by pointing the light
sensor directly at the Sun.
10. Once you’ve finished measuring, turn the DataHub off.
Teacher’s Guide – Variation of Light Intensity
For technical assistance,
call WARD’S at 1-800-962-2660
RESULTS AND ANALYSIS
The following steps explain how to analyze the experiment results.
DID YOU KNOW?
Have you ever walked
outside and thought “Gee!
It is so bright out here!”?
You probably reach for your
sunglasses without giving it a
second thought, but do you
know how sunglasses work?
They provide protection from
intense light. The eyes natural
response to too much light
is to close the iris, and then
squint. Damage can occur
to the retina if this light is
too intense. Sunglasses also
provide protection from
ultraviolet rays that can
damage the cornea and retina
1. Connect the DataHub to the computer using the USB
communication cable or via the Bluetooth wireless
communication channel.
2. On the upper menu, press the
button. Select
3. Select the last experiment on the list.
4. Observe the graph displayed on the screen.
5. Press the bar graph icon and set the display to a Bar Graph
display.
6. Press the
button and write notes on the graph specifying
your observations according to the moment you registered the
data.
•
How do the results relate to your initial hypothesis?
Explain.
•
How do the data curves vary for each light source?
•
What similarities do the data curves present?
•
Which was the brightest light source? Which was the least
bright?
The graph below should be similar to what the students obtained.
Teacher’s Guide – Variation of Light Intensity
For technical assistance,
call WARD’S at 1-800-962-2660
CONCLUSIONS AND ASSESSMENTS
1. What was the variation between the different light sources you analyzed? Communicate which
light source was the highest intensity and which was the lowest.
Students should analyze the different values of light intensity, defining which were the highest and
lowest and the range of variation between them.
2. How does the amount of light relate to the light intensity in your model system?
Students should relate more powerful light sources to greater light intensity and less bright light
sources, like a candle, to less light intensity.
3. How do you think the light flux varies in each of the light sources you analyzed?
Students should conclude that the more light intensity, the more luminous flux there is. Both
parameters depend on the relative distance between the location of the Ward’s DataHub light
sensor and the light source.
4. According to your experience, argue which light source you think is the most efficient light
source from the three artificial sources studied?
Students should indicate that the most efficient light source is the LED flashlight, because it uses
less energy to function, for this reason it is considered to be energy saving.
5. Write a concluding paragraph describing what you observed during the experiment.
Students should reach the following conclusions:
Different light sources have different light intensities and this relates to their associated functions.
However, light intensity cannot be related to the efficiency of the source. The LED flashlight is not
the most luminous sources, but presents greater efficiency than the candle and the lamp. On the
other hand, sunlight is the most powerful light source and yet, is the most efficient.
10
Teacher’s Guide – Variation of Light Intensity
For technical assistance,
call WARD’S at 1-800-962-2660
ACTIVITIES FOR FURTHER APPLICATION
The aim of this section is for students to extrapolate the knowledge
acquired during this class and apply it to different contexts and
situations. Furthermore, it is intended that students question and
present possible explanations for the experimentally observed
phenomena.
DID YOU KNOW?
Light is more than color. It
is very fast traveling energy,
traveling throughout the
universe. Light travels at
300000000 meters/second.
In prehistoric times, the
energy from light was
harnessed through fire and
the invention of illumination
devices such as candles
and gas lamps took this
to another level. The first
electric powered light
was invented in the late
nineteenth century. Today,
light is used in highly focused
and powerful laser beams
in such diverse applications
as surgery and splitting
molecules.
1. How could you increase the light intensity of a candle?
Students should explain that they could achieve this by
increasing the amount of light the candle produces, in other
words, making the flame larger. We can establish the following
connection: The larger the candle flame is, the more light
intensity it produces, and vice versa (the smaller the candle
flame, the less light intensity).
2. How are light intensity and electrical power related?
Students are expected to establish that light sources which emit
more light intensity use more energy in the process. On the other
hand, we should point out the example of the candle, which uses
less energy in the lighting process. In both cases, energy is “lost”
through heat. This shows that light efficiency depends on how
much energy we use to illuminate, rather than produce heat.
3. How is a natural light source like the Sun different from an
artificial light source such as a light bulb?
Students should quantify that the Sun’s light intensity is much
higher than the intensity of any artificial light source, and that
this depends directly on the amount of energy used by the Sun
to produce this intensity of light.
delivered via a fiber.
11
Teacher’s Guide – Variation of Light Intensity
For technical assistance,
call WARD’S at 1-800-962-2660
Variation of Light Intensity:
Measuring the Light Intensity
of Different Light Sources
(Student Guide)
INTRODUCTION
Have you ever experienced an electricity blackout when it is dark outside? Usually people run to
find candles and flashlights so they can see something in the pitch-black. Even if we try to light the
room by placing several candles around, or use the most powerful flashlight we have, it may still
not be enough to brighten the room as well as a light bulb could.
•
How should we place several candles in a room in order to achieve the most light?
•
What do you think the efficiency of a light source depends on?
After carrying out this experiment, you should be able to answer the following question:
•
How are the intensity and efficiency of a light source related?
S
Student Guide – Variation of Light Intensity
For technical assistance,
call WARD’S at 1-800-962-2660
CONNECTING THE WARD’S DATAHUB
TO A COMPUTER
If you are using a Bluetooth communication device:
Right-click on the Bluetooth icon in the lower right corner of the screen
and select the Ward’s DataHub you are using. The icon will change from
gray to blue, as shown at right, indicating that the Ward’s DataHub and the
computer are now connected via Bluetooth.
If you are using a USB communication device:
In order to use USB communication, connect the Ward’s DataHub and the
computer with the USB cable supplied. Click on the USB icon at the lower right
corner of the screen. This icon will change from gray to blue, as shown at right,
indicating that the Ward’s DataHub is connected to the computer via USB.
USING THE WARD’S DATAHUB
= Select key
= On/Off and Escape key
= Scroll key
To collect measurements with the Ward’s DataHub, it must first be configured as follows:
1. Turn on the Ward’s DataHub by
pressing the On/Off/Esc key.
8. Press the On/Off/Esc key to return
2. Go to setup by using the Scroll key;
then
then select Setup by pressing
the Select key.
10. Press the Scroll key until
“Manual” is highlighted,
4. If any sensor(s) appear on the screen,
press the key representing that
sensor to deactivate it. Once you
have a blank window, press the
Light Sensor key once.
11. Press the On/Off/Esc key three
operating screen.
then
then press the Select Key
then press the Select key.
then
then press the Select key.
5. Press the On/Off/Esc key once to
7. Press the Scroll key until
“Manual” is highlighted,
then
then press the Select Key.
3. Select the Set Sensors option by
pressing the Select key.
6. Press the Scroll key to highlight
the Sampling Rate and
9. Press the Scroll key to highlight
the Number of Samples and
then
x3
12. Press the Select key to
start measuring.
(You are collecting data when there
is an icon of a Runner in the upper
left hand corner of the screen.)
13. Once you have finished measuring,
stop the Ward’s DataHub by
pressing the Select key,
then
followed by the Scroll key.
S
Student Guide – Variation of Light Intensity
For technical assistance,
call WARD’S at 1-800-962-2660
ACTIVITY
1. Place the four different light sources approximately 30 cm away, in the following order:
candle, flashlight, lamp, and fluorescent bulb. Darken the room, covering the windows
and turning off any artificial light sources.
2. To collect the data, place the DataHub light sensor approximately 10 cm away from the
light source.
3. Push the
button on the DataHub.
4. Light the candle and observe how the measurements vary on the DataHub screen.
5. Wait until the intensity value you are measuring stabilizes.
6. Take just one manual sample of the light intensity.
7. Once you have finished with the candle, extinguish it without turning off the DataHub,
and then turn on the LED flashlight. Repeat steps 5 and 6.
8. Measure the light intensity of the lamp and the fluorescent bulb as you did with the other
light sources.
9. Uncover the windows, but do not turn on any lights, in order to measure the light
intensity of the ambient light in the room. Then measure the intensity of Sunlight by
pointing the light sensor directly at the Sun.
10. Once you’ve finished measuring, turn the DataHub off.
S
Student Guide – Variation of Light Intensity
For technical assistance,
call WARD’S at 1-800-962-2660
RESULTS AND ANALYSIS
1. Connect the DataHub to the computer using the USB communication cable or via the Bluetooth
wireless communication channel.
2. On the upper menu, press the
button. Select
3. Select the last experiment on the list.
4. Observe the graph displayed on the screen.
5. Press the bar graph icon and set the display to a Bar Graph display.
6. Press the
button and write notes on the graph specifying your observations according to
the moment you registered the data.
•
How do the results relate to your initial hypothesis? Explain.
________________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________________
•
How do the data curves vary for each light source?
________________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________________
•
What similarities do the data curves present?
________________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________________
•
Which was the brightest light source? Which was the least bright?
________________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________________
S
Student Guide – Variation of Light Intensity
For technical assistance,
call WARD’S at 1-800-962-2660
CONCLUSIONS AND ASSESSMENTS
1. What was the variation between the different light sources you analyzed? Communicate which
light source was the highest intensity and which was the lowest.
________________________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________________________
2. How does the amount of light relate to the light intensity in your model system?
________________________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________________________
3. How do you think the light flux varies in each of the light sources you analyzed?
________________________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________________________
4. According to your experience, argue which light source you think is the most efficient light
source from the three artificial sources studied?
________________________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________________________
5. Write a concluding paragraph describing what you observed during the experiment.
________________________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________________________